Kasorndorkbua, Chaiyan; Thacker, Brad J.; Halbur, Patrick G.; Guenette, Denis K.; Buitenwerf, Ryan M.; Royer, Ryan L.; Meng, Xiang-Jin
To determine the effect of swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection on pregnant gilts, their fetuses, and offspring, 12 gilts were intravenously inoculated with swine HEV. Six gilts, who were not inoculated, served as controls. All inoculated gilts became actively infected and shed HEV in feces, but vertical transmission was not detected in the fetuses. There was no evidence of clinical disease in the gilts or their offspring. Mild multifocal lymphohistiocytic hepatitis was observed in 4 of 12...
Full Text Available Aim of our work was firstly to determine the prevalence of anti-coxsackievirus antibodies during pregnancy. 217 serum samples were tested for antibodies by virus neutralization test against coxsackieviruses (CV B1–B6, A7 and A9. The second aim was to investigate experimental transmission of virus to the fetus during pregnancy. Methods. Virus Neutralization Test, RT-PCR. Results. In the serological study, paired blood serum samples from 217 pregnant women were studied for antibodies against coxsackievirus serotypes (CVB1–CVB6, CVA7 and CVA9 in sera of pregnant women from selected areas of the Slovak Republic. Coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4 infection was most prevalent, followed by CVB3, CVA7, CVA9, CVB5, CVB2, CVB1 while coxsackievirus B6 (CVB6 was scarce. In 30 out of 217 cases (13.82 % current infection was recorded. In the experimental murine study, in the second week of gravidity we observed presence of enteroviral RNA in the placenta and the intestine of the dead fetuses of the mice. Conclusions. Anti-CV antibodies were prevalent in the pregnant mothers indicating circulation of these viruses in the population. Current infection was shown in 13.82 % of studied cases. Presence of virus RNA in the organs of the unborn fetuses in the experimental infection indicates the possibility of transfer of the coxsackievirus B4-E2 infection from mother to child during antenatal development
Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez Mendoza, H; Mercado García, C; Moreno-López, J; Kennedy, S
Porcine rubulavirus (La Piedad-Michoacan virus) (PoRV-LPMV) is a member of the Paramyxoviridae family that causes encephalitis in young piglets and infertility in adult sows and boars. Infertility in sows naturally infected by PoRV-LPMV is characterized by an increased number of returns to oestrus, stillbirths and mummified fetuses. In this study, nine seronegative gilts were inoculated intranasally with the PAC-3 strain of PoRV-LPMV at week 6 or 10 of gestation. These animals were then killed at weeks 8 or 15 of gestation (seven gilts) or after natural parturition (two gilts). Four control gilts were mock-infected at gestation week 6 or 10 and killed between 2 and 4 weeks later. Gross lesions of focal congestion and haemorrhage were seen in the placenta and endometrium of one gilt infected at gestation week 6 and one infected at gestation week 10. PoRV-LPMV was isolated, at 2-6 weeks post-inoculation (pi), from lung, tonsils, ovary, placenta, uterus and lymph nodes of three of the gilts infected at gestation week 6 and at 2-3 weeks pi from lung, tonsil and ovary of two gilts infected at gestation week 10. Many of the fetuses of eight infected gilts were smaller than normal and had dermal ecchymoses. Dehydrated or mummified fetuses were present in six of the infected gilts but not in any control animal. PoRV-LPMV was isolated from brain, lung and liver of fetuses from two gilts infected at gestation week 6, and from two infected at gestation week 10. These results indicate that, after experimental infection, PoRV can replicate in tissues of seronegative pregnant gilts, cross the placenta, and cause fetal death and mummification.
Ahn, Hee-Seop; Han, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Park, Byung-Joo; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Choi, Changsun; Myoung, Jinjong; Choi, In-Soo
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes severe hepatitis in pregnant women, with associated poor fetal outcomes. To study HEV viral pathogenesis, pregnant rabbits were infected with low- and high-dose rabbit HEV at 2 weeks gestation. HEV was identified in the serum, feces, and liver tissue of infected rabbits, and dose-dependent fetal mortality rates ranging from 67% to 80% were observed. The aspartate transaminase (AST)/alanine transaminase ratio was significantly higher (P rabbits than low-dose infected and negative control rabbits 14 days post infection (dpi). Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was significantly higher in low-dose (P rabbits (P rabbits produced significantly more interferon-γ (IFN-γ; P rabbits at 7 and 14 dpi. High levels of AST, TNF-α, and IFN-γ may substantially influence adverse fetal outcomes in pregnant rabbits infected with high-dose HEV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martinelle, Ludovic; Dal Pozzo, Fabiana; Sarradin, Pierre; De Leeuw, Ilse; De Clercq, Kris; Thys, Christine; Thiry, Etienne; Saegerman, Claude
The emergence of bluetongue disease (BT) among livestock in Europe in 2006 raised many questions including the occurrence and epidemiological significance of foetal infections in cattle. To clarify these aspects, vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant heifers were sequentially infected twice in an isolation facility (biosafety level 3) with a northern European outbreak strain of Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8). The study was terminated 2 months after calving with necropsy of the dams and their offspring. The cattle were monitored throughout the study by clinical scoring and for the presence of circulating neutralising antibodies, and after calving for the presence of infectious virus and viral RNA in blood and milk. Four calves, one born from a vaccinated dam and three from non-vaccinated ones, that were infected at 120 days of gestation had obvious haemorrhage of the pulmonary artery at necropsy. Although haemorrhage of the pulmonary artery is highly characteristic of BT, viral RNA was not detected in any of these calves. Furthermore, although none of the calves born from heifers infected prior to mid-gestation had teratogenic BTV typical brain lesions, some had lesions at birth suggestive of in utero BTV infection. Despite the lack of viral RNA detection, the presence of haemorrhage of the pulmonary artery deserves to be reported as a new observation in the context of the multiple investigations having as main subject the BTV placental crossing in cattle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pregnancy and trypanosomosis are associated with leukocyte changes. The leukocyte response of pregnant Yankasa ewes during experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection was determined using twenty pregnant ewes. They ewes were divided into 3 groups with 6 ewes in group A, while groups B and C were made up of ...
Kydd, J H; Wattrang, E; Hannant, D
In general, vaccines containing inactivated equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) fail to prevent abortion in pregnant mares following infection with a virulent strain of EHV-1. We have tested the hypothesis that resistance to EHV-1-induced abortion in pregnant mares is associated with high frequencies of EHV-1 specific, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in the circulation. To test this theory, three groups of pregnant mares were assembled with varying backgrounds of infection or vaccination in an attempt to mimic the immune status of the general population. Group 1 mares (n=9) were untreated controls selected at random. Group 2 mares (n=5) were vaccinated three times intramuscularly with inactivated EHV-1. Group 3 mares (n=3) had been infected with EHV-1 on four previous occasions. The frequency of CTL in blood leucocytes was measured by limiting dilution analysis at three time points; at the beginning of pregnancy (approximately 28 weeks before infection) in the Group 2 and Group 3 mares (4-7 weeks of gestation) (Group 1 was unavailable for sampling) and then 2 weeks before (30-40 weeks of gestation) and 3 weeks after experimental infection in all the mares. Serum samples were collected to monitor complement fixing (CF) antibody titres. Mares in all three groups were infected experimentally with EHV-1 strain Ab4/8 by the intranasal route after which they were monitored clinically to determine the outcome of pregnancy and samples were collected to determine the duration of nasopharyngeal shedding and cell-associated viraemia. The untreated control mares showed low pre-infection CTL. After experimental infection, they all seroconverted, aborted and demonstrated expected clinical and virological signs. Some vaccinated mares (3/5) had elevated titres of CF antibody prior to their first vaccination. All the vaccinated mares seroconverted after vaccination and exhibited higher CTL frequencies than controls before infection
Bøtner, Anette; Nielsen, Jens; Bille-Hansen, Vivi
, the virus particle was found to be spherical and enveloped, measuring 45–55 nm in diameter and containing a 30–35 nm nucleocapsid. Only minor antigenic differences were found between the Danish and a Dutch isolate. Following intranasal inoculation of 3 pregnant gilts with the Danish isolate transplacental...... infection was demonstrated by the re-isolation of PRRS virus from approximately 45% of the piglets from the experimentally infected gilts. However, the experimental infection produced no significant reproductive disorders or other clinical signs. At autopsy, histopathological examination revealed slight...
Gottstein, B; Razmi, G R; Ammann, P; Sager, H; Müller, N
We addressed the question whether diaplacental transmission of Neospora caninum can be controlled by metaphylactic chemotherapy using toltrazuril or enrofloxacin. Female C57/BL6 mice, infected on day 10 of pregnancy, were medicated for 6 consecutive days p.i. with 52.5 mg toltrazuril or - as an out-group control medication--16.7 mg enrofloxacin per kg body weight per day. Other control groups received either infection but no medication or vice versa. Toltrazuril treatment significantly reduced pre- and perinatal losses (10 deliveries of healthy newborns, versus 1 abortion and 4 failures) when compared to control-enrofloxacin (2 deliveries, versus 1 abortion, 7 failures and 2 pre-parturient deaths of dams) and non-treated animals (3 deliveries, versus 6 abortions, 8 failures and 4 pre-parturient deaths). Simultaneously, PCR-based parasite detection in the brain of mothers, histopathological findings as well as clinical fatality were significantly less frequent in toltrazuril-treated dams. The overall toltrazuril treatment efficacy was determined as 87 %, that of enrofloxacin-treatment as 17 %. The progenies of toltrazuril-treated dams also exhibited a very low rate of PCR-positivity in their brain (3 out of 39), whereas untreated dams delivered litters with mostly PCR-positive brains (12 out of 14) and a relatively high death rate post-partum (5 out of 19 newborns died). Mice subjected to a second mating delivered newborns all negative by N. caninum-PCR, indicating that diaplacental tachyzoite passage does not occur in a later, repeated pregnancy. Overall, our experiments showed that toltrazuril-treatment of an acute N. caninum-infection--induced during pregnancy--results in a clear reduction of fetal losses and a marked reduction of diaplacental passage of the parasite to the fetal brain, whereas enrofloxacin, as an out-group control substance, failed to show the same effect.
Olsen, S. C.; Johnson, C.
A comparative study was conducted using data from naive bison (n = 45) and cattle (n = 46) from 8 and 6 studies, respectively, in which a standardized Brucella abortus strain 2308 experimental challenge was administered during midgestation. The incidence of abortion, fetal infection, uterine or mammary infection, or infection in maternal tissues after experimental challenge was greater (P abort, the time between experimental challenge and abortion was shorter (P abortion did not differ (P > 0.05) between cattle and bison. The results of our study suggest that naive bison and cattle have similarities and differences after experimental exposure to a virulent B. abortus strain. Although our data suggest that bison may be more susceptible to infection with Brucella, some pathogenic characteristics of brucellosis were similar between bison and cattle. PMID:21976222
A comparative study was conducted using data from naive bison (n=45) and cattle (n=46) from 8 and 6 studies, respectively, in which a standardized Brucella abortus strain 2308 experimental challenge was administered. The incidence of abortion, fetal infection, uterine or mammary infection, or infec...
Ladinig, Andrea; Gerner, Wilhelm; Saalmüller, Armin; Lunney, Joan K; Ashley, Carolyn; Harding, John CS
International audience; In spite of more than two decades of extensive research, the understanding of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) immunity is still incomplete. A PRRSv infection of the late term pregnant female can result in abortions, early farrowings, fetal death, and the birth of weak, congenitally infected piglets. The objectives of the present study were to investigate changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations in third trimester pregnant fem...
Arranz-Solís, David; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Müller, Joachim; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Hemphill, Andrew
Pregnant BALB/c mice have been widely used as an in vivo model to study Neospora caninum infection biology and to provide proof-of-concept for assessments of drugs and vaccines against neosporosis. The fact that this model has been used with different isolates of variable virulence, varying infection routes and differing methods to prepare the parasites for infection, has rendered the comparison of results from different laboratories impossible. In most studies, mice were infected with similar number of parasites (2 × 10(6)) as employed in ruminant models (10(7) for cows and 10(6) for sheep), which seems inappropriate considering the enormous differences in the weight of these species. Thus, for achieving meaningful results in vaccination and drug efficacy experiments, a refinement and standardization of this experimental model is necessary. Thus, 2 × 10(6), 10(5), 10(4), 10(3) and 10(2) tachyzoites of the highly virulent and well-characterised Nc-Spain7 isolate were subcutaneously inoculated into mice at day 7 of pregnancy, and clinical outcome, vertical transmission, parasite burden and antibody responses were compared. Dams from all infected groups presented nervous signs and the percentage of surviving pups at day 30 postpartum was surprisingly low (24%) in mice infected with only 10(2) tachyzoites. Importantly, infection with 10(5) tachyzoites resulted in antibody levels, cerebral parasite burden in dams and 100% mortality rate in pups, which was identical to infection with 2 × 10(6) tachyzoites. Considering these results, it is reasonable to lower the challenge dose to 10(5) tachyzoites in further experiments when assessing drugs or vaccine candidates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ladinig, Andrea; Gerner, Wilhelm; Saalmüller, Armin; Lunney, Joan K; Ashley, Carolyn; Harding, John C S
In spite of more than two decades of extensive research, the understanding of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) immunity is still incomplete. A PRRSv infection of the late term pregnant female can result in abortions, early farrowings, fetal death, and the birth of weak, congenitally infected piglets. The objectives of the present study were to investigate changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations in third trimester pregnant females infected with type 2 PRRSv (NVSL 97-7895) and to analyze potential relationships with viral load and fetal mortality rate. PRRSv infection caused a massive, acute drop in total leukocyte counts affecting all PBMC populations by two days post infection. Except for B cells, cell counts started to rebound by day six post infection. Our data also show a greater decrease of naïve B cells, T-helper cells and cytolytic T cells than their respective effector or memory counterparts. Absolute numbers of T cells and γδ T cells were negatively associated with PRRSv RNA concentration in gilt serum over time. Additionally, absolute numbers of T helper cells may be predictive of fetal mortality rate. The preceding three leukocyte populations may therefore be predictive of PRRSv-related pathological outcomes in pregnant gilts. Although many questions regarding the immune responses remain unanswered, these findings provide insight and clues that may help reduce the impact of PRRSv in pregnant gilts.
Lohse, Louise; Strandbygaard, Bertel; Nielsen, Jens
African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs. The disease was introduced from the African continent to Georgia in 2007 and has since spread throughout the Caucasus and the Russian Federation. ASF is now established in Eastern Europe and outbreaks have occurred...... in domestic pigs and wild boar in Poland and the Baltic countries in 2014. Therefore, there is an increased risk of further transmission across Europe. The present study investigates the properties and the effect of the circulating ASF virus strain in Danish pregnant sows...
In spite of more than two decades of extensive research, the understanding of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) immunity is still incomplete. A PRRSv infection of the late term pregnant female can result in abortions, early farrowings, fetal death, and the birth of weak, co...
Alvimar José da Costa
Full Text Available The clinical, hematological, obstetrical, immunological and pathological aspects of the experimental toxoplasmosis were investigated in pregnant rabbits orally inoculated with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. Pregnant rabbits showed to be highly sensible to the toxoplasmic infection. Abortion and death occurred in 100% of the inoculated rabbits. Fever peak was observed between 4o and 9o day pos-infection. Blood parameter showed alterations. Because the hyperacute character presented by the toxoplasmic infection, the humoral immune response was weak. The microscopic and macroscopic exams demonstrated, mainly, alterations in liver, kidney and lungs. These results suggested that pregnant rabbits, orally infected with oocysts of T. gondii are extremely susceptible to this parasite, showing severe alterations in several organs, as well as premature abortion and death.Neste ensaio foram comparados aspectos clínicos, obstétricos, imunológicos e patológicos entre coelhas gestantes inoculadas com oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii e coelhas gestantes não inoculadas. Os resultados obtidos demonstram ser a coelha gestante altamente sensível à infecção toxoplásmica. Aborto e óbito foram observados em 100% das coelhas infectadas, antes do término da gestação. Os aumentos máximos de temperatura corporal foram observados entre o quarto e o nono dia pós-inoculação (DPI. Alterações hematológicas também foram observadas. Devido ao caráter hiperagudo decorrente da infecção toxoplásmica, detectou-se resposta imune humoral nas coelhas infectadas somente no 7o DPI. Os exames anátomo-histopatológicos demonstraram, principalmente, alterações hepáticas, renais e pulmonares. Com base nos dados obtidos no estudo, comprovou-se que coelhas gestantes são extremamente sensíveis a oocistos de T. gondii, apresentando severas alterações em diversos órgãos, assim como aborto e óbito prematuro.
All the isolates except Streptococcus faecalis were resistant to ampicillin. These results show a high rate of asymptomatic genital tract infections among pregnant women in Benin City, which have implications for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. (Afr J Reprod Health 2002; 6: 93-97) Résumé Prévalence de ...
Background: A good proportion of pregnant women patronize traditional birth homes in Nigeria for ante-natal care. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors, and susceptibility profile of etiologic agents of urinary tract infection among ante-natal attendees in a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria.
Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminth infections in pregnant Cameroonian women and assess their anaemic status. Design: Longitudinal study. Setting: Buea Integrated Health Centre, Muea Health Centre, Mutengene Integrated Health Centre and the University of Buea Life Sciences ...
were collected from 330 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics and 33 non pregnant women attending the Outpatient. Department in three ... Keywords: Seroprevalence, Cytomegalovirus, IgG, Pregnant women, Kaduna, Nigeria. SEROPREVALENCE ... thrombocytopenia, gastrointestinal ulceration, hepatitis and ...
Rodrigo Batista Souza
Full Text Available The aim this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to fosfomycin of bacteria isolated from urine samples of pregnant women with urinary tract infection. Samples of urine culture with bacterial growth of pregnant women were collected from clinical laboratories in Tubarão, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, between September 2012 and May 2013. In the experimental stage, the colonies were tested for sensitivity to fosfomycin by using the Kirby–Bauer method. The following information relating to the samples was also collected: patients’ age, colony count, type(s of identified bacterial(s and result of the antimicrobial sensitivity test. Student's t-test was used for mean comparison. A total of 134 samples were selected for the study. The age of the subjects ranged from 15 to 40 years (mean 26.7. Escherichia coli (Gram-negative and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive were the most commonly identified species. In 89% of cases, the microorganisms were sensitive to fosfomycin. E. coli and S. aureus were the main species of bacteria responsible for urinary tract infections in women in the study area. The most prevalent microorganisms in pregnant women with urinary tract infection were susceptible to fosfomycin.
Rodrigo Batista Souza
Full Text Available The aim this study was to determine the in vitrosusceptibility to fosfomycin of bacteria isolated from urine samples of pregnant women with urinary tract infection. Samples of urine culture with bacterial growth of pregnant women were collected from clinical laboratories in Tubarão, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, between September 2012 and May 2013. In the experimental stage, the colonies were tested for sensitivity to fosfomycin by using the Kirby-Bauer method. The following information relating to the samples was also collected: patients' age, colony count, type(s of identified bacterial(s and result of the antimicrobial sensitivity test. Student's t-test was used for mean comparison. A total of 134 samples were selected for the study. The age of the subjects ranged from 15 to 40 years (mean 26.7. Escherichia coli(Gram-negative and Staphylococcus aureus(Gram-positive were the most commonly identified species. In 89% of cases, the microorganisms were sensitive to fosfomycin. E. coliand S. aureuswere the main species of bacteria responsible for urinary tract infections in women in the study area. The most prevalent microorganisms in pregnant women with urinary tract infection were susceptible to fosfomycin.
Нана Мерабівна Пасієшвілі
Full Text Available The infected pregnant women have been various perinatal complications. The aim of the work was to clarify the role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the development of perinatal complications in infected pregnant.Methods. The study included 68 pregnant women with signs of maternal-fetal infection (MFI and 30 pregnant women who were found infected (control group. Later pregnant with MFI were divided into 2 groups: the first included 30 women who received traditional antibacterial and antiviral therapy, the second group consisted of 28 women who were additionally given an immunomodulator in combination with ozone therapy.Results. During pregnancy with MFI it is characterized the thrombophilic disorders, break immune homeostasis pregnant, endothelial dysfunction, which adversely affects perinatal indicators.Conclusions. The use of immunomodulators and ozone therapy in the complex treatment of MFI is pathogenetically substantiated effective treatment of oxidative stress and mitochondrial toxicity in the prevention of perinatal complications in infected women
Zeeuw, E J L; Leinecker, N; Herwig, V; Selbitz, H-J; Truyen, U
The pathogenicity of two recent German field isolates of Porcine parvovirus (PPV-27a and PPV-143a) and two vaccine viruses [PPV-NADL-2 and PPV-IDT (MSV)], which are used for the production of inactivated vaccines, was investigated by inoculation of pregnant sows at day 40 of gestation. Post-infection sera of these sows as well as antisera prepared in rabbits by immunization with the four above-mentioned PPV isolates and with the virulent strain PPV-Challenge (Engl.) were tested for their homologous and heterologous neutralization activities. All antisera had high neutralization activity against the vaccine viruses, the PPV-Challenge (Engl.) virus and PPV-143a, but much lower activity against PPV-27a. These results suggest that PPV-27a represents a new antigenic variant or type of PPV and vaccines based on the established vaccine viruses may not be fully protective against this field isolate. PPV-27a has been characterized based on the amino acid sequences of the capsid protein as a member of a new and distinct PPV cluster (Zimmermann et al., 2006). Interestingly, the homologous neutralizing antibody titres of the sera of all three pigs and both rabbits inoculated or immunized with PPV-27a were 100- to 1000-fold lower than the heterologous titres against any of the other viruses. The low homologous neutralizing antibody titres suggest a possible, yet undefined, immune escape mechanism of this PPV isolate.
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common problem amongst pregnant women. This study assesses the prevalence of urinary tract infection in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at a primary health care center in Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. A total of 200 early morning midstream urine samples were collected ...
We investigated the effect of anti-retroviral drugs and human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection on prolactin production and stimulation in HIV-infected pregnant women. A total of 120 subjects participated in the study. Sixty (group 1) of these subjects were HIV seropositive pregnant women who commenced treatment ...
This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of human cytomegalovirus among pregnant women in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Three hundred and sixty three (363) blood samples were collected from 330 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics and 33 non pregnant women attending the Outpatient ...
Salcedo, Mila M B P; Damin, Andrea P S; Agnes, Grasiela; Pessini, Suzana A; Beitune, Patricia El; Alexandre, Claudio O P; Schmeler, Kathleen M; da Silveira, Gustavo Py Gomes
To investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical samples of pregnant and non-pregnant women in South-Brazil. A prospective study of 91 pregnant and 92 non-pregnant women with no previous history of cervical dysplasia or cancer was carried out. Cervical samples for HPV testing and cytology were collected in each trimester of pregnancy and in the puerperium for pregnant women and at matched intervals for the non-pregnant women. All samples were analyzed through PCR with consensus primers GP5+/GP6+. Genotyping was performed using specific primers. To control for confounding factors, the analysis of multivariate logistic regression was applied. The measure of odds ratio (OR) and the 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were used. The level of statistical significance was set at 5 % (P ≤ 0.05). HPV DNA was detected in 23/91 (25.3 %) cervical samples from the pregnant women and in 12/92 (13 %) cervical samples from non-pregnant women (P = 0.035). There was a significant association among cervical HPV infection and young age, number of lifetime sexual partners, and the presence of abnormal cervical cytology. HPV16 and HPV18 were the viral types more frequently detected. Out of the 23 HPV-positive pregnant women, 17 (73.9 %) had normal cervical cytology. Our results suggest a higher prevalence of HPV infection in pregnant vs. non-pregnant women. This finding may be related to the relative immunosuppression observed in pregnant women, outlining the importance of the appropriate monitoring of the viral infection in this specific population.
Comparative virulence of reproductive diseases caused by type 1 (European-like) and type 2 (North American-like) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in experimentally infected pregnant gilts.
Han, K; Seo, H W; Park, C; Kang, I; Youn, S-K; Lee, S Y; Kim, S-H; Chae, C
The aim of this study was to compare the virulence of type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) as assessed by the level of viral replication, viral distribution and apoptosis in stillborn fetuses and live-born piglets from infected pregnant gilts. Type 1 or type 2 PRRSV was given intranasally to pregnant gilts at 3 weeks before the expected date of parturition. Regardless of virus genotype, PRRSV-infected gilts farrowed between 102 and 109 days of gestation, while control uninfected gilts carried the pregnancy to term and farrowed at 114-115 days of gestation. There were no significant differences in the mean number of virus-infected cells per unit area of tissue when type 1 and type 2 virus infections were compared between stillborn fetuses and live-born piglets. Stillborn fetuses from the type 1 PRRSV-infected pregnant gilts had a significantly higher mean number of apoptotic cells per unit area of thymus (P = 0.013) than those from type 2 PRRSV-infected pregnant gilts. Significant differences in virulence were not observed between types 1 and 2 PRRSV in terms of female reproductive failure, although thymic apoptosis differed in stillborn fetuses from type 1 and type 2 PRRSV-infected pregnant gilts. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Dec 1, 2009 ... pregnant women in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria. Okonko, I. O.1*, Ijandipe, L. A.2, ... This study reports the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) among 80 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Oluyoro .... wrapped in aluminum foil and sterilized in a hot air oven at 160°C for 3 h. Media were ...
Objective: To determine the effect of malaria infection on pregnant women and the birth weight of the infants in the south western Nigeria. Subject 262 pregnant women who came for antenatal clinic at Ade-Oyo maternity hospital. 128 were primigravidae while 134 were multigravidae. Methodology: 2ml of blood was ...
Forum: Tuberculosis prevention in HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa. CE Martin, V Black. Abstract. The high burden of HIV and tuberculosis (TB) among pregnant women in South Africa contributes to a high maternal mortality rate. Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is recommended for the prevention of active TB ...
Urinary tract infection (UTI) constitutes a major health problem in pregnant women due to their relatively short urethra, which promotes the ascending of the pathogens to the bladder, urethra and the kidneys. It is also more common in pregnant women due to the anatomical and physiological changes that occur during ...
Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Cynthia Case; Melissa Arria; Marisela Ravelo; Henry Perez; Oscar Urdaneta; Gloria Gervasio; Nestor Rubio; Andrea Maldonado; Ymora Aguilera; Anna Viloria; Blanco, Juan J.; Magdary Colina; Elizabeth Hernández
Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a...
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy and these infections. Untreated UTI can be associated with serious obstetric complications. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of UTI among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women ...
Gina Ferrer Poveda
Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection on Chilean pregnant women and its relationship with the appearance and severity of hyperemesis and dyspepsia. Methods: quantitative study of prevalence in a transversal cut with variable analysis. The sample was taken from 274 Chilean pregnant women from the Bío Bío province through vein puncture between June and December, 2005. Pregnant women were informed of this study, interviewed and signed an informed consent. The samples were processed using ImmunoComb II Helicobacter pylori IgG kit. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Program. Results: out of the total number of pregnant women, 68.6% showed infection by Helicobacter pylori. 79.6% of the total sample had symptoms of dyspepsia, and 72.5% of this group presented Helicobacter pylori infection. 12.4% showed pregnancy hyperemesis; among them, 79.4% were infected with Helicobacter pylori. 73.4% of the pregnant women that showed gastric discomfort during the first three months had Helicobacter pylori infection. 53.7% of them continued with gastric discomfort after the first three months; of those, 95.8% were infected. Helicobacter pylori infection was present only in 1.5% of pregnant women without gastric discomfort. Conclusion: both, gastric discomfort of pregnant women and the continuity of severe symptoms of dyspepsia and hyperemesis after the first three months of gestation are significantly correlated with Helicobacter pylori infection.
This study reports the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) among 80 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Oluyoro Catholic Hospital (OCH), Ibadan, Nigeria, as well as the isolation and identification of the pathogens responsible for the infection. A total of 80 clean voided mid-stream urine samples were ...
Denise J. Jamieson
Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV among a cohort of pregnant Thai women. Methods. Samples from 1771 pregnant women enrolled in three vertical transmission of HIV studies in Bangkok, Thailand, were tested for HCV. Results. Among HIV-infected pregnant women, HCV seroprevelance was 3.8% and the active HCV infection rate was 3.0%. Among HIV-uninfected pregnant women, 0.3% were HCV-infected. Intravenous drug use by the woman was the factor most strongly associated with HCV seropositivity. Among 48 infants tested for HCV who were born to HIV/HCV coinfected women, two infants were HCV infected for an HCV transmission rate of 4.2% (95% 0.51–14.25%. Conclusions. HCV seroprevalence and perinatal transmission rates were low among this Thai cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women.
Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.
Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Barbella, Rosa A; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro
Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.
Xia, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Xi-Wei
To explore the influence of Toxoplasma gondii infection on pregnant results during different pregnancies of women. The antibodies of IgG and IgM against Toxoplasma gondii in peripheral blood were detected by ELISA in 6 849 pregnant women and the antibody of IgM against Toxoplasma gondii in cord blood was also detected in 1 032 newborns in Nanjing City. The general status of these women was investigated with questionnaire, and the outcome of pregnancies of the women was followed up. A total of 6 849 pregnant women were screened, 438 persons were found with antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, and the positive rate was 6.4%. Among them, 87 women were IgM positive accounting for 19.9%, and 351 IgG positive accounting for 80.1%. Totally 1 032 newborns were screened and they were divided into a normal group and a deformed group according to their health. Among them, the IgM positive rates were 0.6% in the normal group and 28.13% in the deformed group respectively, and there was a statistically significant deference between 2 groups (P bad eating habits were the main risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection. Toxoplasma infection can lead to different pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women. The detection of IgM antibody against Toxoplasma gondii may contribute to screening deformed newborns.
Nov 11, 2011 ... and Grantham-McGregor S. M . Iron status of schoolchildren with varying intensities of Trichuris trichiura infection. Parasitology. 1995; 110: 347-351. RobertsOn, LJ., Crompton, D.W.T., Sanjur, D. and. 23. Nesheim, M.e. Haemoglobin concentrations and concomitant infections of hookworm and Trichuris.
Trichomoniasis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis has emerged as one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. The infection may lead to an important complication in pregnancy, as it has been related with prematurity and low birth weight. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis ...
Objective: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier and infectivity status among women delivering at Harare Maternity Hospital. Design: A serological survey study of pregnant women admitted for labour and delivery. Setting: Harare Maternity Hospital, Harare, Zimbabwe between June 1996 and June ...
Urinary tract infections in symptomatic pregnant women attending university of Abuja teaching hospital, Gwagwalada, Nigeria. ... Overall E. coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were the predominant bacteria isolated (23.0% and 15.4%). Augumentin and levofloxacin had the best antibiogram profile against most of the ...
The prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) carrier and infectivity status among three hundred (300) pregnant women in Makurdi were determined through random anonymous testing of volunteers attending antenatal clinics of different Hospitals within the metropolis. HBV carriage status was determined by the presence of ...
Nov 2, 2012 ... Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is recommended for the prevention of active TB in HIV-infected individuals, including pregnant women. However, there are few data regarding IPT use in the latter, with concern regarding the concurrent use of. IPT with nevirapine in pregnancy, as both treatments are ...
Background:Kabutare Hospital is a District Hospital in Rwanda. The HIV infection has been a threat to mothers and their babies since many years in Rwanda, where the prevalence countrywide is estimated at 3% (DHS 2010) and 4.7% among pregnant women (UNAIDS2009). We conducted a study to know the ...
Machuca, A.; Tuset, C.; Soriano, V.; Caballero, E.; Aguilera, A.; de Lejarazu, R. O.
Objective: To estimate the prevalence of HTLV infection among pregnant women in Spain. Methods: A commercial ELISA incorporating HTLV-I and HTLV-II antigens was used for HTLV antibody screening. Repeatedly reactive samples were further examined by western blot. Moreover, confirmation with PCR was performed when cells were available. Results: 20 366 pregnant women in 12 different Spanish cities were tested in a 3 year period (July 1996 to August 1999). 32 samples were repeatedly reactive by ELISA, and 10 of them were confirmed as positive by western blot (eight for HTLV-II and two for HTLV-I). In addition, three of 13 women who had an indeterminate western blot pattern yielded positive results for HTLV-II by PCR. All 11 HTLV-II infected women had been born in Spain, and all but one were former drug users. Seven of them were coinfected with HIV-1. One HTLV-I infected woman was from Peru, where HTLV is endemic and where she most probably was infected during sexual intercourse. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of HTLV infection among pregnant women in Spain is 0.064% (13/20 366), and HTLV-II instead of HTLV-I is the most commonly found variant. A strong relation was found among HTLV-II infection and specific epidemiological features, such as Spanish nationality and injecting drug use. Although HTLV-II can be vertically transmitted, mainly through breast feeding, both the low prevalence of infection and its lack of pathogenicity would not support the introduction of HTLV antenatal screening in Spain. Key Words: HTLV; pregnant women; adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma; tropical spastic paraparesis; epidemiology PMID:11141853
Hardy, Jonathan; Kirkendoll, Brittani; Zhao, Hui; Pisani, Laura; Luong, Richard; Switzer, Alexandra; McConnell, Michael V; Contag, Christopher H
Listeriosis is one of the most lethal bacterial diseases for fetuses and infants. However, pregnant women who get infected with Listeria may experience only mild symptoms, making the diagnosis difficult, even when the fetus is fatally infected. To reveal features of this infection, we conducted a multimodality imaging study of Listeria-induced miscarriage, using a pregnant mouse model. In this model, fetal morbidity and mortality can be observed in utero, noninvasively, and the timing and extent of infection can be carefully controlled. By employing in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI), perinatal infections were localized over time such that a correlation of infection to outcome could be determined without the need to kill the animal subject. The morbidity and viability of fetuses were assessed with ultrasound, and fetal morphology was imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The ultrasound revealed sustained fetal bradycardia, the slowing of the fetal heartbeat, in infected fetuses, with an association between slowed fetal heart rate and strong bioluminescent signal. Uninfected fetuses showing no bioluminescent signal in the same uterine horn exhibited normal heartbeats. Thus, fetal bradycardia during infection was localized to the infected fetus and was not systemic or disseminated.
Mazuz, Monica L; Fish, Leah; Reznikov, Dror; Wolkomirsky, Ricardo; Leibovitz, Benjamin; Savitzky, Igor; Golenser, Jacob; Shkap, Varda
Neosporosis caused by caused by the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum is one of the major causes of infectious abortion in bovines worldwide. A long-term prospective study was performed in a dairy herd endemic for N. caninum in order to analyze the impact of neosporosis on the proportion of aborting cows. A total of 1078 pregnant cows were tested for presence of antibodies and the proportion of abortions was calculated. The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum found in the herd was 35.5%. The percentage of abortions in seropositive cows was 3 times higher than in their seronegative counterparts (21.6 and 7.3%, respectively). No statistically significant association was found between the antibody level of positive during pregnancy and the proportion of aborting cows. However, 41.2% of the dams with antibody titers of 1:12,800 aborted. The risk of abortion for such dams was 2.7 times higher than for other seropositive cows which had lower titers of antibodies (p=0.0072). In the follow-up examinations of the seropositive cows during several pregnancies, the overall percent of abortions observed was significantly higher than in seronegative individuals (49.3 and 16.9%, respectively; p<0.0001). Moreover, the proportion of repetitive abortion observed was 5 to 1 (17.4 and 3.5%) in seropositive and seronegative dams, respectively (p<0.001). The rate of vertical transmission in positive dams was 61.0% and it appeared to be directly associated with antibody levels: the higher the titer in the dams during pregnancy, the higher the percentage of sero-positivity in their calves. Increased proportion of abortions was observed in seropositive cows both in summer and winter in comparison with spring and autumn. It was found that in seropositive cows, an increased number of pregnancies, which was directly related to the age of the dam, has been associated with an increased number of abortions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study to determine the prevalence of and identify factors associated with Hepatitis b, HIV and Syphilis positivity among asymptomatic pregnant women. We also assessed maternal and fetal outcome in HBsAg, HIV and Syphilis pregnant women. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective study of 1000 consecutive apparently healthy asymptomatic pregnant women, who are attending the antenatal clinic of AVBRH Hospital Sawangi (Meghe during September 2014 To August 2016. The blood samples was collected after obtaining their informed written consent from those who were tested for HIV antibodies (NACO guidelines, HBsAg (ELISA test, and Syphilis (RPR SPANCARD latex kit. RESULTS The prevalence of HBsAg (1.7%, HIV (1.0%, Syphilis (0.1%. All the infection was more common in illiterate, multigravida, monogamous women of low socio-economic status, History of blood transfusion, IV/IM drug users and common in multiple sexual partner. CONCLUSION This present study clearly documented a relatively declined prevalence of HBsAg, HIV and Syphilis in pregnant women. The data reinforces the need for establishing effective preventive programs, which could lead to reduction in the prevalence of these infections.
Anna L. Njunda
Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The congenital form results in a gestational form that can present a temporary parasiteamia that will infect the fetus. For this reason early diagnosis in pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital. The study was carried out between March and July 2009, whereby 110 pregnant women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies and information about eating habits and hygienic conditions was collected using a questionnaire. These women’s ages ranged from 20-44 years old with an average of 29.9 years; the overall IgG and IgM seroprevalence was 70% and 2.73 % respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly high amongst women who ate raw vegetables (76.39%, P<0.05 and there was a significant trend towards a higher seroprevalence in women who did not have a good source of water (75.58%, P<0.05. This research showed that consumption raw vegetables and poor quality drinking water are two risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital in Cameroon.
Brasil, Patrícia; Pereira, José P; Moreira, M Elisabeth; Ribeiro Nogueira, Rita M; Damasceno, Luana; Wakimoto, Mayumi; Rabello, Renata S; Valderramos, Stephanie G; Halai, Umme-Aiman; Salles, Tania S; Zin, Andrea A; Horovitz, Dafne; Daltro, Pedro; Boechat, Marcia; Raja Gabaglia, Claudia; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Pilotto, José H; Medialdea-Carrera, Raquel; Cotrim da Cunha, Denise; Abreu de Carvalho, Liege M; Pone, Marcos; Machado Siqueira, André; Calvet, Guilherme A; Rodrigues Baião, Ana E; Neves, Elizabeth S; Nassar de Carvalho, Paulo R; Hasue, Renata H; Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa; Janzen, Carla; Cherry, James D; Bispo de Filippis, Ana M; Nielsen-Saines, Karin
Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to central nervous system malformations in fetuses. To characterize the spectrum of ZIKV disease in pregnant women and infants, we followed patients in Rio de Janeiro to describe clinical manifestations in mothers and repercussions of acute ZIKV infection in infants. We enrolled pregnant women in whom a rash had developed within the previous 5 days and tested blood and urine specimens for ZIKV by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays. We followed women prospectively to obtain data on pregnancy and infant outcomes. A total of 345 women were enrolled from September 2015 through May 2016; of these, 182 women (53%) tested positive for ZIKV in blood, urine, or both. The timing of acute ZIKV infection ranged from 6 to 39 weeks of gestation. Predominant maternal clinical features included a pruritic descending macular or maculopapular rash, arthralgias, conjunctival injection, and headache; 27% had fever (short-term and low-grade). By July 2016, a total of 134 ZIKV-affected pregnancies and 73 ZIKV-unaffected pregnancies had reached completion, with outcomes known for 125 ZIKV-affected and 61 ZIKV-unaffected pregnancies. Infection with chikungunya virus was identified in 42% of women without ZIKV infection versus 3% of women with ZIKV infection (PBrasil and others.).
Full Text Available Abstract Background Disseminated mycobacterium avium complex (MAC occurs mainly in immunocompromised hosts, which is associated with abnormal cellular immunity. Case presentation A 26-year-old pregnant woman presented with fever and general weakness. Miliary lung nodules were noted on chest X-ray. Under the impression of miliary tuberculosis, anti-tuberculosis medication was administered. However, the patient was not improved. Further work-up demonstrated MAC in the sputum and placenta. The patient was treated successfully with clarithromycin-based combination regimen. Conclusion This appears to be the first case of disseminated MAC in an otherwise healthy pregnant woman. Clinicians should be alert for the diagnosis of MAC infection in diverse clinical conditions.
Sunita Mishra; Rajesh Kumar Jha; Ratna Thakur; Sindhuja Tiwari
Background: Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) is a major aspect of hepatitis and death in the developing countries and asymmetrical source of deaths in among of pregnant women. The objective of this study was to determine the maternal and prenatal outcome in pregnant women with acute hepatitis E viral infection in Malwa, India. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional study. The study population was pregnant women with acute hepatitis E infection confirmed by ELISA technique. Pregnant women with othe...
Hefnawy, Abd-Elghany; Youssef, Seham; Shousha, Saad
Pregnancy toxemia was induced in nine pregnant goat does with twins by the stress of fasting with access to water in late pregnancy to investigate the effect of pregnancy toxemia on immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, and IgG), cortisol, insulin, thyroid, and growth hormones and their correlations with the plasma levels of glucose and beta-Hydroxybutyrate. Plasma samples were collected at 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 hours after induction of pregnancy toxemia. The result revealed that experimental animals developed neurological findings with convulsions and acetone odor from the mouth with recumbency after 72 hours. Laboratory findings showed a significant increase in beta-Hydroxybutyrate, cortisol, and insulin while there were significant decreases in glucose, thyroid, and immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, and IgG). Plasma glucose concentrations had significant negative correlations with beta-hydroxybutyrate, cortisol, and insulin while the correlations were significantly positive with immunoglobulins and thyroid hormone. Plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration was significantly positively correlated with cortisol and negatively correlated with immunoglobulins, insulin, and thyroid hormone. From this study we can conclude that pregnancy toxemia might affect humoral immune responses as well as insulin, cortisol, and thyroid hormones. Moreover, insulin might have a compensatory role to increase suppressive effect on ketogenesis in experimentally pregnant toxemic goats.
Full Text Available Pregnancy toxemia was induced in nine pregnant goat does with twins by the stress of fasting with access to water in late pregnancy to investigate the effect of pregnancy toxemia on immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, and IgG, cortisol, insulin, thyroid, and growth hormones and their correlations with the plasma levels of glucose and β-Hydroxybutyrate. Plasma samples were collected at 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 hours after induction of pregnancy toxemia. The result revealed that experimental animals developed neurological findings with convulsions and acetone odor from the mouth with recumbency after 72 hours. Laboratory findings showed a significant increase in β-Hydroxybutyrate, cortisol, and insulin while there were significant decreases in glucose, thyroid, and immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, and IgG. Plasma glucose concentrations had significant negative correlations with β-hydroxybutyrate, cortisol, and insulin while the correlations were significantly positive with immunoglobulins and thyroid hormone. Plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration was significantly positively correlated with cortisol and negatively correlated with immunoglobulins, insulin, and thyroid hormone. From this study we can conclude that pregnancy toxemia might affect humoral immune responses as well as insulin, cortisol, and thyroid hormones. Moreover, insulin might have a compensatory role to increase suppressive effect on ketogenesis in experimentally pregnant toxemic goats.
Gao, Xue-Ren; Wang, Cui-Min; Wang, Wen-Jun; Han, Guo-Rong; Zhang, Jian-Qiong
Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] deficiency has a negative influence on the health of the mother and the developing fetus. The aim of this study was to assess serum 25(OH)D status and its relationship to virologic and biochemical parameters in pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Serum 25(OH)D levels among 142 pregnant women with chronic HBV infection and 251 healthy pregnant women were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean±SD values for serum 25(OH)D levels were 13.63±5.5 ng/mL in healthy pregnant women and 12.05±3.3 ng/mL in pregnant women with chronic HBV infection (p pregnant women (p = 0.01); however, similar results were not observed in pregnant women with chronic HBV infection (p = 0.10). Furthermore, multivariate analysis indicated that only ALT level was independently associated with severe vitamin D deficiency (p = 0.01). A significant positive correlation was found between serum 25(OH)D level and ALT level in pregnant women with chronic HBV infection (r = 0.32; p pregnant women with chronic HBV infection compared with healthy pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation can be routinely recommended for pregnant women in China.
HIV/HBV co-infection places patients at high risk of liver-related morbidity and mortality and the interaction of the two viruses can further complicate treatment. Pregnant women are especially at high risk for increased morbidity and mortality due to infection, and information about HIV/HBV co-infection in pregnant women is ...
Verhoeff, F. H.; Brabin, B. J.; Hart, C. A.; Chimsuku, L.; Kazembe, P.; Broadhead, R. L.
To examine in pregnant women the relationship between HIV infection and malaria prevalence and to determine, in relation to HIV infection, the effectiveness of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in clearing P. falciparum infection. Descriptive cross-sectional analysis of P. falciparum prevalence in pregnant
Lv, Jun; Qin, Zhenli; Xu, Yanhua; Xie, Qiurong
This study aims to investigate the characters of pregnant women and neonates with listeria monocytogenes infections (L. monocytogenes) in Shandong of China. Pregnant women with premature delivery or prenatal fever were recruited in 2013. Bacterial culture was performed for the umbilical cord blood and placental swab after delivery. The strains isolated were then analyzed for the virulence factors and classified based on the serotype and MLST typing. Four cases (0.34‰) of the neonates were identified with listeriosis. Prenatal fever was observed in mothers of all infected neonates. The pathological examination of placenta showed non-specific inflammatory manifestations and two serotypes including 1/2b and 4b were detected. Six kinds of virulence factors including hly, inlA, actA, plcB, prfA and iap were all identified in the inflected neonates. The results suggested that mother-to-infant was an important transmission mode for listeria. Antibiotic treatment, bacterial culture and placenta pathological examination were highly recommended in the diagnosis and treatment of listeriosis.
Full Text Available Low birth weight is commonly attributed to malaria in pregnancy, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this poor birth outcome are incompletely understood. A universally described histopathological feature of placental malaria is excessive deposition of fibrin, the end-product of the coagulation cascade. This study was conducted to compare fibrin deposit in pregnant mice that infected by Plasmodium berghei (treatment group to the normal pregnant mice (control group and its association with fetal weight. This research is in vivo experimental laboratory study that used 18 pregnant Balb/c mice which divided to the control the group (8 mice and treatment group (9 mice infected by P.berghei. Placentas were staining with Haematoxylin-Eosin (HE for fibrin deposits examination whereas fetal weight was performed with Mettler analytical balance AE 50. Fetal weight of the treatment group was lower than those of the control group (t test, p=0,002. Fibrin deposits were increased in the treatment group (t test, p=0,005 and influenced weight of fetuses (Spearman r= -0,586, p= 0,014. Weights of fetuses are interfered by fibrin deposits during malaria infection.
Experimental Infection of Sheep using Infective Larvae (L3) harvested from the Faeces of Naturally Infected Swayne's Hartebeest ( Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei ) at Senkele Swayne's Hartebeest Sanctuary, Ethiopia.
Kong, Ling Yuan; Libman, Michael D; Yansouni, Cedric P
Infectious diseases acquired during travel pose a significant health risk to pregnant travellers, who are more susceptible to both acquiring certain infections and developing severe complications. A review of the literature focusing on recent evidence-based guidelines was conducted with attention to tropical infections in the pregnant patient. A summary meant to serve as a succinct reference for health care professionals caring for pregnant women is presented. Magnitude of risk, clinical features, management, and preventive strategies of major travel-acquired infections of pertinence to the pregnant traveller are summarized, including malaria, arboviral infections, foodborne infections, helminthic infections, and influenza. Tables with details on specific infections within each group and guidance for reducing travel-related health risks in the pregnant patient are presented. Copyright © 2017 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhou, Jiao-jiao; Tao, Li-li
To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Wuxi City of Jiangsu Province, so as to provide the evidence for developing the preventive and control interventions of T. gondii infection. The anti-Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies were detected by using ELISA in the sera sampled from 3 014 pregnant women from 2011 to 2014, and the pregnant outcomes were followed up. The risk factors of T. gondii infection were identified with questionnaires. Among the 3 014 pregnant women, 215 cases were found positive to anti-Toxoplasma antibody (7.13%), including 49 cases positive to IgM antibody (49/215, 22.79%), and 166 cases positive to IgG antibody (166/215, 77.21%). The follow-up revealed that 46 T. gondii-infected pregnant women developed adverse pregnant outcomes (46/215, 21.40%), including 35 cases positive to IgM antibody (35/46, 76.09%) and 11 cases positive to IgG antibody (11/ 46, 23.9.1%). Of the 275 pregnant women without T. gondii infection, 7 cases were found to have adverse pregnant outcomes (2.55%) , which was significantly lower than that in T. gondii-infected pregnant women (P pregnant women, compared with the uninfected group (all P values pregnant outcomes among pregnant women. Reduction of close contact with animals, development of good diet and hygiene habits and monitoring of T. gondii infection during pregnancy are effective approaches to avoid the development of adverse pregnant outcomes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In areas where malaria is endemic, pregnancy is associated with increased susceptibility to malaria. It is generally agreed that this risk ends with delivery and decreases with the number of pregnancies. Our study aimed to demonstrate relationships between malarial parasitaemia and age, gravidity and anaemia in pregnant women in Libreville, the capital city of Gabon. Methods Peripheral blood was collected from 311 primigravidae and women in their second pregnancy. Thick blood smears were checked, as were the results of haemoglobin electrophoresis. We also looked for the presence of anaemia, fever, and checked whether the volunteers had had chemoprophylaxis. The study was performed in Gabon where malaria transmission is intense and perennial. Results A total of 177 women (57% had microscopic parasitaemia; 139 (64%of them were primigravidae, 38 (40% in their second pregnancy and 180 (64% were teenagers. The parasites densities were also higher in primigravidae and teenagers. The prevalence of anaemia was 71% and was associated with microscopic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia: women with moderate or severe anaemia had higher parasite prevalences and densities. However, the sickle cell trait, fever and the use of chemoprophylaxis did not have a significant association with the presence of P. falciparum. Conclusions These results suggest that the prevalence of malaria and the prevalence of anaemia, whether associated with malaria or not, are higher in pregnant women in Gabon. Primigravidae and young pregnant women are the most susceptible to infection. It is, therefore, urgent to design an effective regimen of malaria prophylaxis for this high risk population.
... html 1 in 20 Pregnant Women Infected With Zika Have Babies With Birth Defects: CDC Report from ... in the U.S. territories who were infected with Zika during pregnancy had babies with serious birth defects, ...
Colbers, A.; Molto, J.; Ivanovic, J.; Kabeya, K.; Hawkins, D.; Gingelmaier, A.; Taylor, G.; Weizsacker, K.; Sadiq, S.T.; Ende, M. van der; Giaquinto, C.; Burger, D.M.; Warris, A.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; et al.,
OBJECTIVES: To describe the pharmacokinetics of darunavir in pregnant HIV-infected women in the third trimester and post-partum. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a non-randomized, open-label, multicentre, Phase IV study in HIV-infected pregnant women recruited from HIV treatment centres in Europe.
Rebouças, E C; Dos Santos, E L; Do Carmo, M L S; Cavalcante, Z; Favali, C
Infection by Toxoplasma gondii represents a risk to fetal development during pregnancy. In this study, the serological profile of pregnant women from different regions of Bahia, Brazil, was determined. Tests were conducted at LACEN-BA (Salvador, Brazil). The mean age of the women was 24.5 years (±7.41 years) and 56.4% were positive for IgG and negative for IgM specific for T. gondii. Seronegative women represented 35.9% of the total (IgG- and IgM-negative) and inconclusive results comprised 4%. Differences were observed in distinct regions. Therefore, a preventive action must be reinforced in specific regions aimed at early diagnosis to minimise the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis development. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
AO, Egwunyenga; JA Ajayi; OPG Nmorsi; DD Duhlinska-Popova
Hospital based studies were conducted to investigate the occurrence of Plasmodium/intestinal helminth co-infections among pregnant Nigerian women, and their effects on birthweights, anaemia and spleen size. From 2,104 near-term pregnant women examined, 816 (38.8%) were found to be infected with malaria parasites. Among the 816 parasitaemic subjects, 394 (48.3%) were also infected with intestinal helminths, 102 (12.5%) having mixed helminth infections. The prevalence of the helminth species fo...
Anigo Kola Matthew
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate some hematological and anthropometric parameters, malaria infection at different trimesters in pregnancy. Methods: Fifty pregnant women (6 in first trimester, 28 in second trimester and 16 in third trimester between ages of 15-40 years with ten age-matched non-pregnant women used as control were enrolled in the study. Consent were obtained from the subjects after which semi-structured questionnaires were administered to obtain data on demographic and socio-economic variables, reproductive and medical history. Anthropometric variables, and hematology were carried out using standard procedures. Results: Anthropometric characteristics showed no significant difference in weight, height and BMI when compared with non-pregnant control. Hematological values indicated higher values for non-pregnant women but not statistically significant. Prevalence of malaria infection in pregnant women showed that 40% of pregnant women examined were infected compared to 30% non-pregnant with those with first pregnancy (primagravid recording the highest infection (47.62% with pregnant women within age 15-18 years least infected (16.7%. Pregnant women in the third trimester had the highest (50% malaria infection and there was increase in prevalence with increase education status and those with first pregnancy (primagravid recorded the highest infection (47.62%. Treatment used when infected showed 36.8% and 42.9% used malaria drug and both drug/herbs respectively. Conclusions: Higher prevalence rate of malaria infection in pregnant women with the highest prevalence recorded in those with first conception (primigravidae. There is a need for continuous monitoring of hematological parameters and malaria parasite infection for better outcome of pregnancy.
Oyeyemi, Oyetunde T; Fadipe, Olamide; Oyeyemi, Ifeoluwa T
Trichomoniasis poses a public health threat to pregnant women and neonatal health. This study evaluated Trichomonas vaginalis and other common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) status in pregnant women, and risk factors associated with them. The study was cross-sectional and descriptive and a total of 198 pregnant women were recruited for T. vaginalis screening by microscopic examination. Questionnaires were also administered to 108 pregnant women to access information related to socio-demography and other factors associated with STI transmission. The overall prevalence of T. vaginalis was 18.7%. While prevalence of T. vaginalis was neither age nor parity dependent (p > 0.05), women in their first trimester showed significantly higher prevalence of trichomoniasis compared to women in their second and third trimesters (p < 0.05). The frequency of STIs was lowest (18.2%) and highest (71.4%) in age groups ≥ 39 and 15-20 years, respectively. Low levels of education, multiple sexual partners, lack of knowledge on partners' STI history, and having sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs were risk factors of for STIs (p < 0.05). We found a high prevalence of T. vaginalis in pregnant women, with those at an early gestational age at greater risk. The improved education of women on safe sex and the need to know partners' STI status are advocated. © The Author(s) 2015.
Cho, Geum Joon; Kim, Yoon Byoung; Kim, Seong Min; Hong, Hye Ri; Kim, Ji Hoon; Seol, Hyun-Joo; Hong, Soon Cheol; Oh, Min-Jeong; Kim, Hai Joong
Although there is a large body of data on acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) worldwide, data regarding the occurrence of HAV during pregnancy is limited. It is commonly acknowledged that HAV is not associated with severe outcomes or complications during pregnancy. In contrast, there are several reported cases of vertical HAV transmission. Moreover, it has been recently reported that HAV infection during pregnancy is associated with gestational complications. In Korea, the incidence of HAV infection has increased from 317 cases in 2002 to 13,117 cases in 2009. However, HAV infection during pregnancy is rarely reported in Korea. This study was conducted as a retrospective cohort series of pregnant women presenting to Korea University Medical Center between January 2000 and October 2009 in whom a diagnosis of HAV infection was made. During study period, there were 12 cases of HAV in pregnant women, including two cases with preterm contraction, two cases with cholestatic hepatitis, and one case with fetal ascites and intra-abdominal calcification. HAV infection during pregnancy is associated with high prevalence of maternal and fetal complications. Because the incidence of HAV infection in women of reproductive age is increasing, a further focus on preventing HAV infection during pregnancy is warranted.
Bachanova, Veronika; Connors, Joseph M.
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) presenting in patients with co-incidental advanced age, pregnancy, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is uniquely challenging to manage. In this article we integrate recent evidence and clinical expertise to present recommendations for diagnosis and therapeutic management. Older patients with HL need to be carefully evaluated for comorbidies after which judicious choice of chemotherapy should minimize functional compromise. A pregnant patient with concurrent HL should be staged with minimal use of imaging requiring ionizing radiation and treated in an individualized manner optimally combining the strategies of treatment deferral when appropriate, use of single-agent vinblastine for symptomatic disease and reservation of multi-agent chemotherapy for the small minority of patients with aggressive clinical presentation. Treatment of HL coincident with HIV infection requires a combination of highly active anti-retroviral agents (HAART), standard multi-agent chemotherapy with meticulous attention to drug–drug interactions, and vigorous supportive care to ensure the best chance of cure. PMID:27496312
Olén, Ola; Montgomery, Scott M; Ekbom, Anders; Bollgren, Ingela; Ludvigsson, Jonas F
Previous research has indicated a link between coeliac disease (CD) and urinary tract infection (UTI). The objective of this study was to assess the risk of UTI and repeated episodes of UTI before the current pregnancy in women with diagnosed or undiagnosed CD. A national registry-based cohort study restricted to pregnant women was used in this investigation, with linkage between the Swedish National Medical Birth Registry and the National Inpatient Registry. We analysed the risk of UTI during pregnancy from 1973 to 1989 in 212 pregnancies to women who had received a diagnosis of CD prior to giving birth and in 786 pregnancies to women diagnosed after giving birth. We also assessed the risk of repeated episodes of UTI before the current pregnancy according to data in the national birth records of 1990-2001 in 617 women with CD diagnosed prior to giving birth and 109 women diagnosed after giving birth. UTI during pregnancy: UTI occurred during 19,139/1,678,304 pregnancies to women who had never had a diagnosis of CD, compared with in 12/786 pregnancies to women with undiagnosed CD (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.37; 95% CI=0.78-2.43; p=0.276) and in 0/212 pregnancies to women with diagnosed CD (AOR=0.06; 95% CI=0.00-8.94; p=0.277) (ORs adjusted for maternal age, parity, nationality and calendar period). Repeated episodes of UTI before the current pregnancy: among 692,991 women who had never had a diagnosis of CD, 74,776 reported repeated episodes of UTI, compared with 14/101 women with undiagnosed CD (AOR=1.39; 95% CI=0.79-2.45; p=0.255) and 69/566 women with diagnosed CD (AOR=1.02; 95% CI=0.79-1.32; p=0.864) (ORs adjusted for maternal age, parity, nationality, calendar period and civil status). Adjustment for smoking in a subset of patients with available data did not change the risk estimates. It cannot be ruled out that undiagnosed CD in pregnant women is associated with a small, increased risk of UTI. In pregnant women with diagnosed CD, there seems to be no
Rojas Jimenez, Sara; Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana; Lopera Valle, Johan Sebastián; Rodríguez Padilla, Libia María; Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana; Martínez Sánchez, Lina Maria; Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana
Objective: to describe the characteristics of vaginal infections in pregnant patients. pregnancy is a predisposing factor for vaginal infections, which can lead to deleterious consequences for mother and fetus. Materials and methods: a cross-sectional study. Population consists in pregnant patients diagnosed with vaginal infection in a high complexity clinic, January 2011 to June 2012. Sociodemographic, clinical, microbiological and therapeutic information were collected from the clinical his...
Full Text Available Background: The study goal was to describe etravirine pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and postpartum in HIV-infected women. Methods: IMPAACT P1026s and PANNA are on-going, nonrandomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center phase-IV prospective studies in HIV-infected pregnant women. Intensive steady-state 12 or 24 hour pharmacokinetic profiles were performed from 2nd trimester through postpartum. Etravirine was measured at two labs using validated ultra performance liquid chromatography (detection limits: 0.020 mcg/mL and 0.026 mcg/mL. Results: Fifteen women took etravirine 200 mg twice-daily dosing and one took 400 mg once-daily. Etravirine AUC0-12 was significantly higher in the 3rd trimester compared to paired postpartum data by 45% (median 8.3 mcg*hr/mL versus 5.7 mcg*hr/mL, p = 0.086. Etravirine apparent oral clearance was significantly lower in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy compared to paired postpartum data (median 24 L/h versus 35 L/h, p = 0.038. The median ratio of cord blood to maternal plasma concentration at delivery was 0.56 (range: 0.19 - 4.25 and no perinatal transmission occurred. Conclusion: Etravirine apparent oral clearance is reduced and exposure increased during the third trimester of pregnancy. Based on prior dose-ranging and safety data, no dose adjustment is necessary for maternal health but the effects of etravirine in utero are unknown. Maternal health and infant outcomes should be closely monitored until further infant safety data are available. The IMPAACT protocol P1026s and PANNA study are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under NCT00042289 and NCT00825929.
Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Rosthøj, Susanne
INTRODUCTION: Group B streptococci (GBS) can cause preterm delivery for women and sepsis and meningitis in infants younger than 90 days of age. The present retrospective cohort study determines the trend over time in the rates of GBS and in demographic risk factors for GBS among pregnant women.......3% in 2002 to 5.1% in 2010 (p pregnant cohort, but the rate followed...
E. N. Shumkova
Full Text Available Background. Growth tendency the asymptomatic forms of an urogenital trichomoniasis, frequency of complications from reproductive organs, uncertainty of many aspects of the violations of a spermatogenesis influencing reproductive function all this proves need of search of the urogenital trichomoniasis adequate experimental model. Lack of the corresponding experimental model is limited by our opportunities for carrying out the standardized, controlled researches on studying of transmission, pathogenesis, the immune answer, therapy and development of vaccines at a triсhomonas infection.Objective is studying action of Trichomonas vaginalis on a spermatogenny epithelium the mature of individuals of guinea pigs in the conditions of sharp and chronic experience.Materials and methods. Experiments are made on the “Reproductive System (Guinea Pigs + Trichomonas vaginalis” modeling the natural course of an infection. In experiment 2 groups of animals: 1st (n = 8 – experimental, 2nd (n = 8 – control were formed. Against the background of the reduction of the immune status (hydrocortisone 125 mg/kg intramuscularly 1 time in day during 2 days the animals of the 1st group were injected intraurethral suspension containing 1 × 106 Trichomonas on 0.5 ml of culture medium, the animals of the 2nd group – 0.5 ml of medium. Under the condition of the acute experiment the animals were sacrificed on day 9 (the middle of the cycle of spermatogenesis – I experienced group and on day 30 (full spermatogenic cycle – II experimental group. The control animals were slaughtered in the same period. The material for histological study was prepared by the traditional way.Results. In an experimental model of “Reproductive system (guinea pigs + T. vaginalis”, staging and degree of disturbance of spermatogenesis, depending on the duration of trichomonas infection were shown. So, in acute experience morphological changes correspond to changes in the
Elbadry, Maha A; Tagliamonte, Massimiliano S; Raccurt, Christian P; Lemoine, Jean F; Existe, Alexandre; Boncy, Jacques; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Dame, John B; Okech, Bernard A
To describe the epidemiology of malaria in pregnancy in Haiti. Cross-sectional study among pregnant women in six departments of Haiti. After obtaining informed consent, whole blood samples and demographic surveys were collected to investigate malaria prevalence, anaemia and socio-behavioural risk factors for infection, respectively. A total of 311 pregnant women were screened for Plasmodium falciparum infection using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), microscopy and a novel, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction method (qRT-PCR). Overall, 1.2% (4/311) of pregnant women were tested positive for malaria infection by both microscopy and RDT. However, using the qRT-PCR, 16.4% (51/311) of pregnant women were positive. The prevalence of malaria infection varied with geographical locations ranging between 0% and 46.4%. Additionally, 53% of pregnant women had some form of anaemia; however, no significant association was found between anaemia and submicroscopic malaria infection. The socio-behavioural risk factors identified to be protective of malaria infection were marital status (P < 0.05) and travel within one month prior to screening (P < 0.05). This study is the first to document the high prevalence of submicroscopic malaria infections among pregnant women in Haiti and identify social and behavioural risk factors for disease transmission. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Leila Ghasempour Shirazi
Conclusion: There is no relationship between helicobacter pylori and hyperemesis gravidarum in pregnant woman. Considering the high prevalence of H. pylori infection in our country, there is a need for studies with more samples and more diagnostic methods.
Lugt, J. van der; Colbers, A.; Molto, J.; Hawkins, D.; Ende, M. van der; Vogel, M.; Wyen, C.; Schutz, M.; Koopmans, P.; Ruxrungtham, K.; Richter, C.; Burger, D.M.
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy affects the pharmacokinetics of most protease inhibitors. Saquinavir, when administered in a tablet formulation, has not been studied extensively in this setting. METHODS: A pharmacokinetic, prospective, multicentre trial of HIV type-1-infected pregnant women treated with
David H. Martin
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if treatment of pregnant women with Chlamydia trachomatis infection would lower the incidence of preterm delivery and/or low birth weight.
Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the infectious agents of congenital TORCH infections, causes severe clinical outcomes in fetus and newborns. Nevertheless this life-threatening parasitic disease is preventable by simple preventive measures related to lifestyle during pregnancy. We aim to study on the knowledge about toxoplasmosis and practices that prevents this infection among the pregnant women. Total of 2,598 pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand were randomly surveyed to determine the knowledge and their practices on Toxoplasma infection. The questionnaire covered respondents’ general information and knowledge on plausible risks factors, symptoms, timing of infection, prevention knowledge and preventive behavior regarding Toxoplasma infection. Majority of these pregnant women were in their age group of 20-29 years (50.9%, completed secondary level of education (51.7%, in their second trimester of pregnancies (38.1%, non parous (36.6% and had no history of abortion (90.4. Based on this survey, only 11% of these pregnant women had read, heard or seen information regarding toxoplasmosis and 3.5% of them were aware of being tested for the infection. A small percentage of these pregnant women knew that T. gondii were shed in the feces of infected cats (19.4% and sometimes found in the raw or undercooked meat (11.0%. There was 16.1% of responding women knew that toxoplasmosis is caused by an infection. Demographic profiles such as age group, level of education, pregnancy term and number of children of the pregnant women showed significant association with their responses towards prevention knowledge and preventive behavior related questions (P<0.05. Thus, it is suggested that health education on toxoplasmosis and primary behavioral practices should be consistently offered to reproductive age women in general and pregnant women in particular. This information could help to reduce vertical transmission of Toxoplasma infection during
Dangor, Ziyaad; Nunes, Marta C; Kwatra, Gaurav; Lala, Sanjay G; Madhi, Shabir A
The prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV has resulted in reduced burden of pediatric HIV-infection, but the prevalence of maternal HIV infection remains high in sub-Saharan African countries. HIV-exposed-uninfected infants have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases than HIV-unexposed infants, particularly during the first six months of life, which in part might be due to lower levels of pathogen-specific protective antibodies acquired transplacentally from their mothers. This could be mitigated by vaccinating pregnant women to boost antibody levels; although vaccine responses among HIV-infected pregnant women might differ compared to HIV-uninfected women. We reviewed studies that compared natural and vaccine-induced antibody levels to different epitopes between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women. Most studies reported lower baseline/pre-vaccination antibody levels in HIV-infected pregnant women, which may not be reversed by antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy. There were only few studies on vaccination of HIV-infected pregnant women, mainly on influenza virus and group B Streptococcus (GBS) vaccines. Immunogenicity studies on influenza vaccines indicated that HIV-infected pregnant women had lower vaccine induced hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers and a decreased likelihood of seroconversion compared to HIV-uninfected women; and while higher CD4+ T-lymphocyte levels were associated with better immune responses to vaccination, HIV viral load was not associated with responses. Furthermore, infants born to influenza vaccinated HIV-infected pregnant women also had lower antibody levels and a lower proportion of HIV-exposed infants had titers above the putative correlate of protection compared to HIV-unexposed infants. The immunogenicity of a CRM197-conjugated trivalent GBS vaccine was also lower in HIV-infected pregnant women compared to HIV-uninfected women, irrespective of CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts
Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Michael, Audrey; Kirarock, Wendy S; Pomat, William S; van den Biggelaar, Anita H J
This study determined the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associations with risk factors among pregnant women in their second or third trimester in Goroka, Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea. Among the 201 pregnant women enrolled in this study, 163 (81%) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. Infections with protozoan parasites (65%) were more prevalent than infections with nematodes (31%); protozoan infections included Entamoeba histolytica (43%), Giardia lamblia (39%) and Pentatrichomonas hominis (14%), and nematode infections included hookworm (18%), Ascaris lumbricoides (14%), Strongyloides stercoralis (3%) and Trichuris trichiura (2%). Factors associated with higher risk of intestinal parasitic infections in pregnancy included being a primigravida for protozoan-only infections and education limited to primary school for nematode infections. Altitude-adjusted haemoglobin levels were assessed at the beginning of labour for 110 women, with 69 (63%) found to be anaemic (haemoglobin pregnancy and anaemia.
Khamis, Hossam Hassan; Farghaly, Azza Galal; Shatat, Hanan Zakaria; El-Ghitany, Engy Mohamed
Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the world. Screening of HCV during pregnancy is not as routinely done in Egypt compared with many other countries, although pregnancy is an important period where screening of HCV infection is important owing to low immunity, the possibility of vertical transmission and possible horizontal transmission to the baby or other household contacts at a later stage. To determine the seroprevalence of HCV antibodies (HCV-Ab) and risk factors associated with infection among pregnant women in Egypt. A total of 360 pregnant women visiting the healthcare units for routine antenatal care were tested using third generation ELISA test for detection of HCV-Ab. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done for seropositive cases. A total of 6.1% (22/360) of pregnant women were HCV seropositive; of them only 45% (9/20) had viraemia. Risk factors were their age, the age of their husband and the presence of chronic liver disease in the husband. The prevalence of HCV infection in pregnant women in Egypt appears to be lower than previously reported. The detected risk factors are old age of the pregnant women and their husbands, and chronic liver disease in the husbands. None of the other known risk factors was found to be significantly associated with HCV infection in pregnant women. © The Author(s) 2014.
Simeone, Regina M; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Petersen, Emily E; Galang, Romeo R; Oduyebo, Titilope; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Newsome, Kimberly B; Pérez-Padilla, Janice; Williams, Tonya R; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A
Zika virus is a cause of microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1), and it is the first known mosquito-borne infection to cause congenital anomalies in humans. The establishment of a comprehensive surveillance system to monitor pregnant women with Zika virus infection will provide data to further elucidate the full range of potential outcomes for fetuses and infants of mothers with asymptomatic and symptomatic Zika virus infection during pregnancy. In February 2016, Zika virus disease and congenital Zika virus infections became nationally notifiable conditions in the United States (2). Cases in pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection who have either 1) symptomatic infection or 2) asymptomatic infection with diagnosed complications of pregnancy can be reported as cases of Zika virus disease to ArboNET* (2), CDC's national arboviral diseases surveillance system. Under existing interim guidelines from the Council for State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE), asymptomatic Zika virus infections in pregnant women who do not have known pregnancy complications are not reportable. ArboNET does not currently include pregnancy surveillance information (e.g., gestational age or pregnancy exposures) or pregnancy outcomes. To understand the full impact of infection on the fetus and neonate, other systems are needed for reporting and active monitoring of pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Thus, in collaboration with state, local, tribal, and territorial health departments, CDC established two surveillance systems to monitor pregnancies and congenital outcomes among women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection(†) in the United States and territories: 1) the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR),(§) which monitors pregnant women residing in U.S. states and all U.S. territories except Puerto Rico, and 2) the Zika Active Pregnancy Surveillance System (ZAPSS), which monitors pregnant women
Mutagoma, Mwumvaneza; Balisanga, Helene; Malamba, Samuel S; Sebuhoro, Dieudonné; Remera, Eric; Riedel, David J; Kanters, Steve; Nsanzimana, Sabin
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects people worldwide but the local burden especially in pregnant women and their new born babies is unknown. In Rwanda HIV-infected individuals who are also infected with HBV are supposed to be initiated on ART immediately. HBV is easily transmitted from mother to child during delivery. We sought to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic (ANC) in Rwanda and to determine factors associated with HBV and HIV co-infection. This study used a cross-sectional survey, targeting pregnant women in sentinel sites. Pregnant women were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HIV infection. A series of tests were done to ensure high sensitivity. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of HBV-HIV co-infection among those collected during ANC sentinel surveillance, these included: age, marital status, education level, occupation, residence, pregnancy and syphilis infection. The prevalence of HBsAg among 13,121 pregnant women was 3.7% (95% CI: 3.4-4.0%) and was similar among different socio-demographic characteristics that were assessed. The proportion of HIV-infection among HBsAg-positive pregnant women was 4.1% [95% CI: 2.5-6.3%]. The prevalence of HBV-HIV co-infection was higher among women aged 15-24 years compared to those women aged 25-49 years [aOR = 6.9 (95% CI: 1.8-27.0)]. Women residing in urban areas seemed having HBV-HIV co-infection compared with women residing in rural areas [aOR = 4.3 (95% CI: 1.2-16.4)]. Women with more than two pregnancies were potentially having the co-infection compared to those with two or less (aOR = 6.9 (95% CI: 1.7-27.8). Women with RPR-positive test were seemed associated with HBV-HIV co-infection (aOR = 24.9 (95% CI: 5.0-122.9). Chronic HBV infection is a public health problem among pregnant women in Rwanda. Understanding that HBV-HIV co-infection may be more prominent in younger women from urban
Andiappan, Hemah; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Nyunt, Myat Htut; Lau, Yee-Ling; Khaing, Si Lay; Aye, Khin Myo; Mon, Nan Cho Nwe; Tan, Tian-Chye; Kumar, Thulasi; Onichandran, Subashini; bin Mat Adenan, Noor Azmi
Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, causes a disease called toxoplasmosis which can sometimes be acquired congenitally by a newborn from an infected mother. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection and its associated risks among 219 and 215 pregnant women from Malaysia and Myanmar, respectively. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies were screened by using standard commercial ELISA kits. The socio-demographic, obstetrics and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma infection data were compared between the two countries. The overall prevalence of Toxoplasma infection in Malaysian pregnant women (42.47%; 95% CI = 36.11-49.09) was significantly higher (p bad obstetrics history, having no history of close contact with cats or soil, living on a farm and also consumption of undercooked meat, unpasterized milk or untreated water. Avidity measurement was used to confirm the stages of Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women who were positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies and found all were infected in the past. From our study, Toxoplasma screening and its risk measurement in pregnant women is firmly recommended for monitoring purposes and assisting proper management, including diagnosis and treatment during antenatal period. Also, it is necessary to initiate preventive measures for Toxoplasma infection among reproductive-age women in general and seronegative pregnant women in particular. Avidity measurement should be incorporated in Toxoplasma routine screening, especially with the availability of a single serum sample to assist in the diagnosis.
We describe a case of symptomatic primary Cytomegalovirus infection in a HIV-positive pregnant woman on antiretroviral treatment with a CD4 count >200 × 10(6)\\/l requiring intravenous ganciclovir. No adverse consequences from ganciclovir or evidence of congenital Cytomegalovirus infection were found.
Metabolic complications including diabetes mellitus have been increasingly recognised in HIV-infected individuals since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, particularly protease inhibitors (PIs). Pregnancy is also a risk factor for impaired glucose metabolism, and previous studies have given conflicting results regarding the contribution of PIs to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant HIV-infected women.
Malinowski, E; Kłossowska, A; Kaczmarowski, M; Kuźma, K; Markiewicz, H
The study was carried out in 5 farms on 174 pregnant heifers. Clinical examination of the udder and bacteriological tests of quarter secretion were performed between the 8th and 3rd week before parturition, and then the animals were divided into a control group (64 heifers) and 3 experimental groups and immediately treated. A group of 32 experimental heifers was injected once with antioxidants (Vitamin A--600,000 i.u.; Vitamin D3--200,000 i.u.; Vitamin E--1.5 mg/kg b.w., Selenium--0.022 mg/kg b.w., i.m.). The next group (26 heads) was intramammary infused with antibiotic DC product (cloxacillin). Heifers from last experimental group (52) were injected with lysosyme dimer in a single dose of 0.02 mg/kg b.w. Clinical and bacteriological examinations were made during the first week after calving. The presence of bacteria was found in secretion of 22.6-38.9% udder quarters in 56.2-71.2% of pregnant heifers. The number of infected quarters (cows) did not change distinctly in the first week after calving except the lysozyme dimer group, where a decrease by 30% was noted. The percentage of quarters with elevated somatic cell count was higher in antibiotic DC group and closely similar in the other groups. None of examined methods showed an acceptable prophylactic effect. Clinical mastitis cases during first week after parturition were mostly caused by Escherichia coli, Staph. chromogenes, Staph. simulans, Staph. aureus, Staph. hyicus, Str. uberis, Str. acidominimus and Enterococcus faecalis.
Mutagoma, Mwumvaneza; Balisanga, Helene; Sebuhoro, Dieudonné; Mbituyumuremyi, Aimable; Remera, Eric; Malamba, Samuel S; Riedel, David J; Nsanzimana, Sabin
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a pandemic causing disease; more than 185 million people are infected worldwide. An HCV antibody (Ab) prevalence of 6.0% was estimated in Central African countries. The study aimed at providing HCV prevalence estimates among pregnant women in Rwanda. HCV surveillance through antibody screening test among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics was performed in 30 HIV sentinel surveillance sites in Rwanda. Among 12,903 pregnant women tested at antenatal clinics, 335 (2.6% [95% Confidence Interval 2.32-2.87]) tested positive for HCV Ab. The prevalence of HCV Ab in women aged 25-49 years was 2.8% compared to 2.4% in women aged 15-24 years (aOR = 1.3; [1.05-1.59]); This proportion was 2.7% [2.37-2.94] in pregnant women in engaged in non-salaried employment compared to 1.2% [0.24-2.14] in those engaged in salaried employment (aOR = 3.2; [1.60-6.58]). The proportion of HCV Ab-positive co-infected with HIV was estimated at 3.9% (13 cases). Women in urban residence were more likely to be associated with HCV-infection (OR = 1.3; 95%CI [1.0-1.6]) compared to those living in rural setting. HCV is a public health problem in pregnant women in Rwanda. Few pregnant women were co-infected with HCV and HIV. Living in urban setting was more likely to associate pregnant women with HCV infection.
The aim of this study is to determine prevalence and associated risk factors UTI ... Methods: A total of 367 pregnant women with and without symptoms of ... and associated risk factors of UTI showed that family income level (family monthly ...
The residents of Mutengene and Muea are predominantly peasant farmers and small scale traders while those of Buea are mainly civil servants and traders. Control measures put in by the Government of. Cameroon. In compliance with Government health policy, all pregnant women who enrolled at these health centres.
Intravenous drug use, tattooing or jaundice in the past and Human Immunodeficiency Virus positivity did not show any association with HCV seropositivity. Conclusion: HCV seropositive pregnant women in the study were asymptomatic and showed no association with the medical and sociodemographic characteristics ...
This study emphasises the public health importance of HBV in subjects screened, indicating that blood should be well screened before transfusion, while the populace should abstain from sharing sharp and body piercing objects in order to reduce the rate of transmission. Keywords: Hepatitis B virus antigen, pregnant ...
Background: Geophagy, a regular and deliberate habit of eating non-food substances is practiced worldwide and in sub-Saharan Africa. Pregnant women and children commonly eat soil. Soil consumption exposes one to the risk of consuming eggs of soil-transmitted intestinal parasites, which may cause severe health ...
Parsonson, I M; Della-Porta, A J; Snowdon, W A
Akabane virus (a Bunyavirus) has been associated with epizootics of congenital deformities in cattle, sheep, and goats. Experimental studies using mouse-adapted virus inoculated intravenously into pregnant sheep gave an inapparent infection. Neutralizing antibodies were detected on day 5, and peaks in the titer were seen at days 10 and 48. Ewes infected at day 30 to 36 of pregnancy produced five (31% incidence) deformed lambs. Sera from four of these possessed neutralizing antibodies to Akabane virus before ingesting colostrum. Two lambs had arthrogryposis, hydranencephaly, kyphosis, scoliosis, and brachygnathia; one had micrencephaly; and the other two had porencephaly. The two lambs with arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly also had extensive lesions in other tissues. In the spinal cord there was a marked decrease in the number of ventral horn neurones and a depletion of myelin. Skeletal muscles showed marked atrophy. The medulla of the thymus possessed large Hassall's corpuscles and a reduced number of thymocytes in the cortex. It would appear that the pathogenic effects of Akabane virus are related to the gestational age (30 to 36 days) at which the fetus is infected. Akabane virus can now be included in the growing list of teratogenic viruses and provides an interesting system for studying such congenital diseases. Images PMID:832900
Deborah Beltrami Gomez
Full Text Available Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT is the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacterial infection, affecting mainly young, sexually active women. Untreated infection may lead to reproductive complications due to tubal damage. Infections during pregnancy may cause preterm labor, low birth weight, perinatal death, and neonatal conjunctivitis and pneumonia. There are few data on CT infection in Brazil. The aim of this study was to determine CT prevalence in infertile and pregnant women. Methods: A cross-sectional study included 77 infertile and 60 asymptomatic pregnant women. First-void urine was tested for CT using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction. Blood samples were collected for CT IgG antibodies testing using indirect immunofluorescence. A questionnaire about medical, gynecological, and sexual history was completed by all participants. Results: We found statistically similar prevalence of PCR and IgG antibodies between the groups. There was a 61% prevalence of CT IgG antibodies in infertile women and 56.7% in pregnant women. PCR was positive in only one (1.3% infertile woman and in none pregnant women. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of CT IgG antibody in Brazilian pregnant and infertile women, but we found a low prevalence of positive PCR in the urine samples. CT antibodies were associated with sexual behavior and smoking. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia infections, prevalence, nucleic acid amplification techniques; infertility, female; fluorescent antibody technique
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a major public health problem in the developing countries. HEV infection in pregnant women is more common and fatal in the third trimester. The present study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of subclinical HEV infection in asymptomatic pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A total of 116 asymptomatic pregnant women divided into 2 groups: Group 1 included 56 pregnant women with HCV positive serology and group 2 included 60 pregnant women with negative HCV serology were included in this study. Prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies and anti-HCV were determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. Results: The overall prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was highly significant among pregnant women with chronic HCV infection 40/56 (71.42% than pregnant women free from chronic HCV infection 28/60 (46.7% (P = 0.006. Chronic HCV infection in pregnant women appeared to be a risk factor associated with HEV IgG seropositivity (OR = 2.86, CI = 1.24-6.6. The seropositivity of anti-HEV IgG was significantly high in rural areas than urban areas (62.5% vs. 37.5% in group 1 and (78.58% vs. 21.42% in group 2 (P = 0.15 and OR = 2.2, CI = 0.65-7.7. A decrease in albumin level (P = 0.047 and an increase in bilirubin (P = 0.025, ALT (P = 0.032, and AST (P = 0.044 in pregnant women with positive HCV and IgG anti-HEV than the second group with negative HCV serology. Conclusions: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG in pregnant women is high in Egypt especially in rural areas. With chronic HCV coinfection, a marked increase in anti-HEV IgG seropositivity and significant worsening of the biochemical liver indices were noted. Increased public awareness about the sound hygienic measures for a less prevalence of HEV is strongly advised. The need for HEV vaccination for those at risk, especially pregnant ladies, should be considered.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The main transmission route of the hepatitis B virus (HBV is mother to child transmission and contributes significantly to chronic HBV infection. Even though immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG and hepatitis B vaccine is administrated to neonates whose mothers are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg positive, about 10% of the neonates suffer from HBV infection in their early life. Objectives To survey chronic HBV infection among pregnant women and their infants and analyze the reason for immunoprophylaxis failure. Methods Serum HBsAg was tested in all pregnant women. HBVDNA and other serum HBV markers including hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg, hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs were tested among HBsAg positive pregnant women. All infants whose mothers were HBsAg positive were vaccinated with a standard immunoprophylaxis. Serum HBV markers and HBVDNA were tested among these infants at 7 months of age. HBV genotypes were analyzed among the infants and pregnant women who were HBVDNA positive. Results The prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HBs among 4,536 pregnant women was 5.49%, 29.65% and 58.55%, respectively. The prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HBs among pregnant women older than 20 years of age was significantly different compared to pregnant women younger than 20 years of age (4.54, 5.69 and 0.61 times, prevalence older vs. younger, respectively. P107 IU/ml. Among the infants whose mothers were HBsAg positive, 214 (85.94% infants were anti-HBs positive. There were 12 (4.82% infants who were HBsAg and HBVDNA positive, and all 12 of these infants mothers were HBeAg positive and had HBVDNA >107 IU/ml. Genotypes B and C were present among 165 pregnant women and genotype C was present in 85 pregnant women. There were 12 infants who were HBsAg positive and had the same HBV genotypes as their mothers. There was a significant difference in genotypes between the
Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Rosthoj, Susanne
INTRODUCTION: Group B streptococci (GBS) can cause preterm delivery for women and sepsis and meningitis in infants younger than 90 days of age. The present retrospective cohort study determines the trend over time in the rates of GBS and in demographic risk factors for GBS among pregnant women.......3% in 2002 to 5.1% in 2010 (p women with GBS (p pregnant cohort, but the rate followed...... delivering at Rigshospitalet (RH). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the period from 2002 to 2010, a total of 33,616 women gave birth at the RH. Our cohort was defined as 16,587 (49%) women examined by 24,724 cultures. All microbiological requisitions from the Department of Obstetrics at RH were extracted from...
Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Rosthøj, Susanne
INTRODUCTION: Group B streptococci (GBS) can cause preterm delivery for women and sepsis and meningitis in infants younger than 90 days of age. The present retrospective cohort study determines the trend over time in the rates of GBS and in demographic risk factors for GBS among pregnant women.......3% in 2002 to 5.1% in 2010 (p neonates in the general population and 7.8 per 1,000 among women with GBS (p
Zhang, Xiao-min; Zhang, Rong-na; Lin, Shu-qin; Chen, Shui-xian; Zheng, Li-ying
To investigate the clinical characteristics of pregnant women with syphilis, their pregnant outcomes, perinatal and neonatal prognosis and the incidence of congenital syphilis. One hundred and ninety-two pregnant women with syphilis by serological assays were divided into two groups, group A (n = 93): treated with a full course anti-syphilis therapy and group B (n = 99): untreated group. Meanwhile, they were divided into groups C and D according to maternal serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test: RPR titer or = 1:16 (group D). The pregnant outcomes and congenital syphilis were compared between two groups. (1) Perinatal outcomes: Term delivery reached 93.6% (87/93) in group A and only 28.3% (28/99) in group B; the rate of premature birth and fetal intrauterine death were 5.4% (5/93) and 1.1% (1/93) in group A, obviously lower than 28.3% (28/99) and 32.3% (32/99) in group B (P syphilis and neonatal death in group A were significantly lower than those in group B (P syphilis, perinatal death and neonatal death in group C were lower than those in group D (P Gestational week and drug treatment: The earlier the treatment started during pregnancy, the lower the rate of congenital syphilis was (P syphilis were similar between penicillin and dibenzyl penicillin groups (P syphilis therapy is the key to improving the outcomes of pregnancy with syphilis, prognosis of neonates and reducing incidence of congenital syphilis. (2) Maternal serum RPR titer, the starting time of anti-syphilis treatment as well as the choice of therapeutical drugs are important influence factors on the outcomes of pregnancy with syphilis.
Full Text Available Background. Aim of this study was to assess the incidence of Cytomegalovirus (CMV infection in pregnant women living in Romagna area, in North East Italy to implement the best management of this infection. Materials and Methods. In 2012, 23,727 serological tests for CMV IgG and IgM antibodies were performed in the Microbiology Unit, the Hub Laboratory of the Greater Romagna Area: 6931 were pregnant women. Results and Conclusions. 179 subjects were positive for CMV IgM antibodies: 82 were not pregnant; 97 were IgM positive during pregnancy or in the course of a pre-conception evaluation. The detected incidence of the CMV infection in pregnancy (calculated at 1.40% actually validates the literature data. This study’s findings clearly underline the usefulness of testing the CMV specific immune response in the pre-conception period or as early as possible during pregnancy.
Yu, Yufeng; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Zou, Peng; Wang, Qian; Dai, Yanyan; Yu, Fei; Du, Lanying; Zhang, Na-Na; Tian, Min; Hao, Jia-Nan; Meng, Yu; Li, Yuan; Zhou, Xiaohui; Fuk-Woo Chan, Jasper; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Jiang, Shibo; Lu, Lu
Zika virus (ZIKV), a re-emerging flavivirus associated with neurological disorders, has spread rapidly to more than 70 countries and territories. However, no specific vaccines or antiviral drugs are currently available to prevent or treat ZIKV infection. Here we report that a synthetic peptide derived from the stem region of ZIKV envelope protein, designated Z2, potently inhibits infection of ZIKV and other flaviviruses in vitro. We show that Z2 interacts with ZIKV surface protein and disrupts the integrity of the viral membrane. Z2 can penetrate the placental barrier to enter fetal tissues and is safe for use in pregnant mice. Intraperitoneal administration of Z2 inhibits vertical transmission of ZIKV in pregnant C57BL/6 mice and protects type I or type I/II interferon receptor-deficient mice against lethal ZIKV challenge. Thus, Z2 has potential to be further developed as an antiviral treatment against ZIKV infection in high-risk populations, particularly pregnant women.
The effects of experimental Ascaris suum infection in Yankasa lambs were investigated. Twenty four (24) Yankasa lambs aged 6-8 months were purchased and randomly divided into two groups (1 and 2). The lambs in group 1, consisting of 16 animals, were orally infected with 1500 infective A. suum eggs daily for seven ...
Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by a protozoal parasite: Toxoplasma gondii. This infection can cause severe illness when the organism is contracted congenitally or when it is reactivated in immunosuppressed people. In this paper we review for the first time prevalence and risk factors of T. gondii among pregnant women and HIV-infected adults in Morocco. A systematic review methodology was used to consult three databases: Pub Med, Science Direct and Google Scholar dated until 2015, regarding prevalence data and risk factors of infection among pregnant women and people living with HIV. Data collection and eligibility criteria were established in this paper. No statistical method was employed in this study. Our review resulted in a total of 6 publications meeting the inclusion criteria of prevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in Morocco. Seropositive rates of T. gondii infection reach up to 51% in pregnant women. Risk factors that were reported included contact with soil, lack of knowledge about toxoplasmosis, and a low educational level. For HIV-infected adults, the limited data show a 62.1% prevalence rate of T. gondii .According to our review, there is still very little information on toxoplasmosis disease in pregnant women and HIV infected patients in Morocco. Further research on toxoplasmosis is needed to better ascertain the human disease burden in Morocco.
Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection, as a risk factor for adverse maternal and prenatal outcomes, is one of the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to determine prevalence of urinary tract infection and its associated risk factors in pregnant women. Material and Methods: In a cross-sectional analytical study a total 2496 pregnant women who were underwent prenatal care through July 2011 in three rural and six urban health centers of Ardabil city, were selected by multistage sampling. Data collection was performed using a self designed questionnaire from women's prenatal care records, 240 pregnant women with positive urine culture were considered as a case group and the remaining as a control group. Data were analyzed through Kruskal – Wallis, Chi-square and Stepwise Logistic Regression statistical tests using SPSS version 16. Results: The incidence of urinary tract infection was 9.7%. Low socioeconomic status ( p=0.021, OR= 2/338, CI= 1/138-4/766,distance between pregnancies less than 3 years( p=0.026, OR= 2/137, CI= 1/093-4/141,and hyperemesis gravidarum( p=0.039, OR=2/06, CI= 1/038-4/098were determined as risk factors that significantly contribute to urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Conclusion: We conclude that appropriate distance between pregnancies, intensive care of pregnant women with low socioeconomic status and hyperemesis gravidarum may significantly prevent urinary tract infection and its related adverse health effects among pregnant women. K
Meaney-Delman, Dana; Hills, Susan L; Williams, Charnetta; Galang, Romeo R; Iyengar, Preetha; Hennenfent, Andrew K; Rabe, Ingrid B; Panella, Amanda; Oduyebo, Titilope; Honein, Margaret A; Zaki, Sherif; Lindsey, Nicole; Lehman, Jennifer A; Kwit, Natalie; Bertolli, Jeanne; Ellington, Sascha; Igbinosa, Irogue; Minta, Anna A; Petersen, Emily E; Mead, Paul; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Jamieson, Denise J
After reports of microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in infants of mothers infected with Zika virus during pregnancy, CDC issued a travel alert on January 15, 2016, advising pregnant women to consider postponing travel to areas with active transmission of Zika virus. On January 19, CDC released interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with travel to an affected area, and an update was released on February 5. As of February 17, CDC had received reports of nine pregnant travelers with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease; 10 additional reports of Zika virus disease among pregnant women are currently under investigation. No Zika virus-related hospitalizations or deaths among pregnant women were reported. Pregnancy outcomes among the nine confirmed cases included two early pregnancy losses, two elective terminations, and three live births (two apparently healthy infants and one infant with severe microcephaly); two pregnancies (approximately 18 weeks' and 34 weeks' gestation) are continuing without known complications. Confirmed cases of Zika virus infection were reported among women who had traveled to one or more of the following nine areas with ongoing local transmission of Zika virus: American Samoa, Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Samoa. This report summarizes findings from the nine women with confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy, including case reports for four women with various clinical outcomes. U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure during pregnancy should follow CDC guidelines for patient evaluation and management. Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition. CDC has developed a voluntary registry to collect information about U.S. pregnant women with confirmed Zika virus infection and their infants. Information about the registry is in preparation and will be available on the CDC website.
Ana Paula B. de Borborema-Alfaia
Full Text Available There are limited data regarding prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among northern Brazilian pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chlamydial infection among pregnant women in their third trimester and to determine the repercussion of this infection on their offspring. METHODS: In the first phase of this study 100 pregnant women receiving prenatal care in a local public university hospital were examined to assess the prevalence of genital C. trachomatis infection by polymerase chain reaction technique. In the second phase, 88 pregnant women were prospectively evaluated for premature rupture of membranes, puerperal consequences associated with chlamydial infection, and neonates were checked for low-birth weight. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of chlamydial infection was 11%, and 72.7% of the positive participants were predominantly less than 30 years of age (p = 0.1319. A total of 36.4% of the participants had premature rupture of membranes (p = 0.9998. Neither low-birth weight infants nor preterm delivery were observed. A cohort of 16 newborn babies were followedup up to 60 days of life to ascertain outcome: 50% had respiratory symptoms. Neonates born to infected mothers had a higher risk to develop respiratory symptoms in the first 60 days of life. CONCLUSION: The scarcity of data about the effects of chlamydial infection on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes justified this study. Diagnosing and treating chlamydial infection during the third trimester of pregnancy may prevent neonate infection. Therefore, preventive screening should be seen as a priority for early detection of asymptomatic C. trachomatis infection as part of local public health strategies.
Table 6: Antibiotics susceptibility pattern of the isolates from pregnant women in. Gwagwalada. Bacteria. NIF AMP AUG LEV CRO MER GEN COT. K. pneumoniae n=9 100.0 50.0 90.0 100.0 66.8 100.0 50.8 78.8. E. coli n =18. 80.0 40.0 92.0 100.0 95.5 100.0 68.8 47.5. E. cloacae n=9. 50.0 30.0 80.5 96.8 30.0 70.6 97.6 58.7.
Treviño, Ana; Aguilera, Antonio; Caballero, Estrella; Toro, Carlos; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Rodríguez-Calviño, Juan J; Tuset, Concepción; Gómez-Hernando, César; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel; Ramos, José Manuel; Rodríguez-Díaz, Juan C; Benito, Rafael; Trigo, Matilde; García-Campello, Marta; Calderón, Enrique; Garcia, Juan; Rodríguez, Carmen; Soriano, Vincent
HTLV-1=2 antenatal screening is not mandatory in European countries. The rapid increase in immigrants coming from areas endemic for HTLV-1 infection has compelled a review of this policy in Spain. From February 2006 to December 2007, a cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women attended at 10 different Spanish hospitals. An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was used to test serum HTLV-1=2 antibodies; reactive samples were further confirmed by Western blot and=or polymerase chain reaction. A total of 20,518 pregnant women were examined, of whom 18,266 (89%) were native Spaniards. Overall, 946 (4.6%) of the immigrants came from HTLV-1 endemic areas (mainly Central and South America and sub-Saharan Africa). Four samples were EIA seroreactive for HTLV-1=2, two of them in women infected with HTLV-1 coming from endemic areas. The other two women were infected with HTLV-2; one was an immigrant from Bolivia and another was a native Spaniard who admitted prior injection drug use and was HIV-1 positive. The overall HTLV-1=2 seroprevalence was 0.19 per 1000 (95% CI: 0.05-0.49=1000). For HTLV-1, the seroprevalence was 2.11 per 1000 (95% CI: 0.26-7.62=1000) in pregnant women from endemic areas. The seroprevalence of HTLV-1=2 infection is below 0.02% among pregnant women in Spain, and therefore universal screening for HTLV-1=2 infection in antenatal clinics is not warranted. However, HTLV-1=2 screening could be considered in pregnant women coming from endemic areas, in whom the rate of infection is nearly 1000-fold higher than in native Spaniards and are the only group infected with the more pathogenic HTLV-1.
Vírginia da Conceição Ribes Amorim Bezerra Brandão
Full Text Available Women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection present a higher risk of infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer. To determine HPV genotypes and frequencies among HIV-positive women, an analytical cross-sectional study was carried out on 147 women (51 were pregnant and HIV-positive, 45 pregnant and HIV-negative and 51 HIV-positive and not pregnant, who were attended at a maternity hospital in Recife between April 2006-May 2007. They answered a questionnaire and underwent a gynaecological examination, with samples collected for HPV investigation by PCR, hybrid capture II, oncotic colpocytology (Papanicolau and colposcopy. The frequency of HPV DNA was 85.3% (122/143, with a high proportion of HPV types that have been identified as high risk for cervical cancer. Among HIV-positive pregnant women, there was an HPV prevalence of 96% (48/50, of whom 60.4% (29/48 were high-risk. HPV 16, 58, 18, 66 and 31 were the most frequent types. Colpocytological abnormalities were observed in 35.3% (18/51 of HIV-positive non-pregnant women, 21.6% (11/51 of HIV-positive pregnant women and 13.3% (6/45 of HIV-negative pregnant women with a predominance of low-level lesions. A high prevalence of HPV infection was identified, especially with the high-risk types 16, 58, 18 and 66. This study identified high-risk HPV types in all three groups examined (HIV-positive pregnant women, HIV-negative pregnant women and HIV-positive not pregnant, characterising its distribution in this setting.
Jun 3, 2015 ... Objectives: The objectives were to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and assess the major risk factors among ... Key words: Hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B virus, infectivity, Lagos, Nigeria, seroprevalence .... Z is the unit normal deviate corresponding to the desired.
Full Text Available Hospital based studies were conducted to investigate the occurrence of Plasmodium/intestinal helminth co-infections among pregnant Nigerian women, and their effects on birthweights, anaemia and spleen size. From 2,104 near-term pregnant women examined, 816 (38.8% were found to be infected with malaria parasites. Among the 816 parasitaemic subjects, 394 (48.3% were also infected with intestinal helminths, 102 (12.5% having mixed helminth infections. The prevalence of the helminth species found in stool samples of parasitaemic subjects examined was, Ascaris lumbricoides (19.1%, hookworm (14.2%, Trichuris trichiura (7% Schistosoma mansoni (3.4%, Enterobius vermicularis (2%, Hymenolepis sp. (1.6% and Taenia sp. (1%. Mothers with Plasmodium infection but without intestinal helminth infection had neonates of higher mean birthweights than those presenting both Plasmodium and intestinal helminth infections and this effect was more pronounced in primigravids. The mean haemoglobin values of malarial mothers with intestinal helminth infections were lower than those with Plasmodium infection but without intestinal helminth infections but these were not statistically significant. Severe splenomegaly was predominant among parasitaemic gravidae who also harboured S. mansoni infection in two of the hospitals studied.
Nabae, Koji; Satoh, Hiroshi; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Taya, Keiko; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Oishi, Kazunori; Matsumoto, Kunichika; Hasegawa, Tomonori
Seroepidemiological study of parvovirus B19 has not taken place for some 20 years in Japan. To estimate the risk of parvovirus B19 infection in Japan among blood donors and pregnant women in this century, a seroepidemiological survey and statistical modeling of the force of infection were conducted. The time- and age-specific seroprevalence data were suggestive of strong age-dependency in the risk of infection. Employing a piecewise constant model, the highest forces of infection of 0.05 and 0.12 per year were observed among those aged 0-4 and 5-9 years, respectively, while estimates among older individuals were less than 0.01 per year. Analyzing the antigen detection data among blood donors, the age-specific proportion positive was highest among those aged 30-39 years, agreeing with the presence of dip in seroprevalence in this age-group. Among pregnant women, up to 107 fetal deaths and 21 hydrops fetalis were estimated to have occurred annually across Japan. Seroepidemiological profiles of PVB19 infection in Japan was characterized with particular emphasis on the risk of infection in blood donors and the burden of infection among pregnant women. When a vaccine becomes available in the future, a similar seroepidemiological study is expected to play a key role in planning the appropriate immunization policy.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seroepidemiological study of parvovirus B19 has not taken place for some 20 years in Japan. To estimate the risk of parvovirus B19 infection in Japan among blood donors and pregnant women in this century, a seroepidemiological survey and statistical modeling of the force of infection were conducted. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The time- and age-specific seroprevalence data were suggestive of strong age-dependency in the risk of infection. Employing a piecewise constant model, the highest forces of infection of 0.05 and 0.12 per year were observed among those aged 0-4 and 5-9 years, respectively, while estimates among older individuals were less than 0.01 per year. Analyzing the antigen detection data among blood donors, the age-specific proportion positive was highest among those aged 30-39 years, agreeing with the presence of dip in seroprevalence in this age-group. Among pregnant women, up to 107 fetal deaths and 21 hydrops fetalis were estimated to have occurred annually across Japan. CONCLUSIONS: Seroepidemiological profiles of PVB19 infection in Japan was characterized with particular emphasis on the risk of infection in blood donors and the burden of infection among pregnant women. When a vaccine becomes available in the future, a similar seroepidemiological study is expected to play a key role in planning the appropriate immunization policy.
Valente, Bianor; Campos, Paulo A; do Rosário, Virgílio E; Varandas, Luis; Silveira, Henrique
Pregnant women are at increased risk of malaria, but in Angola, epidemiologic data from this group is almost inexistent. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Plasmodium falciparum infections in 567 pregnant Angolan women living in Luanda province. One in five women had P. falciparum at delivery, diagnosed by PCR assay. Age, residence and history of malaria during pregnancy were significantly associated with P. falciparum infection, but gravidity and use of anti-malarial drugs were not. Placental infections were significantly more common in women ≤18 years old and in primigravidae, but we could not correlate placental infections with poor pregnancy outcomes. These findings are relevant to malaria control policies in Luanda, Angola. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
In this review of routinely collected data from five community health centres in the Johannesburg Health District, we assess timing of antenatal care and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in HIV-infected pregnant women before and after the introduction of nurse-initiated management of ART in antenatal clinics. There are ...
Maharaj, Niren Ray; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Nagiah, Savania; Ramkaran, Prithiksha; Tiloke, Charlette; Chuturgoon, Anil Amichund
Preeclampsia and HIV/AIDS are inflammatory conditions that contribute significantly to adverse maternal and foetal outcomes. The immune reconstitution effects of HAART on inflammatory mediators has not been adequately studied in pregnancy and may impact on the inflammatory cytokine network in women with co-morbid preeclampsia. Our study evaluated changes in pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-6 in HIV infected preeclamptic women on HAART. A prospective experimental study was conducted at Prince Mshiyeni Memorial Hospital between July 2013 and September 2014. One hundred and ninety three pregnant women were recruited into 4 groups: uninfected normotensive (50; 26%), infected normotensive (45; 23%), uninfected preeclamptic (53; 28%) and infected preeclamptic women (45; 23%). Serum levels of cytokines TNF-α, IFN- γ, IL-2 and IL-6 were determined using commercially available kits and a Cytometric Bead Array (CBA). Comparative data was recorded and analysed descriptively. In the control groups (normotensive), significantly lower values were found in IL-2 (p = 0.010), TNF-α (p = 0.045), and IL-6 (p = 0.005); and a non-significant decrease was observed in IFN-γ (p = 0.345) in HIV infected women on HAART compared to uninfected controls. In the experimental group (preeclamptic) women, significantly reduced levels were observed in IL-2 and TNF-α (p = 0.001; p = 0.000) and non-significant decreases were observed in IFN-γ and IL-6 (p = 0.023; p = 0.086) in HIV infected women on HAART compared with uninfected preeclamptic women. Non-significant differences were observed between uninfected preeclamptic and normotensive women. In uncomplicated/normotensive pregnancies, HIV/HAART is associated with significant decreases in IL-2, TNF-α and IL-6, and in preeclamptic women significant decreases in IL-2 and TNF-α were observed. These findings suggest that HIV/HAART impacts on pro-inflammatory cytokines in women with co-morbid preeclampsia. This provides a
Niren Ray Maharaj
Full Text Available Preeclampsia and HIV/AIDS are inflammatory conditions that contribute significantly to adverse maternal and foetal outcomes. The immune reconstitution effects of HAART on inflammatory mediators has not been adequately studied in pregnancy and may impact on the inflammatory cytokine network in women with co-morbid preeclampsia. Our study evaluated changes in pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-6 in HIV infected preeclamptic women on HAART.A prospective experimental study was conducted at Prince Mshiyeni Memorial Hospital between July 2013 and September 2014. One hundred and ninety three pregnant women were recruited into 4 groups: uninfected normotensive (50; 26%, infected normotensive (45; 23%, uninfected preeclamptic (53; 28% and infected preeclamptic women (45; 23%. Serum levels of cytokines TNF-α, IFN- γ, IL-2 and IL-6 were determined using commercially available kits and a Cytometric Bead Array (CBA. Comparative data was recorded and analysed descriptively.In the control groups (normotensive, significantly lower values were found in IL-2 (p = 0.010, TNF-α (p = 0.045, and IL-6 (p = 0.005; and a non-significant decrease was observed in IFN-γ (p = 0.345 in HIV infected women on HAART compared to uninfected controls. In the experimental group (preeclamptic women, significantly reduced levels were observed in IL-2 and TNF-α (p = 0.001; p = 0.000 and non-significant decreases were observed in IFN-γ and IL-6 (p = 0.023; p = 0.086 in HIV infected women on HAART compared with uninfected preeclamptic women. Non-significant differences were observed between uninfected preeclamptic and normotensive women.In uncomplicated/normotensive pregnancies, HIV/HAART is associated with significant decreases in IL-2, TNF-α and IL-6, and in preeclamptic women significant decreases in IL-2 and TNF-α were observed. These findings suggest that HIV/HAART impacts on pro-inflammatory cytokines in women with co-morbid preeclampsia. This provides
Allan, G. M.; McNeilly, F.; Ellis, J
and pneumonia and typical histological lesions include lymphocytic depletion and multinucleated giant cell formation in lymph nodes, degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes, and multifocal lymphohistocytic interstitial pneumonia. This communication will review the results of experimental infections...
El-Kamary, Samer S; Hashem, Mohamed; Saleh, Doa'a A; Ehab, Mohamed; Sharaf, Sahar A; El-Mougy, Fatma; Abdelsalam, Lobna; Jhaveri, Ravi; Aboulnasr, Ahmed; El-Ghazaly, Hesham
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) only recommends risk-based HCV screening for pregnant women in the United States. This study sought to determine the reliability of risk-based versus universal HCV screening for pregnant women in Egypt, a country with the world's highest HCV prevalence that also relies on risk-based screening, and to identify additional characteristics that could increase the reliability of risk-based screening. Pregnant women attending the Cairo University antenatal clinic were tested for anti-HCV antibodies and RNA, and demographic characteristics and risk factors for infection were assessed. All 1250 pregnant women approached agreed to participate (100%) with a mean age of 27.4 ± 5.5 years (range:16-45). HCV antibodies and RNA were positive in 52 (4.2%) and 30 (2.4%) women respectively. After adjustment, only age (OR:1.08, 95%CI:1.002-1.16, p women, thereby supporting universal screening of pregnant women whenever possible. Otherwise, risk-based screening should be modified to include history of prior pregnancy and healthcare employment. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A comparative study of haematological changes in Savannah brown goats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma vivax was carried out using thirty (30) goats aged between 20 and 48 months and average weight of 13.00 kg. The parameters determined before and after infection included ...
This study investigated the blood biochemistry responses of cockerels experimentally infected with a velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain, KUDU 113. One hundred Isa white cockerels were used for the study. The cockerels were obtained at day-old and randomly divided into groups A- vaccinated and infected, ...
Dollard Sheila C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV is a common opportunistic infection among HIV-infected individuals, a major source of serious complications among organ-transplant recipients, and a leading cause of hearing loss, vision loss, and mental retardation among congenitally infected children. Women infected for the first time during pregnancy are especially likely to transmit CMV to their fetuses. More children suffer serious disabilities caused by congenital CMV than by several better-known childhood maladies such as Down syndrome or fetal alcohol syndrome Methods Using CMV seroprevalence data from the nationally representative Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we estimated CMV incidence among the general United States population and among pregnant women. We employed catalytic models that used age-specific CMV seroprevalences as cumulative markers of past infections in order to derive estimates of three basic parameters: the force of infection, the basic reproductive rate, and the average age of infection. Our main focus was the force of infection, an instantaneous per capita rate of acquisition of infection that approximates the incidence of infection in the seronegative population. Results Among the United States population ages 12–49 the force of infection was 1.6 infections per 100 susceptible persons per year (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 2.4. The associated basic reproductive rate of 1.7 indicates that, on average, an infected person transmits CMV to nearly two susceptible people. The average age of CMV infection was 28.6 years. Force of infection was significantly higher among non-Hispanic Blacks (5.7 and Mexican Americans (5.1 than among non-Hispanic Whites (1.4. Force of infection was significantly higher in the low household income group (3.5 than in the middle (2.1 and upper (1.5 household income groups. Based on these CMV incidence estimates, approximately 27,000 new CMV infections occur among seronegative
A. W. Wekesa
Full Text Available Intestinal helminth infections during pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes including low birth weight and prenatal mortality. The infections are a major public health problem in developing countries. A hospital based survey was undertaken for six months to determine the infection prevalence, intensity, and risk factors. The study involved expectant women attending antenatal clinic. Stool samples were screened microscopically for helminth ova using Kato Katz technique. Information on risk factors was collected using semistructured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. Epidemiological data was analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis. The overall prevalence of infection was 21 (13.8%. Ascariasis was the most prevalent 10 (6.5%, hookworm infection was 6 (3.9%, and trichuriasis was 2 (1.3%. Pregnant women aged below 29 years (OR = 3.63, CI = 0.87–11.75 and those with primary level of education (OR = 3.21, CI = 0.88–11.75 were at a higher risk of infection compared to those aged ≥ 29 years with secondary level of education. Hand washing was significantly associated with reduced likelihood of infection (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.06–0.57. It was concluded that intestinal helminth infections were prevalent among pregnant women. We recommended that all expectant women visiting antenatal clinics be screened for intestinal helminth infections and positive cases be advised to seek treatment.
Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate whether HIV infected pregnant women with concomitant sexually transmitted infection (STIs are at increased risk of adverse perinatal and neonatal outcomes. Methods. We conducted a cohort study of HIV positive women who delivered at an inner-city hospital in Atlanta, Georgia, from 2003 to 2013. Demographics, presence of concomitant STIs, prenatal care information, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were collected. The outcomes examined were the association of the presence of concomitant STIs on the risk of preterm birth (PTB, postpartum hemorrhage, chorioamnionitis, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, small for gestational age, low Apgar scores, and neonatal intensive care admission. Multiple logistic regression was performed to adjust for potential confounders. Results. HIV positive pregnant women with concomitant STIs had an increased risk of spontaneous PTB (odds ratio (OR 2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12–3.97. After adjusting for a history of preterm birth, maternal age, and low CD4+ count at prenatal care entry the association between concomitant STIs and spontaneous PTB persisted (adjusted OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.01–3.78. Conclusions. HIV infected pregnant women with concomitant STIs relative to HIV positive pregnant women without a concomitant STI are at increased risk of spontaneous PTB.
Fernanda Torres de Carvalho
Full Text Available The present study investigated the feelings of HIV seropositive pregnant women, concerning their own infection, motherhood and the baby. Six pregnant women, aged between 26 and 35 years old, from low socioeconomic status, took part in the study. They were interviewed and their answers were examined through qualitative content analysis, divided in three categories: Experience concerning the HIV/Aids infection, Feelings about pregnancy and HIV/Aids and Family relations and HIV/Aids. The results revealed sexual risk behaviors, difficulty in accepting diagnosis and the need to justify the origin of their infection. Fears, guilty, prejudices, frustration with their own mother, loss of the maternal figure, lack of family support and instability in the relationship with the baby’s father were also revealed. The importance of psychological interventions aiming to treatment´s adherence and prevention of the mother-child transmission of HIV/Aids are discussed. Keywords: HIV/Aids; pregnancy; motherhood; feelings.
Background: Untreated genital tract infections in pregnancy may be associated with adverse effects on foetal and maternal health leading to poor pregnancy outcome. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and microbial isolates associated with asymptomatic genital infectionsin pregnancy. Methodology: ...
Most women who were interviewed (91.8%) were aware of possible health risks involved in geophagy such as constipation, heartburn, anemia, coughing, infections with worms, and abdominal discomfort. This study sought to recover and identify helminth ova from a total 3.15Kg. Submitted or collected soil types ingested by ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV, an enterically transmitted pathogen, is highly endemic in several African countries. Pregnant women are at particularly high risk for acute or severe hepatitis E. In Gabon, a central African country, the prevalence of antibodies to HEV among pregnant women is 14.1%. Recent studies have demonstrated unusual patterns of hepatitis E (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis among immunodeficient patients. Findings We investigated the prevalence of antibodies to HEV among pregnant women infected with HIV-1 or HTLV-1 in Gabon. Of 243 samples collected, 183 were positive for HIV-1 and 60 for HTLV-1; 16 women (6.6% had IgG antibodies to HEV. The seroprevalence was higher among HIV-1-infected women (7.1% than HTLV-1-infected women (5.0%. Moreover, the HIV-1 viral load was significantly increased (p ≤ 0.02 among women with past-HEV exposure (1.3E+05 vs 5.7E+04 copies per ml, whereas no difference was found in HTLV-1 proviral load (9.0E+01 vs 1.1E+03 copies per ml. Conclusions These data provide evidence that HIV-1-infected women are at risk for acute or severe infection if they are exposed to HEV during pregnancy, with an increased viral load.
Laís Spíndola Garcêz; Geania de Sousa Paz Lima; Adriana de Azevedo Paiva; Suzana Maria Rebêlo Sampaio da Paz; Erica Ivana Lázaro Gomes; Valéria Sutti Nunes; Eliana Cotta de Faria; Sílvia de Barros-Mazon
Globally, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects about 19.1 million pregnant women. Its occurrence is classically associated with inadequate food intake and may also be associated with socioeconomic factors and the presence of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to serum retinol levels among pregnant teenagers. The sample consisted of 89 pregnant adolescents, from whom socioeconomic, obstetric, anthropometric, and food consumption data were collected. Serum conce...
Top, Karina A; Buet, Amanda; Whittier, Susan; Ratner, Adam J; Saiman, Lisa
Staphylococcus aureus infections are increasing among pregnant and postpartum women and neonates, but risk factors for S. aureus colonization in pregnancy and the association between maternal colonization and infant infections are not well defined. We sought to identify risk factors for maternal S. aureus rectovaginal colonization and assess colonization as a risk factor for infections among mothers and infants. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnant women and their infants. Demographic and clinical data, including S. aureus infections that occurred in mothers from 3 months before to 3 months after delivery and in infants during the first 3 months of life, were extracted from electronic medical records. Predictors for maternal S. aureus rectovaginal colonization were assessed through multivariable logistic regression analysis. The cohort included 2702 women and 2789 infants. The prevalence of maternal rectovaginal colonization with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was 13% and 0.7%. Independent predictors of colonization included multigravidity, human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity, and group B Streptococcus colonization. S. aureus colonization was associated with an increased risk of infection in mothers (odds ratio [OR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-8.8) but not in their infants (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, .6-5.6). The frequency of S. aureus infections was 0.8% in mothers and 0.7% in infants. S. aureus rectovaginal colonization was associated with an increased risk of infections in women but not in their infants. The frequency of MRSA infections was low. These data suggest that routine MRSA screening of pregnant women may not be indicated. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
van Eijk, Anna M.; Lindblade, Kim A.; Odhiambo, Frank; Peterson, Elizabeth; Rosen, Daniel H.; Karanja, Diana; Ayisi, John G.; Shi, Ya Ping; Adazu, Kubaje; Slutsker, Laurence
Background Geohelminth infections are common in rural western Kenya, but risk factors and effects among pregnant women are not clear. Methodology During a community-based cross-sectional survey, pregnant women were interviewed and asked to provide a blood sample and a single fecal sample. Hemoglobin was measured and a blood slide examined for malaria. Geohelminth infections were identified using the concentration and Kato-Katz method. Results Among 390 participants who provided a stool sample, 76.2% were infected with at least one geohelminth: 52.3% with Ascaris lumbricoides, 39.5% with hookworm, and 29.0% with Trichuris trichiura. Infection with at least one geohelminth species was associated with the use of an unprotected water source (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–3.0) and the lack of treatment of drinking water (AOR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.1). Geohelminth infections were not associated with clinical symptoms, or low body mass index. A hookworm infection was associated with a lower mid upper arm circumference (adjusted mean decrease 0.7 cm, 95% CI 0.3–1.2 cm). Hookworm infections with an egg count ≥1000/gram feces (11 women) were associated with lower hemoglobin (adjusted mean decrease 1.5 g/dl, 95% CI 0.3–2.7). Among gravidae 2 and 3, women with A. lumbricoides were less likely to have malaria parasitemia (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2–0.8) compared to women without A. lumbricoides, unlike other gravidity groups. Conclusion Geohelminth infections are common in this pregnant population; however, there were few observed detrimental effects. Routine provision of antihelminth treatment during an antenatal clinic visit is recommended, but in this area an evaluation of the impact on pregnancy, malaria, and birth outcome is useful. PMID:19172184
Full Text Available Parvoviral infections are a big medical and economic problem, in particular in large dog-breeding facilities. Having in mind the manner in which this infection is spread (fecal-oral pathways, and the strong resistence of parvoviruses to the outer environment, general and immunoprophylaxis have a significant role in the control of this dangerous disease. This work examines the humoral immunological response of pregnant bitches, vaccinated with an inactivated vaccine against parvoviral infection in dogs. An experiment was performed on 10 pregnant bitches which were vaccinated on the 42nd day of gravidity with an inactivated vaccine, and an IHA test proved the lowest titer of antibodies was 1:1280, and the highest 1:20480. The titer of pregnant bitches before vaccination ranged from 1:80 to 1:320. These investigations indicate that puppies of vaccinated bitches receive the corresponding level of immunoglobulin through colostrum, and are protected from parvoviral infection in the first 6-7 weeks of life.
Full Text Available Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected populations. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescents, young adults and pregnant women, groups with heightened or increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in this population living with a disease characterized by premature onset multimorbidity and chronic inflammation is of concern. Additionally, there is an increased acuity for tobacco control among HIV-infected pregnant women to reduce pregnancy morbidity and improve fetal outcome. This review will provide an important summary of current knowledge of tobacco use among HIV-infected adolescents, young adults and pregnant women. The effects of tobacco use in these specific populations will be presented and the current state of tobacco control within these populations, assessed.
Dou, L X; Wang, Q; Wang, X Y; Qiao, Y P; Su, M; Jin, X; Wang, A L
Objective: To analyze serologic surveillance indicators during pregnancy among syphilis-infected women who delivered in 2013 in East China. Methods: Data were from national 'Information System of Prevention of Mother-to-child Transmission of HIV, syphilis and HBV Management' and in total 5 206 syphilis-infected pregnant women who delivered in 2013 and in East China were involved in the analysis. Information on demographic characters, laboratory tests, and treatment regimens were collected. The maternal non-treponemal testing surveillance and titer distribution were described and compare the proportions between pregnant women receiving standard testing and non-standard testing, taking baseline testing and testing before delivery or at the third trimester. Multivariate logistic regression model was analyzed using maternal titer control as dependent variable, using prior history of syphilis infection, syphilis stages, titer, gestational weeks of treatment initiation and treatment regimens as independent variables in 3 940 pregnant women with both baseline testing results and testing results before delivery or at the third trimester. Results: The ages of the 5 206 syphilis infected pregnant women were (28.1±5.8) years old. The numbers of women received penicillin treatment, other treatment regimens and no treatment were 2 967 (57.0%), 281 (5.4%), and 1 958 (37.6%), respectively. The number of women with maternal seroconversion, 4-fold or greater titer decline, or titer increase were 349 (6.7%), 251 (4.8%) and 28 (0.5%). Multivariate analysis results showed that compared with pregnant women with prior history of syphilis, the OR (95 %CI ) for maternal titer control was 1.49 (1.18-1.88) among those with syphilis-infection history. Compared with pregnant women initiated treatment at 28 gestational weeks or before, the OR (95 % CI ) for maternal titer control was 4.09 (3.19-5.24) among those who initiated treatment after 28 gestational weeks. Compared with pregnant women
Wolmarans, C T; de Kock, K N; van der Walt, M P
Certain aspects of the immune response of a male experimentally infected with 3-day old cercariae of a pure field strain of Schistosoma matheei were investigated. Among others, aspects such as the reaction of eosinophils, neutrophils and blood platelets after infection, were included in the study. The involvement of IgG and the cross reaction between these antibodies and S. haematobium and S. mansoni were also investigated. The phenomenon that the cercariae were, 3 days after shedding, still capable of penetrating the skin causing an inflammatory response was studied. The results lend some support to the surmise that a pure S. mattheei infection in humans is incapable of any egg production.
MICROBIOL. 14(3): 120-126 http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajcem.v14i3.1. PREVALENCE AND IMMUNE STATUS OF HIV/HBV CO-INFECTED. PREGNANT WOMEN. Lar, 1P. M.,, Pam, 1V. K., Christopher, 1P. B., 2 Gwamzhi, L. & Mawak, 1 J. D.. 1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria.
Fatima, Tanzeem; Siddiqui, Haris; Ghildiyal, Sneha; Baluni, Manjari; Singh, Dharam Veer; Zia, Amreen; Dhole, T N
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy is far more complex than other infections, due to ability of the virus to be frequently reactivated during the child bearing age and may vertically transmitted to the developing fetus in spite of maternal immunity. Therefore, in the current study we determined the prevalence of CMV infection in pregnant women and tried to identify the role of maternal CMV infection in adverse pregnancy outcomes in Northern India. In this case-control study, 517 pregnant women, out of them 200 in case group and 317 in the control group. The overall 31.72% (164/517) cases were found with active CMV infection. CMV positivity (p=0.026) was significantly associated with bad obstetric history (75/200, 37.50%) compared to normal pregnancy (89/317, 28.07%). CMV infection was predominantly observed in age group 21-25 years. CMV positivity have been found to be significantly higher in women from rural area as compare to those from urban area (p=0.028). However, no significant difference has been observed in case of occupation, income, and haemoglobin level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Wang, Qian; Fang, Li-wen; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Zhi-hui; Wang, Ai-ling; Wang, Xiao-yan; Qiao, Ya-ping; Wang, Lin-hong
To analyze partner attitude change and influencing factors on HIV infected pregnant women HIV disclosure. A multi-stage cross sectional method was used to collect information by questionnaires on 1164 HIV infected pregnant women in 6 counties including Ruili and Longchuan in Yunnan, Hezhou, Lingshan and Pingxiang in Guangxi and Yining in Xinjiang. Information on demographic characteristics and sexual behavior of the subjects and partner attitude toward HIV infected pregnant women were obtained. The influencing factors of partner's discrimination against HIV infected pregnant women were analyzed. A total of 991(85.1%) HIV infected pregnant women have disclosed HIV status to partners among 1164 respondents and 39 (3.9%) reported they were discriminated against partners. Multivariate analysis showed that the 6.5% (15/231) of HIV infected pregnant women in urban had discrimination from their husbands while the ratio among rural pregnant women was lower(3.2% (24/760), OR = 0.40, 95%CI:0.12-0.77) . Compared with the ratio of discrimination among the women of first marriage(2.9%, 21/731), the discrimination ratio among women with remarriage and other status was higher (6.5% (15/232),OR = 2.45, 95%CI:1.61-5.25 and 10.7% (3/28),OR = 3.77, 95%CI:1.46-9.88) respectively. The discrimination ratio among pregnant women with multiple sexual partners was 5.9% (23/389), higher than women with single partner (2.6%, 15/580) (OR = 2.21, 95%CI:1.80-6.23). The discrimination toward HIV infected pregnant women from husbands was related to demographic characteristics and sexual behaviors.
Abebe, Meseret; Ali, Ibrahim; Ayele, Samuel; Overbo, Johakim; Aseffa, Abraham; Mihret, Adane
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is highly endemic in several African countries with high mortality rate among pregnant women. The prevalence of antibodies to HEV in Ethiopian pregnant women is not known. The study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG and anti-HEV IgM among pregnant women. A total of 386 serum samples were collected from pregnant women between April 2014 to January 2015 in Gandhi Memorial Hospital and four selected Health centers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Data were collected for socio demographic characteristics using a structured questionnaire. Serum samples were examined for anti-HEV IgG and anti- HEV IgM using ELISA. The association of anti-HEV status with risk factors was assessed. Factors demonstrating significant association in bivariate analysis were included in multivariate logistic regression models. Analyses were performed using SPSS version 21. Anti- HEV IgG antibody was detected in 122 (31.6%) women and two women (0.5%) were positive for anti-HEV IgM from the total 386 women. Age and educational status had statistically significant association with HEV infection. There was no significant association between anti-HEV antibody seroprevalence rate with trimester, parity, HIV status and other risk factors. In this study we found a high seroprevalence rate of anti-HEV IgG among pregnant women in Addis Ababa Ethiopia. Preventive measures like improvement of education and creating awareness may reduce the risk in pregnant women. Moreover nationwide surveillance of HEV especially in rural setting should be conducted to establish a national estimate and validate our findings.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common infection in pregnant women. It is responsible for range of complications causing perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. AIM To assess the associated risk factors, aetiology and their antibiogram of UTI among pregnant women. METHODOLOGY This is a cross-sectional study carried out in Department of Microbiology & Department of Obstetrics from March 2015 to February 2016. The patient details and risk factors were recorded. Midstream & catheter urine specimens from pregnant women with symptoms of UTI were collected and sent for routine microscopy, culture and sensitivity. RESULTS In 550 pregnant women, 122(22.18% had significant bacteriuria and 72(17.72% had low colony count UTI. The most affected number age group was 25-35 years (58.85% followed by 15-25 years. Of the associated risk factors, multiparity 45.31%, low socioeconomic status 42.18%, anaemia 39.06% etc. were important. Escherichia coli was most frequently isolated with a percentage of 29.14%, followed by Klebsiella species (17.49%, S. aureus (14.34% etc. Other isolated micro-organisms included Enterococci, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter species. The antibiotics with more than 50% sensitivity against Gram-negative isolates were Imipenem (74.7%, Levofloxacin (73.17%, Ciprofloxacin (69.10%, Amikacin (57.72%, Amoxiclav (55.28%, and Cefoperazone/Sulbactam (50.40%. The antibiotics for Gram-positive isolates were Linezolid (88.46%, Cefoxitin (78.84%, Teicoplanin (69.23% and Vancomycin (65.22%. CONCLUSION We found associated risk factors such as multiparity, low socioeconomic status, etc. E. coli was the most common bacteria isolated in our setting. Therefore, pregnant women should be assessed for associated risk factors and evaluated for the pathogenic organism during their regular follow-up. The drug sensitivity should be taken into consideration with their side effects related to pregnancy.
Costa, Zelma B; Machado, Gustavo C; Avelino, Mariza M; Gomes Filho, Clidenor; Macedo Filho, Jose V; Minuzzi, Ana L; Turchi, Marilia D; Stefani, Mariane M A; de Souza, Wayner Vieira; Martelli, Celina Mt
.... Our objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of and potential risk factors for HCV and HIV infection among pregnant women who attended prenatal care under the coverage of public health in Central Brazil...
Neill John D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV strains circulating in livestock herds show significant sequence variation. Conventional wisdom states that most sequence variation arises during acute infections in response to immune or other environmental pressures. A recent study showed that more nucleotide changes were introduced into the BVDV genomic RNA during the establishment of a single fetal persistent infection than following a series of acute infections of naïve cattle. However, it was not known if nucleotide changes were introduce when the virus crossed the placenta and infected the fetus or during the acute infection of the dam. Methods The sequence of the open reading frame (ORF from viruses isolated from four acutely infected pregnant heifers following exposure to persistently infected (PI calves was compared to the sequences of the virus from the progenitor PI calf and the virus from the resulting progeny PI calf to determine when genetic change was introduced. This was compared to genetic change found in viruses isolated from a pregnant PI cow and its PI calf, and in three viruses isolated from acutely infected, non-pregnant cattle exposed to PI calves. Results Most genetic changes previously identified between the progenitor and progeny PI viruses were in place in the acute phase viruses isolated from the dams six days post-exposure to the progenitor PI calf. Additionally, each progeny PI virus had two to three unique nucleotide substitutions that were introduced in crossing the placenta and infection of the fetus. The nucleotide sequence of two acute phase viruses isolated from steers exposed to PI calves revealed that six and seven nucleotide changes were introduced during the acute infection. The sequence of the BVDV-2 virus isolated from an acute infection of a PI calf (BVDV-1a co-housed with a BVDV-2 PI calf had ten nucleotides that were different from the progenitor PI virus. Finally, twenty nucleotide changes were
mirabilis Burn Surface Infection Albert T. McManus, PhD; Charles G. McLeod, Jr, DVM; Arthur D. Mason, Jr, MD * We established a human burn Isolate of...William J1. Northam. Peter A. lDorsaneo, and Paulette langlinais MS. model may be useful in evaluation of experimental antibi - prov ided technical support
Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B
The course of experimentally induced Salmonella typhimurium infection was studied in three groups of inbred LEW rats: homozygous +/+, athymic rnu/rnu and isogeneic thymus-grafted rnu/rnu rats. In the first experiment the animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) bacteria and all animals...
Apr 11, 2017 ... Experimental Ascaris suum infection in Yankasa lambs: Parasitological and pathological observations. I Isah. 1. *, JO Ajanusi. 1. , NP Chiezey. 2. , LB Tekdek. 3. & B Mohammed. 4. 1. Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, ...
Niama, Roch Fabien; Loukabou Bongolo, Nadia Claricelle; Bayonne Kombo, Edith Sophie; Yengo, Ruth; Mayengue, Pembe Issamou; Mandingha Kosso, Etoka-Beka; Louzolo, Igor; Macosso, Lucette; Dzeret, Ghislain; Dzabatou Babeaux, Angélie Serge Patrick; Puruehnce, Marie-Francke; Parra, Henri Joseph
HIV and syphilis during pregnancy remain a public health concern especially in developing countries. Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics sites for the first time between September and December 2011 and who accepted to participate in the study were enrolled. The objective was to estimate the syphilis and HIV infection rate in this population. A study was conducted in 44 selected ANCs from 12 departments (5 urban and 7 rural). Pregnant women who accepted to participate in the study, attending selected sentinel ANCs sites for the first time between September and December 2011 were enrolled. To detect HIV antibodies, two consecutive ELISA assays were used (Genscreen Ultra HIV Ag/Ac, (BioRad, France) and Enzygnostic Intergral II (Siemens, GMBH, Marbug-Germany). In case of discordant results, the Western blot test II, HIV1 and 2 (Bio-Rad, Marne la Coquette, France) was used as the reference method. The RPR (Bio-Scan, Karnataka, India) test was performed to detect syphilis infection. The RPR positive results were confirmed using the TPHA test (Biotech, Cambridge, UK). Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 software. A total of 2979 pregnant women attending ANCs were enrolled. The global HIV infection rate was estimated to be 3.6% (CI: 95%; 3.0-4.4). As expected, HIV prevalence was significantly higher in women aged above 25 years (4.4% (3.4-5.6), p = 0.026) and those attending urban ANCs (5.04%, p syphilis occurrence was significantly higher among the single women compared to the married ones (4.4% VS 2.7%; p syphilis coinfection occurred in 22 cases (0.73%). The prevalence's of syphilis and HIV were relatively low. Marital status and sentinel site location were a risk factor associated with HIV and syphilis infections respectively. Therefore, substantial effort is needed to reinforce prevention strategies in this population to prevent mother-to-child and further horizontal transmissions of these infections.
Michael A Pazos
Full Text Available Pregnancy is a leading risk factor for severe complications during an influenza virus infection. Women infected during their second and third trimesters are at increased risk for severe cardiopulmonary complications, premature delivery, and death. Here, we establish a murine model of aerosolized influenza infection during pregnancy. We find significantly altered innate antiviral responses in pregnant mice, including decreased levels of IFN-β, IL-1α, and IFN-γ at early time points of infection. We also find reduced cytotoxic T cell activity and delayed viral clearance. We further demonstrate that pregnancy levels of the estrogen 17-β-estradiol are able to induce key anti-inflammatory phenotypes in immune responses to the virus independently of other hormones or pregnancy-related stressors. We conclude that elevated estrogen levels result in an attenuated anti-viral immune response, and that pregnancy-associated morbidities occur in the context of this anti-inflammatory phenotype.
Full Text Available Vaginal Escherichia coli colonization is related to obstetric infections and the consequent development of infections in newborns. Ampicillin resistance among E. coli strains is increasing, which is the main choice for treating empirically many obstetric and neonatal infections. Vaginal E. coli strains are very similar to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli with regards to the virulence factors and the belonging to phylogroup B2. We studied the antimicrobial resistance and the genetic virulence profile of 82 E. coli isolates from 638 vaginal samples and 63 isolated from endometrial aspirate, placental and amniotic fluid samples from pregnant women with obstetric infections. The prevalence of E. coli in the vaginal samples was 13%, which was significant among women with associated risk factors during pregnancy, especially premature preterm rupture of membranes (p<0.0001. Sixty-five percent of the strains were ampicillin-resistant. The E. coli isolates causing obstetric infections showed higher resistance levels than vaginal isolates, particularly for gentamicin (p = 0.001. The most prevalent virulence factor genes were those related to the iron uptake systems revealing clear targets for interventions. More than 50% of the isolates belonged to the virulent B2 group possessing the highest number of virulence factor genes. The ampicillin-resistant isolates had high number of virulence factors primarily related to pathogenicity islands, and the remarkable gentamicin resistance in E. coli isolates from women presenting obstetric infections, the choice of the most appropriate empiric treatment and clinical management of pregnant women and neonates should be carefully made. Taking into account host-susceptibility, the heterogeneity of E. coli due to evolution over time and the geographical area, characterization of E. coli isolates colonizing the vagina and causing obstetric infections in different regions may help to develop interventions and avoid the
Tchelougou, D; Karou, D S; Kpotsra, A; Balaka, A; Assih, M; Bamoke, M; Katawa, G; Anani, K; Simpore, J; de Souza, C
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the major microorganisms causing vaginal infections in pregnant women consulting at the Regional Hospital of Sokodé and to assess their sensitivity to antibiotics. This prospective study took place from June 2010 through August 2011 and included 302 pregnant women from whom a sample was taken by a vaginal swab. Samples were processed for parasitic, bacterial, and fungal agents, by microscopic examination and culture. We isolated 273 germs, alone or in association in 221 women. These germs were distributed as follows: Gardnerella vaginalis (55.31%), Candida spp (30.77%), Staphylococcus aureus (5.49%), Enterobacteriaceae (4.40%), Trichomonas vaginalis (3.66%) and Mobiluncus spp (0.37%). No Streptococcus strain was isolated during the study. Over 40% of women had bacterial vaginosis and 23.08% of them were coinfected. The occurrence of coinfection was statistically influenced by the stage of pregnancy (P = 0.05). The susceptibility tests revealed that S. aureus developed a strong resistance to aminopenicillins (66.67%) and cephalosporins (>44.44%), while Enterobacteriaceae was resistant to cephalosporins and quinolones. (16.67%). This study showed that pregnant women in Sokode are still exposed to vaginal infection, caused mostly by G. vaginalis and Candida species. These results underline the need for at least one vaginal swab culture for each woman during pregnancy.
Navitsky, R C; Dreyfuss, M L; Shrestha, J; Khatry, S K; Stoltzfus, R J; Albonico, M
Fecal specimens from 292 pregnant women (ages 15-40 yr) and 129 infants (ages 10-20 wk) were examined for helminth eggs by the Kato-Katz method and cultured for helminth larvae identification using a modified Harada Mori method. These specimens were collected from June 1995 through July 1996 in Sarlahi District in the southern rural plains of Nepal. Among pregnant women, the prevalence of helminth infection by the Kato-Katz method was 78.8%, 56.2%, and 7.9% for hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura, respectively. Using the modified Harada-Mori method, 66.1% and 2.0% of women's fecal cultures were positive for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis, respectively. All of the cultured hookworm larvae were identified as Ancylostoma duodenale. Among infants, 1 specimen was positive for hookworm and 1 for A. lumbricoides using the Kato-Katz method. The modified Harada Mori method detected no larvae in specimens from infants. There was 81.8% agreement between the 2 methods for the detection of hookworm infection. Ancylostoma duodenale is endemic in this study population and highly prevalent in pregnant women.
Navjyot K Vidwan
Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection in pregnant women and the rate of transmission of CT to infants.Pregnant women (≥28 weeks gestation in Vellore, South India were approached for enrollment from April 2009 to January 2010. After informed consent was obtained, women completed a socio-demographic, prenatal, and sexual history questionnaire. Endocervical samples collected at delivery were examined for CT by a rapid enzyme test and nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT. Neonatal nasopharyngeal and conjunctival swabs were collected for NAAT testing.Overall, 1198 women were enrolled and 799 (67% endocervical samples were collected at birth. Analyses were completed on 784 participants with available rapid and NAAT results. The mean age of women was 25.8 years (range 18-39 yrs and 22% (95% CI: 19.7-24.4% were primigravida. All women enrolled were married; one reported >one sexual partner; and six reported prior STI. We found 71 positive rapid CT tests and 1/784 (0.1%; 95% CI: 0-0.38% true positive CT infection using NAAT.To our knowledge, this is the largest study on CT prevalence amongst healthy pregnant mothers in southern India, and it documents a very low prevalence with NAAT. Many false positive results were noted using the rapid test. These data suggest that universal CT screening is not indicated in this population.
Cheng, Jin-quan; Zhou, Hua; Zhong, Wen-ming; Hong, Fu-chang; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Ying-ji; Pan, Peng; Cai, Yu-mao
Through questionnaire and screening, epidemiology of syphilis in pregnant women and related risk factors were studied, to develop effective policy and reducing the negative impact of the disease. All pregnant women who appeared at the hospitals the first time, were included, in Shenzhen city. Tolulized Red Unheated Serum Test (TRUST) method was used for primary screening and positive results were confirmed by the Treponema Pallidum Particle Agglutination (TPPA) test at the Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SZCDC). Positive patients were informed and treated and the pregnancies were managed accordingly at the SZCDC. From 2003-2005, 418,871 (94.7%) pregnant were screened. Epidemiological and treatment data were collected from 2019 positive cases of infectious syphilis (0.48%). Among them, 94.2% were between 20 and 35 years old, with 93.6% of them had only junior high school education and 63.4% of them worked as commercial services or jobless which was significantly higher than other occupations (OR = 8.628). 89.5% of them were from other cities, significantly higher than from local residents (OR = 8.733). Gestational weeks at original diagnosis was longer and the infection rate higher. The infection rate of syphilis in Shenzhen was still at a high level which was related to occupation, education level, place of residency, gestational weeks at first diagnosis etc. Further screening measures and early intervention were important.
Ammerdorffer, Anne; Roest, Hendrik-I J.; Dinkla, Annemieke; Post, Jacob; Schoffelen, Teske; van Deuren, Marcel; Sprong, Tom; Rebel, Johanna M.
In humans, infection with Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, leads to acute or chronic infection, both associated with specific clinical symptoms. In contrast, no symptoms are observed in goats during C. burnetii infection, although infection of the placenta eventually leads to premature delivery, stillbirth and abortion. It is unknown whether these differences in clinical outcome are due to the early immune responses of the goats. Therefore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from pregnant goats. In total, 17 goats were included in the study. Six goats remained naive, while eleven goats were infected with C. burnetii. Toll-like receptor (TLR) and cytokine mRNA expression were measured after in vitro stimulation with heat-killed C. burnetii at different time points (prior infection, day 7, 35 and 56 after infection). In naive goats an increased expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-10 and interferon (IFN)-γ mRNA upon C. burnetii stimulation was detected. In addition, TLR2 expression was strongly up-regulated. In goats infected with C. burnetii, PBMCs re-stimulated in vitro with C. burnetii, expressed significantly more TNF-α mRNA and IFN-γ mRNA compared to naive goats. In contrast, IL-10 mRNA production capacity was down-regulated during C. burnetii infection. Interestingly, at day 7 after inoculation a decreased IFN-γ protein level was observed in stimulated leukocytes in whole blood from infected goats, whereas at other time-points increased production of IFN-γ protein was seen. Our study shows that goats initiate a robust pro-inflammatory immune response against C. burnetii in vitro. Furthermore, PBMCs from C. burnetii infected goats show augmented pro-inflammatory cytokine responses compared to PBMCs from non-infected goats. However, despite this pro-inflammatory response, goats are not capable of clearing the C. burnetii infection. PMID:25279829
Full Text Available In humans, infection with Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, leads to acute or chronic infection, both associated with specific clinical symptoms. In contrast, no symptoms are observed in goats during C. burnetii infection, although infection of the placenta eventually leads to premature delivery, stillbirth and abortion. It is unknown whether these differences in clinical outcome are due to the early immune responses of the goats. Therefore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated from pregnant goats. In total, 17 goats were included in the study. Six goats remained naive, while eleven goats were infected with C. burnetii. Toll-like receptor (TLR and cytokine mRNA expression were measured after in vitro stimulation with heat-killed C. burnetii at different time points (prior infection, day 7, 35 and 56 after infection. In naive goats an increased expression of interleukin (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, IL-10 and interferon (IFN-γ mRNA upon C. burnetii stimulation was detected. In addition, TLR2 expression was strongly up-regulated. In goats infected with C. burnetii, PBMCs re-stimulated in vitro with C. burnetii, expressed significantly more TNF-α mRNA and IFN-γ mRNA compared to naive goats. In contrast, IL-10 mRNA production capacity was down-regulated during C. burnetii infection. Interestingly, at day 7 after inoculation a decreased IFN-γ protein level was observed in stimulated leukocytes in whole blood from infected goats, whereas at other time-points increased production of IFN-γ protein was seen. Our study shows that goats initiate a robust pro-inflammatory immune response against C. burnetii in vitro. Furthermore, PBMCs from C. burnetii infected goats show augmented pro-inflammatory cytokine responses compared to PBMCs from non-infected goats. However, despite this pro-inflammatory response, goats are not capable of clearing the C. burnetii infection.
Kant, Shashi; Lohiya, Ayush; Kapil, Arti; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar
Urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy is frequently associated with complications. Currently, in India, there is no regular screening for UTI, and facility for diagnosis of UTI is not available at peripheral government health centers. To estimate the proportion of pregnant women with UTI among antenatal clinic attendees in rural Haryana. Eligible participants were pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of secondary care center of rural Haryana from March to May 2015. Consecutive sampling was done to select pregnant women. Interview schedule was administered to the selected women, and midstream urine sample was collected. Urine sample was plated on MacConkey agar, and colony count was done using standard methods. A total of 1253 pregnant women were included in the study. The proportion of women with symptoms of UTI on the basis of history was 33.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] - 30.7, 35.9), and UTI by colony count was 3.3% (95% CI - 2.4, 4.5). The presence of UTI was found to be significantly associated with the presence of any symptom of UTI on multivariate analysis (odds ratio [95% CI] - 7.35 [1.95, 27.77]). The burden of UTI among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of a sub-district hospital was considerable, more so among the women that presented with symptoms suggestive of UTI. The study suggested that considering the burden of UTI and its complications, diagnosis of UTI at a resource-constrained setting like a secondary care hospital can be done after screening women for symptoms suggestive of UTI.
Carmen A. COSTACHE
Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is an antropozoonosis very frequent in population as a benign usually asymptomatic disease. The problems are raised by the congenital form of this disease that may occur if the women acquire the parasite during pregnancy leading to congenital toxoplasmosis. In order to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis many countries have screening programs design to diagnose the acute infection during fertile age of female population. Our prospective serologic study over a selected group of 510 pregnant women in Cluj county area showed a 39 % prevalence of toxoplasmic infection among women of fertile age, with a predominance of acute toxoplasmic infection during first trimester of pregnancy (66.66%, representing the predominant cause of abortion in our study group. Annual infection risk for female population aged 20-33 years old is K = 0.67% in our geographic area. A 4 % of cases had IgM persistence for more than 1-year period, and another 7% demonstrate positive IgM along with positive IgG raising the possibility of persistency to 11% of cases. We find out that half of women address laboratory by their own initiative and we calculate that medium age of pregnant women with toxoplasmic immunity (positive IgG was 28 years old.
Brittain, Kirsty; Mellins, Claude A; Phillips, Tamsin; Zerbe, Allison; Abrams, Elaine J; Myer, Landon; Remien, Robert H
Depression, HIV-related stigma and low levels of social support may be particularly prevalent and adversely affect health and treatment outcomes among HIV-infected pregnant women. We examined factors associated with social support and stigma among pregnant women initiating antiretroviral therapy in the Western Cape, South Africa; and explored associations with depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; EPDS) in linear regression models. Among 623 participants, 11 and 19 % had elevated EPDS scores using thresholds described in the original development of the scale (scores ≥13 and ≥10, respectively). Social support and stigma were highly interrelated and were associated with depressive symptoms. Stigma was observed to moderate the association between social support and depression scores; when levels of stigma were high, no association between social support and depression scores was observed. Elevated depression scores are prevalent in this setting, and interventions to reduce stigma and to address risk factors for depressive symptoms are needed.
Full Text Available Aim: Prevalence of HIV among pregnant women in India is of great concern, especially to prevent HIV in children. Mother–to-child transmission of HIV is the most common cause of transmission of HIV in children. Prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women in India has ranged from 0.7% to 1.2%. Thus, estimating prevalence of HIV in pregnant women would aid in developing and prioritizing prevention of parent-to-child transmission of HIV programs. Materials and Methods: All pregnant women referred to the antenatal clinic from 1993 onward were tested for HIV infection by ELISA test after pretest counseling. A woman was diagnosed to be HIV infected if she tested positive on more than two HIV ELISA tests. Prevalence of HIV infection in them was calculated and also whether there was an increasing trend was determined. Results: A total of 123,439 pregnant women were tested for HIV from 1993 to 2004, of which 1797 women were HIV infected. Overall, the prevalence rate was found to be 1.4%. Prevalence rose from 0.76% in 1993 to 2.37% in 1998. However, from 2004, the prevalence has decreased to 0.6%. Conclusion: Prevalence of HIV in pregnant women in Mumbai is decreasing.
Akoh, Christine C; Pressman, Eva K; Cooper, Elizabeth; Queenan, Ruth Anne; Pillittere, Julie; O'Brien, Kimberly O
Our objective was to identify risk factors associated with maternal infections and placental inflammation in pregnant adolescents attending an urban adolescent maternity clinic. This cross-sectional, descriptive study used survey and medical chart data collected at entry and prospectively across gestation. The prevalence of maternal infections and placental inflammation was determined and potential risk factors were identified. Rochester Adolescent Maternal Program (RAMP) in Rochester, NY. Racially and ethnically diverse pregnant adolescents (n = 158 ≤ 18 y at entry) were recruited. Main outcome measures were diagnosis of an infection or inflammatory condition in relation to demographic, anthropometric, dietary, socioeconomic, and health data. The three most prevalent infections diagnosed in this study population were recto-vaginal colonization of group B Streptococcus (GBS) (38%), bacterial vaginosis (BV) (40%) and candida (42%). African-American teens (AOR = 4.6; 95% CI: 1.74-13.02) and those with higher pre-pregnancy BMI (ppBMI; AOR = 1.2; 95% CI: 1.04-1.31) were more likely to test positive for BV across gestation. Older maternal age decreased the likelihood of positive tests for trichomoniasis (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.26-0.92) and gonorrhea (OR = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.16-0.82). Higher mean dietary vitamin D intake (mcg/d) was associated with a lower likelihood of testing positive for recto-vaginal GBS (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77-0.98). Addressing modifiable risk factors associated with dietary intake and pre-pregnancy weight may help reduce health disparities among pregnant minority adolescents. Additionally, targeted sexual health education may greatly benefit younger female adolescents. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tohme, Rania A; Andre-Alboth, Jocelyne; Tejada-Strop, Alexandra; Shi, Ran; Boncy, Jacques; François, Jeannot; Domercant, Jean Wysler; Griswold, Mark; Hyppolite, Erlantz; Adrien, Paul; Kamili, Saleem
Hepatitis B vaccine administered shortly after birth is highly effective in preventing mother to child transmission (MTCT) of infection. While hepatitis B vaccine was introduced in Haiti as part of a combined pentavalent vaccine in 2012, a birth dose is not yet included in the immunization schedule. Determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among pregnant women to evaluate the risk of MTCT. We selected 1364 residual serum specimens collected during a 2012 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sentinel serosurvey among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics. Haiti was stratified into two regions: West, which includes metropolitan Port-au-Prince, and non-West, which includes all other departments. We evaluated the association between demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and HIV infection with HBV infection. Of 1364 selected specimens, 1307 (96%) were available for testing. A total of 422 specimens (32.7%) tested positive for total anti-HBc (38.2% in West vs. 27% in non-West, pWomen aged 30 and older had more than double the odds of positive total anti-HBc than women aged 15-19 years (pWomen with secondary (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=0.54; 95% CI: 0.36-0.81) and post-secondary education (aOR=0.40, 95% CI: 0.19-0.79) had lower odds of total anti-HBc positivity compared with women with no education. HIV-status was not associated with HBV infection. Haiti has an intermediate endemicity of chronic HBV infection with high prevalence of positive HBV DNA among chronically infected women. Introduction of a universal birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine might help prevent perinatal HBV transmission. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Desai, Shilpa H; Kaplan, Michael S; Chen, Qiaoling; Macy, Eric M
The morbidity potentially associated with unverified penicillin allergy in pregnant women, with and without group B streptococcus (GBS) infections, is unknown. Penicillin allergy testing is safe during pregnancy but is done infrequently. To determine morbidity associated with antibiotic use in a large cohort of pregnant women, with and without an unverified history of penicillin allergy, and with and without GBS. Retrospective. All pregnant women who delivered live infants in Kaiser Permanente Southern California between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2014, were identified. Penicillin allergy status at delivery, delivery method, maternal and infant hospital utilization, peripartum antibiotic exposures, new antibiotic-associated adverse drug reactions, and new Clostridium difficile infections. There were 170,379 unique women who had 201,316 pregnancies during the study period. There were 16,084 pregnancies in women with an active, but unverified, penicillin allergy at delivery. There were 42,524 pregnancies in GBS-positive women, and 3500 also had a penicillin allergy. Women with a penicillin allergy, with or without GBS, had significantly (about 10%) higher cesarean section rates and spent significantly more (about 0.1) days in the hospital after delivery. Among GBS-positive women, those with an unverified penicillin allergy were exposed to significantly more cefazolin, clindamycin, vancomycin, and gentamicin and had significantly higher rates of adverse drug reactions associated with all antibiotic use. Unverified penicillin allergy is associated with more hospital utilization and additional morbidity. Penicillin allergy testing of pregnant women with a history of penicillin allergy may help reduce these unwanted outcomes.
Vermillion, Meghan S.; Lei, Jun; Shabi, Yahya; Baxter, Victoria K.; Crilly, Nathan P.; McLane, Michael; Griffin, Diane E.; Pekosz, Andrew; Klein, Sabra L.; Burd, Irina
Zika virus (ZIKV) crosses the placenta and causes congenital disease. Here we develop an animal model utilizing direct ZIKV inoculation into the uterine wall of pregnant, immunocompetent mice to evaluate transplacental transmission. Intrauterine inoculation at embryonic day (E) 10, but not E14, with African, Asian or American strains of ZIKV reduces fetal viability and increases infection of placental and fetal tissues. ZIKV inoculation at E10 causes placental inflammation, placental dysfunction and reduces neonatal brain cortical thickness, which is associated with increased activation of microglia. Viral antigen localizes in trophoblast and endothelial cells in the placenta, and endothelial, microglial and neural progenitor cells in the fetal brain. ZIKV infection of the placenta increases production of IFNβ and expression of IFN-stimulated genes 48 h after infection. This mouse model provides a platform for identifying factors at the maternal–fetal interface that contribute to adverse perinatal outcomes in a host with an intact immune system. PMID:28220786
Hosuru Subramanya Supram
Full Text Available Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae type B a non-motile, aerobic, gram negative cocobacillus is a commensal of upper respiratory tract. Genitourinary infection due to H. influenzae has been reported but bacteremia associated with such infection appears to be rare. We report a case of 19 years young primigravida with complaints of amenorrhea of 32 weeks and 5 days, pyrexia, abdominal pain and blood stained discharge per vaginum. H. influenzae type B was recovered from the genital tract as well as blood of the mother indicating maternal septicemia. Septicemia caused by H. influenzae type B in pregnant women following vaginal colonization and infection is rare. It has been reported in many parts of world over the years; to the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case from Nepal. H. influenzae should be considered as a potential maternal, fetal, and neonatal pathogen.
Blaser MJI Black RE. Duncan DJ, Amer I. Campylobacter Clements ML, Robins-Brone R, Lim Y-L. Duration of jejuni -specific serum antibodies are elevated in...SUBTITLE 5 FUNDING •4UMBERS Experimental Campylobacter jejuni Infection 86PP6826 in Humans 61102A 30161102BS13 AB6. AUTHOR(S)DA328 Robert E. Black...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Contract Title: Studies of the Outer Membrane Proteins of Campylobacter Jejuni for Vaccine Development ൔa• DISTRIBUTION
Singleton, Michael D; Breheny, Patrick J
In this paper, we propose a nonlinear hierarchical model (NLHM) for analyzing longitudinal experimental infection (EI) data. The NLHM offers several improvements over commonly used alternatives such as repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) and the linear mixed model (LMM). It enables comparison of relevant biological properties of the course of infection including peak intensity, duration and time to peak, rather than simply comparing mean responses at each observation time. We illustrate the practical benefits of this model and the insights it yields using data from experimental infection studies on equine arteritis virus. Finally, we demonstrate via simulation studies that the NLHM substantially reduces bias and improves the power to detect differences in relevant features of the infection response between two populations. For example, to detect a 20% difference in response duration between two groups (n=15) in which the peak time and peak intensity were identical, the RM-ANOVA test had a power of just 11%, and LMM a power of just 12%. By comparison, the nonlinear model we propose had a power of 58% in the same scenario, while controlling the Type I error rate better than the other two methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Karacan, Meric; Batukan, Melike; Cebi, Ziya; Berberoglugil, Munip; Levent, Semra; Kır, Mustafa; Baksu, Alpaslan; Ozel, Emine; Camlıbel, Teksen
To determine the prevalence of acute cytomegalovirus (CMV), rubella and T. gondii infections among pregnant women who had no serological status tested for these microorganisms prior to pregnancy in a metropolitan area. A cross-sectional study was undertaken between January 2009 and January 2013 in 1,258 women presenting for their first antenatal visit (between 6 and 11 weeks of gestation). All women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies. Subsequently, avidity test was utilized for inconclusive results. They were followed until delivery and all newborns were examined by a pediatrician. Presence of IgM antibody positivity alone was not detected in any women. Avidity test excluded primary infection in 15 out of 16 (93.7 %) women who were positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies. Amniocentesis was performed in one case with borderline IgG avidity for T. gondii. No primary infections were detected in any newborn for the infections screened. The prevalences of IgG antibodies were 95 % for rubella, 84.1 % for CMV and 23.1 % for T. gondii. Assessment of IgG and IgM antibodies followed by IgG avidity testing for inconclusive results may be an acceptable approach in pregnant women with unknown serological status prior to pregnancy. Utilization of IgG avidity as a supplemental test prevented unnecessary intervention in IgG and IgM antibodies positive patients. No primary infection was detected for CMV, rubella and T. gondii infections in the urban population screened.
Congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) arises as a result of new acquisition of Toxoplasma infection by a susceptible woman during pregnancy. Early detection of CT through neonatal screening programmes could optimize management and improve infant outcome. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of Toxoplasma susceptibility in pregnant women. As detection of Toxoplasma antibodies in neonatal blood reflects maternal exposure history, maternal antibody seroprevalence was determined using anonymized residual blood from newborn screening cards. A total of 20,252 cards were tested in 1 year. 4,991 (24.6%) cards tested positive for Toxoplasma antibody. Results were stratified by county. Toxoplasma antibody seroprevalence rates of 25% indicated that Toxoplasma infection is common in Ireland and that up to 75% of women remain susceptible to primary infection during pregnancy. This study aimed to a) determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma antibody in pregnant women, and hence b) estimate the risk for acquisition of primary toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in order to support an application to fund a pilot newborn screening programme.
Mavrov, G.; Goubenko, T.
Treatment of pregnant women infected with syphilis with intravenous infusions of penicillin G (2 million units every 12 hours) favors higher concentration of penicillin in blood serum (31 vs. 6-11 mkg/ml) and lower frequency and intensity of adverse effects (2.5 vs. 5.6%) in comparison with intramuscularly injections of benzyl penicillin (0.5–1.0 million units every 3 hours). Penicillin G favored a faster regress of clinical manifestations of syphilis (4-12 vs. 7-17 days) earlier obtaining ne...
Hygino, Joana; Vieira, Morgana M; Kasahara, Taissa M; Xavier, Luciana F; Blanco, Bernardo; Guillermo, Landi V C; Filho, Renato G S; Saramago, Carmen S M; Lima-Silva, Agostinho A; Oliveira, Ariane L; Guimarães, Vander; Andrade, Arnaldo F B; Bento, Cleonice A M
Evidences indicate that pregnancy can alter the Ag-specific T-cell responses. This work aims to evaluate the impact of pregnancy on the in vitro HIV-1-specific immune response. As compared with non-pregnant patients, lower T-cell proliferation and higher IL-10 production were observed in T-cell cultures from pregnant patients following addition of either mitogens or HIV-1 antigens. In our system, the main T lymphocyte subset involved in producing IL-10 was CD4(+)FoxP3(-). Depletion of CD4(+) cells elevated TNF-α and IFN-γ production. Interestingly, the in vitro HIV-1 replication was lower in cell cultures from pregnant patients, and it was inversely related to IL-10 production. In these cultures, the neutralization of IL-10 by anti-IL-10 mAb elevated TNF-α release and HIV-1 replication. In conclusion, our results reveal that pregnancy-related events should favor the expansion of HIV-1-specific IL-10-secreting CD4(+) T-cells in HIV-1-infected women, which should, in the scenario of pregnancy, help to reduce the risk of vertical HIV-1 transmission. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roshan T. Ramlal
Full Text Available Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC, arm muscle area (AMA, arm fat area (AFA, and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development.
Jin, Qing'e; Su, Jianrong; Wu, Shanna
Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy can cause congenital defects. Available data for CMV infection during pregnancy in north China are inadequate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of maternal CMV infection and explore the incidence of congenital infection. In this prospective study, serum CMV IgG and IgM antibodies were measured in 2,887 pregnant women using ELISA, and the IgG avidity test was performed on all IgM-positive subjects. The seroprevalence of anti-CMV IgG was 94.70%, and of anti-CMV IgM was 1.28%. CMV IgG prevalence increased significantly with age (p < 0.01). Women living in downtown areas showed higher IgG prevalence than those residing in urban areas (p = 0.023). CMV-IgM seroprevalence was highest in autumn (p = 0.021). There was no difference in IgM seroprevalence by age, socioeconomic status, geographical area, or gravida. The rate of primary CMV infection was 0.45% (13/2,887) at the first trimester. The seroconversion rate during pregnancy was 0.76% (22/2,887). One woman underwent seroconversion during pregnancy and gave birth to an infant with asymptomatic CMV infection. Congenital CMV infection was diagnosed in five of the 14 infants from 14 mothers with active infection, for a vertical transmission rate of 35.71% (5/14). Three infants were asymptomatic, whereas two infants presented symptomatic infection with hearing deficits. Although CMV IgG prevalence is relatively high in north China, significant attention to primary CMV infection during pregnancy is still needed.
Hogerwerf, L.; Koop, G.; Klinkenberg, D.; Roest, H.J.; Vellema, P.; Nielen, M.
A major human Q fever epidemic occurred in The Netherlands during 2007–2009. In response, all pregnant goats from infected herds were culled before the 2010 kidding season without individual testing. The aim of this study was to assess whether high risk animals from recently infected naive herds can
Katz, Mark A; Gessner, Bradford D; Johnson, Jeanene; Skidmore, Becky; Knight, Marian; Bhat, Niranjan; Marshall, Helen; Horne, David J; Ortiz, Justin R; Fell, Deshayne B
The World Health Organization (WHO) considers pregnant women to be a risk group for severe influenza disease. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate influenza disease incidence in pregnant women in order to inform estimates of influenza vaccine impact for low-resource countries. We performed electronic literature searches, targeting studies on the following outcomes in pregnant women: attack rate, hospitalization rate, intensive care unit admission rate, mortality rate, and disability-adjusted life years lost. Only original studies published in peer-reviewed journals that had laboratory confirmation for influenza virus infection and included population-based incidence rates with denominator data were included. We summarized study characteristics in descriptive tables and outcome-specific Forest plots. We generated summary incidence rates using random effects models and assessed statistical heterogeneity by visual examination of Forest plots, and by χ (2) and I(2) tests. We identified 1543 articles, of which nine articles met the study inclusion criteria. Five were case series, three were cohort studies, and one was a randomized controlled trial. Eight studies were from high-income countries, and one was from an upper middle-income country. Six studies reported results for pandemic influenza, and three reported seasonal influenza. Statistical heterogeneity was high for all outcomes, and methodologies and duration of surveillance varied considerably among studies; therefore, we did not perform meta-analyses. Study quality was very low according to GRADE criteria. More data on influenza disease incidence in pregnant women, particularly in low- and middle-income countries and for seasonal influenza disease, are needed to inform public health decision-making.
Orish, Verner N; Onyeabor, Onyekachi S; Boampong, Johnson N; Acquah, Samuel; Sanyaolu, Adekunle O; Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C
To assess the burden of maternal malaria and HIV among pregnant women in Ghana and to determine the risk of anemia among women with dual infection. A cross-sectional study was conducted at 4 hospitals in the Sekondi-Takoradi metropolis, Ghana. The study group comprised 872 consenting pregnant women attending prenatal care clinics. Venous blood samples were screened for malaria, HIV, and hemoglobin level. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between malaria, HIV, and risk of anemia. In all, 34.4% of the study cohort had anemia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that pregnant women with either malaria (odds ratio 1.99; 95% confidence interval, 1.43-2.77; P=HIV (odds ratio 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.80; P=0.014) had an increased risk of anemia. In adjusted models, pregnant women co-infected with both malaria and HIV displayed twice the risk of anemia. The adjusted odds ratio was 2.67 (95% confidence interval, 1.44-4.97; P=0.002). Pregnant women infected with both malaria and HIV are twice as likely to be anemic than women with a single infection or no infection. Measures to control malaria, HIV, and anemia during pregnancy are imperative to improve birth outcomes in this region of Ghana. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Villani, P; Floridia, M; Pirillo, M F; Cusato, M; Tamburrini, E; Cavaliere, A F; Guaraldi, G; Vanzini, C; Molinari, A; degli Antoni, A; Regazzi, M
To compare steady-state nelfinavir (NFV) pharmacokinetics in pregnant and nonpregnant HIV-infected women. Twenty-five pregnant HIV-infected women were selected from an ongoing observational study evaluating the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral agents during pregnancy. Twenty of them were in the third and five in the second trimester. Data for the control group of 21 HIV-infected nonpregnant women were taken from a previous multicentre pharmacokinetic trial. All the participating women achieved steady-state plasma concentrations while on a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen including NFV (1250 mg bid) and two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Blood samples for NFV measurement were collected predose (C(trough)) and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 12 h post dose. During the third trimester of pregnancy NFV AUC(0-12 h) median (range) values were 25.76 (12.61-42.74) microg h(-1) ml(-1), and were 32.49 (19.16-63.81) microg h(-1) ml(-1) in the control group [mean difference - 9.30 microg h(-1) ml(-1); 95% confidence interval (CI) -15.76, -2.83; P < 0.05). Median oral clearance (CL/F) was significantly higher in pregnant women than in the control group (48.5 l h(-1), range 29.3-99.1 l h(-1) vs. 38.5 l h(-1), range 19.6-65.2 l h(-1); mean difference 12.6 l h(-1); 95% CI 3.3, 21.9) but the difference disappeared when CL/F was adjusted for body weight. C(trough) was significantly (P < 0.01) lower in pregnant compared with nonpregnant women (median 0.8 microg ml(-1), range 0-2.6 microg ml(-1) vs. 1.5 microg ml(-1), range 0.5-4.9 microg ml(-1); mean difference -1.0 microg ml(-1); 95% CI -1.7, -0.31). The median elimination half-life of NFV observed during pregnancy was 3.7 h (range 1.4-6.6 h), compared with 5.2 (range 3.1-10.1 h) in the control group (mean difference -1.7; 95% CI -2.8, -0.51). Our results indicate that women in the later stages of pregnancy may be exposed to subtherapeutic concentrations of NFV. Thus, adjustments in drug
Full Text Available Current knowledge on bat lyssavirus infections in their native hosts is limited and little is known about the virulence, virus dissemination and transmission among free-living insectivorous bats. The present study is a brief description of rabies virus (RABV dissemination in tissues of a naturally infected pregnant southern yellow bat (Lasiurus ega and its fetuses, obtained by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The RT-PCR was positive in samples from the brain, salivary gland, tongue, lungs, heart, kidneys and liver. On the other hand, the placenta, three fetuses, spleen, intestine and brown fat tissue tested negative. This research demonstrated the absence of rabies virus in the fetuses, thus, in this specific case, the transplacentary transmission was not observed.
Russell, Beth S; Eaton, Lisa A; Petersen-Williams, Petal
A critical factor for understanding negative health outcomes is acknowledging the synergistic quality that clusters of health problems create. An important step in addressing clusters of health problems involves gaining an awareness of the contextual factors that connect them. This paper considers the intersection of 3 mutually reinforcing health problems: alcohol use, interpersonal violence (IPV), and HIV infection among pregnant women residing in South Africa. We explore how SAVA (substance abuse, violence and AIDS) - a syndemics related theory - underscores the dire need to intervene in various areas of psycho-social health and general well-being. Based on World Health Organization data, we highlight the remarkably high rates of alcohol use, IPV, and HIV infection among South African women compared with women residing in other countries around the world. We conclude by highlighting the need for improved recognition of the intersection of these epidemics and for improved surveillance of the prevalence of alcohol use among pregnant women. Finally, based on the literature reviewed, we provide recommendations for future interventions.
Khamduang, Woottichai; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Gaudy-Graffin, Catherine; Jourdain, Gonzague; Suwankornsakul, Weerapong; Jarupanich, Tapnarong; Chalermpolprapa, Veeradate; Nanta, Sirisak; Puarattana-Aroonkorn, Noossara; Tonmat, Sakchai; Lallemant, Marc; Goudeau, Alain; Sirirungsi, Wasna
Prevalence and risk factors for isolated antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are not well known in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected pregnant women. It is unclear if women with occult infections are at risk of transmitting HBV to their infants. HIV-1-infected and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative pregnant women were tested for antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs) and anti-HBc using enzyme immunoassay. Women with isolated anti-HBc were assessed for occult HBV infection, defined as HBV DNA levels >15 IU/mL, using the Abbott RealTime HBV DNA assay. Infants born to women with isolated anti-HBc and detectable HBV DNA were tested at 4 months of age for HBV DNA. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with isolated anti-HBc and occult HBV infection. Among 1812 HIV-infected pregnant women, 1682 were HBsAg negative. Fourteen percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 12%-15%) of HBsAg-negative women had an isolated anti-HBc that was independently associated with low CD4 count, age >35 years, birth in northern Thailand, and positive anti-hepatitis C virus serology. Occult HBV infection was identified in 24% (95% CI, 18%-30%) of women with isolated anti-HBc, representing 2.6% (95% CI, 1.9%-3.5%) of HIV-1-infected pregnant women, and was inversely associated with HIV RNA levels. None of the women with isolated anti-HBc and occult HBV infection transmitted HBV to their infants. HIV-1-infected pregnant women with isolated anti-HBc and occult HBV infection have very low HBV DNA levels and are thus at very low risk to transmit HBV to their infants.
Wu, Xiaobing; Hong, Fuchang; Zhang, Chunlai; Feng, Tiejian; Lan, Lina; Yang, Yingzhou
To investigate the current status of contact tracing among pregnant women infected with syphilis and to analyze the associated factors from patients' perspective. Pregnant women who aged 18 years old, receiving prenatal care services in Shenzhen, diagnosed with syphilis according to national diagnostic criteria (WS 273-2007) from 2008 to 2011 were recruited and the total number was 3 551. Information of both pregnant women (including demographic information, laboratory results, syphilis diagnosis, and personal life history) and their partners (including results of partner tracing and laboratory examination) were collected with structured questionnaire by face-to-face interview. Multivariate non-conditional logistic regression model was applied to analyze the factors associated with partners' contract tracing. Odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidential interval (95%CI) were calculated. The average age was 28.72 among recruited 3 551 syphilis-infected pregnant women, with standard deviation of 5.21 and range of 18 to 40. Totally 2 550 partners attended antenatal clinics and received syphilis examination, with a contact tracing rate of 71.81%. The OR(95%CI) was 1.70(1.26-2.30) for pregnant women with college or above education when comparing with those with senior high school or below education. The OR(95%CI) was 0.57(0.45-0.71) for those unmarried or divorce when comparing with those married. The OR (95% CI) was 0.73(0.56-0.94) and 0.65(0.53-0.81) for those screened in 28-36 gestational weeks and those screened in >36 gestational weeks or right before delivery separately, when comparing with those screened in ≤27 gestational weeks. The OR (95% CI) was 1.45(1.14-1.84) for those having received sufficient treatment before pregnancy when comparing with those diagnosed with latent syphilis. The OR(95%CI) was 0.31 (0.24-0.39) for those having no treatment or not standardized treatment when comparing with those having standardized penicillin treatment. The OR(95%CI) was 0
Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the CD36 scavenger receptor family have been implicated as sensors of microbial products that mediate phagocytosis and inflammation in response to a broad range of pathogens. We investigated the role of CD36 in host response to mycobacterial infection. Methods Experimental Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG infection in Cd36+/+ and Cd36-/- mice, and in vitro co-cultivation of M. tuberculosis, BCG and M. marinum with Cd36+/+ and Cd36-/-murine macrophages. Results Using an in vivo model of BCG infection in Cd36+/+ and Cd36-/- mice, we found that mycobacterial burden in liver and spleen is reduced (83% lower peak splenic colony forming units, p Cd36-/- animals. Intracellular growth of all three mycobacterial species was reduced in Cd36-/- relative to wild type Cd36+/+ macrophages in vitro. This difference was not attributable to alterations in mycobacterial uptake, macrophage viability, rate of macrophage apoptosis, production of reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species, TNF or interleukin-10. Using an in vitro model designed to recapitulate cellular events implicated in mycobacterial infection and dissemination in vivo (i.e., phagocytosis of apoptotic macrophages containing mycobacteria, we demonstrated reduced recovery of viable mycobacteria within Cd36-/- macrophages. Conclusions Together, these data indicate that CD36 deficiency confers resistance to mycobacterial infection. This observation is best explained by reduced intracellular survival of mycobacteria in the Cd36-/- macrophage and a role for CD36 in the cellular events involved in granuloma formation that promote early bacterial expansion and dissemination.
Full Text Available Human rhinoviruses (HRVs evolve rapidly due in part to their error-prone RNA polymerase. Knowledge of the diversity of HRV populations emerging during the course of a natural infection is essential and represents a basis for the design of future potential vaccines and antiviral drugs. To evaluate HRV evolution in humans, nasal wash samples were collected daily for five days from 15 immunocompetent volunteers experimentally infected with a reference stock of HRV-39. In parallel, HeLa-OH cells were inoculated to compare HRV evolution in vitro. Nasal wash in vivo assessed by real-time PCR showed a viral load that peaked at 48-72 h. Ultra-deep sequencing was used to compare the low-frequency mutation populations present in the HRV-39 inoculum in two human subjects and one HeLa-OH supernatant collected 5 days post-infection. The analysis revealed hypervariable mutation locations in VP2, VP3, VP1, 2C and 3C genes and conserved regions in VP4, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B and 3D genes. These results were confirmed by classical sequencing of additional samples, both from inoculated volunteers and independent cell infections, and suggest that HRV inter-host transmission is not associated with a strong bottleneck effect. A specific analysis of the VP1 capsid gene of 15 human cases confirmed the high mutation incidence in this capsid region, but not in the antiviral drug-binding pocket. We could also estimate a mutation frequency in vivo of 3.4x10(-4 mutations/nucleotides and 3.1x10(-4 over the entire ORF and VP1 gene, respectively. In vivo, HRV generate new variants rapidly during the course of an acute infection due to mutations that accumulate in hot spot regions located at the capsid level, as well as in 2C and 3C genes.
Hsiao, Nei-Yuan; Zerbe, Allison; Phillips, Tamsin K; Myer, Landon; Abrams, Elaine J
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are the primary diagnostic tools for HIV used in resource-constrained settings. Without a proper confirmation algorithm, there is concern that false-positive (FP) RDTs could result in misdiagnosis of HIV infection and inappropriate antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation, but programmatic data on FP are few. We examined the accuracy of RDT diagnosis among HIV-infected pregnant women attending public sector antenatal services in Cape Town, South Africa. We describe the proportion of women found to have started on ART erroneously due to FP RDT results based on pre-ART viral load (VL) testing and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We analysed 952 consecutively enrolled pregnant women diagnosed as HIV infected based on two RDTs per local guideline and found 4.5% (43/952) of pre-ART VL results to be women who had detectable virus on subsequent VL measurements, ELISA was performed on the 37 remaining women. Of these, 3/952 (0.3%) HIV RDT diagnoses were found to be FP. We estimate that using ELISA to confirm all positive RDTs would cost $1110 (uncertainty interval $381-$5382) to identify one patient erroneously initiated on ART, while it costs $3912 for a lifetime of antiretrovirals with VL monitoring for one person. Compared to the cost of confirming the RDT-based diagnoses, the cost of HIV misdiagnosis is high. While testing programmes based on RDT should strive for constant quality improvement, where resources permit, laboratory confirmation algorithms can play an important role in strengthening the quality of HIV diagnosis in the era of universal ART.
Mingle Julius AA
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV is highly endemic in several African countries with high mortality rate among pregnant women. The prevalence of antibodies to HEV in Ghana is not known. Therefore we evaluated the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG and anti-HEV IgM among pregnant women seen between the months of January and May, 2008 at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana. Results One hundred and fifty-seven women provided blood samples for unlinked anonymous testing for the presence of antibodies to HEV. The median age of participants was 28.89 ± 5.76 years (range 13–42 years. Of the 157 women tested, HEV seroprevelance was 28.66% (45/157. Among the seropositive women, 64.40% (29/45 tested positive for anti-HEV IgM while 35.60% (16/45 tested positive to HEV IgG antibodies. HEV seroprevalence was highest (46.15% among women 21–25 years of age, followed by 42.82% in = 20 year group, then 36.84% in = 36 year group. Of the 157 women, 75.79% and 22.92% were in their third and second trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. Anti-HEV antibodies detected in women in their third trimester of pregnancy (30.25% was significantly higher, P Conclusion Consistent with similar studies worldwide, the results of our studies revealed a high prevalence of HEV infection in pregnant women.
Offorjebe, Ogechukwu A; Wynn, Adriane; Moshashane, Neo; Joseph Davey, Dvora; Arena, Kaitlin; Ramogola-Masire, Doreen; Gaolebale, Ponatshego; Morroni, Chelsea; Klausner, Jeffrey D
Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) are sexually transmitted infections (STIs) associated with adverse birth outcomes. Untreated partners contribute to high rates of STI reinfection; thus, partner notification and treatment remain important components of STI care and control. A prospective cohort study was conducted among 300 pregnant women presenting to the antenatal clinic at Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone, Botswana who enrolled in an STI screening study. Following informed consent and sample collection for CT/NG/TV testing, participants were asked if they were willing to disclose their STI result and to deliver medications to their partner(s). Those who tested positive were asked at a follow-up appointment if they notified their partners. Among the 300 participants, 294 (98%) said they would be willing to tell their partner(s) about their test results if they tested positive, and 284 (95%) said they would be willing to give their partner(s) medication if the option was available. Of those who tested positive and returned for a test of cure, 27 of 32 (84%) reported that they told their partner about the results, and 20 of 32 (63%) reported that their partner received treatment. Almost all pregnant women reported willingness to tell their partner the STI test result and give their partner medications. At test of cure, most women reported informing their partner, although actual treatment receipt was lower. Our findings suggest that pregnant women are willing to utilize patient-based partner notification, but actual partner treatment might be lower than intended.
Duru, M U; Aluyi, H S A; Anukam, K C
Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) are both major global health concerns as they cause high mortality and morbidity in the developing countries. However, while data exists for the co-infection in other countries, little or no information can be found with regard to the sero-prevalence of HIV and HCV co-infection in Nigeria, albeit in pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in Benin City, Nigeria. The objective of the study was to determine the sero-prevalence of HIV and HCV among pregnant women seeking antenatal care in Benin City. In determining the sero-prevalence in a cross-sectional study, 200 pregnant women, aged between 15 and 49 years were screened for HIV and HCV using rapid screening test kits. Using closed ended structured questionnaires; the respondents volunteered socio-demographic information associated with risk factors of HIV and HCV acquisition. Results indicated sero-prevalence of HIV and HCV in the sampled population was 3% and 5% respectively. Thirty three percent of the pregnant women that were HCV positive were co-infected with HIV-1 infection. HIV sero-prevalence was highest in the age group, 25-29 representing 5.1%, while HCV sero-prevalence was noted highest among the women in the age group 30-34 years, representing 7.9%. Two percent of the pregnant women had equivocal (ambivalent) HIV-1 results. The study has shown a prevalence of HIV-HCV co-infection among the tested pregnant women in Benin City and more epidemiological surveys are needed in larger scale to decipher the prevalence in other states of Nigeria.
Rachel de Sá Barreto Luna Callou Cruz
Full Text Available Abstract This summary aimed to synthesize the protocol guidelines of Pernambuco, the Ministry of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention which deal with health care related to Zika virus infection during pregnancy and the preliminary procedures for surveillance on microcephaly cases including nutritional care. With the increase of number of cases on this event since August, 2015, it was necessary to reorganize the prenatal care which is offered to pregnant women, including the protocols in order to reduce the chances of a possible contamination of the virus, to detect previously suspected cases as well as perform follow up on confirmed cases. The gaps in the knowledge of this morbidity, it should be noted that the information and recommendations are subject to revision due to possible incorporation of new knowledge and other evidence, as well as the need for adequacy of surveillance actions in new epidemiological scenarios. It is known that cases of nutritional deficiencies are capable of producing malformation of the Central Nervous System, including microcephaly. In the analysis of the protocols, there were no changes as to the nutritional recommendations already established for the low-risk pregnant women. The authors presented a hypothesis and conceptually, as a prevention measurement, the inclusion of prenatal care to prevent and control isolated or multiple deficiencies associated to microcephaly, such as protein, vitamin A, iodine, folate, B12, vitamin D, biotin, zinc and selenium.
Kästner, R; Härtl, K; Knobbe, A; Grubert, T A; Stauber, M
In the last 10 years about 130 women with a drug addiction and more than 100 HIV-positive pregnant women were treated at the 1. University Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Munich. Besides a specialized medical treatment both groups required intensive psychosocial care. HIV-infected people are still isolated and suffer from the social stigmata. Their essential needs for sexuality and children of their own are often ignored or even condemned because of irrational fears about HIV, which continue despite rapid medical improvements. The life-expectancy for example has increased since the inauguration of protease inhibitors. Vertical transmission of HIV is below 2% through medical treatment in pregnancy, elective cesarean section and renunciation of breastfeeding. Drug addicted pregnant women are given the opportunity to change their life in order to care for their children appropriately. The basis for this is a substitution with levomethadone and elimination of the use of other drugs. The addicted women often can reduce the dosage of levomethadone during the course of their pregnancy and sometimes can cease totally. Normally they are highly motivated and thus can ease the withdrawal symptoms of their newborns following delivery. By establishing a reliable social net during pregnancy mothers learn to recognize the demands of their children after birth and thus emotional and cognitive deficits can be prevented.
Stranix-Chibanda, Lynda; Chibanda, Dixon; Chingono, Albert; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Wells, Jennifer; Maldonado, Yvonne; Chipato, Tsungai; Shetty, Avinash K
To examine the prevalence of psychological morbidity in HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women seeking antenatal care in Zimbabwe. Pregnant women were screened for psychological morbidity at the initial antenatal care visit using the 14-item Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ) before voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT). The primary outcome measure was "cases," as determined by a SSQ score of >or= 8. Demographic characteristics and HIV status were compared between cases and noncases to determine the risk factors for psychological morbidity. Of the 437 participants, psychological morbidity was detected in 73 (17%) women before undergoing VCT. Risk factors for psychological morbidity included having a spouse older than 35 years of age. HIV infection by itself was not a risk factor for psychological morbidity for women. There is a high burden of psychological morbidity among pregnant women in Zimbabwe. Mental health services should be integrated into antenatal care to improve psychological health for all women in Zimbabwe.
Full Text Available Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV is the most frequent cause of congenital infection and commonly associated with sensorineural deficit. At present, there is neither prophylaxis nor treatment during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of awareness regarding CMV infection and its consequences in women delivering at the University of Geneva Hospitals (Geneva, Switzerland. Methods: The study consisted of a validated questionnaire completed by women in the immediate postpartum period. Results: The questionnaire was completed by 59% (314/528 of delivering women. Only 39% (123/314 knew about CMV and 19.7% (62/314 had received information about preventive measures. Women were more aware about other congenital diseases, such as toxoplasmosis (87%; human immunodeficiency virus (99%; syphilis (85.5%; rubella (92.3%; and group B Streptococcus (63%. Factors associated with CMV awareness were Swiss nationality, high education level, employment in health care or with children, and being followed by an obstetrician. Regarding quality of information, few were aware of the main CMV complications (deafness, 25.2%; mental retardation, 34.5%. Among those informed about CMV, most (74.6% knew about preventive measures. Among these, 82.5% thought that these were easily applicable. Conclusions: Most women were unaware of CMV infection and its potential risks during pregnancy. It is crucial to improve CMV information given to pregnant women to prevent the risks for the fetus/newborn.
Willame, Alexia; Blanchard-Rohner, Geraldine; Combescure, Christophe; Irion, Olivier; Posfay-Barbe, Klara; Martinez de Tejada, Begoña
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most frequent cause of congenital infection and commonly associated with sensorineural deficit. At present, there is neither prophylaxis nor treatment during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of awareness regarding CMV infection and its consequences in women delivering at the University of Geneva Hospitals (Geneva, Switzerland). The study consisted of a validated questionnaire completed by women in the immediate postpartum period. The questionnaire was completed by 59% (314/528) of delivering women. Only 39% (123/314) knew about CMV and 19.7% (62/314) had received information about preventive measures. Women were more aware about other congenital diseases, such as toxoplasmosis (87%); human immunodeficiency virus (99%); syphilis (85.5%); rubella (92.3%); and group B Streptococcus (63%). Factors associated with CMV awareness were Swiss nationality, high education level, employment in health care or with children, and being followed by an obstetrician. Regarding quality of information, few were aware of the main CMV complications (deafness, 25.2%; mental retardation, 34.5%). Among those informed about CMV, most (74.6%) knew about preventive measures. Among these, 82.5% thought that these were easily applicable. Most women were unaware of CMV infection and its potential risks during pregnancy. It is crucial to improve CMV information given to pregnant women to prevent the risks for the fetus/newborn.
Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Ndoula, Shalom Tchokfe; Bigna, Jean Joel R; Jingi, Ahmadou M; Fokom-Domgue, Joël
Epidemiological data on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among pregnant women in Cameroon are very scarce, especially in the rural milieu. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with HBV infection, and the infectivity of rural pregnant women in the Far North Region of Cameroon. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three rural health facilities of the Guidiguis health district between December 2013 and March 2014. We consecutively recruited 325 pregnant women attending antenatal consultations. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and factors associated with HBV infection. The presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were determined using commercial test strips. Regression analyses were used to assess correlates of HBV infection. The mean age was 24.4 (SD5.6) years. Most women were married (97.2%) and housewives (96.4%), with less than secondary education level (80%). Only 4 women (1.2%) had been vaccinated against HBV. Thirty-three women (10.2%) were HBsAg-positive, of whom 4 (12.1%) were positive to HBeAg. The prevalence of HIV infection was 2.5% (8/325). Overall, 5 (1.5%) women were co-infected with HIV and HBV. Independent correlates of HBV infection included history of blood transfusion (adjusted odd ratio 12.59, 95% CI 1.46-108.89; p = 0.021) and concurrent infection by HIV (adjusted odd ratio 22.53, 95% CI 4.76-106.71; p pregnant women in this rural milieu is high. History of blood transfusion and HIV infection are highly associated with HBV infection. The relative low rate of women positive to both HBsAg and HBeAg suggests that perinatal transmission of HBV might not be the prevailing mode of HBV transmission in this area.
Full Text Available Antiretroviral (ARV therapy during pregnancy is recommended to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT. Physiologic changes during pregnancy can affect PK. We present the PK of total and unbound (pharmacologically active DRV in HIV-1-infected pregnant women receiving twice-daily (bid DRV/ritonavir (rtv. This Phase IIIb study enrolled HIV-1-infected pregnant women≥18 years old in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy receiving DRV/rtv 600/100 mg bid and other ARVs. DRV (total and unbound and rtv (total plasma concentrations were obtained predose and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9 and 12 hours postdose during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters and postpartum. Total DRV and rtv plasma concentrations were determined using a previously validated HPLC-MS/MS assay (lower limit of quantification 5.00 ng/mL. Unbound DRV was determined by fortifying plasma samples with 14-C DRV and separating total and unbound DRV using ultrafiltration. Total and unbound 14-C DRV were measured using liquid scintillation counting. Total and unbound PK parameters were derived using a noncompartmental analysis. Safety and efficacy were investigated at each visit and summarized using descriptive statistics. Sixteen women (10 black, 4 Hispanic, 2 white were enrolled; 11 had evaluable PK data. Total DRV AUC12h was 24% and 17% lower during 2nd and 3rd trimesters, respectively, vs postpartum (Table. Unbound DRV AUC12h was unchanged during 2nd and 3rd trimesters vs postpartum. Total and unbound DRV Cmin increased by 43% and 10%, respectively, during 2nd trimester and by 86% and 14%, respectively, during 3rd trimester vs postpartum. Unbound DRV was above the EC50 (27.5 ng/mL for PI-resistant HIV in all patients. Albumin and α1-acid glycoprotein (AAG concentrations were 22%–29% lower during pregnancy vs postpartum. Viral load decreased and CD4+ count increased over time. One serious adverse event was reported (increased transaminase. Three of 12 infants were born prior to 37 weeks (30, 36 and
Hanh, Nguyen Thi Thúy; Rasch, Vibeke; Chi, Bùi Kim
Women with HIV who want to have children face a range of challenges, quandaries, and hard decisions. This article examines the role of health staff in supporting HIV-infected pregnant women who desire to maintain their pregnancies. The article is derived from anthropological research conducted in...
Monney, Thierry; Grandgirard, Denis; Leib, Stephen L; Hemphill, Andrew
Vertical transmission from an infected cow to its fetus accounts for the vast majority of new Neospora caninum infections in cattle. A vaccine composed of a chimeric antigen named recNcMIC3-1-R, based on predicted immunogenic domains of the two microneme proteins NcMIC1 and NcMIC3, the rhoptry protein NcROP2, and emulsified in saponin adjuvants, significantly reduced the cerebral infection in non-pregnant BALB/c mice. Protection was associated with a mixed Th1/Th2-type cytokine response. However, the same vaccine formulation elicited a Th2-type immune response in pregnant mice and did not prevent vertical transmission or disease, neither in dams nor in offspring mice. In this study, an alternative vaccine formulation containing recNcMIC3-1-R emulsified in Freund's incomplete adjuvant, a stimulator of the cellular immunity, was investigated. No protection against vertical transmission and cerebral infection in the pregnant mice and a very limited protective effect in the non-pregnant mice were observed. The vaccine induced a Th1-type immune response characterized by high IgG2a titres and strong IFN-γ expression, which appeared detrimental to pregnancy.
Full Text Available Vertical transmission from an infected cow to its fetus accounts for the vast majority of new Neospora caninum infections in cattle. A vaccine composed of a chimeric antigen named recNcMIC3-1-R, based on predicted immunogenic domains of the two microneme proteins NcMIC1 and NcMIC3, the rhoptry protein NcROP2, and emulsified in saponin adjuvants, significantly reduced the cerebral infection in non-pregnant BALB/c mice. Protection was associated with a mixed Th1/Th2-type cytokine response. However, the same vaccine formulation elicited a Th2-type immune response in pregnant mice and did not prevent vertical transmission or disease, neither in dams nor in offspring mice. In this study, an alternative vaccine formulation containing recNcMIC3-1-R emulsified in Freund’s incomplete adjuvant, a stimulator of the cellular immunity, was investigated. No protection against vertical transmission and cerebral infection in the pregnant mice and a very limited protective effect in the non-pregnant mice were observed. The vaccine induced a Th1-type immune response characterized by high IgG2a titres and strong IFN-γ expression, which appeared detrimental to pregnancy.
Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Mandelkow, Jantina; Till, Holger; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Eggelte, Teunis A.; Bienzle, Ulrich
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency confers protection against malaria in children, yet its role in malaria in pregnancy is unknown. In a cross-sectional study among 529 pregnant Ghanaian women, Plasmodium falciparum infection, anaemia and G6PD genotypes were assessed. Of these,
Tadesse, Endale; Teshome, Million; Merid, Yared; Kibret, Belayhun; Shimelis, Techalew
Untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) during pregnancy may cause serious complications including pyelonephritis and delivery of premature or low-birth-weight infants. However, little is known about asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, bacterial agents, and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of the Hawassa Teaching and Referral Hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a total of 244 pregnant women with no sign and symptom of urinary tract infection from March 2012 to September 2012. Clean catch mid-stream urine samples were collected from all study participants using sterile containers. Urine samples were cultured using standard bacteriological methods. Identification of suspected colonies and antibiotic sensitivity testing were done. Out of 244 pregnant women, 46(18.8%) were positive for asymptomatic bacteriuria (Colony Forming Unit ≥ 105/mL). There was no difference in prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (p = 0.07) and trimester (p = 0.27).The most frequently isolated bacteria were coagulase negative Staphylococcus (32.6%), followed by Escherichia coli (26.1%), and Staphylococcus auerus (13%). The susceptibility rate of bacterial isolate was highest for norfloxacin (64.7%) and lowest for ampicillin (17.6%). The high prevalence of ASB in pregnant women warrant the need to screen all pregnant women and treat those infected with appropriate antimicrobial regimens in order to reduce its complications.
Full Text Available Clinical, virological and serological responses were evaluated in 10 pregnant mares after different challenge exposures to the asinine-94 strain of equine arteritis virus (EAV. The outcome of maternal infection on the progeny was also investigated. Mares were inoculated intranasally (n = 4, intramuscularly (n = 2, intravenously (n = 1, or contact-exposed (n = 3. All inoculated mares developed pyrexia, 5 showed mild clinical signs related to EAV infection and 2 remained asymptomatic. Viraemia was detected in all the inoculated animals and shedding of virus from the respiratory tract occurred in 6. Five mares were re-challenged intranasally 7 and 15 weeks after inoculation. Clinical signs of the disease in these mares were limited to mild conjunctivitis. After re-challenge, virus was recovered from buffy coat cultures of 2 mares 2-6 days after re-infection. EAV was not recovered from colostrum and milk samples during the 1st week post partum. All inoculated mares seroconverted to EAV 8-12 days post inoculation and also seroconverted after re-challenge. No clinical signs of EAV infection were observed in the 3 mares kept in close contact during the post-inoculation and re-challenge periods. Serum neutralising antibody to the virus was detected in 1 in-contact mare only, while a detectable concentration of specific IgG was found by ELISA in the colostrum of 1 of the other in-contact mares. Eight of the mares gave birth to clinically normal foals, although 1 was born prematurely. Shortly after birth, 7 foals developed fever and variable clinical signs; 5 foals became septicaemic and 3 of them died 2-5 days after birth, while the remaining 2 were euthanased at 1 month of age. EAV was not recovered from the placenta, from buffy coat fractions of blood collected from foals immediately after birth and 1-3 days later, or from a range of tissues taken from the 3 foals that died and 2 that were euthanased. Virus was not isolated from tissues collected from
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii in pregnant women in Saudi Arabia and detect the risk factors associated with infection. Methods: Data were collected using questionnaires after the participants signed the consent form. ELISA techniques were used to detect both immunoglobulin G (IgG and immunoglobulin M (IgM antibodies against T. gondii for all samples from the participants. Results: About 326 samples were examined by ELISA to detect IgG and IgM. Seroprevalence of IgG was 21.2% (69 while seroprevalence of IgM was 1.2% (4. The majority of pregnant women [168 (52.0%] were in the third trimester. The history of abortion occurred in 95 (29.1% for the first or second time while 31 (9.5% had abortion three times and more. The study found relationship between previous infection with T. gondii and the height of pregnant women. The women with height less than 150 cm were more affected than others (P < 0.02. Association was observed between eating undercooked meat and infection with T. gondii (P = 0.008. Conclusions: Infection with T. gondii was found among Saudi women. High proportions of women (78.8% are exposed to primary infection which can lead to abortion. Therefore, it is recommended that educational program to raise awareness to prevent the infection should be commenced without delay.
Nielsen, Jens; Bøtner, Anette; Bille-Hansen, Vivi
The use of a live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine in piglets has been associated with reproductive disorders in non-vaccinated sows. Vaccine-derived virus (VDV) has been isolated from foctuses, stillborn pigs, and dead: piglets, indicating...... that the live vaccine spread from vaccinated piglets to non-vaccinated sows, and that the virus might be implicated in the severe reproductive problems observed. In the present study, one such VDV isolate was used to experimentally infect pregnant sows in the last trimester. The chosen isolate, which had more...... than 99.6% identity to the attenuated vaccine virus, originated from the lungs of a stillborn pig from a swine herd with a sudden high level of stillborn pigs and increased piglet mortality in the nursing period. Intranasal inoculation of sows with the virus isolate resulted in congenital infection...
Agmas, Birhan; Tesfaye, Reta; Koye, Digsu Negese
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan organism that infects both birds and mammals. Human infections are particularly serious if they occur during pregnancy and may result in abortion or congenitally acquired disorders which primarily affect the central nervous system. This study assessed seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and associated risk factors among pregnant women at Debre Tabor, Northwest Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May, 2013. A total of 263 pregnant women who came to Debre Tabor public health facilities for antenatal care were selected and included in the study. The venous blood serum was tested using toxolatex agglutination test. Data on socio-demographic and potential risk factors were collected using structured questionnaire through face-to-face interview. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to identify associations between dependent and independent variables. Of 263 pregnant women included in the study, 180 (68.4%, 95% CI: 63.1-71.4%) were found to be seropositive for anti-toxoplasma antibody. Multivariable analysis showed; age group ≥ 36 years (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 3.56; 95% CI: 1.01-12.5), cannot read and write (AOR = 4.77; 95% CI: 1.01-30.3), and cat ownership (AOR = 3.36; 95% CI: 1.39-8.12) were significantly associated with seropositivity of T.gondii infection. Seroprevalence of T.gondii infection in Debre Tabor town was high. Age, educational status and presence of cats in home were identified as factors associated with T.gondii infection. Education of pregnant women about the transmission and prevention methods of this infection through health extension and in antenatal care clinics is important. Besides, studies on incidence of toxoplasmosis in newborns and infants are recommended.
Quian, Jorge; Visconti, Ana; Gutiérrez, Stella; Galli, Ana; Maturo, María; Galeano, Virginia; Serra, Margarita; Lioni, Marta
A high percentage of Uruguayan pregnant women are not under medical control. As a consequence, vertically transmission of HIV infection reaches to 50%. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women who did not know their serological status and to decrease mother-to-child transmission. from January 2002 to January 2004 the HIV rapid test was performed to every pregnant woman that assisted to a public Uruguayan hospital unaware of her condition. The proper prophylactic decisions were adopted according to gestational age. The newborn infants were classified according to CDC criteria. HIV infection prevalence in pregnant women and in their newborn infants was calculated. there were 34,338 obstetric consultations and 4,599 rapid tests were performed. Fifty-nine turned out positive in 58 women, 8 of them knew their serological status previously. The HIV infection prevalence was 1.1% (IC95% 0.8-1.4). Five cases were discharged: 1 false positive and 3 miscarriages and 1 abortion. Ten women dropped out in the follow up. Twelve women received TARV during pregnancy for over a week. Thirty-nine infants could be controlled: 33 seroreverted, 4 were exposed and 2 became infected. Mother-to-child transmission was 5.1%. If all patients who dropped out the follow up were infected, the transmission rate should be of 20.4%; therefore the infection would have been prevented in 16 children. As many women and children were lost, other complementary actions as counseling and social worker interview should be adopted in order to improve the yield of rapid test screening strategy.
Fernandes,Márcia Antunes; Batista, Giovanni Inácio; da Costa Silveira Carlos, Juliano; Gomes, Ivete Martins; Lopes de Azevedo, Kátia Martins; Setúbal,Sérgio; OLIVEIRA Solange Artimos de; Coca Velarde, Luis Guilhermo; Araújo Cardoso, Claudete Aparecida
OBJECTIVE: Compare the anti-T. gondii IgG titer between HIV-1 infected and non HIV-1 infected pregnant women and report three cases of congenital toxoplasmosis resulting from reactivation of infection during pregnancy of HIV-1 infected women. METHODS: This study was conducted among 2,270 pregnant women with chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection (absence of IgM and presence of IgG), including 82 HIV-1 infected and 2,188 non-infected women. RESULTS: The average anti-T. gondii IgG titer was 127 fo...
Blaney, Nancy T; Fernandez, M Isabel; Ethier, Kathleen A; Wilson, Tracey E; Walter, Emmanuel; Koenig, Linda J
This study addressed two aims: (1) to assess the level of depressive symptoms among pregnant, HIV-infected racial and ethnic minority women and (2) to identify potentially modifiable factors associated with prenatal depression in order to foster proactive clinical screening and intervention for these women. Baseline interview data collected from HIV-infected women participating in the Perinatal Guidelines Evaluation Project were analyzed. Participants were from prenatal clinics in four areas representative of the U. S. HIV/AIDS epidemic among women. Of the final sample (n = 307), 280 were minorities (218 blacks [African American and Caribbean], 62 Hispanic). Standardized interviews assessed potential psychosocial factors associated with pregnancy-related depression and psychological distress (life stressors, inadequate social support, and ineffective coping skills) in a population for whom little work has been done. Depressive symptomatology was considerable, despite excluding somatic items in order to avoid confounding from prenatal or HIV-related physical symptoms. The psychosocial factors significantly predicted the level of prenatal depressive symptoms beyond the effects of demographic and health-related factors. Perceived stress, social isolation, and disengagement coping were associated with greater depression, positive partner support with lower depression. These findings demonstrate that psychosocial and behavioral factors amenable to clinical intervention are associated with prenatal depression among women of color with HIV. Routine screening to identify those currently depressed or at risk for depression should be integrated into prenatal HIV-care settings to target issues most needing intervention.
Hygino, Joana; Vieira, Morgana M; Guillermo, Landi V; Silva-Filho, Renato G; Saramago, Carmen; Lima-Silva, Agostinho A; Andrade, Regis M; Andrade, Arnaldao F B; Brindeiro, Rodrigo M; Tanuri, Amilcar; Guimarães, Vander; de Melo Bento, Cleonice Alves
Our objective was to evaluate the in vitro functional profile of T cells from uninfected neonates born from HIV-1-infected pregnant women who controlled (G1) or not (G2) the virus replication. We demonstrated that the lymphoproliferation of T cell to polyclonal activators was higher in the G2 as compared with G1. Nevertheless, no detectable proliferative response was observed in response to HIV-1 antigens in both neonate groups. Cytokine dosage in the supernatants of these polyclonally activated T cell cultures demonstrated that, while IL-10 was the dominant cytokine produced in G1, Th17-related cytokines were significantly higher in G2 neonates. The higher Th17 phenotype tendency in G2 was related to high production of IL-23 by lipopolysaccharide-activated monocyte-derived dendritic cells from these neonates. Our results demonstrated immunological disorders in uninfected neonates born from viremic HIV-1-infected mothers that can help to explain why some of these children have elevated risk of clinical morbidity and mortality due to pathological hypersensitivity.
Sahi, Siew-Veena; Rogozińska, Ewelina; Sobhy, Soha; Khan, Khalid S
Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy is linked to increased risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, and preterm birth. Currently, PCR or DNA-based tests are the gold standard when detecting the infection; however, they are costly and require access to specialist equipment. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the accuracy of available tests to detect infection in an asymptomatic pregnant population. There was evidence of the superior accuracy of nucleic acid amplification tests to cell culture in nonpregnant asymptomatic women; however, there are multiple commercial nucleic acid amplification tests with varying sensitivities and specificities. There is a gap in current literature on accuracy studies in an asymptomatic pregnant population, particularly within routine antenatal settings. There is a need for a point-of-care test for Chlamydia in pregnancy. Future test accuracy studies for this population should aim to use a universally established reference standard. Further research should provide relevant evidence to guide practice.
Elduma, Adel Hussein; Osman, Waleed Mohammed
Dengue fever and hepatitis E virus infection are both a public health problem in developing countries due to poor sanitation. Infection with viral hepatitis and dengue fever can present with similar clinical such and fever, headache and abortion. This study was conducted in Port-Sudan city in the eastern part of the country. ELISA and Real Time PCR tests were used to detect the infection. A total number of 39 pregnant women with a mean age 26 ±7.8 were included in the study. All of them had fever, 32 (92.3%) admitted with headache, 11 (28.2%) of them had vomiting, and abortion was reported in two cases (5.1%). The study showed that 4 (10.3%) of pregnant women were positive for the Hepatitis E virus, 5 (12.8%) positive for Dengue virus IgG, and only one sample (2.6%) was positive for IgM capture ELISA and real time PCR. Death due to hepatitis E infection was reported in one case with 7(th) month of pregnancy. Most of hepatitis cases were reported in the central sector of the Portsudan city. The diagnosis of hepatitis E virus and dengue virus in an endemic area is a great challenge for health care staff working in these areas. Both Dengue virus and Hepatitis E virus infection should be considered in pregnant women especially in similar settings.
Akanbi, O M; Odaibo, A B; Ademowo, O G
To determine the effect of malaria infection on pregnant women and the birth weight of the infants in the south western Nigeria. 262 pregnant women who came for antenatal clinic at Ade-Oyo maternity hospital. 128 were primigravidae while 134 were multigravidae. 2ml of blood was withdrawn from 262 pregnant women who came for antenatal clinic at Ade Oyo maternity hospital. Thick blood smears were prepared for parasite identification and quantification. Anaemia was detected by measuring Hb levels using Drabkin's solution. Age, gravidity and history of treatment with antimalaria drugs were obtained from the subjects using questionnaire. The overall prevalence of infection was 41.8%. Primigravidae were more infected (35%) than multigravidae (22%). The prevalence was significantly higher (p<0.05) in wet season than dry season. Teenagers and primigravidae were more infected than the adults and multigravidae. The severity of the anaemia was significantly higher (p<0.05) among malaria positive teenagers and primigravidae than adults and multigravidae. The mean birth weight of infants born to malaria positive was significantly lower (p<0.05) than those born to malaria negative mothers. Malaria positive teenagers and primigravidae had infants with lowest birth weight as compared with adult and multigravidae. The birth weights of the infants were positively correlated with the Hb levels. This study suggests that malaria infection, anaemia, and gravidity affect the birth weight of infants born in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria.
Costa, Zelma B; Machado, Gustavo C; Avelino, Mariza M; Gomes Filho, Clidenor; Macedo Filho, Jose V; Minuzzi, Ana L; Turchi, Marilia D; Stefani, Mariane M A; de Souza, Wayner Vieira; Martelli, Celina Mt
Hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are a major burden to public health worldwide. Routine antenatal HIV-1 screening to prevent maternal-infant transmission is universally recommended. Our objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of and potential risk factors for HCV and HIV infection among pregnant women who attended prenatal care under the coverage of public health in Central Brazil. Screening and counselling for HIV and HCV infections was offered free of charge to all pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC) in the public health system, in Goiania city (~1.1 million inhabitants) during 2004-2005. Initial screening was performed on a dried blood spot collected onto standard filter paper; positive or indeterminate results were confirmed by a second blood sample. HCV infection was defined as a positive or indeterminate sample (EIA test) and confirmed HCV-RNA technique. HIV infection was defined according to standard criteria. Factors associated with HIV and HCV infections were identified with logistic regression. The number needed to screen (NNS) to prevent one case of infant HIV infection was calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation method. A total of 28,561 pregnant women were screened for HCV and HIV-1 in ANC. Mean maternal age was 23.9 years (SD = 5.6), with 45% of the women experiencing their first pregnancy. Prevalence of HCV infection was 0.15% (95% CI 0.11%-0.20%), and the risk increased with age (p HIV infection was 0.09% (95% CI 0.06%-0.14%). Black women had a 4.9-fold (95% CI 1.42-16.95) greater risk of HIV-1 infection compared to non-black women. NNS to prevent one case of infant HIV infection ranged from 4,141 to 13,928. The prevalence of HIV and HCV infections were low among pregnant women, with high acceptability rates in the opt-in strategy in primary care. Older maternal age was a risk factor for HCV and antenatal HCV testing does not fulfill the requirements for screening recommendation. The finding of
Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Zegeye, Amtatachew Moges; Mengistu, Agmas Dessalegn
Helminth infections have a terrible impact on child growth and development, and harm pregnant women. Regular treatment and long term preventive interventions are important measures to break the transmission routes. Hence, identifying the status of helminth infection and practices of prevention and control measures among pregnant women is important in different geographical areas of Ethiopia including our setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 180 pregnant women from March to June, 2015. About 2 g of stool was collected and examined to identify helminth infections. Proportions and risk factors of helminth infections were calculated using SPSS version 20. Among the total 180 study participants, 38 (21.1% [95% CI 15.2-27.0%]) pregnant women had helminth infections. Hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni were the only identified helminth species. Thirty-six (20.0% [95% CI 14.3-25.7%]) and 4 (2.2% [95% CI 0.2-4.2%]) pregnant women had hookworm and S. mansoni infections, respectively. Of which, double infection (hookworm and S. mansoni) was found in two pregnant women. Only 32 (17.8%) pregnant women had proper hand wash practice after toilet, 48 (26.7%) drank treated water, and 40 (22.2%) wore shoes regularly. Those pregnant women who did not take albendazole or mebendazole dewormers (AOR 3.57; 95% CI 1.19-10.69; P 0.023) were more infected from helminth infections. This study showed that there was a high intestinal helminth infection among pregnant women, and low practice of prevention and control measures. Thus, prevention and control measures should be strengthened in the setting.
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite lives and also causes symptoms in urogenital system of human. Trichomoniasis is the widest spread infection which is transmitted through sexual contact and more than 170 million people are a ffected with Trichomonas vaginalis in the world. Trichomonas vaginalis in women causes pelvic inflammatory disease, increase in the risk of fallopian tube dependent infertility, ectopic pregnancy, preterm labor, the birth of low weight infants and the increase in the possibility of HIV transmission. Considering the importance of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in pregnant women and lack of data from Ardabil city, this study was performed to identify this infection in pregnant women referred to health and medical centers of Ardabil city. Methods: Vaginal discharge from 500 pregnant women was collected with sterile swap and disposable speculum and examined for Trichomonas vaginalis by direct microscopic examination and cultured in Diamond specific medium. A testimonial and questionnaire were completed for each case and the results analyzed using chi-square test by SPSS statistical software version 19. Results: In this study, the culture of samples displayed 12 positive cases (2.4%. Furthermore, Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites were observed in five cases (1% with direct microscopic examination. Among 12 positive cases, five respondents (41.7% were in age range of 16-25 years and seven (58.3% in 26-35 years old. Among different clinical manifestations there was a significant relation between discharge and the infection. Conclusion: The present survey confirmed the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in pregnant women of Ardabil city. Therefore, an effective healthcare program by health authorities for prevention of infection in this group seems to be needed.
Christopher J Hoffmann
Full Text Available Introduction: Globally, hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is the leading cause of liver-related mortality. Newborn vaccination, maternal antiviral therapy and administering hepatitis B immune globulin shortly after birth can greatly reduce the risk of perinatal and infant infection. However, evidence-based policy regarding these interventions in Africa is hampered by gaps in knowledge of HBV epidemiology. We describe maternal chronic hepatitis B (CHB prevalence and infant infection during the first year of life within a cohort of women living with HIV. Methods: We recruited and prospectively followed pregnant women living with HIV and their infants from prenatal clinics in an urban area of South Africa. Hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-hepatitis B surface antibodies and HBV DNA were assessed in all women. Hepatitis B testing was also performed at 6 and 52 weeks for all infants born to mothers with either positive surface antigen or detectable HBV DNA. Results: We enrolled 189 women with a median age of 29 years and median CD4 count of 348 cells/mm3. Fourteen had a positive surface antigen (7.4%, of which six were positive for “e” antigen. An additional three had detectable HBV DNA without positive surface antigen. One infant developed CHB and three others had evidence of transmission based on positive HBV DNA assays. HBV vaccinations were delivered at six weeks of life to all infants. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the risk of peripartum HBV transmission in this setting. Approaches to reducing this transmission should be considered.
Barr, B C; Conrad, P A; Sverlow, K W; Tarantal, A F; Hendrickx, A G
Neospora is a newly recognized Toxoplasma-like protozoan that causes spontaneous abortion and/or neonatal disease in a wide range of animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the susceptibility of primates to Neospora infection. In experiment 1, two rhesus macaque fetuses were inoculated in utero at gestational day 65 with 1 x 10(6) culture-derived Neospora tachyzoites. A control fetus was given uninfected vehicle. The fetuses were removed by hysterotomy between 13 and 22 days postinoculation. In experiment 2, two pregnant macaques were inoculated intramuscularly and intravenously on gestational day 43 with a total of 1.6 x 10(7) culture-derived tachyzoites. A pregnant control macaque was given uninfected vehicle. The fetuses were removed by hysterotomy between 67 to 70 days postinoculation. Fetal tissues were collected for in vitro parasite isolation, histopathology, and Neospora immunohistochemistry. Fetal blood was examined for Neospora-specific antibody titers using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. Neospora infections were confirmed in all fetuses that received tachyzoites either directly or via transplacental infection. In experiment 1, infected fetuses had reduced amniotic fluid volumes, marked protozoal amnionitis and dermatitis, and a mild multifocal encephalitis. Infected fetuses from experiment 2 had a chronic multifocal necrotizing nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis with microcavitation, that was confined to the cerebrum, and a mild multifocal necrotizing amnionitis. In both experiments, Neospora tachyzoites were detected in association with lesions in fetal tissues by immunohistochemistry, and the parasites were reisolated in vitro. IgG Neospora antibody titers were detected in blood from all infected fetuses, whereas Neospora-specific IgM and IgA titers were found in one and three fetuses, respectively. Results indicate that nonhuman primates are susceptible to transplacental Neospora infection. The fetal lesions after transplacental
Walker, Tanja Y; Smith, Emily A; Fenlon, Nancy; Lazaroff, Julie E; Dusek, Cristina; Fineis, Patrick; Crowley, Susan A; Benson, Ruthie; Veselsky, Steven L; Murphy, Trudy V
We estimated the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), a serologic marker of active hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, among pregnant women, and estimated the proportion HBsAg-positive pregnant women who had received additional recommended testing. From 2008 through 2012, Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Programs (PHBPPs) in Florida, Michigan, Minnesota, New York City, and Texas prospectively collected data on demographic characteristics of HBsAg-positive pregnant women. We estimated the prevalence of HBsAg positivity among pregnant women by demographic characteristics using natality data. PHBPPs (excluding Texas) collected additional recommended testing (for hepatitis B e antigen [HBeAg] and/or HBV deoxyribonucleic acid [DNA]) among HBsAg-positive pregnant women to measure levels of viremia. During the study period, 15,205 HBsAg-positive women were case-managed. The median age of HBsAg-positive women was 29 years; prenatal HBsAg screening was at a median of 27 weeks pre-delivery. Of 15,205 HBsAg-positive women, 11,293 (74.3%) were foreign-born. In four PHBPPs with 14,098 pregnancies among 12,214 HBsAg-positive women, HBeAg and/or HBV DNA testing was documented for 2,794 (19.8%) pregnancies. The estimated prevalence of HBsAg positivity among pregnant women was 0.38% (17,023 of 4,468,773). HBsAg prevalence was highest among foreign-born women from most regions in Asia (2.0% to 8.7%; with the exception of South Asia, 0.4%) and Africa (3.4%). One-fifth of HBsAg-positive pregnant women had documentation for HBeAg and/or HBV DNA, and about one-third reported receiving care for HBV infection during a case-managed pregnancy. Greater emphasis is needed on prenatal evaluation for HBV liver disease care and treatment among pregnant women with HBV infection.
Sagnelli, Evangelista; Taliani, Gloria; Castelli, Francesco; Bartolozzi, Dario; Cacopardo, Bruno; Armignacco, Orlando; Scotto, Gaetano; Coppola, Nicola; Stroffolini, Tommaso; Sagnelli, Caterina
The aims of the study were to estimate the clinical impact of HBV infection in pregnant immigrants and their family members and to identify a useful approach to managing the healthcare of HBsAg-positive immigrants. Included in this study were 143 HBsAg-positive pregnant immigrants of the 1,970 from countries with intermediate/high HBV endemicity who delivered in 8 Italian hospitals in 2012-2013. In addition, 172 family members of 96 HBsAg-positive pregnant immigrants were tested for serum HBsAg. The median age of the 143 HBsAg-positive pregnant immigrants was 31.0±12.1 years and the length of stay in Italy 5.0±4.1 years; 56.5% were unaware of their HBsAg positivity. HBV DNA was detected in 74.5% of the pregnant immigrants, i.e., 94.3% from Eastern Europe, 72.2% from East Asia and 58.1% from Sub-Saharan Africa. HBV DNA ≥2000 IU/mL was detected in 47.8% of pregnant immigrants, associated with ALT ≥1.5 times the upper normal value in 15% of cases. Anti-HDV was detected in 10% of cases. HBsAg was detected in 31.3% of the 172 family members. All HBsAg-positive immigrants received counseling on HBV infection and its prevention, and underwent a complete clinical evaluation. The findings validate the approach used for the healthcare management of the HBsAg-positive immigrant population.
Huang, Hongyu; Xu, Chenyu; Zhou, Xuan; Liu, Lanhua; Dai, Yimin; Xu, Biao; Yang, Jishi; Chen, Tingmei; Hu, Yali; Zhou, Yi-Hua
Hepatitis E has poor outcomes in pregnant women. Superinfection of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) may worsen liver disease. To estimate the incidence and seroprevalence of HEV infection among HBV-infected pregnant women, to investigate the transplacental transfer of maternal anti-HEV IgG, and to compare the maternal and neonatal outcomes in anti-HEV positive and negative pregnant women. Totally 391 HBV-infected pregnant women were recruited from April 2012 to October 2014. Paired mothers and infants were followed up at an average 9.8 months postpartum. Anti-HEV IgG and IgM were tested by ELISA. Of the pregnant women, none was anti-HEV IgM positive and 42 (10.7%) were IgG positive. At the follow-up, 3 seronegative women converted to anti-HEV IgG positive, with an estimated incidence of 17 per 1000 person-years. No significant differences of gestational age, preterm birth rate, Apgar score and birthweight were observed between newborns of anti-HEV IgG positive and negative mothers. Of the 42 neonates born to anti-HEV IgG positive mothers, 38 (90.5%) had anti-HEV IgG in their cord blood. The neonatal and maternal anti-HEV IgG levels were positively correlated (r=0.827, ppregnant women rarely have novel HEV infection during late pregnancy in Jiangsu, China. Maternal anti-HEV IgG efficiently transfers into the fetuses, and disappears in infants before 10 months old. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Marcos Gontijo da Silva
Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is one of the most important diseases of the nervous central system, leading to severe symptoms and, many times, irreversible sequelae. This work demonstrated the main anatomopathological lesions caused by Toxoplasma gondii in brains from experimentally infected BALB/c mice. We analyzed 51 cases of mice that developed toxoplasmosis after experimental infection by intraperitoneal inoculation of blood, amniotic liquid and cerebrospinal fluid from fetuses, newly born children and pregnant women with clinical and laboratory signals of toxoplasmosis. In all experiments where we detected the parasite in mice we also detected pathological lesions in the animal brains with great polymorphism between experiments. Edema was the most found lesion in all cases. Besides, it was possible to demonstrate the inflammatory process in 82.4% of cases and necrosis in 64.7% of cases, in agreement with the literature that describes severe neurological damage in its hosts.
Vettore, Marcelo Vianna; Dias, Marcos; Vettore, Mario Vianna; Leal, Maria do Carmo
The aim of this study was to assess the sociodemographic risk factors for urinary tract infection and the inadequacy of antenatal care, according to the Kotelchuck index, in pregnant women in the city of Rio de Janeiro. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,091 pregnant women, 501 with urinary tract infection, in the public health antenatal care units in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2007-2008. Demographic and socioeconomic data, obstetric history and adequacy of antenatal care were collected by interviews and antenatal care card. Inadequacy management of urinary tract infection was evaluated by professional performance, health services and women dimensions. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression were used to compare groups and to identify associated factors with management of urinary tract infection. Pregnant teenagers, anemic and diabetic pregnant women and quality of prenatal partially adequate or inadequate were those with higher odds of urinary tract infection. In the overall assessment, 72% had inadequate management of urinary tract infection. Inadequate management of urinary tract infection was associated with brown skin color compared to white skin color. In the assessment of health professional performance, inadequacy management of urinary tract infection was more common in pregnant women with low weight and overweight and obesity. According to pregnant women evaluation, primiparous women have lower odds of inadequacy management of urinary tract infection compared to those with one or more children.
Umare, Abdi; Seyoum, Berhanu; Gobena, Tesfaye; Haile Mariyam, Tamirat
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem worldwide. Reports have shown that 68,600 people die of HBV infection and more than 300,000 deaths due to liver cancer secondary to hepatitis B every year globally. Women who are infected with HBV can vertically transmit the infection to their infants. This study aims to determine the prevalence of HBV infection and associated factors among pregnant women. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women who attended antenatal care clinic (ANC) for routine pregnancy check-up between 18 March 2015 and 15 May 2015. Data were collected by face to face interview using a pre-tested questionnaire. Serum was withdrawn for each study subject and used to test for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between explanatory variables and outcome variable. The prevalence of HBV infection was found to be 6.9%. Interestingly, the history of abortion (AOR 10.9; 95% CI: 2.2-53.9), nose piercing (AOR 9.1; 95% CI: 1.34-61.79), surgical procedure (AOR 12.8; 95% CI: 1.68-97.06) and history of multiple sexual partners (AOR 16.8; 95% CI: 3.18-89.06) were significant predictors of HBV infection. This study determined that the prevalence of HBV infection among pregnant women was 6.9%, implying that it is high-intermediate endemic area, which is important public health issue needs to be addressed. History of abortion, nose piercing, surgical procedures and multiple sexual partners were significantly associated with this viral infection. Accordingly we advocate that health education programs on the mode of HBV transmission, high-risk behaviors and methods of preventions should be instituted at antenatal care clinics to raise the awareness of mothers and limit the spread of infection. It is also advisable to implement nosocomial infection prevention strategies to prevent the
Pathological lesions were observed in four Fasciola gigantica infected Yankasa sheep that died at the 10th, 11th and 12th week post-infection in an experimental infection at the Reproduction unit of the National Animal production Research institute, Shika-Zaria, Nigeria. The experiment involved twelve Yankasa sheep that ...
YOELI, M; MOST, H; BONE, G
A number of strains of Plasmodium berghei were isolated from sporozoites of Anopheles dureni. Laboratory-bred Anopheles quadrimaculatus fed on carriers of the newly isolated strains showed overwhelming midgut infections and moderate or mild salivary gland infections. Successive cyclic transmissions by the bite of experimentally infected A. quadrimaculatus in laboratorybred tree rats (Thamnomys surdaster) were carried out.
Stefani Mariane MA
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infections are a major burden to public health worldwide. Routine antenatal HIV-1 screening to prevent maternal-infant transmission is universally recommended. Our objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of and potential risk factors for HCV and HIV infection among pregnant women who attended prenatal care under the coverage of public health in Central Brazil. Methods Screening and counselling for HIV and HCV infections was offered free of charge to all pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC in the public health system, in Goiania city (~1.1 million inhabitants during 2004–2005. Initial screening was performed on a dried blood spot collected onto standard filter paper; positive or indeterminate results were confirmed by a second blood sample. HCV infection was defined as a positive or indeterminate sample (EIA test and confirmed HCV-RNA technique. HIV infection was defined according to standard criteria. Factors associated with HIV and HCV infections were identified with logistic regression. The number needed to screen (NNS to prevent one case of infant HIV infection was calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation method. Results A total of 28,561 pregnant women were screened for HCV and HIV-1 in ANC. Mean maternal age was 23.9 years (SD = 5.6, with 45% of the women experiencing their first pregnancy. Prevalence of HCV infection was 0.15% (95% CI 0.11%–0.20%, and the risk increased with age (p Conclusion The prevalence of HIV and HCV infections were low among pregnant women, with high acceptability rates in the opt-in strategy in primary care. Older maternal age was a risk factor for HCV and antenatal HCV testing does not fulfill the requirements for screening recommendation. The finding of higher risk of HIV-1 infection among black women despite being in consonance with the HIV-1 ethnic pattern in some American regions cannot be ruled out to be a surrogate
Awobode, H O; Olubi, I C
Toxoplasmosis, a disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii poses a risk of congenital infection during pregnancy in infected women. The disease poses a threat of ocular and neurological sequelae in congenitally ilfected infants and HIV patients; however, there is little valuable information on its prevalence in Ibadan. A cross sectional study of pregnant women attending antenatal care in three primary healthcare centres in Ibadan was carried out. 179 women were screened for T gondii infection using PCR, 83 of these were also screened for HIV. Forty nine (27.4%) were positive for T gondii, and 2(2.4%) were HIV positive (P = 0.002, OR = 0.28, CL = 95%). 27 (15.1%) of the infected women were in third trimester, with 20 (11.2%) and 2 (1.1%) in second and first trimester respectively. 18 (10.1%) positive cases were identified among the primigravidas and 31 (17.2%) among the multigravidas. Risk factors associated with Toxoplasma infection were assessed, and the source of drinking water and the types of animals around habitation were found to be significantly associated with the presence of Toxoplasma infection (P = 0.002, OR = 2.109 and P = 0.004, OR = 1.693 respectively). The high prevalence among women in third trimester may indicate high risk of congenital infection, and the significant association found between the source of drinking water and infection suggests environmental contamination as a major possible mode of infection. The need to educate pregnant women about the transmission mechanisms of T. gondii, and the effects of the infection on neonates and babies is pertinent in order to effectively control Toxoplasma infection.
Listeriosis, resulting from Listeria monocytogenes infection, primarily targets the elderly, immunocompromised persons and pregnant women; the latter accounting for one-third of the 2500 cases reported annually. When a pregnant woman is exposed to this food borne pathogen, her risk of having a stil...
van Eijk, Anna M.; Hill, Jenny; Noor, Abdisalan M.; Snow, Robert W.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.
Background In malarious areas, pregnant women are more likely to have detectable malaria than are their nonpregnant peers, and the excess risk of infection varies with gravidity. Pregnant women attending antenatal clinic for their first visit are a potential pragmatic sentinel group to track the
Full Text Available Appolinary AR Kamuhabwa, Richard Gordian, Ritah F Mutagonda Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Background: In 2011, Tanzania adopted a policy for provision of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to HIV-infected pregnant women for prevention of malaria and other opportunistic infections. As per the policy, HIV-infected pregnant women should not be given sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP for intermittent preventive therapy. The challenges associated with this policy change and the extent to which the new policy for prevention of malaria in pregnant women coinfected with HIV was implemented need to be assessed. Aim: To assess the implementation of malaria-preventive therapy policy among HIV-infected pregnant women in the public health facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methodology: The study was conducted in Kinondoni Municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, from January 2015 to July 2015. Three hundred and fifty-three HIV-infected pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinics (ANCs and using co-trimoxazole for prevention of malaria were interviewed. Twenty-six health care workers working at the ANCs were also interviewed regarding provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to pregnant women. A knowledge scale was used to grade the level of knowledge of health care providers. Focus group discussions were also conducted with 18 health care workers to assess the level of implementation of the policy and the challenges encountered. Results: Twenty-three (6.5% pregnant women with known HIV serostatus were using co-trimoxazole for prevention of opportunistic infections even before they became pregnant. Out of the 353 HIV-infected pregnant women, eight (2.5% were coadministered with both SP and co-trimoxazole. Sixty (16.7% pregnant women had poor adherence to co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. Out of the 26 interviewed health care providers, 20 had high
Ezechi, Oliver Chukwujekwu; Kalejaiye, Olufunto Olufela; Gab-Okafor, Chidinma Vivian; Oladele, David Ayola; Oke, Bamidele Oludare; Musa, Zaidat Adesola; Ekama, Sabdat Ozichu; Ohwodo, Harry; Agahowa, Endurance; Gbajabiamilla, Titilola; Ezeobi, Paschal Mbanefo; Okwuraiwe, Azuka; Audu R, Rosemary Ajuma; Okoye, Rosemary Nwakaego; David, Agatha Nkiru; Odunukwe, Nkiruka Nonyelum; Onwujekwe, Dan Ifeanyi; Ujah, Innocent Achanya
Perinatal and horizontal transmission of Hepatitis B occur in areas of high endemicity as most infections are acquired in the first 5 years of life. Unless Hepatitis B and C infected pregnant women identified, and appropriate treatment provided, children born to these women are at high risk of chronic Hepatitis B (and C) virus infection. The objecive of this study was to determined the prevalence and the factors associated with Hepatitis B and C Virus infection in pregnant HIV positive Nigerians. A cross sectional study among HIV Positive pregnant women seen at a large PMTCT clinic in Lagos Nigeria. The women were screened for Hepatitis B and C Virus infection at enrollment. HIV viral load, CD4 count, liver transaminases and hemoglobin levels were also determined. Data were managed with SPSS for windows version. Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutions Ethical Review Board. Of the 2391 studied subjects, 101(4.2%) and 37(1.5%) respectively were seropositive for Hepatitis B and C Virus infection. Twowomen (0. 08%) had triple infections. blood transfusion, (cOR: 2.3; 95% CI:1.1-4.6), history of induced abortion (cOR:2. 2;95% CI:1.3-3.6), and elevated baseline ALT (cOR:2. 2; 95%CI:2. 2;4.2) were significantly associated with HBV. History of induced abortion was the only factor found to be associated with HIV/ HCV (cOR: 1.9;95%CI:1. 3-3.9). Hepatitis B Virus infection (4.2%) is relatively common in our environment and associated with induced abortion, blood transfusion and elevated baseline transaminase. Hepatitis C Virus infection (1.5%) is less common and associated with only history of induced abortion.
Ezechi, Oliver Chukwujekwu; Kalejaiye, Olufunto Olufela; Gab-Okafor, Chidinma Vivian; Oladele, David Ayola; Oke, Bamidele Oludare; Musa, Zaidat Adesola; Ekama, Sabdat Ozichu; Ohwodo, Harry; Agahowa, Endurance; Gbajabiamilla, Titilola; Ezeobi, Paschal Mbanefo; Okwuraiwe, Azuka; Audu R, Rosemary Ajuma; Okoye, Rosemary Nwakaego; David, Agatha Nkiru; Odunukwe, Nkiruka Nonyelum; Onwujekwe, Dan Ifeanyi; Ujah, Innocent Achanya
Introduction Perinatal and horizontal transmission of Hepatitis B occur in areas of high endemicity as most infections are acquired in the first 5 years of life. Unless Hepatitis B and C infected pregnant women identified, and appropriate treatment provided, children born to these women are at high risk of chronic Hepatitis B (and C) virus infection. The objecive of this study was to determined the prevalence and the factors associated with Hepatitis B and C Virus infection in pregnant HIV positive Nigerians. Methods A cross sectional study among HIV Positive pregnant women seen at a large PMTCT clinic in Lagos Nigeria. The women were screened for Hepatitis B and C Virus infection at enrollment. HIV viral load, CD4 count, liver transaminases and hemoglobin levels were also determined. Data were managed with SPSS for windows version. Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutions Ethical Review Board. Results Of the 2391 studied subjects, 101(4.2%) and 37(1.5%) respectively were seropositive for Hepatitis B and C Virus infection. Twowomen (0. 08%) had triple infections. blood transfusion, (cOR: 2.3; 95% CI:1.1 - 4.6), history of induced abortion (cOR:2. 2;95% CI:1.3 - 3.6), and elevated baseline ALT (cOR:2. 2; 95%CI:2. 2;4.2) were significantly associated with HBV. History of induced abortion was the only factor found to be associated with HIV/ HCV (cOR: 1.9;95%CI:1. 3-3.9). Conclusion Hepatitis B Virus infection (4.2%) is relatively common in our environment and associated with induced abortion, blood transfusion and elevated baseline transaminase. Hepatitis C Virus infection (1.5%) is less common and associated with only history of induced abortion. PMID:25396023
Salazar-Austin, Nicole; Hoffmann, Jennifer; Cohn, Silvia; Mashabela, Fildah; Waja, Ziyaad; Lala, Sanjay; Hoffmann, Christopher; Dooley, Kelly E; Chaisson, Richard E; Martinson, Neil
Prior to the wide availability of antiretroviral therapy, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV disease among pregnant women resulted in poor maternal and neonatal outcomes including high rates of mother-to-child transmission of both HIV and TB. We aimed to describe the impact of TB among HIV-infected mothers on obstetric and infant outcomes in a population with access to antiretroviral therapy. In this prospective cohort study, we followed HIV-infected pregnant women with and without TB disease from January 2011 through January 2014 in Soweto, South Africa. Two controls were enrolled for each case, matched by enrollment time, maternal age, gestational age, and planned delivery clinic and followed for 12 months post-delivery. We recruited 80 cases and 155 controls resulting in 224 live-born infants. Infants of mothers with HIV and TB disease had a higher risk of low birth weight (20.8% vs 10.7%, p=0.04), prolonged hospitalization at birth (51% vs 16%, p<0.0001), infant mortality (68/1000 births vs 7/1000 births, p<0.001), and TB disease (12% vs 0%, p<0.001) despite appropriate maternal therapy and infant TB preventive therapy. HIV transmission was higher among these infants (4.1% vs 1.3%, p=0.20), though this difference was not statistically significant. Obstetric outcomes in co-infected women were also poorer with higher risks of maternal hospitalization (25% vs 11%, p=0.005) and pre-eclampsia (5.5% vs 0.7%, p=0.03). TB in HIV co-infected pregnant women remains a significant threat to the health of both the mother and infant. Improving TB prevention and early diagnosis among pregnant women is critical.
Sarah A. Holtz, DrPH, MPH
Full Text Available Background: In high-prevalence populations, HIV-related maternal mortality is high with increased mortality found among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women compared to their uninfected peers. The scale-up of HIV-related treatment options and broader reach of programming for HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women is likely to have decreased maternal mortality. This systematic review synthesized evidence on interventions that have directly reduced mortality among this population. Methods: Studies published between January 1, 2003 and November 30, 2014 were searched using PubMed. Of the 1,373 records screened, 19 were included in the analysis. Results: Interventions identified through the review include antiretroviral therapy (ART, micronutrients (multivitamins, vitamin A, and selenium, and antibiotics. ART during pregnancy was shown to reduce mortality. Timing of ART initiation, duration of treatment, HIV disease status, and ART discontinuation after pregnancy influence mortality reduction. Incident pregnancy in women already on ART for their health appears not to have adverse consequences for the mother. Multivitamin use was shown to reduce disease progression while other micronutrients and antibiotics had no beneficial effect on maternal mortality. Conclusions: ART was the only intervention identified that decreased death in HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women. The findings support global trends in encouraging initiation of lifelong ART for all HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women (Option B+, regardless of their CD4+ count, as an important step in ensuring appropriate care and treatment. Global Health Implications: Maternal mortality is a rare event that highlights challenges in measuring the impact of interventions on mortality. Developing effective patient-centered interventions to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality, as well as corresponding evaluation measures of their impact, requires further attention by
Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Alareqi, Lina M Q; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Al-Eryani, Samira M A; Al-Mikhlafy, Abdullah A; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Alkarshy, Fawzya; Mahmud, Rohela
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic coccidian parasite causing morbidity and mortality. In Yemen, T. gondii infection has been reported among pregnant women seeking healthcare in the main cities. However, no data are available on the prevalence of T. gondii infection and its associated risk factors among pregnant women in the rural communities of the country. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii and identify its risk factors among pregnant women in the rural communities of Taiz governorate, Yemen. A total of 359 pregnant women living in the rural communities of Taiz governorate were enrolled in this study by house-to-house visits. Data were collected using a pre-designed questionnaire, and blood samples were collected and tested for the detection of anti- T. gondii IgM and IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The prevalence of T. gondii infection among pregnant women in this study was 46.2% (166/359). Bivariate analysis identified the age of ≥ 30 years (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-2.65, P = 0.019) and unimproved water sources (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.10-4.55, P = 0.023) as factors associated with T. gondii infection among pregnant women. The multivariable analysis, however, identified unimproved water sources as an independent risk factor (adjusted OR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.16-5.0, P = 0.018) associated with T. gondii infection among pregnant women. Pregnant women in the rural communities of Taiz, Yemen are at high risk of contracting T. gondii infection. Unimproved water sources (wells, water streams and water tanks) are significantly associated with T. gondii infection and should be considered in prevention and control strategies, especially among pregnant women.
Vercruysse, J; Fransen, J; Southgate, V R; Rollinson, D; Majeleine, W
The clinical pathology of Schistosoma curassoni infection in sheep and goats was studied for 22 weeks following experimental infection with 7000 and 4000 cercariae, respectively. Excretion of eggs began at week 7 after infection: in goats the numbers increased to 30 to 50 eggs per gram faeces (epg) at weeks 8 to 18, followed by a reduction. In a pregnant goat, epg values increased markedly before and after parturition. The mean faecal egg counts in sheep were lower than in goats, increasing to a maximum level of 30 epg at weeks 16 and 17 after infection. Infected sheep maintained growth rates roughly comparable with controls, whereas infected goats failed to gain as much weight as the controls. Infected goats and sheep produced eosinophil counts of about 3 x 10(3) mm-3, five and eight weeks after infection, respectively. Sheep developed a progressive anaemia from week 11 after infection, in goats blood values remained within normal limits. Differences in serum protein concentration were observed between infected and uninfected goats about nine weeks after infection, but not in sheep. Increased total protein values, hyperglobulinaemia and lowered albumin to globulin ratios were features of infected goats. Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, total lactate dehydrogenase and bilirubin were not significantly changed. The mean recovery in sheep was 608 worms, in goats 428 worms, but the total tissue egg counts were higher in the latter. Of the total eggs deposited in the goats 92 per cent were found in the liver with 51.5 per cent in the ovine liver. The histopathological changes were studied.
Choi, Sung Eun; Brandeau, Margaret L; Bendavid, Eran
Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa: at least 1 million pregnancies among HIV-infected women are complicated by co-infection with malaria annually, leading to increased risk of premature delivery, severe anaemia, delivery of low birth weight infants, and maternal death. Current guidelines recommend either daily cotrimoxazole (CTX) or intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) for HIV-infected pregnant women to prevent malaria and its complications. The cost-effectiveness of CTX compared to IPTp-SP among HIV-infected pregnant women was assessed. A microsimulation model of malaria and HIV among pregnant women in five malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa was constructed. Four strategies were compared: (1) 2-dose IPTp-SP at current IPTp-SP coverage of the country ("2-IPT Low"); (2) 3-dose IPTp-SP at current coverage ("3-IPT Low"); (3) 3-dose IPTp-SP at the same coverage as antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the country ("3-IPT High"); and (4) daily CTX at ART coverage. Outcomes measured include maternal malaria, anaemia, low birth weight (LBW), and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Sensitivity analyses assessed the effect of adherence to CTX. Compared with the 2-IPT Low Strategy, women receiving CTX had 22.5% fewer LBW infants (95% CI 22.3-22.7), 13.5% fewer anaemia cases (95% CI 13.4-13.5), and 13.6% fewer maternal malaria cases (95% CI 13.6-13.7). In all simulated countries, CTX was the preferred strategy, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ranging from cost-saving to $3.9 per DALY averted from a societal perspective. CTX was less effective than the 3-IPT High Strategy when more than 18% of women stopped taking CTX during the pregnancy. In malarious regions of sub-Saharan Africa, daily CTX for HIV-infected pregnant women regardless of CD4 cell count is cost-effective compared with 3-dose IPTp-SP as long as more than 82% of women adhere to
Walewska-Zielecka, Bożena; Religioni, Urszula; Juszczyk, Grzegorz; Czerw, Aleksandra; Wawrzyniak, Zbigniew; Soszyński, Piotr
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is globally recognized as a serious public health concern. Current statistics indicate that approximately 2% of people worldwide and 1.9% of people in Poland suffer from HCV infection.This study was conducted to assess the anti-HCV seroprevalence in pregnant women in Poland and subsequently provide recommendations on the rationale for obligatory screening.A total of 42,274 women participated in our study, of which 16,130 were pregnant. We were granted access to their health data stored in the form of electronic medical records kept by the network of outpatient clinics throughout Poland.The lowest rate of positive anti-HCV test results was found in women ages 25 to 34 (0.73%); however, younger and older age groups had similar rates (15-24 = 0.86%; 35-44 = 0.84%). Additional analysis of data from the period between 2011 and 2014 revealed a downward trend in the proportion of positive anti-HCV tests among pregnant women (mean positive anti-HCV = -0.001 × year + 1.9451; R = 0.7274). Regardless of the gradual increase in the number of female patients undergoing screening between 2004 and 2015, there has been a constant decrease in the rate of positive cases. The rate of pregnant women potentially infected with HCV was twice as lower than that in a control group of women undergoing tests for other medical circumstances: 0.76% vs 1.67% (P pregnant women.
Anaedobe, Chinenye Gloria; Fowotade, Adeola; Omoruyi, Chukwuma Ewean; Bakare, Rasheed Ajani
Hepatitis B virus is responsible for 50%-80% of Hepatocellular carcinoma cases worldwide. In Nigeria, vertical transmission remains a major route of Hepatitis B virus infection. Primary (vaccines and post-exposure prophylaxis) and secondary prevention of HBV transmission by appropriate sexual and sanitary practices are not yet optimal in the country yet measures for early detection (serological, molecular) and treatment of infected pregnant women is not a practice. This study aimed at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was done at the Ante-natal clinic of the University College Hospital Ibadan. One hundred and eighty pregnant women were recruited from March to August 2013, and tested for Hepatitis B surface antigen (BIORAD FRANCE) using third generation ELISA, as well as HIV-1 and 2 using Uni-Gold Recombigen and ALERE determine (a rapid immunoassay designed to detect antibodies to HIV 1 and/or 2). Positive HBsAg samples were tested for Hepatitis B envelope antigen, antibody and Hepatitis B core antibody (DIAPRO Italy) while serum HBV DNA was detected using PCR. Data were obtained using questionnaires to establish and analysis was performed using SPSS version 20. The seroprevalence of HBsAg was 8.3% out of which 26.7% were positive for HBeAg, 53.3% had HBeAb, 20% had neither HBeAg nor HBeAb, 100% had total HBcAb and 86.7% had HBV DNA in their serum. The mean age was 32.1 years, the highest HBV infection rate occurred in 25-29 year age group. Multiple sexual partners (OR- 3.987, P- value=0.026) and early age at sexual debut (OR 11.996, P- value=0.022) were independent risk factors for HBV infection. Hepatitis B virus infection is of high endemicity in Nigeria thus early detection, treatment of infected pregnant women, immunoprophylaxis for exposed newborns and surveillance for those with chronic infection is essential. Health education programs on
Derso, Adane; Nibret, Endalkachew; Munshea, Abaineh
Background Parasitic infections affect tens of millions of pregnant women worldwide, and directly or indirectly lead to a spectrum of adverse maternal and fetal/placental effects. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care center in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar city, northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted from November...
Marcelin, Glendie; Aldridge, Jerry R; Duan, Susu; Ghoneim, Hazem E; Rehg, Jerold; Marjuki, Henju; Boon, Adrianus C M; McCullers, Jonathan A; Webby, Richard J
Pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus (pH1N1) infection in pregnant women can be severe. The mechanisms that affect infection outcome in this population are not well understood. To address this, pregnant and nonpregnant BALB/c mice were inoculated with the wild-type pH1N1 strain A/California/04/09. To determine whether innate immune responses are associated with severe infection, we measured the innate cells trafficking into the lungs of pregnant versus nonpregnant animals. Increased infiltration of pulmonary neutrophils and macrophages strongly correlated with an elevated mortality in pregnant mice. In agreement with this, the product of nitric oxide (nitrite) and several cytokines associated with recruitment and/or function of these cells were increased in the lungs of pregnant animals. Surprisingly, increased mortality in pregnant mice was not associated with higher virus load because equivalent virus titers and immunohistochemical staining were observed in the nasal cavities or lungs of all mice. To determine whether exacerbated inflammatory responses and elevated cellularity resulted in lung injury, epithelial regeneration was measured. The lungs of pregnant mice exhibited reduced epithelial regeneration, suggesting impaired lung repair. Despite these immunologic alterations, pregnant animals demonstrated equivalent percentages of pulmonary influenza virus-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes, although they displayed elevated levels of T-regulator lymphocytes (Tregs) in the lung. Also, pregnant mice mounted equal antibody titers in response to virus or immunization with a monovalent inactivated pH1N1 A/California/07/09 vaccine. Therefore, immunopathology likely caused by elevated cellular recruitment is an implicated mechanism of severe pH1N1 infection in pregnant mice.
Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Comparative study of single infections of domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with Nigerian isolates of Trypanosoma brucei (Gboko strain), and Trypanosoma congolense (Binchi ... Eighteen rabbits of 10-14 weeks old weighing between 600-1200 grams were used for the study.
were screened for HIV and HCV using rapid screening test kits. Using closed ended ... Two percent of the pregnant women had equivocal (ambivalent) HIV-1 results. .... Laboratories, San Diego, California, USA) detection test kits were used in ...
Vet. J., 2014, 18 (2), 71-81 ther research is recommended to determine the impact of multiple-species habitat ... to be reservoir hosts of helminth infections than wild species (Cook et al., 1979;. Richardson and Demarias .... coincidentally there was also a positive relationship, Regression statistics. (R²=0.6696) between total ...
Laís Spíndola Garcêz
Full Text Available Globally, vitamin A deficiency (VAD affects about 19.1 million pregnant women. Its occurrence is classically associated with inadequate food intake and may also be associated with socioeconomic factors and the presence of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to serum retinol levels among pregnant teenagers. The sample consisted of 89 pregnant adolescents, from whom socioeconomic, obstetric, anthropometric, and food consumption data were collected. Serum concentrations of retinol and the supposed presence of infection were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and C-reactive protein quantification, respectively. The serum retinol concentrations were classified according to the criteria of the World Health Organization. We adopted a 5% significance level for all statistical tests. Serum retinol levels were significantly and positively associated with sanitation (p = 0.008 and pre-gestational nutritional status (p = 0.002, and negatively with the trimester (p = 0.001. The appropriate sanitation conditions and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI were shown to have a protective effect against VAD. Conversely, serum retinol levels were reduced with trimester progression, favoring VAD occurrence.
Spíndola Garcêz, Laís; de Sousa Paz Lima, Geania; de Azevedo Paiva, Adriana; Maria Rebêlo Sampaio da Paz, Suzana; Lázaro Gomes, Erica Ivana; Nunes, Valéria Sutti; Cotta de Faria, Eliana; de Barros-Mazon, Sílvia
Globally, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects about 19.1 million pregnant women. Its occurrence is classically associated with inadequate food intake and may also be associated with socioeconomic factors and the presence of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to serum retinol levels among pregnant teenagers. The sample consisted of 89 pregnant adolescents, from whom socioeconomic, obstetric, anthropometric, and food consumption data were collected. Serum concentrations of retinol and the supposed presence of infection were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and C-reactive protein quantification, respectively. The serum retinol concentrations were classified according to the criteria of the World Health Organization. We adopted a 5% significance level for all statistical tests. Serum retinol levels were significantly and positively associated with sanitation ( p = 0.008) and pre-gestational nutritional status ( p = 0.002), and negatively with the trimester ( p = 0.001). The appropriate sanitation conditions and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were shown to have a protective effect against VAD. Conversely, serum retinol levels were reduced with trimester progression, favoring VAD occurrence.
Riva, Eliana; Fiel, Cesar; Bernat, Gisele; Muchiut, Sebastián; Steffan, Pedro
An experimental study to enhance knowledge on the capability of Trichenella spiralis to pass from guinea pigs to progeny at different periods of pregnancy or lactation was performed. For this purpose, 18 female adult guinea pigs were inoculated with 100 or 1000 T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML) during early, late gestation and during lactation period. The presence of T. spiralis (ML) in mothers and newborns was studied through enzymatic digestion from muscle samples. ML were observed in 9 of 42 newborn guinea pigs and levels of infection were significantly higher when infections of mothers were done during late gestation (p = 0.0046) with the high infective dose (p = 0.0043). T. spiralis ML were not recovered from any of the newborns from mothers infected in the lactation period. Ten out of 18 infected mothers presented larvae 1 in their mammary glands. Muscle samples from the tongue and the masseter showed the highest larval burdens. These observations confirm previous reports on that ML of T. spiralis are capable to pass through placental tissues to reach and encyst in striated muscle groups of newborn guinea pigs. This study may also reinforce the importance of preventive programs to control trichinellosis in those endemic areas where pregnant women would have high risk of infection.
Paula, Fabiana Martins; Sitta, Renata Barnabé; Malta, Fernanda Mello; Gottardi, Maiara; Corral, Marcelo Andreetta; Gryschek, Ronaldo César Borges; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo
Strongyloides venezuelensis is a parasitic nematode of rats which is frequently used as a model to study human and animal strongyloidiasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between parasitological and molecular diagnosis in Strongyloides venezuelensis infection. PCR assays were used to detect S. venezuelensis DNA in fecal samples obtained from experimentally infected Rattus norvegicus. The results showed a higher sensitivity of the PCR assay in detecting the infection compared to parasitological methods.
Vogely, Henri Charles
The diagnostic difficulties, variability in outcome and the heterogeinity of the problem of orthopaedic infections stimulated the author to a study of the literature, and several clinical and experimental studies. The diagnosis prosthesis-related infection can only be reached with an acceptable
Hofstra, J. J.; Matamoros, S.; van de Pol, M. A.; de Wever, B.; Tanck, M. W.; Wendt-Knol, H.; Deijs, M.; van der Hoek, L.; Wolthers, K. C.; Molenkamp, R.; Visser, C. E.; Sterk, P. J.; Lutter, R.; de Jong, M. D.
Human Rhinovirus (HRV) is responsible for the majority of common colds and is frequently accompanied by secondary bacterial infections through poorly understood mechanisms. We investigated the effects of experimental human HRV serotype 16 infection on the upper respiratory tract microbiota. Six
Gerlich, Wolfram H
The main purpose of therapy for infectious diseases is restoration or protection of the patient's health, but suppression or elimination of infectious agents is also important. In two well-defined situations, reduction of potential infectivity may be the main reason for therapy in hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers who do not suffer from significant disease: (1) healthcare providers who perform exposure-prone procedures to prevent transmission of HBV to individuals, and (2) pregnant women in the third trimester to prevent transmission to the fetus. This article describes the necessity to recognize highly viremic HBV-infected individuals in these situations, the methods to estimate the risk of transmission, and the therapeutic possibilities to prevent transmission. With today's methods of monitoring HBV DNA, it is possible to reliably estimate the risk of transmission. The drugs entecavir or tenofovir are able to suppress infectivity of HBV carriers to levels acceptable for healthcare providers performing exposure-prone procedures. According to the CDC, 'chronic HBV infection in itself should not preclude the practice or study of medicine, surgery, dentistry, or allied health professions.' Treatment of pregnant women with very high levels of HBV DNA prevents the transmission to the fetus and further if the newborn receives immediate active/passive immunization against HBV. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Caswell, R J
The pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs in pregnancy is poorly understood. We reviewed the use of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in clinical settings to document plasma concentrations of lopinavir during pregnancy and investigated how clinicians acted upon TDM results. A retrospective review was carried out of all HIV-infected pregnant women taking boosted lopinavir-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) at five National Health Service (NHS) centres in the UK between May 2004 and March 2007. Seventy-three women in receipt of lopinavir were identified, of whom 89% had plasma lopinavir concentrations above the suggested minimum recommended for wild-type HIV. Initial TDM results prompted dosage change in 10% and assessment of adherence and\\/or pharmacist review in 11%. TDM was repeated in 29%. TDM can play an important role in the clinical management of HIV-positive pregnant women, allowing informed dose modification and an alternative measure of adherence.
Abdel Raheem, S M; Abou-Lohum, T S; el-Didy, H; el-Eriani, H; Mansour, S; Hafez, A S
A cross-sectional study was carried out on 130 pregnant women, chosen randomly from those admitted to the labour ward of Al-Thawra general hospital in Sana'a City, Republic of Yemen. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of HBsAg among pregnant women and estimate the maternofoetal transmission. The prevalence of HBsAg among studied women was 15.4%, however, 6.9% showed inconclusive positive results. The materno-foetal transmission was documented in 50% of positive HBsAg women. Hepatitis B infection among studied women was usually acquired after 20 years of age. Logistic regression model with stepwise forward selection, demonstrated that maternal age, past history of blood transfusion and abortions were contributing factors for +ve HBsAg maternal status, while parity and past history of abortions were contributing factors in materno-foetal transmission.
Ma, Xiaosong; Sun, Dehong; Li, Chuansheng; Ying, Jie; Yan, Youde
We aimed to explore whether maternal chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection certainly affects preterm labor (birth) in pregnant women. Four databases were systematically searched up to May 31, 2017, without language restriction. Any study was included if it clearly defined exposure to chronic HBV infection, reported risk of preterm labor or birth in pregnant women, and reported relative risks (RRs) or odds ratios (ORs) or provided data for estimation. RRs (or ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using random-effects models. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed with Cochran's Q statistic and I 2 statistic. Twenty-two observational studies involving 6 141 146 pregnant women (three prospective cohort studies, n = 1 116 799; 15 retrospective cohort studies, n = 5 022 513 and four case-control studies, n = 1834) were included. The risk of preterm labor was significantly intensified with chronic HBV infection compared with uninfected women, with substantial heterogeneity. Chronic HBV infection was also significantly associated with a 16% increase in the risk of preterm birth, with substantial heterogeneity. The risk of preterm birth significantly increased by 21% in HBsAg+/HBeAg+ pregnant women compared with uninfected pregnant women. Chronic HBV infection intensifies the risk of preterm labor and birth in pregnant women, but this conclusion should be interpreted with caution given the possibility of residual confounding and be confirmed by well-designed studies in the future. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hu, Yali; Feng, Zhenhua; Liu, Jingli; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Shu; Zhou, Yi-Hua
We investigated the virological factors predicting spontaneous postpartum hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance in pregnant women infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). We invited 419 HBV infected women whose sera had been collected during their pregnancy from August 2002-July 2004 and archived at -30°C, to participate the follow-up in October 2009-March 2010. Various virological factors were determined and compared in women with or without the seroconversion and seroclearance. A total of 264 (63.0%) antiviral naive women participated in the follow-up with an average observation period of 6.4 years (5.4-7.4). Of 76 women who were HBeAg positive during pregnancy, 42 (55.3%) seroconverted to anti-HBe during follow-up. Compared to pregnant women with HBV DNA ≥3 × 10(7) IU/mL or HBeAg ≥770 S/CO, those with HBV DNA women cleared HBsAg; pregnant women with HBsAg levels of 100-999 and 1000 IU/mL. HBeAg-positive pregnant women with HBV DNA <3 × 10(7) IU/mL or HBeAg <770 S/CO are more likely to undergo postpartum HBeAg seroconversion. HBsAg <100 IU/mL is a strong predictor of spontaneous postpartum HBsAg seroclearance. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thumbiran, N V; Moodley, D; Parboosing, R; Moodley, P
Sub-Saharan Africa is endemic for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. HBV/HIV co-infection in women of reproductive age is of clinical and public health importance because these women constitute a significant reservoir for horizontal and perinatal HBV transmission. Childhood HBV vaccination from 6 weeks of age protects most children against chronic HBV infection. However, infants born to HBV/HIV co-infected women are more likely to be infected perinatally, with an increased risk of chronic hepatitis, than infants born to HBV mono-infected women. The aim of our study was to establish the prevalence of HBV infection and HBV/HIV co-infection in pregnant women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to inform antenatal HBV screening and childhood immunisation policies in South Africa. Stored plasma specimens obtained from 570 pregnant women were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV infectivity, as characterised by the presence of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and/or HBV DNA load. The antenatal HIV prevalence and HBsAg prevalence in this study were 41.6% and 5.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4 - 7.1), respectively. Overall, 3.1% (95% CI 1.7 - 4.6) of pregnant women were HBV/HIV co-infected, with HBeAg positivity and the HBV DNA load being significantly higher in co-infected women. We report a 5.3% HBV prevalence and a 3.1% HBV/HIV co-infection prevalence in pregnant women from this HIV-endemic region. Routine antenatal HBV screening will allow early identification of neonates who require HBV active-passive immunoprophylaxis at birth. This strategy, together with antenatal antiretrovirals, will reduce the risk of perinatal HBV transmission, especially in high-risk HBV/ HIV co-infected pregnant women.
Coppi, G; Falcone, A; Manzardo, S
Pidotimod ((R)-3-[(S)-(5-oxo-2-pyrrolidinyl) carbonyl]-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, PGT/1A, CAS 121808-62-6) protected mice against experimental bacterial infections in different experimental models. In all tests the drug's effect was measured as protection from death. The activity of pidotimod was evident and statistically significant after 5 administrations before the bacterial challenges. Pidotimod was active against many bacterial species infections, its active dosages ranging from 0.01 to 100 mg/kg i.p. x 5 times. Pidotimod showed against some bacterial infections a protection similar or better than those of bestatin, N-acetylmuramyl-L-Ala-D-isoGlu-OH and tuftsin. It showed high protection against bacterial infections in cyclophosphamide-immunodepressed mice. Finally, pidotimod showed an additive or synergic activity in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics (cefotaxime, ampicillin) against bacterial infections in mice.
Saindou, Maoulide; Voirin, Nicolas; Troalen, Didier; Abaine, Abdoulkarim; Chevallier-Queyron, Philippe; Ecochard, René; Vanhems, Philippe
Socio-demographic and behavioral determinants of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination and infection among pregnant women (PW) of Mayotte Island (Indian Ocean) are not well understood. Six hundred and seventy-one pregnant women presenting to public antenatal clinics on Mayotte Island were included between September 15, 2008 and September 27, 2009. Socio-demographics, sexual risk behavior characteristics, and data for HBV biomarkers were collected. Logistic regression was undertaken to study determinants of HBV vaccination and factors associated with the risk of HBV infection were assessed using a survival method adapted to interval-censored data. Due to missing data for HBV biomarkers, data were analyzed using multiple imputation (MI). Past or recent HBV infection was observed for 35.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 30.4-40.8) of PW and 18.6% (95% CI: 14.7-23.2) had evidence of HBV vaccination. PW with unemployed and education qualification (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.65, 95% CI 1.52-4.60) and student status (aOR 4.79, 95% CI 1.63-4.07) were better vaccinated against HBV, compared to those without employment and education. Being born on Comoros was associated with a 63% reduction in HBV vaccination (aOR 0.37, 95% CI 0.21-0.65), compared to be born in Mayotte/France. Women with a history of sexually-transmitted infections in the last 5 years had an increased risk of HBV infection (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 3.10, 95% CI: 1.13-8.50), whereas those who sometimes used condoms had a 60% reduced risk (aHR=0.40, 95% CI: 0.23-0.69). Socio-demographic factors were identified for HBV vaccination, while behavioral factors were observed for HBV infection. These results could help to determine priorities for intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fernandes, Márcia Antunes; Batista, Giovanni Inácio; Carlos, Juliano da Costa Silveira; Gomes, Ivete Martins; Azevedo, Kátia Martins Lopes de; Setúbal, Sérgio; Oliveira, Solange Artimos de; Velarde, Luis Guilhermo Coca; Cardoso, Claudete Aparecida Araújo
Compare the anti-T. gondii IgG titer between HIV-1 infected and non HIV-1 infected pregnant women and report three cases of congenital toxoplasmosis resulting from reactivation of infection during pregnancy of HIV-1 infected women. This study was conducted among 2,270 pregnant women with chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection (absence of IgM and presence of IgG), including 82 HIV-1 infected and 2,188 non-infected women. The average anti-T. gondii IgG titer was 127 for the 2,188 non-HIV-1 infected women, and 227 for the 82 HIV-1-infected women (p = 0,007). These results suggested that higher anti-T. gondii IgG titers in HIV-1-infected pregnant women may not be indicative of an elevated risk for fetal infection. In this study three cases of congenital toxoplasmosis that resulted from infection reactivation during pregnancy of HIV-1-infected women were manifested by fetal death, symptomatic infection, and infant without symptoms, respectively. In two of these women, a ten-fold increase in IgG levels above used cutoff was observed (2,320 UI/mL and 3,613 UI/mL, respectively). In the third pregnant women anti-T. gondii IgG titers during pregnancy did not rise despite the occurrence of congenital toxoplasmosis (204; 198; 172 UI/mL). Congenital toxoplasmosis resulting reactivation of infection during pregnancy in the studied group leads us to believe that it is a public health problem, especially in our population, in which seroprevalence of T. gondii infections is high. These findings also suggest that special attention is necessary during pregnancy, because the serologic diagnosis may not be indicative of toxoplasmosis reactivation.
Márcia Antunes Fernandes
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Compare the anti-T. gondii IgG titer between HIV-1 infected and non HIV-1 infected pregnant women and report three cases of congenital toxoplasmosis resulting from reactivation of infection during pregnancy of HIV-1 infected women. METHODS: This study was conducted among 2,270 pregnant women with chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection (absence of IgM and presence of IgG, including 82 HIV-1 infected and 2,188 non-infected women. RESULTS: The average anti-T. gondii IgG titer was 127 for the 2,188 non-HIV-1 infected women, and 227 for the 82 HIV-1-infected women (p = 0,007. These results suggested that higher anti-T. gondii IgG titers in HIV-1-infected pregnant women may not be indicative of an elevated risk for fetal infection. In this study three cases of congenital toxoplasmosis that resulted from infection reactivation during pregnancy of HIV-1-infected women were manifested by fetal death, symptomatic infection, and infant without symptoms, respectively. In two of these women, a ten-fold increase in IgG levels above used cutoff was observed (2,320 UI/mL and 3,613 UI/mL, respectively. In the third pregnant women anti-T. gondii IgG titers during pregnancy did not rise despite the occurrence of congenital toxoplasmosis (204; 198; 172 UI/mL. CONCLUSIONS: Congenital toxoplasmosis resulting reactivation of infection during pregnancy in the studied group leads us to believe that it is a public health problem, especially in our population, in which seroprevalence of T. gondii infections is high. These findings also suggest that special attention is necessary during pregnancy, because the serologic diagnosis may not be indicative of toxoplasmosis reactivation.
Sakikawa, Makiko; Noda, Shunichi; Hanaoka, Masachi; Nakayama, Hirotoshi; Hojo, Satoshi; Kakinoki, Shigeko; Nakata, Maki; Yasuda, Takashi; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu; Kojima, Toshiyuki
Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by infection with Toxoplasma gondii and is prevalent worldwide under various climatic conditions. It is usually asymptomatic, but infection in pregnant women can pose serious health problems for the fetus. However, epidemiological information regarding toxoplasmosis in Japanese pregnant women is limited. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies, the primary infection rate, and the risk factors for toxoplasmosis in Japanese pregnant women. We measured anti-Toxoplasma antibody titers in 4,466 pregnant women over a period of 7.5 years and simultaneously conducted interviews to identify the risk factors for toxoplasmosis. The overall prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies was 10.3%, and it was significantly higher in women aged above 35 years. The rate of primary Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy was estimated to be 0.25%. A possibility of infection in the later stages of pregnancy was identified for those women who were not infected in the early stages. A history of raw meat intake was identified to be a risk factor related to toxoplasmosis. Therefore, to lower the risk of toxoplasmosis, pregnant women should refrain from eating raw and undercooked meat and maintain personal hygiene.
Araya Mezgebo, Tadele; Niguse, Selam; Gebrekidan Kahsay, Atsebaha; Hailekiros, Haftamu; Berhe, Nega; Asmelash Dejene, Tsehaye
Hepatitis B virus infection is one of the leading causes of liver disease in the world. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of HBV infection and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Northern Ethiopia using a cross-sectional study design. A total of 328 pregnant women were included in this study. Clinical and socio-demographic data of the pregnant women were collected using a structured questionnaire by nurses or midwives during their ANC visit. For the detection of HBsAg, 5 mL of venous blood was collected from the pregnant women; serum was separated in the health facilities from the whole blood and was transported to Tigray Public Health Research Institute for analysis using. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0. (IBM). Association of variables with HBV infection was determined with multivariate analysis and P infection among the pregnant women was 5.5%. A statistical association of HBV infection with risk factors was seen on participants, who were making unprotected sexual practices with multiple partners (AoR = 6.4, 95%CI, 2-21, P = 0.03), on those who had HBV-infected person in their family (AoR = 8, 95%CI, 1-58, P = 0.02), and on those who had undergone surgical procedures (AoR = 6.8, 95%CI, 1-32, P = 0.022). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
da Costa, Cássia Mariana Bronzon; de Freitas, Murilo Rodrigues Barbosa; Brazão, Vânia; dos Santos, Carla Domingues; Sala, Miguel Angel; do Prado Júnior, José Clovis; Abrahão, Ana Amélia Carraro
Chagas disease induces a strong immune response and L-arginine is an essential amino acid which plays an important role in homeostasis of the immune system. The aims of this study were to evaluate parasitemia, corticosterone levels, production of nitric oxide (NO), fetal morphological measurements, and histology of heart and placenta. Twenty pregnant Wistar rats (180-220 g) were grouped in: pregnant control (PC), pregnant control and L-arginine supplied (PCA), pregnant infected (PI), pregnant infected and L-arginine supplied (PIA). Females were infected with 1×10(5) trypomastigotes of the Y strain (3rd day of pregnancy). Animals were supplied with 21 mg of L-arginine/kg/day during 14 days. PIA showed significant decreased levels of corticosterone and parasitemia. For control groups, any alteration in NO production was found with L-arginine supplementation; for PIA, enhanced nitrite concentrations were observed as compared to PI. Weights and lengths of fetuses were higher in L-arginine treated and infected pregnant rats as compared to untreated ones. Placental weight from the PIA group was significantly increased when compared to PI. In L-arginine treated animals, cardiac tissue showed reduced amastigote burdens. PIA and PI displayed similar placental parasitism. Based on these results, L-arginine supplementation may be potentially useful for the protection against Trypanosoma cruzi during pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rough, Kathryn; Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Kacanek, Deborah; Griner, Raymond; Yogev, Ram; Rich, Kenneth C; Seage, George R
We aimed to describe temporal changes in substance use among HIV-infected pregnant women in the United States from 1990 to 2012. Data came from two prospective cohort studies (Women and Infants Transmission Study and Surveillance Monitoring for Antiretroviral Therapy Toxicities Study). Women were classified as using a substance during pregnancy if they self-reported use or had a positive biological sample. To account for correlation between repeated pregnancies by the same woman, generalized estimating equation models were used to test for temporal trends and evaluate predictors of substance use. Over the 23-year period, substance use among the 5451 HIV-infected pregnant women sharply declined; 82% of women reported substance use during pregnancy in 1990, compared with 23% in 2012. Use of each substance decreased significantly (P < 0.001 for each substance) in an approximately linear fashion, until reaching a plateau in 2006. Multivariable models showed substance use was inversely associated with receiving antiretroviral therapy. Among the subset of 824 women with multiple pregnancies under observation, women who used a substance in their previous pregnancy were at elevated risk of substance use during their next pregnancy (risk ratio, 5.71; 95% confidence interval, 4.63-7.05). A substantial decrease in substance use during pregnancy was observed between 1990 and 2012 in two large US cohorts of HIV-infected women. Substance use prevalence in these cohorts became similar to that of pregnant women in the general US population by the mid-2000s, suggesting that the observed decrease may be due to an epidemiological transition of the HIV epidemic among women in the United States.
Rough, Kathryn; Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Kacanek, Deborah; Griner, Raymond; Yogev, Ram; Rich, Kenneth C.; Seage, George R.
Objective We aimed to describe temporal changes in substance use among HIV-infected pregnant women in the US from 1990–2012. Design Data came from two prospective cohort studies (Women and Infants Transmission Study and Surveillance Monitoring for Antiretroviral Therapy Toxicities Study). Methods Women were classified as using a substance during pregnancy if they self-reported use or had a positive biological sample. To account for correlation between repeated pregnancies by the same woman, GEE models were used to test for temporal trends and evaluate predictors of substance use. Results Over the 23-year period, substance use among the 5,451 HIV-infected pregnant women sharply declined; 82% of women reported substance use during pregnancy in 1990, compared to 23% in 2012. Use of each substance decreased significantly (p<0.001 for each substance) in an approximately linear fashion, until reaching a plateau in 2006. Multivariable models showed substance use was inversely associated with receiving antiretroviral therapy. Among the subset of 824 women with multiple pregnancies under observation, women who used a substance in their previous pregnancy were at elevated risk of substance use during their next pregnancy (RR, 5.71; 95% CI, 4.63–7.05). Conclusions A substantial decrease in substance use during pregnancy was observed between 1990 and 2012 in two large US cohorts of HIV-infected women. Substance use prevalence in these cohorts became similar to that of pregnant women in the general US population by the mid-2000s, suggesting that the observed decrease may be due to an epidemiological transition of the HIV epidemic among women in the US. PMID:25562496
Afsheen, Zobia; Ahmad, Bashir; Bashir, Shumaila
Seroprevalence of hepatitis C in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan was determined by screening blood samples of expectant mothers seeking antenatal care in gynecological units of district hospitals. The rationale behind this cohort study was that the availability of free-of-cost antenatal care in district hospitals brings expectant mothers from a broader geographical range in each district and thus provides a large sample-size of healthy pregnant women of known medical history for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) surveillance. The study was carried out along a south west to north east transact of five districts, Kohat-Peshawar-Nowshera-Charsadda-Mardan, with the central district Peshawar and outer districts Kohat and Mardan bordering northern mountainous ranges of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. This distribution of districts along the transact allowed the study to gauge the impact of proximity to remote highland communities on the HCV burden of visiting pregnant women tested for HCV infection. The cohort study randomly selected 150 pregnant women visiting each hospital for serological screening for Anti-HCV carried out by ELISA assay. The feasibility of ICT and RT-PCR assays for HCV prevalence was also examined in the present study. With a total of 750 blood specimen screened, the results of ELISA tests revealed a staggering 5.9% frequency of Anti-HCV in the five districts with the frequency of ELISA positive cases ranging from 3.3% in Nowshera, 4.7% in Charsadda, 6.0% in Peshawar, 6.7% in Kohat, and 8.7% in Mardan. The relatively higher frequencies of Anti-HCV cases among hospital visiting pregnant women in Peshawar, Kohat and Mardan were consistent with the proximity of these hospitals to the highland communities in the bordering mountain ranges. Compared to 44 Anti-HCV positive serologic specimens detected by ELISA, only 26 and 10 blood specimens were tested positive by ICT and PCR methods, respectively. Our study validates ELISA as a reliable diagnostic
Levis, Denise M; Hillard, Christina L; Price, Simani M; Reed-Gross, Erika; Bonilla, Erika; Amin, Minal; Stowell, Jennifer D; Clark, Rebekah; Johnson, Delaney; Mask, Karen; Carpentieri, Cynthia; Cannon, Michael J
An estimated 1 in 150 infants is born each year with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV); nearly 1 in 750 suffers permanent disabilities. Congenital CMV is the result of a pregnant woman becoming infected with CMV. Educating pregnant women about CMV is currently the best approach to prevention. Limited research is available on how to effectively communicate with women about CMV. We conducted formative research on fear appeals theory-based messages about CMV and prevention with U.S. women. Fear appeal theories suggest that message recipients will take action if they feel fear. First, we conducted in-depth interviews (N = 32) with women who had young children who tested positive for CMV. Second, we conducted eight focus groups (N = 70) in two phases and two cities (Phase 2: Atlanta, GA; Phase 3: San Diego, CA) with pregnant women and non-pregnant women who had young children. Few participants knew about CMV before the focus groups. Participants reviewed and gave feedback on messages created around fear appeals theory-based communication concepts. The following concepts were tested in one or more of the three phases of research: CMV is severe, CMV is common, CMV is preventable, CMV preventive strategies are similar to other behavior changes women make during pregnancy, CMV preventive strategies can be incorporated in moderation to reduce exposure, and CMV is severe but preventable. Participants recommended communicating that CMV is common by using prevalence ratios (e.g., 1 in 150) or comparing CMV to other well-known disabilities. To convey the severity of CMV, participants preferred stories about CMV along with prevention strategies. Participants also welcomed prevention strategies when it included a message about risk reduction. In general, participants said messages were motivating, even if they felt that it could be difficult to make certain behavior changes. Findings from this research can contribute to future efforts to educate pregnant women about CMV
Irvin, Elizabeth Ann; Williams, Denita; Voss, Kenneth A; Smith, Mary Alice
Stillbirths and spontaneous abortions can result when pregnant women are exposed to the food borne pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes. Fetuses and neonates account for one-third of the 2500 cases annually. The objectives were to determine the dose dependent trends of immunological and pathological effects in pregnant guinea pigs after infection with L. monocytogenes. Timed pregnant guinea pigs were treated on gestation day (gd) 35 with doses of 10(4) to 10(8) colony forming units (CFUs) and sacrificed on gd 56. Hepatic lesions were found in dams treated with >or=10(5)CFUs. Apoptosis was detected in significantly more placentas from dams treated with >or=10(6)CFUs compared to controls. Maternal serum TNF-alpha concentrations were significantly decreased in all dose groups compared to controls. In conclusion, increases in premature delivery, maternal hepatic effects and placental apoptosis along with a decrease in TNF-alpha concentrations were associated with L. monocytogenes infection in pregnant guinea pigs.
Gunawardana, Natasha; Finney, Lydia; Johnston, Sebastian L; Mallia, Patrick
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health problem and will be one of the leading global causes of mortality over the coming decades. Much of the morbidity, mortality and health care costs of COPD are attributable to acute exacerbations, the commonest causes of which are respiratory infections. Respiratory viruses are frequently detected in COPD exacerbations but direct proof of a causative relationship has been lacking. We have developed a model of COPD exacerbation using experimental rhinovirus infection in COPD patients and this has established a causative relationship between virus infection and exacerbations. In addition it has determined some of the molecular mechanisms linking virus infections to COPD exacerbations and identified potential new therapeutic targets. This new data should stimulate research into the role of antiviral agents as potential treatments for COPD exacerbations. Testing of antiviral agents has been hampered by the lack of a small animal model for rhinovirus infection and experimental rhinovirus infection in healthy volunteers has been used to test treatments for the common cold. Experimental rhinovirus infection in COPD subjects offers the prospect of a model that can be used to evaluate the effects of new treatments for virus-induced COPD exacerbations, and provide essential data that can be used in making decisions regarding large scale clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We demonstrated that administration of interferon gamma (IFN-g to the inbred "l" strain of pregnant rats conferred partial resistance on their offspring to challenge with Trypanosoma cruzi. We now examine if this intervention also modifies the reportedly immunodepressed cellular responses which occur during chronic infection. Offspring were born to mothers undergoing one of the following procedures during gestation: subcutaneous injections of recombinant rat IFN-g, 50,000 IU/rat, five times/week for 3 weeks, which was started on the day of mating (IFN-Mo; infection with 106 trypomastigotes of T. cruzi at 7, 14, and 21 days after mating plus IFN-g treatment as given to the former group (TcIFN-Mo; the same protocol except that physiological saline was injected instead of IFN-g (Tc-Mo; injection of physiological saline only (control-Mo. All offspring groups (N = 8-10/group were infected at weaning and were assessed 90 days later for their adjuvant-induced arthritic response or levels of major T cell subsets in spleen and lymph nodes. TcIFN-Mo and IFN-Mo offspring showed a reestablished arthritic response, which remained within the range seen in controls. Immunolabeling studies on parallel groups of 90-day-infected offspring showed that the inverse CD4/CD8 cell ratio that is usually seen in lymphoid organs from these chronically infected rats (median 0.61 appeared to have recovered in the TcIFN-Mo and IFN-Mo groups (median 1.66 and 1.78, respectively and was not different from uninfected controls (1.96. These studies indicate that early stimulation with IFN-g is able to reverse the immunosuppressive state that is usually present during the chronic period of the experimental infection.
Plans, Pedro; Álvarez, Elena; de Ory, Fernando; Campins, Magda; Payà, Toni; Balfagón, Pilar; Godoy, Pere; Caylà, Joan; Carreras, Ramon; Cabero, Lluís; Domínguez, Angela
Infections because of Bordetella pertussis still occur in infants and adults in European countries, despite vaccination coverage against pertussis being high. IgG antibody titers to pertussis toxin (anti-PT) were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test (Serion ELISA classic) in 353 cord blood samples from neonates of a representative sample of pregnant women obtained in Catalonia (Spain) in 2013. Neonates with anti-PT titers ≤ 40 international units (IU)/mL were considered to be unprotected against pertussis. IgG-PT titers >100 IU/mL in umbilical cord samples were considered to be indicative of a current or recent pertussis infection (12 months) in pregnant women. The age-standardized prevalence of recent pertussis infection obtained in this study was compared with the prevalence obtained in 2003. The mean anti-PT titer in neonates was 10.8 IU/mL and 89.8% of neonates were unprotected against pertussis. The prevalence of unprotected neonates as defined by cord blood anti-PT ≤ 40 IU/mL was 90%. The prevalence of recent pertussis infection in pregnant women as defined by cord blood anti-PT >100 IU/mL was 2%. The diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination coverage during childhood in pregnant women was 75%. The age-standardized prevalence of recent pertussis infection in pregnant women observed in this study (2.2%) was slightly higher than the prevalence obtained in 2003 (1.5%), with an odds ratio = 1.45 (95% confidence intervals: 0.5-3.9), although differences were not statistically significant. Most neonates are unprotected against pertussis and pertussis infections are frequent in pregnant women in Catalonia. Infants and pregnant women should be the priority population groups for pertussis prevention programs in Catalonia.
Background: Pregnant woman are more susceptible to malaria, which is associated with serious adverse effects on pregnancy. The presentation of malaria during pregnancy varies according to the level of the transmission in the area. Objective: Our study aimed to demonstrate the prevalence and risk factors for malaria ...
van Thien, Huynh; Ackermans, M. T.; Weverling, G. J.; Thanh Chien, V. O.; Endert, E.; Kager, P. A.; Sauerwein, H. P.
Hypoglycaemia is a recognised complication of malaria in pregnancy, but its pathophysiology is not well understood. We studied the influence of fasting on glucose production and gluconeogenesis by infusion of [6,6-H-2(2)]glucose and ingestion of (H2O)-H-2 in 20 female subjects, eight pregnant
Marc C. Tahita; Tinto, Halidou; Menten, Joris; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Guiguemde, Robert T.; van Geertruyden, Jean Pierre; Erhart, Annette; D’Alessandro, Umberto
Background Malaria in pregnancy is a major public health problem in endemic countries. Though the signs and symptoms of malaria among pregnant women have been already described, clinical presentation may vary according to intensity of transmission and local perceptions. Therefore, determining common signs and symptoms among pregnant women with a malaria infection may be extremely useful to identify those in need of further investigation by rapid diagnostic test or microscopy. Methods Six hund...
Kaneko, Masatoki; Ohhashi, Masanao; Minematsu, Toshio; Muraoka, Junsuke; Kusumoto, Kazumi; Sameshima, Hiroshi
The immunoglobulin (Ig) G avidity index (AI) is useful to detect primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. However, because IgG matures with time, this index is not useful to detect a primary infection, unless measured at an appropriate time. We aimed to clarify the difference between using IgG AI and IgM positivity according to the stage of pregnancy to identify congenital CMV infection risk. We collected the serum samples from 1115 pregnant women who underwent maternal screening for primary infection (n = 956) and were referred to our hospital because of CMV IgM positivity (n = 155) or had abnormal fetal ultrasonography findings (n = 4). The same sera samples were used to measure CMV IgM, IgG, and IgG AI. An IgG AI of <35% was defined as low. Neonatal urine collected within 5 days after birth was examined by polymerase chain reaction to confirm congenital infection. Fourteen mothers gave birth to infected neonates. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive values of the low IgG AI group with IgM-positive samples to discriminate between women with congenital infection at ≤14 weeks of gestation were 83.3, 83.8, and 99.1, respectively, which were higher than those of other subjects. Uni- and multivariate analyses revealed that IgM positivity and low IgG AI were independent variables associated with congenital infection at any stage of pregnancy, except low IgG AI at ≥15 weeks of gestation. Low IgG AI with IgM positivity at ≤14 weeks of gestation was a good indicator of congenital infection, which should prove useful in obstetric practice. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ammerdorfer, A.; Roest, H.I.J.; Dinkla, A.; Post, J.; Schoffelen, T.; Deuren, van M.; Sprong, T.; Rebel, J.M.J.
In humans, infection with Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, leads to acute or chronic infection, both associated with specific clinical symptoms. In contrast, no symptoms are observed in goats during C. burnetii infection, although infection of the placenta eventually leads to
Full Text Available Avian models of West Nile virus (WNV disease have become pivotal in the study of infection pathogenesis and transmission, despite the intrinsic constraints that represents this type of experimental research that needs to be conducted in biosecurity level 3 (BSL3 facilities. This review summarizes the main achievements of WNV experimental research carried out in wild birds, highlighting advantages and limitations of this model. Viral and host factors that determine the infection outcome are analyzed in detail, as well as recent discoveries about avian immunity, viral transmission, and persistence achieved through experimental research. Studies of laboratory infections in the natural host will help to understand variations in susceptibility and reservoir competence among bird species, as well as in the epidemiological patterns found in different affected areas.
Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Llorente, Francisco; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Ángel
Avian models of West Nile virus (WNV) disease have become pivotal in the study of infection pathogenesis and transmission, despite the intrinsic constraints that represents this type of experimental research that needs to be conducted in biosecurity level 3 (BSL3) facilities. This review summarizes the main achievements of WNV experimental research carried out in wild birds, highlighting advantages and limitations of this model. Viral and host factors that determine the infection outcome are analyzed in detail, as well as recent discoveries about avian immunity, viral transmission, and persistence achieved through experimental research. Studies of laboratory infections in the natural host will help to understand variations in susceptibility and reservoir competence among bird species, as well as in the epidemiological patterns found in different affected areas. PMID:24531334
Rowe, Heather; Sperlich, Mickey; Cameron, Heather; Seng, Julia
To test the effectiveness of a trauma-specific, psychoeducational intervention for pregnant women with a history of childhood maltreatment on six intrapartum and postpartum psychological outcomes. Quasi-experimental study comparing women from a single-group, pretest-posttest pilot intervention study with women matched from a prospective observational study. Rural and university-based prenatal clinics. Pregnant women entered the study by responding to an advertisement or by referral from a maternity care provider. Women could take part whether or not they met posttraumatic stress disorder diagnostic criteria. Outcomes data exist for 17 pilot intervention study participants and 43 matched observational study participants. Participants in the observational study received usual care. Participants in the pilot intervention study received usual care plus the intervention, a fully manualized, self-study program supported by weekly phone tutoring sessions with a health professional. The National Women's Study PTSD Module, the Peritraumatic Dissociation Experience Questionnaire, the Perception of Care Questionnaire, the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale, the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire, and a semantic differential appraisal of the labor experience. Participants in the intervention study had better scores on all measures. Differences in means between participants in the intervention study and participants in the observational study equated to medium effect sized for dissociation during labor, rating of labor experience, and perception of care in labor and small effect sizes for postpartum posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, postpartum depression symptoms, and motherinfant bonding. This trauma-specific intervention reaches and benefits pregnant women with a history of childhood maltreatment. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Aaron F. Bochner
Full Text Available Objectives. To assess the prevalence and determinants of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 infections among pregnant women attending mobile antenatal health clinic in rural villages in Mysore Taluk, India. Methods. Between January and September 2009, 487 women from 52 villages participated in this study. Each participant consented to provide a blood sample for HSV-2 and HIV testing and underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results. HSV-2 prevalence was 6.7% (95% confidence interval (CI 4.4–9.0, and one woman tested positive for HIV. The median age of women was 20 years and 99% of women reported having a single lifetime sex partner. Women whose sex partner traveled away from home had 2.68 (CI: 1.13–6.34 times the odds of being HSV-2 seropositive compared to women whose sex partner did not travel. Having experienced genital lesions was also associated with HSV-2 infection (P value = 0.08. Conclusion. The 6.7% HSV-2 prevalence was similar to results obtained in studies among pregnant women in other parts of India. It appeared that most women in this study contracted HSV-2 from their spouses and few regularly used condoms. This finding highlights the need for public health policies to increase awareness and education about prevention methods among women and men living in rural India.
Petzer, Inge-Marié; Karzis, Joanne; Lesosky, Maia; Watermeyer, Johanna C; Badenhorst, Renette
Heifers can calve down with intramammary infections (IMI) and udder damage. This will have a negative impact on their longevity, future milk yield and financial return. Co-housed pre-weaned calves that are fed fresh milk have the opportunity to suckle each other's teats and may infect udders of fellow heifer calves with pathogens present in milk. The prevalence of IMI in pregnant heifers in South Africa (SA) which were co-housed and reared on fresh milk as calves, is not known. Quarter secretion samples from both pregnant heifers (n = 2065) and dry cows (n = 5365) were collected for microbiological analysis from eight SA dairy herds. All heifers tested in this study were co-housed pre-weaning and were fed fresh milk as calves. The prevalence of coagulase negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, environmental streptococci, coliforms and samples with no bacterial growth in heifers was 26%, 0.9%, 0.08%, 1.4%, 0.4% and 66%, respectively. The overall prevalence ratio between heifers and cows for Staphylococcus aureus IMI was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.98). Four of the individual herds had prevalence ratios of less than one (p danger of udder damage in a young cow at the start of her productive life. The IMI in heifers with host adapted pathogens can also act as a source of new IMI for lactating dairy cows.
Ruffini, Ermanno; Gesuita, Rosaria; Compagnoni, Luigina; Tubaldi, Lucia; Infriccioli, Giovanna; Vianelli, Patrizia; Genga, Roberto; Bonifazi, Vitaliana; Dieni, Alessandra; Guerrini, Domenico; Basili, Gabriella; Salvatori, Patrizia; DeColli, Rosa; Leone, Luciano
to evaluate the epidemiology of hepatitis B infection in pregnant women living in the Marche Region (Central Italy), according to the Country of origin. cross sectional observational study conducted from May 2011 to April 2012, which involved 13 of the 15 birthing centres in the Marche region. serological data of hepatitis B infection were obtained during the execution of mandatory prenatal screening. The total number of pregnant women was of 10,232 of which 7,669 were Italian (74.9%) and 2,563 were foreign (25.1%). rate of adherence to prenatal serologic screening and prevalence of hepatitis B infection in Italian and foreign pregnant women. The 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the exact method for proportions. The test for proportions was applied to make comparisons between groups (significance level: 0.05). the rate of adherence to prenatal serologic screening and the overall prevalence of hepatitis B infection in pregnancy ware 98.6% and 0.8%, respectively. In foreign women, compared to native ones, differences of adherence to screening and the prevalence of infection were significant (96.7% vs. 99.3% and 2.7% vs. 0.2%). The highest prevalence was observed in pregnant women who came from the Western Pacific Region, Eastern Europe, and Africa (7.0%, 4.0%, and 3.3%, respectively). More than half of the cases of pregnant women, positive for hepatitis B surface antigen, were originating in Albania and China (60.6%). The prevalence of hepatitis B infection was significantly higher in pregnant women from China (8.1%), Albania (7.7%), Ukraine (7.2%), and Senegal (6.1%). the study emphasises the need to organise targeted interventions to facilitate access to prenatal screening programmes to foreign women for better control of hepatitis B infection in the Marche Region.
Daud, Ibrahim I.; Ogolla, Sidney; Amolo, Asito S.; Namuyenga, Eunice; Simbiri, Kenneth; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah W.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Sumba, Peter O.; Dent, Arlene; Rochford, Rosemary
Background The role of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in EBV transmission among infants early in life remain elusive. We hypothesized that infection with malaria during pregnancy could cause EBV reactivation leading to high EBV load in circulation, which could subsequently enhance early age of EBV infection. Method Pregnant women in Kisumu, where P. falciparum malaria is holoendemic, were actively followed monthly through antenatal visits (up to 4 per mother) and delivery. Using real-time quantitative (Q) – PCR, we quantified and compared EBV and P. falciparum DNA levels in the blood of pregnant women with and without P. falciparum malaria. Results Pregnant women that had malaria detected during pregnancy were more likely to have detectable EBV DNA than pregnant women who had no evidence of malaria infection during pregnancy (64% vs. 36%, p=0.01). EBV load as analyzed by quantifying area under the longitudinal observation curve (AUC) was significantly higher in pregnant women with P. falciparum malaria than in women without evidence of malaria infection (p =0.01) regardless of gestational age of pregnancy. Increase in malaria load correlated with increase in EBV load (p independent of known infections. Conclusion Significantly higher frequency and elevated EBV loads were found in pregnant women with malaria than in women without evidence of P. falciparum infection during pregnancy. The loss of control of EBV latency following P. falciparum infection during pregnancy and subsequent increase in EBV load in circulation could contribute to enhanced shedding of EBV in maternal saliva and breast milk postpartum, but further studies are needed. PMID:24951129
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 (MTCT have historically been lower in European than in American cohort studies, possibly due to differences in population characteristics. The Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol (PACTG 316 trial evaluated the effectiveness of the addition of intrapartum/neonatal nevirapine in reducing MTCT in women already receiving antiretroviral prophylaxis. Participation of large numbers of pregnant HIV-infected women from the US and Western Europe enrolling in the same clinical trial provided the opportunity to identify and explore differences in their characteristics and in the use of non-study interventions to reduce MTCT. Methods In this secondary analysis, 1350 women were categorized according to enrollment in centres in the USA (n = 978 or in Europe (n = 372. Factors associated with receipt of highly active antiretroviral therapy and with elective caesarean delivery were identified with logistic regression. Results In Europe, women enrolled were more likely to be white and those of black race were mainly born in Sub-Saharan Africa. Women in the US were younger and more likely to have previous pregnancies and miscarriages and a history of sexually transmitted infections. More than 90% of women did not report symptoms of their HIV infection; however, more women from the US had symptoms (8%, compared to women from Europe (4%. Women in the US were less likely to have HIV RNA levels Conclusion These findings confirm that there are important historical differences between the HIV-infected pregnant populations in Western Europe and the USA, both in terms of the characteristics of the women and their obstetric and therapeutic management. Although highly active antiretroviral therapy predominates in pregnancy in both settings now, population differences are likely to remain. Trial registration NCT00000869
Iddawela, Devika; Vithana, Sanura Malinda Pallegoda; Ratnayake, Chathura
Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan infecting humans and animals. Infection in adults usually causes mild disease but greater importance lies in preventing transplacental transmission which can cause major foetal anomalies and is vital to identify infection in pregnancy. Research on this regard in Sri Lanka is scarce and would be beneficial in developing antenatal care strategies for improved foetal outcome. A random sample of 536 pregnant women attending antenatal care in Teaching Hospital Peradeniya from 2010 to 2013 was recruited for this study. Blood samples were tested for Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies from the participants by using a commercial ELISA kit with a cut-off OD value of >1 and a structured questionnaire was used to identify the exposure to risk. Bivariate analysis using the Chi Square test was used to calculate associations between documented risk factors and seropositivity and a p value of <0.05 was taken as significant. Among the participants 160 (29.9%) were positive for T. gondii IgG antibodies and 2 (0.37%) were IgM positive. The seroprevalence in the first, second and third trimesters were 30.4%, 30.6% and 26.1% respectively. Of the risk factors studied, preparation and selling raw meat (p = 0.05) and household gardening (p = 0.01) were significant whereas the presence of domesticated cats and dogs, eating locally produced meat or dairy products did not show significant associations. Seroprevalence of T. gondii present among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Peradeniya was 29.9% indicating high level of transmission among the study population. However 70.1% of the study population were seronegative and were susceptible to primary acute infection during pregnancy and possible foetal anomalies. Therefore implementing health education especially on the aforementioned risk factors is recommended.
Ana Christina Lobato
Full Text Available This study is aimed at evaluating the potential to detect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in amniotic fluid (AF collected at delivery from 40 HIV-positive pregnant women. Thirty patients had a plasma viral load (VL below 1,000 copies/mL at delivery. VL was positive in three AF samples. No significant association was found between the HIV-1 RNA in AF and the maternal plasma samples. There was no HIV vertical transmission detected.
Menghi, Claudia I.; Coppolillo, Enrique F.; Gatta, Claudia; Eliseth, Martha Cora; de Torres, Ramón A.; Vay, Carlos A.; Famiglietti, Angela M. R.
The objectives of this study were to conduct a prevalence survey of trichomoniasis in pregnant women and to evaluate the utility of different methods for its diagnosis. A total of 597 vaginal exudates from pregnant women who were examined at the Hospital de Clinicas in Buenos Aires, Argentina from 1 August 2005 to 31 January 2007, were prospectively and consecutively evaluated. The investigation of Trichomonas vaginalis was made by different microscopic examinations, and culture on liquid medium. The sensitivity and specificity of the microscopic examinations were assessed considering culture on liquid medium as the "gold standard". The prevalence of T. vaginalis obtained by culture on liquid medium was 4.0% (24/597). The prevalence of T. vaginalis obtained by direct wet smear, prolonged May-Grunwald Giemsa staining, and sodium acetate-formalin (SAF)/methylene blue staining-fixing technique was 1.8%, 2.3% and 2.5%, respectively. The sensitivity of the direct wet smear was 45.8%, that of the prolonged May-Grunwald Giemsa staining was 58.3%, and that of the SAF/methylene blue method was 62.5%. Considering the 3 microscopic examinations altogether, the sensitivity rose to 66.7% and the specificity was 100% for all of them. This is the first time that the prevalence data of T. vaginalis by culture in pregnant women are published in Argentina. Due to the low sensitivity obtained by microscopy in asymptomatic pregnant women, the use of the liquid medium is recommended during pregnancy, in order to provide an early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20333287
Oladeinde, Bankole H; Omoregie, Richard; Oladeinde, Oladapo B
A good proportion of pregnant women patronize traditional birth homes in Nigeria for ante-natal care. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors, and susceptibility profile of etiologic agents of urinary tract infection among ante-natal attendees in a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria. Clean-catch urine was collected from 220 pregnant women attending a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria. Urine samples were processed, and microbial isolates identified using standard bacteriological procedures. A cross-sectional study design was used. The prevalence of urinary tract infection among pregnant women was 55.0%, significantly affected by parity and gestational age (Pinfection was recorded among 13(10.7%) pregnant women, and was unaffected by maternal age, parity, gravidity, gestational age, and educational status. Irrespective of trimester Escherichia coli was the most prevalent etiologic agent of urinary tract infection, followed by Staphylococcus aureus. The flouroquinolones were the most effective antibacterial agents, while Sulphamethoxazole-trimetoprim, Amoxicillin, Nalidixic acid, and Nitrofurantoin had poor activity against uropathogens isolated. The prevalence of urinary tract infection among pregnant women was 55.0% and significantly affected by gestational age and parity. The most prevalent etiologic agent observed was Escherichia coli. With the exception of the flouroquinolones, aminoglycoside, and Amoxicillin-cluvanate, the activity of other antibiotics used on uropathogens were poor. Health education of the traditional birth attendant and her clients by relevant intervention agencies is strongly advocated.
García-Fernández, Lisset; Fiestas, Fabián; Vásquez, Rubén; Benites, Carlos
The risk of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV increases in pregnant women diagnosed late in pregnancy. Some experts suggest that the use of raltegravir (RAL), as part of the antiretroviral treatment in these pregnant women, could reduce the risk of MTCT, since RAL can quickly decrease the viral load. To evaluate the available scientific information on the efficacy and safety of RAL, during the third trimester of pregnancy, in reducing MTCT of HIV. We conducted a systematic review of the literature. The following databases were consulted: MEDLINE, Tripdatabase, Cochrane, Lilacs and Web of Science. We included systematic reviews, clinical trials, observational studies or case reports. The search was not filtered by language. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Selected studies were case reports or case series. We included, in total, 44 pregnancies (with 45 live births). A case of TMI of HIV was reported. Eight studies reported adverse events, of which four cases can be attributed to the use of RAL. There is insufficient evidence on the efficacy and safety of RAL to decrease the risk of MTCT in HIV pregnant women who present in the last trimester of pregnancy.
Webster, P.; Malakauskas, A.; Kapel, C. M O
To evaluate infectivity for carnivores as well as other biological characteristics of the newly described Trichinella papuae, eight red foxes were experimentally infected with the parasite. Five weeks after inoculation, T. papuae larvae were recovered from nine different muscle types. The larvae...
Yaghfoori, Saeed; Mohri, Mehrdad; Razmi, Gholamreza
Malignant theileriosis (Theileria lestoquardi infection) is a hemoparasitic tick-borne disease that affects both wild and domestic small ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate biochemical and hematological characteristics of sheep after being experimentally infected by T. lestoquardi. T. lestoquardi infection was induced in seven Baluchi sheep of six-to-eight months old via experimentally-infected Hyalomma anatolicum adult ticks. Biochemical and hematological parameters were measured twice a week during the three weeks' post infection. Twenty-three biochemical analytes and seven hematological ones were measured. After three to four days infection, body temperature rose above 40(°)C. Maximum and minimum parasitaemia were 3.3% and 0.28%, respectively. Piroplasms and schizont were seen on average from days 7.2 and 4 post infection, respectively. The concentrations and activities of Alb, HDL, ALT, T3, T4, Ca, Fe, Mg, iP, WBC, RBC, PCV, Hb, Plt, neutrophil and lymphocytes significantly decreased (P≤0.05) during experimental infection. However, concentrations and activities of BT, GGT, Glu, BUN, Crea, FIB and Cu significantly increased (P≤0.05). There was no significant change in the serum amounts of Chol, LDL, TG, VLDL and Zn. The observed hypoalbuminemia and increase of FIB concentrations referred to pro-inflammatory cytokines production. Moreover, the raising of GGT activity indicates liver damage, cholestatic disorders or schizont infiltration. The disease stress and corticosteroids are suspected to cause the Glu concentration increase. The present study is aimed at improving the knowledge of malignant theileriosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mengist, Hylemariam Mihiretie; Zewdie, Olifan; Belew, Adugna
Ethiopia is a developing country where intestinal helminthic infections are major public health problems. The burden of intestinal parasites, particularly the soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), is often very high in school children and pregnant women. Anemia, associated with STH, is a major factor in women's health, especially during pregnancy; it is an important contributor to maternal mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infection and anemia among pregnant women attending ANC in East Wollega Zone, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in five health centers of East Wollega Zone of Oromia Region, Ethiopia between November 2015 and January 2016. The health centers were selected randomly and study participants were enrolled consecutively with proportions from all the health centers. Stool and blood specimens were processed using standard operating procedures in accordance with structured questionnaires. Logistic regression models were applied to assess the association between predictors and outcome variables. P values less than 0.05 were taken as significant levels. Results were presented in tables and figures. A total of 372 pregnant women were enrolled in this study with a median age of 25 years (range 17-40 years). The total prevalence of intestinal helminths was 24.7% (92/372) with the predominance of Hookworm (15.1%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (6.5%). Illiteracy [AOR, 95% CI 2.21 (1.3, 4.8), P = 0.042], absence of latrine [AOR, 95% CI 4.62 (1.7, 8.3), P = 0.013] and regular consumption of raw and/or unwashed fruit [AOR, 95% CI 3.30 (1.2, 6.3), P = 0.011] were significant predictors of intestinal helminthic infection. The overall prevalence of anemia was 17.5% (65/372) where mild anemia accounts for 80% of the total anemia. Anemia was significantly associated with the first trimester of gestation [AOR, 95% CI 2.82 (1.3, 6.2), P = 0.009], previous malaria infection [AOR, 95% CI 2.32 (1
Salinas-Carmona, M C
Nocardia brasiliensis is a Gram-positive bacterium that lives as a saprophyte in soil. In this article the physical properties, chemical composition and taxonomic position of this species is reviewed. Human infections and an experimental model of actinomycetoma in BALB/c mice as well as the host-immune response is described.
Full Text Available Abstract A 20 year-old healthy female volunteer participated in a clinical Phase I and IIa safety and efficacy trial with candidate malaria vaccine PfLSA-3-rec adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide. Eleven weeks after the third and last immunization she was experimentally infected by bites of Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes. When the thick blood smear became positive, at day 11, she was treated with artemether/lumefantrine according to protocol. On day 16 post-infection i.e. two days after completion of treatment, she woke up with retrosternal chest pain. She was diagnosed as acute coronary syndrome and treated accordingly. She recovered quickly and her follow-up was uneventful. Whether the event was related to the study procedures such as the preceding vaccinations, malaria infection or antimalarial drugs remains elusive. However, the relation in time with the experimental malaria infection and apparent absence of an underlying condition makes the infection the most probable trigger. This is in striking contrast, however, with the millions of malaria cases each year and the fact that such complication has never been reported in the literature. The rare occurrence of cardiac events with any of the preceding study procedures may even support a coincidental finding. Apart from acute coronary syndrome, myocarditis can be considered as a final diagnosis, but the true nature and patho-physiological explanation of the event remain unclear.
López-Gatius, F; Almería, S; Donofrio, G; Nogareda, C; García-Ispierto, I; Bech-Sàbat, G; Santolaria, P; Yániz, J L; Pabón, M; de Sousa, N M; Beckers, J F
Many immunological aspects of pregnancy, such as the role played by gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in abortion, are not well understood. Neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan considered to be among the main causes of abortion in cattle worldwide. The present study analyzes the interaction between IFN-gamma production and N. caninum infection in naturally infected pregnant cows. Data were obtained from 126 pregnant cows: 86 seropositive and 40 seronegative for the parasite. Pregnancy diagnosis and blood sample collection were performed on days 40, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 post-insemination or until the time of abortion detection. Plasma was tested for antibodies against N. caninum and IFN-gamma. Interferon-gamma was detected at some point along the pregnancy in 16 (19%) of the 86 Neospora-seropositive cows yet was undetectable in the 40 seronegative animals. Of the 126 pregnancies examined, 22 (17.5%) ended in abortion. Abortion occurred in 24.4% of seropositive cows (21/86) and in 2.5% of seronegative animals (1/40). Significant (Pabortion was 15.6 times higher in seropositive cows not producing IFN-gamma than in seronegative animals, whereas neosporosis had no effect in seropositive cows with IFN-gamma production. A significant (P=0.001) negative effect of IFN-gamma production on the Neospora titer was furthermore observed in the 65 non-aborting seropositive animals. These results indicate that IFN-gamma production affords protection against abortion in Neospora-infected cows and also point to a reduced humoral immune response to N. caninum during gestation in cows producing IFN-gamma.
Background Screening for Hepatitis B and C during pregnancy may help to decide on appropriate antiviral therapy and the institution of steps to minimize vertical transmission to the newborn infants. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted during November–December 2011 to investigate the seroprevalence and associated risk factors for markers of HBV (hepatitis B surface antigen; HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibody among pregnant women at the Al-Thawra hospital in Sana’a, Yemen. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic obstetrics and medical data and sera were tested for HBsAg and anti-HCV. Results Of the 400 pregnant women enrolled in the study, HBsAg and anti-HCV were detected in 43 (10.8%; 95% CI: 8.0–14.0%) and 34 (8.5%, 95% CI: 6.0–11.5%) women, respectively. None of the women were co-infected with HBV and HCV. Multivariate analysis showed that circumcision was significantly associated with HBsAg seropositivity (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.1–10.2; p = 0.03), low parity (primigravidae and secundigravidae) and education below secondary level were significantly associated with anti- HCV seropositivity (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.1–10.2; p = 0.03). No other sociodemographic or clinical characteristics (age, residence, history of home delivery, miscarriage, dental manipulation, surgery, and blood transfusion) were significantly associated with HBsAg or anti-HCV seropositivity. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that HBsAg and anti-HCV have high prevalence among pregnant women. PMID:23758990
Ismail, H I H; Ashour, D S; Abou Rayia, D M; Ali, A L
Ocular lesions have been reported in patients with schistosomiasis; however, the problem with studying schistosomal infection of the human eye is that biopsies are almost impossible to take, and histopathological examination of suspicious lesions can only be undertaken post-mortem or after enucleation. This work aimed to study the possible effects and pathogenesis of schistosomiasis on the eye. This study involved 55 hamsters; five hamsters remained non-infected and the remaining 50 hamsters were infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. Infected hamsters were sacrificed on weeks 8, 12, 16 and 20 post-infection (pi). Eye sections were prepared and stained for histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. Histopathological changes detected in hamsters infected after 16 and 20 weeks included looseness and oedema of the innermost retinal layers together with hyperplastic polypoid growth. Neither eggs nor granulomata were detected in eye sections throughout the experimental period. Deposition of S. mansoni antigen was revealed in 35% of infected hamsters. Later, on weeks 16 and 20 pi, moderate subepithelial conjuctival deposits and marked subchoroidal and scleral deposition were detected. In conclusion, the deposition of schistosomal antigen and immune complexes may play a pivotal role in the ocular changes that occur in schistosomiasis, even in the absence of detectable Schistosoma eggs. Schistosomiasis should be suspected in cases with unexplained ophthalmological findings, especially in endemic areas.
Williams, John; Njie, Fanta; Cairns, Matthew
BACKGROUND: Non-Plasmodium falciparum malaria infections are found in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa but little is known about their importance in pregnancy. METHODS: Blood samples were collected at first antenatal clinic attendance from 2526 women enrolled in a trial of intermittent screening...... of non-falciparum malaria as well as falciparum malaria. The outcome of pregnancy did not differ between women with a non-falciparum malaria infection and those who were not infected with malaria at first ANC attendance. CONCLUSIONS: Non-falciparum infections were infrequent in the populations studied......, rarely detected when present as a mono-infection and unlikely to have had an important impact on the outcome of pregnancy in the communities studied due to the small number of women infected with non-falciparum parasites....
Mboto, Clement Ibi; Andy, Iniobong Ebenge; Eni, Ogban Ibor; Jewell, Andrew Paul
The epidemiology and risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in developing countries where intravenous drug use (IDU) is uncommon its poorly understood. This study therefore aims to determine the prevalence of HCV and its associated risk factors among pregnant women in Calabar municipality. A total of 506 out of 716 antenatal care (ANC) patients seen at the General Hospital, Mary Slessor Avenue, Calabar between August and November 2005 and the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH) between October and November 2005 were evaluated for their HCV status using the One Step HCV Test kit (Binomial diagnostics, UK), with reference to the subjects' demographic and behavioural risk factors. HCV prevalence was determined to be 0.4% (2/506) and was only seen in women aged 38 years and over. Histories of blood transfusion, surgery, involvement in polygamous marriage, sharing of a toothbrush and female circumcision were all non-significant risk factors for the infecion. This study reveals a low HCV prevalence among pregnant women in Calabar municipality with no identifiable risk factor. The study calls for a re-evaluation of the transmission modes of HCV especially in developing countries where intravenous drug use is rare.
L. N. Dorohova
Full Text Available Abstract. We have studied some immune parameters in pregnant women with undifferentiated forms of connective tissue dysplasia (n = 51, who harboured herpesviruses, i.e., cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex virus. A relative insufficiency of CD3+ lymphocytes, along with deficiency of CD4+T cells, and predominance of CD16+ cells (NK cells, and CD20+ cells were revealed, accompanied by increase in IgM and the decrease in IgA and IgG levels. Disturbances of cellular and humoral immunity in such patients were more expressed than in women without undifferentiated forms of connective tissue dysplasia (n = 50, being associated with increased frequency of infection manifesting as inflammatory placental lesion with secondary placental insufficiency and more pessimistic perinatal outcomes. The results obtained justify a need for second preventive measures in pregnant, herpesvirus-carrying women with undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia. (Med. Immunol., 2011, vol. 13, N 2-3, pp 175-180
Coker, Michelle R; Rauw, Wendy M; Nieto, Nathan C; Thain, David; Teglas, Mike B
Epizootic bovine abortion (EBA) is a tick-transmitted abortive disease of beef cattle in the western United States. Infected cattle do not have clinical signs until abortion occurs, usually within the last trimester of gestation. There is little information on the hematologic response of the dam following infection. The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in blood leukocytes and serum IgG concentrations could be detected following experimental infection of pregnant heifers with the etiologic agent of EBA (aoEBA). Twelve Angus heifers were infected during gestation with the aoEBA using an inoculum prepared from the thymus of an infected fetus. Five pregnant heifer controls were given an inoculum prepared from the thymus of an aoEBA-negative calf. PCVs, total and differential leukocyte counts, and serum IgG concentrations were measured weekly following administration of the inocula until abortion or calving. Gross and microscopic examinations were performed on all aborted fetuses to confirm infection. Eleven of 12 heifers in the treatment group aborted, and significant findings were decreased lymphocyte counts at weeks 1 and 14 postinoculation and increased monocyte counts at week 4 compared with control animals. Serum IgG concentrations were significantly increased at weeks 6-8 and 11 in the treatment group. Leukogram changes are subtle in infected cattle. Future research efforts should be aimed at development of an antibody test specific for detection of previously infected animals, which could graze safely on EBA-endemic pastures. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Atkinson, Carter T.; Dusek, Robert J.; Woods, K.L.; Iko, W.M.
The introduction of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus) to the Hawaiian Islands (USA) is believed to have played a major role in the decline and extinction of native Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae). This introduced disease is thought to be one of the primary factors limiting recovery of honeycreepers at elevations below 1,200 m where native forest habitats are still relatively intact. One of the few remaining species of honeycreepers with a wide elevational distribution is the Hawaii Amakihi (Hernignathus virens). We measured morbidity and mortality in experimentally-infected Hawaii Amakihi that were captured in a high elevation, xeric habitat that is above the current range of the mosquito vector. Mortality among amakihi exposed to a single infective mosquito bite was 65% (13/20). All infected birds had significant declines in food consumption and a corresponding loss in body weight over the 60 day course of the experiment. Gross and microscopic lesions in birds that succumbed to malaria included enlargement and discoloration of the spleen and liver and parasitemias as high as 50% of circulating erythrocytes. Mortality in experimentally-infected amakihi was similar to that observed in Apapane (Himnatione sanguinea) and lower than that observed in Iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) infected under similar conditions with the same parasite isolate. We conclude that the current elevational and geographic distribution of Hawaiian honeycreepers is determined by relative susceptibility to avian malaria.
Eke, P I; Rotimi, V O; Laughon, B E
A virulence model suitable for studying the dynamics of Porphyromonas gingivalis infection, including the pathogenicity of P. gingivalis in experimentally induced infections of multiple organs was developed using mouse and hamster. Virulence of P. gingivalis strains was expressed contrastingly in subcutaneous (sc) infection in the Murine abscess model (MAM) and the Hamsters abscess model (HAM). Subcutaneous infection in the MAM was characterized by a gravity abscess, spreading from the primary site of inoculation downwards, frequently erupting as a secondary lesion. In contract, s.c. P. gingivalis infection in HAM was characterized as a palpable localized abscess at the primary site of inoculation. When the Semi-Solid Agar (SSA) was added to the mono-culture of P. gingivalis, reproducibility of infection in both models was enhanced. P. gingivalis culture supplemented with haemin, or combined with oral Actinomyces viscosus had its virulence overtly enhanced and often fatal in the MAM. Menadione, Eh reducing agents and mixture with the Streptococcus or A. neaslundii did not potentiate virulence in either mode. Transtracheal challenge of the lungs of hamster with P. gingivalis initiated an early pneumonitis and later sequelae of necrosis and abscess formation. Also, abscess was induced by direct inoculation of P. gingivalis in the muscles, liver and testes, but did not induce intra-abdominal abscesses. In conclusion, the HAM applied with the SSA procedure caused a localized P. gingivalis tissue infection with practical advantages for quantitative and qualitative studies of P. gingivalis infections. This study also demonstrates the pathogenic potential of P. gingivalis by reproducing similar infections in multiple anatomical sites.
Rimawi, Bassam H; Smith, Somer L; Badell, Martina L; Zahedi-Spung, Leilah D; Sheth, Anandi N; Haddad, Lisa; Chakraborty, Rana
Linkage and retention in care for many HIV-infected women in the postpartum period is suboptimal, which compromises long-term virologic suppression and the HIV Care Continuum. Efforts are needed to improve individual outcomes by addressing transitions in care. We summarize some successful strategies to engage and retain HIV-infected women in care during the postpartum period.
Deborah M Money
Full Text Available Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART can effectively prevent vertical transmission of HIV but there is potential risk of adverse maternal, foetal or infant effects. Specifically, the effect of cART use during pregnancy on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content in HIV-positive (HIV+ women is unclear. We sought to characterize subclinical alterations in peripheral blood mtDNA levels in cART-treated HIV+ women during pregnancy and the postpartum period.This prospective longitudinal observational cohort study enrolled both HIV+ and HIV-negative (HIV- pregnant women. Clinical data and blood samples were collected at three time points in pregnancy (13-<23 weeks, 23-<30 weeks, 30-40 weeks, and at delivery and six weeks post-partum in HIV+ women. Peripheral blood mtDNA to nuclear DNA (nDNA ratio was measured by qPCR.Over a four year period, 63 HIV+ and 42 HIV- women were enrolled. HIV+ women showed significantly lower mtDNA/nDNA ratios compared to HIV- women during pregnancy (p = 0.003, after controlling for platelet count and repeated measurements using a multivariable mixed-effects model. Ethnicity, gestational age (GA and substance use were also significantly associated with mtDNA/nDNA ratio (p≤0.02. Among HIV+ women, higher CD4 nadir was associated with higher mtDNA/nDNA ratios (p<0.0001, and these ratio were significantly lower during pregnancy compared to the postpartum period (p<0.0001.In the context of this study, it was not possible to distinguish between mtDNA effects related to HIV infection versus cART therapy. Nevertheless, while mtDNA levels were relatively stable over time in both groups during pregnancy, they were significantly lower in HIV+ women compared to HIV- women. Although no immediate clinical impact was observed on maternal or infant health, lower maternal mtDNA levels may exert long-term effects on women and children and remain a concern. Improved knowledge of such subclinical alterations is another step toward optimizing the
Fana, Sani Abdullahi; Bunza, Mohammed Danladi Abubakar; Anka, Sule Aliyu; Imam, Asiya Umar; Nataala, Shehu Usman
Malaria during pregnancy remains a serious public health problem, with substantial risks for the mother, her foetus and the newborn. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria and possible risk factors for malaria infection among pregnant women in a semi-urban area in north-western Nigeria. Pregnant women are among the most susceptible to malaria infection. Knowledge of their malaria infection status is an important yardstick to measure the effectiveness of any malaria control programme. We conducted a cross sectional study in the semi-urban area of Argungu, Kebbi State Nigeria. Two hundred and fifty five pregnant women were included in the study after informed verbal consent was obtained. For each participant, the socio-demographic profile, stage of pregnancy and attitude to the use of insecticide- treated nets (ITNs) were investigated using a questionnaire. Peripheral blood samples were collected and thick blood smears were prepared and stained with Giemsa stains to check for malaria parasitaemia. The associations between age, education level and use of ITNs with occurrence of malaria infection during pregnancy were analysed using the chi-square test. One hundred and six (41.6%) out of 255 pregnant women were infected with malaria parasites, with a mean parasite density of 800 parasitesμl(-1). It was found that prevalence and parasite density decreased as age increased. The chi-square test indicated that a lack of education and non-usage of ITNs were significantly associated with malaria infection. Malaria is still a major public health issue among pregnant women mainly due to illiteracy and non -compliance to using ITNs. Increasing awareness about malaria preventive measures and early attendance of antenatal care services will help to reduce malaria and, consequently, its associated morbidities and mortalities.
Wang, T T; Xu, Y; Li, Z Z; Chen, L Z
Objective: To estimate HIV seroprevalence among pregnant women with syphilis and evaluate the influence of syphilis infection on mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of HIV by meta-analysis. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search for 1 678 articles related to maternal syphilis and HIV infection published until October 1st 2015 using the PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wanfang, Weipu, and SinoMed databases and evaluated the quality of each papers using the STROBE checklist, and the keywords were " pregnant women/maternal/pregnancy" , "syphilis/AIDS" , "HIV/human immunodeficiency virus" , "mother- to-child transimission/vertical transmission" . Excluding studies with the special subgroups of HIV-positive pregnant women as the research objects, review or meeting abstract, impossibility of full-text acquisition, sample size HIV seroprevalence among pregnant women with syphilis and the RR of MTCT for women infected with both syphilis and HIV. Subgroup analyses were undertaken by study location, sample size, use of anti-retroviral therapy and study quality. Results: Sixteen studies with a combined sample of 110 573 pregnant women were included in the analysis. Of these, ten reported HIV seroprevalences among pregnant women with syphilis and six studies evaluated the influence of syphilis infection on MTCT of HIV. Pooled estimates yielded a HIV seroprevalence of 11.6% (95% CI: 6.7%-19.5%) among pregnant women with syphilis. We estimated that the risk of MTCT of HIV was 1.86 times (RR=1.86, 95% CI: 0.89%-3.89%) higher among pregnant women with syphilis compared with those only infected with HIV-although this effect was not statistically significant. Cochran's Q test showed a high degree of heterogeneity in estimates of HIV seroprevalence and the effect of syphilis infection on MTCT of HIV across studies (I2=89.4% and 86.2%, respectively, PHIV seroprevalences of 24.9% (95%CI: 17.4%-34.3%) in Africa, 2.8% (95% CI: 1.4%-5.6%) in Asia and 2
Interpretation & conclusions: Our study detected C. trachomatis infection in 1.6 per cent asymptomatic pregnant women, and pooling of FVU specimens for PCR testing was found to be a cost-saving strategy in comparison to testing individual samples. Further evaluation and studies on the bigger sample size are warranted to validate these results.
Adam, Ishag; Salih, Magdi M; Mohmmed, Ahmed A; Rayis, Duria A; Elbashir, Mustafa I
The pathophysiology of the placental malaria is not fully understood. If there is a fetal sex-specific susceptibility to malaria infection, this might add to the previous knowledge on the immunology, endocrinology and pathophysiology of placental malaria infections. This study was conducted to assess whether the sex of the fetus was associated with placental malaria infections. A cross-sectional study was performed including a secondary analysis of a cohort of women who were investigated for prevalence and risk factors (including fetal sex) for placental malaria in eastern Sudan. Placental histology was used to diagnose placental malaria infections. Among 339 women enrolled, the mean (SD) age was 25.8 (6.7) years and parity was 2.7 (2.2). Among the new born babies, 157 (46.3%) were male and 182 (53.7%) were female. Five (1.5%), 9 (2.7%) and 103 (30.4%) of the 339 placentas had active, active-chronic, past-chronic malaria infection on histopathology examination respectively, while 222 (65.5%) of them showed no malaria infection. Logistic regression analyses showed no associations between maternal age or parity and placental malaria infections. Women who have blood group O (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.19-3.10; P = 0.007) and women who had female new born were at higher risk for placental malaria infections (OR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.57-4.13; P< 0.001). Fetal gender may be a novel risk factor for placental malaria. In this work the female placentas were at higher risk for malaria infections than the male placentas.
Krans, Elizabeth E; Zickmund, Susan L; Rustgi, Vinod K; Park, Seo Young; Dunn, Shannon L; Schwarz, Eleanor B
The purpose of this study was to describe the delivery of prenatal care services to women with opioid use disorder (OUD) on opioid maintenance therapy at high risk for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We conducted a retrospective cohort evaluation of 791 pregnant women with OUD from 2009 to 2012. HCV screening was defined as documentation of (a) an anti-HCV antibody test or (b) a provider discussion regarding a known HCV diagnosis during pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors of HCV screening during pregnancy. Among 791 pregnant women with OUD, 611 (77.2%) were screened for HCV infection and 369/611 (60.4%) were HCV positive. In multivariable analysis, patients who were married (odds ratio [OR] = 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.29, 0.91), used buprenorphine (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.28, 0.71), and were cared for by private practice providers (OR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.19, 0.45) were significantly less likely to be screened. In contrast, patients who used benzodiazepines (OR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.02, 2.92), intravenous (IV) opioids (OR = 6.15; 95% CI = 3.96, 9.56), had legal problems (OR = 2.23; 95% CI = 1.12, 4.45), had children not in their custody (OR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.01, 3.24), and who had a partner with substance abuse history (OR = 2.38; 95% CI = 1.23, 4.59) were significantly more likely to be screened. Of 369 HCV-positive patients, a new diagnosis of HCV was made during pregnancy for 108 (29.3%) patients. Only 94 (25.5%) had HCV viral load testing, 61 (16.5%) had HCV genotype testing, and 38 (10.4%) received an immunization for hepatitis A. Although 285 (77.2%) patients were referred to hepatology, only 71 (24.9%) attended the consultation. Finally, only 6 (1.6%) patients received HCV treatment 1 year following delivery. Prenatal care approaches to HCV infection remain inconsistent, and the majority of patients diagnosed with HCV infection during pregnancy do not receive treatment after delivery.
Evers, Holly V; Kocan, A Alan; Reichard, Mason V; Meinkoth, James H
Four 5 mo old captive raised coyotes (Canis latrans) were experimentally inoculated with approximately 1 x 10(6) Babesia gibsoni organisms. Parasites were detected 1 wk post-inoculation in all coyotes with maximum parasitemia of 8-11% occurring at 34 wk. Parasitemias remained at or above 1% for at least 12 wk and were still detectable 20 wk post-inoculation. All experimentally infected coyotes developed pale mucous membranes, splenomegaly, and a positive heme reaction in urine while one coyote exhibited mild depression and inappetence. Infected coyotes also developed a regenerative anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia. The mild clinical signs coupled with the high level and long duration of parasitemia indicate that coyotes could serve as reservoirs for B. gibsoni. Entrance of this foreign parasite into the United States suggests the need for strict quarantines and thorough health and blood film examinations for imported animals.
Lobna A Aly; El-Menoufy, Hala; Elsharkawy, Rehab Tarek; Zaghloul, Mona Z; Sabry, Dina
Background: Several studies have hypothesized that oral infection may increase the risk of preeclampsia. We explore the relationship between chronic oral infection and the risk of preeclampsia in Egyptian pregnant women. Methodology: Forty preeclamptic women with periodontitis and/or pericoronitis (group I) and 40 control subjects having periodontitis and/or pericoronitis (group II) were subjected to microbiological assessment of subgingival plaque, pseudo-pocket and placental samples. TNF...
Elseweidy, Mohamed M; Taha, Mona M; Younis, Nahla N; Ibrahim, Khadiga S; Hamouda, Hamdi A; Eldosouky, Mohamed A; Soliman, Hala
Gastritis, an inflammation of gastric mucosa, may be due to many pathological factors and infection, such as with Helicobacter pylori. The use of experimental models of gastritis is important to evaluate the biochemical changes and study chemotherapeutic intervention. In a previous study we demonstrated an acute gastritis model induced by iodoacetamide. Our objective in this study was to evaluate a new gastritis model induced by H. pylori infection in experimental rats in terms of certain biomarkers in serum and mucosal tissues in addition to histopathological examination. Gastritis was induced in 20 albino Wistar rats by H. pylori isolated from antral biopsy taken from a 49-year-old male patient endoscopically diagnosed as having H. pylori infection. Another ten rats were used as controls. Serum gastrin, pepsinogen I activity, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and gastric mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were measured. Immunostaining for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine and DNA fragmentation were used to further evaluate H. pylori-induced gastritis. Serum gastrin, IL-6, mucosal MPO activity, and PGE(2) demonstrated significant increases joined with a decreased serum pepsinogen I activity (P gastritis models demonstrated massive oxidative stress and pronounced injury in mucosal tissue. Since our model in rats reflected the clinical picture of H. pylori infection, it can be considered as a consistent model to study chemotherapeutic intervention for this type of gastritis.
Yu, Yufeng; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Zou, Peng; Wang, Qian; Dai, Yanyan; Yu, Fei; Du, Lanying; Zhang, Na-Na; Tian, Min; Hao, Jia-Nan; Meng, Yu; Li, Yuan; Zhou, Xiaohui; Fuk-Woo Chan, Jasper; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Zika virus (ZIKV), a re-emerging flavivirus associated with neurological disorders, has spread rapidly to more than 70 countries and territories. However, no specific vaccines or antiviral drugs are currently available to prevent or treat ZIKV infection. Here we report that a synthetic peptide derived from the stem region of ZIKV envelope protein, designated Z2, potently inhibits infection of ZIKV and other flaviviruses in vitro. We show that Z2 interacts with ZIKV surface protein and disrupt...
Salem, Ahmed Hamed; Jones, Aksana Kaefer; Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Taylor, Graham P; Patterson, Kristine B; Nilius, Angela M; Klein, Cheri Enders
Lopinavir-ritonavir is frequently prescribed to HIV-1-infected women during pregnancy. Decreased lopinavir exposure has been reported during pregnancy, but the clinical significance of this reduction is uncertain. This analysis aimed to evaluate the need for lopinavir dose adjustment during pregnancy. We conducted a population pharmacokinetic analysis of lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations collected from 84 pregnant and 595 nonpregnant treatment-naive and -experienced HIV-1-infected subjects enrolled in six clinical studies. Lopinavir-ritonavir doses in the studies ranged between 400/100 and 600/150 mg twice daily. In addition, linear mixed-effect analysis was used to compare the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h (AUC0-12) and concentration prior to dosing (Cpredose) in pregnant women and nonpregnant subjects. The relationship between lopinavir exposure and virologic suppression in pregnant women and nonpregnant subjects was evaluated. Population pharmacokinetic analysis estimated 17% higher lopinavir clearance in pregnant women than in nonpregnant subjects. Lopinavir clearance values postpartum were 26.4% and 37.1% lower than in nonpregnant subjects and pregnant women, respectively. As the tablet formulation was estimated to be 20% more bioavailable than the capsule formulation, no statistically significant differences between lopinavir exposure in pregnant women receiving the tablet formulation and nonpregnant subjects receiving the capsule formulation were identified. In the range of lopinavir AUC0-12 or Cpredose values observed in the third trimester, there was no correlation between lopinavir exposure and viral load or proportion of subjects with virologic suppression. Similar efficacy was observed between pregnant women and nonpregnant subjects receiving lopinavir-ritonavir at 400/100 mg twice daily. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic results support the use of a lopinavir-ritonavir 400/100-mg twice-daily dose during pregnancy
Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-positive pregnant women require specific prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. The efficacy of established approaches is further challenged by co-infection with other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of co-infections in pregnant women infected with different HIV-1 subtypes and to relate these findings, together with additional demographic and clinical parameters, to maternal and infant outcomes. Blood samples from pregnant women were collected and tested for syphilis, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV. Human papillomavirus (HPV diagnosis was evaluated by the presence of alterations in the cervical epithelium detected through a cytopathological exam. Medical charts provided patient data for the mothers and children. Statistical analyses were conducted with STATA 9.0. We found a prevalence of 10.8% for HCV, 2.3% for chronic HBV, 3.1% for syphilis and 40.8% for HPV. Of those co-infected with HPV, 52.9% presented high-grade intraepithelial lesions or in situ carcinoma. Prematurity, birth weight, Apgar 1' and 5' and Capurro scores were similar between co-infected and non-co-infected women. The presence of other STDs did not impact maternal and concept outcomes. More than half of the patients presenting cervical cytology abnormalities suggestive of HPV had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or cervical cancer, evidencing an alarming rate of these lesions.
Наталія Ігорівна Філімонова
Full Text Available Modern problems of antibiotic therapy are shown by wide range of side effects, both on organism and microbiological levels: the spread of allergies, toxic for organ systems reactions, dysbiosis development, and resistant pathogens formation and dissemination. Therefore the necessity of search for new effective drugs with significant antimicrobial activity applied for the wounds treatment arises. Development of combined remedies on the background of different origin antimicrobial agents’ derivatives is one of the fight directions against infectious diseases in the skin pathology. Recently among the existing antimicrobial agents one should focus on antiseptic drugs, due to degenerative and dysfunctional effect on microbial cell.Aim of research. The comparison of mono- and combined antimicrobial agents chemotherapeutic efficiency in the treatment of localized purulent infection under experimental conditions.Metods. The study of chemotherapeutic efficiency was carried out on the model of localized purulent Staphylococcus infection on albino mice weighting 14 – 16 g. S.aureus ATCC 25923 strains were used as infectious agents. The contamination was performed subcutaneously to the right side of mice’s skin after depilation. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: the 1st group – infected mice without treatment (control; the 2nd group – infected mice treated with a ciprofloxacin; the 3rd group – infected mice treated with a Ciprofloxacin and Decamethoxin combination; the 4th group – infected mice treated with a combined drug on the base of mutual prodrugs (Hexamethylenetetramine and Phenyl salicylate.Results. The efficiency of mono- and combined antimicrobial agents under experimental Staphylococcus wound infection conditions was studied. It was found that localized purulent staph center was formed more slowly in comparison with control and mono preparation use (2nd group of animals. The average index of skin lesions in comparison
Full Text Available The pathogenesis of fetal death associated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is hypothesized to be a consequence of PRRS virus-induced apoptosis at the maternal-fetal interface (MFI. The objectives of this study were to evaluate distribution and degree of apoptosis in the uterine and fetal placental tissues during the experimental type 2 PRRS virus (PRRSV infection and determine associations between apoptosis at the MFI, PRRSV RNA concentration and antigen staining intensity, PRRSV-induced microscopic lesions, and fetal preservation status. A total of 114 naïve, high-health pregnant gilts were inoculated with type 2 PRRSV on gestation day 85±1 with euthanasia 21 days later; 19 sham-inoculated gilts served as controls. Two hundred and fifty samples of uterine tissue with fetal placenta were selected based on negative, low PRRSV RNA, and high PRRSV RNA concentration (0, 2.7 log10 copies/mg, respectively. TUNEL assay was used to detect apoptosis in the endometrium and at the MFI. PRRSV RNA concentration and numbers of PRRSV immunopositive cells in uterine and placental tissue were positively associated with the severity of apoptosis in the endometrium and the MFI (P<0.001, P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively. The number of TUNEL positive cells at the MFI was also positively associated with the severity (P<0.001 of vasculitis, but not total numbers of inflammatory cells in the endometrium. Increased numbers of TUNEL positive cells at the MFI were associated with PRRSV load in the fetal thymus, and greater odds of meconium staining of the fetus at 21 days post infection (P<0.001 for both. These findings suggest an important role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of uterine epithelial and trophoblastic cell death at the MFI. Moreover, apoptosis at the MFI is significantly associated with fetal demise during in utero type 2 PRRSV infection.
Harding, John C. S.; Al-Dissi, Ahmad N; Detmer, Susan E.
The pathogenesis of fetal death associated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is hypothesized to be a consequence of PRRS virus-induced apoptosis at the maternal-fetal interface (MFI). The objectives of this study were to evaluate distribution and degree of apoptosis in the uterine and fetal placental tissues during the experimental type 2 PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection and determine associations between apoptosis at the MFI, PRRSV RNA concentration and antigen staining intensity, PRRSV-induced microscopic lesions, and fetal preservation status. A total of 114 naïve, high-health pregnant gilts were inoculated with type 2 PRRSV on gestation day 85±1 with euthanasia 21 days later; 19 sham-inoculated gilts served as controls. Two hundred and fifty samples of uterine tissue with fetal placenta were selected based on negative, low PRRSV RNA, and high PRRSV RNA concentration (0, 2.7 log10 copies/mg, respectively). TUNEL assay was used to detect apoptosis in the endometrium and at the MFI. PRRSV RNA concentration and numbers of PRRSV immunopositive cells in uterine and placental tissue were positively associated with the severity of apoptosis in the endometrium and the MFI (P<0.001, P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). The number of TUNEL positive cells at the MFI was also positively associated with the severity (P<0.001) of vasculitis, but not total numbers of inflammatory cells in the endometrium. Increased numbers of TUNEL positive cells at the MFI were associated with PRRSV load in the fetal thymus, and greater odds of meconium staining of the fetus at 21 days post infection (P<0.001 for both). These findings suggest an important role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of uterine epithelial and trophoblastic cell death at the MFI. Moreover, apoptosis at the MFI is significantly associated with fetal demise during in utero type 2 PRRSV infection. PMID:28253336
Tahita, Marc C; Tinto, Halidou; Menten, Joris; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Guiguemde, Robert T; van Geertruyden, Jean Pierre; Erhart, Annette; D'Alessandro, Umberto
Malaria in pregnancy is a major public health problem in endemic countries. Though the signs and symptoms of malaria among pregnant women have been already described, clinical presentation may vary according to intensity of transmission and local perceptions. Therefore, determining common signs and symptoms among pregnant women with a malaria infection may be extremely useful to identify those in need of further investigation by rapid diagnostic test or microscopy. Six hundred pregnant women attending the maternity clinic of Nanoro District Hospital, Burkina Faso were recruited, 200 with suspected clinical malaria and 400 as controls. Cases were matched with controls by gestational age and parity. Signs and symptoms were collected and a blood sample taken for rapid diagnostic test, microscopy and haemoglobin measurement. A multivariate model was used to assess the predictive value of signs and symptoms for malaria infection. The overall prevalence of malaria was 42.6% (256/600) while anaemia was found in 60.8% (365/600) of the women. Nearly half (49%) of the cases and 39.5% of the controls had a malaria infection (p = 0.03). The most common signs and symptoms among the cases were fever (36%,72/200), history of fever (29%,58/200) and headache (52%,104/200). The positive predictive value for fever was 53% (95% CI:41-64), history of fever 58% (95% CI:37-63) and headache 51% (95% CI:41-61). Signs and symptoms suggestive of malaria are frequent among pregnant women living in areas of intense transmission. Common malaria symptoms are not strong predictors of infection. For a better management of malaria in pregnancy, active screening to detect and treat malaria infection early should be performed on all pregnant women attending a health facility.
Bonney Joseph Humphrey
Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral infections during pregnancy can pose serious threats to mother and fetus from the time of conception to the time of delivery. These lead to congenital defects, spontaneous abortion and even death. The definitive diagnosis and management of pregnancy-related viral infections may be challenging especially in less resourced countries. Case presentation We present clinical and laboratory responses to the diagnosis and management of three cases of fulminant hepatitis secondary to Hepatitis E viral infection in pregnancy. Case 1 was a 31-year-old Ghanaian woman who presented with a week’s history of passing dark urine as well as yellowish discoloration of the eyes. She subsequently developed fulminant hepatitis secondary to Hepatitis E viral infection, spontaneously aborted at 24 weeks of gestation and later died. Case 2 was also a 31-year-old Ghanaian woman who was admitted with a four-day history of jaundice. She had low grade fever, but no history of abdominal pain, haematuria, pale stool or pruritus. She next developed fulminant hepatitis secondary to Hepatitis E viral infection. However, she did not miscarry but died at 28 weeks of gestation. Case 3 was a 17-year-old Ghanaian woman who was referred to the tertiary health facility on account of jaundice and anaemia. She had delivered a live male infant at maturity of 32 weeks but noticed she was jaundiced and had a presentation of active disease 3 days prior to delivery. The baby was icteric at birth and on evaluation, had elevated bilirubin (mixed type with normal liver enzymes. Hepatitis E virus infection was confirmed in both mother and baby. However, the jaundice and the hepatomegaly resolved in mother and baby after 5 and 12 days respectively. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, these are the first documented cases of fatal fulminant hepatic failures resulting from HEV infection in Ghana.
Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z
Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Monney, Thierry; Debache, Karim; Grandgirard, Denis; Leib, Stephen L; Hemphill, Andrew
The major route of transmission of Neospora caninum in cattle is transplacentally from an infected cow to its progeny. Therefore, a vaccine should be able to prevent both the horizontal transmission from contaminated food or water and the vertical transmission. We have previously shown that a chimeric vaccine composed of predicted immunogenic epitopes of NcMIC3, NcMIC1 and NcROP2 (recNcMIC3-1-R) significantly reduced the cerebral infection in BALB/c mice. In this study, mice were first vaccinated, then mated and pregnant mice were challenged with 2×10(6)N. caninum tachyzoites at day 7-9 of pregnancy. Partial protection was only observed in the mice vaccinated with a tachyzoite crude protein extract but no protection against vertical transmission or cerebral infection in the dams was observed in the group vaccinated with recNcMIC3-1-R. Serological and cytokine analysis showed an overall lower cytokine level in sera associated with a dominant IL-4 expression and high IgG1 titers. Thus, the Th2-type immune response observed in the pregnant mice was not protective against experimental neosporosis, in contrary to the mixed Th1-/Th2-type immune response observed in the non-pregnant mouse model. These results demonstrate that the immunomodulation that occurs during pregnancy was not favorable for the protection against N. caninum infection conferred by vaccination with recNcMIC3-1-R. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Suk; Lee, Dong Soo; Watanabe, Kenta; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Watarai, Masahisa
Background The mechanisms of abortion induced by bacterial infection are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated abortion induced by Brucella abortus, a causative agent of brucellosis and facultative intracellular pathogen, in a mouse model. Results High rates of abortion were observed for bacterial infection on day 4.5 of gestation, but not for other days. Regardless of whether fetuses were aborted or stayed alive, the transmission of bacteria into the fetus and bacterial replication in the placenta were observed. There was a higher degree of bacterial colonization in the placenta than in other organs and many bacteria were detected in trophoblast giant cells in the placenta. Intracellular growth-defective virB4 mutant and attenuated vaccine strain S19 did not induce abortion. In the case of abortion, around day 7.5 of gestation (period of placental development), transient induction of IFN-γ production was observed for infection by the wild type strain, but not by the virB4 mutant and S19. Neutralization of IFN-γ, whose production was induced by infection with B. abortus, served to prevent abortion. Conclusion These results indicate that abortion induced by B. abortus infection is a result of transient IFN-γ production during the period of placental development. PMID:15869716
Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms of abortion induced by bacterial infection are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated abortion induced by Brucella abortus, a causative agent of brucellosis and facultative intracellular pathogen, in a mouse model. Results High rates of abortion were observed for bacterial infection on day 4.5 of gestation, but not for other days. Regardless of whether fetuses were aborted or stayed alive, the transmission of bacteria into the fetus and bacterial replication in the placenta were observed. There was a higher degree of bacterial colonization in the placenta than in other organs and many bacteria were detected in trophoblast giant cells in the placenta. Intracellular growth-defective virB4 mutant and attenuated vaccine strain S19 did not induce abortion. In the case of abortion, around day 7.5 of gestation (period of placental development, transient induction of IFN-γ production was observed for infection by the wild type strain, but not by the virB4 mutant and S19. Neutralization of IFN-γ, whose production was induced by infection with B. abortus, served to prevent abortion. Conclusion These results indicate that abortion induced by B. abortus infection is a result of transient IFN-γ production during the period of placental development.
Zenebe, Yohannes; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Abera, Bayeh
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are the two most important agents of infectious diseases. Both HBV and HIV share common modes of transmission and have serious effects on both pregnant women and infants. In Bahir Dar city administration, there is a scarcity of information on sero-prevalence of HIV and HBV infection among pregnant women. The main objective of this study was to assess sero-prevalence and risk factors of HIV and HBV infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2013 to April 2013. Socio-demographic and explanatory variables were collected using a structured questionnaire by face to face interview. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was detected using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HIV infection was also detected using the national HIV test algorithms. The results were analyzed with descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. The odds ratio and 95% Confidence intervals were calculated. A total of 318 pregnant women with the mean age of 25.72 (SD. ±5.14) years old were enrolled. Overall, 21/318 (6.6%) and 12 /318 (3.8%) of the pregnant women were positive for HIV and HBsAg, respectively. Of these, HIV/HBV co-infection rate was 4 (19.0%). Previous history of blood transfusion (AOR = 3.7, 95% CI, 9.02-14.84), body tattooing (AOR = 5.7, 95% CI, 1.24-26.50), history of surgery (AOR = 11.1, 95% CI, 2.64-46.88) and unsafe injection (AOR = 5.6, 95% CI, 1.44-22.19) were significantly associated with HBV infection. Previous history of piercing with sharp materials (AOR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.17-7.80) and history of abortion (AOR = 6.6, 95% CI 2.50-17.71) were also statistically significant for HIV infection. This study indicates that HIV and HBV infections are important public health issues in our region that need to be addressed. All pregnant women need to be screened for both HIV and HBV
Williams, John E; Cairns, Matthew; Njie, Fanta
and secundigravidae who participated in the ISTp arm of a noninferiority trial in 4 West African countries were screened with an HRP2/pLDH RDT on enrollment and, in Ghana, at subsequent antenatal clinic (ANC) visits. Blood samples were examined subsequently by microscopy and by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay....... RESULTS: The sensitivity of the RDT to detect peripheral blood infections confirmed by microscopy and/or PCR at enrollment ranged from 91% (95% confidence interval [CI], 88%, 94%) in Burkina Faso to 59% (95% CI, 48%, 70% in The Gambia. In Ghana, RDT sensitivity was 89% (95% CI, 85%, 92%), 83% (95% CI, 76......%, 90%) and 77% (95% CI, 67%, 86%) at enrollment, second and third ANC visits respectively but only 49% (95% CI, 31%, 66%) at delivery. Screening at enrollment detected 56% of all infections detected throughout pregnancy. Seventy-five RDT negative PCR or microscopy positive infections were detected...
Full Text Available Violeta J Rodriguez,1 Ryan R Cook,1 Stephen M Weiss,1 Karl Peltzer,2–4 Deborah L Jones1 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2HIV/AIDS/STIs and TB (HAST Research Programme, Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa; 3ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Mahidol University, Salaya, Thailand; 4Department of Psychology, University of Limpopo, Turfloop, South Africa Abstract: Patient–provider family planning discussions and preconception counseling can reduce maternal and neonatal risks by increasing adherence to provider recommendations and antiretroviral medication. However, HIV-infected women may not discuss reproductive intentions with providers due to anticipation of negative reactions and stigma. This study aimed to identify correlates of patient–provider family planning discussions among HIV-infected women in rural South Africa, an area with high rates of antenatal HIV and suboptimal rates of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV. Participants were N=673 pregnant HIV-infected women who completed measures of family planning discussions and knowledge, depression, stigma, intimate partner violence, and male involvement. Participants were, on average, 28 ± 6 years old, and half of them had completed at least 10–11 years of education. Most women were unemployed and had a monthly income of less than ~US$76. Fewer than half of the women reported having family planning discussions with providers. Correlates of patient–provider family planning discussions included younger age, discussions about PMTCT of HIV, male involvement, and decreased stigma (p < 0.05. Depression was indirectly associated with patient–provider family planning discussions through male involvement (b = −0.010, bias-corrected 95% confidence interval [bCI] [−0.019, −0.005]. That is, depression decreased male involvement, and in turn, male involvement
Susie Andries Nogueira
Full Text Available This report describes a case of Toxoplasma encephalitis during pregnancy of an HIV infected woman who was severely immunosuppressed (CD4: 17 cells/mm3, had a high viral load (RNA PCR:230,000 copies/ml, was treated with sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine and folinic acid for toxoplasmosis and was being treated with highly potent antiretroviral drugs (AZT, 3TC and nelfinavir for HIV infection. The newborn was born through an elective C-section, received six weeks of AZT according to the 076 protocol and was clinically normal at birth. Subsequently he had two RNA PCR negatives for HIV, seroreverted and had no clinical or laboratory evidence of congenital toxoplasmosis. Despite the concerns of the use of these combined therapies on the foetus during pregnancy, their efficacy illustrates that keeping the mother alive and in good health is an important strategy to protect the unborn child from acquiring these two infections.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in Tanzania, and factors contributing to this situation need to be identified. The objective of this study was to determine social, behavioral and biological risk factors of HIV infection among pregnant women in Moshi urban, Tanzania. In 2002 – 2004, consenting women (N = 2654, attending primary health clinics for routine antenatal care were interviewed, examined and biological samples collected for diagnosis of HIV and other sexually transmitted/reproductive tract infections. Results The prevalence of HIV was 6.9%. The risk for HIV was greater among women whose male partner; had other sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 15.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.39–27.20, traveled frequently (AOR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.22–2.65 or consumed alcohol daily (AOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.06–2.67. Other independent predictors of HIV were age, number of sex partners, recent migration, and presence of bacterial vaginosis, genital ulcer, active syphilis and herpes simplex virus type 2. Conclusion Development of programs that actively involve men in HIV prevention is important in reducing transmission of HIV in this population. Further, interventions that focus on STI control, the mobile population, sexual risk behavior and responsible alcohol use are required.
Bernasconi, Daniela; Tavoschi, Lara; Regine, Vincenza; Raimondo, Mariangela; Gama, Dan; Sulgencio, Leonides; Almaviva, Mauro; Galli, Claudio; Ensoli, Barbara; Suligoi, Barbara; Sukati, Hosea; Buttò, Stefano
HIV continues to spread at high rates in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, Swaziland is one of the countries most affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Monitoring of HIV infection in Swaziland is being made by periodical investigations on HIV prevalence in pregnant women. However, knowledge of proportion of recent HIV infections is important for epidemiologic purposes to assess HIV transmission patterns. To evaluate the proportion of recent HIV infections among pregnant women and its change overtime and to analyze factors associated with recent HIV infection in Swaziland. HIV-positive sera from pregnant women were collected during the 2004 and 2006 National HIV Serosurveys conducted in Swaziland and tested for the HIV antibody avidity, in order to identify recent HIV infections. Socio-demographic and clinical information was also collected. A multivariate analysis was conducted to assess the association between recent HIV infection and socio-demographic and clinical factors. A total of 1636 serum samples were tested for HIV antibody avidity. The overall proportion of recent infections was 13.8%, with no significant difference between 2004 and 2006 (14.6% vs. 13.1%, P>0.05, respectively). At the multivariate analysis, the younger age [14-19 vs. >or=20 years; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.17, 95% CI: 1.45-3.24], as well as being at first pregnancy (1 vs. >or=2; aOR 1.61, 95% CI: 1.10-2.35) was independently associated with recent HIV infection. This study shows no significant difference in the proportion of recent infections between 2004 and 2006 and suggests that young women and women at their first pregnancy are currently high-risk groups for HIV acquisition, highlighting the importance of developing targeted youth programmes to reduce the spread of HIV infection in the country. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Andrey V. An
Full Text Available Background: For nearly a decade, a disease likely to have been misdiagnosed was observed in pregnant women in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. It caused the rapid decline and death of patients, with about 45% mortality rate. The disease was suspected to be caused by a virus of the HVP (Hantavirus family, and clinical studies were conducted to ascertain. Methods: As no system for registration of such cases had been maintained, researchers developed a questionnaire with indicators chiefly based on relevant literature. All the women admitted exhibiting the symptoms listed were covered by the study. Results: Among the 16 cases identified from September to December 2008, ten survived; 80% belonged to the indigenous ethnic group; 80% were housewives. Most (90% were between 16 and 34 weeks’ pregnancy, 24.5 weeks on average. Almost all of them experienced labored breathing and abnormally high body temperature. About 75% of the women lived in the vicinity of rodents’ habitats, and about half of them could have been in direct contact with the aerosolized rodent excreta. Conclusions: Researchers believe that those women exposed to the excreta were cases of HPS. In practice, the surgical removal of the fetus proved to be the most efficient treatment. However, the medical community has a growing concern about patients with HPV being misdiagnosed and the related difficulties in diagnosing and treating them.
Bento, Cleonice A M; Hygino, Joana; Andrade, Regis M; Saramago, Carmen S M; Silva, Renato G; Silva, Agostinho A L; Linhares, Ulisses C; Brindeiro, Rodrigo; Tanuri, Amilcar; Rosenzwajg, Michelle; Klatzmann, David; Andrade, Arnaldo F B
This study aimed to evaluate the impact of pregnancy-related immune events on the HIV-1 replication and to analyze their relationship with the risk of vertical transmission. The peripheral blood from HIV-1-infected pregnant women who controlled (G1) or not controlled (G2) their plasma viral load was drawn, and the plasma and the T cells were obtained. The T-cell cultures were activated in vitro with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28, and the proliferation and cytokine production profile were evaluated after 3 days of incubation. The in-vitro HIV-1 replication was measured in culture supernatants in the seventh day following stimulation. The cytokines were also analyzed in the plasma. Our results demonstrated a lower T-cell proliferation and a lower interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma production in polyclonally activated T-cell cultures from G1 patients, when compared with G2. Furthermore, high levels of interleukin-10 were produced both systemically and by activated T-cell cultures from G1 patients. Interestingly, the neutralization of endogenous interleukin-10 by anti-interleukin-10 monoclonal antibody elevated both the inflammatory cytokines' release and the HIV-1 replication in the polyclonally activated T-cell cultures from G1 patients. Additionally, the maternal antiretroviral treatment significantly enhanced the systemic interleukin-10 production. Finally, the higher systemic interleukin-10 levels were inversely correlated with vertical virus transmission risk. These results indicate that a high tendency of pregnant women to produce interleukin-10 can help them control the HIV-1 replication, and this can reduce the risk of vertical transmission. Furthermore, our data suggest a role for maternal antiretroviral treatment in enhancing this phenomenon.
Williams, John E.; Cairns, Matthew; Njie, Fanta; Laryea Quaye, Stephen; Awine, Timothy; Oduro, Abraham; Tagbor, Harry; Bojang, Kalifa; Magnussen, Pascal; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Woukeu, Arouna; Milligan, Paul; Chandramohan, Daniel; Greenwood, Brian
Intermittent screening and treatment in pregnancy (ISTp) is a potential strategy for the control of malaria during pregnancy. However, the frequency and consequences of malaria infections missed by a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for malaria are a concern. Primigravidae and secundigravidae who
Full Text Available Schmallenberg virus (SBV, an orthobunyavirus discovered in European livestock in late 2011 for the first time, causes premature or stillbirth and severe fetal malformation when cows and ewes are infected during pregnancy. Therefore, cattle of two holdings in the initially most affected area in Germany were closely monitored to describe the consequence for fetuses and newborn calves. Seventy-one calves whose mothers were naturally infected during the first five months of pregnancy were clinically, virologically, and serologically examined. One calve showed typical malformation, another one, born without visible abnormalities, was dead. Two cows aborted during the studied period; spleen and brain samples or meconium swabs were tested by real-time PCR, in none of the fetuses SBV-specific RNA was detectable and the tested fetal sera were negative in a commercially available antibody ELISA. In contrast, in nine clinically healthy calves high SBV-antibody titers were measurable before colostrum intake, and in meconium swabs of six of these animals viral RNA was present as well. The mothers of all nine seropositive calves were presumably infected between days 47 and 162 of gestation, which is within the critical timeframe for fetal infection suggested for SBV and related viruses.
Mavrogianni, V S; Papadopoulos, E; Spanos, S A; Mitsoura, A; Ptochos, S; Gougoulis, D A; Barbagianni, M S; Kyriazakis, I; Fthenakis, G C
Objective was to investigate if trematode infections predispose ewes to mastitis and/or metritis. We used 80 trematode-infected ewes: primigravidae in group P-A and multigravidae in M-A remained untreated, primigravidae in P-B and multigravidae in M-B were drenched with netobimin and multigravidae in M-C were given rafoxanide. We collected faecal samples for parasitological examination, blood samples for β-hydroxybutyrate concentration measurement and uterine content, teat duct material and milk samples for bacteriological examination. We found significant differences in blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations between M-A, M-B and M-C during pregnancy (P ⩽ 0.002). We did not observe significant differences between groups regarding development of metritis (P>0.83). We found that for M-A, M-B and M-C ewes, respectively, median time to first case of mastitis was 5.75, 21 and 6.75 days after lambing (P = 0.003) and incidence risk of mastitis was 0.308, 0.069 and 0.222 (P = 0.047). We postulate that trematode infections predispose ewes to mastitis; perhaps, increased β-hydroxybutyrate blood concentrations adversely affect mammary cellular defences. This is the first report associating parasitic infections with mastitis in sheep. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guitard, Juliette; Cottrell, Gilles; Magnouha, Nellie Moulopo; Salanti, Ali; Li, Tengfei; Sow, Sokhna; Deloron, Philippe; Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise
Background Pregnant women develop protective anti-VSA IgG1 and IgG3 when infected by Plasmodium falciparum. The major target of IgG from serum of infected pregnant women is VAR2CSA. Methods In this study, ELISA was used to compare the level of VAR2CSA DBL5ε- specific IgG subclasses at enrolment and at delivery in a cohort of pregnant women in Senegal. All antibody measures were analysed in relation to placental infection according to parity. Results The results show an interaction between immune response to placental malaria and parity. A higher level of anti- DBL5ε- IgG3 at enrolment and a higher increase between enrolment and delivery were found in primigravidae who presented with uninfected placenta at delivery in comparison to those who presented with an infection of the placenta. However, high antibody level at delivery was associated with the infection of the placenta in multigravidae. Conclusion This high level of IgG3 in uninfected primigravidae suggests a protective role of these antibodies in this susceptible group, highlighting the importance of VAR2CSA in general and of some of its variants still to be defined, in the induction of protective immunity to pregnancy malaria. PMID:18190692
Bayo, Pontius; Ochola, Emmanuel; Oleo, Caroline; Mwaka, Amos Deogratius
To determine the prevalence of the hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in two referral hospitals in northern Uganda. Cross-sectional observational study. Two tertiary hospitals in a postconflict region in a low-income country. Randomly selected 402 pregnant women attending routine antenatal care in two referral hospitals. Five women withdrew consent for personal reasons. Data were analysed for 397 participants. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity. Of 397 pregnant women aged 13-43 years, 96.2% were married or cohabiting. 47 (11.8%) tested positive for HBsAg; of these, 7 (14.9%) were HBeAg positive. The highest HBsAg positivity rate was seen in women aged 20 years or less (20%) compared with those aged above 20 years (8.7%), aOR=2.54 (95% CI 1.31 to 4.90). However, there was no statistically significant difference between women with positive HBsAg and those with negative tests results with respect to median values of liver enzymes, haemoglobin level, absolute neutrophil counts and white cell counts. HIV positivity, scarification and number of sexual partners were not predictive of HBV positivity. One in eight pregnant women attending antenatal care in the two study hospitals has evidence of hepatitis B infection. A significant number of these mothers are HBeAg positive and may be at increased risk of transmitting hepatitis B infection to their unborn babies. We suggest that all pregnant women attending antenatal care be tested for HBV infection; exposed babies need to receive HBV vaccines at birth. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Sethi, Sunil; Roy, Amit; Garg, Shubha; Venkatesan, Lakshmi Sree; Bagga, Rashmi
Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections are one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections across the world. In pregnant women, if not detected and treated early, these may result in poor pregnancy outcomes and complications. The present study was aimed to screen CT infections from first void urine (FVU) samples of asymptomatic pregnant women using molecular methods. The secondary objective was to evaluate cost-effectiveness in pooling FVU samples for their diagnostic application. FVU samples were collected from 1000 asymptomatic pregnant women over a period of three years. Pooling was done by including five specimens in one pool in the amount of 10 μl and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and further confirmed by direct fluorescent antibody assay (DFA). The age of study participants ranged from 18 to 43 yr with the median±standard deviation of 26±3.84 yr. Majority of positive participants were younger than 25 years. A total of 200 pools were prepared and 20 of these were PCR positive. When individual specimen in 20 positive pools was tested, 20 PCR-positive specimens were identified from 19 pools, of which 16 were positive by DFA. Thus, CT was detected in 1.6 per cent asymptomatic pregnant women in India and pooling strategy resulted in 70 per cent reduction in a number of tests performed. Our study detected C. trachomatis infection in 1.6 per cent asymptomatic pregnant women, and pooling of FVU specimens for PCR testing was found to be a cost-saving strategy in comparison to testing individual samples. Further evaluation and studies on the bigger sample size are warranted to validate these results.
Florentina C Kunseler
Full Text Available This study tested experimentally whether the combination of a history of childhood abuse and confrontation with difficult infant temperament is associated with negative changes in parenting self-efficacy. First-time pregnant women (N = 243 participated in the Adult Attachment Interview, which was used to assess the occurrence of abuse by parents in childhood and unresolved representations, and completed a task asking them to respond to infant cries. Sixty of the 243 participants (25% experienced childhood abuse, mostly physical or sexual. The task simulated infant temperamental difficulty by manipulating soothing success in order to reflect an easy-to-soothe (80% soothing success and a difficult-to-soothe infant (20% soothing success. Both after baseline and after each of the two stimulus series women assessed their parenting self-efficacy. Women who reported childhood abuse did not differ from women who reported no childhood abuse in parenting self-efficacy at baseline or in response to the easy-to-soothe infant (relative to baseline, but decreased more in parenting self-efficacy following the difficult-to-soothe infant. Effects did not vary according to resolution of trauma. These findings suggest that in response to infant temperamental difficulty, women who experienced childhood abuse may more easily lose confidence in their parenting abilities, which underlines the importance of preparing at-risk women for the possible challenges that come along with parenthood.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2 is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections that facilitate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV acquisition by over two fold or more. The development of HSV-2 control methods as a measure to control HIV epidemic in high HSV-2/HIV areas has become a priority. Two out of the six high HIV prevalent states of India are located in the Northeastern region of India. Due to lack of documented HSV-2 studies from this part of the country; there was a need for estimating the seroprevalence and risk factors of HSV-2 infection in this defined population. Methods Pregnant women (n = 1640 aged18 years and above attending antenatal clinics of tertiary referral hospitals in five Northeastern states of India were screened for type specific HSV-2 IgG antibodies. Blood samples were collected from all the participants after conducting interviews. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the risk factors associated with HSV-2 seropositivity. Results Overall seroprevalence of HSV-2 infection was 8.7% (142/1640; 95% CI 7.3-10.0 with a highest prevalence of 15.0% (46/307; 95% CI 11.0-19.0 in the state of Arunachal Pradesh. Higher seroprevalence was observed with increasing age (Adj. Odds Ratio [AOR] 1.9 for 22-25 years old, AOR 2.29 for > 29 years old. The risk factors associated with HSV-2 seropositives were multiple sex partners (AOR 2.5, p = 0.04, condom non-user's (AOR 4.7, p 0.001, early coitarchal age (age of first intercourse 'less than 18 years' (AOR 9.6, p = 0.04, middle income group (AOR 2.1, p = 0.001 compared to low income group and low level of education (AOR 3.7, p = 0.02 compared to higher education. HSV-2 seropositivity was higher among Christians (12.6% compared to Muslims (3.8%. The most frequent clinical symptoms among HSV-2 seropositives were excess vaginal discharge in last one year (53.5%, 76/142 and pelvic pain (26.1%, 37/142. While among subjects with
Johansen, M V; Monrad, J; Christensen, N O
The effect of praziquantel against experimental Schistosoma bovis infection in West African Dwarf goats was investigated. Thirty goats were exposed to 2000 cercariae each and 15 of those received a praziquantel treatment (60 mg kg-1) 13 weeks post-infection. One day, 1 week and 4 weeks post-treatment representative goats from each group were killed and worms were recovered by perfusion. For comparison, parasite-free control animals were monitored, some of which were given praziquantel. Every second week during the study, faecal samples were collected. The cure rate was 100% 1 day, 99.4% 1 week and 95.7% 4 weeks post-treatment. Tissue egg counts were significantly reduced (P < 0.001) 4 weeks post-treatment in all parts of the intestines, but not in the liver. Faecal egg counts were reduced by 84.1% 1 week and by 98.3% 3 weeks after treatment, the reduction being highly significant both 1 week 3 weeks after treatment (P < 0.001). Overall strong correlations between the number of worm pairs, tissue egg counts and the final faecal egg count were observed, indicating that the faecal egg counts during infection and following treatment can be used as a guideline for the pathology associated with the infection.
Rita L. Cardoni
Full Text Available TRYPANOSOMA cruzi induces inflammatory reactions in several tissues. The production of prostaglandin F2α, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α and thromboxane B2, known to regulate the immune response and to participate in inflammatory reactions, was studied in mice experimentally infected with T. cruzi. The generation of nitric oxide (NO, which could be regulated by cyclooxygenase metabolites, was also evaluated. In the acute infection the extension of inflammatory infiltrates in skeletal muscle as well as the circulating levels of cyclooxygenase metabolites and NO were higher in resistant C3H mice than in susceptible BALB/c mice. In addition, the spontaneous release of NO by spleen cells increased earlier in the C3H mouse strain. In the chronic infections, the tissue inflammatory reaction was still prominent in both groups of mice, but a moderate increase of thromboxane B2 concentration and in NO released by spleen cells was observed only in C3H mice. This comparative study shows that these mediators could be mainly related to protective mechanisms in the acute phase, but seem not to be involved in its maintenance in the chronic T. cruzi infections.
Wujcicka, Wioletta Izabela; Wilczyński, Jan Szczęsny; Nowakowska, Dorota Ewa
The study was aimed to estimate the role and prevalence rates of genotypes, haplotypes, and alleles, located within the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of interleukin (IL) 1A, IL1B, and IL6 genes, in the occurrence and development of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection among pregnant women. A research was conducted in 129 pregnant women, out of whom, 65 were HCMV infected and 64 were age-matched control uninfected individuals. HCMV DNA was quantitated for UL55 gene by the real-time Q PCR in the body fluids. The genotypic statuses within the SNPs were determined by nested PCR-RFLP assays and confirmed, by sequencing for randomly selected representative PCR products. A relationship between the genotypes and alleles, as well as haplotypes and multiple variants in the studied polymorphisms, and the occurrence of HCMV infection in pregnant women, was determined using a logistic regression model. TT genotype within IL1A polymorphism significantly decreased the risk of HCMV infection (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.09-1.05; p ≤ 0.050). Considering IL6 SNP, the prevalence rate of GC genotype was significantly decreased among the HCMV infected, compared to the uninfected control individuals (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21-0.99; p ≤ 0.050). Moreover, CC homozygotic status in IL6 SNP, found in pregnant women, significantly decreased the risk of congenital infection with HCMV in their offsprings (OR 0.12; p ≤ 0.050). In multiple SNP analysis, TC haplotype within the IL1 polymorphisms significantly decreased the risk of the infection in pregnant women (OR 0.38 95% CI 0.15-0.96; p ≤ 0.050). In addition, TTG complex variants for all the studied polymorphisms and TG variants for IL1B and IL6 SNPs were significantly more prevalent among the infected offsprings with symptomatic congenital cytomegaly than among the asymptomatic cases (p ≤ 0.050). In conclusion, the analyzed IL1A -889 C>T, IL1B +3954 C>T, and IL6 -174 G>C polymorphisms may be associated with the
Karniychuk Uladzimir U
Full Text Available Abstract The presence of foreign cells within the tissue/circulation of an individual is described as microchimerism. The main purpose of the present investigation was to study if microchimerism occurs in healthy sows/fetuses and if porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV infection influences this phenomenon. Six dams were inoculated intranasally with PRRSV and three non-inoculated dams served as controls. Male DNA was detected in female fetal sera of all dams via PCR. Male DNA was also detected in the maternal circulation. Sex-typing FISH showed the presence of male cells in the female fetal organs and vice versa. PRRSV infection did not influence microchimerism, but might misuse maternal and sibling microchimeric cells to enter fetuses.
Henderson, F.W.; Dubovi, E.J.; Harder, S.; Seal, E. Jr.; Graham, D.
We studied 24 young adult male volunteers experimentally inoculated with type 39 rhinovirus to determine whether the course of viral infection was modified by exposure to moderate levels of ozone (0.3 ppm for 6 h per day) over the 5 days after virus inoculation. No differences in rhinovirus titers in nasal secretions, recruitment of neutrophils into nasal secretions, levels of interferon in nasal lavage fluid, in vitro lymphocyte proliferative responses to rhinovirus antigen, or levels of convalescent serum neutralizing antibody to type 39 rhinovirus were demonstrated in relation to ozone exposure. The level and pattern of ozone exposure used in this experiment had no demonstrable adverse effects on the immune responses necessary to limit and terminate rhinovirus infection of the upper respiratory tract.
Henderson, F W; Dubovi, E J; Harder, S; Seal, E; Graham, D
We studied 24 young adult male volunteers experimentally inoculated with type 39 rhinovirus to determine whether the course of viral infection was modified by exposure to moderate levels of ozone (0.3 ppm for 6 h per day) over the 5 days after virus inoculation. No differences in rhinovirus titers in nasal secretions, recruitment of neutrophils into nasal secretions, levels of interferon in nasal lavage fluid, in vitro lymphocyte proliferative responses to rhinovirus antigen, or levels of convalescent serum neutralizing antibody to type 39 rhinovirus were demonstrated in relation to ozone exposure. The level and pattern of ozone exposure used in this experiment had no demonstrable adverse effects on the immune responses necessary to limit and terminate rhinovirus infection of the upper respiratory tract.
Duran, Adriana S; Losso, Marcelo H; Salomón, Horacio; Harris, D Robert; Pampuro, Sandra; Soto-Ramirez, Luis E; Duarte, Geraldo; de Souza, Ricardo S; Read, Jennifer S
To quantify primary resistance mutations (PRMs) among HIV-1-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from HIV-1-infected women enrolled in a prospective cohort study in Argentina, the Bahamas, Brazil, and Mexico (NISDI Perinatal Study) were assayed for PRMs. Eligible women were those enrolled by March 2005 and diagnosed with HIV-1 infection during the current pregnancy, and who received ART for MTCT prophylaxis and were followed for 6-12 weeks postpartum. Of 819 women, 198 met the eligibility criteria. At enrollment, 98% were asymptomatic, 62% had plasma viral load or = 500 cells/microl, and 78% were ART-exposed (mean duration, 8.0 weeks; 95% confidence interval, 7.1-8.9). The most complex ART regimen during pregnancy was usually (81%) a three-drug regimen [two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) + one protease inhibitor or two NRTIs + one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor). PRMs were observed in samples from 19 (16%) of 118 women that were amplifiable at one or both time points [11/76 (14%) at enrollment; 14/97 (14%) at 6-12 weeks]. The occurrence of PRMs was not associated with clinical, immunological, or virological disease stage at either time point, whether ART-naive versus exposed at enrollment, or the most complex or number of antiretroviral drug regimens received during pregnancy (P > 0.1). Of 55 women with amplifiable samples at both time points, PRMs were detected in 11 samples (20%). PRMs occurred among 16.1% of relatively healthy HIV-1-infected mothers from Latin American and Caribbean countries receiving MTCT prophylaxis.
Full Text Available Background: Risk factors that are associated with HIV infection are also associated with HBV and HCV infections in sub-Saharan Africa. The HIV-infected pregnant cohort represents a unique population and infection with the hepatitis virus is considered a public health problem worldwide. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B and C virus parallel and overlapping infections among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Federal Capital Territory (FCT, Abuja. Method: Five hundred (500 blood samples were collected from three district hospitals in the FCT and tested at Wuse General Hospital, Abuja for the presence of antibodies to HIV and Hepatitis C virus, and HBsAg by ELISA technique in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. HIV seropositive sera were confirmed by Western blot. Result: Of the 500 pregnant women, those detected with HIV antibodies, HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies were 42 (8.4%, 19 (3.8% and 8 (1.6% respectively. The overall seroprevalence of HIV and HBV or HCV co-infection was 9.5% while 7.1% and 2.4% HIV positive pregnant women were specifically co-infected with HBV and HCV respectively. Those within the age bracket of 15-20 years had the highest prevalence of HIV (13.4%, HBV (5.1% and HCV (1.9% infections. Among the occupation characteristics of the women, those of them involved in trading recorded the highest prevalence of HIV (60.6%, HBV (30.3 and HCV (6.1%. HIV was higher among the married women than the singles ((8.6% vs 6.5%; with HBV infection the reverse was the case (3.0% vs 9.8% while HCV was same for both groups. History of blood transfusion did not reflect a higher rate of HIV and HBV (1.4% vs 9.6%; 2.8% vs 4.0% respectively unlike HCV infection with 0.5% recorded only among those that had transfusion experience. Conclusion: When monitoring the risk of hepatotoxicity to antiretroviral drugs among these group of patients caution
Adewumi, Olubusuyi M; Olayinka, Oluseyi A; Olusola, Babatunde A; Faleye, Temitope O C; Sule, Waidi F; Adesina, Olubukola
Rubella is a vaccine-preventable, mild rash-inducing viral disease with complications that include a spectrum of birth defects in the developing fetus, especially if the infection is acquired in the early months of pregnancy. Consequently, the primary objective of global rubella control programs is prevention of congenital rubella infection and associated birth defects. Despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines, and the elimination of the rubella virus in many developed countries, substantial commitment to rubella control has not been demonstrated in developing countries. This study appraises immunity to rubella, and consequently makes appropriate recommendations aimed at facilitating effective control. A cross-sectional sero-surveillance study was carried out among defined 272 consenting ante-natal clinic attendees in south-western, Nigeria. Prevalence rates of 91.54% and 1.84% were recorded for the anti-rubella virus (anti-RV) IgG and IgM, respectively. Also, 90.7% and 92.3% of the women aged ≤30 years and >30 years, respectively, had detectable anti-RV IgG. No significant association (p = 0.94) was recorded between anti-RV IgG detection and age of the women. Previous exposure and susceptibility of significant fraction of the population to rubella infection were confirmed. Considerable political commitment and promotion of free rubella immunization specifically for women with childbearing potential were recommended.
George Louis Mendz
Full Text Available Infection-related preterm birth is a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity; knowledge of bacterial populations invading the amniotic cavity and the routes of invasion is required to make progress in the prevention of preterm birth. Significant advances have been made in understanding bacterial communities in the vagina, but much less studied are intra-uterine bacterial populations during pregnancy. A systematic review of data published on the intra-uterine microbiome was performed; molecular information and summaries of species found in healthy individuals and in women with diagnosed infections served to construct a database and to analyse results to date. Thirteen studies fulfilled the review's inclusion criteria. The data of various investigations were collated, organised and re-analysed to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of microbial populations in the intra-amniotic space. The most common intra-amniotic bacterial taxa were species that can colonise the vagina in health and disease; there were others associated with the habitats of the mouth, gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract. The results suggest a central role for the ascending route of infections during pregnancy, and points to a possible secondary contribution via haematogenous invasion of the intra-amniotic space. The census of the intra-uterine microbiome awaits completion.
van Eijk, Anna M; Hill, Jenny; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W; ter Kuile, Feiko O
In malarious areas, pregnant women are more likely to have detectable malaria than are their non-pregnant peers, and the excess risk of infection varies with gravidity. Pregnant women attending antenatal clinic for their first visit are a potential pragmatic sentinel group to track the intensity of malaria transmission; however, the relation between malaria prevalence in children, a standard measure to estimate malaria endemicity, and pregnant women has never been compared. We obtained data on malaria prevalence in pregnancy from the Malaria in Pregnancy Library (January, 2015) and data for children (0-59 months) were obtained from recently published work on parasite prevalence in Africa and the Malaria in Pregnancy Library. We used random effects meta-analysis to obtain a pooled prevalence ratio (PPR) of malaria in children versus pregnant women (during pregnancy, not at delivery) and by gravidity, and we used meta-regression to assess factors affecting the prevalence ratio. We used data from 18 sources that included 57 data points. There was a strong linear relation between the prevalence of malaria infection in pregnant women and children (r=0·87, ppregnant women is strongly correlated with prevalence data in children obtained from household surveys, and could provide a pragmatic adjunct to survey strategies to track trends in malaria transmission in Africa. The Malaria in Pregnancy Consortium, which is funded through a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, UK; US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and Wellcome Trust, UK. Copyright © 2015 van Eijk et al. Open access article published under the terms of CC BY. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Habela, M A; Reina, D; Navarrete, I; Redondo, E; Hernández, S
Histopathological study was made of 12 Merino sheep - five splenectomized and seven intact - experimentally infected with Babesia ovis. Non-purulent encephalitis; initially exudative and subsequently interstitial pneumonia; pericarditis, myocarditis and haemorrhagic endocarditis; centrilobular necrotic hepatitis; hyperplasia of the lymphoreticular system; necrosis and vascular changes in adrenal glands were observed. The kidney was the most severely affected organ, exhibiting acute tubular necrosis typical of kidney shock syndrome. The lesions observed were suggestive of hypovolemic shock culminating in haemorrhagic diathesis owing to consumptive coagulopathy. Additionally, the massive release of catabolites from lysis and necrosis apparently produced endotoxic shock.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common health problem among pregnant women. Proper investigation and prompt treatment are needed to prevent serious life threatening condition and morbidity due to urinary tract infection that can occur in pregnant women. Recent report in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia indicated the prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 11.6 % and Gram negative bacteria was the predominant isolates and showed multi drug resistance. This study aimed to assess bacterial profile that causes urinary tract infection and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pregnant women visiting antenatal clinic at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital from March 22 to April 30, 2011. Mid stream urine samples were collected and inoculated into Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient medium (CLED. Colony counts yielding bacterial growth of 105/ml of urine or more of pure isolates were regarded as significant bacteriuria for infection. Colony from CLED was sub cultured onto MacConkey agar and blood agar plates. Identification was done using cultural characteristics and a series of biochemical tests. A standard method of agar disc diffusion susceptibility testing method was used to determine susceptibility patterns of the isolates. Results The overall prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 10.4 %. The predominant bacterial pathogens were Escherichia coli 47.5 % followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci 22.5 %, Staphylococcus aureus 10 %, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 10 %. Gram negative isolates were resulted low susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (51.9 % and tetracycline (40.7 % whereas Gram positive showed susceptibility to ceftriaxon (84.6 % and amoxicillin–clavulanic acid (92.3 %. Multiple drug resistance (resistance to two or more drugs was observed in 95 % of the isolates. Conclusion
Full Text Available Abstract Background 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1 influenza posed an increased risk of severe illness among pregnant women. Data on risk factors associated with death of pregnant women and neonates with pH1N1 infections are limited outside of developed countries. Methods Retrospective observational study in 394 severe or critical pregnant women admitted to a hospital with pH1N1 influenza from Sep. 1, 2009 to Dec. 31, 2009. rRT-PCR testing was used to confirm infection. In-hospital mortality was the primary endpoint of this study. Univariable logistic analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to investigate the potential factors on admission that might be associated with the maternal and neonatal mortality. Results 394 pregnant women were included, 286 were infected with pH1N1 in the third trimester. 351 had pneumonia, and 77 died. A PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 200 (odds ratio (OR, 27.16; 95% confidence interval (CI, 2.64-279.70 and higher BMI (i.e. ≥ 30 on admission (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.47 were independent risk factors for maternal death. Of 211 deliveries, 146 neonates survived. Premature delivery (OR, 4.17; 95% CI, 1.19-14.56 was associated neonatal mortality. Among 186 patients who received mechanical ventilation, 83 patients were treated with non-invasive ventilation (NIV and 38 were successful with NIV. The death rate was lower among patients who initially received NIV than those who were initially intubated (24/83, 28.9% vs 43/87, 49.4%; p = 0.006. Septic shock was an independent risk factor for failure of NIV. Conclusions Severe hypoxemia and higher BMI on admission were associated with adverse outcomes for pregnant women. Preterm delivery was a risk factor for neonatal death among pregnant women with pH1N1 influenza infection. NIV may be useful in selected pregnant women without septic shock.
Gouvea, Maria Isabel S; Joao, Esau C; Teixeira, Maria de Lourdes B; Read, Jennifer S; Fracalanzza, Sergio E L; Souza, Claudia T V; Souza, Maria José de; Torres Filho, Helio M; Leite, Cassiana C F; do Brasil, Pedro E A A
There are limited data regarding Xpert performance to detect Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in HIV-infected pregnant women. We evaluated the accuracy of a rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test in a cohort of HIV-infected women. At 35-37 weeks of pregnancy, a pair of combined rectovaginal swabs were collected for two GBS assays in a cohort of sequentially included HIV-infected women in Rio de Janeiro: (1) culture; and (2) real-time PCR assay [GeneXpert GBS (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA)]. Using culture as the reference, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative-likelihood ratios were estimated. From June 2012 to February 2015, 337 pregnant women met inclusion criteria. One woman was later excluded, due to failure to obtain a result in the index test; 336 were included in the analyses. The GBS colonization rate was 19.04%. Sensitivity and specificity of the GeneXpert GBS assay were 85.94% (95% CI: 75.38-92.42) and 94.85% (95% CI: 91.55-96.91), respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 79.71% (95% CI: 68.78-87.51) and 96.63% (95% CI: 93.72-98.22), respectively. GeneXpert GBS is an acceptable test for the identification of GBS colonization in HIV-infected pregnant women and represents a reasonable option to detect GBS colonization in settings where culture is not feasible.
Porto, Wagnner José Nascimento; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Kim, Pomy de Cássia Peixoto; Benavides, Julio; Silva, Ana Clécia dos Santos; Horcajo, Pilar; Oliveira, Andrea Alice da Fonseca; Ferre, Ignacio; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel
Here, we assessed outcome of experimental infection by Neospora caninum in goats intravenously inoculated with 10(6) tachyzoites of the Nc-Spain7 isolate at 40 (G1), 90 (G2) and 120 (G3) days of gestation. Infected goats had fever between 5 and 9 days post inoculation (dpi); all were seropositive at the time of abortion/birth. Foetal death occurred in G1 from 10 to 21 dpi (n = 7) and in G2 from 27 to 35 dpi (n = 4). Goats in G2 also had seropositive stillbirth (n = 1) and healthy kids (n = 2). G3 goats (n = 7) had 3 seropositive and 3 seronegative weak kids, and 2 seronegative healthy kids. Parasite DNA detection in placentomes was 100% in G2, 85.7% in G3 and in G1 was detected only in placentomes from the goats with foetal losses from 17 dpi (100%). Parasites were detected in foetal/kid brain (>85.7%) and liver (≥ 50%) of G2 and G3, and in G1 after 17 dpi (100%). The highest parasite loads were detected in the placentomes of G1 from 17 dpi and G2, and in foetal tissues of G1 from 17 dpi and G3. Multifocal necrotic lesions were observed in the placentas of the three groups, but they were larger and more frequent in G1 and G2. Similar lesions were observed in foetal tissues, but they were more frequent in G3. These findings suggest that, as observed in cattle and sheep, the clinical consequences of N. caninum in pregnant goats are dependent in part on the time of gestation when animals were infected.
Cecchini, Diego M.; Martinez, Marina G.; Morganti, Laura M.; Rodriguez, Claudia G.
We conducted a retrospective study in a general hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina (2009-2015) aimed at evaluating outcomes in HIV-infected pregnant women (HIPW), who were prescribed raltegravir (RAL)-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART). A total of 239 HIPW were enrolled in our study; among them 31 received RAL (12.9%) at different clinical stages: i) intensification (INS): addition of RAL to current ART because of detectable antepartum viral load, 13 (41.9%); ii) late presenter (LP): standard ART + RAL as fourth drug, 15 (48.4%); iii) treatment of resistant-HIV: 3 (9.7%). Median gestational age at RAL initiation was 34 weeks and median exposure was 30 days. In INS-group, median viral load (VL) decrease was 1.48 log10. In LP-group, median VL decline was 2.15 log10. No clinical adverse events or maternal intolerance attributable to RAL were observed. Elective cesarean section was done in 51.7%; mild elevation of transaminases was observed in 35% of neonates. No vertical transmission was documented. PMID:28663779
Bartelink, Imke H.; Savic, Rada M.; Mwesigwa, Julia; Achan, Jane; Clark, Tamara; Plenty, Albert; Charlebois, Edwin; Kamya, Moses; Young, Sera L.; Gandhi, Monica; Havlir, Diane; Cohan, Deborah; Aweeka, Francesca
Pregnancy and food insecurity may impact antiretroviral (ART) pharmacokinetics (PK), adherence and response. We sought to quantify and characterize the PK of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and efavirenz (EFV) by pregnancy and nutritional status among HIV-infected women in Tororo, Uganda. In 2011, 62/225 ante-partum/post-partum single dried blood spot samples DBS and 43 post-partum hair samples for LPV/r were derived from 116 women, 51/194 ante-/post-partum DBS and 53 post-partum hair samples for EFV from 105 women. 80% of Ugandan participants were severely food insecure, 26% lost weight ante-partum, and median BMI post-partum was only 20.2 kg/m2. Rich PK-data of normally nourished (pregnant) women and healthy Ugandans established prior information. Overall, drug exposure was reduced (LPV −33%, EFV −15%, ritonavir −17%) compared to well-nourished controls [p underweight women, compared to well-nourished women. Much variability in plasma-exposure was quantified using hair concentrations. Addressing malnutrition as well as ART-PK in this setting should be a priority. PMID:24038035
Full Text Available The pathology of experimental Rhodococcus equi (R. equi infection in 2-8 weeks-old-foal is studied. For this purpose, twenty foals were divided into three groups, and given R. equi intratracheally (1st group, through gastric route (2nd group and through umbilicus by contamination (3rd group. A control group of foals were given a Phosphate buffered Saline (PBS. Pulmonary and intestinal lesions were seen in foals of all infected groups. Grossly, there were multiple, variable-sized abscesses diffusely scattered throughout the lung parenchyma, in addition to the presence of different stages of pneumonia with variable-sized areas of consolidation and emphysema. Intestinal lesions were evident as engorgement of mesenteric blood vessels, subserosal hemorrhages seen along the intestinal tract especially the small intestine, in addition to enlargement of lymph nodes (mesenteric, bronchial and mediastinal. Some lymph nodes were edematous, have circular foci of caseous necrosis and some of them were filled with yellowish, thick creamy pus. The microscopic lesions were basically similar in all foals of the experimental groups, but varied depending on the time of death or euthanasia and included: acute pulmonary congestion, acute suppurative broncho-pneumonia, chronic pyogranulomatous pneumonia, and emphysematous and atelectatic area. There were focal necrosis of the pulmonary parenchyma and numerous bacterial colonies seen free or as aggregates within the cytoplasm of many histiocytes. Also, there were focal interstitial thickening of the alveolar septae. The pleura and interlobular septae were thickened due to cellular infiltration.
Furuta, P I; Mineo, T W P; Carrasco, A O T; Godoy, G S; Pinto, A A; Machado, R Z
Neospora caninum causes economical impact in cattle-raising farms since it is implicated as the major cause of bovine abortions. Although infection by the parasite has been widely described in mammals, the role of birds in its life-cycle is still obscure. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the infection by N. caninum in different chicken models. Experimental infections were conducted in 7-day-old chicks, laying hens and embryonated eggs, where samples were analysed for parasite burden, IgG antibodies and lesions promoted. Chickens demonstrated an asymptomatic infection, although with seroconversion and systemic replication of the parasite. In laying hens, no signs of vertical transmission were observed. However, embryonated eggs inoculated by the allantoic cavity route demonstrated susceptibility to infection, with mortality rates around 50% independent of the inoculum dose. Additionally, dogs became infected after ingestion of different amounts of inoculated eggs, producing either oocysts or specific IgG antibodies. The results herein presented demonstrate that chickens may be intermediate hosts of N. caninum and that embryonated eggs could be a useful model to study the parasite's biology.
S. van den Berg (Sanne)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections like furuncles and impetigo, to severe, lifethreatening infections including endocarditis, osteomyelitis and pneumonia. Invasive infections are
Llenas-García, Jara; Wikman-Jorgensen, Philip; Hobbins, Michael; Mussa, Manuel Aly; Ehmer, Jochen; Keiser, Olivia; Mbofana, Francisco; Wandeler, Gilles
In 2013, Mozambique adopted Option B+, universal lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant and lactating women, as national strategy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. We analysed retention in care of pregnant and lactating women starting Option B+ in rural northern Mozambique. We compared ART outcomes in pregnant ('B+ pregnant'), lactating ('B+ lactating') and non-pregnant non-lactating women of childbearing age starting ART according to clinical and/or immunological criteria ('own health') between July 2013 and June 2014. Lost to follow-up was defined as no contact >180 days after the last visit. Multivariable competing risk models were adjusted for type of facility (type 1 vs. peripheral type 2 health centre), age, WHO stage and time from HIV diagnosis to ART. Over 333 person-years of follow-up (243 'B+ pregnant', 65'B+ lactating' and 317 'own health' women), 3.7% of women died and 48.5% were lost to follow-up. 'B+ pregnant' and 'B+ lactating' women were more likely to be lost in the first year (57% vs. 56.9% vs. 31.6%; P women. In adjusted analyses, risk of being lost to follow-up was higher in 'B+ pregnant' (adjusted subhazard ratio [asHR]: 2.77; 95% CI: 2.18-3.50; P treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Objective. To compare genital HSV shedding among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. Methods. Women with and without known HIV infection who delivered at the University of Washington Medical Center between 1989–1996 had HSV serologies done as part of clinical care. Genital swabs from HSV-2-seropositive women were evaluated by real-time quantitative HSV DNA PCR. Results. HSV-2 seroprevalence was 71% and 30% among 75 HIV-positive and 3051 HIV-negative women, respectively, (P<.001. HSV was detected at delivery in the genital tract of 30.8% of HIV-seropositive versus 9.5% of HIV-negative women (RR=3.2, 95% CI 1.6 to 6.5, P=.001. The number of virion copies shed per mL was similar (log 3.54 for HIV positive versus 3.90 for HIV negative, P=.99. Conclusions. Our study demonstrated that HIV-, HSV-2-coinfected women are more likely to shed HSV at delivery.
Dias, Renata Cristina Ferreira; Lopes-Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz; Mitsuka-Breganó, Regina; Dias, Rafael André Ferreira; Tokano, Deise Vieira; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Freire, Roberta Lemos; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico
The aim of the present work was to determine the prevalence of IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and the factors associated to the infection in pregnant women attended in Basic Health Units in Rolândia, Paraná, Brazil. The sample was divided in two groups: group I (320 pregnant women who were analyzed from July 2007 to February 2008) and group II (287 pregnant women who were analyzed from March to October 2008). In group I, it was found 53.1% of pregnant women with IgG reactive and IgM non-reactive, 1.9% with IgG and IgM reactive, 0.3% with IgG non-reactive and IgM reactive and 44.7% with IgG and IgM non-reactive. In group II, it was found 55.1% with IgG reactive and IgM non-reactive and 44.9% with IgG and IgM non-reactive. The variables associated to the presence of IgG antibodies were: residence in rural areas, pregnant women between 35-40 years old, low educational level, low family income, more than one pregnancy, drinking water which does not originate from the public water supply system and the habit of handling soil or sand. Guidance on primary prevention measures and the quarterly serological monitoring of the pregnant women in the risk group are important measures to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis.
Renata Cristina Ferreira Dias
Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to determine the prevalence of IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and the factors associated to the infection in pregnant women attended in Basic Health Units in Rolândia, Paraná, Brazil. The sample was divided in two groups: group I (320 pregnant women who were analyzed from July 2007 to February 2008 and group II (287 pregnant women who were analyzed from March to October 2008. In group I, it was found 53.1% of pregnant women with IgG reactive and IgM non-reactive, 1.9% with IgG and IgM reactive, 0.3% with IgG non-reactive and IgM reactive and 44.7% with IgG and IgM non-reactive. In group II, it was found 55.1% with IgG reactive and IgM non-reactive and 44.9% with IgG and IgM non-reactive. The variables associated to the presence of IgG antibodies were: residence in rural areas, pregnant women between 35-40 years old, low educational level, low family income, more than one pregnancy, drinking water which does not originate from the public water supply system and the habit of handling soil or sand. Guidance on primary prevention measures and the quarterly serological monitoring of the pregnant women in the risk group are important measures to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis.
Kumar, Namrata; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita; Agrawal, Smriti
Hepatitis is a prevalent infection in developing countries. While hepatitis B and C are deepening their roots in the developed world, hepatitis A and E are common in the developing world. The uniqueness of hepatitis is in its transformation from a relatively self-limiting disease in the non-pregnant state, to a highly virulent disease during pregnancy. This retrospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, for a period of six months from June 2016 to November 2016 [probably during an endemic peak of hepatitis E virus (HEV)] to observe the clinical outcomes in HEV-infected pregnant women. A total of 32 anti-HEV immunoglobulin M-positive pregnant women were included, and fetomaternal outcomes were analyzed. Hepatitis E positivity was significantly associated with maternal mortality, intrauterine demise with prematurity, and premature rupture of membranes was the most common fetal complication noted. The difference in extent of virulence of infection and variations in maternal morbidity, mortality, and rates of intrauterine demise, signify the presence of some factors that play a role and need to be further studied and evaluated.
Kilmarx, P H; Black, C M; Limpakarnjanarat, K; Shaffer, N; Yanpaisarn, S; Chaisilwattana, P; Siriwasin, W; Young, N L; Farshy, C E; Mastro, T D; St Louis, M E
To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among pregnant women in Thailand, where case reporting suggests a marked decrease in STDs following a campaign promoting condom use during commercial sex. Cross sectional study of women at their first visit to the study hospitals' antenatal clinics in Chiang Rai (n = 500) and Bangkok (n = 521). First catch urine specimens were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using the Amplicor CT/NG polymerase chain reaction assay. Syphilis and HIV serological testing were performed in the study hospitals' laboratories. The prevalence of chlamydial infection was 5.7%, gonorrhoea 0.2%, and syphilis 0.5% (all VDRL or RPR titres were gestational age at first antenatal clinic visit, but was not associated with marital status, gravidity, city of enrollment, or HIV infection status. There was a low prevalence of gonorrhoea and syphilis among these pregnant women in Thailand. Chlamydial infection was detected at a higher prevalence, especially among younger women and women registering later for antenatal care. Testing of pregnant women using easily collected urine specimens and a sensitive nucleic acid amplification assay is a feasible method of rapidly assessing chlamydial and gonococcal prevalence.
Sehgal, Rashi; Patra, Sharda; David, Paul; Vyas, Ashish; Khanam, Arshi; Hissar, Syed; Gupta, Ekta; Kumar, Guresh; Kottilil, Shyam; Maiwall, Rakhi; Sarin, Shiv Kumar; Trehanpati, Nirupama
Acute viral hepatitis resulting due to hepatitis E viral infection (AVH-E) is often serious in pregnancy and could result in acute liver failure (ALF). The role of monocytes and macrophages (mono-macs) in the pathogenesis of AVH-E and development of ALF-E in pregnancy is unclear. We investigated the functions of mono-macs in pregnant (P), AVH-E (n = 44), ALF-E (n = 12), healthy controls (HC; n = 20) and compared with nonpregnant (NP) AVH-E (n = 10), ALF-E (n = 5), and HC (n = 10). We also recruited non-hepatitis E virus-related pregnant (P), ALF-NE (n = 5) and non-pregnant (NP), ALF-NE (n = 12) patients with ALF. Mono-macs, dendritic cell (DC) phenotypes, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) expressions were studied by flow cytometry and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Mono-macs functionality was determined by analyzing their phagocytic activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by using flow cytometry. Frequency of mono-macs and DCs was increased during HEV infection compared to HC (P pregnant ALF-E patients compared to AVH-E(P). Reduced TLR3 and TLR7 expression and TLR downstream-signaling molecules in pregnant ALF-E patients suggests inadequate triggers for the innate immune responses contributing to development and severity of ALF-E. Studies using TLR agonists to activate mono-macs may be of use and in vitro studies should be undertaken using patient samples. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Mohammad Reza Hedayati Moghaddam
The prevalence of HBV infection in pregnant women in Neyshabur was lower than that in general population of Mashhad, capital city of Razavi Khorasan province, and general population of the whole of the country.
Conclusion: Prevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia is higher than that reported from other countries. Efforts to describe risk factors for toxoplasma infection among Ethiopians should focus in children.
Full Text Available The article gives close attention to the study of electromagnetic radiation influence (EMR at the frequency of molecular spectrum absorption and radiation (MSAR of nitric oxide (150 GHz and atmospheric oxygen (129 GHz on the clinical course of experimental wound infection caused by antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The panoramic spectrometric measuring complex, developed in Saratov Scientific Research Institute of Measuring Equipment was used while carrying out the research. Electromagnetic vibrations of extremely high frequencies were stimulated in this complex imitating the atmospheric oxygen and nitric oxide absorption and radiation molecular spectrum structure. The experiments proved the fact that exposure to radiation at the frequency of molecular spectrum absorption and radiation (MSAR of nitric oxide and atmospheric oxygen had positive impact on the course of traumatic process
Sheng, Q J; Ding, Y; Li, B J; Bai, H; Zhang, C; Han, C; Fan, Y X; Li, Y W; Dou, X G
To observe the success rate of telbivudine (LdT) for the prevention of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the incidence of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation during LdT treatment and after LdT withdrawal in HBV-infected pregnant woman with high viremia in immune-tolerant phase and receiving LdT treatment at the end of pregnancy, and to evaluate the efficacy of LdT in the prevention of perinatal transmission and the safety for pregnant women. Pregnant women infected with HBV in immune-tolerant phase who had normal ALT levels (≤40 U/L) and high viremia (HBV DNA ≥6 log10 IU/ml) with positive HBeAg were enrolled as subjects. All pregnant women received antiviral treatment with LdT at the end of pregnancy to prevent perinatal transmission of HBV. All infants received standard combined immunoprophylaxis. Failure for prevention of perinatal transmission of HBV was defined as positive HBsAg or HBV DNA in infants 7 months of age (or at one month after the third injection of hepatitis B vaccine). Liver function, HBV DNA, and HBV serological markers were evaluated at baseline, after 1 month of treatment, before childbirth, and 1, 3, and 6 months after drug withdrawal. SPSS 16.0 software was used to analyze the data. Between-group comparison of continuous data was made by t test, and comparison of categorical data was made by chi-square test. One hundred and four pregnant women (treatment group) received oral administration of 600 mg LdT once a day, and 25 pregnant women (observation group) did not receive any antiviral therapy. The success rate for the prevention of perinatal transmission was significantly higher in the treatment group than in the observation group (100% vs 89.47%, χ (2) = 9.862, P = 0.028). There was no significant difference in the incidence of ALT elevation during treatment and within 6 months after drug withdrawal between the treatment group and the observation group (4.81% (5/104) vs 4.00% (1/25), χ (2) = 0.030, P = 1
Zenebe, Yohannes; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Abera, Bayeh
Viral hepatitis during pregnancy is associated with high risk of maternal complications and has become a leading cause of fetal death. So the main objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis C viral infections among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic in Bahir Dar health institutions, Ethiopia. This was institutional based cross-sectional study that included 318 pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinic in Bahir Dar health institutions from January 2013 to June 2013. Appropriate data was gathered from study participants. Sero-prevalence of hepatitis C virus was determined by detecting immunoglobulin of HCV using ELISA kit. Data was entered and analyzed with SPSS version 16 statistical software. The overall prevalence of hepatitis C virus among pregnant women was 0.6%. None of the expected risk factors had significant outcome. In conclusion, prevalence of the Hepatitis C virus among pregnant women attending in Bahir Dar health institutions was low and expected variables were not statistically significant.
Mailybayeva, Aigerim; Yespembetov, Bolat; Ryskeldinova, Sholpan; Zinina, Nadezhda; Sansyzbay, Abylai; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Tabynov, Kaissar
We previously developed a potent candidate vaccine against bovine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus using the influenza viral vector expressing Brucella Omp16 and L7/L12 proteins (Flu-BA). Our success in the Flu-BA vaccine trial in cattle and results of a pilot study in non-pregnant small ruminants prompted us in the current study to test its efficacy against B. melitensis infection in pregnant sheep and goats. In this study, we improved the Flu-BA vaccine formulation and immunization method to achieve maximum efficacy and safety. The Flu-BA vaccine formulation had two additional proteins Omp19 and SOD, and administered thrice with 20% Montanide Gel01 adjuvant, simultaneously by both subcutaneous and conjunctival routes at 21 days intervals in pregnant sheep and goats. At 42 days post-vaccination (DPV) we detected antigen-specific IgG antibodies predominantly of IgG2a isotype but also IgG1, and also detected a strong lymphocyte recall response with IFN-γ production. Importantly, our candidate vaccine prevented abortion in 66.7% and 77.8% of pregnant sheep and goats, respectively. Furthermore, complete protection (absence of live B. melitensis 16M) was observed in 55.6% and 66.7% of challenged sheep and goats, and 72.7% and 90.0% of their fetuses (lambs/yeanlings), respectively. The severity of B. melitensis 16M infection in vaccinated sheep and goats and their fetuses (index of infection and rates of Brucella colonization in tissues) was significantly lower than in control groups. None of the protection parameters after vaccination with Flu-BA vaccine were statistically inferior to protection seen with the commercial B. melitensis Rev.1 vaccine (protection against abortion and vaccination efficacy, alpha = 0.18-0.34, infection index, P = 0.37-0.77, Brucella colonization, P = 0.16 to P > 0.99). In conclusion, our improved Flu-BA vaccine formulation and delivery method were found safe and effective in protecting pregnant sheep and goats against adverse
Ngaira, Jacqueline Asundula Malungu; Kimotho, James; Mirigi, Isaac; Osman, Saida; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Lwembe, Raphael; Ochwoto, Missiani
Hepatitis B Viral Infection (HBV) remains one of the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally accounting for 38-53% of chronic liver diseases and about 686,000 deaths annually. The prevalence of HBV is 9-20% in Sub-Saharan Africa, and in Kenya it is 5-30% among the general population and 9.4% among pregnant women. This study was aimed at identifying the prevalence, awareness and risk factors associated with HBV infections among pregnant women attending Antenatal clinic (ANC) at Mbagathi District hospital, Nairobi. This was a cross-sectional study involving 287 pregnant women enrolled for three months (September to December 2014) from Nairobi and neighbouring counties. A structured questionnaire that captured social, demographic and explanatory variables was administered to the study participants. Blood samples were also drawn from the participants and tested for HBV using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) system. The study established that the prevalence of HBV infections among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Mbagathi District Hospital was 3.8% with highest infection rate among the 20-24 years age group. Seventy six (60.8 %) of the participants reported sexual encounters in less than a month before the interview of which 5 (7.6%) reported encounters involving other partners apart from their spouses. HBV awareness among the study participants was 12.2%. Before the interview, those with at least tertiary education (Mean =1.33, SD = 1.131), were more informed about HBV infection as compared to those with primary and secondary education (Mean = 0.63, SD = 0.722; (Mean =0.31, SD= 0.664). In regards to assessment of the risk factors; type of family (χ(²) =19.753 df2 ppregnant women attending Antenatal clinic (ANC) at Mbagathi District hospital, Nairobi was lower (3.8%) than the prevalence among pregnant women nationally (9.4%). These women also showed a low level of HBV awareness (12.2%.).
Adegbesan-Omilabu, M A; Okunade, K S; Gbadegesin, A; Olowoselu, O F; Oluwole, A A; Omilabu, S A
The objectives were to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and assess the major risk factors among Nigerian pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out among pregnant women at the antenatal clinic of a Tertiary Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. A total number of 150 consenting pregnant women were selected for the study. A structured pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for the data collection. Sera were collected and tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). Of the 150 women screened during the study, 11 (7.3%) were seropositive for HBsAg. Of these 11 women, 4 (36.4%) were also positive for HBeAg. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean ages of participants who were seropositive for HBsAg and those who were negative for the virus (P=0.888). There were statistically significant differences in the seroprevalence of HBsAg recorded among respondents with previous surgery (odd ratio [OR]-2.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]-1.08-16.67; P=0.046), previously affected sibling or spouse (OR-5.03; 95% CI-1.11-25.27; P=0.001) and those with two or more lifetime sexual partners (OR-4.11; 95% CI-2.85-9.22; P=0.024). The sero-prevalence rate of HBV infection and also its infectivity is high in Lagos, Nigeria. These findings thus support the need for a nationwide policy of routine and widespread HBV screening among pregnant women.
Arsnoe, D.M.; Ip, Hon S.; Owen, J.C.
Migrating waterfowl are implicated in the global spread of influenza A viruses (IAVs), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) are considered a particularly important IAV reservoir. Prevalence of IAV infection in waterfowl peaks during autumn pre-migration staging and then declines as birds reach wintering areas. Migration is energetically costly and birds often experience declines in body condition that may suppress immune function. We assessed how body condition affects susceptibility to infection, viral shedding and antibody production in wild-caught and captive-bred juvenile mallards challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) H5N9. Wild mallards (n = 30) were separated into three experimental groups; each manipulated through food availability to a different condition level (-20%, -10%, and normal ??5% original body condition), and captive-bred mallards (n = 10) were maintained at normal condition. We found that wild mallards in normal condition were more susceptible to LPAIV infection, shed higher peak viral loads and shed viral RNA more frequently compared to birds in poor condition. Antibody production did not differ according to condition. We found that wild mallards did not differ from captive-bred mallards in viral intensity and duration of infection, but they did exhibit lower antibody titers and greater variation in viral load. Our findings suggest that reduced body condition negatively influences waterfowl host competence to LPAIV infection. This observation is contradictory to the recently proposed condition-dependent hypothesis, according to which birds in reduced condition would be more susceptible to IAV infection. The mechanisms responsible for reducing host competency among birds in poor condition remain unknown. Our research indicates body condition may influence the maintenance and spread of LPAIV by migrating waterfowl. ?? 2011 Arsnoe et al.
Tanja Y Walker; Emily A Smith; Nancy Fenlon; Julie E Lazaroff; Cristina Dusek; Patrick Fineis; Susan A Crowley; Ruthie Benson; Steven L Veselsky; Trudy V Murphy
...: From 2008 through 2012, Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Programs (PHBPPs) in Florida, Michigan, Minnesota, New York City, and Texas prospectively collected data on demographic characteristics of HBsAg-positive pregnant women...
Full Text Available Background. To date the effect of pregnancy on the immune activation of CD8 T cells that may affect HIV disease progression has not been well studied and remains unclear. Objective. To determine the effect of pregnancy on CD8 T lymphocyte activation and its relationship with CD4 count in HIV infected pregnant women. Study Design. Case control. Study Site. AMPATH and MTRH in Eldoret, Kenya. Study Subjects. Newly diagnosed asymptomatic HIV positive pregnant and nonpregnant women with no prior receipt of antiretroviral medications. Study Methods. Blood samples were collected from the study participants and levels of activated CD8 T lymphocytes (CD38 and HLA-DR were determined using flow cytometer and correlated with CD4 counts of the study participants. The descriptive data focusing on frequencies, correlation, and cross-tabulations was statistically determined. Significance of the results was set at P<0.05. Results. HIV positive pregnant women had lower activated CD8 T lymphocyte counts than nonpregnant HIV positive women. Activated CD8 T lymphocyte counts were also noted to decrease in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Conclusion. Pregnancy has a significant suppression on CD8+ T lymphocyte immune activation during HIV infections. Follow-up studies with more control arms could confirm the present study results.
Ho, M S; Barr, B C; Tarantal, A F; Lai, L T; Hendrickx, A G; Marsh, A E; Sverlow, K W; Packham, A E; Conrad, P A
Neospora is a newly recognized Toxoplasma-like cyst-forming coccidian parasite that causes abortion or congenital infections in naturally or experimentally infected animals. In this study, pregnant rhesus macaques were inoculated with culture-derived tachyzoites of a bovine Neospora isolate, and tissue samples from various major organs were collected from dams and fetuses for the detection of parasite DNA by using oligonucleotide primers COC-1 and COC-2 for PCR amplification of a conserved coccidial nuclear small-subunit rRNA gene sequence, and amplification products were confirmed by hybridization with a Neospora-specific DNA probe. PCR products were amplified from DNAs of different fetal monkey tissues, including brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, skeletal muscle, skin, and placenta. In addition, Neospora DNA was amplified from the brain, heart, and lung tissues of infected rhesus macaque dams. The PCR and probe hybridization system may provide an effective method for the detection of Neospora infection in fetuses and dams from nonhuman primates and may be useful in determining the zoonotic potential of Neospora.
González-Fernández, Doris; Pons, Emérita Del Carmen; Rueda, Delfina; Sinisterra, Odalis Teresa; Murillo, Enrique; Scott, Marilyn E; Koski, Kristine G
The usefulness of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a non-specific marker of inflammation during pregnancy and lactation is unclear in impoverished populations where co-existing infections and vitamin deficiencies are common. This cross-sectional study in Panama recruited 120 pregnant and 99 lactating Ngäbe-Buglé women from 14 communities in rural Panama. Obstetric history, indoor wood smoke exposure, fieldwork, BMI, vitamins A, B12, D, and folic acid, and inflammation markers (CRP, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), plateletcrit and cytokines) were measured. Multiple regressions explored both associations of CRP with other inflammatory markers and associations of CRP and elevated CRP based on trimester-specific cut-offs with maternal factors, infections and vitamin deficiencies. CRP was higher in pregnancy (51.4 ± 4.7 nmol/L) than lactation (27.8 ± 3.5 nmol/L) and was elevated above trimester specific cut-offs in 21% of pregnant and 30% of lactating women. Vitamin deficiencies were common (vitamin A 29.6%; vitamin D 68.5%; vitamin B12 68%; folic acid 25.5%) and over 50% of women had two or more concurrent deficiencies as well as multiple infections. Multiple regression models highlighted differences in variables associated with CRP between pregnancy and lactation. In pregnancy, CRP was positively associated with greater indoor wood smoke exposure, caries and hookworm and negatively associated with Ascaris and vaginal Lactobacillus and Bacteroides/Gardnerella scores. Consistent with this, greater wood smoke exposure, caries as well as higher diplococcal infection score increased the odds of trimester-elevated CRP concentrations whereas longer gestational age lowered the likelihood of a trimester-elevated CRP. During lactation, folic acid deficiency was associated with higher CRP whereas parity, number of eosinophils and Mobiluncus score were associated with lower CRP. Also, a higher BMI and Trichomonas vaginalis score increased the likelihood of an elevated
Desalegn, Zelalem; Wassie, Liya; Beyene, Habtamu Bedimo; Mihret, Adane; Ebstie, Yehenew A
Hepatitis, a highly contagious viral infection, is one of the leading killer diseases globally caused by hepatitis virus. Among the existing viral causes for hepatic failure, hepatitis B virus (HBV) plays a significant role with devastating implications, especially when combined with other viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Co-infection with hepatitis B virus and HIV leads to increased morbidity and mortality as compared to independent HIV and HBV infections. In this study, we aimed to assess the seroprevalence of HBV and HIV coinfection and associated risk factors among pregnant women in a selected hospital facility around Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 215 pregnant women were recruited between July and October 2014 from Tirunesh Beijing General Hospital. A pretested and structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic characteristics and possible risk factors. In addition, 5 ml venous blood was collected and centrifuged to estimate the seroprevalence of HBV and HIV. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were done and a P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection was 13 (6%). This positivity was different across different age categories: 1 (11.1%), 3 (4.5%), 6 (6%), 1 (3.2%), and 2 (25%) among those between 15-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, and 35-39 years, respectively. However, a statistically significant association was not established between age and HBV. Among the total, 9 (4.2%) of the positive cases were detected among primary school completed. Multivariate analyses indicated that history of abortion (p = 0.003), history of surgery (p = 0.0.022), and tattooing (p = 0.033) were significantly associated with HBV infection. A total of 9 (4.2%) women were found to be HIV seropositive, of whom 2 (22.2%) were co-infected with HBV. We observed a relatively higher seroprevalence of HBV infection among pregnant women in the study area, in
Ross, Ratchneewan; Sawatphanit, Wilaiphan; Suwansujarid, Tatirat; Stidham, Andrea W; Drew, Barbara L; Creswell, John W
Depressive symptoms negatively impact the lives of HIV-infected individuals and are correlated with faster progression to AIDS. Our embedded mixed methods study examined and described the effects of telephone support on depressive symptoms in a sample of HIV-infected pregnant Thai women. HIV-infected pregnant Thai women (n = 40) were randomly assigned to either the control or the intervention group. A registered nurse provided telephone support to the intervention group. Depressive symptoms were measured at three points in both groups. In-depth interviews were conducted at Time 2 and Time 3. Results show that depressive symptoms in the intervention group decreased over time. Qualitative results describe how telephone support can work, but also reveal that telephone support did not work for everyone. We recommend that a larger mixed methods study be conducted to examine the effects of telephone support on depressive symptoms among HIV-infected women, including the costs and benefits of such support. Copyright © 2013 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV is a serious cause of liver disease affecting millions of people throughout the world. When HBV is acquired during pregnancy, prenatal transmission can occur to the fetus. Therefore, this study is aimed at estimating seroprevalence and associated factors of HBV infection among pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic (ANC of Arba Minch Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted on 232 pregnant women visiting ANC from February to April, 2015. Data regarding sociodemographic and associated factors were gathered using questionnaire. Serum samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. The overall seroprevalence of HBV infection was 4.3% (95% CI: 2.2–6.9%. Multivariate analysis showed that history of abortion (AOR = 7.775; 95% CI: 1.538–39.301 and having multiple sexual partners (AOR = 7.189; 95% CI: 1.039–49.755 were independent predictors of HBsAg seropositivity. In conclusion, the prevalence of HBV infection is intermediate. Therefore, screening HBV infection should be routine part of ANC; health information on having single sexual partner for women of childbearing age and on following aseptic techniques during abortion should be provided to health facilities working on abortion.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to adhere to the microvasculature endothelium is thought to play a causal role in malaria pathogenesis. Cytoadhesion to endothelial receptors is generally found to be highly sensitive to trypsinization of the infected erythrocyte surface. However, several studies have found that parasite adhesion to placental receptors can be markedly less sensitive to trypsin. This study investigates whether chondroitin sulphate A (CSA binding parasites express trypsin-resistant variant surface antigens (VSA that bind female-specific antibodies induced as a result of pregnancy associated malaria (PAM. Methods Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS was used to measure the levels of adult Scottish and Ghanaian male, and Ghanaian pregnant female plasma immunoglobulin G (IgG that bind to the surface of infected erythrocytes. P. falciparum clone FCR3 cultures were used to assay surface IgG binding before and after selection of the parasite for adhesion to CSA. The effect of proteolytic digestion of parasite erythrocyte surface antigens on surface IgG binding and adhesion to CSA and hyaluronic acid (HA was also studied. Results P. falciparum infected erythrocytes selected for adhesion to CSA were found to express trypsin-resistant VSA that are the target of naturally acquired antibodies from pregnant women living in a malaria endemic region of Ghana. However in vitro adhesion to CSA and HA was relatively trypsin sensitive. An improved labelling technique for the detection of VSA expressed by CSA binding isolates has also been described. Conclusion The VSA expressed by CSA binding P. falciparum isolates are currently considered potential targets for a vaccine against PAM. This study identifies discordance between the trypsin sensitivity of CSA binding and surface recognition of CSA selected parasites by serum IgG from malaria exposed pregnant women. Thus, the complete molecular
Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary tract infection is considered as one of the most common complications of pregnancy, which can be avoided via adopting preventive behaviors. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate determinants of preventive behaviors of urinary tract infection in pregnant women based on the constructs of Health Belief Model in Yazd. Methods: This descriptive cross- sectional study was conducted on 160 pregnant women referred to health centers of Yazd, suffering from urinary tract infection, who were selected via purposive sampling method. In order to glean the study data, a questionnaire based on the Health Belief Model construct was applid and then the study data were analyzed using SPSS Software (ver.18 via frequency tables and t-test. Results: Among the pregnant women, 63.1% (101 patients demonstrated average score of knowledge and 36.9% (59 patients had good knowledge. Regarding the constructs of Health Belief Model, 73.1% (117 had good score of perceived barriers, 95% (152 demonstraded good perceived benefits, 95% (152 reported good perceived susceptibility, and 81.3% (130 scored a good level of perceived severity. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between the total score of knowledge and attitude (p=0.02, though the correlation between the behavior and knowledge (p=0.08 as well as attitude and behavior (p=0.09 were not proved to be significant. Conclusions: According to the results, further structural intervention needs to focus on perceived barriers in order to prevent the urinary tract infections. Furthermore, behaviors related to eating and hygiene habits should be considered further and the importance of family, wife and the media involvement seem to be essential in designing the training programs.
Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection is the second most common complication of pregnancy, maternal and fetal complications and serious consequences will follow. So, the purpose of this study is comparison of education effect between attend and non-attend methods on promotion prevailing behavior from urinary tract infection in pregnant women based on the health belief model. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 140 pregnant women coming to Bushehr medical center, in two group (70 people each were studied. In attend group, two education meetings, including 1.5 hour were hold based on the health belief model with an interval of a week. Non-attend education group, just received a booklet arranged based on health belief model. The information about awareness, structures model and function were collected before, one week and three months later via questionnaire. The urinary test results were collected before and three months after the intervention. After getting information, data were analyzed by software SPSS version 20 via perfect tests. Results: Before educational intervention, knowledge, preventive behaviors of urinary infection and all structures model were same in both groups. After the intervention, average of perceived susceptibility, severity, benefit and self-efficacy increased and average of perceived barrier decreased significantly in attend education group (P≤0/001, and in non-attend education group, awareness score and perceived susceptibility, benefit and self-efficacy increased and average of perceived barrier decreased significantly. Average of perceived susceptibility, barrier, self-efficacy, awareness, and mean of preventive behaviors of urinary infection between two groups were different significantly (P≤0/001. Conclusion: Regarding to changes in health belief model constructs, knowledge and function in two groups after education, using booklets based on health belief model for pregnant women can be useful due to their
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a ubiquitous tick responsible for transmitting Ehrlichia canis and most likely Anaplasma platys to dogs, as either single or co-infections. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of either simultaneous or sequential experimental infections with E. canis and A. platys on hematological and serological parameters, duration of infection, and efficacy of doxycycline therapy in dogs infected with one or both organisms. Six dogs per group were either uninfected, A. platys infected, E. canis infected, A. platys and E. canis co-infected, A. platys infected and E. canis challenged or E. canis infected and A. platys challenged at day 112 post-infection (PI. Doxycycline treatment was initiated at 211 days PI, followed by dexamethasone immunosuppression beginning 410 days PI. Results Initially, transient decreases in hematocrit occurred in all groups infected with E. canis, but the mean hematocrit was significantly lower in the A. platys and E. canis co-infected group. All dogs except the controls developed marked thrombocytopenia after initial infection followed by gradually increased platelet counts by 112 days PI in groups with the single infections, while platelet counts remained significantly lower in the A. platys and E. canis co-infected group. Both sequential and simultaneous infections of A. platys and E. canis produced an enhanced humoral immune response to A. platys when compared to infection with A. platys alone. Likewise, co-infection with E. canis and A. platys resulted in a more persistent A. platys infection compared to dogs infected with A. platys only, but nearly all A. platys infected dogs became A. platys PCR negative prior to doxycycline treatment. E. canis infected dogs, whether single or co-infected, remained thrombocytopenic and E. canis PCR positive in blood for 420 days. When treated with doxycycline, all E. canis infected dogs became E. canis PCR negative and the
Chylinski, C; Cortet, J; Sallé, G; Jacquiet, P; Cabaret, J
Techniques to preserve the infective third-stage larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes are of considerable interest to preserve rare species and to maintain a stable source for routine experimental infections. This study compares the relative pros and cons of the two most common techniques, cryopreservation and refrigeration by comparing how they influence consequent infection outcome parameters in terms of life-history traits and fitness as a function of time using the gastrointestinal nematode of sheep Haemonchus contortus as a study species. Establishment capacity was found to be significantly reduced in cryopreserved stocks of L3 compared to refrigerated stocks, but this was followed by significant increases in their fecundity. Refrigeration did not affect L3 stocks consequent fitness by 16 months (the maximum examined) although they did incur a significant reduction in establishment, followed once again by an augmentation in fecundity. The study highlights potential areas for bias in comparing studies using L3 larvae maintained for different periods of time under different techniques.
Guitard, Juliette; Cottrell, Gilles; Magnouha, Nellie Moulopo
at enrolment and at delivery in a cohort of pregnant women in Senegal. All antibody measures were analysed in relation to placental infection according to parity. RESULTS: The results show an interaction between immune response to placental malaria and parity. A higher level of anti- DBL5epsilon- IgG3...... at enrolment and a higher increase between enrolment and delivery were found in primigravidae who presented with uninfected placenta at delivery in comparison to those who presented with an infection of the placenta. However, high antibody level at delivery was associated with the infection of the placenta...... in multigravidae. CONCLUSION: This high level of IgG3 in uninfected primigravidae suggests a protective role of these antibodies in this susceptible group, highlighting the importance of VAR2CSA in general and of some of its variants still to be defined, in the induction of protective immunity to pregnancy malaria....
Full Text Available Two groups of domestic pigeons (Columba livia were experimentally infected orally with doses of 9.5 x10(7 and 9.5 x10(9 CFU/mL (group A and B, respectively of a Salmonella Enteritidis (SE strain isolated from chickens. None of the used doses caused mortality of the inoculated birds; however, the pathogen was successfully recovered from the liver and spleen of group B birds on day 7 post-inoculation (dpi. Pathogen shedding, as evaluated through cloacal swabs, occurred in both groups until the 14th day of observation (p <0.05. Among all fecal samples collected from group B (n=4, three different birds shed the pathogen in their feces, out of which two were positive on 3 dpi and one on 7 dpi. The same number of fecal samples was evaluated in group A and only one bird shed the pathogen, on 7 and 14 dpi. The concentration of the microorganism in the feces was lower in group A than any sample from Group B. Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from chickens, when inoculated in pigeons, may be recovered from feces, cloacal swabs and organs, and these birds may contaminate poultry causing economic losses as well as posing a risk to the public health.
Full Text Available This study evaluated the haematological changes in Nile tilapia experimentally infected with 1 x 10³ and 1 x 10(6 colony-forming units (CFU/mL of Enterococcus sp. in the swim bladder. The experiment consisted of four treatments in triplicates: non-injected fish (NI; fish injected with 1 mL of sterile saline solution 0.65% (SAL; fish injected with 1 x 10³ and 1 x 10(6 CFU/mL of Enterococcus diluted in 1 mL sterile saline. Twenty-four hours after injection, the fish were anesthetized and the blood collected. The haematological tests included red blood cell (RBC and white blood cell (WBC counts, hematocrit, number of total thrombocytes, and differential counting of WBC. Fish injected with 1 x 10(6 CFU/mL of Enterococcus showed a higher number of thrombocytes than the other treatments. White blood cell and lymphocyte numbers increased significantly in fish injected with 1 x 10(6 CFU/mL of Enterococcus when compared to non-injected control. There was significant increase in the number of neutrophils in saline injected fish and reduced number of monocytes after injections with 1 x 10(6 CFU/mL of Enterococcus. Hematocrit increased in fish injected with 1 x 10³ and 1 x 10(6 CFU/mL of Enterococcus.
. Mice were sacrificed after 72hrs and the glands examined bacteriological and histologically. Positive bacteriological and histological results were required for a diagnosis of infection. The infective dose fifty (ID50) for the nine stereotypes ...
Arango, Eliana M.; Samuel, Roshini; Agudelo, Olga M.; Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Maestre, Amanda; Yanow, Stephanie K.
Plasmodium infection in pregnancy causes substantial maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. In Colombia, both P. falciparum and P. vivax are endemic, but the impact of either species on pregnancy is largely unknown in this country. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 96 pregnant women who delivered at their local hospital. Maternal, placental, and cord blood were tested for malaria infection by microscopy and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). A high frequency of infection was detected by qPCR (45%). These infections had low concentrations of parasite DNA, and 79% were submicroscopic. Submicroscopic infections were associated with placental villitis and intervillitis. In conclusion, the overall frequency of Plasmodium infection at delivery in Colombia is much higher than previously reported. These data prompt a re-examination of the local epidemiology of malaria using molecular diagnostics to establish the clinical relevance of submicroscopic infections during pregnancy as well as their consequences for mothers and newborns. PMID:23716408
Smets, Aurélie; Fauchier, Thomas; Michel, Grégory; Marty, Pierre; Pomares, Christelle
A maternal Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy is a risk for congenital infection through maternal-fetal transplacental transmission. Estimation of the date of infection is of the utmost importance for management and treatment recommendations. In this setting, IgG avidity has been shown to be useful as high avidity rules out an infection dating less than 4 months. The estimated date of infection can also be obtained by the ratio of T. gondii IgG titers measured by the Vidas (bioMérieux) assay versus T. gondii IgG titers measured by the Architect (Abbott Laboratories) test, together with T. gondii IgM and IgA antibody responses. In this study, using 117 serum samples from pregnant women, we compared the IgG avidity values obtained by Architect and Vidas with the presumed date of T. gondii infection established by the T. gondii IgG ratio of IgG Vidas and IgG Architect plus the IgM and IgA results. To date, IgG avidity Vidas seems to exhibit better performance than Architect. For both assays, gray zone results were most likely obtained from patients infected more than 4 months before sampling. These data should be taken into account for a possible reconsideration of the interpretation of avidity results in the gray zone. © A. Smets et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.
Full Text Available A maternal Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy is a risk for congenital infection through maternal-fetal transplacental transmission. Estimation of the date of infection is of the utmost importance for management and treatment recommendations. In this setting, IgG avidity has been shown to be useful as high avidity rules out an infection dating less than 4 months. The estimated date of infection can also be obtained by the ratio of T. gondii IgG titers measured by the Vidas (bioMérieux assay versus T. gondii IgG titers measured by the Architect (Abbott Laboratories test, together with T. gondii IgM and IgA antibody responses. In this study, using 117 serum samples from pregnant women, we compared the IgG avidity values obtained by Architect and Vidas with the presumed date of T. gondii infection established by the T. gondii IgG ratio of IgG Vidas and IgG Architect plus the IgM and IgA results. To date, IgG avidity Vidas seems to exhibit better performance than Architect. For both assays, gray zone results were most likely obtained from patients infected more than 4 months before sampling. These data should be taken into account for a possible reconsideration of the interpretation of avidity results in the gray zone.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to infectious pathogens is a frequent occupational hazard for women who work with patients, children, animals or animal products. The purpose of the present study is to investigate if women working in occupations where exposure to infections agents is common have a high risk of infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort, a population-based cohort study and studied the risk of Infection and adverse outcomes in pregnant women working with patients, with children, with food products or with animals. The regression analysis were adjusted for the following covariates: maternal age, parity, history of miscarriage, socio-occupational status, pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking habit, alcohol consumption. Results Pregnant women who worked with patients or children or food products had an excess risk of sick leave during pregnancy for more than three days. Most of negative reproductive outcomes were not increased in these occupations but the prevalence of congenital anomalies (CAs was slightly higher in children of women who worked with patients. The prevalence of small for gestational age infants was higher among women who worked with food products. There was no association between occupation infections during pregnancy and the risk of reproductive failures in the exposed groups. However, the prevalence of CAs was slightly higher among children of women who suffered some infection during pregnancy but the numbers were small. Conclusion Despite preventive strategies, working in specific jobs during pregnancy may impose a higher risk of infections, and working in some of these occupations may impose a slightly higher risk of CAs in their offspring. Most other reproductive failures were not increased in these occupations.
1981-01-01The variation in resistance of cattle to gastro-intestinal nematode infection was investigated in three experiments. Bull calves, aged three months and reared under uniform conditions, were artificially infected with infective larvae of Cooperia oncophora, a moderately
Rodríguez-Cortés, Alhelí; Ojeda, Ana; Todolí, Felicitat; Alberola, Jordi
Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) is the etiological agent of a widespread serious zoonotic disease that affects both humans and dogs. Prevalence and incidence of the canine infection are important parameters to determine the risk and the ways to control this reemergent zoonosis. Unfortunately, there is not a gold standard test for Leishmania infection. Our aim was to assess the operative validity of commercial tests used to detect antibodies to Leishmania in serum samples from experimental infections. Three ELISA tests (LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test, INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA, and INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA VET), three immunochromatographic tests (INGEZIM(®) LEISHMACROM, SNAP(®) Leishmania, and WITNESS(®) Leishmania), and one IFAT were evaluated. LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA test achieved the highest sensitivity and accuracy (both 0.98). Specificity was 1 for all tests except for IFAT. All tests but IFAT obtained a positive predictive value of 1, while the maximum negative predictive value was achieved by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.93). The best positive likelihood ratio was obtained by INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA VET (30.26), while the best negative likelihood ratio was obtained by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.02). The highest diagnostic odds ratio was achieved by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (729.00). The largest area under the ROC curve was obtained by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.981). Quantitative ELISA based tests performmed better than qualitative tests ("Rapid Tests"), and the test best suited to detect Leishmania in infected dogs and to provide clinically useful information was LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test. This and other results point also to the need of revising the status of IFAT as a gold standard for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sander, Adam F; Salanti, Ali; Lavstsen, Thomas; Nielsen, Morten A; Theander, Thor G; Leke, Rose G F; Lo, Yeung Y; Bobbili, Naveen; Arnot, David E; Taylor, Diane W
Placental malaria infections are caused by Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells sequestering in the placenta by binding to chondroitin sulfate A, mediated by VAR2CSA, a variant of the PfEMP1 family of adhesion antigens. Recent studies have shown that many P. falciparum genomes have multiple genes coding for different VAR2CSA proteins, and parasites with >1 var2csa gene appear to be more common in pregnant women with placental malaria than in nonpregnant individuals. We present evidence that, in pregnant women, parasites containing multiple var2csa-type genes possess a selective advantage over parasites with a single var2csa gene. Accumulation of parasites with multiple copies of the var2csa gene during the course of pregnancy was also correlated with the development of antibodies involved in blocking VAR2CSA adhesion. The data suggest that multiplicity of var2csa-type genes enables P. falciparum parasites to persist for a longer period of time during placental infections, probably because of their greater capacity for antigenic variation and evasion of variant-specific immune responses.
Hurníková, Z.; Dubinský, P.; Mukaratirwa, S.
The non-encapsulating Trichinella zimbabwensis was evaluated for infectivity in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the larval distribution and cold tolerance in fox muscle tissue. Six red foxes were experimentally infected with T. zimbabwensis larvae. Five weeks after inoculation, muscle larvae were...... recovered from 9 different muscle types using artificial digestion method. The establishment of infection in all infected red foxes demonstrated the ability of T. zimbabwensis to complete its life cycle in a carnivore mammal host. The larvae recovered from fox muscle tissue were infective to mice, they have...
Wong, Marcia; Myer, Landon; Zerbe, Allison; Phillips, Tamsin; Petro, Greg; Mellins, Claude A; Remien, Robert H; Shiau, Stephanie; Brittain, Kirsty; Abrams, Elaine J
HIV-infected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa are at risk for depression and alcohol abuse. Young women may be more vulnerable, but little is known about the psychosocial functioning of this population. We compared younger (18-24 years old) and older (≥25 years old) HIV-infected pregnant women initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Cape Town, South Africa. Women were assessed on a range of psychosocial measures, including the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Among 625 women initiating ART, 16 % reported risky alcohol use and 21 % alcohol-related harm; these percentages were similar across age groups. When younger women were stratified by age, 37 % of 18-21 years old versus 20 % of 22-24 years old reported alcohol-related harm (p = 0.02). Overall, 11 % of women had EPDS scores suggesting probable depression, and 6 % reported self-harming thoughts. Younger women reported more depressive symptoms. Report of self-harming thoughts was 11 % in younger and 4 % in older women (p = 0.002). In multivariable analysis, age remained significantly associated with depressive symptoms and report of self-harming thoughts. Level of HIV-related stigma and report of intimate partner violence modified the association between age and depressive symptoms. Young HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa were more likely to report depressive symptoms and self-harming thoughts compared to older women, and the youngest women reported the highest levels of alcohol-related harm. HIV-related stigma and intimate partner violence may be moderating factors. These findings have implications for maternal and infant health, underscoring the urgent need for effective targeted interventions in this vulnerable population.
Full Text Available A food-poisoning outbreak due to enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC occurred in Toyama, Japan. The case of a 26-year-old pregnant woman with hemolytic–uremic syndrome who developed acute encephalopathy due to EHEC infection after eating raw meat is presented herein. On day 2 following admission, a cesarean section was performed because of a non-reassuring fetal status. Fecal bacterial culture confirmed an O111/O157 superinfection. Intensive care therapies including continuous hemodiafiltration and plasma exchange were performed. After the operation, the patient developed encephalopathy for which steroid pulse therapy was added. Her condition improved gradually and she was discharged 55 days after delivery.
Mutagoma, Mwumvaneza; Balisanga, Helene; Remera, Eric; Gupta, Neil; Malamba, Samuel S; Riedel, David J; Nsanzimana, Sabin
Syphilis can be transmitted by pregnant women to their children and is a public health problem in Africa. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 24 antenatal clinics from 2002 to 2003 and increased to 30 sites from 2005 to 2011. Participants were tested for syphilis and HIV. Multi-variate logistic regression was performed to identify risks associated with syphilis and its co-infection with HIV. Results showed that syphilis decreased from 3.8% in 2002 to 2.0% in 2011. Syphilis in the HIV-infected participants increased from 6.0% in 2002 to 10.8% in 2011, but decreased from 3.7% to 1.7% in the HIV-negative participants. In 2011, syphilis in urban participants was 2.7% and 1.4% in rural ones. HIV-infected participants screened positive for syphilis more frequently in both rural (aOR = 3.64 [95% CI: 1.56%-8.51%]) and urban areas (aOR = 7.26 [95% CI: 5.04%-10.46%]). Older participants (25-49 years) residing in urban areas (aOR = 0.43[95% CI: 0.32%-0.58%]) and women with secondary or high education (aOR = 0.35[95% CI: 0.20%-0.62%]) were less likely to screen positive for syphilis. HIV-syphilis co-infection was more likely in women residing in urban areas (aOR = 8.32[95% CI: 3.54%-19.56%]), but less likely in women with secondary/high education (aOR = 0.11[95% CI: 0.01%-0.77%]). In conclusion, syphilis increased in HIV-positive pregnant women, but decreased in HIV-negative women. Positive HIV status and young age were associated risks for syphilis. HIV-syphilis co-infection was associated with a lower level of education and urban residence.
Biancifiori, F; Rondini, C; Grelloni, V; Frescura, T
Two groups of 13 new-laying hens each were infected by crop-route with 5000 and 50,000 infective oocysts of T. gondii. Four groups of 5 pigeons each were inoculated by crop-route with 50, 500, 1000 and 5000 infective oocysts. To each group of infected birds suitable controls were added. Hens from the experiment with 5000 infective oocysts were apparently resistant to the infection and they had no clinical signs in the succeeding 40 days p.i. Hens from the experiment with 50,000 infective oocysts showed an egg-drop and mortality in embryonated eggs, especially during the first 2 weeks p.i. Isolation of the parasite was unsuccessfully attempted from 720 embryonated eggs, produced by infected groups, and tested on various days p.i. and at different stages of infection. The parasite was isolated from the brain, heart, liver, spleen and lung of infected birds 7 and 15 days p.i.; 40 days p.i. it was evident only in brain and heart. IgG onset and mean course were monitored by ELISA and high titers were reached by both groups. Pigeons from groups 500, 1000 and 5000 developed rapidly progressive clinical signs as diarrhea, trembling, incoordination, torticollis and death. They had enlargement of liver and spleen and focal necrosis, nodular features in the crop. Pigeons from expt 50 had no clinical signs in spite of the presence of the parasite in their organs for over 45 days p.i. Parasite was isolated from brain, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, crop and muscles from all infected groups. Histopathological and ultrastructural features revealed the presence of multiplying tachizoites even within cells of the crop. Seroconversion, as monitored by ELISA, was recorded in all infected groups although high ELISA-titres were never reached. One of the negative controls from expt 5000 developed specific antibodies but the parasite was not isolated from its organs.
Bunning, Michel L; Bowen, Richard A; Cropp, C Bruce; Sullivan, Kevin G; Davis, Brent S; Komar, Nicholas; Godsey, Marvin S; Baker, Dale; Hettler, Danielle L; Holmes, Derek A; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Mitchell, Carl J
A total of 12 horses of different breeds and ages were infected with West Nile virus (WNV) via the bites of infected Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Half the horses were infected with a viral isolate from the brain of a horse (BC787), and half were infected with an isolate from crow brain (NY99-6625); both were NY99 isolates. Postinfection, uninfected female Ae. albopictus fed on eight of the infected horses. In the first trial, Nt antibody titers reached >1:320, 1:20, 1:160, and 1:80 for horses 1 to 4, respectively. In the second trial, the seven horses with subclinical infections developed Nt antibody titers >1:10 between days 7 and 11 post infection. The highest viremia level in horses fed upon by the recipient mosquitoes was approximately 460 Vero cell PFU/mL. All mosquitoes that fed upon viremic horses were negative for the virus. Horses infected with the NY99 strain of WNV develop low viremia levels of short duration; therefore, infected horses are unlikely to serve as important amplifying hosts for WNV in nature.
Hancock, W Thane; Soeters, Heidi M; Hills, Susan L; Link-Gelles, Ruth; Evans, Mary E; Daley, W Randolph; Piercefield, Emily; Anesi, Magele Scott; Mataia, Mary Aseta; Uso, Anaise M; Sili, Benjamin; Tufa, Aifili John; Solaita, Jacqueline; Irvin-Barnwell, Elizabeth; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Wilken, Jason; Weidle, Paul; Toews, Karrie-Ann E; Walker, William; Talboy, Phillip M; Gallo, William K; Krishna, Nevin; Laws, Rebecca L; Reynolds, Megan R; Koneru, Alaya; Gould, Carolyn V
The first patients with laboratory-confirmed cases of Zika virus disease in American Samoa had symptom onset in January 2016 (1). In response, the American Samoa Department of Health (ASDoH) implemented mosquito control measures (1), strategies to protect pregnant women (1), syndromic surveillance based on electronic health record (EHR) reports (1), Zika virus testing of persons with one or more signs or symptoms of Zika virus disease (fever, rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis) (1-3), and routine testing of all asymptomatic pregnant women in accordance with CDC guidance (2,3) . All collected blood and urine specimens were shipped to the Hawaii Department of Health Laboratory for Zika virus testing and to CDC for confirmatory testing. Early in the response, collection and testing of specimens from pregnant women was prioritized over the collection from symptomatic nonpregnant patients because of limited testing and shipping capacity. The weekly numbers of suspected Zika virus disease cases declined from an average of six per week in January-February 2016 to one per week in May 2016. By August, the EHR-based syndromic surveillance (1) indicated a return to pre-outbreak levels. The last Zika virus disease case detected by real-time, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) occurred in a patient who had symptom onset on June 19, 2016. In August 2016, ASDoH requested CDC support in assessing whether local transmission had been reduced or interrupted and in proposing a timeline for discontinuation of routine testing of asymptomatic pregnant women. An end date (October 15, 2016) was determined for active mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus and a timeline was developed for discontinuation of routine screening of asymptomatic pregnant women in American Samoa (conception after December 10, 2016, with permissive testing for asymptomatic women who conceive through April 15, 2017).
Full Text Available Host resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi infection is dependent on both natural and acquired immune responses. During the early acute phase of infection in mice, natural killer (NK cell-derived IFN-g is involved in controlling intracellular parasite replication, mainly through the induction of nitric oxide biosynthesis by activated macrophages. We have shown that IL-12, a powerful inducer of IFN-g production by NK cells, is synthesized soon after trypomastigote-macrophage interaction. The role of IL-12 in the control of T. cruzi infection in vivo was determined by treating infected mice with anti-IL-12 monoclonal antibody (mAb and analyzing both parasitemia and mortality during the acute phase of infection. The anti-IL-12 mAb-treated mice had higher levels of parasitemia and mortality compared to control mice. Also, treatment of infected mice with mAb specific for IFN-g or TNF-a inhibited the protective effect of exogenous IL-12. On the other hand, TGF-ß and IL-10 produced by infected macrophages inhibited the induction and effects of IL-12. Therefore, while IL-12, TNF-a and IFN-g correlate with resistance to T. cruzi infection, TGF-ß and IL-10 promote susceptibility. These results provide support for a role of innate immunity in the control of T. cruzi infection. In addition to its protective role, IL-12 may also be involved in the modulation of T. cruzi-induced myocarditis, since treatment of infected mice with IL-12 or anti-IL-12 mAb leads to an enhanced or decreased inflammatory infiltrate in the heart, respectively. Understanding the role of the cytokines produced during the acute phase of T. cruzi infection and their involvement in protection and pathogenesis would be essential to devise new vaccines or therapies.
Interactions between malaria and HIV infections in pregnant women: a first report of the magnitude, clinical and laboratory features, and predictive factors in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Wumba, Roger D; Zanga, Josué; Aloni, Michel N; Mbanzulu, Kennedy; Kahindo, Aimé; Mandina, Madone N; Ekila, Mathilde B; Mouri, Oussama; Kendjo, Eric
HIV and malaria are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality during pregnancy in Africa. However, data from Congolese pregnant women are lacking. The aim of the study was to determine the magnitude, predictive factors, clinical, biologic and anthropometric consequences of malaria infection, HIV infection, and interactions between malaria and HIV infections in pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women admitted and followed up at Camp Kokolo Military Hospital from 2009 to 2012 in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo. Differences in means between malaria-positive and malaria-negative cases or between HIV-positive and HIV-negative cases were compared using the Student's t-test or a non-parametric test, if appropriate. Categorical variables were compared using the Chi-square or Fisher's exact test, if appropriate. Backward multivariable analysis was used to evaluate the potential risk factors of malaria and HIV infections. The odds ratios with their 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated to measure the strengths of the associations. Analyses resulting in values of P malaria infection was detected in 246/332 (74.1%) pregnant women, and 31.9% were anaemic. Overall, 7.5% (25/332) of mothers were infected by HIV, with a median CD4 count of 375 (191; 669) cells/μL. The mean (±SD) birth weight was 2,613 ± 227 g, with 35.7% of newborns weighing less than 2,500 g (low birth weight). Low birth weight, parity and occupation were significantly different between malaria-infected and uninfected women in adjusted models. However, fever, anemia, placenta previa, marital status and district of residence were significantly associated to HIV infection. The prevalence of malaria infection was high in pregnant women attending the antenatal facilities or hospitalized and increased when associated with HIV infection.
Colvin, Christopher J.; Konopka, Sarah; Chalker, John C.; Jonas, Edna; Albertini, Jennifer; Amzel, Anouk; Fogg, Karen
Background Despite global progress in the fight to reduce maternal mortality, HIV-related maternal deaths remain persistently high, particularly in much of Africa. Lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) appears to be the most effective way to prevent these deaths, but the rates of three key outcomes—ART initiation, retention in care, and long-term ART adherence—remain low. This systematic review synthesized evidence on health systems factors affecting these outcomes in pregnant and postpartum women living with HIV. Methods Searches were conducted for studies addressing the population of interest (HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women), the intervention of interest (ART), and the outcomes of interest (initiation, adherence, and retention). Quantitative and qualitative studies published in English since January 2008 were included. A four-stage narrative synthesis design was used to analyze findings. Review findings from 42 included studies were categorized according to five themes: 1) models of care, 2) service delivery, 3) resource constraints and governance challenges, 4) patient-health system engagement, and 5) maternal ART interventions. Results Low prioritization of maternal ART and persistent dropout along the maternal ART cascade were key findings. Service delivery barriers included poor communication and coordination among health system actors, poor clinical practices, and gaps in provider training. The few studies that assessed maternal ART interventions demonstrated the importance of multi-pronged, multi-leveled interventions. Conclusions There has been a lack of emphasis on the experiences, needs and vulnerabilities particular to HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women. Supporting these women to successfully traverse the maternal ART cascade requires carefully designed and targeted interventions throughout the steps. Careful design of integrated service delivery models is of critical importance in this effort. Key knowledge gaps and research
The pathological effect of coccidiosis on sperm production of the male chickens had not been previously studied. It is note-worthy that coccidiosis infection in broiler males showed no degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules and testis. In both cross and longitudinal sections of the testis of the infected male, there ...
Marianneau, Philippe; Guillaume, Vanessa; Wong, Thong; Badmanathan, Munisamy; Looi, Ren Yih; Murri, Severine; Loth, Philippe; Tordo, Noel; Wild, Fabian; Horvat, Branka; Contamin, Hugues
We infected squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) with Nipah virus to determine the monkeys' suitability for use as primate models in preclinical testing of preventive and therapeutic treatments. Infection of squirrel monkeys through intravenous injection was followed by high death rates associated with acute neurologic and respiratory illness and viral RNA and antigen production.
Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Mertens, Eva; Winter, Doris; Maiga-Ascofaré, Oumou; Dekker, Denise; Jansen, Stephanie; Tappe, Dennis; Randriamampionona, Njary; May, Jürgen; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas
It was previously reported that a malaria infection may interfere with the specificity of a commercial ELISA test against Zika virus (ZIKV). We analyzed 1,216 plasma samples from healthy, pregnant women collected in two sites in Madagascar in 2010 for ZIKV antibodies using a commercial ELISA and for Plasmodium infection by PCR. This screen revealed six putative ZIKV-positive samples by ELISA. These results could not be confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assays or virus neutralization tests. Four of these six samples were also positive for P. falciparum. We noted that the frequency of malaria positivity was higher in ZIKV-ELISA positive samples (50% and 100% in the two study sites) than ZIKV-negative samples (17% and 10%, respectively), suggesting that malaria may have led to false ZIKV-ELISA positives.
Forhan, Sara E; Modi, Surbhi; Houston, James C; Broyles, Laura N
: In 2015, the WHO recommended universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all people living with HIV after two randomized controlled trials revealed lower rates of mortality and serious illnesses among people living with HIV receiving immediate ART compared with those receiving deferred ART. Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa rapidly adopted this guidance and are implementing 'test and start' programs.As this work begins, lessons learned from prevention of mother-to-child transmission Option B+ programs can inform decisions for new universal HIV treatment programs. The Option B+ approach involved initiation of lifelong treatment for all HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women. Since its inception in Malawi in 2011 and WHO endorsement in 2012, widespread scale-up of Option B+ prevention of mother-to-child transmission programs in most resource-limited countries has resulted in a dramatic increase in ART coverage for HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women.Despite the overall success of the Option B+ universal lifelong treatment approach, program and operational research data highlight the need for additional focus on strategies to retain women in care. In this commentary, we highlight program considerations and lessons learned from Option B+ implementation experience in resource-limited countries, which may help guide decisions and enhance the quality of general 'test and start' programing.
Ivana S Varella
Full Text Available Untreated acute toxoplasmosis among pregnant women can lead to serious sequelae among newborns, including neurological impairment and blindness. In Brazil, the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (CTox has not been fully evaluated. Our aim was to evaluate trends in acute toxoplasmosis prevalence from 1998-2005, the incidence of CTox and the rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to dentify patients who fit the criteria for acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Exposed newborns were included in a historical cohort, with a median follow-up time of 11 months, to establish definite diagnosis of CTox. Diagnoses for acute infection in pregnancy and CTox were based on European Research Network on Congenital Toxoplasmosis criteria. In 41,112 pregnant women, the prevalence of acute toxoplasmosis was 4.8/1,000 women. The birth prevalence of CTox was 0.6/1,000 newborns [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.4-0.9]. During the follow-up study, 12 additional cases were detected, increasing the CTox rate to 0.9/1,000 newborns (95% CI: 0.6-1.3. Among the 200 newborns exposed to Toxoplasma gondii,there were 37 babies presenting diagnostic criteria of CTox, leading to an MTCT rate of 18.5% (95% CI: 13.4-24.6%. The additional cases identified during follow-up reinforce the need for serological monitoring during the first year of life, even in the absence of evidence of congenital infection at birth.
Varella, Ivana S; Canti, Ivete C T; Santos, Breno R; Coppini, Angela Z; Argondizzo, Luciana C; Tonin, Carina; Wagner, Mário B
Untreated acute toxoplasmosis among pregnant women can lead to serious sequelae among newborns, including neurological impairment and blindness. In Brazil, the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (CTox) has not been fully evaluated. Our aim was to evaluate trends in acute toxoplasmosis prevalence from 1998-2005, the incidence of CTox and the rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). A cross-sectional study was undertaken to dentify patients who fit the criteria for acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Exposed newborns were included in a historical cohort, with a median follow-up time of 11 months, to establish definite diagnosis of CTox. Diagnoses for acute infection in pregnancy and CTox were based on European Research Network on Congenital Toxoplasmosis criteria. In 41,112 pregnant women, the prevalence of acute toxoplasmosis was 4.8/1,000 women. The birth prevalence of CTox was 0.6/1,000 newborns [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4-0.9]. During the follow-up study, 12 additional cases were detected, increasing the CTox rate to 0.9/1,000 newborns (95% CI: 0.6-1.3). Among the 200 newborns exposed to Toxoplasma gondii,there were 37 babies presenting diagnostic criteria of CTox, leading to an MTCT rate of 18.5% (95% CI: 13.4-24.6%). The additional cases identified during follow-up reinforce the need for serological monitoring during the first year of life, even in the absence of evidence of congenital infection at birth.
Lopes, Welber D Z; Santos, Thaís R; Soares, Vando E; Nunes, Jorge L N; Mendonça, Rafael P; de Lima, Roberto C A; Sakamoto, Cláudio A M; Costa, Gustavo H N; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Oliveira, Gilson P; Costa, Alvimar J
The preferential sites of infection of Cysticercus bovis were evaluated in the skeletal muscle and entrails of 25 cattle that were experimentally infected with Taenia saginata (2×10(4) eggs). Two other animals were not inoculated (control). Ninety days after inoculation, all the cattle were euthanized. The carcasses were deboned and dissected into 26 anatomical sections (masseter muscles, brain, tongue, esophagus, heart, diaphragm, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, top sirloin butt, bottom sirloin butt, outside round, top (inside) round, transversus abdominus, top sirloin cap, strip loin, full tenderloin, eye of round, knuckle, shoulder clod, foreshank, shank, chuck, back ribs, and tail muscles). The dissected tissues were sliced into 5mm sections. From the 25 cattle, 9258 C. bovis (cysticerci) were recovered; 75.02% (6946) of these were recovered from skeletal muscles and 24.98% (2312) from the entrails. A high parasitism level was found in the shoulder clod (12.55%), heart (11.02%), liver (9.48%), masseter muscles (8.51%), chuck (8.25%), strip loin and full tenderloin (7.26%), knuckle (6.63%), and back ribs (5.53%), totaling 69.23% (5738) of all of the detected cysticerci. On the other hand, there was a low C. bovis parasitism level in the brain, spleen, tail muscles, kidneys, esophagus, and diaphragm, representing just 3.9% of the total number of cysticerci. Given these results, we conclude that specific skeletal musculature regions, such as the shoulder blade, chuck, strip loin and full tenderloin, knuckle, back ribs and top round, which are not officially examined in many countries, are effective sites to efficiently screen C. bovis infection. To date, these regions have not been considered as preferential sites of C. bovis infection. Based on our work, however, these regions deserve greater attention from health inspectors because they contained a greater number of Cysticercus than the other regions of carcasses that are parasitized by T. saginata larvae
High sero-prevalence of hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus infections among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Temeke municipal health facilities, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a cross sectional study.
Manyahi, Joel; Msigwa, Yohannes; Mhimbira, Francis; Majigo, Mtebe
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in pregnancy is associated with direct effect of pregnancy and potential viral transmission from mother to newborn. In Tanzania very little in known on prevalence of HBV infection and their associated factors among pregnant women in lower health facilities. The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of HBsAg, HIV and HBV-HIV co-infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Dar es Salaam. This cross sectional study was conducted in three Temeke municipal health-care facilities between May 2014 and June 2014. A total of 249 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC) were consecutively enrolled in the study. A data collection tool was used to extract socio-demographic characteristics from ANC card. Commercial ARCHITECT® ci4100™ was used to assess HBsAg status and liver function (Alanine amino-transferase (ALAT). HIV status was determined by anti-HIV antibody test. Of 249 pregnant women enrolled the median age was 25 years (IQR 22-30) and most of them were married (72.4%). The overall prevalence of HBsAg and HIV were 8.03% (95% CI: 5.0-12.1%) and 17.2% (95% CI: 12.8-22.5%), respectively. HBV/HIV co-infection rate was 2.8% (95% CI; 1.3-5.4%). HBsAg positive rate was significantly high in women who were HIV positive (p pregnant women with HBsAg positive had abnormal ALAT. High prevalence of HBV and HIV infections among pregnant women were reported in this setting thus calls for the national expansion of the integration of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services for HBV infection.
Sasai, Daisuke; Okubo, Yoichiro; Ishiwatari, Takao; Sugita, Takashi; Kaneko, Takehiko; Murayama, Somay Yamagata; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Shinozaki, Minoru; Hasegawa, Chikako; Mitsuda, Aki; Tochigi, Naobumi; Wakayama, Megumi; Nemoto, Tetsuo; Shibuya, Kazutoshi
The efficacy of polyene macrolides to treat experimental Trichosporon bloodstream infection was evaluated by histopathological examination and viable cell counts in the kidneys of infected mice. Viable cell counts on the 5th day after infection confirmed that liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) is a more effective treatment than fluconazole (FLC) for mice infected with an azole-resistant strain of Trichosporon. Histological examination revealed that the administration of L-AMB induced a transformation from acute purulent inflammation caused by both azole-susceptible and -resistant strain infections to a chronic and subsiding form, whereas FLC failed to convert the acute inflammation induced by the azole-resistant strain to a subsiding form. Our results demonstrate that polyene macrolides can be used as an alternative therapy for infection of azole-resistant strains of Trichosporon and that histopathological evaluation is useful for elucidating the pathophysiology of an experimental Trichosporon infection.
Kuete, Martin; Yuan, Hongfang; He, Qian; Tchoua Kemayou, Aude Laure; Ndognjem, Tita Pale; Yang, Fan; Hu, ZhiZong; Tian, BoZhen; Zhao, Kai; Zhang, HuiPing; Xiong, ChengLiang
The sexual and reproductive health of people living with HIV is fundamental for their well-being. Antiretroviral therapy and reproductive technologies have significantly improved quality of life of people living with HIV in developed countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, the epicenter of HIV, the sexual practices and fertility of women infected with HIV have been understudied. To assess the sexual behavior, fertility intentions, and awareness of preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV in pregnant women with HIV-negative partners in Yaounde Central Hospital (Yaounde, Cameroon). A cross-sectional survey using a semistructured, interviewer-administered questionnaire was conducted at the antenatal unit and HIV clinic in 2014. Ninety-four pregnant women infected with HIV provided consistent information on (i) sociodemographic characteristics, (ii) sexual and fertility patterns, (iii) awareness of preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and (iv) their unmet needs. Although sexual desire had significantly changed since their HIV diagnosis, the women were highly sexually active. Approximately 19% of women had more than one sexual partner and 40% had regular unprotected sex during the 12-month period before the interviews (P awareness of mother-to-child transmission (P HIV-infected women living with HIV-negative partners in Cameroon expressed high sexual and fertility intentions with several unmet needs, including safer sexual practices and conception. Incorporating and supporting safe sexual educational practices and conception services in maternal care can decrease risky sexual behavior and vertical transmission. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hofírek, B; Horín, P; Granátová, M; Machatková, M; Franz, J; Svoboda, I; Blecha, J
A trial was performed with heifers at the age of six to seven months. The animals were experimentally infected with the lymphocytes of a virus-productive donor. Infection was produced in all the nine cases, as demonstrated by means of the positive syncytial test. As indicated by the results of the trial, the antibodies to the enzootic bovine leucosis virus (BLV) were produced soon after experimental infection. A high sensitivity of the serum-neutralization test and the ELISA method was demonstrated in this connection: by these methods, the antibodies were identified already two to three weeks after experimental infection whereas by the immunodiffusion test they could be detected only after five weeks. Twenty-four animals were exposed to natural contact infection. Within 270 days of the trial, the disease after contact was recorded only in one heifer out of the four that were in close contact with the experimentally infected animals. In this case, as compared with experimental infection, the antibodies were produced much later--after 85 to 93 days. Leucosis was recorded in none of the remaining animals. The reasons why such a favourable result was obtained were the thorough disinfection of the stables after blood collections and the strict observance of the aseptic conditions. The results of experimental infection in three cows were identical with those obtained in young cattle. In the experimentally infected dairy cows, antibodies in milk were determined by the ELISA method. As found, in milk the antibodies to BLV appear two to three weeks later than they do in serum. The ELISA method of BLV antibody detection can be used for the identification of infected animals in herds where enzootic bovine leucosis occurs.
Pooled PCR testing strategy and prevalence estimation of submicroscopic infections using Bayesian latent class models in pregnant women receiving intermittent preventive treatment at Machinga District Hospital, Malawi, 2010.
Zhou, Zhiyong; Mitchell, Rebecca Mans; Gutman, Julie; Wiegand, Ryan E; Mwandama, Dyson A; Mathanga, Don P; Skarbinski, Jacek; Shi, Ya Ping
Low malaria parasite densities in pregnancy are a diagnostic challenge. PCR provides high sensitivity and specificity in detecting low density of parasites, but cost and technical requirements limit its application in resources-limited settings. Pooling samples for PCR detection was explored to estimate prevalence of submicroscopic malaria infection in pregnant women at delivery. Previous work uses gold-standard based methods to calculate sensitivity and specificity of tests, creating a challenge when newer methodologies are substantially more sensitive than the gold standard. Thus prevalence was estimated using Bayesian latent class models (LCMs) in this study. Nested PCR (nPCR) for the 18S rRNA gene subunit of Plasmodium falciparum was conducted to detect malaria infection in microscopy-negative Malawian women on IPTp. Two-step sample pooling used dried blood spot samples (DBSs) collected from placenta or periphery at delivery. Results from nPCR and histology as well as previously published data were used to construct LCMs to estimate assay sensitivity and specificity. Theoretical confidence intervals for prevalence of infection were calculated for two-step and one-step pooling strategies. Of 617 microscopy-negative Malawian women, 39 (6.3%) were identified as actively infected by histology while 52 (8.4%) were positive by nPCR. One hundred forty (22.7%) individuals had past infection assessed by histology. With histology as a reference, 72% of women in the active infection group, 7.1% in the past infection group and 3.2% in histology-negative group were nPCR positive. Using latent class models without a gold standard, histology had a median sensitivity of 49.7% and specificity of 97.6% for active infection while PCR had a median sensitivity of 96.0% and specificity of 99.1%. The true prevalence of active infection was estimated at 8.0% (CI: 5.8-10.5%) from PCR. PCR also had similar sensitivity for detecting either peripheral or placental malaria for
Chen, S C; You, S H; Liu, C Y; Chio, C P; Liao, C M
The aim of this work was to use experimental infection data of human influenza to assess a simple viral dynamics model in epithelial cells and better understand the underlying complex factors governing the infection process. The developed study model expands on previous reports of a target cell-limited model with delayed virus production. Data from 10 published experimental infection studies of human influenza was used to validate the model. Our results elucidate, mechanistically, the associations between epithelial cells, human immune responses, and viral titres and were supported by the experimental infection data. We report that the maximum total number of free virions following infection is 10(3)-fold higher than the initial introduced titre. Our results indicated that the infection rates of unprotected epithelial cells probably play an important role in affecting viral dynamics. By simulating an advanced model of viral dynamics and applying it to experimental infection data of human influenza, we obtained important estimates of the infection rate. This work provides epidemiologically meaningful results, meriting further efforts to understand the causes and consequences of influenza A infection.
Marcelo V. Caliari
Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative aspects of the superficial and profound cardiac plexus of dogs experimentally infected with Be-62 and Be-78 strains of Trypanosoma cruzi were studied. Animals were autopsied in the acute phase of infection. The inflammatory process, lesions and number of parasites were more intense and frequent in animals infected with the Be-78 strain than in those infected with Be-62. Despite this, no statistically significant differences could be found between the number of neuron bodies in the ganglia of infected and control dogs.
Cheng, Shu; Caviness, Katie; Buehler, Jason; Smithey, Megan; Nikolich-Žugich, Janko; Goodrum, Felicia
The transcriptional program associated with herpesvirus latency and the viral genes regulating entry into and exit from latency are poorly understood and controversial. Here, we developed and validated a targeted enrichment platform and conducted large-scale transcriptome analyses of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. We used both an experimental hematopoietic cell model of latency and cells from naturally infected, healthy human subjects (clinical) to define the breadth of viral genes expressed. The viral transcriptome derived from experimental infection was highly correlated with that from clinical infection, validating our experimental latency model. These transcriptomes revealed a broader profile of gene expression during infection in hematopoietic cells than previously appreciated. Further, using recombinant viruses that establish a nonreactivating, latent-like or a replicative infection in CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells, we defined classes of low to moderately expressed genes that are differentially regulated in latent vs. replicative states of infection. Most of these genes have yet to be studied in depth. By contrast, genes that were highly expressed, were expressed similarly in both latent and replicative infection. From these findings, a model emerges whereby low or moderately expressed genes may have the greatest impact on regulating the switch between viral latency and replication. The core set of viral genes expressed in natural infection and differentially regulated depending on the pattern of infection provides insight into the HCMV transcriptome associated with latency in the host and a resource for investigating virus-host interactions underlying persistence.
Aabenhus, R.; Stenram, U.; Andersen, L.P.
AIM: To infect mice with atypical Campylobacter concisus (C. concisus) for the first time. METHODS: Three separate experiments were conducted in order to screen the ability of five clinical C. concisus isolates of intestinal origin and the ATCC 33237 type strain of oral origin to colonize...
Gajadhar, A. A.; Measures, L.; Forbes, L. B.
Laboratory-reared animals were used to assess the susceptibility of seals (Halichoerus grypus) to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Four seals were each orally inoculated with 100 or 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii (VEG strain), and another 4 seals served as negative controls. Occasionally, mild behavioral...
Jensen, Trine Hammer; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif
Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is found world-wide and has a major impact on mink health and welfare by decreasing reproduction and fur quality. In the majority of mink, the infection is subclinical and the diagnosis must be confirmed by serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increased...
'Y58' stock. The goats were monitored serologically by using antigen-ELISA and Antibody-ELISA before and after Berenil treatment for a period lasting about sixty two days. The mean prepatent period before trypanosomes were detected in their bloodstreams was five days post-infection; circulating antigens and antibodies ...
Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a food borne pathogen of humans causing food-poisoning and sometimes deaths. In order to control egg-borne transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis to humans, prompt and accurate detection of infected poultry flocks is essential. This paper examined the effects of challenge dose ...
Rodrigues, R R; Gennari, S M; Guerra, J L; Contieri, M B; Abdalla, A L; Vitti, D M S S
Eleven male two-month-old Holstein calves were used to determine the pathological changes induced by a Cooperia punctata infection. After weaning, ten calves received a single oral dose of 45,000 C. punctata infective larvae. One calf remained as a non-infected control. Groups of two calves were killed on days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 post-infection (p.i.) for determination of worm burdens and histopathological evaluation. The small intestine was sub-divided into three sections of approximately equal length, and representative samples of mucosa were fixed in 10% formalin, cut, and stained with haematoxylin-eosin. Samples of intestinal contents and mucosal digests were taken and fixed in 10% formalin for an estimation of total worm burdens. An increase in the number of adult parasites and a decrease in the number of larvae were observed with time (P<0.001). A higher concentration of worms was found in the first segment of the small intestine during the five weeks of observation. Histology showed larvae in the intestinal mucosa on day 7 p.i., with a discrete increase in the cellular response. Adult worms and a marked cellular infiltrate with eosinophils and neutrophils were present on day 21 p.i., and these persisted until day 35 p.i. Microcysts resulting from worm destruction were observed from day 21 p.i.
concentration, RBC counts and PCV values between exotic and indigenous animals but these physiological values were not recorded for different species and breeds of indigenous animals in Ethiopia. Information is also lacking about the effects of GI nematodes infection on these physiological parameters. (Bekele Tafesse ...
This study investigated the effects of Neisseria menigitidis W135 infection via intraperitoneal route on plasma free tryptophan concentration, brain serotonin and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) levels in albino mice fed normal and tryptophan-enriched diets. The kinetics of appearance of viable bacteria in the blood, ...
Sequential leukocyte changes associated with early phase of Trypanosoma brucei infection were investigated in indigenous Nigerian pigs. This was with the view to providing further hematological basis for effective chemotherapy of natural porcine trypanosomosis and to assessing the possible roles of leukocytes in ...
Cavanaugh, C E; Hedden, S L; Latimer, W W
Psychiatric co-morbidity and sex trade were tested as correlates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among 76 pregnant heroin- or cocaine-dependent women. Participants were recruited from a drug treatment programme and attended a clinician-administered assessment including the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV-TR) and self-report questionnaires about lifetime histories of sex trade and STIs (i.e. gonorrhoea, syphilis, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts or trichomonas). Lifetime and six month rates of STIs were 53.9% and 18.4%, respectively. The majority of women also had lifetime histories of psychiatric co-morbidity (61.8%) and/or sex trade (60.5%). Participants with psychiatric co-morbidity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-11.6) and/or sex trade (AOR 3.2; 95% CI 1.1-9.5) were more likely to report STIs during their lifetime compared with those without such histories while controlling for age, education and race/ethnicity. Results suggest that as many as one-in-five pregnant heroin- or cocaine-dependent women in treatment have one or more STIs that are concurrent with their pregnancy and may contribute to risk for contracting HIV and pregnancy complications; psychiatric co-morbidity and/or sex trade were associated with greater STI risk. Findings underscore the importance of identifying and addressing co-morbid psychiatric disorders and sex trade behaviour in this population.
Mechanisms of reproductive failure resulting from infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) are still poorly understood. The present study, a side-by-side evaluation of the pathogenicity of three type 2 PRRSv strains in a reproductive model, was used as a pilot study...
Kindt Thomas J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of proviral load in HTLV-1 infected patients correlate with clinical outcome and are reasonably prognostic. Adaptation of proviral load measurement techniques is examined here for use in an experimental rabbit model of HTLV-1 infection. Initial efforts sought to correlate proviral load with route and dose of inoculation and with clinical outcome in this model. These methods contribute to our continuing goal of using the model to test treatments that alleviate virus infection. Results A real-time PCR assay was used to measure proviral load in blood and tissue samples from a series of rabbits infected using HTLV-1 inocula prepared as either cell-free virus particles, infected cells or blood, or by naked DNA injection. Proviral loads from asymptomatically infected rabbits showed levels corresponding to those reported for human patients with clinically silent HTLV-1 infections. Proviral load was comparably increased in 50% of experimentally infected rabbits that developed either spontaneous benign or malignant tumors while infected. Similarly elevated provirus was found in organs of rabbits with experimentally induced acute leukemia/lymphoma-like disease. Levels of provirus in organs taken at necropsy varied widely suggesting that reservoirs of infections exist in non-lymphoid organs not traditionally thought to be targets for HTLV-1. Conclusion Proviral load measurement is a valuable enhancement to the rabbit model for HTLV-1 infection providing a metric to monitor clinical status of the infected animals as well as a means for the testing of treatment to combat infection. In some cases proviral load in blood did not reflect organ proviral levels, revealing a limitation of this method for monitoring health status of HTLV-1 infected individuals.
Zhao, Tong-Mao; Hague, Bishop; Caudell, David L; Simpson, R Mark; Kindt, Thomas J
Background Levels of proviral load in HTLV-1 infected patients correlate with clinical outcome and are reasonably prognostic. Adaptation of proviral load measurement techniques is examined here for use in an experimental rabbit model of HTLV-1 infection. Initial efforts sought to correlate proviral load with route and dose of inoculation and with clinical outcome in this model. These methods contribute to our continuing goal of using the model to test treatments that alleviate virus infection. Results A real-time PCR assay was used to measure proviral load in blood and tissue samples from a series of rabbits infected using HTLV-1 inocula prepared as either cell-free virus particles, infected cells or blood, or by naked DNA injection. Proviral loads from asymptomatically infected rabbits showed levels corresponding to those reported for human patients with clinically silent HTLV-1 infections. Proviral load was comparably increased in 50% of experimentally infected rabbits that developed either spontaneous benign or malignant tumors while infected. Similarly elevated provirus was found in organs of rabbits with experimentally induced acute leukemia/lymphoma-like disease. Levels of provirus in organs taken at necropsy varied widely suggesting that reservoirs of infections exist in non-lymphoid organs not traditionally thought to be targets for HTLV-1. Conclusion Proviral load measurement is a valuable enhancement to the rabbit model for HTLV-1 infection providing a metric to monitor clinical status of the infected animals as well as a means for the testing of treatment to combat infection. In some cases proviral load in blood did not reflect organ proviral levels, revealing a limitation of this method for monitoring health status of HTLV-1 infected individuals. PMID:15910683
Baqar, Shahida; Tribble, David R; Carmolli, Marya; Sadigh, Katrin; Poly, Frederic; Porter, Chad; Larsson, Catherine J; Pierce, Kristen K; Guerry, Patricia; Darsley, Michael; Kirkpatrick, Beth
The recrudescence of infection with Campylobacter jejuni after appropriate antibiotic treatment has not been previously reported in an immunocompetent adult. We present the complete clinical, microbiologic, and immunologic evaluation of a closely monitored healthy male with recrudescent C. jejuni infection occurring in the absence of immunodeficiency following experimental infection with a well-characterized strain. After antibiotic treatment, the initial infection was clinically cleared and microbiologically undetectable. Subsequently, two episodes of recrudescence occurred, with no change in in vitro antibiotic sensitivity being detected. The immune responses of the individual were compared to those of other participants in the experimental infection study: innate immune responses, including fecal cytokines and C-reactive protein, were intact; however, measures of Campylobacter-specific adaptive immune responses were absent, including serum antibodies, antibody-secreting cells, and in vitro gamma interferon responses. No primary or secondary immunodeficiency was identified. Recrudescent Campylobacter infections after treatment may be more common than has previously been appreciated. This work adds to our understanding of the human immune response to natural Campylobacter infection and reiterates the importance of pathogen-specific adaptive immune responses to this globally important pathogen.
Baqar, Shahida; Tribble, David R.; Carmolli, Marya; Sadigh, Katrin; Poly, Frederic; Porter, Chad; Larsson, Catherine J.; Pierce, Kristen K.; Guerry, Patricia; Darsley, Michael; Kirkpatrick, Beth
The recrudescence of infection with Campylobacter jejuni after appropriate antibiotic treatment has not been previously reported in an immunocompetent adult. We present the complete clinical, microbiologic, and immunologic evaluation of a closely monitored healthy male with recrudescent C. jejuni infection occurring in the absence of immunodeficiency following experimental infection with a well-characterized strain. After antibiotic treatment, the initial infection was clinically cleared and microbiologically undetectable. Subsequently, two episodes of recrudescence occurred, with no change in in vitro antibiotic sensitivity being detected. The immune responses of the individual were compared to those of other participants in the experimental infection study: innate immune responses, including fecal cytokines and C-reactive protein, were intact; however, measures of Campylobacter-specific adaptive immune responses were absent, including serum antibodies, antibody-secreting cells, and in vitro gamma interferon responses. No primary or secondary immunodeficiency was identified. Recrudescent Campylobacter infections after treatment may be more common than has previously been appreciated. This work adds to our understanding of the human immune response to natural Campylobacter infection and reiterates the importance of pathogen-specific adaptive immune responses to this globally important pathogen. PMID:19923572
Elizabeth M. de Figueiredo; Silva,Jaime Costa e; Brazil,Reginaldo P
The present paper reports the experimental treatment of hamsters infected with Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania amazonensis with sodium stibogluconate (20mg/kg/day x 20 days). Only with L. chagasi did the treatment result in the complete elimination of parasites from the spleen. However, no parasitological cure was achieved in hamsters infected with L. amazonensis.O presente trabalho é um relato do tratamento experimental de hamsters infectado com Leishmania chagasi e Leishmania amazonensis ...
Sroka, Jacek; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Sawczyn, Anna; Cisak, Ewa; Karamon, Jacek; Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Bojar, Iwona
Sera of 89 pregnant women were selected according to the results of ELFA IgM, IgG and avidity IgG, and tested with commercial tests IgM, IgG and avidity IgG Western Blot (WB) to compare the efficacy of both techniques in determining the phase of T. gondii infection. In total, 81 of 89 tested sera (91.0%) were classified as positive, both in the ELFA and WB tests for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies of class IgG, indicating a past infection, while the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma positive reactions associated with the antibodies of class IgM indicating a recent infection was much lower - 31.5% and 20.2%, respectively. Sera of 81 women were also tested in the ELFA and WB tests for avidity, e.g. ability of forming high-molecular IgG antibody complexes. Low or medium results in these tests (in this study all classified as low), indicating a recent infection, were detected by ELFA and WB in 22.2% and 45.7% of the total examined samples, respectively. The Spearman's rank test for correlation, performed for recognition of quantitative data of the ELFA and WB tests (index, units or points), revealed a highly significant correlation between the ELFA and WB tests for homologous classes of antibodies, both for IgM and IgG (p0.05), except for the WB test for IgM antibodies, which showed a significant correlation with the ELFA test for IgG antibodies (p<0.01). A highly significant negative correlation between the ELFA and WB test for IgM antibodies and ELFA and WB tests for IgG avidity was demonstrated (p<0.01), except for a relationship between the WB test for IgM and WB for avidity, which was not significant. Such negative correlations are theoretically expected, as strong complexes with the participation of IgG antibodies are absent in the early phase of toxoplasmosis when early antibodies of IgM class are present. Summarizing, this study indicates the high usefulness of the commercial ELFA and WB tests in serodiagnostics of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women
Floridia, Marco; Frisina, Valentina; Ravizza, Marina; Marconi, Anna Maria; Pinnetti, Carmela; Cetin, Irene; Sansone, Matilde; Molinari, Atim; Cervi, Francesca; Meloni, Alessandra; Luzi, Kety; Masuelli, Giulia; Tamburrini, Enrica
The current global and national indications for antiretroviral treatment (ART, usually triple combination therapy) in adolescent and adults, including pregnant women, recommend early ART before immunologic decline, pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP), and treatment of HIV-negative partners in serodiscordant couples. There is limited information on the implementation of these recommendations among pregnant women with HIV and their partners. The present analysis was performed in 2016, using data from clinical records of pregnant women with HIV, followed between 2001 and 2015 at hospital or university clinics within a large, nationally representative Italian cohort study. The study period was divided in three intervals of five years each (2001-2005, 2006-2010, 2011-2015), and the analysis evaluated temporal trends in rates of HIV diagnosis in pregnancy, maternal antiretroviral treatment at conception, prevalence of HIV infection among partners of pregnant women with HIV, and proportion of seronegative and seropositive male partners receiving antiretroviral treatment. The analysis included 2755 pregnancies in women with HIV. During the three time intervals considered the rate of HIV diagnosis in pregnancy (overall 23.3%), and the distribution of HIV status among male partners (overall 48.7% HIV-negative, 28.6% HIV-positive and 22.8% unknown) remained substantially unchanged. Significant increases were observed in the proportion of women with HIV diagnosed before pregnancy who were on antiretroviral treatment at conception (from 62.0% in 2001-2005 to 81.3% in 2011-2015, P HIV-positive partners on antiretroviral treatment (from 73.3% in 2001-2005 to 95.8% in 2011-2015, P = 0.002). Antiretroviral treatment was administered in 99.1% of the pregnancies that did not end early because of miscarriage, termination, or intrauterine death, and in 75.3% of those not ending in a live birth. No implementation of antiretroviral treatment was introduced among male HIV
Jeroen De Buck
Full Text Available The sensitivity of current diagnostics for Johne's disease, a slow, progressing enteritis in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP, is too low to reliably detect all infected animals in the subclinical stage. The objective was to identify individual metabolites or metabolite profiles that could be used as biomarkers of early MAP infection in ruminants. In a monthly follow-up for 17 months, calves infected at 2 weeks of age were compared with aged-matched controls. Sera from all animals were analyzed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Spectra were acquired, processed, and quantified for analysis. The concentration of many metabolites changed over time in all calves, but some metabolites only changed over time in either infected or non-infected groups and the change in others was impacted by the infection. Hierarchical multivariate statistical analysis achieved best separation between groups between 300 and 400 days after infection. Therefore, a cross-sectional comparison between 1-year-old calves experimentally infected at various ages with either a high- or a low-dose and age-matched non-infected controls was performed. Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS DA yielded distinct separation of non-infected from infected cattle, regardless of dose and time (3, 6, 9 or 12 months after infection. Receiver Operating Curves demonstrated that constructed models were high quality. Increased isobutyrate in the infected cattle was the most important agreement between the longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis. In general, high- and low-dose cattle responded similarly to infection. Differences in acetone, citrate, glycerol and iso-butyrate concentrations indicated energy shortages and increased fat metabolism in infected cattle, whereas changes in urea and several amino acids (AA, including the branched chain AA, indicated increased protein turnover. In conclusion, metabolomics
de Oca, Roberto Montes; Buendía, Antonio J.; Del Río, Laura; Sánchez, Joaquín; Salinas, Jesús; Navarro, Jose A.
The role of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in the development of the specific immune response against Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci serotype 1) infection was studied in a pregnant mouse model involving treatment with RB6-8C5 monoclonal antibody. PMN depletion significantly affected the immune response in the liver, in which the T-lymphocyte and F4/80+ cell populations decreased, particularly the CD8+ T-cell population. A Th1-like response, characterized by high levels of gamma interferon without detectable levels of interleukin 4 (IL-4) in serum, was observed in both depleted and nondepleted mice, although an increased production of IL-10 was detected in the depleted group. Our results suggest that PMNs play a very important role in the recruitment of other leukocyte populations to the inflammatory foci but have little influence in the polarization of the immune specific response toward a Th1-like response. PMID:10679002
Agerholm, J.S.; Jensen, H.E.; Jensen, N.E.
The pathogenicity of Bacillus licheniformis was assessed in normal and immunodepressed BALB/c mice. The animals were challenged intravenously with 4 x 10(7) colony forming units of B, licheniformis (ATCC 14580) and both normal and immunodepressed mice were susceptible. However, the infection was ...... could be identified in tissue sections by immunostaining. Immunohistochemically, B, licheniformis was demonstrated in hepatic and pulmonic macrophages, and from some animals the bacteria were also reisolated....
El-Nouby, Kholoud A; Hamouda, Hala E; Abd El Azeem, Mona A; El-Ebiary, Ahmad A
The effect of sodium benzoate (SB) on the pathogenesis of Hymenolepis nana (H. nana) and its neurological manifestations was studied in the present work. One hundred and thirty five mice were classified into three groups. GI: received SB alone. GII: received SB before & after infection with H. nana and GIII: infected with H. nana. All groups were subjected to parasitological, histopathological, immunohistochemical and biochemical assays. The results revealed a significant decrease in IL-4 serum level with a significant increase in gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) and decrease in zinc brain levels in GI, while GII showed non significant increase in IL-4 level that resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean number of cysticercoids and adult worms with delayed expulsion as compared to GIII. This was reflected on histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in the brain. Also, there was a highly significant increase in GABA and decrease in zinc brain levels in GII to the degree that induced behavioral changes. This emphasizes the possible synergistic effect of SB on the neurological manifestations of H. nana and could, in part, explain the increased incidence of behavioral changes in children exposed to high doses of SB and unfortunately have H. nana infection.
Rollins, Nigel C; Becquet, Renaud; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Phiri, Sam; Hayashi, Chika; Baller, April; Shaffer, Nathan
The prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) "cascade" describes the programmatic steps for pregnant and breastfeeding women that influence HIV transmission rates. To this end, HIV-infected pregnant women and mothers need access to health services and adhere to antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis or lifetime treatment. Within the cascade, the concept of "retention-in-care" is commonly used as a proxy for adherence to ARV interventions and, even, viral suppression. Yet surprisingly, there is no standard definition of retention-in-care either for the purposes of HIV surveillance or implementation research. Implicit to the concept of retention-in-care is the sense of continuity and receipt of care at relevant time points. In the context of PMTCT, the main challenge for surveillance and implementation research is to estimate effective coverage of ARV interventions over a prolonged period of time. These data are used to inform program management and also to estimate postnatal MTCT rates. Attendance of HIV-infected mothers at clinic at 12-month postpartum is often equated with full retention in PMTCT programs over this period. Yet, measurement approaches that fail to register missed visits, or inconsistent attendance or other missing data in the interval period, fail to capture patterns of attendance and care received by mothers and children and risk introducing systematic errors and bias. More importantly, providing only an aggregated rate of attendance as a proxy for retention-in-care fails to identify specific gaps in health services where interventions to improve retention along the PMTCT cascade are most needed. In this article, we discuss how data on retention-in-care can be understood and analyzed, and what are the implications and opportunities for programs and implementation research.
Raydel Martinez Sanchez
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio seroepidemiológico de Toxoplasma gondii en cuatro Municípios de la Provincia La Habana en el periodo comprendido entre el mes de Octubre de 1990 y Abril de 1991, utilizando una técnica de ultramicro ELISA de 10 µL. Se examinaron un total de 362 muestras de mujeres embarazadas y se obtuvo una prevalencia de infección de 71,0%. La infección toxoplásmica fue más frecuente en las embarazadas que residían en zona rural y convivian con gatos. Se estudió la relación entre la infección toxoplásmica y el antecedente de abortos espontáneos sin encontrar diferencias estadísticamente significativas.A seroepidemiological study of Toxoplasma gondii was carried out in four municipalities of Havana Province from October 1990 to April 1991 using a 10µL ultra micro-ELISA. We tested 362 serum samples, from pregnant women, and 71% of toxoplasmic infection was found. Toxoplasmic infection was more frequent in women living in rural zones having domestics contacts with cats. The relationship of toxoplasmic infection and spontaneous abortion antecedent in this group was analyzed but no statistically significant differences were found.
Full Text Available The association between worm infections and bacterial diseases has only recently been emphasized. This study examined the effect of experimental Angiostrongylus costaricensis infection on endogenous intestinal flora of Swiss Webster mice. Eight mice aging six weeks were selected for this experiment. Four were infected with A. costaricensis and the other four were used as controls. Twenty eight days after the worm infection, all mice in both groups were sacrificed and samples of the contents of the ileum and colon were obtained and cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. In the mice infected with A. costaricensis there was a significant increase in the number of bacteria of the endogenous intestinal flora, accompanied by a decrease in the number of Peptostreptococcus spp. This alteration in the intestinal flora of mice infected by the nematode may help to understand some bacterial infections described in humans.
Eman K. El-Gayar
Full Text Available Dientamoebafragilis (D. fragilis is a protozoan parasite whose pathogenic potential is still disputable. The aim of this study was to illustrate the pathogenicity of D. fragilis infection and to determine the infective dose for experimental mice infection. Three groups of mice (8/each were orally inoculated with in vitro cultured D. fragilis. The infected groups (G1- G3 received 103, 105 and 4 × 106 D. fragilis/0.5 ml culture, respectively. A control group (G4 only received parasite-free culture. Two weeks post-inoculation all mice were euthanized for histopathological examination. All mice of G3 (100% and three mice of G2 (37.5% were infected, and the results were confirmed by PCR and different staining methods. On the other hand, all mice from group G1 showed a completely negative result. Histopathological examination of the colon and caecum of the highly infected group G3 showed active colitis, with infiltration of mixed inflammatory cells such as eosinophils, neutrophils and lymphocytes within the lamina propria of the intestinal wall. The parasite was not invading the colonic mucosa. This study revealed that infection with D. fragilis is dose-dependent. Moreover, a dose of 105 D. fragilis/mouse or higher is necessary to infect mice through the oral route. In addition, this route of infection, although non-invasive, can induce severe inflammatory changes to the colonic and caecal mucosa in experimentally infected mice.
Herrera, H M; Alessi, A C; Marques, L C; Santana, A E; Aquino, L P C T; Menezes, R F; Moraes, M A V; Machado, R Z
The course of an experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection in coatis (Nasua nasua, carnivora, Procyonidae) was followed for 262 days. Hematological analysis of the infected coatis revealed a marked decline in hemoglobin, packed-cell volume, and total erythrocyte count. An intense anemia followed the first wave of parasitemia and persisted until the end of the experimental period. Biochemical analysis showed increased serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and decreased albumin. The main histopathological features consisted of myocarditis with the presence of degenerate cardiac fibers and meningoencephalitis. This study has shown that coatis infected with T. evansi develop a chronic disease.
Astrup, Lærke Boye; Iburg, Tine Moesgaard; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg
Introduction: Sepsis is a major problem in humans and both the incidence and mortality is increasing. Multiple microabcesses can be found in the brain of septic patients. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sepsis and brain abscesses. S. aureus is also a frequent cause...... pigs were kept as controls. The pigs were euthanized in groups of four at either 6, 12, 24 or 48 h post infection. The brain was collected from all the animals and examined histologically. Results: All the inoculated pigs developed sepsis and 7 out of 12 animals had microabscesses in the prosencephalon...
Austgen, Laura E.; Bowen, Richard A.; Bunning, Michel L.; Davis, Brent S.; Mitchell, Carl J.; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.
Domestic dogs and cats were infected by mosquito bite and evaluated as hosts for West Nile virus (WNV). Viremia of low magnitude and short duration developed in four dogs but they did not display signs of disease. Four cats became viremic, with peak titers ranging from 103.0 to 104.0 PFU/mL. Three of the cats showed mild, non-neurologic signs of disease. WNV was not isolated from saliva of either dogs or cats during the period of viremia. An additional group of four cats were exposed to WNV o...
Hall, Susan Jane; Williams, Simon T
Female urologists represent an ever-increasing percentage of the work force; more and more of our colleagues will be working through pregnancy. There is a lack of clear and concise advice for pregnant urologists about occupational risks during pregnancy. Urology exposes expectant mothers to potential risks from radiation, teratogenic and cytotoxic drugs, iodine hand scrub, infections, and long working hours. We aim to provide a review of the current evidence and guidance to aid expectant mothers in their decision making. Relevant research articles and up-to-date guidance were reviewed. The millisevert (the average accumulated background radiation dose to an individual for 1 year, exclusive of radon) was used as the main unit of radiation dose. There is no published evidence to date in pregnant clinicians that shows a received radiation dose of more than the recommended dose for a pregnant lady, and no data showing an increased risk of foetal abnormalities in clinicians who continue to screen during pregnancy; however, the data are from small studies. There is strong advice suggesting avoidance of contact with crushed or broken 5α-reductase inhibitor tablets (finasteride and dutasteride), mitomycin and other cytotoxic drugs during pregnancy. Pregnant surgeons should avoid frequent use of iodine hand wash. Good hygiene precautions will protect from many infections along with up-to-date immunisations and use of personal protective equipment for certain cases. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cuquerella, M; Alunda, J M
An experimental infection of rabbits with a wild isolate of the gastric nematode Graphidium strigosum was carried out. Animals (3.5 months age) were infected with 1,000 L3 administered by bucoesophagic catheter (five rabbits) or kept as uninfected control group (five animals). The infection was maintained for 3 months. Along the experimental period, some parasitological, hematological and immunological parameters were determined. Prepatent period of the infection ranged from 30 to 38 days and, at necropsy, average adult helminth counts were 430.75 +/- 126.12. No significant variations were found in packed cell volume, leukocyte, and eosinophil counts along the experimental period. Infection elicited a clear serum-specific IgG response, estimated by ELISA, during patency. Pooled sera from the patent period of the infection recognized some soluble antigens, particularly, a 67-kDa protein. Experimentally infected animals did not show cross recognition between G. strigosum, Haemonchus contortus, and Teladorsagia circumcincta. However, Western blot analysis with hyperimmune sera against H. contortus raised in rabbits and lambs showed cross reactivity between this helminth species and G. strigosum.
Root, J Jeffrey; Bentler, Kevin T; Nemeth, Nicole M; Gidlewski, Thomas; Spraker, Terry R; Franklin, Alan B
To characterize the responses of raccoons to West Nile virus (WNV) infection, we subcutaneously exposed them to WNV. Moderately high viremia titers (≤ 10(4.6) plaque forming units [PFU]/mL of serum) were noted in select individuals; however, peak viremia titers were variable and viremia was detectable in some individuals as late as 10 days post-inoculation (DPI). In addition, fecal shedding was prolonged in some animals (e.g., between 6 and 13 DPI in one individual), with up to 10(5.0) PFU/fecal swab detected. West Nile virus was not detected in tissues collected on 10 or 16 DPI, and no histologic lesions attributable to WNV infection were observed. Overall, viremia profiles suggest that raccoons are unlikely to be important WNV amplifying hosts. However, this species may occasionally shed significant quantities of virus in feces. Considering their behavioral ecology, including repeated use of same-site latrines, high levels of fecal shedding could potentially lead to interspecies fecal-oral WNV transmission.
Cardoso, Elaine Cristina; Pereira, Nátalli Zanete; Mitsunari, Gabrielle Eimi; Oliveira, Luanda Mara da Silva; Ruocco, Rosa Maria S A; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira; Zugaib, Marcelo; da Silva Duarte, Alberto José; Sato, Maria Notomi
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 has been significantly reduced with the use of antiretroviral therapies, resulting in an increased number of HIV-exposed uninfected infants. The consequences of HIV infection on the innate immune system of both mother-newborn are not well understood. In this study, we analyzed peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood (CB) collected from HIV-1-infected and uninfected pregnant women. We measured TNF-α, IL-10 and IFN-α secretion after the stimulation of the cells with agonists of both extracellular Toll-like receptors (TLRs) (TLR2, TLR4 and TLR5) and intracellular TLRs (TLR7, TLR7/8 and TLR9). Moreover, as an indicator of the innate immune response, we evaluated the responsiveness of myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) to TLRs that are associated with the antiviral response. Our results showed that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HIV-1-infected mothers and CB were defective in TNF-α production after activation by TLR2, TLR5, TLR3 and TLR7. However, the TNF-α response was preserved after TLR7/8 (CL097) stimulation, mainly in the neonatal cells. Furthermore, only CL097 activation was able to induce IL-10 and IFN-α secretion in both maternal and CB cells in the infected group. An increase in IFN-α secretion was observed in CL097-treated CB from HIV-infected mothers compared with control mothers. The effectiveness of CL097 stimulation was confirmed by observation of similar mRNA levels of interferon regulatory factor-7 (IRF-7), IFN-α and TNF-α in PBMCs of both groups. The function of both mDCs and pDCs was markedly compromised in the HIV-infected group, and although TLR7/TLR8 activation overcame the impairment in TNF-α secretion by mDCs, such stimulation was unable to reverse the dysfunctional type I IFN response by pDCs in the HIV-infected samples. Our findings highlight the dysfunction of innate immunity in HIV-infected mother-newborn pairs. The activation of the TLR7/8 pathway
Doha, Said A; Shehata, Magdi G; Fahmy, Adel R; Samy, Abdallah M
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected clinical form that is quite prevalent in Eastern North parts of the country in Sinai Peninsula. Leishmania tropica was identified by previous reports as the causative agent responsible for viscerotropic infections in-patients and experimental animals. Here, we reported the viscerotropic infections from naturally infected rodent Gerbillus pyramidum floweri collected from North-Sinai. Footpad and tail lesions, spleenomegaly, and malformed dark-colored spleen were the characteristic CL symptoms. The spleen of the rodent found positive to amastigote impression smear. ITS-1 DNA was sequenced and revealed 100% identity of the strain in the current study to the other L. tropica sequences identified from the patients with the suspected CL and inhabited the same study area. The current findings confirmed the susceptibility of gerbil to L. tropica, and raise the concerns for the role of rodents as accidental host suffering the infections. The susceptibility of wild and experimental rodents to the same L. tropica strain was also investigated; BALB/c and G. pyramidum were more susceptible to L. tropica (24.33 ± 4.37 and 25 ± 4.58 days post-infection, respectively). Similar viscerotropic pathologies were reported in experimental infection of only golden hamster (≈ 120 days post-infection), and G. p. floweri (≈ 160 days post-infection).
Bourry, A; Poutrel, B; Rocourt, J
Experimental mastitis induced with a single intramammary injection of Listeria monocytogenes was compared with two naturally occurring cases. Four strains of L. monocytogenes, two of serotype 1/2a and two of serotype 4b were used for the experimental infections and two diametrically opposed quarters of four cows were inoculated with 300 cfu. Bacteriological examination and somatic cell counts of quarter foremilk samples were performed weekly for at least 6 months after challenge. All the inoculated quarters developed chronic subclinical mastitis with occasional clinical episodes. The results were similar to those observed in natural listeria mastitis. Four experimentally infected quarters were treated during lactation (gentamicin and cloxacillin) or at "drying-off" (cloxacillin), or at both times. Only one of four quarters was cured after treatment only at "drying-off". All experimental and naturally infected animals were slaughtered and bacteriological examination was performed on liver, spleen and supramammary, iliac and mesenteric lymph nodes. L. monocytogenes strains were isolated from the supramammary lymph nodes of two experimentally and two naturally infected cows and from an iliac lymph node from one of the naturally infected cows. The epidemiological data were supported by serotyping, lysotyping and DNA macro-restriction analysis. The experimental model of listeria mastitis mimics spontaneous cases and should be useful in further studies of listeria mastitis.
Dajani, Adnan S.; Wannamaker, Lewis W.
Various cellular responses to skin infections in an experimental animal model were explored. Total leukocyte counts varied after group A streptococcal infections, but a depression was commonly seen after M type 12 impetigo. Staphylococcus aureus infections resulted in moderate leukocytosis. A marked neutrophilia was universal with streptococcal or staphylococcal disease. A positive nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) response appeared 24 hr after infection, reached a peak in 48 hr, and then declined. This occurred in the absence of extensive cellulitis or bacteremia. An increase in the percentage and absolute number of NBT-positive neutrophils occurred. M type 57 streptococcus produced a more strongly positive NBT test than did M type 12. Cell-free filtrates of a broth culture of M type 57 streptococcus produced NBT responses in hamsters comparable to the responses seen after injection of live organisms. These studies indicate the usefulness of this animal model to study various parameters of the NBT test. PMID:4117885
Carlson, CM; Schneider, Jay R.; Pedersen, Janice C.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.
Meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are permissive to chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection, but their susceptibility to other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is poorly characterized. In this initial study, we intracerebrally challenged 6 meadow voles with 2 isolates of sheep scrapie. Three meadow voles acquired a TSE after the scrapie challenge and an extended incubation period. The glycoform profile of proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)) in scrapie-sick voles remained similar to the sheep inocula, but differed from that of voles clinically affected by CWD. Vacuolization patterns and disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition were generally similar in all scrapie-affected voles, except in the hippocampus, where PrP(Sc) staining varied markedly among the animals. Our results demonstrate that meadow voles can acquire a TSE after intracerebral scrapie challenge and that this species could therefore prove useful for characterizing scrapie isolates.
Lacroux, Caroline; Perrin-Chauvineau, Cécile; Corbière, Fabien; Aron, Naima; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Torres, Juan Maria; Costes, Pierrette; Brémaud, Isabelle; Lugan, Séverine; Schelcher, François; Barillet, Francis
In goats, several field studies have identified coding mutations of the gene encoding the prion protein (I/M142, N/D146, S/D146, R/Q211, and Q/K222) that are associated with a lower risk of developing classical scrapie. However, the data related to the levels of resistance to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of these different PRNP gene mutations are still considered insufficient for developing large-scale genetic selection against scrapie in this species. In this study, we inoculated wild-type (WT) PRNP (I142R154R211Q222) goats and homozygous and/or heterozygous I/M142, R/H154, R/Q211, and Q/K222 goats with a goat natural scrapie isolate by either the oral or the intracerebral (i.c.) route. Our results indicate that the I/M142 PRNP polymorphism does not provide substantial resistance to scrapie infection following intracerebral or oral inoculation. They also demonstrate that H154, Q211, and K222 PRNP allele carriers are all resistant to scrapie infection following oral exposure. However, in comparison to WT animals, the H154 and Q211 allele carriers displayed only moderate increases in the incubation period following i.c. challenge. After i.c. challenge, heterozygous K222 and a small proportion of homozygous K222 goats also developed the disease, but with incubation periods that were 4 to 5 times longer than those in WT animals. These results support the contention that the K222 goat prion protein variant provides a strong but not absolutely protective effect against classical scrapie. PMID:24284317
Peterson, Jennifer K; Graham, Andrea L; Elliott, Ryan J; Dobson, Andrew P; Triana Chávez, Omar
Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease, co-infects its triatomine vector with its sister species Trypanosoma rangeli, which shares 60% of its antigens with T. cruzi. Additionally, T. rangeli has been observed to be pathogenic in some of its vector species. Although T. cruzi-T. rangeli co-infections are common, their effect on the vector has rarely been investigated. Therefore, we measured the fitness (survival and reproduction) of triatomine species Rhodnius prolixus infected with just T. cruzi, just T. rangeli, or both T. cruzi and T. rangeli. We found that survival (as estimated by survival probability and hazard ratios) was significantly different between treatments, with the T. cruzi treatment group having lower survival than the co-infected treatment. Reproduction and total fitness estimates in the T. cruzi and T. rangeli treatments were significantly lower than in the co-infected and control groups. The T. cruzi and T. rangeli treatment group fitness estimates were not significantly different from each other. Additionally, co-infected insects appeared to tolerate higher doses of parasites than insects with single-species infections. Our results suggest that T. cruzi-T. rangeli co-infection could ameliorate negative effects of single infections of either parasite on R. prolixus and potentially help it to tolerate higher parasite doses.
Full Text Available Influenza infections have high frequency and morbidity in HIV-infected pregnant women, underscoring the importance of vaccine-conferred protection. To identify the factors that determine vaccine immunogenicity in this group, we characterized the relationship of B- and T-cell responses to pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1 vaccine with HIV-associated immunologic and virologic characteristics. pH1N1 and seasonal-H1N1 (sH1N1 antibodies were measured in 119 HIV-infected pregnant women after two double-strength pH1N1 vaccine doses. pH1N1-IgG and IgA B-cell FluoroSpot, pH1N1- and sH1N1-interferon γ (IFNγ and granzyme B (GrB T-cell FluoroSpot, and flow cytometric characterization of B- and T-cell subsets were performed in 57 subjects. pH1N1-antibodies increased after vaccination, but less than