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Sample records for experimentally induced coma

  1. Amantadine-induced coma.

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    Macchio, G J; Ito, V; Sahgal, V

    1993-10-01

    Amantadine has found use primarily as an antiviral agent and in the symptomatic treatment of parkinsonism. However, the use of amantadine for the subjective alleviation of fatigue in multiple sclerosis and in the treatment of agitated aggressive behavior in the traumatic brain injured patient has also been described. Side effects of amantadine are primarily related to the central nervous system and include hallucinations, confusion, and nightmares. Toxic manifestations include acute psychosis, coma, cardiovascular toxicity, and death. Amantadine toxicity is a particular problem in patients with renal insufficiency because 90% of an oral dose is excreted unchanged in the urine. We present a case of amantadine-induced coma in a patient with multiple sclerosis and end-stage renal disease. Moreover, this degree of amantadine toxicity was profoundly apparent at a drug level usually not associated with such a severe presentation.

  2. Amiodarone-induced myxoedema coma.

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    Hassan, Syed; Ayoub, Walaa; Hassan, Mona; Wisgerhof, Max

    2014-04-12

    A 62-year-old man was found to have bradycardia, hypothermia and respiratory failure 3 weeks after initiation of amiodarone therapy for atrial fibrillation. Thyroid-stimulating hormone was found to be 168 μIU/mL (nl. 0.3-5 μIU/mL) and free thyroxine (FT4) was amiodarone-induced myxoedema coma in the literature report patient death despite supportive therapy and thyroid hormone replacement. This case represents the most thoroughly investigated case of amiodarone-induced myxoedema coma with a history significant for subclinical thyroid disease.

  3. COMA

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    P.F. Litvitsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The lecture reviews modern ideas of comatose conditions: their types, etiology, common key pathogenesis elements, stages, key manifestations, treatment principles; it characterizes the specifics of certain coma varieties and key impairments of consciousness. Key words: coma, stupor, sopor, hypoxia, impairments of energy supply for neurons.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(5:48-54

  4. Valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic coma and unrecognised portosystemic shunt.

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    Nzwalo, Hipólito; Carrapatoso, Leonor; Ferreira, Fátima; Basilio, Carlos

    2013-06-01

    Hyperammonaemic encephalopathy is a rare and potentially fatal complication of valproic acid treatment. The clinical presentation of hyperammonaemic encephalopathy is wide and includes seizures and coma. We present a case of hyperammonaemic coma precipitated by sodium valproate use for symptomatic epilepsy in a patient with unrecognised portosystemic shunt, secondary to earlier alcoholism. The absence of any stigmata of chronic liver disease and laboratory markers of liver dysfunction delayed the recognition of this alcohol-related complication. The portal vein bypass led to a refractory, valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic coma. The patient fully recovered after dialysis treatment.

  5. Fulminant hyperammonaemia induced by thiopental coma in rats.

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    Ivnitsky, Jury Ju; Rejniuk, Vladimir L; Schäfer, Timur V; Malakhovsky, Vladimir N

    2006-07-25

    Fulminant hyperammonaemia as a threshold effect of coma-inducing dose of sodium thiopental has been revealed in rats. Blood ammonia content increased progressively after the introduction of 1.0 LD(50) (but not 0.8 LD(50)) of sodium thiopental three times in 3h and five times in 18h. The urinary ammonia excretion was not impaired while the volatilization of ammoniac from the body of ST-treated rats was higher, giving evidence of the augmentation of ammonia production. Blood urea increased by one third despite of insignificant alterations of haematocrit and blood creatinine. Ammonia hyperproduction in the digestive tract could result from gastrointestinal stasis, which has been verified by roentgenography and confirmed by correlation of hyperammonaemia with the stool retardation. In thiopental coma rats the slope of a dose-dependent increase of the blood ammonia and the blood urea after the intraperitoneal injection of ammonium acetate did not exceed that in intact animals. So the ammonia hyperproduction in the digestive tract could be the main contributing cause of fulminant hyperammonaemia in rats with thiopental coma and thus be involved into pathogenesis of the coma.

  6. Spatial variation in automated burst suppression detection in pharmacologically induced coma.

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    An, Jingzhi; Jonnalagadda, Durga; Moura, Valdery; Purdon, Patrick L; Brown, Emery N; Westover, M Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Burst suppression is actively studied as a control signal to guide anesthetic dosing in patients undergoing medically induced coma. The ability to automatically identify periods of EEG suppression and compactly summarize the depth of coma using the burst suppression probability (BSP) is crucial to effective and safe monitoring and control of medical coma. Current literature however does not explicitly account for the potential variation in burst suppression parameters across different scalp locations. In this study we analyzed standard 19-channel EEG recordings from 8 patients with refractory status epilepticus who underwent pharmacologically induced burst suppression as medical treatment for refractory seizures. We found that although burst suppression is generally considered a global phenomenon, BSP obtained using a previously validated algorithm varies systematically across different channels. A global representation of information from individual channels is proposed that takes into account the burst suppression characteristics recorded at multiple electrodes. BSP computed from this representative burst suppression pattern may be more resilient to noise and a better representation of the brain state of patients. Multichannel data integration may enhance the reliability of estimates of the depth of medical coma.

  7. Oxygen Transport Impairments in Miners with Ischemic Stroke-Induced Comas

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    Yu. A. Churlyaev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study oxygen transport impairments in ischemic stroke-induced coma in miners who have been doing underground work for more than 10 years. Subjects and methods. A prospective clinical study was conducted in 48 patients with coma caused by ischemic stroke. Group 1 included 12 miners. Group 2 comprised 36 men not working in coal miners. The groups did not differ in age, disease severity, and admission time. However, the group of miners had a higher incidence of pulmonary complications and therefore higher mortality rates. Comprehensive examination was performed and oxygen delivery index (DO2I, oxygen consumption index (VO2I, oxygen extraction ratio, and arteriovenous oxygen difference were calculated in all those admitted to hospital. Results. In ischemic stroke-induced comas, vasoconstriction resulted in the development of circulatory hypoxia with low DO2I. Then on day 3 respiratory and tissue hypoxia developed in the group of those who had a length of underground service. The relationship between DO2I and VO2I found in the miners suggests that impaired lung oxygenizing function was concurrent with oxygen transport system tension. The fact that there was no significant relationship of the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in venous blood to VO2I in the miners had a high probability of indicating the development of tissue hypoxia. Such relationships were absent in the patients without underground length of service. Conclusion. The miners with an underground service length of 10 years or more and ischemic stroke-induced comas were found to have rapidly developing, more marked and long-term impairments of central hemodynamics, pulmonary oxygenizing function and hence the oxygen transport system as compared to those with no length of underground service. All the above characteristics are due to the lowered reserve capacities of the cardiovascular irnd respiratory systems upon long-term exposure to poor working conditions. Key words

  8. A Brain-Machine Interface for Control of Medically-Induced Coma

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    Liberman, Max; Solt, Ken; Brown, Emery N.

    2013-01-01

    Medically-induced coma is a drug-induced state of profound brain inactivation and unconsciousness used to treat refractory intracranial hypertension and to manage treatment-resistant epilepsy. The state of coma is achieved by continually monitoring the patient's brain activity with an electroencephalogram (EEG) and manually titrating the anesthetic infusion rate to maintain a specified level of burst suppression, an EEG marker of profound brain inactivation in which bursts of electrical activity alternate with periods of quiescence or suppression. The medical coma is often required for several days. A more rational approach would be to implement a brain-machine interface (BMI) that monitors the EEG and adjusts the anesthetic infusion rate in real time to maintain the specified target level of burst suppression. We used a stochastic control framework to develop a BMI to control medically-induced coma in a rodent model. The BMI controlled an EEG-guided closed-loop infusion of the anesthetic propofol to maintain precisely specified dynamic target levels of burst suppression. We used as the control signal the burst suppression probability (BSP), the brain's instantaneous probability of being in the suppressed state. We characterized the EEG response to propofol using a two-dimensional linear compartment model and estimated the model parameters specific to each animal prior to initiating control. We derived a recursive Bayesian binary filter algorithm to compute the BSP from the EEG and controllers using a linear-quadratic-regulator and a model-predictive control strategy. Both controllers used the estimated BSP as feedback. The BMI accurately controlled burst suppression in individual rodents across dynamic target trajectories, and enabled prompt transitions between target levels while avoiding both undershoot and overshoot. The median performance error for the BMI was 3.6%, the median bias was -1.4% and the overall posterior probability of reliable control was 1 (95

  9. Self-induced drug intoxication in baclofen: of the calm hypotonic coma in the status epilepticus.

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    Thill, Chloé; Di Constanzo, Laurence; Pessey, François; Aries, Philippe; Montelescaut, Étienne; Sapin, Jeanne; Vaillant, Catherine; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2016-06-01

    Baclofen is an agonist of peripheral and central B gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors, whose activation causes a myorelaxation and a powerfull depression of the central nervous system. Moreover, it has an action against addiction, in reducing craving. Commercialized since 1975 in France, to control muscle spasticity due to medullar affection or multiple sclerosis, it receives a temporary recommendation of use in march 2014, as a last-line adjuvant treatment in alcohol withdrawal. Beyond its therapeutic use, baclofen is involved in many self-induced intoxications. We report the case of a patient who develops, after a massive ingestion of baclofen (supposed dose ingested: 1 200 mg), a hypotonic and calm coma, requiring her admission in our intensive care unit, and then a status epilepticus.

  10. Coma mixedematoso Myxedema coma

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    Lisette Leal Curí

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El coma mixedematoso es la forma más severa y profunda del hipotiroidismo. Se presenta con mayor frecuencia en mujeres y ancianos. Entre los factores precipitantes se encuentran: la sepsis, la exposición al frío, los eventos agudos graves, el uso de anestésicos, sedantes o narcóticos, así como la descontinuación del tratamiento sustitutivo con hormonas tiroideas, entre otros. El diagnóstico clínico se realiza por la presencia de síntomas y signos característicos de un hipotiroidismo severo, con hipotermia y alteraciones de la conciencia. Apoyan este diagnóstico los hallazgos de laboratorio: hiponatremia, hipoxemia, hipercapnia, alteraciones hemoquímicas y el aumento de la tirotropina por la disminución de las hormonas tiroideas en el caso de la enfermedad primaria. El tratamiento se debe realizar en una unidad de cuidados intensivos, con monitorización, medidas de soporte respiratorio y cardiovascular, calentamiento corporal interno, hidratación, corrección de la hipotensión y de los trastornos electrolíticos. Se administrarán, además, glucocorticoides, antibióticos de amplio espectro y hormonas tiroideas. La evolución depende de la demora en el inicio del tratamiento, la edad, las comorbilidades, la hipotermia persistente y las complicaciones asociadas.Myxedema coma is the most severe and deepest form of hypothyroidism. It occurs more often in the women and the elderly. Among the unleashing factors found are sepsis, exposure to cold, acute severe events, use of anesthetic drugs, sedatives or narcotics as well as the interruption of the replacement treatment with thyroid hormones, among others. The clinical diagnosis is based on the presence of symptoms and signs that are characteristic of severe hypothyroidism, with hypothermia and altered consciousness. This diagnosis is also supported by the lab findings: hyponatremia, hypoxemia, hypercapnia, hemochemical alterations and the rise of thyrotropin due to the decrease of

  11. Hyperammonemic Induced Coma by Bacterial Overgrowth in a Child With Hirschsprung's Disease.

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    Farahmand, Fatemeh; Khodadad, Ahmad; Fallahi, Gholamhosein; Motaharizad, Davood; Sabery Nejad, Javad

    2016-09-01

    Cases with Hirschsprung's disease show the functional intestinal obstruction. Obstruction in these patients may lead to bacterial overgrowth with stasis and inflammation of the colon. Bacterial overgrowth can cause hyperammonemia that makes lethargy and loss of conscious and finally admitting in ICU. The purpose of this case report is to present a case that had Hirschsprung's disease and referred to Children's Medical Center with serum hyper-ammonium caused by bacterial overgrowth that induced coma and altered level of consciousness then made her to admit to PICU. A 15-year-old female referred to Children's Medical Center with lethargy and low grade diarrhea. She had hypocalcemia and hypoalbuminemia with high PT and INR. Because of loss of conscious, she admitted at PICU. Laboratory findings showed hyperammonemia in this case, but other criteria were normal. Administration of antibiotic and lactulose therapy was started that lead to a reduction in serum ammonium level and discharging of the case. Thirteen days later she referred again with mentioned symptoms, and clinical evaluations showed high serum ammonium level. This time because of loss of conscious she had to admit at PICU and used NG tube. Administration of lactulose syrup and sodium benzoate make her in a better condition. Narrowing rectum toward the sigmoid and highly enlarged intestinal lopes was on behalf of Hirschsprung's disease. Finally, the patient with the acceptable situation and oral periodic metronidazole discharged. It is essential to check serum ammonium level in the cases with loss of conscious. The choice for controlling hyperammonemia is lactulose therapy.

  12. Diabetic Coma

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    ... Overview A diabetic coma is a life-threatening diabetes complication that causes unconsciousness. If you have diabetes, dangerously ... Diabetes Association. http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/complications/ketoacidosis-dka.html. Accessed March 31, 2015. Hyperglycemia ( ...

  13. An adaptive and generalizable closed-loop system for control of medically induced coma and other states of anesthesia

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    Yang, Yuxiao; Shanechi, Maryam M.

    2016-12-01

    Objective. Design of closed-loop anesthetic delivery (CLAD) systems is an important topic, particularly for medically induced coma, which needs to be maintained for long periods. Current CLADs for medically induced coma require a separate offline experiment for model parameter estimation, which causes interruption in treatment and is difficult to perform. Also, CLADs may exhibit bias due to inherent time-variation and non-stationarity, and may have large infusion rate variations at steady state. Finally, current CLADs lack theoretical performance guarantees. We develop the first adaptive CLAD for medically induced coma, which addresses these limitations. Further, we extend our adaptive system to be generalizable to other states of anesthesia. Approach. We designed general parametric pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic and neural observation models with associated guidelines, and derived a novel adaptive controller. We further penalized large steady-state drug infusion rate variations in the controller. We derived theoretical guarantees that the adaptive system has zero steady-state bias. Using simulations that resembled real time-varying and noisy environments, we tested the closed-loop system for control of two different anesthetic states, burst suppression in medically induced coma and unconsciousness in general anesthesia. Main results. In 1200 simulations, the adaptive system achieved precise control of both anesthetic states despite non-stationarity, time-variation, noise, and no initial parameter knowledge. In both cases, the adaptive system performed close to a baseline system that knew the parameters exactly. In contrast, a non-adaptive system resulted in large steady-state bias and error. The adaptive system also resulted in significantly smaller steady-state infusion rate variations compared to prior systems. Significance. These results have significant implications for clinically viable CLAD design for a wide range of anesthetic states, with potential cost

  14. Uma pesquisa quase experimental em enfermagem sobre dor em pacientes em coma

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    Gunnar Glauco De Cunto Taets; Nébia Maria Almeida de Figueiredo

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO Objetivo: verificar se pacientes em coma sentem dor durante a intervenção de enfermagem banho no leito. Método: 19 pacientes com 61 ± 17,39 anos de idade participaram do estudo. Realizou-se, pelo método ELISA, a análise quantitativa de substância P (SP) na saliva coletada antes e durante o banho no leito. Utilizou-se o programa Graph Pad Prisma 6 para análise dos dados. A verificação da normalidade foi feita pelo teste de Shapiro Wilk que determinou a escolha do teste não paramétrico...

  15. Hyperammonemic Induced Coma by Bacterial Overgrowth in a Child With Hirschsprung’s Disease

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    Fatemeh Farahmand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cases with Hirschsprung’s disease show the functional intestinal obstruction. Obstruction in these patients may lead to bacterial overgrowth with stasis and inflammation of the colon. Bacterial overgrowth can cause hyperammonemia that makes lethargy and loss of conscious and finally admitting in ICU. The purpose of this case report is to present a case that had Hirschsprung’s disease and referred to Children’s Medical Center with serum hyper-ammonium caused by bacterial overgrowth that induced coma and altered level of consciousness then made her to admit to PICU. A 15-year-old female referred to Children’s Medical Center with lethargy and low grade diarrhea. She had hypocalcemia and hypoalbuminemia with high PT and INR. Because of loss of conscious, she admitted at PICU. Laboratory findings showed hyperammonemia in this case, but other criteria were normal. Administration of antibiotic and lactulose therapy was started that lead to a reduction in serum ammonium level and discharging of the case. Thirteen days later she referred again with mentioned symptoms, and clinical evaluations showed high serum ammonium level. This time because of loss of conscious she had to admit at PICU and used NG tube. Administration of lactulose syrup and sodium benzoate make her in a better condition. Narrowing rectum toward the sigmoid and highly enlarged intestinal lopes was on behalf of Hirschsprung’s disease. Finally, the patient with the acceptable situation and oral periodic metronidazole discharged. It is essential to check serum ammonium level in the cases with loss of conscious. The choice for controlling hyperammonemia is lactulose therapy.

  16. Real-time Closed-loop Control in a Rodent Model of Medically-induced Coma Using Burst Suppression

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    Ching, ShiNung; Liberman, Max Y.; Chemali, Jessica J.; Westover, M. Brandon; Kenny, Jonathan; Solt, Ken; Purdon, Patrick L.; Brown, Emery N.

    2013-01-01

    Background A medically-induced coma is an anesthetic state of profound brain inactivation created to treat status epilepticus and to provide cerebral protection following traumatic brain injuries. We hypothesized that a closed-loop anesthetic delivery system could automatically and precisely control the electroencephalogram state of burst suppression and efficiently maintain a medically-induced coma. Methods In six rats, we implemented a closed-loop anesthetic delivery system for propofol consisting of: a computer-controlled pump infusion, a two-compartment pharmacokinetics model defining propofol’s electroencephalogram effects, the burst suppression probability algorithm to compute in real time from the electroencephalogram the brain’s burst suppression state, an on-line parameter estimation procedure and a proportional-integral controller. In the control experiment each rat was randomly assigned to one of the six burst suppression probability target trajectories constructed by permuting the burst suppression probability levels of 0.4, 0.65 and 0.9 with linear transitions between levels. Results In each animal the controller maintained approximately 60 min of tight, real-time control of burst suppression by tracking each burst suppression probability target level for 15 min and two between-level transitions for 5 to 10 min. The posterior probability that the closed-loop anesthetic delivery system was reliable across all levels was 0.94 [95% confidence interval; (0.77 to 1.00) n = 18] and that the system was accurate was 1.00 [95% confidence interval; (0.84 to 1.00) n = 18]. Conclusion Our findings establish the feasibility of using a closed-loop anesthetic delivery systems to achieve in real-time reliable and accurate control of burst suppression in rodents and suggest a paradigm to precisely control medically-induced coma in patients. PMID:23770601

  17. Applicability of different scoring systems in outcome prediction of patients with mixed drug poisoning-induced coma

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    Nastaran Eizadi Mood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mixed drugs poisoning (MDP is common in the emergency departments. Because of the limited number of intensive care unit beds, recognition of risk factors to divide the patients into different survival groups is necessary. Poisoning due to ingestion of different medications may have additive or antagonistic effects on different parameters included in the scoring systems; therefore, the aim of the study was to compare applicability of the different scoring systems in outcomes prediction of patients admitted with MDP-induced coma. Methods: This prospective, observational study included 93 patients with MDP-induced coma. Clinical and laboratory data conforming to the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II, Modified APACHE II Score (MAS, Mainz Emergency Evaluation Scores (MEES and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS were recorded for all patients on admission (time 0 and 24 h later (time 24 . The outcome was recorded in two categories: Survived with or without complication and non-survived. Discrimination was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and area under the ROC curve (AUC. Results: The mortality rate was 9.7%. Mean of each scoring system was statistically significant between time 0 and time 24 in the survivors. However, it was not significant in non-survivors. Discrimination was excellent for GCS 24 (0.90±0.05, APACHE II 24 (0.89±0.01, MAS 24 (0.86±0.10, and APACHE II 0 (0.83±0.11 AUC. Conclusion: The GCS 24 , APACHE II 24 , MAS 24 , and APACHE II 0 scoring systems seem to predict the outcome in comatose patients due to MDP more accurately. GCS and MAS may have superiority over the others in being easy to perform and not requiring laboratory data.

  18. Coma Berenices

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    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (Berenice's Hair; abbrev. Com, gen. Comae Berenices; area 386 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Canes Venatici and Virgo, and culminates at midnight in early April. It is named after the lock of hair of Queen Berenice II of Egypt (c. 269-221 BC), which, according to legend, she gave to the gods for the safe return of her husband, Ptolemy III Euergetes, from battle. It was intro...

  19. Wake-promoting actions of median nerve stimulation in TBI-induced coma: An investigation of orexin-A and orexin receptor 1 in the hypothalamic region.

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    Zhong, Ying-Jun; Feng, Zhen; Wang, Liang; Wei, Tian-Qi

    2015-09-01

    A coma is a serious complication, which can occur following traumatic brain injury (TBI), for which no effective treatment has been established. Previous studies have suggested that neural electrical stimulation, including median nerve stimulation (MNS), may be an effective method for treating patients in a coma, and orexin‑A, an excitatory hypothalamic neuropeptide, may be involved in wakefulness. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this involvement remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to examine the arousal‑promoting role of MNS in rats in a TBI‑induced coma and to investigate the potential mechanisms involved. A total of 90 rats were divided into three groups, comprising a control group, sham‑stimulated (TBI) group and a stimulated (TBI + MNS) group. MNS was performed on the animals, which were in a TBI‑induced comatose state. Changes in the behavior of the rats were observed following MNS. Subsequently, hypothalamic tissues were extracted from the rats 6, 12 and 24 h following TBI or MNS, respectively. The expression levels of orexin‑A and orexin receptor‑1 (OX1R) in the hypothalamus were examined using immunohistochemistry, western blotting and an enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay. The results demonstrated that 21 rats subjected to TBI‑induced coma exhibited a restored righting reflex and response to pain stimuli following MNS. In addition, ignificant differences in the expression levels of orexin‑A and OXIR were observed among the three groups and among the time‑points. Orexin‑A and OX1R were upregulated following MNS. The rats in the stimulated group reacted to the MNS and exhibited a re‑awakening response. The results of the present study indicated that MNS may be a therapeutic option for TBI‑induced coma. The mechanism may be associated with increasing expression levels of the excitatory hypothalamic neuropeptide, orexin-A, and its receptor, OX1R, in the hypothalamic region.

  20. Immediate and Long-Term Outcome of Acute H2S Intoxication Induced Coma in Unanesthetized Rats: Effects of Methylene Blue.

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    Takashi Sonobe

    Full Text Available Acute hydrogen sulfide (H2S poisoning produces a coma, the outcome of which ranges from full recovery to severe neurological deficits. The aim of our study was to 1--describe the immediate and long-term neurological effects following H2S-induced coma in un-anesthetized rats, and 2--determine the potential benefit of methylene blue (MB, a compound we previously found to counteract acute sulfide cardiac toxicity.NaHS was administered IP in un-sedated rats to produce a coma (n = 34. One minute into coma, the rats received MB (4 mg/kg i.v. or saline. The surviving rats were followed clinically and assigned to Morris water maze (MWM and open field testing then sacrificed at day 7.Sixty percent of the non-treated comatose rats died by pulseless electrical activity. Nine percent recovered with neurological deficits requiring euthanasia, their brain examination revealed major neuronal necrosis of the superficial and middle layers of the cerebral cortex and the posterior thalamus, with variable necrosis of the caudate putamen, but no lesions of the hippocampus or the cerebellum, in contrast to the typical distribution of post-ischemic lesions. The remaining animals displayed, on average, a significantly less effective search strategy than the control rats (n = 21 during MWM testing. Meanwhile, 75% of rats that received MB survived and could perform the MWM test (P<0.05 vs non-treated animals. The treated animals displayed a significantly higher occurrence of spatial search than the non-treated animals. However, a similar proportion of cortical necrosis was observed in both groups, with a milder clinical presentation following MB.In conclusion, in rats surviving H2S induced coma, spatial search patterns were used less frequently than in control animals. A small percentage of rats presented necrotic neuronal lesions, which distribution differed from post-ischemic lesions. MB dramatically improved the immediate survival and spatial search strategy in the

  1. Immediate and Long-Term Outcome of Acute H2S Intoxication Induced Coma in Unanesthetized Rats: Effects of Methylene Blue

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    Sonobe, Takashi; Chenuel, Bruno; Cooper, Timothy K.; Haouzi, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute hydrogen sulfide (H2S) poisoning produces a coma, the outcome of which ranges from full recovery to severe neurological deficits. The aim of our study was to 1- describe the immediate and long-term neurological effects following H2S-induced coma in un-anesthetized rats, and 2- determine the potential benefit of methylene blue (MB), a compound we previously found to counteract acute sulfide cardiac toxicity. Methods NaHS was administered IP in un-sedated rats to produce a coma (n = 34). One minute into coma, the rats received MB (4 mg/kg IV) or saline. The surviving rats were followed clinically and assigned to Morris water maze (MWM) and open field testing then sacrificed at day 7. Results Sixty percent of the non-treated comatose rats died by pulseless electrical activity. Nine percent recovered with neurological deficits requiring euthanasia, their brain examination revealed major neuronal necrosis of the superficial and middle layers of the cerebral cortex and the posterior thalamus, with variable necrosis of the caudate putamen, but no lesions of the hippocampus or the cerebellum, in contrast to the typical distribution of post-ischemic lesions. The remaining animals displayed, on average, a significantly less effective search strategy than the control rats (n = 21) during MWM testing. Meanwhile, 75% of rats that received MB survived and could perform the MWM test (P<0.05 vs non-treated animals). The treated animals displayed a significantly higher occurrence of spatial search than the non-treated animals. However, a similar proportion of cortical necrosis was observed in both groups, with a milder clinical presentation following MB. Conclusion In conclusion, in rats surviving H2S induced coma, spatial search patterns were used less frequently than in control animals. A small percentage of rats presented necrotic neuronal lesions, which distribution differed from post-ischemic lesions. MB dramatically improved the immediate survival and spatial

  2. What Is a Coma?

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    ... who is in a coma like you can someone who has just fallen asleep. What Can Cause a Coma? Comas can be caused by different things, including: a severe injury to the head that hurts the brain seizures infections involving the brain brain damage caused by ...

  3. Coma scales: a historical review

    OpenAIRE

    Bordini, Ana Luisa; Luiz, Thiago F.; Fernandes, Maurício; Arruda, Walter O.; Teive, Hélio A.G.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the most important coma scales developed in the last fifty years. METHOD: A review of the literature between 1969 and 2009 in the Medline and Scielo databases was carried out using the following keywords: coma scales, coma, disorders of consciousness, coma score and levels of coma. RESULTS: Five main scales were found in chronological order: the Jouvet coma scale, the Moscow coma scale, the Glasgow coma scale (GCS), the Bozza-Marrubini scale and the FOUR score (Full Out...

  4. Non traumatic coma.

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    Bansal, Arun; Singhi, Sunit C; Singhi, Pratibha D; Khandelwal, N; Ramesh, S

    2005-06-01

    To study the etiology and clinical profile of non-traumatic coma in children and to determine the clinical signs predictive of outcome. 100 consecutive cases of non-traumatic coma between 2 months to 12 years. Clinical signs studied were temperature, pulse, heart rate, blood pressure, coma severity by Glasgow coma scale (GCS), respiratory pattern, pupillary and corneal reflex, extra ocular movements, motor patterns, seizure types and fundus picture. These were recoded at admission and after 48 hours of hospital stay. Etiology of coma was determined on basis of clinical history, examination and relevant laboratory investigations by the treating physician. The outcome was recorded as survived or died, and among those who survived as normal, mild, moderate, or severe disability. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were done to determine predictors of outcome. Etiology of coma in 60% cases was CNS infection (tubercular meningitis-19, encephalitis-18, bacterial meningitis-16, others-7); other causes were toxic-metabolic conditions (19%), status epilepticus (10%), intracranial bleed (7%), and miscellaneous (4%). 65 children survived, 11 were normal, 14 had mild disability, 21 had moderate disability and 14 were severely disabled and dependent. Survival was significantly better in patients with CNS infection (63%) as compared to those with toxic-metabolic causes (27%) and intracranial bleed (43%, P traumatic coma in childhood. Simple clinical signs were good predictors of outcome.

  5. Hyperosmolar nonketotic hyperglycemic coma induced by methylprednisolone pulse therapy for acute rejection after liver transplantation: a case report and review of the literature

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    Zhou J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jian Zhou,* Weiqiang Ju,* Xiaopeng Yuan, Xiaofeng Zhu, Dongping Wang, Xiaoshun HeOrgan Transplant Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Hyperosmolar nonketotic hyperglycemic coma (HNKHC is a serious, rare complication induced by methylprednisolone (MP pulse therapy for acute rejection after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT. Herein, we report an unusual case of a 58-year-old woman who experienced acute rejection at 30 months after OLT, only one case in which HNKHC resulted in MP pulse therapy for acute rejection in all 913 recipients in our center. The general morbidity of HNKHC was 1.09‰ in this study. HNKHC is characterized by rapid onset, rapid progression, and a lack of specific clinical manifestations. High-dose MP management was a clear risk factor. The principle of treatment included rapid rehydration, low-dose insulin infusion, and correcting disorders of electrolytes and acidosis. In conclusion, clinicians considering MP pulse therapy after OLT should be alert to the occurrence of HNKHC. Keywords: liver transplantation, complications, hyperosmolar nonketotic hyperglycemic coma, methylprednisolone pulse therapy, principle of treatment

  6. Stupor and Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chest difficult or impossible. Being unable to move (immobilization) for a long time can also cause problems, ... Coma Vegetative State Minimally Conscious State Locked-In Syndrome Brain Death NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. ...

  7. [Pain and coma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Véronique

    2014-05-01

    Pain is a complex notion which caregivers must be able to decipher. Its aspects vary depending on the patient's condition. In cases of verbal communication disorders, the subjectivity of the caregiver is enlisted. How should pain be assessed in situations of coma and how should it be treated?

  8. [Coma: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adukauskiene, Dalia; Budryte, Brigita; Karpec, Diana

    2008-01-01

    Coma is the disorder of consciousness because of the damage to diffused bilateral cerebral hemisphere cortex or reticular activating system. Coma can be caused by neurogenic (head brain injury), metabolic (endogenic), and toxic (exogenic) factors. To determine the cause of metabolic and toxic coma, laboratory tests are performed; in case of neurogenic coma, the neurologic examination is essential, when five systems are evaluated: the level of consciousness (according to Glasgow Coma Scale or Full Outline of Unresponsiveness Scale), photoreaction of pupils and ophthalmoscopic examination, oculomotoric, motoric, and cardiopulmonary systems. For the treatment of coma, adequate oxygenation and correction of blood circulation disorders are important. The treatment of metabolic coma is guided by special schemes; antidotes often are needed in the treatment of toxic coma, and surgery helps if traumatic brain injury is present. The prognosis and outcomes of the comatose patient depend on the age and comorbid diseases of the patient, the underlying cause of coma, timely medical help and its quality, and intensive treatment and care of the patient in coma.

  9. Coma scales: a historical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Bordini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the most important coma scales developed in the last fifty years. METHOD: A review of the literature between 1969 and 2009 in the Medline and Scielo databases was carried out using the following keywords: coma scales, coma, disorders of consciousness, coma score and levels of coma. RESULTS: Five main scales were found in chronological order: the Jouvet coma scale, the Moscow coma scale, the Glasgow coma scale (GCS, the Bozza-Marrubini scale and the FOUR score (Full Outline of UnResponsiveness, as well as other scales that have had less impact and are rarely used outside their country of origin. DISCUSSION: Of the five main scales, the GCS is by far the most widely used. It is easy to apply and very suitable for cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI. However, it has shortcomings, such as the fact that the speech component in intubated patients cannot be tested. While the Jouvet scale is quite sensitive, particularly for levels of consciousness closer to normal levels, it is difficult to use. The Moscow scale has good predictive value but is little used by the medical community. The FOUR score is easy to apply and provides more neurological details than the Glasgow scale.

  10. How to encounter the child in coma

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hassan Aelami; Sepideh Bagheri; Seyed Morteza Rasti Sani

    2014-01-01

    Non-traumatic coma is a medical emergency and should be evaluated as soon as possible. Pediatric coma is more serious because of patient’s capacity of pathological stressor tolerance is limited especially in neonates. Several etiologies could be listed for loss of consciousness (LOC) and coma in childhood. According to the epidemiological studies, causes of coma are different all around the world. Glasgow Coma Scale has been used for coma scaling. In this review, we focused on some highlight ...

  11. Neuroimaging after coma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tshibanda, Luaba [University and University Hospital of Liege, Coma Science Group, Cyclotron Research Center, Liege (Belgium); University Hospital of Liege, Department of Neuroradiology, Liege (Belgium); Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Soddu, Andrea; Bruno, Marie-Aurelie; Noirhomme, Quentin [University and University Hospital of Liege, Coma Science Group, Cyclotron Research Center, Liege (Belgium); Boly, Melanie; Laureys, Steven [University and University Hospital of Liege, Coma Science Group, Cyclotron Research Center, Liege (Belgium); University Hospital of Liege, Department of Neuroradiology, Liege (Belgium); University Hospital of Liege, Department of Neurology, Liege (Belgium); Moonen, Gustave [University Hospital of Liege, Department of Neurology, Liege (Belgium)

    2010-01-15

    Following coma, some patients will recover wakefulness without signs of consciousness (only showing reflex movements, i.e., the vegetative state) or may show non-reflex movements but remain without functional communication (i.e., the minimally conscious state). Currently, there remains a high rate of misdiagnosis of the vegetative state (Schnakers et. al. BMC Neurol, 9:35, 8) and the clinical and electrophysiological markers of outcome from the vegetative and minimally conscious states remain unsatisfactory. This should incite clinicians to use multimodal assessment to detect objective signs of consciousness and validate para-clinical prognostic markers in these challenging patients. This review will focus on advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, and functional MRI (fMRI studies in both ''activation'' and ''resting state'' conditions) that were recently introduced in the assessment of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness. (orig.)

  12. EEG in connection with coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John A; Nordal, Helge J

    2013-01-08

    Coma is a dynamic condition that may have various causes. Important changes may take place rapidly, often with consequences for treatment. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of EEG patterns in comas with various causes, and indicate how EEG contributes in an assessment of the prognosis for coma patients. The article is based on many years of clinical and research-based experience of EEG used for patients in coma. A self-built reference database was supplemented by searches for relevant articles in PubMed. EEG reveals immediate changes in coma, and can provide early information on cause and prognosis. It is the only diagnostic tool for detecting a non-convulsive epileptic status. Locked-in- syndrome may be overseen without EEG. Repeated EEG scans increase diagnostic certainty and make it possible to monitor the development of coma. EEG reflects brain function continuously and therefore holds a key place in the assessment and treatment of coma.

  13. Energy expenditure during barbiturate coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Christine M; Frankenfield, David C

    2013-10-01

    Barbiturate coma may have a significant effect on metabolic rate, but the phenomenon is not extensively studied. The primary purpose of the current study was to compare the metabolic rate of general critical care patients with those requiring barbiturate coma. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the accuracy of the Penn State prediction equation between these 2 groups of patients. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure the resting metabolic rate of mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients in a barbiturate coma and those of similar height, weight, and age but not in a barbiturate coma. Measurements of resting metabolic rate were compared with predictions using the Penn State equation accounting for body size, body temperature, and minute ventilation. The barbiturate coma group had a lower resting metabolic rate than the control group that remained lower even after adjustment for predicted healthy metabolic rate and maximum body temperature (1859 ± 290 vs 2037 ± 289 kcal/d, P = .020). When minute ventilation was also included in the analysis, the resting metabolic rate between the groups became statistically insignificant (1929 ± 229 vs 2023 ± 226 kcal/d, P = .142). The Penn State equation, which uses these variables, was accurate in 73% of the control patients and also the barbiturate coma patients. Resting metabolic rate is moderately reduced in barbiturate coma, but the decrease is out of proportion with changes in body temperature. However, if both body temperature and minute ventilation are considered, then the change is predictable.

  14. Effect of stimulation in coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karma, Deepa; Rawat, A K

    2006-10-01

    To find out efficacy and benefits of early starting of stimulation therapy in coma patients. Randomized controlled trial. Sixty children admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, having coma due to non-traumatic neurological insult were randomly selected. Both study and control groups had 30 patients each. Children in the study group were given stimulation therapy while those in control group received no stimulation. The level of consciousness was assessed before and two weeks after giving stimulation therapy. Improvement in level of consciousness was better in study group as compared to control after two weeks of stimulation therapy. Stimulation therapy was found to be highly effective in coma patients.

  15. Experimentally induced Porcine Coccidiosis | Onawunmi | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 4, No 2 (1977) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Experimentally induced Porcine Coccidiosis. OA Onawunmi. Abstract. No abstract.

  16. Bullous lesions, sweat gland necrosis and rhabdomyolysis in alcoholic coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakandhan Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old male developed hemorrhagic bullae and erosions while in alcohol induced coma. The lesions were limited to areas of the body in prolonged contact with the ground in the comatose state. He developed rhabdomyolysis, progressing to acute renal failure (ARF. Histopathological examination of the skin showed spongiosis, intraepidermal vesicles, and necrosis of eccrine sweat glands with denudation of secretory epithelial lining cells. With supportive treatment and hemodialysis, the patient recovered in 3 weeks time. This is the first reported case of bullous lesions and sweat gland necrosis occurring in alcohol-induced coma complicated by rhabdomyolysis and ARF.

  17. Prediction of Recovery from Coma After CPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... THEIR FAMILIES PREDICTION OF RECOVERY FROM COMA AFTER CPR This summary will provide you with information about ... help doctors predict poor recovery from coma after CPR. In this case, poor recovery means death, continued ...

  18. Experimentally-induced dissociation impairs visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Chris R; Mersaditabari, Niloufar

    2013-12-01

    Dissociation is a phenomenon common in a number of psychological disorders and has been frequently suggested to impair memory for traumatic events. In this study we explored the effects of dissociation on visual memory. A dissociative state was induced experimentally using a mirror-gazing task and its short-term effects on memory performance were investigated. Sixty healthy individuals took part in the experiment. Induced dissociation impaired visual memory performance relative to a control condition; however, the degree of dissociation was not associated with lower memory scores in the experimental group. The results have theoretical and practical implications for individuals who experience frequent dissociative states such as patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Extragalactic Gamma Ray Excess from Coma Supercluster Direction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the experimental data from Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) the pre- liminary results of which are given by Osborne et al. (1994), the diffuse γ ray excess from Coma supercluster direction is calculated. 2. Methods. In this research, the model presented by Osborne et al. (1994) was used. They have used the ...

  20. Influence of coma aberration on aperture averaged scintillations in oceanic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yujuan; Ji, Xiaoling; Yu, Hong

    2018-01-01

    The influence of coma aberration on aperture averaged scintillations in oceanic turbulence is studied in detail by using the numerical simulation method. In general, in weak oceanic turbulence, the aperture averaged scintillation can be effectively suppressed by means of the coma aberration, and the aperture averaged scintillation decreases as the coma aberration coefficient increases. However, in moderate and strong oceanic turbulence the influence of coma aberration on aperture averaged scintillations can be ignored. In addition, the aperture averaged scintillation dominated by salinity-induced turbulence is larger than that dominated by temperature-induced turbulence. In particular, it is shown that for coma-aberrated Gaussian beams, the behavior of aperture averaged scintillation index is quite different from the behavior of point scintillation index, and the aperture averaged scintillation index is more suitable for characterizing scintillations in practice.

  1. Comet coma sample return instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albee, A. L.; Brownlee, Don E.; Burnett, Donald S.; Tsou, Peter; Uesugi, K. T.

    1994-01-01

    The sample collection technology and instrument concept for the Sample of Comet Coma Earth Return Mission (SOCCER) are described. The scientific goals of this Flyby Sample Return are to return to coma dust and volatile samples from a known comet source, which will permit accurate elemental and isotopic measurements for thousands of individual solid particles and volatiles, detailed analysis of the dust structure, morphology, and mineralogy of the intact samples, and identification of the biogenic elements or compounds in the solid and volatile samples. Having these intact samples, morphologic, petrographic, and phase structural features can be determined. Information on dust particle size, shape, and density can be ascertained by analyzing penetration holes and tracks in the capture medium. Time and spatial data of dust capture will provide understanding of the flux dynamics of the coma and the jets. Additional information will include the identification of cosmic ray tracks in the cometary grains, which can provide a particle's process history and perhaps even the age of the comet. The measurements will be made with the same equipment used for studying micrometeorites for decades past; hence, the results can be directly compared without extrapolation or modification. The data will provide a powerful and direct technique for comparing the cometary samples with all known types of meteorites and interplanetary dust. This sample collection system will provide the first sample return from a specifically identified primitive body and will allow, for the first time, a direct method of matching meteoritic materials captured on Earth with known parent bodies.

  2. Intensive Care for Eclampic Coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to enhance the efficiency of treatment of puerperas with eclampic coma, by substantiating, developing, and introducing new algorithms for correction of systemic hemodynamic, metabolic disturbances, and perfusion-metabolic changes in brain tissues. Subjects and methods. Studies were conducted in 18 puerperas with eclampic coma (Group 2 in whom the authors used a new treatment algorithm aimed at maintaining baseline cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP, restoring volemic levels at the expense of interstitial fluid. A control group (Group 1 included 30 patients who received conventional standard therapy. Regional cerebral circulation was measured by a non-invasive (inhalation radioisotopic method, by applying the tracer 131Xe, as described by V. D. Obrist et al., on a modified КПРДИ-1 apparatus (USSR. The rate of brain oxygen uptake was determined from the oxygen content between the artery and the internal jugular vein. Central hemodynamic parameters were studied by the direct method of right heart catheterization using a flow-directed Swan-Ganz catheter. The volumes of total and extracellular fluids were estimated using 20% urea and mannitol solutions, respectively, at 0.2 g/kg weight by the procedure of V. M. Mogen. Circulating blood volume (CBV was determined by a radioisotopic method using 131iodine albumin on an УPI-7 apparatus (USSR. Cerebral spinal fluid pressure was measured by an ИиНД apparatus. Studies were made in four steps: 1 on admission; 2 on days 2—3; 3 during emergence from coma; 4 before transition. Results. The use of the new algorithm for intensive care for eclampic coma, which is aimed at improving the perfusion metabolic provision of brain structures, with a reduction in mean blood pressure by 10—15% of the baseline level, by administering magnesium sulfate and nimodipine, and at compensating for CBV by high-molecular-weight hydroxyethylated starch (stabizol, ensured early emergence from a comatose state

  3. Experimental hypocalcemia induced by hemodialysis in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, N; Oishi, A; Sato, J; Sato, R; Naito, Y

    1999-12-01

    To evaluate whether hemodialysis with a dialysate containing no calcium (Ca-free HD) can induce hypocalcemia and restore the clinical signs and blood biochemical changes in naturally occurred hypocalcemic disorder in ruminants, the clinical signs and the changes in plasma electrolytes and minerals concentrations were observed in goats during 6-hr hemodialysis. The four goats received hemodialysis with the dialysate containing calcium (Ca HD), and 10 days later they had Ca-free HD. The plasma ionized Ca (Ca++) and total Ca (TCa) concentrations were not affected by Ca HD, whereas the levels significantly decreased during whole period of Ca-free HD. The Ca++ and TCa concentrations were 0.69+/-0.06 mmol/l and 5.9+/-0.3 mg/dl at 6 hr of Ca-free HD, respectively. The clinical signs observed during Ca-free HD seemed to resemble to those in naturally occurred hypocalcemic cases that were reported previously. Therefore, Ca-free HD was suggested to be one of the possible methods to induce experimental hypocalcemia in ruminants.

  4. Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are unable to respond to commands. View Full Definition Treatment Once an individual is out of immediate danger, the medical care team focuses on preventing infections and maintaining a healthy ...

  5. Coma in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, F J; Te Boekhorst, P A W; Dippel, D W J; Jacobs, B C

    2010-11-23

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is characterised by a thrombotic, haemolytic microangiopathy leading to microvascular occlusion, haemolysis and ischaemic dysfunction of various organs including the brain. TTP may present with a variety of neurological symptoms, including headache, focal deficits, seizures and coma. The authors describe a 55-year-old man presenting with abdominal pain and rapidly progressive deterioration into coma without focal neurological deficits or seizures. A concomitant, transient, rapid increase in blood pressure raised the suspicion of a hypertensive crisis. Yet, our patient did not improve after vigorous treatment with antihypertensives. Brain imaging excluded a hypertensive leucoencephalopathy. Despite the absence of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif member 13 (ADAMTS13) deficiency, the diagnosis idiopathic TTP was made after excluding secondary causes of TTP. Upon treatment with plasma exchange, corticosteroids and vincristin our patient gradually improved. On discharge to a rehabilitation centre he was awake and alert, had minor cognitive deficits and a mild proximal tetraparesis consistent with a critical illness poly(neuro)myopathy.

  6. Brain connectivity in pathological and pharmacological coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Noirhomme

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC tend to support the view that awareness is not related to activity in a single brain region but to thalamo-cortical connectivity in the frontoparietal network. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown preserved albeit disconnected low level cortical activation in response to external stimulation in patients in a vegetative state or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. While activation of these primary sensory cortices does not necessarily reflect conscious awareness, activation in higher order associative cortices in minimally conscious state patients seems to herald some residual perceptual awareness. PET studies have identified a metabolic dysfunction in a widespread fronto-parietal global neuronal workspace in DOC patients including the midline default mode network, ‘intrinsic’ system, and the lateral frontoparietal cortices or ‘extrinsic system’. Recent studies have investigated the relation of awareness to the functional connectivity within intrinsic and extrinsic networks, and with the thalami in both pathological and pharmacological coma. In brain damaged patients, connectivity in all default network areas was found to be non-linearly correlated with the degree of clinical consciousness impairment, ranging from healthy controls and locked-in syndrome to minimally conscious, vegetative, coma and brain dead patients. Anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness was also shown to correlate with a global decrease in cortico-cortical and thalamo-cortical connectivity in both intrinsic and extrinsic networks, but not in auditory or visual networks. In anesthesia, unconsciousness was also associated with a loss of cross-modal interactions between networks. These results suggest that conscious awareness critically depends on the functional integrity of thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical frontoparietal connectivity within and between intrinsic and extrinsic brain networks.

  7. Postanoxic coma: prognosis after therapeutic hypothermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwes, A.

    2012-01-01

    Postanoxic coma, also known as anoxic-ischemic coma, is a state of unconsciousness caused by global anoxia of the brain. The most common cause is primary cardiac arrest followed by successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Other causes include primary respiratory arrest, near-drowning,

  8. Experimental model to induce obesity in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vinicius Von Diemen; Eduardo Neubarth Trindade; Manoel Roberto Maciel Trindade

    2006-01-01

    .... Obesity can be induced in animals by neuroendocrine, dietary or genetic changes. The most widely used models to induce obesity in rats are a lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH...

  9. Coma and disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Laureys, Steven; Demertzi, Athena

    2013-01-01

    Patients in coma, vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, and in minimally conscious states pose medical, scientific, and ethical challenges. As patients with disorders of consciousness are by definition unable to communicate, the assessment of pain, quality of life, and end-of-life preferences in these conditions can only be approached by adopting a third-person perspective. Surveys of healthcare workers' attitudes towards pain and end of life in disorders of consciousness shed light on the background of clinical reality, where no standard medical-legal framework is widely accepted. On the other hand, patients with locked-in syndrome, who are severely paralyzed but fully conscious, can inform about subjective quality of life in serious disability and help us to understand better the underlying factors influencing happiness in disease. In the medico-legal arena, such ethical issues may be resolved by previously drafted advance directives and, when absent, by surrogate representation. Lately, functional medical imaging and electrophysiology provide alternative means to communicate with these challenging patients and will potentially mediate to extract responses of medical-ethical content. Eventually, the clinical translation of these advanced technologies in the medical routine is of paramount importance for the promotion of medical management of these challenging patients. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimentally induced secondary cryptorchidism: Effects on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryptorchidism may interfere with spermatogenesis but not the functions of the Leydig cells. This study investigated the effects of induced Secondary cryptorchidism growth performance of Djallonké lambs. A total of eighteen Djallonké lambs were assigned randomly to one of six treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of ...

  11. Status of experimental data for neutron induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Mamoru [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    A short review is presented on the status of experimental data for neutron induced reactions above 20 MeV based on the EXFOR data base and journals. Experimental data which were obtained in a systematic manner and/or by plural authors are surveyed and tabulated for the nuclear data evaluation and the benchmark test of the evaluated data. (author). 61 refs.

  12. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. VIII. BARRED DISK GALAXIES IN THE CORE OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinova, Irina; Jogee, Shardha; Weinzirl, Tim [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Erwin, Peter [Max-Planck-Insitut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Trentham, Neil [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hammer, Derek [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Den Brok, Mark; Peletier, Reynier F.; Kleijn, Gijs V. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Graham, Alister W. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn (Australia); Carter, David; Mouhcine, Mustapha [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Birkenhead (United Kingdom); Balcells, Marc [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Guzman, Rafael; Hoyos, Carlos [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Mobasher, Bahram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Peng, Eric W., E-mail: marinova@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: sj@astro.as.utexas.edu [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-02-20

    low-density environments for two reasons. First, S0s in rich clusters are less prone to bar instabilities as they are dynamically heated by harassment and are gas poor as a result of ram pressure stripping and accelerated star formation. Second, high-speed encounters in rich clusters may be less effective than slow, strong encounters in inducing bars. (3) We also take advantage of the high resolution of the ACS ({approx}50 pc) to analyze a sample of 333 faint (M{sub V} > -18) dwarf galaxies in the Coma core. Using visual inspection of unsharp-masked images, we find only 13 galaxies with bar and/or spiral structure. An additional eight galaxies show evidence for an inclined disk. The paucity of disk structures in Coma dwarfs suggests that either disks are not common in these galaxies or that any disks present are too hot to develop instabilities.

  13. Experimental induced avian E. coli salpingitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Thøfner, Ida; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Several types of Escherichia coli have been associated with extra-intestinal infections in poultry, however, they may vary significantly in their virulence potential. The aim of the present study was to investigate the virulence of five strains of E. coli obtained from different disease......) had a distinct ability to cause disease. Results of the study shows major differences in virulence of different strains of E. coli in ascending infections; however, there was no indication of tissue-specific adaptation, since strains obtained from lesions unrelated to the reproductive system were...... fully capable of causing experimental infection. In conclusion, the study provides evidence for the clinical outcome of infection with E. coli in poultry is largely influenced by the specific strain as well as individual host factors....

  14. Eclamptic coma. New algorithm of intensive therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Kh. Khapiy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to increase effectiveness of treatment of patients in eclamptic coma. Current algorithm of intensive therapy corresponds to coma states methodology treatment of metabolic genesis accepted in neurological and neurosurgical practice. The main principal of intensive therapy tactics has been to restore volemic figures and perfusion-metabolic balance of brains. Decrease of mean arterial pressure (5-10% from the initial one which defines the central perfusion pressure has been provided by magnesium sulphate and nimodipine. Stabizol has been used as plasma-substituting component to circulate in bloodstream till 36 hours. Nimodipine has provided increased cerebral bloodflow. Proposed algorithm of intensive therapy has allowed to reduce lethality from 15.7% to 4.8%. Key words: eclamptic coma, cerebral bloodflow, cerebral perfusion pressure

  15. Coma blisters in two postoperative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Anna H; Farooq, Uzma; Choudhary, Sonal; Yin, Natalie; Nolan, Bridgit; Shiman, Michael; Milikowski, Clara; Izakovic, Jan; Elgart, George W

    2013-05-01

    Coma blisters are self-limited cutaneous bullae that occur in the setting of loss of consciousness because of a drug, illness, or accident, with the most common settings being barbiturate overdose and neurological disorders. The etiology behind coma blisters is poorly understood and is not related to underlying infections or autoimmune conditions. The clinical presentation consists of bullae, erosions, and violaceous plaques usually involving sites of pressure. The skin lesions usually occur within 48-72 hours of the start of a coma and resolve within 2-4 weeks. We present one case of a 5-month-old infant with severe valvular disease who required surgical repair. He was placed on extra corporeal membrane oxygenation and developed multiple tense coma blisters during the course of therapy. Skin biopsy revealed a noninflammatory subepidermal blister with necrosis of the overlying epidermis and necrosis of the eccrine ducts. We also present a second case of an 18-year-old female patient who underwent surgical resection of a benign mandibular tumor. She subsequently developed bullae on both arms 4 days after surgery. The skin biopsy showed a necrotic epidermis, a subepidermal blister, and diffuse necrosis of the eccrine coils.

  16. Coma Patient Monitoring System Using Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankalp, Meenu

    2011-12-01

    COMA PATIENT MONITORING SYSTEM provides high quality healthcare services in the near future. To provide more convenient and comprehensive medical monitoring in big hospitals since it is tough job for medical personnel to monitor each patient for 24 hours.. The latest development in patient monitoring system can be used in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care Unit (CCU), and Emergency Rooms of hospital. During treatment, the patient monitor is continuously monitoring the coma patient to transmit the important information. Also in the emergency cases, doctor are able to monitor patient condition efficiently to reduce time consumption, thus it provides more effective healthcare system. So due to importance of patient monitoring system, the continuous monitoring of the coma patient can be simplified. This paper investigates about the effects seen in the patient using "Coma Patient Monitoring System" which is a very advanced product related to physical changes in body movement of the patient and gives Warning in form of alarm and display on the LCD in less than one second time. It also passes a sms to a person sitting at the distant place if there exists any movement in any body part of the patient. The model for the system uses Keil software for the software implementation of the developed system.

  17. FK Comae Berenices, King of Spin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Thomas R.; Kashyap, V.; Saar, S.

    2016-01-01

    COCOA-PUFS is an energy-diverse, time-domain study of the ultra-fast spinning, heavily spotted, yellow giant FK Comae Berenices (FK Com: HD117555; G4 III). This single star is thought to be a recent binary merger, and is exceptionally active by measure of its intense ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray em...

  18. Functional MRI and Outcome in Traumatic Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacino, Joseph T.; Wu, Ona

    2013-01-01

    Advances in task-based functional MRI (fMRI), resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI), and arterial-spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI have occurred at a rapid pace in recent years. These techniques for measuring brain function have great potential to improve the accuracy of prognostication for civilian and military patients with traumatic coma. In addition, fMRI, rs-fMRI, and ASL have provided novel insights into the pathophysiology of traumatic disorders of consciousness, as well as mechanisms of recovery from coma. However, functional neuroimaging techniques have yet to achieve widespread clinical use as prognostic tests for patients with traumatic coma. Rather, a broad spectrum of methodological hurdles currently limits the feasibility of clinical implementation. In this review, we discuss the basic principles of fMRI, rs-fMRI and ASL and their potential applications as prognostic tools for patients with traumatic coma. We also discuss future strategies for overcoming the current barriers to clinical implementation. PMID:23881623

  19. [Role of imaging in the diagnosis of coma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, M L; Molho, M

    1989-11-21

    Imaging has become one of the main methods to diagnose and monitor coma. CT is the technique of choice in the exploration of traumatic coma or spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage, but MRI is better than CT to explore comas of ischaemic, infective, tumoral or toxic origin, as it provides earlier and more precise images.

  20. Postanoxic coma: how (long) should we treat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandbergen, E G J

    2008-01-01

    Postanoxic coma is a state of unconsciousness caused by global anoxia of the brain, most commonly due to cardiac arrest. Outcome after postanoxic coma lasting more than several hours is generally, but not invariably, poor. Recovery of consciousness reported in the literature varies from 8% to 72% of patients, but is mostly thought to be around 20-30% in patients surviving in coma for at least 24 h. Research is directed at defining factors that reliably predict poor outcome in these patients. Favourable outcome proves impossible to predict. Studies on outcome prediction have focussed mostly on neurological examination, clinical neurophysiological tests and biochemical parameters. The most recent and extensive study in this respect was the PROPAC study in The Netherlands (407 patients). This study confirmed earlier findings that bilaterally absent early cortical response after median nerve somatosensory potentials (absent somatosensory evoked potentials) is the most reliable predictor of poor outcome (no recovery of consciousness). A serum neuron-specific-enolase level >33 microg L(-1) seemed equally reliable. In 2006, the American Practice Parameter on anoxic-ischaemic coma was published, summarizing the findings from the different studies. Poor outcome was defined as death, coma or severe disability after 6 months. The following factors were found to reliably predict this outcome: myoclonic status epilepticus within the first 24 h, absent pupillary responses after 24 h, absent corneal reflexes after 48 h, motor response to pain absent or extensor after 72 h and absent somatosensory evoked potentials (as defined above) after 1-3 days. Results for biochemical parameters (such as neuron-specific enolase) and neuroimaging are inconclusive.

  1. Experimental synchronization of circuit oscillations induced by common telegraph noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Ken; Nakao, Hiroya

    2009-03-01

    Experimental realization and quantitative investigation of common-noise-induced synchronization of limit-cycle oscillations subject to random telegraph signals are performed using an electronic oscillator circuit. Based on our previous formulation [K. Nagai, Phys. Rev. E 71, 036217 (2005)], dynamics of the circuit is described as random-phase mappings between two limit cycles. Lyapunov exponents characterizing the degree of synchronization are estimated from experimentally determined phase maps and compared with linear damping rates of phase differences measured directly. Noisy on-off intermittency of the phase difference as predicted by the theory is also confirmed experimentally.

  2. Ultrasound v. sham ultrasound for experimentally induced delayed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a double-blind controlled trial, delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) was experimentally induced in both bicep muscles of 15 females. Sham US was applied to one bicep (n=15 biceps) and pulsed active US to the other bicep (n=15 biceps) of each participant, 48 and 72 h after induction of DOMS. Primary and ...

  3. Experimental observation of direct current voltage-induced phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    September 2006 physics pp. 441–447. Experimental observation of direct current voltage-induced phase synchronization. HAIHONG LI1, WEIQING LIU1,2, QIONGLING DAI1 and JINGHUA XIAO1. 1School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876,. China. 2School of Science, Jiangxi ...

  4. Experimentally Induced Learned Helplessness: How Far Does it Generalize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffin, Keith; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Assessed whether experimentally induced learned helplessness on a cognitive training task generalized to a situationally dissimilar social interaction test task. No significant differences were observed between groups on the subsequent test task, showing that helplessness failed to generalize. (Author/ABB)

  5. Sinais vitais e expressão facial de pacientes em estado de coma Signos vitales y expresión facial de pacientes en estado de coma Vital signs and facial expression of patients in coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Giesbrecht Puggina

    2009-06-01

    induced comas. A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial was done. The sample was consisted of 30 patients from Intensive Care Unit, being divided in 2 groups: Group Control (without auditory stimuli and Experimental Group (with auditory stimuli. The patients were submitted to 3 sessions for consecutive days. Significant statistical alterations of the vital signs were noted (oxygen saturation - session 1; oxygen saturation - session 3; respiratory frequency - session 3 during the message playback and with facial expression, session 1, during both music and message. Apparently, the voice message is a stronger stimulus than the music in relation to the capacity of producing suggestive physiological auditory responses.

  6. Assessment of refractive astigmatism and simulated therapeutic refractive surgery strategies in coma-like-aberrations-dominant corneal optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen; Stojanovic, Aleksandar; Utheim, Tor Paaske

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to raise the awareness of the influence of coma-like higher-order aberrations (HOAs) on power and orientation of refractive astigmatism (RA) and to explore how to account for that influence in the planning of topography-guided refractive surgery in eyes with coma-like-aberrations-dominant corneal optics. Eleven eyes with coma-like-aberrations-dominant corneal optics and with low lenticular astigmatism (LA) were selected for astigmatism analysis and for treatment simulations with topography-guided custom ablation. Vector analysis was used to evaluate the contribution of coma-like corneal HOAs to RA. Two different strategies were used for simulated treatments aiming to regularize irregular corneal optics: With both strategies correction of anterior corneal surface irregularities (corneal HOAs) were intended. Correction of total corneal astigmatism (TCA) and RA was intended as well with strategies 1 and 2, respectively. Axis of discrepant astigmatism (RA minus TCA minus LA) correlated strongly with axis of coma. Vertical coma influenced RA by canceling the effect of the with-the-rule astigmatism and increasing the effect of the against-the-rule astigmatism. After simulated correction of anterior corneal HOAs along with TCA and RA (strategies 1 and 2), only a small amount of anterior corneal astigmatism (ACA) and no TCA remained after strategy 1, while considerable amount of ACA and TCA remained after strategy 2. Coma-like corneal aberrations seem to contribute a considerable astigmatic component to RA in eyes with coma-like-aberrations dominant corneal optics. If topography-guided ablation is programmed to correct the corneal HOAs and RA, the astigmatic component caused by the coma-like corneal HOAs will be treated twice and will result in induced astigmatism. Disregarding RA and treating TCA along with the corneal HOAs is recommended instead.

  7. The UCD Population of the Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiboucas, Kristin; Ferguson, Peter; Tully, R. Brent; Carter, David; Phillipps, Steven; Peng, Eric

    2017-03-01

    UCDs are super massive star clusters found largely in dense regions but have also been found around individual galaxies and in smaller groups. Their origin is still under debate but consensus is that they formed either during major galaxy mergers as mergers of super massive star clusters, are simply the high mass end of the globular cluster luminosity function and formed in the same way as globular clusters, or that they formed from the threshing of galaxies and are remnant nuclear star clusters, which themselves may have formed from the mergers of globular star clusters within galaxies. We are attempting to disentangle these competing formation scenarios with a large survey of UCDs in the Coma cluster. Using ACS two-passband imaging from the HST/ACS Coma Cluster Treasury Survey, we are using colors and sizes to identify the UCD cluster members. With a large sample within the core region of the Coma cluster, we will use the population size, properties, and spatial distribution, and comparison with the Coma globular cluster and nuclear star cluster populations to discriminate between the threshing and globular cluster scenarios. In particular, previously we have found a possible correlation of UCD colors with host galaxy and a possible excess of UCDs around a non-central giant galaxy with an unusually large globular cluster population, both suggestive of a globular cluster origin. With a larger sample size, we are investigating whether the color correlation with host persists and whether the UCD population is consistent with, or in excess of, the bright end of the GCLF. We present initial results from the survey.

  8. Gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori infection in experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elseweidy, Mohamed M; Taha, Mona M; Younis, Nahla N; Ibrahim, Khadiga S; Hamouda, Hamdi A; Eldosouky, Mohamed A; Soliman, Hala

    2010-10-01

    Gastritis, an inflammation of gastric mucosa, may be due to many pathological factors and infection, such as with Helicobacter pylori. The use of experimental models of gastritis is important to evaluate the biochemical changes and study chemotherapeutic intervention. In a previous study we demonstrated an acute gastritis model induced by iodoacetamide. Our objective in this study was to evaluate a new gastritis model induced by H. pylori infection in experimental rats in terms of certain biomarkers in serum and mucosal tissues in addition to histopathological examination. Gastritis was induced in 20 albino Wistar rats by H. pylori isolated from antral biopsy taken from a 49-year-old male patient endoscopically diagnosed as having H. pylori infection. Another ten rats were used as controls. Serum gastrin, pepsinogen I activity, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and gastric mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were measured. Immunostaining for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine and DNA fragmentation were used to further evaluate H. pylori-induced gastritis. Serum gastrin, IL-6, mucosal MPO activity, and PGE(2) demonstrated significant increases joined with a decreased serum pepsinogen I activity (P gastritis models demonstrated massive oxidative stress and pronounced injury in mucosal tissue. Since our model in rats reflected the clinical picture of H. pylori infection, it can be considered as a consistent model to study chemotherapeutic intervention for this type of gastritis.

  9. Music therapy for coma patients: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J; Chen, W

    2015-04-01

    The application of quantitative EEG (δ+θ/α+β value) and GCS value to evaluate the role of music therapy for traumatic brain injury coma patients. Forty patients of traumatic brain injury coma were selected to meet the inclusion criteria. Twenty cases were selected for the rehabilitation, neurology and neurosurgery ward, whose families could actively cooperate with, and the patients could receive a long-term fixed nursing staff with formal music therapy (music group). Twenty cases were in the intensive care unit of the rehabilitation, neurology and neurosurgery ward. Their families members cooperated poorly, had often changing nursing staff, and without a formal music therapy (control group). After a one monthe follow up, the GCS value and quantitative EEG (δ+θ/α+β value) were compared between the two groups. Between the two groups, except for the presence or absence of formal music therapy, the rest of treatment had no significant difference and was matched by age, gender, and injury types. In 40 cases of traumatic brain injury patients, the GCS value increased in the music group after treatment when compared to the control group. The difference between the two groups was significant (p music therapy in patients with craniocerebral trauma coma has obviously an effect on promoting to regain consciousness. The quantitative EEG (δ+θ/α+β value) can be used as an objective index to evaluate the state of brain function.

  10. Diagnosis of reversible causes of coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlow, Jonathan A; Rabinstein, Alejandro; Traub, Stephen J; Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2014-12-06

    Because coma has many causes, physicians must develop a structured, algorithmic approach to diagnose and treat reversible causes rapidly. The three main mechanisms of coma are structural brain lesions, diffuse neuronal dysfunction, and, rarely, psychiatric causes. The first priority is to stabilise the patient by treatment of life-threatening conditions, then to use the history, physical examination, and laboratory findings to identify structural causes and diagnose treatable disorders. Some patients have a clear diagnosis. In those who do not, the first decision is whether brain imaging is needed. Imaging should be done in post-traumatic coma or when structural brain lesions are probable or possible causes. Patients who do not undergo imaging should be reassessed regularly. If CT is non-diagnostic, a checklist should be used use to indicate whether advanced imaging is needed or evidence is present of a treatable poisoning or infection, seizures including non-convulsive status epilepticus, endocrinopathy, or thiamine deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Vaccination with IL-6 analogues induces autoantibodies to IL-6 and influences experimentally induced inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Pia; Jensen, Lene; Andersson, Christina

    2007-01-01

    ; yet they appear healthy and do not exhibit overt clinical or laboratory abnormalities. We induced comparable levels of aAb-IL-6 in different mouse strains by vaccination with immunogenic IL-6 analogues. We observed that the induced aAb-IL-6 protected against collagen-induced arthritis and experimental...... allergic encephalitis. Furthermore, aAb-IL-6 carrying mice displayed increased plasma TNFalpha concentrations upon challenge with LPS. Taken together, induction of IL-6 autoantibodies was possible in different mouse strains. The autoantibodies influenced experimental inflammation. This immunotherapeutic...

  12. The portrayal of coma in contemporary motion pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M; Wijdicks, Coen A

    2006-05-09

    Coma has been a theme of screenplays in motion pictures, but there is no information about its accuracy. The authors reviewed 30 movies from 1970 to 2004 with actors depicting prolonged coma. Accurate depiction of comatose patients was defined by appearance, the complexity of care, accurate cause of coma and probability of awakening, and appropriate compassionate discussion between the physician and family members. Twenty-two key scenes from 17 movies were rated for accuracy by a panel of neurointensivists and neuroscience nurses and then were shown to 72 nonmedical viewers. Accuracy of the scenes was assessed using a Likert Scale. Coma was most often caused by motor vehicle accidents or violence (63%). The time in a comatose state varied from days to 10 years. Awakening occurred in 18 of 30 motion pictures (60%). Awakening was sudden with cognition intact, even after prolonged time in a coma. Actors personified "Sleeping Beauty" (eyes closed, beautifully groomed). Physicians appeared as caricatures. Only two movies had a reasonable accurate representation (Dream Life of Angels and Reversal of Fortune). The majority of the surveyed viewers identified inaccuracy of representation of coma, awakenings, and conversations on the experience of being in a coma, except in 8 of the 22 scenes (36%). Twenty-eight of the 72 viewers (39%) could potentially allow these scenes to influence decisions in real life. Misrepresentation of coma and awakening was common in motion pictures and impacted on the public perception of coma. Neurologic advice regarding prolonged coma is needed.

  13. Effects of Caffeine and Lycopene in Experimentally Induced Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Ozlem; Topsakal, Senay; Haligur, Mehmet; Aydogan, Ahmet; Dincoglu, Dilnur

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a global epidemic with increasing prevalence. The disease is chronic in nature, and patients must use antidiabetic drugs or insulin during their lifespan. Because of the difficulty of using injectable insulin preparations, patients and practitioners prefer to use oral antidiabetic drugs for prophylaxis and treatment. There are, however, numerous adverse effects of antidiabetic drugs and rapidly increasing attention is being paid to new nutraceutical drugs with fewer adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine and lycopene on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DM in rats. Caffeine and lycopene were administered to the study groups by oral gavages for 1 month whereafter experimental diabetes was induced in 90 rats in 6 groups. There were no pathological effects of lycopene and caffeine on the pancreas. Marked vacuolization and degeneration were observed in STZ-treated groups. Caffeine and lycopene decreased the pathological findings and lowered the blood and urine glucose levels in the rats with STZ-induced DM, whereas these compounds increased serum insulin levels. This study showed that caffeine and lycopene provided protective effects against experimentally induced DM. The protective effects of lycopene were observed to be much greater than those of caffeine.

  14. Microcirculation alterations in experimentally induced gingivitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Masato; Okudera, Toshimitsu; Takahashi, Shun-Suke; Wada-Takahashi, Satoko; Maeda, Shingo; Iimura, Akira

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to morphologically examine the gingival microvascular network using a microvascular resin cast (MRC) technique, and to investigate how inflammatory disease functionally affects gingival microcirculation using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). We used four beagle dogs with healthy periodontal tissue as experimental animals. To cause periodontal inflammation, dental floss was placed around the cervical neck portions of the right premolars. The unmanipulated left premolars served as controls, and received plaque control every 7 days. After 90 days, gingivitis was induced in the experimental side, while the control side maintained healthy gingiva. To perform morphological examinations, we used an MRC method involving the injection of low-viscosity synthetic resin into the blood vessels, leading to peripheral soft-tissue dissolution and permitting observation of the bone, teeth, and vascular cast. Gingival blood flow was estimated using an LDF meter. The control gingival vasculature showed hairpin-loop-like networks along the tooth surface. The blood vessels had diameters of 20-40 μm and were regularly arranged around the cervical portion. On the other hand, the vasculature in the experimental group was twisted and gathered into spiral forms, with blood vessels that had uneven surfaces and smaller diameters of 8-10 μm. LDF revealed reduced gingival blood flow in the group with experimentally induced gingivitis compared to controls. The actual measurements of gingival blood flow by LDF were in agreement with the alterations that would be expected based on the gingivitis-induced morphological alterations observed with the MRC technique.

  15. Creatine kinase activity in dogs with experimentally induced acute inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrinka Zapryanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute inflammation on total creatine kinase (CK activity in dogs. In these animals, CK is an enzyme found predominantly in skeletal muscle and significantly elevated serum activity is largely associated with muscle damage. Plasma increases in dogs are associated with cell membrane leakage and will therefore be seen in any condition associated with muscular inflammation. The study was induced in 15 mongrel male dogs (n=9 in experimental group and n=6 in control group at the age of two years and body weight 12-15 kg. The inflammation was reproduced by inoculation of 2 ml turpentine oil subcutaneously in lumbar region. The plasma activity of creatine kinase was evaluated at 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 hours after inoculation and on days 7, 14 and 21 by a kit from Hospitex Diagnostics. In the experimental group, the plasma concentrations of the CK-activity were increased at the 48th hour (97.48±6.92 U/L and remained significantly higher (p<0.05 at the 72 hour (97.43±2.93 U/L compared to the control group (77.08±5.27 U/L. The results of this study suggest that the evaluation of creatine kinase in dogs with experimentally induced acute inflammation has a limited diagnostic value. It was observed that the creatine kinase activity is slightly affected by the experimentally induced acute inflammation in dogs.

  16. The effect of experimentally-induced subacromial pain on proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sole, Gisela; Osborne, Hamish; Wassinger, Craig

    2015-02-01

    Shoulder injuries may be associated with proprioceptive deficits, however, it is unknown whether these changes are due to the experience of pain, tissue damage, or a combination of these. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of experimentally-induced sub-acromial pain on proprioceptive variables. Sub-acromial pain was induced via hypertonic saline injection in 20 healthy participants. Passive joint replication (PJR) and threshold to detection of movement direction (TTDMD) were assessed with a Biodex System 3 Pro isokinetic dynamometer for baseline control, experimental pain and recovery control conditions with a starting position of 60° shoulder abduction. The target angle for PJR was 60° external rotation, starting from 40°. TTDMD was tested from a position of 20° external rotation. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine differences between PJR absolute and variable errors and TTDMD for the control and experimental conditions. Pain was elicited with a median 7 on the Numeric Pain Rating Scale. TTDMD was significantly decreased for the experimental pain condition compared to baseline and recovery conditions (≈30%, P = 0.003). No significant differences were found for absolute (P = 0.152) and variable (P = 0.514) error for PJR. Movement sense was enhanced for the experimental sub-acromial pain condition, which may reflect protective effects of the central nervous system in response to the pain. Where decreased passive proprioception is observed in shoulders with injuries, these may be due to a combination of peripheral tissue injury and neural adaptations that differ from those due to acute pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prognostic value of EEG in different etiological types of coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaburzania, M; Beridze, M

    2013-06-01

    Study aimed at evaluation of prognostic value of standard EEG in different etiology of coma and the influence of etiological factor on the EEG patterns and coma outcome. Totally 175 coma patients were investigated. Patients were evaluated by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), clinically and by 16 channel electroencephalography. Auditory evoked potentials studied by EEG -regime for evoked potentials in patients with vegetative state (VS). Patients divided in 8 groups according to coma etiology. All patients were studied for photoreaction, brainstem reflexes, localization of sound and pain, length of coma state and outcome. Brain injury visualized by conventional CT. Outcome defined as death, VS, recovery with disability and without disability. Disability was rated by Disability Rating Scale (DRS). Recovered patients assessed by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scale. Statistics performed by SPSS-11.0. From 175 coma patients 55 patients died, 23 patients found in VS, 97 patients recovered with and without disability. In all etiological groups of coma the background EEG patterns were established. Correspondence analysis of all investigated factors revealed that sound localization had the significant association with EEG delta and theta rhythms and with recovery from coma state (Chi-sqr. =31.10493; p= 0.000001). Among 23 VS patients 9 patients had the signs of MCS and showed the long latency waves (p300) after binaural stimulation. The high amplitude theta frequencies in frontal and temporal lobes significantly correlated with prolongation of latency of cognitive evoked potentials (r=+0.47; pcoma outcome only in hemorrhagic and traumatic coma (chi-sqr.=12.95; pcoma outcome. Low amplitude decreased power delta and theta frequencies correlated with SND in survived coma patients (r=+0.21; pcoma patients with a high probability to recover as well as those patients, who are at high risk of SND in case of recovery from coma state.

  18. Machine Induced Experimental Background Conditions in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Levinsen, Yngve Inntjore; Stapnes, Steinar

    2012-09-19

    The Large Hadron Collider set a new energy record for particle accelerators in late 2009, breaking the previous record held by Tevatron of 2 TeV collision energy. The LHC today operates at a collision energy of 7 TeV. With higher beam energy and intensity, measures have to be taken to ensure optimal experimental conditions and safety of the machine and detectors. Machine induced experimental background can severely reduce the quality of experimental triggers and track reconstruction. In a worst case, the radiation levels can be damaging for some of the subdetectors. The LHC is a particular challenge in this regard due to the vastly different operating conditions of the different experiments. The nominal luminosity varies by four orders of magnitude. The unprecedented stored beam energy and the amount of superconducting elements can make it challenging to protect the accelerator itself as well. In this work we have simulated and measured the machine induced background originating from various sources: the beam...

  19. Coma mixedematoso y midazolam: Reporte de caso.

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto Valdivia, Miguel; Vásquez Kunze, Sergio; Pinto Valdivia, José Luis; Villena Chávez, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Se reporta el caso de un paciente varón sin antecedente previo de patología tiroidea que ingresó por coma mixedematoso y desarrolló insuficiencia respiratoria después de la administración endovenosa de midazolam. Tenía 55 años de edad, y una enfermedad de dos semanas caracterizado por letargia, debilidad, hiporexia y cefalea. Los análisis de laboratorio mostraron anemia, hiponatremia severa y niveles elevados de transaminasas y creatinquinasa. TSH elevada y T4 y T3 en niveles muy bajos. Se in...

  20. Experimental Sleep Restriction Facilitates Pain and Electrically Induced Cortical Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matre, Dagfinn; Hu, Li; Viken, Leif A.; Hjelle, Ingri B.; Wigemyr, Monica; Knardahl, Stein; Sand, Trond; Nilsen, Kristian Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep restriction (SR) has been hypothesized to sensitize the pain system. The current study determined whether experimental sleep restriction had an effect on experimentally induced pain and pain-elicited electroencephalographic (EEG) responses. Design: A paired crossover study. Intervention: Pain testing was performed after 2 nights of 50% SR and after 2 nights with habitual sleep (HS). Setting: Laboratory experiment at research center. Participants: Self-reported healthy volunteers (n = 21, age range: 18–31 y). Measurements and Results: Brief high-density electrical stimuli to the forearm skin produced pinprick-like pain. Subjective pain ratings increased after SR, but only in response to the highest stimulus intensity (P = 0.018). SR increased the magnitude of the pain-elicited EEG response analyzed in the time-frequency domain (P = 0.021). Habituation across blocks did not differ between HS and SR. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) was reduced after SR (P = 0.039). Pressure pain threshold of the trapezius muscle region also decreased after SR (P = 0.017). Conclusion: Sleep restriction (SR) increased the sensitivity to pressure pain and to electrically induced pain of moderate, but not low, intensity. The increased electrical pain could not be explained by a difference in habituation. Increased response magnitude is possibly related to reduced processing within the somatosensory cortex after partial SR. Citation: Matre D, Hu L, Viken LA, Hjelle IB, Wigemyr M, Knardahl S, Sand T, Nilsen KB. Experimental sleep restriction facilitates pain and electrically induced cortical responses. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1607–1617. PMID:26194577

  1. Local and Systemic Inflammatory Responses to Experimentally Induced Gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Shaneen J.; Seymour, Gregory J.; Ford, Pauline J.

    2013-01-01

    This study profiled the local and systemic inflammatory responses to experimentally induced gingivitis. Eight females participated in a 21-day experimental gingivitis model followed by a 14-day resolution phase. Bleeding on probing and plaque index scores were assessed before, during, and after resolution of gingival inflammation, and samples of saliva, GCF, and plasma were collected. Samples were assessed for biomarkers of inflammation using the BioPlex platform and ELISA. There were no significant changes in GCF levels of cytokines during the experimental phase; however, individual variability in cytokine profiles was noted. During resolution, mean GCF levels of IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α decreased and were significantly lower than baseline levels (P = 0.003, P = 0.025, and P = 0.007, resp.). Furthermore, changes in GCF levels of IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α during resolution correlated with changes in plaque index scores (r = 0.88, P = 0.004; r = 0.72, P = 0.042; r = 0.79, P = 0.019, resp.). Plasma levels of sICAM-1 increased significantly during the experimental phase (P = 0.002) and remained elevated and significantly higher than baseline levels during resolution (P gingivitis adds to the systemic inflammatory burden of an individual. PMID:24227893

  2. The influence of experimentally induced pain on shoulder muscle activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Winther, Annika; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    Muscle function is altered in painful shoulder conditions. However, the influence of shoulder pain on muscle coordination of the shoulder has not been fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of experimentally induced shoulder pain on shoulder muscle function. Eleven...... healthy men (range 22-27 years), with no history of shoulder or cervical problems, were included in the study. Pain was induced by 5% hypertonic saline injections into the supraspinatus muscle or subacromially. Seated in a shoulder machine, subjects performed standardized concentric abduction (0 degrees...... -105 degrees) at a speed of approximately 120 degrees/s, controlled by a metronome. During abduction, electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded by intramuscular wire electrodes inserted in two deeply located shoulder muscles and by surface-electrodes over six superficially located shoulder muscles...

  3. The influence of experimentally induced pain on shoulder muscle activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, L.P.; Winther, A.; Dyhre-Poulsen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Muscle function is altered in painful shoulder conditions. However, the influence of shoulder pain on muscle coordination of the shoulder has not been fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of experimentally induced shoulder pain on shoulder muscle function. Eleven...... healthy men (range 22-27 years), with no history of shoulder or cervical problems, were included in the study. Pain was induced by 5% hypertonic saline injections into the supraspinatus muscle or subacromially. Seated in a shoulder machine, subjects performed standardized concentric abduction (0A degrees......-105A degrees) at a speed of approximately 120A degrees/s, controlled by a metronome. During abduction, electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded by intramuscular wire electrodes inserted in two deeply located shoulder muscles and by surface-electrodes over six superficially located shoulder...

  4. Corticostriatal Plastic Changes in Experimental L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Ghiglieri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Parkinson’s disease (PD, alteration of dopamine- (DA- dependent striatal functions and pulsatile stimulation of DA receptors caused by the discontinuous administration of levodopa (L-DOPA lead to a complex cascade of events affecting the postsynaptic striatal neurons that might account for the appearance of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID. Experimental models of LID have been widely used and extensively characterized in rodents and electrophysiological studies provided remarkable insights into the inner mechanisms underlying L-DOPA-induced corticostriatal plastic changes. Here we provide an overview of recent findings that represent a further step into the comprehension of mechanisms underlying maladaptive changes of basal ganglia functions in response to L-DOPA and associated to development of LID.

  5. Experimental identification of pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos; Ricciardelli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes 4.5-48 mm). The experimental campaign involved seventy-one male and female human adults and covered approximately 55 km of walking distributed between 4954 individual tests. When walking on a laterally moving surface, motion-induced forces develop also...... with the acceleration of the treadmill depends on the frequency of the movement, such that pedestrians (on average) add to the overall modal mass for low frequency motion and subtract from the overall modal mass at higher frequencies....

  6. Role of noradrenaline in wake promotion effect of orexin-A on alcohol coma in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-hao WANG

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study whether or not noradrenaline system participates in the process of orexin-A wake-promoting from alcohol coma. Methods  Twenty-four adult female SPF SD rats were divided into four groups, 6 each, and the model of alcohol coma was reproduced. Experimental rats were then divided randomly into rats receiving injection of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF, control group, orexin-A (orexin-A group, noradrenaline α1 receptor antagonists--prazosin (prazosin group, or prazosin + orexin-A (prazosin-orexin-A group into the lateral ventricle. The depth of coma was evaluated by the duration of loss of righting reflex (LORR and δ wave in electrocorticogram (ECoG. Results  The duration of LORR was significantly longer and the ratio of δ wave higher in the prazosin-treated rats than those in control group (P0.05. But the values were significantly different from those in the orexin-A group (P<0.01. Conclusion  Noradrenaline system may participate in the wake-promoting process of alcohol coma by orexin-A.

  7. Experimental forearm immobilization in humans induces cold and mechanical hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkelsen, Astrid J; Bach, Flemming W; Jensen, Troels S

    2008-08-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome is a painful condition of unknown etiology. Clinical and experimental observations suggest that limb immobilization may induce symptoms and signs characteristic of complex regional pain syndrome. This study examined the effect of forearm immobilization on regional sensory and autonomic functions in healthy subjects. Thermal and mechanical sensitivity, skin temperature, and vasoconstrictor responses were measured in 30 healthy subjects before and 0, 3, and 28 days after scaphoid cast immobilization. Fifteen subjects served as nonimmobilized controls. At cast removal, 27 subjects experienced pain at joint movement. Cast immobilization induced cold hyperalgesia in glabrous and hairy skin on the immobilized hand and induced significant skin temperature differences between the control and the immobilized hand at cast removal and after 3 days. Immobilization also reduced pain threshold at skin fold testing at all time points after cast removal. All measures except pain threshold at skin fold testing were normalized after 28 days. Immobilization did not affect thermal detection, heat pain, and pressure pain thresholds; resting skin perfusion; or vasoconstrictor responses induced by mental stress or deep inspirations. Four weeks of forearm immobilization caused transient changes in skin temperature, mechanosensitivity, and thermosensitivity, without alteration in the sympathetically mediated vascular tone.

  8. Immediate effects of chocolate on experimentally induced mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Michael; Mueller, Jochen

    2007-11-01

    In this work two hypotheses were tested: (1) that eating a piece of chocolate immediately affects negative, but not positive or neutral mood, and (2) that this effect is due to palatability. Experiment 1 (48 normal-weight and healthy women and men) examined the effects of eating a piece of chocolate and drinking water on negative, positive and neutral mood states induced by film clips. Eating chocolate reduced negative mood compared to drinking water, whereas no or only marginal effects were found on neutral and positive moods. Experiment 2 (113 normal-weight and healthy women and men) compared effects of eating palatable and unpalatable chocolate on negative mood, and examined the duration of chocolate-induced mood change. Negative mood was improved after eating palatable chocolate as compared to unpalatable chocolate or nothing. This effect was short lived, i.e., it disappeared after 3 min. In both experiments, chocolate-induced mood improvement was associated with emotional eating. The present studies demonstrate that eating a small amount of sweet food improves an experimentally induced negative mood state immediately and selectively and that this effect of chocolate is due to palatability. It is hypothesized that immediate mood effects of palatable food contribute to the habit of eating to cope with stress.

  9. Experimental arthritis induced by a clinical Mycoplasma fermentans isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Antonio; Yáñez, Antonio; León-Tello, Gloria; Gil, Constantino; Giono, Silvia; Barba, Eduardo; Cedillo, Lilia

    2002-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma fermentans has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Recently, it was detected in the joints and blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but it is not clear yet how the bacteria enter the body and reach the joints. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of M. fermentans to induce experimental arthritis in rabbits following inoculation of the bacteria in the trachea and knee joints. Methods P-140 and PG-18 strains were each injected in the knee joints of 14 rabbits in order to evaluate and compare their arthritogenicity. P-140 was also injected in the trachea of 14 rabbits in order to test the ability of the bacteria to reach the joints and induce arthritis. Results M. fermentans produced an acute arthritis in rabbits. Joint swelling appeared first in rabbits injected with P-140, which caused a more severe arthritis than PG-18. Both strains were able to migrate to the uninoculated knee joints and they were detected viable in the joints all along the duration of the experiment. Changes in the synovial tissue were more severe by the end of the experiment and characterized by the infiltration of neutrophils and substitution of adipose tissue by connective tissue. Rabbits intracheally injected with P-140 showed induced arthritis and the bacteria could be isolated from lungs, blood, heart, kidney, spleen, brain and joints. Conclusion M. fermentans induced arthritis regardless of the inoculation route. These findings may help explain why mycoplasmas are commonly isolated from the joints of rheumatic patients. PMID:12057023

  10. An experimental model of hemolysis-induced acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saruc M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature indicates that acute pancreatitis is a complication of massive hemolysis with a prevalence of about 20%. We describe an experimental model of hemolysis-induced acute pancreatitis. Hemolytic anemia was induced in rats by a single ip injection of 60 mg/kg of 20 mg/ml acetylphenylhydrazine (APH in 20% (v/v ethanol on the first experimental day (day 0. One hundred and fifty Wistar albino rats weighing 180-200 g were divided into three groups of 50 animals each: groups 1, 2 and 3 were injected ip with APH, 20% ethanol, and physiological saline, respectively. Ten rats from each group were sacrificed on study days 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Serum amylase, lipase levels and pancreatic tissue tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha and platelet-activating factor (PAF contents were determined and a histological examination of the pancreas was performed. No hemolysis or pancreatitis was observed in any of the rats in groups 2 and 3. In group 1, massive hemolysis was observed in 35 (70% of 50 rats, moderate hemolysis in seven (14%, and no hemolysis in eight (16%. Thirty-three of 35 (94.2% rats with massive hemolysis had hyperamylasemia, and 29 of these rats (82.8% had histologically proven pancreatitis. The most severe pancreatitis occurred on day 3, as demonstrated by histology. Tissue TNF-alpha and PAF levels were statistically higher in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3. Acute massive hemolysis induced acute pancreatitis, as indicated by histology, in almost 80% of cases. Hemolysis may induce acute pancreatitis by triggering the release of proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines.

  11. X ray archeology in the Coma cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Simon D. M.; Briel, Ulrich G.; Henry, J. Patrick

    1993-01-01

    Images of X-ray emission from hot gas within the Coma cluster of galaxies are presented. These maps, made with the Rosat satellite, have high signal to noise ratio and allow cluster structure to be analyzed in unprecedented detail. They show greater structural irregularity than could be anticipated from earlier observations of Coma. Emission is detected from a number of bright cluster galaxies in addition to the two known previously. In four cases there is evidence that these galaxies lie at the center of an extended subconcentration within the cluster, possibly the remnant of their associated groups. For at least two galaxies the images show direct evidence for ongoing disruption of their gaseous atmosphere. The luminosity associated with these galaxies is comparable to that detected around similar ellipticals in much poorer environments. Emission is easily detected and appears to become more regular at large radii. The data show that this archetype of a rich and regular galaxy cluster was formed by the merging of several distinct subunits which are not yet fully destroyed.

  12. The JFK Coma Recovery Scale--Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Kathleen; Giacino, Joseph T

    2005-01-01

    The JFK Coma Recovery Scale (CRS) was developed to help characterise and monitor patients functioning at Rancho Levels I-IV and has been used widely in both clinical and research settings within the US and Europe. The CRS was recently revised to address a number of concerns emanating from our own clinical experience with the scale, feedback from users and researchers as well as the results of Rasch analyses. Additionally, the CRS did not include all of the behavioural criteria necessary to diagnose the minimally conscious state (MCS), thereby limiting diagnostic utility. The revised JFK Coma Recovery Scale (CRS-R) includes addition of new items, merging of items found to be statistically similar, deletion or modification of items showing poor fit with the scale's underlying construct, renaming of items, more stringent scoring criteria, and quantification of elicited behaviours to improve accuracy of rating. Psychometric properties of the CRS-R appear to meet standards for measurement and evaluation tools for use in clinical and research settings, and diagnostic application suggests that the scale is capable of discriminating patients in the minimally conscious state from those in the vegetative state.

  13. The Spinning Corona of FK Comae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Vinay

    2010-09-01

    FK Comae is an ultra-fast rotating, single yellow giant, product of a recent W UMa merger. Extraordinary levels of FUV and X-ray emission rate FK Comae a coronal powerhouse on par with the most extreme of the better known activity heavyweights: short-period RS CVn binaries. As a single star, FK Comae has clear advantages as a laboratory for exploring the outer limits of magnetospheric activity among the coronal cool stars. FK Comae has a long history of attention at optical and X-ray wavelengths, thanks to its generously spotted surface, and proclivity to flare regularly at high energies. FUSE discovered ultra-broad, redshifted profiles of OVI and CIII, but unfortunately the singular observation could not be repeated, thanks to the satellite's flaky attitude system. The remarkable FUV spectrum was taken just a few months before STIS failed in 2004, so there was no opportunity to turn the more powerful gaze of Hubble to the task. Now, finally, the amazing sensitivity of Cosmic Origins Spectrograph can be brought to bear: a single orbit can capture an FUV spectrum of FK Comae with S/N at instrumental limits for bright lines, and digging down to faint FeXXI 1354 {bridge to the coordinated Chandra HETGS pointing we are carrying out}.We will trace how the bright FUV regions relate spatially to the photospheric dark spots, to inform ideas of coronal structure and heating in these advanced objects. We will probe whether a global magnetosphere exists, and whether the field lines are loaded with hot coronal gas {>10 MK}, as well as the cooler 0.3 MK material already suggested by highly broadened FUSE OVI. Further, we will test whether the striking 100 km/s redshifts of the FUV lines, and similar shifts seen in NeX by Chandra HETGS, are caused by persistent coronal flows {outflows, perhaps implicated in magnetic braking; or inflows, like "coronal rain" on the Sun}. Our method is to exploit, on the one hand, emission-line "Doppler imaging," whereby bright surface regions are

  14. Experimental neurocysticercosis: absence of IL-4 induces lower encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidelberto Matos Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Neurocysticercosis (NCC is the most severe clinical manifestation of cysticercosis. One of the factors responsible for its symptomatology is the host inflammatory response. Therefore the influence of interleukin 4 (IL-4 on the induction of encephalitis in experimental NCC was evaluated. Methods BALB/c (WT and BALB/c (IL-4-KO mice were inoculated intracranially with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci and euthanized at 7, 30, 60 and 90 days later, the encephala removed and histopathologically analyzed. Results The absence of IL-4 induced greater parasitism. In the initial phase of the infection, IL-4-KO showed a lower intensity in the inflammatory infiltration of polimorphonuclear cells in the host-parasite interface and intra-parenquimatous edema. The IL-4-KO animals, in the late phase of the infection, showed lower intensity of ventriculomegaly, encephalitis, and meningitis, and greater survival of the parasites in comparison with the WT animals. Conclusion The absence of IL-4 induced lower inflammatory infiltration, ventriculomegaly and perivasculitis in experimental NCC.

  15. Hypolipidemic effect of arborium plus in experimentally induced hypercholestermic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Devarakonda; Rajesh, Enjamoori; Raghava, Doonaboina; Raghavan, Tangaraj Vijaya; Surulivel, Mukanthan Karupiah Munirajan

    2010-06-01

    Hypercholesteremia is one of the risk factors for coronary artery disease. The present study highlights the efficacy of the ayurvedic herbal formulation Arborium Plus [Hyppophae ramnoides L. fruit juice (S) and Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Linn flower juice (R) in a 1:4 ratio] on triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), atherogenic index (AI), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs CRP) in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Four groups of rabbits were subjected to different treatments for 8 weeks: control group, CHOL group (1% w/w cholesterol for 8 weeks), S+R group (1% w/w cholesterol and Arborium Plus for 8 weeks), and A group (1% w/w cholesterol and atorvastatin for 8 weeks). The results showed significant increases in TG, TC, LDL, AI, and hs CRP in hypercholesterolemic rabbits which was significantly reduced in Arborium Plus-treated hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The data demonstrated that the Arborium Plus formulation was associated with hypolipidemic effects in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

  16. Experimental Sleep Restriction Facilitates Pain and Electrically Induced Cortical Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matre, Dagfinn; Hu, Li; Viken, Leif A; Hjelle, Ingri B; Wigemyr, Monica; Knardahl, Stein; Sand, Trond; Nilsen, Kristian Bernhard

    2015-10-01

    Sleep restriction (SR) has been hypothesized to sensitize the pain system. The current study determined whether experimental sleep restriction had an effect on experimentally induced pain and pain-elicited electroencephalographic (EEG) responses. A paired crossover study. Pain testing was performed after 2 nights of 50% SR and after 2 nights with habitual sleep (HS). Laboratory experiment at research center. Self-reported healthy volunteers (n = 21, age range: 18-31 y). Brief high-density electrical stimuli to the forearm skin produced pinprick-like pain. Subjective pain ratings increased after SR, but only in response to the highest stimulus intensity (P = 0.018). SR increased the magnitude of the pain-elicited EEG response analyzed in the time-frequency domain (P = 0.021). Habituation across blocks did not differ between HS and SR. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) was reduced after SR (P = 0.039). Pressure pain threshold of the trapezius muscle region also decreased after SR (P = 0.017). Sleep restriction (SR) increased the sensitivity to pressure pain and to electrically induced pain of moderate, but not low, intensity. The increased electrical pain could not be explained by a difference in habituation. Increased response magnitude is possibly related to reduced processing within the somatosensory cortex after partial SR. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  17. Experimental and analytical studies on pedestrian induced footbridge vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gudmundur Valur; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Einarsson, Baldvin

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results from experimental study on human-induced vibrations of three lively footbridges in Reykjavik. The project was funded by the Icelandic Public Roads Administration with two main focus areas; validating the FE-models used at the design stage in terms of dynamic characteri......This paper presents results from experimental study on human-induced vibrations of three lively footbridges in Reykjavik. The project was funded by the Icelandic Public Roads Administration with two main focus areas; validating the FE-models used at the design stage in terms of dynamic...... with two equal spans crossing the same highway and was built in 2000. A commercially available finite element program (SAP2000) was used in the design phase to model the bridges. The FE-models were updated after the initial tests in order to have the frequencies and damping of the fundamental vibration...... modes corresponding to the measured values. The models were subsequently used to calculate the predicted acceleration according to the preliminary version of the Eurocode (ENV 1992-2: Concrete bridges) using time-history analysis with a moving load as representative for a single pedestrian. The load...

  18. The influence of experimentally induced pain on shoulder muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Winther, Annika; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul; Krogsgaard, Michael R; Nørregaard, Jesper

    2009-04-01

    Muscle function is altered in painful shoulder conditions. However, the influence of shoulder pain on muscle coordination of the shoulder has not been fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of experimentally induced shoulder pain on shoulder muscle function. Eleven healthy men (range 22-27 years), with no history of shoulder or cervical problems, were included in the study. Pain was induced by 5% hypertonic saline injections into the supraspinatus muscle or subacromially. Seated in a shoulder machine, subjects performed standardized concentric abduction (0 degrees -105 degrees) at a speed of approximately 120 degrees/s, controlled by a metronome. During abduction, electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded by intramuscular wire electrodes inserted in two deeply located shoulder muscles and by surface-electrodes over six superficially located shoulder muscles. EMG was recorded before pain, during pain and after pain had subsided and pain intensity was continuously scored on a visual analog scale (VAS). During abduction, experimentally induced pain in the supraspinatus muscle caused a significant decrease in activity of the anterior deltoid, upper trapezius and the infraspinatus and an increase in activity of lower trapezius and latissimus dorsi muscles. Following subacromial injection a significantly increased muscle activity was seen in the lower trapezius, the serratus anterior and the latissimus dorsi muscles. In conclusion, this study shows that acute pain both subacromially and in the supraspinatus muscle modulates coordination of the shoulder muscles during voluntary movements. During painful conditions, an increased activity was detected in the antagonist (latissimus), which support the idea that localized pain affects muscle activation in a way that protects the painful structure. Further, the changes in muscle activity following subacromial pain induction tend to expand the subacromial space and thereby decrease the load

  19. In vivo Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Experimentally Induced Neurologic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, Hilary; Zheng, Yong Mu; Heber-Katz, Ellen; Fraser, Nigel; Rorke, Lucy; Fu, Zhen Fang; Hanlon, Cathleen; Dietzschold, Bernhard

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA in the brain tissue of rats and mice under the following experimental conditions: in rats infected with borna disease virus and rabies virus, in mice infected with herpes simplex virus, and in rats after the induction of experimental allergic encephalitis. The results showed that iNOS mRNA, normally nondetectable in the brain, was present in animals after viral infection or after induction of experimental allergic encephalitis. The induction of iNOS mRNA coincided with the severity of clinical signs and in some cases with the presence of inflammatory cells in the brain. The results indicate that nitric oxide produced by cells induced by iNOS may be the toxic factor accounting for cell damage and this may open the door to approaches to the study of the pathogenesis of neurological diseases.

  20. Method for inducing experimental pneumococcal meningitis in outbred mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintorino Marcella

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis. Pneumococcal meningitis is associated with the highest mortality among bacterial meningitis and it may also lead to neurological sequelae despite the use of antibiotic therapy. Experimental animal models of pneumococcal meningitis are important to study the pathogenesis of meningitis, the host immune response induced after infection, and the efficacy of novel drugs and vaccines. Results In the present work, we describe in detail a simple, reproducible and efficient method to induce pneumococcal meningitis in outbred mice by using the intracranial subarachnoidal route of infection. Bacteria were injected into the subarachnoid space through a soft point located 3.5 mm rostral from the bregma. The model was tested with several doses of pneumococci of three capsular serotypes (2, 3 and 4, and mice survival was recorded. Lethal doses killing 50 % of animals infected with type 2, 3 and 4 S. pneumoniae were 3.2 × 10, 2.9 × 10 and 1.9 × 102 colony forming units, respectively. Characterisation of the disease caused by the type 4 strain showed that in moribund mice systemic dissemination of pneumococci to blood and spleen occurred. Histological analysis of the brain of animals infected with type 4 S. pneumoniae proved the induction of meningitis closely resembling the disease in humans. Conclusions The proposed method for inducing pneumococcal meningitis in outbred mice is easy-to-perform, fast, cost-effective, and reproducible, irrespective of the serotype of pneumococci used.

  1. Experimental arthritis induced by a clinical Mycoplasma fermentans isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giono Silvia

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma fermentans has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Recently, it was detected in the joints and blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but it is not clear yet how the bacteria enter the body and reach the joints. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of M. fermentans to induce experimental arthritis in rabbits following inoculation of the bacteria in the trachea and knee joints. Methods P-140 and PG-18 strains were each injected in the knee joints of 14 rabbits in order to evaluate and compare their arthritogenicity. P-140 was also injected in the trachea of 14 rabbits in order to test the ability of the bacteria to reach the joints and induce arthritis. Results M. fermentans produced an acute arthritis in rabbits. Joint swelling appeared first in rabbits injected with P-140, which caused a more severe arthritis than PG-18. Both strains were able to migrate to the uninoculated knee joints and they were detected viable in the joints all along the duration of the experiment. Changes in the synovial tissue were more severe by the end of the experiment and characterized by the infiltration of neutrophils and substitution of adipose tissue by connective tissue. Rabbits intracheally injected with P-140 showed induced arthritis and the bacteria could be isolated from lungs, blood, heart, kidney, spleen, brain and joints. Conclusion M. fermentans induced arthritis regardless of the inoculation route. These findings may help explain why mycoplasmas are commonly isolated from the joints of rheumatic patients.

  2. Mechanisms of blast induced brain injuries, experimental studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risling, M; Plantman, S; Angeria, M; Rostami, E; Bellander, B-M; Kirkegaard, M; Arborelius, U; Davidsson, J

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) potentially induced by blast waves from detonations result in significant diagnostic problems. It may be assumed that several mechanisms contribute to the injury. This study is an attempt to characterize the presumed components of the blast induced TBI. Our experimental models include a blast tube in which an anesthetized rat can be exposed to controlled detonations of explosives that result in a pressure wave with a magnitude between 130 and 260 kPa. In this model, the animal is fixed with a metal net to avoid head acceleration forces. The second model is a controlled penetration of a 2mm thick needle. In the third model the animal is subjected to a high-speed sagittal rotation angular acceleration. Immunohistochemical labeling for amyloid precursor protein revealed signs of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) in the penetration and rotation models. Signs of punctuate inflammation were observed after focal and rotation injury. Exposure in the blast tube did not induce DAI or detectable cell death, but functional changes. Affymetrix Gene arrays showed changes in the expression in a large number of gene families including cell death, inflammation and neurotransmitters in the hippocampus after both acceleration and penetration injuries. Exposure to the primary blast wave induced limited shifts in gene expression in the hippocampus. The most interesting findings were a downregulation of genes involved in neurogenesis and synaptic transmission. These experiments indicate that rotational acceleration may be a critical factor for DAI and other acute changes after blast TBI. The further exploration of the mechanisms of blast TBI will have to include a search for long-term effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pediatric Glasgow coma scale modified for dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, M.B.; Cole, E.F.; Evêncio Neto, J.; Silva, A.C.J.; Aleixo, G.A.S.; Cunha, A.L.T.

    2010-01-01

    Com o objetivo de modificar a escala de coma de Glasgow pediátrica para utilização na medicina veterinária, foram utilizados 30 cães adultos com alterações neurológicas passíveis de avaliação da consciência. A escala modificada para cães foi aplicada em três momentos com intervalos de 48 horas entre eles, resultando em 90 eventos diversos. A escala foi aplicada para avaliação da abertura ocular (AO), da melhor resposta associada à vocalização (MRV) e da melhor resposta motora (MRM). Com a aná...

  4. Flip-flops of FK Comae Berenices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hackman, T.; Pelt, J.; Mantere, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Context.FK Comae Berenices is a rapidly rotating magnetically active star, the light curve of which is modulated by cool spots on its surface. It was the first star where the "flip-flop" phenomenon was discovered. Since then, flip-flops in the spot activity have been reported in many other stars...... of photometric observations with two different time series analysis methods, with a special emphasis on detecting flip-flop type events from the data. Methods. We apply the continuous period search and carrier fit methods on long-term standard Johnson-Cousins V-observations from the years 1995......-2010. The observations were carried out with two automated photometric telescopes, Phoenix-10 and Amadeus T7 located in Arizona. Results. We identify complex phase behaviour in 6 of the 15 analysed data segments. We identify five flip-flop events and two cases of phase jumps, where the phase shift is ¿f

  5. Neurogenic cardiomyopathy in rabbits with experimentally induced rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesdangsakonwut, S; Sunden, Y; Yamada, K; Nishizono, A; Sawa, H; Umemura, T

    2015-05-01

    Cardiomyopathies have been rarely described in rabbits. Here we report myocardial necrosis of the ventricular wall in rabbits with experimentally induced rabies. Myocardial lesions were found only in rabbits with brain lesions, and the severity of the cardiac lesions was proportional to that of the brain lesions. Neither the frequency nor the cumulative dose of anesthesia was related to the incidence or the severity of the myocardial lesions. The myocardial lesions were characterized by degeneration and/or necrosis of myocardial cells and were accompanied by contraction band necrosis, interstitial fibrosis, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. The brain lesions due to rabies virus infection were most prominent in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, brainstem, and medulla. Rabies virus antigen was not found in the hearts of any rabbits. Based on these findings, the myocardial lesions were classified as neurogenic cardiomyopathy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. A simple and useful coma scale for patients with neurologic emergencies: the Emergency Coma Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Chiaki; Okudera, Hiroshi; Origasa, Hideki; Takeuchi, Eiichi; Nakamura, Kazuhito; Fukuda, Osamu; Date, Isao; Tokutomi, Takashi; Aruga, Tohru; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Kobata, Hitoshi; Ohta, Tomio

    2011-02-01

    The Emergency Coma Scale (ECS) was developed in Japan in 2003. We planned a multicenter study to evaluate the utility of the ECS by comparison of the ECS and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Ten medical facilities, including 4 university hospitals in Japan, participated in this study. We evaluated and recorded the level of consciousness, using the ECS and GCS, of all patients transported to these medical facilities by ambulance. We then performed a statistical analysis of the level of rater agreement of each scale using the average weighted κ coefficient according to the types of diagnosis at time of discharge and the occupations of the raters. We then evaluated the relationship between outcome of patients and their scores on the ECS and GCS by logistic regression analysis. The ECS showed the greater agreement among raters in patient scoring (0.802). In patients with traumatic brain injury and cerebrovascular disease, the ECS also yielded the higher agreement (0.846 and 0.779, respectively). The ECS score appears to be more strongly related than the GCS to patient outcome as measured by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). Our results showed that the ECS is a simple and readily understandable coma scale for a wide range of professionals in the field of neurologic emergencies. Furthermore, ECS appears to be suitable for evaluating patients in neurologic emergency settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inflammation-induced preterm lung maturation: lessons from animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Timothy J M; Westover, Alana J

    2017-06-01

    Intrauterine inflammation, or chorioamnionitis, is a major contributor to preterm birth. Prematurity per se is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality resulting from lung immaturity but exposure to chorioamnionitis reduces the risk of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm infants. Animal experiments have identified that an increase in pulmonary surfactant production by the preterm lungs likely underlies this decreased risk of RDS in infants exposed to chorioamnionitis. Further animal experimentation has shown that infectious or inflammatory agents in amniotic fluid exert their effects on lung development by direct effects within the developing respiratory tract, and probably not by systemic pathways. Differences in the effects of intrauterine inflammation and glucocorticoids demonstrate that canonical glucocorticoid-mediated lung maturation is not responsible for inflammation-induced changes in lung development. Animal experimentation is identifying alternative lung maturational pathways, and transgenic animals and cell culture techniques will allow identification of novel mechanisms of lung maturation that may lead to new treatments for the prevention of RDS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Acute pulmonary injury induced by experimental muscle trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombra, Márcia Andréa da Silva Carvalho; Vasconcelos, Marcelo Pinho Pessoa de; Guimarães, Sergio Botelho; Escalante, Rodrigo Dornfeld; Garcia, José Huygens Parente; Vasconcelos, Paulo Roberto Leitão de

    2011-01-01

    To develop an easily reproducible model of acute lung injury due to experimental muscle trauma in healthy rats. Eighteen adult Wistar rats were randomized in 3 groups (n=6): G-1- control, G-2 - saline+trauma and G-3 - dexamethasone+trauma. Groups G-1 and G-2 were treated with saline 2,0 ml i.p; G-3 rats were treated with dexamethasone (DE) (2 mg/kg body weight i.p.). Saline and DE were applied 2h before trauma and 12h later. Trauma was induced in G-2 and G-3 anesthetized (tribromoethanol 97% 100 ml/kg i.p.) rats by sharp section of anterior thigh muscles just above the knee, preserving major vessels and nerves. Tissue samples (lung) were collected for myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay and histopathological evaluation. Twenty-four hours after muscle injury there was a significant increase in lung neutrophil infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity and edema, all reversed by dexamethasone in G-3. Trauma by severance of thigh muscles in healthy rats is a simple and efficient model to induce distant lung lesions.

  9. Antioxidant Effects of Probiotics in Experimentally Induced Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erginel, Basak; Aydin, Fatih A; Erginel, Turgay; Tanik, Canan; Abbasoglu, Semra D; Soysal, Feryal G; Keskin, Erbug; Celik, Alaaddin; Salman, Tansu

    2016-02-01

    An experimental study was performed to evaluate the protective effects of probiotics on gut mucosa in peritonitis through antioxidant mechanisms. Thirty-two male Wistar albino rats were divided equally into four groups. The rats in Group 1 (control group) underwent laparotomy only. In group 2 (peritonitis group), peritonitis was induced in the rats by the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. In group 3, the rats were treated with probiotics for five days after CLP-induced peritonitis. The last group of rats (group 4) were fed probiotics for five days before the CLP procedure and five days after the surgery. On the fifth day after surgery, all rats were killed, and tissue samples from the terminal ileum were obtained to evaluate the activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH). Histopathologic examinations were also performed to evaluate the grade of intestinal injury. Myeloperoxidase and MDA activities were increased, GSH concentrations were decreased in group 2, compared with group 1. Intestinal MPO activities in group 4 were decreased compared with group 1 and group 2, indicating a reduction in oxidant activity. Malondialdehyde decreased in group 3 and decreased even more in group 4, compared with the peritonitis group (group 2). Glutathione concentrations were increased in group 4 compared with group 2 and group 3 (p peritonitis, which may be related to antioxidant mechanisms. This antioxidant effect of probiotics might occur when pre-conditioning with probiotics before peritonitis because there is sufficient time to prepare the tissues for oxidative damage.

  10. Survival rate and expression of Heat-shock protein 70 and Frost genes after temperature stress in Drosophila melanogaster lines that are selected for recovery time from temperature coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaka, Hiroko; Ueda, Chiaki; Goto, Shin G

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the physiological mechanisms underlying temperature tolerance using Drosophila melanogaster lines with rapid, intermediate, or slow recovery from heat or chill coma that were established by artificial selection or by free recombination without selection. Specifically, we focused on the relationships among their recovery from heat or chill coma, survival after severe heat or cold, and survival enhanced by rapid cold hardening (RCH) or heat hardening. The recovery time from heat coma was not related to the survival rate after severe heat. The line with rapid recovery from chill coma showed a higher survival rate after severe cold exposure, and therefore the same mechanisms are likely to underlie these phenotypes. The recovery time from chill coma and survival rate after severe cold were unrelated to RCH-enhanced survival. We also examined the expression of two genes, Heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Frost, in these lines to understand the contribution of these stress-inducible genes to intraspecific variation in recovery from temperature coma. The line showing rapid recovery from heat coma did not exhibit higher expression of Hsp70 and Frost. In addition, Hsp70 and Frost transcription levels were not correlated with the recovery time from chill coma. Thus, Hsp70 and Frost transcriptional regulation was not involved in the intraspecific variation in recovery from temperature coma. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Which EEG patterns in coma are nonconvulsive status epilepticus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinka, Eugen; Leitinger, Markus

    2015-08-01

    Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is common in patients with coma with a prevalence between 5% and 48%. Patients in deep coma may exhibit epileptiform EEG patterns, such as generalized periodic spikes, and there is an ongoing debate about the relationship of these patterns and NCSE. The purposes of this review are (i) to discuss the various EEG patterns found in coma, its fluctuations, and transitions and (ii) to propose modified criteria for NCSE in coma. Classical coma patterns such as diffuse polymorphic delta activity, spindle coma, alpha/theta coma, low output voltage, or burst suppression do not reflect NCSE. Any ictal patterns with a typical spatiotemporal evolution or epileptiform discharges faster than 2.5 Hz in a comatose patient reflect nonconvulsive seizures or NCSE and should be treated. Generalized periodic diacharges or lateralized periodic discharges (GPDs/LPDs) with a frequency of less than 2.5 Hz or rhythmic discharges (RDs) faster than 0.5 Hz are the borderland of NCSE in coma. In these cases, at least one of the additional criteria is needed to diagnose NCSE (a) subtle clinical ictal phenomena, (b) typical spatiotemporal evolution, or (c) response to antiepileptic drug treatment. There is currently no consensus about how long these patterns must be present to qualify for NCSE, and the distinction from nonconvulsive seizures in patients with critical illness or in comatose patients seems arbitrary. The Salzburg Consensus Criteria for NCSE [1] have been modified according to the Standardized Terminology of the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society [2] and validated in three different cohorts, with a sensitivity of 97.2%, a specificity of 95.9%, and a diagnostic accuracy of 96.3% in patients with clinical signs of NCSE. Their diagnostic utility in different cohorts with patients in deep coma has to be studied in the future. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus". Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. [Coma in type 2 diabete mellitus on metformin treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, C; Tellal, S; Fevre, G; Ragot, C; Vest, P; Foissaud, V; Renaudeau, C

    2003-01-01

    Non traumatic coma in diabete mellitus has two origins : hypo- or hyperglycemia. Coma with hyperglycemia can be due to ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar state or lactic acidosis. The present observation reports on a type 2 diabete mellitus patient presenting with a coma while the patient was on metformin and glibenclamide treatment. On admission, biologicals tests showed major acidosis, hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity. No metformine accumulation was demonstrated by analytical measure. In this case, the association of hyperosmolar state and metabolic acidosis prove the difficulty of the differential diagnosis.

  13. Experimental chaotic quantification in bistable vortex induced vibration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, B. H.; Tjahjowidodo, T.

    2017-02-01

    The study of energy harvesting by means of vortex induced vibration systems has been initiated a few years ago and it is considered to be potential as a low water current energy source. The energy harvester is realized by exposing an elastically supported blunt structure under water flow. However, it is realized that the system will only perform at a limited operating range (water flow) that is attributed to the resonance phenomenon that occurs only at a frequency that corresponds to the fluid flow. An introduction of nonlinear elements seems to be a prominent solution to overcome the problem. Among many nonlinear elements, a bistable spring is known to be able to improve the harvested power by a vortex induced vibrations (VIV) based energy converter at the low velocity water flows. However, it is also observed that chaotic vibrations will occur at different operating ranges that will erratically diminish the harvested power and cause a difficulty in controlling the system that is due to the unpredictability in motions of the VIV structure. In order to design a bistable VIV energy converter with improved harvested power and minimum negative effect of chaotic vibrations, the bifurcation map of the system for varying governing parameters is highly on demand. In this study, chaotic vibrations of a VIV energy converter enhanced by a bistable stiffness element are quantified in a wide range of the governing parameters, i.e. damping and bistable gap. Chaotic vibrations of the bistable VIV energy converter are simulated by utilization of a wake oscillator model and quantified based on the calculation of the Lyapunov exponent. Ultimately, a series of experiments of the system in a water tunnel, facilitated by a computer-based force-feedback testing platform, is carried out to validate the existence of chaotic responses. The main challenge in dealing with experimental data is in distinguishing chaotic response from noise-contaminated periodic responses as noise will smear

  14. An experimental model of vitreous motion induced by eye rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfiglio, Andrea; Lagazzo, Alberto; Repetto, Rodolfo; Stocchino, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    During eye rotations the vitreous humour moves with respect to the eye globe. This relative motion has been suggested to possibly have an important role in inducing degradation of the gel structure, which might lead to vitreous liquefaction and/or posterior vitreous detachment. Aim of the present work is to study the characteristics of vitreous motion induced by eye rotations. We use an experimental setup, consisting of a Perspex model of the vitreous chamber that, for simplicity, is taken to have a spherical shape. The model is filled with an artificial vitreous humour, prepared as a solution of agar powder and hyaluronic acid sodium salt in deionised water, which has viscoelastic mechanical properties similar to those of the real vitreous. The model rotates about an axis passing through the centre of the sphere and velocity measurements are taken on the equatorial plane orthogonal to the axis of rotation, using an optical technique. The results show that fluid viscoelasticity has a strong influence on flow characteristics. In particular, at certain frequencies of oscillation of the eye model, fluid motion can be resonantly excited. This means that fluid velocity within the domain can be significantly larger than that of the wall. The frequencies for which resonant excitation occurs are within the range of possible eye rotations frequencies. Therefore, the present results suggest that resonant excitation of vitreous motion is likely to occur in practice. This, in turn, implies that eye rotations produce large stresses on the retina and within the vitreous that may contribute to the disruption of the vitreous gel structure. The present results also have implications for the choice of the ideal properties for vitreous substitute fluids.

  15. Pathogenesis of rhinitis in rats with experimentally induced hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyigor, Hulya; Basak, Sema; Kozaci, Didem; Culhaci, Nil; Dost, Turhan; Ulutas, Pinar

    2012-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is accepted as one of the hormonal factors leading to non-allergic rhinitis. Nasal obstruction and runny nose due to an increase in submucosal connective tissue and mucous gland hypertrophy are the prominent symptoms in hypothyroidism-induced rhinitis at humans. The aim of this study was to analyze the biochemical and histopathological changes in the nasal mucosa of the rats with thyroidectomy-induced hypothyroidism and to compare them with those of a control group. A total of 60 adult male Wistar Albino rats were included in the study. The rats constituting the test and the control groups were randomly divided into 3 subgroups (T1-3 and C 1-3). While the rats in the test group underwent thyroidectomy, in the control group the incision was sutured without any interventions after exposure of thyroid tissues of the rats. The nasal and paranasal sinus regions of all the rats were carefully dissected and tissue samples were obtained for pathological examinations. In the rats in T1, T2, and T3, the decrease in serum glucuronic acid levels before and after thyroidectomy was statistically significant (p = 0.001, p = 0.003, and p = 0.002, respectively). The difference between the test and the control groups was statistically significant in terms of inflammation at the end of 12 weeks (p = 0.002). An increase in acid mucopolysaccharidase production due to TSH has been suggested to cause congestion in tissues. Although our study supports the data in the literature up to date, we consider that further clinical and experimental studies are necessary for this verification.

  16. The Cell Nucleus in Physiological and Experimentally Induced Hypometabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatesta, M.

    The main problem for manned space mission is, at present, represented by the mass penalty associated to the human presence. An efficient approach could be the induction of a hypometabolic stasis in the astronauts, thus drastically reducing the physical and psychological requirements of the crew. On the other hand, in the wild, a reduction in resource consumptions physiologi- cally occurs in certain animals which periodically enter hibernation, a hypometabolic state in which both the energy need and energy offer are kept at a minimum. During the last twelve years, we have been studying different tissues of hibernating dormice, with the aim of analyzing their features during the euthermia -hibernation-arousal cycle as well as getting insight into the mechanisms allowing adaptation to hypometabolism. We paid particular attention to the cell nucleus, as it is the site of chief metabolic functions, such as DNA replication and RNA transcription. Our observations revealed no significant modification in the basic features of cell nuclei during hibernation; however, the cell nuclei of hibernating dormice showed unusual nuclear bodies containing molecules involved in RNA pathways. Therefore, we supposed that they could represent storage/assembly sites of several factors for processing some RNA which could be slowly synthesised during hibernation and rapidly and abundantly released in early arousal in order to meet the increased metabolic needs of the cell. The nucleolus also underwent structural and molecular modifications during hibernation, maybe to continue important nucleolar functions, or, alternatively, permit a most efficient reactivation upon arousal. On the basis of the observations made in vivo , we recently tried to experimentally induce a reversible hypometabolic state in in vitro models, using cell lines derived from hibernating and non-hibernating species. By administering the synthetic opioid DADLE, we could significantly reduce both RNA transcrip- tion and

  17. Elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema: insights from experimental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A. Antunes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Several distinct stimuli can be used to reproduce histological and functional features of human emphysema, a leading cause of disability and death. Since cigarette smoke is the main cause of emphysema in humans, experimental researches have attempted to reproduce this situation. However, this is an expensive and cumbersome method of emphysema induction, and simpler, more efficacious alternatives have been sought. Among these approaches, elastolytic enzymes have been widely used to reproduce some characteristics of human cigarette smoke-induced disease, such as: augmentation of airspaces, inflammatory cell influx into the lungs, and systemic inflammation. Nevertheless, the use of elastase-induced emphysema models is still controversial, since the disease pathways involved in elastase induction may differ from those occurring in smoke-induced emphysema. This indicates that the choice of an emphysema model may impact the results of new therapies or drugs being tested. The aim of this review is to compare the mechanisms of disease induction in smoke and elastase emphysema models, to describe the differences among various elastase models, and to establish the advantages and disadvantages of elastase-induced emphysema models. More studies are required to shed light on the mechanisms of elastase-induced emphysema.Diversos estímulos podem ser utilizados para reproduzir características histológicas e funcionais do enfisema humano, uma das principais causas de incapacidade e morte. Uma vez que a fumaça de cigarro é a principal causa de enfisema em humanos, estudos experimentais têm tentado reproduzir esta situação. No entanto, esse é um método dispendioso e complicado para a indução do enfisema e, alternativas mais simples e eficazes, têm sido pesquisadas. Entre essas abordagens, enzimas elastolíticas vêm sendo amplamente utilizadas para reproduzir algumas das características do enfisema humano, tais como: aumento dos espaços a

  18. Standardised Models for Inducing Experimental Peritoneal Adhesions in Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Kraemer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models for adhesion induction are heterogeneous and often poorly described. We compare and discuss different models to induce peritoneal adhesions in a randomized, experimental in vivo animal study with 72 female Wistar rats. Six different standardized techniques for peritoneal trauma were used: brushing of peritoneal sidewall and uterine horns (group 1, brushing of parietal peritoneum only (group 2, sharp excision of parietal peritoneum closed with interrupted sutures (group 3, ischemic buttons by grasping the parietal peritoneum and ligating the base with Vicryl suture (group 4, bipolar electrocoagulation of the peritoneum (group 5, and traumatisation by electrocoagulation followed by closure of the resulting peritoneal defect using Vicryl sutures (group 6. Upon second look, there were significant differences in the adhesion incidence between the groups (P<0.01. Analysis of the fraction of adhesions showed that groups 2 (0% and 5 (4% were significantly less than the other groups (P<0.01. Furthermore, group 6 (69% was significantly higher than group 1 (48% (P<0.05 and group 4 (47% (P<0.05. There was no difference between group 3 (60% and group 6 (P=0.2. From a clinical viewpoint, comparison of different electrocoagulation modes and pharmaceutical adhesion barriers is possible with standardised models.

  19. Chemical kinetics in the coma. [of sun grazing comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, W. F.

    1981-01-01

    Physical and chemical conditions in the coma of a bright 'new' comet are related to the composition of the nucleus. Chemical and photolytic processes are described and correlated to distance in the coma above the nucleus and to heliocentric distance of the comet. Two classes for the composition of comets are considered based on their place of origin: in the environs of the giant planets or in a companion fragment of the presolar nebula. Comparison of model results with coma observations leads to some restrictions about the nucleus composition. It is expected that these restrictions become more stringent as coma models are developed further and as observations become more detailed. Composition based on an origin of comets in the presolar nebula yields abundances of C2, C3, and CN that are in agreement with observations.

  20. Coma mixedematoso y midazolam: Reporte de caso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pinto Valdivia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta el caso de un paciente varón sin antecedente previo de patología tiroidea que ingresó por coma mixedematoso y desarrolló insuficiencia respiratoria después de la administración endovenosa de midazolam. Tenía 55 años de edad, y una enfermedad de dos semanas caracterizado por letargia, debilidad, hiporexia y cefalea. Los análisis de laboratorio mostraron anemia, hiponatremia severa y niveles elevados de transaminasas y creatinquinasa. TSH elevada y T4 y T3 en niveles muy bajos. Se inició tratamiento con levotiroxina, corticoides endovenosos y solución hipertónica de cloruro de sodio. La evolución fue mala, se colocó un catéter venoso central bajo sedación con midazolam endovenoso para monitoreo hemodinámico, luego del cual, el paciente desarrolló insuficiencia respiratoria, mayor compromiso del sensorio y falleció. En pacientes con hipotiroidismo, el metabolismo del midazolam esta alterado y puede causar insuficiencia respiratoria. (Rev Med Hered 2008; 19:171-174.

  1. Routine intracranial pressure monitoring in acute coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Rob J; Raper, Joseph; Todhunter, Emma

    2015-11-02

    We know that the brain damage resulting from traumatic and other insults is not due solely to the direct consequences of the primary injury. A significant and potentially preventable contribution to the overall morbidity arises from secondary hypoxic-ischaemic damage. Brain swelling accompanied by raised intracranial pressure (ICP) prevents adequate cerebral perfusion with well-oxygenated blood.Detection of raised ICP could be useful in alerting clinicians to the need to improve cerebral perfusion, with consequent reductions in brain injury. To determine whether routine ICP monitoring in severe coma of any cause reduces the risk of all-cause mortality or severe disability at final follow-up. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), CINAHL Plus, ISI Web of Science (SCI-EXPANDED & CPCI-S), clinical trials registries and reference lists. We ran the most recent search on 22 May 2015. All randomised controlled studies of real-time ICP monitoring by invasive or semi-invasive means in acute coma (traumatic or non-traumatic aetiology) versus clinical care without ICP monitoring (that is, guided only by clinical or radiological inference of the presence of raised ICP). Two authors (ET and RF) worked independently to identify the one study that met inclusion criteria. JR and RF independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We contacted study authors for additional information, including details of methods and outcome data. One randomized controlled trial (RCT) meeting the selection criteria has been identified to date.The included study had 324 participants. We judged risk of bias to be low for all categories except blinding of participants and personnel, which is not feasible for this intervention. There were few missing data, and we analysed all on an intention-to-treat basis.Participants could be 13 years of age or older (mean age of sample 29

  2. Prognosis in patients presenting with non-traumatic coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Sune; Höjer, Jonas; Ludwigs, Ulf

    2012-03-01

    Studies of patients presenting with coma are limited, and little is known about the prognosis of these cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute and long-term prognosis after an episode of non-traumatic coma. Adults admitted consecutively to an emergency department in Stockholm, Sweden between February 2003 and May 2005 with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 10 or below were enrolled prospectively. All available data were used to explore the cause of the impaired consciousness on admission. Patients surviving hospitalization were followed-up for 2 years regarding survival. The final study population of 865 patients had the following eight different coma etiologies: poisoning (n = 329), stroke (n = 213), epilepsy (n = 113), circulatory failure (n = 60), infection (n = 56), metabolic disorder (n = 44), respiratory insufficiency (n = 33), and intracranial malignancy (n = 17). The hospital mortality rate among the 865 patients was 26.5%, varying from 0.9% for epilepsy to 71.7% for circulatory failure. The accumulated total 2-year mortality rate was 43.0%, varying from 13.7% for poisoning to 88.2% for malignancy. The level of consciousness on admission also influenced the prognosis: a GCS score of 3-6 was associated with a significantly higher hospital mortality rate than a GCS score of 7-10. The prognosis in patients presenting with non-traumatic coma is serious and depends largely on both the level of consciousness on admission and the etiology of the coma. Adding the suspected coma etiology to the routine coma grading of these emergencies may more accurately predict their prognosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [The coma awakening unit, between intensive care and rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    After intensive care and before classic neurological rehabilitation is possible, patients in an altered state of consciousness are cared for at early stages in so-called coma awakening units. The care involves, on the one hand, the complex support of the patient's awakening from coma as a neurological and existential process, and on the other, support for their families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental glomerulonephritis induced by hydrocarbon exposure: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnskov, Uffe

    2005-12-14

    Much epidemiological evidence suggests that hydrocarbon exposure may induce glomerulonephritis and worsen its course in many patients. The mechanisms are unknown, however, no specific microscopic pattern has been identified, and it has also been argued that hydrocarbon exposure causes tubular damage mainly. Studying experimental animals may best answer these questions, and as no systematic review of glomerulonephritis produced experimentally by hydrocarbon exposure has been performed previously, I found it relevant to search for and analyse such studies. Animal experiments having mimicked human glomerulonephritis by hydrocarbon exposure were sought on Medline and Toxnet Twenty-six experiments using thirteen different hydrocarbons were identified. Several human subtypes were observed including IgA nephritis, mesangial, proliferative and extracapillary glomerulonephritis, focal and focal-segmental sclerosis, minimal change nephropathy, anti-GBM and anti-TBM nephritis, and glomerulonephritis associated with peiarteritis nodosa. Glomerular proteinuria was seen in 10/12 experiments that included urine analyses, and renal failure in 5/8 experiments that included measurements of glomerular function. All experiments resulted in various degrees of tubular damage as well. In most studies, where the animals were examined at different times during or after the exposure, the renal microscopic and functional changes were seen immediately, whereas deposits of complement and immunoglobulins appeared late in the course, if at all. These experiments are in accord with epidemiological evidence that hydrocarbon exposure may cause glomerulonephritis and worsen renal function. Probable mechanisms include an induction of autologous antibodies and a disturbance of normal immunological functions. Also, tubular damage may increase postglomerular resistance, resulting in a glomerular deposition of macromolecules. In most models a causal role of glomerular immune complex formation was

  5. Experimental glomerulonephritis induced by hydrocarbon exposure: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravnskov Uffe

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much epidemiological evidence suggests that hydrocarbon exposure may induce glomerulonephritis and worsen its course in many patients. The mechanisms are unknown, however, no specific microscopic pattern has been identified, and it has also been argued that hydrocarbon exposure causes tubular damage mainly. Studying experimental animals may best answer these questions, and as no systematic review of glomerulonephritis produced experimentally by hydrocarbon exposure has been performed previously, I found it relevant to search for and analyse such studies. Methods Animal experiments having mimicked human glomerulonephritis by hydrocarbon exposure were sought on Medline and Toxnet Results Twenty-six experiments using thirteen different hydrocarbons were identified. Several human subtypes were observed including IgA nephritis, mesangial, proliferative and extracapillary glomerulonephritis, focal and focal-segmental sclerosis, minimal change nephropathy, anti-GBM and anti-TBM nephritis, and glomerulonephritis associated with peiarteritis nodosa. Glomerular proteinuria was seen in 10/12 experiments that included urine analyses, and renal failure in 5/8 experiments that included measurements of glomerular function. All experiments resulted in various degrees of tubular damage as well. In most studies, where the animals were examined at different times during or after the exposure, the renal microscopic and functional changes were seen immediately, whereas deposits of complement and immunoglobulins appeared late in the course, if at all. Conclusion These experiments are in accord with epidemiological evidence that hydrocarbon exposure may cause glomerulonephritis and worsen renal function. Probable mechanisms include an induction of autologous antibodies and a disturbance of normal immunological functions. Also, tubular damage may increase postglomerular resistance, resulting in a glomerular deposition of macromolecules. In most

  6. Anticoccidial effect of mananoligosacharide against experimentally induced coccidiosis in broiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Naila; Faheem, Hassan; Khan, Rifat Ullah; Qureshi, Muhammad Subhan; Alhidary, Ibrahim A; Abudabos, Alaeldein M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find the effect of mananoligosacharide (MOS) in comparison with amprolium hydrochloride on performance and integrity of gut in experimentally induced coccidiosis in broiler. A total of 300, day-old male broiler chickens (Ross 308) was randomly allocated to four treatments. Each group was further divided into five replicates of 15 birds each. Group A was kept as control; group B was contaminated with Eimeria tenella, while groups C and D were infected with E. tenella and treated with MOS (0.8 g/kg feed) and anticoccidial drug, amprolium hydrochloride (12 g/100 l water), respectively. The results showed that weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly higher (P coccidiosis during 5th, 7th, 10th, and 12th day post infection (dpi). Furthermore, the OPG was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in infected groups treated with MOS and amprolium at the studied periods (5, 7, and 10 dpi). At 12 dpi, the infected group treated with MOS showed significantly lower OPG compared to the other groups suggesting the effectiveness of MOS in comparison to amprolium. The result of pinpoint hemorrhages, thickness of cecal wall, bloody fecal contents, and mucoid contents in the cecum were significant highly (P < 0.05) in birds fed with infected oocytes. It was also noted that the differences were not significant in these parameters between amprolium and MOS-treated birds showing the effectiveness of the prebiotic agent. It was concluded from the results of the present study that MOS improved growth performance and reversed the lesions of E. tenella.

  7. Coma and vegetative states: state of the art and proposal of a novel approach combining existing coma scales

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Tommaso Bonsignore; Simone Macrì; Paolo Orsi; Flavia Chiarotti; Enrico Alleva

    2014-01-01

    Brain damage of various aetiologies can lead to different disorders of consciousness (DOC), varying from coma to vegetative, to minimally conscious states. Each state is characterised by a different degree of wakefulness, awareness, pain sensitivity and is differentially handled with respect to treatment, ethical considerations and end-of-life decisions. Thus, its correct identification is crucial while devising or modulating appropriate treatment strategies. Actually, the main coma scales ca...

  8. The Blue Coma: The Role of Methylene Blue in Unexplained Coma After Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Enrico Antonio; Winterton, Dario; Nardelli, Pasquale; Pasin, Laura; Calabrò, Maria Grazia; Bove, Tiziana; Fanelli, Giovanna; Zangrillo, Alberto; Landoni, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Methylene blue commonly is used as a dye or an antidote, but also can be used off label as a vasopressor. Serotonin toxicity is a potentially lethal and often misdiagnosed condition that can result from drug interaction. Mild serotonin toxicity previously was reported in settings in which methylene blue was used as a dye. The authors report 3 cases of life-threatening serotonin toxicity in patients undergoing chronic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy who also underwent cardiac surgery and received methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. An observational study. A cardiothoracic intensive care unit (ICU) in a teaching hospital. Three patients who received methylene blue after cardiac surgery, later discovered to be undergoing chronic SSRI therapy. None. All 3 patients received high doses of fentanyl during general anesthesia. They all developed vasoplegic syndrome and consequently were given methylene blue in the ICU. All 3 patients developed serotonin toxicity, including coma, after this administration and diagnostic tests were negative for acute intracranial pathology. Coma lasted between 1 and 5 days. Two patients were discharged from the ICU shortly after awakening, whereas the third patient experienced a complicated postoperative course for concomitant refractory low-cardiac-output syndrome. Patients undergoing chronic SSRI therapy should not be administered methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Human brain activity patterns beyond the isoelectric line of extreme deep coma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kroeger

    Full Text Available The electroencephalogram (EEG reflects brain electrical activity. A flat (isoelectric EEG, which is usually recorded during very deep coma, is considered to be a turning point between a living brain and a deceased brain. Therefore the isoelectric EEG constitutes, together with evidence of irreversible structural brain damage, one of the criteria for the assessment of brain death. In this study we use EEG recordings for humans on the one hand, and on the other hand double simultaneous intracellular recordings in the cortex and hippocampus, combined with EEG, in cats. They serve to demonstrate that a novel brain phenomenon is observable in both humans and animals during coma that is deeper than the one reflected by the isoelectric EEG, and that this state is characterized by brain activity generated within the hippocampal formation. This new state was induced either by medication applied to postanoxic coma (in human or by application of high doses of anesthesia (isoflurane in animals leading to an EEG activity of quasi-rhythmic sharp waves which henceforth we propose to call ν-complexes (Nu-complexes. Using simultaneous intracellular recordings in vivo in the cortex and hippocampus (especially in the CA3 region we demonstrate that ν-complexes arise in the hippocampus and are subsequently transmitted to the cortex. The genesis of a hippocampal ν-complex depends upon another hippocampal activity, known as ripple activity, which is not overtly detectable at the cortical level. Based on our observations, we propose a scenario of how self-oscillations in hippocampal neurons can lead to a whole brain phenomenon during coma.

  10. Testing chameleon gravity with the Coma cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terukina, Ayumu; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, 739-8526 (Japan); Lombriser, Lucas; Bacon, David; Koyama, Kazuya; Nichol, Robert C., E-mail: telkina@theo.phys.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: lucas.lombriser@port.ac.uk, E-mail: kazuhiro@hiroshima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: david.bacon@port.ac.uk, E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk, E-mail: bob.nichol@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    We propose a novel method to test the gravitational interactions in the outskirts of galaxy clusters. When gravity is modified, this is typically accompanied by the introduction of an additional scalar degree of freedom, which mediates an attractive fifth force. The presence of an extra gravitational coupling, however, is tightly constrained by local measurements. In chameleon modifications of gravity, local tests can be evaded by employing a screening mechanism that suppresses the fifth force in dense environments. While the chameleon field may be screened in the interior of the cluster, its outer region can still be affected by the extra force, introducing a deviation between the hydrostatic and lensing mass of the cluster. Thus, the chameleon modification can be tested by combining the gas and lensing measurements of the cluster. We demonstrate the operability of our method with the Coma cluster, for which both a lensing measurement and gas observations from the X-ray surface brightness, the X-ray temperature, and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are available. Using the joint observational data set, we perform a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of the parameter space describing the different profiles in both the Newtonian and chameleon scenarios. We report competitive constraints on the chameleon field amplitude and its coupling strength to matter. In the case of f(R) gravity, corresponding to a specific choice of the coupling, we find an upper bound on the background field amplitude of |f{sub R0}| < 6 × 10{sup −5}, which is currently the tightest constraint on cosmological scales.

  11. Hyperammonemic coma after craniotomy: Hepatic encephalopathy from upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage or valproate side effect?: Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaopeng; Wei, Junji; Gao, Lu; Xing, Bing; Xu, Zhiqin

    2017-04-01

    Postoperative coma is not uncommon in patients after craniotomy. It generally presents as mental state changes and is usually caused by intracranial hematoma, brain edema, or swelling. Hyperammonemia can also result in postoperative coma; however, it is rarely recognized as a potential cause in coma patients. Hyperammonemic coma is determined through a complicated differential diagnosis, and although it can also be induced as a side effect of valproate (VPA), this cause is frequently unrecognized or confused with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGH)-induced hepatic encephalopathy. We herein present a case of valproate-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy (VHE) to illustrate the rarity of such cases and emphasize the importance of correct diagnosis and proper treatment. A 61-year-old woman with meningioma was admitted into our hospital. Radical resection of the tumor was performed, and the patient recovered well as expected. After administration of valproate for 7 days, the patient was suddenly found in a deep coma, and her mental state deteriorated rapidly. The diagnoses of hepatic encephalopathy was confirmed. However, whether it origins from upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage or valproate side effect is uncertain. The patient's condition fluctuated without improvement during the subsequent 3 days under the treatment of reducing ammonia. With the discontinuation of valproate treatment, the patient regained complete consciousness within 48 hours, and her blood ammonia decreased to the normal range within 4 days. VHE is a rare but serious complication in patients after craniotomy and is diagnosed by mental state changes and elevated blood ammonia. Thus, the regular perioperative administration of VPA, which is frequently neglected as a cause of VHE, should be emphasized. In addition, excluding UGH prior to providing a diagnosis and immediately discontinuing VPA administration are recommended.

  12. Study of etiological profile and outcome predictors in nontraumatic coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarin S. M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To study the etiological profile of non traumatic coma patients and identify the clinical factors those are predictive of the outcome Prospective observational hospital based study where non traumatic comatose patients of age more than 13 with GCS ≤8 over a period of 12 months were studied. Patients were examined with detailed history, systemic examination and necessary investigations. Initial and 24 hour GCS scores recorded and patients were followed up for 2 weeks to record Glasgow outcome score. Data was analysed using necessary statistical tools Commonest cause for non traumatic coma is cerebrovascular accident followed by metabolic encephalopathy and infections. Total mortality was 58.75% with highest mortality among cerebrovascular accident cases (69.44%. Total duration of coma had significant negative correlation with outcome score(r=-0.2604. Initial and 24 hr GCS score have significant positive correlation with the outcome score. Multivariate regression analysis showed that out of GCS parameters only motor response had significant predictive contribution to outcome. Low GCS≤5, abnormal pupillary response and absent dolls eye response had high positive predictive value for mortality of comatose patients. CVA is the commonest cause of Non traumatic coma in tertiary care centre and it has the worst prognosis among its causes. Prolonged duration of coma, initial and 24 hr GCS score, motor response and brain stem reflexes have high predictive value in the functional outcome of comatose patient.

  13. Current Trends in Intensive Care of Eclampic Coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Podolsky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the efficiency of the intensive care priorities of eclampic coma, which reduce mortality in puer-peras, by studying systemic and metabolic disturbances. Subjects and methods. Studies were conducted in 42 puer-peras with eclampic coma (a study group in whom the authors used their intensive care algorithm the basis for which was standard (conventional therapy. Central hemodynamic parameters were studied by the direct method of right heart catheterization using a flow-directed Swan-Ganz catheter. Overall cerebral blood flow was measured by a noninvasive (inhalation radionuclide method, by using the tracer 133Xe, as described by V. D. Obrist et al., on a modified КПРДИ-1 apparatus (USSR. The rate of brain oxygen uptake was determined from the oxygen content between the artery and the internal jugular vein. Studies were made in four steps: 1 on admission; 2 on days 2—3; 3 emergence from coma; 4 before transition. Results. The use of the authors’ proposed algorithm of intensive care for eclampic coma, which is aimed at enhancing cerebral blood flow due to the slight expanding effect of stabizole and antihypertensive therapy (nimodipine and magnesium sulfate, lowered the mean arterial pressure by not more than 10—25% of the baseline level. Conclusion. The proposed intensive care could reduce mortality by up to 4.8%. Key words: eclampsia, eclampic coma, intensive care.

  14. Bacteriology of aspiration pneumonia in patients with acute coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Enise; Voss, Frederik; Gerigk, Roland; Lauterbach, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Loss of protective airway reflexes in patients with acute coma puts these patients at risk of aspiration pneumonia complicating the course of the primary disease. Available data vary considerably with regard to bacteriology, role of anaerobic bacteria, and antibiotic treatment. Our objective was to research the bacteriology of aspiration pneumonia in acute coma patients who were not pre-treated with antibiotics or hospitalized within 30 days prior to the event. We prospectively analyzed 127 patient records from adult patients admitted, intubated and ventilated to a tertiary medical intensive care unit with acute coma. Bacteriology and antibiotic resistance testing from tracheal aspirate sampled within 24 h after admission, blood cultures, ICU scores (APACHE II, SOFA), hematology, and clinical chemistry were assessed. Patients were followed up until death or hospital discharge. The majority of patients with acute coma suffered from acute cardiovascular disorders, predominantly myocardial infarction, followed by poisonings, and coma of unknown cause. In a majority of our patients, microaspiration resulted in overt infection. Most frequently S. aureus, H. influenzae, and S. pneumoniae were isolated. Anaerobic bacteria (Bacteroides spec., Fusobacteria, Prevotella spec.) were isolated from tracheal aspirate in a minority of patients, and predominantly as part of a mixed infection. Antibiotic monotherapy with a 2nd generation cephalosporin, or a 3rd generation gyrase inhibitor, was most effective in our patients regardless of the presence of anaerobic bacteria.

  15. Coma hiperosmolar associado ao transplante de fígado Hyperosmolar coma associated with liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olival Cirilo Lucena da Fonseca-Neto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O diagnóstico diferencial dos pacientes inconscientes sempre inclui o coma hiperosmolar hiperglicêmico não-cetótico. RELATO DE CASO: Paciente do sexo feminino, 22 anos, tipo sangüíneo O+, branca, natural e procedente do Recife - PE com queixa de icterícia e astenia há um mês. Ao exame físico, havia icterícia 3+/4+, desnutrição leve (IMC 17,5 e asterixis. Os exames laboratoriais sugeriram hepatite fulminante. Após 12 horas da inclusão na lista de espera pelo transplante, recebeu enxerto de fígado de doador cadáver, mediante o uso de técnica de piggback sem intercorrências. No 10º dia pós-operatório evoluiu com trombose de artéria hepática (TAH, diagnosticada por ultra-som com doppler de artéria hepática. Após 48 horas foi retransplantada sem intercorrências. A partir do 13º dia de pós-operatório, evoluiu com hiperglicemia grave (> 600 mg/dl e alteração do nível de consciência (9 pontos na escala de coma de Glasgow. Osmolaridade sérica nesse momento igual a 309 mOsm/kgH2O. O nível sérico de tacrolimus nesse dia foi de 11 ng/dl. Coma hiperosmolar hiperglicêmico não-cetótico foi tratado clinicamente por 48 horas. Recebeu alta no 30º dia de pós-operatório do retransplante, sem diabete mellitus. CONCLUSÃO: O coma hiperosmolar é um evento raro no pós-operatório de transplante de fígado e pode modificar a evolução do paciente.BACKGROUND: The literature described an increased incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. These tumors typically occur in the small intestine, and frequently are multiple. Often the behavior of the tumor in this association is more favorable than in sporadic cases. CASE REPORT: Incidental diagnosis of GIST was done in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 during treatment for acute abdomen. Trans-operatively was identified a retrocecal perforated appendicitis and a neoplastic mass in the proximal jejunum. The

  16. Experimentally induced helper dispersal in colonially breeding cooperative cichlids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heg, D.; Heg-Bachar, Z.; Brouwer, L.; Taborsky, M.

    2008-01-01

    The 'benefits of philopatry' hypothesis states that helpers in cooperatively breeding species derive higher benefits from remaining home, instead of dispersing and attempting to breed independently. We tested experimentally whether dispersal options influence dispersal propensity in the

  17. carpal arthrodesis for the management of experimentally induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INDUCED RADIAL NERVE PARALYSIS IN DOGS. HASSAN', A.Z. ... desensitization. Three weeks post surgery, three animals in the control group showed ... voluntary motor and reflex abnormalities are often ... paralysis following injury due to.

  18. Epidemiology and prognosis of coma in daytime television dramas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarett, David; Fishman, Jessica M; MacMoran, Holly Jo; Pickard, Amy; Asch, David A

    2005-12-24

    To determine how soap operas portray, and possibly misrepresent, the likelihood of recovery for patients in coma. Retrospective cohort study. Nine soap operas in the United States reviewed between 1 January 1995 and 15 May 2005. 64 characters who experienced a period of unconsciousness lasting at least 24 hours. Their final status at the end of the follow-up period was compared with pooled data from a meta-analysis. Comas lasted a median of 13 days (interquartile range 7-25 days). Fifty seven (89%) patients recovered fully, five (8%) died, and two (3%) remained in a vegetative state. Mortality for non-traumatic and traumatic coma was significantly lower than would be predicted from the meta-analysis data (non-traumatic 4% v 53%; traumatic 6% v 67%; Fisher's exact test both P expected chance of returning to normal function (non-traumatic 91% v 1%; traumatic 89% v 7%; both P expectations of recovery.

  19. A case of mediastinitis accompanied with hyperosmolar nonketotic coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Muslum Tuna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediastinitis is a serious infection involving mediastinal spaces after cervical infections spread along the facial planes. A late diagnosis of mediastinitis may result in death. Here we present a diabetic patient suffered from mediastinit accompanied with hyperosmolar nonketotic coma. A 61 years old male patient with type 2 diabetes was admitted to our hospital, with complaint of generalized worsening and fever. A diagnosis of nonketotic hyperosmolar coma was done and proper treatment started immediately. Neck tomography revealed abscess formation in the upper mediastinum. The needle aspirat culture failed to show bacterial growth. After five days of antibiotic treatment the patient's symptoms resolved. The abscess formation and pleural effusion almost disappeared on control tomography. No similar case presentation was seen in the current literature. Apart from this case, mediastinit should be keep in mind when a patient suffered from dysphagia, fever and cervical swelling. Keywords: Mediastinitis, Nonketotic hyperglycemic coma, Pleural effusion

  20. Contemporary approach to neurologic prognostication of coma after cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hamouda, Nawfel; Taccone, Fabio S; Rossetti, Andrea O; Oddo, Mauro

    2014-11-01

    Coma after cardiac arrest (CA) is an important cause of admission to the ICU. Prognosis of post-CA coma has significantly improved over the past decade, particularly because of aggressive postresuscitation care and the use of therapeutic targeted temperature management (TTM). TTM and sedatives used to maintain controlled cooling might delay neurologic reflexes and reduce the accuracy of clinical examination. In the early ICU phase, patients' good recovery may often be indistinguishable (based on neurologic examination alone) from patients who eventually will have a poor prognosis. Prognostication of post-CA coma, therefore, has evolved toward a multimodal approach that combines neurologic examination with EEG and evoked potentials. Blood biomarkers (eg, neuron-specific enolase [NSE] and soluble 100-β protein) are useful complements for coma prognostication; however, results vary among commercial laboratory assays, and applying one single cutoff level (eg, > 33 μg/L for NSE) for poor prognostication is not recommended. Neuroimaging, mainly diffusion MRI, is emerging as a promising tool for prognostication, but its precise role needs further study before it can be widely used. This multimodal approach might reduce false-positive rates of poor prognosis, thereby providing optimal prognostication of comatose CA survivors. The aim of this review is to summarize studies and the principal tools presently available for outcome prediction and to describe a practical approach to the multimodal prognostication of coma after CA, with a particular focus on neuromonitoring tools. We also propose an algorithm for the optimal use of such multimodal tools during the early ICU phase of post-CA coma.

  1. NON-TRAUMATIC COMA- INCIDENCE, AETIOLOGY AND OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun R. Patil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Acute non-traumatic coma is one of the most common paediatric emergencies, which arouses much anxiety and apprehension in both parents and physicians. Due to heterogeneity of causes in these patients, prediction of outcome is difficult and unfortunately no single clinical, laboratory or electrophysiological parameters singly predict their outcome. Aetiology of nontraumatic coma varies depending on different geographical area. We have attempted to find the incidence, aetiology and outcome and delineate neurological signs to predict the prognosis in this study. The aim of this study is to study the incidence, aetiology and outcome of non-traumatic coma in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 consecutive cases of non-traumatic coma between 5months and 15 years of age were selected for the study. Clinical signs and findings were recorded at admission (‘0’ Hr and after ‘48’ Hrs. of hospital stay. Aetiology of coma is determined on the basis of clinical history, examination and relevant laboratory investigations by the treating physician. These children were followed up till the death in the hospital or discharged from the hospital. Discharged patients were asked for followup after 4 weeks. During this period, all of them were evaluated by formal neurological examination and for special sensory involvement. The neurological outcomes were categorised into 6 groups (I-VI based on the severity of neurological involvement. Chisquare test was applied to determine the predictors of outcome. RESULTS 1. The incidence of non-traumatic coma in our hospital based study was 8.02% of all paediatric admissions and 21.64% of all PICU admissions. 2. CNS infections contributed the majority (58% of cases. (Dengue encephalitis-28%, viral encephalitis-12%, TB meningitis-8%, pyogenic meningitis- 6%, Shigella encephalopathy-3% and cerebral malaria-1%. 3. Other non-infectious aetiologies were toxic and metabolic group- 21%, post status epilepticus- 9

  2. Prolonged drug-induced hypothermia in experimental stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Flemming Fryd; Jørgensen, Henrik Stig; Reith, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    regimen with saline only. All rats were killed 7 days after MCAO. Infarct volume was quantified stereologically. The mean body temperature (35.6 + 1.0 degrees C) during 24 hours after bolus injection of Talipexole was significantly lower than in control rats (37.3 +/- 0.5 degrees C), P ... that the core body temperature was reduced by 1.7 degrees C for 24 hours after MCAO in rats treated with Talipexole. This treatment induced a significant reduction of infarct volume at 7 days after focal ischemia by 47%. We suggest that the reduction in infarct volume is related to drug-induced hypothermia...... in focal ischemia by pharmacological alteration of the central thermoregulatory set-point. We tested the hypothesis that the dopaminergic agonist Talipexole, which induces hypothermia, reduces infarct size. Body temperature was monitored by a radio-pill-implant. Rats had reversible occlusion of the middle...

  3. Summer mastitis experimentally induced by Hydrotaea irritans exposed to bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirico, J.; Jonsson, P.; Kjellberg, S.; Thomas, G.

    1997-01-01

    Summer mastitis is an acute suppurative bacterial infection of the udder in heifers and dry cows. To ascertain the possible role of flies in the transmission of the disease, experimental exposures of recipient heifers to Hydrotaea irritans previously exposed to bacteria were carried out. Flies were

  4. Experimental observation of direct current voltage-induced phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dynamics of two uncoupled distinct Chua circuits driven by a common direct current voltage is explored experimentally. It was found that, with increasing current intensity, the dominant frequencies of these two Chua circuits will first vary at different speeds, approach an identical value for a certain current intensity and ...

  5. Reversal of experimental varicocele-induced testicular toxicity by L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    testicular volumes, caudal epididymal sperm characteristics, testicular histology and serum hormone levels were evaluated. Results showed that the testes of the rats that were given vitamin C post experimental varicocele had better physiological, biochemical and histological profiles than those of the untreated animals.

  6. Pharmacokinetic changes of halofantrine in experimentally-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was hypothesized in this study that alterations in plasma lipoprotein profile and disturbed gastrointestinal motility as observed in diabetes mellitus may influence the disposition of halofantrine (HF), a highly lipophilic antimalarial drug. Therefore, using a rat model of diabetes mellitus induced by administration of alloxan ...

  7. Influence of physical restraint on the onset of experimentally induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of intermittent repeated physical restraint on the onset of diabetes mellitus (DM) was in-vestigated in this study. The study compared the onset of DM in mice dosed with streptozotocin (STZ), a DM-inducing drug, with immediate subsequent exposure to either physical restraint stress or non- exposure to the stress.

  8. Long-term outcomes after immediate aortic repair for acute type A aortic dissection complicated by coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukube, Takuro; Haraguchi, Tomonori; Okada, Yasushi; Matsukawa, Ritsu; Kozawa, Shuichi; Ogawa, Kyoichi; Okita, Yutaka

    2014-09-01

    The management of acute type A aortic dissection complicated by coma remains controversial. We previously reported an excellent rate of recovery of consciousness provided aortic repair was performed within 5 hours of the onset of symptoms. This study evaluates the early and long-term outcomes using this approach. Between August 2003 and July 2013, of the 241 patients with acute type A aortic dissection brought to the Japanese Red Cross Kobe Hospital and Hyogo Emergency Medical Center, 30 (12.4%) presented with coma; Glasgow Coma Scale was less than 11 on arrival. Surgery was performed in 186 patients, including 27 (14.5%) who were comatose. Twenty-four comatose patients underwent successful aortic repair immediately (immediate group). Their mean age was 71.0 ± 11.1 years, Glasgow Coma Scale was 6.5 ± 2.4, and prevalence of carotid dissection was 79%. For brain protection, deep hypothermia with antegrade cerebral perfusion was used, and postoperative induced hypothermia was performed. Neurologic evaluations were performed using the Glasgow Coma Scale, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and modified Rankin Scale. In the immediate group, the time from the onset of symptoms to arrival in the operating theater was 222 ± 86 minutes. Hospital mortality was 12.5%. Full recovery of consciousness was achieved in 79% of patients in up to 30 days. Postoperative Glasgow Coma Scale and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale improved significantly when compared with the preoperative score (P patients. The mean follow-up period was 56.5 months, and the cumulative survival was 48.2% after 10 years. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis indicated that immediate repair (hazard ratio, 4.3; P = .007) was the only significant predictor of postoperative survival over a 5-year period. The early and long-term outcomes as a result of immediate aortic repair for acute type A aortic dissection complicated by coma were satisfactory. Copyright © 2014 The American

  9. The comparison of modified early warning score and Glasgow coma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to assess and compare the discriminatory ability of the Glasgow coma scale (GCS)‑age‑systolic blood pressure (GAP) score and modified early warning scoring system (mEWS) score for 4‑week mortality, for the patients being in the triage category 1 and 2 who refer to Emergency ...

  10. The comparison of modified early warning score and Glasgow coma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-08

    Feb 8, 2016 ... Modified early warning score is calculated by measuring pulse, respiratory rate, fever, level of conscious (assessed by alert/verbal/painful/unresponsive [AVPU]), and systolic blood pressure. Grading varies between 0 and 14 [Table 1]. Glasgow coma scale (GCS)‑age‑systolic blood pressure (GAP) score is ...

  11. Early EEG contributes to multimodal outcome prediction of postanoxic coma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Beernink, T.M.J.; Bosch, F.H.; Beishuizen, Albertus; Cloostermans, M.C.; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Early identification of potential recovery of postanoxic coma is a major challenge. We studied the additional predictive value of EEG. Methods: Two hundred seventy-seven consecutive comatose patients after cardiac arrest were included in a prospective cohort study on 2 intensive care

  12. Delayed coma in head injury : Consider cerebral fat embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metting, Zwany; Rodriger, Lars A.; Regtien, Joost G.; van der Naalt, Joukje

    Objective: To describe a case of a young man with delayed coma after mild head injury, suggestive of cerebral fat embolism (CFE). To underline the value of MR imaging in the differential diagnosis of secondary deterioration in mild head injury. Case report: A 21-year-old man admitted with mild head

  13. Challenges in the Management of a Patient with Myxoedema Coma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be encountered during the management of myxoedema coma in similar settings and outlines the management strate- gies undertaken to overcome them in the absence of national guidelines. It also brings to the fore the need for clini- cians to look out for clinical features suggestive of hypothyroidism particularly among high ...

  14. Deprojection of luminosity functions of galaxies in the Coma cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, M; Schaap, WE; van der Hulst, JM; Borgani, S; Mezzetti, M; Valdarnini, R

    2002-01-01

    We present a simple analytic model to deproject 2-d luminosity functions (LF) of cluster galaxies; We apply this model to deproject the Us of the Coma cluster measured by Beijersbergen et al. 2001. We demonstrate that the shapes of the Us change after deprojection. The corrections are large enough

  15. Deep learning for outcome prediction of postanoxic coma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Putten, Michel J.A.M.; Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Ruijter, B. J.; Tjepkema-Cloostermans, Marleen C.

    2017-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is increasingly used to assist in outcome prediction for patients with a postanoxic coma after cardiac arrest. Current literature shows that neurological outcome is invariably poor if the EEG remains iso-electric or low-voltage at 24 h after cardiac arrest or if it shows

  16. Childhood non-traumatic coma in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofiah, A; Hussain, I H

    1997-12-01

    All post-neonatal children with acute non-traumatic coma admitted over an 8-month period were analysed and followed up for 18-24 months to determine the aetiology and outcome of their coma. One hundred and sixteen children, 72 boys and 44 girls, were recruited. Half the children were under 1 year of age and only 16 (14%) were more than 6 years of age. Eighty cases (69%) were due to infection, 15 (13%) to toxic metabolic causes, six (5%) to hypoxic ischaemic insults, four (3.5%) had intracranial haemorrhage, nine (7.8%) were due to miscellaneous causes and in two (1.7%) the cause was unknown. Seven cases were lost to follow-up. Of the remainder, 39 (35.7%) died, 32 (29.3%) developed permanent neurological deficit, and 38 (35%) were discharged well. The outcome was worst in the infectious group. Age of onset and sex did not significantly affect outcome. Our findings are similar to experience in Japan, where infection accounts for 74% of non-traumatic coma, but differ considerably from Western data on childhood coma where only a third of cases are due to infection.

  17. Assessment of physicians' knowledge of Glasgow Coma Score ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of physicians' knowledge of Glasgow Coma Score. ... in South‑East Nigeria, and to evaluate the call for a new and simpler scoring system. ... Results: A total of 139 questionnaires were distributed to the doctors practicing in the ...

  18. Corilagin Attenuates Aerosol Bleomycin-Induced Experimental Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Guo, Qiong-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Ju; Li, Xiao; Li, Wen-Ting; Ma, Xi-Tao; Ma, Li-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressing lethal disease with few clinically effective therapies. Corilagin is a tannin derivative which shows anti-inflammatory and antifibrotics properties and is potentiated in treating IPF. Here, we investigated the effect of corilagin on lung injury following bleomycin exposure in an animal model of pulmonary fibrosis. Corilagin abrogated bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis as assessed by H&E; Masson’s trichrome staining and lung hydroxyproline content in lung tissue. Corilagin reduced the number of apoptotic lung cells and prevented lung epithelial cells from membrane breakdown, effluence of lamellar bodies and thickening of the respiratory membrane. Bleomycin exposure induced expression of MDA, IKKα, phosphorylated IKKα (p-IKKα), NF-κB P65, TNF-α and IL-1β, and reduced I-κB expression in mice lung tissue or in BALF. These changes were reversed by high-dose corilagin (100 mg/kg i.p) more dramatically than by low dose (10 mg/kg i.p). Last, corilagin inhibits TGF-β1 production and α-SMA expression in lung tissue samples. Taken together, these findings confirmed that corilagin attenuates bleomycin-induced epithelial injury and fibrosis via inactivation of oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokine release and NF-κB and TGF-β1 signaling. Corilagin may serve as a promising therapeutic agent for pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:24886817

  19. Predicting outcome from coma : man-in-the-barrel syndrome as potential pitfall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elting, JW; Haaxma, R; De Keyser, J; Sulter, G.

    The Glasgow coma scale motor score is often used in predicting outcome after hypoxic ischemic coma. Judicious care should be exerted when using this variable in predicting outcome in patients with coma following hypotension since borderzone infarction can obscure the clinical picture. We describe a

  20. Etiologies et pronostic des comas non-traumatiques de l'enfant à l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etiologies et pronostic des comas non-traumatiques de l'enfant à l'hôpital universitaire de ... of non traumatic coma (NTC) in children aged between 1 month and 16 years. ... Infectious coma (74.1% of recovery and 25.3% of lethality) and toxic ...

  1. Predicting Early Awakening from Coma after Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eGoodman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction – Given the high morbidity and mortality associated with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH, family members and healthcare providers base early supportive management decisions, at least in part, on expected prognosis. In the comatose patient with ICH, this short-term prognosis is most overtly characterized by regaining of consciousness.Methods – A retrospective consecutive cohort of 51 patients admitted to a neuroICU with ICH and admission Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8 was identified. Logistic regression was performed to assess the association of baseline characteristics and treatment parameters associated with awakening.Results – Awakening from coma was observed in 53% of ICH patients: 83% with an initial GCS score of 7-8, 43% with an initial score of 5-6, and 20% with an initial score of 3-4. Awakening from coma in the cohort of 27 patients who regained consciousness occurred in 59% of patients by day 2, 89% by day 7, and 96% by day 9. In multivariable analysis, only higher admission GCS score was associated with a greater likelihood of awakening from coma (OR 4.9 [95%CI 1.9–13] per 2-point category, p=0.001. DNR status during the first 24 hours was not associated with awakening but was at later time points.Conclusion – GCS score is the predominant initial predictor of early awakening in patients who present in coma after ICH. Patients who regained consciousness typically did so within the first 9 days of hospital admission.

  2. Cometary coma dust size distribution from in situ IR spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, G.; Della Corte, V.; Fulle, M.; Capaccioni, F.; Rotundi, A.; Ivanovski, S. L.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Filacchione, G.; D'Aversa, E.; Capria, M. T.; Tozzi, G. P.; Erard, S.; Leyrat, C.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; Ciarniello, M.; Taylor, F.; Mottola, S.; Salatti, M.

    2017-07-01

    Dust is the most abundant component in cometary comae. Here, we investigate the dust size distribution in 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/CG) using data from the Rosetta spacecraft that was in close proximity to the comet from 2014 August to 2016 September. The Visual, Infrared and Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS-M), spectral range of 0.25-5 μm, and the Grain Impact Analyser and Dust Accumulator (GIADA), both part of the Rosetta payload, together provide a powerful means to characterize the dust coma properties. On March 28, Rosetta performed a flyby close to the nucleus that allowed GIADA to detect a large amount of dust particles used to constraint the differential size distribution power-law index of -2.2 ± 0.3. In April 2015, VIRTIS-M observed the spectral radiance in the wavelength range of 1-5 μm. A simple radiative transfer model has been applied to simulate the VIRTIS-M radiances, thus allowing to infer the dust properties. We assumed an optically thin dust coma and spherical amorphous carbon particles in the size range between 0.1 to 1000 μm. We obtained the infrared data best fit with a differential dust size distribution power-law index of -3.1_{-0.1}^{+3}. This index matches the one determined using GIADA March 2015 data indicating that, before perihelion, the inner coma radiance is dominated by particles larger than 10 μm; and the dust coma did not change its properties during most of the 67P/CG inbound orbit.

  3. A review of the effects of glutamine-enriched diets on experimentally induced enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombeau, J L

    1990-01-01

    Studies in animal models of enterocolitis have failed to confirm the purported metabolic and functional benefits of bowel rest induced by use of an elemental diet. Recent reports have demonstrated that glutamine-supplemented diets ameliorate or reverse many of the adverse effects of experimentally induced enterocolitis. Human studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  4. Requirement for Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2 Expression on Vascular Cells To Induce Experimental Cerebral Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Stoelcker, Benjamin; Hehlgans, Thomas; Weigl, Karin; Bluethmann, Horst; Grau, Georges E.; Männel, Daniela N.

    2002-01-01

    Using tumor necrosis factor receptor type 2 (TNFR2)-deficient mice and generating bone marrow chimeras which express TNFR2 on either hematopoietic or nonhematopoietic cells, we demonstrated the requirement for TNFR2 expression on tissue cells to induce lethal cerebral malaria. Thus, TNFR2 on the brain vasculature mediates tumor necrosis factor-induced neurovascular lesions in experimental cerebral malaria.

  5. [Fetal experimentation, transplantations, cosmetics and their connection with induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo Calderón, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    The increase in induced abortion produces large numbers of cells, tissues and organs, which are used in several fields of Medicine, either in research or in treatment. The main uses are in Cardiology, Hematology, Metabolism, Embryology, Neurology, Immunology, Ophthalmology, Dermatology and Transplantations. Flavor enhancers and cosmetics also benefit. Utilitarianism has led to an increase in abortion-originated cell and tissue banks. Abortion is justified through the manipulation of language. Vested interests give rise to complicity in researchers and society as a whole. Abortion and tissue 'donation' cannot be split; since fresh tissues are involved there is a symbiotic relationship between them. Valid consent is not possible. A contradiction emerges, the nasciturus is not desired or valued but fetal organs are. When someone is deprived of his rights it is because another wants to enslave them. Research must have a moral base. Knowledge should not be increased at any price. Something that is legal and well intentioned is not always morally acceptable. The duty of omission is applicable. Means to achieve a goal must be ethical means. Educational efforts to restore respect for the human embryo and fetus must be promoted. Technical advances are not always in accordance with human nature and dignity. Research and treatment that do not resort to cells, tissues and organs obtained from induced abortions should be promoted.

  6. Effect of menthol in experimentally induced ulcers: pathways of gastroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozza, A L; Hiruma-Lima, C A; Takahira, R K; Padovani, C R; Pellizzon, C H

    2013-11-25

    Based on ethnopharmacological indications that Mentha species may be used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, this study aimed to characterize the gastroprotective mechanisms of menthol (ME), the major compound of the essential oil from species of the genus Mentha. The gastroprotective action of ME was analyzed in gastric ulcers that were induced by ethanol or indomethacin in Wistar male rats. The mechanisms responsible for the gastroprotective effect were assessed by analyzing the amount of mucus secreted, involvement of non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) compounds, involvement of calcium ion channels and NO/cGMP/K(+)ATP pathway, gastric antisecretory activity and the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The anti-diarrheal activity and acute toxicity of ME were also evaluated. Oral treatment with ME (50mg/kg) offered 88.62% and 72.62% of gastroprotection against ethanol and indomethacin, respectively. There was an increased amount of mucus and PGE2 production. The gastroprotective activity of ME involved NP-SH compounds and the stimulation of K(+)ATP channels, but not the activation of calcium ion channels or the production of NO. The oral administration of ME induced an antisecretory effect as it decreased the H(+) concentration in gastric juice. ME displayed anti-diarrheal and antiperistaltic activity. There were no signs of toxicity in the biochemical analyses performed in the rats' serum. These results demonstrated that ME provides gastroprotective and anti-diarrheal activities with no toxicity in rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental Evidence of Boundary Induced Coupling Currents in LHC Prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Ang, Z

    1996-01-01

    The field quality of 10 m long LHC dipole models has been measured with short rotating coils to explore its dependence on time and position. Multipoles exhibit a longitudinal periodic variation, with period equal to the twist pitch length. This periodicity is shown here to have at least two components with very different time constants. The amplitude of the component with the shorter time constant, in the range of 100 to 300 s, depends on position and time. Larger amplitudes are measured at early times after a ramp and close to regions with incomplete cable transposition with respect to the non-uniform external field change. As the multipoles periodicity is due to current imbalance in the cables, we attribute the short time scale variations to the presence of space and time decaying boundary induced coupling currents (BICC's) in the cable. An estimate of their value is given

  8. Experimental diet-induced atherosclerosis in Quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, H; Nevarez, J G; Wakamatsu, N; Clubb, S; Cray, C; Tully, T N

    2013-11-01

    Spontaneous atherosclerosis is common in psittaciformes, and clinical signs associated with flow-limiting stenosis are encountered in pet birds. Nevertheless, a psittacine model of atherosclerosis has not been developed for research investigations. Sixteen captive-bred Quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus) were used in this study. While 4 control birds were fed a maintenance diet, 12 other birds were fed an atherogenic diet composed of 1% cholesterol controlling for a calorie-to-protein ratio for periods ranging from 2 to 8 months. The birds were euthanized at the end of their respective food trial period. Histopathology, transmission electron microscopy, and cholesterol measurement were performed on the ascending aorta and brachiocephalic and pulmonary arteries. Plasma lipoproteins, cholesterol, and triglycerides were also measured on a monthly basis. Significant atherosclerotic lesions were induced within 2 months and advanced atherosclerotic lesions within 4 to 6 months. The advanced lesions were histologically similar to naturally occurring lesions identified in the same parrot species with a lipid core and a fibrous cap. Ultrastructurally, there were extracellular lipid, foam cell, and endothelial changes. Arterial cholesterol content increased linearly over time. Plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) significantly increased over time by an average of 5- and 15-fold, respectively, with a shift from high-density lipoprotein to LDL as the main plasma lipoprotein. Quaker parrots also exhibited high plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity that increased, although not significantly, over time. This experiment demonstrates that in Quaker parrots fed 1% cholesterol, advanced atherosclerosis can be induced relatively quickly, and lesions resemble those found in other avian models and humans.

  9. Alleviating effects of morin against experimentally-induced diabetic osteopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuohashish Hatem M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant flavonoids are emerging as potent therapeutic drugs effective against a wide range of aging diseases particularly bone metabolic disorders. Morin (3,5,7,20,40-pentahydroxyflavone, a member of flavonols, is an important bioactive compound by interacting with nucleic acids, enzymes and protein. The present study was designed to investigate the putative beneficial effect of morin on diabetic osteopenia in rats. Methods Streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic model was used by considering 300 mg/dl fasting glucose level as diabetic. Morin (15 and 30 mg/kg was treated for five consecutive weeks to diabetic rats. Serum levels of glucose, insulin, deoxypyridinoline cross links (DPD, osteocalcin (OC, bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP, telopeptides of collagen type I (CTX, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β, interleukin 6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS and reduced glutathione (GSH were estimated. Femoral bones were taken for micro CT scan to measure trabecular bone mineral density (BMD and other morphometric parameters. Results Significant bone loss was documented as the level of bone turnover parameters including DPD, OC, BALP and CTX were increased in serum of diabetic rats. Morin treatment significantly attenuated these elevated levels. Bone micro-CT scan of diabetic rats showed a significant impairment in trabecular bone microarchitecture, density and other morphometric parameters. These impairments were significantly ameliorated by morin administration. Serum levels of glucose, TBARS, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly elevated, while the level of insulin and GSH was decreased in diabetic rats. These serum changes in diabetic rats were bring back to normal values after 5 weeks morin treatment. Conclusion These findings revealed the protective effect of morin against diabetic induced osteopenia. We believed that this effect is through its both the anti

  10. Compartment syndrome–induced microvascular dysfunction: an experimental rodent model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawendy, Abdel-Rahman; Sanders, David W.; Bihari, Aurelia; Parry, Neil; Gray, Daryl; Badhwar, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute compartment syndrome (CS) is a limb-threatening disease that results from increased intracompartmental pressure. The pathophysiologic mechanisms by which this occurs are poorly understood. This study was designed to measure the effects of increased intracompartmental pressure on skeletal muscle microcirculation, inflammation and cellular injury using intravital videomicroscopy (IVVM) in a clinically relevant small animal model. Methods We induced CS in 10 male Wistar rats (175–250 g), using a saline infusion technique. Intracompartmental pressure was controlled between 30 and 40 mm Hg and maintained for 45 minutes. After fasciotomy, the extensor digitorum longus muscle was visualized using IVVM, and perfusion was quantified. We quantified leukocyte recruitment to measure the inflammatory response. We measured muscle cellular injury using a differential fluorescent staining technique. Results The number of nonperfused capillaries increased from 12.7 (standard error of the mean [SEM] 1.4 ) per mm in the control group to 30.0 (SEM 6.7) per mm following 45 minutes of elevated intracompartmental pressure (CS group; p = 0.031). The mean number of continuously perfused capillaries (and SEM) decreased from 78.4 (3.2) per mm in the control group to 41.4 (6.9) per mm in the CS group (p = 0.001). The proportion of injured cells increased from 5.0% (SEM 2.1%) in the control group to 16.3% (SEM 6.8%) in the CS group (p = 0.006). The mean number of activated leukocytes increased from 3.6 (SEM 0.7) per 100 μm2 in the control group to 8.6 (SEM 1.8) per 100 μm2 in the CS group (p = 0.033). Conclusion Early CS-induced microvascular dysfunction resulted in a decrease in nutritive capillary perfusion and an increase in cellular injury and was associated with a severe acute inflammatory component. PMID:21443836

  11. Dietary oregano essential oil alleviates experimentally induced coccidiosis in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiti-Asli, M; Ghanaatparast-Rashti, M

    2015-06-15

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of oregano essential oil on growth performance and coccidiosis prevention in mild challenged broilers. A total of 250 1-d-old chicks were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 5 replicates with 10 birds in each replication. Experimental treatments included: (1) negative control (NC; unchallenged), (2) positive control (PC; challenged with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria), (3) PC fed 200 ppm Diclazuril in diet, (4) PC fed 300 ppm oregano oil in diet, and (5) PC fed 500 ppm oregano oil in diet. At 22 d of age, all the experimental groups except for NC were challenged with 50-fold dose of Livacox T as a trivalent live attenuated coccidiosis vaccine. On d 28, two birds were slaughtered and intestinal coccidiosis lesions were scored 0-4. Moreover, dropping was scored in the scale of 0-3, and oocysts per gram feces (OPG) were measured. Oregano oil at either supplementation rate increased body weight gain (P=0.039) and improved feed conversion ratio (P=0.010) from d 22 to 28, when compared with PC group. Using 500 ppm oregano oil in challenged broilers diet increased European efficiency factor than PC group (P=0.020). Moreover, challenged broilers fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets displayed lower coccidiosis lesions scores in upper (P=0.003) and middle (P=0.018) regions of intestine than PC group, with the effect being similar to unchallenged birds. In general, challenged birds fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets had lower OPG (P=0.001), dropping scores (P=0.001), litter scores (P=0.001), and pH of litter (P=0.001) than PC group. It could be concluded that supplementation of oregano oil at the dose of 500 ppm in diet may have beneficial effect on prevention of coccidiosis in broilers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Full Outline of Unresponsiveness score and the Glasgow Coma Scale in prediction of pediatric coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Atahar; Sankhyan, Naveen; Jayashree, Murlidharan; Singhi, Sunit; Singhi, Pratibha

    2017-01-01

    This study was done to compare the admission Full Outline of Unresponsiveness (FOUR) score and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) as predictors of outcome in children with impaired consciousness. In this observational study, children (5-12 years) with impaired consciousness of <7 days were included. Children with traumatic brain injury, on sedatives or neuromuscular blockade; with pre-existing cerebral palsy, mental retardation, degenerative brain disease, vision/hearing impairment; and seizure within last 1 hour were excluded. Primary outcomes: comparison of area under curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes: comparison of AUC of ROC curve for mortality and poor outcome on Pediatric Overall Performance Category Scale at 3 months. Of the 63 children, 20 died during hospital stay. AUC for in-hospital mortality for GCS was 0.83 (CI 0.7 to 0.9) and FOUR score was 0.8 (CI 0.7 to 0.9) [difference between areas -0.0250 (95%CI 0.0192 to 0.0692), Z statistic 1.109, P=0.2674]. AUC for mortality at 3 months for GCS was 0.78 (CI 0.67 to 0.90) and FOUR score was 0.74 (CI 0.62 to 0.87) (P=0.1102) and AUC for poor functional outcome for GCS was 0.82 (CI 0.72 to 0.93) and FOUR score was 0.79 (CI 0.68 to 0.9) (P=0.2377), which were also comparable. Inter-rater reliability for GCS was 0.96 and for FOUR score 0.98. FOUR score was as good as GCS in prediction of in-hospital and 3-month mortality and functional outcome at 3 months. FOUR score had a good inter-rater reliability.

  13. Basilar-type migraine with coma: case reports and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Tan, Ge; Zhou, Jiying

    2011-04-01

    Basilar-type migraine (BTM) is a rare subtype of migraine with aura. Impaired consciousness or coma can occur in such patients. To report two Chinese adolescent patients diagnosed as BTM with coma. We describe two Chinese adolescent patients diagnosed with BTM with coma. Literatures of migraineurs presented with coma were reviewed. The two patients are partially resolved with prophylactic propranolol or valproate therapy. BTM should be considered for any patient presenting with migraine and coma. Adequate care should be taken to prevent migraine attacks. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Cavitation Induced Feedline Instability from an Orifice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Matthew A.; Lineberry, David M.; Ahuja, Vineet; Frederick, Robert A,

    2012-01-01

    This paper details the results of an experimental investigation into the cavitation instabilities created by a circular orifice conducted at the University of Alabama in Huntsville Propulsion Research Center. This experiment was conducted in concert with a computational simulation to serve as a reference point for the simulation. Testing was conducted using liquid nitrogen as a cryogenic propellant simulant. A 1.06 cm diameter thin orifice with a rounded inlet was tested in an approximately 1.25 kg/s flow with inlet pressures ranging from 504.1 kPa to 829.3 kPa. Pressure fluctuations generated by the orifice were measured using a high frequency pressure sensor located 0.64 tube diameters downstream of the orifice. Fast Fourier Transforms were performed on the high frequency data to determine the instability frequency. Shedding resulted in a primary frequency with a cavitation related subharmonic frequency. For this experiment, the cavitation instability ranged from 153 Hz to 275 Hz. Additionally, the strength of the cavitation occur red as a function of cavitation number. At lower cavitation numbers, the strength of the cavitation instability ranged from 2.4 % to 7 % of the inlet pressure. However, at higher cavitation numbers, the strength of the cavitation instability ranged from 0.6 % to 1 % of the inlet pressure.

  15. Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Sandeep Vasant; Kumar, Hemant; Cho, Duk-Yeon; Yun, Yo-Sep; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2016-09-01

    Animal models for learning and memory have significantly contributed to novel strategies for drug development and hence are an imperative part in the assessment of therapeutics. Learning and memory involve different stages including acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval and each stage can be characterized using specific toxin. Recent studies have postulated the molecular basis of these processes and have also demonstrated many signaling molecules that are involved in several stages of memory. Most insights into learning and memory impairment and to develop a novel compound stems from the investigations performed in experimental models, especially those produced by neurotoxins models. Several toxins have been utilized based on their mechanism of action for learning and memory impairment such as scopolamine, streptozotocin, quinolinic acid, and domoic acid. Further, some toxins like 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA), 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and amyloid-β are known to cause specific learning and memory impairment which imitate the disease pathology of Parkinson's disease dementia and Alzheimer's disease dementia. Apart from these toxins, several other toxins come under a miscellaneous category like an environmental pollutant, snake venoms, botulinum, and lipopolysaccharide. This review will focus on the various classes of neurotoxin models for learning and memory impairment with their specific mechanism of action that could assist the process of drug discovery and development for dementia and cognitive disorders.

  16. Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Vasant More

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Animal models for learning and memory have significantly contributed to novel strategies for drug development and hence are an imperative part in the assessment of therapeutics. Learning and memory involve different stages including acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval and each stage can be characterized using specific toxin. Recent studies have postulated the molecular basis of these processes and have also demonstrated many signaling molecules that are involved in several stages of memory. Most insights into learning and memory impairment and to develop a novel compound stems from the investigations performed in experimental models, especially those produced by neurotoxins models. Several toxins have been utilized based on their mechanism of action for learning and memory impairment such as scopolamine, streptozotocin, quinolinic acid, and domoic acid. Further, some toxins like 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP and amyloid-β are known to cause specific learning and memory impairment which imitate the disease pathology of Parkinson’s disease dementia and Alzheimer’s disease dementia. Apart from these toxins, several other toxins come under a miscellaneous category like an environmental pollutant, snake venoms, botulinum, and lipopolysaccharide. This review will focus on the various classes of neurotoxin models for learning and memory impairment with their specific mechanism of action that could assist the process of drug discovery and development for dementia and cognitive disorders.

  17. Health status, mood, and cognition in experimentally induced subclinical thyrotoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, M H; Schuff, K G; Carlson, N E; Carello, P; Janowsky, J S

    2008-05-01

    Our objective was to determine whether subclinical thyrotoxicosis alters health status, mood, and/or cognitive function. This was a double-blinded, randomized, cross-over study of usual dose l-T(4) (euthyroid arm) vs. higher dose l-T(4) (subclinical thyrotoxicosis arm) in hypothyroid subjects. A total of 33 hypothyroid subjects receiving l-T(4) were included in the study. Subjects underwent measurements of health status, mood, and cognition: Short Form 36 (SF-36); Profile of Mood States (POMS); and tests of declarative memory (Paragraph Recall, Complex Figure), working memory (N-Back, Subject Ordered Pointing, and Digit Span Backwards), and motor learning (Pursuit Rotor). These were repeated after 12 wk on each of the study arms. Mean TSH levels decreased from 2.15 to 0.17 mU/liter on the subclinical thyrotoxicosis arm (P learning was better during the subclinical thyrotoxicosis arm, whereas declarative and working memory measures did not change. This improvement was related to changes in the SF-36 physical component summary and POMS tension subscales and free T(3) levels. We found slightly impaired physical health status but improvements in measures of mental health and mood in l-T(4) treated hypothyroid subjects when subclinical thyrotoxicosis was induced in a blinded, randomized fashion. Motor learning was also improved. These findings suggest that thyroid hormone directly affects brain areas responsible for affect and motor function.

  18. Serum protein concentrations in calves with experimentally induced pneumonic pasteurellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagliari J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten healthy 2 to 4-week-old Holstein calves were randomly allotted into control and infected groups. Control calves (n=5 were inoculated intrabronchially with 5ml of Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline solution (DPBSS. Infected calves (n=5 were inoculated intrabronchially with 5x10(9 log-phase Mannheimia haemolytica organisms suspended in 5ml of DPBSS. Blood samples were obtained 15 minutes before and one, two, four and six hours after inoculation. Serum protein concentrations were determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Serum concentrations of proteins with molecular weights of 125,000 D (ceruloplasmin, 60,000 D (a 1-antitrypsin, 45,000 D (haptoglobin, and 40,000 D (acid glycoprotein were significantly increased in calves with pneumonic pasteurellosis, compared with concentrations in control calves. Results indicate that acute phase proteins increase more rapidly after the onset of inflammation than previously thought. Measurement of serum protein concentrations may be useful in monitoring the progression of the induced pneumonic pasteurellosis in calves.

  19. Modeling the Thermodynamic Properties of the Inner Comae of Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, Daniel C.

    2017-10-01

    Introduction: Modeling is central to understand the important properties of the cometary environment. We have developed a comet model, SUISEI, that self-consistently includes the relevant physicochemical processes within a global modeling framework, from the porous subsurface layers of the nucleus to the interaction with the solar wind. Our goal is to gain valuable insights into the intrinsic properties of cometary nuclei so we can better understand observations and in situ measurements. SUISEI includes a multifluid, reactive gas dynamics simulation of the dusty coma (ComChem) and a suite of other coupled numerical simulations. This model has been successfully applied to a variety of comets in previous studies over the past three decades. We present results from a quantitative study of the thermodynamic properties and chemistry of cometary comae as a function of cometocentric and heliocentric distance to aid in interpretation of observations and in situ measurements of comets.Results and Discussion: ComChem solves the fluid dynamic equations for the mass, momentum, and energy of three neutral fluids (H, H2, and the heavier bulk fluid), ions, and electrons. In the inner coma, the gas expands, cools, accelerates, and undergoes many photolytic and gas-phase chemical reactions tracking hundreds of sibling species. The code handles the transition to free molecular flow and describes the spatial distribution of species in the coma of a comet. Variations of neutral gas temperature and velocity with cometocentric distance and heliocentric distance for a comet approaching the Sun from 2.5 to 0.3 AU are presented. Large increases in the gas temperatures (>400 K) due to photolytic heating in the coma within ~0.5 AU are noted, with dramatic effects on the chemistry, optical depth, and other coma properties. Results are compared to observations when available.Conclusions: SUISEI has proven to be a unique and valuable model to understand the relevant physical processes and

  20. Risk factors for nosocomial nontraumatic coma: sepsis and respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou YT

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ye-Ting Zhou,1,2 Shao-Dan Wang,3 Guang-Sheng Wang,4 Xiao-Dong Chen,4 Dao-Ming Tong4 1Department of Clinical Research, 2Department of General Surgery, 3Department of Intensive Care Medicine, 4Department of Neurology, Affiliated Shuyang People’ Hospital, XuZhou Medical University, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Background: Coma’s are a major cause of clinical deterioration or death. Identification of risks that predispose to coma are important in managing patients; however, the risk factors for nosocomial nontraumatic coma (NNC are not well known. Our aim was to investigate the risk factors in patients with NNC.Methods: A retrospective case–control design was used to compare patients with NNC and a control group of patients without coma in a population-based cohort of 263 participants from the neurological intensive care unit in Shuyang County People’s Hospital of Northern China. Coma was diagnosed by a Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤8. Adjusted odds ratios for patients with NNC were derived from multivariate logistic regression analyses.Results: A total of 96 subjects had NNC. The prevalence of NNC was 36.5% among the subjects. Among these, 82% had acute cerebrovascular etiology. Most of the NNC usually occurred at day 3 after admission to the neurological intensive care unit. Patients with NNC had higher hospital mortality rates (67.7% vs 3%, P<0.0001 and were more likely to have a central herniation (47.9% vs 0%, P<0.001 or uncal herniation (11.5% vs 0%, P<0.001 than those without NNC. Multiple logistic regression showed that systemic inflammatory response syndrome-positive sepsis (odds ratio =4, 95% confidence interval =1.875–8.567, P<0.001 and acute respiratory failure (odds ratio =3.275, 95% confidence interval =1.014–10.573, P<0.05 were the factors independently associated with a higher risk of NNC.Conclusion: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome-positive sepsis and acute respiratory failure are independently associated

  1. Factors predisposing to coma and delirium: fentanyl and midazolam exposure; CYP3A5, ABCB1, and ABCG2 genetic polymorphisms; and inflammatory factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrobik, Yoanna; Leger, Caroline; Cossette, Mariève; Michaud, Veronique; Turgeon, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    Delirium and sedative-induced coma are described as incremental manifestations of cerebral dysfunction. Both may be associated with sedative or opiate doses and pharmacokinetic or pharmacogenetic variables, such as drug plasma levels (exposure), drug metabolism, and/or their transport across the blood-brain barrier. To compare biological and drug treatment characteristics in patients with coma and/or delirium while in the ICU. In 99 patients receiving IV fentanyl, midazolam, or both, we evaluated drug doses, covariates likely to influence drug effects (age, body mass index, and renal and hepatic dysfunction); delirium risk factors; concomitant administration of CYP3A and P-glycoprotein substrates/inhibitors; ABCB1, ABCG2, and CYP3A5 genetic polymorphisms; and fentanyl and midazolam plasma levels. Delirium and coma were evaluated daily. In patients with only coma (n=15), only delirium (n=7), and neither ever (n=14), we measured plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17,macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Time to first coma was associated with fentanyl and midazolam doses (p=0.03 and p=0.01, respectively). The number of days in coma was associated with the number of days of coadministration of CYP3A inhibitors (r=0.30; p=0.006). Plasma levels of fentanyl were higher in patients with clinical coma (3.7±4.7 vs. 2.0±1.8 ng/mL, p=0.0001) as were midazolam plasma levels (1050±2232 vs. 168±249 ng/mL, p=0.0001). Delirium occurrence was unrelated to midazolam administration, cumulative doses, or serum levels. Days with delirium were associated with days of coadministration of P-glycoprotein inhibitor (r=0.35; p=0.0004). Delirious patients had higher levels of the inflammatory mediator IL-6 than comatose patients (129.3 vs. 35.0 pg/mL, p=0.05). Coma is associated with fentanyl and midazolam exposure; delirium is unrelated to midazolam and may be linked to inflammatory status

  2. Coordinated Ultraviolet Spectroscopy and Optical Photometry of FK Comae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Edward F.

    FK Comae (HD 117555) is the prototype of a newly identified class of rapidly rotating, apparently single, cool giants which have strong chromospheric and coronal emission rivalling or surpassing those of the most active RS CVn stars. FK Com is the best studied member of the group. It has spectral type about G2 IIIp, a projected rotational velocity v sin i =120 km/s, and is a low amplitude variable with a 2.4d period. Photometry by Dorren, Guinan and McCook in 1982 shows for the first time that the light curve undergoes rapid changes in amplitude, shape, and phase of light minimum. Such behavior is known for the RS CVn stars, but is generally on longer timescales. Analyses of the 1982 light curves have been carried out and show that the light variations appear to be consistent with subluminous regions ("starspots") on the surface of the rapidly rotating giant. The overall spectroscopic and photometric properties are in general best explained by extreme surface activity induced by rapid rotation. Although rapidly rotating cool giants (v sin i about 20 - 50 km/s) are often members of close binary systems in which tidal effects have produced synchronous rotation, there is no evidence for duplicity in FK Com. This has led Bopp and Stencel to suggest that the FK Com stars are coalesced binaries possibly evolved from W UMa systems. We propose to obtain IUE observations at minimum and maximum of a fully developed photometric wave, when the active regions are facing and directed away from the observer respectively. The light variations will be monitored it Villanova during 1983-1984 to determine the optimum time for scheduling the lUE observations. The previous IUE observations of FK Com were made when no photometry was available or when the light variations were small. We also propose to observe during a flare. The flaring activity will be monitored b), H-alpha photometry. During 1982 at least three long-lived (3-10d) flare events were seen.

  3. Experimental Optic Neuritis Induced by a Demyelinating Strain of Mouse Hepatitis Virus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindler, Kenneth S.; Kenyon, Lawrence C.; Dutt, Mahasweta; Hingley, Susan T.; Sarma, Jayasri Das

    2008-01-01

    Optic neuritis (ON), an inflammatory demyelinating optic nerve disease, occurs in multiple sclerosis (MS). Pathological mechanisms and potential treatments for ON have been studied via experimental autoimmune MS models. However, evidence suggests that virus-induced inflammation is a likely etiology triggering MS and ON; experimental virus-induced ON models are therefore required. We demonstrate that MHV-A59, a mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) strain that causes brain and spinal cord inflammation and demyelination, induces ON by promoting mixed inflammatory cell infiltration. In contrast, MHV-2, a nondemyelinating MHV strain, does not induce ON. Results reveal a reproducible virus-induced ON model important for the evaluation of novel therapies. PMID:18579591

  4. Environmental enrichment restores cognitive deficits induced by experimental childhood meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Barichello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of environmental enrichment (EE on memory, cytokines, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the brain of adult rats subjected to experimental pneumococcal meningitis during infancy. Methods: On postnatal day 11, the animals received either artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF or Streptococcus pneumoniae suspension intracisternally at 1 × 106 CFU/mL and remained with their mothers until age 21 days. Animals were divided into the following groups: control, control + EE, meningitis, and meningitis + EE. EE began at 21 days and continued until 60 days of age (adulthood. EE consisted of a large cage with three floors, ramps, running wheels, and objects of different shapes and textures. At 60 days, animals were randomized and subjected to habituation to the open-field task and the step-down inhibitory avoidance task. After the tasks, the hippocampus and CSF were isolated for analysis. Results: The meningitis group showed no difference in performance between training and test sessions of the open-field task, suggesting habituation memory impairment; in the meningitis + EE group, performance was significantly different, showing preservation of habituation memory. In the step-down inhibitory avoidance task, there were no differences in behavior between training and test sessions in the meningitis group, showing aversive memory impairment; conversely, differences were observed in the meningitis + EE group, demonstrating aversive memory preservation. In the two meningitis groups, IL-4, IL-10, and BDNF levels were increased in the hippocampus, and BDNF levels in the CSF. Conclusions: The data presented suggest that EE, a non-invasive therapy, enables recovery from memory deficits caused by neonatal meningitis.

  5. Immune Cells and Molecular Networks in Experimentally Induced Pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, E; Gaudin, A; Bienvenu, G; Amiaud, J; Farges, J C; Cuturi, M C; Moreau, A; Alliot-Licht, B

    2016-02-01

    Dental pulp is a dynamic tissue able to resist external irritation during tooth decay by using immunocompetent cells involved in innate and adaptive responses. To better understand the immune response of pulp toward gram-negative bacteria, we analyzed biological mediators and immunocompetent cells in rat incisor pulp experimentally inflamed by either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline solution (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS]). Untreated teeth were used as control. Expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokine ligands, growth factors, and enzymes were evaluated at the transcript level, and the recruitment of the different leukocytes in pulp was measured by fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis after 3 h, 9 h, and 3 d post-PBS or post-LPS treatment. After 3 d, injured rat incisors showed pulp wound healing and production of reparative dentin in both LPS and PBS conditions, testifying to the reversible pulpitis status of this model. IL6, IL1-β, TNF-α, CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL2, MMP9, and iNOS gene expression were significantly upregulated after 3 h of LPS stimulation as compared with PBS. The immunoregulatory cytokine IL10 was also upregulated after 3 h, suggesting that LPS stimulates not only inflammation but also immunoregulation. Fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis revealed a significant, rapid, and transient increase in leukocyte levels 9 h after PBS and LPS stimulation. The quantity of dendritic cells was significantly upregulated with LPS versus PBS. Interestingly, we identified a myeloid-derived suppressor cell-enriched cell population in noninjured rodent incisor dental pulp. The percentage of this population, known to regulate immune response, was higher 9 h after inflammation triggered with PBS and LPS as compared with the control. Taken together, these data offer a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of dental pulp immunity that may be elicited by gram-negative bacteria. © International & American

  6. Experimental particle acceleration by water evaporation induced by shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolamacchia, T.; Alatorre Ibarguengoitia, M.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.; Cimarelli, C.

    2010-12-01

    Shock waves are commonly generated during volcanic eruptions. They induce sudden changes in pressure and temperature causing phase changes. Nevertheless, their effects on flowfield properties are not well understood. Here we investigate the role of gas expansion generated by shock wave propagation in the acceleration of ash particles. We used a shock tube facility consisting of a high-pressure (HP) steel autoclave (450 mm long, 28 mm in internal diameter), pressurized with Ar gas, and a low-pressure tank at atmospheric conditions (LP). A copper diaphragm separated the HP autoclave from a 180 mm tube (PVC or acrylic glass) at ambient P, with the same internal diameter of the HP reservoir. Around the tube, a 30 cm-high acrylic glass cylinder, with the same section of the LP tank (40 cm), allowed the observation of the processes occurring downstream from the nozzle throat, and was large enough to act as an unconfined volume in which the initial diffracting shock and gas jet expand. All experiments were performed at Pres/Pamb ratios of 150:1. Two ambient conditions were used: dry air and air saturated with steam. Carbon fibers and glass spheres in a size range between 150 and 210 μm, were placed on a metal wire at the exit of the PVC tube. The sudden decompression of the Ar gas, due to the failure of the diaphragm, generated an initial air shock wave. A high-speed camera recorded the processes between the first 100 μsec and several ms after the diaphragm failure at frame rates ranging between 30,000 and 50,000 fps. In the experiments with ambient air saturated with steam, the high-speed camera allowed to visualize the condensation front associated with the initial air shock; a maximum velocity of 788 m/s was recorded, which decreases to 524 m/s at distance of 0.5 ±0.2 cm, 1.1 ms after the diaphragm rupture. The condensation front preceded the Ar jet front exhausting from the reservoir, by 0.2-0.5 ms. In all experiments particles velocities following the initial

  7. An experimental study on renal damage induced by melamine cyanurate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-tian YU

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the nephrotoxicity of melamine cyanurate in SD rats.Methods Ninety SPF SD rats were randomly assigned into 3 groups(30 each according to the doses of melamine cyanurate they received(0,200,400mg/kg,which were repectively given daily by gavage for 60 consecutive days.Six rats in each group were confined in metabolism cages for the first week,and urine samples were collected over a 24h period.Before drug administration,the blood samples and kidney pathology were evaluated in 6 rats of each group on day 4,14,31,45 and 60 to determine serum creatinine,blood urea nitrogen(BUN,serum uric acid and serum cystatin C.Results The urine volume of rats was significantly higher in 200mg/kg group than in normal controls(P < 0.05,while no statistical difference was found between 400mg/kg and control group.After administration of melamine cyanurate,the levels that of serum cystatin C increased significantly,while that of serum uric acid decreased markedly,as compared with the control group(P < 0.05.Significantly higher levels of BUN,serum cystatin C and creatinine were found in 200 mg/kg group(30-60 days and 400mg/kg group(4th day compared with that of control group(P < 0.01.On the 2nd day,specific crystals were found in the urinary sediment smears of melamine cyanurate group.The pathological changes in kidney included yellow discoloration and edema of the organ in 200mg/kg group(since 31st day and 400mg/kg group(since 4th day.Examination of pathological sections showed that there was deposition of a number of yellow,semi-transparent and concentric round crystals in renal tubules.Conclusions Administration of melamine cyanurate by gavage may induce crystal formation and cause renal dysfunction.Meanwhile,melamine cyanurate may have some diuretic function,thereby influence the metabolism and decrease the concentration of uric acid in blood.

  8. The Italian version of the Nociception Coma Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattin, Davide; Pagani, Marco; Covelli, Venusia; Giovannetti, Ambra M; Leonardi, Matilde

    2013-06-01

    Pain assessment and management represent a crucial issue in planning rehabilitative programmes and pharmacological therapies in chronic patients. In noncompetent and nonverbally communicative individuals, as for patients in a vegetative state or minimally conscious state, the evaluation of the presence and intensity of pain is often complex. Validated scales and instruments to standardize the observation of patients' behavioural and motor responses to noxious stimuli are needed. The aim of this study is to translate the Nociception Coma Scale from English into Italian. The process of translation and back translation involved four translators and two expert raters. No item received quality ratings below 90 (range 0-100). The Italian version of the Nociception Coma Scale is now available for Italian clinicians and researchers. It will be useful for an accurate management and care planning in rehabilitative and long-term care centres in Italy.

  9. Phase Synchronization in Electroencephalographic Recordings Prognosticates Outcome in Paediatric Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadovic, Vera; Perez Velazquez, Jose Luis; Hutchison, James Saunders

    2014-01-01

    Brain injury from trauma, cardiac arrest or stroke is the most important cause of death and acquired disability in the paediatric population. Due to the lifetime impact of brain injury, there is a need for methods to stratify patient risk and ultimately predict outcome. Early prognosis is fundamental to the implementation of interventions to improve recovery, but no clinical model as yet exists. Healthy physiology is associated with a relative high variability of physiologic signals in organ systems. This was first evaluated in heart rate variability research. Brain variability can be quantified through electroencephalographic (EEG) phase synchrony. We hypothesised that variability in brain signals from EEG recordings would correlate with patient outcome after brain injury. Lower variability in EEG phase synchronization, would be associated with poor patient prognosis. A retrospective study, spanning 10 years (2000–2010) analysed the scalp EEGs of children aged 1 month to 17 years in coma (Glasgow Coma Scale, GCS, patients with a good outcome. PMID:24752289

  10. A case of mediastinitis accompanied with hyperosmolar nonketotic coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, Mazhar Muslum; Kilinc, Faruk; Pekkolay, Zafer; Soylu, Hikmet; Tuzcu, Alpaslan Kemal

    2016-06-01

    Mediastinitis is a serious infection involving mediastinal spaces after cervical infections spread along the facial planes. A late diagnosis of mediastinitis may result in death. Here we present a diabetic patient suffered from mediastinit accompanied with hyperosmolar nonketotic coma. A 61 years old male patient with type 2 diabetes was admitted to our hospital, with complaint of generalized worsening and fever. A diagnosis of nonketotic hyperosmolar coma was done and proper treatment started immediately. Neck tomography revealed abscess formation in the upper mediastinum. The needle aspirat culture failed to show bacterial growth. After five days of antibiotic treatment the patient's symptoms resolved. The abscess formation and pleural effusion almost disappeared on control tomography. No similar case presentation was seen in the current literature. Apart from this case, mediastinit should be keep in mind when a patient suffered from dysphagia, fever and cervical swelling.

  11. [Redistribution of gastrointestinal ammonia into blood in alcohol coma rat: the role in lethal outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivnitskiĭ, Iu Iu; Shefer, T V; Reĭniuk, V L

    2010-01-01

    At 3 h after the intragastral administration of ethanol (446 mmol/kg) the blood ammonia concentration in v. portae increased 1.4 times, in v. cava inf. caudally of vv. renales inflow - 2.2 times, cranially of vv. hepaticae - 2.5 times, and in blood obtained by decapitation - by 65%7. The rate of ammonia accumulation in 'avage medium injected intraperitoneally was triple as that in intact rats. The exposure to atmospheric ammoniac (0.84-1.07 mg/l) for 3 h resuited in increasing blood ammonia concentration 2.4 times compared with the isolated ethanol action. The ammonia inhalation promoted the lethal action of ethanol with a dose alteration factor of 0.81 and suppressed gas-exchange. The promotion of the ethanol lethal action by the non-lethal ammonium acetate dosage has been observed. These data suggest that in rat, the coma-inducing ethanol ingestion promotes the translocation of intestinal ammonia into the common bloodstream, which has a detrimental effect on the outcome of alcohol coma.

  12. Revisiting the eye opening response of the Glasgow Coma Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Taopheeq Bamidele Rabiu

    2011-01-01

    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), introduced by Teasdale and Jenneth in 1974, has received tremendous acclaim from clinicians and has been extensively used in clinical practice for the evaluation of the level of consciousness. The author notes that some traumatic brain injury patients close eyes in response to painful stimuli as opposed to the eye opening response to pain of the GCS. A revision of the eye opening response subsection of the GCS is suggested.

  13. Hypoketotic hypoglycemic coma in a 21-month-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, M A; Arnold, G L; Mooney, R; Bennett, M J; Rinaldo, P; Roe, C R

    1999-09-01

    We present the case of a 21-month-old child with hypoketotic hypoglycemic coma. The differential diagnosis initially included metabolic causes versus a toxicologic emergency (unripe ackee fruit poisoning). Using information obtained from the emergency department, the diagnosis was confirmed as the late-onset form of glutaric acidemia type II. This case illustrates the importance of emergency physicians in the diagnosis and management of children with inborn errors of metabolism.

  14. Disconnection of the ascending arousal system in traumatic coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlow, Brian L; Haynes, Robin L; Takahashi, Emi; Klein, Joshua P; Cummings, Peter; Benner, Thomas; Greer, David M; Greenberg, Steven M; Wu, Ona; Kinney, Hannah C; Folkerth, Rebecca D

    2013-06-01

    Traumatic coma is associated with disruption of axonal pathways throughout the brain, but the specific pathways involved in humans are incompletely understood. In this study, we used high angular resolution diffusion imaging to map the connectivity of axonal pathways that mediate the 2 critical components of consciousness-arousal and awareness-in the postmortem brain of a 62-year-old woman with acute traumatic coma and in 2 control brains. High angular resolution diffusion imaging tractography guided tissue sampling in the neuropathologic analysis. High angular resolution diffusion imaging tractography demonstrated complete disruption of white matter pathways connecting brainstem arousal nuclei to the basal forebrain and thalamic intralaminar and reticular nuclei. In contrast, hemispheric arousal pathways connecting the thalamus and basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex were only partially disrupted, as were the cortical "awareness pathways." Neuropathologic examination, which used β-amyloid precursor protein and fractin immunomarkers, revealed axonal injury in the white matter of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres that corresponded to sites of high angular resolution diffusion imaging tract disruption. Axonal injury was also present within the gray matter of the hypothalamus, thalamus, basal forebrain, and cerebral cortex. We propose that traumatic coma may be a subcortical disconnection syndrome related to the disconnection of specific brainstem arousal nuclei from the thalamus and basal forebrain.

  15. Truncation of the krebs cycle during hypoglycemic coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Garnette R; Tyson, Randy L; Auer, Roland N

    2008-07-01

    There is a misconception that hypoglycemic nerve cell death occurs easily, and can happen in the absence of coma. In fact, coma is the prerequisite for neuronal death, which occurs via metabolic excitatory amino acid release. The focus on nerve cell death does not explain how most brain neurons and all glia survive. Brain metabolism was interrogated in rats during and following recovery from 40 min of profound hypoglycemia using ex vivo (1)H MR spectroscopy to determine alterations accounting for survival of brain tissue. As previously shown, a time-dependent increase in aspartate was equaled by a reciprocal decrease in glutamate/glutamine. We here show that the kinetics of aspartate formation during the first 30 min (0.36 +/- 0.03 micromol g(-1) min(-1)) are altered such that glutamate, via aspartate aminotransferase, becomes the primary source of carbon when glucose-derived pyruvate is unavailable. Oxaloacetate is produced directly from alpha-ketoglutarate, so that reactions involving the six-carbon intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle are bypassed. These fundamental observations in basic metabolic pathways in effect redraw the tricarboxylic acid cycle from a tricarboxylic to a dicarboxylic acid cycle during hypoglycemia. The basic neurochemical alterations according to the chemical equilibrium of mass action augments flux through a truncated Krebs cycle that continues to turn during hypoglycemic coma. This explains the partial preservation of energy charge and brain cell survival during periods of glucose deficiency.

  16. A study of the reliability of the Nociception Coma Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riganello, F; Cortese, M D; Arcuri, F; Candelieri, A; Guglielmino, F; Dolce, G; Sannita, W G; Schnakers, C

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the reliability of the Nociception Coma Scale which has recently been developed to assess nociception in non-communicative, severely brain-injured patients. Prospective cross-sequential study. Semi-intensive care unit and long-term brain injury care. Forty-four patients diagnosed as being in a vegetative state (n=26) or in a minimally conscious state (n=18). Patients were assessed by two experts (rater A and rater B) on two consecutive weeks to measure inter-rater agreement and test-retest reliability. Total scores and subscores of the Nociception Coma Scale. We performed a total of 176 assessments. The inter-rater agreement was moderate for the total scores (k = 0.57) and fair to substantial for the subscores (0.33 ≤ k ≤ 0.62) on week 2. The test-retest reliability was substantial for the total scores (k = 0.66) and moderate to almost perfect for the subscores (0.53 ≤ k ≤ 0.96) for rater A. The inter-rater agreement was weaker on week 1, whereas the test-retest reliability was lower for the least experienced rater (rater B). This study provides further evidence of the psychometric qualities of the Nociception Coma Scale. Future studies should assess the impact of practical experience and background on administration and scoring of the scale. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Right Median Nerve Electrical Stimulation for Acute Traumatic Coma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jin; Wang, Lei; Gao, Guoyi; Cooper, Edwin; Jiang, Jiyao

    2015-10-15

    The right median nerve as a peripheral portal to the central nervous system can be electrically stimulated to help coma arousal after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present study set out to examine the efficacy and safety of right median nerve electrical stimulation (RMNS) in a cohort of 437 comatose patients after severe TBI from August 2005 to December 2011. The patients were enrolled 2 weeks after their injury and assigned to the RMNS group (n=221) receiving electrical stimulation for 2 weeks or the control group (n = 216) treated by standard management according to the date of birth in the month. The baseline data were similar. After the 2-week treatment, the RMNS-treated patients demonstrated a more rapid increase of the mean Glasgow Coma Score, although statistical significance was not reached (8.43 ± 4.98 vs. 7.47 ± 5.37, p = 0.0532). The follow-up data at 6-month post-injury showed a significantly higher proportion of patients who regained consciousness (59.8% vs. 46.2%, p = 0.0073). There was a lower proportion of vegetative persons in the RMNS group than in the control group (17.6% vs. 22.0%, p = 0.0012). For persons regaining consciousness, the functional independence measurement (FIM) score was higher among the RMNS group patients (91.45 ± 8.65 vs. 76.23 ± 11.02, p coma in the early phase.

  18. Coma and vegetative states: state of the art and proposal of a novel approach combining existing coma scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Tommaso Bonsignore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain damage of various aetiologies can lead to different disorders of consciousness (DOC, varying from coma to vegetative, to minimally conscious states. Each state is characterised by a different degree of wakefulness, awareness, pain sensitivity and is differentially handled with respect to treatment, ethical considerations and end-of-life decisions. Thus, its correct identification is crucial while devising or modulating appropriate treatment strategies. Actually, the main coma scales cannot always accurately determine the state of consciousness of an individual, while other tools (e.g. imaging techniques present a certain degree of uncertainty. A complementary approach may be constituted by a 24-hour observation of patients, for a sufficient period of days, using an ad hoc behavioural scale, further correlated with physiological and pharmacological parameters measured on patients. The method herein described might help recognising the presence of consciousness of the different DOC patients, and thus discerning a vegetative from a minimally conscious state.

  19. Coma and vegetative states: state of the art and proposal of a novel approach combining existing coma scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, Luca Tommaso; Macrì, Simone; Orsi, Paolo; Chiarotti, Flavia; Alleva, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Brain damage of various aetiologies can lead to different disorders of consciousness (DOC), varying from coma to vegetative, to minimally conscious states. Each state is characterised by a different degree of wakefulness, awareness, pain sensitivity and is differentially handled with respect to treatment, ethical considerations and end-oflife decisions. Thus, its correct identification is crucial while devising or modulating appropriate treatment strategies. Actually, the main coma scales cannot always accurately determine the state of consciousness of an individual, while other tools (e.g. imaging techniques) present a certain degree of uncertainty. A complementary approach may be constituted by a 24-hour observation of patients, for a sufficient period of days, using an ad hoc behavioural scale, further correlated with physiological and pharmacological parameters measured on patients. The method herein described might help recognising the presence of consciousness of the different DOC patients, and thus discerning a vegetative from a minimally conscious state.

  20. Experimental gastric ulcers induced by immobilization and electric shock of rats and their pharmacotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabrodin, O. N.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism of development of experimental gastric ulcers, induced in rats by combined immobilization and electric shock, was analyzed pharmacologically with peripheral neurotropic agents. It is concluded that: (1) The most marked preventive effect in the development of the experimentally induced gastric ulcers was displayed by agents capable of blocking the ascending activation system of the reticular formation. (2) Sympathetic fibers, which disrupt the trophism of the gastric wall, form the efferent portion of the reflex arc. (3) Gastric secretion does not appear to be the primary cause of ulceration.

  1. Cardioprotective effect of amlodipine in oxidative stress induced by experimental myocardial infarction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhira Begum

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether the administration of amlodipine ameliorates oxidative stress induced by experimental myocardial infarction in rats. Adrenaline was administered and myocardial damage was evaluated biochemically [significantly increased serum aspertate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and malondialdehyde (MDA levels of myocardial tissue] and histologically (morphological changes of myocardium. Amlodipine was administered as pretreatment for 14 days in adrenaline treated rats. Statistically significant amelioration in all the biochemical parameters supported by significantly improved myocardial morphology was observed in amlodipine pretreatment. It was concluded that amlodipine afforded cardioprotection by reducing oxidative stress induced in experimental myocardial infarction of catecholamine assault.

  2. Comparison of APACHE II, MEES and Glasgow Coma Scale in patients with nontraumatic coma for prediction of mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grmec, Štefek; Gašparovic, Vladimir

    2001-01-01

    Introduction: There are numerous prehosital descriptive scoring systems, and it is uncertain whether they are efficient in assessing of the severity of illness and whether they have a prognostic role in the estimation of the illness outcome (in comparison with that of the prognostic scoring system Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II). The purpose of the present study was to assess the value of the various scoring systems in predicting outcome in nontraumatic coma patients and to evaluate the importance of mental status measurement in relation to outcome. Patients and methods: In a prehospital setting, postintervention values of the Mainz Emergency Evaluation System (MEES) and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) were measured for each patient. The APACHE II score was recorded on the day of admission to the hospital. This study was undertaken over a 2-year period (from January 1996 to October 1998), and included 286 consecutive patients (168 men, 118 women) who were hospitalized for nontraumatic coma. Patients younger than 16 years were not included. Their age varied from 16 to 87 years, with mean ± standard deviation of 51.8 ± 16.9 years. Sensitivity, specificity and correct prediction of outcome were measured using the χ2 method, with four severity scores. The best cutoff point in each scoring system was determined using the Youden index. The difference in Youden index was calculated using the Z score. For each score, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was obtained. The difference in ROC was calculated using the Z score. P coma. For the assessment of mortality, the GCS score provides the best indicator for these patients (simplicity, less time-consuming and effective in an emergency situation. PMID:11178221

  3. Histometric assessment of the effect of diabetes mellitus on experimentally induced periodontitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepelassi, Eudoxie; Xynogala, Ioanna; Perrea, Despina; Agrogiannis, George; Pantopoulou, Alkistis; Patsouris, Efstratios; Vrotsos, Ioannis

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this interventional animal study was to assess histologically the effect of experimental diabetes in rats with experimental periodontitis in terms of alveolar bone loss and the effect of experimental periodontitis on glucose levels in diabetes. Forty-seven Wistar rats were studied: 12 healthy controls (C), 10 with experimental diabetes (D), 12 with experimental diabetes and experimental periodontitis (DP) and 13 with experimental periodontitis (P). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection and periodontitis was induced at the right second maxillary molar by ligation. Serum glucose levels were measured at specific time points. Sixty-one days after ligation, the rats were sacrificed. Histometric analysis assessed alveolar crest level. For ligated groups, alveolar bone loss was expressed as the difference in alveolar crest level between right and left maxillary molars. Diabetes alone did not statistically significantly affect alveolar crest level. The combination of diabetes and periodontitis caused greater alveolar bone loss (946.1 +/- 719.9 microm) than periodontitis alone (639.7 +/- 294.2 microm); however, the difference did not reach statistical significance. Periodontitis did not significantly increase glucose levels in diabetic rats. The average glucose levels were 545.4 (499 - 563) and 504.5 (445 - 560) mg/dL for diabetic and diabetic ligated rats, respectively. Within its limits, this study demonstrated that the severity of alveolar bone loss in periodontitis was not significantly aggravated by diabetes and the serum glucose levels in diabetes were not affected by periodontitis.

  4. Cowhage-induced itch as an experimental model for pruritus. A comparative study with histamine-induced itch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru D P Papoiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histamine is the prototypical pruritogen used in experimental itch induction. However, in most chronic pruritic diseases, itch is not predominantly mediated by histamine. Cowhage-induced itch, on the other hand, seems more characteristic of itch occurring in chronic pruritic diseases. OBJECTIVES: We tested the validity of cowhage as an itch-inducing agent by contrasting it with the classical itch inducer, histamine, in healthy subjects and atopic dermatitis (AD patients. We also investigated whether there was a cumulative effect when both agents were combined. METHODS: Fifteen healthy individuals and fifteen AD patients were recruited. Experimental itch induction was performed in eczema-free areas on the volar aspects of the forearm, using different itch inducers: histamine, cowhage and their combination thereof. Itch intensity was assessed continuously for 5.5 minutes after stimulus application using a computer-assisted visual analogue scale (COVAS. RESULTS: In both healthy and AD subjects, the mean and peak intensity of itch were higher after the application of cowhage compared to histamine, and were higher after the combined application of cowhage and histamine, compared to histamine alone (p<0.0001 in all cases. Itch intensity ratings were not significantly different between healthy and AD subjects for the same itch inducer used; however AD subjects exhibited a prolonged itch response in comparison to healthy subjects (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Cowhage induced a more intense itch sensation compared to histamine. Cowhage was the dominant factor in itch perception when both pathways were stimulated in the same time. Cowhage-induced itch is a suitable model for the study of itch in AD and other chronic pruritic diseases, and it can serve as a new model for testing antipruritic drugs in humans.

  5. Experimentally induced stress in rheumatoid arthritis of recent onset: effects on peripheral blood lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, R.; Godaert, G. L.; Heijnen, C. J.; Vianen, M. E.; Wenting, M. J.; Nederhoff, M. G.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    To examine the effects of experimentally-induced stress on the mobilization of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of recent onset. Twenty-two (16 F, 6 M) patients (mean age 57.6 yrs.) and 23 (15 F, 8 M) healthy subjects (mean age 54.7 yrs.) were subjected

  6. Astrocytes and microglia express inducible nitric oxide synthase in mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, E H; Hardin-Pouzet, H; Verge, G

    1997-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), produced by inducible NO synthase (iNOS), may play a role in inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). We show upregulation of iNOS mRNA in CNS of SJL/J mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). Using antibodies against mouse i...

  7. Diet shifts and population dynamics of estuarine foraminifera during ecosystem recovery after experimentally induced hypoxia crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, G.M.; Duijnstee, Ivo; Hazeleger, J.H.; Rossi, F.; Lourens, L.J.; Middelburg, J.J.; Wolthers, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study shows foraminiferal dynamics after experimentally induced hypoxia within the wider context of ecosystem recovery. 13C-labeled bicarbonate and glucose were added to the sediments to examine foraminiferal diet shifts during ecosystem recovery and test-size measurements were used to deduce

  8. An experimental model of rhinovirus induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallia Patrick

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute exacerbations of COPD are a major cause of morbidity, mortality and hospitalisation. Respiratory viruses are associated with the majority of exacerbations but a causal relationship has not been demonstrated and the mechanisms of virus-induced exacerbations are poorly understood. Development of a human experimental model would provide evidence of causation and would greatly facilitate understanding mechanisms, but no such model exists. Methods We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of developing an experimental model of rhinovirus induced COPD exacerbations and to assess safety of rhinovirus infection in COPD patients. We carried out a pilot virus dose escalating study to assess the minimum dose of rhinovirus 16 required to induce experimental rhinovirus infection in subjects with COPD (GOLD stage II. Outcomes were assessed by monitoring of upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms, lung function, and virus replication and inflammatory responses in nasal lavage. Results All 4 subjects developed symptomatic colds with the lowest dose of virus tested, associated with evidence of viral replication and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in nasal lavage. These were accompanied by significant increases in lower respiratory tract symptoms and reductions in PEF and FEV1. There were no severe exacerbations or other adverse events. Conclusion Low dose experimental rhinovirus infection in patients with COPD induces symptoms and lung function changes typical of an acute exacerbation of COPD, appears safe, and provides preliminary evidence of causation.

  9. Status of experimental data of proton-induced reactions for intermediate-energy nuclear data evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yukinobu; Kawano, Toshihiko [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Yamano, Naoki; Fukahori, Tokio

    1998-11-01

    The present status of experimental data of proton-induced reactions is reviewed, with particular attention to total reaction cross section, elastic and inelastic scattering cross section, double-differential particle production cross section, isotope production cross section, and activation cross section. (author)

  10. Bone marrow-derived versus parenchymal sources of inducible nitric oxide synthase in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zehntner, Simone P; Bourbonniere, Lyne; Hassan-Zahraee, Mina

    2004-01-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in central nervous system (CNS) inflammation is uncertain. Whereas experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is exacerbated in mice deficient in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), inhibitor studies have suggested a pro-inflammatory role for NO. These discr...

  11. Experimental coronary sclerosis induced by immobilization of rabbits: A new model of arteriosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyavokin, V. V.; Tjawokin, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    A new method for producing arteriosclerosis with coronary insufficiency in rabbits by means of immobilization is described and discussed. The experimentally induced atherosclerosis develops due to hypodynamics imposed by the reduced muscular activity without overloading with exogenous cholesterol. The atherosclerosis and coronary insufficiency are associated. With variations in the duration and extent of immobilization, coronary insufficiency alone or with atherosclerosis can be produced.

  12. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Shock-Induced Reactions in Energetic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, Jeffrey J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Park, Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kohl, Ian Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knepper, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Farrow, Darcie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tappan, Alexander S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    In this work, shock-induced reactions in high explosives and their chemical mechanisms were investigated using state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical techniques. Experimentally, ultrafast shock interrogation (USI, an ultrafast interferometry technique) and ultrafast absorption spectroscopy were used to interrogate shock compression and initiation of reaction on the picosecond timescale. The experiments yielded important new data that appear to indicate reaction of high explosives on the timescale of tens of picoseconds in response to shock compression, potentially setting new upper limits on the timescale of reaction. Theoretically, chemical mechanisms of shock-induced reactions were investigated using density functional theory. The calculations generated important insights regarding the ability of several hypothesized mechanisms to account for shock-induced reactions in explosive materials. The results of this work constitute significant advances in our understanding of the fundamental chemical reaction mechanisms that control explosive sensitivity and initiation of detonation.

  13. Transient Coma Due To Epidural Anesthesia: The Role of Loss of Sensory Input

    OpenAIRE

    Dardis, Christopher; Lawlor, David; Schusse, Courtney M.

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 22 Final Diagnosis: Coma due to loss of sensory input Symptoms: Coma Medication: Lidocaine Clinical Procedure: Epidural Specialty: Anesthesiology Objective: Unknown ethiology Background: Epidural anesthesia is the most commonly used method of pain relief during labor in the USA. It is not classically associated with alterations in level of alertness. Coma during the procedure is rare, with a reported incidence of 0.1?0.3%. Case Report: An otherwise healthy patient experienced...

  14. The effect of preferred music genre selection versus preferred song selection on experimentally induced anxiety levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Darcy DeLoach

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of experimentally induced anxiety levels reached by subjects listening to no music (n = 30), subjects listening to music selected by the experimenter from the subject's preferred genre or artist listed as relaxing (n = 30), and subjects listening to a specific song they listed as relaxing (n = 30). Subjects consisted of 90 individuals, male and female, randomly assigned to one of the three groups mentioned above. Subjects in either music group filled out a questionnaire prior to participating in the study indicating their preference of music used for relaxation purposes. Subjects in Experimental Group 1 marked their preferred genres and/or artists, and Experimental Group 2 marked specific songs used for relaxation purposes. While the experimenter hypothesized subjects in Experimental Group 2 would show less anxiety than both the control group and Experimental Group 1, there were no significant differences found between the 2 music groups in anxiety levels reached. However, there was a statistically significant difference between the no music control group and both music groups in the anxiety level reached by subjects. Subjects listening to music, both songs chosen by the experimenter and subject selected songs, showed significantly less anxiety than subjects not listening to music.

  15. An independent elderly woman with rapid onset of coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jindong; Yachnis, Anthony T; Malaty, Irene

    2014-08-01

    A 75-year-old woman was transferred from a local hospital because of rapid progression to coma preceded by lower back pain and recurrent falls. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis at the local hospital revealed increased protein with a slightly elevated white blood cell count. Our imaging studies revealed multiple punctate foci with nodular enhancement in the brain and multifocal cystic lesions on the chest and abdomen. The patient was empirically treated with antibiotics and corticosteroids without improvement. She died 3 days after transfer, and autopsy was performed. The differential diagnosis, pathologic findings, and final diagnosis are discussed.

  16. The kinetics and dynamics of the coma of Halley's comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    This grant to the University of Michigan supported the efforts of Michael R. Combi to serve as a co-investigator in collaboration with a larger effort by the principal investigator, William Smyth of Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. The overall objective of this project was to analyze in a self-consistent manner unique optical O((sup 1)D) and NH2 ultra-high resolution line profile data of excellent quality and other supporting lower-resolution spectral data for the coma of comet P/Halley by using highly developed and physically-based cometary coma models in order to determine and explain in terms of physical processes the actual dynamics and photochemical kinetics that occur in the coma. The justification for this work is that it provides a valuable and underlying physical base from which to interpret significantly different types of coma observations in a self-consistent manner and hence bring into agreement (or avoid) apparent inconsistencies that arise from non-physically based interpretations. The level of effort for the Michigan component amounted to less than three person-months over a planned period of three years. The period had been extended at no extra cost to four years because the Michigan grant and the AER contract did not have coincident time periods. An effort of somewhat larger scope was undertaken by the PI. The importance of the O((sup 1)D) profiles is that they provide a direct trace of the water distribution in comets. The line profile shape is produced by the convolution of the outflow velocity and thermal dispersion of the parent water molecules with the photokinetic ejection of the oxygen atoms upon photodissociation of the parent water molecules. Our understanding of the NH2 and its precursor ammonia are important for comet-to-comet composition variations as they relate to the cosmo-chemistry of the early solar nebula. Modeling of the distribution of NH2 is necessary in order to infer the ammonia production rates from NH2

  17. Experimentally induced mastitis and metritis modulate soy bean derived isoflavone biotransformation in diary cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk-Zieba, I; Woclawek-Potocka, I; Piskula, M K; Piotrowska-Tomala, K K; Boruszewska, D; Bah, M M; Siemieniuch, M J; Skarzynski, D J

    2011-12-01

    The present study compared the changes in isoflavone (daidzein and genistein) and their metabolite (equol and para-ethyl-phenol) concentrations in the blood plasma of cows with induced mastitis and metritis after feeding with soy bean. Sixteen cows were divided into four groups: control for mastitis group, cows with induced mastitis group, control for metritis group, and cows with induced metritis group. All cows were fed a single dose of 2.5 kg of soy bean and then blood samples were taken from the jugular vein for 8 h at predetermined intervals. The concentrations of soy bean-derived isoflavones and their active metabolites were measured in the blood plasma on HPLC system. β-Glucuronidase activity in the blood plasma of cows was measured by fluorometric method. In the blood plasma of cows with induced mastitis and metritis, we found considerably higher concentrations and time-dependent increase in isoflavone metabolites (equol and para-ethyl-phenol) with reference to cyclic cows (P cows with induced metritis compared with control cows (P cows with induced metritis, we found an increase in β-glucuronidase activity compared with control cows (P cows. Experimentally induced mastitis and metritis increased isoflavone absorption, biotransformation and metabolism. Therefore, we suggest that cows with induced mastitis and metritis are more exposed to active isoflavone metabolite actions than healthy cows. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Ischemic conditioning protects from axoglial alterations of the optic pathway induced by experimental diabetes in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego C Fernandez

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness. Visual function disorders have been demonstrated in diabetics even before the onset of retinopathy. At early stages of experimental diabetes, axoglial alterations occur at the distal portion of the optic nerve. Although ischemic conditioning can protect neurons and synaptic terminals against ischemic damage, there is no information on its ability to protect axons. We analyzed the effect of ischemic conditioning on the early axoglial alterations in the distal portion of the optic nerve induced by experimental diabetes. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Retinal ischemia was induced by increasing intraocular pressure to 120 mm Hg for 5 min; this maneuver started 3 days after streptozotocin injection and was weekly repeated in one eye, while the contralateral eye was submitted to a sham procedure. The application of ischemia pulses prevented a deficit in the anterograde transport from the retina to the superior colliculus, as well as an increase in astrocyte reactivity, ultraestructural myelin alterations, and altered morphology of oligodendrocyte lineage in the optic nerve distal portion at early stages of experimental diabetes. Ischemia tolerance prevented a significant decrease of retinal glutamine synthetase activity induced by diabetes. These results suggest that early vision loss in diabetes could be abated by ischemic conditioning which preserved axonal function and structure.

  19. Ischemic conditioning protects from axoglial alterations of the optic pathway induced by experimental diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Diego C; Pasquini, Laura A; Dorfman, Damián; Aldana Marcos, Hernán J; Rosenstein, Ruth E

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness. Visual function disorders have been demonstrated in diabetics even before the onset of retinopathy. At early stages of experimental diabetes, axoglial alterations occur at the distal portion of the optic nerve. Although ischemic conditioning can protect neurons and synaptic terminals against ischemic damage, there is no information on its ability to protect axons. We analyzed the effect of ischemic conditioning on the early axoglial alterations in the distal portion of the optic nerve induced by experimental diabetes. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Retinal ischemia was induced by increasing intraocular pressure to 120 mm Hg for 5 min; this maneuver started 3 days after streptozotocin injection and was weekly repeated in one eye, while the contralateral eye was submitted to a sham procedure. The application of ischemia pulses prevented a deficit in the anterograde transport from the retina to the superior colliculus, as well as an increase in astrocyte reactivity, ultraestructural myelin alterations, and altered morphology of oligodendrocyte lineage in the optic nerve distal portion at early stages of experimental diabetes. Ischemia tolerance prevented a significant decrease of retinal glutamine synthetase activity induced by diabetes. These results suggest that early vision loss in diabetes could be abated by ischemic conditioning which preserved axonal function and structure.

  20. Peripheral site of action of levodropropizine in experimentally-induced cough: role of sensory neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavezzo, A; Melillo, G; Clavenna, G; Omini, C

    1992-06-01

    The mechanism of action of levodropropizine has been investigated in different models of experimentally-induced cough in guinea-pigs. In particular it has been demonstrated that the antitussive drug has a peripheral site of action by injecting the drug intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). In these experiments levodropropizine (40 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) did not prevent electrically-induced cough. On the other hand, codeine (5 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) markedly prevented coughing. A difference in the potency ratio of levodropropizine and codeine has been demonstrated in capsaicin-induced cough; after oral administration, codeine was about two to three times more potent than levodropropizine. However, after aerosol administration the two compounds were equipotent. These data might suggest a peripheral site of action for levodropropizine which is related to sensory neuropeptides. Further support for the role of sensory neuropeptides in the mechanism of action of levodropropizine comes from the results obtained in capsaicin-desensitized animals. In this experimental model levodropropizine failed to prevent the vagally elicited cough in neuropeptide-depleted animals, whereas codeine did not differentiate between control and capsaicin-treated animals. In conclusion, our results support the suggestion that levodropropizine has a peripheral site of action. In addition, the interference with the sensory neuropeptide system may explain, at least in part, its activity in experimentally-induced cough.

  1. Experimental gingivitis induces systemic inflammatory markers in young healthy individuals: a single-subject interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Jörg; Grote, Karsten; Luchtefeld, Maren; Heuer, Wieland; Schuett, Harald; Divchev, Dimitar; Scherer, Ralph; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Langfeldt, Daniela; Stumpp, Nico; Staufenbiel, Ingmar; Schieffer, Bernhard; Stiesch, Meike

    2013-01-01

    We here investigated whether experimental gingivitis enhances systemic markers of inflammation which are also known as surrogate markers of atherosclerotic plaque development. Gingivitis is a low-level oral infection induced by bacterial deposits with a high prevalence within Western populations. A potential link between the more severe oral disease periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has already been shown. 37 non-smoking young volunteers with no inflammatory disease or any cardiovascular risk factors participated in this single-subject interventional study with an intra-individual control. Intentionally experimental oral inflammation was induced by the interruption of oral hygiene for 21 days, followed by a 21-days resolving phase after reinitiation of oral hygiene. Primary outcome measures at baseline, day 21 and 42 were concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6, and MCP-1, as well as adhesion capacity and oxLDL uptake of isolated blood monocytes. The partial cessation of oral hygiene procedures was followed by the significant increase of gingival bleeding (34.0%, Pgingivitis. Bacterial-induced gingival low-level inflammation induced a systemic increase in inflammatory markers. Dental hygiene almost completely reversed this experimental inflammatory process, suggesting that appropriate dental prophylaxis may also limit systemic markers of inflammation in subjects with natural gingivitis. International Clinical Trials Register Platform of the World Health Organization, registry number: DRKS00003366, URL: http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Default.aspx.

  2. Microbiological profile and calprotectin expression in naturally occurring and experimentally induced gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Roberto; Guarnelli, Maria Elena; Figuero, Elena; Herrera, David; Sanz, Mariano; Trombelli, Leonardo

    2012-10-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the microbiological profile and the calprotectin expression in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in spontaneous and experimentally induced gingival inflammation. Thirty-seven periodontally healthy subjects were evaluated in real life conditions (N-O gingivitis) as well as after 21 days of experimental gingivitis trial (E-I gingivitis). During the experimental gingivitis trial, in one maxillary quadrant (test quadrant), gingival inflammation was induced by oral hygiene abstention, while in the contralateral (control) quadrant, oral hygiene was routinely continued. The results of the study showed that (1) the microbiological profile of quadrants where gingival inflammation was experimentally induced (i.e., E-I test quadrants) differed significantly from that of either quadrants where gingival inflammation was controlled by proper plaque control (i.e., E-I control quadrants) or quadrants with N-O gingivitis, and (2) GCF calprotectin was significantly higher at E-I test quadrants compared to either E-I control quadrants or quadrants with N-O gingivitis. A positive intrasubject correlation was found between GCF concentration of calprotectin at sites presenting N-O and E-I gingivitis. N-O and E-I gingivitis showed a different microbiological profile of the subgingival environment. GCF calprotectin is a reliable marker of gingival inflammation, and its concentration in N-O gingivitis is correlated with its expression in E-I gingivitis. The modality of plaque accumulation seems to affect the subgingival microbiological profile associated with a gingivitis condition. Calprotectin levels in GCF may be regarded as a promising marker of the individual susceptibility to develop gingival inflammation in response to experimentally induced plaque accumulation.

  3. Experimental Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion Induces Upstream Pericyte Loss and Vascular Destabilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Dominguez

    Full Text Available Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO leads to extensive vascular remodeling and is important cause of visual impairment. Although the vascular morphological changes following experimental vein occlusion have been described in a variety of models using angiography, the underlying cellular events are ill defined.We here show that laser-induced experimental BRVO in mice leads to a wave of TUNEL-positive endothelial cell (EC apoptosis in the upstream vascular network associated with a transient edema and hemorrhages. Subsequently, we observe an induction of EC proliferation within the dilated vein and capillaries, detected by EdU incorporation, and the edema resolves. However, the pericytes of the upstream capillaries are severely reduced, which was associated with continuing EC apoptosis and proliferation. The vascular remodeling was associated with increased expression of TGFβ, TSP-1, but also FGF2 expression. Exposure of the experimental animals to hypoxia, when pericyte (PC dropout had occurred, led to a dramatic increase in endothelial cell proliferation, confirming the vascular instability induced by the experimental BRVO.Experimental BRVO leads to acute endothelial cells apoptosis and increased permeability. Subsequently the upstream vascular network remains destabilized, characterized by pericyte dropout, un-physiologically high endothelial cells turnover and sensitivity to hypoxia. These early changes might pave the way for capillary loss and subsequent chronic ischemia and edema that characterize the late stage disease.

  4. X-ray archaeology in the Coma cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Simon D. M.; Briel, Ulrich G.; Henry, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    We present images of X-ray emission from hot gas within the Coma cluster of galaxies. These maps, made with the ROSAT satellite, have much higher SNR than any previous X-ray image of a galaxy cluster, and allow cluster structure to be analyzed in unprecedented detail. They show greater structural irregularity than might have been anticipated from earlier observations of Coma. Emission is detected from a number of bright cluster galaxies in addition to the two known previously. In four cases, there is evidence that these galaxies lie at the center of an extended subconcentration within the cluster, possibly the remnant of their associated groups. For at least two galaxies, the images show direct evidence for ongoing disruption of their gaseous atmosphere. The luminosity associated with these galaxies is comparable to that detected around similar ellipticals in much poorer environments. Emission is easily detected to the limit of our field, about 1 deg from the cluster center, and appears to become more regular at large radii. The data show clearly that this archetype of a rich and regular galaxy cluster was, in fact, formed by the merging of several distinct subunits which are not yet fully destroyed.

  5. Experimental Study of the Laser-Induced Oxyhemoglobin Photodissociation in Cutaneous Blood Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisbrecht Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A new optical method for reduction of local tissue hypoxia is proposed. It is shown that this method of phototherapy allows the control of a local oxygen concentration in tissue. Different aspects of biomedical application of this phenomenon are discussed. The results of in vivo experimental investigation of the laser-induced photodissociation of oxyhemoglobin in cutaneous blood vessels and its role in tissue oxygenation are presented. The rates of oxygen saturation SpO2 in blood and their dependence on the wavelength of the transcutaneous laser irradiation have been experimentally measured.

  6. Laser induced deflection technique for absolute thin film absorption measurement: optimized concepts and experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlig, Christian; Kufert, Siegfried; Bublitz, Simon; Speck, Uwe

    2011-03-20

    Using experimental results and numerical simulations, two measuring concepts of the laser induced deflection (LID) technique are introduced and optimized for absolute thin film absorption measurements from deep ultraviolet to IR wavelengths. For transparent optical coatings, a particular probe beam deflection direction allows the absorption measurement with virtually no influence of the substrate absorption, yielding improved accuracy compared to the common techniques of separating bulk and coating absorption. For high-reflection coatings, where substrate absorption contributions are negligible, a different probe beam deflection is chosen to achieve a better signal-to-noise ratio. Various experimental results for the two different measurement concepts are presented.

  7. Incidence, predictors and outcomes of postoperative coma: an observational study of 858,606 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Jessica; Blake, Kathryn; Fennema, Jordan; Harris, David; Shanks, Amy; Avidan, Michael S; Kelz, Max B; Mashour, George A

    2013-08-01

    Coma is a state of profound unresponsiveness that can occur as a serious perioperative complication. The study of risk factors for, and sequelae of, postoperative coma has been limited due to the rarity of the event. To determine the incidence, risk factors and impact of postoperative coma in a large patient population. Observational study using a prospectively gathered national dataset. Data from 858 606 patients were analysed. The incidence of postoperative coma of more than 24-h duration was identified. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors and develop a risk model of postoperative coma in derivation and validation cohorts; 30-day mortality was also analysed. The incidence of postoperative coma was 0.06%. Multivariate analysis revealed the following independent predictors: liver disease, systemic sepsis, age at least 63 years, renal disease, emergency operation, cardiac disease, hypertension, prior neurological disease, diabetes mellitus and BMI 25 to 29.99 kg m (protective). These predictors were incorporated into a risk index classification; odds ratios for postoperative coma increased from 2.5 with one risk factor to 18.4 with three. Coma was associated with 74.2% all-cause mortality; coma associated with cardiac arrest had a 1.9-fold higher mortality. This is the largest study of postoperative coma ever reported and will be useful for determining risk of coma of more than 24 h duration when evaluating an unresponsive patient following surgery. Data on prognosis will aid medical and ethical decision-making for the comatose surgical patient.

  8. Clinical and experimental studies on effects of chemotherapeutic agents on radiation-induced pulmonary damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadasaki, Kouichi

    1988-12-01

    Clinical and experimental studies were undertaken to evaluate the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on radiation-induced pulmonary damage. In a clinical study, one hundred patients with lung cancer were retrospectively reviewed in terms of the development of radiation pneumonitis. In the patients treated with radiation and chemotherapy except for cisplatinum, radiation pneumonitis occurred more frequently and severely than patients with radiation alone. In an experimental study, male SD rats received 15 Gy radiation to the right lungs with or without injection of chemotherapeutic agents including cisplatinum, adriamycin or peplomycin. Histological changes and hydroxyproline contents of the lungs were evaluated at 2 or 5 months after treatment. Pulmonary damage was severer in rats with radiation and drugs than those with radiation alone. However, rats with cisplatinum had less damage than those with other drugs. In conclusion, radiation-induced pulmonary damage was enhanced by administration of several chemotherapeutic agents. However, cisplatinum seemed to enhance pulmonary damage less than other drugs. (author) 77 refs.

  9. Coma, metabolic acidosis, and methemoglobinemia in a patient with acetaminophen toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, Hussein D; Mithani, Shazma; Boucher, Paul; Dias, Valerian C; Yarema, Mark C

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of early coma, metabolic acidosis and methemoglobinemia after substantial acetaminophen toxicity in the absence of hepatic failure. A 77-year-old female presented to the emergency department with a decreased level of consciousness. She was found unresponsive by a family member in her bed, and was reported to be acting normally when she was last seen eight hours earlier. Laboratory results on arrival were: pH 7.19, sodium 139 mmol/L, chloride 106 mmol/L, potassium 3.3 mmol/L, CO2 8 mmol/L, and an anion gap of 25. Both venous lactate (10.2 mmol/L) and methemoglobin (9.4 %) were elevated. The patient's acetaminophen concentration was markedly elevated at 7138 µmol/L (1078 µg/ml). Hepatic enzymes and coagulation tests were normal [alanine transaminase (ALT) 8 U/L, international normalized ratio (INR) 1.0]. Intravenous N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was initiated at a dose of 150 mg/kg over 15 minutes, followed by 50 mg/kg over the next four hours, followed by 100 mg/kg over the next 16 hours. Twenty-four hours after admission, the anion gap metabolic acidosis had resolved, and the methemoglobin was 2.1%. Aminotransferases peaked at 44 U/L and INR peaked at 1.9. A urine 5-oxoproline assay performed five days after admission was negative, suggesting no evidence of a 5-oxoprolinase deficiency. We describe the pathophysiology and discuss the literature on acetaminophen-induced coma and metabolic acidosis in the absence of hepatic injury; and propose mechanisms for associated methemoglobinemia. 

  10. Chronic dietary salt stress mitigates hyperkalemia and facilitates chill coma recovery in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerushalmi, Gil Y; Misyura, Lidiya; Donini, Andrew; MacMillan, Heath A

    2016-12-01

    Chill susceptible insects like Drosophila lose the ability to regulate water and ion homeostasis at low temperatures. This loss of hemolymph ion and water balance drives a hyperkalemic state that depolarizes cells, causing cellular injury and death. The ability to maintain ion homeostasis at low temperatures and/or recover ion homeostasis upon rewarming is closely related to insect cold tolerance. We thus hypothesized that changes to organismal ion balance, which can be achieved in Drosophila through dietary salt loading, could alter whole animal cold tolerance phenotypes. We put Drosophila melanogaster in the presence of diets highly enriched in NaCl, KCl, xylitol (an osmotic control) or sucrose (a dietary supplement known to impact cold tolerance) for 24h and confirmed that they consumed the novel food. Independently of their osmotic effects, NaCl, KCl, and sucrose supplementation all improved the ability of flies to maintain K+ balance in the cold, which allowed for faster recovery from chill coma after 6h at 0°C. These supplements, however, also slightly increased the CTmin and had little impact on survival rates following chronic cold stress (24h at 0°C), suggesting that the effect of diet on cold tolerance depends on the measure of cold tolerance assessed. In contrast to prolonged salt stress, brief feeding (1.5h) on diets high in salt slowed coma recovery, suggesting that the long-term effects of NaCl and KCl on chilling tolerance result from phenotypic plasticity, induced in response to a salty diet, rather than simply the presence of the diet in the gut lumen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of Entamoeba histolytica in experimentally induced amoebic liver abscess: comparison of three staining methods

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Zi Ning; Wong Weng Kin; Shaymoli Mustafa; Arefuddin Ahmed; Rahmah Noordin; Tan Gim Cheong; Olivos-Garcia Alfonso; Lim Boon Huat

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of three different tissue stains, namely haematoxylin and eosin (H&E), periodic-acid Schiff (PAS) and immunohistochemical (IHC) stains for detection of Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) trophozoites in abscessed liver tissues of hamster. Methods: Amoebic liver abscess was experimentally induced in a hamster by injecting 1 × 106 of axenically cultured virulent E. histolytica trophozoites (HM1-IMSS strain) into the portal vein. After a week post-inocul...

  12. Changes in thermal nociceptive responses in dairy cows following experimentally induced Esherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ditte B.; Fogsgaard, Katrine; Røntved, Christine Maria

    2011-01-01

    Mastitis is a high incidence disease in dairy cows. The acute stage is considered painful and inflammation can lead to hyperalgesia and thereby contribute to decreased welfare. The aim of this study was to examine changes in nociceptive responses toward cutaneous nociceptive laser stimulation (NLS......) in dairy cows with experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis, and correlate behavioral changes in nociceptive responses to clinical and paraclinical variables....

  13. The effect of various drugs on experimentally induced ulcers in immobilized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, H.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments related to the importance of functional disorders in the central nervous system in connection with stomach diseases were performed on Wistar rats. Assuming that severe mental strains may be triggering factors for such disorders, testing of the effects of different drugs on experimentally induced ulcers in these rats was done. The immobilization method described by Bonfils was used. Particular importance was placed on the sex related difference which appeared.

  14. Neuropsychological consequences of experimentally-induced anxiety on working memory performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dunger, Warren

    2016-01-01

    Many theories addressing the complex anxiety-cognition interaction are built upon the notion that working memory is vulnerable to the effects of anxiety. However, most research has utilised studies of trait anxiety which does not allow direct inferences to be made between affect and cognitive performance, or exclude confounds such as pre-existing individual differences. As a result, a systematic review was undertaken to explore the neuropsychological consequences of experimentally-induced sta...

  15. Experimental study of corrosion-induced degradation of reinforced concrete elements

    OpenAIRE

    LOUKIL, Olfa; Adelaide, Lucas; Bouteiller, Véronique; Quiertant, Marc; Chaussadent, Thierry; Ragueneau, Frédéric; Bourbon, Xavier; Trenty, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion of steel reinforcement is the main cause of damage for reinforced concrete structures. Iron oxides produced during the corrosion process can induce concrete cracking, loss of adhesion at the steel-concrete interface, loss of reinforcing bar cross-section and even spalling of the concrete cover. In the presented research, the durability problems related to the corrosion of the reinforcement are investigated by combining experimental and numerical studies. However, this paper particul...

  16. Acute pulmonary injury induced by experimental muscle trauma Lesão pulmonar aguda induzida por trauma muscular experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Andréa da Silva Carvalho Sombra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop an easily reproducible model of acute lung injury due to experimental muscle trauma in healthy rats. METHODS: Eighteen adult Wistar rats were randomized in 3 groups (n=6: G-1- control, G-2 - saline+trauma and G-3 - dexamethasone+trauma. Groups G-1 and G-2 were treated with saline 2,0ml i.p; G-3 rats were treated with dexamethasone (DE (2 mg/kg body weight i.p.. Saline and DE were applied 2h before trauma and 12h later. Trauma was induced in G-2 and G-3 anesthetized (tribromoethanol 97% 100 ml/kg i.p. rats by sharp section of anterior thigh muscles just above the knee, preserving major vessels and nerves. Tissue samples (lung were collected for myeloperoxidase (MPO assay and histopathological evaluation. RESULTS: Twenty-four hours after muscle injury there was a significant increase in lung neutrophil infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity and edema, all reversed by dexamethasone in G-3. CONCLUSION: Trauma by severance of thigh muscles in healthy rats is a simple and efficient model to induce distant lung lesions.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo facilmente reprodutível de lesão pulmonar aguda decorrente de trauma muscular experimental em ratos sadios. MÉTODOS: Dezoito ratos Wistar adultos foram randomizados em 3 grupos (n=6: G-1-controle, G-2 - trauma+salina e G-3 - trauma+dexametasona. Grupos G-1 e G-2 foram tratados com salina 2,0 ml ip, G-3 ratos foram tratados com dexametasona (DE (2 mg/kg peso corporal ip. Salina e DE foram aplicadas 2h antes e 12h depois do trauma. Trauma foi induzido em ratos G-2 e G-3 anestesiados (tribromoetanol 97% de 100 ml/kg, i.p. por secção da musculatura anterior da coxa logo acima da articulação do joelho, preservando os grandes vasos e nervos. Amostras de tecido (pulmão foram coletadas para avaliação da mieloperoxidase (MPO, e exames histopatológicos. RESULTADOS: Vinte e quatro horas após a indução da lesão muscular houve um aumento significativo na infiltração de neutr

  17. Severe angioedema in myxedema coma: a difficult airway in a rare endocrine emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher H; Wira, Charles R

    2009-10-01

    Myxedema coma is the most lethal manifestation of hypothyroidism. It is a true medical emergency and can result in profound hemodynamic instability and airway compromise. Myxedema coma currently remains a diagnostic challenge due to the rarity of cases seen today, and failure to promptly initiate therapy with replacement thyroid hormone can be fatal. As thyroid hormone therapy can take days or weeks to reverse the manifestations of myxedema coma, interim supportive therapy is critical while awaiting clinical improvement. Some patients will require endotracheal intubation in the emergency department (ED), and physicians should be aware that unanticipated posterior pharyngeal edema in myxedema coma could severely complicate airway management. Although mechanical ventilation is a well-described adjunctive therapy for myxedema coma, reports of the potential difficulty in securing a definitive airway in these patients are rare. We describe a case of an unidentified woman who presented to the ED with myxedema coma requiring urgent endotracheal intubation and was found to have extensive posterior pharyngeal angioedema inconsistent with her relatively benign external examination. This case highlights the typical features of myxedema coma and discusses our necessity for a rescue device in definitive endotracheal tube placement. Emergency physicians should anticipate a potentially difficult airway in all myxedema coma patients regardless of the degree of external facial edema present.

  18. Hyperosmolar non-ketotic diabetic coma as a cause of emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Krentz AJ, Nattrass M. Diabetic ketoacidosis, non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma and lactic acidosis. In: Pickup J. WilJiams G, eds. Textbook of Diabetes. Vel. 1. Oxford: BlackweJl Scientific, 1991; 479-494. 5. Kitabchi AE, Murphy MS. Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic nonketotic coma. Med Clin North Am ...

  19. Non-traumatic childhood coma in Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, South Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, R C; Ibekwe, M U; Onwe, O E; Nnebe-Agumadu, U H; Ibe, B C

    2011-01-01

    Coma is a medical emergency, and optimal management, especially in a resource-poor setting, would depend on the knowledge of its etiology and predictors of outcome. This communication reviews the etiology and outcome of non-traumatic childhood coma in Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital (EBSUTH), Abakaliki. To determine the incidence, etiology and outcome of non-traumatic coma in children seen at the EBSUTH, Abakaliki. This is a retrospective analysis of records of all children admitted to the children emergency ward of EBSUTH in coma of a non-traumatic origin between 1 st of January and 31 st of December, 2007. Forty children presented with coma out of 673 children admitted during the study period, giving an incidence rate of 5.9%. The majority of the children (62.5%) were aged between 1 and 5 years of age, and 79.5% of them were deeply comatose on admission. Most of the cases (85%) of non-traumatic coma were due to infective causes, mainly cerebral malaria (47.5%), pyogenic meningitis (17.5%) and septicemia (10%). Twenty-four (60%) children recovered while 13 (32.5%) died. Infections were the predominant causes of non-traumatic coma in EBSUTH. In view of the high mortality among this group of patients, efforts at the control of malaria and other infections would significantly reduce the incidence of non-traumatic coma in this study site.

  20. The role of experimentally-induced subacromial pain on shoulder strength and throwing accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassinger, Craig A; Sole, Gisela; Osborne, Hamish

    2012-10-01

    Shoulder injuries often comprise two separate yet related components, structural tissue damage and pain. The role of each of these components on shoulder function is difficult to ascertain. Experimental pain models allow the assessment of consequences of localized pain when applied to healthy individuals. By understanding the role of pain on shoulder function, clinicians will be able to more efficiently assess and treat shoulder injuries. The objective of the study was to evaluate the role of experimentally-induced sub-acromial pain on shoulder isokinetic rotational strength and throwing accuracy. This was a block counterbalanced, crossover, repeated measures study design utilizing 20 individuals without self-reported shoulder or cervical pathology. Shoulder function was measured with and without experimental pain injection (2 mL of 5% hypertonic saline) in the sub-acromial space. Functional tasks consisted of shoulder rotational strength utilizing isokinetic testing and throwing accuracy via the functional throwing performance index. The hypertonic saline induced moderate pain levels in all participants (4.3-5.1/10). Normalized shoulder internal (t = 3.76, p = 0.001) and external (t = 3.12, p = 0.006) rotation strength were both diminished in the painful condition compared to the pain free condition. Throwing accuracy was also reduced while the participants experienced pain (t = 3.99, p = 0.001). Moderate levels of experimental shoulder pain were sufficient to negatively influence shoulder strength and throwing accuracy in participants without shoulder pathology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex Differences in Experimentally Induced Colitis in Mice: a Role for Estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bábíčková, Janka; Tóthová, Ľubomíra; Lengyelová, Eva; Bartoňová, Anastázie; Hodosy, Július; Gardlík, Roman; Celec, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Sex differences have been found in the incidence and progression of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The reported differences in observational studies are controversial, and the effects of sex hormones on the pathogenesis of IBD are not clear. The aim of this study was to analyze sex differences in the progression of experimentally induced colitis. Experimental colitis was induced in adult mice by adding 2% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) into drinking water. Male and female mice were used as intact, gonadectomized, and supplemented with either estradiol or testosterone. In comparison to males, female mice with induced colitis had significantly longer colon (p < 0.05), lower decrease in body weight (p < 0.001), and lower stool consistency score (p < 0.05). Histopathological analysis showed less inflammatory infiltrates (p < 0.001) and crypt damage (p < 0.001) in female mice. Female mice with colitis had also lower concentration of TNF-α in colon homogenates (p < 0.01). Supplementation with estradiol in ovariectomized mice ameliorated the severity of colitis. Female mice are partially protected against chemically induced colitis. This protection seems to be mediated by estradiol.

  2. Endocrine profiles of dairy cows following experimentally induced clinical mastitis during early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, M E; Hopkins, F M; Lewis, M J; Saxton, A M; Dowlen, H H; Oliver, S P; Schrick, F N

    2000-03-15

    Concentrations of LH, cortisol, estradiol-17beta (E(2)), prolactin and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGFM) were determined in cows with experimentally induced clinical mastitis during early lactation. Cows free of intramammary infection (IMI) and in the luteal phase of the estrous cycle were balanced by lactation number and days in milk and assigned to either control (n=5) or treatment (n=5) groups. Treated cows were infected experimentally (day 0), in two mammary quarters, with Streptococcus uberis and developed clinical mastitis within 60 h after inoculation as evidenced by increased mastitis scores, elevated rectal temperatures, mammary swelling and isolation of S. uberis pathogen. Four days following bacterial challenge, blood samples were collected every 20 min for 8 h for determination of PGFM and LH following administration of oxytocin and GnRH, respectively. Blood samples were also collected on days 0, 4 and 7 of the experiment to determine concentrations of E(2), prolactin and cortisol. Four days after bacterial challenge, concentrations of cortisol were higher (P=0.04) in experimentally infected cows than controls. Experimentally challenged cows had increased (P=0.02) concentrations of cortisol on days 4 and 7 compared with day 0. Control cows had no significant increase in blood cortisol during the experimental period. Baseline concentrations of PGFM did not differ between groups; however, peak concentrations of PGFM following oxytocin challenge were elevated (P=0.006) in cows with clinical mastitis compared with control animals. Prolactin, E(2) and LH did not differ between cows with clinical mastitis or controls. Experimentally induced mastitis during early lactation elevated concentrations of cortisol during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle. Furthermore, mastitic cows demonstrated an increased PGFM response following oxytocin administration. Altered reproductive efficiency in cows with clinical mastitis caused by Gram

  3. The role of periodontal ASIC3 in orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meiya; Long, Hu; Ma, Wenqiang; Liao, Lina; Yang, Xin; Zhou, Yang; Shan, Di; Huang, Renhuan; Jian, Fan; Wang, Yan; Lai, Wenli

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to clarify the roles of Acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) in orofacial pain following experimental tooth movement. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the experimental group (40g, n = 30) and the sham group (0g, n = 30). Closed coil springs were ligated between maxillary incisor and molars to achieve experimental tooth movement. Rat grimace scale (RGS) scores were assessed at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after the placement of the springs. ASIC3 immunostaining was performed and the expression levels of ASIC3 were measured through integrated optical density/area in Image-Pro Plus 6.0. Moreover, 18 rats were divided into APETx2 group (n = 6), amiloride group (n = 6), and vehicle group (n = 6), and RGS scores were obtained compared among them to verify the roles of ASIC3 in orofacial pain following tooth movement. ASIC3 expression levels became significantly higher in the experimental group than in sham group on 1, 3, and 5 days and became similar on 7 and 14 days. Pain levels (RGS scores) increased in both groups and were significantly higher in the experimental group on 1, 3, 5, and 7 days and were similar on 14 days. Periodontal ASIC3 expression levels were correlated with orofacial pain levels following experimental tooth movement. Periodontal administrations of ASIC3 antagonists (APETx2 and amiloride) could alleviate pain. This study needs to be better evidenced by RNA interference of ASIC3 in periodontal tissues in rats following experimental tooth movement. Moreover, we hope further studies would concentrate on the pain perception of ASIC3 knockout (ASIC3(-/-)) mice. Our results suggest that periodontal ASIC3 plays an important role in orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Distribucion de Hidrogeno Neutro EN Galaxias Espirales de Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Alfaro, H.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Balkowski, C.; Cayatte, V.

    1998-11-01

    We have carried out a study of environmental effects on the properties and evolution of galaxies in clusters. We have studied the HI content of spiral galaxies in two nearby clusters, Abell~262 and Abell~1656 (Coma), from 21cm observations obtained with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and with the Very Large Array. These observations have provided us the HI images of a sample of 11 galaxies in Abell~262, and 19 in Coma. We have computed the HI content and analyzed the HI distribution of detected galaxies, what enabled us to study the environmental effects on cluster galaxies, as well as the possible involved physical mechanisms. We confirm the tendency of HI deficient galaxies to be closer to the cluster core. We also estimate in a quantitative fashion the role that ram pressure stripping can play in the central cluster region, where the intra--cluster medium shows its most hostile density and temperature conditions. Most of galaxies showing a perturbed neutral hydrogen distribution are likely affected by ram pressure. Five star--bursting galaxies and one post--starburst were detected among the 19 HI detected objects in Coma. We conclude, from the analysis of their HI distribution and from the correlations of their positions in the cluster and U--V colors with the HI deficiency, that some cluster galaxies may follow an evolutionary sequence: galaxies would first become blue because of the interaction with the ICM, what trigger a burst of star--formation. Galaxies appear at this stage as HI deficient. The next step in this sequence would be the PSB stage, where galaxies arrive once they quench most of their HI reservoir and the star--formation stops in a short time-scale. The deep neutral gas stripping explain why these galaxies are hardly detected in HI. None of the closest galaxies to NGC~4839 have been detected in our observations around the Southwest group, what hints a previous passage across the cluster core with the consequence of a stripping process

  5. Inflammation-induced pain sensitization in men and women: does sex matter in experimental endotoxemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Alexander; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Rebernik, Laura; Roderigo, Till; Engelbrecht, Elisa; Jäger, Marcus; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred; Benson, Sven

    2015-10-01

    A role of the innate immune system is increasingly recognized as a mechanism contributing to pain sensitization. Experimental administration of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) constitutes a model to study inflammation-induced pain sensitization, but all existing human evidence comes from male participants. We assessed visceral and musculoskeletal pain sensitivity after low-dose LPS administration in healthy men and women to test the hypothesis that women show greater LPS-induced hyperalgesia compared with men. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, healthy men (n = 20) and healthy women using oral contraceptives (n = 20) received an intravenous injection of 0.4 ng/kg body weight LPS or placebo. Pain sensitivity was assessed with established visceral and musculoskeletal pain models (ie, rectal pain thresholds; pressure pain thresholds for different muscle groups), together with a heartbeat perception (interoceptive accuracy) task. Plasma cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6) were measured along with state anxiety at baseline and up to 6-hour postinjection. Lipopolysaccharide application led to significant increases in plasma cytokines and state anxiety and decreased interoceptive awareness in men and women (P < 0.001, condition effects), with more pronounced LPS-induced cytokine increases in women (P < 0.05, interaction effects). Although both rectal and pressure pain thresholds were significantly decreased in the LPS condition (all P < 0.05, condition effect), no sex differences in endotoxin-induced sensitization were observed. In summary, LPS-induced systemic immune activation leads to visceral and musculoskeletal hyperalgesia, irrespective of biological sex. These findings support the broad applicability of experimental endotoxin administration as a translational preclinical model of inflammation-induced pain sensitization in both sexes.

  6. Experimental diabetes induces structural, inflammatory and vascular changes of Achilles tendons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo R de Oliveira

    Full Text Available This study aims to demonstrate how the state of chronic hyperglycemia from experimental Diabetes Mellitus can influence the homeostatic imbalance of tendons and, consequently, lead to the characteristics of tendinopathy. Twenty animals were randomly divided into two experimental groups: control group, consisting of healthy rats and diabetic group constituted by rats induced to Diabetes Mellitus I. After twenty-four days of the induction of Diabetes type I, the Achilles tendon were removed for morphological evaluation, cellularity, number and cross-sectional area of blood vessel, immunohistochemistry for Collagen type I, VEGF and NF-κB nuclear localization sequence (NLS and nitrate and nitrite level. The Achilles tendon thickness (µm/100g of diabetic animals was significantly increased and, similarly, an increase was observed in the density of fibrocytes and mast cells in the tendons of the diabetic group. The average number of blood vessels per field, in peritendinous tissue, was statistically higher in the diabetic group 3.39 (2.98 vessels/field when compared to the control group 0.89 (1.68 vessels/field p = 0.001 and in the intratendinous region, it was observed that blood vessels were extremely rare in the control group 0.035 (0.18 vessels/field and were often present in the tendons of the diabetic group 0.89 (0.99 vessels/field. The immunohistochemistry analysis identified higher density of type 1 collagen and increased expression of VEGF as well as increased immunostaining for NFκB p50 NLS in the nucleus in Achilles tendon of the diabetic group when compared to the control group. Higher levels of nitrite/nitrate were observed in the experimental group induced to diabetes. We conclude that experimental DM induces notable structural, inflammatory and vascular changes in the Achilles tendon which are compatible with the process of chronic tendinopathy.

  7. A history of insulin coma therapy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert M

    2013-12-01

    To explore the history of insulin coma therapy (ICT) in Australia. The negative period between the wars came to an end with the discovery of the biological therapies, including ICT, a development of great interest to Australian psychiatrists. Melbourne psychiatrist Reg Ellery documented his use of ICT in 1937, but the evidence shows that he was beaten to it by Farran-Ridge and Reynolds at Mont Park. ICT was soon used at various centres, but phased out by the late fifties. A review follows of its use in Australia and a discussion of the issues involved. Doing ICT played a part in enhancing the professional status of Australian psychiatrists and was one of the factors that led to the establishment of the AAP in 1946.

  8. A forgotten life-threatening medical emergency: myxedema coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pizzolato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays myxedema coma is a rare medical emergency but, sometimes, it still remains a fatal condition even if appropriate therapy is soon administered. Although physical presentation is very non-specific and diversified, physicians should pay attention when patients present with low body temperature and alteration of neurological status; the presence of precipitating events in past medical history can help in making a diagnosis. Here we discuss one such case: an 83-year-old female presented with abdominal pain since few days. Laboratory tests and abdomen computed tomography scan demonstrated alithiasic cholecystitis; she was properly treated but, during the Emergency Department stay she experienced a cardiac arrest. Physicians immediately started advance cardiovascular life support algorithm and she survived. Later on, she was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit where doctors discovered she was affected by severe hypothyroidism. Straightway they started the right therapy but, unfortunately, the patient died in a few hours.

  9. Immunovirological correlates in human rabies treated with therapeutic coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, M; Johnson, N; Hedderwick, S; McCaughey, C; Lowry, K; McConville, J; Herron, B; McQuaid, S; Marston, D; Goddard, T; Harkess, G; Goharriz, H; Voller, K; Solomon, T; Willoughby, R E; Fooks, A R

    2010-07-01

    A 37-year-old woman was admitted to hospital and over the next 5 days developed a progressive encephalitis. Nuchal skin biopsy, analyzed using a Rabies TaqMan(c) PCR, demonstrated rabies virus RNA. She had a history in keeping with exposure to rabies whilst in South Africa, but had not received pre- or post-exposure prophylaxis. She was treated with a therapeutic coma according to the "Milwaukee protocol," which failed to prevent the death of the patient. Rabies virus was isolated from CSF and saliva, and rabies antibody was demonstrated in serum (from day 11 onwards) and cerebrospinal fluid (day 13 onwards). She died on day-35 of hospitalization. Autopsy specimens demonstrated the presence of rabies antigen, viral RNA, and viable rabies virus in the central nervous system. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Being slower, feeling older? Experimentally induced cognitive aging experiences have limited impact on subjective age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrian, Martina; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2017-06-01

    Initial experimental research has shown that subjective age may change in response to induced aging experiences, but replication and extension are needed. The present study investigates if age-related cognitive gain or loss experiences evoke decreases/increases in subjective age. A multidimensional subjective age measure was used to explore domain-specific internalization effects. 78 individuals aged 59-70 years were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions and a control group. Participants took a cognitive attention test and received gain-oriented feedback on their accuracy or loss-oriented feedback on their processing speed. A mixed factors analysis of covariance was used to examine changes in feel age, look age, do age, and interest age. After being primed with age-related losses, participants reported older do ages as compared to before the experimental priming. Priming age-related gains had only a marginally significant effect on do age. All other subjective age dimensions remained unaffected by the experimental priming. Although previous research has shown that subjective age can be manipulated experimentally, findings from the present study underscore that a comprehensive and cross-domain improvement of subjective age may require personally relevant and repeated experiences of age-related gains.

  11. Effects of fisetin on hyperhomocysteinemia-induced experimental endothelial dysfunction and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanth Kumar, Boyina; Arun Reddy, Ravula; Mahesh Kumar, Jerald; Dinesh Kumar, B; Diwan, Prakash V

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of fisetin (FST) on hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-induced experimental endothelial dysfunction (ED) and vascular dementia (VaD) in rats. Wistar rats were randomly divided into 8 groups: control, vehicle control, l-methionine, FST (5, 10, and 25 mg/kg, p.o.), FST-per se (25 mg/kg, p.o.), and donepezil (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.). l-Methionine administration (1.7 g/kg, p.o.) for 32 days induced HHcy. ED and VaD induced by HHcy were determined by vascular reactivity measurements, behavioral analysis using Morris water maze and Y-maze, along with a biochemical and histological evaluation of thoracic aorta and brain tissues. Administration of l-methionine developed behavioral deficits; triggered brain lipid peroxidation (LPO); compromised brain acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE); and reduced the levels of brain superoxide dismutase (SOD), brain catalase (CAT), brain reduced glutathione (GSH), and serum nitrite; and increased serum homocysteine and cholesterol levels. These effects were accompanied by decreased vascular NO bioavailability, marked intimal thickening of the aorta, and multiple necrotic foci in brain cortex. HHcy-induced alterations in the activities of SOD, CAT, GSH, AChE, LPO, behavioral deficits, ED, and histological aberrations were significantly attenuated by treatment with fisetin in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, our results indicate that fisetin exerts endothelial and neuroprotective effects against HHcy-induced ED and VaD.

  12. Effects of Guchang Capsule on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Experimental Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoshan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Guchang capsule (GC is a Chinese materia medica standardized product extracted from 15 Chinese traditional medical herbs and it has been clinically used in the treatment of intestinal disease. In this study, in order to extend the research of GC in intestinal disease, we were aiming to evaluate potential effects of GC on dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS- induced murine experimental colitis and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. GC treatment attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss and reduced the mortality. Moreover, GC treatment prevented DSS-induced colonic pathological damage; meanwhile it inhibited proinflammatory cytokines production in colon tissues. In vitro, GC significantly reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines production via inhibiting the activation of NF-κB in macrophage cells, and the expressions of several long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs which were reported in regulating NF-κB signaling pathway were obviously affected by adding GC into culture medium. In conclusion, our data suggested that administration of GC exhibits therapeutic effects on DSS-induced colitis partially through regulating the expression of NF-κB related lncRNAs in infiltrating immune cells.

  13. Protective effect of leaves of Raphinus sativus Linn on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, V C; Gopala Krishna, B; Viswanatha, G L; Satya Prasad, V; Vinay Babu, S N

    2011-07-01

    Raphinus sativus Linn (Cruciferae) commonly known as 'Radish' is a multipurpose herb cultivated in different parts of the world for its edible roots and leaves. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn on acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcer and pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats. The acute oral toxicity study revealed that all the extracts were safe up to 2000 mg/kg per oral dose; hence one-tenth of this dose was selected for evaluation of antiulcer activity. In acetic acid induced gastric ulcer models, the ERS, CRS, EARS and AQRS have offered significant protection against acetic acid induced ulcers when compared to control group. While in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model the ERS, EARS and AQRS showed significant protection by decreasing the ulcer index, total acidity and free acidity. In conclusion the leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn are found to possess antiulcer property in the experimental animal models of gastric ulcers, which is consistent with the literature report in the folk medicine.

  14. Effects of experimentally-induced maternal hypothyroidism on crucial offspring rat brain enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koromilas, Christos; Liapi, Charis; Zarros, Apostolos; Stolakis, Vasileios; Tsagianni, Anastasia; Skandali, Nikolina; Al-Humadi, Hussam; Tsakiris, Stylianos

    2014-06-01

    Hypothyroidism is known to exert significant structural and functional changes to the developing central nervous system, and can lead to the establishment of serious mental retardation and neurological problems. The aim of the present study was to shed more light on the effects of gestational and/or lactational maternal exposure to propylthiouracil-induced experimental hypothyroidism on crucial brain enzyme activities of Wistar rat offspring, at two time-points of their lives: at birth (day-1) and at 21 days of age (end of lactation). Under all studied experimental conditions, offspring brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was found to be significantly decreased due to maternal hypothyroidism, in contrast to the two studied adenosinetriphosphatase (Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase) activities that were only found to be significantly altered right after birth (increased and decreased, respectively, following an exposure to gestational maternal hypothyroidism) and were restored to control levels by the end of lactation. As our findings regarding the pattern of effects that maternal hypothyroidism has on the above-mentioned crucial offspring brain enzyme activities are compared to those reported in the literature, several differences are revealed that could be attributed to both the mode of the experimental simulation approach followed as well as to the time-frames examined. These findings could provide the basis for a debate on the need of a more consistent experimental approach to hypothyroidism during neurodevelopment as well as for a further evaluation of the herein presented and discussed neurochemical (and, ultimately, neurodevelopmental) effects of experimentally-induced maternal hypothyroidism, in a brain region-specific manner. Copyright © 2014 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Protective activity of gallic acid against glyoxal -induced renal fibrosis in experimental rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Jainuddin Yousuf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the protective activity of gallic acid (GA against glyoxal (GO an advanced glycation intermediate-induced renal fibrosis in experimental rats. Glyoxal (i.p at a dose of 15 mg/Kg body weight/day for 4 weeks induces renal fibrosis. GA was administered orally (100 mg/Kg body weight/day along with GO for 4 weeks. The anti-fibrotic activity of GA was analyzed by measuring the collagen synthesis and deposition in renal tissues using mRNA expression analysis and Masson trichrome staining (MTS, respectively. The nephroprotective potential of GA was assessed by quantifying the markers of kidney damage such as serum blood-urea-nitrogen (BUN, creatinine (CR and alkaline phosphatase (AP. Moreover, basement membrane damage in renal tissues was analysed by periodic acid Schiff’s (PAS staining. GA co-treatment markedly suppressed the GO-induced elevation in mRNA expression of collagen I and III, MMP-2, MMP-9 and NOX (p < 0.05, respectively genes as compared with GO alone infused rats. In addition, GA co-treatment significantly attenuated the GO -induced elevation in serum markers such as BUN, CR and AP levels (p < 0.05, respectively. Furthermore, GA co-treatment restored back the decreased renal super oxide dismutase (SOD activity (p < 0.05 thereby assuage the reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, and maintained the normal architecture of glomerulus. The present study clearly indicates that GO -induces renal fibrosis by enhancing GO/receptor of advanced glycation end product (RAGE induced ROS generation and GA effectively counteracted GO-induced renal fibrosis by its ROS quenching and anti-glycation activity.

  16. Effect of somatosensory amplification and trait anxiety on experimentally induced orthodontic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Iacopo; Michelotti, Ambrosina; Perrotta, Stefania; Chiodini, Paolo; Ohrbach, Richard

    2016-04-01

    The perception of pain varies considerably across individuals and is affected by psychological traits. This study aimed to investigate the combined effects of somatosensory amplification and trait anxiety on orthodontic pain. Five-hundred and five adults completed the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Somatosensory Amplification Scale (SSAS). Individuals with combined STAI and SSAS scores below the 20th percentile (LASA group: five men and 12 women; mean age ± SD = 22.4 ± 1.3 yr) or above the 80th percentile (HASA group: 13 men and seven women; mean age ± SD = 23.7 ± 1.0 yr) were selected and filled in the Oral Behaviors Checklist (OBC). Orthodontic separators were placed for 5 d in order to induce experimental pain. Visual analog scales (VAS) were administered to collect ratings for occlusal discomfort, pain, and perceived stress. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were measured. A mixed regression model was used to evaluate pain and discomfort ratings over the 5-d duration of the study. At baseline, the LASA group had statistically significantly higher PPT values for the masseter muscle than did the HASA group. During the experimental procedure, the HASA group had statistically significantly higher discomfort and pain. A significant difference in pain ratings during the 5 d of the study was found for subjects in the HASA group. Higher OBC values were statistically significantly positively associated with pain. Somatosensory amplification and trait anxiety substantially affect experimentally induced orthodontic pain. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  17. Experimental study to explore the $\\rm ^8Be$ induced nuclear reaction via the Trojan Horse Method

    CERN Document Server

    Qun-Gang, Wen; Shu-Hua, Zhou; Irgaziev, Bakhadir; Yuan-Yong, Fu; Spitaleri, Claudio; La Cognata, Marco; Jing, Zhou; Qiu-Ying, Meng; Lamia, Livio; Lattuada, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    To explore a possible indirect method for $\\rm ^8Be$ induced astrophysical reactions, the $\\rm ^9Be=({}^8Be+\\it n)$ cluster structure was studied via the Trojan Horse Method. It is the first time to study a super short life nucleus $\\rm ^8Be$ via the Trojan Horse Method, and it is the first time to make a valid test for $l=1$ Trojan-horse nucleus. The $\\rm ^9Be$ nucleus is assumed to have a ($\\rm {}^8Be+\\it n$) cluster structure and used as the Trojan-horse nucleus. The $\\rm ^8Be$ nucleus acts as a participant, while the neutron is a spectator to the virtual $\\rm ^8Be +{\\it d}\\rightarrow \\alpha + {}^6Li$ reaction via a suitable 3-body reaction $\\rm ^9Be +{\\it d}\\rightarrow \\alpha + {}^6Li +\\it n$. The experimental neutron momentum distribution inside $\\rm ^9Be$ was reconstructed. The agreement between experimental and theoretical momentum distribution indicates that there should be a ($\\rm {}^8Be+\\it n$) cluster structure inside $\\rm ^9Be$. Therefor the experimental study of $\\rm ^8Be$ induced reactions, for ...

  18. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Deficiency Attenuates Experimental Colitis-Induced Adipose Tissue Lipolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Nutrient deficiencies are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Adipose tissue plays a critical role in regulating energy balance. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is an important endocrine metabolic regulator with emerging beneficial roles in lipid homeostasis. We investigated the impact of FGF21 in experimental colitis-induced epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT lipolysis. Methods. Mice were given 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS ad libitum for 7 days to induce colitis. The role of FGF21 was investigated using antibody neutralization or knockout (KO mice. Lipolysis index and adipose lipolytic enzymes were determined. In addition, 3T3-L1 cells were pretreated with IL-6, followed by recombinant human FGF21 (rhFGF21 treatment; lipolysis was assessed. Results. DSS markedly decreased eWAT/body weight ratio and increased serum concentrations of free fatty acid (FFA and glycerol, indicating increased adipose tissue lipolysis. eWAT intracellular lipolytic enzyme expression/activation was significantly increased. These alterations were significantly attenuated in FGF21 KO mice and by circulating FGF21 neutralization. Moreover, DSS treatment markedly increased serum IL-6 and FGF21 levels. IL-6 pretreatment was necessary for the stimulatory effect of FGF21 on adipose lipolysis in 3T3-L1 cells. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that experimental colitis induces eWAT lipolysis via an IL-6/FGF21-mediated signaling pathway.

  19. Effect of underwater treadmill exercise on postural sway in horses with experimentally induced carpal joint osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Melissa R; Haussler, Kevin K; Kawcak, Christopher E; McIlwraith, C Wayne; Reiser Ii, Raoul F

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of underwater treadmill exercise on static postural sway in horses with experimentally induced carpal joint osteoarthritis under various stance conditions. 16 horses. On day 0, osteoarthritis was induced arthroscopically in 1 randomly selected middle carpal joint of each horse. Beginning on day 15, horses were assigned to either underwater or overground (without water) treadmill exercise at the same speed, frequency, and duration. Two serial force platforms were used to collect postural sway data from each horse on study days -7, 14, 42, and 70. Horses were made to stand stationary on the force platforms under 3 stance conditions: normal square stance, base-narrow placement of the thoracic limbs, and removal of visual cues (blindfolded) during a normal square stance. The mean of 3 consecutive, 10-second trials in each condition was calculated and used for analysis. Displacement of the center of pressure differed significantly depending on the stance condition. Among horses exercised on the underwater treadmill, postural stability in both the base-narrow and blindfolded stance conditions improved, compared with findings for horses exercised on the overground treadmill. Horses exercised on the overground treadmill were only successful at maintaining a stable center of pressure during the normal square stance position. Variations in stance position had profound effects on the mechanics of standing balance in horses with experimentally induced carpal joint osteoarthritis. Underwater treadmill exercise significantly improved the horses' postural stability, which is fundamental in providing evidence-based support for equine aquatic exercise.

  20. Effect of coma and spherical aberration on depth-of-focus measured using adaptive optics and computationally blurred images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legras, Richard; Benard, Yohann; Lopez-Gil, Norberto

    2012-03-01

    To compare the effect of primary spherical aberration and vertical coma on depth of focus measured with 2 methods. Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, and Université Paris-Sud, Orsay, France. Evaluation of technology. The subjective depth of focus, defined as the interval of vision for which the target was still perceived acceptable, was evaluated using 2 methods. In the first method, the subject changed the defocus term by reshaping the mirror, which also corrected the subject's aberrations and induced a certain value of coma or primary spherical aberration. In the second procedure, the subject changed the displayed images, which were calculated for various defocuses and with the desired aberration using a numerical eye model. Depth of focus was measured using a 0.18 diopter (D) step in 4 nonpresbyopic subjects corrected for the entire eye aberrations with a 6.0 mm and 3.0 mm pupil and with the addition of 0.3 μm and 0.6 μm of positive primary spherical aberration or vertical coma. There was good concordance between the depth of focus measured with both methods (differences within 1/3 D, r(2) = 0.88). Image-quality metrics failed to predict the subjective depth of focus (r(2) < 0.41). These data confirm that defocus in the retinal image can be generated by optical or computational methods and that both can be used to assess the effect of higher-order aberrations on depth of focus. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Ouhyul Herbal Acupuncture on Experimentally Induced Endometrosis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Suk Yuk

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Endometriosis is characterized by the ectopic growth of uterine tissue in various extrauterine locations. This study examined the macroscopic, hormonal and immunological effects of Ouhyul Herbal Acupuncture(OHA therapy on rats with experimentally induced endometriosis. Method : Endometrial tissue was implanted in the serosal wall of the small intestine in rats. The rats were divided randomly into an experimental group and control group. The experimental group was treated with OHA on Kwanwon(CV4 three times per week and the control group was administrated normal saline every day. After 6 weeks, the size of the ectopic uterine tissue was estimated and the serum progesterone, estradiol and cytokines(TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 concentrations were analyzed. Result : The size of the ectopic uterine tissue in the experimantal group was slightly smaller than that in the control group. The estradiol, IL-4 and IL-6 concentrations were significantly lower and the IL-10 concentration was significantly higher in the serum of the experimental group than in the control group. There was no significant difference in the concentrations of the other cytokines. Conclusion : These results suggest that OHA might be an effective method for treating dometriosis.

  2. Experimentally induced nasal hypersecretion does not reduce the efficacy of intranasal levocabastine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borum, Stefan; Nielsen, K; Bisgaard, H

    1998-01-01

    In allergic rhinitis, a nasal H1-antihistamine spray seems to be well suited for usage on an as-needed basis, because it has a quick onset of action, and many patients prefer to take medicine only when they have symptoms. It is a prerequisite, however, that nasal hypersecretion during a rhinitis...... episode does not significantly reduce the efficacy of intranasal treatment by washing away the drug before it reaches the H1-histamine receptors. In order to investigate this problem, we have induced nasal hypersecretion with a methacholine challenge in one experiment and in four experiments we have......% (p antihistamine spray. We conclude that experimentally induced nasal hypersecretion does not reduce the efficacy...

  3. Experimental determination of cross section of alpha-induced reactions on natPd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanne, A.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Shubin, Yu. N.

    2005-04-01

    Alpha-particle induced nuclear reactions that result in the generation of several Ag (mass numbers 103, 104g, 105, 106m, 110m, 111, 112) and Cd (mass numbers 104, 105, 111m) radionuclides were investigated using the stacked-foil activation technique on natural palladium targets up to Eα = 37 MeV. Excitation functions are reported for the first time for reactions of the type natPd(α, pxn)*Ag (x = 1-5) and natPd(α, xn)*Cd (x = 1-5). The experimental results are compared with model calculations performed with the ALICE-IPPE code. For selected radionuclides useful in medical practice a comparison of possible production routes for α, p and d induced reactions on natPd is discussed.

  4. Experimental determination of activation cross section of alpha-induced nuclear reactions on natPt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanne, A.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Shubin, Yu. N.; Kovalev, S.

    2006-10-01

    Alpha-particle induced nuclear reactions that result in the generation of several Hg (mass numbers 192, 193m, 193g, 195m, 195g, 197m, 197g, 199m) and Au (mass numbers 194, 195m, 195g, 196n, 196g, 198m, 198g, 199, 200m) radionuclides were investigated. The stacked-foil activation technique on natural platinum targets was used. Excitation functions are reported for Eα from threshold up to 37 MeV. Cross sections are reported for the first time for reactions of the type natPt(α, xn) ∗Hg ( x = 1-5) and natPd(α,p xn) ∗Au ( x = 1-5). The experimental results are compared with literature values and with model calculations performed with the ALICE-IPPE code. Use of the data for possible applications in comparison with our earlier results for proton and deuteron induced reactions is discussed.

  5. Antistressor activity of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) against experimentally induced oxidative stress in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, S; Satendra, S; Sushma, S; Anjana, T; Shashi, S

    2007-01-01

    Fresh leaves of Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum) were evaluated for antistress activity against experimentally induced oxidative stress in albino rabbits. Animals of the test group received supplementation of 2 g fresh leaves of O. sanctum per rabbit for 30 days. Anemic hypoxia was induced chemically by injecting the rabbits with 15 mg sodium nitrite per 100 g body weight intraperitoneally. Results indicated that O. sanctum administration blunted the changes in cardiorespiratory (BP, HR, RR) parameters in response to stress. A significant (p sanctum leaves. Significant increase (p sanctum. Oxidative stress led to a lesser depletion of reduced glutathione (28.80%) and plasma superoxide dismutase (23.04%) in O. sanctum-treated rabbits. The results of this study suggest that the potential antistressor activity of O. sanctum is partly attributable to its antioxidant properties.

  6. Effect of ES products from Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) on experimentally induced colitis in adult zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarder, Simon; Kania, Per Walter; Holm, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    with helminth-derived substances have supported this notion, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study therefore dissects to what extent a series of immune-related genes are modulated in zebrafish with experimentally induced colitis following exposure to excretory-secretory (ES) products isolated...... from larval Anisakis, a widely distributed fish nematode. Adult zebrafish intrarectally exposed to the colitis-inducing agent TNBS developed severe colitis leading to 80% severe morbidity, but if co-injected (ip) with Anisakis ES products, the morbidity rate was 50% at the end of the experiment (48...... hours post-exposure). Gene expression studies of TNBS-treated zebrafish showed clear upregulation of a range of genes encoding inflammatory cytokines and effector molecules and some induction of genes related to the adaptive response. A distinct innate-driven immune response was seen in both TNBS...

  7. Experimental and numerical analysis of corrosion induced cover cracking in reinforced concrete beam

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, Benjamin; Quiertant, Marc; Bouteiller, Véronique; Adelaide, Lucas; PERRAIS, Maxime; Tailhan, Jean-Louis; Cremona, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to present both experimental and numerical studies of the corrosion induced cracking pattern evolution of a reinforced concrete sample subjected to accelerated corrosion. The sample was a concrete beam (1000x250x100 mm3) reinforced with two rebars (20 mm diameter; 25 mm cover). The beam was not mechanically loaded. The corrosion process was applied on 500 mm rebar length on the central part. Rebars were intentiostatically corroded using a current density of 100µA/cm² of steel,...

  8. Numerical and experimental studies of the carbon etching in EUV-induced plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Astakhov, D I; Lee, C J; Ivanov, V V; Krivtsun, V M; Yakushev, O; Koshelev, K N; Lopaev, D V; Bijkerk, F

    2015-01-01

    We have used a combination of numerical modeling and experiments to study carbon etching in the presence of a hydrogen plasma. We model the evolution of a low density EUV-induced plasma during and after the EUV pulse to obtain the energy resolved ion fluxes from the plasma to the surface. By relating the computed ion fluxes to the experimentally observed etching rate at various pressures and ion energies, we show that at low pressure and energy, carbon etching is due to chemical sputtering, while at high pressure and energy a reactive ion etching process is likely to dominate.

  9. Experimental Research of Reliability of Plant Stress State Detection by Laser-Induced Fluorescence Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Fedotov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental laboratory investigations of the laser-induced fluorescence spectra of watercress and lawn grass were conducted. The fluorescence spectra were excited by YAG:Nd laser emitting at 532 nm. It was established that the influence of stress caused by mechanical damage, overwatering, and soil pollution is manifested in changes of the spectra shapes. The mean values and confidence intervals for the ratio of two fluorescence maxima near 685 and 740 nm were estimated. It is presented that the fluorescence ratio could be considered a reliable characteristic of plant stress state.

  10. Direct experimental measurement of SRS-induced spectral tilt in multichannel multispan communication systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapin, Yu A; Nanii, Oleg E; Novikov, A G; Pavlov, V N; Plotskii, A Yu; Treshchikov, V N

    2012-09-30

    Nonlinear SRS-induced tilt of the spectrum of a multichannel DWDM signal is studied experimentally in standard singlemode fibreoptic communication lines. It is found that at a fixed spectral bandwidth and total power the nonlinear SRS tilt is independent of the number of channels, radiation source type, and the initial tilt (positive or negative). In a multispan line consisting of identical spans the total nonlinear tilt of the spectrum (in dB) is proportional to the number of spans, spectral width and total power. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  11. The identification of experimentally induced appendicitis using in vitro nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, D O; Clarke, J R; Settle, R G; Sachdeva, A K; Wheeler, J E; Trerotola, S O; Wolf, G L; Rombeau, J L

    1985-07-01

    Appendicitis was induced in six New Zealand white rabbits. The appendices from these animals had significantly higher spin-lattice relaxation times, T1, as determined in vitro by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (10 controls vs 6 experimentals, 413 +/- 23 vs 455 +/- 41, X +/- SD, P less than (0.02). T1 correlated significantly with the water content of the appendiceal tissue (P less than 0.001). These findings suggest that in vivo NMR imaging techniques weighted on T1 might be able to identify human appendicitis noninvasively by detecting localized edema.

  12. NEURO-SHEILDING EFFECT OF ASIATICOSIDE AGAINST MPTP INDUCED VARIATIONS IN EXPERIMENTAL MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Sampath Uvarajan; Vanisree Arambakkam Janardhanam; Gopal Gopinath

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is one of major neurodegenerative disorders caused by endogenous and exogenous neurotoxins. It is characterized by the progressive loss of dopominergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNPc). The present study was aimed to investigate the potential role of asiaticoside against 1 – methyl 4 – phenyl 1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurotoxicity in experimental mice. Mice were divided in to 4 groups : Group I received vehicle saline(0.2ml),group II wa...

  13. Anaesthetic-induced cardioprotection in an experimental model of the Takotsubo syndrome - isoflurane vs. propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oras, J; Redfors, B; Ali, A; Lundgren, J; Sihlbom, C; Thorsell, A; Seeman-Lodding, H; Omerovic, E; Ricksten, S-E

    2017-03-01

    Takotsubo syndrome (TS) is an acute cardiac condition with a substantial mortality for which no specific treatment is available. We have previously shown that isoflurane attenuates the development of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in an experimental TS-model. We compared the effects of equi-anaesthetic doses of isoflurane, propofol and ketamine+midazolam on haemodynamics, global and regional LV systolic function and the activation of intracellular metabolic pathways in experimental TS. We hypothesized that cardioprotection in experimental TS is specific for isoflurane. Forty-five rats were randomized to isoflurane (0.6 MAC, n = 15), propofol (bolus 200 mg/kg+360 mg/kg/h, n = 15) or ketamine (100 mg/kg)+midazolam (10 mg/kg, n = 15) anaesthesia. Arterial pressure, heart rate and body temperature were continuously measured and arterial blood gas analysis was performed intermittently. TS was induced by intraperitoneal injection of isoprenaline, 50 mg/kg. LV echocardiography was performed 90 min after isoprenaline injection. Apical cardiac tissue was analysed by global discovery proteomics and pathway analysis. Isoprenaline-induced changes in arterial blood pressure, heart rate or body temperature did not differ between groups. LV ejection fraction was higher and extent of LV akinesia was lower with isoflurane, when compared with the propofol and the ketamine+midazolam groups. In this TS-model, the proteomic analysis revealed an up-regulation of pathways involved in inflammation, coagulation, endocytosis and lipid metabolism. This up-regulation was clearly attenuated with isoflurane compared to propofol. In an experimental model of TS, isoflurane, but not propofol, exerts a cardioprotective effect. The proteomic analysis suggests that inflammation might be involved in pathogenesis of TS. © 2017 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Oral administration of ginseng ameliorates cyclosporine-induced pancreatic injury in an experimental mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Woo Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was performed to investigate whether ginseng has a protective effect in an experimental mouse model of cyclosporine-induced pancreatic injury. METHODS: Mice were treated with cyclosporine (30 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously and Korean red ginseng extract (0.2 or 0.4 g/kg/day, oral gavage for 4 weeks while on a 0.01% salt diet. The effect of ginseng on cyclosporine-induced pancreatic islet dysfunction was investigated by an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and measurements of serum insulin level, β cell area, macrophage infiltration, and apoptosis. Using an in vitro model, we further examined the effect of ginseng on a cyclosporine-treated insulin-secreting cell line. Oxidative stress was measured by the concentration of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in serum, tissue sections, and culture media. RESULTS: Four weeks of cyclosporine treatment increased blood glucose levels and decreased insulin levels, but cotreatment with ginseng ameliorated the cyclosporine-induced glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Pancreatic β cell area was also greater with ginseng cotreatment compared with cyclosporine monotherapy. The production of proinflammatory molecules, such as induced nitric oxide synthase and cytokines, and the level of apoptotic cell death also decreased in pancreatic β cell with ginseng treatment. Consistent with the in vivo results, the in vitro study showed that the addition of ginseng protected against cyclosporine-induced cytotoxicity, inflammation, and apoptotic cell death. These in vivo and in vitro changes were accompanied by decreases in the levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in pancreatic β cell in tissue section, serum, and culture media during cotreatment of ginseng with cyclosporine. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate that ginseng has a protective effect against cyclosporine-induced pancreatic β cell injury via reducing oxidative stress.

  15. Analysis of dust in the coma of comet 67P using VIRTIS-M observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, G.; Tozzi, G. P.; Fink, U.; Doose, L.; Capaccioni, F.; Filacchione, G.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Leyrat, C.; Piccioni, G.; Blecka, M.; Ciarniello, M.; Irwin, P.; Combi, M.; Palomba, E.; Migliorini, A.; Capria, M. T.; Faggi, S.; Tosi, F.

    2015-10-01

    We present a preliminary overview of the analysis on the dust spectrophotometry in the inner coma of comet 67/P that was obtained during the escort phase (started on December 2014) with the imaging spectrometer VIRTIS-M onboard the Rosetta mission [1]. The morphology and behavior of the dust coma has been monitored by VIRTIS-M from the arrival at the comet (~August 2014) throughout the early escort phase. The data reveal intricate details and numerous radial jets coming from different regions on the surface. On March 15, 2015, VIRTIS-M performed a set of 22 coma observations, each about 23 minutes in duration and offset from the nucleus by about 1 km. The 22 observations lasted about 12 hours and thus covered a complete rotation of the comet. The maps of the dust distribution in the coma reveal three major structures: a roughly uniform background dusty coma, several enhanced radiance jet features and a region that shows a thermal radiation component between 3.5 and 5.0 μm. (Figure 1 and Figure 2) The jets features can be traced back to several region of the comet, neck,body and head. We shall analyse the three major structures to provide the basis to understand coma composition and properties and the relation between gas and dust. We will discuss the morphology of the background coma, the jet and the enhanced thermal radiation. We will also examine correlations between the water vapor column density and the coma/ jet /thermal radiation intensity. For the thermal radiation component there are several explanations, viz: stray instrumental scattered light or instrumental ghosts from heated part of the nucleus, or thermal rad iation emanating from the nucleus and scattered by the dust in closest proximity or a region of small particles in the coma heated by solar radiation.

  16. Coma associated with microscopy-diagnosed Plasmodium vivax: a prospective study in Papua, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Lampah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Coma complicates Plasmodium falciparum infection but is uncommonly associated with P. vivax. Most series of vivax coma have been retrospective and have not utilized molecular methods to exclude mixed infections with P. falciparum.We prospectively enrolled patients hospitalized in Timika, Indonesia, with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS ≤10 and P. vivax monoinfection on initial microscopy over a four year period. Hematological, biochemical, serological, radiological and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examinations were performed to identify other causes of coma. Repeat microscopy, antigen detection and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were performed to exclude infections with other Plasmodium species.Of 24 patients fulfilling enrolment criteria, 5 had clear evidence for other non-malarial etiologies. PCR demonstrated 10 mixed infections and 3 P. falciparum monoinfections. 6 (25% patients had vivax monoinfection and no apparent alternative cause, with a median GCS of 9 (range 8-10 and a median coma duration of 42 (range 36-48 hours. CSF leukocyte counts were <10/ul (n=3; 2 of the 3 patients without CSF examination recovered with antimalarial therapy alone. One patient had a tremor on discharge consistent with a post-malarial neurological syndrome. No patient had other organ dysfunction. The only death was associated with pure P. falciparum infection by PCR. Vivax monoinfection-associated risk of coma was estimated at 1 in 29,486 clinical vivax infections with no deaths. In comparison, the risk of falciparum-associated coma was estimated at 1 in 1,276 clinical infections with an 18.5% mortality rate.P. vivax-associated coma is rare, occurring 23 times less frequently than that seen with falciparum malaria, and is associated with a high proportion of non-malarial causes and mixed infections using PCR. The pathogenesis of coma associated with vivax malaria, particularly the role of comorbidities, is uncertain and requires further investigation.

  17. Coma Associated with Microscopy-Diagnosed Plasmodium vivax: A Prospective Study in Papua, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardianto, Setiawan O.; Tjitra, Emiliana; Kenangalem, Enny; Sugiarto, Paulus; Price, Ric N.; Anstey, Nicholas M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Coma complicates Plasmodium falciparum infection but is uncommonly associated with P. vivax. Most series of vivax coma have been retrospective and have not utilized molecular methods to exclude mixed infections with P. falciparum. Methods We prospectively enrolled patients hospitalized in Timika, Indonesia, with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) ≤10 and P. vivax monoinfection on initial microscopy over a four year period. Hematological, biochemical, serological, radiological and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations were performed to identify other causes of coma. Repeat microscopy, antigen detection and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to exclude infections with other Plasmodium species. Results Of 24 patients fulfilling enrolment criteria, 5 had clear evidence for other non-malarial etiologies. PCR demonstrated 10 mixed infections and 3 P. falciparum monoinfections. 6 (25%) patients had vivax monoinfection and no apparent alternative cause, with a median GCS of 9 (range 8–10) and a median coma duration of 42 (range 36–48) hours. CSF leukocyte counts were patients without CSF examination recovered with antimalarial therapy alone. One patient had a tremor on discharge consistent with a post-malarial neurological syndrome. No patient had other organ dysfunction. The only death was associated with pure P. falciparum infection by PCR. Vivax monoinfection-associated risk of coma was estimated at 1 in 29,486 clinical vivax infections with no deaths. In comparison, the risk of falciparum-associated coma was estimated at 1 in 1,276 clinical infections with an 18.5% mortality rate. Conclusions P. vivax-associated coma is rare, occurring 23 times less frequently than that seen with falciparum malaria, and is associated with a high proportion of non-malarial causes and mixed infections using PCR. The pathogenesis of coma associated with vivax malaria, particularly the role of comorbidities, is uncertain and requires further investigation. PMID

  18. Immediate coma and poor outcome in subarachnoid haemorrhage are independently associated with an aneurysmal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsermoulas, Georgios; Flett, Lisa; Gregson, Barbara; Mitchell, Patrick

    2013-08-01

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) may present with coma and this is known to be associated with aneurysmal origin and blood load. Aneurysmal origin is associated with increased blood load and existing data do not allow us to determine if the association between coma and aneurysmal SAH is wholly due to blood load or if aneurysmal origin has an additional independent effect. The objective of our study is to find if an aneurysmal origin is a predictor of acute onset of coma independent of blood load. A series of consecutive patients with spontaneous SAH were divided into two groups: aneurysmal (aSAH) and non-aneurysmal--angiographically negative SAH (naSAH). Blood load was quantified so that the effect of aneurysmal origin could be resolved from the effect of the amount of blood spilled. Non-parametric regression was used to relate blood load to coma and poor outcome rates for aneurysmal bleeds. We analysed a total of 421 patients presenting during the period 2009-2011. Ninety aneurysmal cases presented with coma, seventy immediately in the early phase and seven shortly after rebleeding. None of the naSAH cases presented with immediate coma and 1 developed delayed coma. Delayed coma was associated with acute hydrocephalus in both groups. Aneurysmal origin was found to be an independent determinant of immediate coma (p=0.02) and poor outcome (pcoma and poor outcome in SAH are associated with an aneurysmal origin and do not characterize naSAH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling Chemotherapy-Induced Hair Loss: From Experimental Propositions toward Clinical Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botchkarev, Vladimir A; Sharov, Andrey A

    2016-03-01

    Chemotherapy-induced hair loss is one of the most devastating side effects of cancer treatment. To study the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the hair follicle, a number of experimental models have been proposed. Yoon et al. report that transplantation of human scalp hair follicles onto chemotherapy-treated immunodeficient mice serves as an excellent in vivo model for chemotherapy-induced hair loss. Yoon et al. demonstrate that (i) the response of human hair follicles grafted onto immunodeficient mice to cyclophosphamide resembles the key features of the chemotherapy-induced hair loss seen in patients with cancer and (ii) this human in vivo model for chemotherapy-induced hair loss is closer to clinical reality than to any earlier models. Undoubtedly, this model will serve as a valuable tool for analyses of the mechanisms that underlie this devastating side effect of anti-cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Induced Mild Hypothermia on Acid-Base Balance During Experimental Acute Sepsis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léon, Karelle; Pichavant-Rafini, Karine; Ollivier, Hélène; L'Her, Erwan

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of induced mild hypothermia (34°C) on acid-base balance in septic rats. Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats median weight 306 g, range 251-333 g were used. After anesthesia and when the target temperature was reached (normothermia: 38°C or induced mild hypothermia: 34°C), sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and perforation. Measurements of cardiopulmonary parameters and blood samples were performed at T0h (occurring immediately after chirurgical procedures), T2h, T4h (at each temperature), and T6h (at 34°C only). Blood oxygen saturation, heart and respiratory rates, arterial blood pH, carbon dioxide partial pressure, sodium, potassium, chloride and calcium concentrations, hematocrit, blood lactate, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 concentrations were measured on anesthetized rats. Other parameters such as bicarbonate concentration, hemoglobin concentration, base excess, and anion gap were estimated from measured parameters. Main results showed that an increase in both cytokines concentrations was observed in septic rats compared with sham rats. This increase was less marked at 34°C compared with 38°C. Moreover, sepsis induction led to a marked metabolic acidosis and hypothermia delayed this acidosis. Induced mild hypothermia delays the evolution of cytokines and metabolic acidosis during experimental sepsis.

  1. Tramadol Induced Adrenal Insufficiency: Histological, Immunohistochemical, Ultrastructural, and Biochemical Genetic Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Abdelhakim Abdelaleem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting analgesic. It is the most consumed narcotic drug that is prescribed in the world. Tramadol abuse has dramatically increased in Egypt. Long term use of tramadol can induce endocrinopathy. So, the aim of this study was to analyze the adrenal insufficiency induced by long term use of tramadol in experimental animals and also to assess its withdrawal effects through histopathological and biochemical genetic study. Forty male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into 4 groups (control group, tramadol-treated group, and withdrawal groups. Tramadol was given to albino rats at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight for 3 months and after withdrawal periods (7–15 days rats were sacrificed. Long term use of tramadol induced severe histopathological changes in adrenal glands. Tramadol decreased the levels of serum cortisol and DHEAS hormones. In addition, it increased the level of adrenal MDA and decreased the genetic expression of glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase in adrenal gland tissues. All these changes started to return to normal after withdrawal of tramadol. Thus, it was confirmed that long term use of tramadol can induce severe adrenal insufficiency.

  2. Integrated system for production of neutronics and photonics calculational constants. Neutron-induced interactions: index of experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGregor, M.H.; Cullen, D.E.; Howerton, R.J.; Perkins, S.T.

    1976-07-04

    Indexes to the neutron-induced interaction data in the Experimental Cross Section Information Library (ECSIL) as of July 4, 1976 are tabulated. The tabulation has two arrangements: isotope (ZA) order and reaction-number order.

  3. Auditory event-related potentials as indicators of good prognosis in coma of non-anoxic etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbour, Rosette; Sawaya, Raja A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether auditory event-related potentials can predict the prognosis of recovery from coma resulting from different etiologies. The results of this study could then be used as an adjuvant test in helping the clinician evaluate patients in coma. We performed P300 auditory event-related potentials on 21 patients who developed a state of coma at our institution. We compared the results to the Glasgow coma scale at the onset of coma, on day 3, and day 21. We...

  4. Polioencefalomalacia experimental induzida por amprólio em ovinos Experimentally amprolium-induced polioencephalomalacia in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano J.F. de Sant'Ana

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Para estabelecer um modelo experimental para o estudo da etiologia, patologia e patogênese da polioencefalomalacia em ruminantes, a condição foi induzida em cinco ovinos pela administração oral de amprólio nas doses diárias de 500 e 1.000mg/kg de peso animal, respectivamente por 28-59 dias e 13-39 dias. Todos os ovinos morreram ou foram eutanasiados in extremis após um curso clínico de 3-7 dias. Os sinais clínicos incluíam depressão, incoordenação, midríase, bruxismo, cegueira e decúbito com opistótono e movimentos de pedalagem. Salivação excessiva e posição de cavalete foi observada em um ovino e mioclonias em um outro. Os principais achados de necropsia restringiam-se ao sistema nervoso central e incluíam tumefação do encéfalo com achatamento dos giros telencefálicos e hemorragias nos lobos parietal e occipital do telencéfalo; as hemorragias ocorriam também nas áreas submeníngeas da medula espinhal e do mesencéfalo. Histologicamente, havia necrose segmentar laminar de neurônios (neurônios vermelhos associada a edema, tumefação de células endoteliais, hemorragias e infiltração por macrófagos espumosos (células gitter. Essas alterações eram mais marcadas nos lobos frontal, parietal e occipital do telencéfalo e havia uma demarcação abrupta entre as lesões e o neurópilo normal adjacente. Adicionalmente, lesões semelhantes, mas menos acentuadas, eram observadas no mesencéfalo, tálamo e hipocampo. Levando em consideração a reproducibilidade regular dos aspectos da polioencefalomalacia em ovinos pela administração de amprólio, esse modelo pode ser útil para o estudo da doença.In order to establish an experimental model for the study of the etiology, pathology, and pathogenesis of polioencephalomalacia in ruminants, the condition was induced in five sheep by oral administration of amprolium at daily doses of 500 and 1,000mg per kg of body weight respectively for 28-59 days and for 13-39 days

  5. Polioencefalomalacia experimental induzida por amprólio em bovinos Experimentally amprolium-induced polio-encephalomalacia in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula A. Nogueira

    2010-08-01

    pathogenesis of polioencephalomalacia (PEM in cattle, the condition was induced into four steers by oral administration of amprolium at daily doses of 500 and 350mg per kg of body weight respectively for 22 and 26-28 days. All steers died spontaneously or were euthanized in extremis after being sick for 4-7 days. Three steers that received the drug at 1,000mg/kg and two that received 500mg/kg died spontaneously with acute or subacute clinical signs and without lesions and signs of PEM. In those steers in which PEM was reproduced, the neurological signs included marked apathy, incoordination, sawhorse stance, occasional falls, hyperexcitability, muscle tremors, blindness, grinding of teeth, strabismus, nystagmus, mydriasis, opisthotonus, and lateral recumbency with paddling movements. Main gross lesions were restricted to the brain and included swelling, flattening, softening and yellow discoloration of the cerebral circumvolutions. Histologically, there was segmental laminar neuronal necrosis (red neurons associated with edema, swelling of endothelial cells, cleavage of laminar neuronal layers or between gray and white matter and moderate to severe infiltration by foamy macrophages (gitter cells. These changes were more marked in the frontal, parietal and occipital telencephalic lobes. Additionally, similar and moderate lesions were detected in the midbrain and hippocampus. Neuronal necrosis and edema affected uniformly the neurons layers of the grey matter of the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes. This experimental model of PEM with oral administration of amprolium may be useful for the study in cattle, as previously observed in sheep.

  6. Experimental and observational evidence for plume-induced subduction on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davaille, A.; Smrekar, S. E.; Tomlinson, S.

    2017-04-01

    Why Venus lacks plate tectonics remains an unanswered question in terrestrial planet evolution. There is observational evidence for subduction--a requirement for plate tectonics--on Venus, but it is unclear why the features have characteristics of both mantle plumes and subduction zones. One explanation is that mantle plumes trigger subduction. Here we compare laboratory experiments of plume-induced subduction in a colloidal solution of nanoparticles to observations of proposed subduction sites on Venus. The experimental fluids are heated from below to produce upwelling plumes, which in turn produce tensile fractures in the lithosphere-like skin that forms on the upper surface. Plume material upwells through the fractures and spreads above the skin, analogous to volcanic flooding, and leads to bending and eventual subduction of the skin along arcuate segments. The segments are analogous to the semi-circular trenches seen at two proposed sites of plume-triggered subduction at Quetzalpetlatl and Artemis coronae. Other experimental deformation structures and subsurface density variations are also consistent with topography, radar and gravity data for Venus. Scaling analysis suggests that this regime with limited, plume-induced subduction is favoured by a hot lithosphere, such as that found on early Earth or present-day Venus.

  7. Acquired and Congenital Ocular Toxoplasmosis Experimentally Induced in Calomys callosus (Rodentia, Cricetidae

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    Maria de Fátima Pereira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental model for acquired and congenital ocular toxoplasmosis as well as a model to induce experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU was investigated in Calomys callosus. Toxoplasma gondii, ME-49 strain, was used to infect males and pregnant- and not pregnant-females while S-antigen, a major glycoprotein of the retinal photoreceptor cell, was used to induce EAU. The ocular lesions elicited by T. gondii were characterized by the presence of cysts, free tachyzoites and inflammatory cells in the retina or related tissues. In the congenital form, 40% of the fetus presented ocular lesions, i.e., presence of cysts in the retina, vitreous, and extra-retinal tissues. In the acquired form, 75% of the females and 50% of the males presented unilateral ocular cysts both at 21 and 47 days post-infection. It was also demonstrated that S-antigen was not uveitogenic in the C. callosus model. No lesion was observed in the animals exclusively immunized with this retinal component, even when jacalin was used as additional adjuvant for polyclonal response to the retinal antigen. It can be concluded that C. callosus may constitute in a promising model for study both acquired and congenital ocular toxoplasmosis, particularly when it is important to make sure that a non autoimmune process is involved in the genesis of the ocular infection.

  8. Establishment of peritoneal liquid electrophoretogram from healthy horses and horses submitted to experimentally induced intestinal obstruction

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    A.F.S. Nogueira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The initial inflammatory stages of the colic syndrome include changes known as acute phase response. The aim of this study was to contribute with the establishment of reference values concerning the electrophoretogram of peritoneal liquid from healthy horses and horses submitted to experimentally induced intestinal obstruction. Twenty-one horses were allotted in four groups: duodenal obstruction (DG, ileum obstruction (IG, left-dorsal colon obstruction (MG, and control group (CG. Peritoneal liquid was sampled before obtruction (T0, with 3 hours of obstruction (T3 and 6, 30, 102 and 174 hours after desobstructing (T6, T30, T102 and T174, respectively. Total protein levels were determined by the biuret method and protein fractions were obtained by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The acute phase proteins (APP identified were Immunoglobulin-A, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, albumin, α1-antitrypsin, heavy and light chains of immunoglobulin-G, haptoglobin, α1-acid glycoprotein and a still unnamed protein, which was called P24. There was no difference (P>0.3 in protein levels among groups, although a significant difference (P>0.05 was observed between distinct experimental moments in each group evidencing a higher response of the APP in the obstructed groups. The APP fractioning of the peritoneal liquid was standardized to establish a standard curve for healthy equines and those submitted to induced intestinal obstruction. Moreover, it was verified that the SDS-PAGE electrophoresis was sensitive and effective to help diagnose abdominal inflammatory processes.

  9. Human experimental anxiety: actual public speaking induces more intense physiological responses than simulated public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Gorayeb, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    a) To perform a systematic and meta-analytic review to verify whether the Simulated Public Speaking Task (SPST) leads to a greater increase in self-rated anxiety than in physiological correlates of anxiety; and b) to compare the results obtained with the SPST with an actual public speaking task involving healthy volunteers. a) The PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge databases were searched for studies involving the SPST prior to 2012. Eleven publications were eligible and provided data from 143 healthy volunteers for meta-analysis; b) 48 university students without somatic or psychiatric disorders were divided into three experimental groups of 16 subjects to undergo one of the following: SPST, real-world public speaking task (real-world), and control situation (control). The meta-analysis showed that the SPST induced a significant increase in the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) anxiety factor, but no significant increases in systolic blood pressure or heart rate. The empirical study showed that the real-world public speaking task increased heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure significantly more than the control and SPST conditions. These results suggest that real public speaking might be better than SPST in inducing experimental anxiety.

  10. Experimental investigation of flow induced dust acoustic shock waves in a complex plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Jaiswal, S; Sen, A

    2016-01-01

    We report on experimental observations of flow induced large amplitude dust-acoustic shock waves (DASW) in a complex plasma. The experiments have been carried out in a $\\Pi$ shaped DC glow discharge experimental device using kaolin particles as the dust component in a background of Argon plasma. A strong supersonic flow of the dust fluid is induced by adjusting the pumping speed and neutral gas flow into the device. An isolated copper wire mounted on the cathode acts as a potential barrier to the flow of dust particles. A sudden change of gas flow rate is used to trigger the onset of high velocity dust acoustic shocks whose dynamics are captured by fast video pictures of the evolving structures. The physical characteristics of these shocks are delineated through a parametric scan of their dynamical properties over a range of flow speeds and potential hill heights. The observed evolution of the shock waves and their propagation characteristics are found to compare well with model numerical results based on a m...

  11. Experimental investigation of flow induced dust acoustic shock waves in a complex plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, S., E-mail: surabhijaiswal73@gmail.com; Bandyopadhyay, P.; Sen, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2016-08-15

    We report on experimental observations of flow induced large amplitude dust-acoustic shock waves in a complex plasma. The experiments have been carried out in a Π shaped direct current glow discharge experimental device using kaolin particles as the dust component in a background of Argon plasma. A strong supersonic flow of the dust fluid is induced by adjusting the pumping speed and neutral gas flow into the device. An isolated copper wire mounted on the cathode acts as a potential barrier to the flow of dust particles. A sudden change in the gas flow rate is used to trigger the onset of high velocity dust acoustic shocks whose dynamics are captured by fast video pictures of the evolving structures. The physical characteristics of these shocks are delineated through a parametric scan of their dynamical properties over a range of flow speeds and potential hill heights. The observed evolution of the shock waves and their propagation characteristics are found to compare well with model numerical results based on a modified Korteweg-de-Vries-Burgers type equation.

  12. Assessment of the Mechanistic Role of Cinnarizine in Modulating Experimentally-Induced Bronchial Asthma in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Maha M; Messiha, Basim A S; Salama, Abeer A A

    2015-01-01

    Calcium influx, inflammatory infiltration, cytokine production, immunoglobulin E activation and oxidative stress play coordinated roles in bronchial asthma pathogenesis. We aim to assess the protective effect of cinnarizine against experimentally induced bronchial asthma. Bronchial asthma was induced by ovalbumin sensitization and challenge. Rats were allocated into a normal control, an asthma control, a dexamethasone (standard) treatment, and 2 cinnarizine treatment groups. The respiratory functions tidal volume (TV) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-5 (IL-5) in lung tissue, the allergic immunoglobulin IgE in serum, the absolute eosinophil count (AEC) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), as well as the oxidative and nitrosative markers glutathione reduced (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in lung tissue and nitric oxide end products (NOx) in BALF were assessed, followed by a histopathological study. Cinnarizine administration significantly restored TV, PEFR, TNF-α, IL-5, IgE, AEC, GSH, SOD and NOx values back to normal levels, and significantly decreased perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammatory scores. Cinnarizine may protect against experimental bronchial asthma. Suppressant effect of cinnarizine on pro-inflammatory cytokines release, IgE antibody production, eosinophil infiltration as well as oxidative and nitrosative stress may explain its anti-asthmatic potential. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Obesogenic diet-induced gut barrier dysfunction and pathobiont expansion aggravate experimental colitis.

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    June-Chul Lee

    Full Text Available Consumption of a typical Western diet is a risk factor for several disorders. Metabolic syndrome is the most common disease associated with intake of excess fat. However, the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease is also greater in subjects consuming a Western diet, although the mechanism of this phenomenon is not clearly understood. We examined the morphological and functional changes of the intestine, the first site contacting dietary fat, in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD inducing obesity. Paneth cell area and production of antimicrobial peptides by Paneth cells were decreased in HFD-fed mice. Goblet cell number and secretion of mucin by goblet cells were also decreased, while intestinal permeability was increased in HFD-fed mice. HFD-fed mice were more susceptible to experimental colitis, and exhibited severe colonic inflammation, accompanied by the expansion of selected pathobionts such as Atopobium sp. and Proteobacteria. Fecal microbiota transplantation transferred the susceptibility to DSS-colitis, and antibiotic treatment abrogated colitis progression. These data suggest that an experimental HFD-induced Paneth cell dysfunction and subsequent intestinal dysbiosis characterized by pathobiont expansion can be predisposing factors to the development of inflammatory bowel disease.

  14. Experimental Setup to Assess Blast and Penetration-Induced Secondary Debris in a Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    in a Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) Environment by Paul S Duvall Approved for public release; distribution...Research Laboratory Experimental Setup to Assess Blast and Penetration-Induced Secondary Debris in a Military Operations in Urban Terrain...Induced Secondary Debris in a Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) Environment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  15. Experimental tonic hand pain modulates the corticospinal plasticity induced by a subsequent hand deafferentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromatis, N; Gagné, M; Voisin, J I A V; Reilly, K T; Mercier, C

    2016-08-25

    Sensorimotor reorganization is believed to play an important role in the development and maintenance of phantom limb pain, but pain itself might modulate sensorimotor plasticity induced by deafferentation. Clinical and basic research support this idea, as pain prior to amputation increases the risk of developing post-amputation pain. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of experimental tonic cutaneous hand pain on the plasticity induced by temporary ischemic hand deafferentation. Sixteen healthy subjects participated in two experimental sessions (Pain, No Pain) in which transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess corticospinal excitability in two forearm muscles (flexor carpi radialis and flexor digitorum superficialis) before (T0, T10, T20, and T40) and after (T60 and T75) inflation of a cuff around the wrist. The cuff was inflated at T45 in both sessions and in the Pain session capsaicin cream was applied on the dorsum of the hand at T5. Corticospinal excitability was significantly greater during the Post-inflation phase (p=0.002) and increased similarly in both muscles (p=0.861). Importantly, the excitability increase in the Post-inflation phase was greater for the Pain than the No-Pain condition (p=0.006). Post-hoc analyses revealed a significant difference between the two conditions during the Post-inflation phase (p=0.030) but no difference during the Pre-inflation phase (p=0.601). In other words, the corticospinal facilitation was greater when pain was present prior to cuff inflation. These results indicate that pain can modulate the plasticity induced by another event, and could partially explain the sensorimotor reorganization often reported in chronic pain populations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Strong protection induced by an experimental DIVA subunit vaccine against bluetongue virus serotype 8 in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jenna; Hägglund, Sara; Bréard, Emmanuel; Riou, Mickaël; Zohari, Siamak; Comtet, Loic; Olofson, Ann-Sophie; Gélineau, Robert; Martin, Guillaume; Elvander, Marianne; Blomqvist, Gunilla; Zientara, Stéphan; Valarcher, Jean Francois

    2014-11-20

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) infections in ruminants pose a permanent agricultural threat since new serotypes are constantly emerging in new locations. Clinical disease is mainly observed in sheep, but cattle were unusually affected during an outbreak of BTV seroype 8 (BTV-8) in Europe. We previously developed an experimental vaccine based on recombinant viral protein 2 (VP2) of BTV-8 and non-structural proteins 1 (NS1) and NS2 of BTV-2, mixed with an immunostimulating complex (ISCOM)-matrix adjuvant. We demonstrated that bovine immune responses induced by this vaccine were as good or superior to those induced by a classic commercial inactivated vaccine. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of the experimental vaccine in cattle and, based on the detection of VP7 antibodies, assessed its DIVA compliancy following virus challenge. Two groups of BTV-seronegative calves were subcutaneously immunized twice at a 3-week interval with the subunit vaccine (n=6) or with adjuvant alone (n=6). Following BTV-8 challenge 3 weeks after second immunization, controls developed viremia and fever associated with other mild clinical signs of bluetongue disease, whereas vaccinated animals were clinically and virologically protected. The vaccine-induced protection was likely mediated by high virus-neutralizing antibody titers directed against VP2 and perhaps by cellular responses to NS1 and NS2. T lymphocyte responses were cross-reactive between BTV-2 and BTV-8, suggesting that NS1 and NS2 may provide the basis of an adaptable vaccine that can be varied by using VP2 of different serotypes. The detection of different levels of VP7 antibodies in vaccinated animals and controls after challenge suggested a compliancy between the vaccine and the DIVA companion test. This BTV subunit vaccine is a promising candidate that should be further evaluated and developed to protect against different serotypes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Time-Dependent Progression of Demyelination and Axonal Pathology in MP4-Induced Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

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    Johanna Prinz

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS characterized by inflammation, demyelination and axonal pathology. Myelin basic protein/proteolipid protein (MBP-PLP fusion protein MP4 is capable of inducing chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE in susceptible mouse strains mirroring diverse histopathological and immunological hallmarks of MS. Lack of human tissue underscores the importance of animal models to study the pathology of MS.Twenty-two female C57BL/6 (B6 mice were immunized with MP4 and the clinical development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE was observed. Methylene blue-stained semi-thin and ultra-thin sections of the lumbar spinal cord were assessed at the peak of acute EAE, three months (chronic EAE and six months after onset of EAE (long-term EAE. The extent of lesional area and inflammation were analyzed in semi-thin sections on a light microscopic level. The magnitude of demyelination and axonal damage were determined using electron microscopy. Emphasis was put on the ventrolateral tract (VLT of the spinal cord.B6 mice demonstrated increasing demyelination and severe axonal pathology in the course of MP4-induced EAE. Additionally, mitochondrial swelling and a decrease in the nearest neighbor neurofilament distance (NNND as early signs of axonal damage were evident with the onset of EAE. In semi-thin sections we observed the maximum of lesional area in the chronic state of EAE while inflammation was found to a similar extent in acute and chronic EAE. In contrast to the well-established myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG model, disease stages of MP4-induced EAE could not be distinguished by assessing the extent of parenchymal edema or the grade of inflammation.Our results complement our previous ultrastructural studies of B6 EAE models and suggest that B6 mice immunized with different antigens constitute useful instruments to study the diverse

  18. Effects of Experimental Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Infection on Immunity in an Equine Model

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    S. Rochelle Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcocystis neurona is the most common cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM, affecting 0.5–1% horses in the United States during their lifetimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the equine immune responses in an experimentally induced Sarcocystis neurona infection model. Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators. Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression. All experimentally infected horses displayed neurologic signs after infection. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in S. neurona-infected horses when stimulated nonspecifically with PMA/I but significantly decreased when stimulated with S. neurona compared to controls. Collectively, our results suggest that horses experimentally infected with S. neurona manifest impaired antigen specific response to S. neurona, which could be a function of altered antigen presentation, lack of antigen recognition, or both.

  19. An automated, high-throughput experimental system for induced charge electrokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascall, Andrew J; Squires, Todd M

    2010-09-21

    Recent experiments in induced charge electrokinetics (ICEK) have shown that the standard theory generally overpredicts experimentally observed velocities. Such discrepancies reduce the efficacy of practical ICEK devices, and highlight our incomplete understanding of electrokinetic phenomena. Here, we present an automated experimental system that allows for the rapid collection of ICEK data under a variety of conditions ( approximately 1000 per day) to help develop and constrain new theories. We demonstrate this system by studying the ICEK slip flows over electrodes that have been controllably "contaminated" with a dielectric layer, either SiO(2) or an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer, of known thickness. We also develop a theory that accounts for the effects of the dielectric coatings surface chemistry that yields quantitative agreement with experiments over nearly a thousand distinct conditions in the SiO(2) system and present an additional three thousand experiments of flows over alkanethiol monolayers. Our experimental system allows the direct interrogation of the physico-chemical effects that influence ICEK flows and for the optimization of these flows in lab-on-a-chip systems.

  20. Radiological and histopathological evaluation of experimentally-induced periapical lesion in rats

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    Renata Cordeiro Teixeira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated experimentally-induced periapical bone loss sites using digital radiographic and histopathologic parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-seven Wistar rats were submitted to coronal opening of their mandibular right first molars. They were radiographed at 2, 15 and 30 days after the operative procedure by two digital radiographic storage phosphor plates (Digora®. The images were analyzed by creating a region of interest at the periapical region of each tooth (ImageJ and registering the corresponding pixel values. After the sacrifice, the specimens were submitted to microscopic analysis in order to confirm the pulpal and periapical status of the tooth. RESULTS: There was significant statistically difference between the control and test sides in all the experimental periods regarding the pixel values (two-way ANOVA; p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The microscopic analysis proved that a periapical disease development occurred during the experimental periods with an evolution from pulpal necrosis to periapical bone resorption.

  1. Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts

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    Nur Shafika Mohd Sairazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS. In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA. KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration.

  2. Effects of Schizolobium parahyba extract on experimental Bothrops venom-induced acute kidney injury.

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    Monique Silva Martines

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Venom-induced acute kidney injury (AKI is a frequent complication of Bothrops snakebite with relevant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Schizolobium parahyba (SP extract, a natural medicine with presumed anti-Bothrops venom effects, in an experimental model of Bothrops jararaca venom (BV-induced AKI. METHODOLOGY: Groups of 8 to 10 rats received infusions of 0.9% saline (control, C, SP 2 mg/kg, BV 0.25 mg/kg and BV immediately followed by SP (treatment, T in the doses already described. After the respective infusions, animals were assessed for their glomerular filtration rate (GFR, inulin clearance, renal blood flow (RBF, Doppler, blood pressure (BP, intra-arterial transducer, renal vascular resistance (RVR, urinary osmolality (UO, freezing point, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, kinetic method, hematocrit (Hct, microhematocrit, fibrinogen (Fi, Klauss modified and blinded renal histology (acute tubular necrosis score. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BV caused significant decreases in GFR, RBF, UO, HcT and Fi; significant increases in RVR, NGAL and LDH; and acute tubular necrosis. SP did not prevent these changes; instead, it caused a significant decrease in GFR when used alone. CONCLUSION: SP administered simultaneously with BV, in an approximate 10∶1 concentration, did not prevent BV-induced AKI, hemolysis and fibrinogen consumption. SP used alone caused a decrease in GFR.

  3. Experimental Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Induces Blunted Vasoconstriction and Functional Changes in the Rat Aorta

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    Cecilia Tufiño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic conditions increase vascular reactivity to angiotensin II in several studies but there are scarce reports on cardiovascular effects of hypercaloric diet (HD induced gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, so the objective of this work was to determine the effects of HD induced GDM on vascular responses. Angiotensin II as well as phenylephrine induced vascular contraction was tested in isolated aorta rings with and without endothelium from rats fed for 7 weeks (4 before and 3 weeks during pregnancy with standard (SD or hypercaloric (HD diet. Also, protein expression of AT1R, AT2R, COX-1, COX-2, NOS-1, and NOS-3 and plasma glucose, insulin, and angiotensin II levels were measured. GDM impaired vasoconstrictor response (P<0.05 versus SD in intact (e+ but not in endothelium-free (e− vessels. Losartan reduced GDM but not SD e− vasoconstriction (P<0.01 versus SD. AT1R, AT2R, and COX-1 and COX-2 protein expression were significantly increased in GDM vessels (P<0.05 versus SD. Results suggest an increased participation of endothelium vasodilator mediators, probably prostaglandins, as well as of AT2 vasodilator receptors as a compensatory mechanism for vasoconstrictor changes generated by experimental GDM. Considering the short term of rat pregnancy findings can reflect early stage GDM adaptations.

  4. Microscopic evaluation of induced tooth movement after subluxation trauma: an experimental study in rats

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    Mauro Carlos Agner Busato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the histological alterations that occurred in the periodontal area of rat molars submitted to induced tooth movement (ITM right after an intentional trauma (subluxation. METHODS: Forty adult male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus were selected. The animals were divided into eight groups (n = 5, according to the combination of variables: Group 1 - control (neither trauma nor ITM; Group 2 - ITM; Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 - dentoalveolar trauma groups corresponding, respectively, to 1, 3, 8 and 10 days after trauma; Groups 7 and 8 - the animals' molars were subjected to a 900 cN impact and, one and three days after the trauma event, tooth movement was induced. The rats' maxillary first molars were mesially moved during seven days with a closed coil (50 cN. After the experimental period of each group, the animals were sacrificed by anesthetic overdose and the right maxillas were removed and processed for histological analysis under light microscopy. RESULTS: In the animals of group 3, 4, 5 and 6, the histological alterations were not very significant. Consequently, the effect of induced tooth movement right after a subluxation event (groups 7 and 8 was very similar to those described for Group 2. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in the quality of periodontal repair when ITM was applied to teeth that had suffered a subluxation trauma.

  5. Fumigaclavine C ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced murine experimental colitis via NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition

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    Wenjie Guo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of Fumigaclavine C, a fungal metabolite, on murine experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS and its possible mechanism were examined in vivo and vitro. Oral administration of Fumigaclavine C dose-dependently attenuated the loss of body weight and shortening of colon length induced by DSS. The disease activity index, histopathologic scores of musco was also significantly reduced by Fumigaclavine C treatment. Protein and mRNA levels of DSS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in colon, including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-17A, were markedly suppressed by Fumigaclavine C. At the same time, decreased activation of caspase-1 in peritoneal macrophages was detected in Fumigaclavine C -treated mice which suggested that the NLRP3 inflammasome activation was suppressed. Furthermore, in the LPS plus ATP cell model, we found that Fumigaclavine C dose-dependent inhibited IL-1β release and caspase-1 activation. Taken together, our results demonstrate the ability of Fumigaclavine C to inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation and give some evidence for its potential use in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  6. Effect of DATS on experimental corneal neovascularization induced by corneal suture in rats cornea

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    Xiao-Jun Zhou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the effect of diallyl trisulfide(DATSon experimental corneal neovascularization(CNVin rats induced by corneal suture and detect the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGFand p-AKT in rats cornea. METHODS: The rat model of corneal neovascularization(CNVwas induced by corneal suture. Rats were randomly divided into Group A: physiological saline control group containing DMSO(10 rats; Group B: 25μmol/L DATS treatment group(10 rats; Group C: 50μmol/L DATS treatment group(10 rats; Group D: 100μmol/L DATS treatment group(10 rats; Group E: 200μmol/L DATS treatment group(10 rats. The occurrence and development of CNV were observed by slit-lamp microscope at 7d after suture, and the area of CNV were calculated.Two weeks later, HE staining was used to observe the pathological organization form of each cornea, and RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression of VEGF mRNA and protein expression of VEGF and p-AKT between each groups. RESULTS: The blood vessel area of Group C, D and E was compared with that of Group A, the difference was statistically significant(PPPCONCLUSION: DATS can inhibit corneal neovascularization of the rats induced by suture. Its mechanism may be associated with suppression of VEGF secretion, down-regulation of VEGF and inactivation of p-AKT.

  7. Apatinib-loaded nanoparticles suppress vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis and experimental corneal neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Koung Li; Kim, Danbi; Yeo, Yeongju; Han, Hyounkoo; Kim, Myung Goo; Kim, Sun Hwa; Kim, Hyuncheol; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Suh, Wonhee

    2017-01-01

    Pathological angiogenesis is one of the major symptoms of severe ocular diseases, including corneal neovascularization. The blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) action has been recognized as an efficient strategy for treating corneal neovascularization. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether nanoparticle-based delivery of apatinib, a novel and selective inhibitor of VEGF receptor 2, inhibits VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and suppresses experimental corneal neovascularization. Water-insoluble apatinib was encapsulated in nanoparticles composed of human serum albumin (HSA)-conjugated polyethylene glycol (PEG). In vitro angiogenesis assays showed that apatinib-loaded HSA-PEG (Apa-HSA-PEG) nanoparticles potently inhibited VEGF-induced tube formation, scratch wounding migration, and proliferation of human endothelial cells. In a rat model of alkali burn injury-induced corneal neovascularization, a subconjunctival injection of Apa-HSA-PEG nanoparticles induced a significant decrease in neovascularization compared to that observed with an injection of free apatinib solution or phosphate-buffered saline. An in vivo distribution study using HSA-PEG nanoparticles loaded with fluorescent hydrophobic model drugs revealed the presence of a substantial number of nanoparticles in the corneal stroma within 24 h after injection. These in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that apatinib-loaded nanoparticles may be promising for the prevention and treatment of corneal neovascularization-related ocular disorders.

  8. Aloe vera gel protects liver from oxidative stress-induced damage in experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Taslima; Uddin, Borhan; Hossain, Shahdat; Sikder, Abdul Mannan; Ahmed, Sohel

    2013-05-07

    Aloe vera is a semi-tropical plant of Liliaceae family which has a wide range of applications in traditional medicine. In the present study, we sought to investigate the heptaoprotective potential of Aloe vera gel as a diet supplement. To achieve this goal, we have designed in vitro and in vivo experimental models of chemical-induced liver damage using male Sprague-Dawley rat. In the in vitro model, its effect was evaluated on Fenton's reaction-induced liver lipid peroxidation. Co-incubation with gel significantly reduced the generation of liver lipid peroxide (LPO). Next, to see the similar effect in vivo, gel was orally administered to rats once daily for 21 successive days. Following 1 hour of the last administration of gel, rats were treated with intra-peritoneal injection of CCl4. Dietary gel showed significant hepatoprotection against CCl4-induced damage as evident by restoration of liver LPO, serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin towards near normal. The beneficial effects were pronounced with the doses used (400 and 800 mg/kg body weight). Besides, we did not observe any significant drop in serum albumin, globulin as well as total protein levels of gel-administered rats. Histopathology of the liver tissue further supported the biochemical findings confirming the hepatoprotective potential of dietary gel.

  9. Hematological, antioxidant and protective performance of Usnea longissima on chemical induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritt Verma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigated the hematological, antioxidant and protective performance of Usnea longissima (U. longissima on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animals. Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced by CCl4 (1 mL/kg body weigt 1:1 CCl4 i.p., ethanolic U. longissima extracts at a doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weigt were administered to and compared with Silymarin (25 mg/kg body weigt and hematological, antioxidant and enzymatic, non-enzymatic parameters were assessed through the liver functions test. All the observation was also supplemented with histopathological examination of liver sections. Results: Phytochemical investigation showed that ethanolic extract contains poly phenolic compounds tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins and acute toxicity study shows that ethanolic extract was safe up to 2 000 mg/kg body weight. The toxicant induced a rise in the plasma enzyme levels of ALT, AST, ALP and total bilirubin level. This increased level was significantly decreased by the extract at 400 mg/kg body weight than 200 mg/kg body weight. The animals were prevented (partly or fully which was showed in the histopathological changes using ethonolic U. longissima extract. Conclusions: The outcome of this study reveals that, there is a powerful antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of U. longissima. It is believed that the present constituents are responsible for courting the hepatic disease and alternative components have the power to act as free radical scavenging properties.

  10. Streaming Clumps Ejection Model and the Heterogeneous Inner Coma of Comet Wild 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.; Economou, T. E.; Green, S. F.; Sandford, S. A.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2004-01-01

    The conventional concept of cometary comae is that they are dominated by fine particulates released individually by sublimation of surface volatiles and subsequent entrainment in the near-surface gas. It has long been recognized that such particulates could be relatively large, with early estimates that objects perhaps up to one meter in size may be levitated from the surface of the typical cometary nucleus. However, the general uniformity and small average particulate size of observed comae and the relatively smooth, monotonic increases and decreases in particle density during the Giotto flythrough of comet Halley s coma in 1986 reinforced the view that the bulk of the particles are released at the surface, are fine-sized and inert. Jets have been interpreted as geometrically constrained release of these particulates. With major heterogeneities observed during the recent flythrough of the inner coma of comet Wild 2, these views deserve reconsideration.

  11. Current sheets in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volwerk, M.; Jones, G. H.; Broiles, T.; Burch, J.; Carr, C.; Coates, A. J.; Cupido, E.; Delva, M.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Eriksson, A.; Goetz, C.; Goldstein, R.; Henri, P.; Madanian, H.; Nilsson, H.; Richter, I.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Stenberg Wieser, G.; Glassmeier, K.-H.

    2017-03-01

    The Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC) data are used to investigate the presence of current sheets in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The interaction of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) transported by the solar wind toward the outgassing comet consists amongst others of mass loading and field line draping near the nucleus. The draped field lines lead to so-called nested draping because of the constantly changing direction of the IMF. It is shown that the draping pattern is strongly variable over the period of one month. Nested draping results in neighbouring regions with oppositely directed magnetic fields, which are separated by current sheets. Selected events on 5 and 6 June 2015 are studied, which show that there are strong rotations of the magnetic field with associated current sheets that have strengths from several tens up to hundreds of nA/m2. Not all discussed current sheets show the characteristic peak in plasma density at the centre of the sheet, which might be related to the presence of a guide field. There is no evidence for different kinds of plasmas on either side of a current sheet, and no strongly accelerated ions have been observed which could have been an indication of magnetic reconnection in the current sheets.

  12. Disability rating scale for severe head trauma: coma to community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, M; Hall, K M; Hopkins, K; Belleza, T; Cope, D N

    1982-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop one instrument for assessing quantitatively the disability of severe head trauma patients so their rehabilitative progress could be followed from coma through different levels of awareness and functioning to their return to the community. This disability rating (DR) instrument was designed to be easily learned, quickly completed, valid, predictive of outcome and to have a high inter-rater reliability. The DR Scale consists of 8 items divided into 4 categories; 1. Arousal and awareness; 2. Cognitive ability to handle self-care functions; 3. Physical dependence upon others; 4. Psychosocial adaptability for work, housework, or school. Completed independently by several raters for more than 88 serious head injury patients, inter-rater correlations were highly significant. The admission DR was significantly related to clinical outcome at 1 year after injury and was significantly related to electrophysiologic measures of brain dysfunction as reflected in degree of abnormality of evoked brain potential patterns. The DR Scale is more sensitive than the Glasgow Outcome Scale in detecting and measuring clinical changes in individuals who have sustained severe head trauma. Also it can be used to help identify patients most likely to benefit from intensive rehabilitation care within a hospital setting. It provides a shorthand global description of a head injury patient's condition that facilitates understanding and communication.

  13. Seizure and coma following Kratom (Mitragynina speciosa Korth) exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Jamie L; Lapoint, Jeff; Hodgman, Michael J; Aldous, Kenneth M

    2010-12-01

    Reports of toxicity secondary to Kratom are rare and lack of diagnostic testing in human specimens has prevented confirmatory explanation of observed clinical effects. We present a novel case of serious human toxicity following Kratom use confirmed via quantitative analysis of urine by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. A 64 year-old male was witnessed to have a seizure at home following kratom consumption. Upon arrival to the emergency department (ED), the patient was unresponsive. While in the ED, the patient sustained a second seizure. He was intubated to protect his airway. The remainder of his hospital course was uneventful. A urine specimen was collected shortly after admission and sent for analysis. The mitragynine concentration in the urine was 167 ± 15 ng/ml. We report a rare case of Kratom toxicity characterized by a seizure and coma confirmed by urinary analysis of mitragynine by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The proposed mechanism for this reaction is unclear but suggested mechanisms include adenosine binding or stimulation of adrenergic and/or serotonergic receptors similar to tramadol.

  14. Intrathecal baclofen toxicity and deep coma in minutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunali, Yusuf; Hanimoglu, Hakan; Tanriverdi, Taner; Hanci, Lale; Hanci, Murat

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, intrathecal baclofen (ITB) treatment in patients with refractory spasticity has been accepted as an effective therapy. However, this treatment modality may cause life-threatening complications. This report describes the clinical presentation, unfamiliar dilemmas, and treatment of a patient with ITB toxicity and raises awareness of problems that may arise. A 33-year-old man with refractory spasticity due to diffuse white matter injury was admitted for ITB treatment. The patient had respiratory difficulty followed by a generalized seizure and developed coma minutes after the drug administration. The patient was transferred into an intensive care unit immediately and managed accordingly. After proper management, the patient was followed and continued to receive ITB treatment. ITB therapy is a very effective method of rehabilitation and medication in patients with refractory spasticity, but physicians must be aware of the serious complications that may develop just minutes after the drug is administered. Although safe, baclofen pumps are nevertheless mechanical devices that may malfunction. Therefore, physicians should be mindful of the possibility of life-threatening complications that may develop and lead to a patient's death if proper treatment is not performed.

  15. Hypertriglyceridemia as a possible cause of coma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inokuchi Ryota

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Many studies suggest that elevated triglyceride levels are associated with increased long-term risk of stroke, including transient ischemic attacks. In addition, elevated triglyceride levels independently contribute to plasma viscosity and decreased blood flow. However, no consensus has been reached regarding the significance of hypertriglyceridemia as an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke. Case presentation We report the case of a patient admitted to our hospital for sudden onset of coma. Laboratory test results revealed he had high blood glucose (28.2mmol/L, high glycated hemoglobin (11.4 percent, considerably high serum triglyceride levels (171.5mmol/L; type V hyperlipoproteinemia, and high plasma viscosity (1.90mPa/s with normal β-hydroxybutyric acid levels. His triglyceride levels decreased after administering intravenous fluids. Our patient’s consciousness level improved gradually over three days. All serum lipid levels decreased seven days after admission. Conclusions The findings in our patient’s case are likely explained by triglyceride-mediated hyperviscosity causing a transient ischemic attack. In the present report we suggest that when several tests do not reveal the cause of stroke-like symptoms, measurement of plasma viscosity may be informative.

  16. Knowledge of Glasgow coma scale by air-rescue physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heim Catherine

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the theoretical and practical knowledge of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS by trained Air-rescue physicians in Switzerland. Methods Prospective anonymous observational study with a specially designed questionnaire. General knowledge of the GCS and its use in a clinical case were assessed. Results From 130 questionnaires send out, 103 were returned (response rate of 79.2% and analyzed. Theoretical knowledge of the GCS was consistent for registrars, fellows, consultants and private practitioners active in physician-staffed helicopters. The clinical case was wrongly scored by 38 participants (36.9%. Wrong evaluation of the motor component occurred in 28 questionnaires (27.2%, and 19 errors were made for the verbal score (18.5%. Errors were made most frequently by registrars (47.5%, p = 0.09, followed by fellows (31.6%, p = 0.67 and private practitioners (18.4%, p = 1.00. Consultants made significantly less errors than the rest of the participating physicians (0%, p Conclusion Although the theoretical knowledge of the GCS by out-of-hospital physicians is correct, significant errors were made in scoring a clinical case. Less experienced physicians had a higher rate of errors. Further emphasis on teaching the GCS is mandatory.

  17. Acute Kidney Injury as a Risk Factor for Delirium and Coma during Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Edward D; Fissell, William H; Tripp, Christina M; Blume, Jeffrey D; Wilson, Matthew D; Clark, Amanda J; Vincz, Andrew J; Ely, E Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P; Girard, Timothy D

    2017-06-15

    Acute kidney injury may contribute to distant organ dysfunction. Few studies have examined kidney injury as a risk factor for delirium and coma. To examine whether acute kidney injury is associated with delirium and coma in critically ill adults. In a prospective cohort study of intensive care unit patients with respiratory failure and/or shock, we examined the association between acute kidney injury and daily mental status using multinomial transition models adjusting for demographics, nonrenal organ failure, sepsis, prior mental status, and sedative exposure. Acute kidney injury was characterized daily using the difference between baseline and peak serum creatinine and staged according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Mental status (normal vs. delirium vs. coma) was assessed daily with the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU and Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale. Among 466 patients, stage 2 acute kidney injury was a risk factor for delirium (odds ratio [OR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-2.26) and coma (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.25-3.34) as was stage 3 injury (OR for delirium, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.57-4.16) (OR for coma, 3.34; 95% CI, 1.85-6.03). Daily peak serum creatinine (adjusted for baseline) values were also associated with delirium (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.18-1.55) and coma (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.20-1.74). Renal replacement therapy modified the association between stage 3 acute kidney injury and daily peak serum creatinine and both delirium and coma. Acute kidney injury is a risk factor for delirium and coma during critical illness.

  18. Nociception coma scale-revised scores correlate with metabolism in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    OpenAIRE

    Chatelle, Camille; Thibaut, Aurore; Bruno, Marie-Aurelie; Boly, Melanie; Bernard, Claire; Hustinx, Roland; Schnakers, Caroline; Laureys, Steven

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: . The Nociception Coma Scale-Revised (NCS-R) was recently validated to assess possible pain perception in patients with disorders of consciousness. OBJECTIVE: . To identify correlations between cerebral glucose metabolism and NCS-R total scores. METHODS: . [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, NCS-R, and Coma Recovery Scale-Revised assessments were performed in 49 patients with disorders of consciousness. RESULTS: . We identified a significant positive correlation...

  19. Etiologies et pronostic des comas non-traumatiques de l'enfant a l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etiologies et pronostic des comas non-traumatiques de l'enfant a l'hopital universitaire de Lome. ... B Balaka, L Douti, D Azoumah, B Bakonde, AD Agbere, K Kessie. Abstract. Objectif. Déterminer la fréquence, le profil clinique, l'étiologie et l'évolution du coma non traumatique de l'enfant de un mois à 16 ans. Méthode.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. X. (den Brok+, 2014)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Brok, M.; Peletier, R. F.; Seth, A.; Balcells, M.; Dominguez, L.; Graham, A. W.; Carter, D.; Erwin, P.; Ferguson, H. C.; Goudfrooij, P.; Guzman, R.; Hoyos, C.; Jogee, S.; Lucey, J.; Phillipps, S.; Puzia, T.; Valentijn, E.; Kleijn, G. V.; Weinzirl, T.

    2014-01-01

    The Coma ACS Survey (Carter et al., 2008ApJS..176..424C) provides data in two passbands for 25 fields pointed at the core of the Coma cluster and at the outskirts. The exposure times in the two passbands, F814W and F475W (which are roughly equivalent to the IC and g band) were ~1400 and ~2600s. The

  1. Extended ceftiofur therapy for treatment of experimentally-induced Streptococcus uberis mastitis in lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S P; Almeida, R A; Gillespie, B E; Headrick, S J; Dowlen, H H; Johnson, D L; Lamar, K C; Chester, S T; Moseley, W M

    2004-10-01

    Streptococcus uberis is an important cause of mastitis in dairy cows throughout the world, particularly during the dry period, the period around calving, and during early lactation. Strategies for controlling Strep. uberis mastitis are poorly defined and are currently inadequate. Objectives of the present study were to evaluate efficacy of ceftiofur, a new broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic, for treatment of experimentally induced Strep. uberis intramammary infections (IMI) in lactating dairy cows during early lactation and to determine whether extended therapy regimens enhanced efficacy of ceftiofur. Efficacy of extended ceftiofur intramammary therapy regimens was investigated in 37 mammary quarters of 23 dairy cows that developed clinical mastitis following experimental infection with Strep. uberis during early lactation. Cows that developed clinical mastitis during the challenge period were allocated randomly to 3 groups representing 3 different ceftiofur treatment regimens: 2-d (n = 7 mammary quarters), 5-d (n = 16 mammary quarters), and 8-d (n = 14 mammary quarters) treatment regimens. For all groups, 125 mg of ceftiofur hydrochloride was administered via intramammary infusion. A bacteriological cure was defined as an experimentally infected quarter that was treated and was bacteriologically negative for the presence of Strep. uberis at 7, 14, 21, and 28 d posttreatment. Percentage of Strep. uberis IMI eliminated was 43, 88, and 100% for the 2-, 5-, and 8-d ceftiofur treatment regimens, respectively. Both the 5- and 8-d ceftiofur extended therapy treatment regimens had significantly higher bacterial cure rates than the standard 2-d ceftiofur treatment regimen. The bacterial cure rate of the 8-d ceftiofur extended therapy group was marginally better (P = 0.052) than the 5-d ceftiofur extended therapy group. Results of this study indicate that ceftiofur therapy was effective for eliminating Strep. uberis experimental IMI, and 5- and 8-d extended ceftiofur

  2. Experimental colitis delays and reduces the severity of collagen-induced arthritis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hablot, Julie; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Kokten, Tunay; El Omar, Reine; Netter, Patrick; Bastien, Claire; Jouzeau, Jean-Yves; Sokol, Harry; Moulin, David

    2017-01-01

    Amongst extraintestinal manifestations (EIM) occurring in IBD patients, rheumatologic manifestations are the most frequent. Understanding the relationships between arthritis and colitis is a prerequisite to improving the management of these patients. Microbiota of patients with IBD or rheumatologic diseases, like spondyloarthritis (SpA) is modified compared to healthy individual. Thus, we have evaluated the impact of colitis in the development of arthritis in mice and we have analyzed microbiota changes. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was induced at day 0 in DBA1 mice exposed or not to Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) to induce colitis between day 14 and day 21. Animals were monitored regularly for arthritis and colitis severity (clinical score, hindpaw edema). Fecal microbiota was studied by 16S rRNA deep sequencing at critical time points (D14, D14, D21 & D41). At day 41, histological scoring of the intestines and ankles were performed at the end of experiment. Induction of colitis slightly delayed arthritis onset (2 ± 1 days of delay) and reduced its severity (5.75 ± 1.62 in arthritis only group vs 4.00 ± 1.48 in arthritis + colitis group (p = 0.02 at day 28) macroscopically and histologically. In contrast, colitis severity was not influenced by arthritis development. Induction of colitis promoted a modification of microbiota composition and a decrease of α-diversity. Fecal microbiota composition was different between "colitis" and "arthritis+colitis" groups during colitis development. Interestingly a milder decrease of bacterial diversity in the "arthritis+colitis" group was observed. Concomitant experimental colitis protects mice against collagen-induced arthritis and this is associated with changes in gut microbiome composition.

  3. Experimental colitis delays and reduces the severity of collagen-induced arthritis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hablot, Julie; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Kokten, Tunay; El Omar, Reine; Netter, Patrick; Bastien, Claire; Jouzeau, Jean-Yves; Sokol, Harry

    2017-01-01

    Amongst extraintestinal manifestations (EIM) occurring in IBD patients, rheumatologic manifestations are the most frequent. Understanding the relationships between arthritis and colitis is a prerequisite to improving the management of these patients. Microbiota of patients with IBD or rheumatologic diseases, like spondyloarthritis (SpA) is modified compared to healthy individual. Thus, we have evaluated the impact of colitis in the development of arthritis in mice and we have analyzed microbiota changes. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was induced at day 0 in DBA1 mice exposed or not to Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) to induce colitis between day 14 and day 21. Animals were monitored regularly for arthritis and colitis severity (clinical score, hindpaw edema). Fecal microbiota was studied by 16S rRNA deep sequencing at critical time points (D14, D14, D21 & D41). At day 41, histological scoring of the intestines and ankles were performed at the end of experiment. Induction of colitis slightly delayed arthritis onset (2 ± 1 days of delay) and reduced its severity (5.75 ± 1.62 in arthritis only group vs 4.00 ± 1.48 in arthritis + colitis group (p = 0.02 at day 28) macroscopically and histologically. In contrast, colitis severity was not influenced by arthritis development. Induction of colitis promoted a modification of microbiota composition and a decrease of α-diversity. Fecal microbiota composition was different between “colitis” and “arthritis+colitis” groups during colitis development. Interestingly a milder decrease of bacterial diversity in the “arthritis+colitis” group was observed. Concomitant experimental colitis protects mice against collagen-induced arthritis and this is associated with changes in gut microbiome composition. PMID:28926599

  4. MMN and novelty P3 in coma and other altered states of consciousness: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlet, Dominique; Fischer, Catherine

    2014-07-01

    In recent decades, there has been a growing interest in the assessment of patients in altered states of consciousness. There is a need for accurate and early prediction of awakening and recovery from coma. Neurophysiological assessment of coma was once restricted to brainstem auditory and primary cortex somatosensory evoked potentials elicited in the 30 ms range, which have both shown good predictive value for poor coma outcome only. In this paper, we review how passive auditory oddball paradigms including deviant and novel sounds have proved their efficiency in assessing brain function at a higher level, without requiring the patient's active involvement, thus providing an enhanced tool for the prediction of coma outcome. The presence of an MMN in response to deviant stimuli highlights preserved automatic sensory memory processes. Recorded during coma, MMN has shown high specificity as a predictor of recovery of consciousness. The presence of a novelty P3 in response to the subject's own first name presented as a novel (rare) stimulus has shown a good correlation with coma awakening. There is now a growing interest in the search for markers of consciousness, if there are any, in unresponsive patients (chronic vegetative or minimally conscious states). We discuss the different ERP patterns observed in these patients. The presence of novelty P3, including parietal components and possibly followed by a late parietal positivity, raises the possibility that some awareness processes are at work in these unresponsive patients.

  5. The relation between persistent coma and brain ischemia after severe brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Quan; Jiang, Bing; Xi, Jian; Li, Zhen Yan; Liu, Jin Fang; Wang, Jun Yu

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the relation between brain ischemia and persistent vegetative state after severe traumatic brain injury. The 66 patients with severe brain injury were divided into two groups: The persistent coma group (coma duration ≥10 d) included 51 patients who had an admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 5-8 and were unconscious for more than 10 d. There were 15 patients in the control group, their admission GCS was 5-8, and were unconscious for less than 10 d. The brain areas, including frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital lobes and thalamus, were measured by Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). In the first SPECT scan, multiple areas of cerebral ischemia were documented in all patients in both groups, whereas bilateral thalamic ischemia were presented in all patients in the persistent coma group and were absented in the control group. In the second SPECT scan taken during the period of analepsia, with an indication that unilateral thalamic ischemia were persisted in 28 of 41 patients in persistent coma group(28/41,68.29%). Persistent coma after severe brain injury is associated with bilateral thalamic ischemia.

  6. Jet Morphology and Coma Analysis of Comet 103P/Hartley 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Charles M.; Pierce, Donna M.; Cochran, Anita L.

    2017-12-01

    Spectral data for the coma of Hartley 2 were acquired across four nights in late 2010 using an integral field spectrometer at McDonald Observatory. For the 30 observations during these four nights, we detected five radical species in the coma: C2, C3, CH, CN, and NH2. Using division by azimuthal mean and division by radial profile, we enhanced 150 images of the coma to reveal subtle coma structure. These images revealed noticeable temporal evolution and spatial variations between species. To quantify the observed variation between species, we partitioned the coma and used analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques to provide a statistical basis for heterogeneity. Nearly every ANOVA test indicated a spatially diverse distribution in the coma when considering all species collectively. To examine the temporal behavior, we used the works by Belton et al., Thomas et al., and Bruck Syal et al. to predict nucleus orientation and active jet directions at our observation times. Several of these reported jet sites correlated to high radical concentrations, and the sites on the smaller lobe are more closely associated with high radical concentrations. Lastly, we provide constraints for the suspect parent molecules of the detected radicals, and we propose that photolysis reactions occurring at or near extended icy grains are a source for the more enigmatic radicals, such as C3.

  7. Heart disease induced by AAS abuse, using experimental mice/rats models and the role of exercise-induced cardiotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riezzo, I; De Carlo, D; Neri, M; Nieddu, A; Turillazzi, E; Fineschi, V

    2011-05-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are all synthetic derivates of testosterone and are commonly used as sport performance enhancers in athletes. The heart is one of the organs most frequently affected by administration of anabolic steroids. A direct myocardial injury caused by AAS is supposed to determine marked hypertrophy in myocardial cells, extensive regional fibrosis and necrosis. A number of excellent studies, using animal models, were performed to evaluate the cardiac effects of AAS. It is known that exogenous administration induced cardiac hypertrophy in vitro and in vivo, and when combined with exercise, anabolic steroid use has been shown to change exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy to pathophysiological cardiac hypertrophy. However the molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. It's described that sudden cardiac death, myocardial infarct; ventricular remodelling and cardiomyopathy do to AAS is related to apoptosis and oxidative stress when associated with exercise. Mechanical stimuli and circulating humoral factors (TNF-α, HSP-70, IL-1β) released by the heart and peripheral organs are responsible. Testosterone and derivates can work through genomic (activation of specific androgen receptor, interaction with coactivators and co-repressors transcription factors, gene regulation) and non-genomic mechanism (membrane-receptor-second messenger cascades). Chronic AAS abuse results in different patterns of pathologic alterations, which depend on type, dose, frequency, and mode of use. The difficulty in interpreting experimental data on animals (mice and rats) lies in the diversity of experiments (the diversity of substances, which show different properties, different mice / rats by sex and age, duration of treatment with AAS, dosages used, type, scope and exercise duration).

  8. Trehalose treatment suppresses inflammation, oxidative stress, and vasospasm induced by experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echigo Ryosuke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH frequently results in several complications, including cerebral vasospasm, associated with high mortality. Although cerebral vasospasm is a major cause of brain damages after SAH, other factors such as inflammatory responses and oxidative stress also contribute to high mortality after SAH. Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide in which two glucose units are linked by α,α-1,1-glycosidic bond, and has been shown to induce tolerance to a variety of stressors in numerous organisms. In the present study, we investigated the effect of trehalose on cerebral vasospasm, inflammatory responses, and oxidative stress induced by blood in vitro and in vivo. Methods Enzyme immunoassay for eicosanoids, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and endothelin-1, and western blotting analysis for cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and inhibitor of NF-κB were examined in macrophage-like cells treated with hemolysate. After treatment with hemolysate and hydrogen peroxide, the levels of lipid peroxide and amounts of arachidonic acid release were also analyzed. Three hours after the onset of experimental SAH, 18 Japanese White rabbits received an injection of saline, trehalose, or maltose into the cisterna magna. Angiographic and histological analyses of the basilar arteries were performed. In a separate study, the femoral arteries from 60 rats were exposed to fresh autologous blood. At 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 20 days after treatment, cryosections prepared from the femoral arteries were histologically analyzed. Results When cells were treated with hemolysate, trehalose inhibited the production of several inflammatory mediators and degradation of the inhibitor of NF-κB and also suppressed the lipid peroxidation, the reactive oxygen species-induced arachidonic acid release in vitro. In the rabbit model, trehalose produced an inhibitory effect on vasospasm after the onset of experimental SAH, while maltose had only

  9. Induction of burst suppression or coma using intravenous anesthetics in refractory status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong Su; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Shin, Jeong-Won; Moon, Jang Sup; Byun, Jung-Ick; Lim, Jung-Ah; Moon, Hye Jin; Kim, Young-Soo; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Lee, Sang Kun

    2015-05-01

    General anesthetic-induced coma therapy has been recommended for the treatment of refractory status epilepticus (RSE). However, the influence of electroencephalographic (EEG) burst suppression (BS) on outcomes still remains unclear. This study investigated the impact of intravenous anesthetic-induced BS on the prognosis of RSE using a retrospective analysis of all consecutive adult patients who received intravenous anesthetic treatment for RSE at the Seoul National University Hospital between January 2006 and June 2011. Twenty-two of the 111 episodes of RSE were enrolled in this study. Of the 22 RSE patients, 12 (54.5%) were women and 18 (81.4%) exhibited generalized convulsive status epilepticus. Sixteen patients (72.7%) were classified as having acute symptomatic etiology, including three patients with anoxic encephalopathy, and others with remote symptomatic etiology. Only two patients (9.1%) had a favorable Status Epilepticus Severity Score (0-2) at admission. All patients received midazolam (MDZ) as a primary intravenous anesthetic drug for RSE treatment; three (13.6%) received MDZ and propofol, and one (4.5%) received MDZ and pentobarbital. The rates of mortality and poor outcome at discharge were 13.6% (n=3) and 54.5% (n=12), respectively. While BS was achieved in six (27.5%) patients, it was not associated with mortality or poor outcome. Induced BS was associated with prolonged hospital stay in subgroup analysis when excluding anoxic encephalopathy. Our results suggest that induction of BS for treating RSE did not affect mortality or outcome at discharge and may lead to an increased length of hospital stay. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nanolesions induced by heavy ions in human tissues: Experimental and theoretical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Bleicher

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of energetic heavy ions are attracting increasing interest for their applications in cancer therapy and protection against space radiation. The cascade of events leading to cell death or late effects starts from stochastic energy deposition on the nanometer scale and the corresponding lesions in biological molecules, primarily DNA. We have developed experimental techniques to visualize DNA nanolesions induced by heavy ions. Nanolesions appear in cells as “streaks” which can be visualized by using different DNA repair markers. We have studied the kinetics of repair of these “streaks” also with respect to the chromatin conformation. Initial steps in the modeling of the energy deposition patterns at the micrometer and nanometer scale were made with MCHIT and TRAX models, respectively.

  11. Experimental study of the cross-sections of alpha-particle induced reactions on $^{209}$Bi

    CERN Document Server

    Hermanne, A; Shubin, Yu N; Szucs, Z; Takács, S; Tarkanyi, F; 10.1016/j.apradiso.2005.01.015

    2005-01-01

    alpha -particle-induced nuclear reactions for generation of /sup 211 /At used in therapeutic nuclear medicine and possible contaminants were investigated with the stacked foil activation technique on natural bismuth targets up to E/sub alpha /=39 MeV. Excitation functions are reported for the reactions /sup 209/Bi( alpha ,2n)/sup 211/At, /sup 209/Bi( alpha ,3n)/sup 210/At and /sup 209/Bi( alpha , x)/sup 210/Po. Results obtained from direct alpha -emission measurements and gamma -spectra from decay products are compared and correspond well with earlier literature values. Thick target yields have been deduced from the experimental cross-sections and optimised production pathways for minimal contamination are presented. A comparison with the results of the theoretical model code ALICE-IPPE is discussed.

  12. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation to induced blood pressure changes in human experimental and clinical sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni R; Bailey, Damian M

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that dynamic cerebral autoregulation to spontaneous fluctuations in blood pressure is enhanced following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion, a human experimental model of early sepsis, whereas by contrast it is impaired in patients with severe sepsis or septic......R). This was performed before and after LPS infusion in healthy volunteers, and within 72 h following clinical diagnosis of sepsis in patients. In healthy volunteers, thigh-cuff deflation caused a MAP reduction of 16 (13-20) % at baseline and 18 (16-20) % after LPS, while the MAP reduction was 12 (11-13) % in patients......(-1) ; P = 0·91 versus baseline; P = 0·14 versus LPS]. While our findings support the concept that dynamic cerebral autoregulation is enhanced during the very early stages of sepsis, they remain inconclusive with regard to more advanced stages of disease, because thigh-cuff deflation failed to induce...

  13. Experimental and numerical study of wave-induced backfilling beneath submarine pipelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayraktar, Deniz; Ahmad, Joseph; Eltard-Larsen, Bjarke

    2016-01-01

    ). The time series of scour depths are closely monitored through video recordings. Systematic analysis of these has resulted in aclosed form expression for the backfilling time scale, which is demonstrated to be a full order of magnitude greater than the well-known time scale of scour (with both governed...... primarily by the Shields parameter).The developed expression is strictly valid for the current-to-wave backfilling scenarios considered, while likely serving as an upper limit for more general wave-induced backfilling circumstances. The experiments are complemented by similar backfilling simulations...... utilizing a fully-coupled hydrodynamic and morphodynamic CFD model. The numerical simulations demonstrate the ability of the model to predict backfilling towards expected equilibrium scour depths based on the new wave climate, with time scales reasonably inline with experimental expectations....

  14. The Measurement of Electron-Induced Erosion of Condensed Gases: Experimental Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.; Børgesen, P.

    1984-01-01

    Two experimental methods for measuring the erosion yield of condensed gases are described. One, the frequency-change method, utilizes a quartz-crystal microbalance operating at liquid-helium temperature. The other, the emissivity-change method is based on the strongly varying electron emission...... as a function of the condensed-gas film thickness. Satisfactory results have been obtained for both methods for solid Ne and D2 at electron energies up to 3 keV, and the mutual agreement is good as well. Accurate measurements are affected critically by the beam conditions, particularly if the erosion yield...... depends on the film thickness. The erosion yield has been measured for dominant electron sputtering of solid Ne ( ≈ 28 Ne-atoms/electron) as well as for beam-induced evaporation at 2 keV. In the latter case a clear lateral broadening of the erosion spot is observed....

  15. Experimental study and nuclear model calculations of {sup 3}He-induced nuclear reactions on zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Abyad, M.; Mohamed, Gehan Y. [Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Physics Department (Cyclotron Facility), Cairo (Egypt); Ditroi, F.; Takacs, S.; Tarkanyi, F. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Institute for Nuclear Research, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2017-05-15

    Excitation functions of {sup 3}He-induced nuclear reactions on natural zinc were measured using the standard stacked-foil technique and high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. From their threshold energies up to 27 MeV, the cross-sections for {sup nat}Zn ({sup 3}He,xn) {sup 69}Ge, {sup nat}Zn({sup 3}He,xnp) {sup 66,67,68}Ga, and {sup nat}Zn({sup 3}He,x){sup 62,65}Zn reactions were measured. The nuclear model codes TALYS-1.6, EMPIRE-3.2 and ALICE-IPPE were used to describe the formation of these products. The present data were compared with the theoretical results and with the available experimental data. Integral yields for some important radioisotopes were determined. (orig.)

  16. Experimental study and nuclear model calculations of 3He-induced nuclear reactions on zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abyad, M.; Mohamed, Gehan Y.; Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Tárkányi, F.

    2017-05-01

    Excitation functions of 3He -induced nuclear reactions on natural zinc were measured using the standard stacked-foil technique and high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. From their threshold energies up to 27MeV, the cross-sections for natZn (3He, xn) 69Ge, natZn(3He, xnp) 66,67,68Ga, and natZn(3He, x)62,65Zn reactions were measured. The nuclear model codes TALYS-1.6, EMPIRE-3.2 and ALICE-IPPE were used to describe the formation of these products. The present data were compared with the theoretical results and with the available experimental data. Integral yields for some important radioisotopes were determined.

  17. Induced expression of the antimicrobial peptide melittin inhibits experimental infection by Mycoplasma gallisepticum in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarev, Vassili N; Stipkovits, Laszlo; Biro, Judit; Miklodi, Dora; Shkarupeta, Marina M; Titova, Galina A; Akopian, Tatiana A; Govorun, Vadim M

    2004-05-01

    The in vivo action of the antimicrobial peptide melittin, expressed from a recombinant plasmid vector, on chickens experimentally infected with Mycoplasma gallisepticum was studied. The plasmid vector pBI/mel2/rtTA includes the melittin gene under the control of an inducible tetracycline-dependent human cytomegalovirus promoter and the gene coding for the trans-activation protein rtTA. Aerosol administration of the vector, followed by infecting the chickens with M. gallisepticum 1226, is shown to inhibit development of infection. The inhibitory action was confirmed by a complex of clinical, pathomorphological, histological and serological studies, and also by comparing the M. gallisepticum reisolation frequency from the respiratory tract and internal organs. The data suggest that plasmid vectors expressing genes of antimicrobial peptides can be considered as potential agents for the prevention and treatment of mycoplasma infections in poultry farming.

  18. Use of Liposomal Gentamicin for Treatment of 5 Foals with Experimentally Induced Rhodococcus equi Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, N D; Giguère, S; Burton, A J; Rocha, J N; Berghaus, L J; Brake, C N; Bordin, A I; Coleman, M C

    2016-01-01

    Adverse effects of, and bacterial resistance to, macrolides used to treat Rhodococcus equi infections have prompted search for clinically effective alternative antimicrobials. Liposomal gentamicin (LG) is effective against R. equi in vitro and decreases tissue concentrations of R. equi in experimentally infected mice. Effectiveness of LG treatment of foals with R. equi pneumonia, however, has not been described. Liposomal gentamicin is safe and effective for treating foals with R. equi pneumonia. Ten foals with experimentally induced R. equi pneumonia. Pilot treatment trial. Foals with pneumonia induced by intrabronchial instillation of R. equi were randomly allocated to receive either clarithromycin combined with rifampin (CLR + RIF) PO or LG IV, and followed by daily physical examinations and weekly thoracic ultrasonography and serum creatinine concentration determinations until the resolution of clinical signs. Treatment success was defined as the resolution of clinical signs and ultrasonographically identified pulmonary abscesses. All 10 foals were successfully treated. Two of 5 foals treated with LG developed azotemia within 1 week; LG was discontinued and treatment switched to CLR + RIF for these foals. None of the CLR + RIF treated foals developed azotemia. Liposomal gentamicin IV can be effective for treatment of R. equi pneumonia, but nephrotoxicity indicates that an alternative dosing interval or route (such as nebulization) will be needed before LG is adequately safe for clinical use. Larger comparative trials will be needed to evaluate the relative efficacy of a safer LG dosage regimen. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. An Experimental Study on the Wind-Induced Response of Variable Message Signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Meyer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Variable message sign (VMS systems are widely used in motorways to provide traffic information to motorists. Such systems are subjected to wind-induced structural vibration that can lead to damage due to fatigue. The limited information that is available on the safe wind design of VMS motivated a large scale testing that was conducted at the wall of wind (WOW Experimental Facility at Florida International University (FIU. One of the objectives of the present study was to experimentally assess the wind-induced force coefficients on VMS of different geometries and utilize these results to provide improved design guidelines. A comprehensive range of VMS geometries was tested, and mean normal and lateral force coefficients, in addition to the twisting moment coefficient and eccentricity ratio, were determined using the measured data for each model, for wind directions of 0° and 45°. The results confirmed that the mean drag coefficient on a prismatic VMS is smaller than the value of 1.7 suggested by American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO. An alternative to this value is presented in the form of a design matrix with coefficients ranging from 0.98 to 1.28, depending on the aspect and depth ratio of the VMS. Furthermore, results indicated that the corner modification on a VMS with chamfered edges demonstrated a reduction in the drag coefficient compared to sharper edges. Finally, the dynamic loading effects were considered by evaluating the gust effect factor, using the ASCE 7 formulations, for various VMS weights and geometries. The findings revealed a wide range of possible gust effect factors, both above and below the current AASHTO specification of 1.14. Future research may include different geometries of VMS and a wider range of wind directions.

  20. Effects of sevoflurane on ventilator induced lung injury in a healthy lung experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, A; Moreno, A; García, J; Sánchez, C; Santos, M; García, J

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) causes a systemic inflammatory response in tissues, with an increase in IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α in blood and tissues. Cytoprotective effects of sevoflurane in different experimental models are well known, and this protective effect can also be observed in VILI. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of sevoflurane in VILI. A prospective, randomized, controlled study was designed. Twenty female rats were studied. The animals were mechanically ventilated, without sevoflurane in the control group and sevoflurane 3% in the treated group (SEV group). VILI was induced applying a maximal inspiratory pressure of 35 cmH2O for 20 min without any positive end-expiratory pressure for 20 min (INJURY time). The animals were then ventilated 30 min with a maximal inspiratory pressure of 12 cmH2O and 3 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure (time 30 min POST-INJURY), at which time the animals were euthanized and pathological and biomarkers studies were performed. Heart rate, invasive blood pressure, pH, PaO2, and PaCO2 were recorded. The lung wet-to-dry weight ratio was used as an index of lung edema. No differences were found in the blood gas analysis parameters or heart rate between the 2 groups. Blood pressure was statistically higher in the control group, but still within the normal clinical range. The percentage of pulmonary edema and concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 in lung tissue in the SEV group were lower than in the control group. Sevoflurane attenuates VILI in a previous healthy lung in an experimental subclinical model in rats. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the efficacy of curcumin in experimentally induced acute sinusitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdane, Leman; Cingi, Cemal; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; San, Turhan; Burukoglu, Dilek

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the possible beneficial effects of curcumin (CMN) in the treatment of sinusitis. An experimentally induced sinusitis model was created in rats, and the results were evaluated histologically. Thirty-two healthy, female Sprague Dawley rats weighing 270 to 310 g each, were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 was the control group. In Groups 2 to 4, experimentally induced acute sinusitis was developed, and the rats in those groups were given saline, sulbactam-ampicillin, and CMN, respectively, for 10 days. Then all rats were dissected, and samples of sinus mucosa were taken. Histologic examination was performed via light microscopy. In the sinusitis + antibiotic group, values of inflammation, vascular congestion, vascular dilatation, and subepithelial glandular atrophy were significantly higher; and values of mucosal damage and cilia loss, and hyperplasia of goblet cells, were not significantly different from those in the control group. In the sinusitis + CMN group, values of inflammation, vascular congestion, and vascular dilatation were significantly higher; and values of mucosal damage and cilia loss, hyperplasia of goblet cells, and subepithelial glandular atrophy were not significantly different from those of the control group. Histologic examination revealed that in the sinusitis + CMN group, a nearly normal appearance of the epithelial tissue and reduced cellular inflammation in connective tissue were observed. Minimal vascular congestion in connective tissue remained. The efficacy of CMN in acute sinusitis may be related to its potent anti-inflammatory effects on modulation of various inflammatory cytokines. When low side effects are taken into account, CMN therapy may be a promising option in the treatment of acute sinusitis.

  2. Experimental Neuromyelitis Optica Induces a Type I Interferon Signature in the Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oji, Satoru; Nicolussi, Eva-Maria; Kaufmann, Nathalie; Zeka, Bleranda; Schanda, Kathrin; Fujihara, Kazuo; Illes, Zsolt; Dahle, Charlotte; Reindl, Markus; Lassmann, Hans; Bradl, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an acute inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which predominantly affects spinal cord and optic nerves. Most patients harbor pathogenic autoantibodies, the so-called NMO-IgGs, which are directed against the water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) on astrocytes. When these antibodies gain access to the CNS, they mediate astrocyte destruction by complement-dependent and by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In contrast to multiple sclerosis (MS) patients who benefit from therapies involving type I interferons (I-IFN), NMO patients typically do not profit from such treatments. How is I-IFN involved in NMO pathogenesis? To address this question, we made gene expression profiles of spinal cords from Lewis rat models of experimental neuromyelitis optica (ENMO) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We found an upregulation of I-IFN signature genes in EAE spinal cords, and a further upregulation of these genes in ENMO. To learn whether the local I-IFN signature is harmful or beneficial, we induced ENMO by transfer of CNS antigen-specific T cells and NMO-IgG, and treated the animals with I-IFN at the very onset of clinical symptoms, when the blood-brain barrier was open. With this treatment regimen, we could amplify possible effects of the I-IFN induced genes on the transmigration of infiltrating cells through the blood brain barrier, and on lesion formation and expansion, but could avoid effects of I-IFN on the differentiation of pathogenic T and B cells in the lymph nodes. We observed that I-IFN treated ENMO rats had spinal cord lesions with fewer T cells, macrophages/activated microglia and activated neutrophils, and less astrocyte damage than their vehicle treated counterparts, suggesting beneficial effects of I-IFN.

  3. Experimental Neuromyelitis Optica Induces a Type I Interferon Signature in the Spinal Cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Oji

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is an acute inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS which predominantly affects spinal cord and optic nerves. Most patients harbor pathogenic autoantibodies, the so-called NMO-IgGs, which are directed against the water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4 on astrocytes. When these antibodies gain access to the CNS, they mediate astrocyte destruction by complement-dependent and by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In contrast to multiple sclerosis (MS patients who benefit from therapies involving type I interferons (I-IFN, NMO patients typically do not profit from such treatments. How is I-IFN involved in NMO pathogenesis? To address this question, we made gene expression profiles of spinal cords from Lewis rat models of experimental neuromyelitis optica (ENMO and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. We found an upregulation of I-IFN signature genes in EAE spinal cords, and a further upregulation of these genes in ENMO. To learn whether the local I-IFN signature is harmful or beneficial, we induced ENMO by transfer of CNS antigen-specific T cells and NMO-IgG, and treated the animals with I-IFN at the very onset of clinical symptoms, when the blood-brain barrier was open. With this treatment regimen, we could amplify possible effects of the I-IFN induced genes on the transmigration of infiltrating cells through the blood brain barrier, and on lesion formation and expansion, but could avoid effects of I-IFN on the differentiation of pathogenic T and B cells in the lymph nodes. We observed that I-IFN treated ENMO rats had spinal cord lesions with fewer T cells, macrophages/activated microglia and activated neutrophils, and less astrocyte damage than their vehicle treated counterparts, suggesting beneficial effects of I-IFN.

  4. Immunologic responses in corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) after experimentally induced infection with ferlaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neul, Annkatrin; Schrödl, Wieland; Marschang, Rachel E; Bjick, Tina; Truyen, Uwe; von Buttlar, Heiner; Pees, Michael

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To measure immunologic responses of snakes after experimentally induced infection with ferlaviruses. ANIMALS 42 adult corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) of both sexes. PROCEDURES Snakes were inoculated intratracheally with genogroup A (n = 12), B (12), or C (12) ferlavirus (infected groups) or cell-culture supernatant (6; control group) on day 0. Three snakes from each infected group were euthanized on days 4, 16, 28, and 49, and 3 snakes from the control group were euthanized on day 49. Blood samples were collected from live snakes on days -6 (baseline), 4, 16, 28, and 49. Hematologic tests were performed and humoral responses assessed via hemagglutination-inhibition assays and ELISAs. Following euthanasia, gross pathological and histologic evaluations and virus detection were performed. RESULTS Severity of clinical signs of and immunologic responses to ferlavirus infection differed among snake groups. Hematologic values, particularly WBC and monocyte counts, increased between days 4 and 16 after infection. A humoral response was identified between days 16 and 28. Serum IgM concentrations increased from baseline earlier than IgY concentrations, but the IgY relative increase was higher at the end of the study. The hemagglutination-inhibition assay revealed that the strongest reactions in all infected groups were against the strain with which they had been infected. Snakes infected with genogroup A ferlavirus had the strongest immune response, whereas those infected with genogroup B had the weakest responses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this experimental study suggested that the ferlavirus strain with the highest virulence induced the weakest immune response in snakes.

  5. Early EEG contributes to multimodal outcome prediction of postanoxic coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Beernink, Tim M J; Bosch, Frank H; Beishuizen, Albertus; Tjepkema-Cloostermans, Marleen C; van Putten, Michel J A M

    2015-07-14

    Early identification of potential recovery of postanoxic coma is a major challenge. We studied the additional predictive value of EEG. Two hundred seventy-seven consecutive comatose patients after cardiac arrest were included in a prospective cohort study on 2 intensive care units. Continuous EEG was measured during the first 3 days. EEGs were classified as unfavorable (isoelectric, low-voltage, burst-suppression with identical bursts), intermediate, or favorable (continuous patterns), at 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Outcome was dichotomized as good or poor. Resuscitation, demographic, clinical, somatosensory evoked potential, and EEG measures were related to outcome at 6 months using logistic regression analysis. Analyses of diagnostic accuracy included receiver operating characteristics and calculation of predictive values. Poor outcome occurred in 149 patients (54%). Single measures unequivocally predicting poor outcome were an unfavorable EEG pattern at 24 hours, absent pupillary light responses at 48 hours, and absent somatosensory evoked potentials at 72 hours. Together, these had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 50%. For the remaining 203 patients, who were still in the "gray zone" at 72 hours, a predictive model including unfavorable EEG patterns at 12 hours, absent or extensor motor response to pain at 72 hours, and higher age had an area under the curve of 0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.84-0.96). Favorable EEG patterns at 12 hours were strongly associated with good outcome. EEG beyond 24 hours had no additional predictive value. EEG within 24 hours is a robust contributor to prediction of poor or good outcome of comatose patients after cardiac arrest. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  6. Early EEG contributes to multimodal outcome prediction of postanoxic coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beernink, Tim M.J.; Bosch, Frank H.; Beishuizen, Albertus; Tjepkema-Cloostermans, Marleen C.; van Putten, Michel J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Early identification of potential recovery of postanoxic coma is a major challenge. We studied the additional predictive value of EEG. Methods: Two hundred seventy-seven consecutive comatose patients after cardiac arrest were included in a prospective cohort study on 2 intensive care units. Continuous EEG was measured during the first 3 days. EEGs were classified as unfavorable (isoelectric, low-voltage, burst-suppression with identical bursts), intermediate, or favorable (continuous patterns), at 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Outcome was dichotomized as good or poor. Resuscitation, demographic, clinical, somatosensory evoked potential, and EEG measures were related to outcome at 6 months using logistic regression analysis. Analyses of diagnostic accuracy included receiver operating characteristics and calculation of predictive values. Results: Poor outcome occurred in 149 patients (54%). Single measures unequivocally predicting poor outcome were an unfavorable EEG pattern at 24 hours, absent pupillary light responses at 48 hours, and absent somatosensory evoked potentials at 72 hours. Together, these had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 50%. For the remaining 203 patients, who were still in the “gray zone” at 72 hours, a predictive model including unfavorable EEG patterns at 12 hours, absent or extensor motor response to pain at 72 hours, and higher age had an area under the curve of 0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.84–0.96). Favorable EEG patterns at 12 hours were strongly associated with good outcome. EEG beyond 24 hours had no additional predictive value. Conclusions: EEG within 24 hours is a robust contributor to prediction of poor or good outcome of comatose patients after cardiac arrest. PMID:26070341

  7. Coma cluster ultradiffuse galaxies are not standard radio galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struble, Mitchell F.

    2018-02-01

    Matching members in the Coma cluster catalogue of ultradiffuse galaxies (UDGs) from SUBARU imaging with a very deep radio continuum survey source catalogue of the cluster using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) within a rectangular region of ∼1.19 deg2 centred on the cluster core reveals matches consistent with random. An overlapping set of 470 UDGs and 696 VLA radio sources in this rectangular area finds 33 matches within a separation of 25 arcsec; dividing the sample into bins with separations bounded by 5, 10, 20 and 25 arcsec finds 1, 4, 17 and 11 matches. An analytical model estimate, based on the Poisson probability distribution, of the number of randomly expected matches within these same separation bounds is 1.7, 4.9, 19.4 and 14.2, each, respectively, consistent with the 95 per cent Poisson confidence intervals of the observed values. Dividing the data into five clustercentric annuli of 0.1° and into the four separation bins, finds the same result. This random match of UDGs with VLA sources implies that UDGs are not radio galaxies by the standard definition. Those VLA sources having integrated flux >1 mJy at 1.4 GHz in Miller, Hornschemeier and Mobasher without SDSS galaxy matches are consistent with the known surface density of background radio sources. We briefly explore the possibility that some unresolved VLA sources near UDGs could be young, compact, bright, supernova remnants of Type Ia events, possibly in the intracluster volume.

  8. Development of an experimental model of neurocysticercosis-induced hydrocephalus. Pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto Filho, Pedro Tadao; Zanini, Marco Antônio; Botta, Fabio Pires; Rodrigues, Marianna Vaz; Bazan, Rodrigo; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Biondi, Germano Francisco

    2015-12-01

    To develop an experimental model of neurocysticercosis-induced hydrocephalus There were used 17 rats. Ten animals were inoculated with Taenia crassiceps cysts into the subarachnoid. Five animals were injected with 0. ml of 25% kaolin (a standard solution for the development of experimental hydrocephalus) and two animals were injected with saline. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate enlargement of the ventricles after one or three months of inoculation. Volumetric study was used to quantify the ventricle enlargement. Seven of the 10 animals in the cyst group developed hydrocephalus, two of them within one month and five within three months after inoculation. Three of the five animals in the kaolin group had hydrocephalus and none in the saline group. Ventricle volumes were significantly higher in the 3-months MRI cyst subgroup than in the 1-month cyst subgroup. Differences between cyst subgroups and kaolin group did not reach statistical significance. The developed model may reproduce the human condition of neurocysticercosis-related hydrocephalus, which exhibits a slowly progressive chronic course.

  9. Different Subsets of Enteric Bacteria Induce and Perpetuate Experimental Colitis in Rats and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Heiko C.; Schultz, Michael; Freitag, René; Dieleman, Levinus A.; Li, Fengling; Linde, Hans-Jörg; Schölmerich, Jürgen; Sartor, R. Balfour

    2001-01-01

    Resident bacteria are incriminated in the pathogenesis of experimental colitis and inflammatory bowel diseases. We investigated the relative roles of various enteric bacteria populations in the induction and perpetuation of experimental colitis. HLA-B27 transgenic rats received antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, or vancomycin-imipenem) in drinking water or water alone in either prevention or treatment protocols. Mice were treated similarly with metronidazole or vancomycin-imipenem before or after receiving 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Germfree transgenic rats were colonized with specific-pathogen-free enteric bacteria grown overnight either in anaerobic or aerobic atmospheres. Nontransgenic rats colonized with anaerobic bacteria served as negative controls. Although preventive metronidazole significantly attenuated colitis in transgenic rats and DSS-treated mice, it had no therapeutic benefit once colitis was established. Ciprofloxacin also partially prevented but did not treat colitis in B27 transgenic rats. In both animal models vancomycin-imipenem most effectively prevented and treated colitis. Germfree transgenic rats reconstituted with enteric bacteria grown under anaerobic conditions had more aggressive colitis than those associated with aerobic bacteria. These results suggest that a subset of resident luminal bacteria induces colitis, but that a complex interaction of commensal aerobic and anaerobic bacteria provides the constant antigenic drive for chronic immune-mediated colonic inflammation. PMID:11254584

  10. Cardioprotective effect of Nerium oleander flower against isoproterenol-induced myocardial oxidative stress in experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, Veeraraghavan; Ananthi, Subhash; Chandronitha, Chandranayagam; Ramakrishnan, Ganapathy; Lakshmisundaram, Raman; Sundaram, Raman Lakshmi; Vasanthi, Hannah R

    2011-03-01

    Nerium oleander Linn (NOL) an evergreen shrub belonging to the Apocynaceae family has been reported to have a wide spectrum of bioactivities. In in vitro study, the free radical scavenging potential of the hydroethanolic extract of N oleander Linn (ENO) flower and its fractions (glycosidic and nonglycosidic) were studied using 2, 2(')-azino-di [3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulphonate] (ABTS(*+) ) and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) scavenging assay. ENO exhibited better radical scavenging activities than its fractions. Furthermore, the cardioprotective role of ENO (10, 30, 100 mg/kg, per oral [po]) was tested against isoproterenol-induced myocardial toxicity (ISO, 120 mg/kg per day, subcutaneously [sc], for 2 days at 48 hours interval) in experimental rats when compared to propranolol (5 mg/kg, po) which was the standard. Pretreatment with ENO (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) and propranolol for 2 weeks followed by ISO challenge in rats prevented the elevation of marker enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK-MB and creatine phosphokinase [CPK]), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in plasma. In addition, pretreatment with ENO and propranolol significantly attenuated the lipid peroxidation by maintaining the levels of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and nonenzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione and nitrite), which was also confirmed histologically. Taken together, the current study indicates that the hydroalcoholic extract of N oleander Linn flowers aid in cardioprotection probably by improving the antioxidant defense system during experimental myocardial necrosis.

  11. Experimental and Numerical Assessment of the Dynamical Behaviour of a Footbridge Under Human-Induced Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos da Silva José Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to perform an experimental and numerical assessment of an existing pedestrian footbridge located in the campus of the State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Brazil. The structural system is based on an internal reinforced concrete footbridge spanning 24.5m, constituted by concrete beams and slabs and being currently used for pedestrian crossing. The modal testing of the structure was performed by dynamic monitoring through accelerometers installed on the structure as well as by a vibrometer device based on Laser Doppler Vibrometry using the SIMO and SISO acquisition techniques, respectively. Then, these experimental results were calibrated with a numerical model by the use of finite element method (FEM through the ANSYS program. Afterwards, a forced vibration analysis was performed on the structure based on human-induced loads considering two control groups: the first one is intended to excite the investigated footbridge to cause resonance motion with a controlled step frequency and the second one is related to freely random people crossing the footbridge as it occurs normally during its real life. Thus, the structural system dynamic response in terms of peak accelerations values were evaluated and compared to the current human comfort criteria.

  12. Theoretical analysis and experimental evaluation of laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy in ex vivo porcine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano; Caponero, Michele Arturo; Di Matteo, Francesco Maria; Martino, Margareth; Pandolfi, Monica; Silvestri, Sergio

    2012-10-01

    Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) has been recently applied to pancreas in animal models for ablation purpose. Assessment of thermal effects due to the laser-pancreatic tissue interaction is a critical factor in validating the procedure feasibility and safety. A mathematical model based on bioheat equation and its experimental assessment was developed. The LITT procedure was performed on 40 ex vivo porcine pancreases, with an Nd:YAG (1064 nm) energy of 1000 J and power from 1.5 up to 10 W conveyed by a quartz optical fiber with 300 μm diameter. Six fiber Bragg grating sensors have been utilized to measure temperature distribution as a function of time at fixed distances from the applicator tip within pancreas undergoing LITT. Simulations and experiments show temperature variations Δ T steeply decreasing with distance from the applicator at higher power values: at 6 W, ∆T > 40 °C at 5 mm and Δ T is approximately equal to 5 °C at 10 mm. Δ T nonlinearly increases with power close to the applicator. Ablated and coagulated tissue volumes have also been measured and experimental results agree with theoretical ones. Despite the absence of data in the current literature on pancreas optical parameters, the model allowed a quite good prediction of thermal effects. The prediction of LITT effects on pancreas is necessary to assess laser dosimetry.

  13. Experimental study of boundary layer transition on an airfoil induced by periodically passing wake (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, T.C. [Seoul National University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea); Jeon, W.P.; Kang, S.H. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-06-01

    This paper describes the phenomena of wake-induced transition of the boundary layers on a NACA0012 airfoil using measured phase-averaged data. Especially, the phase-averaged wall shear stresses are reasonably evaluated using the principle of Computational Preston Tube Method. Due to the passing wake, the turbulent patch is generated in the laminar boundary layer on the airfoil and the boundary layer becomes temporarily transitional. The patches propagate downstream with less speed than free-stream velocity and merge with each other at further downstream station, and the boundary layer becomes more transitional. The generation of turbulent patch at the leading edge of the airfoil mainly depends on velocity defects and turbulent intensity profiles of passing wakes. However, the growth and merging of turbulent patches depend on local streamwise pressure gradients as well as characteristics of turbulent patches. In this transition process, the present experimental data show very similar features to the previous numerical and experimental studies. It is confirmed that the two phase-averaged mean velocity dips appear in the outer region of transitional boundary layer for each passing cycle. Relatively high values of the phase-averaged turbulent fluctuations in the outer region indicate the possibility that breakdown occurs in the outer layer not near the wall. (author). 21 refs., 12 figs.

  14. Design and Testing of an Experimental Steam-Induced Burn Model in Rats

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    Vlad Porumb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Most of the current models for experimental burns pose difficulties in ensuring consistency and standardization. Aim of Study. We aimed to develop an automated, reproducible technique for experimental burns using steam-based heat transfer. Methods. The system developed for steam exposure was based on a novel, integrated, computer-controlled design. Three groups of rats were exposed to steam for 1, 3, and 7 seconds. The lesions were evaluated after 20 minutes, 48 hours, and 72 hours after burn induction. Results. One-second steam application produced a superficial second-degree burn; three-second application induced deep second-degree burn; and seven-second application led to a third-degree burn. Conclusion. The high level of automation of our integrated, computer-controlled system makes the difference between our system and other models, by ensuring the control of the duration of exposure, temperature, and pressure and eliminating as many potential human generated errors as possible. The automated system can accurately reproduce specific types of burns, according to histological assessment. This model could generate the reproducible data needed in the study of burn pathology and in order to assess new treatments.

  15. Experimental host preference of diapause and non-diapause induced Culex pipiens pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Ary; Gaugler, Randy

    2015-07-24

    Culex pipiens pipiens plays an important role in the transmission of several vector-borne pathogens such as West Nile virus (WNV) in North America. Laboratory and field studies suggest that this species is ornithophilic but because of genetic hybridization with sibling species during the active mosquito season, it may occasionally feed on mammals. Adult female Cx. p. pipiens undergo a facultative diapause and may serve as an overwintering mechanism for WNV. To determine the effect of diapause on the innate host preference of Cx. p. pipiens emerging from winter hibernation, we conducted host-choice experiments using bird and mammal hosts. Mosquitoes were reared under non-diapause induced (NDI), diapause induced (DI), and field collected from overwintering (OW) hibernaculae. They were released into a large mesh enclosure housing two lard can traps, and given a choice between feeding on a dove or a rat. Host seeking Cx. p. pipiens were four times more likely to feed on the dove than the rat, regardless of experimental conditions. Under NDI conditions, Cx. p. pipiens were (p diapause in temperate habitats where winter survival is crucial for disease transmission cycles. Although we showed that Cx. p. pipiens prefers an avian to a mammalian host, nearly 20% of emerging mosquitoes in the spring could feed on mammals. Changes in host preferences may also contain valuable clues about transmission dynamics and subsequent timely interventions by vector control and public health practitioners.

  16. Effects of losartan on experimental varicocele-induced testicular germ cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, D; Oltulu, F; Uysal, A; Kose, T; Gunlusoy, B; Yigitturk, G; Turk, N S; Turan, T

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the potential protective effects of losartan on varicocele-induced germ cell apoptosis, 24 adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: a sham operation was performed in SHAM group, and experimental left varicocele was created in VAR and VAR + LOS groups. Additionally, in VAR + LOS group, losartan was administered for 30 days starting on the day of surgery. At the end of 30 days, all animals were sacrificed and left orchiectomy was performed. Testicular injury and spermatogenesis were evaluated according to Johnsen scoring system. To assess the nitrosative stress, immunohistochemical staining for endothelial nitric oxide synthase was used and evaluated by H-score and apoptotic index (AI) of germ cells was analysed by TUNEL method. A significant decrease in the mean Johnsen score (JS) was observed in VAR group compared with SHAM (p losartan administration, mean JS was significantly increased (p losartan acts as a potent protective agent against varicocele-induced germ cell apoptosis. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Effect of Gmelina arborea Roxb in experimentally induced inflammation and nociception

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    Yogesh A Kulkarni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gmelina arborea Roxb (Verbenaceae, also known as "Gambhari", is an important medicinal plant in the Ayurveda. There are no meticulous scientific reports on effect of the plant on inflammation and pain. Objective: To study the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of aqueous extracts (AE and methanol extracts (ME of G. arborea. Materials and Methods: The AE and ME of stembark of G. arborea was prepared by cold maceration and Soxhlet extraction technique respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined in Wistar albino rats in a model of acute plantar inflammation induced by carrageenan. The anti-nociceptive activity was evaluated by using hot plate test and writhing test in Swiss albino mice. Significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed by analysis of variance. Results: AE and ME at dose of 500 mg/kg showed maximum inhibition in carrageenan induced inflammation up to 30.15 and 31.21% respectively. In hot plate test, the AE and ME showed the maximum response of 8.8 ± 0.97 (P < 0.01 and 8.2 ± 1.24 (P < 0.01 respectively at dose of 500 mg/kg when compared with control. AE showed maximum inhibition of writhing response (84.3% as compared to ME (77.9% in writhing test at a dose of 500 mg/kg. Conclusion: The findings suggested that G. arborea possess significant anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities.

  18. Prevention of chemically induced diabetes mellitus in experimental animals by virgin argan oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahcen, Said; Mekhfi, Hassane; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Hakkou, Abdelkader; Aziz, Mohammed; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2012-02-01

    The argan tree plays an important socioeconomic and ecologic role in South Morocco. Moreover, there is much evidence for the beneficial effects of virgin argan oil (VAO) on human health. Thus, this study investigated whether administering VAO to rats can prevent the development of diabetes. VAO extracted by a traditional method from the almonds of Argania spinosa (2 mL/kg) was administered orally (for 7 consecutive days) to rats before and during intraperitoneal alloxan administration (75 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days). An alloxan diabetic-induced untreated group and treated by table oil were used as control groups. Body mass, blood glucose and hepatic glycogen were evaluated. In the present study, subchronic treatment with VAO at a dose of 2 mL/kg, before the experimental induction of diabetes, prevented the body mass loss, induced a significant reduction of blood glucose and a significant increase of hepatic glycogen level (p < 0.001) compared with the untreated diabetic group. In conclusion, the present study shows that argan oil should be further investigated in a human study to clarify its possible role in reducing weight loss in diabetics, and even in inhibiting the development or progression of diabetes. This antidiabetic effect could be due to the richness of VAO in tocopherols, phenolic compounds and unsaturated fatty acids. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Experimental Protoporphyria: Effect of Bile Acids on Liver Damage Induced by Griseofulvin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, María del Carmen; Ruspini, Silvina Fernanda; Afonso, Susana Graciela; Meiss, Roberto; Buzaleh, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    The effect of bile acids administration to an experimental mice model of Protoporphyria produced by griseofulvin (Gris) was investigated. The aim was to assess whether porphyrin excretion could be accelerated by bile acids treatment in an attempt to diminish liver damage induced by Gris. Liver damage markers, heme metabolism, and oxidative stress parameters were analyzed in mice treated with Gris and deoxycholic (DXA), dehydrocholic (DHA), chenodeoxycholic, or ursodeoxycholic (URSO). The administration of Gris alone increased the activities of glutathione reductase (GRed), superoxide dismutase (SOD), alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), as well as total porphyrins, glutathione (GSH), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) levels in liver. Among the bile acids studied, DXA and DHA increased PROTO IX excretion, DXA also abolished the action of Gris, reducing lipid peroxidation and hepatic GSH and CYP levels, and the activities of GGT, AP, SOD, and GST returned to control values. However, porphyrin accumulation was not prevented by URSO; instead this bile acid reduced ALA-S and the antioxidant defense enzymes system activities. In conclusion, we postulate that DXA acid would be more effective to prevent liver damage induced by Gris. PMID:25945334

  20. Antitussive effect of naringin on experimentally induced cough in Guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Sen; Li, Peibo; Yang, Hongliang; Fang, Siqi; Su, Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of action of naringin has been investigated in different models of experimentally induced cough in guinea pigs. In contrast to codeine phosphate (6 mg/kg, intravenous administration [i. v.]), naringin (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg, i. v.) had no central antitussive effect on cough elicited by electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve. Naringin (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 µmol) could not prevent the cough reflex induced by stimulation of the trachea after intracerebroventricular injection (i. c. v.), while codeine phosphate (0.5 µmol) was highly effective. Further characterizing the peripheral mechanism of naringin, we found that its effect (50 mg/kg, i. v.) was not affected by the depletion of sensory neuropeptides, whereas levodropropizine (10 mg/kg, i. v.) lost its capacity to prevent cough in the capsaicin-desensitized guinea pig. Furthermore, pretreatment with glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i. p.]) significantly reduced the antitussive effect of pinacidil (5 mg/kg, subcutaneous [s. c.]), but could not antagonize the antitussive effect of naringin (30 mg/kg, s. c.). Our present results suggest that naringin is not a central antitussive drug. And naringin does not exert its peripheral antitussive effect through either the sensory neuropeptides system or the modulation of ATP-sensitive K (+) channels. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Experimental Analysis of the Potential Induced Degradation Effect on Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Akcaoğlu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy applications are increasing daily, and solar electricity, in the form of photovoltaics, is getting more and more important worldwide. As photovoltaics are connected both in series and in parallel, the panels are exposed to high potentials compared to the ground; thus, high voltage stress (HVS occurs. The scope of this paper is to analyze experimentally the potential induced degradation (PID in organic solar cells. To that end, organic solar cells are manufactured and are then undergone a series of voltage-dependent degradation and time-dependent voltage degradation tests. In addition to that, they are also exposed to gaseous oxygen, oxygen plasma, air degradation, and annealing, and the degradation effects are compared with PID results. From the analysis, it is apparent that annealing, air, gaseous oxygen, and oxygen plasma degradation have similar effects with PID, while due to simple diode characteristics, organic cells proved to be relatively durable to potential induced degradation. At low voltages (10 V, the organic cells withstood degradation adequately, with a drop of 23% in their initial efficiency. As voltage increased, the degradation rate increased considerably reaching a 93% efficiency drop when 30 V was applied for 20 minutes.

  2. Experimental Protoporphyria: Effect of Bile Acids on Liver Damage Induced by Griseofulvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Martinez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bile acids administration to an experimental mice model of Protoporphyria produced by griseofulvin (Gris was investigated. The aim was to assess whether porphyrin excretion could be accelerated by bile acids treatment in an attempt to diminish liver damage induced by Gris. Liver damage markers, heme metabolism, and oxidative stress parameters were analyzed in mice treated with Gris and deoxycholic (DXA, dehydrocholic (DHA, chenodeoxycholic, or ursodeoxycholic (URSO. The administration of Gris alone increased the activities of glutathione reductase (GRed, superoxide dismutase (SOD, alkaline phosphatase (AP, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST, as well as total porphyrins, glutathione (GSH, and cytochrome P450 (CYP levels in liver. Among the bile acids studied, DXA and DHA increased PROTO IX excretion, DXA also abolished the action of Gris, reducing lipid peroxidation and hepatic GSH and CYP levels, and the activities of GGT, AP, SOD, and GST returned to control values. However, porphyrin accumulation was not prevented by URSO; instead this bile acid reduced ALA-S and the antioxidant defense enzymes system activities. In conclusion, we postulate that DXA acid would be more effective to prevent liver damage induced by Gris.

  3. Experimental protoporphyria: effect of bile acids on liver damage induced by griseofulvin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, María Del Carmen; Ruspini, Silvina Fernanda; Afonso, Susana Graciela; Meiss, Roberto; Buzaleh, Ana Maria; Batlle, Alcira

    2015-01-01

    The effect of bile acids administration to an experimental mice model of Protoporphyria produced by griseofulvin (Gris) was investigated. The aim was to assess whether porphyrin excretion could be accelerated by bile acids treatment in an attempt to diminish liver damage induced by Gris. Liver damage markers, heme metabolism, and oxidative stress parameters were analyzed in mice treated with Gris and deoxycholic (DXA), dehydrocholic (DHA), chenodeoxycholic, or ursodeoxycholic (URSO). The administration of Gris alone increased the activities of glutathione reductase (GRed), superoxide dismutase (SOD), alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), as well as total porphyrins, glutathione (GSH), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) levels in liver. Among the bile acids studied, DXA and DHA increased PROTO IX excretion, DXA also abolished the action of Gris, reducing lipid peroxidation and hepatic GSH and CYP levels, and the activities of GGT, AP, SOD, and GST returned to control values. However, porphyrin accumulation was not prevented by URSO; instead this bile acid reduced ALA-S and the antioxidant defense enzymes system activities. In conclusion, we postulate that DXA acid would be more effective to prevent liver damage induced by Gris.

  4. Mouse models of multiple sclerosis: experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and Theiler's virus-induced demyelinating disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Derrick P; Richards, Maureen H; Miller, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and Theiler's Murine Encephalitis Virus-Induced Demyelinating Disease (TMEV-IDD) are two clinically relevant murine models of multiple sclerosis (MS). Like MS, both are characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration into the CNS and demyelination. EAE is induced by either the administration of myelin protein or peptide in adjuvant or by the adoptive transfer of encephalitogenic T cell blasts into naïve recipients. The relative merits of each of these protocols are compared. Depending on the type of question being asked, different mouse strains and peptides are used. Different disease courses are observed with different strains and different peptides in active EAE. These variations are also addressed. Additionally, issues relevant to clinical grading of EAE in mice are discussed. In addition to EAE induction, useful references for other disease indicators such as DTH, in vitro proliferation, and immunohistochemistry are provided. TMEV-IDD is a useful model for understanding the possible viral etiology of MS. This section provides detailed information on the preparation of viral stocks and subsequent intracerebral infection of mice. Additionally, virus plaque assay and clinical disease assessment are discussed. Recently, recombinant TMEV strains have been created for the study of molecular mimicry which incorporate various 30 amino acid myelin epitopes within the leader region of TMEV.

  5. Induced ruminative and mindful attention in everyday life: an experimental ambulatory assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffziger, Silke; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Eisenbach, Christina; Koudela, Susanne; Reinhard, Iris; Zamoscik, Vera; Kirsch, Peter; Kuehner, Christine

    2013-09-01

    Rumination has been proposed as a risk factor for depression, while mindful attention might be protective. Differential effects of these attention foci have so far only been examined in the laboratory. Therefore, we conducted an experimental ambulatory assessment study using ruminative and mindful attention inductions in everyday life to examine their effects in a natural context. Fifty young adults carried palmtops over three weekdays (rumination induction day, mindful attention induction day, noninduction day; randomized cross-over design). Ten times a day, participants rated ruminative self-focus and mood. On the induction days, they were additionally subjected to 3-min inductions of ruminative or mindful attention at each assessment. The two induction modes exhibited differential immediate effects on ruminative self-focus and mood. While induced rumination immediately deteriorated valence and calmness, induced mindful attention specifically enhanced calmness. Depressive symptoms did not moderate these effects. While overall longer term effects of the inductions were missing, the mindful attention day was associated with slightly increasing positive valence over the day. The results need to be replicated in high-risk and patient samples to demonstrate the clinical significance of identified effects. Results confirm the emotional relevance of rumination and mindful attention in real world settings. Future work may test whether adaptive attention-focusing instructions delivered in daily life can support clinical interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cell-specific regulation of Ferroportin transcription following experimentally-induced acute anemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiabrando, Deborah; Fiorito, Veronica; Marro, Samuele; Silengo, Lorenzo; Altruda, Fiorella; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Ferroportin (FPN), the sole characterized iron exporter, is mainly controlled by the peptide hormone hepcidin in response to iron, erythroid factors, hypoxia, and inflammation. In addition, intracellular iron level controls FPN translation by modulating the binding of Iron Responsive Proteins at the 5'UTR of FPN mRNA. Recently, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)2α has been shown to regulate FPN expression in intestinal cells. Here we show that, during experimentally-induced acute anemia in mice, FPN is regulated at transcriptional level in a cell-specific manner. FPN mRNA level increases in duodenum and spleen macrophages, whereas it does not change in liver and is strongly down-regulated in erythroid precursors. These results were confirmed in Caco2, Raw264.7 and K562 cells treated with a hypoxic stimulus. Moreover, we found a differential expression of HIF1α and HIF2α in cells and tissues that might account for the specificity of FPN regulation. Thus, hypoxia, by directly controlling hepcidin and its target FPN, orchestrates a complex regulatory network aimed at ensuring rapid iron recovery from the periphery and efficient iron utilization in the erythroid compartment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effect of Experimental Parkinson on Formalin-Induced Pain in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sofiabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Pain is one of the preceding claims of Parkinson's disease (PD, that its mechanisms have not been fully identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical pain responses induced by subcutaneous injection of formalin in male parkinsonized rats.   Method : In this experimental study, 40 Wistar male rats were used and PD was established by stereotaxic injection of 6-OHDA toxin into the striatum. Parkinson's disease severity determined by apomorphine-induced rotation test and then the pain response of 4 groups, the control, sham and 2 weak or full Parkinson groups, were evaluated using formalin test. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey test.   Results : In both acute and chronic phases of the formalin test, the symptoms of pain in different groups were same, but at the interphase stage, pain intensity increased more in Parkinson 's rats, especially in full PD group compared to control (p<0.01.   Conclusion: These results suggest that the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway have important modulating role on chronic pain.

  8. Experimentally induced masseter-pain changes masseter but not sternocleidomastoid muscle-related activity during mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasinato, Fernanda; Santos-Couto-Paz, Clarissa C; Zeredo, Jorge Luis Lopes; Macedo, Sergio Bruzadelli; Corrêa, Eliane C R

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of induced masseter-muscle pain on the amplitude of muscle activation, symmetry and coactivation of jaw- and neck-muscles during mastication. Twenty-eight male volunteers, mean age±SD 20.6±2.0years, participated in this study. Surface electromyography of the masseter and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles was performed bilaterally during mastication of a gummy candy before and after injections of monosodium glutamate solution and isotonic saline solution. As a result, we observed a decrease in the amplitude of activation of the masseter muscle on the working side (p=0.009; d=0.34) and a reduction in the asymmetry between the working and the balancing side during mastication (p=0.007; d=0.38). No changes were observed either on the craniocervical electromyographic variables. In conclusion, experimentally induced pain reduced the masseter muscle activation on the working side, thereby reducing the physiological masseters' recruitment asymmetry between the two sides during mastication. No effects on SCM activity were detected. These results may partly explain the initial maladaptative changes underlying TMD conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of ES products from Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) on experimentally induced colitis in adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarder, S; Kania, P W; Holm, T L; von Gersdorff Jørgensen, L; Buchmann, K

    2017-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in developed countries is linked with elevated hygienic standards. One of the several factors involved in this question may be reduced exposure to the immunomodulatory effects of parasitic helminths. Several investigations on treatment of mice and humans with helminth-derived substances have supported this notion, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study therefore dissects to what extent a series of immune-related genes are modulated in zebrafish with experimentally induced colitis following exposure to excretory-secretory (ES) products isolated from larval Anisakis, a widely distributed fish nematode. Adult zebrafish intrarectally exposed to the colitis-inducing agent TNBS developed severe colitis leading to 80% severe morbidity, but if co-injected (ip) with Anisakis ES products, the morbidity rate was 50% at the end of the experiment (48 hours post-exposure). Gene expression studies of TNBS-treated zebrafish showed clear upregulation of a range of genes encoding inflammatory cytokines and effector molecules and some induction of genes related to the adaptive response. A distinct innate-driven immune response was seen in both TNBS and TNBS + ES groups, but expression values were significantly depressed for several important pro-inflammatory genes in the TNBS + ES group, indicating protective mechanisms of Anisakis ES compounds on intestinal immunopathology in zebrafish. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. An experimental study on embankment failure induced by prolonged immersion in floodwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-long Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged immersion in floodwater is one of the main causes of embankment failure or dam breaks, although failure mechanisms have not been extensively studied. In this study, an embankment model was constructed to investigate the influence of prolonged immersion in floodwater on the failure of an embankment. The results indicate that: (1 the phreatic surface gradually rises and negative pore pressures gradually dissipate with the time of prolonged immersion in floodwater, and, finally, a stable and fully saturated state is reached; (2 observable cracks and a heave phenomenon are found near the downstream toe and in the top stratum of the foundation, which are attributed to the large uplift pressure on the interface between the top stratum and the pervious substratum, the tremendous impact effect induced by the rapid rise in water level, and the reduction of shear strength of heavy silt loam. The present study enhances our in-depth knowledge of the mechanisms of embankment failure induced by floodwater, and provides experimental data for validation of mathematical models of the embankment seepage failure.

  11. Development of an experimentally induced Streptococcus uberis subclinical mastitis in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagno, Mirta C; Vissio, Claudina; Reinoso, Elina B; Raspanti, Claudia; Yaciuk, Raúl; Larriestra, Alejandro J; Odierno, Liliana M

    2012-01-27

    Streptococcus uberis is a major environmental mastitis-causing pathogen. The infections are predominantly subclinical and are frequently undetected and untreated for extended periods of time. More information about the pathogenesis of S. uberis mastitis would be useful. To our knowledge, no experimental studies into the mastitis pathogenesis caused by S. uberis have been described in lactating goats. The aim of this study was to reproduce an experimentally induced S. uberis subclinical mastitis in lactating goats aimed to evaluate the inflammatory response, dynamics of infection and the pathological findings within the first hours of intramammary inoculation with S. uberis. Six Saanen goats in mid-lactation were inoculated with 1.7 × 10(8)cfu of S. uberis. Bacterial growth peaked in milk from challenged right mammary halves (RMH) at 4h PI. Shedding of viable bacteria showed a marked decrease at 20 h PI. Mean somatic cell counts in milk from the RMH peaked at 20 h PI. Inoculation with S. uberis was followed by a decrease in the mean total number of leukocytes. Signs and systemic symptoms were not evoked by intramammary inoculation. S. uberis could be isolated in tissue from all RMH. Histological examination of specimens of the RMH and lymph nodes of the goats showed an increased inflammatory response throughout the experiment. The histological findings correlated with the immunohistochemical detection of S. uberis in RMH. In conclusion, the experimental inoculation of S. uberis in lactating goats is capable of eliciting an inflammatory response and causing pathological changes, resulting in a subclinical mastitis. This investigation shows that goat might to represent a valuable model for the study of the mastitis pathogenesis caused by S. uberis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An experimental study of a circular cylinder's two-degree-of-freedom motion induced by vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Woong Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of an experimental investigation of vortex-induced vibration (VIV of a flexibly mounted and rigid cylinder with two-degrees-of-freedom with respect to varying ratio of in-line natural frequency to cross-flow natural frequency, f∗, at a fixed low mass ratio. Combined in-line and cross-flow motion was observed in a sub-critical Reynolds number range. Three-dimensional displacement meter and tension meter were used to measure dynamic responses of the model. To validate the results and the experiment system, x and y response amplitudes and ratio of oscillation frequency to cross-flow natural frequency were compared with other experimental results. It has been found that the higher harmonics, such as third and more vibration components, can occur on a certain part of steel catenary riser under a condition of dual resonance mode. In the present work, however, due to the limitation of a size of circulating water channel, the whole test of a whole configuration of the riser at an adequate scale for VIV phenomenon was not able to be conducted. Instead, we have modeled a rigid cylinder and assumed that the cylinder is a part of steel catenary riser where the higher harmonic motions could occur. Through the experiment, we have found that even though the cylinder was assumed to be rigid, the occurrence of the higher harmonic motions was observed in a small reduced velocity (Vr range, where the influence of the in-line response is relatively large. The transition of the vortex shedding mode from one to another was examined by using time history of x and y directional displacement over all experimental cases. We also observed the influence of in-line restoring force power spectral density with f∗.

  13. The IL-33/ST2 pathway controls coxsackievirus B5-induced experimental pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesti-Costa, Renata; Silva, Grace K; Proença-Módena, José L; Carlos, Daniela; Silva, Maria L; Alves-Filho, José C; Arruda, Eurico; Liew, Foo Y; Silva, João S

    2013-07-01

    Coxsackievirus B (CVB) is a common cause of acute and chronic infectious myocarditis and pancreatitis. Th1 cells producing IFN-γ and TNF-α are important for CVB clearance, but they are also associated with the pathogenesis of inflammatory lesions, suggesting that the modulation of Th1 and Th2 balance is likely important in controlling CVB-induced pancreatitis. We investigated the role of IL-33, which is an important recently discovered cytokine for induction of Th2-associated responses, in experimental CVB5 infection. We found that mice deficient in IL-33R, T1/ST2, significantly developed more severe pancreatitis, had greater weight loss, and contained higher viral load compared with wild-type (WT) mice when infected with CVB5. Conversely, WT mice treated with rIL-33 developed significantly lower viral titers, and pancreatitis was attenuated. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that IL-33 enhances the degranulation and production of IFN-γ and TNF-α by CD8(+) T and NK cells, which is associated with viral clearance. Furthermore, IL-33 triggers the production of IL-4 from mast cells, which results in enhanced differentiation of M2 macrophages and regulatory T cells, leading to the attenuation of inflammatory pancreatitis. Adoptively transferred mast cells or M2 macrophages reversed the heightened pancreatitis in the T1/ST2(-/-) mice. In contrast, inhibition of regulatory T cells exacerbated the disease in WT mice. Together, our findings reveal an unrecognized IL-33/ST2 functional pathway and a key mechanism for CVB5-induced pancreatitis. These data further suggest a novel approach in treating virus-induced pancreatitis, which is a major medical condition with unmet clinical needs.

  14. Histopathological characterization of experimentally induced cutaneous loxoscelism in rabbits inoculated with Loxosceles similis venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NB Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Envenomation by Loxosceles bites is characterized by dermonecrotic and/or systemic features that lead to several clinical signs and symptoms called loxoscelism. Dermonecrotic lesions are preceded by thrombosis of the dermal plexus. Recent studies show that atheromatous plaque is prone to thrombosis due to endothelial cell apoptosis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of microscopic dermal lesion and endothelial cell apoptosis induced by Loxosceles similis venom in the literature. Thus, the aim of the present study is to describe histological lesions induced by L. similis venom in rabbit skin and to elucidate whether apoptosis of endothelial cells is involved in the pathogenesis of loxoscelism. Forty male rabbits were split into two groups: the control group (intradermally injected with 50 µL of PBS and the experimental group (intradermally injected with 0.5 µg of L. similis crude venom diluted in 50 µL of PBS. After 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours of injection, skin fragments were collected and processed for paraffin or methacrylate embedding. Sections of 5 µm thick were stained by HE, PAS or submitted to TUNEL reaction. Microscopically, severe edema, diffuse heterophilic inflammatory infiltrate, perivascular heterophilic infiltrate, thrombosis, fibrinoid necrosis of arteriolar wall and cutaneous muscle necrosis were observed. Two hours after venom injection, endothelial cells with apoptosis morphology were evidenced in the dermal plexus. Apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL reaction. It seems that endothelial cell apoptosis and its consequent desquamation is an important factor that induces thrombosis and culminates in dermonecrosis, which is characteristic of cutaneous loxoscelism.

  15. Multiple sites and actions of gabapentin-induced relief of ongoing experimental neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Kirsty; Qu, Chaoling; Navratilova, Edita; Oyarzo, Janice; Xie, Jennifer Yanhua; King, Tamara; Dickenson, Anthony H; Porreca, Frank

    2017-08-21

    Gabapentin (GBP) is a first-line therapy for neuropathic pain, but its mechanisms and sites of action remain uncertain. We investigated GBP-induced modulation of neuropathic pain following spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in rats. Intravenous or intrathecal GBP reversed evoked mechanical hypersensitivity and produced conditioned place preference (CPP) and dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) selectively in SNL rats. Spinal GBP also significantly inhibited dorsal horn wide-dynamic-range neuronal responses to a range of evoked stimuli in SNL rats. By contrast, GBP microinjected bilaterally into the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), produced CPP, and elicited NAc DA release selectively in SNL rats but did not reverse tactile allodynia and had marginal effects on wide-dynamic-range neuronal activity. Moreover, blockade of endogenous opioid signaling in the rACC prevented intravenous GBP-induced CPP and NAc DA release but failed to block its inhibition of tactile allodynia. Gabapentin, therefore, can potentially act to produce its pain relieving effects by (a) inhibition of injury-induced spinal neuronal excitability, evoked hypersensitivity, and ongoing pain and (b) selective supraspinal modulation of affective qualities of pain, without alteration of reflexive behaviors. Consistent with previous findings of pain relief from nonopioid analgesics, GBP requires engagement of rACC endogenous opioid circuits and downstream activation of mesolimbic reward circuits reflected in learned pain-motivated behaviors. These findings support the partial separation of sensory and affective dimensions of pain in this experimental model and suggest that modulation of affective-motivational qualities of pain may be the preferential mechanism of GBP's analgesic effects in patients.

  16. Experimental study on flow-induced vibration of propeller blades under non-uniform inflow

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    LI Jing

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] This article presents an experimental study of the flow-induced vibration of propeller blades under periodic inflow, and the dependence of the response on its modes.[Methods] Two seven-bladed highly skewed model propellers of identical proportions but different material are operated in four-cycle and six-cycle inflows to produce a blade vibratory strain response. Two kinds of wire mesh wake screens located 400 mm upstream of the propeller plane are used to generate the four-cycle and six-cycle inflows. A laser Doppler velocimetry system located 100 mm downstream of the wake screen plane is used to measure the axial velocity distributions produced by the wake screens. Strain gauges are attached to the propeller blades at different positions. The data from the strain gauges quantifies the excitation frequencies induced by the wake screens. It is shown that the response will reach peak axial propeller frequency, four times axial propeller frequency and six times axial propeller frequency under uniform inflow, four-cycle inflow and six-cycle inflow respectively.[Results] The effect of resonance on the vibratory strain response is revealed. When six times axial propeller frequency induced by six-cycle inflow coincides with the natural frequency of a flexible propeller, the response of the propeller is at its greatest.[Conclusions] This research reveals that when designing a propeller, it is not sufficient to only focus on its hydrodynamic properties; the effects of the modes of the propeller should also be considered.

  17. The effect of spinal manipulative therapy on experimentally induced pain: a systematic literature review

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    Millan Mario

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is evidence that spinal manipulative therapy (SMT can reduce pain, the mechanisms involved are not well established. There is a need to review the scientific literature to establish the evidence-base for the reduction of pain following SMT. Objectives To determine if SMT can reduce experimentally induced pain, and if so, if the effect is i only at the level of the treated spinal segment, ii broader but in the same general region as SMT is performed, or iii systemic. Design A systematic critical literature review. Methods A systematic search was performed for experimental studies on healthy volunteers and people without chronic syndromes, in which the immediate effect of SMT was tested. Articles selected were reviewed blindly by two authors. A summary quality score was calculated to indicate level of manuscript quality. Outcome was considered positive if the pain-reducing effect was statistically significant. Separate evidence tables were constructed with information relevant to each research question. Results were interpreted taking into account their manuscript quality. Results Twenty-two articles were included, describing 43 experiments, primarily on pain produced by pressure (n = 27 or temperature (n = 9. Their quality was generally moderate. A hypoalgesic effect was shown in 19/27 experiments on pressure pain, produced by pressure in 3/9 on pain produced by temperature and in 6/7 tests on pain induced by other measures. Second pain provoked by temperature seems to respond to SMT but not first pain. Most studies revealed a local or regional hypoalgesic effect whereas a systematic effect was unclear. Manipulation of a “restricted motion segment” (“manipulable lesion” seemed not to be essential to analgesia. In relation to outcome, there was no discernible difference between studies with higher vs. lower quality scores. Conclusions These results indicate that SMT has a direct local

  18. The effect of spinal manipulative therapy on experimentally induced pain: a systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Although there is evidence that spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) can reduce pain, the mechanisms involved are not well established. There is a need to review the scientific literature to establish the evidence-base for the reduction of pain following SMT. Objectives To determine if SMT can reduce experimentally induced pain, and if so, if the effect is i) only at the level of the treated spinal segment, ii) broader but in the same general region as SMT is performed, or iii) systemic. Design A systematic critical literature review. Methods A systematic search was performed for experimental studies on healthy volunteers and people without chronic syndromes, in which the immediate effect of SMT was tested. Articles selected were reviewed blindly by two authors. A summary quality score was calculated to indicate level of manuscript quality. Outcome was considered positive if the pain-reducing effect was statistically significant. Separate evidence tables were constructed with information relevant to each research question. Results were interpreted taking into account their manuscript quality. Results Twenty-two articles were included, describing 43 experiments, primarily on pain produced by pressure (n = 27) or temperature (n = 9). Their quality was generally moderate. A hypoalgesic effect was shown in 19/27 experiments on pressure pain, produced by pressure in 3/9 on pain produced by temperature and in 6/7 tests on pain induced by other measures. Second pain provoked by temperature seems to respond to SMT but not first pain. Most studies revealed a local or regional hypoalgesic effect whereas a systematic effect was unclear. Manipulation of a “restricted motion segment” (“manipulable lesion”) seemed not to be essential to analgesia. In relation to outcome, there was no discernible difference between studies with higher vs. lower quality scores. Conclusions These results indicate that SMT has a direct local/regional hypoalgesic effect on

  19. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of myxedema coma: Analysis of a national inpatient database in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yosuke; Ono, Sachiko; Yasunaga, Hideo; Matsui, Hiroki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Tanaka, Yuji

    2017-03-01

    Myxedema coma is a life-threatening and emergency presentation of hypothyroidism. However, the clinical features and outcomes of this condition have been poorly defined because of its rarity. We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients diagnosed with myxedema coma from July 2010 through March 2013 using a national inpatient database in Japan. We investigated characteristics, comorbidities, treatments, and in-hospital mortality of patients with myxedema coma. We identified 149 patients diagnosed with myxedema coma out of approximately 19 million inpatients in the database. The mean (standard deviation) age was 77 (12) years, and two-thirds of the patients were female. The overall proportion of in-hospital mortality among cases was 29.5%. The number of patients was highest in the winter season. Patients treated with steroids, catecholamines, or mechanical ventilation showed higher in-hospital mortality than those without. Variations in type and dosage of thyroid hormone replacement were not associated with in-hospital mortality. The most common comorbidity was cardiovascular diseases (40.3%). The estimated incidence of myxedema coma was 1.08 per million people per year in Japan. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that higher age and use of catecholamines (with or without steroids) were significantly associated with higher in-hospital mortality. The present study identified the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with myxedema coma using a large-scale database. Myxedema coma mortality was independently associated with age and severe conditions requiring treatment with catecholamines. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of an objective tool for the diagnosis of myxedema coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiong, Yien V; Bammerlin, Elaine; Mariash, Cary N

    2015-09-01

    Myxedema coma, a rare entity, with a reported 25%-65% mortality had no objective criteria for making the diagnosis when we began our study. We developed an objective screening tool for myxedema coma to more easily identify patients and examine the best treatment method in future prospective studies to reduce the mortality of this entity. We conducted a retrospective chart review to find all patients aged ≥18 years admitted with myxedema coma from January 1, 2005 through June 13, 2010 at Indiana University Health Methodist Hospital. On the basis of both our retrospective chart review and on literature accounts, we identified 6 criteria to diagnose myxedema coma. We identified 10 patients initially diagnosed with myxedema coma and established a control group consisting of 13 patients identified with altered mental status and increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. The 6 variables we created for the screening tool were heart rate, temperature, Glasgow coma scale, TSH, free thyroxine, and precipitating factors. The screening tool has a sensitivity and specificity of about 80%. We ran a logistic regression model using the 10 study patients and 13 controls with the 6 variables. No variables alone significantly contributed to the model. However, the overall model was highly significant (P = 0.012), providing strong support for a scoring system that uses these variables simultaneously. This screening tool enables physicians to rapidly diagnose myxedema coma to expedite treatment. A more refined diagnostic tool may be used in future clinical studies designed to determine the optimal treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Near-Nucleus Dusty Gas Coma of Comet 67P Prior to the Descent of PHILAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, V. V.; Marzari, F.; Crifo, J.-F.; Bertini, I.; Rodionov, A. V.; Fulle, M.

    2017-09-01

    We here describe the RZC model developed to predict the gas environment of the comet 67P (it was used for estimation of the aerodynamic forces on the Rosetta lander in November 2014) and the results of adjustment of this model to the observational data obtained by the Rosetta probe before landing. We outline the physical approach adopted to overcome the difficulties resulting from (1) the extreme complexity of the nucleus surface, (2) the absence of direct measurements of the gas flux at the surface itself, (3) the time-dependence of the gas production induced by the fast nucleus rotation. Also, we present the results of our attempts to fit the dust coma images obtained by the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS).

  2. Electroacupuncture-Induced Attenuation of Experimental Epilepsy: A Comparative Evaluation of Acupoints and Stimulation Parameters

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    Xuezhi Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA on epilepsy remains to be verified because of previous controversies that might be due to the complexity of the effects induced by different acupoints and stimulation approaches adopted. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EA on epilepsy to determine the specific acupoints and optimal stimulation parameters in this work. Experimental epilepsy was induced by injecting kainic acid to the lateral cerebral ventricle of adult male SD rats. EA with a low-frequency (10 Hz/1 mA or high-frequency (100 Hz/1 mA current was applied to the epileptic model for 30 minutes starting at 0.5 hour after the injection. Four pairs of acupoints were tested, that is, Shuigou (DU26 + Dazhui (DU14, Jinsuo (DU8 + Yaoqi (EXB9, Neiguan (PC6 + Quchi (LI11, and Fenglong (ST40 + Yongquan (KI1. We found that (1 low- or high-frequency EA at different acupoints reduced epileptic seizures (P<0.05 versus the control with an exception of low-frequency EA at Neiguan (PC6 and Quchi (LI11; (2 low-frequency EA induced a better effect at Fenglong (ST40 plus Yongquan (KI1 than that of the other acupoints (P<0.05; (3 there is no significant difference in the effects of high-frequency EA at these acupoints; and (4 the high-frequency EA elicited a greater effect than that of low-frequency EA in all groups (P<0.05, with an exception at Jinsuo (DU8 + Yaoqi (EXB9. The EA-induced attenuation appeared 1–1.5 hours after EA with no appreciable effect in the first hour after EA in either the EEG or the behavioral tests. We conclude that EA attenuation of epileptic seizures is dependent on the stimulation parameters and acupoints and that the delay in appearance of the EA effect could be a reflection of the time required by the EA signal to regulate neural function in the central nervous system.

  3. Relevance of induced and accidental hypothermia after trauma-haemorrhage-what do we know from experimental models in pigs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Frank; Radermacher, Peter; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Huber-Lang, Markus; Seekamp, Andreas; Flohé, Sascha; van Griensven, Martijn; Andruszkow, Hagen; Pape, Hans-Christoph

    2014-12-01

    Recent experimental research has either focused on the role of accidental hypothermia as part of the lethal triad after trauma or tried to elucidate the effects of therapeutically induced hypothermia on the posttraumatic course. Induced hypothermia seems to reduce the mortality in experimental models of trauma-haemorrhage. As potential mechanisms, a decrease of cellular metabolism, beneficial effects on haemodynamic function and an attenuation of the inflammatory response have been described. However, negative side effects of hypothermia have to be considered, such as impairment of the coagulatory function and immunosuppressive effects. Furthermore, the optimal strategy for the induction of hypothermia (magnitude, duration, timing, cooling rate, etc.) and subsequent rewarming remains unclear. Nevertheless, this piece of information is essential before considering hypothermia as a treatment strategy for severely injured patients. This review aims to elaborate the differences between accidental and induced hypothermia and to summarize the current knowledge of the potential therapeutic use of induced hypothermia suggested in porcine models of trauma-haemorrhage.

  4. Experimental signature of the pair trajectories of rough spheres in the shear-induced microstructure in noncolloidal suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Frédéric; Peters, François; Lemaire, Elisabeth

    2011-11-11

    The shear-induced microstructure in a semidilute noncolloidal suspension is studied. A high-resolution pair distribution function in the plane of shear is experimentally determined. It is shown to be anisotropic, with a depleted direction close to the velocity axis in the recession quadrant. The influence of roughness on the interaction between particles is quantitatively evidenced. The experimental results compare well with a model from particle pair trajectories.

  5. Experimental studies of keV energy neutron-induced reactions relevant to astrophysics and nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, T.; Kii, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Okazaki, F.; Kobayashi, T.; Baba, T.; Nagai, Y. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Igashira, M.

    1997-03-01

    Nuclear reactions induced by keV energy neutrons provide a plenty of informations for studies of both astrophysics and nuclear physics. In this paper we will show our experimental studies of neutron- induced reactions of light nuclei in the keV energy region by means of a pulsed keV neutron beam and high-sensitivity detectors. Also we will discuss astrophysical and nuclear-physical consequences by using the obtained results. (author)

  6. Effect of pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid on extracellular matrix components in experimentally induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Surapaneni Krishna; Veeraraghavan, Vishnu Priya; Jainu, Mallika

    2015-08-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is an important component of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spectrum, which progresses to the end stage liver disease, if not diagnosed and treated properly. The disproportionate production of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines secreted from fat contributes to the pathogenesis of NASH. In this study, the comparative effect of pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid on extracellular matrix (ECM) component levels were studied in experimentally induced NASH. The experimental protocol consists of using 48 male Wister rats, which were divided into 8 groups. The levels of hyaluronic acid, leptin and adiponectin were monitored in experimental NASH. The experimental NASH rats treated with pioglitazone showed significant decrease in the levels of hyaluronic acid and significant increase in adiponectin levels when compared to experimentally induced NASH group, but did not show any effect on the levels of leptin. Contrary to these two drugs, viz. pioglitazone and hydroxy citric acid, the group treated with quercetin showed significant decrease in the levels of hyaluronic acid and leptin and significant decrease in adiponectin levels compared with that of experimentally induced NASH NASH group, offering maximum protection against NASH. Considering our findings, it could be concluded that quercetin may offer maximum protection against NASH by significantly increasing the levels of adiponectin, when compared to pioglitazone and hydroxy citric acid.

  7. The Coma Cluster Luminosity Function from Ultraviolet to Near-Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreon, S.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Pello, R.

    The Coma cluster luminosity function (LF) from ultraviolet (2000 AA ) to the near-infrared (H band) is summarized. In the UV the LF is very steep, much steeper than in the optical. The steep Coma UV LF implies that faint and bright galaxies give similar contributions to the total UV flux and to the total metal production rate. The ComaUV LF is dominated in number and luminosity by blue galaxies, which are often faint in the optical. Therefore the Coma UV LF is dominated by star forming galaxies, not by massive and large galaxies. The optical Coma LF is relatively steep (alpha=-1.4) over the 11 magnitudes sampled, but its slope and shape depend on considered filter and magnitude. We found a clear steeping of the FL going from B to R bands, indicative of the presence of a large number of red dwarfs, as faint as three bright globular clusters. Furthermore, using Hubble Space Telescope images, we discover that blends of globular clusters, not resolved in individual components due to seeing, look like dwarf galaxies when observed from the ground and are numerous and bright. The existence of these fake extended sources increases the steepness of the LF at faint magnitudes, if not deal on. This concern affects previous deep probing of the luminosity function, but not the present work. The near-infrared LF wa s computed on a near-infrared selected sample of galaxies which photometry is complete down to the typical dwarf (M* +5) luminosity. The Coma LF can be described by a Schechter function with intermediate slope (alpha sim-1.3), plus a dip at MH~-22 mag. The shape of the Coma LF in H band is quite similar to th e one found in the B band. The similarity of the LF in the optical and H bands implies that in the central region of Coma there is no new population of galaxies which is too faint to be observed in the optical band (because dust enshrouded, for instance), down to the magnitudes of dwarfs. The exponential cut of the LF at the bright end is in good agreement with

  8. Prediction of coma and anisocoria based on computerized tomography findings in patients with supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhi; Zheng, Wen; Zhu, Haixia; Chen, Yiwei; Fan, Xuejun; Hou, Deren; Deng, Hao

    2012-07-01

    Coma and anisocoria are the two common signs of a crucial state of neurological dysfunction. The ability to forecast the occurrence of these conditions would help clinicians make clinical risk assessments and decisions. From October 2006 to September 2008, 118 patients with supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) were enrolled in this retrospective investigation. Patients were distributed into 3 groups according to occurrence of the signs of coma and/or anisocoria in the observation unit during a 30-day period. Group 1 included 52 patients who had normal or impaired consciousness, group 2 included 27 patients who had coma with no anisocoria and group 3 consisted of 39 patients who had coma with anisocoria. The clinical characteristics and parameters on computerized tomography (CT) findings were compared using univariate analysis to determine the factors that were related to the level of consciousness. Logistic regression models established the predictive equations for coma and anisocoria. Univariate analysis revealed that hematoma volume, the score of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH score) and the amplitude of midline shift were the factors related to coma and anisocoria. Mean hematoma volume was 24.0 ± 13.0 ml, 53.6 ± 12.6 ml and 80.5 ± 24.6 ml, the mean amplitudes of midline shift were 1.3 ± 2.0 mm, 5.9 ± 4.9 mm and 10.1 ± 5.5 mm, and the mean IVH score was 0.8 ± 1.3, 3.3 ± 3.3 and 5.9 ± 3.4 in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that hematoma volume and IVH score were independent prognostic factors for coma and anisocoria. The predictive equations for coma and anisocoria were LogitP = 0.279X(HV) + 0.521X(IVH)-18.164 and LogitP = 0.125X(HV)+0.326X(IVH)-6.864, respectively. Hematoma volume and IVH score were the independent prognostic factors for coma and anisocoria. Logistic regression models established the fitted predictive equations, which could help clinicians make clinical risk assessments and decisions. Crown

  9. The effects of Ethanol Extract of Propolis (EEP on the experimentally induced Candida keratitis in rabbits

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    Ahangari AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Propolis (bee glue is a resinous substance obtained from bee hives living on various plant sources. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ethanol extract of propolis (EEP on the experimentally induced Candidial keratitis in rabbits."n"nMethods: The alcoholic extract of propolis was prepared by 80% ethyl alcohol. After suppressing the immune system of 24 male rabbits, experimental Candida albicans keratitis was induced in the animals under local anesthesia and sterile conditions. The animals were later divided into four groups including the control or glycerin group and a nystatin and two 500 and 1000µg/ml EEP groups. Treatment continued for 21 days and after sacrificing the animals by humane methods, histopathological samples of the rabbits' eyes were prepared."n"nResults: Keratitis was developed in the eyes of all rabbits a week after the yeast inoculation. In the control group in which animals received glycerin, keratitis persisted until day 21. Clinical signs of keratitis disappeared in the Nystatin and 1000µg/ml EEP groups after 14 and 21 days, respectively. The clinical signs of keratitis partially ameliorated in the animals receiving 500µg/ml EEP. Histopathological examination revealed no differences between groups receiving nystatin or 1000µg/ml EEP."n"nConclusion: It is concluded that, ethanol extract of propolis could completely treat Candida albicans keratitis in 1000µg/ml concentrations. This extract can be used as a safe antifungal agent

  10. Acute phase response in two consecutive experimentally induced E. coli intramammary infections in dairy cows

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    Saatsi Johanna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP have suggested to be suitable inflammatory markers for bovine mastitis. The aim of the study was to investigate acute phase markers along with clinical parameters in two consecutive intramammary challenges with Escherichia coli and to evaluate the possible carry-over effect when same animals are used in an experimental model. Methods Mastitis was induced with a dose of 1500 cfu of E. coli in one quarter of six cows and inoculation repeated in another quarter after an interval of 14 days. Concentrations of acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP were determined in serum and milk. Results In both challenges all cows became infected and developed clinical mastitis within 12 hours of inoculation. Clinical disease and acute phase response was generally milder in the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in milk started to increase 12 hours after inoculation and peaked at 60 hours after the first challenge and at 44 hours after the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in serum increased more slowly and peaked at the same times as in milk; concentrations in serum were about one third of those in milk. Hp started to increase in milk similarly and peaked at 36–44 hours. In serum, the concentration of Hp peaked at 60–68 hours and was twice as high as in milk. LBP concentrations in milk and serum started to increase after 12 hours and peaked at 36 hours, being higher in milk. The concentrations of acute phase proteins in serum and milk in the E. coli infection model were much higher than those recorded in experiments using Gram-positive pathogens, indicating the severe inflammation induced by E. coli. Conclusion Acute phase proteins would be useful parameters as mastitis indicators and to assess the severity of mastitis. If repeated experimental intramammary

  11. Development and characterization of an experimental model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rabbit.

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    Oscar Julián Arias-Mutis

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS has become one of the main concerns for public health because of its link to cardiovascular disease. Murine models have been used to study the effect of MetS on the cardiovascular system, but they have limitations for studying cardiac electrophysiology. In contrast, the rabbit cardiac electrophysiology is similar to human, but a detailed characterization of the different components of MetS in this animal is still needed. Our objective was to develop and characterize a diet-induced experimental model of MetS that allows the study of cardiovascular remodeling and arrhythmogenesis. Male NZW rabbits were assigned to control (n = 15 or MetS group (n = 16, fed during 28 weeks with high-fat, high-sucrose diet. We measured weight, morphological characteristics, blood pressure, glycaemia, standard plasma biochemistry and the metabolomic profile at weeks 14 and 28. Liver histological changes were evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin staining. A mixed model ANOVA or unpaired t-test were used for statistical analysis (P<0.05. Weight, abdominal contour, body mass index, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure increased in the MetS group at weeks 14 and 28. Glucose, triglycerides, LDL, GOT-AST, GOT/GPT, bilirubin and bile acid increased, whereas HDL decreased in the MetS group at weeks 14 and 28. We found a 40% increase in hepatocyte area and lipid vacuoles infiltration in the liver from MetS rabbits. Metabolomic analysis revealed differences in metabolites related to fatty acids, energetic metabolism and microbiota, compounds linked with cardiovascular disease. Administration of high-fat and high-sucrose diet during 28 weeks induced obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension, non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and metabolic alterations, thus reproducing the main clinical manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in humans. This experimental model should provide a valuable tool for studies into the mechanisms of cardiovascular

  12. Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced inflammation, hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats: evidence of its antioxidant property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Suresh R; Thakare, Vishnu N; Patil, Snehal R

    2011-07-01

    The present study investigates the protective effects of curcumin on experimentally induced inflammation, hepatotoxicity, and cardiotoxicity using various animal models with biochemical parameters like serum marker enzymes and antioxidants in target tissues. In addition, liver and cardiac histoarchitecture changes were also studied. Curcumin treatment inhibited carrageenin and albumin induced edema, cotton pellet granuloma formation. The increased relative weight of liver and heart in CCl(4) induced liver injury and isoproterenol induced cardiac necrosis were also reduced by curcumin treatment. Elevated serum marker enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) increased lipid peroxidation, decreased gluthione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in edematous, granulomatus, liver and heart tissues during inflammation, liver injury and cardiac necrosis, respectively. Curcumin treatment reversed all these above mentioned biochemical changes significantly in all animal models studied. Even histoarchitecture alterations observed in liver injury and cardiac necrosis observed were partially reversed (improved) by curcumin treatments. In in vitro experiments too curcumin inhibited iron catalyzed lipid peroxidation in liver homogenates, scavenged nitric oxide spontaneously generated from nitroprusside and inhibited heat induced hemolysis of rat erythrocytes. The present in vitro and in vivo experimental findings suggest the protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced inflammation, hepatotoxicity, and cardiotoxicity in rats. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Cartilage integrity and proteoglycan turnover are comparable in canine experimentally induced and human joint degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke Intema

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The value of experimental models of osteoarthritis (OA largely depends on the ability to translate observations to human OA. Surprisingly, direct comparison of characteristics of human and experimental OA is scarce. In the present study, cartilage integrity and matrix turnover in a canine model of joint degeneration were compared to human clinical OA. In 23 Beagle dogs, joint degeneration was induced in one knee, the contra-lateral knee served as a control. For comparison, human osteoarthritic and healthy knee cartilage were obtained at arthroplasty (n=14 and post-mortem (n=13. Cartilage was analyzed by histology and biochemistry. Values for cartilage integrity and proteoglycan (PG synthesis showed species specific differences; GAG content of healthy cartilage was 2-fold higher in canine cartilage and PG synthesis even 8-fold. However, the relative decrease in PG content between healthy and OA cartilage was similar for humans and canines (-17% vs. -15%, respectively, as was the histological damage (+7.0 vs. +6.1, respectively and the increase of PG synthesis (+100% vs. +70%, respectively. Remarkably, the percentage release of total and of newly formed PGs in human and canine controls was similar, as was the increase due to degeneration (+65% vs. +81% and +91% vs. +52%, respectively. Despite differences in control conditions, the observed changes in characteristics of cartilage integrity and matrix turnover are similar in a canine model of joint degeneration and human clinical OA. The canine Groove model shows that its characteristics reflect those of human OA which makes the model appropriate for studying human OA.

  14. Experimental study of laser-induced plasma: Influence of laser fluence and pulse duration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xueshi; Ma, Qianli; Perrier, Maxime; Motto-Ros, Vincent [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Sabourdy, David; Nguyen, Luc; Jalocha, Alain [CILAS Laser Company, Photonics Department, 45000 Orléans (France); Yu, Jin, E-mail: jin.yu@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France)

    2013-09-01

    Influence of laser fluence and pulse duration on the morphology and the internal structure of plasma induced by infrared nanosecond laser pulse on an aluminum target placed in an argon ambient gas of one atmosphere pressure was experimentally studied. Dual-wavelength differential spectroscopic imaging was used in the experiment, which allowed observing the detailed structure inside of the ablation plume with distributions of species evaporated from the target as well as contributed by the ambient gas. Different regimes of post-ablation interaction were investigated using different laser fluences and pulse durations. We demonstrate in particular that plasma shielding due to various species localized in different zones inside of the plume leads to different morphologies and internal structures of the plasma. At moderate fluence, the plasma shielding due to the ablation vapor localized in the central part of the plume leads to its nearly spherical expansion with a layered structure of the distribution of different species. At higher fluence, the plasma shielding becomes strongly contributed by ionized ambient gas localized in the propagation front of the plume. An elongated morphology of the plume is observed with a zone of mixing between different species evaporated from the target or contributed by the ambient gas. Finally with extremely strong plasma shielding by ionized ambient gas in the case of a long duration pulse at high fluence, a delayed evaporation from the target is observed due to the ejection of melted material by splashing. - Highlights: • Morphology and internal structure of a plasma were experimentally determined. • Laser fluence and pulse duration are critical parameters for plasma structure. • Plasma shielding due to various species leads to different plasma structures. • Different regimes of laser-support absorption wave are used for interpretation. • Splashing ejection is observed for strong plasma shielding with long pulse.

  15. Enhanced mucosal re-epithelialization induced by short chain fatty acids in experimental colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Nascimento J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The short chain fatty acids (SCFA are the best nutrients for the colonocytes. Glucose is poorly used as a fuel but may be transformed into SCFA by colonic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SCFA or glucose on experimental colitis. Colitis was induced in 30 Wistar rats by colonic instillation of 4% acetic acid. Five days later they were randomized to receive twice a day colonic lavage containing saline (controls, N = 10, 10% hypertonic glucose (N = 10 or SCFA (N = 10 until day 8 when they were killed. At autopsy, the colon was removed and weighed and the mucosa was evaluated macro- and microscopically and stripped out for DNA assay. Data are reported as mean ± SD or median [range] as appropriate. All animals lost weight but there was no difference between groups. Colon weight was significantly lower in the SCFA group (3.8 ± 0.5 g than in the control (5.3 ± 2.1 g and glucose (5.2 ± 1.3 g groups (P<0.05. Macroscopically, the severity of inflammation was less in SCFA (grade 2 [1-5] than in control (grade 9 [4-10] and glucose-treated (grade 9 [2-10] animals (P<0.01. Microscopically, ulceration of the mucosa was more severe in the glucose and control groups than in the SCFA group. The DNA content of the mucosa of SCFA-treated animals (8.2 [5.0-20.2] mg/g of tissue was higher than in glucose-treated (5.1 [4.2-8.5] mg/g of tissue; P<0.01 and control (6.2 [4.5-8.9] mg/g of tissue; P<0.05 animals. We conclude that SCFA may enhance mucosal re-epithelialization in experimental colitis, whereas hypertonic glucose is of no benefit.

  16. Microdissection studies of the structural alterations induced in rat kidneys by experimental postischemic acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, G H; Studnicki, F M; Hashida, Y

    1987-01-01

    A unique opportunity presented itself for a morphologic study of experimental unilateral acute renal failure (ARF) in male rats. The ARF had been induced in the rats by temporary occlusion (1h) of the left renal artery. Twenty-nine rats were divided into subsets as follows: 2-3 h, 24 h, 1 week, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks following release of occlusion. Microdissection showed a heterogeneous population of abnormally structured proximal tubules in which the regressive lesions of tubular necrosis were combined with the progressive reaction of repair. The lesions demonstrated are reminiscent of those which have been described in ARF in the human and in experimental animals. Many proximal tubules in the 2- to 3-hour subset presented 1-3 disruptive lesions (DLs) while greater numbers of proximal tubules from the 24-hour group presented 1-5 DLs. Many proximal tubules presented no DLs, but nearly all from the 24-hour subset (97-100%) displayed a squamate appearance which paralleled and was caused by acute tubular necrosis. At 1 week, a dilated pars recta was common, but by this time, the squamate pattern had disappeared. Many casts were present. At 2 weeks, many fewer casts were present in proximal tubules and none were seen at 4, 8 or 12 weeks. The nephrons, particularly the proximal tubules, presented a variety of structural alterations at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Changes of special interest include (1) the presence of swan-necks; (2) a distinctive squamate appearance of the proximal tubules in the animals killed at 24 h; (3) a spiral, curled appearance caused by differential hyperplasia in animals at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, and (4) a tendency for ischemic lesions to involve all layers of the renal cortex.

  17. Cellular Mechanisms and Behavioral Outcomes in Blast-Induced Neurotrauma: Comparing Experimental Setups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Zachary S; Hubbard, W Brad; VandeVord, Pamela J

    2016-01-01

    Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) has increased in incidence over the past decades and can result in cognitive issues that have debilitating consequences. The exact primary and secondary mechanisms of injury have not been elucidated and appearance of cellular injury can vary based on many factors, such as blast overpressure magnitude and duration. Many methodologies to study blast neurotrauma have been employed, ranging from open-field explosives to experimental shock tubes for producing free-field blast waves. While there are benefits to the various methods, certain specifications need to be accounted for in order to properly examine BINT. Primary cell injury mechanisms, occurring as a direct result of the blast wave, have been identified in several studies and include cerebral vascular damage, blood-brain barrier disruption, axonal injury, and cytoskeletal damage. Secondary cell injury mechanisms, triggered subsequent to the initial insult, result in the activation of several molecular cascades and can include, but are not limited to, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. The collective result of these secondary injuries can lead to functional deficits. Behavioral measures examining motor function, anxiety traits, and cognition/memory problems have been utilized to determine the level of injury severity. While cellular injury mechanisms have been identified following blast exposure, the various experimental models present both concurrent and conflicting results. Furthermore, the temporal response and progression of pathology after blast exposure have yet to be detailed and remain unclear due to limited resemblance of methodologies. This chapter summarizes the current state of blast neuropathology and emphasizes the need for a standardized preclinical model of blast neurotrauma.

  18. A human brain network derived from coma-causing brainstem lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, David B; Boes, Aaron D; Demertzi, Athena; Evrard, Henry C; Laureys, Steven; Edlow, Brian L; Liu, Hesheng; Saper, Clifford B; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Fox, Michael D; Geerling, Joel C

    2016-12-06

    To characterize a brainstem location specific to coma-causing lesions, and its functional connectivity network. We compared 12 coma-causing brainstem lesions to 24 control brainstem lesions using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping in a case-control design to identify a site significantly associated with coma. We next used resting-state functional connectivity from a healthy cohort to identify a network of regions functionally connected to this brainstem site. We further investigated the cortical regions of this network by comparing their spatial topography to that of known networks and by evaluating their functional connectivity in patients with disorders of consciousness. A small region in the rostral dorsolateral pontine tegmentum was significantly associated with coma-causing lesions. In healthy adults, this brainstem site was functionally connected to the ventral anterior insula (AI) and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC). These cortical areas aligned poorly with previously defined resting-state networks, better matching the distribution of von Economo neurons. Finally, connectivity between the AI and pACC was disrupted in patients with disorders of consciousness, and to a greater degree than other brain networks. Injury to a small region in the pontine tegmentum is significantly associated with coma. This brainstem site is functionally connected to 2 cortical regions, the AI and pACC, which become disconnected in disorders of consciousness. This network of brain regions may have a role in the maintenance of human consciousness. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. [How do physicians code the motoric variable of the Glasgow-Coma-Score?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woischneck, D; Stah, W; Kapapa, T

    2015-06-01

    A mere 14% gave the right answer according the guidelines: Code the "best motoric answer" of the "upper limb". 86% coded the Glasgow-Coma-Score for the motoric variable falsely and inconsistently. Additionally, the rate of correct answers were higher in physicians in training (37.5%) than in qualified and certified emergency doctors (5%). Emergency doctors post training stated in 68% instances that the variable should be coded according to the neurological results at the upper or lower extremity. Furthermore, they stated that the worst neurological result should be coded (43%). From our data, it appears that the coding of the motoric variable is not done according to the guidelines or is done inconsistently. There are compelling reasons for coding the worst result. However, this procedure is contrary to the guidelines presented by literature. These guideline have never been withdrawn. Emergency doctors obviously code the motoric variable of the Glasgow-Coma-Score with knowledge about the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injuries. The Glasgow-Coma-Score is used for coding the level of consciousness at the site of accident, on admission, for prognosis, in clinical studies and in forensic controversies. Its sensitivity for depth of coma depends on the quality of coding the motoric answer. We interviewed 165 emergency doctors (in training and post training) about the guidelines for coding the motoric variable of the Glasgow-Coma-Score.

  20. The distribution of early- and late-type galaxies in the Coma cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, M.; Fukugita, M.; Okamura, S.; Turner, E. L.

    1995-01-01

    The spatial distribution and the morohology-density relation of Coma cluster galaxies are studied using a new homogeneous photmetric sample of 450 galaxies down to B = 16.0 mag with quantitative morphology classification. The sample covers a wide area (10 deg X 10 deg), extending well beyond the Coma cluster. Morphological classifications into early- (E+SO) and late-(S) type galaxies are made by an automated algorithm using simple photometric parameters, with which the misclassification rate is expected to be approximately 10% with respect to early and late types given in the Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies. The flattened distribution of Coma cluster galaxies, as noted in previous studies, is most conspicuously seen if the early-type galaxies are selected. Early-type galaxies are distributed in a thick filament extended from the NE to the WSW direction that delineates a part of large-scale structure. Spiral galaxies show a distribution with a modest density gradient toward the cluster center; at least bright spiral galaxies are present close to the center of the Coma cluster. We also examine the morphology-density relation for the Coma cluster including its surrounding regions.

  1. Experimentally induced pyogenic arthritis of rabbit knees: comparative study of MR imaging and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Hwan; Koh, Sung Hye; Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Kyung Won; Kim, Chong Jai; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-01

    To compare the MR imaging findings of experimentally induced pyogenic arthritis of rabbit knees with the corresponding histopathologic findings. Infection was induced in 20 rabbit knees by direct intra-articular injection of staphylococcus aureus. The animals were divided into four groups of five rabbits each, and spin-echo sagittal T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks, respectively, after staphylococcal inoculation. MR-pathologic correlation was performed, with emphasis on intra-and extra-articular soft tissue lesion characteristics. Soft tissue lesion signal intensity (SI) was classified as low, iso, or high on the basis of that of muscle, and high SI was further subdivided into three categories. At T2-weighted imaging, all soft tissue lesion showed high SI. Pathologic examination revealed the presence of inflammatory cell infiltration (n=2), abscess (n=1), granulation tissue (n=3), fibrosis (n=11), edema (n=4), congestion (n=9), and joint fluid (n=11). Except for the abscess, these lesions were irregular in shape and had variable SI (grade 1-3) and at T2WI could not, therefore, be differentiated. In nine knees, extra-articular soft-tissue lesions were demonstrated at T2WI and correlated with infectious soft tissue lesions such as inflammatory cell infiltration, abscess, granulation tissues and fibrosis; and non-infectious reactive soft tissue changes such as edema and congestion. In pyogenic arthritis, the MR imaging features of soft tissue lesions varied and were nonspecific, depending on the histopathologic abnormalities observed. Our results indicate that in assessing the extent of pyogenic arthritis with MR imaging, caution is required.

  2. Effect of Camel Milk on Oxidative Stresses in Experimentally Induced Diabetic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esraa Tantawy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Camel milk has an importance in the treatment of diabetes. It has been shown that the patients who drink camel milk daily, their need to insulin decrease. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of camel milk in comparison with insulin treatment in experimentally-induced diabetes. This study was carried out on forty male New Zealand rabbits, divided into four groups with ten rabbits in each. The first group G1 was considered as control non-diabetic group and received only normal saline solution. The other animals were injected intravenously with alloxan for induction of diabetes mellitus and then divided into three groups' ten rabbits each as the follows: G2 considered as control diabetic and left untreated, G3 was considered as diabetic and treated with insulin, and G4 was considered as diabetic and received camel milk. At the end of the experiment (4 weeks, blood (whole blood & serum and tissue samples (liver, kidney and pancreas were collected from all the animals for analysis of: enzymatic SOD and catalase, non-enzymatic GSH antioxidant enzyme activities. Serum malondialdeyde, glucose, insulin and lipid profile also were analyzed. The results showed that the camel milk was effective in the treatment of diabetes in comparison to insulin treatment alone. In addition to its hypoglycemic effect, camel milk improved the diabetes-induced oxidative stress. The histopathological evaluations demonstrated that there was a regeneration in β cells and the islets of Langerhans among the pancreatic acini in rabbits receiving camel milk. Our findings suggested that the camel milk administration in case of insulin dependant diabetes mellitus might be recommended as an oral anti-diabetic remedy.

  3. Effects of allicin on hyperhomocysteinemia-induced experimental vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, De-shan; Gao, Wei; Liang, Er-shun; Wang, Shu-li; Lin, Wei-wei; Zhang, Wei-dong; Jia, Qing; Guo, Rui-chen; Zhang, Ji-dong

    2013-08-15

    This study was designed to investigate the effect and mechanism of allicin on hyperhomocysteinemia-induced experimental vascular endothelial dysfunction in rats. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: the normal control rats (NC), the high-methionine-diet rats (Met), the high-methionine-diet rats treated with folic acid, vitaminB₆ and vitaminB₁₂ (Met+F), or with low-dose allicin (Met+L), or with high-dose allicin (Met+H). After 6 weeks, we collected blood samples of all groups to determine plasma endothelin (ET), serum homocysteine (Hcy), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and detected the expression of basic fibroblast growth factors (bFGF), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the aorta. The Hcy and the expression of TGF-β in both the Met+L and Met+H groups were significantly lower than the Met and Met+F groups. The ET, ET/NO ratio and the MDA levels of the Met+L and Met+H groups were significantly lower than the Met group. The SOD and NO levels and the expression of bFGF, TNF-α and ICAM-1 of the Met+L and Met+H groups were significantly higher than the Met group. Our data indicate that allicin inhibits lipid peroxidation induced by hyperhomocysteinemia and regulates the excretion and equilibrium of ET and NO, and suggest that allicin might be useful in the prevention of endothelial dysfunction caused by hyperhomocysteinemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gastroprotective Efficacy and Safety Evaluation of Scoparone Derivatives on Experimentally Induced Gastric Lesions in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ju Son

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the gastroprotective efficacy of synthesized scoparone derivatives on experimentally induced gastritis and their toxicological safety. Six scoparone derivatives were synthesized and screened for gastroprotective activities against HCl/ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Among these compounds, 5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin and 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin were found to have gastroprotective activity greater than the standard drug rebamipide; 6-methoxy-7,8-methylenedioxycoumarin, 6-methoxy-7,8-(1-methoxy-methylenedioxycoumarin, 6,7-methylenedioxycoumarin, and 6,7-(1-methoxy-methylenedioxycoumarin were found to be equipotent or less potent that of rebamipide. Pharmacological studies suggest that the presence of a methoxy group at position C-5 or C-8 of the scoparone’s phenyl ring significantly improves gastroprotective activity, whereas the presence of a dioxolane ring at C-6, C-7, or C-8 was found to have decreased activity. In order to assess toxicological safety, two of the potent gastroprotective scoparone derivatives—5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin and 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin—were examined for their acute toxicity in mice as well as their effect on cytochrome P450 (CYP enzyme activity. These two compounds showed low acute oral toxicity in adult male and female mice, and caused minimal changes to CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 enzyme activity. These results indicate that compared to other scoparone derivatives, 5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin and 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin can improve gastroprotective effects, and they have low toxicity and minimal effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes.

  5. Beneficial effect of Citrus limon peel aqueous methanol extract on experimentally induced urolithic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Badrinathan; Michael, Shiju T; Arya, Ramachandran; Mohana Roopan, Selvaraj; Ganesh, Rajesh N; Viswanathan, Pragasam

    2016-01-01

    Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f. (Rutaceace) is a commonly available fruit variety with high medicinal and industrial values. Lemon peel (LP) extract was studied as a potent preventive and curative agent for experimentally induced hyperoxaluric rats. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses and toxicity study were performed for aqueous methanol LP extract. Twenty-four Wistar rats were segregated into four groups. Group 1: Control; Group 2: Urolithic (ethylene glycol (EG) - 0.75%); Group 3: Preventive study (EG + LP extract administration from 0th to 7th week); Group 4: Curative study (EG + LP extract administration from 4th to 7th week). Animals received LP extract daily by oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight) for 7 weeks. GC-MS analyses revealed that compound 6 was abundant in the LP extract (32%) followed by compound 1 (∼21%). The LD50 value of LP extract was found to be >5000 mg/kg of body weight. Urolithic rats showed significantly higher urinary calcium and oxalate (4.47 ± 0.44 and 18.86 ± 0.55 mg/24 h, respectively) excretion compared with control and experimental rats. Renal function parameters like urea (84 ± 8.5 and 96.1 ± 3.6 mg/dL), creatinine (1.92 ± 0.27 and 1.52 ± 0.22 mg/dL), and urinary protein (2.03 ± 0.02 and 2.13 ± 0.16 mg/24 h) were also reduced by LP extract (p < 0.001) and corroborated with tissue analyses (SOD, catalase, and MDA levels) and histological studies in normal and experimental animals. Immunohistochemical staining of THP and NF-κB in urolithic animals showed elevated expression than the control, while LP extract suppressed the expression of these proteins. In conclusion, lemon peel is effective in curing kidney stone disease and also can be used to prevent the disease and its recurrence.

  6. Experimental and statistical investigation of thermally induced failure in reactor fuel particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsford, J.L.; Imprescia, R.J.; Bowman, A.L.; Radosevich, C.E.

    1980-10-01

    An incomplete experimental study into the failure statistics of fuel particle for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is described. Fuel particles failure was induced by thermal ramping from room temperature to temperatures in the vicinity of 2273/sup 0/K to 2773/sup 0/K in 2 to 30 h and detected by the appearance of /sup 85/Kr in the helium carrier gas used to sweep the furnace. The concentration of krypton, a beta emitter, was detected by measuring the current that resulted when the helium sweep gas was passed through an ionization chamber. TRISO fuel particles gave a krypton concentration profile as a function of time that built up in several minutes and decayed in a fraction of an hour. This profile, which was temperature independent, was similar to the impulse response of the ionization chamber, suggesting that the TRISO particles failed instantaneously and completely. BISO fuel particles gave a krypton concentration profile as a function of time that built up in a fraction of an hour and decayed in a fraction of a day. This profile was strongly temperature dependent, suggesting that krypton release was diffusion controlled, i.e., that the krypton was diffusing through a sound coat, or that the BISO coating failed but that the krypton was unable to escape the kernel without diffusion, or that a combination of pre- and postfailure diffusion accompanied partial or complete failure.

  7. Detection of Entamoeba histolytica in experimentally induced amoebic liver abscess: comparison of three staining methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Tan Zi; Kin, Wong Weng; Mustafa, Shaymoli; Ahmed, Arefuddin; Noordin, Rahmah; Cheong, Tan Gim; Alfonso, Olivos-Garcia; Huat, Lim Boon

    2012-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of three different tissue stains, namely haematoxylin and eosin (H&E), periodic-acid Schiff (PAS) and immunohistochemical (IHC) stains for detection of Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) trophozoites in abscessed liver tissues of hamster. Amoebic liver abscess was experimentally induced in a hamster by injecting 1 × 10(6) of axenically cultured virulent E. histolytica trophozoites (HM1-IMSS strain) into the portal vein. After a week post-inoculation, the hamster was sacrificed and the liver tissue sections were stained with H&E, PAS and IHC stains to detect the amoebic trophozoite. The three stains revealed tissue necrosis and amoebic trophozoites, but with varying clarity. H&E and PAS stained the trophozoites pink and magenta, respectively, however it was difficult to differentiate the stained trophozoites from the macrophages because of their similarity in size and morphology. On the other hand, IHC stain revealed distinct brown appearance of the trophozoites in the infected liver tissues. It can be concluded that out of the three stains, IHC is the best for identification of E. histolytica trophozoites in tissue sections.

  8. A Protective Role of Arecoline Hydrobromide in Experimentally Induced Male Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraneel Saha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Arecoline, the most potent and abundant alkaloid of betel nut, causes elevation of serum testosterone and androgen receptor expression in rat prostate, in addition to increase in serum insulin levels in rats, leading to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes-like conditions. This study investigated the role of arecoline on the reproductive status of experimentally induced type 1 diabetic rats. Methods. Changes in the cellular architecture were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Blood glucose, serum insulin, testosterone, FSH, and LH were assayed. Fructose content of the coagulating gland and sialic acid content of the seminal vesicles were also analyzed. Results. Arecoline treatment for 10 days at a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight markedly facilitated β-cell regeneration and reversed testicular and sex accessory dysfunctions by increasing the levels of serum insulin and gonadotropins in type 1 diabetic rats. Critical genes related to β-cell regeneration, such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (pdx-1 and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2, were found to be activated by arecoline at the protein level. Conclusion. It can thus be suggested that arecoline is effective in ameliorating the detrimental effects caused by insulin deficiency on gonadal and male sex accessories in rats with type 1 diabetes.

  9. Automated segmentation and quantification of actin stress fibres undergoing experimentally induced changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, H; Artelt, N; Endlich, N; Endlich, K

    2017-11-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a main component of cells and it is crucially involved in many physiological processes, e.g. cell motility. Changes in the actin organization can be effected by diseases or vice versa. Due to the nonuniform pattern, it is difficult to quantify reasonable features of the actin cytoskeleton for a significantly high cell number. Here, we present an approach capable to fully segment and analyse the actin cytoskeleton of 2D fluorescence microscopic images with a special focus on stress fibres. The extracted feature data include length, width, orientation and intensity distributions of all traced stress fibres. Our approach combines morphological image processing techniques and a trace algorithm in an iterative manner, classifying the segmentation result with respect to the width of the stress fibres and in nonfibre-like actin. This approach enables us to capture experimentally induced processes like the condensation or the collapse of the actin cytoskeleton. We successfully applied the algorithm to F-actin images of cells that were treated with the actin polymerization inhibitor latrunculin A. Furthermore, we verified the robustness of our algorithm by a sensitivity analysis of the parameters, and we benchmarked our algorithm against established methods. In summary, we present a new approach to segment actin stress fibres over time to monitor condensation or collapse processes. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  10. Experimentally induced aggressiveness in adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs): preliminary behavioral and neuroendocrine findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerra, G; Zaimovic, A; Sartori, R; Raggi, M A; Bocchi, C; Zambelli, U; Timpano, M; Zanichelli, V; Delsignore, R; Brambilla, F

    1999-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the nature of the reaction of nonalcoholic adult children of alcoholic (ACOA) fathers to the experimental induction of aggression. Of particular interest was the relationship between biochemical factors and personality traits during a stressful event experienced by persons at risk for alcoholism. Aggression was induced by a modified free-operant procedure in 14 ACOA and 14 non-ACOA subjects between 18 and 19 years of age with men and women represented in equal numbers. Neurotransmitter-hormonal assays from blood drawn immediately before, and 20 and 30 minutes after, starting the test included norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (EPI), prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol (Cort). Personality traits were assessed by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI). During the aggression induction session, ACOAs gained (F = 4.6, 1/13 df, p aggressiveness among ACOAs. Higher baseline plasma levels of Cort (F = 9.8, 1/13 df, p aggression in ACOAs in association with monoaminergic and endocrine changes.

  11. Methyglyoxal administration induces modification of hemoglobin in experimental rats: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sauradipta

    2017-02-01

    Methylglyoxal, a highly reactive α-oxoaldehyde, increases in diabetic condition and reacts with proteins to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs) following Maillard-like reaction. In the present study, the effect of methylglyoxal on experimental rat hemoglobin in vivo has been investigated with respect to structural alterations and amino acid modifications, after external administration of the α-dicarbonyl compound in animals. Different techniques, mostly biophysical, were used to characterize and compare methylglyoxal-treated rat hemoglobin with that of control, untreated rat hemoglobin. In comparison with methylglyoxal-untreated, control rat hemoglobin, hemoglobin of methylglyoxal-treated rats (32mg/kgbodywt.dose) exhibited slightly decreased absorbance around 280nm, reduced intrinsic fluorescence and lower surface hydrophobicity. The secondary structures of hemoglobin of control and methylglyoxal-treated rats were more or less identical with the latter exhibiting slightly increased α-helicity compared to the former. Compared to control rat hemoglobin, methylglyoxal-treated rat hemoglobin showed higher stability. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis revealed modifications of Arg-31α, Arg-92α and Arg-104β of methylglyoxal-treated rat hemoglobin to hydroimidazolone adducts. The modifications thus appear to be associated with the observed structural alterations of the heme protein. Considering the increased level of methylglyoxal in diabetes mellitus as well as its high reactivity, AGE-induced modifications may have physiological significance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential RNA Expression Profile of Skeletal Muscle Induced by Experimental Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Kaminski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The differential susceptibility of skeletal muscle by myasthenia gravis (MG is not well understood. We utilized RNA expression profiling of extraocular muscle (EOM, diaphragm (DIA, and extensor digitorum (EDL of rats with experimental autoimmune MG (EAMG to evaluate the hypothesis that muscles respond differentially to injury produced by EAMG. EAMG was induced in female Lewis rats by immunization with acetylcholine receptor purified from the electric organ of the Torpedo. Six weeks later after rats had developed weakness and serum antibodies directed against the AChR, animals underwent euthanasia and RNA profiling performed on DIA, EDL, and EOM. Profiling results were validated by qPCR. Across the three muscles between the experiment and control groups, three hundred and fifty-nine probes (1.16% with greater than 2 fold changes in expression in 7 of 9 series pairwise comparisons from 31,090 probes were identified with approximately two-thirds being increased. The three muscles shared 16 genes with increased expression and 6 reduced expression. Functional annotation demonstrated that these common expression changes fell predominantly into categories of metabolism, stress response, and signaling. Evaluation of specific gene function indicated that EAMG led to a change to oxidative metabolism. Genes related to muscle regeneration and suppression of immune response were activated. Evidence of a differential immune response among muscles was not evident. Each muscle had a distinct RNA profile but with commonality in gene categories expressed that are focused on muscle repair, moderation of inflammation, and oxidative metabolism.

  13. A Systematic Review of Experimental and Clinical Acupuncture in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Franconi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN is a common side effect that can be very disabling and can limit or delay the dose of chemotherapy that can be administered. Acupuncture may be effective for treating peripheral neuropathy. The aim of this study was to review the available literature on the use of acupuncture for CIPN. The systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Database, CINHAL, and ISI Proceedings. Hand searching was conducted, and consensus was reached on all extracted data. Only papers in the English language were included, irrespective of study design. From 3989 retrieved papers, 8 relevant papers were identified. One was an experimental study which showed that electroacupuncture suppressed CIPN pain in rats. In addition, there were 7 very heterogeneous clinical studies, 1 controlled randomised study using auricular acupuncture, 2 randomized controlled studies using somatic acupuncture, and 3 case series/case reports which suggested a positive effect of acupuncture in CIPN. Conclusions. Only one controlled randomised study demonstrated that acupuncture may be beneficial for CIPN. All the clinical studies reviewed had important methodological limitations. Further studies with robust methodology are needed to demonstrate the role of acupuncture for treating CIPN resulting from cancer treatment.

  14. Experimental Leishmania major infection suppresses HIV-1 DNA vaccine induced cellular immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tara M; Nelson, Robin; Artis, David; Scott, Phillip; Boyer, Jean D

    2004-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic in the developing world represents a major global crisis and an effective vaccine is imperative. However, many parasites are common in developing countries and can result in a state of chronic immune activation that is polarized towards a Th2 profile and which can potentially impair responses to vaccines or other infectious challenges. In this study we demonstrate that experimental Leishmania major infection of BALB/c mice inhibits responses to a DNA-based HIV-1 gag vaccine. L. major infection in BALB/c results in a polarized Th2 immune response. In this study naïve BALB/c mice immunized with the HIV-1 gag DNA vaccine mounted a cellular immune response against the vaccine antigen, HIV-1 gag. CD8+ T lymphocytes were able to respond in vitro to HIV-1 gag stimulation and secrete interferon (IFN)-gamma. However, L. major-infected, vaccinated BALB/c mice had a significantly reduced number of IFN-gamma-producing CD8+ T cells following in vitro stimulation with gag antigen. These data suggest that parasitic infection, which results in a Th2 profile, reduces the efficacy of DNA vaccines that are designed to induce antiviral CD8+ T cell responses. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Acid-base balance in sheep with experimentally induced acute ruminal lactic acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Sabes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate the changes in the acid-base balance of sheep with experimentally induced acute ruminal lactic acidosis (ARA. Ten ewes orally received 15 grams of sucrose per kilogram of body mass. Arterial blood samples for blood gas analysis were obtained at the following intervals: before the induction of ARA (control, and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 hours after sucrose administration. Urine samples for pH measurement were obtained at the following times: -15 days, -7 days, and immediately before sucrose administration, then at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 hours. Thereafter, both blood and urine samples were obtained on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th following weeks. From 4 hours after the induction, elevation of the pH, bicarbonate and base excess on the arterial blood was observed. After 12 hours, the animals showed a decrease of these parameters, as well as urine acidification, which are symptomatic of metabolic acidosis. Within 28 hours, all parameters were normalized except the base excess, which only returned to normal after 72 hours. Despite the occurrence of acidemia, there was no need for medication and no animals died.

  16. Comparison of Experimental Diabetic Periodontitis Induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis in Mice

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    Qi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is one of the severe complications in diabetic patients and gingival epithelium plays an initial role on the onset and progression of this disease. However the potential mechanism is yet sufficiently understood. Meanwhile, the research on the correlational experimental animal models was also insufficient. Here, we established periodontitis with type 2 diabetes in db/db and Tallyho/JngJ (TH mice and periodontitis with type 1 diabetes in streptozotocin induced diabetes C57BL/6J (STZ-C57 mice by oral infection of periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis W50. We demonstrated that periodontal infected mice with high blood glucose levels showed dramatically more alveolar bone loss than their counterparts, in which infected db/db mice exhibited the most bone defects. No contrary impact could be observed between this periodontal infection and onset and severity of diabetes. The expressions of PTPN2 were inhibited whereas the expression of JAK1, STAT1, and STAT3 increased dramatically in gingival epithelia and the serum TNF-α also significantly increased in the mice with diabetic periodontitis. Our results indicated that the variations of inflammation-related protein expressions in gingival epithelia might lead to the phenotype differences in the mice with diabetic periodontitis.

  17. Numerical and experimental study of the thermal stress of silicon induced by a millisecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xi; Qin Yuan; Wang Bin; Zhang Liang; Shen Zhonghua; Lu Jian; Ni Xiaowu

    2011-07-20

    A spatial axisymmetric finite element model of single-crystal silicon irradiated by a 1064 nm millisecond laser is used to investigate the thermal stress damage induced by a millisecond laser. The transient temperature field and the thermal stress field for 2 ms laser irradiation with a laser fluence of 254 J/cm{sup 2} are obtained. The numerical simulation results indicate that the hoop stresses along the r axis on the front surface are compressive stress within the laser spot and convert to tensile stress outside the laser spot, while the radial stresses along the r axis on the front surface and on the z axis are compressive stress. The temperature of the irradiated center is the highest temperature obtained, yet the stress is not always highest during laser irradiation. At the end of the laser irradiation, the maximal hoop stress is located at r=0.5 mm and the maximal radial stress is located at r=0.76 mm. The temperature measurement experiments are performed by IR pyrometer. The numerical result of the temperature field is consistent with the experimental result. The damage morphologies of silicon under the action of a 254 J/cm{sup 2} laser are inspected by optical microscope. The cracks are observed initiating at r=0.5 mm and extending along the radial direction.

  18. Collision induced dissociation study of azobenzene and its derivatives: computational and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Mohammadreza; Compton, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Experimental and computational investigation have been performed in order to study the bond dissociation energy of azobenzene and its derivatives using collision induced dissociation method as well as other energy and structural characteristics. The results have been verified by comparing with results obtained from computational quantum chemistry. We used different density functional methods as well as the Möller-Plesset perturbation theory and the coupled cluster methods to explore geometric, electronic and the spectral properties of the sample molecules. Geometries were calculated and optimized using the 6-311 + + G(2d,2p) basis set and the B3LYP level of theory and these optimized structures have been subjected to the frequency calculations to obtain thermochemical properties by means of different density functional, Möller-Plesset, and coupled cluster theories to obtain a high accuracy estimation of the bond dissociation energy value. The results from experiments and the results obtained from computational thermochemistry are in close agreement. Physics and Astronomy Department

  19. Mitigation of DMBA-induced mammary carcinoma in experimental rats by antiangiogenic property of Kalpaamruthaa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathish, Sivaprakasam; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2011-06-01

    Extra cellular matrix (ECM) and basement membrane (BM) are important layers that regulate cell structure, cell migration, and cellular proliferation. Degradation of both ECM and BM mediated by proteases favors the tumor invasion and promotes angiogenesis. Female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180 ± 10 g were categorized into 6 groups. Group-1 animals served as vehicle control. Group-2 to Group-4 animals were administered with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (25 mg/rat dissolved in olive oil, orally) on day 1 of experimental period to induce mammary carcinoma. (After 90 days, mammary carcinoma was confirmed by histopathological examination). Group-3 and Group-4 rats were subsequently treated with Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract (SA) and Kalpaamruthaa (KA), respectively. Group-5 and Group-6 animals served as drug control for SA and KA, respectively. Pro-angiogenic factors like proteases, cyclooxygenase-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor were elevated in tumor-bearing animals and decreased in SA- and KA-supplemented rats. Increased levels of these angiogenic factors in tumor-bearing rats indicate the progression of mammary tumor. The decreased levels of these angiogenic in SA- and KA-treated rats may be due to the ameliorative effect of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, tannins, and other compounds present in the drug.

  20. An Experimental Study of Roughness-Induced Instabilities in a Supersonic Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegerise, Michael A.; King, Rudolph A.; Choudhari, Meelan; Li, Fei; Norris, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Progress on an experimental study of laminar-to-turbulent transition induced by an isolated roughness element in a supersonic laminar boundary layer is reported in this paper. Here, the primary focus is on the effects of roughness planform shape on the instability and transition characteristics. Four different roughness planform shapes were considered (a diamond, a circle, a right triangle, and a 45 degree fence) and the height and width of each one was held fixed so that a consistent frontal area was presented to the oncoming boundary layer. The nominal roughness Reynolds number was 462 and the ratio of the roughness height to the boundary layer thickness was 0.48. Detailed flow- field surveys in the wake of each geometry were performed via hot-wire anemometry. High- and low-speed streaks were observed in the wake of each roughness geometry, and the modified mean flow associated with these streak structures was found to support a single dominant convective instability mode. For the symmetric planform shapes - the diamond and circular planforms - the instability characteristics (mode shapes, growth rates, and frequencies) were found to be similar. For the asymmetric planform shapes - the right-triangle and 45 degree fence planforms - the mode shapes were asymmetrically distributed about the roughness-wake centerline. The instability growth rates for the asymmetric planforms were lower than those for the symmetric planforms and therefore, transition onset was delayed relative to the symmetric planforms.

  1. Experimental Comparison of Photothermal Conversion Efficiency of Gold Nanotriangle and Nanorod in Laser Induced Thermal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-26

    An experimental comparison of the photothermal conversion efficiency (PCE) for gold nanotriangles (GNTs) and nanorods (GNRs) was carried out in the present work. The discrete dipole approximation method was applied to identify the spectral characteristic of GNTs and GNRs with different aspect ratios. On this basis, the PCE of GNTs and GNRs in photothermal therapy were compared theoretically. Afterwards, an in vitro experiment was adopted to investigate the thermal effect of porcine muscle induced by laser irradiation, with and without injected GNTs and GNRs. The influences of laser total power, nanoparticle concentration, and nanoparticle type were investigated. It was found that for the commonly-used wavelengths for photothermal therapy, the PCE of GNTs is higher than that of the GNRs. Furthermore, for GNRs loaded in tissue in vitro, high laser power and high concentration of nanoparticles leads to the degeneration and even carbonization of tissue. However, for the GNTs with the same situation (laser power, nanoparticle volume concentration, and heating time), it could lead to the tissue's evaporation instead of carbonization.

  2. Experimental studies of the deuteron-induced activation cross-sections on natAg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, M S; Baba, M; Hagiwara, M; Tarkanyi, F; Ditroi, F; Takacs, S; Hermanne, A

    2006-09-01

    Excitation functions were measured for the (nat)Ag(d,x)(105,106m,110m)Ag, (nat)Ag(d,x)(107,109)Cd and (27)Al(d,x)(24)Na reactions by the stacked-foil activation technique and high-resolution gamma-spectroscopy over the energy range 0.44-40 MeV. The thick target integral yields were deduced using the measured cross-sections. No experimental data on the (nat)Ag+d process are available in the literature above 27 MeV. The nuclides (105)Ag, (106m)Ag and (109)Cd produced with deuteron induced activation of natural silver have suitable yields and decay characteristics important for thin layer activation (TLA) analysis. The cross-section for the production of (107)Cd and (109)Cd is significantly large. Therefore, the Ag+d process can be an efficient route for the production of isotope with a medium energy accelerator. The results of the model calculation using the TALYS code are not consistent with the present data. A large shift in the incident energy is found in TALYS calculations.

  3. Serum Neuroinflammatory Disease-Induced Central Nervous System Proteins Predict Clinical Onset of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Raphael

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need in multiple sclerosis (MS patients to develop biomarkers and laboratory tests to improve early diagnosis, predict clinical relapses, and optimize treatment responses. In healthy individuals, the transport of proteins across the blood–brain barrier (BBB is tightly regulated, whereas, in MS, central nervous system (CNS inflammation results in damage to neuronal tissues, disruption of BBB integrity, and potential release of neuroinflammatory disease-induced CNS proteins (NDICPs into CSF and serum. Therefore, changes in serum NDICP abundance could serve as biomarkers of MS. Here, we sought to determine if changes in serum NDICPs are detectable prior to clinical onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE and, therefore, enable prediction of disease onset. Importantly, we show in longitudinal serum specimens from individual mice with EAE that pre-onset expression waves of synapsin-2, glutamine synthetase, enolase-2, and synaptotagmin-1 enable the prediction of clinical disease with high sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, we observed differences in serum NDICPs between active and passive immunization in EAE, suggesting hitherto not appreciated differences for disease induction mechanisms. Our studies provide the first evidence for enabling the prediction of clinical disease using serum NDICPs. The results provide proof-of-concept for the development of high-confidence serum NDICP expression waves and protein biomarker candidates for MS.

  4. Induced Cannibalism in Experimental Populations of the Forensic Indicator Chrysomya putoria Wiedemann (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botteon, V W; Fernandes, F S; Godoy, W A C

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed the behavior of third-instars of Chrysomya putoria as potential cannibals in experimental populations. Cannibalism rates were evaluated in three settings observed for 3, 6, 9, and 24 h, placing injured and uninjured larvae of C. putoria together. Our data heavily support that C. putoria larvae behave as cannibals when induced by a wound in another larva, and also after starving for 24 h. The probability of cannibalism increased as a function of time, both in no-choice and in choice experiments evidencing that time is a determining factor for cannibalism induction in C. putoria. However, the treatment combining injured with uninjured larvae showed the highest probability of cannibalism. These results suggest that C. putoria larvae may cannibalize under scarcity of food over long time or the presence of injured larvae. This study is useful to understand the behavior of C. putoria feeding on ephemeral substrates such as carrion or corpses and brings relevant and significant contribution to population ecology of blowflies and also forensic entomology.

  5. Immunologic responses against hydrolyzed soy protein in dogs with experimentally induced soy hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigdemont, Anna; Brazís, Pilar; Serra, Montserrat; Fondati, Alessandra

    2006-03-01

    To assess whether dogs with experimentally induced type I hypersensitivity against soy protein would respond to soy hydrolysate and develop cutaneous or gastrointestinal tract reactions after intradermal and oral challenge exposure. 12 naïve Beagle pups (9 sensitized and 3 control dogs). 9 dogs were sensitized against soy protein by administration of allergens during a 90-day period. After the sensitization period, serum concentrations of soy-specific IgE were determined and an intradermal test was performed to confirm the dogs were sensitized against soy protein. An intradermal challenge test and an oral challenge test with native and hydrolyzed soy protein were conducted on 6 sensitized and 2 control dogs. High serum concentrations of soy-specific IgE and positive results for the intradermal test were observed for the 9 sensitized dogs after completion of the sesitization process. Sensitized dogs challenge exposed with hydrolyzed soy protein had a reduced inflammatory response after intradermal injection and no clinical response after an oral challenge exposure, compared with responses after intradermal and oral challenge exposure with native soy protein. Soy-sensitized dogs did not respond to oral administration of hydrolyzed soy protein. Thus, hydrolyzed soy protein may be useful in diets formulated for the management of dogs with adverse reactions to food.

  6. Role of Nigella sativa and Its Constituent Thymoquinone on Chemotherapy-Induced Nephrotoxicity: Evidences from Experimental Animal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cascella

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most chemotherapeutic drugs are known to cause nephrotoxicity. Therefore, new strategies have been considered to prevent chemotherapy-induced nephrotoxicity. It is of note that Nigella sativa (NS, or its isolated compound Thymoquinone (TQ, has a potential role in combating chemotherapy-induced nephrotoxicity. AIM: To analyze and report the outcome of experimental animal studies on the protective effects of NS/TQ on chemotherapy-associated kidney complications. Design: Standard systematic review and narrative synthesis. Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE databases were searched for relevant articles published up to March 2017. Additionally, a manual search was performed. Criteria for a study’s inclusion were: conducted in animals, systematic reviews and meta-analysis, containing data on nephroprotective effects of NS/TQ compared to a placebo or other substance. All strains and genders were included. Results: The database search yielded 71 studies, of which 12 (cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity 8; methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity 1; doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity 2; ifosfamide-induced nephrotoxicity 1 were included in this review. Conclusions: Experimental animal studies showed the protective effect of NS, or TQ, on chemotherapy-induced nephrotoxicity. These effects are caused by decreasing lipid peroxidation and increasing activity of antioxidant enzymes in renal tissue of chemotherapy-treated animals.

  7. Intranasal post-cardiac arrest treatment with orexin-A facilitates arousal from coma and ameliorates neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Hiren R; Wang, Qihong; Gd, Sahithi; Sherman, David; Greenwald, Elliot; Savonenko, Alena V; Geocadin, Romergryko G; Thakor, Nitish V

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac arrest (CA) entails significant risks of coma resulting in poor neurological and behavioral outcomes after resuscitation. Significant subsequent morbidity and mortality in post-CA patients are largely due to the cerebral and cardiac dysfunction that accompanies prolonged whole-body ischemia post-CA syndrome (PCAS). PCAS results in strong inflammatory responses including neuroinflammation response leading to poor outcome. Currently, there are no proven neuroprotective therapies to improve post-CA outcomes apart from therapeutic hypothermia. Furthermore, there are no acceptable approaches to promote cortical or cognitive arousal following successful return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Hypothalamic orexinergic pathway is responsible for arousal and it is negatively affected by neuroinflammation. However, whether activation of the orexinergic pathway can curtail neuroinflammation is unknown. We hypothesize that targeting the orexinergic pathway via intranasal orexin-A (ORXA) treatment will enhance arousal from coma and decrease the production of proinflammatory cytokines resulting in improved functional outcome after resuscitation. We used a highly validated CA rat model to determine the effects of intranasal ORXA treatment 30-minute post resuscitation. At 4hrs post-CA, the mRNA levels of proinflammatory markers (IL1β, iNOS, TNF-α, GFAP, CD11b) and orexin receptors (ORX1R and ORX2R) were examined in different brain regions. CA dramatically increased proinflammatory markers in all brain regions particularly in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. Post-CA intranasal ORXA treatment significantly ameliorated the CA-induced neuroinflammatory markers in the hypothalamus. ORXA administration increased production of orexin receptors (ORX1R and ORX2R) particularly in hypothalamus. In addition, ORXA also resulted in early arousal as measured by quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG) markers, and recovery of the associated behavioral neurologic

  8. Efficacy evaluation of cerebral perfusion pressure in complex treatment of eclamptic coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podolsky Yu.S.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study influence of cerebral perfusion pressure on the effectiveness of treatment of maternity patient in eclamptic coma. Fluctuation of average arterial pressure defines dynamics of the cerebral perfusion pressure. Active hypotensive therapy leads to reduction of cerebral blood flow, breaking perfusion balance of brain. The principal objective of treatment in eclamptic coma is to restore volemic indices by using stabizol, decrease of average arterial pressure (10-15% from the initial one, which is provided by magnesium sulfate and nimodipine. Providing the cerebral perfusion pressure above the level of 75 mm for maternity patient in eclamptic coma allowed to reduce lethality from 15,7 to 4,8%

  9. Justified use of painful stimuli in the coma examination: a neurologic and ethical rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael A; Rushton, Cynda H

    2009-01-01

    Much has been written about the neurologic basis and rationale for the coma examination, but little has been written about its ethical framework. In contrast to the neurologic framework, the ethical basis for the use of painful stimuli in the coma examination is context dependent and value driven, aimed at identifying the ethical justification for healthcare professionals to cause pain for patients in ways that would not be tolerated or justifiable in any other setting. Basic ethical principles can be used to justify the use of painful stimuli to examine patients, but they also impose limits on their use. To clarify the ethical issues that apply to the coma examination, we review its neurologic and ethical bases and propose a practical test by which to justify the use of painful stimuli.

  10. Dark energy and the structure of the Coma cluster of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Byrd, G. G.; Merafina, M.

    2013-05-01

    Context. We consider the Coma cluster of galaxies as a gravitationally bound physical system embedded in the perfectly uniform static dark energy background as implied by ΛCDM cosmology. Aims: We ask if the density of dark energy is high enough to affect the structure of a large and rich cluster of galaxies. Methods: We base our work on recent observational data on the Coma cluster, and apply our theory of local dynamical effects of dark energy, including the zero-gravity radius RZG of the local force field as the key parameter. Results: 1) Three masses are defined that characterize the structure of a regular cluster: the matter mass MM, the dark-energy effective mass MDE (antigravity affects the structure of the Coma cluster strongly at large radii R ≳ 14 Mpc and should be considered when its total mass is derived.

  11. Effects of experimentally induced pain and fear of pain on trunk coordination and back muscle activity during walking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamoth, C.J.C.; Daffertshofer, A.; Meijer, O.G.; Moseley, G.; Wuisman, P.I.J.M.; Beek, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of experimentally induced pain and fear of pain on trunk coordination and erector spinae EMG activity during gait. DESIGN: In 12 healthy subjects, hypertonic saline (acute pain) and isotonic saline (fear of pain) were injected into erector spinae muscle, and

  12. Transcriptional profiling of the bovine hepatic response to experimentally induced E. coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede; Buitenhuis, Bart; Røntved, Christine Maria

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian liver works to keep the body in a state of homeostasis and plays an important role in systemic acute phase response to infections. In this study we investigated the bovine hepatic acute phase response at the gene transcription level in dairy cows with experimentally E. coli-induced ...

  13. The inter-rater reliability and prognostic value of coma scales in Nepali children with acute encephalitis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Stephen; Rayamajhi, Ajit; Bonnett, Laura J; Solomon, Tom; Kneen, Rachel; Griffiths, Michael J

    2017-11-16

    Background Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a common cause of coma in Nepali children. The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) is used to assess the level of coma in these patients and predict outcome. Alternative coma scales may have better inter-rater reliability and prognostic value in encephalitis in Nepali children, but this has not been studied. The Adelaide coma scale (ACS), Blantyre coma scale (BCS) and the Alert, Verbal, Pain, Unresponsive scale (AVPU) are alternatives to the GCS which can be used. Methods Children aged 1-14 years who presented to Kanti Children's Hospital, Kathmandu with AES between September 2010 and November 2011 were recruited. All four coma scales (GCS, ACS, BCS and AVPU) were applied on admission, 48 h later and on discharge. Inter-rater reliability (unweighted kappa) was measured for each. Correlation and agreement between total coma score and outcome (Liverpool outcome score) was measured by Spearman's rank and Bland-Altman plot. The prognostic value of coma scales alone and in combination with physiological variables was investigated in a subgroup (n = 22). A multivariable logistic regression model was fitted by backward stepwise. Results Fifty children were recruited. Inter-rater reliability using the variables scales was fair to moderate. However, the scales poorly predicted clinical outcome. Combining the scales with physiological parameters such as systolic blood pressure improved outcome prediction. Conclusion This is the first study to compare four coma scales in Nepali children with AES. The scales exhibited fair to moderate inter-rater reliability. However, the study is inadequately powered to answer the question on the relationship between coma scales and outcome. Further larger studies are required.

  14. Outcome in patients with bacterial meningitis presenting with a minimal Glasgow Coma Scale score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marjolein J.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In bacterial meningitis, a decreased level of consciousness is predictive for unfavorable outcome, but the clinical features and outcome in patients presenting with a minimal score on the Glasgow Coma Scale are unknown. Methods: We assessed the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcome of patients with bacterial meningitis presenting with a minimal score on the Glasgow Coma Scale from a nationwide cohort study of adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis in the Netherlands from 2006 to 2012. Results: Thirty of 1,083 patients (3%) presented with a score of 3 on the Glasgow Coma Scale. In 22 of 30 patients (73%), the minimal Glasgow Coma Scale score could be explained by use of sedative medication or complications resulting from meningitis such as seizures, cerebral edema, and hydrocephalus. Systemic (86%) and neurologic (47%) complications occurred frequently, leading to a high proportion of patients with unfavorable outcome (77%). However, 12 of 30 patients (40%) survived and 7 patients (23%) had a good functional outcome, defined as a score of 5 on the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Patients presenting with a minimal Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission and bilaterally absent pupillary light responses, bilaterally absent corneal reflexes, or signs of septic shock on admission all died. Conclusions: Patients with community-acquired bacterial meningitis rarely present with a minimal score on the Glasgow Coma Scale, but this condition is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. However, 1 out of 5 of these severely ill patients will make a full recovery, stressing the continued need for aggressive supportive care in these patients. PMID:25340065

  15. Causes of medical coma in adult patients at the University College Hospital, Ibadan Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiako, O R; Oparah, S; Ogunniyi, A

    2011-03-01

    Diseases of medical origin leading to coma account for 3-15% of emergency hospital admissions in developed countries. There is dearth of data on causes of medical coma in adults in Nigeria in particular and Africa in general. This study is to determine the causes of coma in adult patients admitted at the medical emergency unit and wards of the University College Hospital (UCH) Ibadan. A prospective study of two hundred consecutive adult unconscious patients seen at the medical emergency unit of UCH, Ibadan, from August 2004 to March 2005, was undertaken using a structured clinical history and physical examination protocol, and results of relevant diagnostic investigations, including post-mortem. Medical causes of coma constituted 10% of all emergencies and 3% of total hospital admissions respectively during the 8-month period. Sixty six percent were males. The age group 20-59 years were affected most (76.5%). Four commonest causes were: Acute stroke 33%), diabetic emergencies (12.5%), uraemic encephalopathy and meningitides (11% each). Four least causes were cerebral malaria (1.0%), hypertensive encephalopathy, alcohol and gamalline poisoning (0.5% each). Four common predisposing factors which also had significant male predominance were systemic hypertension (38.5%), diabetes mellitus (14%), alcohol and substance abuse (12.5%), and HIV/AIDS (11.5%). Hypertensive stroke and diabetic coma constituted the commonest medical causes of coma. Thus preventive measures such as public health enlightenment campaigns for lifestyle modifications, routine blood pressure and glucose examinations are necessary to avert their disastrous consequences.

  16. Prognosis of patients in coma after acute subdural hematoma due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torné, Ramon; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana; Romero-Chala, Fabián; Arikan, Fuat; Vilalta, Jordi; Sahuquillo, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Acute subdural hematomas (aSDH) secondary to intracranial aneurysm rupture are rare. Most patients present with coma and their functional prognosis has been classically considered to be very poor. Previous studies mixed good-grade and poor-grade patients and reported variable outcomes. We reviewed our experience by focusing on patients in coma only and hypothesized that aSDH might worsen initial mortality but not long-term functional outcome. Between 2005 and 2013, 440 subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients were admitted to our center. Nineteen (4.3%) were found to have an associated aSDH and 13 (2.9%) of these presented with coma. Their prospectively collected clinical and outcome data were reviewed and compared with that of 104 SAH patients without aSDH who presented with coma during the same period. Median aSDH thickness was 10mm. Four patients presented with an associated aneurysmal cortical laceration and only one had good recovery. Overall, we observed good long-term outcomes in both SAH patients in coma with aSDH and those without aSDH (38.5% versus 26.4%). Associated aSDH does not appear to indicate a poorer long-term functional prognosis in SAH patients presenting with coma. Anisocoria and brain herniation are observed in patients with aSDH thicknesses that are smaller than those observed in trauma patients. Despite a high initial mortality, early surgery to remove the aSDH results in a good outcome in over 60% of survivors. Aneurysmal cortical laceration appears to be an independent entity which shows a poorer prognosis than other types of aneurysmal aSDH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-lasting functional disabilities in patients who recover from coma after cardiac operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rosendo A; Nair, Shona; Bussière, Miguel; Nathan, Howard J

    2013-03-01

    Uncertainty regarding the long-term functional outcome of patients who awaken from coma after cardiac operations is difficult for families and physicians and may delay rehabilitation. We studied the long-term functional status of these patients to determine if duration of coma predicted outcome. We followed 71 patients who underwent cardiac operations; recovered their ability to respond to verbal commands after coma associated with postoperative stroke, encephalopathy, and/or seizures; and were discharged from the hospital. The Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) was used to assess functional disability 2 to 4 years after discharge. Outcomes were classified as favorable (GOSE scores 7 and 8) and unfavorable (GOSE scores 1-6). Of 71 patients identified, 39 were interviewed, 15 died, 1 refused to be interviewed, and 16 were lost to follow-up. Of the 54 patients with completed GOSE evaluations, only 15 (28%) had favorable outcomes. Among patients with unfavorable outcomes, 15 (28%) died, 14 (26%) survived with moderate disabilities, and 10 (18%) had severe disabilities. Factors associated with unfavorable outcomes were increases in duration of coma (p = 0.007), time in intensive care (p = 0.006), length of hospitalization (p = 0.004), and postoperative serum creatine kinase levels (p = 0.006). Only duration of coma was an independent predictor of unfavorable outcome (odds ratio [OR], 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.008-1.537; p = 0.042). Patients with durations of coma greater than 4 days were more likely to have unfavorable outcomes (OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.3-21.3; p = 0.02). Two thirds of comatose patients who survived to discharge after cardiac operations had unfavorable long-term functional outcomes. A longer duration of unconsciousness is a predictor of unfavorable outcome. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid on extracellular matrix components in experimentally induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surapaneni Krishna Mohan

    2015-08-01

    Results:The experimental NASH rats treated with pioglitazone showed significant decrease in the levels of hyaluronic acid and significant increase in adiponectin levels when compared to experimentally induced NASH group, but did not show any effect on the levels of leptin. Contrary to these two drugs, viz. pioglitazone and hydroxy citric acid, the group treated with quercetin showedsignificant decrease in the levels of hyaluronic acid and leptin and significant decrease in adiponectin levels compared with that of experimentally induced NASH NASH group, offering maximum protection against NASH. Conclusion: Considering our findings, it could be concluded that quercetin may offer maximum protection against NASH by significantly increasing the levels of adiponectin, when compared to pioglitazone and hydroxy citric acid.

  19. Therapeutic options to enhance coma arousal after traumatic brain injury: state of the art of current treatments to improve coma recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Giulia

    2014-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability. Optimizing the recovery from coma is a priority in seeking to improve patients' functional outcomes. Standards of care have not been established: pharmacological interventions, right median nerve and sensory stimulation, dorsal column stimulation (DCS), deep brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and cell transplantation have all been utilized with contrasting results. The aim of this review is to clarify the indications for the various techniques and to guide the clinical practice towards an earlier coma arousal. A systematic bibliographic search was undertaken using the principal search engines (Pubmed, Embase, Ovid and Cochrane databases) to locate the most pertinent studies. Traumatic injury is a highly individualized process, and subsequent impairments are dependent on multiple factors: this heterogeneity influences and determines therapeutic responses to the various interventions.

  20. Acidosis y coma en el Diabético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Jácome Roca

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Definición. La cetoacidosis diabética (CADy la alcohólica, la acidosis láctica y el síndrome hiperosmolar hiperglucémico (SHH a menudo se sobreponen en grado considerable, por lo que los revisaremos en conjunto. Definiremos la cetoacidosLs diabética como la descompensación grave de la diabetes, la emergencia endocrina más común caracterizada por un desequilibrio ácido-básico, de líquidos y electrolitos, asociado a una diuresis osmótica y catabolismo de las grasas por hiperglucemia insulino- deficiente.

    El síndrome hiperosmolar hiperglucémico es de comienzo lento y se caracteriza por trastorno del estado de conciencia, deshidratación profunda e hiperglucemia sin cetoacidosis. La cetoacidosLs alcohólica es un desequilibrio ácido-básico con deshidratación en alcohólicos, mujeres por lo común, no necesariamente diabéticas, aunque puede haber moderada hiperglucemia. La acidos Ls láctica puede ser complicación de un estado de shock y/o deshidratación severa, o de ingesta abundante de alcohol, lo que también puede llevar a hiperuricemia y gota.

    Signos y síntomas. Malestar general, astenia, anorexia, náusea, vómito, dolor abdominal con somnolencia, estupor y/o coma, pueden ser manifestaciones de cualquiera de las entidades arriba mencionadas.

    Sin embargo, aunque tanto en CADcomo en SHH hay signos de deshidratación (sequedad de mucosa con piel seca sin turgencia, ojos hundidos, en el primero hay náusea, vómito y respiración acidótica (rápida y profunda, lo que generalmente falta en el segundo. ElCADes de niños y adultos jóvenes o maduros, con función cardio-renal aceptable mientras que el SHHes más de ancianos, a menudo hipertensos con fallas renal o cardíaca, hemiparéticos, que pueden consultar por convulsiones focales. No siempre el paciente es reconocido como diabético, sobre todo en SHH.

    Lapoliuria y la polidipsia caracterizan a la acidosis diabética y al s

  1. Coma mixedematoso e insuficiencia renal: Reporte de casos y revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Ticse

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El coma mixedematoso es una rara complicación del hipotiroidismo y está asociado a trastornos en la reabsorción de electrolitos, disminución del filtrado glomerular y flujo plasmático renal. Se sabe que estas alteraciones pueden ser reversibles con la terapia de reemplazo hormonal con levotiroxina. Se presentan tres pacientes con coma mixedematoso que presentaron insuficiencia renal, quienes fallecieron a pesar del tratamiento. Se realiza una revisión de la literatura. (Rev Med Hered 2011;22:82-85.

  2. Evaluation of differentiated neurotherapy programs for a patient after severe TBI and long term coma using event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachalska, Maria; Łukowicz, Małgorzata; Kropotov, Juri D; Herman-Sucharska, Izabela; Talar, Jan

    2011-10-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of differentiated rehabilitation programs for a patient with frontal syndrome after severe TBI and long-term coma. We hypothesized that there would be a small response to relative beta training, and a good response to rTMS, applied to regulate the dynamics of brain function. M. L-S, age 26, suffered from anosognosia, executive dysfunction, and behavioral changes, after a skiing accident and prolonged coma, rendering him unable to function independently in many situations of everyday life. Only slight progress was made after traditional rehabilitation. The patient took part in 20 sessions of relative beta training (program A) and later in 20 sessions of rTMS (program B); both programs were combined with behavioral training. We used standardized neuropsychological testing, as well as ERPs before the experiment, after the completion of program A, and again after the completion of program B. As hypothesized, patient M.L-S showed small improvements in executive dysfunction and behavioral disorders after the conclusion of program A, and major improvement after program B. Similarly, in physiological changes the patient showed small improvement after relative beta training and a significant improvement of the P300 NOGO component after the rTMS program. The rTMS program produced larger physiological and behavioral changes than did relative beta training. A combination of different neurotherapeutical approaches (such as neurofeedback, rTMS, tDCS) can be suggested for similar severe cases of TBI. ERPs can be used to assess functional brain changes induced by neurotherapeutical programs.

  3. Efficacy of Methylene Blue in an Experimental Model of Calcium Channel Blocker Induced Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, David H.; Donovan, Sean; Nelson, Lewis S.; Bania, Theodore C.; Hoffman, Robert S.; Chu, Jason

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Calcium channel blocker poisonings account for a substantial number of reported deaths from cardiovascular drugs. While supportive care is the mainstay of treatment, experimental therapies such as high dose insulin-euglycemia and lipid emulsion have been studied in animal models and used in humans. In the most severe cases even aggressive care is inadequate and deaths occur. In both experimental models and clinical cases of vasodilatory shock, methylene blue improves hemodynamic measures. Methylene blue acts as both a nitric oxide scavenger and inhibits guanylate cyclase that is responsible for the production of cGMP. Excessive cGMP production is associated with refractory vasodilatory shock in sepsis and anaphylaxis. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of methylene blue in an animal model of amlodipine-induced shock. METHODS Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized, ventilated and instrumented for continuous blood pressure and heart rate monitoring. The dose of amlodipine that produced death within 60 minutes was 17 mg/kg/hour (LD50). Rats were divided into 2 groups: amlodipine followed by methylene blue or amlodipine followed by normal saline (NS) with 15 rats in each group. Rats received methylene blue at 2 mg/kg over 5 mins or an equivalent amount of NS in three intervals from the start of the protocol: Minute 5, 30, and 60. The animals were observed for a total of 2 hours after the start of the protocol. Mortality risk and survival time were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test and Kaplan Meier survival analysis with the log rank test. RESULTS Overall, 1/15 (7%) rats in the saline-treated group survived to 120 minutes compared with 5/15 (33%) rats in the methylene blue-treated group (difference −26%, 95% CI –54%, 0.3%). The median survival time for the NS group was 42 min (95% CI, 28.1,55.9) and the methylene blue group was 109 min (95% CI, 93.9,124.1). Heart rate and MAP differences between groups were analyzed until 60 minutes

  4. CT and MRI of experimentally induced mesenteric ischemia in a porcine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, H.M.; Seggewib, C.; Weghaus, P.; Kamp, M.; Guenther, R.W. [Univ. of Technology, Aachen (Germany)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to assess the value of CT and MRI for the detection of bowel wall changes in experimentally induced mesenteric ischemia. In 18 female pigs. a percutaneous embolization of the superior mesenteric artery was performed with buthyl-2-cyanoacrylate and Lipoidal (1:1) (experimental group). In six animals, only diagnostic imaging and histologic evaluation were performed (control group). CT was carried out 3, 6, and 12 h after occlusion. Incremental CT (1 s scan time, 5 mm slice thickness, 7 mm increment, 120 kV/290 mAs) and spiral CT (slice thickness 5 mm, pitch 1.5, 120 kV/165 mA) were performed pre and post contrast injection (Somatom Plus/ Siemens). Serial CT was carried out after intravenous contrast injection (I ml/kg, 2 ml/s). MRI (Magnetom 1.5 T: Siemens) was performed with T1 (pre and post 0.01 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA; Magnevist; Schering. Germany), T2, and proton density images in axial orientation. Slice thickness was 3 mm and slice gap 1 mm. Additionally, a T1-weighted GE sequence was obtained in dynamic technique (before and 30, 60, and 90 s after contrast agent injection) with a slice thickness of 5 mm. Biometrical monitoring included blood pressure, heart frequency, blood cell count, electrolyte status, blood gas analysis, and determination of serum lactate. Image evaluation included morphological analysis and determination of the enhancement pattern. Histological specimens were obtained and analyzed according to the Chiu classification. The histologic workup of the specimen 3, 6, and 12 h after vascular occlusion revealed an average Chiu state 3, 4, and 5. On CT, the bowel wall had a thickness of 4.7 mm on average in the ischemic segments. There was a significant difference from the control group. Free intraperitoneal fluid and intramural gas were seen after 12 h of ischemia in 80%. In ischemic bowel segments, no mural enhancement was seen. Normal segments and the bowel of the control animals showed an enhancement of 34 HU on average.

  5. CT and MRI of experimentally induced mesenteric ischemia in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, H M; Klosterhalfen, B; Kinzel, S; Jansen, A; Seggewiss, C; Weghaus, P; Kamp, M; Töns, C; Günther, R W

    1996-01-01

    Our goal was to assess the value of CT and MRI for the detection of bowel wall changes in experimentally induced mesenteric ischemia. in 18 female pigs, a percutaneous embolization of the superior mesenteric artery was performed with buthyl-2-cyanoacrylate and Lipiodol (1:1) (experimental group). In six animals, only diagnostic imaging and histologic evaluation were performed (control group). CT was carried out 3, 6, and 12 h after occlusion. Incremental CT (1 s scan time, 5 mm slice thickness, 7 mm increment, 120 kV/290 mAs) and spiral CT (slice thickness 5 mm, pitch 1.5, 120 kV/165 mA) were performed pre and post contrast injection (Somatom Plus/Siemens). Serial CT was carried out after intravenous contrast injection (1 ml/kg, 2 ml/s). MRI (Magnetom 1.5 T; Siemens) was performed with T1 (pre and post 0.01 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA; Magnevist; Schering, Germany), T2, and proton density images in axial orientation. Slice thickness was 3 mm and slice gap 1 mm. Additionally, a T1-weighted GE sequence (multislice FLASH 2D) was obtained in dynamic technique (before and 30, 60, and 90 s after contrast agent injection) with a slice thickness of 5 mm. Biometrical monitoring included blood pressure, heart frequency, blood cell count, electrolyte status, blood gas analysis, and determination of serum lactate. Image evaluation included morphological analysis and determination of the enhancement pattern. Histological specimens were obtained and analyzed according to the Chiu classification. The histologic workup of the specimen 3, 6, and 12 h after vascular occlusion revealed an average Chiu state 3, 4, and 5. On CT, the bowel wall had a thickness of 4.7 mm on average in the ischemic segments. There was a significant difference from the control group (average 3 mm). Free intraperitoneal fluid and intramural gas were seen after 12 h of ischemia in 80%. In ischemic bowel segments, no mural enhancement was seen. Normal segments and the bowel of the control animals showed an enhancement of

  6. Decreased vascular endothelial growth factor response to acute hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients with hypoglycemic coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnalich, Francisco; Maldifassi, Maria Constanza; Atienza, Gema; Ciria, Enrique; Quesada, Angustias; Cedillo, José Luis; Renart, Jaime; Codoceo, Rosa; Herruzo, Rafael; Montiel, Carmen

    2012-03-01

    Plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was shown to increase during acute hypoglycemia and could mediate rapid adaptation of the brain. In this study we examined the neuroendocrine response in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in hypoglycemic coma or with acute neuroglycopenic symptoms. We prospectively studied 135 consecutive T2DM patients admitted for severe hypoglycemia during a 2-year period. We collected clinical variables and measured plasma concentrations of VEGF, epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and growth hormone at admission and 30min afterwards. Thirty two patients developed hypoglycemic coma and 103 did not lose consciousness. Median plasma VEGF level of coma patients was 3.1-fold lower at baseline than that of non-coma patients, and even 5.3-fold lower 30min afterwards. Plasma epinephrine concentration was significantly lower just at baseline in coma patients. On the contrary, there were no differences in concentrations of the other hormones. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that VEGF concentration (OR 0.68; CI 0.51-0.95) was a protective factor against the development of coma. VEGF and epinephrine responses to acute hypoglycemia are reduced in T2DM patients who develop hypoglycemic coma. An increased plasma VEGF concentration appeared to be a protective factor against the development of hypoglycemic coma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Entamoeba histolytica calreticulin: an endoplasmic reticulum protein expressed by trophozoites into experimentally induced amoebic liver abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Enrique; de Leon, Maria del Carmen García; Meza, Isaura; Ocadiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; Gariglio, Patricio; Silva-Olivares, Angelica; Galindo-Gómez, Silvia; Shibayama, Mineko; Morán, Patricia; Valadez, Alicia; Limón, Angelica; Rojas, Liliana; Hernández, Eric G; Cerritos, René; Ximenez, Cecilia

    2011-02-01

    Entamoeba histolytica calreticulin (EhCRT) is remarkably immunogenic in humans (90-100% of invasive amoebiasis patients). Nevertheless, the study of calreticulin in this protozoan is still in its early stages. The exact location, biological functions, and its role in pathogenesis are yet to be fully understood. The aim of the present work is to determine the location of EhCRT in virulent trophozoites in vivo and the expression of the Ehcrt gene during the development of experimentally induced amoebic liver abscesses (ALA) in hamsters. Antibodies against recombinant EhCRT were used for the immunolocalization of EhCRT in trophozoites through confocal microscopy; immunohistochemical assays were also performed on tissue sections of ALAs at different times after intrahepatic inoculation. The expression of the Ehcrt gene during the development of ALA was estimated through both in situ RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confocal assays of virulent trophozoites showed a distribution of EhCRT in the cytoplasmic vesicles of different sizes. Apparently, EhCRT is not exported into the hepatic tissue. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated an over-expression of the Ehcrt gene at 30 min after trophozoite inoculation, reaching a peak at 1-2 h; thereafter, the expression fell sharply to its original levels. These results demonstrate for the first time in an in vivo model of ALA, the expression of Ehcrt gene in E. histolytica trophozoites and add evidence that support CRT as a resident protein of the ER in E. histolytica species. The in vivo experiments suggest that CRT may play an important role during the early stages of the host-parasite relationship, when the parasite is adapting to a new environment, although the protein seems to be constitutively synthesized. Moreover, trophozoites apparently do not export EhCRT into the hepatic tissue in ALA.

  8. Ameliorative effect of two Ayurvedic herbs on experimentally induced arsenic toxicity in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Suman; Maji, Chinmoy; Sarkar, Prasanta Kumar; Sarkar, Samar; Chattopadhyay, Abichal; Mandal, Tapan Kumar

    2017-02-02

    Chronic arsenic poisoning due to contaminated subsoil water is a threat to society in West Bengal, India and in Bangladesh. The human being may also be affected by the exposed cattle from the affected area by consuming milk, egg, meat and others. In Ayurveda, several herbs like Haridra (turmeric), Shunthi (dried ginger root) and others are used for the management of arsenic poisoning. The study was conducted to find out the ameliorative effect of turmeric and ginger powder against experimentally induced arsenic toxicity in calves. Twenty four calves were divided into four groups (group I, II, III and IV) having six animals in each group. Animals of group I, II and III were orally administered with sodium arsenite at 1mg/kg body weight for 90 days and in addition group II and group III animals were treated orally with turmeric and ginger powder respectively at 10mg/kg body weight from 46th day onwards. Group IV animals were given food and water without drug and served as control. Arsenic content was estimated in faeces, hair, urine and plasma in every 15 days. Bio-chemical, haematological and anti-oxidant parameters were also assessed. Turmeric and ginger powder significantly (Parsenic levels through increased excretion via faeces and urine. Haemoglobin level, TEC and TLC were decreased in groups I, II and III, however these were improved significantly (Parsenic from the body but also give protection from possible damage caused by arsenic exposure, it may be concluded from the present study that turmeric and ginger can be helpful in the therapy of chronic arsenic toxicity in calves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Alterations of testosterone metabolism in microsomes from rats with experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanjuan; Hu, Nan; Gao, Xuejiao; Yan, Zhixiang; Li, Sai; Jing, Wanghui; Yan, Ru

    2015-05-05

    Down-regulation of some hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) was observed in patients and animals with ulcerative colitis (UC). This study examined changes of CYP450s activities in microsomes of liver (RLMs), intestine (RIMs) and kidney (RRMs) from rats with experimental acute colitis induced by 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7days and those receiving DSS treatment followed by 7-d cessation through measuring 6α-(CYP1A1), 7α-(CYP2A1), 16α-(CYP2C11) and 2β-/6β-(CYP3A2) hydroxytestosterone (OHT) formed from testosterone. Both pro-(IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) and anti-(IL-4, IL-10) inflammatory cytokines were elevated in acute colitis, while the production of the former was enhanced and that of the latter declined by DSS withdrawal. In RLMs, the CYP2A1 activity was significantly increased at DSS stimulation and partially returned to normal level when DSS treatment was terminated. Activity of other CYP450s were decreased by acute colitis and remained after DSS withdrawal. In RRMs, formations of 6α-, 16α- and 2β-OHT significantly declined in acute colitis and DSS termination further potentiated the down-regulation, while 7α-OHT formation was suppressed at DSS stimulation and remained after DSS withdrawal. The formation of 6β-OHT only showed significant decrease after DSS withdrawal. Two metabolites (6α- and 6β-OHT) formed in RIMs and 6β-OHT formation was significantly decreased by DSS stimulation and continued after DSS treatment halted. These findings indicate that the alterations of CYP450s activities vary with organ, CYP isoforms and colitis status, which arouse cautions on efficacy and toxicity of drug therapy during disease progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Epitope-Specific Tolerance Modes Differentially Specify Susceptibility to Proteolipid Protein-Induced Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Immunization with myelin components can elicit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. EAE susceptibility varies between mouse strains, depending on the antigen employed. BL/6 mice are largely resistant to EAE induction with proteolipid protein (PLP, probably a reflection of antigen-specific tolerance. However, the extent and mechanism(s of tolerance to PLP remain unclear. Here, we identified three PLP epitopes in PLP-deficient BL/6 mice. PLP-sufficient mice did not respond against two of these, whereas tolerance was “leaky” for an epitope with weak predicted MHCII binding, and only this epitope was encephalitogenic. In TCR transgenic mice, the “EAE-susceptibility-associated” epitope was “ignored” by specific CD4 T cells, whereas the “resistance-associated” epitope induced clonal deletion and Treg induction in the thymus. Central tolerance was autoimmune regulator dependent and required expression and presentation of PLP by thymic epithelial cells (TECs. TEC-specific ablation of PLP revealed that peripheral tolerance, mediated by dendritic cells through recessive tolerance mechanisms (deletion and anergy, could largely compensate for a lack of central tolerance. However, adoptive EAE was exacerbated in mice lacking PLP in TECs, pointing toward a non-redundant role of the thymus in dominant tolerance to PLP. Our findings reveal multiple layers of tolerance to a central nervous system autoantigen that vary among epitopes and thereby specify disease susceptibility. Understanding how different modalities of tolerance apply to distinct T cell epitopes of a target in autoimmunity has implications for antigen-specific strategies to therapeutically interfere with unwanted immune reactions against self.

  11. The antiulcer effect of Cibotium barometz leaves in rats with experimentally induced acute gastric ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL-Wajeeh NS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nahla Saeed Al-Wajeeh,1 Maryam Hajrezaie,1 Nawal Al-Henhena,1 Sareh Kamran,1 Elham Bagheri,1 Maryam Zahedifard,1 Kamelia Saremi,1 Suzita Mohd Noor,1 Hapipah Mohd Ali,2 Mahmood Ameen Abdulla11Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaAbstract: Cibotium barometz is a pharmaceutical plant customarily used in traditional medicine in Malaysia for the treatment of different diseases, such as gastric ulcer. The gastroprotective effect of C. barometz leaves against ethanol-induced gastric hemorrhagic abrasions in Sprague Dawley rats has been evaluated in terms of medicinal properties. Seven groups of rats (normal control and ulcerated control groups, omeprazole 20 mg/kg, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of C. barometz correspondingly were used in antiulcer experiment and pretreated with 10% Tween 20. After 1 hour, the normal group was orally administered 10% Tween 20, whereas absolute alcohol was fed orally to ulcerated control, omeprazole, and experimental groups. Gastric’s homogenate were assessed for endogenous enzymes activities. Stomachs were examined macroscopically and histologically. Grossly, the data demonstrated a significant decrease in the ulcer area of rats pretreated with plant extract in a dose-dependent manner with respect to the ulcerated group. Homogenates of the gastric tissue exhibited significantly increased endogenous enzymes activities in rats pretreated with C. barometz extract associated with the ulcerated control group. Histology of rats pretreated with C. barometz extract group using hematoxylin and eosin staining exhibited a moderate-to-mild disruption of the surface epithelium with reduction in submucosal edema and leucocyte infiltration in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, it showed heat shock protein70 protein up-expression and BCL2-associated X protein downexpression. These outcomes might be attributed to the

  12. 'Is she alive? Is she dead?' Representations of chronic disorders of consciousness in Douglas Coupland's Girlfriend in a Coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbeck, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Depictions of coma have come to dominate literary and filmic texts over the last half century, a phenomenon coinciding with advancements in medical technology that have led to remarkable increases in the survival rates of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness. Authors of coma fiction are preoccupied with the imagined subjective experience of coma, often creating complex, dream-like worlds from which the protagonist must escape if survival is to be achieved. However, such representations appear to conflict with medical case studies and patient narratives that reveal that most often survivors of coma have no recollection of the coma itself. Providing a close reading of Douglas Coupland's Girlfriend in a Coma (1998) against the context of medical literature and diagnoses, this article examines how the coma patient is represented, often depicting the realities of a prolonged vegetative state, in contrast with other popular representations of coma. It explores how the author develops a work of 'fantastic' fiction (a genre defined by the structuralist critic Tzvetan Todorov), using the condition of coma as a metaphor for a postmodern existential crisis, while simultaneously employing mimetic techniques that raise important medical, ethical and philosophical questions surrounding the ontological status of the comatose patient. It is argued that coma fiction, even in its misrepresentation of the condition, can help us to engage with and interrogate how we think about chronic disorders of consciousness, thereby providing a valuable insight into our attitudes towards illness and mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. A NuSTAR observation of the center of the coma cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gastaldello, Fabio; Wik, Daniel R.; Molendi, S.

    2015-01-01

    . The brightness of the thermal component in this central region does not allow more stringent upper limits on the IC component when compared with non-imaging instruments with much larger fields of view where claims of detections have been made. Future mosaic NuSTAR observations of Coma will further address...

  14. Planck intermediate results. X. Physics of the hot gas in the Coma cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of Planck satellite data on the Coma Cluster observed via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Planck is able, for the first time, to detect SZ emission up to r ~ 3 X R_500. We test previously proposed models for the pressure distribution in clusters against the azimuthally averaged...... fields fall off much more slowly with radius than previously thought....

  15. On-chip COMA cache-coherence protocol for microgrids of microthreaded cores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Jesshope, C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an on-chip COMA cache coherency protocol to support the microthread model of concurrent program composition. The model gives a sound basis for building multi-core computers as it captures concurrency, abstracts communication and identifies resources, such as processor groups

  16. Planck intermediate results : X. Physics of the hot gas in the Coma cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bikmaev, I.; Boehringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bourdin, H.; Brown, M. L.; Brown, S. D.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cardoso, J. -F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Cayon, L.; Chiang, L. -Y; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Churazov, E.; Clements, D. L.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Democles, J.; Desert, F. -X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Doerl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Ensslin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frommert, M.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Genova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Gilfanov, M.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jagemann, T.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Khamitov, I.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J. -M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macias-Perez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Mei, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J. -B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M. -A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Perdereau, O.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Piffaretti, R.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J. -L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rubino-Martin, J. A.; Rudnick, L.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Scott, D.; Smoot, G. F.; Stivoli, F.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Sygnet, J. -F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Tuerler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Welikala, N.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zaroubi, S.; Zonca, A.

    We present an analysis of Planck satellite data on the Coma cluster observed via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Thanks to its great sensitivity, Planck is able, for the first time, to detect SZ emission up to r approximate to 3 x R-500. We test previously proposed spherically symmetric models for the

  17. Planck intermediate results. X. Physics of the hot gas in the Coma cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planck Collaboration, [No Value; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bikmaev, I.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bourdin, H.; Brown, M. L.; Brown, S. D.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Churazov, E.; Clements, D. L.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Démoclès, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frommert, M.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Gilfanov, M.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jagemann, T.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Khamitov, I.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Mei, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Perdereau, O.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Piffaretti, R.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rudnick, L.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Scott, D.; Smoot, G. F.; Stivoli, F.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Welikala, N.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zaroubi, S.; Zonca, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of Planck satellite data on the Coma cluster observed via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Thanks to its great sensitivity, Planck is able, for the first time, to detect SZ emission up to r ≈ 3 × R500. We test previously proposed spherically symmetric models for the pressure

  18. How does information influence hope in family members of traumatic coma patients in intensive care unit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. Dr. M.S.H. Duijnstee; S.T.L. Verhaeghe; F.J. van Zuuren; T. Defloor; M.H.F. Grypdonck

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the interplay between hope and the information provided by health care professionals. BACKGROUND: Earlier research learned that hope is crucial for relatives of traumatic coma patients. Also it has been reported that the need for information is extremely important for relatives of

  19. Accessibility assessment of MOOC platforms in Spanish: UNED COMA, COLMENIA and Miriada X

    OpenAIRE

    Iniesto, Francisco; Rodrigo, Covadonga

    2014-01-01

    This article develops a methodology for the assessment of MOOC courses, focusing on the degree of accessibility of three Spanish MOOC platforms: UNED COMA, COLMENIA and Miriada X. Four different criteria have been\\ud used in this context: automatic tools, disability simulators, testing tools and educational content

  20. Prognosis of non traumatic coma: The role of some socio-economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... 1Department of Medicine, Neurology Unit, University College Hospital, Ibadan, 2Department of Nurse Education, ..... Stroke. 1999;30:2008-12 . 26. Plum F, Levy D. Predicting prognosis in coma, can one improve medical decision? Am J Med 1978:65:224-6. Source of Support: Nil, Conflict of Interest: None ...

  1. Coma compensation of o-ring driven liquid-filled lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dein; Lin, Chih-Wei

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the coma compensation of bi-convex o-ring driven liquid-filled lenses. In a previous study, the o-ring driven liquid-filled lens was composed of a base plate, a glass covered liquid container, an elastic membrane, an o-ring, a spring, and three hand-driven screws. The movement of the ring is used to control the focal length or the focus position. However, the o-ring driven liquid lens exhibited a coma effect when trying to use it to tilt the direction of light. To resolve this problem, in this study the bi-convex o-ring driven liquid-filled lens was constructed of two single o-ring driven liquid-filled lenses, and a coma compensation analysis of this new design is carried out. zemax software was used to construct the model, and the Zernike polynomials were used to estimate the compensation result. According to the simulation results, the following two actions could compensate for the initial coma aberration: (1) the same tilt direction of the front and back lenses; (2) increased the curvature of the back lens.

  2. Clinimetric properties of the Nociception Coma Scale (-Revised): A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Lucas, C.; Maaskant, J.M.; Erp, W.S. van; Lindeboom, R.; Vermeulen, H.

    2017-01-01

    The Nociception Coma Scale is a nociception behaviour observation tool, developed specifically for patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) due to (acquired) brain injury. Over the years, the clinimetric properties of the NCS and its revised version (NCS-R) have been assessed, but no formal

  3. Nurses assessing pain with the Nociception Coma Scale: interrater reliability and validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Peter; Eskes, Anne Maria; Lindeboom, Robert; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Vermeulen, Hester

    2014-01-01

    The Nociception Coma Scale (NCS) is a pain observation tool, developed for patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) due to acquired brain injury (ABI). The aim of this study was to assess the interrater reliability of the NCS and NCS-R among nurses for the assessment of pain in ABI patients

  4. Heart rate variability for assessing comatose patients with different Glasgow Coma Scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Ferrer, Yazmina; Estévez, Mario; Machado, Calixto; Hernández-Cruz, Adrián; Carrick, Frederick R; Leisman, Gerry; Melillo, Robert; Defina, Phillip; Chinchilla, Mauricio; Machado, Yanín

    2013-03-01

    To assess the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in coma by heart rate variability (HRV). Sixteen comatose patients and 22 normal subjects with comparable ages and genders were studied. Patients were classified in two subgroups according to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Time, frequency, and informational HRV domain indices were calculated. A notable reduction of HRV was found in patients. Regarding the time domain indices, the triangular index, and the Delta_RRs, were significantly reduced in the subgroup with GCS=3. Absolute power for the whole frequency spectrum decreased whenever GCS scores were lower. A significant decrement was found for absolute power of the VLF and LF bands in the subgroup of GCS=3, and although it was lower for the HF band in these patients, those changes were not statistically significantly different. The LF/HF ratio and the Shannon´s entropy indices were significantly reduced in the subgroup with GCS=3. Our results are discussed regarding the progressive dysfunction the ANS networks when coma deepens. The HRV procedure is a powerful tool to assess the ANS in comatose patients. HRV is a minimally invasive, low-cost methodology, suitable for assessing the ANS in coma. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Poor outcome prediction by burst suppression ratio in adults with post-anoxic coma without hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qinglin; Su, Yingying; Hussain, Mohammed; Chen, Weibi; Ye, Hong; Gao, Daiquan; Tian, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Burst suppression ratio (BSR) is a quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) parameter. The purpose of our study was to compare the accuracy of BSR when compared to other EEG parameters in predicting poor outcomes in adults who sustained post-anoxic coma while not being subjected to therapeutic hypothermia. EEG was registered and recorded at least once within 7 days of post-anoxic coma onset. Electrodes were placed according to the international 10-20 system, using a 16-channel layout. Each EEG expert scored raw EEG using a grading scale adapted from Young and scored amplitude-integrated electroencephalography tracings, in addition to obtaining qEEG parameters defined as BSR with a defined threshold. Glasgow outcome scales of 1 and 2 at 3 months, determined by two blinded neurologists, were defined as poor outcome. Sixty patients with Glasgow coma scale score of 8 or less after anoxic accident were included. The sensitivity (97.1%), specificity (73.3%), positive predictive value (82.5%), and negative prediction value (95.0%) of BSR in predicting poor outcome were higher than other EEG variables. BSR1 and BSR2 were reliable in predicting death (area under the curve > 0.8, P patients with post-anoxic coma who do not undergo therapeutic hypothermia when compared to other qEEG parameters.

  6. Morfología de la Coma del Cometa Hale - Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Caballero, M.; Coldwell, G.; Cañada, M.; Godoy, G.; Trozzo, C.; Gómez, G.

    Para lograr comprender plenamente los procesos físicos que se desarrollan en los núcleos cometarios y obtener un modelo que explique, no sólo su actividad, sino también sus efectos sobre la coma, es necesario obtener información detallada para el mayor número de cometas posible, siendo las características más interesantes para estudiar la ubicación de las regiones activas, la presencia de jets, las tasas de producción de gas y polvo y la interacción de la coma con el viento solar. En la actualidad, con técnicas de procesamiento de imágenes y tecnología CCD se pueden obtener este tipo de datos para cometas que ingresan al sistema solar interior y estudiar, de esta manera, la morfología de sus comas, tratando de correlacionar la actividad detectada con algún modelo teórico. En este trabajo se presenta un estudio parcial de la actividad desarrollada por el cometa Hale-Bopp, y sus efectos sobre la morfología de su coma, desde agosto de 1995 hasta la fecha en base a imágenes adquiridas con el telescopio de 0.76 m. de la Estación Astronómica Dr. Carlos Ulrrico Cesco.

  7. Transient Coma Due To Epidural Anesthesia: The Role of Loss of Sensory Input.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dardis, Christopher

    2015-12-21

    Epidural anesthesia is the most commonly used method of pain relief during labor in the USA. It is not classically associated with alterations in level of alertness. Coma during the procedure is rare, with a reported incidence of 0.1-0.3%.

  8. Coma as a presenting sign of Datura stramonium seed tea poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diker, D; Markovitz, D; Rothman, M; Sendovski, U

    2007-07-01

    Datura stramonium is a hallucinogenic plant that causes serious poisoning. Consumption of any part of the plant may result in a severe anticholinergic reaction that may lead to toxicity and occasionally cause diagnostic difficulties. We report two patients with coma as a presenting sign of intoxication following intentional Datura seed tea ingestion and we review the leading clues for its diagnosis and treatment.

  9. The etiology and outcome of non-traumatic coma in critical care: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsting, Marlene Wb B; Franken, Mira D; Meulenbelt, Jan; van Klei, Wilton A; de Lange, Dylan W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-traumatic coma (NTC) is a serious condition requiring swift medical or surgical decision making upon arrival at the emergency department. Knowledge of the most frequent etiologies of NTC and associated mortality might improve the management of these patients. Here, we present the

  10. The etiology and outcome of non-traumatic coma in critical care : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsting, Marlene WB|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413662705; Franken, Mira D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413648028; Meulenbelt, Jan; van Klei, Wilton A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239486706; de Lange, Dylan W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304815497

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-traumatic coma (NTC) is a serious condition requiring swift medical or surgical decision making upon arrival at the emergency department. Knowledge of the most frequent etiologies of NTC and associated mortality might improve the management of these patients. Here, we present the

  11. Evolution of Cerebral Atrophy in a Patient with Super Refractory Status Epilepticus Treated with Barbiturate Coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Newey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Status epilepticus is associated with neuronal breakdown. Radiological sequelae of status epilepticus include diffusion weighted abnormalities and T2/FLAIR cortical hyperintensities corresponding to the epileptogenic cortex. However, progressive generalized cerebral atrophy from status epilepticus is underrecognized and may be related to neuronal death. We present here a case of diffuse cerebral atrophy that developed during the course of super refractory status epilepticus management despite prolonged barbiturate coma. Methods. Case report and review of the literature. Case. A 19-year-old male with a prior history of epilepsy presented with focal clonic seizures. His seizures were refractory to multiple anticonvulsants and eventually required pentobarbital coma for 62 days and midazolam coma for 33 days. Serial brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed development of cerebral atrophy at 31 days after admission to our facility and progression of the atrophy at 136 days after admission. Conclusion. This case highlights the development and progression of generalized cerebral atrophy in super refractory status epilepticus. The cerebral atrophy was noticeable at 31 days after admission at our facility which emphasizes the urgency of definitive treatment in patients who present with super refractory status epilepticus. Further research into direct effects of therapeutic coma is warranted.

  12. Post-coma persons with multiple disabilities use assistive technology for their leisure engagement and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; D'Amico, Fiora; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Interventions for post-coma persons, who have emerged from a minimally conscious state but present with extensive neuro-motor impairment and lack of or minimal verbal skills, need to promote occupation and communication through the use of assistive technology. These two studies were aimed at assessing two technology-aided programs to promote leisure engagement and communication for three post-coma participants with multiple disabilities. Study I assessed a program to allow a woman and a man with extensive neuro-motor impairment and lack of speech to switch on music and videos, make requests to caregivers, and send messages to (communicate with) relevant partners and receive messages from those partners. Study II assessed a program to allow a post-coma woman with extensive motor impairment and reduced verbal behavior to activate music, videos and requests, send and receive messages, and make telephone calls. Data showed that both programs were successful. The participants of Study I managed leisure engagement, requests, as well as text messaging. The participant of Study II showed consistent leisure engagement, text messaging, and telephone calls. Assistive technology can be profitably used to provide post-coma persons with multiple disabilities relevant leisure and communication opportunities.

  13. Communication Opportunities via Special Messaging Technology for Two Post-Coma Persons with Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; de Pace, Claudia; Megna, Marisa; Oliva, Doretta

    2011-01-01

    This study extended the assessment of a special messaging technology with two additional post-coma adults who had emerged from a minimally conscious state, but showed multiple disabilities including profound motor and communication impairments. For each participant, the study involved an ABAB design, in which the A represented baseline phases and…

  14. The effectiveness of selected Tai Chi exercises in a program of strategic rehabilitation aimed at improving the self-care skills of patients aroused from prolonged coma after severe TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mańko, Grzegorz; Ziółkowski, Artur; Mirski, Andrzej; Kłosiński, Michał

    2013-09-16

    Difficulties in self-care constitute a very common problem for patients recovering from prolonged coma after a severe TBI, and a major factor reducing their quality of life. Effective new rehabilitation programs that would help solve this problem are urgently needed. The purpose of our experiment was to evaluate improvement in this respect in a group of patients aroused from prolonged coma who participated in a goal-oriented rehabilitation program (Rehab-3), enhanced with selected elements of Tai-Chi. We examined 40 patients aroused from prolonged coma after a severe TBI, undergoing long-term rehabilitation according to a standard phased rehabilitation program. These patients were divided into two numerically even groups: a control group treated according to the standard program, and an experimental group, who received an additional goal oriented program enhanced with selected Tai-Chi exercises. The research methods included analysis of documentation (MRI, CT), a structured clinical interview, and the Standard Self-Care Scale. The experimental group achieved significant improvement of self-care skills, whereas in the control group the improvement was slight and not statistically significant. The value of co-efficient j (0.64) indicates a very strong association between the rehabilitation procedure and improved self-care in the experimental group, but not in the control group. Our results confirmed that a goal-oriented rehabilitation program enhanced with elements of Tai-Chi was more effective than the standard program in improving the performance of activities of daily living.

  15. Efficacy of methylene blue in an experimental model of calcium channel blocker-induced shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, David H; Donovan, Sean; Nelson, Lewis S; Bania, Theodore C; Hoffman, Robert S; Chu, Jason

    2015-04-01

    Calcium channel blocker poisonings account for a substantial number of reported deaths from cardiovascular drugs. Although supportive care is the mainstay of treatment, experimental therapies such as high-dose insulin-euglycemia and lipid emulsion have been studied in animal models and used in humans. In the most severe cases, even aggressive care is inadequate and deaths occur. In both experimental models and clinical cases of vasodilatory shock, methylene blue improves hemodynamic measures. It acts as a nitric oxide scavenger and inhibits guanylate cyclase that is responsible for the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Excessive cGMP production is associated with refractory vasodilatory shock in sepsis and anaphylaxis. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of methylene blue in an animal model of amlodipine-induced shock. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized, ventilated, and instrumented for continuous blood pressure and pulse rate monitoring. The dose of amlodipine that produced death within 60 minutes was 17 mg/kg per hour (LD50). Rats were divided into 2 groups: amlodipine followed by methylene blue or amlodipine followed by normal saline solution, with 15 rats in each group. Rats received methylene blue at 2 mg/kg during 5 minutes or an equivalent amount of normal saline solution in 3 intervals from the start of the protocol: minutes 5, 30, and 60. The animals were observed for a total of 2 hours after the start of the protocol. Mortality risk and survival time were analyzed with Fisher's exact test and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with the log rank test. Overall, 1 of 15 rats (7%) in the saline solution-treated group survived to 120 minutes compared with 5 of 15 (33%) in the methylene blue-treated group (difference -26%; 95% confidence interval [CI] -54% to 0.3%). The median survival time for the normal saline solution group was 42 minutes (95% CI 28.1 to 55.9 minutes); for the methylene blue group, 109 minutes (95% CI 93.9 to

  16. Why do insects enter and recover from chill coma? Low temperature and high extracellular potassium compromises muscle function in Locusta migratoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Petersen, Asbjørn G

    2014-01-01

    When exposed to low temperatures, many insect species enter a reversible comatose state (chill coma), which is driven by a failure of neuromuscular function. Chill coma and chill coma recovery have been associated with a loss and recovery of ion-homeostasis (particularly extracellular [K+]) and a...

  17. Response of tundra plants to environmental variation during seven years of experimentally-induced permafrost thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, V. G.; Schuur, E.

    2016-12-01

    Seven years of warming at the Carbon in Permafrost Experimental Heating Research Project (CiPEHR) has induced dramatic environmental changes at this tussock tundra site. By 2015, soil-warmed plots thawed 35 cm more than controls and had significantly higher surface soil moisture during the growing season. Air warming using open top chambers significantly increased growing season air temperatures by 0.35°C. We examined 7 years of species-level leaf chemistry and total aboveground biomass in order to characterize the response of tundra plant species to varying environmental conditions. For this analysis, we used a multivariate framework that spanned treatments, combining principle component analysis of environmental covariates with linear mixed effect models. Overall, warm deep soils were associated with increased total aboveground biomass as well as increased inputs of litter N to surface soils. Both of these patterns were primarily driven by the tussock-forming sedge Eriophorum vaginatum. This species exhibited increased aboveground biomass and reduced nutrient resorption efficiency with permafrost thaw. Warm air temperatures at CiPEHR also increased total aboveground biomass but did not increase vascular foliar N pools or deciduous litter N pools, indicating little effect on plant-available N. Warm air temperatures may have exacerbated competition between vascular plant species, however. Leaf %N of E. vaginatum increased while Carex bigeloweii, Rubus chamaemorus, and Vaccinium uliginosum all exhibited decreased leaf %N. Warm and dry surface soil conditions were associated with decreased total aboveground biomass, vascular foliar N pools, and deciduous litter N pools. This negative relationship suggests that moisture limitation of decomposition can reduce plant-available N at this site. We found support for the theory that permafrost thaw alleviates N limitation of tundra plants but we emphasize the important roles that soil moisture, air temperature, and species

  18. Experimental observation of zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP)-induced iron sulphide formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltanahmadi, Siavash, E-mail: s.soltanahmadi@leeds.ac.uk [Institute of Functional Surfaces, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Morina, Ardian [Institute of Functional Surfaces, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Eijk, Marcel C.P. van; Nedelcu, Ileana [SKF Engineering and Research Centre, 3430 DT Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Neville, Anne [Institute of Functional Surfaces, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-31

    Graphical abstract: Chemical analysis of ZDDP-induced tribofilm under severe boundary lubricated regime in nano and micro-meter scales.▪ - Highlights: • A ZDDP-derived locally formed iron-sulphide layer is detected on the steel surface. • The iron-sulphide is a 5–10 nm thin distinct layer at steel-phosphate interface. • Near the surface-crack site the elemental distribution of the tribofilm is altered. • Sulphur concentration is enhanced in the iron-sulphide layer near the cracked-site. • ZDDP elements are detected inside the crack with a greater contribution of sulphur. - Abstract: Zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP) as a well-known anti-wear additive enhances the performance of the lubricant beyond its wear-protection action, through its anti-oxidant and Extreme Pressure (EP) functionality. In spite of over thirty years of research attempting to reveal the mechanism of action of ZDDP, there are still some uncertainties around the exact mechanisms of its action. This is especially the case with the role of sulphide layer formed in the tribofilm and its impact on surface fatigue. Although iron sulphide on the substrate is hypothesised in literature to form as a separate layer, there has been no concrete experimental observation on the distribution of the iron sulphide as a dispersed precipitate, distinct layer at the steel substrate or both. It remains to be clarified whether the iron sulphide layer homogeneously covers the surface or locally forms at the surface. In the current study a cross section of the specimen after experiment was prepared and has been investigated with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX) elemental analysis. A 5–10 nm iron sulphide layer is visualised on the interface as a separate layer underneath the phosphate layer with an altered distribution of tribofilm elements near the crack site. The iron sulphide interface layer is more visible near the crack site where the concentration of the

  19. Arsenic-induced phosphate limitation under experimental Early Proterozoic oceanic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi Fru, Ernest; Hemmingsson, Christoffer; Holm, Mikaela; Chiu, Beverly; Iñiguez, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of phosphorus concentrations associated with modern hydrothermal Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides and ancient Fe(III) oxide-rich iron formations, is used to estimate bioavailable Precambrian marine phosphorus (P) concentrations. This led to the proposition of a low dissolved P budget of ∼10-25% of present-day levels, before ∼1.9 billion years ago. Estimates incorporating ancient marine Si levels ≥ 0.67 mM instead suggested global dissolved P levels greater than today. Here we unite current experimental models that have considered NaCl solutions containing elevated dissolved Fe(II), Si, Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions in the incorporation of P in Precambrian marine Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides, in addition to arsenic as a hydrothermal proxy. We show that the coprecipitation of dissolved P and Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides from arsenic-rich marine waters produces an average P distribution coefficient of ∼0.072 (± 0.01) μM-1. This is comparable to the ∼ 0.07 μM-1 predicted for Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides in modern arsenic-rich, submarine hydrothermal settings, from which the lower Early Proterozoic dissolved marine P concentrations were predicted. As/P molar ratios below modern seawater ratios removed the negative feedback effect high Si impose on P scavenging by Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides. The binding of As(III) to Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides exhibits a lower competitive influence on P fixation. As(V) that likely became prominent in the surficially oxidized Early Proterozoic oceans induced dissolved P limitation because of preferential P sequestration at the expense of dissolved As(V) enrichment. The control of As on P scavenging by the precipitating Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides is strong regardless of common seawater cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+). The data suggest that the application of Si and Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides as an ancient seawater P proxy should consider chemical variability between depositional basins, taking into account the rather strong role hydrothermal arsenic has on the distribution of P

  20. Therapeutic burst-suppression coma in pediatric febrile refractory status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jainn-Jim; Chou, Cheng-Che; Lan, Shih-Yun; Hsiao, Hsiang-Ju; Wang, Yu; Chan, Oi-Wa; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Wang, Huei-Shyong; Lin, Kuang-Lin

    2017-09-01

    Evidence for the beneficial effect of therapeutic burst-suppression coma in pediatric patients with febrile refractory status epilepticus is limited, and the clinical outcomes of this treatment strategy are largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the outcomes of therapeutic burst-suppression coma in a series of children with febrile refractory status epilepticus. We retrospectively reviewed consecutive pediatric patients with febrile refractory status epilepticus admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit between January 2000 and December 2013. The clinical characteristics were analyzed. Thirty-five patients (23 boys; age range: 1-18years) were enrolled, of whom 28 (80%) developed super-refractory status epilepticus. All of the patients received the continuous administration of intravenous antiepileptic drugs for febrile refractory status epilepticus, and 26 (74.3%) achieved therapeutic burst-suppression coma. All of the patients received mechanical ventilatory support, and 26 (74.3%) received inotropic agents. Eight (22.9%) patients died within 1month. The neurologically functional outcomes at 6months were good in six (27.3%) of the 22 survivors, of whom two returned to clinical baseline. The patients with therapeutic burst-suppression coma were significantly associated with hemodynamic support than the patients with electrographic seizures control (p=0.03), and had a trend of higher 1-month mortality rate, worse 6months outcomes, and a longer duration of hospitalization. Our results suggest that therapeutic burst-suppression coma to treat febrile refractory status epilepticus may lead to an increased risk of hemodynamic instability and a trend of worse outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Near-UV OH Prompt Emission in the Innermost Coma of 103P/Hartley 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Forgia, Fiorangela [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova, Vicolo dellOsservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bodewits, Dennis; A’Hearn, Michael F.; Protopapa, Silvia; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Sunshine, Jessica; Feaga, Lori; Farnham, Tony, E-mail: fiorangela.laforgia@unipd.it [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The Deep Impact spacecraft flyby of comet 103P/Hartley 2 occurred on 2010 November 4, 1 week after perihelion with a closest approach (CA) distance of about 700 km. We used narrowband images obtained by the Medium Resolution Imager on board the spacecraft to study the gas and dust in the innermost coma. We derived an overall dust reddening of 15%/100 nm between 345 and 749 nm and identified a blue enhancement in the dust coma in the sunward direction within 5 km from the nucleus, which we interpret as a localized enrichment in water ice. OH column density maps show an anti-sunward enhancement throughout the encounter, except for the highest-resolution images, acquired at CA, where a radial jet becomes visible in the innermost coma, extending up to 12 km from the nucleus. The OH distribution in the inner coma is very different from that expected for a fragment species. Instead, it correlates well with the water vapor map derived by the HRI-IR instrument on board Deep Impact . Radial profiles of the OH column density and derived water production rates show an excess of OH emission during CA that cannot be explained with pure fluorescence. We attribute this excess to a prompt emission process where photodissociation of H{sub 2}O directly produces excited OH*( A {sup 2}Σ{sup +}) radicals. Our observations provide the first direct imaging of near-UV prompt emission of OH. We therefore suggest the use of a dedicated filter centered at 318.8 nm to directly trace the water in the coma of comets.

  2. Non-traumatic coma in paediatric patients: etiology and predictors of outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Saba; Ejaz, Kiran; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad; Salim, Maimoona Azhar; Khans, Muhammad Umer Rais

    2011-07-01

    To determine the common etiological features of non-traumatic coma in children and evaluate possible predictors of morbidity and mortality in these patients. A cross sectional study was carried out at the Paediatric Department of Civil Hospital Karachi from February 2008 to February 2009. In total 100 children, up to 14 years of age having history of non-traumatic coma were included. At the time of enrolment demographic data, clinical features, laboratory parameters and radiological workup were recorded. Data was entered and analyzed with SPSS version 16. Descriptive statistics were generated for all variables. Relationships between categorical variables were evaluated by examining cross-tabulations, chi2 test and Fisher's exact tests. P-values patients in months were 45 months. Male female ratio was 1.45:1. Among 65 survivors 38 (58%) showed no disability and 27 (41%) showed disability. Infections emerged as major cause of mortality (n=23, 79%). Clinical features that showed association with mortality included hypothermia (P = 0.032), hypotension (P = 0.002), altered breathing pattern (P = 0.0001), non reactive pupils (P = 0.001), low Glasgow coma scale (GCS) (P = 0.038), hypotonia (P = 0.002), hyporeflexia (P = 0.0001) and muscle power score of two (P = 0.043). Infections were the leading cause of non-traumatic coma as well as the leading cause of mortality in our study. Hypothermia, hypotension, altered breathing pattern, non reactive pupils, low GCS, hypotonia, hyporeflexia and low muscle power score were significantly associated with mortality in children presenting with non-traumatic coma.

  3. Near-UV OH Prompt Emission in the Innermost Coma of 103P/Hartley 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Forgia, Fiorangela; Bodewits, Dennis; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Protopapa, Silvia; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Sunshine, Jessica; Feaga, Lori; Farnham, Tony

    2017-11-01

    The Deep Impact spacecraft flyby of comet 103P/Hartley 2 occurred on 2010 November 4, 1 week after perihelion with a closest approach (CA) distance of about 700 km. We used narrowband images obtained by the Medium Resolution Imager on board the spacecraft to study the gas and dust in the innermost coma. We derived an overall dust reddening of 15%/100 nm between 345 and 749 nm and identified a blue enhancement in the dust coma in the sunward direction within 5 km from the nucleus, which we interpret as a localized enrichment in water ice. OH column density maps show an anti-sunward enhancement throughout the encounter, except for the highest-resolution images, acquired at CA, where a radial jet becomes visible in the innermost coma, extending up to 12 km from the nucleus. The OH distribution in the inner coma is very different from that expected for a fragment species. Instead, it correlates well with the water vapor map derived by the HRI-IR instrument on board Deep Impact. Radial profiles of the OH column density and derived water production rates show an excess of OH emission during CA that cannot be explained with pure fluorescence. We attribute this excess to a prompt emission process where photodissociation of H2O directly produces excited OH*(A 2Σ+) radicals. Our observations provide the first direct imaging of near-UV prompt emission of OH. We therefore suggest the use of a dedicated filter centered at 318.8 nm to directly trace the water in the coma of comets.

  4. Stress-induced allodynia--evidence of increased pain sensitivity in healthy humans and patients with chronic pain after experimentally induced psychosocial stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Crettaz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Experimental stress has been shown to have analgesic as well as allodynic effect in animals. Despite the obvious negative influence of stress in clinical pain conditions, stress-induced alteration of pain sensitivity has not been tested in humans so far. Therefore, we tested changes of pain sensitivity using an experimental stressor in ten female healthy subjects and 13 female patients with fibromyalgia. METHODS: Multiple sensory aspects of pain were evaluated in all participants with the help of the quantitative sensory testing protocol before (60 min and after (10 and 90 min inducing psychological stress with a standardized psychosocial stress test ("Trier Social Stress Test". RESULTS: Both healthy subjects and patients with fibromyalgia showed stress-induced enhancement of pain sensitivity in response to thermal stimuli. However, only patients showed increased sensitivity in response to pressure pain. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence for stress-induced allodynia/hyperalgesia in humans for the first time and suggest differential underlying mechanisms determining response to stressors in healthy subjects and patients suffering from chronic pain. Possible mechanisms of the interplay of stress and mediating factors (e.g. cytokines, cortisol on pain sensitivity are mentioned. Future studies should help understand better how stress impacts on chronic pain conditions.

  5. Effect of Glucocorticoids on Ultrastructure of Myocardial Muscle in the Course of Experimentally Induced Acute Myocardial Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kuropka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for effective methods of myocardial cytoprotection against ischemia is the most significant issue in modern cardiology and cardiac surgery. Glucocorticoids are deemed very strong modulators of inflammatory response and thus can potentially protect heart muscle from postreperfusion injury and myocardial ischemia during cardiac surgery. Ultrastructural examination of the left ventricle heart samples revealed that the intravenous application of dexamethasone and hydrocortisone proved to exert cytoprotective effect on cardiomyocytes during experimentally induced acute ischemia in rats.

  6. Experimental investigation of effects of jet decay rate on jet-induced pressures on a flat plate: Tabulated data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, J. M.; Ousterhout, D. S.; Warcup, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Tabular data are presented for an experimental study of the effects of jet decay rate on the jet-induced pressure distribution on a flat plate for a single jet issuing at right angle to the flat plate into a uniform crossflow. The data are presented in four sections: (1) presents the static nozzle calibration data; (2) lists the plate surface static pressure data and integrated loads; (3) lists the jet centerline trajectory data; and (4) lists the centerline dynamic pressure data.

  7. Combined experimental and numerical investigation of energy harness utilizing vortex induced vibration over half cylinder using piezoelectric beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Md. Tusher; Hossain, Md. Tanver; Rahman, Md. Ashiqur

    2017-06-01

    Energy harvesting technology has the ability to create self-powered electronic systems that do not rely on battery power for their operation. Wind energy can be converted into electricity via a piezoelectric transducer during the air flow over a cylinder. The vortex-induced vibration over the cylinder causes the piezoelectric beam to vibrate. Thus useful electric energy at the range 0.2-0.3V is found which can be useful for self-powering small electronic devices. In the present study, prototypes of micro-energy harvester with a shape of 65 mm × 37 mm × 0.4 mm are developed and tested for airflow over D-shaped bluff body for diameters of 15, 20 and 28mm in an experimental setup consisting of a long wind tunnel of 57cm × 57cm with variable speeds of the motor for different flow velocities and the experimental setup is connected at the downstream where flow velocity is the maximum. Experimental results show that the velocity and induced voltage follows a regular linear pattern. A maximum electrical potential of 140 mV for velocity of 1.1 ms-1 at a bluff body diameter of 15 mm is observed in the energy harvester that can be applied in many practical cases for self-powering electronic devices. The simulation of this energy harvesting phenomena is then simulated using COMSOLE multi-physics. Diameter of the bluff bodies as well as flow velocity and size of cantilever beam are varied and the experimental findings are found to be in good agreement with the simulated ones. The simulations along with the experimental data show the possibility of generating electricity from vortex induced vibration and can be applied in many practical cases for self-powering electronic devices.

  8. Black tea extract prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB signaling and attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Sung-Bum

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Black tea has been shown to elicit anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic properties. In this study, we investigated the impact of black tea extract (BTE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced NF-κB signaling in bone marrow derived-macrophages (BMM and determined the therapeutic efficacy of this extract on colon inflammation. Methods The effect of BTE on LPS-induced NF-κB signaling and pro-inflammatory gene expression was evaluated by RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. The in vivo efficacy of BTE was assessed in mice with 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis. The severity of colitis