WorldWideScience

Sample records for experiments measuring particle

  1. Single particle measurements and two particle interferometry results from CERN experiment NA44

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon-Gillo, J.

    1994-01-01

    CERN experiment NA44 is optimized for the study of identified single and multiple particle distributions to p T = 0 near mid-rapidity. We measure π +- , K +- , p, bar p, d and bar d, in p + A and A + A collisions at 450 and 20OGeV/u, respectively. Two-particle intensity interferometry results from π + π + , K + K + , and K - K - measurements and single particle distributions are presented

  2. Intercomparison study and optical asphericity measurements of small ice particles in the CERN CLOUD experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nichman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Optical probes are frequently used for the detection of microphysical cloud particle properties such as liquid and ice phase, size and morphology. These properties can eventually influence the angular light scattering properties of cirrus clouds as well as the growth and accretion mechanisms of single cloud particles. In this study we compare four commonly used optical probes to examine their response to small cloud particles of different phase and asphericity. Cloud simulation experiments were conducted at the Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD chamber at European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN. The chamber was operated in a series of multi-step adiabatic expansions to produce growth and sublimation of ice particles at super- and subsaturated ice conditions and for initial temperatures of −30, −40 and −50 °C. The experiments were performed for ice cloud formation via homogeneous ice nucleation. We report the optical observations of small ice particles in deep convection and in situ cirrus simulations. Ice crystal asphericity deduced from measurements of spatially resolved single particle light scattering patterns by the Particle Phase Discriminator mark 2 (PPD-2K, Karlsruhe edition were compared with Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer with Polarisation (CASPOL measurements and image roundness captured by the 3View Cloud Particle Imager (3V-CPI. Averaged path light scattering properties of the simulated ice clouds were measured using the Scattering Intensity Measurements for the Optical detectioN of icE (SIMONE and single particle scattering properties were measured by the CASPOL. We show the ambiguity of several optical measurements in ice fraction determination of homogeneously frozen ice in the case where sublimating quasi-spherical ice particles are present. Moreover, most of the instruments have difficulties of producing reliable ice fraction if small aspherical ice particles are present, and all of the instruments cannot

  3. Intercomparison study and optical asphericity measurements of small ice particles in the CERN CLOUD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichman, Leonid; Järvinen, Emma; Dorsey, James; Connolly, Paul; Duplissy, Jonathan; Fuchs, Claudia; Ignatius, Karoliina; Sengupta, Kamalika; Stratmann, Frank; Möhler, Ottmar; Schnaiter, Martin; Gallagher, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Optical probes are frequently used for the detection of microphysical cloud particle properties such as liquid and ice phase, size and morphology. These properties can eventually influence the angular light scattering properties of cirrus clouds as well as the growth and accretion mechanisms of single cloud particles. In this study we compare four commonly used optical probes to examine their response to small cloud particles of different phase and asphericity. Cloud simulation experiments were conducted at the Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) chamber at European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN). The chamber was operated in a series of multi-step adiabatic expansions to produce growth and sublimation of ice particles at super- and subsaturated ice conditions and for initial temperatures of -30, -40 and -50 °C. The experiments were performed for ice cloud formation via homogeneous ice nucleation. We report the optical observations of small ice particles in deep convection and in situ cirrus simulations. Ice crystal asphericity deduced from measurements of spatially resolved single particle light scattering patterns by the Particle Phase Discriminator mark 2 (PPD-2K, Karlsruhe edition) were compared with Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer with Polarisation (CASPOL) measurements and image roundness captured by the 3View Cloud Particle Imager (3V-CPI). Averaged path light scattering properties of the simulated ice clouds were measured using the Scattering Intensity Measurements for the Optical detectioN of icE (SIMONE) and single particle scattering properties were measured by the CASPOL. We show the ambiguity of several optical measurements in ice fraction determination of homogeneously frozen ice in the case where sublimating quasi-spherical ice particles are present. Moreover, most of the instruments have difficulties of producing reliable ice fraction if small aspherical ice particles are present, and all of the instruments cannot separate perfectly

  4. Numerical Study of the influence of a ribbon geometry of experiment on measuring particle angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemov, A.S.

    1996-01-01

    The values and nature of systematic errors in small-angle particle scattering experiments using ribbon-like beams are investigated by numerical simulation. As shown, the extent of the influence of a ribbon geometry of experiment on the result of measurement is significantly dependent on the shape of the measured angular distribution in an elementary act of interaction. The algorithm of experimental material treatment, obtained in measuring the widths at half maximum of the angular differential cross sections of secondary particles, is presented using an example of specific distributions and certain experimental setup. (author). 12 refs., 7 figs

  5. Measurements of very forward particles production spectra at LHC: the LHCf experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Berti, Eugenio; Bonechi, Lorenzo; Bongi, Massimo; Castellini, Guido; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Haguenauer, Maurice; Itow, Yoshitaka; Iwata, Taiki; Kasahara, Katsuaki; Makino, Yuya; Masuda, Kimiaki; Matsubayashi, Eri; Menjo, Hiroaki; Muraki, Yasushi; Papini, Paolo; Ricciarini, Sergio; Sako, Takashi; Suzuki, Takuya; Tamura, Tadahisa; Tiberio, Alessio; Torii, Shoji; Tricomi, Alessia; Turner, W C; Ueno, Mana; Zhou, Qi Dong

    2017-01-01

    Thanks to two small sampling calorimeters installed in the LHC tunnel at ±140 m from IP1, the LHC forward (LHCf) experiment is able to detect neutral particles produced by high energy proton-ion collisions in the very forward region (pseudo-rapidity η > 8.4). The main aim of LHCf is to provide precise measurements of the production spectra relative to these particles, in order to tune hadronic interaction models used by ground-based cosmic rays experiments. In this paper we will present the current status of the LHCf experiment, regarding in particular collected data and analysis results, as well as future prospects

  6. Particle physics experiments 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    The report describes work carried out in 1983 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  7. Filter-based Aerosol Measurement Experiments using Spherical Aerosol Particles under High Temperature and High Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Chan; Jung, Woo Young; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Doo Young [FNC TECH., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Optical Particle Counter (OPC) is used to provide real-time measurement of aerosol concentration and size distribution. Glass fiber membrane filter also be used to measure average mass concentration. Three tests (MTA-1, 2 and 3) have been conducted to study thermal-hydraulic effect, a filtering tendency at given SiO{sub 2} particles. Based on the experimental results, the experiment will be carried out further with a main carrier gas of steam and different aerosol size. The test results will provide representative behavior of the aerosols under various conditions. The aim of the tests, MTA 1, 2 and 3, are to be able to 1) establish the test manuals for aerosol generation, mixing, sampling and measurement system, which defines aerosol preparation, calibration, operating and evaluation method under high pressure and high temperature 2) develop commercial aerosol test modules applicable to the thermal power plant, environmental industry, automobile exhaust gas, chemical plant, HVAC system including nuclear power plant. Based on the test results, sampled aerosol particles in the filter indicate that important parameters affecting aerosol behavior aerosols are 1) system temperature to keep above a evaporation temperature of ethanol and 2) aerosol losses due to the settling by ethanol liquid droplet.

  8. Using particle tracking to measure flow instabilities in an undergraduate laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Douglas H.; Ouellette, Nicholas T.

    2011-03-01

    Much of the drama and complexity of fluid flow occurs because its governing equations lack unique solutions. The observed behavior depends on the stability of the multitude of solutions, which can change with the experimental parameters. Instabilities cause sudden global shifts in behavior. We have developed a low-cost experiment to study a classical fluid instability. By using an electromagnetic technique, students drive Kolmogorov flow in a thin fluid layer and measure it quantitatively with a webcam. They extract positions and velocities from movies of the flow using Lagrangian particle tracking and compare their measurements to several theoretical predictions, including the effect of the drive current, the spatial structure of the flow, and the parameters at which instability occurs. The experiment can be tailored to undergraduates at any level or to graduate students by appropriate emphasis on the physical phenomena and the sophisticated mathematics that govern them.

  9. Particle physics experiments 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairstow, R.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes work carried out in 1989 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel of Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  10. Particle physics experiments 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes work carried out in 1987 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel (United Kingdom). The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  11. Particle physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    The report of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory describes the work carried out in 1985 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  12. Particle physics experiments 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents research work carried out in 1986 on 52 elementary particle experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. Most of the experiments were collaborative and involved research groups from different countries. About half of the experiments were conducted at CERN, the remaining experiments employed the accelerators: LAMPT, LEP, PETRA, SLAC, and HERA. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (U.K.)

  13. Neutral strange particle production at top SPS energy measured by the CERES experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radomski, S.

    2006-01-01

    Systematics of strange particle production in collisions of ultrarelativistic nuclei provides an insight into the properties of the strongly interacting matter. Hadrochemistry, the study of the relative yields, provides information about chemical freeze-out and the position of the system in the phase diagram. Strangeness production at Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies is not fully explained by the thermal model of hadron gas. Data reported by one experiment show sharp structures as a function of energy which are interpreted as a signature for a phase transition, but due to discrepancies in the results between two different experiments, a conclusion can not be drawn. This thesis is part of an effort to build a database of the strangeness production at SPS energy. The particular subject of this work is a precise measurement of the production of K S 0 . The results are compared with two other experiments and the prediction of the thermal model. The high precision data shed light on the systematics of strangeness production and allow clarification of the experimental status. The study of transverse momentum spectra provides information about the temperature and the radial expansion of the system. Here, as in the case of particle yields, interesting structures are visible as a function of energy. A rapid increase in the number of degrees of freedom is visible in the SPS region. A large part of the strangeness is carried by the neutral strange baryon Λ. Here the experimental situation is even more complicated because the reconstruction of the Λ yield requires large extrapolation to low transverse momentum. In this work first results on Λ production will be presented. (orig.)

  14. Neutral strange particle production at top SPS energy measured by the CERES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radomski, S.

    2006-07-05

    Systematics of strange particle production in collisions of ultrarelativistic nuclei provides an insight into the properties of the strongly interacting matter. Hadrochemistry, the study of the relative yields, provides information about chemical freeze-out and the position of the system in the phase diagram. Strangeness production at Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies is not fully explained by the thermal model of hadron gas. Data reported by one experiment show sharp structures as a function of energy which are interpreted as a signature for a phase transition, but due to discrepancies in the results between two different experiments, a conclusion can not be drawn. This thesis is part of an effort to build a database of the strangeness production at SPS energy. The particular subject of this work is a precise measurement of the production of K{sub S}{sup 0}. The results are compared with two other experiments and the prediction of the thermal model. The high precision data shed light on the systematics of strangeness production and allow clarification of the experimental status. The study of transverse momentum spectra provides information about the temperature and the radial expansion of the system. Here, as in the case of particle yields, interesting structures are visible as a function of energy. A rapid increase in the number of degrees of freedom is visible in the SPS region. A large part of the strangeness is carried by the neutral strange baryon {lambda}. Here the experimental situation is even more complicated because the reconstruction of the {lambda} yield requires large extrapolation to low transverse momentum. In this work first results on {lambda} production will be presented. (orig.)

  15. Particle physics experiments 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Rutherford Appleton laboratory report describes work carried out in 1984 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics selection panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  16. MICE: the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment. Step I: First Measurement of Emittance with Particle Physics Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bravar, U; Karadzhov, Y; Kolev, D; Russinov, I; Tsenov, R; Wang, L; Xu, F Y; Zheng, S X; Bertoni, R; Bonesini, M; Mazza, R; Palladino, V; Cecchet, G; de Bari, A; Capponi, M; Iaciofano, A; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Tortora, L; Ishimoto, S; Suzuki, S; Yoshimura, K; Mori, Y; Kuno, Y; Sakamoto, H; Sato, A; Yano, T; Yoshida, M; Filthaut, F; Vretenar, M; Ramberger, S; Blondel, A; Cadoux, F; Masciocchi, F; Graulich, J S; Verguilov, V; Wisting, H; Petitjean, C; Seviour, R; Ellis, M; Kyberd, P; Littlefield, M; Nebrensky, J J; Forrest, D; Soler, F J P; Walaron, K; Cooke, P; Gamet, R; Alecou, A; Apollonio, M; Barber, G; Dobbs, A; Dornan, P; Fish, A; Hare, R; Jamdagni, A; Kasey, V; Khaleeq, M; Long, K; Pasternak, J; Sakamoto, H; Sashalmi, T; Blackmore, V; Cobb, J; Lau, W; Rayner, M; Tunnell, C D; Witte, H; Yang, S; Alexander, J; Charnley, G; Griffiths, S; Martlew, B; Moss, A; Mullacrane, I; Oats, A; York, S; Apsimon, R; Alexander, R J; Barclay, P; Baynham, D E; Bradshaw, T W; Courthold, M; Hayler, R Edgecock T; Hills, M; Jones, T; McNubbin, N; Murray, W J; Nelson, C; Nicholls, A; Norton, P R; Prior, C; Rochford, J H; Rogers, C; Spensley, W; Tilley, K; Booth, C N; Hodgson, P; Nicholson, R; Overton, E; Robinson, M; Smith, P; Adey, D; Back, J; Boyd, S; Harrison, P; Norem, J; Bross, A D; Geer, S; Moretti, A; Neuffer, D; Popovic, M; Qian, Z; Raja, R; Stefanski, R; Cummings, M A C; Roberts, T J; DeMello, A; Green, M A; Li, D; Sessler, A M; Virostek, S; Zisman, M S; Freemire, B; Hanlet, P; Huang, D; Kafka, G; Kaplan, D M; Snopok, P; Torun, Y; Onel, Y; Cline, D; Lee, K; Fukui, Y; Yang, X; Rimmer, R A; Cremaldi, L M; Hart, T L; Summers, D J; Coney, L; Fletcher, R; Hanson, G G; Heidt, C; Gallardo, J; Kahn, S; Kirk, H; Palmer, R B; C11-08-09

    2011-01-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a strategic R&D project intended to demonstrate the only practical solution to providing high brilliance beams necessary for a neutrino factory or muon collider. MICE is under development at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the United Kingdom. It comprises a dedicated beamline to generate a range of input muon emittances and momenta, with time-of-flight and Cherenkov detectors to ensure a pure muon beam. The emittance of the incoming beam will be measured in the upstream magnetic spectrometer with a scintillating fiber tracker. A cooling cell will then follow, alternating energy loss in Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) absorbers to RF cavity acceleration. A second spectrometer, identical to the first, and a second muon identification system will measure the outgoing emittance. In the 2010 run at RAL the muon beamline and most detectors were fully commissioned and a first measurement of the emittance of the muon beam with particle physics (time-of-flight) de...

  17. Particle physics experiments 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, M.D.; Stuart, G.

    1983-01-01

    Work carried out in 1982 on 52 experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel is described. Each experiment is listed under title, collaboration, technique, accelerator, year of running, status and spokesman. Unedited contributions are given from each experiment. (U.K.)

  18. Particle physics experiments 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairstow, R.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes work carried out in 1988 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. More than forty projects at different accelerators (SPS, ISIS, PETRA, LAMPF, LEP, HERA, BNL, ILL, LEAR) are listed. Different organisations collaborate on different projects. A brief progress report is given. References to published articles are given. (author)

  19. Particle physics experiments 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, B.A.

    1993-03-01

    The research programs described here were carried out in 1992 at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and funded by the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The area covered in these experiments is particle physics. Unedited contributions from over forty experimental programs are included. Experiments are listed according to their current status, the accelerator used and its years of operation. (UK)

  20. Tamper temperature and compression from simultaneous proton and alpha-particle measurements in laser fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cover, R.A.; Kubis, J.J.; Mayer, F.J.; Slater, D.C.

    1978-01-01

    The energy loss per unit path length for a charged particle incident on a spatially uniform isothermal Maxwellian plasma is a function of the temperature and density of the medium. Within this model the temperature and compression rhoΔr of the tamper of a laser-driven microshell target can be accurately determined, in the absence of electrostatic acceleration, by the simultaneous measurement of the energy loss from 3.52-MeV α particles from D-T reactions and 3.02-MeV protons from D-D reactions

  1. Measured air overpressures, soil-particle pressures, and slumps during the pre-ASIAGO U2Ar stemming experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freynik, H.S. Jr.; Roach, D.R.; Dittbenner, G.R.

    1978-01-04

    On November 15, 1976, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory completed its first comprehensive stemming experiment for measuring downhole parameters while varying fill material and rate. Stemming can be defined as backfilling a hole in which a device has been placed to prevent leakage of radioactive materials or gases to the surface. A computer code is being developed for stemming operations, and this experiment was designed to measure parameters under different stemming conditions so the code could be verified and modified. The experiment was conducted in the lower half of a steel-cased, 4-ft-diam, 2000-ft-deep hole at Nevada Test Site. The two stemming materials used in the experiment, Overton sand and LLL II mix, were tested at three fill rates. Significant results of this experiment included successful measurement of downhole air overpressures, vertical and horizontal soil-particle pressures, and temperature. Vertical soil-particle pressures were higher than expected. All surface measurements were valid. The slump-displacement measurements system provided a timing mark to indicate the occurrence of a slump. A major slump occurred on the third day of stemming; a minor slump occurred on the fourth day.

  2. Measured air overpressures, soil-particle pressures, and slumps during the pre-ASIAGO U2Ar stemming experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freynik, H.S. Jr.; Roach, D.R.; Dittbenner, G.R.

    1978-01-01

    On November 15, 1976, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory completed its first comprehensive stemming experiment for measuring downhole parameters while varying fill material and rate. Stemming can be defined as backfilling a hole in which a device has been placed to prevent leakage of radioactive materials or gases to the surface. A computer code is being developed for stemming operations, and this experiment was designed to measure parameters under different stemming conditions so the code could be verified and modified. The experiment was conducted in the lower half of a steel-cased, 4-ft-diam, 2000-ft-deep hole at Nevada Test Site. The two stemming materials used in the experiment, Overton sand and LLL II mix, were tested at three fill rates. Significant results of this experiment included successful measurement of downhole air overpressures, vertical and horizontal soil-particle pressures, and temperature. Vertical soil-particle pressures were higher than expected. All surface measurements were valid. The slump-displacement measurements system provided a timing mark to indicate the occurrence of a slump. A major slump occurred on the third day of stemming; a minor slump occurred on the fourth day

  3. Charged particle measurements from a rocket-borne electron accelerator experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duprat, G.R.J.; McNamara, A.G.; Whalen, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter presents charged particle observations which relate to the spatial distribution of energetic (keV) charged particles surrounding the accelerator during gun firings, the energy distribution of energetic electrons produced in the plasma by the electron beam, and the dependence of these characteristics on the beam energy, current, and injection angle. The primary objective of the flight of the Nike Black Brant rocket (NUB-06) was to use an electron beam to probe the auroral field lines for electric fields parallel to the magnetic field. The secondary objectives were to study electron beam interactions in the ionosphere and spacecraft charging effects. It is demonstrated that during high current (greater than or equal to 10ma electron beam firings, an intense suprathermal as well as energetic electron population is created on flux tubes near the beam. Certain similarities exist between these measurements and corresponding ones made in the Houston vacuum tank suggesting that the same instability observed in the laboratory is occurring at high altitudes in the ionosphere

  4. Cross Section Measurements In The Main Injector Particle Production (FNAL-E907) Experiment At 58 GEV Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunaydin, Yusuf Oguzhan

    2009-01-01

    Cross-sections are presented for 58 GeV π, K, and p on a wide range of nuclear targets. These cross-sections are essential for determining the neutrino flux in measurements of neutrino cross-sections and oscillations. The E907 Main Injector Particle Production (MIPP) experiment at Fermilab is a fixed target experiment for measuring hadronic particle production using primary 120 GeV/c protons and secondary π, K, and p beams. The particle identification is made by dE/dx in a time projection chamber, and by time-of-flight, differential Cherenkov and ring imaging Cherenkov detectors, which together cover a wide range of momentum from 0.1 GeV/c up to 120 GeV/c. MIPP targets span the periodic table, from hydrogen to uranium, including beryllium and carbon. The MIPP has collected ∼ 0.26 x 10 6 events of 58 GeV/c secondary particles produced by protons from the main injector striking a carbon target.

  5. All-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum measured by the HAWC experiment from 10 to 500 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, R.; Alvarez, C.; Álvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Avila Rojas, D.; Ayala Solares, H. A.; Barber, A. S.; Becerril, A.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; BenZvi, S. Y.; Brisbois, C.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Capistrán, T.; Carramiñana, A.; Casanova, S.; Castillo, M.; Cotti, U.; Cotzomi, J.; Coutiño de León, S.; De León, C.; De la Fuente, E.; Diaz Hernandez, R.; Dichiara, S.; Dingus, B. L.; DuVernois, M. A.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Enriquez-Rivera, O.; Fiorino, D. W.; Fleischhack, H.; Fraija, N.; García-González, J. A.; González Muñoz, A.; González, M. M.; Goodman, J. A.; Hampel-Arias, Z.; Harding, J. P.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Hinton, J.; Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, F.; Hui, C. M.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Iriarte, A.; Jardin-Blicq, A.; Joshi, V.; Kaufmann, S.; Lara, A.; Lauer, R. J.; Lennarz, D.; León Vargas, H.; Linnemann, J. T.; Longinotti, A. L.; Luis Raya, G.; Luna-García, R.; López-Cámara, D.; López-Coto, R.; Malone, K.; Marinelli, S. S.; Martinez, O.; Martinez-Castellanos, I.; Martínez-Castro, J.; Martínez-Huerta, H.; Matthews, J. A.; Miranda-Romagnoli, P.; Moreno, E.; Mostafá, M.; Nellen, L.; Newbold, M.; Nisa, M. U.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.; Pelayo, R.; Pretz, J.; Pérez-Pérez, E. G.; Ren, Z.; Rho, C. D.; Rivière, C.; Rosa-González, D.; Rosenberg, M.; Ruiz-Velasco, E.; Salesa Greus, F.; Sandoval, A.; Schneider, M.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, A. J.; Springer, R. W.; Surajbali, P.; Taboada, I.; Tibolla, O.; Tollefson, K.; Torres, I.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Villaseñor, L.; Weisgarber, T.; Westerhoff, S.; Wood, J.; Yapici, T.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, H.; HAWC Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    We report on the measurement of the all-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum with the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory in the energy range 10 to 500 TeV. HAWC is a ground-based air-shower array deployed on the slopes of Volcan Sierra Negra in the state of Puebla, Mexico, and is sensitive to gamma rays and cosmic rays at TeV energies. The data used in this work were taken over 234 days between June 2016 and February 2017. The primary cosmic-ray energy is determined with a maximum likelihood approach using the particle density as a function of distance to the shower core. Introducing quality cuts to isolate events with shower cores landing on the array, the reconstructed energy distribution is unfolded iteratively. The measured all-particle spectrum is consistent with a broken power law with an index of -2.49 ±0.01 prior to a break at (45.7 ±0.1 ) TeV , followed by an index of -2.71 ±0.01 . The spectrum also represents a single measurement that spans the energy range between direct detection and ground-based experiments. As a verification of the detector response, the energy scale and angular resolution are validated by observation of the cosmic ray Moon shadow's dependence on energy.

  6. Particle physics experiments, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    Data taking for this experiment was completed in December 1983. The samples include approximately 19,000 (ν) and 11,000 (ν-bar) charged current events. These constitute the largest data set of interactions on free protons. Work published to date includes studies of inclusive structure functions and final state properties, exclusive final states, neutral current cross sections and production of strange and charmed particles. During the past year results have been published on the production of f 2 (1270) and ν 0 (770) mesons in ρp and ρ-barp charged current interactions. In the case of the f 2 this represents the first observation of such production. It is found that the multiplicities are 0.047±0.017 in ρp and 0.17±0.018 in ρ-barp. The f 2 mesons are mostly produced at large hadronic invariant mass W and in the forward hemisphere. The production of ν 0 mesons can be observed with high statistics in both ρp and ρ-barp interactions and the differential cross section studied. The observations are compared with LUND Monte Carlo predictions, which are generally found to be too high. However qualitative features of the data are reproduced. Work continues on a precise determination of the neutral current/charged current ratio, on the study of charged and neutral current structure functions and on the production of strange particles. (author)

  7. Measurements of azimuthal correlation between jets and charged particles at LHC-ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sakata, Dousatsu

    In the nature around us, quarks and gluons are confined in hadrons due to "confinement of quarks". However, the coupling strength of the QCD between quarks and gluons is to be asymptotically weaker with the increasing their energy. At high temperature the quarks and gluons move freely beyond the boundary of hadrons. Such high energy state is called Quark-Gluon Plasma(QGP). To create such state on the earth, the ultra relativistic heavy ion collision is unique tool. It has been observed several signatures of the QGP formation at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider(RHIC). Suppression of high momentum particles is one of the signatures. High momentum particles are known to be produced in characteristic phenomena, jet , where high momentum particle are produced in cluster. The jet is produced when parton in each projectile is scattered with large momentum, followed by fragmentation into many hadrons. It is considered that the cause of the suppression of high momentum particle is due to the characteristic en...

  8. Beta particle measurement fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The necessary concepts for understanding beta particle behavior are stopping power, range, and scattering. Dose as a consequence of beta particle interaction with tissue can be derived and explained by these concepts. Any calculations of dose, however, assume or require detailed knowledge of the beta spectrum at the tissue depth of calculation. A rudimentary knowledge of the incident spectrum can be of use in estimating dose, interpretating dose measuring devices and designing protection. The stopping power and range based on the csda will give a conservative estimate in cases of protection design, as scattering will reduce the range. Estimates of dose may be low because scattering effects were neglected

  9. Experiments in high energy elementary particle physics and processing of photographically filed data with the aid of a measuring and evaluating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirst, H [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin-Zeuthen. Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik

    1977-01-01

    The measuring and evaluating system includes pattern recognition and measuring instruments as well as a processor for data evaluation and checking procedures. The program chart and the application to evaluating photographs of particle tracks from high energy physics experiments are mentioned. The time-sharing effect of such systems in data evaluation is emphasized.

  10. SPS experiments with light particles

    CERN Document Server

    Tenner, A G

    1977-01-01

    High energy physics during the last 20 years has utilized proton accelerators like the CERN PS. Now, however, fundamental questions can only be answered through experiments using beams of electrons, muons or neutrinos for the study of collisions between light particles or between light and heavy particles. The detection of light particles as the end products of interactions is also of great interest. The super protosynchrotron experimental programme which started in January 1977 is discussed with particular reference to the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC). (2 refs).

  11. Alpha particle studies during JET DT experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The 1997 DT experiment (DTE1) at the Joint European Torus included studies of the behaviour of alpha particles in high temperature plasmas. Clear alpha particle heating was observed in a series of otherwise similar 10MW hot-ion H-modes by scanning the DT mixture from 0%T to 93%T. Maxima in central temperature and energy content were obtained which corresponded with the maximum in fusion yield. Alfven Eigenmodes (AEs) have been detected in JET, driven by NBI or ICRH fast ions. However, in agreement with theory, no AE activity was observed in DT plasmas which could be attributed to alpha particle drive, except in the afterglow of some Optimised Shear pulses. Ion Cyclotron Emission (ICE) was detected at harmonics of the alpha particle cyclotron frequency at the outer edge of the plasma. The ICE is interpreted as being close to magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability, driven by inverted alpha distributions at the plasma edge. The high-energy neutral particle spectra showed features, which are ascribed to a mixture of alphas, neutralised by helium-like impurities, and deuterons, born from elastic collisions with alpha particles and neutralised by hydrogen-like impurities. The results of all these studies are consistent with classical alpha particle trapping and slowing-down. Future DT experiments will aim to increase alpha particle pressure, so interactions with plasma instabilities can be studied. The measurement of knock-on neutral triton spectra offers a clean way to determine confined alpha densities in these future experiments. (author)

  12. Alpha particle studies during JET DT experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The 1997 DT experiment (DTE1) at the Joint European Torus included studies of the behaviour of alpha particles in high temperature plasmas. Clear alpha particle heating was observed in a series of otherwise similar 10MW hot-ion H-modes by scanning the DT mixture from 0%T to 93%T. Maxima in central temperature and energy content were obtained which corresponded with the maximum in fusion yield. Alfven Eigenmodes (AEs) have been detected in JET, driven by NBI or ICRH fast ions. However, in agreement with theory, no AE activity was observed in DT plasmas which could be attributed to alpha particle drive, except in the afterglow of some Optimised Shear pulses. Ion Cyclotron Emission (ICE) was detected at harmonics of the alpha particle cyclotron frequency at the outer edge of the plasma. The ICE is interpreted as being close to magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability, driven by inverted alpha distributions at the plasma edge. The high-energy neutral particle spectra showed features, which are ascribed to a mixture of alphas, neutralised by helium-like impurities, and deuterons, born from elastic collisions with alpha particles and neutralised by hydrogen-like impurities. The results of all these studies are consistent with classical alpha particle trapping and slowing-down. Future DT experiments will aim to increase alpha particle pressure, so interactions with plasma instabilities can be studied. The measurement of knock-on neutral triton spectra offers a clean way to determine confined alpha densities in these future experiments. (author)

  13. Particle diagnostics for magnetic fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the subset of diagnostics that relies primarily on the use of particles, and attempts to show how atomic and molecular data play a role in these diagnostics. Discusses passive charge-exchange ion temperature measurements; hydrogen beams for density, ion temperature, q and ZEFF measurements; impurity diagnostics using charge-exchange recombination; plasma electric and magnetic measurements using beams heavier than hydrogen; and alpha particle diagnostics. Points out that as fusion experiments become larger and hotter, most traditional particle diagnostics become difficult because large plasmas are difficult for neutral atoms to penetrate and the gyro-orbits of charged particles need to be larger than typically obtained with present beams to be comparable with the plasma size. Concludes that not only does the current profile affect the plasma stability, but there is a growing opinion that any serious fusion reactor will have to be steady state

  14. Measurement of the forward charged particle pseudorapidity density in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV with the TOTEM experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Antchev, G; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Bozzo, M.; Brogi, P.; Brucken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F.S.; Calicchio, M.; Catanesi, M.G.; Covault, C.; Csanad, M.; Csorgo, T.; Deile, M.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferretti, R.; Ferro, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Giani, S.; Greco, V.; Grzanka, L.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Intonti, M.R.; Kaspar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrat, V.; Kurvinen, K.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leszko, T.; Lippmaa, E.; Lokajicek, M.; Lo Vetere, M.; Lucas Rodriguez, F.; Macri, M.; Magaletti, L.; Maki, T.; Mercadante, A.; Minafra, N.; Minutoli, S.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Osterberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Prochazka, J.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Robutti, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Santroni, A.; Scribano, A.; Snoeys, W.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Vitek, M.; Welti, J.; Whitmore, J.; Aspell, P

    2012-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment has measured the charged particle pseudorapidity density dN$_{ch}$/d$\\eta$ in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV for 5.3<|$\\eta$|<6.4 in events with at least one charged particle with transverse momentum above 40 MeV/c in this pseudorapidity range. This extends the analogous measurement performed by the other LHC experiments to the previously unexplored forward $\\eta$ region. The measurement refers to more than 99% of non-diffractive processes and to single and double diffractive processes with diffractive masses above ~3.4 GeV/c$^2$, corresponding to about 95% of the total inelastic cross-section. The dN$_{ch}$/d$\\eta$ has been found to decrease with |$\\eta$|, from 3.84 $\\pm$ 0.01(stat) $\\pm$ 0.37(syst) at |$\\eta$| = 5.375 to 2.38 $\\pm$ 0.01(stat) $\\pm$ 0.21(syst) at |$\\eta$| = 6.375. Several MC generators have been compared to data; none of them has been found to fully describe the measurement.

  15. [Emulsion spectrometer experiment for B and C particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An experiment is proposed which employs a hybrid emulsion spectrometer to measure lifetimes and decay properties of beauty particles and charmed particles produced by interactions of high energy hadrons. The key to the experiment is a position-sensitive silicon detector. The physics motivation of the experiment and the design of the experimental apparatus and treatment of data are discussed

  16. Pyrometric fuel particle measurements in pressurised reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R; Joutsenoja, T [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    A fibre-optic two-colour pyrometric technique for fuel particle temperature and size measurement is modified and applied to three pressurised reactors of different type in Finland, Germany and France. A modification of the pyrometric method for simultaneous in situ measurement of the temperature and size of individual pulverised coal particles at the pressurised entrained flow reactor of VTT Energy in Jyvaeskylae was developed and several series of measurements were made in order to study the effects of oxygen concentration (3-30 vol%) and pressure (0.2-1.0 MPa) on the particle temperature. The fuels used in the experiments were Westerholt, Polish and Goettelborn hvb coals, Gardanne lignite and Niederberg anthracite. The initial nominal fuel particle size varied in the experiments from 70 to 250 ,{mu}m and the gas temperature was typically 1173 K. For the anthracite also the effects of gas temperature (1073-1423K) and CO{sub 2} concentration (6-80 vol%) were studied. In Orleans a fibreoptic pyrometric device was installed to a pressurised thermogravimetric reactor of CNRS and the two-colour temperatures of fuel samples were measured. The fuel in the experiments was pulverised Goettelborn char. The reliability of optical temperature measurement in this particular application was analysed. In Essen a fibre-optic pyrometric technique that is capable to measure bed and fuel particle temperatures was applied to an atmospheric fluidised bed reactor of DMT. The effects of oxygen concentration (3-8 vol%) and bed temperature (1123-1193 K) on the fuel particle temperature were studied. The fuels in these were Westerholt coal and char and EBV-coal. Some results of these measurements are presented. The project belonged to EU`s Joule 2 extension research programme (contract JOU2-CT93-0331). (orig.)

  17. Measurement of cylindrical particles with phase Doppler anemometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon, H; Gréhan, G; Gouesbet, G; Xu, T H; Tropea, C

    1996-09-01

    Light scattering from cylindrical particles has been described with geometric optics. The feasibility of determining the particle diameter with a planar phase Doppler anemometer has been examined by simulations and experiments. In particular, the influence of particle orientation on measurability and measurement accuracy has been investigated. Some recommendations for realizing a practical-measurement instrument have been presented.

  18. Measurement of the forward charged particle pseudorapidity density in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV with the TOTEM experiment.

    CERN Document Server

    Berretti, Mirko; Scribano, Angelo

    The TOTEM experiment at the LHC is dedicated to the precise measurement of the total $pp$ cross section, to the study of the elastic scattering and of the diffractive interactions. The TOTEM T2 telescope, composed of triple GEM chambers, provides the tracking of the charged particles produced by the inelastic $pp$ interactions in the pseudorapidity range 5.3$<$$|\\eta|$$<$6.5. In this thesis the offline procedures developed for the event reconstruction in the T2 telescope are reported. They include the tuning of the detector simulation, the track reconstruction algorithm and their characterisation in terms of physics performance. The detector alignment algorithms are also described and the uncertainties on the misalignment parameters are quantified. The thesis is then focused on the measurement of the charged particle pseudorapidity density ($dN_{ch}/d\\eta$) obtained in T2 for inelastic $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=$ 7 TeV. This extends the analogous measurement performed by the other LHC experiments to...

  19. Apparatus for real-time size and speed measurements of blow-off particles from pulsed irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Benken, C.; Johnson, E.A.; Nordberg, M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present an apparatus capable of detecting micron sized particles traveling at speeds up to 10 6 cm/sec. The apparatus uses light scattering methods with automated data processing. Data generated by this apparatus should be extremely useful in radiation damage studies of components in contamination sensitive optical systems

  20. Measuring momentum for charged particle tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Schultz, Larry Joe; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Sossong, Michael James; Blanpied, Gary

    2010-11-23

    Methods, apparatus and systems for detecting charged particles and obtaining tomography of a volume by measuring charged particles including measuring the momentum of a charged particle passing through a charged particle detector. Sets of position sensitive detectors measure scattering of the charged particle. The position sensitive detectors having sufficient mass to cause the charged particle passing through the position sensitive detectors to scatter in the position sensitive detectors. A controller can be adapted and arranged to receive scattering measurements of the charged particle from the charged particle detector, determine at least one trajectory of the charged particle from the measured scattering; and determine at least one momentum measurement of the charged particle from the at least one trajectory. The charged particle can be a cosmic ray-produced charged particle, such as a cosmic ray-produced muon. The position sensitive detectors can be drift cells, such as gas-filled drift tubes.

  1. Experiments in MARIUS on HTR tubular fuel with loose particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosser, R; Langlet, G

    1972-06-15

    The work described on HTR tubular fuel with loose particles is the first part of a program in three points. The cell is the same in the three experiments, only particles in the fuel container are changed. The aim of the experiment is to achieve the buckling in a critical facility. A description of the techniques of measurements, calculations, and results are presented.

  2. Neutral Particle Analyzer Vertically Scanning Measurements of MHD-induced Energetic Ion Redistribution or Loss in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.S. Medley, R. Andre, R.E. Bell, D.S. Darrow, C.W. Domier, E.D. Fredrickson, N.N. Gorelenkov, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, K.C. Lee, F.M. Levinton, D. Liu, N.C. Luhmann, Jr., J.E. Menard, H. Park, D. Stutman, A.L. Roquemore, K. Tritz, H. Yuh and the NSTX Team

    2007-11-15

    Observations of magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) induced redistribution or loss of energetic ions measured using the vertically scanning capability of the Neutral Particle Analyzer diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) are presented along with TRANSP and ORBIT code analysis of the results. Although redistribution or loss of energetic ions due to bursting fishbone-like and low-frequency (f ~ 10 kHz) kinktype MHD activity has been reported previously, the primary goal of this work is to study redistribution or loss due to continuous Alfvénic (f ~ 20 – 150 kHz) modes, a topic that heretofore has not been investigated in detail for NSTX plasmas. Initial indications are that the former drive energetic ion loss whereas the continuous Alfvénic modes only cause redistribution and the energetic ions remain confined.

  3. Neutral Particle Analyzer Vertically Scanning Measurements of MHD-induced Energetic Ion Redistribution or Loss in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.; Andre, R.; Bell, R.E.; Darrow, D.S.; Domier, C.W.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Lee, K.C.; Levinton, F.M.; Liu, D.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Menard, J.E.; Park, H.; Stutman, D.; Roquemore, A.L.; Tritz, K.; Yuh, H

    2007-01-01

    Observations of magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) induced redistribution or loss of energetic ions measured using the vertically scanning capability of the Neutral Particle Analyzer diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) are presented along with TRANSP and ORBIT code analysis of the results. Although redistribution or loss of energetic ions due to bursting fishbone-like and low-frequency (f ∼ 10 kHz) kinktype MHD activity has been reported previously, the primary goal of this work is to study redistribution or loss due to continuous Alfvenic (f ∼ 20-150 kHz) modes, a topic that heretofore has not been investigated in detail for NSTX plasmas. Initial indications are that the former drive energetic ion loss whereas the continuous Alfvenic modes only cause redistribution and the energetic ions remain confined.

  4. Correcting for particle size effects on plasma actuator particle image velocimetry measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masati, A.; Sedwick, R. J.

    2018-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is often used to characterize plasma actuator flow, but particle charging effects are rarely taken into account. A parametric study was conducted to determine the effects of particle size on the velocity results of plasma actuator PIV experiments. Results showed that smaller particles more closely match air flow velocities than larger particles. The measurement uncertainty was quantified by deconvolving the particle image diameter from the correlation diameter. The true air velocity was calculated by linearly extrapolating to the zero-size particle diameter.

  5. Proposal for an experiment at the SIN: contribution on πE3-beam dosimetry. Measurement of particle spectra after pion absorption in biologically interesting nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, H.; Boehmer, V.; Bueche, G.; Kluge, W.; Matthay, H.

    It is proposed to measure the energy spectra of light charged particles (protons, deuterons, tritons, 3 He- and 4 He-nuclei) and of neutrons, after the absorption of stopped pions in the biologically interesting hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen nuclei. In addition, the relative particle yield will be examined in tissue-like targets such as polyethylene, plexiglas, and water. Furthermore, it is proposed to measure the coincidence spectra of two particles emitted after absorption, as a function of the angle between their impulses. In the case of a pure three-body decay, these examinations may open the possibility of drawing conclusions about the heavy recoil nuclei arising during pion absorption. Particle energy and type will be determined by a combined time-of-flight/energy measurement with totally absorbent NaI or plastic detectors. The HF signal will serve as a start signal for time-of-flight measurements

  6. Particle measurement systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Paul T [Livermore, CA

    2011-10-04

    A system according to one embodiment includes a light source for generating light fringes; a sampling mechanism for directing a particle through the light fringes; and at least one light detector for detecting light scattered by the particle as the particle passes through the light fringes. A method according to one embodiment includes generating light fringes using a light source; directing a particle through the light fringes; and detecting light scattered by the particle as the particle passes through the light fringes using at least one light detector.

  7. Measured gas and particle temperatures in VTT's entrained flow reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Sørensen, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    Particle and gas temperature measurements were carried out in experiments on VTTs entrained flow reactor with 5% and 10% oxygen using Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy (FTIR). Particle temperature measurements were performed on polish coal,bark, wood, straw particles, and bark...... and wood particles treated with additive. A two-color technique with subtraction of the background light was used to estimate particle temperatures during experiments. A transmission-emission technique was used tomeasure the gas temperature in the reactor tube. Gas temperature measurements were in good...... agreement with thermocouple readings. Gas lines and bands from CO, CO2 and H2O can be observed in the spectra. CO was only observed at the first measuring port (100ms) with the strongest CO-signal seen during experiments with straw particles. Variations in gas concentration (CO2 and H2O) and the signal from...

  8. Alpha particle loss in the TFTR DT experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Herrmann, H.W.

    1995-01-01

    Alpha particle loss was measured during the TFTR DT experiments using a scintillator detector located at the vessel bottom in the ion grad-B drift direction. The DT alpha particle loss to this detector was consistent with the calculated first-orbit loss over the whole range of plasma current I=0.6-2.7 MA. In particular, the alpha particle loss rate per DT neutron did not increase significantly with fusion power up to 10.7 MW, indicating the absence of any new ''collective'' alpha particle loss processes in these experiments

  9. Current Experiments in Particle Physics (September 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galic, H.; Lehar, F.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Bilak, S.V.; Illarionova, N.S.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Strokovsky, E.A.; Hoffman, C.M.; Kettle, P.-R.; Olin, A.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. This report contains full summaries of 180 approved current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. The focus of the report is on selected experiments which directly contribute to our better understanding of elementary particles and their properties such as masses, widths or lifetimes, and branching fractions.

  10. First measurement of the cross section for the production of hadrons with high transverse momenta at COMPASS, and developments for particle tracking in high-rate experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeppner, Christian C.

    2012-01-31

    In this dissertation, the first measurement of the luminosity for data from the COMPASS experiment is presented. The result is obtained by the direct measurement of the beam flux and the correction of all inefficiencies and dead times of the measurement. The normalized data set consists of about 30% of the COMPASS data recorded in 2004 and the effective integrated luminosity is 142.4 pb{sup -1} {+-} 10%, which is verified by the determination of the structure function F{sub 2} of the nucleon and its comparison to literature. Based on this result, the cross section for the quasi-real photoproduction of charged hadrons with high transverse momenta in muon-deuteron scattering at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=17.4 GeV is determined. The measurement of a hadron-production cross section in a thick solid-state target is quite challenging in comparison to collider measurements of such processes. The issue of secondary hadronic interactions in the target material is carefully studied and taken into account. The cross section is presented in bins of the pseudo-rapidity of the hadrons and separated by hadron charge. The results are discussed and compared to recent calculations of next-to-leading order perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics. This comparison serves as a test of the applicability of such calculations to the production of hadrons with high transverse momenta at COMPASS energies. The second part of this dissertation describes new developments for charged-particle tracking in high-rate experiments. The design of a new type of Time Projection Chamber (TPC), which employs GEM foils instead of proportional wires for gas amplification, is discussed. This technology opens up the possibility of using TPCs in experiments with trigger rates beyond about 1 kHz. Several important contributions to the GEM-TPC project are presented. Furthermore, a generic framework for track fitting in high-energy physics, called GENFIT, is introduced. This novel software is being used

  11. First measurement of the cross section for the production of hadrons with high transverse momenta at COMPASS, and developments for particle tracking in high-rate experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeppner, Christian C.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, the first measurement of the luminosity for data from the COMPASS experiment is presented. The result is obtained by the direct measurement of the beam flux and the correction of all inefficiencies and dead times of the measurement. The normalized data set consists of about 30% of the COMPASS data recorded in 2004 and the effective integrated luminosity is 142.4 pb -1 ± 10%, which is verified by the determination of the structure function F 2 of the nucleon and its comparison to literature. Based on this result, the cross section for the quasi-real photoproduction of charged hadrons with high transverse momenta in muon-deuteron scattering at a center-of-mass energy of √(s)=17.4 GeV is determined. The measurement of a hadron-production cross section in a thick solid-state target is quite challenging in comparison to collider measurements of such processes. The issue of secondary hadronic interactions in the target material is carefully studied and taken into account. The cross section is presented in bins of the pseudo-rapidity of the hadrons and separated by hadron charge. The results are discussed and compared to recent calculations of next-to-leading order perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics. This comparison serves as a test of the applicability of such calculations to the production of hadrons with high transverse momenta at COMPASS energies. The second part of this dissertation describes new developments for charged-particle tracking in high-rate experiments. The design of a new type of Time Projection Chamber (TPC), which employs GEM foils instead of proportional wires for gas amplification, is discussed. This technology opens up the possibility of using TPCs in experiments with trigger rates beyond about 1 kHz. Several important contributions to the GEM-TPC project are presented. Furthermore, a generic framework for track fitting in high-energy physics, called GENFIT, is introduced. This novel software is being used in the PANDA

  12. Realization of two light particle correlation experiments: behaviour to very low relative momenta (measurement with a magnetic spectrometer) and influence of the violence of reaction on the emission sources (measured by the neutron detector ORION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezac, L.

    1993-01-01

    The correlation measurements between light particles emitted during heavy ion collisions allow to estimate the time-space extension of the emitting sources. This report about the preliminaries of two correlation experiments is split into two parts. The first one describes a test experiment, performed to study the feasibility of a correlation experiment at very low relative momenta with the help of a magnetic spectrometer. The results will allow to determine the still unknown relative effects from the final state interaction and the combination of both Coulomb interaction and quantum statistics. A correlation study without experimental selection of the impact parameter gives unclear answers about the sizes and the temporal characteristics of the emitting systems. The second part analyses the sources of the alpha particles detected in the reaction chamber of the multidetector ORION used as a violence of the reaction filter. The results show that it is possible to consider as a good filter a fast information called 'prompt peak' (correlated to the neutron multiplicity detected with ORION). Under such conditions a study of two particle correlations from equilibrated systems with a reasonable statistics becomes thinkable. The results obtained allow to characterize the emitting sources (speed, intensity, temperature) as a function of the violence of the reaction for the system 208 Pb + 93 Nb at 29 MeV/u. (author)

  13. Current experiments in particle physics - particle data group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galic, H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Lehar, F. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Kettle, P.R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  14. Current experiments in particle physics - particle data group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galic, H.; Kettle, P.R.

    1996-09-01

    This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries

  15. Shielding experiments by the JASMIN collaboration at Fermilab (II) - Radioactivity measurement induced by secondary particles from the anti-proton production target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashima, Hiroshi; /Kyoto U., KURRI; Matsuda, Norihiro; Kasugai, Yoshimi; /JAEA, Ibaraki; Matsumura, Hiroshi; Iwase, Hiroshi; /KEK, Tsukuba; Kinoshita, Norikazu; /KEK, Tsukuba /Tsukuba U.; Boehnlein, David; Lauten, Gary; Leveling, Anthony; Mokhov, Nikolai; Vaziri, Kamran; /Fermilab /Shimizu, Tokyo /JAEA, Ibaraki

    2011-01-01

    The JASMIN Collaboration has performed an experiment to conduct measurements of nuclear reaction rates around the anti-proton production (Pbar) target at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). At the Pbar target station, the target, consisting an Inconel 600 cylinder, was irradiated by a 120 GeV/c proton beam from the FNAL Main Injector. The beam intensity was 3.6 x 10{sub 12} protons per second. Samples of Al, Nb, Cu, and Au were placed near the target to investigate the spatial and energy distribution of secondary particles emitted from it. After irradiation, the induced activities of the samples were measured by studying their gamma ray spectra using HPGe detectors. The production rates of 30 nuclides induced in Al, Nb, Cu, Au samples were obtained. These rates increase for samples placed in a forward (small angle) position relative to the target. The angular dependence of these reaction rates becomes larger for increasing threshold energy. These experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo calculations. The calculated results generally agree with the experimental results to within a factor of 2 to 3.

  16. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galic, H.; Armstrong, F.E.; von Przewoski, B.

    1994-08-01

    This report contains summaries of 568 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1988 are excluded. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, INS (Tokyo), ITEP (Moscow), IUCF (Bloomington), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries

  17. Current experiments in elementary-particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.

    1983-03-01

    Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (BNL); CERN; CESR; DESY; Fermilab (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMF. Also, summaries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beam-target-momentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated

  18. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galic, H. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Armstrong, F.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); von Przewoski, B. [Indiana Univ. Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, IN (United States)] [and others

    1994-08-01

    This report contains summaries of 568 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1988 are excluded. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, INS (Tokyo), ITEP (Moscow), IUCF (Bloomington), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  19. Production of strange neutral particles and measurement of the polarization of {lambda} in the NOMAD experiment at CERN; Etude de la production des particules neutres etranges et mesure de la polarisation du {lambda} dans l'experience NOMAD au CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachaud, C

    2000-05-01

    The experiment NOMAD (CERN) is dedicated to the study of the neutrino-nucleon interaction. In these interactions many strange particles are produced: particularly K{sub s}{sup 0}, {lambda} and {lambda}-bar that are more easily detectable and this work is dedicated to them. The study of the polarization of {lambda} allows to go back to the measurements of spin transfer that are not well known. The identification of strange particles is difficult, 2 methods have been used in this work: likelihood ratios and {alpha}-asymmetry method. Once neutral strange particles were identified, their production rate (global and differential) have been made out, K{sup *{+-}}, and {sigma}{sup *{+-}} resonances and the decay of {xi} have been revealed. The second part of this work deals with the measurement of {lambda} polarization. The quality of the reconstruction of events and the cumulated statistics data allowed to give an accurate value of {lambda} polarization. A thorough study of the transverse polarization has been made and we see a dependence of the transverse impulse of {lambda} on the hadronic jet similar to that observed in hadronic collisions.

  20. Experiments for obtaining field influence mass particles.

    CERN Document Server

    Yahalomi, E

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing time dilation experiments the existence of a universal field interacting with moving mass particles is obtained. It is found that mass particle changes its properties depend on its velocity relative to this universal scalar field and not on its velocity relative to the laboratory. High energy proton momentum, energy and mass were calculated obtaining new results. Experiments in high energy accelerators are suggested as additional proofs for the existence of this universal field. This universal field may explain some results of other high energy experiments.

  1. Particle Discrimination Experiment for Direct Energy Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasaka, Y.; Kiriyama, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Takeno, H.; Ishikawa, M.

    2005-01-01

    A direct energy conversion system designed for D- 3 He fusion reactor based on a field reversed configuration employs a venetian-blind type converter for thermal ions to produce DC power and a traveling wave type converter for fusion protons to produce RF power. It is therefore necessary to separate, discriminate, and guide the particle species. For this purpose, a cusp magnetic field is proposed, in which the electrons are deflected and guided along the field line to the line cusp, while the ions pass through the point cusp. A small-scale experimental device was used to study the basic characteristics of discrimination of electrons and ions in the cusp magnetic field. Ions separated from electrons are guided to an ion collector, which is operated as a one-stage direct energy converter. The conversion efficiency was measured for cases with different values of mean and spread of ion energy. These experiments successfully demonstrate direct energy conversion from plasma beams using particle discrimination by a cusp magnetic field

  2. Small Particles Intact Capture Experiment (SPICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Ken-Ji; Carle, G. C.; Bunch, T. E.; Mendez, David J.; Ryder, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    The Small Particles Intact Capture Experiment (SPICE) will develop technologies and engineering techniques necessary to capture nearly intact, uncontaminated cosmic and interplanetary dust particles (IDP's). Successful capture of such particles will benefit the exobiology and planetary science communities by providing particulate samples that may have survived unaltered since the formation of the solar system. Characterization of these particles may contribute fundamental data to our knowledge of how these particles could have formed into our planet Earth and, perhaps, contributed to the beginnings of life. The term 'uncontaminated' means that captured cosmic and IDP particles are free of organic contamination from the capture process and the term 'nearly intact capture' means that their chemical and elemental components are not materially altered during capture. The key to capturing cosmic and IDP particles that are organic-contamination free and nearly intact is the capture medium. Initial screening of capture media included organic foams, multiple thin foil layers, and aerogel (a silica gel); but, with the exception of aerogel, the requirements of no contamination or nearly intact capture were not met. To ensure no contamination of particles in the capture process, high-purity aerogel was chosen. High-purity aerogel results in high clarity (visual clearness), a useful quality in detection and recovery of embedded captured particles from the aerogel. P. Tsou at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) originally described the use of aerogel for this purpose and reported laboratory test results. He has flown aerogel as a 'GAS-can Lid' payload on STS-47 and is evaluating the results. The Timeband Capture Cell Experiment (TICCE), a Eureca 1 experiment, is also flying aerogel and is scheduled for recovery in late April.

  3. Constraining Aerosol Optical Models Using Ground-Based, Collocated Particle Size and Mass Measurements in Variable Air Mass Regimes During the 7-SEAS/Dongsha Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Shaun W.; Hansell, Richard A.; Chow, Judith C.; Tsay, Si-Chee; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Ji, Qiang; Li, Can; Watson, John G.; Khlystov, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    During the spring of 2010, NASA Goddard's COMMIT ground-based mobile laboratory was stationed on Dongsha Island off the southwest coast of Taiwan, in preparation for the upcoming 2012 7-SEAS field campaign. The measurement period offered a unique opportunity for conducting detailed investigations of the optical properties of aerosols associated with different air mass regimes including background maritime and those contaminated by anthropogenic air pollution and mineral dust. What appears to be the first time for this region, a shortwave optical closure experiment for both scattering and absorption was attempted over a 12-day period during which aerosols exhibited the most change. Constraints to the optical model included combined SMPS and APS number concentration data for a continuum of fine and coarse-mode particle sizes up to PM2.5. We also take advantage of an IMPROVE chemical sampler to help constrain aerosol composition and mass partitioning of key elemental species including sea-salt, particulate organic matter, soil, non sea-salt sulphate, nitrate, and elemental carbon. Our results demonstrate that the observed aerosol scattering and absorption for these diverse air masses are reasonably captured by the model, where peak aerosol events and transitions between key aerosols types are evident. Signatures of heavy polluted aerosol composed mostly of ammonium and non sea-salt sulphate mixed with some dust with transitions to background sea-salt conditions are apparent in the absorption data, which is particularly reassuring owing to the large variability in the imaginary component of the refractive indices. Extinctive features at significantly smaller time scales than the one-day sample period of IMPROVE are more difficult to reproduce, as this requires further knowledge concerning the source apportionment of major chemical components in the model. Consistency between the measured and modeled optical parameters serves as an important link for advancing remote

  4. Particle Release Experiment (PRex) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keillor, Martin E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Arrigo, Leah M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Detwiler, Rebecca S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kernan, Warnick J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kirkham, Randy R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); MacDougall, Matthew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chipman, Veraun D. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Milbrath, Brian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rishel, Jeremy P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seifert, Allen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seifert, Carolyn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smart, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Emer, Dudley [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2014-09-30

    An experiment to release radioactive particles representative of small-scale venting from an underground nuclear test was conducted to gather data in support of treaty verification and monitoring activities. For this experiment, a CO2-driven “air cannon” was used to release La-140 at ambient temperatures. Lanthanum-140 was chosen to represent the fission fragments because of its short half-life and prominent gamma-ray emissions; the choice was also influenced by the successful production and use of La-140 with low levels of radioactive contaminants in a Defence Research and Development Canada Field Trial. The source was created through activation of high-purity natural lanthanum oxide at the reactor of Washington State University, Pullman, Washington. Multiple varieties of witness plates and air samplers were laid in an irregular grid covering the area over which the plume was modeled to deposit. Aerial survey, a NaI(Tl) mobile spectrometer, and handheld and backpack instruments ranging from polyvinyl toluene to high-purity germanium were used to survey the plume. Additionally, three varieties of soil sampling were investigated. The relative sensitivity and utility of sampling and survey methods are discussed in the context of On-Site Inspection. The measurements and samples show a high degree of correlation and form a valuable set of test data.

  5. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galic, H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Dodder, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Serpukhov (Russian Federation); Illarionova, N.S. [Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lehar, F. [CEN Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Oyanagi, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Sciences; Olin, A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Frosch, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

    1992-06-01

    This report contains summaries of 584 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1986 are excluded. Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, SSCL, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  6. Current experiments in elementary particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E., Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.; Olin, A.; Lehar, F.; Moskalev, A.N.; Barkov, B.P.

    1987-03-01

    This report contains summaries of 720 recent and current experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

  7. Current experiments in elementary particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Oyanagi, Y. (Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan)); Dodder, D.C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Ryabov, Yu.G.; Slabospitsky, S.R. (Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Serpukhov (USSR). Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij); Frosch, R. (Swiss Inst. for Nuclear Research, Villigen (Switzerla

    1989-09-01

    This report contains summaries of 736 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1982 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PSI/SIN, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground experiments. Also given are instructions for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

  8. Current Experiments in Particle Physics. 1996 Edition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galic, Hrvoje

    2003-06-27

    This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  9. Current experiments in elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.; Olin, A.; Lehar, F.; Moskalev, A.N.; Barkov, B.P.

    1987-03-01

    This report contains summaries of 720 recent and current experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized

  10. Current experiments in elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Slabospitsky, S.R.; Olin, A.; Klumov, I.A.

    1989-09-01

    This report contains summaries of 736 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1982 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PSI/SIN, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground experiments. Also given are instructions for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized

  11. Current experiments in elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galic, H.; Dodder, D.C.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Illarionova, N.S.; Lehar, F.; Oyanagi, Y.; Frosch, R.

    1992-06-01

    This report contains summaries of 584 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1986 are excluded. Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, SSCL, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries

  12. Experimental comparison of particle interaction measurement techniques using optical traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, Timothy P.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Molecke, Ryan A.

    2008-01-01

    Optical tweezers has become a powerful and common tool for sensitive determination of electrostatic interactions between colloidal particles. Recently, two techniques, 'blinking' tweezers and direct force measurements, have become increasingly prevalent in investigations of inter-particle potentials. The 'blinking' tweezers method acquires physical statistics of particle trajectories to determine drift velocities, diffusion coefficients, and ultimately colloidal forces as a function of the center-center separation of two particles. Direct force measurements monitor the position of a particle relative to the center of an optical trap as the separation distance between two continuously trapped particles is gradually decreased. As the particles near each other, the displacement from the trap center for each particle increases proportional to the inter-particle force. Although commonly employed in the investigation of interactions of colloidal particles, there exists no direct comparison of these experimental methods in the literature. In this study, an experimental apparatus was developed capable of performing both methods and is used to quantify electrostatic potentials between particles in several particle/solvent systems. Comparisons are drawn between the experiments conducted using the two measurement techniques, theory, and existing literature. Forces are quantified on the femto-Newton scale and results agree well with literature values

  13. Main Injector Particle Production Experiment Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, Andre

    2007-01-01

    MIPP (FNAL-E907) is a large acceptance spectrometer to measure hadronic particle production - TPC and wire chambers to measure track parameters - TPC dE/dx, ToF, differential Cherenkov and ring imaging Cherenkov give π/K/p separation up to 100 GeV/c

  14. Baryon number violation and particle collider experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinkhamer, F.R.; Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica

    1992-09-01

    Baryon number non-conservation, due to non-perturbative effects (sphalerons) in the standard model, may have been important in the early Universe. In this paper the possibility is discussed that similar effects could show up at future particle collider experiments. (author). 16 refs.; 3 figs

  15. Reconstructing an icosahedral virus from single-particle diffraction experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldin, D. K.; Poon, H.-C.; Schwander, P.; Uddin, M.; Schmidt, M.

    2011-08-01

    The first experimental data from single-particle scattering experiments from free electron lasers (FELs) are now becoming available. The first such experiments are being performed on relatively large objects such as viruses, which produce relatively low-resolution, low-noise diffraction patterns in so-called ``diffract-and-destroy'' experiments. We describe a very simple test on the angular correlations of measured diffraction data to determine if the scattering is from an icosahedral particle. If this is confirmed, the efficient algorithm proposed can then combine diffraction data from multiple shots of particles in random unknown orientations to generate a full 3D image of the icosahedral particle. We demonstrate this with a simulation for the satellite tobacco necrosis virus (STNV), the atomic coordinates of whose asymmetric unit is given in Protein Data Bank entry 2BUK.

  16. Stereoscopic measurements of particle dispersion in microgravity turbulent flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groszmann, Daniel Eduardo

    2001-08-01

    The presence of particles in turbulent flows adds complexity to an already difficult subject. The work described in this research dissertation was intended to characterize the effects of inertia, isolated from gravity, on the dispersion of solid particles in a turbulent air flow. The experiment consisted of releasing particles of various sizes in an enclosed box of fan- generated, homogenous, isotropic, and stationary turbulent airflow and examining the particle behavior in a microgravity environment. The turbulence box was characterized in ground-based experiments using laser Doppler velocimetry techniques. Microgravity was established by free-floating the experiment apparatus during the parabolic trajectory of NASA's KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft. The microgravity generally lasted about 20 seconds, with about fifty parabolas per flight and one flight per day over a testing period of four days. To cover a broad range of flow regimes of interest, particles with Stokes numbers (St) of 1 to 300 were released in the turbulence box. The three- dimensional measurements of particle motion were made using a three-camera stereo imaging system with a particle-tracking algorithm. Digital photogrammetric techniques were used to determine the particle locations in three-dimensional space from the calibrated camera images. The epipolar geometry constraint was used to identify matching particles from the three different views and a direct spatial intersection scheme determined the coordinates of particles in three-dimensional space. Using velocity and acceleration constraints, particles in a sequence of frames were matched resulting in particle tracks and dispersion measurements. The goal was to compare the dispersion of different Stokes number particles in zero gravity and decouple the effects of inertia and gravity on the dispersion. Results show that higher inertia particles disperse less in zero gravity, in agreement with current models. Particles with St ~ 200

  17. Transverse momentum, rapidity, and centrality dependence of inclusive charged-particle production in $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.02$ TeV p+Pb collisions measured by the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Aben, Rosemarie; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Boerner, Daniela; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bokan, Petar; Bold, Tomasz; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Camplani, Alessandra; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelijn, Remco; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Cerio, Benjamin; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'amen, Gabriele; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dado, Tomas; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Maria, Antonio; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Dehghanian, Nooshin; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Gaudio, Michela; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duffield, Emily Marie; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dumancic, Mirta; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Christian; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gravila, Paul Mircea; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huo, Peng; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kanjir, Luka; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Kentaro, Kawade; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Dave; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony Eric; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muškinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puddu, Daniele; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Ravinovich, Ilia; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Reale, Marilea; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rimoldi, Marco; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosien, Nils-Arne; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schachtner, Balthasar Maria; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schier, Sheena; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian Ralf; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schott, Matthias; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sickles, Anne Marie; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smiesko, Juraj; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Hong Ye; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turgeman, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tyndel, Mike; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; 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Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2016-12-10

    Measurements of the per-event charged-particle yield as a function of the charged-particle transverse momentum and rapidity are performed using $p+$Pb collision data collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.02$ TeV. Charged particles are reconstructed over pseudorapidity $|\\eta|<2.3$ and transverse momentum between $0.1$ GeV and $22$ GeV in a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $1$ $\\mu b^{-1}$. The results are presented in the form of charged-particle nuclear modification factors, where the $p+$Pb charged-particle multiplicities are compared between central and peripheral $p+$Pb collisions as well as to charged-particle cross sections measured in pp collisions. The $p+$Pb collision centrality is characterized by the total transverse energy measured in $-4.9<\\eta<-3.1$, which is in the direction of the outgoing lead beam. Three different estimations of the number of nucleons participating in the $p+$Pb collision are carried out usi...

  18. Space experiments with particle accelerators: SEPAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obayashi, T.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper, the program of the space experiments with particle accelerators (SEPAC) is described. The SEPAC is to be prepared for the Space Shuttle/First Spacelab Mission. It is planned in the SEPAC to carry out the active and interactive experiments on and in the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere. It is also intended to make an initial performance test for the overall program of Spacelab/SEPAC experiments. The instruments to be used are electron beam accelerators, MPD arcjects, and associated diagnostic equipments. The main scientific objectives of the experiments are Vehicle Charge Neutralization, Beam Plasma Physics, and Beam Atmosphere Interactions. The SEPAC system consists of the following subsystems. Those are accelerators, monitoring and diagnostic equipments, and control and data management equipments. The SEPAC functional objectives for experiment operations are SEPAC system checkout, EBA firing test, MPD firing test, electron beam experiments, plasma beam propagation, artificial aurora excitation, equatorial aerochemistry, electron echo experiment, E parallel B experiment, passive experiments, SEPAC system deactivation, and battery charging. Most experiment procedures are carried out by the pre-set computer program. (Kato, T.)

  19. Measurement of pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV by the CMS and TOTEM experiments

    CERN Document Server

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Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Zeise, Manuel; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Ntomari, Eleni; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Gouskos, Loukas; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Jones, John; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Singh, Anil; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Musenich, Riccardo; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Triossi, Andrea; Ventura, Sandro; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Grassi, Marco; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Butt, Jamila; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Bogdanova, Galina; Boos, Edouard; Khein, Lev; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Lukina, Olga; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Proskuryakov, Alexander; Savrin, Viktor; Volkov, Vladimir; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Dordevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Favaro, Carlotta; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Kilminster, Benjamin; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Bahtiyar, Hüseyin; Barlas, Esra; Cankocak, Kerem; Günaydin, Yusuf Oguzhan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Yücel, Mete; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Ilic, Jelena; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Felcini, Marta; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Lacroix, Florent; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Nguyen, Harold; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Kcira, Dorian; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Ratnikova, Natalia; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Oliveros, Sandra; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Meier, Frank; Snow, Gregory R; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Massironi, Andrea; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Lusito, Letizia; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Smith, Geoffrey; Vuosalo, Carl; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Alagoz, Enver; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Lopes Pegna, David; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sakharov, Alexandre; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Antchev, G.; Aspell, P.; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzo, M.; Brucken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F.S.; Catanesi, M.G.; Covault, C.; Csanad, M.; Csorgo, T.; Deile, M.; Doubek, M.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Georgiev, V.; Giani, S.; Grzanka, L.; Hammerbauer, J.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Karev, A.; Kaspar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kosinski, J.; Kundrat, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leszko, T.; Lippmaa, E.; Lippmaa, J.; Lokajicek, M.V.; Losurdo, L.; Lucas Rodriguez, F.; Macri, M.; Maki, T.; Mercadante, A.; Minafra, N.; Minutoli, S.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunnof, M.; Osterberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Peroutka, Z.; Prochazka, J.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Scribano, A.; Smajek, J.; Snoeys, W.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Welti, J.; Whitmoreh, J.; Wyszkowski, P.; Zielinski, K.

    2014-10-29

    Pseudorapidity ($\\eta$) distributions of charged particles produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV are measured in the ranges abs($\\eta$) < 2.2 and 5.3 < abs($\\eta$) < 6.4 covered by the CMS and TOTEM detectors, respectively. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 45 inverse microbarns. Measurements are presented for three event categories. The most inclusive category is sensitive to 91-96% of the total inelastic proton-proton cross section. The other two categories are disjoint subsets of the inclusive sample that are either enhanced or depleted in single diffractive dissociation events. The data are compared to models used to describe high-energy hadronic interactions. None of the models considered provide a consistent description of the measured distributions.

  20. Measuring the patient experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the complex issues of measuring the patient experience and evaluating the quality of health care. It discusses the use of surveys, patient stories and narrative methods of data collection in an attempt to define quality and how it should be measured. A recent Department of Health (DH) document insists that patients will be at the heart of decision making in the NHS by having greater control in informing strategic commissioning decisions (DH 2010c). The government aims to improve patient experience, enabling patients to rate services according to the quality of care they receive. This will be carried out using information generated by patients. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using surveys in gathering patient satisfaction data. It considers the value of surveys in measuring quality of care and appraises their usefulness in strengthening patients' collective voice. The paper investigates the use of another source of feedback - it examines the design of qualitative data collection methods as a means of gaining feedback from service users in encouraging providers of health care to be more responsive to their needs. Too often, patients are expected to fit the services, rather than services meeting the patients' needs. The most effective way of exploring and representing the patient's experience is by using a mixed-method approach. In other words, an integrated approach with the use of surveys and more narrative methods, such as patient stories, will effectively define quality and how it should be measured, ensuring that the focus is always on what matters most to patients.

  1. Particle physics experiments at high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptman, John

    2011-01-01

    Written by one of the detector developers for the International Linear Collider, this is the first textbook for graduate students dedicated to the complexities and the simplicities of high energy collider detectors. It is intended as a specialized reference for a standard course in particle physics, and as a principal text for a special topics course focused on large collider experiments. Equally useful as a general guide for physicists designing big detectors. (orig.)

  2. Measuring the User Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry B. Santoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to develop an adapted version of User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ and evaluate a learning management system. Although there is a growing interest on User Experience, there are still limited resources (i.e. measurement tools or questionnaires available to measure user experience of any products, especially learning management systems. Two hundreds and thirteen computer science students participated and completed the adapted version of UEQ. In the study, the researchers used a learning management system named Student Centered e-Learning Environment (SCELE. Several types of learning materials are posted in SCELE such as audio files, simulations, PowerPoint slides, multimedia contents, and webpage links. Most of the lecturers use discussion forums in their courses to encourage students to participate in active learning setting. Staff and lecturers sometimes post academic-related announcements on the SCELE homepage. Two hundred thirteen students enrolled in Computer Science program were invited to evaluate the SCELE. This study will benefit UX practitioners, HCI educators, program and center of learning resources administrators, and learning management system developers. Findings of the present study may also be valuable for universities and high schools which are using computer-based learning environments.

  3. DIRAC in Large Particle Physics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagni, F.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Arrabito, L.; Sailer, A.; Hara, T.; Zhang, X.; Consortium, DIRAC

    2017-10-01

    The DIRAC project is developing interware to build and operate distributed computing systems. It provides a development framework and a rich set of services for both Workload and Data Management tasks of large scientific communities. A number of High Energy Physics and Astrophysics collaborations have adopted DIRAC as the base for their computing models. DIRAC was initially developed for the LHCb experiment at LHC, CERN. Later, the Belle II, BES III and CTA experiments as well as the linear collider detector collaborations started using DIRAC for their computing systems. Some of the experiments built their DIRAC-based systems from scratch, others migrated from previous solutions, ad-hoc or based on different middlewares. Adaptation of DIRAC for a particular experiment was enabled through the creation of extensions to meet their specific requirements. Each experiment has a heterogeneous set of computing and storage resources at their disposal that were aggregated through DIRAC into a coherent pool. Users from different experiments can interact with the system in different ways depending on their specific tasks, expertise level and previous experience using command line tools, python APIs or Web Portals. In this contribution we will summarize the experience of using DIRAC in particle physics collaborations. The problems of migration to DIRAC from previous systems and their solutions will be presented. An overview of specific DIRAC extensions will be given. We hope that this review will be useful for experiments considering an update, or for those designing their computing models.

  4. Pyrometric fuel particle measurements in pressurised reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R.; Joutsenoja, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    A fiberoptic two-colour pyrometric technique for fuel particle temperature and size measurement is modified and applied to three pressurized reactors of different type in Finland, Germany and France. A modification of the pyrometric method for simultaneous in situ measurement of the temperature and size of individual pulverized coal particles at the pressurized entrained flow reactor in Jyvaeskylae was developed and several series of measurements were made. In Orleans a fiberoptic pyrometric device was installed to a pressurised thermogravimetric reactor and the two-colour temperatures of fuel samples were measured. Some results of these measurements are presented. The project belongs to EU`s Joule 2 extension research programme. (author)

  5. Radioactive particle resuspension research experiments on the Hanford Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1977-02-01

    Experiments were conducted from 1972 to 1975 at several Hanford Reservation study sites to determine whether radioactive particles from these sites were resuspended and transported by wind and to determine, if possible, any interrelationships between wind speed, direction, airborne soil, and levels of radioactivity on airborne particles. Samples of airborne particles were collected with high volume air samplers and cascade particle impactors using both upwind and downwind air sampling towers. Most samples were analyzed for 137 Cs; some samples were analyzed for 239 Pu, 238 Pu and 241 Am; a few samples were analyzed for 90 Sr. This report summarizes measured air concentration ranges for these radionuclides at the study sites and compares air concentrations with fallout levels measured in 300 Area near the Reservation boundary

  6. Measurement of particle velocity using a mutual inductance technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, Stephen; Kirkpatrick, Douglas; Garden, Steven

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary work on the development of a novel method for the measurement of particle velocity is described. The technique relies on measurement of the mutual inductance between two coaxial coils, one stationary and the other perturbed by the shock wave. The moving coil is the gauge and is deposited on thin film. The method was developed to assist in the study of particle velocities in large samples of porous media surrounding an explosive charge. The technique does not require measurements to be taken in a region of uniform magnetic field and therefore dispenses with the need for Helmholtz coils, the size and cost of which can become prohibitive for large experiments. This has the added advantage of allowing measurements to be taken at points widely dispersed through a sample with relative ease. Measurements of particle velocity in porous media have been compared with those from co-located conventional electromagnetic particle velocity gauges with reasonable agreement

  7. Shifting standards experiments in particle physics in the twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Allan

    2013-01-01

    In Shifting Standards, Allan Franklin provides an overview of notable experiments in particle physics. Using papers published in Physical Review, the journal of the American Physical Society, as his basis, Franklin details the experiments themselves, their data collection, the events witnessed, and the interpretation of results. From these papers, he distills the dramatic changes to particle physics experimentation from 1894 through 2009.Franklin develops a framework for his analysis, viewing each example according to exclusion and selection of data; possible experimenter bias; details of the experimental apparatus; size of the data set, apparatus, and number of authors; rates of data taking along with analysis and reduction; distinction between ideal and actual experiments; historical accounts of previous experiments; and personal comments and style.From Millikan’s tabletop oil-drop experiment to the Compact Muon Solenoid apparatus measuring approximately 4,000 cubic meters (not including accelerators) and...

  8. Transverse momentum, rapidity, and centrality dependence of inclusive charged-particle production in sNN=5.02 TeV p+Pb collisions measured by the ATLAS experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Aad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the per-event charged-particle yield as a function of the charged-particle transverse momentum and rapidity are performed using p+Pb collision data collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of sNN=5.02TeV. Charged particles are reconstructed over pseudorapidity |η|<2.3 and transverse momentum between 0.1 GeV and 22 GeV in a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1 μb−1. The results are presented in the form of charged-particle nuclear modification factors, where the p+Pb charged-particle multiplicities are compared between central and peripheral p+Pb collisions as well as to charged-particle cross sections measured in pp collisions. The p+Pb collision centrality is characterized by the total transverse energy measured in −4.9<η<−3.1, which is in the direction of the outgoing lead beam. Three different estimations of the number of nucleons participating in the p+Pb collision are carried out using the Glauber model and two Glauber–Gribov colour-fluctuation extensions to the Glauber model. The values of the nuclear modification factors are found to vary significantly as a function of rapidity and transverse momentum. A broad peak is observed for all centralities and rapidities in the nuclear modification factors for charged-particle transverse momentum values around 3 GeV. The magnitude of the peak increases for more central collisions as well as rapidity ranges closer to the direction of the outgoing lead nucleus.

  9. Integrated circuits for particle physics experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Snoeys, W; Campbell, M; Cantatore, E; Faccio, F; Heijne, Erik H M; Jarron, Pierre; Kloukinas, Kostas C; Marchioro, A; Moreira, P; Toifl, Thomas H; Wyllie, Ken H

    2000-01-01

    High energy particle physics experiments investigate the nature of matter through the identification of subatomic particles produced in collisions of protons, electrons, or heavy ions which have been accelerated to very high energies. Future experiments will have hundreds of millions of detector channels to observe the interaction region where collisions take place at a 40 MHz rate. This paper gives an overview of the electronics requirements for such experiments and explains how data reduction, timing distribution, and radiation tolerance in commercial CMOS circuits are achieved for these big systems. As a detailed example, the electronics for the innermost layers of the future tracking detector, the pixel vertex detector, is discussed with special attention to system aspects. A small-scale prototype (130 channels) implemented in standard 0.25 mu m CMOS remains fully functional after a 30 Mrad(SiO/sub 2/) irradiation. A full-scale pixel readout chip containing 8000 readout channels in a 14 by 16 mm/sup 2/ ar...

  10. Measurements of Standard Model heayy particle production in association with jets using proton-proton collision data at 8 and 13 TeV with the CMS experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bilin, Bugra

    2017-01-01

    Standard Model (SM) of particle physics is the theory describing the main building blocks of matter and their interactions. In this thesis, two different measurements are carried out adding confidence to SM using proton proton collision data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC . Within the first study, multi-dimensional differential cross section measurements are carried out with respect to several kinematic variables of Z bosons and jets, where the Z bosons are reconstructed from opposite sign lepton (electron or muon) pairs. This measurement using 8 TeV data is the most precise Z + jet cross section measurement among other hadron collision measurements up to now. Theoretical calculations using state-of-the-art techniques are compared with the CMS measurements obtained in this measurement, and therefore provided a stringent test of those calculations. It is proven here that calculations involving higher orders in QCD describe the CMS results better. Within the second study, measurement of Underlying E...

  11. Calorimetry energy measurement in particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wigmans, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Particle physics is the science that pursues the age-old quest for the innermost structure of matter and the fundamental interactions between its constituents. Modern experiments in this field rely increasingly on calorimetry, a detection technique in which the particles of interest are absorbed in the detector. Calorimeters are very intricate instruments. Their performance characteristics depend on subtle, sometimes counter-intuitive design details. This book, written by one of the world's foremost experts, is the first comprehensive text on this topic. It provides a fundamental and systematic introduction to calorimetry. It describes the state of the art in terms of both the fundamental understanding of calorimetric particle detection, and the actual detectors that have been or are being built and operated in experiments. The last chapter discusses landmark scientific discoveries in which calorimetry has played an important role. This book summarizes and puts into perspective the work described in some 900...

  12. FPGA fault tolerance in particle physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebelein, Jano; Engel, Heiko; Kebschull, Udo [Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics, Heidelberg University (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The behavior of matter in physically extreme conditions is in focus of many high-energy-physics experiments. For this purpose, high energy charged particles (ions) are collided with each other and energy- or baryon densities are created similar to those at the beginning of the universe or to those which can be found in the center of neutron stars. In both cases a plasma of quarks and gluons (QGP) is present, which immediately decomposes to hadrons within a short period of time. At this process, particles are formed, which allow statements about the beginning of the universe when captured by large detectors, but which also lead to the massive occurance of hardware failures within the detector's electronic devices. This contribution is about methods to mitigate radiation susceptibility for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), enabling them to be used within particle detector systems to directly gain valid data in the readout chain or to be used as detector-control-system.

  13. Dryout heat flux experiments with deep heterogeneous particle bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, I.; Holmstroem, S.; Miettinen, J.; Lestinen, V.; Hyvaerinen, J.; Pankakoski, P.; Sjoevall, H.

    2006-01-01

    A test facility has been constructed at Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) to simulate as accurately as possible the ex-vessel core particle bed in the conditions of Olkiluoto nuclear power plant. The STYX particle bed reproduces the anticipated depth of the bed and the size range of particles having irregular shape. The bed is immersed in water, creating top flooding conditions, and internally heated by an array of electrical resistance heating elements. Dryout tests have been successfully conducted at 0.1-0.7 MPa pressure for both uniformly mixed and stratified bed geometries. In all tests, including the stratified ones, the dry zone first formed near the bottom of the bed. The measured dryout heat fluxes increased with increasing pressure, from 232 kW/m 2 at near atmospheric pressure to 451 kW/m 2 at 0.7 MPa pressure. The data show some scatter even for the uniform bed. The tests with the stratified bed indicate a clear reduction of critical power due to the presence of a layer of small particles on top of the uniform bed. Comparison of data with various critical power (dryout heat flux) correlations for porous media shows that the most important parameter in the models is the effective particle diameter. Adiabatic debris bed flow resistance measurements were conducted to determine the most representative particle diameter. This diameter is close, but not equal, to the particle number-weighted average diameter of the bed material. With it, uniform bed data can be calculated to within an accuracy of 3-28% using Lipinski's 0-D model. In the stratified bed experiments, it appears that the top layer was partially fluidized, hence the measured critical power was significantly higher than calculated. Future experiments are being planned with denser top layer material to eliminate non-prototypic fluidization

  14. An experiment on particle and jet production at midrapidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadija, K.; Paic, G.; Vranic, D.; Brady, F.P.; Draper, J.E.; Romero, J.L.; Carroll, J.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Gulmez, E.; Igo, G.J.; Trentalange, S.; Whitten, C. Jr.; Cherney, M.; Heck, W.; Renfordt, R.E.; Roehrich, D.; Stock, R.; Stroebele, H.; Wenig, S.; Hallman, T.; Madansky, L.; Anderson, B.; Keane, D.; Madey, R.; Watson, J.; Bieser, F.; Bloomer, M.A.; Cebra, D.; Christie, W.; Friedlander, E.; Greiner, D.; Gruhn, C.; Harris, J.W.; Huang, H.; Jacobs, P.; Lindstrom, P.; Matis, H.; McParland, C.; Naudet, C.; Odyniec, G.; Olson, D.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Rai, G.; Rasmussen, J.; Ritter, H.G.; Schambach, J.; Schroeder, L.S.; Seidl, P.A.; Symons, T.J.M.; Tonse, S.; Wieman, H.; Carmony, D.D.; Choi, Y.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Porile, N.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Srivastava, B.; Tincknell, M.L.; Chacon, A.D.; Wolf, K.L.; Dominik, W.; Gazdzicki, M.; Braithwaite, W.J.; Cramer, J.G.; Prindle, D.; Trainor, T.A.; Breskin, A.; Chechik, R.; Fraenkel, Z.; Shor, A.; Tserruya, I.

    1990-09-01

    The aim of this experiment is to search for signatures of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) formation and investigate the behavior of strongly interacting matter at high energy density. Since there is no single accepted signature for the QGP, it is essential to use a flexible detection system at RHIC that can simultaneously measure many experimental observables. The experiment will utilize two aspects of hadron production that are fundamentally new at RHIC: correlations between global observables on an event-by-event basis and the use of hard scattering of partons as a probe of the properties of high density nuclear matter. The event-by-event measurement of global observables--such as temperature, flavor composition, collision geometry, reaction dynamics, and energy or entropy density fluctuations--is possible because of the very high charged particle densities. Event-by-event fluctuations are expected in the vicinity of a phase change, so experiments must be sensitive to threshold-like features in experimental observables as a function of energy density. Full azimuthal coverage with good particle identification and continuous tracking is required to perform these measurements at momenta where the particle yields are maximal. Measurable jet yields at RHIC will allow investigations of hard QCD processes via both highly segmented calorimetry and high p t single particle measurements in a tracking system. A systematic study of particle and jet production will be carried out over a range of colliding nuclei from p + p through Au + Au, over a range of impact parameters from peripheral to central, and over the range of energies available at RHIC. Correlations between observables will be made on an event-by-event basis to isolate potentially interesting event types. In particular, correlations of jet properties with full event reconstruction may lead to some surprising new physics

  15. Fission product released experiment of coated fuel particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shijiang, Xu; Bing, Yang; Chunhe, Tang; Junguo, Zhu; Jintao, Huang; Binzhong, Zhang [Inst. of Nucl. Energy Technology, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Jinghan, Luo [Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    1992-01-15

    Four samples of coated fuel particles were irradiated in the Heavy-Water Research Reactor of the Institute of Atomic Energy. Each of them was divided into two groups and irradiated to the burn up of 0.394% fima and 0.788% fima in two static capsules, respectively. After irradiation and cooling, post irradiation annealing experiment was carried out, the release ratios of the fission product {sup 133}Xe and {sup 131}I were measured, they are in the order of 10{sup -6}{approx}10{sup -7}. The fission product release ratio of naked kernel was also measured under the same conditions as for the coated fuel particles, the ratio of the fission product release of the coated fuel particles and of the naked kernel was in the order of 10{sup -5}{approx}10{sup -4}.

  16. Measurements of phoretic velocities of aerosol particles in microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodi, F.; Santachiara, G.; Travaini, S.; Vedernikov, A.; Dubois, F.; Minetti, C.; Legros, J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Measurements of thermo- and diffusio-phoretic velocities of aerosol particles (carnauba wax, paraffin and sodium chloride) were performed in microgravity conditions (Drop Tower facility, in Bremen, and Parabolic Flights, in Bordeaux). In the case of thermophoresis, a temperature gradient was obtained by heating the upper plate of the cell, while the lower one was maintained at environmental temperature. For diffusiophoresis, the water vapour gradient was obtained with sintered plates imbued with a water solution of MgCl 2 and distilled water, at the top and at the bottom of the cell, respectively. Aerosol particles were observed through a digital holographic velocimeter, a device allowing the determination of 3-D coordinates of particles from the observed volume. Particle trajectories and consequently particle velocities were reconstructed through the analysis of the sequence of particle positions. The experimental values of reduced thermophoretic velocities are between the theoretical values of Yamamoto and Ishihara [Yamamoto, K., Ishihara, Y., 1988. Thermophoresis of a spherical particle in a rarefied gas of a transition regime. Phys. Fluids. 31, 3618-3624] and Talbot et al. [Talbot, L., Cheng, R.K., Schefer, R.W., Willis, D.R., 1980. Thermophoresis of particles in a heated boundary layer. J. Fluid Mech. 101, 737-758], and do not show a clear dependence on the thermal conductivity of the aerosol. The existence of negative thermophoresis is not confirmed in our experiments. Concerning diffusiophoretic experiments, the results obtained show a small increase of reduced diffusiophoretic velocity with the Knudsen number.

  17. Multi-strange particle measurements in 7 TeV proton-proton and 2.76 TeV PbPb collisions with the ALICE experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chinellato, D D

    2011-01-01

    The production of charged multi-strange particles is studied with the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. Measurements of the central rapidity yields of $\\Xi^-$ and $\\Omega^-$ baryons, as well as their antiparticles, are presented as a function of transverse momentum ($p_\\mathrm{t}$) for inelastic pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV and compared to existing measurements performed at the same and/or at lower energies. The results are also compared to predictions from two different tunes of the PYTHIA event generator. We find that data significantly exceed the production rates from those models. Finally, we present the status of the multi-strange particle production studies in Pb-Pb at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV performed as a function of collision centrality.

  18. Measurements and improvements of the response of the $\\overline{P}ANDA$-EMC prototype PROTO 60 to high energetic particles and photons in accelerator experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Moritz, Markus

    The PANDA experiment at FAIR will provide an opportunity to achieve a better understanding of complex hadronic systems. Measurements will be performed with antiprotons using a fixed-target setup. In order to reconstruct most of the reactions, a precise measurement of electromagnetic probes and their energies are crucial. An important and major component of the detector is therefore the electromagnetic calorimeter. Due to the lack of commercial availability of such ambitious, complex and highly specialized detector systems, detailed research and development are nec essary, including prototype development, testing and optimization. The investigation of the response of a homogeneous electromagnetic calorimeter prototype is the main scope of the present thesis. This prototype, called PROTO 60, is composed out of 60 truncated pyramidal shaped PWO-II crystals, cooled down to -25 C and read out with one Large Area Avalanche Photodiode (LAAPDs). The PROTO 60 represents a small section of the central barrel part of th...

  19. Start-effect measurement of high FEL [free-electron laser] electric fields in MTX [Microwave Tokamak Experiment] by laser-aided particle-probe spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, T.; Takiyama, K.; Odajima, K.; Ohasa, K.; Shiho, M.; Mizuno, K.; Foote, J.H.; Nilson, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    We are constructing a diagnostic system to measure the electric field (>100 kV/cm) of a free-electron laser (FEL) beam when injected into the plasma of the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX). The apparatus allows a crossed-beam measurement, with 2-cm spatial resolution in the plasma, involving the FEL beam (with 140-GHz, ∼1-GW ECH pulses), a neutral-helium beam, and a dye-laser beam. After the laser beam pumps metastable helium atoms to higher excited states, their decay light is detected by an efficient optical system. Because of the Stark effect arising from the FEL electric field (rvec E), a forbidden transition can be strongly induced. The intensity of emitted light resulting from the forbidden transition is proportional to E 2 . Because photon counting rates are estimated to be low, extra effort is made to minimize background and noise levels. It is possible that the lower rvec E of an MTX gyrotron-produced ECH beam with its longer-duration pulses can also be measured using this method. Other applications of the apparatus described here may include measurements of ion temperature (using charge-exchange recombination), edge-density fluctuations, and core impurity concentrations

  20. Explicit Covariance Matrix for Particle Measurement Precision

    CERN Document Server

    Karimäki, Veikko

    1997-01-01

    We derive explicit and precise formulae for 3 by 3 error matrix of the particle transverse momentum, direction and impact parameter. The error matrix elements are expressed as functions of up to fourth order statistical moments of the measured coordinates. The formulae are valid for any curvature and track length in case of negligible multiple scattering.

  1. Evolution of particle composition in CLOUD nucleation experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Keskinen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sulphuric acid, ammonia, amines, and oxidised organics play a crucial role in nanoparticle formation in the atmosphere. In this study, we investigate the composition of nucleated nanoparticles formed from these compounds in the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets chamber experiments at CERN (Centre européen pour la recherche nucléaire. The investigation was carried out via analysis of the particle hygroscopicity, ethanol affinity, oxidation state, and ion composition. Hygroscopicity was studied by a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyser and a cloud condensation nuclei counter, ethanol affinity by an organic differential mobility analyser and particle oxidation level by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. The ion composition was studied by an atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The volume fraction of the organics in the particles during their growth from sizes of a few nanometers to tens of nanometers was derived from measured hygroscopicity assuming the Zdanovskii–Stokes–Robinson relationship, and compared to values gained from the spectrometers. The ZSR-relationship was also applied to obtain the measured ethanol affinities during the particle growth, which were used to derive the volume fractions of sulphuric acid and the other inorganics (e.g. ammonium salts. In the presence of sulphuric acid and ammonia, particles with a mobility diameter of 150 nm were chemically neutralised to ammonium sulphate. In the presence of oxidation products of pinanediol, the organic volume fraction of freshly nucleated particles increased from 0.4 to ~0.9, with an increase in diameter from 2 to 63 nm. Conversely, the sulphuric acid volume fraction decreased from 0.6 to 0.1 when the particle diameter increased from 2 to 50 nm. The results provide information on the composition of nucleated aerosol particles during their growth in the presence of various combinations of sulphuric acid

  2. Measurement of heavy particle and isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Masaru; Kohno, Takeshi; Imai, Takashi; Munakata, Kazuoki

    1987-01-01

    The report describes some achievements made so far in developing heavy particle and isotope measuring equipment that is planned to be mounted on the No.6 technical test satelite of the National Space Development Agency, ETS VI. Some ideas are proposed for such heavy particle and isotope measuring equipment that uses Astromag. The structure of SSD is shown which is planned to be incorporated in the sensor for the equipment. The planned charged particle detector consists of position sensitive detectors, PIN diodes and Si(Li) plates. Tests are made for the basic characteristics of such a detector. The characteristics of a PSD are also investigated. The PSD has a resolution of about 1 mm for 14 MeV He. Tests of a 0.3 mm PIN diode and 1.2 mm Si(Li) is carried out with 234 MeV-nucl Fe beams to determine their pulse height distribution. The PIN diode and Si(Li) are found to have a resolution of 6.79 and 17.6 MeV for energy loss of 158 and 710 MeV, respectively. If developed, a stripe-type Si PIN diode will serve for analysis of isotopes. A conceptual diagram of such a stripe device is proposed. The mechanism of measurement by a heavy particle and isotope detecting system incorporating Astromag is also illustrated. (Nogami, K.)

  3. Measurements and improvements of the response of the anti PANDA-EMC prototype PROTO 60 to high energetic particles and photons in accelerator experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritz, Markus

    2013-07-01

    The anti PANDA experiment at FAIR will provide an opportunity to achieve a better understanding of complex hadronic systems. Measurements will be performed with antiprotons using a fi xed-target setup. In order to reconstruct most of the reactions, a precise measurement of electromagnetic probes and their energies are crucial. An important and major component of the detector is therefore the electromagnetic calorimeter. Due to the lack of commercial availability of such ambitious, complex and highly specialized detector systems, detailed research and development are necessary, including prototype development, testing and optimization. The investigation of the response of a homogeneous electromagnetic calorimeter prototype is the main scope of the present thesis. This prototype, called PROTO 60, is composed out of 60 truncated pyramidal shaped PWO-II crystals, cooled down to -25 C and read out with one Large Area Avalanche Photodiode (LAAPDs). The PROTO 60 represents a small section of the central barrel part of the anti PANDA calorimeter. Its response is being investigated for the first time over an extensive energy range from 52.34 MeV up to 15 GeV within several experiments measuring the response to energy marked photons or positrons at the highest energy, respectively. The study verified the principle detector concept. A linear response was observed. The achieved overall resolution can be parameterized as: (σ)/(E)=√(((1.86%)/(√ E/GeV )){sup 2} + ((0.25%)/(E/GeV)){sup 2} + 1.46%{sup 2}). Due to the use of only one single LAAPD per crystal with the effective surface of 1 cm{sup 2} and a not linearized light collection within the crystals, these parameters represent an upper performance limit of the final anti PANDA calorimeter. A detailed GEANT based model of the prototype was developed in order to investigate the calibration based on cosmic radiation or a 150 GeV muon beam and to understand the impact of the detailed geometry and light collection on the

  4. Measurements and improvements of the response of the anti PANDA-EMC prototype PROTO 60 to high energetic particles and photons in accelerator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritz, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The anti PANDA experiment at FAIR will provide an opportunity to achieve a better understanding of complex hadronic systems. Measurements will be performed with antiprotons using a fi xed-target setup. In order to reconstruct most of the reactions, a precise measurement of electromagnetic probes and their energies are crucial. An important and major component of the detector is therefore the electromagnetic calorimeter. Due to the lack of commercial availability of such ambitious, complex and highly specialized detector systems, detailed research and development are necessary, including prototype development, testing and optimization. The investigation of the response of a homogeneous electromagnetic calorimeter prototype is the main scope of the present thesis. This prototype, called PROTO 60, is composed out of 60 truncated pyramidal shaped PWO-II crystals, cooled down to -25 C and read out with one Large Area Avalanche Photodiode (LAAPDs). The PROTO 60 represents a small section of the central barrel part of the anti PANDA calorimeter. Its response is being investigated for the first time over an extensive energy range from 52.34 MeV up to 15 GeV within several experiments measuring the response to energy marked photons or positrons at the highest energy, respectively. The study verified the principle detector concept. A linear response was observed. The achieved overall resolution can be parameterized as: (σ)/(E)=√(((1.86%)/(√ E/GeV )) 2 + ((0.25%)/(E/GeV)) 2 + 1.46% 2 ). Due to the use of only one single LAAPD per crystal with the effective surface of 1 cm 2 and a not linearized light collection within the crystals, these parameters represent an upper performance limit of the final anti PANDA calorimeter. A detailed GEANT based model of the prototype was developed in order to investigate the calibration based on cosmic radiation or a 150 GeV muon beam and to understand the impact of the detailed geometry and light collection on the achieved performance

  5. Evolution of particle composition in CLOUD nucleation experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Keskinen, H; Joutsensaari, J; Tsagkogeorgas, G; Duplissy, J; Schobesberger, S; Gysel, M; Riccobono, F; Bianchi, F; Yli-Juuti, T; Lehtipalo, K; Rondo, L; Breitenlechner, M; Kupc, A; Almeida, J; Amorim, A; Dunne, E M; Downard, A J; Ehrhart, S; Franchin, A; Kajos, M K; Kirkby, J; Kurten, A; Nieminen, T; Makhmutov, V; Mathot, S; Miettinen, P; Onnela, A; Petaja, T; Praplan, A; Santos, F D; Schallhart, S; Sipila, M; Stozhkov, Y; Tome, A; Vaattovaara, P; Wimmer, D; Prevot, A; Dommen, J; Donahue, N M; Flagan, R C; Weingartner, E; Viisanen, Y; Riipinen, I; Hansel, A; Curtius, J; Kulmala, M; Worsnop, D R; Baltensperger, U; Wex, H; Stratmann, F; Laaksonen, A; Slowik, J G

    2013-01-01

    Sulphuric acid, ammonia, amines, and oxidised organics play a crucial role in nanoparticle formation in the atmosphere. In this study, we investigate the composition of nucleated nanoparticles formed from these compounds in the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber experiments at CERN (Centre europ ́ een pour la recherche nucl ́ eaire). The investigation was carried out via analysis of the particle hygroscopicity, ethanol affinity, oxidation state, and ion composition. Hygroscopicity was studied by a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyser and a cloud condensation nuclei counter, ethanol affinity by an organic differential mobility analyser and particle oxidation level by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. The ion composition was studied by an atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The volume fraction of the organics in the particles during theirgrowth from sizes of a few nanometers to tens of nanometers was derived from measured hygros...

  6. Lunar particle shadows and boundary layer experiment: plasma and energetic particles on the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, K.A.; Chase, L.M.; Lin, R.P.; McCoy, J.E.; McGuire, R.E.

    1974-01-01

    The lunar particle shadows and boundary layer experiments aboard the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites and scientific reduction and analysis of the data to date are discussed with emphasis on four major topics: solar particles; interplanetary particle phenomena; lunar interactions; and topology and dynamics of the magnetosphere at lunar orbit. The studies of solar and interplanetary particles concentrated on the low energy region which was essentially unexplored, and the studies of lunar interaction pointed up the transition from single particle to plasma characteristics. The analysis concentrated on the electron angular distributions as highly sensitive indicators of localized magnetization of the lunar surface. Magnetosphere experiments provided the first electric field measurements in the distant magnetotail, as well as comprehensive low energy particle measurements at lunar distance

  7. Update to Proposal for an Experiment to Measure Mixing, CP Violation and Rare Decays in Charm and Beauty Particle Decays at the Fermilab Collider - BTeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Joel [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Stone, Sheldon [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2002-03-01

    We have been requested to submit an update of the BTeV plan to the Fermilab Physics Advisory Committee, where to save money the detector has only one arm and there is no new interaction region magnet construction planned. These are to come from a currently running collider experiment at the appropriate time. The "Physics Case" section is complete and updated with the section on the "New Physics" capabilites of BTeV greatly expanded. We show that precise measurements of rare flavor-changing neutral current processes and CP violation are and will be complementary to the Tevatron and LHC in unraveling the electroweak breaking puzzle. We include a revised summary of the physics sensitivities for the one-arm detector, which are not simply taking our proposal numbers and dividing by two, because of additional improvements. One important change resulted from an improved understanding of just how important the RJCH detector is to muon and electron identification, that we can indeed separate electrons from pions and muons from pions, especially at relatively large angles beyond the physical aperture of the EM calorimeter or the Muon Detector. This is documented in the "Physics Sensitivities" section. The section on the detector includes the motivation for doing b and c physics at a hadron collider, and shows the changes in the detector since the proposal based on our ongoing R&D program. We do not here include a detailed description of the entire detector. That is available in the May, 2000 proposal. We include a summary of our R&D activities for the entire experiment. Finally, we also include a fully updated cost estimate for the one-arm system.

  8. Cosmic AntiParticle Ring Imaging Cerenkov Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %RE2A \\\\ \\\\ %title \\\\ \\\\The CAPRICE experiment studies antimatter and light nuclei in the cosmic rays as well as muons in the atmosphere. The experiment is performed with the spectrometer shown in the figure which is lifted by a balloon to an altitude of 35-40 km. At this altitude less than half a percent of the atmosphere is above the 2 ton spectrometer which makes it possible to study the cosmic ray flux without too much background from atmospherically produced particles. The spectrometer includes time-of-flight scintillators, a gaseous RICH counter, a drift chamber tracker and a silicon electromagnetic calorimeter. The important feature of the spectrometer is to discriminate between different particles.\\\\ \\\\ The experiment aims at measuring the flux of the antiparticles (antiprotons and positrons) above about 5 GeV and relate the fluxes to models including exotic production of antiparticles like dark matter supersymmetric particles. The flux of muons is measured during descent of the balloon through the at...

  9. Benchmarking the Particle Background in the Large Hadron Collider Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gschwendtner, Edda; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Hessey, N P; Otto, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Background benchmarking measurements have been made to check the low-energy processes which will contribute via nuclear reactions to the radiation background in the LHC experiments at CERN. Previously these processes were only evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations, estimated to be reliable within an uncertainty factor of 2.5. Measurements were carried out in an experimental set-up comparable to the shielding of ATLAS, one of the general-purpose experiments at LHC. The absolute yield and spectral measurements of photons and neutrons emanating from the final stages of the hadronic showers were made with a Bi_4Ge_3O_{12} (BGO) detector. The particle transport code FLUKA was used for detailed simulations. Comparison between measurements and simulations show that they agree within 20% and hence the uncertainty factor resulting from the shower processes can be reduced to a factor of 1.2.

  10. Particle imaging velocimetry experiments and lattice-Boltzmann simulations on a single sphere settling under gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Cate, A.; Nieuwstad, C.H.; Derksen, J.J.; Van den Akker, H.E.A.

    2002-01-01

    A comparison is made between experiments and simulations on a single sphere settling in silicon oil in a box. Cross-correlation particle imaging velocimetry measurements were carried out at particle Reynolds numbers ranging from 1.5 to 31.9. The particle Stokes number varied from 0.2 to 4 and at

  11. The Phobos low energy telescope charged particle experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsden, R.G.; Henrion, J.P.G.; Wenzel, K.P. (European Space Agency, Noordwijk (Netherlands). Space Science Dept.); Afonin, V.V. (AN SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. Kosmicheskikh Issledovanij); Balazs, A.; Erdoes, G.; Rusznyak, P.; Somogyi, A.; Szalai, S.; Varga, A.; Varhalmi, L. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Central Research Inst. for Physics); Richter, A.K.; Witte, M. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-05-01

    The Low Energy Telescope (LET) experiment on board the Phobos 1 and 2 spacecraft measures the flux, energy spectra and elemental composition of solar energetic particles and cosmic ray nuclei from hydrogen up to iron in the energy range {proportional to}1 to {proportional to}75 MeV/n. The LET sensor system comprises a double dE/dX vs E solid-state detector telescope surrounded by a cylindrical plastic scintillator anticoincidence shield, and the instrument is equipped with a comprehensive particle identifier and event priority system that enables rare nuclei to be analysed in preference to the more common species. Isotope separation for light nuclei such as He is also achieved. The sensor is mounted on a rotating platform to enable coarse anisotropy measurements of low energy protons to be made. (orig.).

  12. Measurement of charmed particle production in hadronic reactions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the experiment is to measure the production cross-section for charmed particles in hadronic reactions, study their production mechanism, and search for excited charmed hadrons.\\\\ \\\\ Charmed Mesons and Baryons will be measured in $\\pi$ and $p$ interactions on Beryllium between 100 and 200 GeV/c. The trigger will be on an electron from the leptonic decay of one charmed particle by signals from the Cerenkov counter (Ce), the electron trigger calorimeter (eCal), scintillation counters, and proportional wire chambers. The accompanying charmed particle will be measured via its hadronic decay in a two-stage magnetic spectrometer with drift chambers (arms 2, 3a, 3b, 3c), two large-area multicell Cerenkov counters (C2, C3) and a large-area shower counter ($\\gamma$-CAL). The particles which can be measured and identified include $\\gamma, e, \\pi^{\\pm}, \\pi^{0}, K^{\\pm}, p, \\bar{p}$ so that a large number of hadronic decay modes of charmed particles can be studied. \\\\ \\\\ A silicon counter telescope with 5 $\\m...

  13. Experiments and modeling of single plastic particle conversion in suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakhaei, Mohammadhadi; Wu, Hao; Grévain, Damien

    2018-01-01

    Conversion of single high density polyethylene (PE) particles has been studied by experiments and modeling. The experiments were carried out in a single particle combustor for five different shapes and masses of particles at temperature conditions of 900 and 1100°C. Each experiment was recorded...... against the experiments as well as literature data. Furthermore, a simplified isothermal model appropriate for CFD applications was developed, in order to model the combustion of plastic particles in cement calciners. By comparing predictions with the isothermal and the non–isothermal models under typical...

  14. Laboratory Experiments and Instrument Intercomparison Studies of Carbonaceous Aerosol Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidovits, Paul [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2015-10-20

    Aerosols containing black carbon (and some specific types of organic particulate matter) directly absorb incoming light, heating the atmosphere. In addition, all aerosol particles backscatter solar light, leading to a net-cooling effect. Indirect effects involve hydrophilic aerosols, which serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that affect cloud cover and cloud stability, impacting both atmospheric radiation balance and precipitation patterns. At night, all clouds produce local warming, but overall clouds exert a net-cooling effect on the Earth. The effect of aerosol radiative forcing on climate may be as large as that of the greenhouse gases, but predominantly opposite in sign and much more uncertain. The uncertainties in the representation of aerosol interactions in climate models makes it problematic to use model projections to guide energy policy. The objective of our program is to reduce the uncertainties in the aerosol radiative forcing in the two areas highlighted in the ASR Science and Program Plan. That is, (1) addressing the direct effect by correlating particle chemistry and morphology with particle optical properties (i.e. absorption, scattering, extinction), and (2) addressing the indirect effect by correlating particle hygroscopicity and CCN activity with particle size, chemistry, and morphology. In this connection we are systematically studying particle formation, oxidation, and the effects of particle coating. The work is specifically focused on carbonaceous particles where the uncertainties in the climate relevant properties are the highest. The ongoing work consists of laboratory experiments and related instrument inter-comparison studies both coordinated with field and modeling studies, with the aim of providing reliable data to represent aerosol processes in climate models. The work is performed in the aerosol laboratory at Boston College. At the center of our laboratory setup are two main sources for the production of aerosol particles: (a

  15. General experiments concerning particle-matter interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauvergne, D.

    2006-07-01

    The author gathers in this document several papers he has already published in order to shed light on different aspects concerning ion-crystal interactions. This document is divided into 3 chapters. In the first chapter the author presents results obtained from experiments dedicated to charge exchanges and energy released by heavy ions in channeling conditions. Different processes involved in ion-electron interactions are considered: The tri-electronic recombination, the electron capture through nuclear excitation (NEEC), resonant transfer and excitation (RTE), resonant transfer and double excitation (RTDE) and electron impact ionization (EII). The second chapter deals with the measurement of nuclear fission times through crystal blocking experiments. The crystal blocking technique allows the measurement in a model-independent way of the recoil distance covered by the excited nucleus during the whole fission process (starting from the initial collision and ending at the scission point). The last chapter is dedicated to the photon impact ionization through the conversion of a high-energy photon into an electron-positron pair

  16. Techniques for nuclear and particle physics experiments. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leo, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    This book is an outgrowth of an advanced laboratory course in experimental nuclear and particle physics the author gave to physics majors at the University of Geneva during the years 1978- 1983. The course was offered to third and fourth year students, the latter of which had, at this point in their studies, chosen to specialize in experimental nuclear or particle physics. This implied that they would go on to do a 'diplome' thesis with one of the high- or intermediate-energy research groups in the physics department. The format of the course was such that the students were required to concentrate on only one experiment during the trimester, rather than perform a series of experiments as is more typical of a traditional course of this type. Their tasks thus included planning the experiment, learning the relevant techniques, setting up and troubleshooting the measuring apparatus, calibration, data-taking and analysis, as well as responsibility for maintaining their equipment, i.e., tasks resembling those in a real experiment. This more intensive involvement provided the students with a better understanding of the experimental problems encountered in a professional experiment and helped instill a certain independence and confidence which would prepare them for entry into a research group in the department. Teaching assistants were presented to help the students during the trimester and a series of weekly lectures was also given on various topics in experimental nuclear and particle physics. This included general information on detectors, nuclear electronics, statistics, the interaction of radiation in matter, etc., and a good deal of practical information for actually doing experiments. (orig.) With 254 figs

  17. Measuring Lagrangian accelerations using an instrumented particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, R; Fiabane, L; Volk, R; Pinton, J-F; Gasteuil, Y

    2013-01-01

    Accessing and characterizing a flow imposes a number of constraints on the employed measurement techniques; in particular, optical methods require transparent fluids and windows in the vessel. Whereas one can adapt the apparatus, fluid and methods in the laboratory to these constraints, this is hardly possible for industrial mixers. In this paper, we present a novel measurement technique which is suitable for opaque or granular flows: consider an instrumented particle, which continuously transmits the force/acceleration acting on it as it is advected in a flow. Its density is adjustable for a wide range of fluids and because of its small size and its wireless data transmission, the system can be used both in industrial and in scientific mixers, allowing for a better understanding of the flow within. We demonstrate the capabilities and precision of the particle by comparing its transmitted acceleration to alternative measurements, in particular in the case of a turbulent von Kármán flow. Our technique proves to be an efficient and fast tool to characterize flows. (paper)

  18. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) Measurements of Suspension-Feeding Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Clos, K.; Jones, I. T.; Carrier, T. J.; Jumars, P. A.

    2016-02-01

    Active suspension feeders, such as bivalves and tunicates, connect benthic and pelagic ecosystems by packaging suspended matter into larger fecal and pseudofecal particles, greatly enhancing the flux of carbon and nutrients from the water column to the benthos. The volume of water processed by a population of suspension feeders is commonly estimated by scaling up results from experiments that measure the clearance rate (the volume of water cleared of particles per time) of one or a few individual suspension feeders. Clearance rates vary, however, between species, within a species, and over time for a single individual; and the velocity fields produced by suspension feeders are likely to interact in complex ways. We measured the water velocity fields produced by two species of bivalve, Mya arenaria and Mercenaria mercenaria, and the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, using particle image velocimetry (PIV). We used these measurements to calculate flow rates and Reynolds numbers of inhalant and exhalant siphons. We also observed strong entrainment of water by M. arenaria's exhalant siphon jet that may help to explain how the clam avoids depleting the water around it of particles and oxygen as it feeds. We are using these measurements to inform computational fluid mechanics (CFD) models of suspension feeding, allowing us to examine the interactions of flow fields produced by multiple suspension feeders and other effects not quantified by clearance-rate measurements.

  19. Real-time particle volume fraction measurement in centrifuges by wireless electrical resistance detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagae, Fumiya; Okawa, Kazuya; Matsuno, Shinsuke; Takei, Masahiro; Zhao Tong; Ichijo, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, wireless electrical resistance detector is developed as first step in order to develop electrical resistance tomography (ERT) that are attached wireless communication, and miniaturized. And the particle volume fraction measurement results appropriateness is qualitatively examined. The real-time particle volume fraction measurement is essential for centrifuges, because rotational velocity and supply should be controlled based on the results in order to obtain the effective separation, shorten process time and save energy. However, a technique for the particle volume fraction measurement in centrifuges has not existed yet. In other words, the real-time particle volume fraction measurement in centrifuges becomes innovative technologies. The experiment device reproduces centrifugation in two-phase using particle and salt solution as measuring object. The particle concentration is measured changing rotational velocity, supply and measurement section position. The measured concentration changes coincide with anticipated tendency of concentration changes. Therefore the particle volume fraction measurement results appropriateness are qualitatively indicated. (author)

  20. Analysis scheme of density modulation experiments for particle confinements study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Michael, C.; Kawanata, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Shoji, M.; Toi, K.; Gao, X.; Jie, Y.X.

    2005-01-01

    Density modulation experiments are one of the powerful experimental schemas to study particle confinements. The diffusion coefficients (D) and convection velocity (V), which is impossible to evaluated from particle balance in equilibrium state, can be separately obtained. And the estimated value of D and V are determined independent of absolute value of particle source rate, which is difficult to be obtained experimentally. However sensitivities and interpretation of D and V from modulation experiments should be taken care. In this paper, numerical techniques to solve particle balance equation of modulation components are described. Examples of analysis are shown from the data of LHD. And interpretations of results of modulation experiments are studied. (author)

  1. Statistical examination of particle in a turbulent, non-dilute particle suspension flow experimental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, R.C.; Jones, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental study of particles suspended in fully developed turbulent water flow in a vertical pipe was done. Three series of experiments were conducted to investigate the statistical behaviour of particles in nondilute turbulent suspension flow, for two particle densities and particle sizes, and for several particle volume loadings ranging from 0 to 1 percent. The mean free fall velocity of the particles was determined at these various particle volume loadings, and the phenomenon of cluster formation was observed. The precise volume loading which gives the maximum relative settling velocity was observed to depend on particle density and size. (E.G.) [pt

  2. Particle transport in 3He-rich events: wave-particle interactions and particle anisotropy measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Tsurutani

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Energetic particles and MHD waves are studied using simultaneous ISEE-3 data to investigate particle propagation and scattering between the source near the Sun and 1 AU. 3 He-rich events are of particular interest because they are typically low intensity "scatter-free" events. The largest solar proton events are of interest because they have been postulated to generate their own waves through beam instabilities. For 3 He-rich events, simultaneous interplanetary magnetic spectra are measured. The intensity of the interplanetary "fossil" turbulence through which the particles have traversed is found to be at the "quiet" to "intermediate" level of IMF activity. Pitch angle scattering rates and the corresponding particle mean free paths lW - P are calculated using the measured wave intensities, polarizations, and k directions. The values of lW - P are found to be ~ 5 times less than the value of lHe , the latter derived from He intensity and anisotropy time profiles. It is demonstrated by computer simulation that scattering rates through a 90° pitch angle are lower than that of other pitch angles, and that this is a possible explanation for the discrepancy between the lW - P and lHe values. At this time the scattering mechanism(s is unknown. We suggest a means where a direct comparison between the two l values could be made. Computer simulations indicate that although scattering through 90° is lower, it still occurs. Possibilities are either large pitch angle scattering through resonant interactions, or particle mirroring off of field compression regions. The largest solar proton events are analyzed to investigate the possibilities of local wave generation at 1 AU. In accordance with the results of a previous calculation (Gary et al., 1985 of beam stability, proton beams at 1 AU are found to be marginally stable. No evidence for substantial wave amplitude was found. Locally generated waves, if present, were less than 10-3 nT 2 Hz-1 at the leading

  3. Particle transport in 3He-rich events: wave-particle interactions and particle anisotropy measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hada

    Full Text Available Energetic particles and MHD waves are studied using simultaneous ISEE-3 data to investigate particle propagation and scattering between the source near the Sun and 1 AU. 3 He-rich events are of particular interest because they are typically low intensity "scatter-free" events. The largest solar proton events are of interest because they have been postulated to generate their own waves through beam instabilities. For 3 He-rich events, simultaneous interplanetary magnetic spectra are measured. The intensity of the interplanetary "fossil" turbulence through which the particles have traversed is found to be at the "quiet" to "intermediate" level of IMF activity. Pitch angle scattering rates and the corresponding particle mean free paths lW - P are calculated using the measured wave intensities, polarizations, and k directions. The values of lW - P are found to be ~ 5 times less than the value of lHe , the latter derived from He intensity and anisotropy time profiles. It is demonstrated by computer simulation that scattering rates through a 90° pitch angle are lower than that of other pitch angles, and that this is a possible explanation for the discrepancy between the lW - P and lHe values. At this time the scattering mechanism(s is unknown. We suggest a means where a direct comparison between the two l values could be made. Computer simulations indicate that although scattering through 90° is lower, it still occurs. Possibilities are either large pitch angle scattering through resonant interactions, or particle mirroring off of field compression regions. The largest solar proton events are analyzed to investigate the possibilities of local wave generation at 1 AU. In accordance with the results of a previous calculation (Gary et al., 1985 of beam stability, proton beams at 1 AU are found to be marginally stable. No evidence for substantial wave amplitude was found. Locally generated waves, if present, were less than 10-3 nT 2 Hz-1 at the leading

  4. Measurement of secondary particle production induced by particle therapy ion beams impinging on a PMMA target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toppi M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle therapy is a technique that uses accelerated charged ions for cancer treatment and combines a high irradiation precision with a high biological effectiveness in killing tumor cells [1]. Informations about the secondary particles emitted in the interaction of an ion beam with the patient during a treatment can be of great interest in order to monitor the dose deposition. For this purpose an experiment at the HIT (Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center beam facility has been performed in order to measure fluxes and emission profiles of secondary particles produced in the interaction of therapeutic beams with a PMMA target. In this contribution some preliminary results about the emission profiles and the energy spectra of the detected secondaries will be presented.

  5. Measurements of particle dynamics in slow, dense granular Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueth, Daniel M.

    2003-01-01

    Experimental measurements of particle dynamics on the lower surface of a three-dimensional (3D) Couette cell containing monodisperse spheres are reported. The average radial density and velocity profiles are similar to those previously measured within the bulk and on the lower surface of the 3D cell filled with mustard seeds. Observations of the evolution of particle velocities over time reveal distinct motion events, intervals where previously stationary particles move for a short duration before jamming again. The cross correlation between the velocities of two particles at a given distance r from the moving wall reveals a characteristic length scale over which the particles are correlated. The autocorrelation of a single particle’s velocity reveals a characteristic time scale τ, which decreases with increasing distance from the inner moving wall. This may be attributed to the increasing rarity at which the discrete motion events occur and the reduced duration of those events at large r. The relationship between the rms azimuthal velocity fluctuations, δvθ(r), and average shear rate, γ˙(r), was found to be δvθ∝γ˙α with α=0.52±0.04. These observations are compared with other recent experiments and with the modified hydrodynamic model recently introduced by Bocquet et al.

  6. The development for the particle physics experiments platform in university

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Futian; Yao Yuan; Wang Zhaoqi; Liu Yuzhe; Sang Ziru; Chen Lian; Wen Fei; Jin Ge; Liu Hongbin

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear science and particle physics is an important subject in physics, and it is important to launch particle physics experiments in university to training students. We design an experiments platform based on particle physics experiments in university. By employing digitalization and reconfiguration techniques in our design, we achieve all kinds of device functions with only one device. With the customized software for particular experiments and a website for teaching assistance, the platform is easy to be employed in universities. Students can accomplish a classical particle physics experiment in a modern way with the help of the platform, and they can also try new ideals. The experiments platform is ready to be used, and some of the lab sessions in USTC have already begin to use our experiments platform. (authors)

  7. Viscosity measurement techniques in Dissipative Particle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boromand, Arman; Jamali, Safa; Maia, Joao M.

    2015-11-01

    In this study two main groups of viscosity measurement techniques are used to measure the viscosity of a simple fluid using Dissipative Particle Dynamics, DPD. In the first method, a microscopic definition of the pressure tensor is used in equilibrium and out of equilibrium to measure the zero-shear viscosity and shear viscosity, respectively. In the second method, a periodic Poiseuille flow and start-up transient shear flow is used and the shear viscosity is obtained from the velocity profiles by a numerical fitting procedure. Using the standard Lees-Edward boundary condition for DPD will result in incorrect velocity profiles at high values of the dissipative parameter. Although this issue was partially addressed in Chatterjee (2007), in this work we present further modifications (Lagrangian approach) to the original LE boundary condition (Eulerian approach) that will fix the deviation from the desired shear rate at high values of the dissipative parameter and decrease the noise to signal ratios in stress measurement while increases the accessible low shear rate window. Also, the thermostat effect of the dissipative and random forces is coupled to the dynamic response of the system and affects the transport properties like the viscosity and diffusion coefficient. We investigated thoroughly the dependency of viscosity measured by both Eulerian and Lagrangian methodologies, as well as numerical fitting procedures and found that all the methods are in quantitative agreement.

  8. Accurate particle speed prediction by improved particle speed measurement and 3-dimensional particle size and shape characterization technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cernuschi, Federico; Rothleitner, Christian; Clausen, Sønnik

    2017-01-01

    Accurate particle mass and velocity measurement is needed for interpreting test results in erosion tests of materials and coatings. The impact and damage of a surface is influenced by the kinetic energy of a particle, i.e. particle mass and velocity. Particle mass is usually determined with optic...

  9. Alpha particle physics experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Nazikian, R.; Stratton, B.C.; Synakowski, E.J.; Taylor, G.

    2000-01-01

    Alpha particle physics experiments were done on TFTR during its DT run from 1993 to 1997. These experiments utilized several new alpha particle diagnostics and hundreds of DT discharges to characterize the alpha particle confinement and wave-particle interactions. In general, the results from the alpha particle diagnostics agreed with the classical single particle confinement model in MHD quiescent discharges. The alpha loss due to toroidal field ripple was identified in some cases, and the low radial diffusivity inferred for high energy alphas was consistent with orbit averaging over small scale turbulence. Finally, the observed alpha particle interactions with sawteeth, toroidal Alfven eigenmodes and ICRF waves were approximately consistent with theoretical modelling. What was learned is reviewed and what remains to be understood is identified. (author)

  10. Proposal for an Experiment to Measure Mixing, CP Violation and Rare Decays in Charm and Beauty Particle Decays at the Fermilab Collider - BTeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulyavtsev, A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Procario, M. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Russ, J. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); You, J. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Cumalat, J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Appel, J. A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Brown, C. N. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Butler, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Cheung, H. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Christian, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States). et al.

    2000-05-01

    This proposal consists of five parts and two appendices. The first part provides a detailed physics justification for the BTe V experiment. The second part presents the considerations that drive the detector design, followed by a description of the detector itself. The third part summarizes our simulation results which demonstrate that the design does enable us to achieve our physics goals. The fourth part compares BTeV's physics reach to that of other experiments which will be active in B physics in the same time period. The fifth part gives a very brief, high level summary of the cost estimate for BTeV. Appendix A has additional technical details about many of the detector subsystems and R&D plans; it is intended to be read primarily by experts in each area. Appendix B contains a roadmap which describes the location in the proposal of the answers to questions posed to the BTeV collaboration by the Fermilab Program Advisory Committee in June of 1999.

  11. CCN activation experiments with adipic acid: effect of particle phase and adipic acid coatings on soluble and insoluble particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Hings

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Slightly soluble atmospherically relevant organic compounds may influence particle CCN activity and therefore cloud formation. Adipic acid is a frequently employed surrogate for such slightly soluble organic materials. The 11 published experimental studies on the CCN activity of adipic acid particles are not consistent with each other nor do they, in most cases, agree with the Köhler theory. The CCN activity of adipic acid aerosol particles was studied over a significantly wider range of conditions than in any previous single study. The work spans the conditions of the previous studies and also provides alternate methods for producing "wet" (deliquesced solution droplets and dry adipic acid particles without the need to produce them by atomization of aqueous solutions. The experiments suggest that the scatter in the previously published CCN measurements is most likely due to the difficulty of producing uncontaminated adipic acid particles by atomization of solutions and possibly also due to uncertainties in the calibration of the instruments. The CCN activation of the small (dm<150 nm initially dry particles is subject to a deliquescence barrier, while for the larger particles the activation follows the Köhler curve. Wet adipic acid particles follow the Köhler curve over the full range of particle diameters studied. In addition, the effect of adipic acid coatings on the CCN activity of both soluble and insoluble particles has also been studied. When a water-soluble core is coated by adipic acid, the CCN-hindering effect of particle phase is eliminated. An adipic acid coating on hydrophobic soot yields a CCN active particle. If the soot particle is relatively small (dcore≤102 nm, the CCN activity of the coated particles approaches the deliquescence line of adipic acid, suggesting that the total size of the particle determines CCN activation and the soot core acts as a scaffold.

  12. Benchmarking the Particle Background in the LHC Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gschwendtner, E

    2000-01-01

    The experiments for the Large Hadron Collider LHC at CERN have to work for 15 years in the presence of a very high particle background of photons in the energy range from 100\\,keV to 10\\,MeV and neutrons in the range from thermal energies ($\\approx 0.025\\,$eV) to 20\\,MeV. \\\\ The background is so high that it becomes a major design criterion for the ATLAS ex\\-peri\\-ment, a general purpose experiment at LHC that will be operational in the year 2005. The exact level of this background is poorly known. At present an uncertainty factor of five has to be assumed to which the limited knowledge of the shower processes in the absorber material and the ensueing neutron and photon production is estimated to contribute with a factor 2.5. \\\\ So far, the background has been assessed only through extensive Monte Carlo evaluation with the particle transport code FLUKA. The lack of relevant measurements, which were not done up to now, are to a large extent responsible for this uncertainty. Hence it is essential to benchmark t...

  13. Transient particle emission measurement with optical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, Vicente; Luján, José M.; Serrano, José R.; Pla, Benjamín

    2008-06-01

    Particulate matter is responsible for some respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, it is one of the most important pollutants of high-speed direct injection (HSDI) passenger car engines. Current legislation requires particulate dilution tunnels for particulate matter measuring. However for development work, dilution tunnels are expensive and sometimes not useful since they are not able to quantify real-time particulate emissions during transient operation. In this study, the use of a continuous measurement opacimeter and a fast response HFID is proven to be a good alternative to obtain instantaneous particle mass emissions during transient operation (due to particulate matter consisting mainly of soot and SOF). Some methods and correlations available from literature, but developed for steady conditions, are evaluated during transient operation by comparing with mini-tunnel measurements during the entire MVEG-A transient cycle. A new correlation was also derived from this evaluation. Results for soot and SOF (obtained from the new correlation proposed) are compared with soot and SOF captured with particulate filters, which have been separated by means of an SOF extraction method. Finally, as an example of ECU design strategies using these sort of correlations, the EGR valve opening is optimized during transient operation. The optimization is performed while simultaneously taking into account instantaneous fuel consumption, particulate emissions (calculated with the proposed correlation) and other regulated engine pollutants.

  14. LEP measurements on production, mass, lifetime of beauty particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wormser, G.

    1993-10-01

    Present knowledge about the individual properties of the different beauty particles is discussed using the results of the LEP experiments. Individual lifetimes for B d 0 and B + are found to be equal within 10% whilst a 15% precision is reached for B s 0 and Λ b . The Λ b lifetime is found to be smaller than τ B + with a 2.7 σ significance. The production rate of each of these particles is measured at the 20% level. Preliminary evidence for Ξ b production has been reported. Finally, the B s 0 meson mass has been measured to be 5373 ± 4 MeV/c 2 . (author) 24 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Direct measurements of particle transport in dc glow discharge dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E. Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Many recent experiments in dc glow discharge plasmas have shown that clouds of dust particles can be suspended near the biased electrodes. Once formed, the dust clouds have well defined boundaries while particle motion within the clouds can be quite complex. Because the dust particles in the cloud can remain suspended in the plasma for tens of minutes, it implies that the particles have a low diffusive loss rate and follow closed trajectories within the cloud. In the experiments discussed in this paper, direct measurements of the dust particle velocities are made using particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. From the velocity measurements, a reconstruction of the three-dimensional transport of the dust particles is performed. A qualitative model is developed for the closed motion of the dust particles in a dc glow discharge dusty plasma. (orig.)

  16. Measurements of identified particles at intermediate transverse momentum in the STAR experiment from Au+Au collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}}=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, John; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett, J.; Anderson, B.D.; Anderson, M.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Badyal, S.K.; Bai, Y.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bezverkhny, B.I.; Bharadwaj, S.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, C.O.; Blyth, S.L.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A.V.; Bravar, A.; Bystersky, M.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sancez, M.; Castillo, J.; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.A.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, Michael G.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, H.A.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cosentino, M.R.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford, H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Daugherity, M.; de Moura, M.M.; Dedovich, T.G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Djawotho, P.; Dogra, S.M.; Dong, W.J.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Mazumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov, L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Fornazier, K.S.F.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gaillard, L.; Gans, J.; Ganti, M.S.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Gorbunov, Y.G.; Gos, H.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S.M.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, N.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J.W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Hepplemann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horner, M.J.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang, S.L.; Hughes, E.W.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jakl, P.; Jia, F.; Jiang, H.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kim, B.C.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kislov, E.M.; Klein, S.R.; Koetke, D.D.; Kollegger, T.; Kopytine, M.; Kotchenda, L.; Kouchpil, V.; Kowalik, K.L.; Kramer, M.; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V.I.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; Kulikov, A.I.; Kumar, A.; Kuznetsov, A.A.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Landgraf, J.M.; Lange, S.; LaPointe, S.; Laue, F.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, C.H.; Lehocka, S.; LeVine, Micheal J.; Li, C.; Li, Q.; Li, Y.; Lin, G.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Lisa, M.A.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Liu, L.; Liu, Z.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W.J.; Long, H.; Longacre, R.S.; Lopez-Noriega, M.; Love, W.A.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, T.; Lynn, D.; Ma, G.L.; Ma, J.G.; Ma, Y.G.; Magestro, D.; Mahajan, S.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Majka, R.; Mangotra, L.K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Martin, L.; Matis, H.S.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; McClain, C.J.; McShane, T.S.; Melnick, Yu.; Meschanin, A.; Miller, M.L.; Milos, M.; Minaev, N.G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mironov, C.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, D.K.; Mitchell, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Moore, C.F.; Morozov, D.A.; Munhoz, M.G.; Nandi, B.K.; Nayak, S.K.; Nayak, T.K.; Nelson, J.M.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Nikitin, V.A.; Nogach, L.V.; Nurushev, S.B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldenburg, M.; Olson, D.; Pal, S.K.; Panebratsev, Y.; Panitkin, S.Y.; Pavlinov, A.I.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Petrov, V.A.; Phatak, S.C.; Picha, R.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Porile, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Potekhin, M.; Potrebenikova, E.; Potukuchi, B.V.K.S.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Putschke, J.; Rakness, G.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R.L.; Razin, S.V.; Reinnarth, J.; Relyea, D.; Retiere, F.; Ridiger, A.; Ritter, H.G.; Roberts, J.B.; Rogachevskiy, O.V.; Romero, J.L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Russcher, M.J.; Sahoo, R.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarsour, M.; Savin, Igor A.; Sazhin, P.S.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Schmitz, N.; Schweda, K.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shabetai, A.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shen, W.Q.; Shimanskiy, S.S.; Sichtermann, E; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R.N.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sood, G.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Speltz, J.; Spinka, H.M.; Srivastava, B.; Stadnik, A.; Stanislaus, T.D.S.; Stock, R.; Stolpovsky, A.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A.A.P.; Sugarbaker, E.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Swanger, M.; Symons, T.J.M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Tai, A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A.H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thein, D.; Thomas, J.H.; Timmins, A.R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tokarev, M.; Trainor, T.A.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R.E.; Tsai, O.D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, David G.; Van Buren, G.; van der Kolk, N.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Varma, R.; Vasilevski, I.M.; Vasiliev, A.N.; Vernet, R.; Vigdor, S.E.; Viyogi, Y.P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S.A.; Waggoner, W.T.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, J.S.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Y.; Watson, J.W.; Webb, J.C.; Westfall, G.D.; Wetzler, A.; Whitten, C., Jr.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S.W.; Witt, R.; Wood, J.; Wu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q.H.; Xu, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yoo, I.K.; Yurevich, V.I.; Zborovsky, I.; Zhan, W.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, W.M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, Y.; Zhong, C.; Zoulkarneev, R.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zubarev, A.N.; Zuo, J.X.; Braem, A.; Davenport, M.; De Cataldo, G.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Kunde, G.J.; Martinengo, P.; Nappi, E.; Paic, G.; Posa, E.; Piuz, F.; Schyns, E.

    2006-01-01

    Data for Au+Au collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}}=200 GeV are analyzed to determine the ratios of identified hadrons ($\\pi$, $K$, $p$, $\\Lambda$) as functions of collision centrality and transverse momentum ($p_T$). We find that ratios of anti-baryon to baryon yields are independent of $p_T$ up to 5 GeV/c, a result inconsistent with results of theoretical pQCD calculations that predict a decrease due to a stronger contribution from valence quark scattering. For both strange and non-strange species, strong baryon enhancements relative to meson yields are observed as a function of collision centrality in the intermediate $p_T$ region, leading to $p/\\pi$ and $\\Lambda$/K ratios greater than unity. The increased $p_T$ range offered by the $\\Lambda$/K$^{0}_{S}$ ratio allows a test of the applicability of various models developed for the intermediate $p_{T}$ region. The physics implications of these measurements are discussed with regard to different theoretical models.

  17. Search for Hidden Particles: a new experiment proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lellis, G.

    2015-08-01

    Searches for new physics with accelerators are being performed at the LHC, looking for high massive particles coupled to matter with ordinary strength. We propose a new experiment meant to search for very weakly coupled particles in the few GeV mass domain. The existence of such particles, foreseen in different models beyond the Standard Model, is largely unexplored from the experimental point of view. A beam dump facility, built at CERN in the north area, using 400 GeV protons is a copious factory of charmed hadrons and it could be used to probe the existence of such particles. The beam dump is also an ideal source of tau neutrinos, the less known particle in the Standard Model. In particular, tau anti-neutrinos have not been observed so far. We therefore propose an experiment to search for hidden particles and study tau neutrino physics at the same time.

  18. Particle-wave discrimination in Poisson spot experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisinger, T; Bracco, G; Holst, B

    2011-01-01

    Matter-wave interferometry has been used extensively over the last few years to demonstrate the quantum-mechanical wave nature of increasingly larger and more massive particles. We have recently suggested the use of the historical Poisson spot setup to test the diffraction properties of larger objects. In this paper, we present the results of a classical particle van der Waals (vdW) force model for a Poisson spot experimental setup and compare these to Fresnel diffraction calculations with a vdW phase term. We include the effect of disc-edge roughness in both models. Calculations are performed with D 2 and with C 70 using realistic parameters. We find that the sensitivity of the on-axis interference/focus spot to disc-edge roughness is very different in the two cases. We conclude that by measuring the intensity on the optical axis as a function of disc-edge roughness, it can be determined whether the objects behave as de Broglie waves or classical particles. The scaling of the Poisson spot experiment to larger molecular masses is, however, not as favorable as in the case of near-field light-grating-based interferometers. Instead, we discuss the possibility of studying the Casimir-Polder potential using the Poisson spot setup.

  19. Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 1. Particle detection by active photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Markus; Strelnikova, Irina

    2009-03-01

    We present a new design of an in situ detector for the study of meteor smoke particles (MSPs) in the middle atmosphere. This detector combines a classical Faraday cup with a xenon-flashlamp for the active photoionization/photodetachment of MSPs and the subsequent detection of corresponding photoelectrons. This instrument was successfully launched in September 2006 from the Andøya Rocket Range in Northern Norway. A comparison of photocurrents measured during this rocket flight and measurements performed in the laboratory proves that observed signatures are truly due to photoelectrons. In addition, the observed altitude cut-off at 60 km (i.e., no signals were observed below this altitude) is fully understood in terms of the mean free path of the photoelectrons in the ambient atmosphere. This interpretation is also proven by a corresponding laboratory experiment. Consideration of all conceivable species which can be ionized by the photons of the xenon-flashlamp demonstrates that only MSPs can quantitatively explain the measured currents below an altitude of 90 km. Above this altitude, measured photocurrents are most likely due to photoionization of nitric oxide. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the active photoionization and subsequent detection of photoelectrons provides a promising new tool for the study of MSPs in the middle atmosphere. Importantly, this new technique does not rely on the a priori charge of the particles, neither is the accessible particle size range severely limited by aerodynamical effects. Based on the analysis described in this study, the geophysical interpretation of our measurements is presented in the companion paper by Strelnikova, I., et al. [2008. Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 2. results. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, this issue, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2008.07.011].

  20. MESA. An ERL project for particle physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hug, Florian [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Mainz Energy-recovering Superconducting Accelerator (MESA) will be constructed at the Institut fuer Kernphysik of the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz. The accelerator is a low energy continuous wave (CW) recirculating electron linac for particle physics experiments. MESA will be operated in two different modes serving mainly two experiments: the first is the external beam (EB) mode, where the beam is dumped after being used with the external fixed target experiment P2, whose goal is the measurement of the weak mixing angle with highest accuracy. The required beam current for P2 is 150 μA with polarized electrons at 155 MeV. In the second operation mode MESA will be run as an energy recovery linac (ERL). In an ERL the energy of the electrons is recovered after their experimental use by decelerating them in the superconducting acceleration cavities. The experiment served in this mode is a (pseudo) internal fixed target experiment named MAGIX. It demands an unpolarized beam of 1 mA at 105 MeV. In a later construction stage of MESA the achievable beam current in ERL-mode shall be upgraded to 10 mA. Within this talk an overview of the MESA project will be given highlighting the challenges of operation with high density internal gas targets and the (*new*) physics applications.

  1. Experiment study of a quartz tube falling particle receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianjian WANG; Fengwu BAI; Shunzhou CHU; Xiliang ZHANG; Zhifeng WANG

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental evaluation of a specially designed falling particle receiver.A quartz tube was used in the design,with which the particles would not be blown away by wind.Concentrated solar radiation was absorbed and converted into thermal energy by the solid particles flowed inside the quartz tube.Several experiments were conducted to test the dynamic thermal performance of the receiver on solar furnace system.During the experiments,the maximum particle temperature rise is 212℃,with an efficiency of 61.2%,which shows a good thermal performance with a falling distance of 0.2 m in a small scale particle receiver.The average outlet particle temperature is affected by direct normal irradiance (DNI) and other factors such as wind speed.The solid particles obtain a larger viscosity with a higher temperature while smaller solid particles are easier to get stuck in the helix quartz tube.The heat capacity of the silicon carbide gets larger with the rise of particle temperature,because as the temperature of solid particles increases,the temperature rise of the silicon carbide decreases.

  2. Jupiter energetic particle experiment ESAD proton sensor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, C.R.; Higbie, P.R.

    1977-12-01

    A proton sensor design for the Jupiter Energetic Particle Experiment is described. The sensor design uses avalanche multiplication in order to lower the effective energy threshold. A complete signal-to-noise analysis is given for this design

  3. Improved non-invasive method for aerosol particle charge measurement employing in-line digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Anjan Kumar

    Electrically charged particles are found in a wide range of applications ranging from electrostatic powder coating, mineral processing, and powder handling to rain-producing cloud formation in atmospheric turbulent flows. In turbulent flows, particle dynamics is influenced by the electric force due to particle charge generation. Quantifying particle charges in such systems will help in better predicting and controlling particle clustering, relative motion, collision, and growth. However, there is a lack of noninvasive techniques to measure particle charges. Recently, a non-invasive method for particle charge measurement using in-line Digital Holographic Particle Tracking Velocimetry (DHPTV) technique was developed in our lab, where charged particles to be measured were introduced to a uniform electric field, and their movement towards the oppositely charged electrode was deemed proportional to the amount of charge on the particles (Fan Yang, 2014 [1]). However, inherent speckle noise associated with reconstructed images was not adequately removed and therefore particle tracking data was contaminated. Furthermore, particle charge calculation based on particle deflection velocity neglected the particle drag force and rebound effect of the highly charged particles from the electrodes. We improved upon the existing particle charge measurement method by: 1) hologram post processing, 2) taking drag force into account in charge calculation, 3) considering rebound effect. The improved method was first fine-tuned through a calibration experiment. The complete method was then applied to two different experiments, namely conduction charging and enclosed fan-driven turbulence chamber, to measure particle charges. In all three experiments conducted, the particle charge was found to obey non-central t-location scale family of distribution. It was also noted that the charge distribution was insensitive to the change in voltage applied between the electrodes. The range of voltage

  4. Experience of executing security measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Hiromasa

    1995-01-01

    Japan possesses many nuclear power stations and atomic energy research and development facilities, and obtained much experience of security measures such as the inspection by the government and IAEA, the technical development and so on in respective facilities. In this report, the activities of security measures in Japan are introduced, centering around the experience of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Japan ratified the nuclear nonproliferation treaty (NPT) in 1976, and concluded the agreement with IAEA in 1977. It is called security measures to technically confirm that nuclear substances are not used for nuclear weapons, and to find early and prevent the production of nuclear weapons. The security measures consist of the quantity management by the balance of nuclear substances are the inspection by the government and IAEA. The present state of security measures in centrifugal uranium enrichment plants, the fabrication factories of low enriched uranium fuel, nuclear reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, and plutonium fuel factories is reported. The amount of inspection works of the government was 1861 man-day/year in 1993. As the subjects related to security measures of hereafter, the quantity management by respective facilities, the technology of verifying the measurement by inspectors, the points of beginning and finishing security measures, the security measures of hereafter and the international cooperation are described. (K.I.)

  5. Remote Experiments in Resistor Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Viorel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes blended learningapproach to teaching resistor measurement. It is basedon “Learning by Doing” paradigm: interacticesimulation, laboratory plants, real experimentsaccessed by Web Publishing Tools under LabVIEW.Studying and experimenting access is opened for 24hours a day, 7 days a week under Moodle bookingsystem.

  6. A scintillation detector set measuring the charge particle energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dore, Chantal.

    1979-01-01

    The S143 experiment, at CERN in 1976, needed both the measurement and the identification of light nuclei, and especially the separation between 3 H and 3 He, over a large energy range. In the chosen solution, in addition to semiconductor detectors, some scintillation counters are used. The non-linearity of light versus energy of charged particles was complicated by the fact there was two different linear laws according to the charge of particles. To obtain good analogic signals over a dynamic range nearly equal to 200, the signals from several dynodes were used simultaneously. In the experimental setting up, each scintillator was put directly in contact with the corresponding photocathode. In spite of a special shielding, some perturbations due to the magnet placed close by required to bring important corrections to linear laws. Thanks to complementary informations from semiconductor counters, a full separation between charge 1 and charge 2 particles was possible. A suitable identification as guaranted among charge 1 particles, but only kinematic constraints gave the possibility to extract 4 He corresponding to the elastic scattering [fr

  7. Strangeness measurements with the PHOBOS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Gábor I.; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Hauer, M.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wyslouch, B.

    2006-12-01

    Recent results on identified particle production from the PHOBOS experiment at the relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC) are summarized. Transverse momentum spectra of pions, kaons, protons and antiprotons from Au+Au collisions at \\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 62.4\\,GeV are presented close to mid-rapidity. Baryons have been found to have substantially harder transverse momentum spectra than mesons. The p/π+ ratio reaches unity at high pT, which fits into a smooth trend together with measurements at lower and higher collision energies. At very low transverse momenta no significant excess of particle yield was found, compared to extrapolations from higher pT. The net proton yield at mid-rapidity appears to be proportional to the number of participant nucleons in Au+Au collisions. The PHOBOS acceptance and mass resolution for the phi meson at low pT were studied in detail.

  8. Measurement of the nuclear modification factor of identified strange and multi-strange particles in pPb collisions at sqrt(sNN) = 5.02 TeV with CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Measurements of strange hadron ($\\mathrm{K^0_S}$, $\\Lambda+\\overline{\\Lambda}$, $\\Xi^-+\\overline{\\Xi}^+$, and $\\Omega^-+\\overline{\\Omega}^+$) transverse momentum spectra in pp and pPb collisions are presented in several center-of-mass rapidity ($y_\\mathrm{CM}$) intervals. The data, corresponding to integrated luminosities of approximately $40.2~\\mathrm{nb}^{-1}$ and $15.6~\\mu$b$^{-1}$ for pp and pPb respectively, were collected at $\\sqrt{s_{_\\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02~\\mathrm{TeV}$ by the CMS experiment. The nuclear modification factor, $R_{\\text{pPb}}$, is measured for each particle species. For $\\mathrm{K^0_S}$ mesons, $R_{\\text{pPb}}$ increases from $p_{\\text{T}} = 0.5$ to $3.0~\\mathrm{GeV}$, but is consistent with unity for $p_{\\text{T}} > 3.0~\\mathrm{GeV}$. In the $p_{\\text{T}}$ range from 3.0 to 6.0 $\\mathrm{GeV}$, $R_{\\text{pPb}}$ is above unity for the three baryons with $R_{\\text{pPb}}(\\Omega^-+\\overline{\\Omega}^+) > R_{\\text{pPb}}(\\Xi^-+\\overline{\\Xi}^+) > R_{\\text{pPb}}(\\Lambda+\\overline{\\Lambda})$. In add...

  9. The measurement of single particle temperature in plasma sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fincke, J.R.; Swank, W.D.; Bolsaitis, P.P.; Elliott, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    A measurement technique for simultaneously obtaining the size, velocity, temperature, and relative number density of particles entrained in high temperature flow fields is described. In determining the particle temperature from a two-color pyrometery technique, assumptions about the relative spectral emissivity of the particle are required. For situations in which the particle surface undergoes chemical reactions the assumption of grey body behavior is shown to introduce large Temperature measurement uncertainties. Results from isolated, laser heated, single particle measurements and in-flight data from the plasma spraying of WC-Co are presented. 10 refs., 5 figs

  10. The PVLAS experiment for measuring the magnetic birefringence of vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavattini, G.; Gastaldi, U.; Messineo, G.; Piemontese, L.; Della Valle, F.; Milotti, E.; Pengo, R.; Ruoso, G.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the principle and status of the PVLAS experiment being prepared at the Department of Physics and INFN section in Ferrara, Italy. The goal of the experiment is to measure the magnetic birefringence of vacuum. This effect is directly connected to the vacuum QED structure and can be detected by measuring the ellipticity acquired by a linearly polarized laser beam traversing a strong magnetic field. Vacuum magnetic birefringence is predicted by the Euler- Heisenberg effective Lagrangian. The experimental method is also sensitive to new physics and could place new laboratory limits to hypothetical particles coupling to two photons, such as axion like particles, or millicharged particles.

  11. Measurements of Primary Biogenic Aerosol Particles with an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS) During AMAZE-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollny, A. G.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2008-12-01

    Biogenic aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and they influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. They play an important role in the spread of biological organisms and reproductive materials, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they influence the Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing radiation, and they can initiate the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The composition, abundance, and origin of biogenic aerosol particles and components are, however, still not well understood and poorly quantified. Prominent examples of primary biogenic aerosol particles, which are directly emitted from the biosphere to the atmosphere, are pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, viruses, and fragments of animals and plants. During the AMazonian Aerosol CharacteriZation Experiment (AMAZE-08) a large number of aerosol and gas-phase measurements were taken on a remote site close to Manaus, Brazil, during a period of five weeks in February and March 2008. The presented study is focused on data from an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS, TSI inc.) that has been deployed for the first time in Amazonia. In this instrument, particle counting and aerodynamic sizing over the range of 0.5-20 μm are complemented by the measurement of UV fluorescence at 355 nm (excitation) and 420-575 nm (emission), respectively. Fluorescence at these wavelengths is characteristic for reduced pyridine nucleotides (e.g., NAD(P)H) and for riboflavin, which are specific for living cells. Thus particles exhibiting fluorescence signals can be regarded as 'viable aerosols' or 'fluorescent bioparticles' (FBAP), and their concentration can be considered as lower limit for the actual abundance of primary biogenic aerosol particles. First data analyses show a pronounced peak of FBAP at diameters around 2-3 μm. In this size range the biogenic particle fraction was

  12. High Fidelity Measurement of Free Space Solar Particle Event and Galactic Cosmic Ray Environments at Intermediate Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitgab, M.

    2018-02-01

    A charged particle measurement experiment mounted externally to the Deep Space Gateway is proposed, contributing to improving astronaut radiation exposure management during Solar Particle Events and Extra Vehicular Activities.

  13. Measurement of Turbulence Modulation by Non-Spherical Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandø, Matthias; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2010-01-01

    The change in the turbulence intensity of an air jet resulting from the addition of particles to the flow is measured using Laser Doppler Anemometry. Three distinct shapes are considered: the prolate spheroid, the disk and the sphere. Measurements of the carrier phase and particle phase velocities...... at the centerline of the jet are carried out for mass loadings of 0.5, 1, 1.6 and particle sizes 880μm, 1350μm, 1820μm for spherical particles. For each non-spherical shape only a single size and loading are considered. The turbulence modulation of the carrier phase is found to highly dependent on the turbulence......, the particle mass flow and the integral length scale of the flow. The expression developed on basis of spherical particles only is applied on the data for the non-spherical particles. The results suggest that non-spherical particles attenuate the carrier phase turbulence significantly more than spherical...

  14. Time Resolved Measurements of Primary Biogenic Aerosol Particles in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollny, A. G.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Biogenic aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and they influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. They play an important role in the spread of biological organisms and reproductive materials, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they influence the Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing radiation, and they can initiate the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The composition, abundance, and origin of biogenic aerosol particles and components are, however, still not well understood and poorly quantified. Prominent examples of primary biogenic aerosol particles, which are directly emitted from the biosphere to the atmosphere, are pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, viruses, and fragments of animals and plants. During the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08) a large number of aerosol and gas-phase measurements were taken on a remote site close to Manaus, Brazil, during a period of five weeks in February and March 2008. This presented study is focused on data from an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS, TSI inc.) that has been deployed for the first time in Amazonia. In this instrument, particle counting and aerodynamic sizing over the range of 0.5-20 µm are complemented by the measurement of UV fluorescence at 355 nm (excitation) and 420-575 nm (emission), respectively. Fluorescence at these wavelengths is characteristic for reduced pyridine nucleotides (e.g., NAD(P)H) and for riboflavin, which are specific for living cells. Thus particles exhibiting fluorescence signals can be regarded as "viable aerosols" or "fluorescent bioparticles" (FBAP), and their concentration can be considered as lower limit for the actual abundance of primary biogenic aerosol particles. Data from the UVAPS were averaged over 5 minute time intervals. The presence of bioparticles in the observed size range has been

  15. Probing the frontiers of particle physics with tabletop-scale experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMille, David; Doyle, John M; Sushkov, Alexander O

    2017-09-08

    The field of particle physics is in a peculiar state. The standard model of particle theory successfully describes every fundamental particle and force observed in laboratories, yet fails to explain properties of the universe such as the existence of dark matter, the amount of dark energy, and the preponderance of matter over antimatter. Huge experiments, of increasing scale and cost, continue to search for new particles and forces that might explain these phenomena. However, these frontiers also are explored in certain smaller, laboratory-scale "tabletop" experiments. This approach uses precision measurement techniques and devices from atomic, quantum, and condensed-matter physics to detect tiny signals due to new particles or forces. Discoveries in fundamental physics may well come first from small-scale experiments of this type. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  16. Experiments on Alignment of Dust Particles in Plasma Sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarian, A.A.; Vladimirov, S.V.; James, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    Here, we report an experimental investigation of the stability of vertical and horizontal confinement of dust particles levitated in an rf sheath. The experiments were carried out in argon plasma with micron-sized dust particles. Changes of particle arrangement were triggered by changing the discharge parameters, applying an additional bias to the confining electrode and by laser beam. The region where the transition was triggered by changes of discharge parameters and the transition from horizontal to vertical alignment has been found to be more pronounced than for the reverse transition. A clear hysteretic effect was observed for transitions triggered by changes of the confining voltage. A vertical alignment occurs in a system of two dust horizontally arranged particles with the decrease of the particle separation. This disruption is attributed to the formation of the common ion wake in the system

  17. Search for hidden particles with the SHiP experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, Caren; Bick, Daniel; Bieschke, Stefan; Ebert, Joachim; Schmidt-Parzefall, Walter [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Many theories beyond the standard model predict long lived neutral (hidden) particles. There might be a whole Hidden Sector (HS) of weakly interacting particles, which cannot be detected in existing high energy experiments. The SHiP experiment (Search for Hidden Particles) requires a high intensity beam dump, which could be realized by a new facility at the CERN SPS accelerator. New superweakly interacting particles with masses below O(10) GeV could be produced in the beam dump and detected in a general purpose Hidden Sector (HS) detector. In addition there will be a dedicated tau neutrino subdetector. I present the major requirements and technical challenges for the HS detector and discuss how the HS can be accessed through several portals: neutrino portal, scalar portal, vector portal and many more.

  18. Decomposition of Atmospheric Aerosol Phase Function by Particle Size and Morphology via Single Particle Scattering Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptowicz, K. B.; Pan, Y.; Martin, S.; Fernandez, E.; Chang, R.; Pinnick, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    We report upon an experimental approach that provides insight into how particle size and shape affect the scattering phase function of atmospheric aerosol particles. Central to our approach is the design of an apparatus that measures the forward and backward scattering hemispheres (scattering patterns) of individual atmospheric aerosol particles in the coarse mode range. The size and shape of each particle is discerned from the corresponding scattering pattern. In particular, autocorrelation analysis is used to differentiate between spherical and non-spherical particles, the calculated asphericity factor is used to characterize the morphology of non-spherical particles, and the integrated irradiance is used for particle sizing. We found the fraction of spherical particles decays exponentially with particle size, decreasing from 11% for particles on the order of 1 micrometer to less than 1% for particles over 5 micrometer. The average phase functions of subpopulations of particles, grouped by size and morphology, are determined by averaging their corresponding scattering patterns. The phase functions of spherical and non-spherical atmospheric particles are shown to diverge with increasing size. In addition, the phase function of non-spherical particles is found to vary little as a function of the asphericity factor.

  19. Particle sizing experiments with the laser Doppler velocimeter: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giel, T.V. Jr.; Son, J.Y.

    1988-06-01

    Measurement techniques for in-situ simultaneous measurements of particle size distributions and particle velocities using the dual beam laser Doppler velocimeter (LV) were analytically and experimentally investigated. This investigation examined the different signal characteristics of the LV for determination of particle size and particle velocity, simultaneously. The different size related signal components were evaluated not only singularly but also as simultaneous measurements to determine which characteristic, or combination of characteristics, provided the best measure of particle size. The evaluation concentrated on the 0.5 to 5 ..mu..m particle size range, in which the LV light scattering characteristics are complex often non-monotonic functions of the particle size as well as functions of index of refraction, the laser light wavelength, laser intensity and polarization, and the location and response characteristics of the detector. Different components of the LV signal were considered, but analysis concentrated on Doppler phase, visibility and scatter-intensity because they show the greatest promise. These signals characteristics were initially defined analytically for numerous optical configurations over the 0.5 to 5 ..mu..m diameter range with 0.1 ..mu..m segmentation, for refractive index values from 1.0 to 3.0 with absorptive (imaginary) components varied form 0 to 1.0. Collector orientation and effective f/No., as well as fringe spacing, beam polarization and wavelength, were varied in this analytical evaluation. 18 refs., 42 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. A Study of Particle Beam Spin Dynamics for High Precision Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, Andrew J. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2017-05-01

    In the search for physics beyond the Standard Model, high precision experiments to measure fundamental properties of particles are an important frontier. One group of such measurements involves magnetic dipole moment (MDM) values as well as searching for an electric dipole moment (EDM), both of which could provide insights about how particles interact with their environment at the quantum level and if there are undiscovered new particles. For these types of high precision experiments, minimizing statistical uncertainties in the measurements plays a critical role. \\\\ \\indent This work leverages computer simulations to quantify the effects of statistical uncertainty for experiments investigating spin dynamics. In it, analysis of beam properties and lattice design effects on the polarization of the beam is performed. As a case study, the beam lines that will provide polarized muon beams to the Fermilab Muon \\emph{g}-2 experiment are analyzed to determine the effects of correlations between the phase space variables and the overall polarization of the muon beam.

  1. Workplace aerosol mass concentration measurement using optical particle counters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görner, Peter; Simon, Xavier; Bémer, Denis; Lidén, Göran

    2012-02-01

    Direct-reading aerosol measurement usually uses the optical properties of airborne particles to detect and measure particle concentration. In the case of occupational hygiene, mass concentration measurement is often required. Two aerosol monitoring methods are based on the principle of light scattering: optical particle counting (OPC) and photometry. The former analyses the light scattered by a single particle, the latter by a cloud of particles. Both methods need calibration to transform the quantity of scattered light detected into particle concentration. Photometers are simpler to use and can be directly calibrated to measure mass concentration. However, their response varies not only with aerosol concentration but also with particle size distribution, which frequently contributes to biased measurement. Optical particle counters directly measure the particle number concentration and particle size that allows assessment of the particle mass provided the particles are spherical and of known density. An integrating algorithm is used to calculate the mass concentration of any conventional health-related aerosol fraction. The concentrations calculated thus have been compared with simultaneous measurements by conventional gravimetric sampling to check the possibility of field OPC calibration with real workplace aerosols with a view to further monitoring particle mass concentration. Aerosol concentrations were measured in the food industry using the OPC GRIMM® 1.108 and the CIP 10-Inhalable and CIP 10-Respirable (ARELCO®) aerosol samplers while meat sausages were being brushed and coated with calcium carbonate. Previously, the original OPC inlet had been adapted to sample inhalable aerosol. A mixed aerosol of calcium carbonate and fungi spores was present in the workplace. The OPC particle-size distribution and an estimated average particle density of both aerosol components were used to calculate the mass concentration. The inhalable and respirable aerosol fractions

  2. Measurement of particle transport coefficients on Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke, T.C.T.

    1994-10-01

    The goal of this thesis was to study the behavior of the plasma transport during the divertor detachment in order to explain the central electron density rise. The measurement of particle transport coefficients requires sophisticated diagnostic tools. A two color interferometer system was developed and installed on Alcator C-Mod to measure the electron density with high spatial (∼ 2 cm) and high temporal (≤ 1.0 ms) resolution. The system consists of 10 CO 2 (10.6 μm) and 4 HeNe (.6328 μm) chords that are used to measure the line integrated density to within 0.08 CO 2 degrees or 2.3 x 10 16 m -2 theoretically. Using the two color interferometer, a series of gas puffing experiments were conducted. The density was varied above and below the threshold density for detachment at a constant magnetic field and plasma current. Using a gas modulation technique, the particle diffusion, D, and the convective velocity, V, were determined. Profiles were inverted using a SVD inversion and the transport coefficients were extracted with a time regression analysis and a transport simulation analysis. Results from each analysis were in good agreement. Measured profiles of the coefficients increased with the radius and the values were consistent with measurements from other experiments. The values exceeded neoclassical predictions by a factor of 10. The profiles also exhibited an inverse dependence with plasma density. The scaling of both attached and detached plasmas agreed well with this inverse scaling. This result and the lack of change in the energy and impurity transport indicate that there was no change in the underlying transport processes after detachment

  3. Measurement of particle transport coefficients on Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luke, T.C.T.

    1994-10-01

    The goal of this thesis was to study the behavior of the plasma transport during the divertor detachment in order to explain the central electron density rise. The measurement of particle transport coefficients requires sophisticated diagnostic tools. A two color interferometer system was developed and installed on Alcator C-Mod to measure the electron density with high spatial ({approx} 2 cm) and high temporal ({le} 1.0 ms) resolution. The system consists of 10 CO{sub 2} (10.6 {mu}m) and 4 HeNe (.6328 {mu}m) chords that are used to measure the line integrated density to within 0.08 CO{sub 2} degrees or 2.3 {times} 10{sup 16}m{sup {minus}2} theoretically. Using the two color interferometer, a series of gas puffing experiments were conducted. The density was varied above and below the threshold density for detachment at a constant magnetic field and plasma current. Using a gas modulation technique, the particle diffusion, D, and the convective velocity, V, were determined. Profiles were inverted using a SVD inversion and the transport coefficients were extracted with a time regression analysis and a transport simulation analysis. Results from each analysis were in good agreement. Measured profiles of the coefficients increased with the radius and the values were consistent with measurements from other experiments. The values exceeded neoclassical predictions by a factor of 10. The profiles also exhibited an inverse dependence with plasma density. The scaling of both attached and detached plasmas agreed well with this inverse scaling. This result and the lack of change in the energy and impurity transport indicate that there was no change in the underlying transport processes after detachment.

  4. Method of air-particles determination, by remote capacity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadigzadeh, A.; Moniri, F.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, experimental results along with the calibration method used in opacimetry for determining atmospheric aerosol are presented. For our investigation, liquid, spherical mono dispersed particles of diocty le pha late (Dop) with particle sizes ranging for 0.07 to 1 μm is used. The light source is a He/Ne laser with the wavelength of 6328 A d eg. The range of particle concentrations is practically between 0 and 4 x 10 6 particles per cm 3 . The measured laser output transmitted through the aerosol cloud varies from 0 to 2.45 MW and is a function of particle concentration, particle sizes and the depth of aerosol cloud. It is observed that the light transmission decreases exponent rally as the particle concentration increases. The effect of particle sizes for the light transmitted through the aerosol was also studied

  5. A comparative study of calculated and measured particle velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    After an explosive is detonated in a blast hole, seismic waves are generated in the ground surrounding the blast hole. These waves cause the particles of rock to oscillate about its position. As the wave attenuate, the particles come back to their original position. The rapidity with which the particles move is called the particle velocity. The peak or maximum velocity is the value which is of prime concern. This value of peak particle velocity can be estimated by the equations determined by the United States Bureau of Mines and by the DUPONT. A research program was conducted by the author at the 'Beck Materials Quarry' situated near Rolla, Missouri, USA. The purpose was to draw a comparison between the predicted and measured particle velocities. It was generally found that the predicted peak particle velocities were quite high as compared to the velocities measured by the Seismographs. (author)

  6. Plasma-parameter measurements using neutral-particle-beam attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, J.H.; Molvik, A.W.; Turner, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Intense and energetic neutral-particle-beam injection used for fueling or heating magnetically confined, controlled-fusion experimental plasmas can also provide diagnostic measurements of the plasmas. The attenuation of an atomic beam (mainly from charge-exchange and ionization interactions) when passing through a plasma gives the plasma line density. Orthogonal arrays of highly collimated detectors of the secondary-electron-emission type have been used in magnetic-mirror experiments to measure neutral-beam attenuation along chords through the plasma volume at different radial and axial positions. The radial array is used to infer the radial plasma-density profile; the axial array, to infer the axial plasma-density profile and the ion angular distribution at the plasma midplane

  7. Rare Particle Searches with the high altitude SLIM experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Balestra, S; Fabbri, F; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, R; Giorgini, M; Kumar, A; Manzoor, S; McDonald, J; Margiotta, A; Medinaceli, E; Nogales, J; Patrizii, L; Popa, V; Quereshi, I; Saavedra, O; Sher, G; Shahzad, M; Spurio, M; Ticona, R; Togo, V; Velarde, A; Zanini, A

    2005-01-01

    The search for rare particles in the cosmic radiation remains one of the main aims of non-accelerator particle astrophysics. Experiments at high altitude allow lower mass thresholds with respect to detectors at sea level or underground. The SLIM experiment is a large array of nuclear track detectors located at the Chacaltaya High Altitude Laboratory (5290 m a.s.l.). The preliminary results from the analysis of a part of the first 236 sq.m exposed for more than 3.6 y are here reported. The detector is sensitive to Intermediate Mass Magnetic Monopoles and to SQM nuggets and Q-balls, which are possible Dark Matter candidates.

  8. A hybrid experiment to search for beauty particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Chiba, K.; Hoshino, K.; Kaway, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Kodama, K.; Miyanishi, M.; Nakamura, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Niu, K.; Niwa, K.; Ohashi, M.; Sasaki, H.; Tajima, H.; Tomita, Y.; Yamakawa, O.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Baroni, G.; Cecchetti, A.M.; Dell'Uomo, S.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Liberto, S.; Frenkel, A.; Manfredini, A.; Marini, G.; Martellotti, G.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Meddi, F.; Nigro, A.; Penso, G.; Pistilli, P.; Sciubla, A.; Sgarbi, C.; Barth, M.; Bertrand, D.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Roosen, R.; Bartley, J.H.; Davis, D.H.; Duff, B.G.; Esten, M.J.; Heymann, F.F.; Imrie, D.C.; Lush, G.J.; Tovee, D.N.; Breslin, A.C.; Donnelly, W.; Montwill, A.; Coupland, M.; Trent, P.; Hazama, M.; Isokane, Y.; Tsuneoka, Y.; Kazuno, M.; Minakawa, F.; Shibuya, H.; Watanabe, S.

    1989-01-01

    We give here a detailed description of experiment WA75, which was performed at CERN to search for beauty particles. Events containing at least one muon with a high momentum transverse to the beam direction were selected; then the primary interactions and decay vertices, located in stacks of nuclear research emulsions, were examined and analysed. The various parts of the apparatus are described and the off-line analysis and search in emulsion are discussed. An estimate is made of the sensitivity of the experiment to beauty- and charmed-particle production. (orig.)

  9. Space Particle Hazard Measurement and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-30

    the spacecraft and perturbations of the environment generated by the spacecraft. Koons et al. (1999) compiled and studied all spacecraft anomalies...unrealistic for D12 than for Dα0p). However, unlike the stability problems associated with the original cross diffusion terms, they are quite manageable ...E), to mono-energetic beams of charged particles of known energies which enables one, in principle , to unfold the space environment spectrum, j(E

  10. Measurement of short-lived particles at PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxon, D.H.

    1987-04-01

    The contribution of PETRA to the measurement of short-lived particles is reviewed with discussion of the detectors and analysis techniques. New results are presented on lifetimes of identified particles and the systematics of b-life measurement outlined. The first application of vertex-tagging to flavour separation is described. (author)

  11. Comparative assessment of pressure field reconstructions from particle image velocimetry measurements and Lagrangian particle tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, P.L.; Michaelis, D; van Oudheusden, B.W.; Weiss, P.E.; de Kat, R.; Laskari, A.; Jeon, Y.J.; David, L; Schanz, D; Huhn, F.; Gesemann, S; Novara, M.; McPhaden, C.; Neeteson, N. J.; Rival, David E.; Schneiders, J.F.G.; Schrijer, F.F.J.

    2017-01-01

    A test case for pressure field reconstruction from particle image velocimetry (PIV) and Lagrangian particle tracking (LPT) has been developed by constructing a simulated experiment from a zonal detached eddy simulation for an axisymmetric base flow at Mach 0.7. The test case comprises sequences

  12. Global atmospheric particle formation from CERN CLOUD measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Eimear M.; Gordon, Hamish; Carslaw, Kenneth S.

    2017-04-01

    New particle formation (or nucleation) is acknowledged as a significant source of climate-relevant aerosol throughout the atmosphere. However, performing atmospherically relevant nucleation experiments in a laboratory setting is extremely challenging. As a result, until now, the parameterisations used to represent new particle formation in global aerosol models were largely based on in-situ observations or theoretical nucleation models, and usually only represented the binary H2SO4-H2O system. Several different chemicals can affect particle formation rates, even at extremely low trace concentrations, which are technically challenging to measure directly. Nucleation rates also respond to environmental changes in e.g. temperature in a highly non-linear fashion. The CERN CLOUD experiment was designed to provide the most controlled and accurate nucleation rate measurements to date, over the full range of free tropospheric temperatures and down to sulphuric acid concentrations of the order of 105 cm-3. We will present a parameterisation of inorganic nucleation rates for use in global models, based on these measurements, which includes four separate nucleation pathways: binary neutral, binary ion-induced, ternary neutral, and ternary ion-induced. Both inorganic and organic nucleation parameterisations derived from CLOUD measurements have been implemented in the GLOMAP global aerosol model. The parameterisations depend on temperature and on concentrations of sulphuric acid, ammonia, organic vapours, and ions. One of CLOUD's main original goals was to determine the sensitivity of atmospheric aerosol to changes in the nucleation rate over a solar cycle. We will show that, in a present-day atmosphere, the changes in climate-relevant aerosol (in the form of cloud-level cloud condensation nuclei) over a solar cycle are on average about 0.1%, with local changes of less than 1%. In contrast, anthropogenic changes in ammonia since pre-industrial times were estimated to have a

  13. Simultaneous measurement of particle and fluid velocities in particle-laden flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, D. X.; Lee, D. Y.

    2009-01-01

    For the velocity measurement in a particle-laden fluid flow, the fluid velocity and the inherently dispersed particle velocity can be analyzed by using PIV and PTV, respectively. Since the PIV result statistically represents the average displacement of all the particles in a PIV image, it is inevitable that the PIV result includes the influence of the dispersed particles' displacement if a single CCD camera is used to simultaneously measure the fluid velocity and the dispersed particle velocity. The influence of dispersed particles should be excluded before the PIV analysis in order to evaluate the fluid velocity accurately. In this study, the optimum replacement brightness of dispersed particles to minimize the false influence of dispersed particles on the PIV analysis was theoretically derived. Simulation results show that the modification of dispersed particle brightness can significantly reduce the PIV error caused by the dispersed particles. This modification method was also verified in the analysis of an actual experimental case of the particle-laden fluid flow in a triangular grooved channel

  14. Measurements and calculations of doses from radioactive particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroux, J.B.; Herbaut, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Three Mile Island (TMI) and Tchernobyl reactor accidents have revealed the importance of the skin exposure to beta radiation produced by small high activity sources, named 'hot particles'. In nuclear power reactors, they may arise as small fragments of irradiated fuel or material which have been neutron activated by passing through the reactor co. In recent years, skin exposure to hot particles has been subject to different limitation criteria, formulated by AIEA, ICRP, NCRP working groups. The present work is the contribution of CEA Grenoble to a contract of the Commission of the European communities in cooperation with several laboratories: University of Birmingham, University of Toulouse and University of Montpellier with the main goal to check experiments and calculations of tissue dose from 60 Co radioactive particles. This report is split up into two parts: hot particle dosimetry close to a 60 Co spherical sample with an approximately 200 μm diameter, using a PTW extrapolation chamber model 233991; dose calculations from two codes: the Varskin Mod 2 computer code and the Hot 25 S2 Monte Carlo algorithm. The two codes lead to similar results; nevertheless there is a large discrepancy (of about 2) between calculations and PTW measurements which are higher by a factor of 1.9. At a 70 μm skin depth and for 1 cm 2 irradiated area, the total (β + γ) tissue dose rate delivered by a spherical ( φ = 200 μm) 60 Co source, in contact with skin, is of the order of 6.1 10 -2 nGy s -1 Bq -1 . (author)

  15. High energy particle experiment for the GEOTAIL mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    The high energy particle experiment for GEOTAIL mission was designed to understand the particle acceleration mechanism, energy flow, boundary dynamics and magnetic reconnection mechanism in the geotail region, solar flare particle acceleration mechanism, the propagation mechanism through interplanetary space, and the origin, lifetime and propagation mechanism of cosmic ray heavy ions. In order to achieve these objectives, particle detectors, burst detectors, medium energy isotope telescopes and a high energy isotope telescope will be placed in the spacecraft which will be launched in 1992 as one of the spacecraft missions in the International Solar Terrestrial Physics program. With these detectors, electrons, protons and helium, carbon, silicon and iron particles will be detected. The characteristics and the main technique used for each instrument to observe high energy particles are summarized. The details of the scientific objectives, the basic principle of particle identification, the electronic system and data processing system, key parameter information, telemetry data formats, preflight and in-flight calibration method and data an analysis plan are described in this report. (K.I.)

  16. Machine learning based global particle indentification algorithms at LHCb experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Derkach, Denis; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Rogozhnikov, Aleksei; Ratnikov, Fedor

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of data processing at LHC experiments is the particle identification (PID) algorithm. In LHCb, several different sub-detector systems provide PID information: the Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detector, the hadronic and electromagnetic calorimeters, and the muon chambers. To improve charged particle identification, several neural networks including a deep architecture and gradient boosting have been applied to data. These new approaches provide higher identification efficiencies than existing implementations for all charged particle types. It is also necessary to achieve a flat dependency between efficiencies and spectator variables such as particle momentum, in order to reduce systematic uncertainties during later stages of data analysis. For this purpose, "flat” algorithms that guarantee the flatness property for efficiencies have also been developed. This talk presents this new approach based on machine learning and its performance.

  17. Alpenglow: A signature for chameleons in axionlike particle search experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlers, M.; Lindner, A.; Ringwald, A.; Schrempp, L.; Weniger, C.

    2008-01-01

    We point out that chameleon field theories might reveal themselves as an afterglow effect in axionlike particle search experiments due to chameleon-photon conversion in a magnetic field. We estimate the parameter space which is accessible by currently available technology and find that afterglow experiments could constrain this parameter space in a way complementary to gravitational and Casimir force experiments. In addition, one could reach photon-chameleon couplings which are beyond the sensitivity of common laser polarization experiments. We also sketch the idea of a Fabry-Perot cavity with chameleons which could increase the experimental sensitivity significantly

  18. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision 1-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains summaries of 551 approved experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1 January 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries

  19. Production of strange neutral particles and measurement of the polarization of {lambda} in the NOMAD experiment at CERN; Etude de la production des particules neutres etranges et mesure de la polarisation du {lambda} dans l'experience NOMAD au CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachaud, C

    2000-05-01

    The experiment NOMAD (CERN) is dedicated to the study of the neutrino-nucleon interaction. In these interactions many strange particles are produced: particularly K{sub s}{sup 0}, {lambda} and {lambda}-bar that are more easily detectable and this work is dedicated to them. The study of the polarization of {lambda} allows to go back to the measurements of spin transfer that are not well known. The identification of strange particles is difficult, 2 methods have been used in this work: likelihood ratios and {alpha}-asymmetry method. Once neutral strange particles were identified, their production rate (global and differential) have been made out, K{sup *{+-}}, and {sigma}{sup *{+-}} resonances and the decay of {xi} have been revealed. The second part of this work deals with the measurement of {lambda} polarization. The quality of the reconstruction of events and the cumulated statistics data allowed to give an accurate value of {lambda} polarization. A thorough study of the transverse polarization has been made and we see a dependence of the transverse impulse of {lambda} on the hadronic jet similar to that observed in hadronic collisions.

  20. Novel Measurements of Aerosol Particle Interfaces Using Biphasic Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, A. R.; Dutcher, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are nearly ubiquitous in the atmosphere and yet there remains large uncertainties in their formation processes and ambient properties. These particles are complex microenvironments, which can contain multiple interfaces due to internal aqueous-organic phase partitioning and to the external liquid-vapor surface. These aerosol interfaces can profoundly affect the fate of condensable organic compounds emitted into the atmosphere by altering the way in which organic vapors interact with the ambient aerosol. Aerosol interfaces affect particle internal structure, species uptake, equilibrium partitioning, activation to cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and optical properties. For example, organic thin films can shield the core of the aerosol from the ambient environment, which may disrupt equilibrium partitioning and mass transfer. To improve our ability to accurately predict the fate of SOA in the atmosphere, we must improve our knowledge of aerosol interfaces and their interactions with the ambient environment. Few technologies exist to accurately probe aerosol interfaces at atmospherically-relevant conditions. In this talk, a novel method using biphasic microscale flows will be introduced for generating, trapping, and perturbing complex interfaces at atmospherically relevant conditions. These microfluidic experiments utilize high-speed imaging to monitor interfacial phenomena at the microscale and are performed with phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy on a temperature-controlled inverted microscope stage. From these experiments, interfacial thermodynamic properties such as surface tension, rheological properties such as interfacial moduli, and kinetic properties such as mass transfer coefficients can be measured or inferred. Chemical compositions of the liquid phases studied here span a range of viscosities and include electrolyte and water soluble organic acid species often observed in the atmosphere, such as mixtures

  1. Mass transfer effects in hygroscopic measurements of aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Chan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA has been widely utilized to measure the hygroscopicity of laboratory-generated and atmospheric submicrometer particles. An important concern in investigating the hygroscopicity of the particles is if the particles have attained equilibrium state in the measurements. We present a literature survey to investigate the mass transfer effects in hygroscopicity measurements. In most TDMA studies, a residence time in the order of seconds is used for humidification (or dehumidification. NaCl and (NH42SO4 particles are usually used to verify the equilibrium measurements during this residence time, which is presumed to be sufficient for other particles. There have been observations that not all types of submicrometer particles, including atmospheric particles, attain their equilibrium sizes within this time scale. We recommend that experimentation with different residence times be conducted and that the residence time should be explicitly stated in future TDMA measurements. Mass transfer effects may also exist in the measurements of other properties related to the water uptake of atmospheric particles such as relative humidity dependent light scattering coefficients and cloud condensation nuclei activity.

  2. Spherical wave particle velocities in geologic materials from laboratory experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizek, J.C.; Florence, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    Particle velocity records that describe spherical waves in rock simulants, tuffs, salt, and granite have been obtained in laboratory experiments. The records aid the modeling of constitutive equations for continuum mechanics codes used in DNA containment research. The technique has also been applied to investigate containment-related problems involving material poperties, failure criteria, scaling, decoupling, and residual strain field relaxation. 22 figures

  3. Strange particle measurements from the EOS TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justice, M.

    1995-02-01

    A high statistics sample of Λ's produced in 2 GeV/nucleon 5 8Ni + nat Cu collisions has been obtained with the EOS Time Projection Chamber at the Bevalac. The coverage of the EOS TPC is essentially 100% for y > y cm and extends down to P T = 0 where interesting effects such as collective radial expansion may be important. In addition, the detection of a majority of the charged particles in the TPC, along with the presence of directed flow for protons and heavier fragments at this beam energy, allows for the correlation of A production with respect to the event reaction plane. Our preliminary analysis indicates the first observation of a sidewards flow signature for A's. Comparisons with the cascade code ARC are made

  4. Impact of two particle measurement techniques on the determination of N95 class respirator filtration performance against ultrafine particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostofi, Reza; Noël, Alexandra; Haghighat, Fariborz; Bahloul, Ali; Lara, Jaime; Cloutier, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Performance evaluation of respirator using two different measurement techniques. ► Impaction and electrical mobility were used to characterize ultrafine particle. ► The experiment was done using ultrafine-sized poly-dispersed aerosols. ► Both techniques show that MPPS would occur at a similar size range. - Abstract: The purpose of this experimental study was to compare two different particle measurement devices; an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), to measure the number concentration and the size distribution of NaCl salt aerosols to determine the collection efficiency of filtering respirators against poly disperse aerosols. Tests were performed on NIOSH approved N95 filtering face-piece respirators (FFR), sealed on a manikin head. Ultrafine particles found in the aerosols were also collected and observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). According to the results, there is a systematic difference for the particle size distribution measured by the SMPS and the ELPI. It is largely attributed to the difference in the measurement techniques. However, in spite of these discrepancies, reasonably similar trends were found for the number concentration with both measuring instruments. The particle penetration, calculated based on mobility and aerodynamic diameters, never exceeded 5% for any size range measured at constant flow rate of 85 L/min. Also, the most penetrating particle size (MPPS), with the lowest filtration efficiency, would occur at a similar ultrafine size range <100 nm. With the ELPI, the MPPS was at 70 nm aerodynamic diameter, whereas it occurred at 40 nm mobility diameter with the SMPS.

  5. Realization of two light particle correlation experiments: behaviour to very low relative momenta (measurement with a magnetic spectrometer) and influence of the violence of reaction on the emission sources (measured by the neutron detector ORION); Mise en oeuvre de deux experiences de correlations de particules legeres: comportement a tres faibles impulsions relatives (mesure avec un spectrometre magnetique) et influence de la violence de reaction sur les sources d`emission (mesuree avec le detecteur de neutrons ORION)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sezac, L. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France)

    1993-01-20

    The correlation measurements between light particles emitted during heavy ion collisions allow to estimate the time-space extension of the emitting sources. This report about the preliminaries of two correlation experiments is split into two parts. The first one describes a test experiment, performed to study the feasibility of a correlation experiment at very low relative momenta with the help of a magnetic spectrometer. The results will allow to determine the still unknown relative effects from the final state interaction and the combination of both Coulomb interaction and quantum statistics. A correlation study without experimental selection of the impact parameter gives unclear answers about the sizes and the temporal characteristics of the emitting systems. The second part analyses the sources of the alpha particles detected in the reaction chamber of the multidetector ORION used as a violence of the reaction filter. The results show that it is possible to consider as a good filter a fast information called `prompt peak` (correlated to the neutron multiplicity detected with ORION). Under such conditions a study of two particle correlations from equilibrated systems with a reasonable statistics becomes thinkable. The results obtained allow to characterize the emitting sources (speed, intensity, temperature) as a function of the violence of the reaction for the system {sup 208} Pb + {sup 93} Nb at 29 MeV/u. (author) 85 refs.

  6. Patch near field acoustic holography based on particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yong-Bin; Jacobsen, Finn; Bi, Chuan-Xing

    2009-01-01

    Patch near field acoustic holography (PNAH) based on sound pressure measurements makes it possible to reconstruct the source field near a source by measuring the sound pressure at positions on a surface. that is comparable in size to the source region of concern. Particle velocity is an alternative...... examines the use of particle velocity as the input of PNAH. Because the particle velocity decays faster toward the edges of the measurement aperture than the pressure does and because the wave number ratio that enters into the inverse propagator from pressure to velocity amplifies high spatial frequencies...

  7. New instrument for tribocharge measurement due to single particle impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hideo; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Ding Yulong; Pitt, Kendal G.

    2007-01-01

    During particulate solid processing, particle-particle and particle-wall collisions can generate electrostatic charges. This may lead to a variety of problems ranging from fire and explosion hazards to segregation, caking, and blocking. A fundamental understanding of the particle charging in such situations is therefore essential. For this purpose we have developed a new device that can measure charge transfer due to impact between a single particle and a metal plate. The device consists of an impact test system and two sets of Faraday cage and preamplifier for charge measurement. With current amplifiers, high-resolution measurements of particle charges of approximately 1 and 10 fC have been achieved before and after the impact, respectively. The device allows charge measurements of single particles with a size as small as ∼100 μm impacting on the target at different incident angles with a velocity up to about 80 m/s. Further analyses of the charge transfer as a function of particle initial charge define an equilibrium charge, i.e., an initial charge level prior to impact for which no net charge transfer would occur as a result of impact

  8. Characterization of fine particles using optomagnetic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fock, Jeppe; Jonasson, Christian; Johansson, Christer

    2017-01-01

    The remanent magnetic moment and the hydrodynamic size are important parameters for the synthesis and applications of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). We present the theoretical basis for the determination of the remanent magnetic moment and the hydrodynamic size of MNPs with a narrow size...... distribution using optomagnetic measurements. In these, the 2nd harmonic variation of the intensity of light transmitted through an MNP suspension is measured as a function of an applied axial oscillating magnetic field. We first show how the measurements of the optomagnetic signal magnitude at a low frequency...... vs. magnetic field amplitude can be used to determine the MNP moment. Subsequently, we use linear response theory to describe the dynamic non-equilibrium response of the MNP suspension at low magnetic field amplitudes and derive a link between optomagnetic measurements and magnetic AC susceptibility...

  9. Numerical investigation of the effect of particle concentration on particle measurement by digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huafeng; Zhou, Binwu; Wu, Xuecheng; Wu, Yingchun; Gao, Xiang; Gréhan, Gérard; Cen, Kefa

    2014-04-01

    Digital holography plays a key role in particle field measurement, and appears to be a strong contender as the next-generation technology for diagnostics of 3D particle field. However, various recording parameters, such as the recording distance, the particle size, the wavelength, the size of the CCD chip, the pixel size and the particle concentration, will affect the results of the reconstruction, and may even determine the success or failure of a measurement. This paper presents a numerical investigation on the effect of particle concentration, the volume depth to evaluate the capability of digital holographic microscopy. Standard particles holograms with all known recording parameters are numerically generated by using a common procedure based on Lorenz-Mie scattering theory. Reconstruction of those holograms are then performed by a wavelet-transform based method. Results show that the reconstruction efficiency decreases quickly until particle concentration reaches 50×104 (mm-3), and decreases linearly with the increase of particle concentration from 50 × 104 (mm-3) to 860 × 104 (mm-3) in the same volume. The first half of the line waves larger than the second half. It also indicates that the increase of concentration leads the rise in average diameter error and z position error of particles. Besides, the volume depth also plays a key role in reconstruction.

  10. An experiment to measure accurately the lifetime of the $D^{0}, D^{\\pm}, F^{\\pm}, \\Lambda_{c}$-charm particles and to study their hadronic production and decay properties

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to use the EHS with the hydrogen bubble chamber HOLEBC equipped with classical optics to accumulate statistics of several hundred fully reconstructed $D^{0}$ and $D^{\\pm}$ and several tens of $F^{\\pm}$ and $\\Lambda_{c}$ decays produced by 360 GeV/c $\\pi^{-}$ and 360 GeV/c proton beams. The main aim of the experiment is to determine accurately the lifetime of these particles. Interesting information will also be obtained on branching ratios, decay modes and hadronic production mechanisms.

  11. Photometric imaging in particle size measurement and surface visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Niklas

    2011-09-30

    The aim of this paper is to give an insight into photometric particle sizing approaches, which differ from the typical particle size measurement of dispersed particles. These approaches can often be advantageous especially for samples that are moist or cohesive, when dispersion of particles is difficult or sometimes impossible. The main focus of this paper is in the use of photometric stereo imaging. The technique allows the reconstruction of three-dimensional images of objects using multiple light sources in illumination. The use of photometric techniques is demonstrated in at-line measurement of granules and on-line measurement during granulation and dry milling. Also, surface visualization and roughness measurements are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Manual for target thickness measurement by alpha particle irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, J.F.; Martins, M.N.

    1990-04-01

    A system is described for thin-target thickness measurement through the alpha particle energy loss when them traverse the target. It is also described the program used in the analysis of the target thickness. (L.C.) [pt

  13. New-particle formation events in a continental boundary layer: first results from the SATURN experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Stratmann

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During the SATURN experiment, which took place from 27 May to 14 June 2002, new particle formation in the continental boundary layer was investigated. Simultaneous ground-based and tethered-balloon-borne measurements were performed, including meteorological parameters, particle number concentrations and size distributions, gaseous precursor concentrations and SODAR and LIDAR observations. Newly formed particles were observed inside the residual layer, before the break-up process of the nocturnal inversion, and inside the mixing layer throughout the break-up of the nocturnal inversion and during the evolution of the planetary boundary layer.

  14. A Program to Generate a Particle Distribution from Emittance Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bouma, DS; Lallement, JB

    2010-01-01

    We have written a program to generate a particle distribution based on emittance measurements in x-x’ and y-y’. The accuracy of this program has been tested using real and constructed emittance measurements. Based on these tests, the distribution generated by the program can be used to accurately simulate the beam in multi-particle tracking codes, as an alternative to a Gaussian or uniform distribution.

  15. Comparison of GPU-Based Numerous Particles Simulation and Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Wook; Jun, Chul Woong; Sohn, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Jae Wook

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of numerous grains interacting with each other can be easily observed. In this study, this dynamic behavior was analyzed based on the contact between numerous grains. The discrete element method was used for analyzing the dynamic behavior of each particle and the neighboring-cell algorithm was employed for detecting their contact. The Hertzian and tangential sliding friction contact models were used for calculating the contact force acting between the particles. A GPU-based parallel program was developed for conducting the computer simulation and calculating the numerous contacts. The dam break experiment was performed to verify the simulation results. The reliability of the program was verified by comparing the results of the simulation with those of the experiment

  16. TOP counter for particle identification at the Belle II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inami, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    Ring imaging Cherenkov counter, named TOP counter, utilizing precise photon detection timing has been developed as a particle identification detector for the Belle II experiment. The real size prototype has been produced and tested with 2 GeV positrons at Spring-8 LEPS beam line. The quartz radiator production and assembling with microchannel plate photomultipliers was successfully carried out. The beam test data shows good agreement with full Monte-Carlo simulation results in the ring image and the distribution of number of detected photons and timing information. - Highlights: • TOP counter was developed as a particle identification detector for the Belle II experiment. • The real size prototype was produced and tested with 2 GeV positrons. • The quartz radiator production and assembling with MCP-PMT was successfully carried out. • The beam test data shows good agreement with full Monte-Carlo simulation results.

  17. Spheronization process particle kinematics determined by discrete element simulations and particle image velocimentry measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Martin; García, R Edwin; Thommes, Markus

    2014-12-30

    Spheronization is an important pharmaceutical manufacturing technique to produce spherical agglomerates of 0.5-2mm diameter. These pellets have a narrow size distribution and a spherical shape. During the spheronization process, the extruded cylindrical strands break in short cylinders and evolve from a cylindrical to a spherical state by deformation and attrition/agglomeration mechanisms. Using the discrete element method, an integrated modeling-experimental framework is presented, that captures the particle motion during the spheronization process. Simulations were directly compared and validated against particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments with monodisperse spherical and dry γ-Al2O3 particles. demonstrate a characteristic torus like flow pattern, with particle velocities about three times slower than the rotation speed of the friction plate. Five characteristic zones controlling the spheronization process are identified: Zone I, where particles undergo shear forces that favors attrition and contributes material to the agglomeration process; Zone II, where the static wall contributes to the mass exchange between particles; Zone III, where gravitational forces combined with particle motion induce particles to collide with the moving plate and re-enter Zone I; Zone IV, where a subpopulation of particles are ejected into the air when in contact with the friction plate structure; and Zone V where the low poloidal velocity favors a stagnant particle population and is entirely controlled by the batch size. These new insights in to the particle motion are leading to deeper process understanding, e.g., the effect of load and rotation speed to the pellet formation kinetics. This could be beneficial for the optimization of a manufacturing process as well as for the development of new formulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement of Anisotropic Particle Interactions with Nonuniform ac Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Bradley; Torres-Díaz, Isaac; Hua, Xiaoqing; Bevan, Michael A

    2018-02-20

    Optical microscopy measurements are reported for single anisotropic polymer particles interacting with nonuniform ac electric fields. The present study is limited to conditions where gravity confines particles with their long axis parallel to the substrate such that particles can be treated using quasi-2D analysis. Field parameters are investigated that result in particles residing at either electric field maxima or minima and with long axes oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the electric field direction. By nonintrusively observing thermally sampled positions and orientations at different field frequencies and amplitudes, a Boltzmann inversion of the time-averaged probability of states yields kT-scale energy landscapes (including dipole-field, particle-substrate, and gravitational potentials). The measured energy landscapes show agreement with theoretical potentials using particle conductivity as the sole adjustable material property. Understanding anisotropic particle-field energy landscapes vs field parameters enables quantitative control of local forces and torques on single anisotropic particles to manipulate their position and orientation within nonuniform fields.

  19. Development of a dual-tracer real-time particle dry-deposition measurement technique for simple and complex terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.; Hodgson, W.H.; Campbell, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Detectors are being developed and tested for measuring the airborne concentrations of lithium particles and SF 6 gas in real time. The airborne lithium detector will be used for real-time measurements of both particle dry-deposition velocities and resuspension rates. Both the lithium and SF 6 detectors will be used for measuring dry deposition in field experiments

  20. Quantum Dots in a Polymer Composite: A Convenient Particle-in-a-Box Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Charles V.; Giffin, Guinevere A.

    2008-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are at the forefront of materials science chemistry with applications in biological imaging and photovoltaic technologies. We have developed a simple laboratory experiment to measure the quantum-dot size from fluorescence spectra. A major roadblock of quantum-dot based exercises is the particle synthesis and handling;…

  1. Quantifying the Qualitative: Measuring the Insight Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    No scales currently exist that measure variability in the insight experience. Two scales were created to measure two factors hypothesized to be key drivers of the insight experience: insight radicality (i.e., perceived deviation between previous and new problem representations) and restructuring experience (i.e., the subjective experience of the…

  2. Aerosols from biomass combustion. Particle formation, relevance on air quality, and measures for particle reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Biomass combustion is a relevant source of particle emissions. In Switzerland, wood combustion contributes with 2% to the energy supply but with more than 4% to Particulate Matter smaller 10 microns (PM 10) in the ambient air. In areas with high density of residential wood heating (e.g. in the south of Chile), wood particles are the dominant source of PM 10 resulting in heavy local smog situations. Since combustion particles are regarded as health relevant and since immission limit values on PM 10 are widely exceeded, measures for particle reduction from biomass combustion are of high priority. With respect to aerosols from biomass combustion, two sources of particles are distinguished: 1. an incomplete combustion can lead to soot and organic matter contained in the particles, 2. ash constituents in the fuel lead to the formation of inorganic fly ash particles mainly consisting of salts such as chlorides and oxides. The theory of aerosol formation from fuel constituents is described and two hypotheses to reduce inorganic particles from biomass combustion are proposed: 1. a reduced oxygen content in the solid fuel conversion zone (glow bed in a fixed bed combustion) is assumed to reduce the particle mass concentration due to three mechanisms: a) reduced oxidation of fuel constituents to compounds with higher volatility, b) reduced local temperature for solid fuel conversion, c) a reduced entrainmed of fuel constituents 2. a reduced total excess air can reduce the particle number due to enhanced coagulation. The proposed low-particle concept has been implemented for an automatic furnace for wood pellets in the size range from 100 kW to 500 kW. Furthermore, the furnace design was optimised to enable a part load operation without increased emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and particles. In a 100 kW prototype furnace the low-particle conditions resulted in particle emissions between 6 mg/m n 3 to 11 mg/m n 3 at 13 vol.-% O2 and CO emissions below 70 mg/m n 3 in the

  3. On the spatial coordinate measurement of two identical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchewka, Avi; Granot, Er'el; Schuss, Zeev

    2016-01-01

    Theoretically, the coordinate measurement of two identical particles at a point by two narrowly separated narrow detectors, is interpreted in the limit of shrinking width and separation, as the detection of two particles by a single narrow detector. Ordinarily, the ratio between probabilities of point measurements is independent of the width of the narrow detectors. We show here that not only this is not the case, but that in some scenarios the results depend on the way the dimensions shrink to zero. The ratio between the width and the separation determines the detection result. In particular, it is shown that the bunching parameter of bosons is not a well-defined physical property. Moreover, it may suggests that there is a difficulty in quantum measurement theory in the interpretation of coordinate measurement of two particles. - Highlights: • The coordinate measurement of two identical particles at a point is investigated. • A discrepancy in the realization of coordinate measurement of two bosons or fermions is shown. • The bunching parameter of bosons is not a well-defined physical property. • There is a problem in the interpretation of coordinate measurement of two particles.

  4. On the spatial coordinate measurement of two identical particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchewka, Avi, E-mail: avi.marchewka@gmail.com [8 Galei Tchelet St., Herzliya (Israel); Granot, Er' el, E-mail: erelgranot@gmail.com [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Ariel University, Ariel (Israel); Schuss, Zeev, E-mail: schuss@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Mathematics, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)

    2016-04-29

    Theoretically, the coordinate measurement of two identical particles at a point by two narrowly separated narrow detectors, is interpreted in the limit of shrinking width and separation, as the detection of two particles by a single narrow detector. Ordinarily, the ratio between probabilities of point measurements is independent of the width of the narrow detectors. We show here that not only this is not the case, but that in some scenarios the results depend on the way the dimensions shrink to zero. The ratio between the width and the separation determines the detection result. In particular, it is shown that the bunching parameter of bosons is not a well-defined physical property. Moreover, it may suggests that there is a difficulty in quantum measurement theory in the interpretation of coordinate measurement of two particles. - Highlights: • The coordinate measurement of two identical particles at a point is investigated. • A discrepancy in the realization of coordinate measurement of two bosons or fermions is shown. • The bunching parameter of bosons is not a well-defined physical property. • There is a problem in the interpretation of coordinate measurement of two particles.

  5. PIV measurement at the blowdown pipe outlet. [Particle Image Velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puustinen, M.; Laine, J.; Raesaenen, A.; Pyy, L.; Telkkae, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2013-04-15

    This report summarizes the findings of the PIV measurement tests carried out in January - February 2013 with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility at LUT. The main objective of the tests was to find out the operational limits of the PIV system regarding suitable test conditions and correct values of different adjustable PIV parameters. An additional objective was to gather CFD grade data for verification/validation of numerical models. Both water and steam injection tests were carried out. PIV measurements with cold water injection succeeded well. Raw images were of high quality, averaging over the whole measurement period could be done and flow fields close to the blowdown pipe outlet could be determined. In the warm water injection cases the obtained averaged velocity field images were harder to interpret, especially if the blowdown pipe was also filled with warm water in the beginning of the measurement period. The absolute values of the velocity vectors seemed to be smaller than in the cold water injection cases. With very small steam flow rates the steam/water interface was inside the blowdown pipe and quite stable in nature. The raw images were of good quality but due to some fluctuation in the velocity field averaging of the velocity images over the whole measured period couldn't be done. Condensation of steam in the vicinity of the pipe exit probably caused these fluctuations. A constant outflow was usually followed by a constant inflow towards the pipe exit. Vector field images corresponding to a certain phase of the test could be extracted and averaged but this would require a very careful analysis so that the images could be correctly categorized. With higher steam flow rates rapid condensation of large steam bubbles created small gas bubbles which were in front of the measurement area of the PIV system. They disturbed the measurements by reflecting laser light like seeding particles and therefore the raw images were of poor quality and they couldn

  6. Measurement of triboelectric charging of moving micro particles by means of an inductive cylindrical probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterov, A; Loeffler, F; Koenig, K; Trunk, U; Leibe, K; Felgenhauer, T; Bischoff, F R; Breitling, F; Lindenstruth, V; Stadler, V; Hausmann, M

    2007-01-01

    We present a method based on induced currents in a cylindrical probe which allows analysis of the micro-particle charging processes in an aerosol. The micro particles were triboelectrically charged by passing through a dielectric tube coaxially mounted into the probe. The cylindrical probe enabled the quantification of particle charging without prior calibration of the probe. An analytic model was developed for the description of the measured induced currents and implemented into a computer simulation program. The combination of model simulations and an appropriate experimental setup revealed comprehensive data for the determination of the particles' electric charge against time of flight through the tube. In methodological proof of principle experiments, the formations of particle clouds with charges of different signs were observed using magnetite micro particles

  7. Impact of detector simulation in particle physics collider experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Elvira, V.

    2017-06-01

    Through the last three decades, accurate simulation of the interactions of particles with matter and modeling of detector geometries has proven to be of critical importance to the success of the international high-energy physics (HEP) experimental programs. For example, the detailed detector modeling and accurate physics of the Geant4-based simulation software of the CMS and ATLAS particle physics experiments at the European Center of Nuclear Research (CERN) Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was a determinant factor for these collaborations to deliver physics results of outstanding quality faster than any hadron collider experiment ever before. This review article highlights the impact of detector simulation on particle physics collider experiments. It presents numerous examples of the use of simulation, from detector design and optimization, through software and computing development and testing, to cases where the use of simulation samples made a difference in the precision of the physics results and publication turnaround, from data-taking to submission. It also presents estimates of the cost and economic impact of simulation in the CMS experiment. Future experiments will collect orders of magnitude more data with increasingly complex detectors, taxing heavily the performance of simulation and reconstruction software. Consequently, exploring solutions to speed up simulation and reconstruction software to satisfy the growing demand of computing resources in a time of flat budgets is a matter that deserves immediate attention. The article ends with a short discussion on the potential solutions that are being considered, based on leveraging core count growth in multicore machines, using new generation coprocessors, and re-engineering HEP code for concurrency and parallel computing.

  8. Method of measuring a profile of the density of charged particles in a particle beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, L.G.; Jankowski, D.J.

    1975-01-01

    A profile of the relative density of charged particles in a beam is obtained by disposing a number of rods parallel to each other in a plane perpendicular to the beam and shadowing the beam. A second number of rods is disposed perpendicular to the first rods in a plane perpendicular to the beam and also shadowing the beam. Irradiation of the rods by the beam of charged particles creates radioactive isotopes in a quantity proportional to the number of charged particles incident upon the rods. Measurement of the radioactivity of each of the rods provides a measure of the quantity of radioactive material generated thereby and, together with the location of the rods, provides information sufficient to identify a profile of the density of charged particles in the beam

  9. A system for designing and simulating particle physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelazny, R.; Strzalkowski, P.

    1987-01-01

    In view of the rapid development of experimental facilities and their costs, the systematic design and preparation of particle physics experiments have become crucial. A software system is proposed as an aid for the experimental designer, mainly for experimental geometry analysis and experimental simulation. The following model is adopted: the description of an experiment is formulated in a language (here called XL) and put by its processor in a data base. The language is based on the entity-relationship-attribute approach. The information contained in the data base can be reported and analysed by an analyser (called XA) and modifications can be made at any time. In particular, the Monte Carlo methods can be used in experiment simulation for both physical phenomena in experimental set-up and detection analysis. The general idea of the system is based on the design concept of ISDOS project information systems. The characteristics of the simulation module are similar to those of the CERN Geant system, but some extensions are proposed. The system could be treated as a component of greater, integrated software environment for the design of particle physics experiments, their monitoring and data processing. (orig.)

  10. On the spatial coordinate measurement of two identical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Avi; Granot, Er'el; Schuss, Zeev

    2016-04-01

    Theoretically, the coordinate measurement of two identical particles at a point by two narrowly separated narrow detectors, is interpreted in the limit of shrinking width and separation, as the detection of two particles by a single narrow detector. Ordinarily, the ratio between probabilities of point measurements is independent of the width of the narrow detectors. We show here that not only this is not the case, but that in some scenarios the results depend on the way the dimensions shrink to zero. The ratio between the width and the separation determines the detection result. In particular, it is shown that the bunching parameter of bosons is not a well-defined physical property. Moreover, it may suggests that there is a difficulty in quantum measurement theory in the interpretation of coordinate measurement of two particles.

  11. Novel method for noncontact measurement of particle temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, B.M.; Meijer, R.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, W.P.M.

    1995-01-01

    A nonintrusive temperature measurement technique is developed for noncontact measurement of the temperature of single particles with <200 µm dia. It is based on the temperature dependence of the fluorescence spectrum resulting from irradiation of a certain phosphor mixture with UV light by applying

  12. Novel method for noncontact measurement of particle temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, B.M.; Wagenaar, B.M.; Meijer, R.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1995-01-01

    A nonintrusive temperature measurement technique is developed for noncontact measurement of the temperature of single particles with < 200 m dia. It is based on the temperature dependence of the fluorescence spectrum resulting from irradiation of a certain phosphor mixture with UV light by applying

  13. Search for massive rare particles with the SLIM experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Balestra, S.; Fabbri, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Kumar, A.; Manzoor, S.; McDonald, J.; Medinaceli, E.; Nogales, J.; Patrizii, L.; Pinfold, J.; Popa, V.; Qureshi, I.; Saavedra, O.; Sher, G.; Shahzad, M.; Spurio, M.; Ticona, R.; Togo, V.; Velarde, A.; Zanini, A.

    2005-01-01

    The search for magnetic monopoles in the cosmic radiation remains one of the main aims of non-accelerator particle astrophysics. Experiments at high altitude allow lower mass thresholds with respect to detectors at sea level or underground. The SLIM experiment is a large array of nuclear track detectors at the Chacaltaya High Altitude Laboratory (5290 m a.s.l.). The results from the analysis of 171 m$^2$ exposed for more than 3.5 y are here reported. The completion of the analysis of the whole detector will allow to set the lowest flux upper limit for Magnetic Monopoles in the mass range 10$^5$ - 10$^{12}$ GeV. The experiment is also sensitive to SQM nuggets and Q-balls, which are possible Dark Matter candidates.

  14. Determining the radiative properties of pulverized-coal particles from experiments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menguec, M.P.

    1992-02-01

    A comprehensive coupled experimental-theoretical study has been performed to determine the effective radiative properties of pulverized-coal/char particles. The results obtained show that the ``effective`` scattering phase function of coal particles are highly forward scattering and show less sensitivity to the size than predicted from the Lorenz-Mie theory. The main reason for this is the presence of smaller size particles associated with each larger particle. Also, the coal/char particle clouds display more side scattering than predicted for the same size range spheres, indicating the irregular shape of the particles and fragmentation. In addition to these, it was observed that in the visible wavelength range the coal absorption is not gray, and slightly vary with the wavelength. These two experimental approaches followed in this study are unique in a sense that the physics of the problem are not approximated. The properties determined include all uncertainties related to the particle shape, size distribution, inhomogeneity and spectral complex index of refraction data. In order to obtain radiative property data over a wider wavelength spectrum, additional ex-situ experiments have been carried out using a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectrometer. The spectral measurements were performed over the wavelength range of 2 to 22 {mu}m. These results were interpreted to obtain the ``effective`` efficiency factors of coal particles and the corresponding refractive index values. The results clearly show that the coal/char radiative properties display significant wavelength dependency in the infrared spectrum.

  15. Measurement and Modeling of Particle Radiation in Coal Flames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckström, Daniel; Johansson, Robert; Andersson, Klas Jerker

    2014-01-01

    This work aims at developing a methodology that can provide information of in-flame particle radiation in industrial-scale flames. The method is based on a combination of experimental and modeling work. The experiments have been performed in the high-temperature zone of a 77 kWth swirling lignite...

  16. Physical measurements for ion range verification in charged particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, M.

    2010-10-01

    This PhD thesis reports on the experimental investigation of the prompt photons created during the fragmentation of the carbon beam used in particle therapy. Two series of experiments have been performed at the GANIL and GSI facilities with 95 MeV/u and 305 MeV/u 12 C 6+ ion beams stopped in PMMA and water phantoms. In both experiments a clear correlation was obtained between the C-ion range and the prompt photon profile. A major issue of these measurements is the discrimination between the prompt photon signal (which is correlated with the ion path) and a vast neutron background uncorrelated with the Bragg-Peak position. Two techniques are employed to allow for this photon-neutron discrimination: the time-of-flight (TOF) and the pulse-shape-discrimination (PSD). The TOF technique allowed demonstrating the correlation of the prompt photon production and the primary ion path while the PSD technique brought great insights to better understand the photon and neutron contribution in TOF spectra. In this work we demonstrated that a collimated set-up detecting prompt photons by means of TOF measurements, could allow real-time control of the longitudinal position of the Bragg-peak under clinical conditions. In the second part of the PhD thesis a simulation study was performed with Geant4 Monte Carlo code to assess the influence of the main design parameters on the efficiency and spatial resolution achievable with a multidetector and multi-collimated Prompt Gamma Camera. Several geometrical configurations for both collimators and stack of detectors have been systematically studied and the considerations on the main design constraints are reported. (author)

  17. The main injector particle production experiment at Fermilab

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MIPP experiment represents the electronic equivalent of the bubble chamber with ... Another measurement MIPP hopes to make in the upgraded mode is that of pion and proton cross-sections off liquid nitrogen targets for the better prediction.

  18. Measuring Mass-Based Hygroscopicity of Atmospheric Particles through in situ Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piens, Dominique` Y.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Harder, Tristan; Petters, Markus D.; O' Brien, Rachel; Wang, Bingbing; Teske, Ken; Dowell, Pat; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.

    2016-04-18

    Quantifying how atmospheric particles interact with water vapor is critical for understanding the effects of aerosols on climate. We present a novel method to measure the mass-based hygroscopicity of particles while characterizing their elemental and carbon functional group compositions. Since mass-based hygroscopicity is insensitive to particle geometry, it is advantageous for probing the hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric particles, which can have irregular morphologies. Combining scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) analysis, and in situ STXM humidification experiments, this method was validated using laboratory-generated, atmospherically relevant particles. Then, the hygroscopicity and elemental composition of 15 complex atmospheric particles were analyzed by leveraging quantification of C, N, and O from STXM, and complementary elemental quantification from SEM/EDX. We found three types of hygroscopic responses, and correlated high hygroscopicity with Na and Cl content. The mixing state determined for 158 particles broadly agreed with those of the humidified particles, indicating the potential to infer the atmospheric hygroscopic behavior from a selected subset of particles. These methods offer unique quantitative capabilities to characterize and correlate the hygroscopicity and chemistry of individual submicron atmospheric particles.

  19. Defining and Measuring User Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Jan

    2006-01-01

    User experience is being used to denote what a user goes through while using a computerized system. The concept has gained momentum as a means to distinguish new types of applications such as games and entertainment software from more traditional work-related applications. This paper focuses on t...

  20. Using Energy Peaks to Measure New Particle Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Kim, Doojin

    2014-01-01

    We discussed in arXiv:1209.0772 that the laboratory frame distribution of the energy of a massless particle from a two-body decay at a hadron collider has a peak whose location is identical to the value of this daughter's (fixed) energy in the rest frame of the corresponding mother particle. For that result to hold we assumed that the mother is unpolarized and has a generic boost distribution in the laboratory frame. In this work we discuss how this observation can be applied for determination of masses of new particles, without requiring a full reconstruction of their decay chains or information about the rest of the event. We focus on a two-step cascade decay of a massive particle that has one invisible particle in the final state: C -> Bb -> Aab, where C, B and A are new particles of which A is invisible and a, b are visible particles. Combining the measurements of the peaks of energy distributions of a and b with that of the edge in their invariant mass distribution, we demonstrate that it is in principle...

  1. Particle capture by turbulent recirculation zones measured using long-time Lagrangian particle tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, Y.W. [Hong Kong Securities Institute, Department of Professional Education and Training, Central (China); Taylor, A.M.K.P. [Imperial College London, Department of Mechanical Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    We have measured the trajectories of particles into, and around, the recirculation zone formed in water flowing through a sudden pipe expansion with radius ratio 1:3.7, at Reynolds numbers between 5,960 and 41,700 over a range of particle Stokes number (here defined as St=(T{sub f})/({tau} p), where T{sub f} is an appropriate mean or turbulent timescale of the fluid flow and a particle relaxation time, {tau}{sub p},) between 6.2 and 51 and drift parameter between 0.3 and 2.8. The particles were thus weakly inertial but nevertheless heavy with a diameter about an order of magnitude larger than the Kolmogorov scale. Trajectories of particles, released individually into the flow, were taken in a Lagrangian framework by a three-dimensional particle tracking velocimeter using a single 25 Hz framing rate intensified CCD camera. Trajectories are quantified by the axial distribution of the locations of particle axial velocity component reversal and the probability distributions of trajectory angle and curvature. The effect of increasing the drift parameter was to reduce the tendency for particles to enter the recirculation zone. For centreline release, the proportion of particles entering the recirculation zone and acquiring a negative velocity decreased from about 80% to none and from about 66% to none, respectively, as the drift parameter increased from 0.3 to 2.8. Almost half of the particles experienced a relatively large change of direction corresponding to a radius of curvature of their trajectory comparable to, or smaller than, the radius of the downstream pipe. This was due to the interaction between these particles and eddies of this size in the downstream pipe and provides experimental evidence that particles are swept by large eddies into the recirculation zone over 1.0 < Z{sup *} < 2.5, where Z{sup *} is axial distance from the expansion plane normalized by the downstream pipe diameter, which was well upstream of the reattachment point at the wall (Z

  2. Rocket measurements of energetic particles in the midlatitude precipitation zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, H. D.; Smith, L. G.; Braswell, F. M.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of energetic ion and electron properties as a function of altitude in the midlatitude zone of nighttime energetic particle precipitation are reported. The measurements of particle fluxes, energy spectra and pitch angle distributions were obtained by a Langmuir probe, six energetic particle spectrometers and an electrostatic analyzer on board a Nike Apache rocket launched near the center of the midlatitude zone during disturbed conditions. It is found that the incident flux was primarily absorbed rather than backscattered, and consists of mainly energetic hydrogen together with some helium and a small energetic electron component. Observed differential energy spectra of protons having an exponential energy spectrum, and pitch angle distributions at various altitudes indicate that the energetic particle flux decreases rapidly for pitch angles less than 70 deg. An energetic particle energy flux of 0.002 ergs/sq cm per sec is calculated which indicates the significance of energetic particles as a primary nighttime ionization source for altitudes between 120 and 200 km in the midlatitude precipitation zone.

  3. A Summer Research Experience in Particle Physics Using Skype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Curran; Alexander, Steven; Mahmood, A. K.

    2012-10-01

    This last summer I did research in particle physics as part of a ``remote REU.'' This poster will describe that experience and the results of my project which was to experimentally verify the mass ranges of the Z' boson. Data from the LHC's Atlas detector was filtered by computers to select for likely Z boson decays; my work was in noting all instances of Z or Z' boson decays in one thousand events and their masses, separating the Z from Z' bosons, and generating histograms of the masses.

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic Particle Acceleration Processes: SSX Experiments, Theory and Astrophysical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthaeus, W.; Brown, M.

    2006-01-01

    This is the final technical report for a funded program to provide theoretical support to the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment. We examined mhd relaxation, reconnecton between two spheromaks, particle acceleration by these processes, and collisonless effects, e.g., Hall effect near the reconnection zone,. Throughout the project, applications to space plasma physics and astrophysics were included. Towards the end of the project we were examining a more fully turbulent relaxation associated with unconstrained dynamics in SSX. We employed experimental, spacecraft observations, analytical and numerical methods.

  5. Laboratory Measurements of Single-Particle Polarimetric Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsevich, M.; Penttila, A.; Maconi, G.; Kassamakov, I.; Helander, P.; Puranen, T.; Salmi, A.; Hæggström, E.; Muinonen, K.

    2017-12-01

    Measuring scattering properties of different targets is important for material characterization, remote sensing applications, and for verifying theoretical results. Furthermore, there are usually simplifications made when we model targets and compute the scattering properties, e.g., ideal shape or constant optical parameters throughout the target material. Experimental studies help in understanding the link between the observed properties and computed results. Experimentally derived Mueller matrices of studied particles can be used as input for larger-scale scattering simulations, e.g., radiative transfer computations. This method allows to bypass the problem of using an idealized model for single-particle optical properties. While existing approaches offer ensemble- and orientation-averaged particle properties, our aim is to measure individual particles with controlled or known orientation. With the newly developed scatterometer, we aim to offer novel possibility to measure single, small (down to μm-scale) targets and their polarimetric spectra. This work presents an experimental setup that measures light scattered by a fixed small particle with dimensions ranging between micrometer and millimeter sizes. The goal of our setup is nondestructive characterization of such particles by measuring light of multiple wavelengths scattered in 360° in a horizontal plane by an ultrasonically levitating sample, whilst simultaneously controlling its 3D position and orientation. We describe the principles and design of our instrument and its calibration. We also present example measurements of real samples. This study was conducted under the support from the European Research Council, in the frame of the Advanced Grant project No. 320773 `Scattering and Absorption of Electromagnetic Waves in Particulate Media' (SAEMPL).

  6. Sixfold improved single particle measurement of the magnetic moment of the antiproton

    CERN Document Server

    Nagahama, H; Sellner, S; Harrington, J; Higuchi, T; Borchert, M J; Tanaka, T; Besirli, M; Mooser, A; Schneider, G; Blaum, K; Matsuda, Y; Ospelkaus, C; Quint, W; Walz, J; Yamazaki, Y; Ulmer, S

    2017-01-01

    Our current understanding of the Universe comes, among others, from particle physics and cosmology. In particle physics an almost perfect symmetry between matter and antimatter exists. On cosmological scales, however, a striking matter/antimatter imbalance is observed. This contradiction inspires comparisons of the fundamental properties of particles and antiparticles with high precision. Here we report on a measurement of the g-factor of the antiproton with a fractional precision of 0.8 parts per million at 95% confidence level. Our value /2=2.7928465(23) outperforms the previous best measurement by a factor of 6. The result is consistent with our proton g-factor measurement gp/2=2.792847350(9), and therefore agrees with the fundamental charge, parity, time (CPT) invariance of the Standard Model of particle physics. Additionally, our result improves coefficients of the standard model extension which discusses the sensitivity of experiments with respect to CPT violation by up to a factor of 20.

  7. Improving ATLAS Jet Measurements and Searches with Particle Information

    CERN Document Server

    Ramette, Joshua; Doglioni, Caterina; Young, Christopher; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2016-01-01

    With the LHC running at record collision energies, the ATLAS detector may reveal new physics including particles decaying hadronically into jets. Measurements involving jets are often limited by the jet energy scale uncertainty associated with the calibration of the detector response to jets in the hadronic calorimeters. In this article we examine the jet energy response dependence upon the fraction of jet energy contained in charged versus neutral particles by running the multijet balance with particle flow jets on a series of charged fraction cuts using both Monte Carlo and data jet samples. We discuss how the results can contribute to a reduction of the jet energy uncertainty for high energy jets where the uncertainty is estimated with the single particle propagation technique.

  8. Determination of particle size distributions from acoustic wave propagation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spelt, P.D.; Norato, M.A.; Sangani, A.S.; Tavlarides, L.L.

    1999-01-01

    The wave equations for the interior and exterior of the particles are ensemble averaged and combined with an analysis by Allegra and Hawley [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 51, 1545 (1972)] for the interaction of a single particle with the incident wave to determine the phase speed and attenuation of sound waves propagating through dilute slurries. The theory is shown to compare very well with the measured attenuation. The inverse problem, i.e., the problem of determining the particle size distribution given the attenuation as a function of frequency, is examined using regularization techniques that have been successful for bubbly liquids. It is shown that, unlike the bubbly liquids, the success of solving the inverse problem is limited since it depends strongly on the nature of particles and the frequency range used in inverse calculations. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  9. Impedance technique for measuring dielectrophoretic collection of microbiological particles

    CERN Document Server

    Allsopp, D W E; Brown, A P; Betts, W B

    1999-01-01

    Measurement of the impedance change resulting from the collection of microbiological particles at coplanar electrodes is shown to be an effective and potentially quantitative method of detecting dielectrophoresis. Strong correlations between the frequency-dependent dielectrophoretic collection characteristics measured by impedance change and those observed using an established counting method based on image analysis have been obtained for Escherichia coli. In addition it is shown that the new electrical method can be used to sense dielectrophoretic collection of 19 nm diameter latex beads, particles too small to be resolved by conventional optical detection systems. (author)

  10. Survey of beta-particle interaction experiments with asymmetric matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, J. David; Wu, Fei

    2018-05-01

    Asymmetry is a basic property found at multiple scales in the universe. Asymmetric molecular interactions are fundamental to the operation of biological systems in both signaling and structural roles. Other aspects of asymmetry are observed and useful in many areas of science and engineering, and have been studied since the discovery of chirality in tartrate salts. The observation of parity violation in beta decay provided some impetus for later experiments using asymmetric particles. Here we survey historical work and experiments related to electron (e-) or positron (e+) polarimetry and their interactions with asymmetric materials in gas, liquid and solid forms. Asymmetric interactions may be classified as: 1) stereorecognition, 2) stereoselection and 3) stereoinduction. These three facets of physical stereochemistry are unique but interrelated; and examples from chemistry and materials science illustrate these aspects. Experimental positron and electron interactions with asymmetric materials may be classified in like manner. Thus, a qualitative assessment of helical and polarized positron experiments with different forms of asymmetric matter from the past 40 years is presented, as well as recent experiments with left-hand and right-hand single crystal quartz and organic compounds. The purpose of this classification and review is to evaluate the field for potential new experiments and directions for positron (or electron) studies with asymmetric materials.

  11. Online Radiation Dose Measurement System for ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Mandić, I; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Particle detectors and readout electronics in the high energy physics experiment ATLAS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN operate in radiation field containing photons, charged particles and neutrons. The particles in the radiation field originate from proton-proton interactions as well as from interactions of these particles with material in the experimental apparatus. In the innermost parts of ATLAS detector components will be exposed to ionizing doses exceeding 100 kGy. Energetic hadrons will also cause displacement damage in silicon equivalent to fluences of several times 10e14 1 MeV-neutrons per cm2. Such radiation doses can have severe influence on the performance of detectors. It is therefore very important to continuously monitor the accumulated doses to understand the detector performance and to correctly predict the lifetime of radiation sensitive components. Measurements of doses are important also to verify the simulations and represent a crucial input into the models used for predicting future ...

  12. Detailed examination of 'standard elementary particle theories' based on measurement with Tristan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamae, Tsuneyoshi

    1989-01-01

    The report discusses possible approaches to detailed analysis of 'standard elementary particle theories' on the basis of measurements made with Tristan. The first section of the report addresses major elementary particles involved in the 'standard theories'. The nature of the gauge particles, leptons, quarks and Higgs particle are briefly outlined. The Higgs particle and top quark have not been discovered, though the Higgs particle is essential in the Weiberg-Salam theory. Another important issue in this field is the cause of the collapse of the CP symmetry. The second section deals with problems which arise in universalizing the concept of the 'standard theories'. What are required to solve these problems include the discovery of supersymmetric particles, discovery of conflicts in the 'standard theories', and accurate determination of fundamental constants used in the 'standard theories' by various different methods. The third and fourth sections address the Weinberg-Salam theory and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). There are four essential parameters for the 'standard theories', three of which are associated with the W-S theory. The mass of the W and Z bosons measured in proton-antiproton collision experiments is compared with that determined by applying the W-S theory to electron-positron experiments. For QCD, it is essential to determine the lambda constant. (N.K.)

  13. FIELD COMPARISONS OF DUAL SMPS-APS SYSTEMS TO MEASURE INDOOR-OUTDOOR PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simultaneous measurements of particle size distributions across multiple locations can provide critical information to accurately assess human exposure to particles. These data are very useful to describe indoor-outdoor particle relationships, outdoor particle penetration thro...

  14. Techniques for measuring the alpha-particle distribution in magnetically confined plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, D.E.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Hulse, R.A.; Stewart, L.D.; Weisheit, J.C.

    1979-10-01

    Methods are proposed for measuring the alpha-particle distribution in magnetically confined fusion plasmas using neutral-atom doping beams, ultraviolet spectroscopy, and neutral particle detectors. In the first method single charge exchange reactions, A 0 + He ++ - > A + (He + )*, are used to populate the n=2 and n=3 levels of He + . The ultraviolet photons from the decaying excited states are Doppler shifted by 5 to 10 Angstroms from those produced by the thermalized alpha-particle ash. In the second method double charge exchange reactions, A 0 + He ++ - > A ++ + He 0 , enable fast neutralized alpha-particles to escape from the plasma and be detected by neutral particle analysers. Detector configurations are analyzed, count rates are estimated and their detectability is discussed. A preliminary analysis of the feasibility of the required neutral beams is presented, and exploratory experiments on existing devices are suggested

  15. Measuring charged particle multiplicity with early ATLAS public data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Üstün, G; Barut, E; Bektaş, E; Özcan, V E

    2017-01-01

    We study 100 images of early LHC collisions that were recorded by the ATLAS experiment and made public for outreach purposes, and extract the charged particle multiplicity as a function of momentum for proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. As these collisions have already been pre-processed by the ATLAS Collaboration, the particle tracks are visible, but are available to the public only in the form of low-resolution bitmaps. We describe two separate image processing methods, one based on the industry-standard OpenCV library and C++, another based on self-developed algorithms in Python. We present our analysis of the transverse momentum and azimuthal angle distributions of the particles, in agreement with the literature. (paper)

  16. Measuring charged particle multiplicity with early ATLAS public data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstün, G.; Barut, E.; Bektaş, E.; Özcan, V. E.

    2017-07-01

    We study 100 images of early LHC collisions that were recorded by the ATLAS experiment and made public for outreach purposes, and extract the charged particle multiplicity as a function of momentum for proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. As these collisions have already been pre-processed by the ATLAS Collaboration, the particle tracks are visible, but are available to the public only in the form of low-resolution bitmaps. We describe two separate image processing methods, one based on the industry-standard OpenCV library and C++, another based on self-developed algorithms in Python. We present our analysis of the transverse momentum and azimuthal angle distributions of the particles, in agreement with the literature.

  17. Search for Higgs bosons and for Supersymmetric particles at particle collider experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Muanza, Steve

    The corner stone of the Standard Model (SM) of Particle Physics is the Higgs mechanism. It explains how the bosons W, Z and H acquire a mass via weak interactions. In addition it explains how the charged fermions also acquire a mass through Yukawa interactions. And on top of this, it regularizes the scattering of longitudinal W and Z bosons at high energy. The discovery of a Higgs boson by the ATLAS and the CMS collaborations in 2012 marked the culminating success of the SM at explaining most of the known phenomena. However a few other phenomena such as the Dark Matter and the Dark energy cannot be explained by the SM particles. What's more, the SM leaves several open questions such as a quest for a quantum theory for gravity, the naturalness in the Higgs sector, a possible Grand Unification,... The common thread in topics presented in this habilitation thesis is the search for manifestations of a TeV scale supersymmetric (SUSY) extension of the Standard Model at particle collider experiments. Among the predi...

  18. Nuclear emulsion experiments on particle production at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.

    1976-08-01

    Various experimental results, including multiplicities of shower-particles and heavy prong particles, correlations between them and single particle distributions, from proton-emulsion nucleus reactions in the energy range 200-400 GeV are presented. (Auth.)

  19. A two-wavelength imaging pyrometer for measuring particle temperature, velocity and size in thermal spray processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.E.; Parker, R.A.; Lee, D.Y.; Biancaniello, F.; Ridder, S.

    1999-01-01

    An imaging pyrometer has been developed to measure the surface temperature of hot metal objects and to measure particle temperature, velocity and size in thermal spray, spray-fonning and atomization processes. The two-wavelength surface imaging pyrometer provides true temperature measurement with high resolution, even when the surface has emissivity variation caused by roughness or oxidation. The surface imaging pyrometer has been calibrated for use in a material processing lab calibration over the range of 1000 to 3000 deg K, and these results are described. The particle imaging pyrometer has a field of view that spans the entire particle stream in typical thermal spray devices, and provides continuous measurement of the entire particle stream. Particle temperature and velocity are critical parameters for producing high quality spray coatings efficiently and reliably. The software locates the particle streaks in the image, and determines the intensity ratio for each particle streak pair to obtain the temperature. The dimensions of the particle streak image are measured to determine the velocity and size. Because the vision-based sensor samples the entire particle stream in every video frame, the particle temperature, velocity and size data are updated at 30 Hz at all points in the particle stream. Particle measurements in a plasma spray at NIST are described. In this paper, we will describe our experiments with ceramic powders, in which measurements have been made at several positions along the particle stream. The particle data are represented as profiles across the particle stream, histograms of the full particle stream or time histories of the full-stream average. The results are compared and calibrated with other temperature and diagnostic measurement systems. (author)

  20. Optical sensor technology for simultaneous measurement of particle speed and concentration of micro sized particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Casper; Han, Anpan; Kristensen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Experimental characterization of a sensor technology that can measure particle speed and concentration simultaneously in liquids and gases is presented here. The basic sensor principle is based on an optical element that shapes a light beam into well-defined fringes. The technology can be described...

  1. Blowing Flap Experiment: PIV Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.; Bremmer, David M.

    2004-01-01

    PIV measurements of the flow in the region of a flap side edge are presented for several flap configurations. The test model is a NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Hicks Mod-B main element airfoil with a half-span Fowler flap. Air is blown from small slots located along the flap side edge on either the top, bottom or side surfaces. The test set up is described and flow measurements for a baseline and three blowing flap configurations are presented. The effects that the flap tip jets have on the structure of the flap side edge flow are discussed for each of the flap configurations tested. The results indicate that blowing air from a slot located along the top surface of the flap greatly weakened the top vortex system and pushed it further off the top surface. Blowing from the bottom flap surface kept the strong side vortex further outboard while blowing from the side surface only strengthened the flap vortex system. It is concluded that blowing from the top or bottom surfaces of the flap may lead to a reduction of flap side edge noise.

  2. Getting the measure of particles in combustion gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Measuring particles in combustion gases has never been entirely simple: optical systems do not measure particle mass directly and with sampling systems you have to wait for the results. A novel sensor that can give reliable, real-time information about the amount and size of particles in conventional and advanced combustion systems has now been developed by Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, California. The work was funded by the Energy Technology Centre in Morgantown, West Virginia, of the United States Department of Energy. The heart of the sensor is a tapered element, oscillating microbalance (TEOM). Made of glass, it looks a bit like a hollow champagne glass. Where the base of the glass would be, a filter is fitted, and the mouth of the glass is fitted firmly to a base plate. This system was developed in support of the DOE's hot gas cleanup program, and operates at temperatures as high as 970/sup 0/C and pressures up to 10 bar in combustion chambers where is samples particles produced during combustion. Sandia's engineers believe the device has wide applications, for anywhere where information about combustion effluents or airborne particles is needed, from hospitals and clean rooms to foundries and kilns.

  3. Strange particle correlations measured by the Star experiment in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions a RHIC; Etude des correlations de particules etranges mesurees par l'experience STAR dans les collisions d'ions lourds ultra-relativistes au RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renault, G

    2004-09-01

    Non-identical correlation functions allow to study the space-time evolution of the source of particles formed in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The STAR experiment is dedicated to probe the formation of a new state of nuclear matter called Quark Gluon Plasma. The proton - lambda correlation function is supposed to be more sensitive to bigger source sizes than the proton - proton because of the absence of the final state Coulomb interaction. In this thesis, proton - lambda, anti-proton - anti-lambda, anti-proton - lambda and proton - anti-lambda correlation functions are studied in Au+Au collisions at {radical}S{sub NN} = 200 GeV using an analytical model. The proton - lambda and anti-proton - anti-lambda correlation functions exhibit the same behavior as in previous measurements. The anti-proton - lambda and proton - anti-lambda correlation functions, measured for the first time, show a very strong signal corresponding to the baryon - anti-baryon annihilation channel. Parameterizing the correlation functions has allowed to characterize final state interactions. (author)

  4. Coupling Solute and Fine Particle Transport with Sand Bed Morphodynamics within a Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C. B.; Ortiz, C. P.; Schumer, R.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Packman, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    Fine suspended particles are typically considered to pass through streams and rivers as wash load without interacting with the bed, however experiments have demonstrated that hyporheic flow causes advective exchange of fine particles with the stream bed, yielding accumulation of fine particle deposits within the bed. Ultimately, understanding river morphodynamics and ecosystem dynamics requires coupling both fine particle and solute transport with bed morphodynamics. To better understand the coupling between these processes we analyze a novel dataset from a controlled field experiment conducted on Clear Run, a 2nd order sand bed stream located within the North Carolina coastal plain. Data include concentrations of continuously injected conservative solutes and fine particulate tracers measured at various depths within the stream bed, overhead time lapse images of bed forms, stream discharge, and geomorphological surveys of the stream. We use image analysis of bed morphodynamics to assess exchange, retention, and remobilization of solutes and fine particles during constant discharge and a short duration experimental flood. From the images, we extract a time series of bedform elevations and scour depths for the duration of the experiment. The high-resolution timeseries of bed elevation enables us to assess coupling of bed morphodynamics with both the solute and fine particle flux during steady state mobile bedforms prior to the flood and to changing bedforms during the flood. These data allow the application of a stochastic modeling framework relating bed elevation fluctuations to fine particle residence times. This combined experimental and modeling approach ultimately informs our ability to predict not only the fate of fine particulate matter but also associated nutrient and carbon dynamics within streams and rivers.

  5. Interferometry with particles of non-zero rest mass: topological experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opat, G.I.

    1994-01-01

    Interferometry as a space-time process is described, together with its topology. Starting from this viewpoint, a convenient unified formalism for the phase shifts which arise in particle interferometry is developed. This formalism is based on a covariant form of Hamilton's action principle and Lagrange's equations of motion. It will be shown that this Lorentz invariant formalism yields a simple perturbation theoretic expression for the general phase shift that arises in matter-wave interferometry. The Lagrangian formalism is compared with the more usual formalism based on the wave propagation vector and frequency. The resulting formalism will be used to analyse the Sagnac effect, gravitational field measurements, and several Aharonov-Bohm-like topological phase shifts. Several topological interferometric experiments using particles of non-zero rest mass are discussed. These experiments involve the use of electrons, neutrons and neutral atoms. Neutron experiments will be emphasised. 45 refs., 15 figs

  6. Trends in integrated circuit design for particle physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkin, E V

    2017-01-01

    Integrated circuits are one of the key complex units available to designers of multichannel detector setups. A whole number of factors makes Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) valuable for Particle Physics and Astrophysics experiments. Among them the most important ones are: integration scale, low power dissipation, radiation tolerance. In order to make possible future experiments in the intensity, cosmic, and energy frontiers today ASICs should provide new level of functionality at a new set of constraints and trade-offs, like low-noise high-dynamic range amplification and pulse shaping, high-speed waveform sampling, low power digitization, fast digital data processing, serialization and data transmission. All integrated circuits, necessary for physical instrumentation, should be radiation tolerant at an earlier not reached level (hundreds of Mrad) of total ionizing dose and allow minute almost 3D assemblies. The paper is based on literary source analysis and presents an overview of the state of the art and trends in nowadays chip design, using partially own ASIC lab experience. That shows a next stage of ising micro- and nanoelectronics in physical instrumentation. (paper)

  7. Multilayer Semiconductor Charged-Particle Spectrometers for Accelerator Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurov, Yu. B.; Lapushkin, S. V.; Sandukovsky, V. G.; Chernyshev, B. A.

    2018-03-01

    The current state of studies in the field of development of multilayer semiconductor systems (semiconductor detector (SCD) telescopes), which allow the energy to be precisely measured within a large dynamic range (from a few to a few hundred MeV) and the particles to be identified in a wide mass range (from pions to multiply charged nuclear fragments), is presented. The techniques for manufacturing the SCD telescopes from silicon and high-purity germanium are described. The issues of measuring characteristics of the constructed detectors and their impact on the energy resolution of the SCD telescopes and on the quality of the experimental data are considered. Much attention is given to the use of the constructed semiconductor devices in experimental studies at accelerators of PNPI (Gatchina), LANL (Los Alamos) and CELSIUS (Uppsala).

  8. Gas and particle velocity measurements in an induction plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesinski, J.; Gagne, R.; Boulos, M.I.

    1981-08-01

    Laser doppler anemometry was used for the measurements of the plasma and particle velocity profiles in the coil region of an inductively coupled plasma. Results are reported for a 50 mm ID induction torch operated at atmospheric pressure with argon as the plasma gas. The oscillator frequency was 3 MHz and the power in the coil was varied between 4.6 and 10.5 kW. The gas velocity measurements were made using a fine carbon powder as a tracer (dp approx. = 1 μm). Measurements were also made with larger silicon particles (dp = 33 μm and sigma = 13 μm) centrally injected in the plasma under different operating conditions

  9. Particle and photon detection for a neutron radiative decay experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile, T.R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)], E-mail: thomas.gentile@nist.gov; Dewey, M.S.; Mumm, H.P.; Nico, J.S.; Thompson, A.K. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Chupp, T.E. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Cooper, R.L. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)], E-mail: cooperrl@umich.edu; Fisher, B.M.; Kremsky, I.; Wietfeldt, F.E. [Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Kiriluk, K.G.; Beise, E.J. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2007-08-21

    We present the particle and photon detection methods employed in a program to observe neutron radiative beta-decay. The experiment is located at the NG-6 beam line at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research. Electrons and protons are guided by a 4.6 T magnetic field and detected by a silicon surface barrier detector. Photons with energies between 15 and 750 keV are registered by a detector consisting of a bismuth germanate scintillator coupled to a large area avalanche photodiode. The photon detector operates at a temperature near 80 K in the bore of a superconducting magnet. We discuss CsI as an alternative scintillator, and avalanche photodiodes for direct detection of photons in the 0.1-10 keV range.

  10. Particle identification by nuclear emulsions in the OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manai, Kais

    2007-01-01

    The OPERA experiment will try to confirm the ν μ →ν τ oscillations by the appearance of the ν τ in a pure ν μ beam. Indeed, a neutrino beam almost pure is produced at CERN (CNGS Beam) and sent to the OPERA detector. The detector is composed of two muons spectrometers and a target formed by walls of bricks. Each brick is an alternation of lead plates and emulsions. This modular structure allows to reconstruct the kink topology of the τ lepton decay with a high spatial resolution. The great challenge of the OPERA experiment is to detect the ν τ interactions with the less uncertainty. To reduce this uncertainty it is essential to identify with the greatest efficiency any background event not including a tau particle. My work permits to reduce background. My principal contribution concerns the selection development, the reconstruction and the muons identification at low energy. This work is based on the setting of variables related to the deposit energy and the multiple scattering. Previously, only deposit energy was used in the analyses of pion/muon separation. This study allows doubling the muon identification efficiency at low energy. This leads to increase the background events rejection in OPERA and to decrease the contamination by 30 pour cent. I also studied the nuclear emulsions capacity to identify charged particles through the analysis of a test beam carried out by the Nagoya group. This test contains protons and pions with different energies. My work proves that the European scan system gives comparable results with those obtained by the Japanese scan system. (Author)

  11. Global Particle Balance Measurements in DIII-D H-mode Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterberg, Ezekial A.; Allen, S.L.; Brooks, N.; Evans, T.E.; Leonard, A.W.; McLean, A.; Watkins, J.G.; Whyte, D.G.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments are performed on the DIII-D tokamak to determine the retention rate in an all graphite first-wall tokamak. A time-dependent particle balance analysis shows a majority of the fuel retention occurs during the initial Ohmic and L-mode phase of discharges, with peak fuel retention rates typically similar to 2 x 10(21) D/s. The retention rate can be zero within the experimental uncertainties (<3 x 10(20) D/s) during the later stationary phase of the discharge. In general, the retention inventory can decrease in the stationary phase by similar to 20-30% from the initial start-up phase of the discharge. Particle inventories determined as a function of time in the discharge, using a 'dynamic' particle balance analysis, agree with more accurate particle inventories directly measured after the discharge, termed 'static' particle balance. Similarly, low stationary retention rates are found in discharges with heating from neutral-beams, which injects particles, and from electron cyclotron waves, which does not inject particles. Detailed analysis of the static and dynamic balance methods provide an estimate of the DIII-D global co-deposition rate of <= 0.6-1.2 x 10(20) D/s. Dynamic particle balance is also performed on discharges with resonant magnetic perturbation ELM suppression and shows no additional retention during the ELM-suppressed phase of the discharge.

  12. Detecting charging state of ultra-fine particles: instrumental development and ambient measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Laakso

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of ion-induced nucleation in the lower atmosphere has been discussed for a long time. In this article we describe a new instrumental setup – Ion-DMPS – which can be used to detect contribution of ion-induced nucleation on atmospheric new particle formation events. The device measures positively and negatively charged particles with and without a bipolar charger. The ratio between "charger off" to "charger on" describes the charging state of aerosol particle population with respect to equilibrium. Values above one represent more charges than in an equilibrium (overcharged state, and values below unity stand for undercharged situation, when there is less charges in the particles than in the equilibrium. We performed several laboratory experiments to test the operation of the instrument. After the laboratory tests, we used the device to observe particle size distributions during atmospheric new particle formation in a boreal forest. We found that some of the events were clearly dominated by neutral nucleation but in some cases also ion-induced nucleation contributed to the new particle formation. We also found that negative and positive ions (charged particles behaved in a different manner, days with negative overcharging were more frequent than days with positive overcharging.

  13. Studies of emittance growth and halo particle production in intense charged particle beams using the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilson, Erik P.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Dorf, Mikhail; Efthimion, Philip C.; Majeski, Richard; Chung, Moses; Gutierrez, Michael S.; Kabcenell, Aaron N.

    2010-01-01

    The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) is a compact laboratory experiment that places the physicist in the frame-of-reference of a long, charged-particle bunch coasting through a kilometers-long magnetic alternating-gradient (AG) transport system. The transverse dynamics of particles in both systems are described by the same set of equations, including nonlinear space-charge effects. The time-dependent voltages applied to the PTSX quadrupole electrodes in the laboratory frame are equivalent to the spatially periodic magnetic fields applied in the AG system. The transverse emittance of the charge bunch, which is a measure of the area in the transverse phase space that the beam distribution occupies, is an important metric of beam quality. Maintaining low emittance is an important goal when defining AG system tolerances and when designing AG systems to perform beam manipulations such as transverse beam compression. Results are reviewed from experiments in which white noise and colored noise of various amplitudes and durations have been applied to the PTSX electrodes. This noise is observed to drive continuous emittance growth and increase in root-mean-square beam radius over hundreds of lattice periods. Additional results are reviewed from experiments that determine the conditions necessary to adiabatically reduce the charge bunch's transverse size and simultaneously maintain high beam quality. During adiabatic transitions, there is no change in the transverse emittance. The transverse compression can be achieved either by a gradual change in the PTSX voltage waveform amplitude or frequency. Results are presented from experiments in which low emittance is achieved by using focusing-off-defocusing-off waveforms.

  14. Winter precipitation particle size distribution measurement by Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gwo-Jong; Kleinkort, Cameron; Bringi, V. N.; Notaroš, Branislav M.

    2017-12-01

    From the radar meteorology viewpoint, the most important properties for quantitative precipitation estimation of winter events are 3D shape, size, and mass of precipitation particles, as well as the particle size distribution (PSD). In order to measure these properties precisely, optical instruments may be the best choice. The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) is a relatively new instrument equipped with three high-resolution cameras to capture the winter precipitation particle images from three non-parallel angles, in addition to measuring the particle fall speed using two pairs of infrared motion sensors. However, the results from the MASC so far are usually presented as monthly or seasonally, and particle sizes are given as histograms, no previous studies have used the MASC for a single storm study, and no researchers use MASC to measure the PSD. We propose the methodology for obtaining the winter precipitation PSD measured by the MASC, and present and discuss the development, implementation, and application of the new technique for PSD computation based on MASC images. Overall, this is the first study of the MASC-based PSD. We present PSD MASC experiments and results for segments of two snow events to demonstrate the performance of our PSD algorithm. The results show that the self-consistency of the MASC measured single-camera PSDs is good. To cross-validate PSD measurements, we compare MASC mean PSD (averaged over three cameras) with the collocated 2D Video Disdrometer, and observe good agreements of the two sets of results.

  15. The ONR-602 experiment and investigation of particle precipitation near the equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M. A.

    1991-01-01

    The global precipitation of radiation belt particles at low altitude was investigated, using the ONR-602 experiment on board U.S. Air Force mission S81-1. A combination of a main telescope, beginning analysis at a few MeV/nucleon, and a monitor system, giving results below 1 MeV/nucleon, was designed for measuring particle phenomena characterized by almost any energy spectrum. The monitor provides an indication of the presence of the particles at low energy, while the main telescope gives detailed flux and composition data for the higher energy events. Results of the instrument performance analysis indicate that, at the equator, the monitor telescope has the peak efficiency for particles of about 90 deg pitch angles. The large opening angle of 75 deg makes it possible to detect omnidirectional flux of quasi-trapped particles. The high-energy cosmic-ray background count is found to be very insignificant. It is demonstrated that the particle counting rates for the low-energy threshold have been almost entirely due to protons.

  16. Particle fluxes in the Bay of Bengal measurEd. by sediment traps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Parthiban, G.

    Particle fluxes were measured between October, 1987 and March, 1988 using six automated time series sediment traps at three locations in the northern, central and southern Bay of Bengal. Particle fluxes varied between 16.8 and 345 mg m/2 day/1...

  17. Measurement of the particle production properties in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Bruni, Alessia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the particle production properties with the ATLAS detector A correct modelling of the underlying event in proton-proton collisions is important for the proper simulation of kinematic distributions of high-energy collisions. The ATLAS collaboration extended previous studies at 7 TeV with a leading track or jet or Z boson by a new study at 13 TeV, measuring the number and transverse-momentum sum of charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle in dependence of the reconstructed leading track. These measurements are sensitive to the underlying-event as well as the onset of hard emissions. The results are compared to predictions of several MC generators. A similar comparison between measurements and MC generator predictions will be shown for the strange meson content in topquark pair events. Studies of particle correlations in high-energy collisions can provide valuable insights into the detailed understanding of the space-time geometry of the hadronization region. The ATLA...

  18. A flowrate measurement method by counting of radioactive particles suspended in a liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, G.

    1983-04-01

    By external counting of fine #betta# emitting radioactive particles suspended in a liquid, the flowrate in a system of pipes can be measured. The study comprises three phases: 1. - The hydraulic validity of the method is demonstrated in laminar as well as in turbulent flow under certain conditions of particles size and density and of liquid viscosity. 2. - Radioactive labelling of microspheres of serumalbumin or ion exchange resins with indium 113m delivered by a generator Tin 113 → Indium 113m. 3. - Counting with a scintillation detector: a method of threshold overstepping is experimented with a mechanical or electronic simulator; the statistical study of particle superposition under the detector enables a correction for the resulting counting losses to be proposed. The method provides absolute measurements, but is particularly suitable to measure relative flowrates in a hydraulic network. It can be continuous and does not perturb the flow and the network. The accuracy of the method is analysed in details [fr

  19. Combustion/particle sizing experiments at the Naval Postgraduate School Combustion Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, John; Netzer, David

    1987-01-01

    Particle behavior in combustion processes is an active research area at NPS. Currently, four research efforts are being conducted: (1) There is a long standing need to better understand the soot production and combustion processes in gas turbine combustors, both from a concern for improved engine life and to minimize exhaust particulates. Soot emissions are strongly effected by fuel composition and additives; (2) A more recent need for particle sizing/behavior measurements is in the combustor of a solid fuel ramjet which uses a metallized fuel. High speed motion pictures are being used to study rather large burning particles; (3) In solid propellant rocket motors, metals are used to improve specific impulse and/or to provide damping for combustion pressure oscillations. Particle sizing experiments are being conducted using diode arrays to measure the light intensity as a function of scattering angle; (4) Once a good quality hologram is attained, a need exists for obtaining the particle distributions from hologram in a short period of time. A Quantimet 720 Image Analyzer is being used to reconstruct images.

  20. Particle fueling experiments with a series of pellets in LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldzuhn, J.; Damm, H.; Dinklage, A.; Sakamoto, R.; Motojima, G.; Yasuhara, R.; Ida, K.; Yamada, H.; LHD Experiment Group; Wendelstein 7-X Team

    2018-03-01

    Ice pellet injection is performed in the heliotron Large Helical Device (LHD). The pellets are injected in short series, with up to eight individual pellets. Parameter variations are performed for the pellet ice isotopes, the LHD magnetic configurations, the heating scenario, and some others. These experiments are performed in order to find out whether deeper fueling can be achieved with a series of pellets compared to single pellets. An increase of the fueling efficiency is expected since pre-cooling of the plasma by the first pellets within a series could aid deeper penetration of later pellets in the same series. In addition, these experiments show which boundary conditions must be fulfilled to optimize the technique. The high-field side injection of pellets, as proposed for deep fueling in a tokamak, will not be feasible with the same efficiency in a stellarator or heliotron because there the magnetic field gradient is smaller than in a tokamak of comparable size. Hence, too shallow pellet fueling, in particular in a large device or a fusion reactor, will be an issue that can be overcome only by extremely high pellet velocities, or other techniques that will have to be developed in the future. It turned out by our investigations that the fueling efficiency can be enhanced by the injection of a series of pellets to some extent. However, further investigations will be needed in order to optimize this approach for deep particle fueling.

  1. Particle velocity measurements in laser irradiated foils using ORVIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, S.A.; Fisk, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Aluminum foils from 2- to 200-μm thick have been subjected to a Nd:YAG laser pulse of low irradiance (10 9 W/cm 2 , approx. 10 ns pulse) to produce laser-driven shocks in the foils. The particle velocity history of the foil side opposite the laser deposition was monitored with nanosecond resolution by a velocity interferometer system called ORVIS. These histories indicate a shock reverberation process accelerates the foil. Peak foil velocities can be adequately calculated using a ricket propulsion model developed from experiments at much higher irradiances. A velocity of 1 km/s was developed in a 2-μm-thick free foil in a time of 50 ns. Water-confined foils attained peak particle velocities about three times higher than those of free foils

  2. Microscopic composition measurements of organic individual particles collected in the Southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, D.; China, S.; Fraund, M. W.; Pham, D.; Kulkarni, G.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.; Moffet, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) Campaign was carried out to gain a better understanding of the lifecycle of shallow clouds. The HISCALE experiment was designed to contrast two seasons, wet and dry, and determine their effect on atmospheric cloud and aerosol processes. The spring component to HISCALE was selected to characterize mixing state for particles collected onto substrates. Sampling was performed before and after rain events to obtain airborne soil organic particles (ASOP), which are ejected after rain events. The unique composition of the ASOP may affect optical properties and/or hygroscopic properties. The collection of particles took place at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains (ARM SGP) field site. The Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscope (STXM) was used to image the samples collected during the first HI-SCALE Campaign to determine the carbonaceous mixing state. Scanning Electron Microscopy Energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) analysis is more sensitive to the inorganic makeup of particles, while STXM renders a more comprehensive analysis of the organics. Measurements such as nephelometry, Particle Soot Absorption Photometry (PSAP), and Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) from the ARM archive will be correlated with microscopy measurements. The primary focus is the relation between composition and morphology of ASOP with hygroscopicity and optical properties. Further investigation of these organic particles will be performed to provide a mixing state parameterization and aid in the advancement of current climate models.

  3. Contribution to the study of elementary particles in experiments involving accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldisseri, A.

    2006-05-01

    This document reviews the theoretical, experimental and technical achievements of the author since the beginning of his scientific career. Works in 5 fields have been highlighted: 1) rare decays of the η meson, 2) neutrino oscillations in NOMAD experiment, 3) quark and gluon plasma, 4) the PHENIX experiment at RHIC, and 5) the ALICE experiment in LHC. The PHENIX experiment was dedicated to the accurate measuring of photons and dileptons (particularly J/Ψ, Ψ' resonances) produced in heavy ion collisions. The ALICE experiment is devoted to the study of the quark gluon plasma. Its detector must be able to detect charged particles with a broad range of transverse momenta (from 100 MeV/c to 100 GeV/c). This document presented before an academic board will allow his author to manage research works and particularly to tutor thesis students

  4. A multi-time-step noise reduction method for measuring velocity statistics from particle tracking velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machicoane, Nathanaël; López-Caballero, Miguel; Bourgoin, Mickael; Aliseda, Alberto; Volk, Romain

    2017-10-01

    We present a method to improve the accuracy of velocity measurements for fluid flow or particles immersed in it, based on a multi-time-step approach that allows for cancellation of noise in the velocity measurements. Improved velocity statistics, a critical element in turbulent flow measurements, can be computed from the combination of the velocity moments computed using standard particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) or particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques for data sets that have been collected over different values of time intervals between images. This method produces Eulerian velocity fields and Lagrangian velocity statistics with much lower noise levels compared to standard PIV or PTV measurements, without the need of filtering and/or windowing. Particle displacement between two frames is computed for multiple different time-step values between frames in a canonical experiment of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The second order velocity structure function of the flow is computed with the new method and compared to results from traditional measurement techniques in the literature. Increased accuracy is also demonstrated by comparing the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy measured from this function against previously validated measurements.

  5. [Review of experiments measuring CP nonconservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gollin, G.D.

    1985-08-01

    Recent experiments setting limits on the magnitude of the ratio of two CP nonconservation parameters epsilon'/epsilon are discussed. Gauge theory calculations suggest that epsilon'/epsilon > .005, somewhat at odds with the results epsilon'/epsilon = -.0046 +- .0058 from a Chicago-Saclay measurement and epsilon'/epsilon = .0017 +- .0082 from a Yale-BNL experiment. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Charged particle multiplicity distributions in Au-Au collisions at RHIC-BNL energies (BRAHMS Experiment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argintaru, D.; Bearden, I.G.; Beavis, D.

    2002-01-01

    The BRAHMS Experiment (Broad RAnge Hadronic Magnetic Spectrometers) takes place at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) from Brookhaven National Laboratory and searches for a transition of matter into a new phase called quark-gluon plasma (QGP), a phase transition that appears in extreme conditions of nuclear matter densities and temperatures. Important signals for this transition are related to dependencies of the charged particle multiplicity distributions on the pseudorapidity range. The charged particle multiplicity distributions in Au-Au collisions at RHIC energies are obtained from the global detector measurements. These detectors are: - An array of Si strip detectors and scintillation tiles placed around the interaction region; they cover the range η < 2 in pseudorapidity, measuring the majority of charged particles; - Two systems of Cerenkov detectors (Beam-Beam Counters) placed both sides of the nominal interaction point at 220 cm and cover the range 3 < η < 4.3 in pseudorapidity. These detectors are used for vertex determination and supply a level zero trigger for the entire experiment; - Zero Degree Calorimeters placed at zero degree with respect to the beam axis, both sides of the vertex, measuring the spectator neutrons from the nuclear reactions. These detectors supplies information about the reaction centrality and could estimate the interaction vertex. The paper presents some results on charged particle multiplicities in different pseudorapidity ranges at different impact parameters. Interesting dependencies of the average charged particle multiplicities on the pseudorapidity range, impact parameters and total available energy in the centre of mass system. Some comparisons with the simulation codes predictions and theoretical model estimations are included, too. (authors)

  7. Development of two-dimensional velocity field measurement using particle tracking velocimetry on neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Y.; Mishima, K.; Suzuki, T.; Matsubayashi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The structures of liquid metal two-phase flow are investigated for analyzing the core meltdown accident of fast reactor. The experiments of high-density ratio two-phase flow for lead-bismuth molten metal and nitrogen gases are conducted to understand in detail. The liquid phase velocity distributions of lead-bismuth molten metal are measured by neutron radiography using Au-Cd tracer particles. The liquid phase velocity distributions are obtained usually by using particle image velocimetry (PIV) on the neutron radiography. The PIV, however is difficult to get the velocity vector distribution quantitatively. An image of neutron radiography is divided into two images of the bubbles and the tracer particles each in particle tracking velocimetry (PTV), which distinguishes tracer contents in the bubble from them in the liquid phase. The locations of tracer particles in the liquid phase are possible to determine by particle mask correlation method, in which the bubble images are separated from the tracer images by Σ-scaling method. The particle tracking velocimetry give a full detail of the velocity vector distributions of the liquid phase in two-phase flow, in comparison with the PIV method. (M. Suetake)

  8. Measurement and modeling the coefficient of restitution of char particles under simulated entrained flow gasifier conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, LaTosha M.

    predict the coefficient of restitution (COR) which is the ratio of the rebound velocity to the impacting velocity (which is a necessary boundary condition for Discrete Phase Models). However, particle-wall impact models do not use actual geometries of char particles and motion of char particles due to gasifier operating conditions. This work attempts to include the surface geometry and rotation of the particles. To meet the objectives of this work, the general methodology used for this work involved (1) determining the likelihood of particle becoming entrapped, (2) assessing the limitations of particle-wall impact models for the COR through cold flow experiments in order to adapt them to the non-ideal conditions (surface and particle geometry) within a gasifier, (3) determining how to account for the influence of the carbon and the ash composition in the determination of the sticking probability of size fractions and specific gravities within a PSD and within the scope of particle wall impact models, and (4) using a methodology that quantifies the sticking probability (albeit a criterion or parameter) to predict the partitioning of a PSD into slag and flyash based on the proximate analysis. In this study, through sensitivity analysis the scenario for particle becoming entrapped within a slag layer was ruled out. Cold flow educator experiments were performed to measure the COR. Results showed a variation in the coefficient of restitution as a function of rebound angle due rotation of particles from the educator prior to impact. The particles were then simply dropped in "drop" experiments (without educator) to determine the influence of sphericity on particle rotation and therefore, the coefficient of restitution. The results showed that in addition to surface irregularities, the particle shape and orientation of the particle prior to impacting the target surface contributed to this variation of the coefficient of restitution as a function of rebounding angle. Oblique

  9. Measurement quality assurance for beta particle calibrations at NIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, C.G.; Pruitt, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Standardized beta-particle fields have been established in an international standard and have been adopted for use in several U.S. dosimeter and instrument testing standards. Calibration methods and measurement quality assurance procedures employed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for beta-particle calibrations in these reference fields are discussed. The calibration facility including the NIST-automated extrapolation ionization chamber is described, and some sample results of calibrations are shown. Methods for establishing and maintaining traceability to NIST of secondary laboratories are discussed. Currently, there are problems in finding a good method for routine testing of traceability to NIST. Some examples of past testing methods are given and solutions to this problem are proposed

  10. Measurement quality assurance for beta particle calibrations at NIST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, C.G.; Pruitt, J.S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Standardized beta-particle fields have been established in an international standard and have been adopted for use in several U.S. dosimeter and instrument testing standards. Calibration methods and measurement quality assurance procedures employed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for beta-particle calibrations in these reference fields are discussed. The calibration facility including the NIST-automated extrapolation ionization chamber is described, and some sample results of calibrations are shown. Methods for establishing and maintaining traceability to NIST of secondary laboratories are discussed. Currently, there are problems in finding a good method for routine testing of traceability to NIST. Some examples of past testing methods are given and solutions to this problem are proposed.

  11. A computational tool to characterize particle tracking measurements in optical tweezers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Michael A; Bowen, Warwick P

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present a computational tool for optical tweezers which calculates the particle tracking signal measured with a quadrant detector and the shot-noise limit to position resolution. The tool is a piece of Matlab code which functions within the freely available Optical Tweezers Toolbox. It allows the measurements performed in most optical tweezer experiments to be theoretically characterized in a fast and easy manner. The code supports particles with arbitrary size, any optical fields and any combination of objective and condenser, and performs a full vector calculation of the relevant fields. Example calculations are presented which show the tracking signals for different particles, and the shot-noise limit to position sensitivity as a function of the effective condenser NA. (paper)

  12. [Air Dielectric Barrier Discharge Emission Spectrum Measurement and Particle Analysis of Discharge Process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shuang-yan; Jin, Xing; Zhang, Peng

    2016-02-01

    The emission spectrum detection and diagnosis is one of the most common methods of application to the plasma. It provides wealth of information of the chemical and physical process of the plasma. The analysis of discharge plasma dynamic behavior plays an important role in the study of gas discharge mechanism and application. An air dielectric discharge spectrum measuring device was designed and the emission spectrum data was measured under the experimental condition. The plasma particles evolution was analyzed from the emission spectrum. The numerical calculation model was established and the density equation, energy transfer equation and the Boltzmann equation was coupled to analyze the change of the particle density to explain the emission spectrum characteristics. The results are that the particle density is growing with the increasing of reduced electric field. The particle density is one or two orders of magnitude difference for the same particle at the same moment for the reduced electric field of 40, 60 or 80 Td. A lot of N₂ (A³), N₂ (A³) and N₂ (C³) particles are generated by the electric field excitation. However, it transforms quickly due to the higher energy level. The transformation returns to the balance after the discharge of 10⁻⁶ s. The emission spectrometer measured in the experiments is mostly generated by the transition of excited nitrogen. The peak concentration of O₂ (A¹), O₂ (B¹) and O₂ (A³ ∑⁺u) is not low compared to the excited nitrogen molecules. These particles energy is relatively low and the transition spectral is longer. The spectrometer does not capture the oxygen emission spectrum. And the peak concentration of O particles is small, so the transition emission spectrum is weak. The calculation results of the stabled model can well explain the emission spectrum data.

  13. Analysis of sediment particle velocity in wave motion based on wave flume experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupiński, Adam

    2012-10-01

    The experiment described was one of the elements of research into sediment transport conducted by the Division of Geotechnics of West-Pomeranian University of Technology. The experimental analyses were performed within the framework of the project "Building a knowledge transfer network on the directions and perspectives of developing wave laboratory and in situ research using innovative research equipment" launched by the Institute of Hydroengineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Gdańsk. The objective of the experiment was to determine relations between sediment transport and wave motion parameters and then use the obtained results to modify formulas defining sediment transport in rivers, like Ackers-White formula, by introducing basic parameters of wave motion as the force generating bed material transport. The article presents selected results of the experiment concerning sediment velocity field analysis conducted for different parameters of wave motion. The velocity vectors of particles suspended in water were measured with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) apparatus registering suspended particles in a measurement flume by producing a series of laser pulses and analysing their displacement with a high-sensitivity camera connected to a computer. The article presents velocity fields of suspended bed material particles measured in the longitudinal section of the wave flume and their comparison with water velocity profiles calculated for the definite wave parameters. The results presented will be used in further research for relating parameters essential for the description of monochromatic wave motion to basic sediment transport parameters and "transforming" mean velocity and dynamic velocity in steady motion to mean wave front velocity and dynamic velocity in wave motion for a single wave.

  14. Determination of polar cusp position by low-energy particle measurements made aboard AUREOLE satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladyshev, V.A.; Jorjio, M.V.; Shuiskaya, F.K.; Crasnier, J.; Sauvaud, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    The Franco-Soviet experiment ARCAD, launched aboard the satellite AUREOLE December 27, 1971, has verified the existence of a particle penetration from the transition zone up to ionospheric altitudes across the polar cusp. The polar cusp is characterized by proton fluxes >10 7 particles/(cm 2 .s.sr.KeV) at 0.5KeV, with energy spectra similar to those in the transition zone. The position and form of the polar cusp are studied from measurements of protons in the range 0.4 to 30KeV during geomagnetically quiet periods (Kp [fr

  15. Neutral particle time-of-flight analyzer for the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX-U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbs, S.M.; Carter, M.R.; Coutts, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of a time-of-flight (ToF) analyzer being built for installation on the east end cell of the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX-U). Its primary purpose is to measure the velocity distribution of escaping charge exchange neutral particles having energies between 20 and 5000 electron volts (eV). It also enables direct determination of the thermal barrier potential when used in conjunction with the plasma potential diagnostic and the end loss ion spectrometer. In addition, it can measure the velocity distribution of passing ions leaving the central cell and of ions trapped in the thermal barrier

  16. Measurement of the magnetic field coefficients of particle accelerator magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, J.; Ganetis, G.; Hogue, R.; Rogers, E.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.

    1989-01-01

    An important aspect in the development of magnets to be used in particle accelerators is the measurement of the magnetic field in the beam aperture. In general it is necessary to measure the harmonic multipoles in the dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole magnets for a series of stationary currents (plateaus). This is the case for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) which will be ramped to high field over a long period (/approximately/1000 sec.) and then remain on the flat top for the duration of the particle collision phase. In contrast to this mode of operation, the Booster ring being constructed for the Brookhaven AGS, will have a fast ramp rate of approximately 10 Hz. The multipole fields for these Booster magnets must therefore be determined ''on the ramp.'' In this way the effect of eddy currents will be taken into account. The measurement system which we will describe in this paper is an outgrowth of that used for the SSC dipoles. It has the capability of measuring the field multipoles on both a plateau or during a fast ramp. In addition, the same basic coil assembly is used to obtain the magnetic multipoles in dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole magnets. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Measuring the Subjective User eXperience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptein, Maurits

    Measuring the subjective user experience is a challenging task. In this tutorial we will demonstrate how psychological constructs can be divided in separate variables, each measured by its individual questionnaire items. The tutorial will address the analysis of the questionnaire data to estimate its validity and reliability. Analysis will be demonstrated using SPSS.

  18. An electrostatic charge measurement of blowing snow particles focusing on collision frequency to the snow surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omiya, S.; Sato, A.

    2010-12-01

    Blowing snow particles are known to have an electrostatic charge. This charge may be a contributing factor in the formation of snow drifts and snow cornices and changing of the trajectory of blowing snow particles. These formations and phenomena can cause natural disaster such as an avalanche and a visibility deterioration, and obstruct transportation during winter season. Therefore, charging phenomenon of the blowing snow particles is an important issue in terms of not only precise understanding of the particle motion but disaster prevention. The primary factor of charge accumulation to the blowing snow particles is thought to be due to “saltation” of them. The “saltation” is one of movement forms of blowing snow: when the snow particles are transported by the wind, they repeat frictional collisions with the snow surface. In previous studies, charge-to-mass ratios measured in the field were approximately -50 to -10 μC/kg, and in the wind tunnel were approximately -0.8 to -0.1 μC/kg. While there were qualitatively consistent in sign, negative, there were huge gaps quantitatively between them. One reason of those gaps is speculated to be due to differences in fetch. In other words, the difference of the collision frequency of snow particles to the snow surface has caused the gaps. But it is merely a suggestion and that has not been confirmed. The purpose of this experiment is to measure the charge of blowing snow particles focusing on the collision frequency and clarify the relationship between them. Experiments were carried out in the cryogenic wind tunnel of Snow and Ice Research Center (NIED, JAPAN). A Faraday cage and an electrometer were used to measure the charge of snow particles. These experiments were conducted over the hard snow surface condition to prevent the erosion of the snow surface and the generation of new snow particles from the surface. The collision frequency of particle was controlled by changing the wind velocity (4.5 to 7 m/s) under

  19. Diagnostic system for measurement of particle balance in TMX-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.L.; Correll, D.L.; Hill, D.N.; Wood, R.D.; Brown, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    Several diagnostics measure the particle sources and losses in the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) plasma. An absolutely calibrated high-speed (0.5 ms per frame) filtered (6561 A) video camera measures the total ionization source as a function of radius. An axial view of the plasma automatically integrates the axial variations within the depth of field of the system. Another camera, viewing the plasma radially, measures the axial source variations near the deuterium fueling source. Axial ion losses are measured by an array of Faraday cups that are equipped with grids for repelling electrons and are mounted at each end of the experiment. Unequal ion and electron (nonambipolar) radial losses are inferred from net current measurements on an array of grounded plates at each end. Any differences between the measured particle losses and sources may be attributed to ambipolar radial losses and/or azimuthal asymmetries in the particle-loss profiles. Methods of system calibration, along with details of computer data acquisition and processing of this relatively large set of data, are also presented. 6 refs., 1 fig

  20. Quantitative Measures of Chaotic Charged Particle Dynamics in the Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, D. L.; Martin, R. F., Jr.; Burris, C.

    2017-12-01

    It has long been noted that the motion of charged particles in magnetotail-like magnetic fields is chaotic, however, efforts to quantify the degree of chaos have had conflicting conclusions. In this paper we re-examine the question by focusing on quantitative measures of chaos. We first examine the percentage of orbits that enter the chaotic region of phase space and the average trapping time of those particles. We then examine the average exponential divergence rate (AEDR) of the chaotic particles between their first and last crossing of the mid-plane. We show that at resonant energies where the underlying phase space has a high degree of symmetry, only a small number of particle enter the chaotic region, but they are trapped for long periods of time and the time asymptotic value of the AEDR is very close to the average value of the AEDR. At the off-resonant energies where the phase space is highly asymmetric, the majority of the particle enter the chaotic region for fairly short periods of time and the time asymptotic value of the AEDR is much smaller than the average value. The root cause is that in the resonant case, the longest-lived orbits tend interact with the current many times and sample the entire chaotic region, whereas in the non-resonant case the longest-lived orbits only interact with the current sheet a small number of times but have very long mirrorings where the motion is nearly regular. Additionally we use an ad-hoc model where we model the current sheet as a Lorentz scattering system with each interaction with the current sheet being considered as a "collision". We find that the average kick per collision is greatest at off-resonant energies. Finally, we propose a chaos parameter as the product of the AEDR times the average chaotic particle trapping time times the percentage of orbits that are chaotic. We find that this takes on peak values at the resonant energies.

  1. Diffusivity measurements of volatile organics in levitated viscous aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastelberger, Sandra; Krieger, Ulrich K.; Luo, Beiping; Peter, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Field measurements indicating that atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles can be present in a highly viscous, glassy state have spurred numerous studies addressing low diffusivities of water in glassy aerosols. The focus of these studies is on kinetic limitations of hygroscopic growth and the plasticizing effect of water. In contrast, much less is known about diffusion limitations of organic molecules and oxidants in viscous matrices. These may affect atmospheric chemistry and gas-particle partitioning of complex mixtures with constituents of different volatility. In this study, we quantify the diffusivity of a volatile organic in a viscous matrix. Evaporation of single particles generated from an aqueous solution of sucrose and small amounts of volatile tetraethylene glycol (PEG-4) is investigated in an electrodynamic balance at controlled relative humidity (RH) and temperature. The evaporative loss of PEG-4 as determined by Mie resonance spectroscopy is used in conjunction with a radially resolved diffusion model to retrieve translational diffusion coefficients of PEG-4. Comparison of the experimentally derived diffusivities with viscosity estimates for the ternary system reveals a breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relationship, which has often been invoked to infer diffusivity from viscosity. The evaporation of PEG-4 shows pronounced RH and temperature dependencies and is severely depressed for RH ≲ 30 %, corresponding to diffusivities pollutant molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  2. Particle size distributions of radioactive aerosols measured in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorrian, M.-D.; Bailey, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    A survey of published values of Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter (AMAD) measured in working environments was conducted to assist in the selection of a realistic default AMAD for occupational exposures. Results were compiled from 52 publications covering a wide variety of industries and workplaces. Reported values of AMAD from all studies ranged from 0.12 μm to 25 μm, and most were well fitted by a log-normal distribution with a median value of 4.4 μm. This supports the choice of a 5 μm default AMAD, as a realistic rounded value for occupational exposures, by the ICRP Task Group on Human Respiratory Tract Models for Radiological Protection and its acceptance by ICRP. Both the nuclear power and nuclear fuel handling industries gave median values of approximately 4 μm. Uranium mills gave a median value of 6.8 μm with AMADs frequently greater than 10 μm. High temperature and arc saw cutting operations generated submicron particles and occasionally, biomodal log-normal particle size distributions. It is concluded that in view of the wide range of AMADs found in the surveyed literature, greater emphasis should be placed on air sampling to characterise aerosol particle size distributions for individual work practices, especially as doses estimated with the new 5 μm default AMAD will not always be conservative. (author)

  3. Elementary Particle Physics Experiment at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brau, Benjamin; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Willocq, Stephane

    2013-07-30

    In this progress report we summarize the activities of the University of Massachusetts- Amherst group for the three years of this research project. We are fully engaged in research at the energy frontier with the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We have made leading contributions in software development and performance studies for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer, as well as on physics analysis with an emphasis on Standard Model measurements and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. In addition, we have increased our contributions to the Muon Spectrometer New Small Wheel upgrade project.

  4. Global atmospheric particle formation from CERN CLOUD measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Dunne, E M; Kurten, A; Almeida, J; Duplissy, J; Williamson, C; Ortega, I K; Pringle, K J; Adamov, A; Baltensperger, U; Barmet, P; Benduhn, F; Bianchi, F; Breitenlechner, M; Clarke, A; Curtius, J; Dommen, J; Donahue, N M; Ehrhart, S; Flagan, R C; Franchin, A; Guida, R; Hakala, J; Hansel, A; Heinritzi, M; Jokinen, T; Kangasluoma, J; Kirkby, J; Kulmala, M; Kupc, A; Lawler, M J; Lehtipalo, K; Makhmutov, V; Mann, G; Mathot, S; Merikanto, J; Miettinen, P; Nenes, A; Onnela, A; Rap, A; Reddington, C L S; Riccobono, F; Richards, N A D; Rissanen, M P; Rondo, L; Sarnela, N; Schobesberger, S; Sengupta, K; Simon, M; Sipila, M; Smith, J N; Stozkhov, Y; Tome, A; Trostl, J; Wagner, P E; Wimmer, D; Winkler, P M; Worsnop, D R; Carslaw, K S

    2016-01-01

    Fundamental questions remain about the origin of newly formed atmospheric aerosol particles because data from laboratory measurements have been insufficient to build global models. In contrast, gas-phase chemistry models have been based on laboratory kinetics measurements for decades. Here we build a global model of aerosol formation using extensive laboratory-measured nucleation rates involving sulfuric acid, ammonia, ions and organic compounds. The simulations and a comparison with atmospheric observations show that nearly all nucleation throughout the present-day atmosphere involves ammonia or biogenic organic compounds in addition to sulfuric acid. A significant fraction of nucleation involves ions, but the relatively weak dependence on ion concentrations indicates that for the processes studied variations in cosmic ray intensity do not significantly affect climate via nucleation in the present-day atmosphere.

  5. Global atmospheric particle formation from CERN CLOUD measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Eimear M; Gordon, Hamish; Kürten, Andreas; Almeida, João; Duplissy, Jonathan; Williamson, Christina; Ortega, Ismael K; Pringle, Kirsty J; Adamov, Alexey; Baltensperger, Urs; Barmet, Peter; Benduhn, Francois; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Clarke, Antony; Curtius, Joachim; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Heinritzi, Martin; Jokinen, Tuija; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kirkby, Jasper; Kulmala, Markku; Kupc, Agnieszka; Lawler, Michael J; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mann, Graham; Mathot, Serge; Merikanto, Joonas; Miettinen, Pasi; Nenes, Athanasios; Onnela, Antti; Rap, Alexandru; Reddington, Carly L S; Riccobono, Francesco; Richards, Nigel A D; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Sengupta, Kamalika; Simon, Mario; Sipilä, Mikko; Smith, James N; Stozkhov, Yuri; Tomé, Antonio; Tröstl, Jasmin; Wagner, Paul E; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Worsnop, Douglas R; Carslaw, Kenneth S

    2016-12-02

    Fundamental questions remain about the origin of newly formed atmospheric aerosol particles because data from laboratory measurements have been insufficient to build global models. In contrast, gas-phase chemistry models have been based on laboratory kinetics measurements for decades. We built a global model of aerosol formation by using extensive laboratory measurements of rates of nucleation involving sulfuric acid, ammonia, ions, and organic compounds conducted in the CERN CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber. The simulations and a comparison with atmospheric observations show that nearly all nucleation throughout the present-day atmosphere involves ammonia or biogenic organic compounds, in addition to sulfuric acid. A considerable fraction of nucleation involves ions, but the relatively weak dependence on ion concentrations indicates that for the processes studied, variations in cosmic ray intensity do not appreciably affect climate through nucleation in the present-day atmosphere. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Experiment and modeling: Ignition of aluminum particles with a carbon dioxide laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Salil

    Aluminum is a promising ingredient for high energy density compositions used in propulsion systems, explosives, and pyrotechnics. Aluminum powder fuel additives enable one to achieve higher combustion enthalpies and reaction temperatures. Therefore, to develop aluminum based novel and customized high density energetic materials, understanding of ignition and combustion kinetics of aluminum powders is required. In most practical systems, metal ignition and combustion occur in environments with rapidly changing temperatures and gas compositions. The kinetics of exothermic reactions in related energetic materials is commonly characterized by thermal analysis, where the heating rates are very low, on the order of 1--50 K/min. The extrapolation of the identified kinetics to the high heating rates is difficult and requires direct experimental verification. This difficulty led to development of new experimental approaches to directly characterize ignition kinetics for the heating rates in the range of 103--104 K/s. However, the practically interesting heating rates of 106 K/s range have not been achieved. This work is directed at development of an experimental technique and respective heat transfer model for studying ignition of aluminum and other micron-sized metallic particles at heating rates varied around 106 K/s. The experimental setup uses a focused CO2 laser as a heating source and a plate capacitor aerosolizer to feed the aluminum particles into the laser beam. The setup allows using different environment for particle aerosolization. The velocities of particles in the jet are in the range of 0.1 --0 3 m/s. For each selected jet velocity, the laser power is increased until the particles are observed to ignite. The ignition is detected optically using a digital camera and a photomultiplier. The ignition thresholds for spherical aluminum powder were measured at three different particle jet velocities, in air environment. A single particle heat transfer model was

  7. Measurement of Beauty Particle Lifetimes and Hadroproduction Cross-Section

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose an experimental search for beauty particles produced in fixed target hadronic interactions. The essential feature of the proposed experimental technique is the use of two specially designed pieces of hardware~-~a high precision ``decay detector'' and a fast secondary vertex trigger processor. If these devices perform to our expectations, we should be able to obtain sufficient data sample to address several important physics issues, including measurements of the lifetimes of charged and neutral B~mesons, the B~hadroproduction cross-section, and possibly B$^0$- $ \\bar{B} ^0 $ mixing.

  8. Diameter measurements of polystyrene particles with atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnaes, J

    2011-01-01

    The size of (nano) particles is a key parameter used in controlling their function. The particle size is also important in order to understand their physical and chemical properties and regulate their number in health and safety issues. In this work, the geometric diameters of polystyrene spheres of nominal diameter 100 nm are measured using atomic force microscopy. The measurements are based on the apex height and on the average distance between neighbouring spheres when they form a close-packed monolayer on a flat mica substrate. The most important influence parameters for the determination of the geometric diameter are the lateral air gaps and deformation of the spheres. The lateral air gaps are caused by significant size variations of the individual spheres, and a correction is calculated based on the simulation of packing of spheres. The deformation of the spheres is caused mainly by capillary forces acting when they are in contact with each other or with the mica substrate. Based on calculated capillary forces and the literature values of the elastic properties of the polystyrene and mica, the deformation is estimated to be 2 nm with a standard uncertainty of 2 nm. The geometric diameter of the polystyrene spheres was measured with a combined standard uncertainty of ≈3 nm. The measured vertical diameter of 92.3 nm and the certified mobility equivalent diameter measured by differential mobility analysis (DMA) are marginally consistent at a confidence level of 95%. However, the measured lateral geometric diameter was 98.9 nm and is in good agreement with DMA

  9. Diffusivity measurements of volatile organics in levitated viscous aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bastelberger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Field measurements indicating that atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA particles can be present in a highly viscous, glassy state have spurred numerous studies addressing low diffusivities of water in glassy aerosols. The focus of these studies is on kinetic limitations of hygroscopic growth and the plasticizing effect of water. In contrast, much less is known about diffusion limitations of organic molecules and oxidants in viscous matrices. These may affect atmospheric chemistry and gas–particle partitioning of complex mixtures with constituents of different volatility. In this study, we quantify the diffusivity of a volatile organic in a viscous matrix. Evaporation of single particles generated from an aqueous solution of sucrose and small amounts of volatile tetraethylene glycol (PEG-4 is investigated in an electrodynamic balance at controlled relative humidity (RH and temperature. The evaporative loss of PEG-4 as determined by Mie resonance spectroscopy is used in conjunction with a radially resolved diffusion model to retrieve translational diffusion coefficients of PEG-4. Comparison of the experimentally derived diffusivities with viscosity estimates for the ternary system reveals a breakdown of the Stokes–Einstein relationship, which has often been invoked to infer diffusivity from viscosity. The evaporation of PEG-4 shows pronounced RH and temperature dependencies and is severely depressed for RH ≲ 30 %, corresponding to diffusivities < 10−14 cm2 s−1 at temperatures < 15 °C. The temperature dependence is strong, suggesting a diffusion activation energy of about 300 kJ mol−1. We conclude that atmospheric volatile organic compounds can be subject to severe diffusion limitations in viscous organic aerosol particles. This may enable an important long-range transport mechanism for organic material, including pollutant molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs.

  10. Investigating the dynamics of Vulcanian explosions: scaled laboratory experiments of particle-laden puffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, A. B.; Phillips, J. C.; Chojnicki, K. N.

    2006-12-01

    Scaled laboratory experiments analogous to Vulcanian eruptions were conducted, producing particle-laden jets and plumes. A reservoir of a mixture of water and isopropanol plus solid particles (kaolin or Ballotini glass spheres) was pressurized and suddenly released via a rapid-release valve into a 2 ft by 2 ft by 4 ft plexiglass tank containing fresh water. The duration of the subsequent flow was limited by the potential energy associated with the pressurized fluid rather than by the available volume of fluid or by the duration of the valve opening. Particle size (4 &45 microns) and concentration (0 to 10 vol%) were varied in order to change particle settling characteristics and control bulk mixture density (960 kg m-3 to 1060 kg m-3). Water and isopropanol in varying proportions created a light interstitial fluid to simulate buoyant volcanic gases in erupted mixtures. Variations in reservoir pressure and vent size allowed exploration of controlling source parameters; total momentum injected (M) and total buoyancy injected (B). Mass flux at the vent was measured by an in-line Coriolis flowmeter sampling at 100 Hz, allowing rapidly varying M and B to be recorded. The velocity-height relationship of each experiment was measured from high-speed video footage, permitting classification into the following groups: long continuously accelerating jets; accelerating jets transitioning to plumes; and collapsing fountains which generated density currents. Field-documented Vulcanian explosions exhibit this same wide range of behavior, demonstrating that regimes obtained in the laboratory are relevant to natural systems. A generalized framework of results was defined as follows. Increasing M/B for small particles (4 microns; settling time>>experiment duration) pushes the system from collapsing fountains to low-energy plumes to high-energy, continuously accelerating jets; increasing M/B for large particles (45 microns; settling time non-dimensional groups were combined to

  11. Measurement of the charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions with the ALICE detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete

    2009-04-17

    This thesis has introduced the theoretical framework to describe multiple-particle production. The functioning of two event generators, Pythia and Phojet, as well as theoretical descriptions of the charged-particle multiplicity have been discussed. A summary of pseudorapidity-density (dN{sub ch}/d{eta}) and multiplicity-distribution measurements of charged particles has been presented. Existing results have been shown in an energy range of {radical}(s) = 6GeV to 1.8TeV from bubble chamber experiments and detectors at the ISR, Sp anti pS, and Tevatron. The validity of the introduced models was reviewed and the behavior as function of {radical}(s) was discussed. Analysis procedures for two basic measurements with ALICE, the pseudorapidity density and the multiplicity distribution of charged particles, have been developed. The former allows corrections on a bin-by-bin basis, while the latter requires unfolding of the measured distribution. The procedures have been developed for two independent subdetectors of ALICE, the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) and the Time-Projection Chamber (TPC). This allows the comparison of the analysis result in the overlapping regions as an independent cross-check of the measured distribution. Their implementation successfully reproduces different assumed spectra. The procedures have been extensively tested on simulated data using two different event generators, Pythia and Phojet. A comprehensive list of systematic uncertainties was evaluated. Some of these uncertainties still require measured data to verify or extract their magnitude. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of the charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions with the ALICE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete

    2009-01-01

    This thesis has introduced the theoretical framework to describe multiple-particle production. The functioning of two event generators, Pythia and Phojet, as well as theoretical descriptions of the charged-particle multiplicity have been discussed. A summary of pseudorapidity-density (dN ch /dη) and multiplicity-distribution measurements of charged particles has been presented. Existing results have been shown in an energy range of √(s) = 6GeV to 1.8TeV from bubble chamber experiments and detectors at the ISR, Sp anti pS, and Tevatron. The validity of the introduced models was reviewed and the behavior as function of √(s) was discussed. Analysis procedures for two basic measurements with ALICE, the pseudorapidity density and the multiplicity distribution of charged particles, have been developed. The former allows corrections on a bin-by-bin basis, while the latter requires unfolding of the measured distribution. The procedures have been developed for two independent subdetectors of ALICE, the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) and the Time-Projection Chamber (TPC). This allows the comparison of the analysis result in the overlapping regions as an independent cross-check of the measured distribution. Their implementation successfully reproduces different assumed spectra. The procedures have been extensively tested on simulated data using two different event generators, Pythia and Phojet. A comprehensive list of systematic uncertainties was evaluated. Some of these uncertainties still require measured data to verify or extract their magnitude. (orig.)

  13. A neural network device for on-line particle identification in cosmic ray experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrimaglio, R.; Finetti, N.; D'Altorio, L.; Rantucci, E.; Raso, M.; Segreto, E.; Tassoni, A.; Cardarilli, G.C.

    2004-01-01

    On-line particle identification is one of the main goals of many experiments in space both for rare event studies and for optimizing measurements along the orbital trajectory. Neural networks can be a useful tool for signal processing and real time data analysis in such experiments. In this document we report on the performances of a programmable neural device which was developed in VLSI analog/digital technology. Neurons and synapses were accomplished by making use of Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) structures. In this paper we report on the results of measurements performed in order to verify the agreement of the characteristic curves of each elementary cell with simulations and on the device performances obtained by implementing simple neural structures on the VLSI chip. A feed-forward neural network (Multi-Layer Perceptron, MLP) was implemented on the VLSI chip and trained to identify particles by processing the signals of two-dimensional position-sensitive Si detectors. The radiation monitoring device consisted of three double-sided silicon strip detectors. From the analysis of a set of simulated data it was found that the MLP implemented on the neural device gave results comparable with those obtained with the standard method of analysis confirming that the implemented neural network could be employed for real time particle identification

  14. Attempt to measure the temperature, pressure and particle velocity of pyrocastic surge with penetrator-type gauge. ; Airdropping experiment at Unzen volcano. Penetrator hoshiki ni yoru kasai surge no ondo, atsuryoku, ryushi sokudo sokutei no kokoromi. ; Unzendake ni okeru toka jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, H. (Science Education Institute of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan)); Kamata, K.; Sange, K. (Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Science); Nakada, S. (Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Science); Kamata, H. (Geological Survey of Japan, Osaka Office, Osaka (Japan))

    1992-08-01

    This paper describes development of a penetrator intended of measuring temperatures, pressures, and particle velocities of air blasts and pyroclastic surges occurring in volcanos, and its airdropping experiment. This device forms a spear with a total length of 150 cm to 160 cm disposed with wings at the tail, and a stopper to prevent the spear from penetrating into ground deeper than 60 cm. The device for measuring temperatures suspends metal pieces of 16 kinds in total including such metals as lead and tin, and such alloys as eutectic solders and type lead to enable measuring a temperature range from 100[degree]C to 810[degree]C . The device for measuring pressures consists of a square pipe with a length little shorter than one meter, twisted to 22.5[degree] at three locations, each of the 16 faces made from the twisting being attached with two blast meters (using lead and copper foils, serving also as particle velocity meters). Twelve prototype devices have been dropped (not having been recovered yet) on five points of the east side slope of Mt. Unzen using a helicopter. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Implications of accelerator experiments for models of the Kolar Gold Mine particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, K V.L. [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India); Wolfenstein, L [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA)

    1976-03-01

    The significance of accelerator searches for the new particles discovered in the Kolar Gold Mine experiments depends on the characteristics of the models of these particles. Models that could give cosmic ray neutrinos a great advantage over accelerator neutrinos are presented. The new particles should be produced in e/sup +/e/sup -/ colliding beams, but the cross-section is model dependent.

  16. Heterogeneous reactivity of sea spray particles during the CalNex field campaign: Insight from single particle measurements and correlations with gas phase measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, C. J.; Riedel, T. P.; Thornton, J. A.; Wagner, N.; Brown, S. S.; Quinn, P.; Bates, T. S.; Prather, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    Sea spray particles are ubiquitous in marine environments. Heterogeneous reactions between sea spray particles and gas phase pollutants, such as HNO3(g), and N2O5(g), alter particle composition by displacing particulate phase halogens in sea spray and releasing these halogen species into the gas phase; these halogen-containing gas phase species play a significant role in tropospheric ozone production. Measurements of both gas phase and particle phase species on board the R/V Atlantis during the CalNEX 2010 field campaign provided an opportunity to examine the impact of heterogeneous reactivity of marine aerosols along the California coast. During the cruise, coastal measurements were made near the Santa Monica and Port of Los Angeles regions to monitor the chemical processing of marine aerosols. Sea spray particles were analyzed since these particles were the major chloride-containing particles detected. Real-time single particle measurements made using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) revealed the nocturnal processing of sea spray particles through the loss of particulate chloride and a simultaneous gain in particulate nitrate. Gas phase measurements are consistent with the particle phase observations: As N2O5(g) levels rose overnight, the production of ClNO2(g) coincided with the decrease in particulate chloride. These observations provide unique insight into heterogeneous reactivity from both a gas and particle phase perspective. Results from these measurements can be used to better constrain the rate of heterogeneous reactions on sea spray particles.

  17. Diagnostic system for passive charge-exchange particle measurements on JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Masahiro; Tobita, Kenji; Kusama, Yoshinori; Takeuchi, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    In order to measure energy distributions of the charge-exchange neutral particles in the JT-60 experiments, a compact size electrostatic energy analyzer which the measurable energy range is from 1 keV to 100 keV is developed successfully. Compactness of an analyzer is accomplished by setting an accelerator between a gas stripping cell and a deflector of 45deg injection type. The calibration of the analyzer was carried out owing to confirm the capability of energy analysis and stripping efficiency. This analyzer was applied to measure the energy distribution in additionally heated plasmas in JT-60. The usefullness of the analyzer was confirmed. (author)

  18. Sound field separation with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Leclère, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    separation techniques make it possible to distinguish between outgoing and incoming waves from the two sides, and thus NAH can be applied. In this paper, a separation method based on the measurement of the particle velocity in two layers and another method based on the measurement of the pressure...... and the velocity in a single layer are proposed. The two methods use an equivalent source formulation with separate transfer matrices for the outgoing and incoming waves, so that the sound from the two sides of the array can be modeled independently. A weighting scheme is proposed to account for the distance......In conventional near-field acoustic holography (NAH) it is not possible to distinguish between sound from the two sides of the array, thus, it is a requirement that all the sources are confined to only one side and radiate into a free field. When this requirement cannot be fulfilled, sound field...

  19. Measurement of charged particle spectra at the LHC at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2094899

    The measurement of charged particle spectra is performed for centre-of-mass energy \\sqrt(s) = 13 TeV in experiment ATLAS. It is an inclusive measurement aiming at fast comparison of particle activity between data and theoretical model. Data are acquired with minimal model dependence avoiding unnecessary bias. Various efficiencies and fractions are determined in order to correct reconstructed spectra of tracks in the Inner Detector to distributions of primary particles. Correction of certain distributions involves more sophisticated methods, such as Bayesian unfolding. The corrected distributions are compared to Monte Carlo generators - Pythia 8 (A2 and Monash tunes), Herwig++, EPOS and QGSJET. Though no generator describes measured data perfectly, in many cases the differences are within few percent. The measured average number of charged particles per unit of pseudorapidity is 2.876 ± 0.001922(stat.) ± 0.03526(syst.) and is found to be in a good agreement with EPOS generator. Apart from the analysis, an in...

  20. Measuring the cosmological background of relativistic particles with WMAP

    CERN Document Server

    Crotty, P; Pastor, S; Crotty, Patrick; Lesgourgues, Julien; Pastor, Sergio

    2003-01-01

    We show that the first year results of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) constrain very efficiently the energy density in relativistic particles in the universe. We derive new bounds on additional relativistic degrees of freedom expressed in terms of an excess in the effective number of light neutrinos Delta N_eff. Within the flat LambdaCDM scenario, the allowed range is Delta N_eff < 6 (95% CL) using WMAP data only, or -2.6 < Delta N_eff < 4 with the prior H_0= 72 \\pm 8 km/s/Mpc. When other cosmic microwave background and large scale structure experiments are taken into account, the window shrinks to -1.5 < Delta N_eff < 4.2. These results are in perfect agreement with the bounds from primordial nucleosynthesis. Non-minimal cosmological models with extra relativistic degrees of freedom are now severely restricted.

  1. Aerosol Particle Interfacial Thermodynamics and Phase Partitioning Measurements Using Biphasic Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutcher, Cari; Metcalf, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Secondary organic aerosol particles are nearly ubiquitous in the atmosphere and yet there remain large uncertainties in their formation processes and ambient properties. These particles are complex microenvironments, which can contain multiple interfaces due to internal aqueous-organic phase partitioning and to the external liquid-vapor surface. Interfacial properties affect the ambient aerosol morphology, or internal structure of the particle, which in turn can affect the way a particle interacts with an environment of condensable clusters and organic vapors. To improve our ability to accurately predict ambient aerosol morphology, we must improve our knowledge of aerosol interfaces and their interactions with the ambient environment. Unfortunately, many techniques employed to measure interfacial properties do so in bulk solutions or in the presence of a ternary (e.g. solid) phase. In this talk, a novel method using biphasic microscale flows will be introduced for generating, trapping, and perturbing complex interfaces at atmospherically relevant conditions. These microfluidic experiments utilize high-speed imaging to monitor interfacial phenomena at the microscale and are performed with phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy on a temperature-controlled inverted microscope stage. From these experiments, interfacial thermodynamic properties such as surface or interfacial tension, rheological properties such as interfacial moduli, and kinetic properties such as mass transfer coefficients can be measured or inferred.

  2. EXPERIMENTS AT THE INTERFACE OF CARBON PARTICLE CHEMISTRY AND TOXCIOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution includes a complex mixture of carbonaceous gases and particles emitted from multiple anthropogenic, biogenic, and biomass burning sources, and also includes secondary organic components that form during atmospheric aging of these emissions. Exposure to these mixture...

  3. Experiences in automatic keywording of particle physics literature

    CERN Document Server

    Montejo Ráez, Arturo

    2001-01-01

    Attributing keywords can assist in the classification and retrieval of documents in the particle physics literature. As information services face a future with less available manpower and more and more documents being written, the possibility of keyword attribution being assisted by automatic classification software is explored. A project being carried out at CERN (the European Laboratory for Particle Physics) for the development and integration of automatic keywording is described.

  4. Measurement of particle emission in automobil exhaust - application of continuous radiometric aerosol measurement to the emission of diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasenbrink, A.; Georgi, B.

    1989-01-01

    The well-known method of measuring continuously dust by β-absorption is transferred to the problem of particle emission in automobile exhaust. With two similar dust-monitors FH62 having different sampling air flow rates and two low-pressure impactors the reliability of radiometric mass determination was verified. First static experiments with diesel soot showed the necessity of a dilution system, a new mass calibration with regard to the changed β-absorptivity and a quicker calculation of concentration for realtime measurements. (orig.) [de

  5. Search for weakly interacting massive particles with the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saab, Tarek [Stanford U.

    2002-01-01

    From individual galaxies, to clusters of galaxies, to in between the cushions of your sofa, Dark Matter appears to be pervasive on every scale. With increasing accuracy, recent astrophysical measurements, from a variety of experiments, are arriving at the following cosmological model : a flat cosmology (Ωk = 0) with matter and energy densities contributing roughly 1/3 and 2/3 (Ωm = 0.35, ΩΛ = 0.65). Of the matter contribution, it appears that only ~ 10% (Ωb ~ 0.04) is attributable to baryons. Astrophysical measurements constrain the remaining matter to be non-realtivistic, interacting primarily gravitationally. Various theoretical models for such Dark Matter exist. A leading candidate for the non-baryonic matter are Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (dubbed WIMPS). These particles, and their relic density may be naturally explained within the framework of Super-Symmetry theories. SuperSymmetry also offers predictions as to the scattering rates of WIMPs with baryonic matter allowing for the design and tailoring of experiments that search specifically for the WIMPs. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search experiment is searching for evidence of WIMP interactions in crystals of Ge and Si. Using cryogenic detector technology to measure both the phonon and ionization response to a particle recoil the CDMS detectors are able to discriminate between electron and nuclear recoils, thus reducing the large rates of electron recoil backgrounds to levels with which a Dark Matter search is not only feasible, but far-reaching. This thesis will describe in some detail the physical principles behind the CDMS detector technology, highlighting the final step in the evolution of the detector design and characterization techniques. In addition, data from a 100 day long exposure of the current run at the Stanford Underground Facility will be presented, with focus given to detector performance as well as to the implications on allowable WIMP mass - cross-section parameter space.

  6. Workplace Measurements of Ultrafine Particles-A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Uuksulainen, Sanni; Koivisto, Antti J; Hämeri, Kaarle; Kauppinen, Timo

    2017-08-01

    Workers are exposed to ultrafine particles (UFP) in a number of occupations. In order to summarize the current knowledge regarding occupational exposure to UFP (excluding engineered nanoparticles), we gathered information on UFP concentrations from published research articles. The aim of our study was to create a basis for future epidemiological studies that treat UFP as an exposure factor. The literature search found 72 publications regarding UFP measurements in work environments. These articles covered 314 measurement results and tabled concentrations. Mean concentrations were compared to typical urban UFP concentration level, which was considered non-occupational background concentration. Mean concentrations higher than the typical urban UFP concentration were reported in 240 workplace measurements. The results showed that workers' exposure to UFP may be significantly higher than their non-occupational exposure to background concentration alone. Mean concentrations of over 100 times the typical urban UFP concentration were reported in welding and metal industry. However, according to the results of the review, measurements of the UFP in work environments are, to date, too limited and reported too heterogeneous to allow us to draw general conclusions about workers' exposure. Harmonization of measurement strategies is essential if we are to generate more reliable and comparable data in the future. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  7. Density Modulation Experiments to Determine Particle Transport Coefficients on HT-7 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jie Yinxian; Gao Xiang; Tanaka, K; Sakamoto, R; Toi, K; Liu Haiqing; Gao Li; Asif, M; Liu Jin; Xu Qiang; Tong Xingde; Cheng Yongfei

    2006-01-01

    The particle diffusion coefficient and the convection velocity were studied based on the density modulation using D 2 gas puffing on the HT-7 tokamak. The density was measured by a five-channel FIR interferometer. The density modulation amplitude was 10% of the central chord averaged background density and the modulation frequency was 10 Hz in the experiments. The particle diffusion coefficient (D) and the convection velocity (V) were obtained for different background plasmas with the central chord averaged density e > = 1.5x10 19 m -3 and 3.0x10 19 m -3 respectively. It was observed that the influence of density modulation on the main plasma parameters was very weak. This technology is expected to be useful for the analysis of LHW and IBW heated plasmas on HT-7 tokamak in the near future

  8. Low-energy particle experiments-electron analyzer (LEPe) onboard the Arase spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Yoichi; Wang, Bo-Jhou; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Ho, Paul T. P.; Tam, Sunny W. Y.; Chang, Tzu-Fang; Chiang, Chih-Yu; Asamura, Kazushi

    2017-12-01

    In this report, we describe the low-energy electron instrument LEPe (low-energy particle experiments-electron analyzer) onboard the Arase (ERG) spacecraft. The instrument measures a three-dimensional distribution function of electrons with energies of ˜ 19 eV-19 keV. Electrons in this energy range dominate in the inner magnetosphere, and measurement of such electrons is important in terms of understanding the magnetospheric dynamics and wave-particle interaction. The instrument employs a toroidal tophat electrostatic energy analyzer with a passive 6-mm aluminum shield. To minimize background radiation effects, the analyzer has a background channel, which monitors counts produced by background radiation. Background counts are then subtracted from measured counts. Electronic components are radiation tolerant, and 5-mm-thick shielding of the electronics housing ensures that the total dose is less than 100 kRad for the one-year nominal mission lifetime. The first in-space measurement test was done on February 12, 2017, showing that the instrument functions well. On February 27, the first all-instrument run test was done, and the LEPe instrument measured an energy dispersion event probably related to a substorm injection occurring immediately before the instrument turn-on. These initial results indicate that the instrument works fine in space, and the measurement performance is good for science purposes.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Linking variations in sea spray aerosol particle hygroscopicity to composition during two microcosm experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Forestieri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which water uptake influences the light scattering ability of marine sea spray aerosol (SSA particles depends critically on SSA chemical composition. The organic fraction of SSA can increase during phytoplankton blooms, decreasing the salt content and therefore the hygroscopicity of the particles. In this study, subsaturated hygroscopic growth factors at 85 % relative humidity (GF(85 % of predominately submicron SSA particles were quantified during two induced phytoplankton blooms in marine aerosol reference tanks (MARTs. One MART was illuminated with fluorescent lights and the other was illuminated with sunlight, referred to as the "indoor" and "outdoor" MARTs, respectively. Optically weighted GF(85 % values for SSA particles were derived from measurements of light scattering and particle size distributions. The mean optically weighted SSA diameters were 530 and 570 nm for the indoor and outdoor MARTs, respectively. The GF(85 % measurements were made concurrently with online particle composition measurements, including bulk composition (using an Aerodyne high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer and single particle (using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer measurement, and a variety of water-composition measurements. During both microcosm experiments, the observed optically weighted GF(85 % values were depressed substantially relative to pure inorganic sea salt by 5 to 15 %. There was also a time lag between GF(85 % depression and the peak chlorophyll a (Chl a concentrations by either 1 (indoor MART or 3-to-6 (outdoor MART days. The fraction of organic matter in the SSA particles generally increased after the Chl a peaked, also with a time lag, and ranged from about 0.25 to 0.5 by volume. The observed depression in the GF(85 % values (relative to pure sea salt is consistent with the large observed volume fractions of non-refractory organic matter (NR-OM comprising the SSA. The GF(85 % values

  10. Concentrations and size distributions of fine aerosol particles measured at roof level in urban zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despiau, S.; Croci, D.

    2007-05-01

    During the experimental Field Experiments to Constrain Models of Atmospheric Pollution and Transport of Emissions (ESCOMPTE) campaign in June-July 2001, concentrations and size distributions of fine particles (14-722 nm) were measured at roof level in downtown Marseille (France). Part of the campaign was dedicated to the study of aerosol behavior in relation to strong photochemical events (which were identified as "IOP" days) and their regional modeling. The analysis of the concentration variations and the evolution of average diurnal size distribution showed that an "IOP day" is not characterized by a specific concentration or its variation, nor by a specific evolution of the average size distribution. The morning traffic rush is detected at roof level by a net increase in particle concentration over the whole size range measured, indicating a production of ultrafine particles by the traffic but also the raising to roof level of particles of the accumulation mode. The increase is observed about 1 hour after the traffic peak at street level, which is characterized by strong increases in NOx and CO concentrations. The corresponding flux of particles at roof level has been estimated around 3 × 104 cm-2 s-1. A specific signature characterized by a strong and rapid burst of concentration (factor 2 to 4 in 15 min) of particles between 25 and 50 nm, independent of the traffic source, has been detected on six occasions during the campaign. These events occur systematically around noon, in cases of strong radiation, low relative humidity, and common wind direction. Despite the high-diameter value of these particles, it is suggested that they could result from a specific "secondary aerosol process" event involving ozone, biogenic, and/or anthropogenic gas precursors like iodine and VOCs.

  11. Insight into particle production mechanisms from angular correlations of identified particles in pp collisions measured by ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Two-particle angular correlations are a robust tool which provide access to the underlying physics phenomena of particle production in collisions of both protons and heavy ions by studying distributions of particles in pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle difference. The correlation measurement is sensitive to several phenomena, including mini-jets, elliptic flow, Bose-Einstein correlations, resonance decays, conservation laws, which can be separated by selections of momentum, particle type and by analysing the shapes of the correlation structures. In this talk, we report measurements of the correlations of identified particles and their antiparticles (for pions, kaons, protons, and lambdas) at low transverse momenta in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV, recently submitted for publication by the ALICE Collaboration [arXiv:1612.08975]. The analysis reveals differences in particle production between baryons and mesons. The correlation functions for mesons exhibit the expected peak dominated by effects of mini-jet...

  12. Injection quality measurements with diamond based particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Oliver; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    During the re-commissioning phase of the LHC after the long shutdown 1 very high beam losses were observed at the TDI during beam injection. The losses reached up to 90% of the dump threshold. To decrease the through beam losses induced stress on the accelerator components these loss levels need to be reduced. Measurements with diamond based particle detectors (dBLMs), which have nano-second time resolution, revealed that the majority of these losses come from recaptured SPS beam surrounding the nominal bunch train. In this MD the injection loss patterns and loss intensities were investigated in greater detail. Performed calibration shots on the TDI (internal beam absorber for injection) gave a conversion factor from impacting particles intensities to signal in the dBLMs (0.1Vs/109 protons). Using the SPS tune kicker for cleaning the recaptured beam in the SPS and changing the LHC injection kicker settings resulted in a reduction of the injection losses. For 144 bunch injections the loss levels were decreased...

  13. Channel flow structure measurements using particle image velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norazizi Mohamed; Noraeini Mokhtar; Aziz Ibrahim; Ramli Abu Hassan

    1996-01-01

    Two different flow structures in a laboratory channel were examined using a flow visualization technique, known as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The first channel flow structure was that of a steady flow over a horizontal channel bottom. Photographs of particle displacements were taken in the boundary layer in a plane parallel to the flow. These photographs were analyzed to give simultaneous measurements of two components of the velocity at hundreds of points in the plane. Averaging these photographs gave the velocity profile a few millimeters from the bottom of the channel to the water surface. The results gave good agreement with the known boundary layer theory. This technique is extended to the study of the structure under a progressive wave in the channel. A wavelength of the propagating wave is divided into sections by photographing it continously for a number of frames. Each frame is analyzed and a velocity field under this wave at various phase points were produced with their respective directions. The results show that velocity vectors in a plane under the wave could be achieved instantaneously and in good agreement with the small amplitude wave theory

  14. Flowing dusty plasma experiments: generation of flow and measurement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, S.; Bandyopadhyay, P.; Sen, A.

    2016-12-01

    A variety of experimental techniques for the generation of subsonic/supersonic dust fluid flows and means of measuring such flow velocities are presented. The experiments have been carried out in a \\Pi -shaped dusty plasma experimental device with micron size kaolin/melamine formaldehyde particles embedded in a background of argon plasma created by a direct current glow discharge. A stationary dust cloud is formed over the cathode region by precisely balancing the pumping speed and gas flow rate. A flow of dust particles/fluid is generated by additional gas injection from a single or dual locations or by altering the dust confining potential. The flow velocity is then estimated by three different techniques, namely, by super particle identification code, particle image velocimetry analysis and the excitation of dust acoustic waves. The results obtained from these three different techniques along with their merits and demerits are discussed. An estimation of the neutral drag force responsible for the generation as well as the attenuation of the dust fluid flow is made. These techniques can be usefully employed in laboratory devices to investigate linear and non-linear collective excitations in a flowing dusty plasma.

  15. Attachment of composite porous supra-particles to air-water and oil-water interfaces: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunov, Vesselin N; Al-Shehri, Hamza; Horozov, Tommy S

    2016-09-29

    We developed and tested a theoretical model for the attachment of fluid-infused porous supra-particles to a fluid-liquid interface. We considered the wetting behaviour of agglomerated clusters of particles, typical of powdered materials dispersed in a liquid, as well as of the adsorption of liquid-infused colloidosomes at the liquid-fluid interface. The free energy of attachment of a composite spherical porous supra-particle made from much smaller aggregated spherical particles to the oil-water interface was calculated. Two cases were considered: (i) a water-filled porous supra-particle adsorbed at the oil-water interface from the water phase, and, (ii) an oil-filled porous supra-particle adsorbed at the oil-water interface from the oil-phase. We derived equations relating the three-phase contact angle of the smaller "building block" particles and the contact angle of the liquid-infused porous supra-particles. The theory predicts that the porous supra-particle contact angle attached at the liquid interface strongly depends on the type of fluid infused in the particle pores and the fluid phase from which it approaches the liquid interface. We tested the theory by using millimetre-sized porous supra-particles fabricated by evaporation of droplets of polystyrene latex suspension on a pre-heated super-hydrophobic surface, followed by thermal annealing at the glass transition temperature. Such porous particles were initially infused with water or oil and approached to the oil-water interface from the infusing phase. The experiment showed that when attaching at the hexadecane-water interface, the porous supra-particles behaved as hydrophilic when they were pre-filled with water and hydrophobic when they were pre-filled with hexadecane. The results agree with the theoretically predicted contact angles for the porous composite supra-particles based on the values of the contact angles of their building block latex particles measured with the Gel Trapping Technique. The

  16. Pore size determination from charged particle energy loss measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, F.P.; Armitage, B.H.

    1977-01-01

    A new method aimed at measuring porosity and mean pore size in materials has been developed at Harwell. The energy width or variance of a transmitted or backscattered charged particle beam is measured and related to the mean pore size via the assumption that the variance in total path length in the porous material is given by (Δx 2 )=na 2 , where n is the mean number of pores and a the mean pore size. It is shown on the basis of a general and rigorous theory of total path length distribution that this approximation can give rise to large errors in the mean pore size determination particularly in the case of large porosities (epsilon>0.5). In practice it is found that it is not easy to utilize fully the general theory because accurate measurements of the first four moments are required to determine the means and variances of the pore and inter-pore length distributions. Several models for these distributions are proposed. When these are incorporated in the general theory the determinations of mean pore size from experimental measurements on powder samples are in good agreement with values determined by other methods. (Auth.)

  17. Alpha-particle radiobiological experiments using thin CR-39 detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K. F.; Siu, S. Y. M.; McClella, K. E.; Tse, A. K. W.; Lau, B. M. F.; Nikezic, D.; Richardson, B. J.; Lam, P. K. S.; Fong, W. F.; Yu, K. N.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper studied the feasibility of applying comet assay to evaluate the DNA damage in individual HeLa cervix cancer cells after alpha-particle irradiation. We prepared thin CR-39 detectors (<20 μm) as cell-culture substrates, with UV irradiation to shorten the track formation time. After irradiation of the HeLa cells by alpha particles, the tracks on the underside of the CR-39 detector were developed by chemical etching in (while floating on) a 14 N KOH solution at 37 deg. C. Comet assay was then applied. Diffusion of DNA out of the cells could be generally observed from the images of stained DNA. The alpha-particle tracks corresponding to the comets developed on the underside of the CR-39 detectors could also be observed by just changing the focal plane of the confocal microscope. (authors)

  18. Experiment for a precision neutrino mass measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fackler, O.; Mugge, M.; Sticker, H.; Woerner, R.

    1984-04-01

    We describe an experiment which is designed to determine the electron neutrino mass to better than 2 eV. Key features of the experiment are a high activity frozen tritium source and a high resolution electrostatic spectrometer designed to make a careful measurement of the tritium beta decay end point spectrum. The goal is to determine the neutrino mass to better than 1 eV statistically in a four day run. A series of these runs will allow study of potential systematics. The construction phase is nearly complete and preliminary data will be taken in late spring

  19. Particle size distribution properties in mixed-phase monsoon clouds from in situ measurements during CAIPEEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patade, Sachin; Prabha, T. V.; Axisa, D.; Gayatri, K.; Heymsfield, A.

    2015-10-01

    A comprehensive analysis of particle size distributions measured in situ with airborne instrumentation during the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX) is presented. In situ airborne observations in the developing stage of continental convective clouds during premonsoon (PRE), transition, and monsoon (MON) period at temperatures from 25 to -22°C are used in the study. The PRE clouds have narrow drop size and particle size distributions compared to monsoon clouds and showed less development of size spectra with decrease in temperature. Overall, the PRE cases had much lower values of particle number concentrations and ice water content compared to MON cases, indicating large differences in the ice initiation and growth processes between these cloud regimes. This study provided compelling evidence that in addition to dynamics, aerosol and moisture are important for modulating ice microphysical processes in PRE and MON clouds through impacts on cloud drop size distribution. Significant differences are observed in the relationship of the slope and intercept parameters of the fitted particle size distributions (PSDs) with temperature in PRE and MON clouds. The intercept values are higher in MON clouds than PRE for exponential distribution which can be attributed to higher cloud particle number concentrations and ice water content in MON clouds. The PRE clouds tend to have larger values of dispersion of gamma size distributions than MON clouds, signifying narrower spectra. The relationships between PSDs parameters are presented and compared with previous observations.

  20. LHCb experiment reports observation of exotic pentaquark particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Dominguez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Illustration of the possible layout of the quarks in a pentaquark particle such as those discovered at LHCb. The five quarks might be tightly bonded. They might also be assembled into a meson (one quark and one antiquark) and a baryon (three quarks), weakly bonded together.

  1. Zero time tunneling: macroscopic experiments with virtual particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimtz Günter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feynman introduced virtual particles in his diagrams as intermediate states of an interaction process. They represent necessary intermediate states between observable real states. Such virtual particles were introduced to describe the interaction process between an electron and a positron and for much more complicated interaction processes. Other candidates for virtual particles are evanescent modes in optics and in elastic fields. Evanescent modes have a purely imaginary wave number, they represent the mathematical analogy of the tunneling solutions of the Schrödinger equation. Evanescent modes exist in the forbidden frequency bands of a photonic lattice and in undersized wave guides, for instance. The most prominent example for the occurrence of evanescent modes is the frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR at double prisms. Evanescent modes and tunneling lie outside the bounds of the special theory of relativity. They can cause faster than light (FTL signal velocities. We present examples of the quantum mechanical behavior of evanescent photons and phonons at a macroscopic scale. The evanescent modes of photons are described by virtual particles as predicted by former QED calculations.

  2. Apparatus using radioactive particles for measuring gas temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, W.A.; Duffy, T.E.; Seegall, M.I.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus for producing a signal indicative of the temperature of a heated gas is described comprising a beta particle source; a beta particle detector which intercepts particles emitted from said source; circuitry for converting the detector output to a signal indicative of the density of the gas; a pressure transducer for generating a signal indicative of the pressure on the gas; and circuitry for dividing the pressure signal by the density signal to produce a signal indicative of the average temperature of the gas along the path between the beta particle source and the beta particle detector. (auth)

  3. MEASUREMENTS IN A LIQUID ATOMISER SPRAY USING THE PHASE-DOPPLER PARTICLE ANALYSER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R HADEF

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments have been carried out at atmospheric conditions using a water atomiser spray. A phase Doppler anemometry was used to perform the measurements of the droplets size, their velocity and concentration, and photographs were taken.  The results showed that the small particles with low turbulence occupied the central core of the jet displaying a Gaussian profile for the axial velocity component.  The large particles were defected towards the outer edges of the jet, due to their higher initial momentum, and displayed relatively high levels of turbulence. The variables measured show that their spatial distributions were nearly symmetrical about the x-axis and although the number density of the droplets is very high in the centred region, most of the pulverised liquid was present in the edges of the spray.

  4. Improved Tandem Measurement Techniques for Aerosol Particle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Vivek Kumar

    Non-spherical, chemically inhomogeneous (complex) nanoparticles are encountered in a number of natural and engineered environments, including combustion systems (which produces highly non-spherical aggregates), reactors used in gas-phase materials synthesis of doped or multicomponent materials, and in ambient air. These nanoparticles are often highly diverse in size, composition and shape, and hence require determination of property distribution functions for accurate characterization. This thesis focuses on development of tandem mobility-mass measurement techniques coupled with appropriate data inversion routines to facilitate measurement of two dimensional size-mass distribution functions while correcting for the non-idealities of the instruments. Chapter 1 provides the detailed background and motivation for the studies performed in this thesis. In chapter 2, the development of an inversion routine is described which is employed to determine two dimensional size-mass distribution functions from Differential Mobility Analyzer-Aerosol Particle Mass analyzer tandem measurements. Chapter 3 demonstrates the application of the two dimensional distribution function to compute cumulative mass distribution function and also evaluates the validity of this technique by comparing the calculated total mass concentrations to measured values for a variety of aerosols. In Chapter 4, this tandem measurement technique with the inversion routine is employed to analyze colloidal suspensions. Chapter 5 focuses on application of a transverse modulation ion mobility spectrometer coupled with a mass spectrometer to study the effect of vapor dopants on the mobility shifts of sub 2 nm peptide ion clusters. These mobility shifts are then compared to models based on vapor uptake theories. Finally, in Chapter 6, a conclusion of all the studies performed in this thesis is provided and future avenues of research are discussed.

  5. Particle-pair relative velocity measurement in high-Reynolds-number homogeneous and isotropic turbulence using 4-frame particle tracking velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Zhongwang; Ireland, Peter J.; Bragg, Andrew D.; Liang, Zach; Collins, Lance R.; Meng, Hui

    2018-02-01

    The radial relative velocity (RV) between particles suspended in turbulent flow plays a critical role in droplet collision and growth. We present a simple and accurate approach to RV measurement in isotropic turbulence—planar 4-frame particle tracking velocimetry—using routine PIV hardware. It improves particle positioning and pairing accuracy over the 2-frame holographic approach by de Jong et al. (Int J Multiphas Flow 36:324-332; de Jong et al., Int J Multiphas Flow 36:324-332, 2010) without using high-speed cameras and lasers as in Saw et al. (Phys Fluids 26:111702, 2014). Homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flow ({R_λ }=357) in a new, fan-driven, truncated iscosahedron chamber was laden with either low-Stokes (mean St=0.09, standard deviation 0.05) or high-Stokes aerosols (mean St=3.46, standard deviation 0.57). For comparison, DNS was conducted under similar conditions ({R_λ }=398; St=0.10 and 3.00, respectively). Experimental RV probability density functions (PDF) and mean inward RV agree well with DNS. Mean inward RV increases with St at small particle separations, r, and decreases with St at large r, indicating the dominance of "path-history" and "inertial filtering" effects, respectively. However, at small r, the experimental mean inward RV trends higher than DNS, possibly due to the slight polydispersity of particles and finite light sheet thickness in experiments. To confirm this interpretation, we performed numerical experiments and found that particle polydispersity increases mean inward RV at small r, while finite laser thickness also overestimates mean inward RV at small r, This study demonstrates the feasibility of accurately measuring RV using routine hardware, and verifies, for the first time, the path-history and inertial filtering effects on particle-pair RV at large particle separations experimentally.

  6. A Search for Massive Exotic Particles at the NuTeV Neutrino Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formaggio, Joseph Angelo [Columbia U.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis documents two distinct searches for exotic particles performed at the NuTeV neutrino experiment at Fermilab. The first search focuses on exotic particles with masses below 0.3 GeV/$c^2$ which decay to electrons. The low mass study specifically addresses the KARMEN timing anomaly, which has been interpreted as a signal for an exotic particle with a mass of 33.9 MeV/$c^2$ • The second search - the high mass search- focuses on particles with masses above 2.2 GeV/$c^2$ . The latter is a more general search for exotic particles in a region previously unexplored.

  7. Coupling between particle and heat transport during power modulation experiments in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, X.L.; Giruzzi, G.; Artaud, J.F.; Bouquey, F.; Bremond, S.; Clary, J.; Darbos, C.; Eury, S.P.; Lennholm, M.; Magne, R.; Segui, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Power modulations are a powerful tool often used to investigate heat transport processes in tokamaks. In some situations, this could also be an interesting method for the investigation of the particle transport due to the anomalous pinch. Low frequency (∼ 1 Hz) power modulation experiments, using both electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH), have been performed in the Tore Supra tokamak. Strong coupling has been observed between the temperature and density modulations during the low frequency ECRH and ICRH modulation experiments. It has been shown that mechanisms as outgassing, Ware pinch effect, curvature driven pinch are not likely to be responsible for this density modulation. Because of its dependence on temperature or temperature gradient, the thermodiffusion is a serious candidate to be the driving source for this density modulation. This analysis shows that low frequency power modulation experiments have a great potential for the investigation of the anomalous particle pinch in tokamaks. Future plans will include the use of more precise density profile measurements using X-mode reflectometry

  8. Coupling between particle and heat transport during power modulation experiments in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, X.L.; Giruzzi, G.; Artaud, J.F.; Bouquey, F.; Bremond, S.; Clary, J.; Darbos, C.; Eury, S.P.; Lennholm, M.; Magne, R.; Segui, J.L

    2004-07-01

    Power modulations are a powerful tool often used to investigate heat transport processes in tokamaks. In some situations, this could also be an interesting method for the investigation of the particle transport due to the anomalous pinch. Low frequency ({approx} 1 Hz) power modulation experiments, using both electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH), have been performed in the Tore Supra tokamak. Strong coupling has been observed between the temperature and density modulations during the low frequency ECRH and ICRH modulation experiments. It has been shown that mechanisms as outgassing, Ware pinch effect, curvature driven pinch are not likely to be responsible for this density modulation. Because of its dependence on temperature or temperature gradient, the thermodiffusion is a serious candidate to be the driving source for this density modulation. This analysis shows that low frequency power modulation experiments have a great potential for the investigation of the anomalous particle pinch in tokamaks. Future plans will include the use of more precise density profile measurements using X-mode reflectometry.

  9. Granular filtration for airborne particles : correlation between experiments and models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golshahi, L.; Tan, Z. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Schulich School of Engineering, Mechanical and Manufacturing Dept.; Abedi, J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Schulich School of Engineering, Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Dept.

    2009-10-15

    A new design for a packed bed granular filter was presented. The cylindrical packed bed was designed to filter particles in the range of approximately 10 nm to 15 {mu}m in diameter in different kinetic conditions and configurations. The aim of the study was to develop a precise empirical model to predict the filtration efficiency of the packed beds. A collision-type atomizer was used to generate polydisperse sodium chloride aerosol particles. The effect of flow rates was studied using a thermal mass flow meter. A regression analysis technique was used to determine the correlation between single granule and total packed bed efficiency for the entire granular filter. The experimental data were then compared with results obtained from the theoretical analysis. The least square method was used to correlate experimental data and to develop generalized equations for single granule efficiency. The study showed that the granular filter media has a high filtration efficiency for both micron and submicron particles. It was concluded that the effect of media thickness was more significant at higher flow rates than at lower flow rates. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Results and perspectives of particle transport measurements in gases in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedernikov, Andrei; Balapanov, Daniyar; Beresnev, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    Solid or liquid particles floating in a gas belong to dispersed systems, most often referred to as aerosols or dust clouds. They are widely spread in nature, involving both environmental and technological issues. They attract growing attention in microgravity, particularly in complex plasma, simulation of protoplanetary dust clouds, atmospheric aerosol, etc. Brownian random walk, motion of particles in gravity, electrostatic and magnetic fields, are well defined. We present the survey showing that the quantitative description of a vast variety of other types of motion is much less accurate, often known only in a limited region of parameters, sometimes described by the contradictory models, poorly verified experimentally. It is true even for the most extensively investigated transport phenomena - thermophoresis and photophoresis, not to say about diffusiophoresis, gravito-photophoresis, various other types of particle motion driven by physicochemical transformation and accommodation peculiarities on the particle-gas interface, combination of different processes. The number of publications grow very quickly, only those dealing with thermophoresis exceeded 300 in 2015. Hence, there is a strong need in high quality experimental data on particle transport properties with growing interest to expand the scope for non-isometric particles, agglomerates, dense clouds, interrelation with the two-phase flow dynamics. In most cases, the accuracy and sometimes the entire possibility of the measurement is limited by the presence of gravity. Floating particles have the density considerably different from that of the gas. They sediment, often with gliding and tumbling, that perturbs the motion trajectory, local hydrodynamic environment around particles, all together complicating definition of the response. Measurements at very high or very low Knudsen numbers (rarefied gas or too big particles) are of particular difficulty. Experiments assume creating a well-defined force, i

  11. Mechanical measurements in RFX-mod experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Palma, M., E-mail: mauro.dallapalma@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Ravarotto, D.; Dal Bello, S.; Fincato, M.; Ghiraldelli, R.; Marchiori, G.; Taliercio, C.; Zaccaria, P. [Consorzio RFX, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    The ongoing experimental campaigns of RFX-mod are performed setting operational parameters at the nominal or exceeding design values of the experiment. Compressive forces up to 11 MN are produced by high magnetizing currents that reach values up to 50 kA. These forces heavily load the mechanical structure of RFX-mod and their effects are measured and monitored in order to assess the expected structural response and machine reliability during operation. Mechanical strains and relative displacements are real time measured during each experimental pulse by 48 strain gauges located on 12 mechanical struts and 16 potentiometers positioned between the toroidal assembly and the support mechanical structure. The strains in the most stressed components are measured by means of 24 half bridge gauges preliminarily calibrated. Particular care has been given to sensor choices and installation in order to minimize signal noises induced by the electrical and magnetic fields. The residual noises have been further reduced by proper sampling frequency and averaging techniques. The strains measured on the struts are then post-processed to calculate the resultant forces and bending moments, while the displacement measurements give an estimate of the overall stiffness of the mechanical structure. The measured forces and displacements are shown per toroidal locations and as a function of the current intensity, so verifying the uniform sharing of forces among the different struts and the proper square law correlation with the magnetizing current intensity.

  12. Single particle composition measurements of artificial Calcium Carbonate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, S. R.; Mentel, T. F.; Schwinger, T.; Croteau, P. L.; Jayne, J.; Worsnop, D. R.; Trimborn, A.

    2012-12-01

    Mineral dust, with an estimated total source from natural and anthropogenic emissions of up to 2800 Tg/yr, is one of the two largest contributors to total aerosol mass, with only Sea salt having a similar source strength (up to 2600 Tg/yr). The composition of dust particles varies strongly depending on the production process and, most importantly, the source location. Therefore, the composition of single dust particles can be used both to trace source regions of air masses as well as to identify chemical aging processes. Here we present results of laboratory studies on generating artificial calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles, a model compound for carbonaceous mineral dust particles. Particles were generated by atomizing an aqueous hydrogen carbonate solution. Water was removed using a silica diffusion dryer., then the particles were processed in an oven at temperatures up to 900°C, converting the hydrogen carbonate to its anhydrous form. The resulting aerosol was analyzed using an on-line single particle laser ablation aerosol particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LAAPTOF). The results confirm the conversion to calcium carbonate, and validate that the produced particles indeed can be used as a model compound for carbonaceous dust aerosols.

  13. Iced airfoil separation bubble measurements by particle image velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jason J.

    Not long after the birth of aviation, pilots began to recognize the dangers posed by aircraft icing. Since that time, research has improved the awareness of this problem and the scientific understanding of the associated aerodynamic impacts, however, few studies have involved detailed, quantitative, flowfield measurements. For this reason, the current investigation was conducted in which high spatial-resolution flowfield measurements were acquired of a NACA 0012 airfoil with two- and three-dimensional, simulated, leading-edge, horn-ice accretions utilizing particle image velocimetry (PIV). These measurements complemented existing iced airfoil performance measurements, revealed previously unknown details regarding the structure and behavior of these flowfields, and could potentially facilitate the development and improvement of computational schemes used to predict largely separated flows, including that of an iced airfoil near stall. Previous iced airfoil investigations have demonstrated somewhat reduced aerodynamic penalties resulting from a three-dimensional ice simulation, compared to those of a two-dimensional ice simulation of a representative cross section. Correspondingly, the current measurements revealed accelerated transition of the separated shear layer emanating from a three-dimensional ice simulation and therefore enhanced pressure recovery and reduced mean separation bubble length, each relative to the flowfield of a representative two-dimensional ice simulation. These effects appeared to result from the quasi-steady distribution of discrete, streamwise vortices which aided the turbulent entrainment of fluid from the recirculation region of the three-dimensional ice simulation separation bubble flowfield. These vortices were generated by a streamwise-vortex instability excited by roughness along the three-dimensional ice simulation and produced spanwise-cell structures throughout this flowfield, as well as significant spanwise variation in peak

  14. Micrometer-scale 3-D shape characterization of eight cements: Particle shape and cement chemistry, and the effect of particle shape on laser diffraction particle size measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogan, S.T.; Nie, X.; Stutzman, P.E.; Garboczi, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Eight different portland cements were imaged on a synchrotron beam line at Brookhaven National Laboratory using X-ray microcomputed tomography at a voxel size of about 1 μm per cubic voxel edge. The particles ranged in size roughly between 10 μm and 100 μm. The shape and size of individual particles were computationally analyzed using spherical harmonic analysis. The particle shape difference between cements was small but significant, as judged by several different quantitative shape measures, including the particle length, width, and thickness distributions. It was found that the average shape of cement particles was closely correlated with the volume fraction of C 3 S (alite) and C 2 S (belite) making up the cement powder. It is shown that the non-spherical particle shape of the cements strongly influence laser diffraction results, at least in the sieve size range of 20 μm to 38 μm. Since laser diffraction particle size measurement is being increasingly used by the cement industry, while cement chemistry is always a main factor in cement production, these results could have important implications for how this kind of particle size measurement should be understood and used in the cement industry.

  15. Real-time measurement of aerosol particle concentration at high temperatures; Hiukkaspitoisuuden reaaliaikainen mittaaminen korkeassa laempoetilassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskinen, J; Hautanen, J; Laitinen, A [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Physics

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a new method for continuous aerosol particle concentration measurement at elevated temperatures (up to 800-1000 deg C). The measured property of the aerosol particles is the so called Fuchs surface area. This quantity is relevant for diffusion limited mass transfer to particles. The principle of the method is as follows. First, aerosol particles are charged electrically by diffusion charging process. The charging takes place at high temperature. After the charging, aerosol is diluted and cooled. Finally, aerosol particles are collected and the total charge carried by the aerosol particles is measured. Particle collection and charge measurement take place at low temperature. Benefits of this measurement method are: particles are charged in-situ, charge of the particles is not affected by the temperature and pressure changes after sampling, particle collection and charge measurement are carried out outside the process conditions, and the measured quantity is well defined. The results of this study can be used when the formation of the fly ash particles is studied. Another field of applications is the study and the development of gasification processes. Possibly, the method can also be used for the monitoring the operation of the high temperature particle collection devices. (orig.)

  16. Scattering by ensembles of small particles experiment, theory and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, B. A. S.

    1980-01-01

    A hypothetical self consistent picture of evolution of prestellar intertellar dust through a comet phase leads to predictions about the composition of the circum-solar dust cloud. Scattering properties of thus resulting conglomerates with a bird's-nest type of structure are investigated using a micro-wave analogue technique. Approximate theoretical methods of general interest are developed which compared favorably with the experimental results. The principal features of scattering of visible radiation by zodiacal light particles are reasonably reproduced. A component which is suggestive of (ALPHA)-meteoroids is also predicted.

  17. Scattering by ensembles of small particles experiment, theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, B.Aa.S.

    1980-01-01

    A hypothetical selfconsistent picture of evolution of prestellar interstellar dust through a comet phase leades to predictions about the composition of the circum-solar dust cloud. Scattering properties of thus resulting conglomerates with a bird's-nest type of structure are investigated using a micro-wave analogue technique. Approximate theoretical methods of general interest are developed which compared favorably with the experimental results. The principal features of scattering of visible radiation by zodiacal light particles are reasonably reproduced. A component which is suggestive of β-meteoroids is also predicted. (author)

  18. Online radiation dose measurement system for ATLAS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandic, I.; Cindro, V.; Dolenc, I.; Gorisek, A.; Kramberger, G. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mikuz, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Bronner, J.; Hartet, J. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitat Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, Freiburg (Germany); Franz, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    In experiments at Large Hadron Collider, detectors and electronics will be exposed to high fluxes of photons, charged particles and neutrons. Damage caused by the radiation will influence performance of detectors. It will therefore be important to continuously monitor the radiation dose in order to follow the level of degradation of detectors and electronics and to correctly predict future radiation damage. A system for online radiation monitoring using semiconductor radiation sensors at large number of locations has been installed in the ATLAS experiment. Ionizing dose in SiO{sub 2} will be measured with RadFETs, displacement damage in silicon in units of 1-MeV(Si) equivalent neutron fluence with p-i-n diodes. At 14 monitoring locations where highest radiation levels are expected the fluence of thermal neutrons will be measured from current gain degradation in dedicated bipolar transistors. The design of the system and tests of its performance in mixed radiation field is described in this paper. First results from this test campaign confirm that doses can be measured with sufficient sensitivity (mGy for total ionizing dose measurements, 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2} for NIEL (non-ionizing energy loss) measurements, 10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} for thermal neutrons) and accuracy (about 20%) for usage in the ATLAS detector

  19. Online radiation dose measurement system for ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandic, I.; Cindro, V.; Dolenc, I.; Gorisek, A.; Kramberger, G.; Mikuz, M.; Bronner, J.; Hartet, J.; Franz, S.

    2009-01-01

    In experiments at Large Hadron Collider, detectors and electronics will be exposed to high fluxes of photons, charged particles and neutrons. Damage caused by the radiation will influence performance of detectors. It will therefore be important to continuously monitor the radiation dose in order to follow the level of degradation of detectors and electronics and to correctly predict future radiation damage. A system for online radiation monitoring using semiconductor radiation sensors at large number of locations has been installed in the ATLAS experiment. Ionizing dose in SiO 2 will be measured with RadFETs, displacement damage in silicon in units of 1-MeV(Si) equivalent neutron fluence with p-i-n diodes. At 14 monitoring locations where highest radiation levels are expected the fluence of thermal neutrons will be measured from current gain degradation in dedicated bipolar transistors. The design of the system and tests of its performance in mixed radiation field is described in this paper. First results from this test campaign confirm that doses can be measured with sufficient sensitivity (mGy for total ionizing dose measurements, 10 9 n/cm 2 for NIEL (non-ionizing energy loss) measurements, 10 12 n/cm 2 for thermal neutrons) and accuracy (about 20%) for usage in the ATLAS detector

  20. Biosensor based on measurements of the clustering dynamics of magnetic particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a biosensor for optical detection of Brownian relaxation dynamics of magnetic particles measured by light transmission. The magnetic particles can be functionalized with biological ligands for the detection of target analytes in a sample.......Disclosed herein is a biosensor for optical detection of Brownian relaxation dynamics of magnetic particles measured by light transmission. The magnetic particles can be functionalized with biological ligands for the detection of target analytes in a sample....

  1. Helium burning: a further measurement of the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission of 16 Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, Moshe

    1997-01-01

    The 12 C (α,γ) 16 O is a key (but still unknown) reaction in helium burning. Several attempts to constrain the p-wave S-factor at Helium burning temperatures (200 M K) using the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission of 16 N have been made. However, some discrepancy exists between the spectra measured at Settle and that of TRIUMF. We have improved our previous study of the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission of 16 N by improving our statistical sample (by more than a factor of 5), improving the energy resolution of the experiment (by 20%), and in understanding our line shape, deduced from measured quantities. Our newly measured spectrum of the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission of 16 N is consistent with the Seattle ('95) data, as well as an earlier experiment performed at Mains ('71) and is not consistent with the TRIUMF ('94) data. (author)

  2. Physicists purchase materials testing machine in support of pioneering particle physics experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    Sharpe, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    "The particle physics group at Liverpool University has purchased an LRXPlus singlecolumn materials testing machine from Lloyd Instruments, which will be used to help characterise the carbon-fibre support frames for detectors used for state-of-the-art particle physics experiments." (1 page)

  3. The spatial filtering method for solid particle velocity measurement based on an electrostatic sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Chuanlong; Tang, Guanghua; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Shimin

    2009-01-01

    The spatial filtering method for particle velocity measurement has the advantages of simplicity of the measurement system and convenience of data processing. In this paper, the relationship between solid particles mean velocity in a pneumatic pipeline and the power spectrum of the output signal of an electrostatic sensor was mathematically modeled. The effects of the length of the sensor, the thickness of the dielectric pipe and its length on the spatial filtering characteristics of the sensor were also investigated using the finite element method. As for the roughness of and the difficult determination of the peak frequency f max of the power spectrum characteristics of the output signal of the sensor, a wavelet analysis based filtering method was applied to smooth the curve, which can accurately determine the peak frequency f max . Finally, experiments were performed on a pilot dense phase pneumatic conveying rig at high pressure to test the performance of the velocity measurement system. The experimental results show that the system repeatability is within ±4% over a gas superficial velocity range of 8.63–18.62 m s −1 for a particle concentration range of 0.067–0.130 m 3 m −3

  4. Measurement of {alpha} particle energy loss in biological tissue below 2 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stella, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Pavia (Italy); Bortolussi, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Pavia (Italy)], E-mail: silva.bortolussi@pv.infn.it; Bruschi, P.; Portella, C. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Altieri, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Pavia (Italy)

    2009-09-01

    The energy loss of {alpha} particles crossing biological tissue at energies between 0.8 and 2.2 MeV has been measured. This energy range is very important for boron neutron capture therapy, based on the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction, which emits {alpha} particles with energies of 1.78 and 1.47 MeV. One of the methods used for the measurement of the boron concentration in tissue is based on the deconvolution of the {alpha} spectra obtained from neutron irradiation of thin (70 {mu}m) tissue samples. For this technique, a knowledge of the behaviour of the energy loss of the particles in the irradiated tissue is of critical importance. In particular, the curve of the residual energy as a function of the distance travelled in the tissue must be known. In this paper, the results of an experiment carried out with an {sup 241}Am source and a series of cryostatic sections of rat-lung tissue are presented. The experimental measurements are compared with the results of Monte Carlo calculations performed with the MCNPX code.

  5. The main injector particle production experiment at Fermilab

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We describe the physics capabilities and status of the MIPP experiment which concluded its physics data taking run in March 2006. We show some preliminary results from this run and describe plans to upgrade the spectrometer.

  6. Plasma opening switch experiments on the Particle Beam Accelerator II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, M.A.; McDaniel, D.H.; Mendel, C.W.; Rochau, G.E.; Moore, W.B.S.; Mowrer, G.R.; Simpson, W.W.; Zagar, D.M.; Grasser, T.; McDougal, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma opening switch (POS) experiments have been done since 1986 on the PBFA-II ion beam accelerator to develop a rugged POS that will open rapidly ( 80%) into a high impedance (> 10 ohm) load. In a recent series of experiments on PBFA II, the authors have developed and tested three different switch designs that use magnetic fields to control and confine the injected plasma. All three configurations couple current efficiently to a 5-ohm electron beam diode. In this experimental series, the PBFA-II Delta Series, more extensive diagnostics were used than in previous switch experiments on PBFA II or on the Blackjack 5 accelerator at Maxwell Laboratories. Data from the experiments with these three switch designs is presented

  7. The GRA beam-splitter experiments and wave-particle duality of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaloyerou, P.N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Grangier, Roger and Aspect (GRA) performed a beam-splitter experiment to demonstrate particle behaviour of light and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer experiment to demonstrate wave behaviour of light. The distinguishing feature of these experiments is the use of a gating system to produce near ideal single photon states. With the demonstration of both wave and particle behaviour (in the two mutually exclusive experiments) they claim to have demonstrated the dual wave-particle behaviour of light. The demonstration of the wave behaviour of light is not in dispute. But, we want to demonstrate, contrary to the claims of GRA, that their beam-splitter experiment does not conclusively confirm the particle behaviour of light, and hence does not demonstrate particle-wave duality. Our demonstration consists of providing a detailed model, not involving particles, of GRA's 'which-path' experiment. The model uses the causal interpretation of quantum fields. We will also give a brief outline a model for the second 'interference' GRA experiment. (author)

  8. Studies of particle interactions in bubble chamber, spark chambers and counter experiments. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, L.E.; O'Halloran, T.A. Jr.; Simmons, R.O.

    1983-07-01

    During the past six years we have carried out and planned experiments which predominantly studied the production and decay of particles containing charmed quarks. A series of photoproduction and neutron production experiments started with the very early observation of the production of J/psi by neutrons and by photons at Fermilab. From subsequent experiments using these neutral beams and the basic detecting system, we have reported results on the photoproduction of the Λ/sub c/ charmed baryon and the D and D* charmed mesons. More recent runs are studying the high energy photoproduction of vector mesons including the psi'. The present experiment in this sequence is using neutrons to produce a large number of D mesons. Another series of experiments at Fermilab set out to study the hadronic production of charmed mesons. The Chicago Cyclotron facility was modified with a detector sensitive to various possible production mechanisms. The experiments were a success; clean signals of D mesons were observed to be produced by pions, and also the production of chi/sub c/ with the subsequent decay via a γ-ray to psi was observed. The charmonium experiments run this year have better photon resolution for measuring the decays of chi/sub c/ to psi. We are part of a collaboration which is working on the Collider Detector Facility for Fermilab. The CDF at Fermilab is a possible source of (weak) intermediate vector bosons from the collisions of protons and anti-protons. Our responsibilities in the CDF include both the construction of the muon detector and the designing, planning, and testing of the FASTBUS electronics. The second part of our weak interaction program is the Neutrino Oscillation experiment which is now under construction at Brookhaven

  9. Theoretical analysis of the particle properties and polarization measurements made in microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penttilae, A.; Lumme, K.; Worms, J.C.; Hadamcik, E.; Renard, J.B.; Levasseur-Regourd, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new model to describe the shapes of stochastic polyhedra used in the microgravity experiment PROGRA 2 on board the Airbus A300 aircraft. The polarization measurements of scattering of visible light by boron carbide (B 4 C) particles with sizes between 9 and 88 μm can nicely be explained with the derived shape statistics and the (currently unknown) refractive index obtained. For the latter we derive 2 (-0.15/+0.1)+0.04i(-0.0025/+0.015) at 632.8 nm wavelength. The polarization method is a reliable and sensitive means to estimate various particle properties in various remote sensing applications, including the planetary sciences

  10. Theoretical analysis of the particle properties and polarization measurements made in microgravity

    CERN Document Server

    Penttilae, A; Worms, J C; Hadamcik, E; Renard, J B; Levasseur-Regourd, A C

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new model to describe the shapes of stochastic polyhedra used in the microgravity experiment PROGRA sup 2 on board the Airbus A300 aircraft. The polarization measurements of scattering of visible light by boron carbide (B sub 4 C) particles with sizes between 9 and 88 mu m can nicely be explained with the derived shape statistics and the (currently unknown) refractive index obtained. For the latter we derive 2 (-0.15/+0.1)+0.04i(-0.0025/+0.015) at 632.8 nm wavelength. The polarization method is a reliable and sensitive means to estimate various particle properties in various remote sensing applications, including the planetary sciences.

  11. Measurement of strange particle production in the NICA fixed-target programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, Volker [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Strange particles provide a sensitive tool to study the dense and hot matter created in relativistic nuclear collisions. Although strangeness production in such collisions has been a topic of experimental and theoretical research for many years, its understanding is far from being complete. This holds in particular for multi-strange hyperons and for lower collision energies as relevant for NICA and FAIR. Multi-strange particles, being sensitive to both the mechanism of strangeness production and the net-baryon density, are expected to shed light on the state of the created matter and to indicate possible transitions to new phases of strongly interacting matter. We thus advocate the measurement of hyperons and φ mesons in a fixed-target experiment at NICA (BM rate at N), which can be achieved by a relatively compact detector system. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of kaons in the Helios experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Hecke, H.

    1990-01-01

    We have measured kaons and pions in the rapidity interval 0.8--1.3 and p T interval 100--600 MeV/c. We have observed an excess in the ratio of positive kaons to pions over what is expected from p-p for transverse momenta above 300 MeV/c. No such excess is seen for negatives. This excess of K/π increasing with p T has been observed in 14.5 GeV/A Si + Au collisions by E802 at the AGS. Though their data are concentrated at high p T , there is a small region of overlap between the coverage of HELIOS and E802 for p T = 0.4--0.5 GeV/c. In this region the K/π ratios for both positive and negative particles are very similar even though the bombarding energies differ by more than an order of magnitude. We find no strong indication that the rise in K/π above values expected from p-p collisions is higher for high-E T events than for low-E T events

  13. Direct Measurements of Gas/Particle Partitioning and Mass Accommodation Coefficients in Environmental Chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krechmer, Jordan E; Day, Douglas A; Ziemann, Paul J; Jimenez, Jose L

    2017-10-17

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are a major contributor to fine particulate mass and wield substantial influences on the Earth's climate and human health. Despite extensive research in recent years, many of the fundamental processes of SOA formation and evolution remain poorly understood. Most atmospheric aerosol models use gas/particle equilibrium partitioning theory as a default treatment of gas-aerosol transfer, despite questions about potentially large kinetic effects. We have conducted fundamental SOA formation experiments in a Teflon environmental chamber using a novel method. A simple chemical system produces a very fast burst of low-volatility gas-phase products, which are competitively taken up by liquid organic seed particles and Teflon chamber walls. Clear changes in the species time evolution with differing amounts of seed allow us to quantify the particle uptake processes. We reproduce gas- and aerosol-phase observations using a kinetic box model, from which we quantify the aerosol mass accommodation coefficient (α) as 0.7 on average, with values near unity especially for low volatility species. α appears to decrease as volatility increases. α has historically been a very difficult parameter to measure with reported values varying over 3 orders of magnitude. We use the experimentally constrained model to evaluate the correction factor (Φ) needed for chamber SOA mass yields due to losses of vapors to walls as a function of species volatility and particle condensational sink. Φ ranges from 1-4.

  14. Physical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, John S.; Dong, Yuanji; Williams, D. Craig; Logan, Russell

    2010-06-01

    The fine particulate matter (PM) emissions from nine commercial aircraft engine models were determined by plume sampling during the three field campaigns of the Aircraft Particle Emissions Experiment (APEX). Ground-based measurements were made primarily at 30 m behind the engine for PM mass and number concentration, particle size distribution, and total volatile matter using both time-integrated and continuous sampling techniques. The experimental results showed a PM mass emission index (EI) ranging from 10 to 550 mg kg -1 fuel depending on engine type and test parameters as well as a characteristic U-shaped curve of the mass EI with increasing fuel flow for the turbofan engines tested. Also, the Teflon filter sampling indicated that ˜40-80% of the total PM mass on a test-average basis was comprised of volatile matter (sulfur and organics) for most engines sampled. The number EIs, on the other hand, varied from ˜10 15 to 10 17 particles kg -1 fuel with the turbofan engines exhibiting a logarithmic decay with increasing fuel flow. Finally, the particle size distributions of the emissions exhibited a single primary mode that were lognormally distributed with a minor accumulation mode also observed at higher powers for all engines tested. The geometric (number) mean particle diameter ranged from 9.4 to 37 nm and the geometric standard deviation ranged from 1.3 to 2.3 depending on engine type, fuel flow, and test conditions.

  15. Comparative measurement of the neutral density and particle confinement time in EBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowienka, J.C.; Richards, R.K.

    1985-11-01

    The neutral density and particle confinement time in the ELMO Bumpy Torus-Scale Experiment (EBT-S) have been determined by two different techniques. These involve a spectroscopic measurement of molecular and atomic hydrogen emissions and a time-decay measurement of a fast-ion population using a diagnostic neutral beam. The results from both diagnostics exhibit identical trends for either estimate, although the absolute values differ by a factor of 2 to 3. The observed variations with fill gas pressure and microwave power from either technique are consistent with measurements of electron density and temperature. In this paper, the measurement techniques are discussed, and the results are compared in the context of consistency with independently observed plasma behavior. 6 refs., 7 figs

  16. Interfacial deflection and jetting of a paramagnetic particle-laden fluid: theory and experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Scott S. H.; Griffiths, Ian M.; Li, Zhenzhen; Kim, Pilnam; Stone, Howard A.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the results of experiments and mathematical analysis of the deformation of a free surface by an aggregate of magnetic particles. The system we study is differentiated from ferrofluid systems because it contains regions rich with magnetic

  17. Simultaneous velocity and particle size measurement in two phase flows by Laser Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungut, A.; Yule, A. J.; Taylor, D. S.; Chigier, N. A.

    1978-01-01

    A technique for particle size measurement by using Laser Doppler Anemometry is discussed. An additional gate photomultiplier has been introduced at right angles to the optical axis in order to select only those particles passing through the central region of the measurement control volume. Particle sizing measurements have been made in sprays of glass particles using the modified Laser Anemometry system. Measurements in fuel sprays are also reported and compared with the results obtained by a photographic technique. The application of the particle sizing technique to opaque particles is investigated and suitable optical arrangements are suggested. Light scattering characteristics of Laser Anemometry systems for different optical geometries are calculated to select the optimum optical arrangement for the particle sizing measurements.

  18. Two-phase velocity measurements around cylinders using particle image velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Y.A.; Philip, O.G.; Schmidl, W.D. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The particle Image Velocimetry flow measurement technique was used to study both single-phase flow and two-phase flow across a cylindrical rod inserted in a channel. First, a flow consisting of only a single-phase fluid was studied. The experiment consisted of running a laminar flow over four rods inserted in a channel. The water flow rate was 126 cm{sup 3}/s. Then a two-phase flow was studied. A mixture of water and small air bubbles was used. The water flow rate was 378 cm{sup 3}/s and the air flow rate was approximately 30 cm{sup 3}/s. The data are analyzed to obtain the velocity fields for both experiments. After interpretation of the velocity data, forces acting on a bubble entrained by the vortex were calculated successfully. The lift and drag coefficients were calculated using the velocity measurements and the force data.

  19. 3D micro-particle image modeling and its application in measurement resolution investigation for visual sensing based axial localization in an optical microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuliang; Li, Xiaolai; Bi, Shusheng; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jinhua

    2017-01-01

    Visual sensing based three dimensional (3D) particle localization in an optical microscope is important for both fundamental studies and practical applications. Compared with the lateral ( X and Y ) localization, it is more challenging to achieve a high resolution measurement of axial particle location. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of different factors on axial measurement resolution through an analytical approach. Analytical models were developed to simulate 3D particle imaging in an optical microscope. A radius vector projection method was applied to convert the simulated particle images into radius vectors. With the obtained radius vectors, a term of axial changing rate was proposed to evaluate the measurement resolution of axial particle localization. Experiments were also conducted for comparison with that obtained through simulation. Moreover, with the proposed method, the effects of particle size on measurement resolution were discussed. The results show that the method provides an efficient approach to investigate the resolution of axial particle localization. (paper)

  20. Cavity QED experiments, entanglement and quantum measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, M.

    2001-01-01

    This course is devoted to the physics of entanglement in microwave CQED (cavity quantum electrodynamics) experiments. The heart of this system is a microwave photon trap, made of superconducting mirrors, which stores a few-photon field in a small volume of space for times as long as milliseconds. This field interacts with circular Rydberg atoms injected one by one into the cavity. Section 2 is devoted to the description of the strong coupling regime in Rydberg atom CQED. The tools of the experiment are briefly presented at the beginning of this section as well as the main characteristics of the strong coupling regime. We then show in section 3 how to use the strong interaction with a single photon to perform a non-destructive detection of a single photon with a single atom as a meter. In section 4, we show that the achieved QND (quantum non-demolition) measurement process corresponds to the operation of a quantum phase gate. It allows, in principle, to prepare arbitrary atom + field entangled states. Various methods will be presented for preparing entangled states such as a two atom EPR (Einstein Podolsky Rosen) pair as well as a GHZ triplet. Entanglement involving more and more complex systems will then be investigated in section 5 where the preparation of a ''Schroedinger cat state'' of the cavity field is presented. We especially address in this last section the problem of entanglement between the system and the meter which occurs during any quantum measurement process

  1. Experimental studies of particle acceleration with ultra-intense lasers - Applications to nuclear physics experiments involving laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaisir, C.

    2010-11-01

    For the last ten years, the Ultra High Intensity Lasers offer the opportunity to produce accelerated particle beams which contain more than 10 12 electrons, protons accelerated into a few ps. We have simulated and developed some diagnostics based on nuclear activation to characterize both the angular and the energy distributions of the particle beams produced with intense lasers. The characterization methods which are presented are illustrated by means of results obtained in different experiments. We would use the particle beams produced to excite nuclear state in a plasma environment. It can modify intrinsic characteristics of the nuclei such as the half-life of some isomeric states. To prepare this kind of experiments, we have measured the nuclear reaction cross section (gamma,n) to produce the isomeric state of the 84 Rb, which has an excitation energy of 463 keV, with the electron accelerator ELSA of CEA/DIF in Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). (author)

  2. Uncertainty characterization of particle depth measurement using digital in-line holography and the hybrid method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Guildenbecher, Daniel R; Reu, Phillip L; Chen, Jun

    2013-11-04

    In the detection of particles using digital in-line holography, measurement accuracy is substantially influenced by the hologram processing method. In particular, a number of methods have been proposed to determine the out-of-plane particle depth (z location). However, due to the lack of consistent uncertainty characterization, it has been unclear which method is best suited to a given measurement problem. In this work, depth determination accuracies of seven particle detection methods, including a recently proposed hybrid method, are systematically investigated in terms of relative depth measurement errors and uncertainties. Both synthetic and experimental holograms of particle fields are considered at conditions relevant to particle sizing and tracking. While all methods display a range of particle conditions where they are most accurate, in general the hybrid method is shown to be the most robust with depth uncertainty less than twice the particle diameter over a wide range of particle field conditions.

  3. Measurements of Turbulence Attenuation by a Dilute Dispersion of Solid Particles in Homogeneous Isotropic Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, John; Hwang, Wontae; Cabral, Patrick

    2002-11-01

    the addition of gravity as a variable parameter may help us to better understand the physics of turbulence attenuation. The experiments are conducted in a turbulence chamber capable of producing stationary or decaying isotropic turbulence with nearly zero mean flow and Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers up to nearly 500. The chamber is a 410 mm cubic box with the corners cut off to make it approximately spherical. Synthetic jet turbulence generators are mounted in each of the eight corners of the box. Each generator consists of a loudspeaker forcing a plenum and producing a pulsed jet through a 20 mm diameter orifice. These synthetic jets are directed into ejector tubes pointing towards the chamber center. The ejector tubes increase the jet mass flow and decrease the velocity. The jets then pass through a turbulence grid. Each of the eight loudspeakers is forced with a random phase and frequency. The resulting turbulence is highly Isotropic and matches typical behavior of grid turbulence. Measurements of both phases are acquired using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The gas is seeded with approximately 1 micron diameter seeding particles while the solid phase is typically 150 micron diameter spherical glass particles. A double-pulsed YAG laser and a Kodak ES-1.0 10-bit PIV camera provide the PIV images. Custom software is used to separate the images into individual images containing either gas-phase tracers or large particles. Modern high-resolution PIV algorithms are then used to calculate the velocity field. A large set of image pairs are acquired for each case, then the results are averaged both spatially and over the ensemble of acquired images. The entire apparatus is mounted in two racks which are carried aboard NASA's KC-135 Flying Microgravity Laboratory. The rack containing the turbulence chamber, the laser head, and the camera floats freely in the airplane cabin (constrained by competent NASA personnel) to minimize g-jitter.

  4. Light scattering by nonspherical particles theory, measurements, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mishchenko, Michael I; Travis, Larry D

    1999-01-01

    There is hardly a field of science or engineering that does not have some interest in light scattering by small particles. For example, this subject is important to climatology because the energy budget for the Earth's atmosphere is strongly affected by scattering of solar radiation by cloud and aerosol particles, and the whole discipline of remote sensing relies largely on analyzing the parameters of radiation scattered by aerosols, clouds, and precipitation. The scattering of light by spherical particles can be easily computed using the conventional Mie theory. However, most small solid part

  5. Preparation of Janus Particles and Alternating Current Electrokinetic Measurements with a Rapidly Fabricated Indium Tin Oxide Electrode Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Liang; Jiang, Hong-Ren

    2017-06-23

    This article provides a simple method to prepare partially or fully coated metallic particles and to perform the rapid fabrication of electrode arrays, which can facilitate electrical experiments in microfluidic devices. Janus particles are asymmetric particles that contain two different surface properties on their two sides. To prepare Janus particles, a monolayer of silica particles is prepared by a drying process. Gold (Au) is deposited on one side of each particle using a sputtering device. The fully coated metallic particles are completed after the second coating process. To analyze the electrical surface properties of Janus particles, alternating current (AC) electrokinetic measurements, such as dielectrophoresis (DEP) and electrorotation (EROT)- which require specifically designed electrode arrays in the experimental device- are performed. However, traditional methods to fabricate electrode arrays, such as the photolithographic technique, require a series of complicated procedures. Here, we introduce a flexible method to fabricate a designed electrode array. An indium tin oxide (ITO) glass is patterned by a fiber laser marking machine (1,064 nm, 20 W, 90 to 120 ns pulse-width, and 20 to 80 kHz pulse repetition frequency) to create a four-phase electrode array. To generate the four-phase electric field, the electrodes are connected to a 2-channel function generator and to two invertors. The phase shift between the adjacent electrodes is set at either 90° (for EROT) or 180° (for DEP). Representative results of AC electrokinetic measurements with a four-phase ITO electrode array are presented.

  6. Concentration Measurements of Suspended Load using ADV with Influence of the Particle Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzwälder, Kordula

    2017-04-01

    ADV backscatter data can be used under certain conditions to gain information about the concentrations of suspended loads. This was shown in many studies before (Fugate and Friedrichs 2002; Chanson et al 2008; Ha et al. 2009). This paper reports on a pre-study to investigate the influence of particle size on concentration measurements for suspended sediment load with ADV. The study was conducted in a flume in the Oskar-von-Miller-Institute using fresh water from a river including the natural suspended load. The ADV used in the experiments was a Vectrino Profiler (Nortek). In addition water samples were taken for TSS and TOC. For the measurements a surge was generated in the flume to ensure that also particles of larger size will be present in the water phase. The measurements and samples were taken during the whole surge event. Therefore we were able to find a good correlation between the backscatter data of the ADV and the TSS as well as TOC results. For the decreasing part of the flow event the concentration of TOC in the suspended load of the water phase is decreasing much slower than the TSS and results in a damped decrease of the backscatter values. This means that the results for concentration measurements might be slightly influenced by the size of the particles. Further evaluations of measurements conducted with a LISST SL (Sequoia) will be investigated to show the trend of the particle sizes during this process and fortify this result. David C. Fugate, Carl T. Friedrichs, Determining concentration and fall velocity of estuarine particle populations using ADV, OBS and LISST, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 22, Issues 11-13, 2002 H.K. Ha, W.-Y. Hsu, J.P.-Y. Maa, Y.Y. Shao, C.W. Holland, Using ADV backscatter strength for measuring suspended cohesive sediment concentration, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 29, Issue 10, 2009 Hubert Chanson, Maiko Takeuchi, Mark Trevethan, Using turbidity and acoustic backscatter intensity as surrogate measures of

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic Particle Acceleration Processes: SSX Experiments, Theory, and Astrophysical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to provide theoretical and modeling support to the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX). Accordingly, the theoretical effort was tightly integrated into the SSX experimental effort. During the grant period, Michael Brown and his experimental collaborators at Swarthmore, with assistance from W. Matthaeus as appropriate, made substantial progress in understanding the physics SSX plasmas

  8. Measuring the 3D motion of particles in microchannel acoustophoresis using astigmatism particle tracking velocimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustsson, P.; Barnkob, Rune; Bruus, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    We introduce full three-dimensional tracking of particles in an acoustophoresis microchannel using Astigmatism Particle Tracking Velocimetry (APTV) [1]. For the first time the interaction between acoustic streaming and the primary acoustic radiation force in microchannel acoustophoresis are exami...... relative to the influence from the acoustic radiation force. The current study opens the route to optimized acoustophoretic system design and operation to enable manipulation of small biological components such as spores, bacteria and viruses.......We introduce full three-dimensional tracking of particles in an acoustophoresis microchannel using Astigmatism Particle Tracking Velocimetry (APTV) [1]. For the first time the interaction between acoustic streaming and the primary acoustic radiation force in microchannel acoustophoresis...... are examined in three dimensions. We have quantified the velocity of particles driven by the primary acoustic radiation force and acoustic streaming, respectively, using 0.5-μm and 5-μm particles. Increased ultrasound frequency and lowered viscosity of the medium reduced the influence of acoustic streaming...

  9. Towards Measurements of Chiral Effects Using Identified Particles from STAR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wen, Lw.; Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Chaloupka, P.; Federič, Pavol; Rusňák, Jan; Rusňáková, O.; Šimko, Miroslav; Šumbera, Michal; Vértési, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 967, č. 11 (2017), s. 756-759 ISSN 0375-9474 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15001; GA MŠk LM2015054 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : STAR collaboration * chiral magnetic effect * chiral magnetic wave * gamma correlation * k(K) parameter Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics Impact factor: 1.916, year: 2016

  10. Direct measurements of particle flux along gap sides in castellated plasma facing component in COMPASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejarnac, Renaud; Dimitrova, Miglena; Komm, Michael; Schweer, Bernd; Terra, Alexis; Martin, Aurelien; Boizante, Gontran; Gunn, James P.; Panek, Radomir

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •We designed a probe to measure plasma deposition into gaps during tokamak discharges. •Isat profiles are measured on both side of the gap for different gap orientations. •Ion current is measured at the bottom of the gap in the toroidal orientation. •Kinetic simulations reproduce well experimental profiles qualitatively. -- Abstract: In this paper, we report results of a dedicated experiment that gives the plasma penetration profiles inside a gap of a tokamak castellated plasma-facing component. A specially designed probe that recreates a gap between two tiles has been built for the purpose of this study. It allows to measure ion saturation profiles along the 2 sides and at the bottom of the gap for both poloidal and toroidal orientations. The novelty of such experiment is the real time measurement of the plasma flux inside the gap during a tokamak D-shaped discharge compared to previous experimental studies which were mainly post-mortem. This experiment was performed in the COMPASS tokamak and results are compared with particle-in-cell simulations. The plasma deposition is found to be asymmetric in both orientations with a stronger effect in poloidal gaps. The Larmor radius of the incoming ions plays a role in the plasma penetration only in poloidal gaps but seems to have little impact in toroidal gaps. Profiles are qualitatively well reproduced by simulations. Ion current is recorded at the bottom of a toroidal gap under certain conditions

  11. Harmonisation of nanoparticle concentration measurements using GRIMM and TSI scanning mobility particle sizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Manish; Sapra, B. K.; Khan, Arshad; Tripathi, S. N.; Shamjad, P. M.; Gupta, Tarun; Mayya, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    Regional studies focusing on the role of atmospheric nanoparticles in climate change have gained impetus in the last decade. Several multi-institutional studies involving measurement of nanoparticles with several kinds of instruments are on the rise. It is important to harmonize these measurements as the instruments may work on different techniques or principles and are developed by different manufacturers. Scanning mobility particle sizers (SMPS) are often used to measure size distribution of nanoparticles in the airborne phase. Two such commercially available instruments namely, GRIMM and TSI-SMPS have been compared for ambient and laboratory generated conditions. A stand-alone condensation particle counter (CPC) of TSI make was used as a reference for particle concentration measurements. The consistency of the results in terms of mean size and geometric standard deviation was seen to be excellent for both the SMPSs, with GRIMM always showing slightly (approximately 10 %) lower mean size. The integrated number concentration from GRIMM-SMPS was seen to be closer to stand-alone reference CPC compared to TSI-SMPS, for an ambient overnight comparison. However, a concentration-dependent response, i.e. the variations between the two instruments increasing with the concentration, was observed and possible reasons for this have been suggested. A separate experiment was performed for studying the modifying effect of diffusion dryer and sheath air dryer on the measured aerosol size spectra. A significant hygroscopic growth was noted when diffusion dryer was attached to one of the SMPS. The introduction of sheath air dryer in GRIMM-SMPS produced a significant shift towards lower mean size. These results have been compared and discussed with the recent inter-comparison results to strengthen and harmonize the measurement protocols.

  12. Harmonisation of nanoparticle concentration measurements using GRIMM and TSI scanning mobility particle sizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Manish; Sapra, B. K.; Khan, Arshad; Tripathi, S. N.; Shamjad, P. M.; Gupta, Tarun; Mayya, Y. S.

    2012-12-01

    Regional studies focusing on the role of atmospheric nanoparticles in climate change have gained impetus in the last decade. Several multi-institutional studies involving measurement of nanoparticles with several kinds of instruments are on the rise. It is important to harmonize these measurements as the instruments may work on different techniques or principles and are developed by different manufacturers. Scanning mobility particle sizers (SMPS) are often used to measure size distribution of nanoparticles in the airborne phase. Two such commercially available instruments namely, GRIMM and TSI-SMPS have been compared for ambient and laboratory generated conditions. A stand-alone condensation particle counter (CPC) of TSI make was used as a reference for particle concentration measurements. The consistency of the results in terms of mean size and geometric standard deviation was seen to be excellent for both the SMPSs, with GRIMM always showing slightly (approximately 10 %) lower mean size. The integrated number concentration from GRIMM-SMPS was seen to be closer to stand-alone reference CPC compared to TSI-SMPS, for an ambient overnight comparison. However, a concentration-dependent response, i.e. the variations between the two instruments increasing with the concentration, was observed and possible reasons for this have been suggested. A separate experiment was performed for studying the modifying effect of diffusion dryer and sheath air dryer on the measured aerosol size spectra. A significant hygroscopic growth was noted when diffusion dryer was attached to one of the SMPS. The introduction of sheath air dryer in GRIMM-SMPS produced a significant shift towards lower mean size. These results have been compared and discussed with the recent inter-comparison results to strengthen and harmonize the measurement protocols.

  13. Size measurement of radioactive aerosol particles in intense radiation fields using wire screens and imaging plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, Yuichi; Tanaka, Toru; Takamiya, Koichi; Ishi, Yoshihiro; UesugI, Tomonori; Kuriyama, Yasutoshi; Sakamoto, Masaaki; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Osaka (Japan); Nitta, Shinnosuke [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Osada, Naoyuki [Advanced Science Research Center, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    Very fine radiation-induced aerosol particles are produced in intense radiation fields, such as high-intensity accelerator rooms and containment vessels such as those in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP). Size measurement of the aerosol particles is very important for understanding the behavior of radioactive aerosols released in the FDNPP accident and radiation safety in high-energy accelerators. A combined technique using wire screens and imaging plates was developed for size measurement of fine radioactive aerosol particles smaller than 100 nm in diameter. This technique was applied to the radiation field of a proton accelerator room, in which radioactive atoms produced in air during machine operation are incorporated into radiation-induced aerosol particles. The size of 11C-bearing aerosol particles was analyzed using the wire screen technique in distinction from other positron emitters in combination with a radioactive decay analysis. The size distribution for 11C-bearing aerosol particles was found to be ca. 70 μm in geometric mean diameter. The size was similar to that for 7Be-bearing particles obtained by a Ge detector measurement, and was slightly larger than the number-based size distribution measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer. The particle size measuring method using wire screens and imaging plates was successfully applied to the fine aerosol particles produced in an intense radiation field of a proton accelerator. This technique is applicable to size measurement of radioactive aerosol particles produced in the intense radiation fields of radiation facilities.

  14. Experimental measurement of unsteady drag on shock accelerated micro-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoloi, Ankur; Martinez, Adam; Prestridge, Katherine

    2016-11-01

    The unsteady drag history of shock accelerated micro-particles in air is investigated in the Horizontal Shock Tube (HST) facility at Los Alamos National laboratory. Drag forces are estimated based on particle size, particle density, and instantaneous velocity and acceleration measured on hundreds of post-shock particle tracks. We use previously implemented 8-frame Particle Tracking Velocimetry/Anemometry (PTVA) diagnostics to analyze particles in high spatiotemporal resolution from individual particle trajectories. We use a simultaneous LED based shadowgraph to register shock location with respect to a moving particle in each frame. To measure particle size accurately, we implement a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) in synchronization with the PTVA. In this presentation, we will corroborate with more accuracy our earlier observation that post-shock unsteady drag coefficients (CD(t)) are manifold times higher than those predicted by theoretical models. Our results will also show that all CD(t) measurements collapse on a master-curve for a range of particle size, density, Mach number and Reynolds number when time is normalized by a shear velocity based time scale, t* = d/(uf-up) , where d is particle diameter, and uf and up are post-shock fluid and particle velocities.

  15. Search for Hidden Particles (SHiP): a new experiment proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lellis, G.

    2015-06-01

    Searches for new physics with accelerators are being performed at the LHC, looking for high massive particles coupled to matter with ordinary strength. We propose a new experimental facility meant to search for very weakly coupled particles in the few GeV mass domain. The existence of such particles, foreseen in different theoretical models beyond the Standard Model, is largely unexplored from the experimental point of view. A beam dump facility, built at CERN in the north area, using 400 GeV protons is a copious factory of charmed hadrons and could be used to probe the existence of such particles. The beam dump is also an ideal source of tau neutrinos, the less known particle in the Standard Model. In particular, tau anti-neutrinos have not been observed so far. We therefore propose an experiment to search for hidden particles and study tau neutrino physics at the same time.

  16. A Particle Smoother with Sequential Importance Resampling for soil hydraulic parameter estimation: A lysimeter experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montzka, Carsten; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Moradkhani, Hamid; Pütz, Thomas; Han, Xujun; Vereecken, Harry

    2013-04-01

    An adequate description of soil hydraulic properties is essential for a good performance of hydrological forecasts. So far, several studies showed that data assimilation could reduce the parameter uncertainty by considering soil moisture observations. However, these observations and also the model forcings were recorded with a specific measurement error. It seems a logical step to base state updating and parameter estimation on observations made at multiple time steps, in order to reduce the influence of outliers at single time steps given measurement errors and unknown model forcings. Such outliers could result in erroneous state estimation as well as inadequate parameters. This has been one of the reasons to use a smoothing technique as implemented for Bayesian data assimilation methods such as the Ensemble Kalman Filter (i.e. Ensemble Kalman Smoother). Recently, an ensemble-based smoother has been developed for state update with a SIR particle filter. However, this method has not been used for dual state-parameter estimation. In this contribution we present a Particle Smoother with sequentially smoothing of particle weights for state and parameter resampling within a time window as opposed to the single time step data assimilation used in filtering techniques. This can be seen as an intermediate variant between a parameter estimation technique using global optimization with estimation of single parameter sets valid for the whole period, and sequential Monte Carlo techniques with estimation of parameter sets evolving from one time step to another. The aims are i) to improve the forecast of evaporation and groundwater recharge by estimating hydraulic parameters, and ii) to reduce the impact of single erroneous model inputs/observations by a smoothing method. In order to validate the performance of the proposed method in a real world application, the experiment is conducted in a lysimeter environment.

  17. Nuclear abundance measurements inside MIR and ISS with Sileye experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casolino, M.

    In this work we present measurements of cosmic ray nuclear abundances above 150 MeV/n performed inside Mir space station between 1998 and 2000. Data have been obtained with SilEye-2 detector, a 6 plane silicon strip detector telescope designed to measure environmental radiation and investigate on the Light Flash phenomenon. In standalone mode, SilEye-2 is capable to measure LET distribution spectra and identify nuclear species with energy above 100 MeV/n: a total of 100 sessions comprising more than 1000 hours of observation were perfomed in the years 1998-2000, recording also several Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events. Cosmic ray abundances inside a spacecraft can differ from the primary component due to interaction with the interposed material of the hull and the instruments. We report on LET measurements and relative abundances from Boron to Iron measured in different regions and at different geomagnetic cutoffs, in solar quiet conditions and during SEP events, showing how the composition varies in these different situations. We also report on preliminary results on cosmic ray measurements inside ISS (27/4/2002 - 4/5/2002) obtained with Sileye-3/Alteino experiment.

  18. Large Acceptance Measurement of Photons and Charged Particles in Heavy Ion Reactions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % WA98 \\\\ \\\\ The aim of the experiment is the high statistics study of photons and neutral hadrons, as well as of charged particles, and their correlations in Pb~-~Pb collisions. The photons are measured by: \\begin{enumerate}[-] \\item a 10~000 module LEADGLASS SPECTROMETER yielding high precision data on $ \\pi ^0 $ and $ \\eta $ at midrapidity (with transverse momenta 0.3 GeV/c $>$ p$ _{T} $ $>$ 4.5 GeV/c for $\\pi ^0 $ and 1.5~GeV/c~$>$~p$ _{T}~$ $>$~4.0~GeV/c for $ \\eta $ covering the $^{\\prime\\prime}$thermal$^{\\prime\\prime}$ as well as the $^{\\prime\\prime}$hard scattering$^{\\prime\\prime}$ regime beyond 3~GeV/c) and determination of the thermal and direct photon to $ \\pi ^0 $ ratio. \\item a pad preshower PHOTON MULTIPLICITY DETECTOR which, by comparing with the charged particle multiplicity measurement allows to determine the photon enrichment in an event or event class. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\The charged particle setup contains:\\\\ \\\\\\begin{enumerate}[-] \\item a 4000 element SILICON PAD DETECTOR and a 4-inch SIL...

  19. Measuring the Magnetic Birefringence of Vacuum: the Pvlas Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavattini, G.; Gastaldi, U.; Pengo, R.; Ruoso, G.; Della Valle, F.; Milotti, E.

    2012-06-01

    We describe the principle and the status of the PVLAS experiment which is presently running at the INFN section of Ferrara, Italy, to detect the magnetic birefringence of vacuum. This is related to the QED vacuum structure and can be detected by measuring the ellipticity acquired by a linearly polarized light beam propagating through a strong magnetic field. Such an effect is predicted by the Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian. The method is also sensitive to other hypothetical physical effects such as axion-like particles and in general to any fermion/boson millicharged particle. Here we report on the construction of our apparatus based on a high finesse (> 2·105) Fabry-Perot cavity and two 0.9 m long 2.5 T permanent dipole rotating magnets, and on the measurements performed on a scaled down test setup. With the test setup we have improved by about a factor 2 the limit on the parameter Ae describing nonlinear electrodynamic effects in vacuum: Ae < 2.9 · 10-21 T-2 @ 95% C.L.

  20. Measurement of fission track of uranium particle by solid state nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, S. C.; Pyo, H. W.; Ji, K. Y.; Kim, W. H.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we discussed results of the measurement of fission tracks for the uranium containing particles by solid state nuclear track detector. Uranium containing silica and uranium oxide particles were prepared by uranium sorption onto silica powder in weak acidic medium and laser ablation on uranium pellet, respectively. Fission tracks for the uranium containing silica and uranium oxide particles were detected on Lexan plastic detector. It was found that the fission track size and shapes depend on the particle size uranium content in particles. Correlation of uranium particle diameter with fission track radius was also discussed

  1. Measuring Antineutrino Oscillations with the MINOS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Justin John [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-01

    MINOS is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. A manmade beam of predominantly muon neutrinos is detected both 1 km and 735 km from the production point by two functionally identical detectors. A comparison of the energy spectra measured by the two detectors shows the energy-dependent disappearance of muon neutrinos characteristic of oscillations and allows a measurement of the parameters governing the oscillations. This thesis presents work leading to measurements of disappearance in the 6% $\\bar{v}$μ background in that beam. A calibration is developed to correct for time-dependent changes in the responses of both detectors, reducing the corresponding uncertainty on hadronic energy measurements from 1.8% to 0.4% in the near detector and from 0.8% to 0.4% in the far detector. A method of selecting charged current $\\bar{v}$μ events is developed, with purities (efficiencies) of 96.5% (74.4%) at the near detector, and 98.8% (70.9%) at the far detector in the region below 10 GeV reconstructed antineutrino energy. A method of using the measured near detector neutrino energy spectrum to predict that expected at the far detector is discussed, and developed for use in the $\\bar{v}$μ analysis. Sources of systematic uncertainty contributing to the oscillation measurements are discussed. In the far detector, 32 charged current $\\bar{v}$μ events are observed below a reconstructed energy of 30 GeV, compared to an expectation of 47.8 for Δ$\\bar{m}$atm2 = Δ$\\bar{m}$atm2, sin2(2$\\bar{θ}$23) = sin2(2θ23). This deficit, in such a low-statistics sample, makes the result difficult to interpret in the context of an oscillation parameter measurement. Possible sources for the discrepancy are discussed, concluding that considerably more data are required for a definitive solution. Running MINOS with a dedicated $\\bar

  2. Measurement of Genuine Three-Particle Bose-Einstein Correlations in Hadronic Z decay

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Ewers, A; Extermann, Pierre; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hakobyan, R S; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S A; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofiev, D O; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rosenbleck, C; Roux, B; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S V; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R P; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2002-01-01

    We measure three-particle Bose-Einstein correlations in hadronic Z decay with the L3 detector at LEP. Genuine three-particle Bose-Einstein correlations are observed. By comparing two- and three-particle correlations we find that the data are consistent with fully incoherent pion production.

  3. Particle production and targeting experience at the Brookhaven AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    Experience in production of secondary pions (neutrinos), kaons and antiprotons by 28.5 GeV/c protons incident on various target materials is given. The problems associated with various target materials with respect to target heating, physical degradation and in some cases, disintegration, are discussed. The effect of target length and production angle on secondary beam flux and optical quality will be illustrated by some incomplete but nonetheless informative data

  4. Pion Production Measurement in NA61/SHINE Experiment for High Precision Neutrino Oscillation Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Palczewski, Tomasz Jan

    2009-01-01

    One of physics goals of the NA61/SHINE experiment is a measurement of hadron production cross sections from proton-Carbon interactions at 31GeV/c for the T2K experiment at J-PARC. A precise knowledge of differential cross sections for pion and kaon production is of importance for improving the accuracy of neutrino flux simulations. The NA61 detector has a large angular acceptance, full coverage of the T2K phase space region, and good particle identification. In this work the analyses of negatively charged pion production are presented. Two different methods of negative pion selection and corrections for detector effects are discussed. Finally, preliminary dn/dp distributions of negatively charged pion in p+C interactions at 31 GeV/c are presented.

  5. Compression measurement in laser driven implosion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attwood, D.T.; Cambell, E.M.; Ceglio, N.M.; Lane, S.L.; Larsen, J.T.; Matthews, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses the measurement of compression in the context of the Inertial Confinement Fusion Programs' transition from thin-walled exploding pusher targets, to thicker walled targets which are designed to lead the way towards ablative type implosions which will result in higher fuel density and pR at burn time. These experiments promote desirable reactor conditions but pose diagnostic problems because of reduced multi-kilovolt x-ray and reaction product emissions, as well as increasingly more difficult transport problems for these emissions as they pass through the thicker pR pusher conditions. Solutions to these problems, pointing the way toward higher energy twodimensional x-ray images, new reaction product imaging ideas and the use of seed gases for both x-ray spectroscopic and nuclear activation techniques are identified

  6. Laboratory investigations of Titan haze formation: In situ measurement of gas and particle composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörst, Sarah M.; Yoon, Y. Heidi; Ugelow, Melissa S.; Parker, Alex H.; Li, Rui; de Gouw, Joost A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2018-02-01

    Prior to the arrival of the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft, aerosol production in Titan's atmosphere was believed to begin in the stratosphere where chemical processes are predominantly initiated by far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation. However, measurements taken by the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) indicate that haze formation initiates in the thermosphere where there is a greater flux of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons and energetic particles available to initiate chemical reactions, including the destruction of N2. The discovery of previously unpredicted nitrogen species in measurements of Titan's atmosphere by the Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) indicates that nitrogen participates in the chemistry to a much greater extent than was appreciated before Cassini. The degree of nitrogen incorporation in the haze particles is important for understanding the diversity of molecules that may be present in Titan's atmosphere and on its surface. We have conducted a series of Titan atmosphere simulation experiments using either spark discharge (Tesla coil) or FUV photons (deuterium lamp) to initiate chemistry in CH4/N2 gas mixtures ranging from 0.01% CH4/99.99% N2 to 10% CH4/90% N2. We obtained in situ real-time measurements using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) to measure the particle composition as a function of particle size and a proton-transfer ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) to measure the composition of gas phase products. These two techniques allow us to investigate the effect of energy source and initial CH4 concentration on the degree of nitrogen incorporation in both the gas and solid phase products. The results presented here confirm that FUV photons produce not only solid phase nitrogen bearing products but also gas phase nitrogen species. We find that in both the gas and solid phase, nitrogen is found in nitriles rather than amines and that both the

  7. Hygroscopic growth of sub-micrometer and one-micrometer aerosol particles measured during ACE-Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Massling

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the sub-micrometer and one-micrometer size ranges were measured during the ACE-Asia study (Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia in spring 2001. The measurements took place off the coasts of Japan, Korea, and China. All instruments contributing to this study were deployed in a container on the forward deck of the NOAA Research Vessel Ronald H. Brown. Air masses with primarily marine influence and air masses from the Asian continent affected by both anthropogenic sources and by the transport of desert dust aerosol were encountered during the cruise.

    Results showed very different hygroscopic behavior in the sub-micrometer size range compared to the one-micrometer size range. In general, for all continentally influenced air masses, the one-micrometer particle population was characterized by two different particle groups – a nearly hydrophobic fraction with growth factors around 1.0 representative of dust particles and a sea salt fraction with hygroscopic growth factors around 2.0. The number fraction of dust particles was generally about 60% independent of long-range air mass origin.

    For sub-micrometer particles, a dominant, more hygroscopic particle fraction with growth factors between 1.5 and 1.9 (depending on dry particle size consistent with ammonium sulfate or non-neutralized sulfates as major component was always found. In marine air masses and for larger sizes within the sub-micrometer range (Dp=250 and 350 nm, a sea salt fraction with growth factors between 2.0 and 2.1 was also observed. For all other air masses, the more hygroscopic particle fraction in the sub-micrometer size range was mostly accompanied by a less hygroscopic particle fraction with growth factors between 1.20 and 1.55 depending on both the continental sources and the dry particle size. Number fractions of this particle group varied between 4 and 39% depending on dry particle size and air mass

  8. Marginalized particle filter for spacecraft attitude estimation from vector measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaqiu LIU; Xueyuan JIANG; Guangfu MA

    2007-01-01

    An algorithm based on the marginalized particle filters(MPF)is given in details in this paper to solve the spacecraft attitude estimation problem:attitude and gyro bias estimation using the biased gyro and vector observations.In this algorithm,by marginalizing out the state appearing linearly in the spacecraft model,the Kalman filter is associated with each particle in order to reduce the size of the state space and computational burden.The distribution of attitude vector is approximated by a set of particles and estimated using particle filter,while the estimation of gyro bias is obtained for each one of the attitude particles by applying the Kalman filter.The efficiency of this modified MPF estimator is verified through numerical simulation of a fully actuated rigid body.For comparison,unscented Kalman filter(UKF)is also used to gauge the performance of MPF.The results presented in this paper clearly demonstrate that the MPF is superior to UKF in coping with the nonlinear model.

  9. Double-slit experiment with single wave-driven particles and its relation to quantum mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anders; Madsen, Jacob; Reichelt, Christian; Rosenlund Ahl, Sonja; Lautrup, Benny; Ellegaard, Clive; Levinsen, Mogens T; Bohr, Tomas

    2015-07-01

    In a thought-provoking paper, Couder and Fort [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 154101 (2006)] describe a version of the famous double-slit experiment performed with droplets bouncing on a vertically vibrated fluid surface. In the experiment, an interference pattern in the single-particle statistics is found even though it is possible to determine unambiguously which slit the walking droplet passes. Here we argue, however, that the single-particle statistics in such an experiment will be fundamentally different from the single-particle statistics of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanical interference takes place between different classical paths with precise amplitude and phase relations. In the double-slit experiment with walking droplets, these relations are lost since one of the paths is singled out by the droplet. To support our conclusions, we have carried out our own double-slit experiment, and our results, in particular the long and variable slit passage times of the droplets, cast strong doubt on the feasibility of the interference claimed by Couder and Fort. To understand theoretically the limitations of wave-driven particle systems as analogs to quantum mechanics, we introduce a Schrödinger equation with a source term originating from a localized particle that generates a wave while being simultaneously guided by it. We show that the ensuing particle-wave dynamics can capture some characteristics of quantum mechanics such as orbital quantization. However, the particle-wave dynamics can not reproduce quantum mechanics in general, and we show that the single-particle statistics for our model in a double-slit experiment with an additional splitter plate differs qualitatively from that of quantum mechanics.

  10. Double-slit experiment with single wave-driven particles and its relation to quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anders; Madsen, Jacob; Reichelt, Christian; Rosenlund Ahl, Sonja; Lautrup, Benny; Ellegaard, Clive; Levinsen, Mogens T.; Bohr, Tomas

    2015-07-01

    In a thought-provoking paper, Couder and Fort [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 154101 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.154101] describe a version of the famous double-slit experiment performed with droplets bouncing on a vertically vibrated fluid surface. In the experiment, an interference pattern in the single-particle statistics is found even though it is possible to determine unambiguously which slit the walking droplet passes. Here we argue, however, that the single-particle statistics in such an experiment will be fundamentally different from the single-particle statistics of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanical interference takes place between different classical paths with precise amplitude and phase relations. In the double-slit experiment with walking droplets, these relations are lost since one of the paths is singled out by the droplet. To support our conclusions, we have carried out our own double-slit experiment, and our results, in particular the long and variable slit passage times of the droplets, cast strong doubt on the feasibility of the interference claimed by Couder and Fort. To understand theoretically the limitations of wave-driven particle systems as analogs to quantum mechanics, we introduce a Schrödinger equation with a source term originating from a localized particle that generates a wave while being simultaneously guided by it. We show that the ensuing particle-wave dynamics can capture some characteristics of quantum mechanics such as orbital quantization. However, the particle-wave dynamics can not reproduce quantum mechanics in general, and we show that the single-particle statistics for our model in a double-slit experiment with an additional splitter plate differs qualitatively from that of quantum mechanics.

  11. Measuring mixing efficiency in experiments of strongly stratified turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augier, P.; Campagne, A.; Valran, T.; Calpe Linares, M.; Mohanan, A. V.; Micard, D.; Viboud, S.; Segalini, A.; Mordant, N.; Sommeria, J.; Lindborg, E.

    2017-12-01

    Oceanic and atmospheric models need better parameterization of the mixing efficiency. Therefore, we need to measure this quantity for flows representative of geophysical flows, both in terms of types of flows (with vortices and/or waves) and of dynamical regimes. In order to reach sufficiently large Reynolds number for strongly stratified flows, experiments for which salt is used to produce the stratification have to be carried out in a large rotating platform of at least 10-meter diameter.We present new experiments done in summer 2017 to study experimentally strongly stratified turbulence and mixing efficiency in the Coriolis platform. The flow is forced by a slow periodic movement of an array of large vertical or horizontal cylinders. The velocity field is measured by 3D-2C scanned horizontal particles image velocimetry (PIV) and 2D vertical PIV. Six density-temperature probes are used to measure vertical and horizontal profiles and signals at fixed positions.We will show how we rely heavily on open-science methods for this study. Our new results on the mixing efficiency will be presented and discussed in terms of mixing parameterization.

  12. Measurement of flow characteristics of solid particles mixed with gas in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siberev, S P; Nazarov, S I; Soldatkin, G I

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical model of the interaction of solid particles in a gas stream flowing through a pipeline comprises equations for the energy and material balances in the system and for force and energy interactions between the solid particles and transducers located within the pipeline. Soviet researchers confirmed that the average value of stress recorded by a transducer is proportional to the average kinetic energy of the particles; for a constant particle speed, the stress is proportional to the mass flow of the particles. The analysis and flow transducer measurements are valuable in measuring and controlling flowline sand and soil in natural gas transport from gas wells and undergound storage facilities.

  13. Discrete Element Modeling (DEM) of Triboelectrically Charged Particles: Revised Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos I.; Curry, D. R.; Weitzman, P. S.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous work, the addition of basic screened Coulombic electrostatic forces to an existing commercial discrete element modeling (DEM) software was reported. Triboelectric experiments were performed to charge glass spheres rolling on inclined planes of various materials. Charge generation constants and the Q/m ratios for the test materials were calculated from the experimental data and compared to the simulation output of the DEM software. In this paper, we will discuss new values of the charge generation constants calculated from improved experimental procedures and data. Also, planned work to include dielectrophoretic, Van der Waals forces, and advanced mechanical forces into the software will be discussed.

  14. Skin injuries from discrete radioactive particles: A summary of EPRI-sponsored experiments. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.E.; Reece, W.D.; Poston, J.W. Sr.; McFarlane, D.L.

    1994-12-01

    In recent years there has been the debate over the risk to nuclear power plant workers from beta radiation-emitting discrete radioactive particles (or DRPs). DRPs-sometimes called open-quotes hot particlesclose quotes-are small, often microscopic, radioactive particles that can adhere to the skin and protective clothing of plant workers. They can potentially produce high radiation doses to very small areas of the skin. Concern is based on the knowledge that various types of nonstochastic skin injuries can result from sufficiently high beta radiation doses. While the effects for large-area irradiations (several square centimeters and larger) are generally well understood, the effects for doses to very small areas are less clear. However, the evidence is clear that the doses required to produce skin injuries from DRP irradiations are significantly larger than the dose limits prescribed in existing regulations for large-area skin exposures. One concern is that nuclear power plant efforts to comply with skin dose limits causes workers to receive unnecessary whole-body radiation exposure. In addition, DRP protection measures focus radiation protection resources on very low risk hazards, and may not be an optimum use of radiation protection resources. EPRI sponsored a series of irradiation experiments to address some of the DRP exposure issues. This report summarizes the results of experiments using sources covering a range of sizes and beta energies, simulating both activation product and fuel-bearing DRPS. NCRP Publication 106 states that all of these small skin injuries are minor, but that acute deep ulceration should be avoided. Accordingly, this research focused on open sores or scabs that remain unhealed for very long times. The ED 50 dose for these injuries was determined to be about 5 krad (50 Gy). A revised guideline might lower whole-body exposures associated with DRP control measures, while not significantly increasing the likelyhood of DRP injuries

  15. Particle dry-deposition experiment using ambient airborne soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Airborne solid concentrations were measured simultaneously at sampling towers upwind and 305-m downwind of a site. When the wind speed and wind direction were identical at each site, isokinetic air samplers on the sampling towers were automatically activated. The fraction of the airborne solid plume remaining after the 305-m fetch ranged from 0.53 to 1.07

  16. Coating Thickness Measurement of the Simulated TRISO-Coated Fuel Particles using an Image Plate and a High Resolution Scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woong Ki; Kim, Yeon Ku; Jeong, Kyung Chai; Lee, Young Woo; Kim, Bong Goo; Eom, Sung Ho; Kim, Young Min; Yeo, Sung Hwan; Cho, Moon Sung

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the thickness of the coating layers of 196 coated particles was measured using an Image Plate detector, high resolution scanner and digital image processing techniques. The experimental results are as follows. - An X-ray image was acquired for 196 simulated TRISO-coated fuel particles with ZrO 2 kernel using an Image Plate with high resolution in a reduced amount of time. - We could observe clear boundaries between coating layers for 196 particles. - The geometric distortion error was compensated for the calculation. - The coating thickness of the TRISO-coated fuel particles can be nondestructively measured using X-ray radiography and digital image processing technology. - We can increase the number of TRISO-coated particles to be inspected by increasing the number of Image Plate detectors. A TRISO-coated fuel particle for an HTGR (high temperature gas-cooled reactor) is composed of a nuclear fuel kernel and outer coating layers. The coating layers consist of buffer PyC (pyrolytic carbon), inner PyC (I-PyC), SiC, and outer PyC (O-PyC) layer. The coating thickness is measured to evaluate the soundness of the coating layers. X-ray radiography is one of the nondestructive alternatives for measuring the coating thickness without generating a radioactive waste. Several billion particles are subject to be loaded in a reactor. A lot of sample particles should be tested as much as possible. The acquired X-ray images for the measurement of coating thickness have included a small number of particles because of the restricted resolution and size of the X-ray detector. We tried to test many particles for an X-ray exposure to reduce the measurement time. In this experiment, an X-ray image was acquired for 196 simulated TRISO-coated fuel particles using an image plate and high resolution scanner with a pixel size of 25Χ25 μm 2 . The coating thickness for the particles could be measured on the image

  17. Design of Compact Particle Detector System Using FPGA for Space Particle Environment Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ryu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We have designed a high resolution proton and electron telescope for the detection of high energy particles, which constitute a major part of the space environment. The flux of the particles, in the satellite orbits, can vary abruptly according to the position and solar activities. In this study, a conceptual design of the detector, for adapting these variations with a high energy resolution, was made and the performance was estimated. In addition, a parallel processing algorithm was devised and embodied using FPGA for the high speed data processing, capable of detecting high flux without losing energy resolution, on board a satellite.

  18. Particle Sampling and Real Time Size Distribution Measurement in H2/O2/TEOS Diffusion Flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, K.H.; Jung, C.H.; Choi, M.; Lee, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Growth characteristics of silica particles have been studied experimentally using in situ particle sampling technique from H 2 /O 2 /Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) diffusion flame with carefully devised sampling probe. The particle morphology and the size comparisons are made between the particles sampled by the local thermophoretic method from the inside of the flame and by the electrostatic collector sampling method after the dilution sampling probe. The Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) image processed data of these two sampling techniques are compared with Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) measurement. TEM image analysis of two sampling methods showed a good agreement with SMPS measurement. The effects of flame conditions and TEOS flow rates on silica particle size distributions are also investigated using the new particle dilution sampling probe. It is found that the particle size distribution characteristics and morphology are mostly governed by the coagulation process and sintering process in the flame. As the flame temperature increases, the effect of coalescence or sintering becomes an important particle growth mechanism which reduces the coagulation process. However, if the flame temperature is not high enough to sinter the aggregated particles then the coagulation process is a dominant particle growth mechanism. In a certain flame condition a secondary particle formation is observed which results in a bimodal particle size distribution

  19. Particle size reduction in debris flows: Laboratory experiments compared with field data from Inyo Creek, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabnia, O.; Sklar, L. S.; Mclaughlin, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Rock particles in debris flows are reduced in size through abrasion and fracture. Wear of coarse sediments results in production of finer particles, which alter the bulk material rheology and influence flow dynamics and runout distance. Particle wear also affects the size distribution of coarse particles, transforming the initial sediment size distribution produced on hillslopes into that delivered to the fluvial channel network. A better understanding of the controls on particle wear in debris flows would aid in the inferring flow conditions from debris flow deposits, in estimating the initial size of sediments entrained in the flow, and in modeling debris flow dynamics and mapping hazards. The rate of particle size reduction with distance traveled should depend on the intensity of particle interactions with other particles and the flow boundary, and on rock resistance to wear. We seek a geomorphic transport law to predict rate of particle wear with debris flow travel distance as a function of particle size distribution, flow depth, channel slope, fluid composition and rock strength. Here we use four rotating drums to create laboratory debris flows across a range of scales. Drum diameters range from 0.2 to 4.0 m, with the largest drum able to accommodate up to 2 Mg of material, including boulders. Each drum has vanes along the boundary to prevent sliding. Initial experiments use angular clasts of durable granodiorite; later experiments will use less resistant rock types. Shear rate is varied by changing drum rotational velocity. We begin experiments with well-sorted coarse particle size distributions, which are allowed to evolve through particle wear. The fluid is initially clear water, which rapidly acquires fine-grained wear products. After each travel increment all coarse particles (mass > 0.4 g) are weighed individually. We quantify particle wear rates using statistics of size and mass distributions, and by fitting various comminution functions to the data

  20. The measurement of cross sections of inelastic and transfer reactions with gamma-particle coincidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagatto, V.A.B.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Pereira, D.; Allegro, P.R.P.; Chamon, L.C.; Cybulska, E.W.; Medina, N.H.; Ribas, R.V.; Rossi Junior, E.S.; Seale, W.A.; Silva, C.P.; Gasques, L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Toufen, D.L. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia, Guarulhos, SP (Brazil); Silveira, M.A.G. [Centro Universitario da FEI, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil); Zahn, G.S.; Genezini, F.A.; Shorto, J.M.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lubian, J.; Linares, R. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Nobre, G.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: A new method was developed in Pelletron laboratory to measure gamma-particle coincidences and the chosen experiment to test this method was the {sup 18}O +{sup 110} Pd in the 46-60 MeV range. The following work aims to obtain experimental cross sections of inelastic excitation 0{sup +} {yields} 2{sup +} of {sup 110}Pd and transfer to excited states reactions (both measured by gamma-particle coincidences). The measurements were made at the Pelletron accelerator laboratory of the University of Sao Paulo with the Saci-Perere spectrometer [1], which consists of 4 GeHP Compton suppressed gamma detectors and a 4{pi} charged particle ancillary system with 11{Delta}E-E plastic phoswich scintillators (further details about the experimental procedure may be found in [2]). Calculations were performed with a new model based on the Sao Paulo Potential, specifically developed for the inclusion of dissipative processes like deep-inelastic collisions (DIC) [3,4] considering the Coulomb plus nuclear potential (with the aid of FRESCO code [5]). The experimental cross sections were obtained such as described in [6] including particle-gamma angular correlations, finite size of gamma and particle detectors as the vacuum de-alignment effects [7] (caused by hyperfine interaction) for the {sup 110}Pd inelastic reaction and for the {sup 110}Pd 2n transfer reaction. Also the effects of the beam spot size and energy loss in the target were included in these calculations. For these purposes a new code has been developed to assist in the data analysis. The gamma-particle angular correlations are calculated using the scattering amplitudes given by FRESCO. The theoretical predictions still consider 2 different types of normalization factors in its the real part: 1:0, and 0:6 as proposed in [3] for the weakly bound projectile cases. The analyses indicate that the 0:6 factor describes better the experimental data possible due to the large density of states in the transitional region. [1

  1. Single Particle Laser Mass Spectrometry Applied to Differential Ice Nucleation Experiments at the AIDA Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallavardin, S. J.; Froyd, Karl D.; Lohmann, U.; Moehler, Ottmar; Murphy, Daniel M.; Cziczo, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Experiments conducted at the Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA) chamber located in Karlsruhe, Germany permit investigation of particle properties that affect the nucleation of ice at temperature and water vapor conditions relevant to cloud microphysics and climate issues. Ice clouds were generated by heterogeneous nucleation of Arizona test dust (ATD), illite, and hematite and homogeneous nucleation of sulfuric acid. Ice crystals formed in the chamber were inertially separated from unactivated, or 'interstitial' aerosol particles with a pumped counterflow virtual impactor (PCVI), then evaporated. The ice residue (i.e., the aerosol which initiated ice nucleation plus any material which was scavenged from the gas- and/or particle-phase), was chemically characterized at the single particle level using a laser ionization mass spectrometer. In this manner the species that first nucleated ice could be identified out of a mixed aerosol population in the chamber. Bare mineral dust particles were more effective ice nuclei (IN) than similar particles with a coating. Metallic particles from contamination in the chamber initiated ice nucleation before other species but there were few enough that they did not compromise the experiments. Nitrate, sulfate, and organics were often detected on particles and ice residue, evidently from scavenging of trace gas-phase species in the chamber. Hematite was a more effective ice nucleus than illite. Ice residue was frequently larger than unactivated test aerosol due to the formation of aggregates due to scavenging, condensation of contaminant gases, and the predominance of larger aerosol in nucleation

  2. General experiments concerning particle-matter interactions; Experiences interdisciplinaires d'interaction particule-matiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauvergne, D

    2006-07-15

    The author gathers in this document several papers he has already published in order to shed light on different aspects concerning ion-crystal interactions. This document is divided into 3 chapters. In the first chapter the author presents results obtained from experiments dedicated to charge exchanges and energy released by heavy ions in channeling conditions. Different processes involved in ion-electron interactions are considered: The tri-electronic recombination, the electron capture through nuclear excitation (NEEC), resonant transfer and excitation (RTE), resonant transfer and double excitation (RTDE) and electron impact ionization (EII). The second chapter deals with the measurement of nuclear fission times through crystal blocking experiments. The crystal blocking technique allows the measurement in a model-independent way of the recoil distance covered by the excited nucleus during the whole fission process (starting from the initial collision and ending at the scission point). The last chapter is dedicated to the photon impact ionization through the conversion of a high-energy photon into an electron-positron pair.

  3. Ion movie camera for particle-beam-fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stygar, W.A.; Mix, L.P.; Leeper, R.J.; Maenchen, J.; Wenger, D.F.; Mattson, C.R.; Muron, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    A camera with a 3 ns time resolution and a continuous (>100 ns) record length has been developed to image a 10 12 --10 13 W/cm 2 ion beam for inertial-confinement-fusion experiments. A thin gold Rutherford-scattering foil placed in the path of the beam scatters ions into the camera. The foil is in a near-optimized scattering geometry and reduces the beam intensity∼seven orders of magnitude. The scattered ions are pinhole imaged onto a 2D array of 39 p-i-n diode detectors; outputs are recorded on LeCroy 6880 transient-waveform digitizers. The waveforms are analyzed and combined to produce a 39-pixel movie which can be displayed on an image processor to provide time-resolved horizontal- and vertical-focusing information

  4. Microphysical Properties of Frozen Particles Inferred from Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI) Polarimetric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jie; Wu, Dongliang

    2017-01-01

    Scattering differences induced by frozen particle microphysical properties are investigated, using the vertically (V) and horizontally (H) polarized radiances from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI) 89 and 166GHz channels. It is the first study on global frozen particle microphysical properties that uses the dual-frequency microwave polarimetric signals. From the ice cloud scenes identified by the 183.3 3GHz channel brightness temperature (TB), we find that the scatterings of frozen particles are highly polarized with V-H polarimetric differences (PD) being positive throughout the tropics and the winter hemisphere mid-latitude jet regions, including PDs from the GMI 89 and 166GHz TBs, as well as the PD at 640GHz from the ER-2 Compact Scanning Submillimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSSIR) during the TC4 campaign. Large polarization dominantly occurs mostly near convective outflow region (i.e., anvils or stratiform precipitation), while the polarization signal is small inside deep convective cores as well as at the remote cirrus region. Neglecting the polarimetric signal would result in as large as 30 error in ice water path retrievals. There is a universal bell-curve in the PD TB relationship, where the PD amplitude peaks at 10K for all three channels in the tropics and increases slightly with latitude. Moreover, the 166GHz PD tends to increase in the case where a melting layer is beneath the frozen particles aloft in the atmosphere, while 89GHz PD is less sensitive than 166GHz to the melting layer. This property creates a unique PD feature for the identification of the melting layer and stratiform rain with passive sensors. Horizontally oriented non-spherical frozen particles are thought to produce the observed PD because of different ice scattering properties in the V and H polarizations. On the other hand, changes in the ice microphysical habitats or orientation due to turbulence mixing can also lead to a reduced PD in the deep

  5. Ultrafine particle emission characteristics of diesel engine by on-board and test bench measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Lou, Diming; Hu, Zhiyuan; Tan, Piqiang; Yao, Di; Hu, Wei; Li, Peng; Ren, Jin; Chen, Changhong

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the emission characteristics of ultrafine particles based on test bench and on-board measurements. The bench test results showed the ultrafine particle number concentration of the diesel engine to be in the range of (0.56-8.35) x 10(8) cm(-3). The on-board measurement results illustrated that the ultrafine particles were strongly correlated with changes in real-world driving cycles. The particle number concentration was down to 2.0 x 10(6) cm(-3) and 2.7 x 10(7) cm(-3) under decelerating and idling operations and as high as 5.0 x 10(8) cm(-3) under accelerating operation. It was also indicated that the particle number measured by the two methods increased with the growth of engine load at each engine speed in both cases. The particle number presented a "U" shaped distribution with changing speed at high engine load conditions, which implies that the particle number will reach its lowest level at medium engine speeds. The particle sizes of both measurements showed single mode distributions. The peak of particle size was located at about 50-80 nm in the accumulation mode particle range. Nucleation mode particles will significantly increase at low engine load operations like idling and decelerating caused by the high concentration of unburned organic compounds.

  6. Experiment and theory in particle physics: Reflections on the discovery of the tau lepton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perl, M.L.

    1996-08-01

    This article is thoughts from the author on particle physics work from his perspective. It is not a summary of his work on the tau lepton, but rather a look at what makes good science, experimental and theoretical, from his experiences in the field. The section titles give a good summary on the topics the author chooses to touch upon. They are: the state of elementary particle physics; getting good ideas in experimental science; a difficult field; experiments and experimenting; 10% of the money and 30% of the time; the dictatorship of theory; technological dreams; last words.

  7. Experiment and theory in particle physics: Reflections on the discovery of the tau lepton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, M.L.

    1996-08-01

    This article is thoughts from the author on particle physics work from his perspective. It is not a summary of his work on the tau lepton, but rather a look at what makes good science, experimental and theoretical, from his experiences in the field. The section titles give a good summary on the topics the author chooses to touch upon. They are: the state of elementary particle physics; getting good ideas in experimental science; a difficult field; experiments and experimenting; 10% of the money and 30% of the time; the dictatorship of theory; technological dreams; last words

  8. Radiometric methods in the measurement of particle-laden flows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zych, M.; Hanus, R.; Vlasák, Pavel; Jaszczur, M.; Petryka, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 318, August (2017), s. 491-500 ISSN 0032-5910 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : particle-laden flow * radiotracer * gamma absorption * cross-correlation * polymetallic nodules Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.942, year: 2016

  9. Measured and modeled humidification factors of fresh smoke particles from biomass burning: role of inorganic constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hand

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available During the 2006 FLAME study (Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment, laboratory burns of biomass fuels were performed to investigate the physico-chemical, optical, and hygroscopic properties of fresh biomass smoke. As part of the experiment, two nephelometers simultaneously measured dry and humidified light scattering coefficients (bsp(dry and bsp(RH, respectively in order to explore the role of relative humidity (RH on the optical properties of biomass smoke aerosols. Results from burns of several biomass fuels from the west and southeast United States showed large variability in the humidification factor (f(RH=bsp(RH/bsp(dry. Values of f(RH at RH=80–85% ranged from 0.99 to 1.81 depending on fuel type. We incorporated measured chemical composition and size distribution data to model the smoke hygroscopic growth to investigate the role of inorganic compounds on water uptake for these aerosols. By assuming only inorganic constituents were hygroscopic, we were able to model the water uptake within experimental uncertainty, suggesting that inorganic species were responsible for most of the hygroscopic growth. In addition, humidification factors at 80–85% RH increased for smoke with increasing inorganic salt to carbon ratios. Particle morphology as observed from scanning electron microscopy revealed that samples of hygroscopic particles contained soot chains either internally or externally mixed with inorganic potassium salts, while samples of weak to non-hygroscopic particles were dominated by soot and organic constituents. This study provides further understanding of the compounds responsible for water uptake by young biomass smoke, and is important for accurately assessing the role of smoke in climate change studies and visibility regulatory efforts.

  10. Feasibility studies of colorless LR 115 SSNTD for alpha-particle radiobiological experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.F.; Tse, A.K.W.; Fong, W.F.; Yu, K.N.

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of using the active layer of the colorless LR 115 SSNTD for alpha-particle radiobiological experiments was studied. The track revelation time on the bottom side (the side attached to the polyester base) was much longer than that on the top side (the side not attached to the polyester base) of the active layer so track formation on the top side was more desirable. In relation to this, culture of HeLa cells on the bottom side of the active layer was found feasible although the cultured cell number was relatively smaller. The feasibility of using this SSNTD for alpha-particle radiobiological experiments was demonstrated by culturing cells on the bottom side while performing alpha-particle irradiation and chemical etching on the top side, and by taking photographs of the cells and alpha-particle tracks together under the optical microscope

  11. Strain measurements during pressurized thermal shock experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarso Vida Gomes, P. de; Julio Ricardo Barreto Cruz; Tanius Rodrigues Mansur; Denis Henrique Bianchi Scaldaferri; Miguel Mattar Neto

    2005-01-01

    For the life extension of nuclear power plants, the residual life of most of their components must be evaluated along all their operating time. Concerning the reactor pressure vessel, the pressurized thermal shock (PTS) is a very important event to be considered. For better understanding the effects of this kind of event, tests are made. The approach described here consisted of building a simplified in-scale physical model of the reactor pressure vessel, submitting it to the actual operating temperature and pressure conditions and provoking a thermal shock by means of cold water flow in its external surface. To conduct such test, the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) has been conducting several studies related to PTS and has also built a laboratory that has made possible the simulation of the PTS loading conditions. Several cracks were produced in the external surface of the reactor pressure vessel model. Strain gages were fixed by means of electrical discharge welding over the cracks regions in both external and internal surfaces. The temperature was monitored in 10 points across the vessel wall. The internal pressure was manually controlled and monitored using a pressure transducer. Two PTS experiments were conducted and this paper presents the strain measurement procedures applied to the reactor pressure vessel model, during the PTS, using strain gages experimental methodology. (authors)

  12. Velocity Deficits in the Wake of Model Lemon Shark Dorsal Fins Measured with Particle Image Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, K. N.; Turner, V.; Hackett, E.

    2017-12-01

    Aquatic animals' morphology provides inspiration for human technological developments, as their bodies have evolved and become adapted for efficient swimming. Lemon sharks exhibit a uniquely large second dorsal fin that is nearly the same size as the first fin, the hydrodynamic role of which is unknown. This experimental study looks at the drag forces on a scale model of the Lemon shark's unique two-fin configuration in comparison to drag forces on a more typical one-fin configuration. The experiments were performed in a recirculating water flume, where the wakes behind the scale models are measured using particle image velocimetry. The experiments are performed at three different flow speeds for both fin configurations. The measured instantaneous 2D distributions of the streamwise and wall-normal velocity components are ensemble averaged to generate streamwise velocity vertical profiles. In addition, velocity deficit profiles are computed from the difference between these mean streamwise velocity profiles and the free stream velocity, which is computed based on measured flow rates during the experiments. Results show that the mean velocities behind the fin and near the fin tip are smallest and increase as the streamwise distance from the fin tip increases. The magnitude of velocity deficits increases with increasing flow speed for both fin configurations, but at all flow speeds, the two-fin configurations generate larger velocity deficits than the one-fin configurations. Because the velocity deficit is directly proportional to the drag force, these results suggest that the two-fin configuration produces more drag.

  13. Light particle emission measurements in heavy ion reactions: Progress report, June 1, 1986-May 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitt, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    During the past year we have completed our work on neutron emission in coincidence with fission fragments from the 158 Er system. In addition to this we have completed preliminary analysis of our results on neutron emission from products of damped reactions between 58 Ni and 165 Ho at 930 MeV. Two experiments were planned for the present contract period as discussed in our proposal for 1986-87. One of these, to measure the mass and charge distributions from projectile-like fragments (PLF) in the reactions 58 Ni + 165 Ho and 58 Ni + 58 Ni using the time-of-flight facility at the HHIRF has been successfully completed. The other, to measure momentum correlations between neutrons and charged particles produced in central collisions between 32 S + 197 Au is scheduled to be run in mid-February. 14 refs., 4 figs

  14. Testing of a "smart-pebble" for measuring particle transport statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsikoudis, Vasileios; Avgeris, Loukas; Valyrakis, Manousos

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from novel experiments aiming to assess coarse sediment transport statistics for a range of transport conditions, via the use of an innovative "smart-pebble" device. This device is a waterproof sphere, which has 7 cm diameter and is equipped with a number of sensors that provide information about the velocity, acceleration and positioning of the "smart-pebble" within the flow field. A series of specifically designed experiments are carried out to monitor the entrainment of a "smart-pebble" for fully developed, uniform, turbulent flow conditions over a hydraulically rough bed. Specifically, the bed surface is configured to three sections, each of them consisting of well packed glass beads of slightly increasing size at the downstream direction. The first section has a streamwise length of L1=150 cm and beads size of D1=15 mm, the second section has a length of L2=85 cm and beads size of D2=22 mm, and the third bed section has a length of L3=55 cm and beads size of D3=25.4 mm. Two cameras monitor the area of interest to provide additional information regarding the "smart-pebble" movement. Three-dimensional flow measurements are obtained with the aid of an acoustic Doppler velocimeter along a measurement grid to assess the flow forcing field. A wide range of flow rates near and above the threshold of entrainment is tested, while using four distinct densities for the "smart-pebble", which can affect its transport speed and total momentum. The acquired data are analyzed to derive Lagrangian transport statistics and the implications of such an important experiment for the transport of particles by rolling are discussed. The flow conditions for the initiation of motion, particle accelerations and equilibrium particle velocities (translating into transport rates), statistics of particle impact and its motion, can be extracted from the acquired data, which can be further compared to develop meaningful insights for sediment transport

  15. A novel straightness measurement system applied to the position monitoring of large Particle Physics Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Goudard, R; Ribeiro, R; Klumb, F

    1999-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment, CMS, is one of the two general purpose experiments foreseen to operate at the Large Hadron Collider, LHC, at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. The experiment aims to study very high energy collisions of proton beams. Investigation of the most fundamental properties of matter, in particular the study of the nature of the electroweak symmetry breaking and the origin of mass, is the experiment scope. The central Tracking System, a six meter long cylinder with 2.4 m diameter, will play a major role in all physics searches of the CMS experiment. Its performance depends upon the intrinsic detector performance, on the stability of the supporting structure and on the overall survey, alignment and position monitoring system. The proposed position monitoring system is based on a novel lens-less laser straightness measurement method able to detect deviations from a nominal position of all structural elements of the Central Tracking system. It is based on the recipr...

  16. Charged particle multiplicity distributions in e+e--annihilation processes in the LEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlyapnikov, P.V.

    1992-01-01

    Results of studies of the charged particle multiplicity distributions in the process of e + e - -annihilation into hadrons obtained in experiments at LEP accelerator in CERN are reviewed. Universality in energy dependence of the average charged particle multiplicity in e + e - and p ± p collisions, evidence for KNO-scaling in e + e - data, structure in multiplicity distribution and its relation to the jet structure of events, average particle multiplicities or quark and gluon jets, 'clan' picture and other topics are discussed. 73 refs.; 20 figs.; 3 tabs

  17. Measurement and Modeling of Volatile Particle Emissions from Military Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    CMAQ – Community multiscale air quality model CMU – Carnegie Mellon University COA – organic aerosol concentration CPC - condensation particle...the aerosol phase when there is free ammonia (or another cation) available to neutralize it [36]. Therefore, we expect that nitrate aerosol...be a critical parameter, with greater nitrate expected during winter. Even less is known about the fate of the complex mixture of organics in the

  18. On the Measurements of Particles Smaller than 20 μM by Global Rainbow Refractometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengkaew, S.; Bonin, D.; Gréh, G.

    2007-06-01

    The measurement of the thermo-chemical characteristics of particles under evaporation or cooling is a challenge. Among others techniques, Global Rainbow Refractometry (GRR) is potentially applicable to a large variety of realistic media. This paper is focused on refractive index measurements of particles smaller than 20 μm which are especially important to extract droplet temperature in spray combustion.

  19. Theory of mutation of elementary particles and its application to Rauch's experiments on the spinorial symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santilli, R.M.

    1991-03-01

    In this paper we study an open historical legacy of nuclear physics, according to which the magnetic moment of nucleons could be altered in the transition from motion in vacuum under external electromagnetic interactions (as measured until now), to motion under joint, external, electromagnetic and strong interactions, with a consequential conceivable fluctuation of the spin. The legacy is studied via the construction of the Lie-isotopic generalization of conventional field equations, i.e., generalized equations that are invariant under the Poincare-isotopic symmetry proposed in a preceding paper. It emerges that in the transition from motion in vacuum under potential interactions, to motion within a physical medium with potential as well as contact non-Hamiltonian interactions, there is, in general, the alteration (called ''mutation'') of all intrinsic characteristics of particles, such as: rest energy, spin, charge, mean life, space and charge parity, electric and magnetic moments, etc. The emerging, generalized, iso-field theory is applied to a direct and quantitative interpretation of Rauch's experimental data according to which thermal neutrons experience a deformation of their charge distributions with consequential alteration of their magnetic moments when under joint, external, electromagnetic and nuclear interactions. We then pass to the review of an intriguing generalization of Dirac's equation proposed by Dirac himself, in which the spin is mutated from 1/2 to zero. We show that the generalized equation possesses an essential isotopic structure precisely of the class submitted in this work. A number of fundamental implications of the open historical legacy are pointed out. The paper ends with the review of several experiments which have been proposed in the literature for some time, but regrettably ignored until now, for the final resolution of the problem, whether the intrinsic characteristics of particles are rigidly immutable, or they can change under

  20. Using the combination CsI(Tl) + photodiode for identification and energy measurement of light particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinet, D.; Chambon, B.; Cheynis, B.; Demeyer, A.; Drain, D.; Hu, X.C.; Pastor, C.; Vagneron, L.; Zaid, K.; Giorni, A.; Heuer, D.; Lleres, A.; Viano, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of discriminating light charged particles in charge and mass using the CsI(Tl) + photodiode combination is demonstrated. Experiment layout and results for a test using a beam of 30 MeV/nucleon α particles impinging on self-supporting gold and aluminium targets are shown

  1. Light particle emission measurements in heavy ion reactions: Progress report, June 1, 1987-May 31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitt, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses work on heavy ion reactions done at Georgia State University. Topics and experiments discussed are: energy division in damped reactions between 58 Ni projectiles and 165 Ho and 58 Ni targets using time-of-flight methods; particle-particle correlations; and development works on the Hili detector system. 10 refs., 9 figs

  2. Charged-particle multiplicities in pp interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV measured with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cairo, Valentina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Measurements are presented of charged particle distributions in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV collected with the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC Run 2 and compared with lower centre-of-mass energies measurements. The charged-particle multiplicity, its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity and the dependence of the mean transverse momentum on the charged-particle multiplicity are presented. The results are corrected for detector effects, presented as particle-level distributions and are compared to various Monte Carlo generator models.

  3. Trajectory and velocity measurement of a particle in spray by digital holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lue Qieni; Chen Yiliang; Yuan Rui; Ge Baozhen; Gao Yan; Zhang Yimo

    2009-12-20

    We present a method for the trajectory and the velocity measurement of a particle in spray by digital holography. Based on multiple exposure digital in-line holography, a sequence of digital holograms of a dynamic spray particle field at different times are recorded with a CW laser and a high-speed CCD. The time evolution of the serial positions of particles, i.e., the motion trajectories of the particles, is obtained by numerically reconstructing the synthetic hologram of a sequence of digital holograms. The center coordinate (x,y) of each particle image can be extracted using a Hough transform and subpixel precision computing, and the velocity of an individual particle can also be obtained, which is then applied to measuring the velocity of diesel spray and alcohol spray. The research shows that the method presented in this paper for measuring spray field is feasible.

  4. Measurement of particle size distribution and mass concentration of nuclear fuel aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, S.

    1982-01-01

    The particle size distribution and particle mass concentration of a nuclear fuel aerosol is measured by admitting the aerosol into a vertically-extending container, positioning an alpha particle detector within the container so that its window is horizontal and directed vertically, stopping the admission of aerosol into the container, detecting the alpha-activity of the particles of the aerosol sedimenting onto the detector window (for example in a series of equal time intervals until a constant level is reached), and converting the alpha-activity measurements into particle size distribution and/or particle mass concentration measurements. The detector is attached to a pivotted arm and by raising a counterweight can be lowered from the container for cleaning. (author)

  5. CHANTI: a fast and efficient charged particle veto detector for the NA62 experiment at cern

    CERN Document Server

    Mirra, Marco

    This work has been performed into the frame of the NA62 experiment at CERN that aims at measuring the Branching-Ratio of the ultra-rare kaon decay K+→π+ nu nubar with 10% uncertainty - using an unseparated kaon beam of 75GeV/c - in order to test the Standard Model (SM), to look for physics beyond SM and to measure the |Vtd| element of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) flavor mixing matrix. Backgrounds, which are up to 10^10 times higher than the signal, will be suppressed by an accurate measurement of the momentum of the K+ (with a silicon beam tracker named GigaTracker) and the π+ (with a straw tracker) and by a complex system of particle identification and veto detectors. A critical background can be induced by inelastic interactions of the hadron beam with the GigaTracker. Pions produced in these interactions, emitted at low angle, can reach the straw tracker and mimic a kaon decay in the fiducial region, if no other track is detected. In order to suppress this background a CHarged track ANTIcounter ...

  6. Low Energy Particle Oscillations and Correlations with Hydromagnetic Waves in the Jovian Magnetosphere: Ulysses Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupp, N.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Maclennan, C. G.

    1996-01-01

    We report on measurements of energetic particle modulations observed by the HI-SCALE instrument aboard the Ulysses Spacecraft that were associated with the only hydromagnetic wave event measured inside the Jovian magnetosphere by the Ulysses magnetometer investigation.

  7. Double-slit experiment with single wave-driven particles and its relation to quantum mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Madsen, Jacob; Reichelt, Christian Günther

    2015-01-01

    even though it is possible to determine unambiguously which slit the walking droplet passes. Here we argue, however, that the single-particle statistics in such an experiment will be fundamentally different from the single-particle statistics of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanical interference takes...... place between different classical paths with precise amplitude and phase relations. In the double-slit experiment with walking droplets, these relations are lost since one of the paths is singled out by the droplet. To support our conclusions, we have carried out our own double-slit experiment, and our...... results, in particular the long and variable slit passage times of the droplets, cast strong doubt on the feasibility of the interference claimed by Couder and Fort. To understand theoretically the limitations of wave-driven particle systems as analogs to quantum mechanics, we introduce a Schro...

  8. Calibrations for charged particle tracking and measurements of w photoproduction with the GlueX detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staib, Michael [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-09-21

    The GlueX experiment is a new experimental facility at Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA. The experiment aims to map out the spectrum of hybrid mesons in the light quark sector. Measurements of the spin-density matrix elements in omega photoproduction are performed with a linear polarized photon beam on an unpolarized proton target, and presented in bins of Mandelstam t for beam energies of 8.4-9.0 GeV. The spin-density matrix elements are exclusively measured through two decays of the omega meson: omega -> pi^+ pi^- pi^0 and omega ->pi^0 gamma. A description of the experimental apparatus is presented. Several methods used in the calibration of the charged particle tracking system are described. These measurements greatly improve the world statistics in this energy range. These are the first results measured through the omega ->pi^0 gamma decay at this energy. Results are generally consistent with a theoretical model based on diffractive production with Pomeron and pseudoscalar exchange in the t-channel.

  9. Magnetic particle imaging for in vivo blood flow velocity measurements in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Michael G.; Salamon, Johannes; Knopp, Tobias; Ittrich, Harald; Adam, Gerhard; Weller, Horst; Jung, Caroline

    2018-03-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new imaging technology. It is a potential candidate to be used for angiographic purposes, to study perfusion and cell migration. The aim of this work was to measure velocities of the flowing blood in the inferior vena cava of mice, using MPI, and to evaluate it in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A phantom mimicking the flow within the inferior vena cava with velocities of up to 21 cm s‑1 was used for the evaluation of the applied analysis techniques. Time–density and distance–density analyses for bolus tracking were performed to calculate flow velocities. These findings were compared with the calibrated velocities set by a flow pump, and it can be concluded that velocities of up to 21 cm s‑1 can be measured by MPI. A time–density analysis using an arrival time estimation algorithm showed the best agreement with the preset velocities. In vivo measurements were performed in healthy FVB mice (n  =  10). MRI experiments were performed using phase contrast (PC) for velocity mapping. For MPI measurements, a standardized injection of a superparamagnetic iron oxide tracer was applied. In vivo MPI data were evaluated by a time–density analysis and compared to PC MRI. A Bland–Altman analysis revealed good agreement between the in vivo velocities acquired by MRI of 4.0  ±  1.5 cm s‑1 and those measured by MPI of 4.8  ±  1.1 cm s‑1. Magnetic particle imaging is a new tool with which to measure and quantify flow velocities. It is fast, radiation-free, and produces 3D images. It therefore offers the potential for vascular imaging.

  10. The Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe PHIPS: First Stereo-Imaging and Polar Scattering Function Measurements of Ice Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmonem, A.; Schnaiter, M.; Schön, R.; Leisner, T.

    2009-04-01

    in December 2008 at the AIDA cloud chamber in the temperature range from -5°C to -70°C. In a series of experiments small externally generated seed ice crystals were grown in AIDA at distinct temperature and saturation ratio conditions. For these experiments the long known ice morphology diagram with the temperature dependent morphology changes and the supersaturation dependent structural complexity could clearly be reproduced by PHIPS. Structural details like hollow crystals, crystals with inclusions, and crystals with stepped surfaces (Hopper crystals) could be resolved by PHIPS. Moreover, the advantage of stereo-imaging in terms of habit classification and particle orientation deduction could be demonstrated. The scattering function measurement reveals ice particle orientation dependent specular reflection peaks which might contain information about the surface roughness. The presentation will describe the instrument set up in detail and highlight some preliminary results.

  11. Investigations of the transportation characteristics of biomass fuel particles in a horizontal pipeline through CFD modelling and experimental measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubba, S.R.; Ingham, D.B.; Larsen, K.J.; Ma, L.; Pourkashanian, M.; Qian, X.; Williams, A.; Yan, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Recent national and international emission legislations to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide are forcing power generation industries using coal to look at various alternatives, such as biomass and especially by co-firing techniques. Biomass is transported to the burners either mixed with the primary fuel, in general, coal, or used in dedicated pipelines. In both cases, transportation of biomass is difficult due to its composition, size, shape and physical behaviour in comparison to the transportation of coal. This study considers experimental measurements for biomass particle transportation in a pipeline with a transverse elbow and compares the results with those using computation fluid dynamic (CFD) techniques. Various materials: flour, willow, wood, bark and a mixture of flour and willow, have been considered in the present investigation. The experimental work was performed using the dynamic changes in the electrostatic charges of biomass particles in conjunction with correlation signal processing techniques. The CFD simulations were performed by considering the effects of gravity, non-spherical drag (based on estimated shape factor), detailed information of the particle distribution, particle wall collisions and particle–particle interactions. Good quantitative and qualitative agreement was obtained between the CFD simulations and the experimental data. It is concluded that particle–particle interactions are of less importance if the mass loading ratio of particles to air is less than 0.03. -- Highlights: ► Dispersed biomass particle transportation is studied using experiments and CFD. ► Inclusion of asphericity in the drag model clearly demonstrated the improvements. ► Gravity effects are found to be important for correct particle distribution in pipe lines. ► Inter-particle collisions were less important for mass loading ratios <0.05 kg/kg.

  12. Direct Measurement of pH in Individual Particles via Raman Microspectroscopy and Variation in Acidity with Relative Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindelaub, Joel D; Craig, Rebecca L; Nandy, Lucy; Bondy, Amy L; Dutcher, Cari S; Shepson, Paul B; Ault, Andrew P

    2016-02-18

    Atmospheric aerosol acidity is an important characteristic of aqueous particles, which has been linked to the formation of secondary organic aerosol by catalyzing reactions of oxidized organic compounds that have partitioned to the particle phase. However, aerosol acidity is difficult to measure and traditionally estimated using indirect methods or assumptions based on composition. Ongoing disagreements between experiments and thermodynamic models of particle acidity necessitate improved fundamental understanding of pH and ion behavior in high ionic strength atmospheric particles. Herein, Raman microspectroscopy was used to determine the pH of individual particles (H2SO4+MgSO4) based on sulfate and bisulfate concentrations determined from νs(SO4(2-)) and νs(HSO4(-)), the acid dissociation constant, and activity coefficients from extended Debye-Hückel calculations. Shifts in pH and peak positions of νs(SO4(2-)) and νs(HSO4(-)) were observed as a function of relative humidity. These results indicate the potential for direct spectroscopic determination of pH in individual particles and the need to improve fundamental understanding of ion behavior in atmospheric particles.

  13. Experience with confirmation measurement at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.S.; Wagner, R.P.; Hsue, F.

    1985-01-01

    Confirmation measurements are used at Los Alamos in support of incoming and outgoing shipment accountibility and for support of both at 235 U and Pu inventories. Statistical data are presented to show the consistency of measurements on items of identical composition and on items measured at two facilitis using similar instruments. A description of confirmation measurement techniques used in support of 235 U and Pu inventories and a discussion on the ability of the measurements to identify items with misstated SNM are given

  14. Experience with confirmation measurement at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.S.; Wagner, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    Confirmation measurements are used at Los Alamos in support of incoming and outgoing shipment accountability and for support of both 235 U and Pu inventories. Statistical data are presented to show the consistency of measurements on items of identical composition and on items measured at two facilities using similar instruments. A description of confirmation measurement techniques used in support of 235 U and Pu inventories and a discussion on the ability of the measurements to identify items with misstated SNM are given

  15. Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 2. Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelnikova, Irina; Rapp, Markus; Strelnikov, Boris; Baumgarten, Gerd; Brattli, Alvin; Svenes, Knut; Hoppe, Ulf-Peter; Friedrich, Martin; Gumbel, Jörg; Williams, Bifford P.

    2009-03-01

    The first sounding rocket of the European ECOMA-project (ECOMA, Existence and Charge state Of Meteoric smoke particles in the middle Atmosphere) was launched on 8 September 2006. Measurements with a new particle detector described in the companion paper by Rapp and Strelnikova [2008. Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 1. Particle detection by active photoionization. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, this issue, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2008.06.002] clearly showed meteor smoke particle (MSP) signatures in both data channels. The data channels measure particles directly impacting on the detector electrode and photoelectrons from the particles actively created using ionization by the UV-photons of a xenon-flashlamp. Measured photoelectron currents resemble model expectations of the shape of the MSP layer almost perfectly, whereas derived number densities in the altitude range 60-90 km are larger than model results by about a factor of 5. Given the large uncertainties inherent to both model and the analysis of our measurements (e.g., the composition of the particles is not known and must be assumed) we consider this a satisfactory agreement and proof that MSPs do extend throughout the entire mesosphere as predicted by models. The measurements of direct particle impacts revealed a confined layer of negative charge between 80 and 90 km. This limited altitude range, however, is quantitatively shown to be the consequence of the aerodynamics of the rocket flight and does not have any geophysical origin. Measured charge signatures are consistent with expectations of particle charging given our own measurements of the background ionization. Unfortunately, however, a contamination of these measurements from triboelectric charging cannot be excluded at this stage.

  16. AFM measurements of adhesive forces between carbonaceous particles and the substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tianqi [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Peng, Wei, E-mail: pengwei@tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Shen, Ke [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Yu, Suyuan, E-mail: suyuan@tsinghua.edu.cn [Center for Combustion Energy, Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Educations, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Adhesive force of spherical carbonaceous particle MCMBs and HTR-10 graphite matrix debris were measured for the first time. • The measured equivalent works of adhesion were much smaller than the ideal values. • The shape factor and the particle morphology reduce the adhesive force. • The adhesion effect does not change directly with the asperity size. - Abstract: Graphite dust is carbonaceous particles generated during operation of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTR). Graphite dust resuspension is the key behavior associated with HTR source term analyses and environmental safety assessment. The adhesive force is the key factor that determines the resuspension rate. The present study used an atomic force microscope (AFM) to measure the adhesive force between a single carbonaceous particle and the substrate. The measurements were performed on mica, graphite IG110 and Inconel 800H. The prepared “probe cantilevers” were mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB), fuel element debris from HTR-10 and graphite NBG18. The equivalent work of adhesion was derived from the measured adhesive force and calculated based on substrate profile approximation and the JKR theoretical model. The measured work was smaller than the ideal work of adhesion, most likely due to the rough particle morphology and the rough substrate surface. Additionally, a shape factor imposes a constraint on the lateral deformation of the particles. Furthermore, surface roughness could reduce the adhesive force some depending on the particle size. Once the particle was too small to be trapped into a trough, the adhesive force would not be further reduced.

  17. AFM measurements of adhesive forces between carbonaceous particles and the substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tianqi; Peng, Wei; Shen, Ke; Yu, Suyuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adhesive force of spherical carbonaceous particle MCMBs and HTR-10 graphite matrix debris were measured for the first time. • The measured equivalent works of adhesion were much smaller than the ideal values. • The shape factor and the particle morphology reduce the adhesive force. • The adhesion effect does not change directly with the asperity size. - Abstract: Graphite dust is carbonaceous particles generated during operation of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTR). Graphite dust resuspension is the key behavior associated with HTR source term analyses and environmental safety assessment. The adhesive force is the key factor that determines the resuspension rate. The present study used an atomic force microscope (AFM) to measure the adhesive force between a single carbonaceous particle and the substrate. The measurements were performed on mica, graphite IG110 and Inconel 800H. The prepared “probe cantilevers” were mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB), fuel element debris from HTR-10 and graphite NBG18. The equivalent work of adhesion was derived from the measured adhesive force and calculated based on substrate profile approximation and the JKR theoretical model. The measured work was smaller than the ideal work of adhesion, most likely due to the rough particle morphology and the rough substrate surface. Additionally, a shape factor imposes a constraint on the lateral deformation of the particles. Furthermore, surface roughness could reduce the adhesive force some depending on the particle size. Once the particle was too small to be trapped into a trough, the adhesive force would not be further reduced.

  18. Electronic properties of single crystal CVD diamond and its suitability for particle detection in hadron physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomorski, Michal

    2008-08-07

    This work presents the study on the suitability of single-crystal CVD diamond for particle-detection systems in present and future hadron physics experiments. Different characterization methods of the electrical and the structural properties were applied to gain a deeper understanding of the crystal quality and the charge transport properties of this novel semiconductor material. First measurements regarding the radiation tolerance of diamond were performed with sensors heavily irradiated with protons and neutrons. Finally, detector prototypes were fabricated and successfully tested in various experiments as time detectors for minimum ionizing particles as well as for spectroscopy of heavy ions at the energy ranges available at the SIS and the UNILAC facilities of GSI. (orig.)

  19. Electronic properties of single crystal CVD diamond and its suitability for particle detection in hadron physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomorski, Michal

    2008-01-01

    This work presents the study on the suitability of single-crystal CVD diamond for particle-detection systems in present and future hadron physics experiments. Different characterization methods of the electrical and the structural properties were applied to gain a deeper understanding of the crystal quality and the charge transport properties of this novel semiconductor material. First measurements regarding the radiation tolerance of diamond were performed with sensors heavily irradiated with protons and neutrons. Finally, detector prototypes were fabricated and successfully tested in various experiments as time detectors for minimum ionizing particles as well as for spectroscopy of heavy ions at the energy ranges available at the SIS and the UNILAC facilities of GSI. (orig.)

  20. Impurity identifications, concentrations and particle fluxes from spectral measurements of the EXTRAP T2R plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menmuir, S.; Kuldkepp, M.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-10-01

    An absolute intensity calibrated 0.5 m spectrometer with optical multi-channel analyser detector was used to observe the visible-UV radiation from the plasma in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch experiment. Spectral lines were identified indicating the presence of oxygen, chromium, iron and molybdenum impurities in the hydrogen plasma. Certain regions of interest were examined in more detail and at different times in the plasma discharge. Impurity concentration calculations were made using the absolute intensities of lines of OIV and OV measured at 1-2 ms into the discharge generating estimates of the order of 0.2% of ne in the central region rising to 0.7% of ne at greater radii for OIV and 0.3% rising to 0.6% for OV. Edge electron temperatures of 0.5-5 eV at electron densities of 5-10×1011 cm-3 were calculated from the measured relative intensities of hydrogen Balmer lines. The absolute intensities of hydrogen lines and of multiplets of neutral chromium and molybdenum were used to determine particle fluxes (at 4-5 ms into the plasma) of the order 1×1016, 7×1013 and 3×1013 particles cm-2 s-1, respectively.

  1. Development of a compact x-ray particle image velocimetry for measuring opaque flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, Guk Bae; Yim, Dae Hyun; Jung, Sung Yong

    2009-03-01

    A compact x-ray particle image velocimetry (PIV) system employing a medical x-ray tube as a light source was developed to measure quantitative velocity field information of opaque flows. The x-ray PIV system consists of a medical x-ray tube, an x-ray charge coupled device camera, a programmable shutter for a pulse-type x ray, and a synchronization device. Through performance tests, the feasibility of the developed x-ray PIV system as a flow measuring device was verified. To check the feasibility of the developed system, we tested a tube flow at two different mean velocities of 1 and 2 mm/s. The x-ray absorption of tracer particles must be quite different from that of working fluid to have a good contrast in x-ray images. All experiments were performed under atmospheric pressure condition. This system is unique and useful for investigating various opaque flows or flows inside opaque conduits.

  2. Development of a compact x-ray particle image velocimetry for measuring opaque flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, Guk Bae; Yim, Dae Hyun; Jung, Sung Yong

    2009-01-01

    A compact x-ray particle image velocimetry (PIV) system employing a medical x-ray tube as a light source was developed to measure quantitative velocity field information of opaque flows. The x-ray PIV system consists of a medical x-ray tube, an x-ray charge coupled device camera, a programmable shutter for a pulse-type x ray, and a synchronization device. Through performance tests, the feasibility of the developed x-ray PIV system as a flow measuring device was verified. To check the feasibility of the developed system, we tested a tube flow at two different mean velocities of 1 and 2 mm/s. The x-ray absorption of tracer particles must be quite different from that of working fluid to have a good contrast in x-ray images. All experiments were performed under atmospheric pressure condition. This system is unique and useful for investigating various opaque flows or flows inside opaque conduits.

  3. Simple preparation of thin CR-39 detectors for alpha-particle radiobiological experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.F.; Lau, B.M.F.; Nikezic, D.; Tse, A.K.W.; Fong, W.F.; Yu, K.N.

    2007-01-01

    Alpha-particle radiobiological experiments involve irradiating cells with alpha particles and require accurate positions where the alpha particles hit the cells. In the present work, we prepared thin CR-39 detectors from commercially available CR-39 SSNTDs with a thickness of 100 μm by etching them in 1 N NaOH/ethanol at 40 deg. C to below 20 μm. The desired final thickness was achieved within ∼8 h. Such etching conditions can provide relatively small roughness of the detector as revealed by atomic force microscope, and thus provide transparent detectors for radiobiological experiments. UV radiation was employed to shorten track formation time on these thin CR-39 detectors. After exposure to UV light (UVA + B radiation) for 2-3 h with doses from 259 to 389 W/cm 2 , 5 MeV alpha-particle tracks can be seen to develop on these CR-39 detectors clearly under the optical microscope within 2 h in 14 N KOH at 37 deg. C. As an example for practical use, custom-made petri dishes, with a hole drilled at the bottom and covered with a thin CR-39 detector, were used for culturing HeLa cells. The feasibility of using these thin CR-39 detectors is demonstrated by taking photographs of the cells and alpha-particle tracks together under the optical microscope, which can allow the hit positions on the cells by the alpha particles to be determined accurately

  4. Measuring Emotions in the Consumption Experience.

    OpenAIRE

    Richins, Marsha L

    1997-01-01

    Although consumption-related emotions have been studied with increasing frequency in consumer behavior, issues concerning the appropriate way to measure these emotions remain unresolved This article reviews the emotion measures currently used in consumer research and the theories on which they are based; it concludes that the existing measures are unsuited for the purpose of measuring consumption-related emotions. The article describes six empirical studies that assess the domain of consumpti...

  5. CERN Press Release: CERN experiments observe particle consistent with long-sought Higgs boson

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Geneva, 4 July 2012. At a seminar held at CERN today as a curtain raiser to the year’s major particle physics conference, ICHEP2012 in Melbourne, the ATLAS and CMS experiments presented their latest preliminary results in the search for the long sought Higgs particle. Both experiments observe a new particle in the mass region around 125-126 GeV.   CERN physicists await the start of the Higgs seminar. “We observe in our data clear signs of a new particle, at the level of 5 sigma, in the mass region around 126 GeV. The outstanding performance of the LHC and ATLAS and the huge efforts of many people have brought us to this exciting stage,” said ATLAS experiment spokesperson Fabiola Gianotti, “but a little more time is needed to prepare these results for publication.” "The results are preliminary but the 5 sigma signal at around 125 GeV we’re seeing is dramatic. This is indeed a new particle. We know it must be a boson and it&...

  6. Quantitative determination of carbonaceous particle mixing state in Paris using single particle mass spectrometer and aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Crippa, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGuire, M. L.; Jeong, C.-H.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Evans, G. J.; Wenger, J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Single particle mixing state information can be a powerful tool for assessing the relative impact of local and regional sources of ambient particulate matter in urban environments. However, quantitative mixing state data are challenging to obtain using single particle mass spectrometers. In this study, the quantitative chemical composition of carbonaceous single particles has been estimated using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) as part of the MEGAPOLI 2010 winter campaign in Paris, France. Relative peak areas of marker ions for elemental carbon (EC), organic aerosol (OA), ammonium, nitrate, sulphate and potassium were compared with concurrent measurements from an Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), a thermal/optical OCEC analyser and a particle into liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography (PILS-IC). ATOFMS-derived mass concentrations reproduced the variability of these species well (R2 = 0.67-0.78), and ten discrete mixing states for carbonaceous particles were identified and quantified. Potassiu