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Sample records for experimental ship fire

  1. Experimental ship fire measurements with simulated radioactive cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Arviso, M.; Bobbe, J.G.; Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Beene, D.E. Jr.

    1997-10-01

    Results from a series of eight test fires ranging in size from 2.2 to 18.8 MW conducted aboard the Coast Guard fire test ship Mayo Lykes at Mobile, Alabama are presented and discussed. Tests aboard the break bulk type cargo ship consisted of heptane spray fires simulating engine room and galley fires, wood crib fires simulating cargo hold fires, and pool fires staged for comparison to land based regulatory fire results. Primary instrumentation for the tests consisted of two pipe calorimeters that simulated a typical package shape for radioactive materials packages

  2. Experimental ship fire measurements with simulated radioactive cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Arvisol, M.; Bobbe, J.G.; Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Wix, S.D.; Beene, D.E.; Keane, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    Results from a series of eight test fires ranging in size from 2.2 to 18.8 MW conducted aboard the Coast Guard fire test ship Mayo Lykes at Mobile, Alabama are presented and discussed. Tests aboard the break-bulk type cargo ship consisted of heptane spray fires simulating engine room and galley fires, wood crib fires simulating cargo hold fires, and pool fires staged for comparison to land-based regulatory fire results. Primary instrumentation for the tests consisted of two pipe calorimeters that simulated a typical package shape for radioactive materials packages. (authors)

  3. Modeling fires in adjacent ship compartments with computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Koski, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal effects on radioactive (RAM) transportation pack ages with a fire in an adjacent compartment. An assumption for this analysis is that the adjacent hold fire is some sort of engine room fire. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis tools were used to perform the analysis in order to include convective heat transfer effects. The analysis results were compared to experimental data gathered in a series of tests on the United States Coast Guard ship Mayo Lykes located at Mobile, Alabama. (authors)

  4. Calculation of the effects of a cargo fire in a hold of a ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, J.K.; Koski, J.A.; Wix, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    To better understand shipboard fire environments, a combined experimental and computational study has been conducted at Sandia National Laboratories to define problems that could develop and to demonstrate that modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools can adequately model fires in enclosed volumes. A simulated shipping cask was used as a test object (calorimeter) in this study. This paper describes the development of a computational model for a wood crib fire located in the same hold as the test object. The commercially available CFD code used was CFX, developed by Harwell Laboratory, United Kingdom. This finite volume code was selected because of its previous use in fire analyses and its ability to treat all heat transfer mechanisms (conduction, convection and thermal radiation) in a coupled manner. Comparisons are made between experimental measurements and blind computational results that is to say: no experimental data were used to make the computations. (authors)

  5. IPSN's experimental programmes on fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Every year fires occur in nuclear installations as they do in any industrial facility. They feed on cables, electrical equipment cabinets, oils, solvents..., they might lead to the degradation of the safety standard of the installation or they might threaten the confinement of radioactive materials. In this document IPSN presents its experimental programmes and its facilities in Saclay and Cadarache designed to study the triggering and the propagation of fires and flames in closed and ventilated premises. (A.C.)

  6. 46 CFR 166.15 - Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation... maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills. All students shall be trained to obey... the fundamentals of ship sanitation as prescribed by law and regulations, and shall be given intensive...

  7. Design and Realization of Ship Fire Simulation Training System Based on Unity3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Ye; Feng, Chen; Wenqiang, Wang; Kai, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Ship fire training is a very important training to ensure the safety of the ship, but limited by the characteristics of the ship itself, it is difficult to carry out fire training on the ship. This paper proposes to introduce a virtual reality technology to build a set of ship fire simulation training system, used to improve the quality of training, reduce training costs. First, the system design ideas are elaborated, and the system architecture diagram is given. Then, the key technologies in the process of system implementation are analyzed. Finally, the system examples are built and tested.

  8. Development of the Nuclear Ship Database. 1. Outline of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyouya, Masahiko; Ochiai, Masa-aki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hashidate, Kouji

    1995-03-01

    We obtained the experimental data on the effects of the ship motions and the change in load and caused by the ship operations, the waves, the winds etc., to the nuclear power plant behavior, through the Power-up Tests and Experimental Voyages of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU. Moreover, we accumulated the techniques, the knowledge and others on the Nuclear Ship development at the each stage of the N.S. MUTSU Research and Development program, such as the design stage, the construction stage, the operation stage and others. These data, techniques, knowledge and others are the assembly of the experimental data and the experiences through the design, the construction and the operation of the first nuclear ship in JAPAN. It is important to keep and pigeonhole these products of the N.S. MUTSU program in order to utilize them effectively in the research and development of the advanced marine reactor, since there is no construction plan of the nuclear ship for the present in JAPAN. We have been carrying out the development of the Nuclear Ship Database System since 1991 for the purpose of effective utilization of the N.S. MUTSU products in the design study of the advanced marine reactors. The part of the Nuclear Ship Database System on the experimental data, called Nuclear Ship Experimental Database, was already accomplished and utilized since 1993. This report describes the outline and the use of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database.The remaining part of the database system on the documentary data, called Nuclear Ship Documentary Database, are now under development. (author).

  9. Development of the Nuclear Ship Database. 1. Outline of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyouya, Masahiko; Ochiai, Masa-aki; Hashidate, Kouji.

    1995-03-01

    We obtained the experimental data on the effects of the ship motions and the change in load and caused by the ship operations, the waves, the winds etc., to the nuclear power plant behavior, through the Power-up Tests and Experimental Voyages of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU. Moreover, we accumulated the techniques, the knowledge and others on the Nuclear Ship development at the each stage of the N.S. MUTSU Research and Development program, such as the design stage, the construction stage, the operation stage and others. These data, techniques, knowledge and others are the assembly of the experimental data and the experiences through the design, the construction and the operation of the first nuclear ship in JAPAN. It is important to keep and pigeonhole these products of the N.S. MUTSU program in order to utilize them effectively in the research and development of the advanced marine reactor, since there is no construction plan of the nuclear ship for the present in JAPAN. We have been carrying out the development of the Nuclear Ship Database System since 1991 for the purpose of effective utilization of the N.S. MUTSU products in the design study of the advanced marine reactors. The part of the Nuclear Ship Database System on the experimental data, called Nuclear Ship Experimental Database, was already accomplished and utilized since 1993. This report describes the outline and the use of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database.The remaining part of the database system on the documentary data, called Nuclear Ship Documentary Database, are now under development. (author)

  10. Estimates of fire environments in ship holds containing radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Cole, J.K.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Wix, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fire environments that occur on cargo ships differ significantly from the fire environments found in land transport. Cargo ships typically carry a large amount of flammable fuel for propulsion and shipboard power, and may transport large quantities of flammable cargo. As a result, sea mode transport accident records contain instances of long lasting and intense fires. Since Irradiated Nuclear Fuel (INF) casks are not carried on tankers with large flammable cargoes, most of these dramatic, long burning fires are not relevant threats, and transport studies must concentrate on those fires that are most likely to occur. By regulation, INF casks must be separated from flammable cargoes by a fire-resistant, liquid-tight partition. This makes a fire in an adjacent ship hold the most likely fire threat. The large size of a cargo ship relative to any spent nuclear fuel casks on board, however, may permit a severe, long lasting fire to occur with little or no thermal impact on the casks. Although some flammable materials such as shipping boxes or container floors may exist in the same hold with the cask, the amount of fuel available may not provide a significant threat to the massive transport casks used for radioactive materials. This shipboard fire situation differs significantly from the regulatory conditions specified in 10 CFR 71 for a fully engulfing pool fire. To learn more about the differences, a series of simple thermal analyses has been completed to estimate cask behavior in likely marine and land thermal accident situations. While the calculations are based on several conservative assumptions, and are only preliminary, they illustrate that casks are likely to heat much more slowly in shipboard hold fires than in an open pool fire. The calculations also reinforce the basic regulatory concept that for radioactive materials, the shipping cask, not the ship, is the primary protection barrier to consider

  11. Experimental measurement of a shipboard fire environment with simulated radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Wix, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    Results from a series of eight test fires ranging in size from 2.2 to 18.8 MW conducted aboard the Coast Guard fire test ship Mayo Lykes at Mobile, Alabama are presented and discussed. Tests aboard the break-bulk type cargo ship consisted of heptane spray fires simulating engine room and galley fires, wood crib fires simulating cargo hold fires, and pool fires staged for comparison to land-based regulatory fire results. Primary instrumentation for the tests consisted of two pipe calorimeters that simulated a typical package shape for radioactive materials packages. The calorimeters were both located adjacent to the fires and on the opposite side of the cargo hold bulkhead nearest the fire. The calorimeters were constructed from 1.5 m length sections of nominal 2 foot diameter schedule 60 steel pipe. Type K thermocouples were attached at 12 locations on the circumference and ends of the calorimeter. Fire heat fluxes to the calorimeter surfaces were estimated with the use of the Sandia SODDIT inverse heat conduction code. Experimental results from all types of tests are discussed, and some comparisons are made between the environments found on the ship and those found in land-based pool fire tests

  12. The Integration of the Fire Scout Tactical Unmanned Aerial System into Littoral Combat Ship Missions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marsh, James J

    2007-01-01

    ...) is an effective mission multiplier for the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS). The U.S. Navy relies heavily on unmanned systems, such as the Fire Scout UAS, to enable LCS to conduct several complex littoral missions...

  13. Fire resistivity of irradiated nuclear fuel shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Hirohisa

    1975-01-01

    The fire resistance of lead-lined casks was examined and compared with that of a cask without lead lining. Three cask models with 1/8 radius of actual casks and one with 1/4 radius were used, each one is composed of three layers, i.e. steel outer shell, lead shield, and stainless steel inner shell. The models were heated in an oil furnace only from their side at 800 0 C and cooled in the furnace. During the experiment, the temperature in the furnace and of the models were recorded continuously. The lead shield of the models started to melt 5--7 min after the start of heating. The temperature difference between the outer shell and the lead shield of the models was larger in case of the model without lead lining treatment than the models with it, and it is attributable to the low heat conductivity of the gap between the outer shell and the lead shield. The heat transfer property of casks was affected by the fabricating method of the casks. The temperature at the outer shell and that at the lead shield were calculated, and the results agreed considerably well with the experimental values, when 180 and 1800 kcal/m 2 h 0 C were employed as the heat conductivity of the gaps of the models. The gaps were estimated as 0.23 mm and 0.023 mm, respectively. In order to dissipate effectively the heat generated by contained fuel, lead lining treatment is necessary before pouring molten lead for shielding, but when the casks with the lead lining treatment are exposed to fire, the lead shield cannot keep its integrity. (Kako, I.)

  14. Thermal response modeling of a contact-handled transuranic waste shipping container system to a fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchsland, K.E.; Kwong, K.C.; Fretter, E.F.; Boyd, R.D.; Auerbach, I.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    A one-dimensional thermal model has been developed to predict the response of a transuranic (TRU) waste shipping container accidentally exposed to a fire environment. The basic wall structure of the container consists of polyurethane foam (64 kg/m 3 ) sandwiched between two steel plates. The foam thermal model, based on high temperature experimental data, is developed for the case in which the virgin foam is in a nonoxidizing environment. The experimental results indicate that foam decomposition is highly heat rate dependent. At low quasi-steady heating rates, the foam changes to a bubbling black viscous liquid. At very high heating rates, pyrolysis gases are formed as the foam decomposes and a 20% (by weight) residual char remains. This porous char acts as a radiation shield which can significantly reduce thermal transport. In the case of a TRU shipping container wall, this char will slow the thermal penetration rate and drastically reduce the heat load to the container contents. When the front surface of the wall was subjected to 1333 0 K, numerical computations predict that after approximately 1800 s the foam temperature rise at a depth of 10.2 cm was less than 200 K (uncharred). After approximately 3600 s the foam temperature rise at a depth of 20.4 cm was 23 0 K. Typical waste contents temperature rise was predicted to be less than 56 0 K after 3600 s of heating

  15. Experimental and theoretical study of magnetohydrodynamic ship models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cébron

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD ships represent a clear demonstration of the Lorentz force in fluids, which explains the number of students practicals or exercises described on the web. However, the related literature is rather specific and no complete comparison between theory and typical small scale experiments is currently available. This work provides, in a self-consistent framework, a detailed presentation of the relevant theoretical equations for small MHD ships and experimental measurements for future benchmarks. Theoretical results of the literature are adapted to these simple battery/magnets powered ships moving on salt water. Comparison between theory and experiments are performed to validate each theoretical step such as the Tafel and the Kohlrausch laws, or the predicted ship speed. A successful agreement is obtained without any adjustable parameter. Finally, based on these results, an optimal design is then deduced from the theory. Therefore this work provides a solid theoretical and experimental ground for small scale MHD ships, by presenting in detail several approximations and how they affect the boat efficiency. Moreover, the theory is general enough to be adapted to other contexts, such as large scale ships or industrial flow measurement techniques.

  16. Experimental and theoretical study of magnetohydrodynamic ship models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cébron, David; Viroulet, Sylvain; Vidal, Jérémie; Masson, Jean-Paul; Viroulet, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ships represent a clear demonstration of the Lorentz force in fluids, which explains the number of students practicals or exercises described on the web. However, the related literature is rather specific and no complete comparison between theory and typical small scale experiments is currently available. This work provides, in a self-consistent framework, a detailed presentation of the relevant theoretical equations for small MHD ships and experimental measurements for future benchmarks. Theoretical results of the literature are adapted to these simple battery/magnets powered ships moving on salt water. Comparison between theory and experiments are performed to validate each theoretical step such as the Tafel and the Kohlrausch laws, or the predicted ship speed. A successful agreement is obtained without any adjustable parameter. Finally, based on these results, an optimal design is then deduced from the theory. Therefore this work provides a solid theoretical and experimental ground for small scale MHD ships, by presenting in detail several approximations and how they affect the boat efficiency. Moreover, the theory is general enough to be adapted to other contexts, such as large scale ships or industrial flow measurement techniques.

  17. Design of an experiment to measure fire exposure of packages aboard container cargo ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The test described in this paper is intended to measure the typical accident environment for a radioactive materials package in a fire abroad a container cargo ship. A stack of nice used standard cargo containers will be variously loaded with empty packages, simulated packages and combustible cargo and placed over a large hydrocarbon pool fire of one hour duration. Fire environments, both inside and outside the containers, typical of on-deck stowage will be measured as well as the potential for container-to-container fire spread. With the use of the inverse heat conduction calculations, the local heat transfer to the simulated packages can be estimated from thermocouple data. Data recorded will also provide information on fire durations in each container, fire intensity and container-to-container fire spread characteristics. (authors)

  18. Revised experimental program on the nuclear ship 'Mutsu'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Yuichi

    1985-01-01

    The experimental program on the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' has been revised by the Government. And, the responsible organization for n. s. Mutsu was turned to Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) from Japan Nuclear-ship Development Agency. The revised, new experimental program is as follows. (1) Experimental navigation of n. s. Mutsu is made with the already loaded 1st reactor core for about one year. (2) The mooring port for n. s. Mutsu is in a minimum scale. (3) Upon termination of the experimental navigation, n. s. Mutsu is immediately decommissioned. (4) Power-up test and experimental navigation of n. s. Mutsu are made in fiscal 1989 to 1990. The policy of research and development with n. s. Mutsu and the works assigned to JAERI with n. s. Mutsu are described. (Mori, K.)

  19. Developing a Risk Model for Fire in Passenger Ships - Based on Bayesian Belief Network

    OpenAIRE

    Dokmo, Hanne Bjørkås

    2016-01-01

    Passenger ships, especially cruise ships, are rapidly increasing in size. With larger vessels, comes a greater risk to the passengers if something where to happen. A fire on a passenger vessel can spread quickly, and with as much as thousands of people needing to be evacuated many things could go wrong. The issue of the safety on board is therefore crucial to consider, seeing as the consequences could be tremendous. There are three types of passenger ships; Passenger vessel, RoPax vessel and ...

  20. Shipping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnolst, N.; Wergeland, T.

    1996-01-01

    Shipping is a multi-faceted industry which is rather complex to define from an academic point of view. This book attempts to grasp these complexities and provide the reader with an overview of the main topics and terminology in shipping. The book is based on material from our courses in shipping at

  1. Postmortem metallurgical examination of a fire-exposed spent fuel shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rack, H.J.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1980-04-01

    A potmortem examination of a large fire-exposed rail-transported spent fuel shipping container has revealed the presence of two macrofissures in the outer cask shell. The first, a part-thru crack located within the seam weld fusion zone of the outer cask shell, was typical of hot cracks that may be found in stainless steel weldments. The second, located within the stainless steel base metal, apparently originated at microcracks formed during the welding of a copper-stainless steel dissimilar metal joint. The latter microcrack then propagated during the fire-test, ultimately penetrating the outer shall of the cask. 18 figures, 2 tables

  2. Shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnolst, N.; Wergeland, T.

    1996-01-01

    Shipping is a multi-faceted industry which is rather complex to define from an academic point of view. This book attempts to grasp these complexities and provide the reader with an overview of the main topics and terminology in shipping. The book is based on material from our courses in shipping at the universities in Delft and Bergen. As with our lectures, we draw upon quite a va ried material, from research studies at a high academic level to lower level student work and purely descriptive ...

  3. Design of an experiment to measure the fire exposure of radioactive materials packages aboard container cargo ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.

    1997-11-01

    The test described in this paper is intended to measure the typical accident environment for a radioactive materials package in a fire aboard a container cargo ship. A stack of nine used standard cargo containers will be variously loaded with empty packages, simulated packages and combustible cargo and placed over a large hydrocarbon pool fire of one hour duration. Both internal and external fire container fire environments typical of on-deck stowage will be measured as well as the potential for container to container fire spread. With the use of the inverse heat conduction calculations, the local heat transfer to the simulated packages can be estimated from thermocouple data. Data recorded will also provide information on fire durations in each container, fire intensity and container to container fire spread characteristics

  4. Experimental determination of the shipboard fire environment for simulated radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Bobbe, J.G.; Arviso, M.

    1997-03-01

    A series of eight fire tests with simulated radioactive material shipping containers aboard the test ship Mayo Lykes, a break-bulk freighter, is described. The tests simulate three basic types of fires: engine room fires, cargo fires and open pool fires. Detailed results from the tests include temperatures, heat fluxes and air flows measured during the fires. The first examination of the results indicates that shipboard fires are not significantly different from fires encountered in land transport. 13 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs

  5. Design and experimental study on desulphurization process of ship exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mingyang; Hao, Shan; Zhou, Junbo; Gao, Liping

    2018-02-01

    This desulfurization process involves removing sulfur oxides with seawater or alkaline aqueous solutions and then treating the effluent by aeration and pH adjustment before discharging it into the ocean. In the desulfurization system, the spray tower is the key equipment and the venturi tubes are the pretreatment device. The two stages of plates are designed to fully absorb sulfur oxides in exhaust gases. The spiral nozzles atomize and evenly spray the desulfurizers into the tower. This study experimentally investigated the effectiveness of this desulfurization process and the factors influencing it under laboratory conditions, with a diesel engine exhaust used to represent ship exhaust. The experimental results show that this process can effectively absorb the SO2 in the exhaust. When the exhaust flow rate was 25 m3/h and the desulfurizer flow rate was 4 L/min, the sulfur removal efficiency (SRE) reached 99.7%. The flow rate, alkalinity, and temperature of seawater were found to have significant effects on the SRE. Adjusting seawater flow rate (SWR) and alkalinity within certain ranges can substantially improve the SRE.

  6. Ship

    OpenAIRE

    Keuning, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The invention concerns a ship designed for use at high speed and heavy seas having a single long and slender hull with a narrow beam and a more or less vertical bow, whereby the front half of the hull has more or less vertical sides, minimal flare in the bow sections and towards the bow an increase in draught at its center line combined with a more or less similar increase of freeboard and whereby the aft end of the hull has a flat or slightly V-shaped bottom with one or more propellers and/o...

  7. Sodium fires. Progress achieved in research and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.; Duverger de Cuy, G.; Casselman, C.; Charpenel, J.; Natta, M.; Devillers, C.

    1979-08-01

    This paper describes the sodium fire programs undertaken by the CEA's Nuclear Safety Department. Experimental results concerning sodium ignition and combustion, sodium fire suppression, sodium aerosol filtration and sodium-concrete contact reactions are given and the applications of these results in the Super-Phenix reactor is discussed

  8. Hydrological response of a small catchment burned by experimental fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Stoof

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fire can considerably change hydrological processes, increasing the risk of extreme flooding and erosion events. Although hydrological processes are largely affected by scale, catchment-scale studies on the hydrological impact of fire in Europe are scarce, and nested approaches are rarely used. We performed a catchment-scale experimental fire to improve insight into the drivers of fire impact on hydrology. In north-central Portugal, rainfall, canopy interception, streamflow and soil moisture were monitored in small shrub-covered paired catchments pre- and post-fire. The shrub cover was medium dense to dense (44 to 84% and pre-fire canopy interception was on average 48.7% of total rainfall. Fire increased streamflow volumes 1.6 times more than predicted, resulting in increased runoff coefficients and changed rainfall-streamflow relationships – although the increase in streamflow per unit rainfall was only significant at the subcatchment-scale. Fire also fastened the response of topsoil moisture to rainfall from 2.7 to 2.1 h (p = 0.058, and caused more rapid drying of topsoils after rain events. Since soil physical changes due to fire were not apparent, we suggest that changes resulting from vegetation removal played an important role in increasing streamflow after fire. Results stress that fire impact on hydrology is largely affected by scale, highlight the hydrological impact of fire on small scales, and emphasize the risk of overestimating fire impact when upscaling plot-scale studies to the catchment-scale. Finally, they increase understanding of the processes contributing to post-fire flooding and erosion events.

  9. Implications of the Baltimore Rail Tunnel Fire for Full-Scale Testing of Shipping Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) does not currently require full-scale physical testing of shipping casks as part of its certification process. Stakeholders have long urged NRC to require full-scale testing as part of certification. NRC is currently preparing a full-scale casktesting proposal as part of the Package Performance Study (PPS) that grew out of the NRC reexamination of the Modal Study. The State of Nevada and Clark County remain committed to the position that demonstration testing would not be an acceptable substitute for a combination of full-scale testing, scale-model tests, and computer simulation of each new cask design prior to certification. Based on previous analyses of cask testing issues, and on preliminary findings regarding the July 2001 Baltimore rail tunnel fire, the authors recommend that NRC prioritize extra-regulatory thermal testing of a large rail cask and the GA-4 truck cask under the PPS. The specific fire conditions and other aspects of the full-scale extra-regulatory tests recommended for the PPS are yet to be determined. NRC, in consultation with stakeholders, must consider past real-world accidents and computer simulations to establish temperature failure thresholds for cask containment and fuel cladding. The cost of extra-regulatory thermal testing is yet to be determined. The minimum cost for regulatory thermal testing of a legal-weight truck cask would likely be $3.3-3.8 million

  10. Impact mechanics of ship collisions and validations with experimental results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shengming; Villavicencio, R.; Zhu, L.

    2017-01-01

    Closed-form analytical solutions for the energy released for deforming and crushing ofstructures and the impact impulse during ship collisions were developed and published inMarine Structures in 1998 [1]. The proposed mathematical models have been used bymany engineers and researchers although th...

  11. An experimental study on crib fires in a closed compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhurandher Bhisham Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation on burning behavior of fire in closed compartments is presented. Fire experiments were performed in a closed compartment of interior dimensions 4 × 4 × 4 m (length × width × height with ply board cribs as fire source. The parameters including the gas temperature, mass loss rate, heat flux, flame temperature, and compartment pressure were measured during the experiments. Experimental results indicated that the providing sudden ventilation to the closed compartment had great influence on the behavior of fire. The mass loss rate of the burning crib increased by 150% due to sudden ventilation which results in the increase in heat release rate by 198 kW. From the perspective of total heat flux, compartment pressure, and gas temperatures closed compartment with sudden ventilation were more hazardous.

  12. Sodium fires: French strategy - theoretical and experimental developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descombes; Thomann; Malet, J.C.; Rzekiecki, R.

    1985-01-01

    After a description of the needs relating to LMFBR safety analysis and design in terms of prevention, detection and protection, the French strategy concerning sodium fires it presented. It includes theoretical developments supported with relevant experimental program, to allow reliable calculations and predictions for safety and design. The following physical phenomena are detailed: (1) sodium fire (mechanical and thermal effects); (2) sodium-structures interactions; (3) aerosols behavior

  13. Experimental Technique of Titanium Fire in Aero-engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI Guangbao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Titanium fire is the typical catastrophic fault in the aero-engine. Aiming at the urgent demand for experimental technique of titanium fire from advanced high thrust-weight ratio aero-engine, the combustion technology and theory of titanium alloy based on friction oxygen concentration method (FOC were systematically studied. The evaluation method of fireproof property and the friction ignition model were built, and the fireproof mechanism was illustrated. By generalizing recent progress in experimental technique of titanium fire from three levels, including evolutionary rule, mechanism and prevention and control technology, the ideas and directions of experimental technique associated with the application research of titanium fire in the future were proposed, namely overall evaluation of fireproof property close to air flow environment of the aero-engine, prediction model of fireproof property and experimental verification of fireproof technique under the air flow environment of aero-engine. It is necessary to establish the prevention system of titanium fire in aero-engine, which contributes to the realization of "full titanium" in compressor and to the increase of high thrust-weight ratio.

  14. Study of accident environment during sea transport of nuclear material: Analysis of an engine room fire on a purpose built ship. Annex 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Shibata, H.; Ouchi, Y.; Kitamura, T.; Ito, T.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Pierce, J.D.; Koski, J.A.; Dukart, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    The program goal was to show that the IAEA safe transport regulations adequately cover the thermal effects of an engine-room fire on plutonium transportation packages stowed aboard a purpose built ship. The packages are stored in transportation containers located in a cargo hold of the ship. This study addressed the heat transfer from an engine-room fire that could heat and evaporate water out of the water-filled bulkhead and the resulting temperature conditions around the packages and inside the packages near their elastomeric seals. This study was designed to estimate the thermal response of a plutonium package in the hold of a purpose built ship during a shipboard fire, and furthermore, to confirm the sufficiency and adequacy of the current IAEA transport regulation

  15. Ex–USS Shadwell Advanced Fire Research Ship

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Conducts full‑scale fire/damage control experiments in a shipboard environment. This test platform can provide an integrated picture of the interactions...

  16. Experimental studies of dynamic impact response with scale models of lead shielded radioactive material shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.A.; Hadden, J.A.; Basham, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary experimental studies of dynamic impact response of scale models of lead-shielded radioactive material shipping containers are presented. The objective of these studies is to provide DOE/ECT with a data base to allow the prediction of a rational margin of confidence in overviewing and assessing the adequacy of the safety and environmental control provided by these shipping containers. Replica scale modeling techniques were employed to predict full scale response with 1/8, 1/4, and 1/2 scale models of shipping containers that are used in the shipment of spent nuclear fuel and high level wastes. Free fall impact experiments are described for scale models of plain cylindrical stainless steel shells, stainless steel shells filled with lead, and replica scale models of radioactive material shipping containers. Dynamic induced strain and acceleration measurements were obtained at several critical locations on the models. The models were dropped from various heights, attitudes to the impact surface, with and without impact limiters and at uniform temperatures between -40 and 175 0 C. In addition, thermal expansion and thermal gradient induced strains were measured at -40 and 175 0 C. The frequency content of the strain signals and the effect of different drop pad compositions and stiffness were examined. Appropriate scale modeling laws were developed and scaling techniques were substantiated for predicting full scale response by comparison of dynamic strain data for 1/8, 1/4, and 1/2 scale models with stainless steel shells and lead shielding

  17. Shielding analysis method applied to nuclear ship 'MUTSU' and its evaluation based on experimental analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Akio; Miyakoshi, Jun-ichi; Iwao, Yoshiaki; Tsubosaka, Akira; Saito, Tetsuo; Fujii, Takayoshi; Okumura, Yoshihiro; Suzuoki, Zenro; Kawakita, Takashi.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures of shielding analysis are described which were used for the shielding modification design of the Nuclear Ship ''MUTSU''. The calculations of the radiation distribution on board were made using Sn codes ANISN and TWOTRAN, a point kernel code QAD and a Monte Carlo code MORSE. The accuracies of these calculations were investigated through the analysis of various shielding experiments: the shield tank experiment of the Nuclear Ship ''Otto Hahn'', the shielding mock-up experiment for ''MUTSU'' performed in JRR-4, the shielding benchmark experiment using the 16 N radiation facility of AERE Harwell and the shielding effect experiment of the ship structure performed in the training ship ''Shintoku-Maru''. The values calculated by the ANISN agree with the data measured at ''Otto Hahn'' within a factor of 2 for fast neutrons and within a factor of 3 for epithermal and thermal neutrons. The γ-ray dose rates calculated by the QAD agree with the measured values within 30% for the analysis of the experiment in JRR-4. The design values for ''MUTSU'' were determined in consequence of these experimental analyses. (author)

  18. Effects of fire exposure on integrity of UF6 shipping cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, C.R.; Ziehlke, K.T.; Pryor, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two 2-1/2-ton steel cylinders for the transport of uranium hexafluoride within the United States nuclear fuel enrichment cycle were involved in a warehouse fire where portions of the cylinders were estimated to have reached a temperature of 1600 0 F (870 0 C). The cylinders were empty at the time of the fire and therefore were not in protective overpacks in which full product cylinders are handled while in transit. Hydrostatic tests to failure showed that the integrity of the cylinders was not degraded by exposure to the temperatures generated by the fire. They withstood test pressures in excess of 10 times the design pressure, and showed a volume expansion of 30% above the original capacity before rupture in a completely ductile fashion. Reference CAPE-323. 9 figs

  19. Convective heat transfer around vertical jet fires: An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozanoglu, Bulent, E-mail: bulentu.kozanoglu@udlap.mx [Universidad de las Americas, Puebla (Mexico); Zarate, Luis [Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla (Mexico); Gomez-Mares, Mercedes [Universita di Bologna (Italy); Casal, Joaquim [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experiments were carried out to analyze convection around a vertical jet fire. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Convection heat transfer is enhanced increasing the flame length. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nusselt number grows with higher values of Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In subsonic flames, Nusselt number increases with Froude number. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Convection and radiation are equally important in causing a domino effect. - Abstract: The convection heat transfer phenomenon in vertical jet fires was experimentally analyzed. In these experiments, turbulent propane flames were generated in subsonic as well as sonic regimes. The experimental data demonstrated that the rate of convection heat transfer increases by increasing the length of the flame. Assuming the solid flame model, the convection heat transfer coefficient was calculated. Two equations in terms of adimensional numbers were developed. It was found out that the Nusselt number attains greater values for higher values of the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. On the other hand, the Froude number was analyzed only for the subsonic flames where the Nusselt number grows by this number and the diameter of the orifice.

  20. Study of the Accident Environment During Sea Transport of Nuclear Material: Analysis of an Engine-room Fire on a Purpose-built Ship (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Kitamura, T.; Shibata, K.; Ouchi, Y.; Ito, T.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Pierce, J.D.; Koski, J.A.; Dukart, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    The programme goal was to show that the IAEA safe transport regulations adequately cover the thermal effects of an engine-room fire on plutonium transport packages stowed aboard a purpose-built ship. The packages are stored in transport containers located in a cargo hold of the ship. For this study, it was assumed that the packages in No 5 hold, adjacent to an engine-room, could be subject to heating due to a fire in the engine-room. The No 5 hold and the engine-room are separated by a water-filled bulkhead. This study addressed the heat transfer from an engine-room fire that could heat and evaporate water out of the water-filled bulkhead and the resulting temperature conditions around the packages and inside the packages near their elastometric seals. (author)

  1. Experimental study of fire barriers preventing vertical fire spread in ETISs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Huang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the external thermal insulation system (ETIS has been applied increasingly in a large amount of buildings for energy conservation purpose. However, the increase use of combustible insulation materials in the ETIS has raised serious fire safety problems. Fires involving this type of ETIS have caused severe damage and loss. In order to improve its fire safety, fire barriers were suggested to be installed. This paper introduces fire experiments that have been done to study the effects of fire barriers on preventing vertical fire spread along the ETIS. The experiments were performed according to BS 8414-1:2002 “Fire performance of external cladding systems – Part 1: Test method for non-loadbearing external cladding systems applied to the face of the building”. The test facility consists of a 9 m high wall. The fire sources were wood cribs with a fire size of 3 ± 0.5 MW. The insulation materials were expanded polystyrene foam (EPS. The fire barrier was a horizontal strip of rockwool with a width of 300 mm. Thermocouples were used to measure temperatures outside and inside the ETIS. A series of experiments with different fire scenarios were done: no fire barrier, two fire barriers and three fire barriers at different heights. Test results were compared. The results show that the ETIS using EPS without fire barriers almost burned out, while the ETIS with fire barriers performed well in preventing fire spread. The temperatures above the fire barrier were much lower than those below the fire barrier, and most of the insulation materials above the top fire barrier stayed in place.

  2. An experimental evaluation of fire history reconstruction using dendrochronology in white oak (Quercus alba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan W. McEwan; Todd F. Hutchinson; Robert D. Ford; Brian C. McCarthy

    2007-01-01

    Dendrochronological analysis of fire scars on tree cross sections has been critically important for understanding historical fire regimes and has influenced forest management practices. Despite its value as a tool for understanding historical ecosystems, tree-ring-based fire history reconstruction has rarely been experimentally evaluated. To examine the efficacy of...

  3. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire...

  4. Experimental Benchmarking of Fire Modeling Simulations. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, Miles; Lopez, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    A series of large-scale fire tests were performed at Sandia National Laboratories to simulate a nuclear waste transport package under severe accident conditions. The test data were used to benchmark and adjust the Container Analysis Fire Environment (CAFE) computer code. CAFE is a computational fluid dynamics fire model that accurately calculates the heat transfer from a large fire to a massive engulfed transport package. CAFE will be used in transport package design studies and risk analyses

  5. Experimental outgassing of toxic chemicals to simulate the characteristics of hazards tainting globally shipped products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Therese Budnik

    Full Text Available Ambient monitoring analyses may identify potential new public health hazards such as residual levels of fumigants and industrial chemicals off gassing from products and goods shipped globally. We analyzed container air with gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (TD-2D-GC-MS/FPD and assessed whether the concentration of the volatiles benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane exceeded recommended exposure limits (REL. Products were taken from transport containers and analyzed for outgassing of volatiles. Furthermore, experimental outgassing was performed on packaging materials and textiles, to simulate the hazards tainting from globally shipped goods. The mean amounts of benzene in analyzed container air were 698-fold higher, and those of ethylene dichloride were 4.5-fold higher than the corresponding REL. More than 90% of all containers struck with toluene residues higher than its REL. For 1,2-dichloroethane 53% of containers, transporting shoes exceeded the REL. In standardized experimental fumigation of various products, outgassing of 1,2-dichloroethane under controlled laboratory conditions took up to several months. Globally produced transported products tainted with toxic industrial chemicals may contribute to the mixture of volatiles in indoor air as they are likely to emit for a long period. These results need to be taken into account for further evaluation of safety standards applying to workers and consumers.

  6. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Hull Girder Vibrations and Bow Impact of a Large Ship Sailing in Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is of great importance to evaluate the hull structural vibrations response of large ships in extreme seas. Studies of hydroelastic response of an ultra large ship have been conducted with comparative verification between experimental and numerical methods in order to estimate the wave loads response considering hull vibration and water impact. A segmented self-propelling model with steel backbone system was elaborately designed and the experiments were performed in a tank. Time domain numerical simulations of the ship were carried out by using three-dimensional nonlinear hydroelasticity theory. The results from the computational analyses have been correlated with those from model tests.

  7. Experimental Studies on the Flammability and Fire Hazards of Photovoltaic Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-Yun; Zhou, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Li-Zhong; Zhang, Tao-Lin

    2015-07-09

    Many of the photovoltaic (PV) systems on buildings are of sufficiently high voltages, with potential to cause or promote fires. However, research about photovoltaic fires is insufficient. This paper focuses on the flammability and fire hazards of photovoltaic modules. Bench-scale experiments based on polycrystalline silicon PV modules have been conducted using a cone calorimeter. Several parameters including ignition time ( t ig ), mass loss, heat release rate (HRR), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration, were investigated. The fire behaviours, fire hazards and toxicity of gases released by PV modules are assessed based on experimental results. The results show that PV modules under tests are inflammable with the critical heat flux of 26 kW/m². This work will lead to better understanding on photovoltaic fires and how to help authorities determine the appropriate fire safety provisions for controlling photovoltaic fires.

  8. Experimental Studies on the Flammability and Fire Hazards of Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yun Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Many of the photovoltaic (PV systems on buildings are of sufficiently high voltages, with potential to cause or promote fires. However, research about photovoltaic fires is insufficient. This paper focuses on the flammability and fire hazards of photovoltaic modules. Bench-scale experiments based on polycrystalline silicon PV modules have been conducted using a cone calorimeter. Several parameters including ignition time (tig, mass loss, heat release rate (HRR, carbon monoxide (CO and carbon dioxide (CO2 concentration, were investigated. The fire behaviours, fire hazards and toxicity of gases released by PV modules are assessed based on experimental results. The results show that PV modules under tests are inflammable with the critical heat flux of 26 kW/m2. This work will lead to better understanding on photovoltaic fires and how to help authorities determine the appropriate fire safety provisions for controlling photovoltaic fires.

  9. Repeated experimental fires and window of disturbance in relation to runoff in a Mediterranean shrubland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gimeno-García

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on exploring the effect of repeated experimental fires on post-fire runoff generation through a sixteen years monitoring runoff yield from erosion plots (eight years after the first fire and other eight years after the second one in a Mediterranean shrubland area (La Concordia Experimental Station, considering the fire severity and the post-fire erosive rainfall events. The conceptual framework of the window of disturbance is used to analyze how long the runoff yield in burned plots shows clear differences respect to the unburned ones, as well as, the recovery-rate model for multiple fire events. Results show that the effect of repeated fires on runoff yield is related to a combination of fire severity, climatic conditions (mainly rainfall intensity, I30, soil hydrological properties (infiltration capacity, steady state infiltration and soil water retention capacity, and rate of vegetation recovery. Eight years after the first fire, even though soil hydrological properties are recovered as well as vegetation cover did, rainfall events with I30 ≥20 mm h-1 still promoted differences between burned and control plots. The second post-fire disturbance period was associated with the low vegetation recovery, and also with rainfall events with I30 ≥20 mm h-1 even seven years after the repeated fires.

  10. Experimental investigation of frictional resistance reduction with air layer on the hull bottom of a ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Jinho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to cope with recent high oil price and global warming, developments of air lubricated ships have been pursued to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to save fuel costs by reducing the frictional resistance. In this study, reduction in the frictional resistance by air lubrication with air layers generated on the lower surface of a flat plate was investigated experimentally in the large water tunnel of SSMB. The generated air layers were observed, and changes in the local frictional drag were measured at various flow rates of injected air. The results indicated that air lubrication with air layers might be useful in reducing the frictional resistance at specific conditions of air injection. Accordingly, resistance and self-propulsion tests for a 66K DWT bulk carrier were carried out in the towing tank of SSMB to estimate the expected net power savings.

  11. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must...

  12. Hydrological response of a small catchment burned by experimental fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Vervoort, R.W.; Iwema, J.; Elsen, van den H.G.M.; Ferreira, A.J.D.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Fire can considerably change hydrological processes, increasing the risk of extreme flooding and erosion events. Although hydrological processes are largely affected by scale, catchment-scale studies on the hydrological impact of fire in Europe are scarce, and nested approaches are rarely used. We

  13. Experimental and numerical modeling of shrub crown fire initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharapong Tachajapong; Jesse Lozano; Shakar Mahalingam; Xiangyang Zhou; David Weise

    2009-01-01

    The transition of fire from dry surface fuels to wet shrub crown fuels was studied using laboratory experiments and a simple physical model to gain a better understanding of the transition process. In the experiments, we investigated the effects of varying vertical distances between surface and crown fuels (crown base height), and of the wind speed on crown fire...

  14. Ethnoecology of Fire: An Experimental Approach in the Ohio Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin B. Hines; Jan Salick; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland; Todd F. Hutchinson; Steve Sutherland; Steve Sutherland

    2000-01-01

    Native Americans used fire to manipulate nature and directly benefit their survival. Certain plant species, many of which were useful to Native Americans as sources of food, fiber, dye, medicine, and game browse, are adapted to survive and even thrive in post-burn environments. Evidence suggests that Native Americans intentionally set fires to encourage growth and...

  15. Structural fire resistance experimental research priority needs of U.S. industry

    CERN Document Server

    Almand, Kathleen H

    2012-01-01

    Structural Fire Resistance Experimental Research – Priority Needs of U.S. Industry provides a synthesis of stakeholder input to a prioritized agenda for research at the National Fire Research Laboratory (NFRL) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) designed to accelerate the implementation of performance-based fire engineering for structures. The NFRL presents a broad range of unanswered questions regarding the performance of real structures in fire conditions, and informs performance-based design methods and standards in this field. The authors conducted a comprehensive literature review of large-scale structural fire testing and compiled research needs from a variety of sources. The book addresses major issues of broad concern in the fire community, such as real fire exposure and structural response, composite floor system performance, enhancing modeling performance, and understanding the embedded safety features in design methods. It concludes with a prioritized set of research reco...

  16. An Experimental Investigation on Fire Behavior of Expanded Polystyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bakhtiary

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Fire behavior of different types of EPS was evaluated with the use of ISO 5660 cone calorimeter test method. Considering the complexity of behavior of EPS against high temperatures, several specimens were tested, so a betterjudgment on fire behavior of this material could be acquired. The effects of foam density, thickness of specimens and the level of heat flux on fire behavior of foam were examined. The relation between total heat release (THR and heat release rate (HRR with the density of the specimens were examined. The increase of thickness showed a two-fold influence on the fire behavior of the specimens. In one side, the mass of fuel increases with thickness, hence the THR and HRR needs to be increased. Contrary to that however, as EPS quickly melts and recedes away the heat source athigh temperatures, the incident heat flux on specimen conciderably reduces with increase of thickness and as a result the time to ignition will be lengthened with increase of thickness. These observations are discussed in the paper. On the basis of our results the comparison between the fire behavior of fire-retarded and standard types of foam is also discussed in the paper.

  17. FIRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brtis, J.S.; Hausheer, T.G.

    1990-01-01

    FIRE, a microcomputer based program to assist engineers in reviewing and documenting the fire protection impact of design changes has been developed. Acting as an electronic consultant, FIRE is designed to work with an experienced nuclear system engineer, who may not have any detailed fire protection expertise. FIRE helps the engineer to decide if a modification might adversely affect the fire protection design of the station. Since its first development, FIRE has been customized to reflect the fire protection philosophy of the Commonwealth Edison Company. That program is in early production use. This paper discusses the FIRE program in light of its being a useful application of expert system technologies in the power industry

  18. Numerical simulation and experimental research on wake field of ships under off-design conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chun-yu; Wu, Tie-cheng; Zhang, Qi; Gong, Jie

    2016-10-01

    Different operating conditions (e.g. design and off-design) may lead to a significant difference in the hydrodynamics performance of a ship, especially in the total resistance and wake field of ships. This work investigated the hydrodynamic performance of the well-known KRISO 3600 TEU Container Ship (KCS) under three different operating conditions by means of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The comparison results show that the use of PIV to measure a ship's nominal wake field is an important method which has the advantages of being contactless and highly accurate. Acceptable agreements between the results obtained by the two different methods are achieved. Results indicate that the total resistances of the KCS model under two off-design conditions are 23.88% and 13.92% larger than that under the designed condition, respectively.

  19. Thermodynamic aspects of an LNG tank in fire and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsbosch-Dam, Corina; Atli-Veltin, Bilim; Kamperveen, Jerry; Velthuis, Han; Reinders, Johan; Spruijt, Mark; Vredeveldt, Lex

    Mechanical behaviour of a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tank and the thermodynamic behaviour of its containment under extreme heat load - for instance when subjected to external fire source as might occur during an accident - are extremely important when addressing safety concerns. In a scenario where external fire is present and consequent release of LNG from pressure relief valves (PRV) has occurred, escalation of the fire might occur causing difficulty for the fire response teams to approach the tank or to secure the perimeter. If the duration of the tank exposure to fire is known, the PRV opening time can be estimated based on the thermodynamic calculations. In this paper, such an accidental scenario is considered, relevant thermodynamic equations are derived and presented. Moreover, an experiment is performed with liquid nitrogen and the results are compared to the analytical ones. The analytical results match very well with the experimental observations. The resulting analytical models are suitable to be applied to other cryogenic liquids.

  20. Modelling of electrical cabinet fires based on the CARMELA experimental program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melis, S.; Rigollet, L.; Such, J.M.; Casselman, C.

    2004-01-01

    As fire of electrical cabinets causes some hazard to nuclear safety, IRSN has conducted the CARMELA program to investigate this topic. The program was carried out in three stages. The two first stages consisted in analytical experiments where the combustible was simulated by thin plastic pieces and where the different parameters that influence the fire could be easily varied. The third stage involved real relay cabinets. This article first describes the experimental facility and the test matrix. The phenomenology of electrical cabinet fires is then exposed and the most influencing parameters are identified from the analytical experiments: the ventilation comes at first rank but the materials involved are also shown to influence the propagation of the fire. The model developed to represent the fire, and particularly the rate of heat released, is then presented and the comparison of its results with the measurements performed in the experiments shows that its validity is acceptable. (orig.)

  1. Effects of experimental repeated fires in the soil aggregation and its temporal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Julian; Gimeno, Eugenia; Andreu, Vicente; Gonzalez, Oscar; Rubio, Jose Luis

    2013-04-01

    Forest fires are an important problem in the Mediterranean and change our forest topsoils with still unknown consequences for important ecosystem services, such as water availability, plant growth and carbon sequestration. The total area affected by forest fires in Mediterranean countries of the European Union has declined since 1980, and the number of fires in this region tends to stabilize. However, in countries like Spain and Portugal the number of fires tends to increase. This fact seems to support future predictions indicating a general tendency to increase the number of forest fires, related to the climate change. According to European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS), 102349 ha of the Spanish forest surface were burned in the summer of 2012 (01/06- 11/08/), of which 54186 ha were registered in the Valencia region. In this sense, to assess post-fire soil recovery aggregate stability has been used as an indicator in the Experimental Station of La Concordia (Valencia, Spain), where experimental fires were carried out in1995 and 2003, in a set of nine plots (20x4m). The soil studied is a Rendzic Leptosol. The stability of macroaggregates (SMS, Ø >250 μm), soil organic matter (SOM) and calcium carbonate contents, aggregates size and water erosion processes, were analysed in relation to fire severity and its recurrence, in two environments (under canopy, UC, and bare soils, BS), and in the short- and medium-term of two fires. In 1995, different fire treatments were applied to obtain different fire severities: three plots were burned with high severity fire, other three plots with moderate one, and the remainder plots were left unburned (control). In 2003, the same plots were burned again with low severity fires. The study was performed until summer of 2007. In general, soil environment explained significant differences in the soil properties between under canopy and bare soils. Only in the short-term of repeated fires, CaCO3 content, macroaggregate mean

  2. Results of the power-up test of the nuclear-powered ship MUTSU and test programs of her experimental voyages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Masa-aki; Ishida, Toshihisa; Itagaki, Masafumi; Sakamoto, Yukio; Kyouya, Masahiko

    1991-01-01

    The power-up test of N.S. MUTSU was performed successfully almost on schedule in spite of minor troubles resolved in a short time, and the results of various areas were satisfactory. The official sea trial was well carried out. Then, the ship was officially designated the first nuclear ship in Japan. Experimental voyages are to be performed to yield profitable data for further research on nuclear ships in the future. (author)

  3. Experimental Study of Thermoelectric Generator as Electrical Source of Impressed Current Cathodic Protection for Ship Hull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Kurniawan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP is a method to protect metallic material such as ship hull from corrosion by using electric current. In this research, a prototype of thermoelectric generator is developed in order to supply the ICCP system. This thermoelectric generator is planned to utilize the exhaust gas from main engine of the ship. Method carried in this research is assembling the prototype of thermoelectric generator followed by conducted experiment to observe the potential energy of the prototype. After that, the required number of thermoelectric generator is calculated to supply the ICCP system to protect the ship from corrosion. The object in this research is live fish carrier “Wellboat” which has 396.08 m2 wetted area. The required voltage and current to protect the ship from corrosion for three years are 16.67 Volt and 2.66 Ampere. Based on the experiment, a prototype of thermoelectric generator can generate 0.34 Ampere and 4.43 Volt, causing the need of 8 series and 4 parallels connection. It can be concluded that the corrosion rate on the ship hull can be decelerated by using impressed current cathodic protection method without needing additional cost or fuel consumption to produce electric energy.  

  4. Enclosed Small and Medium Caliber Firing Experimental Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility conducts completely instrumented terminal ballistics experimental tests with small and medium-caliber tungsten alloy penetrators against advanced armor...

  5. Gypsum plasterboards enhanced with phase change materials: A fire safety assessment using experimental and computational techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolaitis Dionysios I.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Phase Change Materials (PCM can be used for thermal energy storage, aiming to enhance building energy efficiency. Recently, gypsum plasterboards with incorporated paraffin-based PCM blends have become commercially available. In the high temperature environment developed during a fire, the paraffins, which exhibit relatively low boiling points, may evaporate and, escaping through the gypsum plasterboard's porous structure, emerge to the fire region, where they may ignite, thus adversely affecting the fire resistance characteristics of the building. Aiming to assess the fire safety behaviour of such building materials, an extensive experimental and computational analysis is performed. The fire behaviour and the main thermo-physical physical properties of PCM-enhanced gypsum plasterboards are investigated, using a variety of standard tests and devices (Scanning Electron Microscopy, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, Cone Calorimeter. The obtained results are used to develop a dedicated numerical model, which is implemented in a CFD code. CFD simulations are validated using measurements obtained in a cone calorimeter. In addition, the CFD code is used to simulate an ISO 9705 room exposed to fire conditions, demonstrating that PCM addition may indeed adversely affect the fire safety of a gypsum plasterboard clad building.

  6. Physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion-generated particles from coal-fired power plant, automobile and ship engine and charcoal kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwajin

    2015-04-01

    Similarities and differences in physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion generated particles from various sources were investigated. Coal-fired power plant, charcoal kiln, automobile and ship engine were major sources, representing combustions of coal, biomass and two different types of diesel, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) equipped with both SEM and HRTEM were used for physico-chemical analysis. Light absorbing properties were assessed using a spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. Particles generated from different combustion sources and conditions demonstrate great variability in their morphology, structure and composition. From coal-fired power plant, both fly ash and flue gas were mostly composed of heterogeneously mixed mineral ash spheres, suggesting that the complete combustion was occurred releasing carbonaceous species out at high temperature (1200-1300 °C). Both automobile and ship exhausts from diesel combustions show typical features of soot: concentric circles comprised of closely-packed graphene layers. However, heavy fuel oil (HFO) combusted particles from ship exhaust demonstrate more complex compositions containing different morphology of particles other than soot, e.g., spherical shape of char particles composed of minerals and carbon. Even for the soot aggregates, particles from HFO burning have different chemical compositions; carbon is dominated but Ca (29.8%), S (28.7%), Na(1%), and Mg(1%) are contained, respectively which were not found from particles of automobile emission. This indicates that chemical compositions and burning conditions are significant to determine the fate of particles. Finally, from biomass burning, amorphous and droplet-like carbonaceous particles with no crystallite structure are observed and they are generally formed by the condensation of low volatile species at low

  7. Metal fires and their implications for advanced reactors. Part 3: Experimental and modeling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Figueroa, Victor G.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Hewson, John C.; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2010-01-01

    This report details the primary results of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project (LDRD 08-0857) Metal Fires and Their Implications for Advance Reactors. Advanced reactors may employ liquid metal coolants, typically sodium, because of their many desirable qualities. This project addressed some of the significant challenges associated with the use of liquid metal coolants, primary among these being the extremely rapid oxidation (combustion) that occurs at the high operating temperatures in reactors. The project has identified a number of areas for which gaps existed in knowledge pertinent to reactor safety analyses. Experimental and analysis capabilities were developed in these areas to varying degrees. In conjunction with team participation in a DOE gap analysis panel, focus was on the oxidation of spilled sodium on thermally massive surfaces. These are spills onto surfaces that substantially cool the sodium during the oxidation process, and they are relevant because standard risk mitigation procedures seek to move spill environments into this regime through rapid draining of spilled sodium. While the spilled sodium is not quenched, the burning mode is different in that there is a transition to a smoldering mode that has not been comprehensively described previously. Prior work has described spilled sodium as a pool fire, but there is a crucial, experimentally-observed transition to a smoldering mode of oxidation. A series of experimental measurements have comprehensively described the thermal evolution of this type of sodium fire for the first time. A new physics-based model has been developed that also predicts the thermal evolution of this type of sodium fire for the first time. The model introduces smoldering oxidation through porous oxide layers to go beyond traditional pool fire analyses that have been carried out previously in order to predict experimentally observed trends. Combined, these developments add significantly to the safety

  8. Experimental study on combustion characteristics of sodium fire in a columnar flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhigang; Peng Kangwei; Guo Ming; Huo Yan

    2014-01-01

    In the operation of the sodium-cooled fast reactor, the accident caused by the leakage and combustion of liquid sodium is common and frequent in sodium-related facilities. This paper is based on an experimental study of sodium fire in a columnar flow, which was carried out to focus on the burning characteristics by analyzing the temperature fields in the burner. The injection of 200°C liquid sodium with the flux of 0.5 m 3 /h was poured into a 7.9 m 3 volume stainless steel cylindrical burner to shape a sodium fire, and the data of temperature fields in the burner have been collected by dozens of thermocouples which are laid in the combustion space and sodium collection plate. These results show that the sodium fire in a columnar flow is composed of the foregoing centered columnar fire, the subsequent spray fire caused by atomization and the pool fire on the collection plate. The temperature close to the burning sodium flow maximally reaches up to 950°C. The radial temperatures apart from the sodium flow are relatively low and generally about 200°C, and maximally just 300°C even when close to the sodium collection plate. The maximum temperature of the burning sodium dropping on the collection plate rises in the center of plate, about 528°C. This study is helpful to evaluate the combustion characteristics, formation process and composing forms of the sodium fire in the sodium-related facilities. (author)

  9. Thermodynamic aspects of an LNG tank in fire and experimental validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulsbosch-Dam Corina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical behaviour of a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG tank and the thermodynamic behaviour of its containment under extreme heat load – for instance when subjected to external fire source as might occur during an accident - are extremely important when addressing safety concerns. In a scenario where external fire is present and consequent release of LNG from pressure relief valves (PRV has occurred, escalation of the fire might occur causing difficulty for the fire response teams to approach the tank or to secure the perimeter. If the duration of the tank exposure to fire is known, the PRV opening time can be estimated based on the thermodynamic calculations. In this paper, such an accidental scenario is considered, relevant thermodynamic equations are derived and presented. Moreover, an experiment is performed with liquid nitrogen and the results are compared to the analytical ones. The analytical results match very well with the experimental observations. The resulting analytical models are suitable to be applied to other cryogenic liquids.

  10. Numerical Field Model Simulation of Full Scale Fire Tests in a Closed Spherical/Cylindrical Vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    the behavior of an actual fire on board a ship. The computer model will be verified by the experimental data obtained in Fire-l. It is important to... behavior in simulations where convection is important. The upwind differencing scheme takes into account the unsymmetrical phenomenon of convection by using...TANK CELL ON THE NORTH SIDE) FOR A * * PARTICULAR FIRE CELL * * COSUMS (I,J) = THE ARRAY TO STORE THE SIMILIAR VALUE FOR THE FIRE * * CELL TO THE SOUTH

  11. Experimental research on the residual mechanical properties of an ordinary concretes after fire

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, C.C.; Rodrigues, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental research to assess the residual mechanical properties of an ordinary concrete after fire. It was studied the influence of the cooling process, the maximum temperature that the concrete was subjected to and the loading level on the residual mechanical properties of calcareous and granite aggregate concretes. The properties studied were the residual compressive, tensile, splitting and flexural strengths and modulus of elasticit...

  12. Strengthening the composite protective shield of light-weight ship against ballistic impacts: analytical and experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Jalili

    Full Text Available Light and medium protection for small naval vessels guarantees their high performance and safety during the guard duties. In this study, a protective shield fabricated from Dyneema HB25 fibers has been utilized as an add-on layer on the coast guard boat hull. Finite element analyses have been conducted using Chocron's model. Two standards of gun-fire were employed and various thicknesses of the composite layers were examined by ballistic impacts. Afterward, numerical simulations results compared with experiments and revealed a good consistency. Finally, some graphs have been presented to help designers for choosing more convenient shield based on protection and weight characteristics after judgment of vessel requirements.

  13. 46 CFR 167.45-80 - Fire axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire axes. 167.45-80 Section 167.45-80 Shipping COAST... Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-80 Fire axes. (a) All nautical school ships shall be provided with fire axes, as follows: Number of axes Gross tons of nautical school ships: All not over 50...

  14. Post-fire soil functionality and microbial community structure in a Mediterranean shrubland subjected to experimental drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, M Belén; Parra, Antonio; Laudicina, Vito Armando; Moreno, José M

    2016-12-15

    Fire may cause significant alterations in soil properties. Post-fire soil dynamics can vary depending, among other factors, on rainfall patterns. However, little is known regarding variations in response to post-fire drought. This is relevant in arid and semiarid areas with poor soils, like much of the western Mediterranean. Furthermore, climate change projections in such areas anticipate reduced precipitation and longer annual drought periods, together with an increase in fire severity and frequency. This research evaluates the effects of experimental drought after fire on soil dynamics of a Cistus-Erica shrubland (Central Spain). A replicated (n=4) field experiment was conducted in which the total rainfall and its patterns were manipulated by means of a rain-out shelters and irrigation system. The treatments were: environmental control (natural rainfall), historical control (average rainfall, 2months drought), moderate drought (25% reduction of historical control, 5months drought) and severe drought (45% reduction, 7months drought). After one growing season under these rainfall treatments, the plots were burned. One set of unburned plots under natural rainfall served as an additional control. Soils were collected seasonally. Fire increased soil P and N availability. Post-fire drought treatments reduced available soil P but increased N concentration (mainly nitrate). Fire reduced available K irrespective of drought treatments. Fire reduced enzyme activities and carbon mineralization rate, a reduction that was higher in post-fire drought-treated soils. Fire decreased soil microbial biomass and the proportion of fungi, while that of actinomycetes increased. Post-fire drought decreased soil total microbial biomass and fungi, with bacteria becoming more abundant. Our results support that increasing drought after fire could compromise the resilience of Mediterranean ecosystems to fire. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental analysis of a combustion reactor under co-firing coal with biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Fabyo Luiz; Bazzo, Edson; Oliveira Junior, Amir Antonio Martins de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). LabCET], e-mail: ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia S.A., Complexo Termeletrico Jorge Lacerda, Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil)], e-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Mitigation of greenhouse gases emission is one of the most important issues in energy engineering. Biomass is a potential renewable source but with limited use in large scale energy production because of the relative smaller availability as compared to fossil fuels, mainly to coal. Besides, the costs concerning transportation must be well analysed to determine its economic viability. An alternative for the use of biomass as a primary source of energy is the co-firing, that is the possibility of using two or more types of fuels combined in the combustion process. Biomass can be co-fired with coal in a fraction between 10 to 25% in mass basis (or 4 to 10% in heat-input basis) without seriously impacting the heat release characteristics of most boilers. Another advantage of cofiring, besides the significant reductions in fossil CO{sub 2} emissions, is the reduced emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}. As a result, co-firing is becoming attractive for power companies worldwide. This paper presents results of some experimental analysis on co-firing coal with rice straw in a combustion reactor. The influence of biomass thermal share in ash composition is also discussed, showing that alkali and earth alkaline compounds play the most important role on the fouling and slagging behavior when co-firing. Some fusibility correlations that can assist in the elucidation of these behavior are presented and discussed, and then applied to the present study. Results show that for a biomass thermal share up to 20%, significant changes are not expected in fouling and slagging behavior of ash. (author)

  16. Experimental and numerical analysis of the cooling performance of water spraying systems during a fire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YaoHan Chen

    Full Text Available The water spray systems are effective protection systems in the confined or unconfined spaces to avoid the damage to building structures since the high temperature when fires occur. NFPA 15 and 502 have suggested respectively that the factories or vehicle tunnels install water spray systems to protect the machinery and structures. This study discussed the cooling effect of water spray systems in experimental and numerical analyses. The actual combustion of woods were compared with the numerical simulations. The results showed that although the flame continued, the cooling effects by water spraying process within 120 seconds were obvious. The results also indicated that the simulation results of the fifth version Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS overestimated the space temperature before water spraying in the case of the same water spray system.

  17. Calculation of shipboard fire conditions for radioactive materials packages with the methods of computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.

    1997-09-01

    Shipboard fires both in the same ship hold and in an adjacent hold aboard a break-bulk cargo ship are simulated with a commercial finite-volume computational fluid mechanics code. The fire models and modeling techniques are described and discussed. Temperatures and heat fluxes to a simulated materials package are calculated and compared to experimental values. The overall accuracy of the calculations is assessed

  18. 46 CFR 181.300 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 181.300 Section 181.300 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.300 Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must be..., the minimum capacity of the fire pump must be 189 liters (50 gallons) per minute at a pressure of not...

  19. Design of Fire/Gas Penetration Seals and fire exposure tests for Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor experimental areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalluzzo, S.

    1983-01-01

    A Fire/Gas Penetration Seal is required in every penetration through the walls and ceilings into the Test Cell housing the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), as well as other adjacent areas to protect the TFTR from fire damage. The penetrations are used for field coil lead stems, diagnostics systems, utilities, cables, trays, mechanical devices, electrical conduits, vacuum liner, air conditioning ducts, water pipes, and gas pipes. The function of the Fire/Gas Penetration Seals is to prevent the passage of fire and products of combustion through penetrations for a period of time up to three hours and remain structurally intact during fire exposure. The Penetration Seal must withstand, without rupture, a fire hose water stream directed at the hot surface. There are over 3000 penetrations ranging in size from several square inches to 100 square feet, and classified into 90 different types. The material used to construct the Fire/Gas Penetration Seals consist of a single and a two-component room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) silicone rubber compound. Miscellaneous materials such as alumina silica refractory fibers in board, blanket and fiber forms are also used in the construction and assembly of the Seals. This paper describes some of the penetration seals and the test procedures used to perform the three-hour fire exposure tests to demonstrate the adequacy of the seals

  20. Experimental and modeling studies of fire in compartments at Electricite de France, Research and Development Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, B.

    1997-12-01

    Since 1985, The Research and Development Division at Electricite de France has been in charge, through the development of the software MAGIC, to simulate the fire propagation in Nuclear Plants. The research program has included, since its beginning, an experimental activity dedicated to the combustion of fluids and electrical cables. This paper gives an overview of the works in progress and presents the latest results obtained, in particular in cable combustion. In this field, a three scale approach has been carried on, based on micro-thermo-gravimetry, calorimetry and real scale experiments. (author)

  1. Experimental Study on the Burning Behavior of Pool Fires in Rooms with Different Wall Linings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Annemarie; Jomaas, Grunde

    2011-01-01

    An experimental test series, comprising 10 experiments with varying pool sizes, lining materials and amounts of liquid burning, was conducted under free burn and room burn conditions. The thermal feedback from the enclosure (ISO 9705 Room Corner Test facility) enhanced the burning rate of the poo...... in the shortest time. Given the profound difference between the enclosure tests and the free burn tests and also between enclosure tests with different linings, it is recommended to show great caution if free burn tests are to be used in design fire scenarios....

  2. Added masses of ship structures

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkin, Alexandr I

    2008-01-01

    This essentially self-contained reference book contains data on added masses of ships and various ship and marine engineering structures. Theoretical and experimental methods for determining added masses of these objects are described.

  3. The interactive effects of fire and diversity on short-term responses of ecosystem processes in experimental mediterranean grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, Panayiotis G; Siamantziouras, Akis-Stavros D; Galanidis, Alexandros; Mprezetou, Irene; Troumbis, Andreas Y

    2006-06-01

    We conducted a field experiment using constructed communities to test whether species richness contributed to the maintenance of ecosystem processes under fire disturbance. We studied the effects of diversity components (i.e., species richness and species composition) upon productivity, structural traits of vegetation, decomposition rates, and soil nutrients between burnt and unburnt experimental Mediterranean grassland communities. Our results demonstrated that fire and species richness had interactive effects on aboveground biomass production and canopy structure components. Fire increased biomass production of the highest-richness communities. The effects of fire on aboveground biomass production at different levels of species richness were derived from changes in both vertical and horizontal canopy structure of the communities. The most species-rich communities appeared to be more resistant to fire in relation to species-poor ones, due to both compositional and richness effects. Interactive effects of fire and species richness were not important for belowground processes. Decomposition rates increased with species richness, related in part to increased levels of canopy structure traits. Fire increased soil nutrients and long-term decomposition rate. Our results provide evidence that composition within richness levels had often larger effects on the stability of aboveground ecosystem processes in the face of fire disturbance than species richness per se.

  4. IPSN's experimental programmes on fires; Les recherches experimentales de l'IPSN sur les feux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-06

    Every year fires occur in nuclear installations as they do in any industrial facility. They feed on cables, electrical equipment cabinets, oils, solvents..., they might lead to the degradation of the safety standard of the installation or they might threaten the confinement of radioactive materials. In this document IPSN presents its experimental programmes and its facilities in Saclay and Cadarache designed to study the triggering and the propagation of fires and flames in closed and ventilated premises. (A.C.)

  5. Fuel moisture influences on fire-altered carbon in masticated fuels: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan W. Brewer; Alistair M.S. Smith; Jeffery A. Hatten; Philip E. Higuera; Andrew T. Hudak; Roger D. Ottmar; Wade T. Tinkham

    2013-01-01

    Biomass burning is a significant contributor to atmospheric carbon emissions but may also provide an avenue in which fire-affected ecosystems can accumulate carbon over time, through the generation of highly resistant fire-altered carbon. Identifying how fuel moisture, and subsequent changes in the fire behavior, relates to the production of fire-altered carbon is...

  6. Nuclear ship accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-05-01

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  7. Theoretical and experimental evaluation of an indirect-fired GAX cycle cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, V.H.; Vidal, A. [Posgrado en Ingenieria, Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Apdo. Postal 34, 62580 Temixco Morelos (Mexico); Best, R.; Garcia-Valladares, O. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Apdo. Postal 34, 62580 Temixco Morelos (Mexico); Velazquez, N. [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Calle de la Normal S/N, Insurgentes Este, 21280 Mexicali, BC (Mexico)

    2008-06-15

    A theoretical and experimental evaluation of an indirect-fired GAX-Prototype Cooling System (GAX-PCS), using ammonia-water as the working fluid, is presented. The GAX-PCS was designed for a cooling capacity of 10.6 kW (3 tons). A simulation model was developed, calibrated and validated with experimental values in order to predict the performance of the system outside the design parameters. Experimental results were obtained using thermal oil, at temperatures from 180 to 195 C, as heating source. An internal heat recovery in the system of {proportional_to}55% with respect to the total heat supplied in the generator was obtained. Also the performance of the GAX absorption system, integrated to a micro gas turbine (MGT) as a cogeneration system was simulated. Overall efficiencies for the cogeneration system from 29% to 49% were obtained for cooling loads from 5 kW to 20 kW, respectively. With the theoretical and experimental study of the proposed cycle, it is concluded that the GAX-PCS presents potential to compete technically in the Mexican air conditioning market. (author)

  8. Experimental characterization of fire-induced response of rigid polyurethane foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.Y.; Gill, W.; Moore, J.W.; Hobbs, M.L.; Gritzo, L.A.; Moya, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Reported is the result of an experimental investigation of fire-induced response of a 96 kg/m{sup 3} closed cell rigid polyurethane foam. The specimen is 0.37 m in diameter, and 152 mm thick, placed in a cylindrical test vessel. The fire condition is simulated by heating the bottom of the test vessel to 1283 K using a radiant heat source. Real-time x-ray shows that the degradation process involves the progression of a charring front into the virgin material. The charred region has a regular and graded structure consisting of a packed bubble outer layer and successive layers of thin shells. The layer-to-layer permeability appears to be poor. There are indications that gas vents laterally. The shell-like structure might be the result of lateral venting. Although the foam degradation process is quite complicated, the in-depth temperature responses in the uncharted foam appear to be consistent with steady state ablation. The measured temperature responses are well represented by the exponential distribution for steady state ablation. An estimate of the thermal diffusivity of the foam is obtained from the ablation model. The experiment is part of a more comprehensive program to develop material response models of foams and encapsulants.

  9. Characterizing sub-pixel landsat ETM plus fire severity on experimental fires in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landmann, T

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn severity was quantitatively mapped using a unique linear spectral mixture model to determine sub-pixel abundances of different ashes and combustion completeness measured on the corresponding fire-affected pixels in Landsat data. A new burn...

  10. 46 CFR 118.600 - Fire axe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire axe. 118.600 Section 118.600 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 118.600 Fire axe. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must have at least one fire axe...

  11. 46 CFR 132.360 - Fire axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire axes. 132.360 Section 132.360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.360 Fire axes. (a) Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons must carry one fire axe. (b) Each...

  12. 46 CFR 118.300 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 118.300 Section 118.300 Shipping COAST GUARD... Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must be installed on each vessel. (b) On a..., the fire pump must be capable of delivering a single hose stream from the highest hydrant, through the...

  13. 46 CFR 132.120 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... deck. (g) No branch line may be directly connected to the fire main except for fighting fires or for... main system, it must lead from a discharge manifold near the fire pump. (i) The total cross-sectional... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 132.120 Section 132.120 Shipping COAST GUARD...

  14. Experimental investigation of combustion of biomass slurry in an oil fired furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, S.V. [Mechanical Dept., M.S. Ramaiah Inst. of Tech., Bangalore (India); Shankapal, S.R. [M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bangalore (India)

    2008-07-01

    An experimental investigation of combustion of biomass slurry in an oil fired furnace was carried out using pulverized coconut shell (CSP), LDO and water. The effect of equivalence ratio on the slurry composition, calorific value and the effect of exhaust gas percentage are presented. The calorific value of the biomass slurry increases with equivalence ratio initially, attains a peak value and then decreases with the increase in equivalence ratio. It is also observed that with the increase in composition of biomass slurry, the cost of the fuel and the percentage emission of CO decreases. It was found that CSP up to a blend of 20% was more convenient to be used as a slurry fuel in the furnace. (orig.)

  15. Experimental investigations of sandwich panels using high performance concrete thin plates exposed to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulin, Thomas; Hodicky, Kamil; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2015-01-01

    Structural sandwich panels using thin high performance concrete (HPC) plates offer a possibility to address the modern environmental challenges faced by the construction industry. Fire resistance is a major necessity in structures using HPC. This paper presents experimental studies at elevated...... temperatures for panels with 30 mm thick plates stiffened by structural ribs, thick insulation layers, and steel shear connecting systems. Parametric variation assessing the role of each component of the sandwich structure was performed on unloaded specimens of reduced size. Full size walls were tested...... with load. Tests were performed in standard furnaces, following the conditions of REI certification tests. Unloaded specimens successfully passed tests. Loaded specimens met the R and I requirements, failing E due to sustained flaming of the insulation. They exhibited multiple cracking of their exposed...

  16. Experimental drought induces short-term changes in soil functionality and microbial community structure after fire in a Mediterranean shrubland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, M. B.; Parra, A.; Laudicina, V. A.; Moreno, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    Fire is a major ecosystem driver, causing significant changes in soil nutrients and microbial community structure and functionality. Post-fire soil dynamics can vary depending on rainfall patterns, although variations in response to drought are poorly known. This is particularly important in areas with poor soils and limited rainfall, like arid and semiarid ones. Furthermore, climate change projections in many such areas anticipate reduced precipitation and longer drought, together with an increase in fire severity. The effects of experimental drought and fire were studied on soils in a Mediterranean Cistus-Erica shrubland in Central Spain. A replicated (n = 4) field experiment was carried out in which four levels of rainfall pattern were implemented by means of a rain-out shelters and irrigation system. The treatments were: environmental control (natural rainfall), historical control (long-term average rainfall, 2 months drought), moderate drought (25% reduction of historical control, 5 months drought) and severe drought (45% reduction, 7 months drought). After one growing season, the plots were burned with high fire intensity, except a set of unburned plots that served as control. Soils were collected seasonally during one year and variables related to soil nutrient availability and microbial community structure and functionality were studied. Burned soils increased nutrient availability (P, N, K) with respect to unburned ones, but drought reduced such an increase in P, while it further increased N and K. Such changes in available soil nutrients were short-lived. Drought caused a further decrease of enzyme activities, carbon mineralization rate and microbial biomass. Fire decreased the relative abundance of fungi and actinomycetes. However, fire and drought caused a further reduction in fungi, with bacteria becoming relatively more abundant. Arguably, increasing drought and fires due to climate change will likely shift soil recovery after fire.

  17. Experimental and modeling study of forest fire effect on soil thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen M. Smits; Elizabeth Kirby; William J. Massman; Scott Baggett

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of soil thermal conductivity after a wildfire or controlled burn is important to land management and post-fire recovery efforts. Although soil thermal conductivity has been well studied for non-fire heated soils, comprehensive data that evaluate the long-term effect of extreme heating from a fire on the soil thermal conductivity are limited....

  18. Experimental-theoretical approach to carbon monoxide density calculation at the incipient stage of the fire indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzach, S. V.; Suleykin, E. V.; Akperov, R. G.; Nguyen, T. D.

    2017-11-01

    A new experimental-theoretical approach to the toxic gases concentrations assessment in case of fire indoors is offered. The analytical formulas for calculation of CO average volume density are received. These formulas do not contain the geometrical sizes of the room and surfaces dimensions of combustible materials and, therefore, are valid under conditions of as a small-scale fire as a large-scale fire. A small-scale experimental installation for modeling fire thermal and gas dynamics in the closed or open thermodynamic system has been designed. The results of the experiments on determining dependencies of CO average volume density from average volume temperature and oxygen average volume density as well as dependencies of specific coefficients of CO emission and specific mass rates of the combustible material gasification from the time of tests during the burning of wood, transformer oil and PVC cables shield are presented. The results of numerical experiments on CO density calculation in small and large scale rooms using the proposed analytical solutions, integral, zone and field models for calculation of fire thermal and gas dynamics are presented. The comparison with the experimental data obtained by the authors and given in the literature has been performed. It is shown that CO density calculation in the full-scale room at the incipient stage of the fire can be carried out taking into account only the experimental dependences of CO from temperature or O2 density, that have been obtained from small-scale experiments. Therefore the solution of the equation of carbon monoxide mass conservation law is not necessary.

  19. Experimental Nitrogen Deposition Alters Post-fire Carbon Balance Recovery in Alberta Bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, R. K.; Vile, M. A.; Scott, K. D.; Albright, C. M.; McMillen, K.

    2016-12-01

    Bogs and fens occupy about 30% of the landscape across northern Alberta, Canada and function regionally as a net sink for atmospheric CO2-C, the strength of which is strongly influenced by the frequency and extent of wildfires. Alberta peatlands have persisted at the low end of the global range of annual atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition (exchange, we experimentally applied N (as NH4NO3 solutions) to replicated plots at levels equivalent to controls (C: no water additions), 0 (water only), 10, and 20 kg/ha/yr at five bog sites, aged at 2, 12, 32, 73, and 113 years since fire in 2013 (hummocks and hollows in 6 plots per N treatment per site). Understory net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) was measured repeatedly throughout the 2013-2016 growing seasons using the closed chamber approach. Averaged across all years, sites, plots, and hummocks versus hollows, N addition stimulated NEE rates (C and 0 treatments: 0.46 µmol m-2 s-1; 10 and 20 treatments: 1.16 µmol m-2 s-1) and to a much lesser extent understory dark respiration (ER) rates (C and 0 treatments: -3.26 µmol m-2 s-1; 10 and 20 treatments: -3.43 µmol m-2 s-1). On an annual basis, averaged across all years, sites, and plots, N addition also stimulated NEE for hummocks (C and 0 treatments: -1.0 mol C m-2 yr-1; 10 and 20 treatments: 15.7 mol C m-2 yr-1), but not hollows. Experimental N addition had minimal effects on annual ER. The nature of the N response, however, differed between sites and years. Further, experimental N addition had no effect on the net primary production of Sphagnum fuscum, the dominant peat-forming moss. Thus, the enhancement of the net CO2-C sink through N addition occurs through stimulation of short-statured vascular shrub growth and biomass, with implications for the structure and function of bog understories as they recover after fire under different N deposition regimes.

  20. Experimental investigation on a 0.35 MWth coal-fired horizontal circulating fluidized bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Aihong; Li, Qinghai; Zhang, Yanguo; Wang, Zhaojun; Dang, Wenda [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Lab. for Thermal Science and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The capacities of industrial coal-fired boilers are normally less than 20-30 MWe. And these coal-fired boilers of low capacity are facing the severe situation of low efficiency and heavy environmental pollution. Hence, an innovative horizontal circulating fluidized bed (HCFB) boiler was developed to enhance heat efficiency and reduce pollutant emission of industrial boilers in China. The chamber in the HCFB boiler consists of primary combustion chamber, secondary combustion chamber and burnout chamber, which were combined horizontally side by side. To verify the conception of horizontal fluidized circulation and to obtain the characteristic data, a 0.35 MWth coal-combustion HCFB boiler was designed and installed to perform some experiments of combustion and mass circulation. In the boiler there were two mass circulating paths, one is inner circulating through the inertia separator and another was external circulating through the cyclone separator. The connection bottom of the secondary chamber and the burnout chamber was designed as an inertia separator, in which separated and collected solid materials were returned to the primary combustion. In fact the secondary separator was a small cyclone separator connecting to the exit of the burnout chamber. Heat efficiency and separating efficiency of the experimental boiler were measured and analyzed. Furthermore, mass and temperature distribution along the chambers height were also investigated. The results showed that the heat efficiency of the bare boiler was 82%. The mass balance based on ash content was measured and analyzed. Separating efficiency of the inertia separator and cyclone separator was 60 and 99.9%, respectively. It showed that the two stage material separation and circulation enhanced coal combustion in the HCFB boiler and help to minimize the height of the furnace.

  1. Experimental studies on particle emissions from cruising ship, their characteristic properties, transformation and atmospheric lifetime in the marine boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, A.; Hasselbach, J.; Lauer, P.; Baumann, R.; Franke, K.; Gurk, C.; Schlager, H.; Weingartner, E.

    2008-05-01

    Particle emissions from ship engines and their atmospheric transformation in the marine boundary layer (MBL) were investigated in engine test bed studies and in airborne measurements of expanding ship plumes. During the test rig studies, detailed aerosol microphysical and chemical properties were measured in the exhaust gas of a serial MAN B&W seven-cylinder four-stroke marine diesel engine under various load conditions. The emission studies were complemented by airborne aerosol transformation studies in the plume of a large container ship in the English Channel using the DLR aircraft Falcon 20 E-5. Observations from emission studies and plume studies combined with a Gaussian plume dispersion model yield a consistent picture of particle transformation processes from emission to atmospheric processing during plume expansion. Particulate matter emission indices obtained from plume measurements are 8.8±1.0×1015(kg fuel)-1 by number for non-volatile particles and 174±43 mg (kg fuel)-1 by mass for Black Carbon (BC). Values determined for test rig conditions between 85 and 110% engine load are of similar magnitude. For the total particle number including volatile compounds no emission index can be derived since the volatile aerosol fraction is subject to rapid transformation processes in the plume. Ship exhaust particles occur in the size range Dp<0.3 μm, showing a bi-modal structure. The combustion particle mode is centred at modal diameters of 0.05 μm for raw emissions to 0.10 μm at a plume age of 1 h. The smaller-sized volatile particle mode is centred at Dp≤0.02 μm. From the decay of ship exhaust particle number concentrations in an expanding plume, a maximum plume life time of approx. 24 h is estimated for a well-mixed marine boundary layer.

  2. An experimental investigation of the performance of metallic and sandwich ship bulkheads under combined thermo-mechanical loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karatzas, Vasileios; Lauridsen, Dan; Berggreen, Christian

    using metallic materials despite the fact that these lead to heavy designs, and they are susceptible to corrosion and fatigue. The reason why composites have not been implemented in commercial shipping is because until 2002, when the so-called regulation 17 was introduced, SOLAS regulations did...... not allow the use of combustible materials onboard ships [1]. Nevertheless this rule has proven hard to implement as the evaluation and acceptance of designs encompassing composite materials has proven cumber-some. Moreover, the existing set of regulations were introduced at a time when metallic materials...... were the sole option and as such they do not explicitly address issues related to the performance of com-posite materials but rather try to enforce the same operational criteria that exist for metallic structures to their composite counterparts. The scope of this work is to compare the performance...

  3. An experimental analysis of grasshopper community responses to fire and livestock grazing in a northern mixed-grass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, David H; Sword, Gregory A

    2010-10-01

    The outcomes of grasshopper responses to both vertebrate grazing and fire vary across grassland ecosystems, and are strongly influenced by local climactic factors. Thus, the possible application of grazing and fire as components of an ecologically based grasshopper management strategy must be investigated in regional studies. In this study, we examined the effects of grazing and fire on grasshopper population density and community composition in a northern Great Plains mixed-grass prairie. We employed a large-scale, replicated, and fully-factorial manipulative experimental design across 4 yr to examine the separate and interactive effects of three grazing systems in burned and unburned habitats. Grasshopper densities were low throughout the 4-yr study and 1 yr of pretreatment sampling. There was a significant fire by grazing interaction effect on cumulative density and community composition, resulting from burned season long grazing pastures having higher densities than unburned pastures. Shannon diversity and grasshopper species richness were significantly higher with twice-over rotational livestock grazing. The ability to draw strong conclusions regarding the nature of species composition shifts and population changes in the presence of fire and grazing is complicated by the large site differences and low grasshopper densities. The results reinforce the importance of long-term research to examine the effects of habitat manipulation on grasshopper population dynamics.

  4. Shipping Fairways

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  5. An experimental and theoretical study of decentralized gas fired liquid heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Rolf

    1996-12-01

    The effects on the energy situation in industry when gas fired liquid heaters replace steam have been determined by energy surveys performed in a brewery and a slaughterhouse, measurements of the performance and emissions from liquid heaters installed in these industries, and theoretical analyses of the potential energy. The theoretical study in the first part of the project provides information that allows assessment of the effects on the energy situation, of a part or complete conversion to decentralized heating, under the conditions prevailing in the industries concerned. The second part of the project focused on increasing the liquid heater efficiency and reducing emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. Heat transfer and pressure drop for a corrugated tube was investigated experimentally. Empirical correlations for heat transfer and pressure drop for a corrugated tube were developed. These correlations were used in the design model that was developed within this project. The design model was validated against experimental data and data from an industrial application, where a section of the smooth heat exchanger tube was replaced with a corrugated tube. The results show that the design model predicts the outlet flue gas temperature and the heater efficiency quite accurately. The wall temperature at the first corrugation is also predicted with reasonable accuracy. These results make it possible to calculate the location where a corrugated tube can be inserted without causing subcooled boiling or severe fouling. It is shown that emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons can be held at low levels, even when conventional industrial burners are used. The use of nozzles that produce long soft flames increase the risk for large emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. 125 refs, 89 figs, 16 tabs

  6. Effect of Experimentally Manipulated Fire Regimes on the Response of Forests to Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refsland, T. K.; Knapp, B.; Fraterrigo, J.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change is expected to increase drought stress in many forests and alter fire regimes. Fire can reduce tree density and thus competition for limited water, but the effects of changing fire regimes on forest productivity during drought remain poorly understood. We measured the annual ring-widths of adult oak (Quercus spp.) trees in Mark Twain National Forest, Missouri USA that experienced unburned, annual or periodic (every 4 years) surface fire treatments from 1951 - 2015. Severe drought events were identified using the BILJOU water balance model. We determined the effect of fire treatment on stand-level annual growth rates as well as stand-level resistance and resilience to drought, defined as the drought-induced reduction in growth and post-drought recovery in growth, respectively. During favorable wet years, annual and periodic fire treatments reduced annual growth rates by approximately 10-15% relative to unburned controls (P burned stands during favorable wet years was likely caused by increased nitrogen (N) limitation in burned plots. After 60 years of treatment, burned plots experienced 30% declines in total soil N relative to unburned plots. Our finding that drought resistance and resilience were similar across all treatments suggest that fire-driven reductions in stand density may have negligible effects on soil moisture availability during drought. Our results highlight that climate-fire interactions can have important long-term effects on forest productivity.

  7. Fire spread probabilities for experimental beds composed of mixedwood boreal forest fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.B. Dickinson; E.A. Johnson; R. Artiaga

    2013-01-01

    Although fuel characteristics are assumed to have an important impact on fire regimes through their effects on extinction dynamics, limited capabilities exist for predicting whether a fire will spread in mixedwood boreal forest surface fuels. To improve predictive capabilities, we conducted 347 no-wind, laboratory test burns in surface fuels collected from the mixed-...

  8. Experimental studies on particle emissions from cruising ship, their characteristic properties, transformation and atmospheric lifetime in the marine boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petzold

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Particle emissions from ship engines and their atmospheric transformation in the marine boundary layer (MBL were investigated in engine test bed studies and in airborne measurements of expanding ship plumes. During the test rig studies, detailed aerosol microphysical and chemical properties were measured in the exhaust gas of a serial MAN B&W seven-cylinder four-stroke marine diesel engine under various load conditions. The emission studies were complemented by airborne aerosol transformation studies in the plume of a large container ship in the English Channel using the DLR aircraft Falcon 20 E-5. Observations from emission studies and plume studies combined with a Gaussian plume dispersion model yield a consistent picture of particle transformation processes from emission to atmospheric processing during plume expansion. Particulate matter emission indices obtained from plume measurements are 8.8±1.0×1015(kg fuel−1 by number for non-volatile particles and 174±43 mg (kg fuel−1 by mass for Black Carbon (BC. Values determined for test rig conditions between 85 and 110% engine load are of similar magnitude. For the total particle number including volatile compounds no emission index can be derived since the volatile aerosol fraction is subject to rapid transformation processes in the plume. Ship exhaust particles occur in the size range Dp<0.3 μm, showing a bi-modal structure. The combustion particle mode is centred at modal diameters of 0.05 μm for raw emissions to 0.10 μm at a plume age of 1 h. The smaller-sized volatile particle mode is centred at Dp≤0.02 μm. From the decay of ship exhaust particle number concentrations in an expanding plume, a maximum plume life time of approx. 24 h is estimated for a well-mixed marine boundary layer.

  9. Experimental and analytical investigation of thermal coating effectiveness for 3 m{sup 3} LPG tanks engulfed by fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landucci, Gabriele [CONPRICI - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Chimica Industriale e Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Pisa, via Diotisalvi n.2, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Molag, Menso; Reinders, Johan [Nederlandse Organisatie voor toegepast-natuurwetenschappelijk onderzoek TNO, Laan van Westenenk 501, P.O. Box 342, 7300 AH Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Cozzani, Valerio [CONPRICI - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Mineraria e delle Tecnologie Ambientali, Alma Mater Studiorum, Universita di Bologna, via Terracini n.28, 40131 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: valerio.cozzani@unibo.it

    2009-01-30

    Two large-scale diesel pool fire engulfment tests were carried out on LPG tanks protected with intumescing materials to test the effectiveness of thermal coatings in the prevention of hot BLEVE accidental scenarios in the road and rail transport of LPG. A specific test protocol was defined to enhance reproducibility of experimental tests. The geometrical characteristics of the test tanks were selected in order to obtain shell stresses similar to those present in full-size road tankers complying to ADR standards. In order to better understand the stress distribution on the vessel and to identify underlying complicating phenomena, a finite element model was also developed to better analyze the experimental data. A non-homogeneous and time-dependent effectiveness of the fire protection given by the intumescing coating was evidenced both by finite element simulations and by the analysis of the coating after the tests. The results of the fire tests pointed out that the coating assured an effective protection of the tanks, consistently increasing the expected time to failure. The data obtained suggest that the introduction of fire protection coatings may be a viable route to improve the safety of the LPG distribution chain.

  10. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P L [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  11. Accidents in nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10 -3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  12. Ship Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board......Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board...

  13. 46 CFR 181.600 - Fire axe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire axe. 181.600 Section 181.600 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 181.600 Fire axe. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  14. 46 CFR 169.569 - Fire axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire axes. 169.569 Section 169.569 Shipping COAST GUARD... Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.569 Fire axes. (a) Each vessel must carry at least the number of fire axes set forth in Table 169.569(a). The Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection may require...

  15. 46 CFR 108.499 - Fire axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire axes. 108.499 Section 108.499 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Miscellaneous Firefighting Equipment § 108.499 Fire axes. Each unit must have at least two...

  16. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 176.810 Section 176.810 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.810 Fire protection. (a) At each initial and... and have the vessel ready for inspection of its fire protection equipment, including the following: (1...

  17. Civilian nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report contains a review of the information available on nuclear powered ships, built for civilian purposes. In the introduction a short discussion is given of the reasons for the limited use of nuclear ships for these purposes. In the second section a brief review is presented of data for the three experimental/merchant ships build by the United States, Germany and Japan, i.e. NS Savannah, NS Otto Hahn and NS Mutsu. In the third section the Soviet/Russian icebreaker NS Lenin is considered. Its design, operational experience and the introduction of a new nuclear propulsion plant is reviewed. In the fourth section the newer Soviet/Russian icebreakers with nuclear propulsion are considered. Finally design of the Soviet/Russian icebreaker transport/container ship NS Sevmorput is reviewed in the fifth section. The future Russian plans for nuclear vessels for the arctic waters are briefly discussed. (au)

  18. Experimental investigation on temperature distribution of foamed concrete filled steel tube column under standard fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kado, B.; Mohammad, S.; Lee, Y. H.; Shek, P. N.; Kadir, M. A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Standard fire test was carried out on 3 hollow steel tube and 6 foamed concrete filled steel tube columns. Temperature distribution on the columns was investigated. 1500 kg/m3 and 1800 kg/m3 foamed concrete density at 15%, 20% and 25% load level are the parameters considered. The columns investigated were 2400 mm long, 139.7 mm outer diameter and 6 mm steel tube thickness. The result shows that foamed concrete filled steel tube columns has the highest fire resistance of 43 minutes at 15% load level and low critical temperature of 671 ºC at 25% load level using 1500 kg/m3 foamed concrete density. Fire resistance of foamed concrete filled column increases with lower foamed concrete strength. Foamed concrete can be used to provide more fire resistance to hollow steel column or to replace normal weight concrete in concrete filled columns. Since filling hollow steel with foamed concrete produce column with high fire resistance than unfilled hollow steel column. Therefore normal weight concrete can be substituted with foamed concrete in concrete filled column, it will reduces the self-weight of the structure because of its light weight at the same time providing the desired fire resistance.

  19. Test Ship

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U. S. Navy dedicated the decommissioned Spruance Class destroyer ex-PAUL F. FOSTER (EDD 964), Test Ship, primarily for at sea demonstration of short range weapon...

  20. Evaluation of ash deposits during experimental investigation of co-firing of Bosnian coal with wooden biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smajevic, Izet; Kazagic, Anes [JP Elektroprivreda BiH d.d., Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Sarajevo Univ. (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The paper is addressed to the development and use different criteria for evaluation of ash deposits collected during experimental co-firing of Bosnian coals with wooden biomass. Spruce saw dust was used for the co-firing tests with the Kakanj brown coal and with a lignite blend consisted of the Dubrave lignite and the Sikulje lignite. The coal/biomass mixtures at 93:7 %w and at 80:20 %w were tested. Experimental lab-scale facility PF entrained flow reactor is used for the co-firing tests. The reactor allows examination of fouling/slagging behaviors and emissions at various and infinitely variable process temperature which can be set at will in the range from ambient to 1560 C. Ash deposits are collected on two non-cooled ceramic probes and one water-cooled metal surface. Six different criteria are developed and used to evaluate behavior of the ash deposits on the probes: ash deposit shape, state and structure, which are analyzed visually - photographically and optically by a microscope, rate of adhesion and ash deposit strength, analyzed by physic acting to the ash deposits, and finally deposition rate, determined as a mass of the deposit divided by the collecting area and the time of collecting. Furthermore, chemical composition analysis and AFT of the ash deposits were also done to provide additional information on the deposits. (orig.)

  1. Comparison of the mineralogical effects of an experimental forest fire on a goethite/ferrihydrite soil with a topsoil that contains hematite, maghemite and goethite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørnberg, Per; Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur Pall

    2009-01-01

    as the result of high temperature as found after forest fires. However, a body of evidence argues against these sites having been exposed to fire. In an attempt to get closer to an explanation of this Fe mineralogy, an experimental forest fire was produced. The results showed a clear mineralogical zonation down...... to 10 cm depth. This was not observed at the natural sites, which contained a mixture of goethite/ferrihydrite, hematite and maghemite down to 20 cm depth. The experimental forest fire left charcoal and ashes at the topsoil, produced high pH and decreased organic matter content, all of which...... is in contrast to the natural sites. The conclusion from this work is that the mineralogy of these sites is not consistent with exposure to forest fire, but may instead result from long-term transformation in a reducing environment, possibly involving microbiology....

  2. 46 CFR 105.35-5 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 105.35-5 Section 105.35-5 Shipping COAST... VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 105.35-5 Fire pumps. (a) All vessels shall be provided with a hand operated portable fire pump having a capacity of at least 5 gallons per...

  3. 46 CFR 108.405 - Fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire detection system. 108.405 Section 108.405 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.405 Fire detection system. (a) Each fire detection system and each smoke detection system on a unit must— (1) Be approved by the Commandant; and (2) Have a visual...

  4. 46 CFR 105.35-15 - Fire hose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... bronze or equivalent metal. (e) All fittings on fire hose shall be of brass, copper, or other suitable corrosion resistant metal. (f) A length of fire hose shall be attached to each fire hydrant at all times... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hose. 105.35-15 Section 105.35-15 Shipping COAST...

  5. A novel model for interpreting experimental results from sandwich composites exposed to fire conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mindykowski, Pierrick Anthony; Karatzas, Vasileios; Jomaas, Grunde

    , this alternative design has to show an equivalent level of safety as the prescriptive requirement which is based on the use of metals [1]. Several solutions have been proposed to define new methodologies that demonstrate the required fire safety, these can be distinguished into two main ideologies; A) The tradeoff...... approach, i.e. staying as close as possible to the prescriptive regulations by making conservative equivalences, often in terms of passive protection, compared to an equivalent prescriptive design [2], and B) The performance based approach that looks into the overall performance in a fire situation. [3]....

  6. An assessment of simplified methods to determine damage from ship-to-ship collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, M.B.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is studying the safety of shipping, radioactive materials (RAM) by sea, the SeaRAM project (McConnell, et al. 1995), which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project is concerned with the potential effects of ship collisions and fires on onboard RAM packages. Existing methodologies are being assessed to determine their adequacy to predict the effect of ship collisions and fires on RAM packages and to estimate whether or not a given accident might lead to a release of radioactivity. The eventual goal is to develop a set of validated methods, which have been checked by comparison with test data and/or detailed finite element analyses, for predicting the consequences of ship collisions and fires. These methods could then be used to provide input for overall risk assessments of RAM sea transport. The emphasis of this paper is on methods for predicting- effects of ship collisions

  7. Vibration Analysis and Experimental Research of the Linear-Motor-Driven Water Piston Pump Used in the Naval Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-qing Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the existing problems of traditional water piston pump used in the naval ship, such as low efficiency, high noise, large vibration, and nonintelligent control, a new type of linear-motor-driven water piston pump is developed and its vibration characteristics are analyzed in this research. Based on the 3D model of the structure, the simulation analyses including static stress analysis, modal analysis, and harmonic response analysis are conducted. The simulation results reveal that the mode shape under low frequency stage is mainly associated with the eccentricity swing of the piston rod. The vibration experiment results show that the resonance frequency of linear-motor-driven water piston pump is concentrated upon 500 Hz and 800 Hz in the low frequency range. The dampers can change the resonance frequency of the system to a certain extent. The vibration under triangular motion curve is much better than that of S curve, which is consistent with the simulation conclusion. This research provides an effective method to detect the vibration characteristics and a reference for design and optimization of the linear-motor-driven water piston pump.

  8. The influence of experimental wind disturbance on forest fuels and fire characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery B. Cannon; Joseph J. O' Brien; Louise Loudermilk; Matthew Dickinson; Chris J. Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Current theory in disturbance ecology predicts that extreme disturbances in rapid succession can lead to dramatic changes in species composition or ecosystem processes due to interactions among disturbances. However, the extent to which less catastrophic, yet chronic, disturbances such as wind damage and fire interact is not well studied. In this study, we simulated...

  9. Analytical and experimental evaluation of solid waste drum fire performance volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecker, C.F., [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., Kennewick, WA (United States); Rhodes, B.T.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuk, D.T.; Beyler, C.L.; Rosenbaum, E.R., [Hughes Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1995-04-28

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated wastes are a major concern in DOE facilities design for long term storage of solid wastes in drums. These facilities include drums stored in pallet arrays and in rack storage systems. This report details testing in this area

  10. Pressure suppression system (PSS) for nuclear ships. Experimental results obtained at the GKSS PSS-test-facillity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.; Niemann, H.R.; Schwan, H.; Vollbrandt, J.

    1978-01-01

    The PSS-test facility is shortly presented which was designed to show experimentally the operation of the pressure suppression containment for the NCS 80 concept. The results of the experimental LOCA-simulation tests in the PSS-test facility are illustrated by diagrams. The observed phenomena as chugging and pessure oscillations immediately after vent clearing are reported as well as the thermohydraulic loadings of the total system. Finally a short view is given on the future test program

  11. Microbial functional diversity of a shrubland soil experimentally burned and treated with two post-fire stabilization techniques (straw mulch and seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Fonturbel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effect of two post-fire stabilization treatments (seeding and mulching on microbial diversity of a shrubland area of Galicia after an experimental fire. The soil was a Leptosol developed over granite with a slope of 38-54% and the soil microbial functional diversity was assessed using Biolog substrate utilization EcoPlates (Biolog Inc., Hayward, CA, USA. Soil samples were taken from the A horizon (0-5 cm depth at different sampling times over one year after the experimental fire. The results indicated that immediately after the fire there were significant differences in the categorized substrate utilization pattern between the microbial communities of the burnt soil treatments and the corresponding unburnt control. The burned soils exhibited significant higher values for the utilization of carboxylic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates and phenolic compounds, suggesting that the microbial community in the burned soils could be favoured by the increase in available C and nutrients following the experimental fire. These changes in the categorized substrate utilization pattern were attenuated with time; thus, one year after the fire, similar values for utilization of different C sources were observed for all unburned and burnt soils. With respect to post-fire treatments only the mulching showed an effect on the C utilization pattern.

  12. Fast ship

    OpenAIRE

    Keuning, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The invention concerns a ship whereby the hull and the mechanical propulsion device are designed such that the Froude number is larger than 0.5. In the aft ship the hull has a bottom with V-shaped bottom surfaces with a deadrise angle that is less than 40 degrees and the hull has substantially vertical sides. In the hull are a passenger compartment and a trim tank. The trim tank volume is such that the weight of a filled trim tank is more than 30 % of the weight of displacement of the hull wi...

  13. 46 CFR 109.329 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 109.329 Section 109.329 Shipping COAST GUARD... of Safety Equipment § 109.329 Fire pumps. The master or person in charge shall insure that at least one of the fire pumps required in § 108.415 is ready for use on the fire main system at all times. ...

  14. 46 CFR 169.559 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 169.559 Section 169.559 Shipping COAST GUARD... Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.559 Fire pumps. (a) Each sailing school vessel must be equipped with fire pumps as required in Table 169.559(a). Table 169.559(a)—Fire Pumps Length Exposed and...

  15. Comparison of aerosol behavior codes with experimental results from a sodium fire in a containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhiaubet, G.; Kissane, M.P.; Seino, H.; Miyake, O.; Himeno, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The containment expert group (CONT), a subgroup of the CEC fast reactor Safety Working Group (SWG), has carried out several studies on the behavior of sodium aerosols which might form in a severe fast reactor accident during which primary sodium leaks into the secondary containment. These studies comprise an intercalibration of measurement devices used to determine the aerosol particle size spectrum, and the analysis and comparison of codes applied to the determination of aerosol behavior in a reactor containment. The paper outlines the results of measurements of typical data made for aerosols produced in a sodium fire and their comparison with results from different codes (PARDISEKO, AEROSIM, CONTAIN, AEROSOLS/B2). The sodium fire experiment took place at CEN-Cadarache (France) in a 400 m 3 vessel. The fire lasted 90 minutes and the aerosol measurements were made over 10 hours at different locations inside the vessel. The results showed that the suspended mass calculated along the time with different codes was in good agreement with the experiment. However, the calculated aerosol deposition on the walls was diverging and always significantly lower than the measured values

  16. 46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-30 Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing systems which conform... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30...

  17. Experimental Evaluation of Pool Fire Suppression Performance of Sodium Leak Collection Tray in Open Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parida, F.C.; Rao, P.M.; Ramesh, S.S.; Malarvizhi, B.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Rao, E.H.V.M.; Kasinathan, N.; Kannan, S.E.

    2006-01-01

    In the event of sodium leakage from heat transfer circuits of fast breeder reactors (FBR), liquid sodium catches fire in ambient air leading to production of flame, smoke and heat. One of the passive fire protection methods involves immediate collection of the leaking sodium to a sodium hold-up vessel (SHV) covered with a sloping cover tray (SCT) having a few drain pipes and one vent pipe (as in Fig. 1). As soon as the liquid sodium falls on the sloping cover tray, gravity guides the sodium through drain pipes into the bottom tray in which self-extinction occurs due to oxygen starvation. This sodium fire protection equipment called leak collection tray (LCT) works without the intervention of an operator and external power source. A large number of LCTs are strategically arranged under the sodium circulating pipe lines in the FBR plants to serve as passive suppression devices. In order to test the efficacy of the LCT, four tests were conducted. Two tests were with LCT having three drain pipes and rest with one. In each experiment, nearly 40 kg of hot liquid sodium at 550 deg. C was discharged on the LCT in the open air. Continuous on-line monitoring of temperature at strategic locations (∼ 28 points) were carried out. Colour video-graphy was employed for taking motion pictures of various time-dependent events like sodium dumping, appearance of flame and release of smoke through vent pipes. After self-extinction of sodium fire, the LCT was allowed to cool overnight in an argon atmosphere. Solid samples of sodium debris in the SCT and SHV were collected by manual core drilling machine. The samples were subjected to chemical analysis for determination of unburnt and burnt sodium. The results of the four tests revealed an interesting feature: LCT with three drain pipes showed far lower sodium collection efficiency and much higher sodium combustion than that with just one drain pipe. Thermal fluctuations in temperature sensor located near the tip of the drain pipe have

  18. Stem mortality in surface fires: Part II, experimental methods for characterizing the thermal response of tree stems to heating by fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. M. Jimenez; B. W. Butler; J. Reardon

    2003-01-01

    Current methods for predicting fire-induced plant mortality in shrubs and trees are largely empirical. These methods are not readily linked to duff burning, soil heating, and surface fire behavior models. In response to the need for a physics-based model of this process, a detailed model for predicting the temperature distribution through a tree stem as a function of...

  19. Experimental Studies on the Fire Behaviour of High Performance Concrete Thin Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulin, Thomas; Hodicky, Kamil; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, the use of structural high performance concrete (HPC) sandwich panels made with thin plates has increased as a response to modern environmental challenges. Fire endurance is a requirement in structural HPC elements, as for most structural elements. This paper presents experimen......In recent decades, the use of structural high performance concrete (HPC) sandwich panels made with thin plates has increased as a response to modern environmental challenges. Fire endurance is a requirement in structural HPC elements, as for most structural elements. This paper presents....... The parametric assessment of the specimen performance included: thickness of the specimen, testing apparatus, and concrete mix (both with and without polypropylene fibres). The results verified the ability of H-TRIS to impose an equivalent thermal boundary condition to that imposed during a standard furnace test......, with good repeatability, and at comparatively low economic and temporal costs. The results demonstrated that heat induced concrete spalling occurred 1 to 5 min earlier, and in a more destructive manner, for thinner specimens. An analysis is presented combining the thermal material degradation, vapour pore...

  20. Ship's barbers

    OpenAIRE

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    Showing two sailors having their hair cut (? one is possibly being shaved) on board ship. Three other sailors can be seen standing on the right-hand side of the photograph. The photograph is from an album inscribed 'H.M.S. Lancaster; Mediterranean Photographic Album: Diary of Events and Important Places Visited during the Commission 1910-1912' on the cover. This album was the property of Sydney Harold Liddle.

  1. Preliminary experimental investigation of a natural gas-fired ORC-based micro-CHP system for residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrokhi, M.; Noie, S.H.; Akbarzadeh, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The continual increases in energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions, call for efficient use of energy resources. Decentralized combined heat and power (CHP) technology provides an alternative for the world to meet and solve energy-related problems including energy shortages, energy supply security, emission control and conservation of energy. This paper presents the preliminary results of an experimental investigation of a natural gas-fired micro-CHP system for residential buildings based on an organic Rankine cycle (ORC). Isopentane was used as the ORC working fluid in consideration of several criteria including its environmentally-friendly characteristics. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the developed system at different heat source temperatures of nominally 85, 80, 75, 70, and 65 °C. The maximum electrical power output of 77.4 W was generated at heating water entry temperature of 84.1 °C, corresponding to net cycle electrical efficiency of 1.66%. Further work will be done with a view to increasing the cycle electrical efficiency by using more efficient components, in particular the expander and generator. - Highlights: •A natural gas-fired ORC-based micro-scale CHP system has been developed and tested. •The good agreement between the mechanical and gross power validates the assumptions. •A vane expander suits a micro-CHP system based on an organic Rankine cycle. •A vane expander does not suit power generation by a Trilateral Flash Cycle (TFC). •Domestic gas-fired ORC systems may reduce reliance on central power stations

  2. 46 CFR 169.311 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 169.311 Section 169.311 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.311 Fire protection. (a) The general construction of the vessel...

  3. Melt-Flow Behaviours of Thermoplastic Materials under Fire Conditions: Recent Experimental Studies and Some Theoretical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric materials often exhibit complex combustion behaviours encompassing several stages and involving solid phase, gas phase and interphase. A wide range of qualitative, semi-quantitative and quantitative testing techniques are currently available, both at the laboratory scale and for commercial purposes, for evaluating the decomposition and combustion behaviours of polymeric materials. They include, but are not limited to, techniques such as: thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA, oxygen bomb calorimetry, limiting oxygen index measurements (LOI, Underwriters Laboratory 94 (UL-94 tests, cone calorimetry, etc. However, none of the above mentioned techniques are capable of quantitatively deciphering the underpinning physiochemical processes leading to the melt flow behaviour of thermoplastics. Melt-flow of polymeric materials can constitute a serious secondary hazard in fire scenarios, for example, if they are present as component parts of a ceiling in an enclosure. In recent years, more quantitative attempts to measure the mass loss and melt-drip behaviour of some commercially important chain- and step-growth polymers have been accomplished. The present article focuses, primarily, on the experimental and some theoretical aspects of melt-flow behaviours of thermoplastics under heat/fire conditions.

  4. Melt-Flow Behaviours of Thermoplastic Materials under Fire Conditions: Recent Experimental Studies and Some Theoretical Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Paul; Tretsiakova-McNally, Svetlana

    2015-12-15

    Polymeric materials often exhibit complex combustion behaviours encompassing several stages and involving solid phase, gas phase and interphase. A wide range of qualitative, semi-quantitative and quantitative testing techniques are currently available, both at the laboratory scale and for commercial purposes, for evaluating the decomposition and combustion behaviours of polymeric materials. They include, but are not limited to, techniques such as: thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), oxygen bomb calorimetry, limiting oxygen index measurements (LOI), Underwriters Laboratory 94 (UL-94) tests, cone calorimetry, etc. However, none of the above mentioned techniques are capable of quantitatively deciphering the underpinning physiochemical processes leading to the melt flow behaviour of thermoplastics. Melt-flow of polymeric materials can constitute a serious secondary hazard in fire scenarios, for example, if they are present as component parts of a ceiling in an enclosure. In recent years, more quantitative attempts to measure the mass loss and melt-drip behaviour of some commercially important chain- and step-growth polymers have been accomplished. The present article focuses, primarily, on the experimental and some theoretical aspects of melt-flow behaviours of thermoplastics under heat/fire conditions.

  5. Experimental investigation of the creation of a fire-rod by Langmuir and emissive probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyergyek, T.; Cercek, M.

    2000-01-01

    Positive voltage steps are applied to a plane electrode immersed in a weakly magnetized discharge plasma column with its surface perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. Steps of different amplitude are applied at various neutral gas pressures. If the amplitude of the voltage step and the gas pressure are high enough, additional discharge occurs in front of the anode and a fire-rod is created. In this work time development of the electron distribution function is measured using Langmuir and emissive probes. The formation of the anode plasma electron population is followed on the derivatives of the probe characteristics. Results obtained by Langmuir and emissive probes are compared and are found to be in good agreement. (author)

  6. Fire safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Hostikka, S.; Mangs, J.; Huhtanen, R.; Palmen, H.; Salminen, A.; Turtola, A.

    1998-01-01

    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  7. 46 CFR 62.35-15 - Fire safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire safety. 62.35-15 Section 62.35-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION Requirements for Specific Types of Automated Vital Systems § 62.35-15 Fire safety. (a) All required fire pump...

  8. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE... § 194.15-7 Fire protection. (a) If a fixed or semiportable fire-fighting system is installed, it shall...

  9. 46 CFR 105.45-5 - Galley fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Galley fires. 105.45-5 Section 105.45-5 Shipping COAST... VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-5 Galley fires. (a) Galley fires are normally permitted during cargo transfer operations. However, prior to transferring Grade B or...

  10. Large Scale Experiments on Spacecraft Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Tien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; hide

    2012-01-01

    Full scale fire testing complemented by computer modelling has provided significant knowhow about the risk, prevention and suppression of fire in terrestrial systems (cars, ships, planes, buildings, mines, and tunnels). In comparison, no such testing has been carried out for manned spacecraft due to the complexity, cost and risk associated with operating a long duration fire safety experiment of a relevant size in microgravity. Therefore, there is currently a gap in knowledge of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The entire body of low-gravity fire research has either been conducted in short duration ground-based microgravity facilities or has been limited to very small fuel samples. Still, the work conducted to date has shown that fire behaviour in low-gravity is very different from that in normal gravity, with differences observed for flammability limits, ignition delay, flame spread behaviour, flame colour and flame structure. As a result, the prediction of the behaviour of fires in reduced gravity is at present not validated. To address this gap in knowledge, a collaborative international project, Spacecraft Fire Safety, has been established with its cornerstone being the development of an experiment (Fire Safety 1) to be conducted on an ISS resupply vehicle, such as the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) or Orbital Cygnus after it leaves the ISS and before it enters the atmosphere. A computer modelling effort will complement the experimental effort. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. This will facilitate the possibility of examining fire behaviour on a scale that is relevant to spacecraft fire safety and will provide unique data for fire model validation. This unprecedented opportunity will expand the understanding of the fundamentals of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The experiment is being

  11. Modelling of large sodium fires: A coupled experimental and calculational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astegiano, J.C.; Balard, F.; Cartier, L.; De Pascale, C.; Forestier, A.; Merigot, C.; Roubin, P.; Tenchine, D.; Bakouta, N.

    1996-01-01

    The consequences of large sodium leaks in secondary circuit of Super-Phenix have been studied mainly with the FEUMIX code, on the basis of sodium fire experiments. This paper presents the status of the coupled AIRBUS (water experiment) FEUMIX approach under development in order to strengthen the extrapolation made for the Super-Phenix secondary circuits calculations for large leakage flow. FEUMIX code is a point code based on the concept of a global interfacial area between sodium and air. Mass and heat transfers through this global area is supposed to be similar. Then, global interfacial transfer coefficient Sih is an important parameter of the model. Correlations for the interfacial area are extracted from a large number of sodium tests. For the studies of hypothetical large sodium leak in secondary circuit of Super-Phenix, flow rates of more than 1 t/s have been considered and extrapolation was made from the existing results (maximum flow rate 225 kg/s). In order to strengthen the extrapolation, water test has been contemplated, on the basis of a thermal hydraulic similarity. The principle is to measure the interfacial area of a hot water jet in air, then to transpose the Sih to sodium without combustion, and to use this value in FEUMIX with combustion modelling. AIRBUS test section is a parallelepipedic gastight tank, 106 m 3 (5.7 x 3.7 x 5) internally insulated. Water jet is injected from heated external auxiliary tank into the cell using pressurized air tank and specific valve. The main measurements performed during each test are injected flow rate air pressure water temperature gas temperature A first series of tests were performed in order to qualify the methodology: typical FCA and IGNA sodium fire tests were represented in AIRBUS, and a comparison of the FEUMIX calculation using Sih value deduced from water experiments show satisfactory agreement. A second series of test for large flow rate, corresponding to large sodium leak in secondary circuit of Super

  12. Experimental Investigation of Closed Porosity of Inorganic Solidified Foam Designed to Prevent Coal Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to overcome the deficiency of the existing fire control technology and control coal spontaneous combustion by sealing air leakages in coal mines, inorganic solidified foam (ISF with high closed porosity was developed. The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS concentration on the porosity of the foams was investigated. The results showed that the optimized closed porosity of the solidified foam was 38.65 wt.% for an SDS concentration of approximately 7.4×10-3 mol/L. Based on observations of the microstructure of the pore walls after solidification, it was inferred that an equilibrium between the hydration process and the drainage process existed. Therefore, the ISF was improved using three different systems. Gelatin can increase the viscosity of the continuous phase to form a viscoelastic film around the air cells, and the SDS + gelatin system can create a mixed surfactant layer at gas/liquid interfaces. The accelerator (AC accelerates the hydration process and coagulation of the pore walls before the end of drainage. The mixed SDS + gelatin + AC systems produced an ISF with a total porosity of 79.89% and a closed porosity of 66.89%, which verified the proposed stabilization mechanism.

  13. Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

    2008-12-31

    The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

  14. Experimental forensic studies of the preservation of pollen in vehicle fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R M; Flynn, J; Sena, V; Bull, P A

    2014-03-01

    The implications of the recent recommendations of the Law Commission regarding the use of admissibility tests have the potential to be far reaching for forensic disciplines that rely on the expertise of highly qualified expert witnesses. These disciplines will need a concomitant body of peer-reviewed experiments that provides a basis for the interpretations of such evidence presented in court. This paper therefore, presents such results from two experiments which were undertaken to address specific issues that were raised in cases presented in the British courtroom. These studies demonstrate that there is a variability in the persistence of Lily, Daffodil and Tulip pollen when exposed to high temperatures between 0.5min and 1440min (24h). It was possible to identify all three pollen types after 30min of exposure to 400°C, and after shorter time frames the threshold for successful identification was 700°C after 0.5min for all pollen types tested and 500°C for Daffodil and Lily after 5min of heat exposure. Over longer time periods (18h (1080min)) the different pollen types were found to persist in a viable form for identification at 300°C (Lily), 200°C (Daffodil) and 50°C (Tulip). These findings, albeit from a small sample of pollen types, provide empirical contextual information that would contribute to such evidence having sufficient scientific weight to meet admissibility criteria and be viable evidence for a court. These studies demonstrate the value in seeking pollen evidence from even such extreme crime scenes as encountered in vehicular fires. Copyright © 2013 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Species-abundance distribution patterns of soil fungi: contribution to the ecological understanding of their response to experimental fire in Mediterranean maquis (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persiani, Anna Maria; Maggi, Oriana

    2013-01-01

    Experimental fires, of both low and high intensity, were lit during summer 2000 and the following 2 y in the Castel Volturno Nature Reserve, southern Italy. Soil samples were collected Jul 2000-Jul 2002 to analyze the soil fungal community dynamics. Species abundance distribution patterns (geometric, logarithmic, log normal, broken-stick) were compared. We plotted datasets with information both on species richness and abundance for total, xerotolerant and heat-stimulated soil microfungi. The xerotolerant fungi conformed to a broken-stick model for both the low- and high intensity fires at 7 and 84 d after the fire; their distribution subsequently followed logarithmic models in the 2 y following the fire. The distribution of the heat-stimulated fungi changed from broken-stick to logarithmic models and eventually to a log-normal model during the post-fire recovery. Xerotolerant and, to a far greater extent, heat-stimulated soil fungi acquire an important functional role following soil water stress and/or fire disturbance; these disturbances let them occupy unsaturated habitats and become increasingly abundant over time.

  16. Towards Experimental Operational Fire Weather Prediction at Subseasonal to Seasonal Scales for Alaska Using the NMME Hindcasts and Realtime Forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, A.; Bhatt, U. S.; Bieniek, P.; York, A.; Peng, P.; Brettschneider, B.; Thoman, R.; Jandt, R.; Ziel, R.; Branson, G.; Strader, M. H.; Alden, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    The summer 2004 and 2015 wildfires in Alaska were the two largest fire seasons on record since 1950 where approximately the land area of Massachusetts burned. The record fire year of 2004 resulted in 6.5 million acres burned while the 2015 wildfire season resulted in 5.2 million acres burned. In addition to the logistical cost of fighting fires and the loss of infrastructure, wildfires also lead to dangerous air quality in Alaska. Fires in Alaska result from lightning strikes coupled with persistent (extreme) dry warm conditions in remote areas with limited fire management and the seasonal climate/weather determine the extent of the fire season in Alaska. Advanced weather/climate outlooks for allocating staff and resources from days to a season are particularly needed by fire managers. However, there are no operational seasonal products currently for the Alaska region. Probabilistic forecasts of the expected seasonal climate/weather would aid tremendously in the planning process. Earlier insight of both lightening and fuel conditions would assist fire managers in planning resource allocation for the upcoming season. For fuel conditions, the state-of-the-art NMME (1982-2017) climate predictions were used to compute the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System (CFFWIS). The CFFWIS is used by fire managers to forecast forest fires in Alaska. NMME forecast (March and May) based Buildup Index (BUI) values were underestimated compared to BUI based on reanalysis and station data, demonstrating the necessity for bias correction. Post processing of NMME data will include bias correction using the quantile mapping technique. This study will provide guidance as to the what are the best available products for anticipating the fire season.

  17. Fire and fire extinguishment in silos. An experimental study[Storage of wood fuel pellets]; Brand och brandslaeckning i siloanlaeggningar. En experimentell studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Henry; Blomqvist, Per; Zhenghua Yan

    2007-01-15

    A series of four tests have been conducted with wood pellets stored in a reduced size silo. The tests were conducted in order to increase the knowledge on fire development, detection and extinction technique in silo fires. The project originated from a pre-study on the extinction of silo fires made for the Swedish Rescue Service Agency (SRV). The test silo was built of concrete rings, had a diameter of 1 m, and a height of almost 6 m, which gave a volume of 4.4 m{sup 3}. The silo was filled with wood pellets up to a height of 5 m. A local auto ignition was imitated by a coiled heating wire placed in the pellet bulk centrally in the silo and a self sustaining pyrolysis zone was established within one hour. The silo was instrumented with almost 100 thermocouples as a mean to follow the development of the pyrolysis zone and later the efficiency of the extinguishment. Gas analyses were further made, both in the top of the silo, and at four different levels in the pellet bulk. After 30 hours the extinguishment was initiated using nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), respectively. The gas was injected into the bottom of the silo. Two tests were also conducted where gas injection was combined foam application in the top of the silo. The tests showed that the pyrolysis zone preferably spreads downwards in the silo, while moisture and pyrolysis gases form a wave that slowly spreads upwards. It was difficult to detect the fire before the main 'gas wave' reached the pellet surface in the silo top, and detection time was about 20 hours in these tests. The spread of the pyrolysis zone, downward, was even slower. The slow development is probably an explanation of why real silo fires often are rather extensive once discovered. Inerting the silo with either nitrogen or carbon dioxide worked out well in the tests. The gas must be in gas phase and slowly introduced into the silo, as close to the bottom as possible. An efficient extinction implies an air

  18. Experimental study of acoustic agglomeration and fragmentation on coal-fired ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guoqing; Huang, Xiaoyu; He, Chunlong; Zhang, Shiping; An, Liansuo; Wang, Liang; Chen, Yanqiao; Li, Yongsheng

    2018-02-01

    As the major part of air pollution, inhalable particles, especially fine particles are doing great harm to human body due to smaller particle size and absorption of hazardous components. However, the removal efficiency of current particles filtering devices is low. Acoustic agglomeration is considered as a very effective pretreatment technique for removing particles. Fine particles collide, agglomerate and grow up in the sound field and the fine particles can be removed by conventional particles devices easily. In this paper, the agglomeration and fragmentation of 3 different kinds of particles with different size distributions are studied experimentally in the sound field. It is found that there exists an optimal frequency at 1200 Hz for different particles. The agglomeration efficiency of inhalable particles increases with SPL increasing for the unimodal particles with particle diameter less than 10 μm. For the bimodal particles, the optimal SPLs are 115 and 120 dB with the agglomeration efficiencies of 25% and 55%. A considerable effectiveness of agglomeration could only be obtained in a narrow SPL range and it decreases significantly over the range for the particles fragmentation.

  19. Experimental study on the influence of different thermal insulation materials on the fire dynamics in a reduced-scale enclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leisted, Rolff Ripke; Sørensen, Martin X.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    Four scaled (1:5) fire experiments with two identically classified types of commercially available sandwich panels incorporating either stone wool (SW) or poly-isocyanurate (PIR) foam as cores were conducted using a modified version of the ISO 13784-1 (Reaction to fire tests for sandwich panel...

  20. Green Shipping Practices of Shipping Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Tae Chang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to provide an empirical research using structural equation modeling to identify the factors that motivate shipping firms to adopt green shipping practices (GSP. Furthermore, it also examines if adopting GSP can enhance the shipping firms’ environmental and productivity performance. The findings show that shipping firms are motivated to adopt GSP mostly by industrial norms set by institutionalized associations. They are also motivated by customers’ demand for environmental friendliness and their own strategy to make good image. Unlike our expectation, government regulations and international environmental laws are not significant in influencing shipping firms to adopt GSP. Moreover, adoption of green shipping practices can improve the environmental and productivity performance of the shipping firms.

  1. Fire Models and Design Fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Annemarie

    The aim of this project is to perform an experimental study on the influence of the thermal feedback on the burning behavior of well ventilated pre-flashover fires. For the purpose an experimental method has been developed. Here the same identical objects are tested under free burn conditions...... carried out by Carleton University and NRC-IRC performed on seven different types of fire loads representing commercial premises, comprise the tests used for the study. The results show that for some of the room test the heat release rate increased due to thermal feedback compared to free burn for a pre......-flashover fire. Two phenomena were observed, that relate well to theory was found. In an incipient phase the heat release rate rose with the temperature of the smoke layer/enclosure boundaries. This increase was also found to depend on the flammability properties of the burning object. The results also...

  2. The influence of fire exposure on austenitic stainless steel for pressure vessel fitness-for-service assessment: Experimental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Shu, Wenhua; Zuo, Yantian

    2017-04-01

    The austenitic stainless steels are widely applied to pressure vessel manufacturing. The fire accident risk exists in almost all the industrial chemical plants. It is necessary to make safety evaluation on the chemical equipment including pressure vessels after fire. Therefore, the present research was conducted on the influences of fire exposure testing under different thermal conditions on the mechanical performance evolution of S30408 austenitic stainless steel for pressure vessel equipment. The metallurgical analysis described typical appearances in micro-structure observed in the material suffered by fire exposure. Moreover, the quantitative degradation of mechanical properties was investigated. The material thermal degradation mechanism and fitness-for-service assessment process of fire damage were further discussed.

  3. Fires of sodium installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, L.; Tlalka, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is presented of the literature dealing with fires of sodium installations between 1974 and 1981. Also described are three experimental fires of ca 50 kg of sodium in an open area, monitored by UJV Rez. The experimental conditions of the experiments are described and a phenomenological description is presented of the course of the fires. The experiments showed a relationship between wind velocity in the area surrounding the fire and surface temperature of the sodium flame. Systems analysis methods were applied to sodium area, spray and tube fires. (author)

  4. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the system...

  5. 46 CFR 108.404 - Selection of fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection of fire detection system. 108.404 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.404 Selection of fire detection system. (a) If a... space. (b) The fire detection system must be designed to minimize false alarms. ...

  6. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  7. Experimental study on combustion and suppression characteristics of sodium fire in a columnar flow using extinguishing powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Yan; Zhang Zhigang; Li Jinke; Liu Zhongkun; Ma Yaolong

    2017-01-01

    In the operation of the sodium-cooled fast reactor, the leakage and fire accident of liquid sodium is common and it is frequent in sodium-related facilities. This study focuses on the combustion and suppression characteristics of sodium fire in a columnar flow. Liquid sodium (250°C) is injected into a 7.9 m"3 cylindrical chamber at a flow rate of about 1.0 m"3/h to create a columnar sodium fire, and 18.4 kg class D extinguishing powder is sprayed after the liquid sodium injection. The temperature in the chamber space and sodium collection plate and the heat release rate from sodium fire are measured and analyzed. Based on the temperature data the sodium fire under suppression could be divided into four phases of dropping sharply, continuously remaining lower, rising and declining mildly, and depressing. The sodium fire in the space could be suppressed and cooled down if the extinguishing agent could spray in the early period of the liquid sodium injection. The extinguishing agent could suppress the combustion and spreading of liquid sodium dropping on the collection plate, limit the pool combustion area and postpone the commencement of sodium pool burning in spite of its later re-ignition happening. This study promises to evaluate the combustion and suppression characteristics of sodium fire in the sodium-related facilities. (author)

  8. Mathematical Ship Modeling for Control Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we review the models for describing the motion of a ship in four degrees of freedom suitable for control applications. We present the hydrodynamic models of two ships: a container and a multi-role naval vessel. The models are based on experimental results in the four degrees...

  9. Effects of experimental fuel additions on fire intensity and severity: unexpected carbon resilience of a neotropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brando, Paulo M; Oliveria-Santos, Claudinei; Rocha, Wanderley; Cury, Roberta; Coe, Michael T

    2016-07-01

    Global changes and associated droughts, heat waves, logging activities, and forest fragmentation may intensify fires in Amazonia by altering forest microclimate and fuel dynamics. To isolate the effects of fuel loads on fire behavior and fire-induced changes in forest carbon cycling, we manipulated fine fuel loads in a fire experiment located in southeast Amazonia. We predicted that a 50% increase in fine fuel loads would disproportionally increase fire intensity and severity (i.e., tree mortality and losses in carbon stocks) due to multiplicative effects of fine fuel loads on the rate of fire spread, fuel consumption, and burned area. The experiment followed a fully replicated randomized block design (N = 6) comprised of unburned control plots and burned plots that were treated with and without fine fuel additions. The fuel addition treatment significantly increased burned area (+22%) and consequently canopy openness (+10%), fine fuel combustion (+5%), and mortality of individuals ≥5 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh; +37%). Surprisingly, we observed nonsignificant effects of the fuel addition treatment on fireline intensity, and no significant differences among the three treatments for (i) mortality of large trees (≥30 cm dbh), (ii) aboveground forest carbon stocks, and (iii) soil respiration. It was also surprising that postfire tree growth and wood increment were higher in the burned plots treated with fuels than in the unburned control. These results suggest that (i) fine fuel load accumulation increases the likelihood of larger understory fires and (ii) single, low-intensity fires weakly influence carbon cycling of this primary neotropical forest, although delayed postfire mortality of large trees may lower carbon stocks over the long term. Overall, our findings indicate that increased fine fuel loads alone are unlikely to create threshold conditions for high-intensity, catastrophic fires during nondrought years. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Nuclear ship accidents, description and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-03-01

    In this report available information on 44 reported nuclear ship events is considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships and 38 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/ explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that some of the information of which this report is based, may be of dubious nature. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  11. The shipping man adventures in ship finance

    CERN Document Server

    McCleery, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    When restless New York City hedge fund manager Robert Fairchild watches the Baltic Dry Cargo Index plunge 97%, registering an all-time high and a 25-year low within the span of just six months, he decides to buy a ship. Immediately fantasizing about naming a vessel after his wife, carrying a string of worry beads and being able to introduce himself as a "shipowner" at his upcoming college reunion, Fairchild immediately embarks on an odyssey into the most exclusive, glamorous and high stakes business in the world. From pirates off the coast of Somalia and on Wall Street to Greek and Norwegian shipping magnates, the education of Robert Fairchild is an expensive one. In the end, he loses his hedge fund, but he gains a life - as a Shipping Man. Part fast paced financial thriller, part ship finance text book, The Shipping Man is 310 pages of required reading for anyone with an interest in capital formation for shipping.

  12. Ash transformation and deposit build-up during biomass suspension and grate firing: Full-scale experimental studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    An attractive option for reducing the net CO2 emissions is to substitute coal with biomass in large power plant boilers. However, the presence of chlorine (Cl) and alkali metals (K, Na) in biomassmay induce large operational problems due to ash deposit formation on the superheater tubes. The aim...... of this study was to investigate ash transformation and deposition behavior in two biomass-fired boilers, firing wheat straw and/or wood. The influence of strawfiring technology (grate and suspension) on the ash transformation, deposit formation rate and deposit characteristics has been investigated. Bulk...... elemental analysis of fly ashes revealed that fly ash from suspension firing of straw has high contents of Si, K and Ca, while fly ash from straw firing on grate was rich in the volatile elements K, Cl and S. Investigations of deposit formation ratesweremade in the superheater and convective pass regions...

  13. Experimental Investigation into the Combustion Characteristics on the Co-firing of Biomass with Coal as a Function of Particle Size and Blending Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lkhagvadorj, Sh; Kim, Sang In; Lim, Ho; Kim, Seung Mo; Jeon, Chung Hwan [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byoung Hwa [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Co-firing of biomass with coal is a promising combustion technology in a coal-fired power plant. However, it still requires verifications to apply co-firing in an actual boiler. In this study, data from the Thermogravimetric analyzer(TGA) and Drop tube furnace(DTF) were used to obtain the combustion characteristics of biomass when co-firing with coal. The combustion characteristics were verified using experimental results including reactivity from the TGA and Unburned carbon(UBC) data from the DTF. The experiment also analyzed with the variation of the biomass blending ratio and biomass particle size. It was determined that increasing the biomass blending ratio resulted in incomplete chemical reactions due to insufficient oxygen levels because of the rapid initial combustion characteristics of the biomass. Thus, the optimum blending condition of the biomass based on the results of this study was found to be 5 while oxygen enrichment reduced the increase of UBC that occurred during combustion of blended biomass and coal.

  14. Nuclear ship engineering simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yasuyoshi; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Hashidate, Koji

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear ship engineering simulator, which analyzes overall system response of nuclear ship numerically, is now being developed by JAERI as an advanced design tool with the latest computer technology in software and hardware. The development of the nuclear ship engineering simulator aims at grasping characteristics of a reactor plant under the situation generated by the combination of ocean, a ship hull and a reactor. The data from various tests with the nuclear ship 'MUTSU' will be used for this simulator to modulate and verify its functions of reproducing realistic response of nuclear ship, and then the simulator will be utilized for the research and development of advanced marine reactors. (author)

  15. 46 CFR 28.830 - Fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire detection system. 28.830 Section 28.830 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.830 Fire detection system. (a) Each accommodation space...

  16. 46 CFR 28.325 - Fire detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire detection systems. 28.325 Section 28.325 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.325 Fire detection systems. (a) Each accommodation...

  17. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE... Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom shall be protected by a fixed automatic carbon dioxide...

  18. 46 CFR 153.460 - Fire protection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection systems. 153.460 Section 153.460... Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.460 Fire protection systems. Each self-propelled ship... protection system listed beside the cargo in Table 1 and described in the footnotes to Table 1. (b) The...

  19. An Experimental Study on Burning Characteristics of n-Heptane/Ethanol Mixture Pool Fires in a Reduced Scaled Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yozgatligil, Ahmet; Shafee, Sina

    2016-11-01

    Fire accidents in recent decades have drawn attention to safety issues associated with the design, construction and maintenance of tunnels. A reduced scale tunnel model constructed based on Froude scaling technique is used in the current work. Mixtures of n-heptane and ethanol are burned with ethanol volumetric fraction up to 30 percent and the longitudinal ventilation velocity varying from 0.5 to 2.5 m/s. The burning rates of the pool fires are measured using a precision load cell. The heat release rates of the fires are calculated according to oxygen calorimetry method and the temperature distributions inside the tunnel are also measured. Results of the experiments show that the ventilation velocity variation has a significant effect on the pool fire burning rate, smoke temperature and the critical ventilation velocity. With increased oxygen depletion in case of increased ethanol content of blended pool fires, the quasi-steady heat release rate values tend to increase as well as the ceiling temperatures while the combustion duration decreases.

  20. Fire behavior in Mediterranean shrub species (Maquis) | Saglam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prediction of fire behavior in fire prone ecosystems is of vital importance in all phases of fire management including fire prevention, presuppression, suppression and fire use. This paper deals with an experimental burning exercise conducted in the Mediterranean region in Turkey. A series of 18 experimental fires were ...

  1. Experimental study of sodium fires on concrete based on the sodium-concrete reaction and its consequences: study of the behavior of various concretes under metallic sheaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlin; Colome, J.; Malet, J.C.

    The problem created by the violent reaction between hot sodium and concrete has only recently been recognized. Its importance was evidenced during experiments in which the sodium-barium oxide concrete reactions led to violent explosions. SESR approached this question during its experimental programs Cassandre and Lucifer. The Cassandre 01 experiment demonstrated the sodium-ordinary concrete reaction, where sodium was burned directly in a concrete vat. The consequences of this fire, pulverization of sodium particles, explosions and deterioration of the concrete led to consideration of protecting the concrete. Among possible shieldings sheath metal appeared to be the safest solution. The Cassandre 08, Lucifer 01 and Lucifer 04 experiments were used to study the behavior of various qualities of concrete protected from fire by a metal wall. The results show that a metal cladding efficiently protects concrete from sodium leaks

  2. Modelling Behaviour of a Carbon Epoxy Composite Exposed to Fire: Part II-Comparison with Experimental Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchard, Pauline; Samyn, Fabienne; Duquesne, Sophie; Estèbe, Bruno; Bourbigot, Serge

    2017-04-28

    Based on a phenomenological methodology, a three dimensional (3D) thermochemical model was developed to predict the temperature profile, the mass loss and the decomposition front of a carbon-reinforced epoxy composite laminate (T700/M21 composite) exposed to fire conditions. This 3D model takes into account the energy accumulation by the solid material, the anisotropic heat conduction, the thermal decomposition of the material, the gas mass flow into the composite, and the internal pressure. Thermophysical properties defined as temperature dependant properties were characterised using existing as well as innovative methodologies in order to use them as inputs into our physical model. The 3D thermochemical model accurately predicts the measured mass loss and observed decomposition front when the carbon fibre/epoxy composite is directly impacted by a propane flame. In short, the model shows its capability to predict the fire behaviour of a carbon fibre reinforced composite for fire safety engineering.

  3. Mathematical modeling and experimental study of biomass combustion in a thermal 108 MW grate-fired boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren K.

    2008-01-01

    Grate boilers are widely used to fire biomass for heat and power production. However grate-firing systems are often reported to have relatively high un-burnout, low efficiency and high emissions, and need to be optimized and modernized. This paper presents the efforts towards a reliable baseline...... computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for an industrial biomass-fired grate boiler, which can be used for diagnosis and optimization of the grate boiler as well as design of new grate boilers. First, based on the design conditions, a thorough sensitivity analysis is done to evaluate the relative importance...... of different factors in CFD analysis of the grate boiler. In a late stage, a two-day measuring campaign is carried out to measure the gas temperatures and gas concentrations in the boiler using a fiber optic probe connected to a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. A baseline model is then defined...

  4. Guide to ship sanitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    "The third edition of the Guide to Ship Sanitation presents the public health significance of ships in terms of disease and highlights the importance of applying appropriate control measures"--Back cover...

  5. Recycling of merchant ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Klopott

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly outlines the issues concerning ship recycling. It highlights ships' high value as sources of steel scrap and non-ferrous metals, without omitting the fact that they also contain a range of hazardous substances. Moreover, the article also focuses on basic ship demolition methods and their environmental impact, as well as emphasizes the importance of “design for ship recycling” philosophy.

  6. Dutch Ships and Sailors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Victor; Hoekstra, F.G.; Leinenga, Jurjen; van Rossum, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Dutch Ships and Sailors provides an infrastructure for maritime historical datasets, linking correlating data through semantic web technology. It brings together datasets related to recruitment and shipping in the East-India trade (mainly 18th century) and in the shipping of the northern provinces

  7. Reactors. Nuclear propulsion ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fribourg, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    This article has for object the development of nuclear-powered ships and the conception of the nuclear-powered ship. The technology of the naval propulsion P.W.R. type reactor is described in the article B.N.3 141 'Nuclear Boilers ships'. (N.C.)

  8. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  9. Fire History

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  10. Experimental Investigation of the Resistance Performance and Heave and Pitch Motions of Ice-Going Container Ship Under Pack Ice Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chun-yu; Xie, Chang; Zhang, Jin-zhao; Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Da-gang

    2018-04-01

    In order to analyze the ice-going ship's performance under the pack ice conditions, synthetic ice was introduced into a towing tank. A barrier using floating cylinder in the towing tank was designed to carry out the resistance experiment. The test results indicated that the encountering frequency between the ship model and the pack ice shifts towards a high-velocity point as the concentration of the pack ice increases, and this encountering frequency creates an unstable region of the resistance, and the unstable region shifts to the higher speed with the increasing concentration. The results also showed that for the same speed points, the ratio of the pack ice resistance to the open water resistance increases with the increasing concentration, and for the same concentrations, this ratio decreases as the speed increases. Motion characteristics showed that the mean value of the heave motion increases as the speed increases, and the pitch motion tends to increase with the increasing speed. In addition, the total resistance of the fullscale was predicted.

  11. Experimental and analytical investigation of thermal coating effectiveness for 3 m3 LPG tanks engulfed by fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landucci, G.; Molag, M.; Reinders, J.; Cozzani, V.

    2009-01-01

    Two large-scale diesel pool fire engulfment tests were carried out on LPG tanks protected with intumescing materials to test the effectiveness of thermal coatings in the prevention of hot BLEVE accidental scenarios in the road and rail transport of LPG. A specific test protocol was defined to

  12. Nuclear merchant ship propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, E.; Jager, W.; Schafstall, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    The operation of about 300 nuclear naval vessels has proven the feasibility of nuclear ship propulsion. Until now six non military ships have been built or are under construction. In the Soviet Union two nuclear icebreakers are in operation, and a third one is under construction. In the western world three prototype merchant ships have been built. Of these ships only the NS OTTO HAHN is in operation and provides valuable experience for future large scale use of nuclear merchant ship propulsion. In many countries studies and plans are made for future nuclear merchant ships. Types of vessels investigated are large containerships, tankers and specialized ships like icebreakers or ice-breaking ships. The future of nuclear merchant ship propulsion depends on three interrelated items: (1) nuclear ship technology; (2) economy of nuclear ship propulsion; (3) legal questions. Nuclear merchant ship technology is based until now on standard ship technology and light water reactor technology. Except for special questions due to the non-stationary type of the plant entirely new problems do not arise. This has been proven by the recent conceptual licensing procedure for a large nuclear containership in Germany. The economics of nuclear propulsion will be under discussion until they are proven by the operation of privately owned lead ships. Unsolved legal questions e.g. in connection with port entry permissions are at present another problem for nuclear shipping. Efforts are made to solve these questions on an international basis. The future development of nuclear energy electricity production in large land based plants will stimulate the employment of smaller units. Any future development of long distance sea transport will have to take this opportunity of a reliable and economic energy supply into account

  13. Thermal analysis of the modified Hallum Nuclear Power Facility cask using experimentally obtained thermal boundary conditions corresponding to an engulfing open pool fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longenbaugh, R.S.; Sanchez, L.C.; Gregory, J.J.

    1987-08-01

    This report presents the two-dimensional heat transfer analysis of an open pool fire surrounding a modified radioactive materials transport cask. The cask is an older cask that was used by the Hallum Nuclear Power Facility (HNPF). The HNPF cask did not have a neutron shielding region but was modified to include one for testing purposes. Analysis of the thermal effects of an engulfing open pool fire was performed with the use of the heat transfer code Q/TRAN, which had previously been used in thermal benchmarking problems for spent nuclear fuel casks. Boundary condition data for the analysis were derived from experimental open pool fire tests of large-scale calorimeter test articles performed at SNL that produced information about cask surface heat flux versus surface temperature relationships. Data analysis was directed toward a determination of the thermal response of the cask, particularly the extent of lead melt since lead is used within the HNPF cask's gamma-shielding region. Parameters, such as surface emissivity and internal heat generation rate, can affect the results of the thermal analysis which control the amount of lead melt. A parameter sensitivity analysis was performed using a one-dimensional model to describe how surface emissivity and internal heat generation rates affect the temperature distribution within the cask. The information from this analysis was used to determine the range of parameters for the two-dimensional thermal analysis. 13 refs., 57 figs., 8 tabs

  14. Co-firing Bosnian coals with woody biomass: Experimental studies on a laboratory-scale furnace and 110 MWe power unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajevic Izet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of research into cofiring two Bosnian cola types, brown coal and lignite, with woody biomass, in this case spruce sawdust. The aim of the research was to find the optimal blend of coal and sawdust that may be substituted for 100% coal in large coal-fired power stations in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Two groups of experimental tests were performed in this study: laboratory testing of co-firing and trial runs on a large-scale plant based on the laboratory research results. A laboratory experiment was carried out in an electrically heated and entrained pulverized-fuel flow furnace. Coal-sawdust blends of 93:7% by weight and 80:20% by weight were tested. Co-firing trials were conducted over a range of the following process variables: process temperature, excess air ratio and air distribution. Neither of the two coal-sawdust blends used produced any significant ash-related problems provided the blend volume was 7% by weight sawdust and the process temperature did not exceed 1250ºC. It was observed that in addition to the nitrogen content in the co-fired blend, the volatile content and particle size distribution of the mixture also influenced the level of NOx emissions. The brown coal-sawdust blend generated a further reduction of SO2 due to the higher sulphur capture rate than for coal alone. Based on and following the laboratory research findings, a trial run was carried out in a large-scale utility - the Kakanj power station, Unit 5 (110 MWe, using two mixtures; one in which 5%/wt and one in which 7%/wt of brown coal was replaced with sawdust. Compared to a reference firing process with 100% coal, these co-firing trials produced a more intensive redistribution of the alkaline components in the slag in the melting chamber, with a consequential beneficial effect on the deposition of ash on the superheater surfaces of the boiler. The outcome of the tests confirms the feasibility of using 7%wt of sawdust in combination

  15. 46 CFR 95.10-5 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 95.10-5 Section 95.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD... Main System, Details § 95.10-5 Fire pumps. (a) Vessels shall be equipped with independently driven fire pumps in accordance with Table 95.10-5(a). Table 95.10-5(a) Gross tons Over Not over Minimum number of...

  16. 46 CFR 76.10-5 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 76.10-5 Section 76.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD..., Details § 76.10-5 Fire pumps. (a) Vessels shall be equipped with independently driven fire pumps in accordance with table 76.10-5(a). Table 76.10-5(a) Gross tons Over Not over Minimum number of pumps...

  17. Simple analytical relations for ship bow waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblesse, Francis; Delhommeau, G.?Rard; Guilbaud, Michel; Hendrix, Dane; Yang, Chi

    Simple analytical relations for the bow wave generated by a ship in steady motion are given. Specifically, simple expressions that define the height of a ship bow wave, the distance between the ship stem and the crest of the bow wave, the rise of water at the stem, and the bow wave profile, explicitly and without calculations, in terms of the ship speed, draught, and waterline entrance angle, are given. Another result is a simple criterion that predicts, also directly and without calculations, when a ship in steady motion cannot generate a steady bow wave. This unsteady-flow criterion predicts that a ship with a sufficiently fine waterline, specifically with waterline entrance angle 2, may generate a steady bow wave at any speed. However, a ship with a fuller waterline (25E) can only generate a steady bow wave if the ship speed is higher than a critical speed, defined in terms of αE by a simple relation. No alternative criterion for predicting when a ship in steady motion does not generate a steady bow wave appears to exist. A simple expression for the height of an unsteady ship bow wave is also given. In spite of their remarkable simplicity, the relations for ship bow waves obtained in the study (using only rudimentary physical and mathematical considerations) are consistent with experimental measurements for a number of hull forms having non-bulbous wedge-shaped bows with small flare angle, and with the authors' measurements and observations for a rectangular flat plate towed at a yaw angle.

  18. Safety of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Interest in the utilization of nuclear steam supply systems for merchant ships and icebreakers has recently increased considerably due to the sharp rise in oil prices and the continuing trend towards larger and faster merchant ships. Canada, for example, is considering construction of an icebreaker in the near future. On the other hand, an accident which could result in serious damage to or the sinking of a nuclear ship is potentially far more dangerous to the general public than a similar accident with a conventional ship. Therefore, it was very important to evaluate in an international forum the safety of nuclear ships in the light of our contemporary safety philosophy, taking into account the results of cumulative operating experience with nuclear ships in operation. The philosophy and safety requirement for land-based nuclear installations were outlined because of many common features for both land-based nuclear installations and nuclear ships. Nevertheless, essential specific safety requirements for nuclear ships must always be considered, and the work on safety problems for nuclear ships sponsored by the NEA was regarded as an important step towards developing an international code of practice by IMCO on the safety of nuclear merchant ships. One session was devoted to the quantitative assessment of nuclear ship safety. The probability technique of an accident risk assessment for nuclear power plants is well known and widely used. Its modification, to make it applicable to nuclear propelled merchant ships, was discussed in some papers. Mathematical models for describing various postulated accidents with nuclear ships were developed and reported by several speakers. Several papers discussed a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) with nuclear steam supply systems of nuclear ships and engineering design features to prevent a radioactive effluence after LOCA. Other types of postulated accidents with reactors and systems in static and dynamic conditions were also

  19. Validation of a FBC model for co-firing of hazelnut shell with lignite against experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulah, Gorkem [Middle East Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-07-15

    Performance of a comprehensive system model extended for modelling of co-firing of lignite and biomass was assessed by applying it to METU 0.3 MW{sub t} Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustor co-firing lignite with hazelnut shell and validating its predictions against on-line temperature and concentration measurements of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2} and NO along the same test rig fired with lignite only, lignite with limestone addition and lignite with biomass and limestone addition. The system model accounts for hydrodynamics; volatiles release and combustion, char combustion, particle size distribution for lignite and biomass; entrainment; elutriation; sulfur retention and NO formation and reduction, and is based on conservation equations for energy and chemical species. Special attention was paid to different devolatilization characteristics of lignite and biomass. A volatiles release model based on a particle movement model and a devolatilization kinetic model were incorporated into the system model separately for both fuels. Kinetic parameters for devolatilization were determined via thermogravimetric analysis. Predicted and measured temperatures and concentrations of gaseous species along the combustor were found to be in good agreement. Introduction of biomass to lignite was found to decrease SO{sub 2} emissions but did not affect NO emissions significantly. The system model proposed in this study proves to be a useful tool in qualitatively and quantitatively simulating the processes taking place in a bubbling fluidized bed combustor burning lignite with biomass. (author)

  20. Testing the effectiveness of pine needlecast in reducing post-fire soil erosion using complementary experimental approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, C. P. M.; Shakesby, R. A.; Walsh, R. P. D.; Ferreira, C. S. S.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Urbanek, E.

    2012-04-01

    Mediterranean wildfire activity has increased markedly in recent decades, leading to enhanced runoff and erosion. Limiting post-fire on-site soil degradation and off-site flooding and sedimentation, however, often has a low priority because of the high costs of materials and labour needed to implement many recognised techniques (e.g. seeding, hydromulching, installing logs along the contour). However, in pine plantations, the crowns may only be scorched so that after fire the needlecast can form a comparatively dense ground cover. Its post-fire erosion-limiting effectiveness is virtually unknown in the Mediterranean context, despite potentially protecting soil with minimal effort (requiring only a delay to existing salvage logging procedures at most). As part of the DESIRE research programme, this paper presents results from two complementary approaches testing the erosion-limiting effectiveness of needlecast. (1) Near Moinhos, central Portugal, two 8m2 erosion plots were established immediately post-fire in September 2009 on a steep (30°) slope representative of an adjacent burnt Pinus pinaster plantation. Soil erosion was monitored during a 3-month pre-treatment phase. Needles were then applied to one plot at a density (37.7% cover) measured on a post-fire pine plantation. Soil losses from treated and untreated plots were then monitored until April 2011. By taking the percentage increase or decrease in erosion between the two monitoring phases for the untreated control plot as the 'expected' pattern, the erosion-limiting effectiveness of needles applied to the treated plot could then be determined. (2) Six adjacent rectangular 1.23m2 lysimeters were filled with gravel and sand, and capped by 10 cm of topsoil taken from a long unburnt Pinus pinaster plantation. They were set at 15° and left open to natural rainfall. This angle was considered the steepest possible from logistical and soil stability points of view. All lysimeters underwent a phase under bare soil

  1. Thermo-hydraulic characteristics of ship propulsion reactor in the conditions of ship motions and safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Michiyuki; Murata, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Kenichi; Inasaka, Fujio; Aya, Izuo; Shiozaki, Koki

    1999-01-01

    By inputting the experimental data, information and others on thermo-hydraulic characteristics of integrated ship propulsion reactor accumulated hitherto by the Ship Research Institute and some recent cooperation results into the nuclear ship engineering simulation system, it was conducted not only to contribute an improvement study on next ship reactor by executing general analysis and evaluation on motion characteristics under ship body motion conditions, safety at accidents, and others of the integrated ship reactor but also to investigate and prepare some measures to apply fundamental experiment results based on obtained here information to safety countermeasure of the nuclear ships. In 1997 fiscal year, on safety of the integrated ship propulsion reactor loading nuclear ship, by adding experimental data on unstable flow analysis and information on all around of the analysis to general data base fundamental program, development to intellectual data base program was intended; on effect of pulsation flow on thermo-hydraulic characteristics of ship propulsion reactor; after pulsation flow visualization experiment, experimental equipment was reconstructed into heat transfer type to conduct numerical analysis of pulsation flow by confirming validity of numerical analysis code under comparison with the visualization experiment results; and on thermo-hydraulic behavior in storage container at accident of active safety type ship propulsion reactor; a flashing vibration test using new apparatus finished on its higher pressurization at last fiscal year to examine effects of each parameter such as radius and length of exhausting nozzle and pool water temperature. (G.K.)

  2. Buckling of Ship Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Shama, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Buckling of Ship Structures presents a comprehensive analysis of the buckling problem of ship structural members. A full analysis of the various types of loadings and stresses imposed on ship plating and primary and secondary structural members is given. The main causes and consequences of the buckling mode of failure of ship structure and the methods commonly used to control buckling failure are clarified. This book contains the main equations required to determine the critical buckling stresses for both ship plating and the primary and secondary stiffening structural members. The critical buckling stresses are given for ship plating subjected to the induced various types of loadings and having the most common boundary conditions encountered in ship structures.  The text bridges the gap existing in most books covering the subject of buckling of ship structures in the classical analytical format, by putting the emphasis on the practical methods required to ensure safety against buckling of ship structur...

  3. A new self-firing MOS-thyristor device: optimization of the turn-off performance and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breil, M.; Sanchez, J.L.; Austin, P.; Laur, J.P.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, a new integrated self-firing and controlled turn-off MOS-thyristor structure is investigated. An analytical model describing the turn-off operation and parasitic latch-up has been developed, allowing to highlight and optimize the physical and geometrical parameters acting upon main electrical characteristics. The analytical model is validated by 2D simulations using PISCES. The technological fabrication process is optimized by 2D simulations using SUPREM IV. Electrical characterization results of fabricated test structures are presented. (authors) 6 refs.

  4. Techniques for extinguishing sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, Chander; Kale, R.D.

    1979-02-01

    The experimental work done to evaluate the performance of commercially available fire extinguishants and powders for sodium fires is described. Dry chemical powder with sodium bicarbonate base was found very effective. Another effective method of extinghishing fire by using perforated covered tray is also discussed. (auth.)

  5. Reactivity measurements on an experimental assembly of 4.31 wt % 235U enriched UO2 fuel rods arranged in a shipping cask geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierman, S.R.

    1989-10-01

    A research program was initiated for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratory Transportation Systems Development Department in 1982 to provide benchmark type experimental criticality data in support of the design and safe operations of nuclear fuel transportation systems. The overall objective of the program is to identify and provide the experimental data needed to form a consistent, firm, and complete data base for verifying calculational models used in the criticality analyses of nuclear transport and related systems. A report, PNL-6205, issued in June 1988 (Bierman 1988) covered measurement results obtained from a series of experimental assemblies (TIC-1, 2, 3 and 4) involving neutron flux traps. The results obtained on a fifth experimental assembly (TIC-5), modeled after a calculational problem of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) Working Group, are covered in this report. 10 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  6. 46 CFR 34.10-5 - Fire pumps-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps-T/ALL. 34.10-5 Section 34.10-5 Shipping COAST... § 34.10-5 Fire pumps—T/ALL. (a) Tankships shall be equipped with independently driven fire pumps in accordance with table 34.10-5(a). Table 34.10-5(a)—Fire Pumps Size vessel, L.O.A. (feet) Over— Not over...

  7. Crushing Strength of Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerup-Simonsen, Bo; Abramowicz, W.; Høstgaard-Brene, C.N.S.

    1999-01-01

    The crushing response of ship structures is of primary importance to the designers and practicing engineers concerned with accidental loading and accident reconstruction of marine vehicles. Ship to-ship collisions, ship-harbor infrastructure interaction or ship-offshore structure interaction are ...

  8. Experimental Assays to Assess the Efficacy of Vinegar and Other Topical First-Aid Approaches on Cubozoan (Alatina alata) Tentacle Firing and Venom Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Angel A; Wilcox, Christie; King, Rebecca; Hurwitz, Kikiana; Castelfranco, Ann M

    2016-01-11

    Despite the medical urgency presented by cubozoan envenomations, ineffective and contradictory first-aid management recommendations persist. A critical barrier to progress has been the lack of readily available and reproducible envenomation assays that (1) recapitulate live-tentacle stings; (2) allow quantitation and imaging of cnidae discharge; (3) allow primary quantitation of venom toxicity; and (4) employ rigorous controls. We report the implementation of an integrated array of three experimental approaches designed to meet the above-stated criteria. Mechanistically overlapping, yet distinct, the three approaches comprised (1) direct application of test solutions on live tentacles (termed tentacle solution assay, or TSA) with single image- and video-microscopy; (2) spontaneous stinging assay using freshly excised tentacles overlaid on substrate of live human red blood cells suspended in agarose (tentacle blood agarose assays, or TBAA); and (3) a "skin" covered adaptation of TBAA (tentacle skin blood agarose assay, or TSBAA). We report the use and results of these assays to evaluate the efficacy of topical first-aid approaches to inhibit tentacle firing and venom activity. TSA results included the potent stimulation of massive cnidae discharge by alcohols but only moderate induction by urine, freshwater, and "cola" (carbonated soft drink). Although vinegar, the 40-year field standard of first aid for the removal of adherent tentacles, completely inhibited cnidae firing in TSA and TSBAA ex vivo models, the most striking inhibition of both tentacle firing and subsequent venom-induced hemolysis was observed using newly-developed proprietary formulations (Sting No More™) containing copper gluconate, magnesium sulfate, and urea.

  9. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    and national borders within international shipping which is a rather complex domain. The intellectual objective is to generate and evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of design principles for inter-organizational information infrastructures in the international shipping domain that can have positive...

  10. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Liner shipping fleet repositioning consists of moving vessels between services in a liner ship- ping network in order to better orient the overall network to the world economy, and to ensure the proper maintenance of vessels. Thus, fleet repositioning involves sailing and loading activities subject...

  11. Handbook of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    First, the government organs and other organizations related to nuclear ships and their tasks are described. The fundamental plan for the development of nuclear ships had been determined in July, 1963, and was revised three times thereafter. However in December, 1980, new determination to carry out the research works also was made. The course of the construction of the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' from 1955 to 1980, the main particulars of the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' and the drawing of the general arrangement are shown. The designated port for berthing the Mutsu was completed in 1972 in Ominato, Aomori Prefecture, but after the happening of radiation leak during the trial operation of the Mutsu in 1974, it was agreed to remove the port. The main works to be carried out at the port and the port facilities are explained. The progress of the examination of safety of the Mutsu and the result, the test of raising the power output carried out in 1974, and the course of selecting the port for making the repair works of the Mutsu are described. The law concerning Japan Nuclear Ship Research and Development Agency had been instituted in 1963, and was revised four times thereafter. The change of the budget for the tests and researches related to nuclear ships in Japan is shown. The state of development of nuclear ships in foreign countries, the international organs related to atomic energy, shipping, shipbuilding and energy, and chronological table are introduced. (Kako, I.)

  12. Effective and Safe Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle

    1996-01-01

    A Joint Nordic Research project "Effecive and Safe Ships" is presented. The project is aiming to develop methods and tools for quantitative evaluation fo ship safety. This report is the report of the preliminary phase where the plan for the main project is developed. The objectives of the project...

  13. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    to creating a more efficient shipping industry, and a number of critical issues are identified. These include that shipments depend on shipping information, that shipments often are delayed due to issues with documentation, that EDI messages account for only a minor part of the needed information......This thesis applies theoretical perspectives from the Information Systems (IS) research field to propose how Information Technology (IT) can improve containerized shipping. This question is addressed by developing a set of design principles for an information infrastructure for sharing shipping...... information named the Shipping Information Pipeline (SIP). Review of the literature revealed that IS research prescribed a set of meta-design principles, including digitalization and digital collaboration by implementation of Inter-Organizational Systems based on Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) messages...

  14. Experimental study on dew point corrosion characteristics of the heating surface in a 65 t/h biomass-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yungang; Ma, Haidong; Liang, Zhiyuan; Chen, Heng; Zhao, Qinxin; Jin, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dew point corrosion and ash deposit tests in a biomass-fired boiler were performed. • The XRD, XRF and SEM methods were used to analyze corrosion samples. • The deposits were made up of ash deposit layer, coupling layer and corrosion layer. • The metal matrix simultaneously confronted chlorine corrosion and oxygen corrosion. - Abstract: The dew point corrosion characteristics of the heating surface in a 65 t/h biomass-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler were experimentally studied. The cross-sectional morphology and composition of the ash deposition were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF), respectively. The results showed that the test tube surface was covered by ash deposit layer, coupling layer and corrosion layer. The ash deposit layer and the coupling layer were prone to spall off together. The coupling layer consists of partial ash and corrosion products. The corrosion layer was mainly composed of chlorides (FeCl_3, FeCl_2, and FeOCl) and oxides (FeOOH, Fe_2O_3). With the increase of the tube wall temperature, the corrosion depth decreased dramatically and the dew point corrosion was alleviated efficiently. The metal matrix simultaneously suffered from chlorine corrosion and oxygen corrosion. As the tube wall temperature was above water dew point, the main corrosion mode was oxygen corrosion. As the tube wall temperature was below water dew point, the main corrosion mode was chlorine corrosion.

  15. 46 CFR 161.002-10 - Automatic fire detecting system control unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic fire detecting system control unit. 161.002-10...-10 Automatic fire detecting system control unit. (a) General. The fire detecting system control unit... and the battery to be charged. (h) Automatic fire detecting system, battery charging and control—(1...

  16. 46 CFR 108.407 - Detectors for electric fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Detectors for electric fire detection system. 108.407... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.407 Detectors for electric fire detection system. (a) Each detector in an electric fire detection system must be located where— (1) No...

  17. Revision of the basic plans of the first nuclear-powered ship development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Along with the law for Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency, the basic plans of development of the first nuclear-powered ship have been revised. After explaining the basic policy concerning the matter, the development program is described as follows: ship type/kind, nuclear power plant, construction, training of ship crew, experimental voyage, compilation of the development results, and works after the experimental voyage. The first nuclear-powered ship of about 8,000 tons gross tonnage, 10,000 horsepower main engine output, and about 16 knots, sea speed will be the ship for special cargo transport and crew training. A pressurized water reactor is used for the power plant. Following the repair of shielding and the overall inspection of safety, the ship is to be completed as early as possible. After completion of the ship, its experimental voyage will be carried out, aiming at the aspects of operational familiarization, ship performance, reliability, port call experience, etc. (Mori, K

  18. Nuclear ships and their safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-04-15

    Several aspects of nuclear ship propulsion, with special reference to nuclear safety, were discussed at an international symposium at Taormina, Italy, from 14-18 November 1960. Discussions on specific topics are conducted, grouped under the following headings: Economics and National Activities in Nuclear Ship Propulsion; International Problems and General Aspects of Safety for Nuclear Ships; Nuclear Ship Projects from the Angle of Safety; Ship Reactor Problems; Sea Motion and Hull Problems; Maintenance and Refuelling Problems; and Safety Aspects of Nuclear Ship Operation.

  19. Experimental research on influencing factors of wet removal of NO from coal-fired flue gas by UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Wet removal of NO from coal-fired flue gas by UV/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated in a self-designed UV-bubble reactor. Several main influencing factors (UV intensity, H2O2 initial concentration, initial pH value, solution temperature, NO initial concentration, liquid-gas ratio and O2 percentage content) on the NO removal efficiency were studied. The results showed that UV intensity, H2O2 initial concentration, NO initial concentration and liquid-gas ratio are the main influencing factors. In the best conditions, the highest NO removal efficiency by UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process could reach 82.9%. Based on the experimental study, the influencing mechanism of the relevant influencing factors were discussed in depth.

  20. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul

    This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and moments which the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull.The first part of the text is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections (with and without cavitation...... of an intermittently cavitating propeller in a wake and the pressures and forces it exerts on the shaft and on the ship hull is examined. A final chapter discusses the optimization of efficiency of compound propulsors. The authors have taken care to clearly describe physical concepts and mathematical steps. Appendices...

  1. Co-firing straw with coal in a swirl-stabilized dual-feed burner: modelling and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling study of co-firing wheat straw with coal in a 150 kW swirl-stabilized dual-feed burner flow reactor, in which the pulverized straw particles (mean diameter of 451μm) and coal particles (mean diameter of 110.4μm...... conversion. It is found that for pulverized biomass particles of a few hundred microns in diameter the intra-particle heat and mass transfer is a secondary issue at most in their conversion, and the global four-step mechanism of Jones and Lindstedt may be better used in modelling volatiles combustion......-lean core zone; whilst the coal particles are significantly affected by secondary air jet and swirled into the oxygen-rich outer radius with increased residence time (in average, 8.1s for coal particles vs. 5.2s for straw particles in the 3m high reactor). Therefore, a remarkable difference in the overall...

  2. Thermo-hydraulic characteristics of ship propulsion reactor in the conditions of ship motions and safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Michiyuki; Aya, Izuo; Inasaka, Fujio; Murata, Hiroyuki; Odano, Naoteru; Shiozaki, Koki

    1998-01-01

    A research project from 1995-1999 had a plan to make experimental studies on (1) safety of nuclear ship loaded with an integral ship propulsion reactor (2) effects of pulsating flow on the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of ship propulsion reactor and (3) thermo-hydraulic behaviors of the reactor container at the time of accident in a passively safe ship propulsion reactor. Development of a data base for ship propulsion reactor was attempted using previous experimental data on the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of the reactor in the institute in addition to the present results aiming to make general analytical evaluation for the safety of the engineering-simulation system for nuclear ship. A general data base was obtained by integrating the data list and the analytical program for static characteristics. A test equipment which allows to visualize the pulsating flow was produced and visualization experiments have started. (M.N.)

  3. Designing Adaptable Ships: Modularity and Flexibility in Future Ship Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    with motors, belts, shafts , seals, valves, hose spindles , and switches. If ship installation is not installed, the system will be status quo. Ship...Impact: the current centrifugal purifiers (Alfa-Laval) have experienced frequent failures with motor, belts, shafts , seals, valves, hose spindles ... Designing Adaptable Ships Modularity and Flexibility in Future Ship Designs John F. Schank, Scott Savitz, Ken Munson, Brian Perkinson, James

  4. Optimization in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    Seaborne trade is the lynchpin in almost every international supply chain, and about 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is transported by container. In this survey we give an overview of data-driven optimization problems in liner shipping. Research in liner shipping is motivated by a need for handling...... still more complex decision problems, based on big data sets and going across several organizational entities. Moreover, liner shipping optimization problems are pushing the limits of optimization methods, creating a new breeding ground for advanced modelling and solution methods. Starting from liner...... shipping network design, we consider the problem of container routing and speed optimization. Next, we consider empty container repositioning and stowage planning as well as disruption management. In addition, the problem of bunker purchasing is considered in depth. In each section we give a clear problem...

  5. Ship propulsion reactors technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fribourg, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    This paper takes the state of the art on ship propulsion reactors technology. The french research programs with the corresponding technological stakes, the reactors specifications and advantages are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  6. Ship construction and welding

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Nisith R

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses various aspects of ship construction, from ship types and construction materials, to welding technologies and accuracy control. The contents of the book are logically organized and divided into twenty-one chapters. The book covers structural arrangement with longitudinal and transverse framing systems based on the service load, and explains basic structural elements like hatch side girders, hatch end beams, stringers, etc. along with structural subassemblies like floors, bulkheads, inner bottom, decks and shells. It presents in detail double bottom construction, wing tanks & duct keels, fore & aft end structures, etc., together with necessary illustrations. The midship sections of various ship types are introduced, together with structural continuity and alignment in ship structures. With regard to construction materials, the book discusses steel, aluminum alloys and fiber reinforced composites. Various methods of steel material preparation are discussed, and plate cutting and form...

  7. Performance Monitoring of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Vinther

    is used as input to the system and by comparing model and ship behaviour, an index describing the ship’s performance is generated. The work in this thesis is based on data logged through the automation system on board a PostPanmax container ship where data have been logged through a year. A routine...... in the models have been identified. The models used in this work are based on empirical relations or based on regression analyses of model tests and full-scale trials. In order to achieve valid results the conditions where performance is estimated have to be inside the boundaries of the model. Filters have been......The purpose of the research project is to establish a reliable index in the performance evaluation of ships. During operation the ship will experience added resistance due to fouling of hull and propeller. The added resistance will lead to increased fuel consumption and thus increased emissions...

  8. Exergy Analysis of Complex Ship Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Marty

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With multiple primary and secondary energy converters (diesel engines, steam turbines, waste heat recovery (WHR and oil-fired boilers, etc. and extensive energy networks (steam, cooling water, exhaust gases, etc., ships may be considered as complex energy systems. Understanding and optimizing such systems requires advanced holistic energy modeling. This modeling can be done in two ways: The simpler approach focuses on energy flows, and has already been tested, approved and presented; a new, more complicated approach, focusing on energy quality, i.e., exergy, is presented in this paper. Exergy analysis has rarely been applied to ships, and, as a general rule, the shipping industry is not familiar with this tool. This paper tries to fill this gap. We start by giving a short reminder of what exergy is and describe the principles of exergy modeling to explain what kind of results should be expected from such an analysis. We then apply these principles to the analysis of a large two-stroke diesel engine with its cooling and exhaust systems. Simulation results are then presented along with the exergy analysis. Finally, we propose solutions for energy and exergy saving which could be applied to marine engines and ships in general.

  9. Distributed propulsion for ships

    OpenAIRE

    Nylund, Vilde

    2017-01-01

    It is anticipated that using distributed electric propulsion (DEP) on conventional ships will increase the total propulsive efficiency. This is mainly due to two reasons; firstly, because the total propeller disk area can be increased. Secondly, because each propeller can be optimised for the local wake where it is operating. In this work, the benefits of using DEP has been investigated for a 14 000 TEU container ship. Based on a literary study of the present state of propeller modelling ...

  10. SHIPPING REQUESTS ON EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group

    2001-01-01

    Users are informed that as from 1 September 2001 all Shipping Requests must be made on EDH using the appropriate electronic form. The submission of user requests directly into EDH will help rationalise the activities of the Shipping Service (Import & Export), with requests being automatically forwarded to hierarchical supervisors thereby improving the processing speed and facilitating the follow-up. Thank you for your collaboration.

  11. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  12. On the Global Ship Hull Bending Energy in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Y.

    2004-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can be stored in elastic...... hull vibrations during a ship collision. When a ship side is strengthened in order to improve the crashworthiness it has been argued in the scientific literature that a non trivial part of the energy released for structural deformation during the collision can be absorbed as elastic energy in global...... ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship-ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing is confined...

  13. Gaussian mixture models-based ship target recognition algorithm in remote sensing infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shoukui; Qin, Xiaojuan

    2018-02-01

    Since the resolution of remote sensing infrared images is low, the features of ship targets become unstable. The issue of how to recognize ships with fuzzy features is an open problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ship target recognition algorithm based on Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). In the proposed algorithm, there are mainly two steps. At the first step, the Hu moments of these ship target images are calculated, and the GMMs are trained on the moment features of ships. At the second step, the moment feature of each ship image is assigned to the trained GMMs for recognition. Because of the scale, rotation, translation invariance property of Hu moments and the power feature-space description ability of GMMs, the GMMs-based ship target recognition algorithm can recognize ship reliably. Experimental results of a large simulating image set show that our approach is effective in distinguishing different ship types, and obtains a satisfactory ship recognition performance.

  14. Fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janetzky, E.

    1980-01-01

    Safety and fire prevention measurements have to be treated like the activities developing, planning, construction and erection. Therefore it is necessary that these measurements have to be integrated into the activities mentioned above at an early stage in order to guarantee their effectiveness. With regard to fire accidents the statistics of the insurance companies concerned show that the damage caused increased in the last years mainly due to high concentration of material. Organization of fire prevention and fire fighting, reasons of fire break out, characteristics and behaviour of fire, smoke and fire detection, smoke and heat venting, fire extinguishers (portable and stationary), construction material in presence of fire, respiratory protection etc. will be discussed. (orig./RW)

  15. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisions with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding structures....

  16. Recent situations around nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    The philosophy when the safety standard for nuclear ships is drawn up and the international rules specifically for nuclear ships are summarized. As for the safety standard for nuclear ships, the safety requirements for ordinary ships, for the ships transporting nuclear reactors, for ordinary nuclear reactors, and for the reactors moving around the seas must be included. As for the international rules for nuclear ships, there are chapter 8 ''Nuclear ships'' in the International Convention on the Safety of Life at Sea, 1960 and 1974, and Safety Consideration in the Use of Ports and Approaches by Nuclear Merchant Ships. Also there are national rules and standards in Japan and foreign countries. One of the means to explore the practicality of nuclear ships is the investigation of the economy. At this time, the social merits and demerits of nuclear ships must be compared with conventional ships by taking total expenses into account without omission. When oil is depleted, the age of nuclear ships will not necessarily begin, and the will be still some competitors. The investigations concerning the economy of nuclear ships have been carried out in various countries. The present state of the development of nuclear ships in Japan and foreign countries is explained. Many conferences and symposia have been held concerning nuclear ships, and those held recently are enumerated. The realization of nuclear ship age cannot be anticipated from existing papers and shipbuilding projects. (Kako, I.)

  17. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisons with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding...

  18. Crushing of ship bows in head-on collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocakli, H.; Zhang, S.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2004-01-01

    Semi-analytical methods for analysis of plate crushing and ship bow damage in head-on collisions are developed in this paper. Existing experimental and theoretical studies for crushing analysis of plated structures are summarized and compared. Simple formulae for determining the crushing force....... The approach developed can be used easily to determine the crushing resistance and damage extent of the ship bow when ship length and collision speed are known. The method can be used in probabilistic analysis of damage extents in ship collisions where a large number of calculations are generally required....

  19. Detection of Parametric Roll on Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2012-01-01

    phenomenon could make the navigator change ship’s speed and heading, and these remedial actions could make the vessel escape the bifurcation. This chapter proposes non-parametric methods to detect the onset of parametric roll resonance. Theoretical conditions for parametric resonance are re...... on experimental data from towing tank tests and data from a container ship passing an Atlantic storm....

  20. On the global ship hull bending energy in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Yujie

    2009-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels immediately prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can...... be stored in elastic hull vibrations during a ship collision. When a ship side is strengthened in order to improve the crashworthiness it has been argued in the scientific literature that a non-trivial part of the energy released for structural deformation during the collision can be absorbed as elastic...... energy in global ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship–ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing...

  1. An Adaptive Ship Detection Scheme for Spaceborne SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangguang Leng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR and the increasing need of ship detection, research on adaptive ship detection in spaceborne SAR imagery is of great importance. Focusing on practical problems of ship detection, this paper presents a highly adaptive ship detection scheme for spaceborne SAR imagery. It is able to process a wide range of sensors, imaging modes and resolutions. Two main stages are identified in this paper, namely: ship candidate detection and ship discrimination. Firstly, this paper proposes an adaptive land masking method using ship size and pixel size. Secondly, taking into account the imaging mode, incidence angle, and polarization channel of SAR imagery, it implements adaptive ship candidate detection in spaceborne SAR imagery by applying different strategies to different resolution SAR images. Finally, aiming at different types of typical false alarms, this paper proposes a comprehensive ship discrimination method in spaceborne SAR imagery based on confidence level and complexity analysis. Experimental results based on RADARSAT-1, RADARSAT-2, TerraSAR-X, RS-1, and RS-3 images demonstrate that the adaptive scheme proposed in this paper is able to detect ship targets in a fast, efficient and robust way.

  2. Variability of fire behavior, fire effects, and emissions in Scotch pine forests of central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. J. McRae; Susan Conard; G. A. Ivanova; A. I. Sukhinin; Steve Baker; Y. N. Samsonov; T. W. Blake; V. A. Ivanov; A. V. Ivanov; T. V. Churkina; WeiMin Hao; K. P. Koutzenogij; Nataly Kovaleva

    2006-01-01

    As part of the Russian FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project, replicated 4-ha experimental fires were conducted on a dry Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris)/lichen (Cladonia sp.)/feathermoss (Pleurozeum schreberi) forest site in central Siberia. Observations from the initial seven surface fires (2000-2001) ignited under a range of burning...

  3. Measurements in large pool fires with an actively cooled calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Wix, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    The pool fire thermal test described in Safety Series 6 published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10CFR71) in the United States is one of the most difficult tests that a container for larger ''Type B'' quantities of nuclear materials must pass. If retests of a container are required, costly redesign and project delays can result. Accurate measurements and modeling of the pool fire environment will ultimately lower container costs by assuring that containers past the pool fire test on the first attempt. Experiments indicate that the object size or surface temperature of the container can play a role in determining local heat fluxes that are beyond the effects predicted from the simple radiative heat transfer laws. An analytical model described by Nicolette and Larson 1990 can be used to understand many of these effects. In this model a gray gas represents soot particles present in the flame structure. Close to the container surface, these soot particles are convectively and radiatively cooled and interact with incident energy from the surrounding fire. This cooler soot cloud effectively prevents some thermal radiation from reaching the container surface, reducing the surface heat flux below the value predicted by a transparent medium model. With some empirical constants, the model suggested by Nicolette and Larson can be used to more accurately simulate the pool fire environment. Properly formulated, the gray gas approaches also fast enough to be used with standard commercial computer codes to analyze shipping containers. To calibrate this type of model, accurate experimental measurements of radiative absorption coefficients, flame temperatures, and other parameters are necessary. A goal of the calorimeter measurements described here is to obtain such parameters so that a fast, useful design tool for large pool fires can be constructed

  4. Response of fire detectors to different smokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerkman, J.; Keski-Rahkonen, O.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize the behavior of fire alarm systems based on smoke detectors on smoldering fires especially cable fires in nuclear power plants (NPP). Full-scale fire experiments were carried out in a laboratory designed according to the standard EN54-9. The laboratory was instrumented with additional equipment such as thermocouples and flow meters which are not used in standard fire sensitivity tests. This allows the results to be used as experimental data for validation tasks of numerical fire simulation computerized fluid dynamics (CFD)-codes. The ultimate goal of the research is to model theoretically smoldering and flaming cable fires, their smoke production, transfer of smoke to detectors, as well as the response of detectors and fire alarm systems to potential fires. This would allow the use of numerical fire simulation to predict fire hazards in different fire scenarios found important in PSA (probability safety assessment) of NPPs. This report concentrates on explaining full-scale fire experiments in the smoke sensitivity laboratory and experimental results from fire tests of detectors. Validation tasks with CFD-codes will be first carried out 'blind' without any idea about corresponding experimental results. Accordingly, the experimental results cannot be published in this report. (orig.)

  5. Fire Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  6. Effects of ship casualties on reactor safety and marine reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agena, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    Ship casualties such as collision, grounding, fire and explosions, leakage and partial flooding may severely impair the safety of the nuclear reactor plant and result in nuclear hazards to the crew and the environment. Engineered safeguards are being discussed for protection against such consequences: manoeuvrability, structural (passive) collision and fire protection, protection against external fires and pressure waves, after heat transmission in case of a casualty, and after heat transmission out off the sunk wreck. Existing requirements will be discussed, shortly

  7. Measuring fire size in tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qihui

    2013-01-01

    A new measure of fire size Q′ has been introduced in longitudinally ventilated tunnel as the ratio of flame height to the height of tunnel. The analysis in this article has shown that Q′ controls both the critical velocity and the maximum ceiling temperature in the tunnel. Before the fire flame reaches tunnel ceiling (Q′ 1.0), Fr approaches a constant value. This is also a well-known phenomenon in large tunnel fires. Tunnel ceiling temperature shows the opposite trend. Before the fire flame reaches the ceiling, it increases very slowly with the fire size. Once the flame has hit the ceiling of tunnel, temperature rises rapidly with Q′. The good agreement between the current prediction and three different sets of experimental data has demonstrated that the theory has correctly modelled the relation among the heat release rate of fire, ventilation flow and the height of tunnel. From design point of view, the theoretical maximum of critical velocity for a given tunnel can help to prevent oversized ventilation system. -- Highlights: • Fire sizing is an important safety measure in tunnel design. • New measure of fire size a function of HRR of fire, tunnel height and ventilation. • The measure can identify large and small fires. • The characteristics of different fire are consistent with observation in real fires

  8. Ship operations report, 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The NOAA Fleet Operations Report 1973 was developed to provide a summary of project accomplishments during calendar year 1973. The report was prepared from season, cruise and special reports submitted by ships of the fleet. Centralized management of the NOAA Fleet was finalized by changing the operational control of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Ships DAVID STARR JORDAN (FRS 44), TOWNSEND CROMWELL (FRS 43) and MURRE II (FRV 63) from NMFS to the National Ocean Survey on July 1, 1973. Throughout the year, ships routinely collected and transmitted weather data. Similarly, as NOAA participants in the Integrated Global Ocean Station System (IGOSS) service program, XBT observations were taken and either radioed or submitted in log form via mail. In addition, particulate and radionuclide samples were taken in cooperation with the Atomic Energy Commission, sediment samples were obtained for the Smithsonian Institution and observations were made of marine mammals

  9. Ship operations report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The NOAA Ship Operations Report 1975 was developed to provide a summary of projects undertaken during calendar year 1975. The report was prepared from season, cruise and special reports submitted by ships of the fleet. This report is promulgated for inhouse dissemination in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, for collaborating and interested agencies, and for use by members of the scientific community. Throughout the year, ships routinely collected and transmitted weather data. Similarly, as NOAA participants in the Integrated Global Ocean Station System (IGOSS) service program, XBT observations were taken and either radioed or submitted in log form via mail. In addition, particulate and radionuclide samples were taken in cooperation with the Atomic Energy Commission, sediment samples were obtained for the Smithsonian Institution and observations were made of marine mammals

  10. Internationalisation Within Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prockl, Günter; Kinra, Aseem; Kotzab, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    , the degree of internationalisation, measured on the basis of sea-oriented operations, differs from that measured according to land-oriented front-end marketing and sales activities. The purpose of this study is to further examine the internationalisation patterns of shipping lines. An examination...... of the front-end activities and the structures of leading container-shipping companies is conducted. The sales office networks of the sector’s 20 largest companies worldwide (by twenty-foot equivalent unit capacity) are analysed as key indicators. The numbers of sales offices are measured by analysing...... the websites of the sample (20 companies), as well as annual reports and other publicly available data sources. The findings show that not all shipping companies are international, by virtue of the industry. While it is difficult to observe differences in the overall patterns of the sales networks at a macro...

  11. Influences of the separation distance, ship speed and channel dimension on ship maneuverability in a confined waterway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Peng; Ouahsine, Abdellatif; Sergent, Philippe

    2018-05-01

    Ship maneuvering in the confined inland waterway is investigated using the system-based method, where a nonlinear transient hydrodynamic model is adopted and confinement models are implemented to account for the influence of the channel bank and bottom. The maneuvering model is validated using the turning circle test, and the confinement model is validated using the experimental data. The separation distance, ship speed, and channel width are then varied to investigate their influences on ship maneuverability. With smaller separation distances and higher speeds near the bank, the ship's trajectory deviates more from the original course and the bow is repelled with a larger yaw angle, which increase the difficulty of maneuvering. Smaller channel widths induce higher advancing resistances on the ship. The minimum distance to the bank are extracted and studied. It is suggested to navigate the ship in the middle of the channel and with a reasonable speed in the restricted waterway.

  12. Adsorber fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, W.

    1987-01-01

    The following conclusions are offered with respect to activated charcoal filter systems in nuclear power plants: (1) The use of activated charcoal in nuclear facilities presents a potential for deep-seated fires. (2) The defense-in-depth approach to nuclear fire safety requires that if an ignition should occur, fires must be detected quickly and subsequently suppressed. (3) Deep-seated fires in charcoal beds are difficult to extinguish. (4) Automatic water sprays can be used to extinguish fires rapidly and reliably when properly introduced into the burning medium. The second part of the conclusions offered are more like challenges: (1) The problem associated with inadvertent actuations of fire protection systems is not a major one, and it can be reduced further by proper design review, installation, testing, and maintenance. Eliminating automatic fire extinguishing systems for the protection of charcoal adsorbers is not justified. (2) Removal of automatic fire protection systems due to fear of inadvertent fire protection system operation is a case of treating the effect rather than the cause. On the other hand, properly maintaining automatic fire protection systems will preserve the risk of fire loss at acceptable levels while at the same time reducing the risk of damage presented by inadvertent operation of fire protection systems

  13. Absorbed Energy in Ship Collisions and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    is that the absorbed energy does not depend on the arrangement of the structure, the material properties, and the damage mode.The purpose of the present paper is to establish a new simple relation between the absorbed energy and the destroyed material volume, which can be used as a design tool for analysis of ship...... collisions and grounding. The developed expressions reflect the structural arrangement, the material properties and different damage patterns.The present method is validated against a large number of existing experimental results and detailed numerical simulation results. Applications to full-sale ship...

  14. Shipping emissions in ports

    OpenAIRE

    Merk, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Shipping emissions in ports are substantial, accounting for 18 million tonnes of CO2 emissions, 0.4 million tonnes of NOx, 0.2 million of SOx and 0.03 million tonnes of PM10 in 2011. Around 85% of emissions come from containerships and tankers. Containerships have short port stays, but high emissions during these stays. Most of CO2 emissions in ports from shipping are in Asia and Europe (58%), but this share is low compared to their share of port calls (70%). European ports have much less emi...

  15. US Fire Administration Fire Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Fire Administration collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United...

  16. Large Scale Experiments on Spacecraft Fire Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    -based microgravity facilities or has been limited to very small fuel samples. Still, the work conducted to date has shown that fire behaviour in low-gravity is very different from that in normal-gravity, with differences observed for flammability limits, ignition delay, flame spread behaviour, flame colour and flame......Full scale fire testing complemented by computer modelling has provided significant knowhow about the risk, prevention and suppression of fire in terrestrial systems (cars, ships, planes, buildings, mines, and tunnels). In comparison, no such testing has been carried out for manned spacecraft due...... to the complexity, cost and risk associ-ated with operating a long duration fire safety experiment of a relevant size in microgravity. Therefore, there is currently a gap in knowledge of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The entire body of low-gravity fire research has either been conducted in short duration ground...

  17. S-CNN-BASED SHIP DETECTION FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Reliable ship detection plays an important role in both military and civil fields. However, it makes the task difficult with high-resolution remote sensing images with complex background and various types of ships with different poses, shapes and scales. Related works mostly used gray and shape features to detect ships, which obtain results with poor robustness and efficiency. To detect ships more automatically and robustly, we propose a novel ship detection method based on the convolutional neural networks (CNNs, called SCNN, fed with specifically designed proposals extracted from the ship model combined with an improved saliency detection method. Firstly we creatively propose two ship models, the “V” ship head model and the “||” ship body one, to localize the ship proposals from the line segments extracted from a test image. Next, for offshore ships with relatively small sizes, which cannot be efficiently picked out by the ship models due to the lack of reliable line segments, we propose an improved saliency detection method to find these proposals. Therefore, these two kinds of ship proposals are fed to the trained CNN for robust and efficient detection. Experimental results on a large amount of representative remote sensing images with different kinds of ships with varied poses, shapes and scales demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of our proposed S-CNN-Based ship detector.

  18. Are nuclear ships environmentally safer than conventionally powered ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone, C.A.; Molgaard, C.A.; Helmkamp, J.C.; Golbeck, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    An epidemiologic analysis was conducted to determine if risk of hospitalization varied by age, ship type, or occupation between nuclear and conventional powered ship crews in the U.S. Navy. Study cohorts consisted of all male enlisted personnel who served exclusively aboard conventional or nuclear powered aircraft carriers and cruisers during the years 1975-1979; cases were those men hospitalized during this period (N = 48,242). Conventional ship personnel showed significantly elevated rates of injury and disease when compared to nuclear ship personnel. The largest relative risks by age occurred for conventional ship crewmen less than 30 years old. Seaman, logistics (supply), and healthcare personnel serving aboard conventional ships comprised the occupational groups exhibiting the highest hospitalization rate differentials. The results strongly suggest that nuclear ships provide a healthier, safer working and living environment than conventional ships

  19. Forest fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, M.

    1991-01-01

    This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire on plants and animals. In addition, the book examines firefighting methods and equipment, including new minimum impact techniques and compressed air foam; prescribed burning; and steps that can be taken to protect individuals and human structures. A history of forest fire policies in the U.S. and a discussion of solutions to fire problems around the world completes the coverage. With one percent of the earth's surface burning every year in the last decade, this is a penetrating book on a subject of undeniable importance

  20. Forest fires in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Haines; William A. Main; Eugene F. McNamara

    1978-01-01

    Describes factors that contribute to forest fires in Pennsylvania. Includes an analysis of basic statistics; distribution of fires during normal, drought, and wet years; fire cause, fire activity by day-of-week; multiple-fire day; and fire climatology.

  1. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

  2. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  3. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    . This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  4. Ship Roll Damping Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    limitations and large variations of the spectral characteristics of wave-induced roll motion. This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems together with the challenges associated with their design. It discusses the assessment of performance...

  5. Options of ship discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    Environmental performance is a key design consideration for manufacturers of bulk handling machines, not least ship unloaders, with features being introduced to minimise dust and noise pollution. The article reports on developments in grab unloaders, slewing grabcranes and mobile grabcranes by manufacturers such as Konecrane, EMS-Tech, Liebherr-Werk Nenzing and Gottwald. 2 photos.

  6. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...

  7. Ship Systems Survivability Test Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Area for testing survivability of shipboard systems to include electrical, communications, and fire suppression. Multipurpose test range for supporting gun firing,...

  8. Classification of Ship Routing and Scheduling Problems in Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a classification scheme for ship routing and scheduling problems in liner shipping in line with the current and future operational conditions of the liner shipping industry. Based on the classification, the literature is divided into groups whose main characteristics...

  9. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  10. Effect of stern hull shape on turning circle of ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswar, Maimun, A.; Wahid, M. A.; Priyanto, A.; Zamani, Pauzi, Saman

    2012-06-01

    Many factors such as: stern hull shape, length, draught, trim, propulsion system and external forces affecting the drift angle influence rate of turn and size of turning circle of ships. This paper discusses turning circle characteristics of U and V stern hull shape of Very Large Crude Oil Carrier (VLCC) ships. The ships have same principal dimension such as length, beam, and draught. The turning circle characteristics of the VLCC ships are simulated at 35 degree of rudder angle. In the analysis, firstly, turning circle performance of U-type VLCC ship is simulated. In the simulation, initial ship speed is determined using given power and rpm. Hydrodynamic derivatives coefficients are determined by including effect of fullness of aft run. Using the obtained, speed and hydrodynamic coefficients, force and moment acting on hull, force and moment induced by propeller, force and moment induced by rudder are determined. Finally, ship trajectory, ratio of speed, yaw angle and drift angle are determined. Results of simulation results of the VLCC ship are compared with the experimental one as validation. Using the same method, V-type VLCC is simulated and the simulation results are compared with U-type VLCC ship. Results shows the turning circle of U-type is larger than V-type due to effect stern hul results of simulation are.

  11. Ship Observations - VOS and Navy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Combination of Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) and US Navy Ship weather observations. Obs generally taken 2-4 times daily at 00, 06, 12, and 18z.

  12. Trends of shipping markets development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Nowosielski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shipping markets are dependent on international trade transactions that generate transport needs. These needs can dynamically change depending on global natural resources and commodity markets situation. The changes affecting shipping markets can also be caused by changes to the existing cargo flows and by establishing new ones in different geographies. It is anticipated that in the future shipping markets will change, visible by a decline in shipping in North America and Europe and an increase in Asia.

  13. Mineralogical effects of an experimental forest fire on a goethite/ferrihydrite soil - an attempt to solve the presence of hematite and maghemite in topsoils in a temperate region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørnberg, Per; Vendelboe, Anders L.; Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur P.; Merrison, Jonathan P.; Finster, Kai; Jensen, Svend K.

    2010-05-01

    Isolated soil spots, a few square metres in size, as red as Munsell colour 10R ¾ are found in Denmark. These spots are well known as places that have been exposed to fire. However, a long-standing unresolved puzzle is the presence of extended areas with high iron content (8-40 %) where goethite and ferrihydrite are present in the topsoil along with hematite and maghemite. Hematite and particularly maghemite would normally not be expected to occur under the temperate humid Danish climate, but be interpreted as the result of high temperature as found in tropical areas or after forest fires. However, a body of evidence argues against these sites having been exposed to fire. In an attempt to get closer to an explanation of this iron mineralogy, an experimental forest fire was produced. The results showed a clear mineralogical zonation down to 10 cm depth. This was not observed at the natural sites, which contained a uniform mixture of goethite/ferrihydrite, hematite and maghemite down to 20 cm depth. The experimental forest fire furthermore left charcoal and ashes at the topsoil, produced high pH and decreased organic matter content, all of which is in contrast to the natural sites. Physical and chemical date as well as XRD, Mössbauer spectroscopic data and TEM micrographs from the sites will be presented. The conclusion from this work is that the mineralogy of these sites is not consistent with exposure to fire, but may rather result from long term transformation within a reducing environment, possibly involving microorganisms. References: Nørnberg, P., Vendelboe, A.L., Gunnlaugsson, H.P., Merrison, J.P., Finster, K., Jensen, S.K. 2009 Mineralogy after an experimental forest fire on Quaternary soil goethite, compared with a hematite, maghemite, goethite containing topsoil. Clay Minerals, 44, 239-247. Nørnberg, P., Gunnlaugsson, H.P., Merrison, J.P., Vendelboe, A.L. 2009: Salten Skov I: A Martian dust analogue. Planetary and Space Science, 57, 628-631. Nørnberg, P

  14. Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Lisa M. Holsinger; Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2016-01-01

    Several aspects of wildland fire are moderated by site- and landscape-level vegetation changes caused by previous fire, thereby creating a dynamic where one fire exerts a regulatory control on subsequent fire. For example, wildland fire has been shown to regulate the size and severity of subsequent fire. However, wildland fire has the potential to influence...

  15. High cost for drilling ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooghiemstra, J.

    2007-01-01

    Prices for the rent of a drilling ship are very high. Per day the rent is 1% of the price for building such a ship, and those prices have risen as well. Still, it is attractive for oil companies to rent a drilling ship [nl

  16. 46 CFR 116.433 - Windows and air ports in fire control boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Windows and air ports in fire control boundaries. 116... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.433 Windows and air ports in fire control boundaries. (a) Windows or air ports must be of tempered or laminated glass of at least 6.5 millimeters (0.25 inches) in...

  17. 46 CFR 108.409 - Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... detection system. 108.409 Section 108.409 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system. (a) All tubing in a pneumatic fire detection... exposed in the space. (c) A pneumatic fire detection system must be set to activate after approximately a...

  18. 46 CFR 52.01-35 - Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and heating boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and... (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-35 Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal... requirements for miscellaneous boiler types, such as donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, heating boiler, etc...

  19. Trace of the nuclear powered ship 'Mutsu'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The development of the nuclear powered ship 'Mutsu' required the long period of about 30 years from 1963 to 1992. When this period is looked back, it is roughly divided into the period from the initial planning to the construction, the period of the power increase test and the occurrence of radiation leak, the period of the repair of shielding and the general safety checkup as the countermeasures, the period of the checkup and maintenance based on the new research plan, the period of the power increase test and the sea trial, and the period of the experimental voyage after the completion. The course of the development of the nuclear powered ship 'Mutsu' is shown. The design of Mutsu, the incidental land facilities for Mutsu, the power increase test and the experimental voyage of Mutsu, the law system for nuclear powered ships, the research and development of an improved marine nuclear reactor and the development of nuclear powered ships in the world are reported. Nuclear powered warships are operated in USA, USSR, UK, France and China. (K.I.)

  20. Towards Real Time Simulation of Ship-Ship Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present recent and preliminary work directed towards the development of a simplified, physics-based model for improved simulation of ship-ship interaction that can be used for both analysis and real-time computing (i.e. with real-time constraints due to visualization). The goal is to implement...... accurate (realistic) and much faster ship-wave and ship-ship simulations than are currently possible. The coupling of simulation with visualization should improve the visual experience such that it can be perceived as more realistic in training. Today the state-of-art in real-time ship-ship interaction...... is for efficiency reasons and time-constraints in visualization based on model experiments in towing tanks and precomputed force tables. We anticipate that the fast, and highly parallel, algorithm described by Engsig-Karup et al. [2011] for execution on affordable modern high-throughput Graphics Processing Units...

  1. Soil surface changes increase runoff and erosion risk after a low–moderate severity fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Ferreira, A.J.D.; Mol, W.; Berg, van den J.; Kort, De A.; Drooger, S.; Slingerland, E.C.; Mansholt, A.U.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Post-fire land degradation is to a large degree determined by what happens to soil properties and ground cover during and after the fire. To study fire impact in relation to fire intensity and post-fire soil exposure, a 9-ha Portuguese shrubland catchmentwas burned by experimental fire in the 2008/9

  2. EMP coupling to ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deadrick, F.J.; Cabayan, H.S.; Kunz, K.F.; Bevensee, R.M.; Martin, L.C.; Egbert, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Scale-model tests were conducted to establish the adequacy and limitations of model measurements as tools for predicting electromagnetic pulse (EMP) coupling voltages and currents to the critical antennas, cables, and metallic structures on ships. The scale-model predictions are compared with the results of the full-scale EMP simulation test of the Canadian ASW ship, HMCS Huron. (The EMP coupling predictions in this report were made without prior knowledge of the results of the data from the HMCS Huron tests.) This report establishes that the scale-model tests in conjunction with the data base from EMP coupling modules provides the necessary information for source model development and permits effective, low-cost study of particular system configurations. 184 figures, 9 tables

  3. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  4. Ship and Shoot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Ron Woods shared incredibly valuable insights gained during his 28 years at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) packaging Flight Crew Equipment for shuttle and ISS missions. In particular, Woods shared anecdotes and photos from various processing events. The moral of these stories and the main focus of this discussion were the additional processing efforts and effects related to a "ship-and-shoot" philosophy toward flight hardware.

  5. Fire testing for package approval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, M.H.; Fry, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    The IAEA Transport Regulations require packaging systems for radioactive material to survive transport accidents without a significant increase in hazard to members of the public. Tests used to demonstrate this include a fire or 'thermal' test which may be a practical demonstration or based on calculations. Work at Winfrith, involving the development of computer models and pool fire techniques, has given an improved understanding of physical processes. This has been used to improve computer models and pool fire techniques. The paper covers the regulatory requirements for fire testing, the basic physics of fires, practical tests, computer modelling and their applications to package design. We have confidence in our ability to predict temperatures and other conditions in accident situations and can illustrate the important features of fires with experimental evidence. (author)

  6. Fire Risk Scoping Study: Investigation of nuclear power plant fire risk, including previously unaddressed issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.A.; Nowlen, S.P.; Nicolette, V.F.; Bohn, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of nuclear power plant fire risk issues raised as a result of the USNRC sponsored Fire Protection Research Program at Sandia National Laboratories has been performed. The specific objectives of this study were (1) to review and requantify fire risk scenarios from four fire probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) in light of updated data bases made available as a result of USNRC sponsored Fire Protection Research Program and updated computer fire modeling capabilities, (2) to identify potentially significant fire risk issues that have not been previously addressed in a fire risk context and to quantify the potential impact of those identified fire risk issues where possible, and (3) to review current fire regulations and plant implementation practices for relevance to the identified unaddressed fire risk issues. In performance of the fire risk scenario requantifications several important insights were gained. It was found that utilization of a more extensive operational experience base resulted in both fire occurrence frequencies and fire duration times (i.e., time required for fire suppression) increasing significantly over those assumed in the original works. Additionally, some thermal damage threshold limits assumed in the original works were identified as being nonconservative based on more recent experimental data. Finally, application of the COMPBRN III fire growth model resulted in calculation of considerably longer fire damage times than those calculated in the original works using COMPBRN I. 14 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs

  7. The dispersion of radioactive aerosols in fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buijs, K.; Chavane de Dalmassy, B.; Pickering, S.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental results are reported on the resuspension, due to fire, of radioactive nuclear fuel particles from a variety of substrates. Experiments were carried out both on large and small scale. In small-scale fires uranium-plutonium oxide particles were used and in the large-scale fires cerium-europium oxide particles were used. The mechanisms of particle resuspension were investigated in separate series of experiments. It was found that in small-scale fires up to 20% of the particle inventory can be resuspended and in large-scale fires up to 75%. In both cases most of the resuspended material deposits within the fire chamber and a maximum of 2% is carried into the ventilation duct at the outlet of the fire chamber. The predominant resuspension mechanisms are bubble bursting in small-scale fires and turbulence in large-scale fires. (orig.)

  8. The influence of sodium fires on LMFBRs safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justin, F [DSN/Centre de Fontenay-aux-Roses, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    1979-03-01

    In a sodium cooled reactor, sodium fires are accidental conditions to be taken into account in safety analysis. For the various sodium categories, fire conditions, associated risks, safety analysis objectives and detailed corresponding issues are indicated, An experimental research program can be deduced from these considerations. This report covers the following: safety analysis methodology; primary sodium fires; secondary sodium fires; auxiliary sodium fires, and related experimental research programs.

  9. The influence of sodium fires on LMFBRs safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justin, F.

    1979-01-01

    In a sodium cooled reactor, sodium fires are accidental conditions to be taken into account in safety analysis. For the various sodium categories, fire conditions, associated risks, safety analysis objectives and detailed corresponding issues are indicated, An experimental research program can be deduced from these considerations. This report covers the following: safety analysis methodology; primary sodium fires; secondary sodium fires; auxiliary sodium fires, and related experimental research programs

  10. Characterization of flame radiosity in shrubland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel G. Cruz; Bret W. Butler; Domingos X. Viegas; Pedro Palheiro

    2011-01-01

    The present study is aimed at quantifying the flame radiosity vertical profile and gas temperature in moderate to high intensity spreading fires in shrubland fuels. We report on the results from 11 experimental fires conducted over a range of fire rate of spread and frontal fire intensity varying respectively between 0.04-0.35ms-1 and 468-14,973kWm-1. Flame radiosity,...

  11. Design of an actively cooled plate calorimeter for the investigation of pool fire heat fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Nicolette, V.F.; Wix, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    In order to better measure local heat fluxes in open pool fires, an actively cooled calorimeter has been designed and analyzed. As this paper is being prepared, the calorimeter is in fabrication. Following fabrication, testing in a radiant heat facility is planned to assure proper performance before introduction into the pool fire environment. Initially, testing in the SMERF facility will assure reproducibility of tests by removing wind effects. As the program progresses, tests in open facilities, and with different geometries are anticipated. Experimental data from the initial tests will be compared continuously to the gray gas model, and as experiments proceed, the gray gas analytical model will be refined with the goal of improving finite element code analysis of shipping containers. (J.P.N.)

  12. On fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifier...

  13. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  14. Investigation into the feasibility of alternative plutonium shipping forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, J.; Lindsey, C.G.

    1983-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), operated for the Department of Energy by the Battelle Memorial Institute, is conducting a study for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the feasibility of altering current plutonium shipping forms to reduce or eliminate the airborne dispersibility of PuO 2 which might occur during a shipping accident. Plutonium used for fuel fabrication is currently shipped as a PuO 2 powder with a significant fraction in the respirable size range. If the high-strength container is breached due to stresses imposed during a transportation accident, the PuO 2 powder could be subject to airborne dispersion. The available information indicated that a potential accident involving fire accompanied by crush/impact forces would lead to failure of current surface shipping containers (no assumptions were made on the possibility of such a severe accident). Criteria were defined for an alternate shipping form to mitigate the effects of such an accident. Candidate techniques and materials were evaluated as alternate shipping forms by a task team consisting of personnel from PNL and Rockwell Hanford Operations (RHO). At this time, the most promising candidate for an alternate plutonium shipping form appears to be pressing PuO 2 into unsintered (green) pellets. These green pellets satisfy the criteria for a less dispersible form without requiring significant process changes. Discussions of all candidates considered are contained in a series of appendices. Recommendations for further investigations of the applicability of green pellets as an alternate shipping form are given, including the need for a cost-benefit study

  15. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  16. 46 CFR 35.40-10 - Steam, foam, or CO2 fire smothering apparatus-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam, foam, or CO2 fire smothering apparatus-TB/ALL. 35... Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-10 Steam, foam, or CO2 fire smothering apparatus—TB/ALL. Steam, foam, or CO2 fire smothering apparatus shall be marked “STEAM FIRE APPARATUS” or “FOAM FIRE...

  17. Analysis of a ship-to-ship collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, V.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is involved in a safety assessment for the shipment of radioactive material by sea. One part of this study is investigation of the consequences of ship-to-ship collisions. This paper describes two sets of finite element analyses performed to assess the structural response of a small freighter and the loading imparted to radioactive material (RAM) packages during several postulated collision scenarios with another ship. The first series of analyses was performed to evaluate the amount of penetration of the freighter hull by a striking ship of various masses and initial velocities. Although these analyses included a representation of a single RAM package, the package was not impacted during the collision so forces on the package could not be computed. Therefore, a second series of analyses incorporating a representation of a row of seven packages was performed to ensure direct package impact by the striking ship. Average forces on a package were evaluated for several initial velocities and masses of the striking ship. In addition to. providing insight to ship and package response during a few postulated ship collisions scenarios, these analyses will be used to benchmark simpler ship collision models used in probabilistic risk assessment analyses

  18. A Fully Nonlinear, Dynamically Consistent Numerical Model for Solid-Body Ship Motion. I. Ship Motion with Fixed Heading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ray-Quing; Kuang, Weijia

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the details of our numerical model for simulating ship solidbody motion in a given environment. In this model, the fully nonlinear dynamical equations governing the time-varying solid-body ship motion under the forces arising from ship wave interactions are solved with given initial conditions. The net force and moment (torque) on the ship body are directly calculated via integration of the hydrodynamic pressure over the wetted surface and the buoyancy effect from the underwater volume of the actual ship hull with a hybrid finite-difference/finite-element method. Neither empirical nor free parametrization is introduced in this model, i.e. no a priori experimental data are needed for modelling. This model is benchmarked with many experiments of various ship hulls for heave, roll and pitch motion. In addition to the benchmark cases, numerical experiments are also carried out for strongly nonlinear ship motion with a fixed heading. These new cases demonstrate clearly the importance of nonlinearities in ship motion modelling.

  19. Early Detection of Parametric Roll Resonance on Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    Parametric roll resonance on ships is a nonlinear phenomenon where waves encountered at twice the natural roll frequency can bring the vessel dynamics into a bifurcation mode and lead to extreme values of roll. Recent years have seen several incidents with dramatic damage to container vessels...... the ship's speed and course, to escape from the bifurcation condition. This paper proposes nonparametric methods to detect the onset of roll resonance and demonstrates their performance. Theoretical conditions for parametric resonance are revisited and are used to develop efficient methods to detect its...... on experimental data from model tests and on data from a container ship crossing the Atlantic during a storm....

  20. Hospital Ship Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    serious contender. Although it is a proven hull design for stability, integrating the ability to quickly transfer patients aboard is challenging . The...Waste management afloat is a constant challenge for the Navy. It is even more so when designing a hospital ship. In addition to the typical waste...0.97 Optbrs: Corrmon rail fuellrijacllon,crude oil. Rated power generating sets 61:ili:ln()q;to~ 50Htl760rpm &.gne type -1801.\\ Vlc )l ~W.’/cyl SI;O k

  1. A fundamental look at fire spread in California chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Weise; Thomas Fletcher; Larry Baxter; Shankar Mahalingam; Xiangyang Zhou; Patrick Pagni; Rod Linn; Bret Butler

    2004-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service National Fire Plan funded a research program to study fire spread in live fuels of the southwestern United States. In the U.S. current operational fire spread models do not distinguish between live and dead fuels in a sophisticated manner because the study of live fuels has been limited. The program is experimentally examining fire spread at 3...

  2. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  3. ERDC Ship/Tow Simulator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Performing Advanced Hydrodynamic ModelingEngineers and ship pilots can now overcome the challenges of evaluating navigation channel designs, modifications and safety...

  4. Evaluating the role of cutting treatments, fire and soil seed banks in an experimental framework in ponderosa pine forests of the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody L. Wienk; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Guy R. McPherson

    2004-01-01

    Pinus ponderosa Laws. (ponderosa pine) forests have changed considerably during the past century, partly because recurrent fires have been absent for a century or more. A number of studies have explored the influence of timber harvest or burning on understory production in ponderosa pine forests, but study designs incorporating cutting and prescribed...

  5. Disentangling effects of key coarse woody debris fuel properties on its combustion, consumption and carbon gas emissions during experimental laboratory fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Weiwei; van Logtestijn, Richard S.P.; van der Werf, Guido R.; van Hal, Jurgen R.; Cornelissen, Johannes H.C.

    2018-01-01

    Coarse woody debris is a key terrestrial carbon pool, and its turnover through fire plays a fundamental role in global carbon cycling. Coarse dead wood fuel properties, which vary between tree species and wood decay stages, might affect its combustion, consumption and carbon gas emissions during

  6. Windscale fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxier, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    A graphite fire in the Windscale No. 1 reactor occurred during the period October 8-12, 1957. The Windscale reactors were located on a coastal plain in northwest England and were used to produce plutonium. A great wealth of information was gathered on the causes, handling, decontamination, and environmental effects of reactor accidents. Topics of discussion include: the cause of the fire; handling of the incident; radiation doses to the population; and radiation effects on the population

  7. Full-scale tests of spent-nuclear-fuel shipping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Huerta, M.

    1976-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories will be conducting, for the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, a series of tests involving spent-nuclear-fuel shipping systems. Large shipping casks in the 20500 to 70000-kg range will be included in the following full-scale tests: (1) Runaway tractor-trailer crash into a solid concrete barrier while carrying a shipping cask. (2) High-speed locomotive grade-crossing impact with a truck carrying a shipping cask. (3) High-speed derailment, collision, and fire involving a special railcar and shipping cask. The hardware and testing procedures for each of the tests are described. The analysis conducted in advance of the tests addresses the modelling technique used and a description of the scale-model tests. Analytical modelling being done before running the full-scale tests is also described. (author)

  8. Model of large pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fay, J.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)]. E-mail: jfay@mit.edu

    2006-08-21

    A two zone entrainment model of pool fires is proposed to depict the fluid flow and flame properties of the fire. Consisting of combustion and plume zones, it provides a consistent scheme for developing non-dimensional scaling parameters for correlating and extrapolating pool fire visible flame length, flame tilt, surface emissive power, and fuel evaporation rate. The model is extended to include grey gas thermal radiation from soot particles in the flame zone, accounting for emission and absorption in both optically thin and thick regions. A model of convective heat transfer from the combustion zone to the liquid fuel pool, and from a water substrate to cryogenic fuel pools spreading on water, provides evaporation rates for both adiabatic and non-adiabatic fires. The model is tested against field measurements of large scale pool fires, principally of LNG, and is generally in agreement with experimental values of all variables.

  9. Model of large pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A two zone entrainment model of pool fires is proposed to depict the fluid flow and flame properties of the fire. Consisting of combustion and plume zones, it provides a consistent scheme for developing non-dimensional scaling parameters for correlating and extrapolating pool fire visible flame length, flame tilt, surface emissive power, and fuel evaporation rate. The model is extended to include grey gas thermal radiation from soot particles in the flame zone, accounting for emission and absorption in both optically thin and thick regions. A model of convective heat transfer from the combustion zone to the liquid fuel pool, and from a water substrate to cryogenic fuel pools spreading on water, provides evaporation rates for both adiabatic and non-adiabatic fires. The model is tested against field measurements of large scale pool fires, principally of LNG, and is generally in agreement with experimental values of all variables

  10. On Impact Mechanics in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship-ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived ...

  11. Luggage and shipped goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Haller, D.

    2007-01-01

    Summary: Purpose: Control of luggage and shipped goods are frequently carried out. The possibilities of X-ray technology shall be demonstrated. Materials and methods: There are different imaging techniques. The main concepts are transmission imaging, backscatter imaging, computed tomography, and dual energy imaging and the combination of different methods The images come from manufacturers and personal collections. Results: The search concerns mainly, weapons, explosives, and drugs; furthermore animals, and stolen goods, Special problems offer the control of letters and the detection of Improvised Explosive Devices (IED). Conclusion: One has to expect that controls will increase and that imaging with X-rays will have their part. Pattern recognition software will be used for analysis enforced by economy and by demand for higher efficiency - man and computer will produce more security than man alone

  12. Global Shipping Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    information please contact the Chairman, War Gaming Department, Naval War College, 686 Cushing Road, Newport, RI 02841 or via electronic mail at... Game ……………………………………………...9 c. Overarching Research Question……………………………………………..…10 d. Subsidiary Questions…………………………………………………………...10 e ...An e -SLOC is the “cyber network that supports the global maritime trade network.” Industry Global Shipping Game Report 27 experts felt that

  13. Single liner shipping service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Salazar-González, Juan-José

    2014-01-01

    The design of container shipping networks is an important logistics problem, involving assets and operational costs measured in billions of dollars. To guide the optimal deployment of the ships, a single vessel round trip is considered by minimizing operational costs and flowing the best paying...

  14. Towards a nuclear merchant ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, R.L.R.; Llewelyn, G.I.W.; Farmer, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The operation of nuclear merchant ships is likely to be attended by a number of constraints and requirements. Not all of these can be fully resolved until such ships come into use and the necessary experience and confidence have been acquired. But the timing of commercial introduction, if it comes about, will depend on the relative economics of nuclear versus fossil fuel propulsion, and the differences in turn depend in part on the operating costs particular to nuclear ships. A review of operation aspects is essential not only to commercial appraisal; each country whose trade may be carried in nuclear ships - whether it will build such ships or not - will have occasion to give some attention to the problems. It is an international problem and is, as noted later, being considered internationally. This paper; i) reviews some of the operational aspects as seen in the U.K.; ii) summarizes views received by the Nuclear Merchant Ship Unit (NMSU) from U.K. shipping, shipbuilding and nuclear industries on the prospects of a U.K. nuclear merchant ship. (author)

  15. Ship exhaust gas plume cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Neele, P.P.

    2004-01-01

    The exhaust gas plume is an important and sometimes dominating contributor to the infrared signature of ships. Suppression of the infrared ship signatures has been studied by TNO for the Royal Netherlands Navy over considerable time. This study deals with the suppression effects, which can be

  16. Navy Hospital ships in history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sougat Ray

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospital ships are operated by the Naval forces in or near war zones to provide medical assistance to the wounded personnel of all nationalities and not be used for any military purpose. Hospital ships possibly existed in ancient times and the Athenian Navy had a ship named Therapia. However, it was only during the 17th century that it became a common practice for the naval squadrons to be accompanied by large ships with the facilities of carrying the wounded after each engagement. In 1860, the steamships HMS Melbourne and HMS Mauritius were equipped with genuine medical facilities. They were manned by the Medical Staff Corps and provided services to the British expedition to China. During the World War I and World War II, passenger ships were converted for use as hospital ships and were started to be used on a massive scale. RMS Aquitania and HMHS Britannic were two famous examples of hospital ships used extensively. Modern US hospital ships USNS Mercy and USNS Comfort are operated by Military Sealift Command of the US Navy. Their primary mission is to provide emergency on-site care for US combatant forces deployed in war or other operations.

  17. Identification of Dynamically Positioned Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor I. Fossen

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Todays model-based dynamic positioning (DP systems require that the ship and thruster dynamics are known with some accuracy in order to use linear quadratic optical control theory. However, it is difficult to identify the mathematical model of a dynamically posititmed (DP ship since the ship is not persistently excited under DP. In addition the ship parameter estimation problem is nonlinear and multivariable with only position and thruster state measurements available for parameter estimation. The process and measurement noise must also be modeled in order to avoid parameter drift due to environmental disturbances and sensor failure. This article discusses an off-line parallel extended Kalman filter (EKF algorithm utilizing two measurement series in parallel to estimate the parameters in the DP ship model. Full-scale experiments with a supply vessel are used to demonstrate the convergence and robustness of the proposed parameter estimator.

  18. Testing and evaluation of used UF6 shipping packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, C.R.; Ziehlke, K.T.; Pryor, W.A.; Housholder, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    Damage to shipping packages and their components, whether due to normal environmental exposure or because of unforeseen accidents, requires occasional reevaluation and requalification to assure the suitability of the packages for continued service. Pressure tests have been conducted on used 30B cylinders that were involved in a warehouse fire to assess the possible damaging effects of the exposure. Deteriorated and mechanically damaged overpacks which had absorbed large quantities of water in service were subjected to drying tests, foam properties were evaluated, and a rehabilitation procedure was developed to allow return of such packages to service. Protective shipping packages show deterioration with extended service, principally structural damage from rough handling and rust damage from exposure to weather and from storage practices which may promote absorption of water by the insulating foam. The structural and thermal properties of the phenolic foam insulation from used shipping packages were found to be not adversely affected by absorbed water, and they were not degraded by the drying process. In order to slow or avoid continuing rust damage in renovated packages, however, a process was developed for drying the foam in commercial facilities prior to restoration work on used or damaged containers. Two 2-1/2-ton steel transport cylinders, type 30B, were involved in a warehouse fire where portions of the cylinders were estimated to have reached a temperature of 1600 0 F. The cylinders were empty at the time of the fire and thus were not in the protective packages in which full product cylinders are handled while in transit. Hydrostatic burst tests showed that the integrity of the cylinders was not degraded by the fire exposure. They withstood test pressures in excess of 10 times the design pressure, and showed a volume expansion of 30% above the original capacity before rupturing in a completely ductile fashion

  19. Ice & Fire: the Burning Question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    With the Arctic opening up to new shipping routes and increased oil exploration and production due to climate change, the risk of an Arctic oil spill is increasing. Of the classic oil spill response methods (mechanical recovery, dispersants and in-situ burning), in-situ burning is considered...... to be particularly a suitable response method in the Arctic. In-situ burning aims to remove the oil from the marine environment by burning it from the water surface. A recent Ph.D. thesis from the Technical University of Denmark has provided some new insights with respect to the fire science behind this response...

  20. The instantaneous linear motion information measurement method based on inertial sensors for ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Huang, Jing; Gao, Chen; Quan, Wei; Li, Ming; Zhang, Yanshun

    2018-05-01

    Ship instantaneous line motion information is the important foundation for ship control, which needs to be measured accurately. For this purpose, an instantaneous line motion measurement method based on inertial sensors is put forward for ships. By introducing a half-fixed coordinate system to realize the separation between instantaneous line motion and ship master movement, the instantaneous line motion acceleration of ships can be obtained with higher accuracy. Then, the digital high-pass filter is applied to suppress the velocity error caused by the low frequency signal such as schuler period. Finally, the instantaneous linear motion displacement of ships can be measured accurately. Simulation experimental results show that the method is reliable and effective, and can realize the precise measurement of velocity and displacement of instantaneous line motion for ships.

  1. Ship detection in optical remote sensing images based on deep convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Jiang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Haopeng; Zhao, Danpei; Cai, Bowen

    2017-10-01

    Automatic ship detection in optical remote sensing images has attracted wide attention for its broad applications. Major challenges for this task include the interference of cloud, wave, wake, and the high computational expenses. We propose a fast and robust ship detection algorithm to solve these issues. The framework for ship detection is designed based on deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs), which provide the accurate locations of ship targets in an efficient way. First, the deep CNN is designed to extract features. Then, a region proposal network (RPN) is applied to discriminate ship targets and regress the detection bounding boxes, in which the anchors are designed by intrinsic shape of ship targets. Experimental results on numerous panchromatic images demonstrate that, in comparison with other state-of-the-art ship detection methods, our method is more efficient and achieves higher detection accuracy and more precise bounding boxes in different complex backgrounds.

  2. Determination of Fire Enviroment in Stacked Cargo Containers with Radioactive Materials Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arviso, M.; Bobbe, J.G.; Dukart, R.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1999-05-01

    Results from a Fire Test with a three-by-three stack of standard 6 m long International Standards Organization shipping containers containing combustible fuels and empty radioactive materials packages are reported and discussed. The stack is intended to simulate fire conditions that could occur during on-deck stowage on container cargo ships. The fire is initated by locating the container stack adjacent to a 9.8 x 6 m pool fire. Temperatures of both cargoes (empty and simulated radioactive materials packages) and containers are recorded and reported. Observations on the duration, intensity and spread of the fire are discussed. Based on the results, models for simulation of fire exposure of radioactive materials packages in such fires are suggested.

  3. Managing invasions at the cost of native habitat? An experimental test of the impact of fire on the invasion of Chromolaena odorata in a South African savanna

    OpenAIRE

    te Beest, Mariska; Cromsigt, Joris P. G. M.; Ngobese, Johan; Olff, Han

    2012-01-01

    Successfully managing invasive plants in natural systems is extremely difficult. Recently however, progress has been made with an approach focused on changing ecosystem processes through the disturbance regime. We performed a large-scale (3 ha) full-factorial field experiment in densely invaded woodland in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, a savanna reserve in South Africa, to study the effect of fire on the control of the pan-tropical invasive exotic shrub Chromolaena odorata in combination with the c...

  4. Cybersecurity Framework for Ship Industrial Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Maule, R. William; Hake, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Ship mechanical and electrical control systems, and the communications grid through which these devices operate, are a high priority concern for Navy leadership. Ship systems use microprocessor-based controls to interface with physical objects, and Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) to automate ship electromechanical processes. Ship operations are completely dependent on these devices. The commercial security products upon which ships depend do not work on ICS, leaving ships vulnerable. Th...

  5. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  6. Fire Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fire Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Fire Safety What's in ... event of a fire emergency in your home. Fire Prevention Of course, the best way to practice ...

  7. Fire Research Enclosure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities .DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400 cu...

  8. Containment of spills from ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engerer, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Oil escaping from a ship is contained within a limited area surrounding the ship by means of a flexible ring structure. The ring structure is stored in a collapsed state in a compartment extending around the ship. In response to an oil spill, the ring structure is dropped from the compartment and immediately surrounds the ship. A circular inflatable flotation section of the ring structure is charged with gas under pressure. The gas is supplied from a bottle cascade aboard the ship, through lines preconnected to the flotation section and paid out from free-wheeling reels. The flotation section supports a thin circumferential wall of predetermined height that submerges and assumes a vertical cylinder-like shape surrounding the escaping oil. The oil floats within the confines of the ring structure, and the ring structure is progressively expanded to a predetermined size selected to accommodate the total volume of oil carried by the ship. When the ring structure achieves its expanded state, pressure in the flotation section is raised to render the structure relatively rigid and resistant to collapse in response to wave action. Oil can be removed from the interior of the ring structure by recovery ships using suction lines or other conventional recovery methods. 12 figs

  9. 46 CFR 167.45-45 - Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-45... school ship propelled by internal combustion engines, the quantity of carbon dioxide required may be... arrangement of the piping shall be such as to give a general and fairly uniform distribution over the entire...

  10. Ships and the Sailors Inside Them

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sims, Philip

    2004-01-01

    .... Iron shipbuilding allowed safer and healthier ships but their internal compartmentation created communication problems which were gradually solved with mechanical systems Ships developed their own...

  11. Allocation of ESS by interval optimization method considering impact of ship swinging on hybrid PV/diesel ship power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Shuli; Lan, Hai; Hong, Ying-Yi; Yu, David C.; Zhang, Lijun; Cheng, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An uncertainty model of PV generation on board is developed based on the experiments. • The moving and swinging of the ship are considered in the optimal ESS sizing problem. • Optimal sizing of ESS in a hybrid PV/diesel/ESS ship power system is gained by the interval optimization method. • Different cases were studied to show the significance of the proposed method considering the swinging effects on the cost. - Abstract: Owing to low efficiency of traditional ships and the serious environmental pollution that they cause, the use of solar energy and an energy storage system (ESS) in a ship’s power system is increasingly attracting attention. However, the swinging of a ship raises crucial challenges in designing an optimal system for a large oil tanker ship, which are associated with uncertainties in solar energy. In this study, a series of experiments are performed to investigate the characteristics of a photovoltaic (PV) system on a moving ship. Based on the experimental results, an interval uncertainty model of on-board PV generation is established, which considers the effect of the swinging of the ship. Due to the power balance equations, the outputs of the diesel generator and the ESS on a large oil tanker are also modeled using interval variables. An interval optimization method is developed to determine the optimal size of the ESS in this hybrid ship power system to reduce the fuel cost, capital cost of the ESS, and emissions of greenhouse gases. Variations of the ship load are analyzed using a new method, taking five operating conditions into account. Several cases are compared in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Bio-indications of sunken ships and ship wrecks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A

    An evaluation of bottom fauna of ship-wreck sites in estuarine and coastal waters of Goa, India, revealed an exceptionally high biotic enrichment. In terms of number of species, faunal dispersion, faunal diversity, biomass and productivity, in space...

  13. Neutrino physics with SHIP

    CERN Document Server

    van Herwijnen, Eric

    2016-01-01

    SHIP is a new general purpose fixed target facility, whose Technical Proposal has been recently reviewed by the CERN SPS Committee. It recommended that the experiment proceed further to a Comprehensive Design phase. In its initial phase, the 400 GeV proton beam extracted from the SPS will be dumped on a heavy target with the aim of integrating 2×1020 POT (Protons On Target) in 5 years. A dedicated detector, based on a long vacuum tank followed by a spectrometer and particle identification detectors, will allow probing a variety of models with light long-lived exotic particles and masses below O(10) GeV/c 2 . The main focus will be the physics of the so-called Hidden Portals. The sensitivity to Heavy Neutrinos will allow to probe for the first time the mass range between the kaon and the charm meson mass, and a range of couplings for which Baryogenesis and active neutrino masses could also be explained. Another dedicated detector will allow the study of neutrino cross-sections and angular distributions. ντ ...

  14. Production Balance of Ship Erection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ru-hong; TAN Jia-hua; LIU Cun-gen

    2008-01-01

    A network plan model of ship erection was established based on the network planning technologyand the work-package breakdown system. The load-oriented production control method was introduced to buildup a throughput diagram model thus it is possible to describe the ship erection process numerically. Based onthe digitaiized models some cases of production balance of ship erection were studied and three balance indexeswere put forward, they are the load balance rate, the input manpower balance rate and the maximum gantrycrane operating times. Such an analytic method based on the balance evaluation is the important foundationfor digitization and intelligentization of shipyard production management.

  15. Effects of fire on major forest ecosystem processes: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong

    2006-09-01

    -specific studies are needed in future, especially those focusing on temporal and spatial variations of fire effects through long-term experimental monitoring and modeling.

  16. Fire hazard analysis for fusion energy experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.J.; Hasegawa, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    The 2XIIB mirror fusion facility at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) was used to evaluate the fire safety of state-of-the-art fusion energy experiments. The primary objective of this evaluation was to ensure the parallel development of fire safety and fusion energy technology. Through fault-tree analysis, we obtained a detailed engineering description of the 2XIIB fire protection system. This information helped us establish an optimum level of fire protection for experimental fusion energy facilities as well as evaluate the level of protection provided by various systems. Concurrently, we analyzed the fire hazard inherent to the facility using techniques that relate the probability of ignition to the flame spread and heat-release potential of construction materials, electrical and thermal insulations, and dielectric fluids. A comparison of the results of both analyses revealed that the existing fire protection system should be modified to accommodate the range of fire hazards inherent to the 2XIIB facility

  17. On the fluid mechanics of fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TIESZEN,SHELDON R.

    2000-02-29

    Fluid mechanics research related to fire is reviewed with focus on canonical flows, multiphysics coupling aspects, experimental and numerical techniques. Fire is a low-speed, chemically-reacting, flow in which buoyancy plans an important role. Fire research has focused on two canonical flows, the reacting boundary-layer and the reacting free plume. There is rich, multi-lateral, bi-directional, coupling among fluid mechanics and scalar transport, combustion, and radiation. There is only a limited experimental fluid-mechanics database for fire due to measurement difficulties in the harsh environment, and the focus within the fire community on thermal/chemical consequences. Increasingly, computational fluid dynamics techniques are being used to provide engineering guidance on thermal/chemical consequences and to study fire phenomenology.

  18. Potential risks of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report represents an attempt to evaluate the potential risks of nuclear ships. Firstly reasons are given why nuclear ship accidents will not lead to accidents of the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. This is due to much lower content of radioactive material and to different reactor designs. Next a review is given of the types of accidents which have actually occurred. Of these the reactor accidents which may lead to serious consequences for the crew and the environment are considered further. These are reactivity accidents and loss of coolant accidents. In addition the long term risks of sunken nuclear ships and sea disposed reactor compartments etc. are also discussed. Based on available accident data an attempt is made to estimate the probability of serious nuclear ship accidents. (au)

  19. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... aboard. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated in a multivariate analysis including ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period, and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded...

  20. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and territories). Zika virus was first reported in Brazil in 2015 and subsequently spread across the Caribbean ... 11. Mouchtouri VA, Rudge JW. Legionnaires’ disease in hotels and passenger ships: a systematic review of evidence, ...

  1. Ship Repair Workflow Cost Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDevitt, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The effects of intermittent work patterns and funding on the costs of ship repair and maintenance were modeled for the San Diego region in 2002 for Supervisor of Shipbuilding and Repair (SUPSHIP) San Diego...

  2. The Safety Analysis of Shipborne Ammunition in Fire Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Junpeng; Wang, Xudong; Yue, Pengfei

    2017-12-01

    The safety of Ammunition has always been the focus of national military science and technology issues. And fire is one of the major safety threats to the ship’s ammunition storage environment, In this paper, Mk-82 shipborne aviation bomb has been taken as the study object, simulated the whole process of fire by using the FDS (Fire Detection System) software. According to the simulation results of FDS, ANSYS software was used to simulate the temperature field of Mk-82 carrier-based aviation bomb under fire environment, and the safety of aviation bomb in fire environment was analyzed. The result shows that the aviation bombs under the fire environment can occur the combustion or explosion after 70s constant cook-off, and it was a huge threat to the ship security.

  3. Trends in oil spills from tanker ships 1995-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijer, K.

    2005-01-01

    The trends in oil spills around the world over from 1995 to 2004 were examined and analyzed for possible influences on spill volumes and frequencies for incidents of 3 spill size classes. The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation (ITOPF) has maintained a database since 1974 of all oil spills from tankers, combined carriers and barges. The number of oil spills has decreased significantly in the last 30 years despite a steady increase in maritime oil trade since the 1980s. The recent trends were identified by causes, locations, oil type, and shipping legislation. The causes include ship loading/discharging, bunkering, collisions, groundings, hull failures and fires. The types of oil spilt include bunker, crude, cargo fuel, white product and some unknowns. It was concluded that the decline in oil spills is due to a range of initiatives taken by governments and the shipping industry rather than any one factor. Some notable influences towards reduced number of spills include: the international convention for the prevention of pollution from ships of 1972, as modified by the Protocol of 1978; the international convention for the safety of life at sea of 1974; and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Results of investigations into the causes of spills serve the purpose of informing the international process to further prevent and reduce marine oil pollution due to tankers. 7 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs

  4. TMI-2 spent fuel shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, G.J.; Burton, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    TMI-2 failed fuel will be shipped to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for use in the DOE Core Examination Program. The fuel debris will be loaded into three types of canisters during defueling and dry loaded into a spent fuel shipping cask. The cask design accommodates seven canisters per cask and has two separate containment vessels with ''leaktight'' seals. Shipments are expectd to begin in early 1986

  5. Present state of Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Yoshio

    1981-01-01

    The Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency held the annual report meeting on April 8, 1981. The main contents were the plan of research and development of nuclear ships hereafter, the present state of the repair works for the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'', the progress of the selection of the new home port and others. In the last year, the function of research was given to the Agency by the revision of the related law. The full-scale repair works for Mutsu were started in August, 1980, and various equipments and shields in the containment vessel and the upper shields of the containment vessel have been removed. Subsequently, new shields are being installed. According to the report by the committee of nuclear ship research and development, the development of Mutsu, which is valuable as the experimental ship, is continued. Moreover, it is proposed to do the research and development of an improved marine nuclear plant for the purposes of securing the economic efficiency, the proving of the reliability of nuclear merchant ships, and the establishment of safety. As the home port for Mutsu, the new port will be constructed on the open sea side in Aomori Prefecture, and as a candidate, Sekine beach in Mutsu City was named. Till the completion of the new home port, Mutsu will be berthed in Ominato home port. The conditions for entering and berthing in Ominato port will be decided later. (Kako, I.)

  6. On impact mechanics in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship–ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived ...

  7. 46 CFR 62.35-20 - Oil-fired main boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oil-fired main boilers. 62.35-20 Section 62.35-20... AUTOMATION Requirements for Specific Types of Automated Vital Systems § 62.35-20 Oil-fired main boilers. (a) General. (1) All main boilers, regardless of intended mode of operation, must be provided with the...

  8. 46 CFR 167.45-1 - Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing....45-1 Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) General requirements. (1...-extinguishing system. On such vessels contracted for prior to January 1, 1962, a steam smothering system may be...

  9. Effect of fire season, fire frequency, rainfall and management on fire intensity in savanna vegetation in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, by documenting fuel loads, fuel moisture contents, rates of fire spread and the heat yields of fuel in 956 experimental plot burns over 21 years. 3. Individual fires were conducted in five different months (February...

  10. Development of the nuclear ship MUTSU spent fuel shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, M.; Umeda, M.; Nawata, Y.; Sato, H.; Honami, M.; Nomura, T.; Ohashi, M.; Higashino, A.

    1989-01-01

    After the planned trial voyage (4700 MWD/MTU) of the nuclear ship MUTSU in 1990, her spent fuel assemblies, initially made of two types of enriched UO 2 (3.2wt% and 4.4wt%), will be transferred to the reprocessing plant soon after cooling down in the ship reactor for more than one year. For transportation, the MUTSU spent fuel shipping casks will be used. Prior to transportation to the reprocessing plant, the cooled spent fuel assemblies will be removed from the reactor to the shipping casks and housed at the spent fuel storage facility on site. In designing the MUTSU spent fuel shipping cask, considerations were given to make the leak-tightness and integrity of the cask confirmable during storage. The development of the cask and the storage function demonstration test were performed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI). One prototype cask for the storage demonstration test and licensed thirty-five casks were manufactured between 1987 and 1988

  11. Fire Behavior (FB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fire Behavior (FB) method is used to describe the behavior of the fire and the ambient weather and fuel conditions that influence the fire behavior. Fire behavior methods are not plot based and are collected by fire event and time-date. In general, the fire behavior data are used to interpret the fire effects documented in the plot-level sampling. Unlike the other...

  12. Energy and exergy analysis of a cruise ship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, Francesco; Ahlgren, Fredrik; Nguyen, Tuong-Van

    2015-01-01

    but increasing share of the industry. The complexity of the energy system of a s hip where the energy required by propulsion is no longer the trivial main contributor to the whole energy use thus makes this kind of ship of particular interest for the analysis of how energy is converted from its original form...... destruction is generated in the Diesel engines and in the oil - fired boilers) and in the sea water cooler (5.4%) ; the main exergy losses happen instead in the exhaust gas, mostly from the main engines (6 7% of total losses) and particularly from those not equipped with heat recovery devices . The improved...

  13. Status of the Beneficial Uses Shipping System cask (BUSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Eakes, R.G.; Bronowski, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Beneficial Uses Shipping System cask is a Type B packaging developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy. The cask is designed to transport special form radioactive source capsules (cesium chloride and strontium fluoride) produced by the Department of Energy's Hanford Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility. This paper describes the cask system and the analyses performed to predict the response of the cask in impact, puncture, and fire accident conditions as specified in the regulations. The cask prototype has been fabricated and Certificates of Compliance have been obtained

  14. Fire Symfonier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Svend Hvidtfelt

    2009-01-01

    sidste fire symfonier. Den er måske snarere at opfatte som et præludium til disse. At påstå, at symfonierne fra Holmboes side er planlagt til at være beslægtede, ville være at gå for vidt. Alene de 26 år, der skiller den 10. fra den 13., gør påstanden - i bedste fald - dubiøs. Når deres udformning...... udkrystallisering som i de sidste små 30 år af hans virke har afkastet disse fire variationer over en grundlæggende central holmboesk fornemmelse for form, melodi, klang og rytme. Denne oplevelse har fået mig til at udforske symfonierne, for at finde til bunds i dette holmboeske fællestræk, som jeg mener her står...

  15. Total Analysis System for Ship Structural Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Takuya, Yoneya; Hiroyuki, Kobayashi; Abdul M., Rahim; Yoshimichi, Sasaki; Masaki, Irisawa; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Singapore Office; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a total analysis system for ship hull structures, which integrates a wide variety of analysis functions to realise practical applications of rational methods for assessing ship structural strength. It is based on direct calculation of wave-induced loads as well as three-dimensional structural analysis of an entire-ship or hold structure. Three major analysis functions of the total system are ship motion and wave load analysis, ship structural analysis and statistical analy...

  16. Analysis of sodium pool fire in SFEF for assessing the limiting pool fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangarjuna Rao, P.; Ramesh, S.S.; Nashine, B.K.; Kasinathan, N.; Chellapandi, P.

    2011-01-01

    Accidental sodium leaks and resultant sodium fires in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems can create a threat to the safe operation of the plant. To avoid this defence-in depth approach is implemented from the design stage of reactor itself. Rapid detection of sodium leak and fast dumping of the sodium into the storage tank of a defective circuit, leak collection trays, adequate lining of load bearing structural concrete and extinguishment of the sodium fire are the important defensive measures in the design, construction and operation of a LMFBR for protection against sodium leaks and their resultant fires. Evaluation of sodium leak events and their consequences by conducting large scale engineering experiments is very essential for effective implementation of the above protection measures for sodium fire safety. For this purpose a Sodium Fire Experimental Facility (SFEF) is constructed at SED, IGCAR. SFEF is having an experimental hall of size 9 m x 6 m x 10 m with 540 m 3 volume and its design pressure is 50 kPa. It is a concrete structure and provided with SS 304 liner, which is fixed to the inside surfaces of walls, ceiling and floor. A leak tight door of size (1.8 m x 2.0 m) is provided to the experimental hall and the facility is provided with a sodium equipment hall and a control room. Experimental evaluation of sodium pool fire consequences is an important activity in the LMFBR sodium fire safety related studies. An experimental program has been planned for different types of sodium fire studies in SFEF. A prior to that numerical analysis have been carried out for enclosed sodium pool fires using SOFIRE-II sodium pool fire code for SFEF experimental hall configuration to evaluate the limiting pool fire. This paper brings out results of the analysis carried out for this purpose. Limiting pool fire of SFEF depends on the exposed surface area of the pool, amount of sodium in the pool, oxygen concentration and initial sodium temperature. Limiting

  17. Underlying mechanism of regulatory actions of diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, on neuronal potassium channels and firing: an experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C W; Hung, T Y; Liao, Y K; Hsu, M C; Wu, S N

    2013-06-01

    Diclofenac (DIC), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is known to exert anti-nociceptive and anti-convulsant actions; however, its effects on ion currents, in neurons remain debatable. We aimed to investigate (1) potential effects of diclofenac on membrane potential and potassium currents in differentiated NSC-34 neuronal cells and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons with whole-cell patch-clamp technology, and (2) firing of action potentials (APs), using a simulation model from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons based on diclofenac's effects on potassium currents. In the NSC-34 cells, diclofenac exerted an inhibitory effect on delayed-rectifier K⁺ current (I(KDR)) with an IC₅₀ value of 73 μM. Diclofenac not merely inhibited the I(KDR) amplitude in response to membrane depolarization, but also accelerated the process of current inactivation. The inhibition by diclofenac of IK(DR) was not reversed by subsequent application of either naloxone. Importantly, diclofenac (300 μM) increased the amplitude of M-type K⁺ current (I)(KM)), while flupirtine (10 μM) or meclofenamic acid (10 μM) enhanced it effectively. Consistently, diclofenac (100 μM) increased the amplitude of I(KM) and diminished the I(KDR) amplitude, with a shortening of inactivation time constant in DRG neurons. Furthermore, by using the simulation modeling, we demonstrated the potential electrophysiological mechanisms underlying changes in AP firing caused by diclofenac. During the exposure to diclofenac, the actions on both I(KM) and I(KDR) could be potential mechanism through which it influences the excitability of fast-spiking neurons. Caution needs to be made in attributing the effects of diclofenac primarily to those produced by the activation of I(KM).

  18. The decommissioning plan of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, M.; Matsuo, R.; Fujikawa, S.; Nomura, T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the review about the decommissioning plan and present state of the Nuclear Ship Mutsu. The decommissioning of the Mutsu is carried out by Removal and Isolation method. The procedure of the decommissioning works is presented in this paper. The decommissioning works started in April, 1992 and it takes about four years after her last experimental voyage. (author)

  19. Numerical analysis of viscous effect on ship rolling motions based on CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUO Tian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During the ship design procedure, the analysis of ship rolling motions is of great significance because the rolling motions have extraordinary effects on the sea-keeping, maneuverability and stability of a ship. It is difficult to simulate rolling motions due to the effect of viscosity, which causes many nonlinear components in computation. As such, the potential theory used for other ship motions cannot be used for rolling motions. This paper simulates the rolling motions of the DTMB 5512 ship model and the ship transverse section of the S60 ship model with a naoe-FOAM-SJTU solver using the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes(RANSmethod based on the OpenFOAM. The results of rolling motions are compared with the experimental data, which confirms the reliability of the meshes and results. For the ship transverse section of the S60 ship model, the damping coefficient is divided into three parts with the Euler and RANS methods:friction, vorticity and wave parts. For the DTMB 5512 ship model, the damping coefficient is also respectively analyzed, including the friction, vorticity, wave and bilge keel parts. The results in this paper show that the vorticity part accounts for the greatest proportion, while the friction part accounts for the least, and the bilge keels reduces the damping moment to a certain extent which shows the effect of rolling parameters on rolling motions and moments.

  20. Transnucleaire's experience in ship adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachet, Y.; Vallette-Fontaine, M.

    2000-01-01

    Due to the application of the new IMDG regulations for the transport of radioactive material by sea, the conditions of transport of MTR spent fuel have drastically changed five years ago. In this paper, TRANSNUCLEAIRE analyses the necessary modifications to apply to existing ships in order to comply with the IMDG/INF regulations as well as with the Japanese KAISA 520 regulation. In the MTR spent fuel transport market characterized by a competitive approach, TRANSNUCLEAIRE has carried out many transports by sea in full compliance with the regulations at a price which is as close as possible to that of other industrial goods and without the need to fully dedicate the BOUGUENAIS ship to nuclear transports. Innovative ship design solutions have been implemented and accepted by different Authorities uncluding the Advisory Committee of the Japanese MOT. Due to efficient finite element calculations, benchmarked by laboratory large scale tests, high performances crushing materials have been developed in order to absorb the energy of collision between ships. These developments have led ta propose an efficient ship design complying with all the existing worldwide nuclear regulations. (author)

  1. Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    tankers, the introduction of buffer bulbous bows has been proposed. Relatively soft buffer bows absorb part of the kinetic energy of the striking ship before penetrating the inner hull of the struck vessel. The purpose of the present paper is to verify the effectiveness of a prototype buffer bulbous bow......) and the forward velocity of the struck ship on the collapse mode of the bow of the striking vessel are investigated. Collapse modes, contact forces and energy absorption capabilities of the buffer bows are compared with those of conventional bows....

  2. Recent results of experiments at SHIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, S.

    1997-10-01

    The new elements 110, 111 and 112 were synthesized and unambiguously identified in experiments at SHIP. The decay data were compared with the predictions of theoretical models. Good agreement was obtained for the nuclei up to element Z=112. Theory predicts deformed nuclei with minimum (negative) shell-correction energy at Z=108 and N=162. Candidates for an experimental investigation of spherical superheavy nuclei (SHE) are selected on the basis of the predictions of the nuclear models and extrapolation of experimental results. The production cross-sections up to element Z=112 were measured, partly accurate excitation functions were obtained. The data allow to fix a narrow energy window for production of SHE by ln-emission channels. Possibilities to broaden the energy window by radiative capture reactions, use of neutron deficient projectile isotopes and use of actinide targets are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Browns Ferry fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkleroad, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A synopsis of the March 22, 1975 fire at Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant is discussed. Emphasis is placed on events prior to and during the fire. How the fire started, fire fighting activities, fire and smoke development, and restoration activities are discussed

  4. EX1001 Ship Shakedown (EX1001, EM302) on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ship has been alongside for repairs and leave since November, 2009. The ship shakedown cruise is scheduled to provide an opportunity for the ship to get underway...

  5. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results are presented...... structure of several tankers and containerships. The results of the reliability analysis were the basis for the definition of a target safety level which was used to asses the partial safety factors suitable for in a new design rules format to be adopted in modern ship structural design. Finally...

  6. Design of Crashworthy Ship Strucures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toernqvist, Rikard

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of the project has been to develop a rational procedure for designing new crashworthy side structures for those ship types where it could be expected that a substantial improvement of the crashworthiness and the related safety could be achieved by careful consideration of the str......The main purpose of the project has been to develop a rational procedure for designing new crashworthy side structures for those ship types where it could be expected that a substantial improvement of the crashworthiness and the related safety could be achieved by careful consideration...... in collision and grounding analysis is the prediction of the onset of fracture and crack propagation in the shell plating. In simulations of accidental loading on ships it is crucial that fracture is determined correctly, as it will influence the global deformation mode and the amount of damage to the hull...

  7. On Grounding of Fast Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with analysis of grounding of high-speed crafts. It is the purpose to present a comprehensive mathematical model for calculation of the overall dynamic ship response during grounding. This procedure is applied to derive the motions, the time varying sectional forces and the local...... loads during grounding on plane, sloping, sandy bottoms for six different designs of fast monohull ships made from steel, aluminium or GRP sandwich materials. The results show that the effect of the hull flexibility is to reduce the overall dynamic sectional loads on the hull girder. The considered...... numerical examples also indicate that, even with impact speeds of 40 knots against a 1:10 sloping bottom, the global strength of the hull girder is not exceeded by the grounding induced loads.For the local deformation of high-speed ship hulls at the point of contact with the ground, the paper presents...

  8. Fuel exchanger for nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Koji; Kanbara, Takahisa; Watanabe, Masaharu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent enviromental contamination landing radioactive materials from the inside of a ship. Constitution: A provisional cabin having a shape covering a reactor hatch and a hatch cover is disposed on the upper deck of a ship body. A ceiling shutter is disposed to the cabin. A protection cylinder having a shutter and a filter fan is attached on the cabin. Materials to be discharged out of the ship are transported to a fuel exchange tower on land by using a crane while being contained in the protection cylinder with the shutter being closed. The protection cylinder is connected by means of a wire rope to a loop-wheel machine which disposed on the trolly of a crane. While the bellows through which the suspending wire for the discharged products passes is perforated, since the inside of the cylinder is depressurized by a filter fan, there is no air leakage through the perforation to the outside. (Ikeda, J.)

  9. Fuel exchanger for nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Koji; Kanbara, Takahisa; Watanabe, Masaharu

    1984-11-29

    To prevent enviromental contamination by radioactive materials from the inside of a ship a provisional cabin having a shape covering a reactor hatch and a hatch cover is disposed on the upper deck of a ship body. A ceiling shutter is disposed to the cabin. A protection cylinder having a shutter and a filter fan is attached on the cabin. Materials to be discharged out of the ship are transported to a fuel exchange tower on land by using a crane while being contained in the protection cylinder with the shutter being closed. The protection cylinder is connected by means of a wire rope to a loop-wheel machine which is disposed on the trolly of a crane. While the bellows through which the suspending wire for the discharged products passes is perforated, since the inside of the cylinder is depressurized by a filter fan, there is no air leakage through the perforation to the outside.

  10. A study of the flow field surrounding interacting line fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevor Maynard; Marko Princevac; David R. Weise

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of converging fires often leads to significant changes in fire behavior, including increased flame length, angle, and intensity. In this paper, the fluid mechanics of two adjacent line fires are studied both theoretically and experimentally. A simple potential flow model is used to explain the tilting of interacting flames towards each other, which...

  11. An NEA contribution to the safety of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadie, K.B.; Thomas, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The civil nuclear ships put into service so far have performed well and have an excellent safety record. There are substantial differences however between these experimental vessels and a free-ranging fleet of nuclear-powered merchant ships development of which will require satisfactory solutions to certain technical questions, an international consensus on safety requirements, and some form of international arrangement for regulation and surveillance. The paper describes the work sponsored by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in this field, and points out areas where future effort should be focussed, as a prerequisite for such future developments

  12. Numerical prediction of green water loads on ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Bendix

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of the present study has been to investigate problems related to shipping green water on deck of a floating vessel by use of numerical methods. A Navier-Stokes solver with a free surface capturing scheme, similar to the VOF method (Hirt and Nichols, 1981) has been applied...... green water problem with relative ship motion included. Great effoort has been made to validate and verify the numerical method and all computations have been verified by use of several computational grids with increasing resolution and validated by comparison to experimental data. Results from the dam...

  13. Experimental assessment on the thermal effects of the neutron shielding and heat-transfer fin of dual purpose casks on open pool fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Kyoung-Sik; Yu, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Ju-Chan; Seo, Ki-Seog; Choi, Woo-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An open pool fire test was performed to estimate not only the combustion effect of the neutron shielding but also the effect of the heat transfer fin of the dual purpose cask. • The heat transfer to the inside of the dual purpose cask was reduced, when the neutron shielding burns. • The surface temperatures are lower in the present of the heat transfer fins. • If inflammable material is used as the components of the cask, evaluating thermal integrity using the thermal test would be desirable. - Abstract: Dual purpose casks are used for storage and transport of spent nuclear fuel assemblies. They must therefore satisfy the requirements prescribed in the Korea Nuclear Safety Security Commission Act 2014-50, the IAEA Safety Standard Series No. SSR-6, and US 10 CFR Part 71. These regulatory guidelines classify the dual purpose cask as a Type B package and state that a Type B package must be able to withstand a temperature of 800 °C for a period of 30 min. NS-4-FR is used as neutron shielding of the dual purpose cask. Heat transfer fins are embedded to enhance heat transfer from the cask body to the outer-shell because the thermal conductivity of NS-4-FR is not good. However, accurately simulating not only the combustion effect of the neutron shielding but also the effect of the heat transfer fin in the thermal analysis is not easy. Therefore, an open pool fire test was conducted using a one-sixth slice of a real cask to estimate these effects at a temperature of 800 °C for a period of 30 min. The temperature at the central portion of the neutron shielding was lower when the neutron shielding in contact with the outer cask burned because the neutron shielding absorbed the surrounding latent heat as the neutron shielding burned. Therefore, the heat transfer to the inside of the dual purpose cask was reduced. The surface temperature was lower when a heat transfer fin was installed because the high heat generated by the flame was transferred to the

  14. Experimental assessment on the thermal effects of the neutron shielding and heat-transfer fin of dual purpose casks on open pool fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Kyoung-Sik, E-mail: nksbang@kaeri.re.kr; Yu, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Ju-Chan; Seo, Ki-Seog; Choi, Woo-Seok

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • An open pool fire test was performed to estimate not only the combustion effect of the neutron shielding but also the effect of the heat transfer fin of the dual purpose cask. • The heat transfer to the inside of the dual purpose cask was reduced, when the neutron shielding burns. • The surface temperatures are lower in the present of the heat transfer fins. • If inflammable material is used as the components of the cask, evaluating thermal integrity using the thermal test would be desirable. - Abstract: Dual purpose casks are used for storage and transport of spent nuclear fuel assemblies. They must therefore satisfy the requirements prescribed in the Korea Nuclear Safety Security Commission Act 2014-50, the IAEA Safety Standard Series No. SSR-6, and US 10 CFR Part 71. These regulatory guidelines classify the dual purpose cask as a Type B package and state that a Type B package must be able to withstand a temperature of 800 °C for a period of 30 min. NS-4-FR is used as neutron shielding of the dual purpose cask. Heat transfer fins are embedded to enhance heat transfer from the cask body to the outer-shell because the thermal conductivity of NS-4-FR is not good. However, accurately simulating not only the combustion effect of the neutron shielding but also the effect of the heat transfer fin in the thermal analysis is not easy. Therefore, an open pool fire test was conducted using a one-sixth slice of a real cask to estimate these effects at a temperature of 800 °C for a period of 30 min. The temperature at the central portion of the neutron shielding was lower when the neutron shielding in contact with the outer cask burned because the neutron shielding absorbed the surrounding latent heat as the neutron shielding burned. Therefore, the heat transfer to the inside of the dual purpose cask was reduced. The surface temperature was lower when a heat transfer fin was installed because the high heat generated by the flame was transferred to the

  15. Ships - inspiring objects in architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczak, Elzbieta

    2017-10-01

    Sea-going vessels have for centuries fascinated people, not only those who happen to work at sea, but first and foremost, those who have never set foot aboard a ship. The environment in which ships operate is reminiscent of freedom and countless adventures, but also of hard and interesting maritime working life. The famous words of Pompey: “Navigare necesseest, vivere non estnecesse” (sailing is necessary, living - is not necessary), which he pronounced on a stormy sea voyage, arouse curiosity and excitement, inviting one to test the truth of this saying personally. It is often the case, however, that sea-faring remains within the realm of dreams, while the fascination with ships demonstrates itself through a transposition of naval features onto land constructions. In such cases, ship-inspired motifs bring alive dreams and yearnings as well as reflect tastes. Tourism is one of the indicators of people’s standard of living and a measure of a society’s civilisation. Maritime tourism has been developing rapidly in recent decades. A sea cruise offers an insight into life at sea. Still, most people derive their knowledge of passenger vessels and their furnishings from the mass media. Passenger vessels, also known as “floating cities,” are described as majestic and grand, while their on-board facilities as luxurious, comfortable, exclusive and inaccessible to common people on land. Freight vessels, on the other hand, are described as enormous objects which dwarf the human being into insignificance. This article presents the results of research intended to answer the following questions: what makes ships a source of inspiration for land architecture? To what extent and by what means do architects draw on ships in their design work? In what places can we find structures inspired by ships? What ships inspire architects? This article presents examples of buildings, whose design was inspired by the architecture and structural details of sea vessels. An analysis of

  16. Wind Forces on Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... are presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

  17. Quality management in shipping companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đergović Dragana M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As international business becomes more competitive, companies are finding that they need to work more effectively to stay in business. Quality assurance has become very important to the majority of production and service companies with international activity. Shipping companies were also required to implement a quality management system. The huge importance of safety in maritime transport operations resulted in the International Safety Management Code (ISM Code by the International Maritime Organization. The general management system principles embodied by the maritime ISM Code and generics ISO standards, have enabled their complementary application in establishing a quality management system in shipping companies, within a safety management system as its subset.

  18. Vegetation responses to season of fire in an aseasonal, fire-prone fynbos shrubland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tineke Kraaij

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Season of fire has marked effects on floristic composition in fire-prone Mediterranean-climate shrublands. In these winter-rainfall systems, summer-autumn fires lead to optimal recruitment of overstorey proteoid shrubs (non-sprouting, slow-maturing, serotinous Proteaceae which are important to the conservation of floral diversity. We explored whether fire season has similar effects on early establishment of five proteoid species in the eastern coastal part of the Cape Floral Kingdom (South Africa where rainfall occurs year-round and where weather conducive to fire and the actual incidence of fire are largely aseasonal. We surveyed recruitment success (ratio of post-fire recruits to pre-fire parents of proteoids after fires in different seasons. We also planted proteoid seeds into exclosures, designed to prevent predation by small mammals and birds, in cleared (intended to simulate fire fynbos shrublands at different sites in each of four seasons and monitored their germination and survival to one year post-planting (hereafter termed ‘recruitment’. Factors (in decreasing order of importance affecting recruitment success in the post-fire surveys were species, pre-fire parent density, post-fire age of the vegetation at the time of assessment, and fire season, whereas rainfall (for six months post-fire and fire return interval (>7 years had little effect. In the seed-planting experiment, germination occurred during the cooler months and mostly within two months of planting, except for summer-plantings, which took 2–3 months longer to germinate. Although recruitment success differed significantly among planting seasons, sites and species, significant interactions occurred among the experimental factors. In both the post-fire surveys and seed planting experiment, recruitment success in relation to fire- or planting season varied greatly within and among species and sites. Results of these two datasets were furthermore inconsistent, suggesting

  19. Vegetation responses to season of fire in an aseasonal, fire-prone fynbos shrubland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaij, Tineke; Cowling, Richard M; van Wilgen, Brian W; Rikhotso, Diba R; Difford, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Season of fire has marked effects on floristic composition in fire-prone Mediterranean-climate shrublands. In these winter-rainfall systems, summer-autumn fires lead to optimal recruitment of overstorey proteoid shrubs (non-sprouting, slow-maturing, serotinous Proteaceae) which are important to the conservation of floral diversity. We explored whether fire season has similar effects on early establishment of five proteoid species in the eastern coastal part of the Cape Floral Kingdom (South Africa) where rainfall occurs year-round and where weather conducive to fire and the actual incidence of fire are largely aseasonal. We surveyed recruitment success (ratio of post-fire recruits to pre-fire parents) of proteoids after fires in different seasons. We also planted proteoid seeds into exclosures, designed to prevent predation by small mammals and birds, in cleared (intended to simulate fire) fynbos shrublands at different sites in each of four seasons and monitored their germination and survival to one year post-planting (hereafter termed 'recruitment'). Factors (in decreasing order of importance) affecting recruitment success in the post-fire surveys were species, pre-fire parent density, post-fire age of the vegetation at the time of assessment, and fire season, whereas rainfall (for six months post-fire) and fire return interval (>7 years) had little effect. In the seed-planting experiment, germination occurred during the cooler months and mostly within two months of planting, except for summer-plantings, which took 2-3 months longer to germinate. Although recruitment success differed significantly among planting seasons, sites and species, significant interactions occurred among the experimental factors. In both the post-fire surveys and seed planting experiment, recruitment success in relation to fire- or planting season varied greatly within and among species and sites. Results of these two datasets were furthermore inconsistent, suggesting that proteoid

  20. Temperature of Steel Columns under Natural Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Wald

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Current fire design models for time-temperature development within structural elements as well as for structural behaviour are based on isolated member tests subjected to standard fire regimes, which serve as a reference heating, but do not model natural fire. Only tests on a real structure under a natural fire can evaluate future models of the temperature developments in a fire compartment, of the transfer of heat into the structure and of the overall structural behaviour under fire.To study overall structural behaviour, a research project was conducted on an eight storey steel frame building at the  Cardington Building Research Establishment laboratory on January 16, 2003. A fire compartment 11×7 m was prepared on the fourth floor. A fire load of 40 kg/m2 was applied with 100 % permanent mechanical load and 65 % of imposed load. The paper summarises the experimental programme and shows the temperature development of the gas in the fire compartment and of the fire protected columns bearing the unprotected floors.

  1. A NUMERICAL APPLICATION TO PREDICT THE RESISTANCE AND WAVE PATTERN OF KRISO CONTAINER SHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Hakan Ozdemir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the computational results for KRISO Container Ship (KCS are presented. CFD analyses are performed to simulate free surface flow around KCS by using RANS approach with success. Also the complicated turbulent flow zone behind the ship is well simulated. The RANS equations and the non-linear free surface boundary conditions are discretized by means of a finite volume scheme. The numerical methodology is found to be appropriate for simulating the turbulent flow around a ship in order to estimate ship total resistance and free surface. By the numerical results, total resistance is calculated for the ship model and the result is satisfactory with regard to the experimental one. As a result of well captured free surface, the wave elevation on/around the hull is compared with the experimental results.

  2. An experimental study on the thermal characteristics and heating effect of arc-fault from Cu core in residential electrical wiring fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jian-Hua; Tu, Ran; Zeng, Yi; Pan, Leng; Zhang, Ren-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    The characteristics of a series direct current (DC) arc-fault including both electrical and thermal parameters were investigated based on an arc-fault simulator to provide references for multi-parameter electrical fire detection method. Tests on arc fault behavior with three different initial circuit voltages, resistances and arc gaps were conducted, respectively. The influences of circuit conditions on arc dynamic image, voltage, current or power were interpreted. Also, the temperature rises of electrode surface and ambient air were studied. The results showed that, first, significant variations of arc structure and light emitting were observed under different conditions. A thin outer burning layer of vapor generated from electrodes with orange light was found due to the extremely high arc temperature. Second, with the increasing electrode gap in discharging, the arc power was shown to have a non monotonic relationship with arc length for constant initial circuit voltage and resistance. Finally, the temperature rises of electrode surface caused by heat transfer from arc were found to be not sensitive with increasing arc length due to special heat transfer mechanism. In addition, temperature of ambient air showed a large gradient in radial direction of arc.

  3. An experimental study on the thermal characteristics and heating effect of arc-fault from Cu core in residential electrical wiring fires.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hua Du

    Full Text Available The characteristics of a series direct current (DC arc-fault including both electrical and thermal parameters were investigated based on an arc-fault simulator to provide references for multi-parameter electrical fire detection method. Tests on arc fault behavior with three different initial circuit voltages, resistances and arc gaps were conducted, respectively. The influences of circuit conditions on arc dynamic image, voltage, current or power were interpreted. Also, the temperature rises of electrode surface and ambient air were studied. The results showed that, first, significant variations of arc structure and light emitting were observed under different conditions. A thin outer burning layer of vapor generated from electrodes with orange light was found due to the extremely high arc temperature. Second, with the increasing electrode gap in discharging, the arc power was shown to have a non monotonic relationship with arc length for constant initial circuit voltage and resistance. Finally, the temperature rises of electrode surface caused by heat transfer from arc were found to be not sensitive with increasing arc length due to special heat transfer mechanism. In addition, temperature of ambient air showed a large gradient in radial direction of arc.

  4. Fire Ant Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  5. Fire safety at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over the smoke alarm as needed. Using a fire extinguisher can put out a small fire to keep it from getting out of control. Tips for use include: Keep fire extinguishers in handy locations, at least one on ...

  6. Crown Fire Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  7. National Fire Protection Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... closed NFPA Journal® NFPA Journal® Update (newsletter) Fire Technology ... die from American home fires, and another 13,000 are injured each year. This is the story of fire that the statistics won't show ...

  8. Measurement of flows around modern commercial ship models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W. J.; Van, S. H.; Kim, D. H.

    To document the details of flow characteristics around modern commercial ships, global force, wave pattern, and local mean velocity components were measured in the towing tank. Three modern commercial hull models of a container ship (KRISO container ship = KCS) and of two very large crude-oil carriers (VLCCs) with the same forebody and slightly different afterbody (KVLCC and KVLCC2) having bow and stern bulbs were selected for the test. Uncertainty analysis was performed for the measured data using the procedure recommended by the ITTC. Obtained experimental data will provide a good opportunity to explore integrated flow phenomena around practical hull forms of today. Those can be also used as the validation data for the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code of both inviscid and viscous flow calculations.

  9. Measurement of flows around modern commercial ship models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, W J; Van, S H; Kim, D H [Korea Research Inst. of Ships and Ocean Engineering, KORDI, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    To document the details of flow characteristics around modern commercial ships, global force, wave pattern, and local mean velocity components were measured in the towing tank. Three modern commercial hull models of a container ship (KRISO container ship = KCS) and of two very large crude-oil carriers (VLCCs) with the same forebody and slightly different afterbody (KVLCC and KVLCC2) having bow and stern bulbs were selected for the test. Uncertainty analysis was performed for the measured data using the procedure recommended by the ITTC. Obtained experimental data will provide a good opportunity to explore integrated flow phenomena around practical hull forms of today. Those can be also used as the validation data for the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code of both inviscid and viscous flow calculations. (orig.)

  10. Decommissioning plan of the nuclear-powered ship 'Mutsu'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear-powered ship 'Mutsu' is to be decommissioned at Sekinehama Port immediately after finishing the experimental voyage based on the 'Fundamental plan on the research required for the development of nuclear ships in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute' decided in March, 1985. The decommissioning plan which determines the methods of the works regarding the decommissioning and others is as follows. In order to utilize the ship hull of Mutsu, the reactor room including the reactor and shielding is removed in a lump, and the removal and isolation method of preserving it as it is on land is adopted. The measures for environment preservation and ensuring the safety of residents are taken, and the sufficient work control is carried out for preventing accidents and reducing the radiation exposure of workers. The ship is used as the ship with ordinary propulsion system for ocean research and the research and development of marine reactors. The utilization of Sekinehama and Ominato facilities is investigated. The reactor room removed from Mutsu is exhibited to public, being preserved safely in a building. (K.I.)

  11. Helicopter-Ship Qualification Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoencamp, A.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to develop a novel test methodology which can be used for optimizing cost and time efficiency of helicopter-ship qualification testing without reducing safety. For this purpose, the so-called “SHOL-X” test methodology has been established, which includes the

  12. Container for shipping dangerous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    This container for shipping dangerous material is made by a cylindrical casing of austenitic stainless steel with rounded ends and walls of uniform thickness with welded joins, a tubular metal shock absorber fixed over each end of the casing, removable lugs fixed to the casing, optionally retainers for the material within the casing [fr

  13. Modeling of Ship Propulsion Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Benjamin Pjedsted; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature, from four different loading conditions has been used to train a neural network for prediction of propulsion power. The network was able to predict the propulsion power with accuracy...

  14. Lifecycle Readiness and Ship Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    incidence of vomiting reported on military transport ships traveling across the Atlantic to vary from 8.5% to 22.1% on three crossings. Bruner (1955...Butterworth (pp. 455-471). Bruner , J. M. (1955). Seasickness in a destroyer escort squadron. United States Armed Forces Medical Journal, 6(4), 469-490

  15. Rudder roll stabilization for ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amerongen, J.; van der Klugt, P.G.M.; van Nauta lemke, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an autopilot for rudder roll stabilization for ships. This autopilot uses the rudder not only for course keeping but also for reduction of the roll. The system has a series of properties which make the controller design far from straightforward: the process has

  16. Designing Indonesian Liner Shipping Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armand Omar Moeis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the largest archipelago nation in the world, Indonesia’s logistics system has not shown excellence according to the parameters of logistics performance index and based on logistics costs percentages from overall GDP. This is due to the imbalances of trading on the western and eastern regions in Indonesia, which impacts the transportation systems costs to and from the eastern regions. Therefore, it is imperative to improve the competitiveness of Indonesian maritime logistics through maritime logistics network design. This research will focus on three levels of decision making in logistics network design, which include type of ships in the strategic level, shipping routes in the tactical level, and container allocation in the operational level with implementing butterfly routes in Indonesia’s logistics networking problems. Furthermore, this research will analyze the impact of Pendulum Nusantara and Sea Toll routes against the company profits and percentages of containers shipped. This research will also foresee how demand uncertainties and multi-period planning should affect decision making in designing the Indonesian Liner Shipping Network.

  17. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  18. FIRE CHARACTERISTICS FOR ADVANCED MODELLING OF FIRES

    OpenAIRE

    Otto Dvořák

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the material and fire properties of solid flammable/combustible materials /substances /products, which are used as inputs for the computer numerical fire models. At the same time it gives the test standards for their determination.

  19. Severe fire weather and intensive forest management increase fire severity in a multi-ownership landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zald, Harold S J; Dunn, Christopher J

    2018-04-26

    Many studies have examined how fuels, topography, climate, and fire weather influence fire severity. Less is known about how different forest management practices influence fire severity in multi-owner landscapes, despite costly and controversial suppression of wildfires that do not acknowledge ownership boundaries. In 2013, the Douglas Complex burned over 19,000 ha of Oregon & California Railroad (O&C) lands in Southwestern Oregon, USA. O&C lands are composed of a checkerboard of private industrial and federal forestland (Bureau of Land Management, BLM) with contrasting management objectives, providing a unique experimental landscape to understand how different management practices influence wildfire severity. Leveraging Landsat based estimates of fire severity (Relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio, RdNBR) and geospatial data on fire progression, weather, topography, pre-fire forest conditions, and land ownership, we asked (1) what is the relative importance of different variables driving fire severity, and (2) is intensive plantation forestry associated with higher fire severity? Using Random Forest ensemble machine learning, we found daily fire weather was the most important predictor of fire severity, followed by stand age and ownership, followed by topographic features. Estimates of pre-fire forest biomass were not an important predictor of fire severity. Adjusting for all other predictor variables in a general least squares model incorporating spatial autocorrelation, mean predicted RdNBR was higher on private industrial forests (RdNBR 521.85 ± 18.67 [mean ± SE]) vs. BLM forests (398.87 ± 18.23) with a much greater proportion of older forests. Our findings suggest intensive plantation forestry characterized by young forests and spatially homogenized fuels, rather than pre-fire biomass, were significant drivers of wildfire severity. This has implications for perceptions of wildfire risk, shared fire management responsibilities, and developing

  20. CERN News: Slow ejection efficiency at the PS; Vacuum tests on the ISR; Fire in the neutrino beam-line; Prototype r.f . cavity for the Booster; Crane-bridge in ISR experimental hall; Modifications to the r.f . system at the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    1969-01-01

    CERN News: Slow ejection efficiency at the PS; Vacuum tests on the ISR; Fire in the neutrino beam-line; Prototype r.f . cavity for the Booster; Crane-bridge in ISR experimental hall; Modifications to the r.f . system at the PS

  1. Fire and fire ecology: Concepts and principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Cochrane; Kevin C. Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Fire has been central to terrestrial life ever since early anaerobic microorganisms poisoned the atmosphere with oxygen and multicellular plant life moved onto land. The combination of fuels, oxygen, and heat gave birth to fire on Earth. Fire is not just another evolutionary challenge that life needed to overcome, it is, in fact, a core ecological process across much...

  2. Logistical Analysis of the Littoral Combat Ship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rudko, David

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) is to provide the Navy with an affordable, small, multi-mission ship capable of independent, interdependent, and integrated operations inside the littorals...

  3. Facts about Noroviruses on Cruise Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cruise Tips for Healthy Cruising Related Resources Cruise Ship Inspection Scores & Information Inspection Scores Cruise Line Directory Green ... 800-CDC-INFO ( 1-800-232-4636 ). Cruise Ship Inspection Scores & Information Inspection Scores Cruise Line Directory Green ...

  4. New Zealand code for nuclear powered shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    This report recommends guidelines for the safety precautions and procedures to be implemented when New Zealand ports and approaches are used by nuclear powered merchant ships and nuclear powered naval ships

  5. An introduction to fire dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Drysdale, Dougal

    2011-01-01

    "Drysdale's book is by far the most comprehensive - everyone in the office has a copy...now including me. It holds just about everything you need to know about fire science."(Review of An Introduction to Fire Dynamics, 2nd Edition) After 25 years as a bestseller, Dougal Drysdale's classic introduction has been brought up-to-date and expanded to incorporate the latest research and experimental data.  Homework problems are included, with solutions, and others are available on the accompanying website at www.wiley.com/go/drysdale. Essential reading for all involved in the field from undergraduate

  6. International climate policy : consequences for shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Mæstad, Ottar; Evensen, Annika Jaersen; Mathiesen, Lars; Olsen, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    This report summarises the main results from the project Norwegian and international climate policy consequences for shipping. The aim of the project has been to shed light on how climate policies might affect shipping, both from the cost side and from the demand side. The project has been divided into three sub-projects, investigating the consequences of climate policies for 1. Optimal shipping operations and management 2. The competitiveness of shipping relative to land transport 3. The tra...

  7. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The service for the import/export of radioactive materials reminds you that shipping requests for potentially radioactive materials must be made via the EDH request form by ticking the box 'radioactive material'. All the necessary information is given on the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Requests not complying with the above procedure will not be taken into account. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Tel. 73171 Fax: 69200

  8. Real-Time Simulation of Ship-Structure and Ship-Ship Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole; Glimberg, Stefan Lemvig; Bingham, Harry B.

    2013-01-01

    , because it is simple, easy to implement and computationally efficient. Multiple many-core graphical processing units (GPUs) are used for parallel execution and the model is implemented using a combination of C/C++, CUDA and MPI. Two ship hydrodynamic cases are presented: Kriso Container Carrier at steady...

  9. Ship-to-Ship Radiocommunication Trial by Using Wireless LAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Niwa

    2015-12-01

    In a former field radiocommunication trial, omni-directional antennas were used and a few hundred kbps throughput between two ships was measured, which was not enough for our research target (over 1Mbps. In order to get faster throughput, a field radiocommunication trial was carried out again with a few types of directional antennas and RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication and the throughput between two ships was measured simultaneously. As a result, multi-path (2-path model affected by the reflection of the sea surface was confirmed and also the characteristics of the directional antennas such as half-power angle were confirmed, but the measured throughput was fast enough to meet our expectation.

  10. Accidents on ships in the Danish International Ship register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

    to report accidents causing at least one day off work beyond the day of accident but the first source contains several accidents not fulfilling this criterion, too. Radio Medical is an independent service where all Danish ships may seek medical advice. The data sets were merged by identification number...... of our study is to describe trend of accidents and their contributing factors, with special focus on nationality, occurring in ships under Danish flag in the period 2010-2012. The study used two independent data sources, the Danish Maritime Authority and the Danish Radio Medical. It is mandatory...... to create a single database that has been studied by descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Findings show a stabilised number of accidents in the analysed period. The occurrence of accidents is influenced by nationality. There is a higher frequency of reported injuries found among Danish and other...

  11. A review of a radioactive material shipping container including design, testing, upgrading compliance program and shipping logistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celovsky, A.; Lesco, R.; Gale, B.; Sypes, J.

    2003-01-01

    Ten years ago Atomic Energy of Canada developed a Type B(U)-85 shipping container for the global transport of highly radioactive materials. This paper reviews the development of the container, including a summary of the design requirements, a review of the selected materials and key design elements, and the results of the major qualification tests (drop testing, fire test, leak tightness testing, and shielding integrity tests). As a result of the testing, improvements to the structural, thermal and containment design were made. Such improvements, and reasons thereof, are noted. Also provided is a summary of the additional analysis work required to upgrade the package from a Type B(U) to a Type B(F), i.e. essentially upgrading the container to include fissile radioisotopes to the authorized radioactive contents list. Having a certified shipping container is only one aspect governing the global shipments of radioactive material. By necessity the shipment of radioactive material is a highly regulated environment. This paper also explores the experiences with other key aspects of radioactive shipments, including the service procedures used to maintain the container certification, the associated compliance program for radioactive material shipments, and the shipping logistics involved in the transport. (author)

  12. Smoke production in fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvaranta, L.; Kokkala, M. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1995-12-31

    Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

  13. Smoke production in fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvaranta, L; Kokkala, M [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1996-12-31

    Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

  14. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the U.S... officer, of the shipping articles agreements, including any seaman's allotment agreement, required by 46 U...

  15. 15 CFR 750.11 - Shipping tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in the ECCN applicable to your item reads “ $ value” or “in $ value”, there is no shipping tolerance... is no shipping tolerance with respect to the number of units. However, the value of all of your... shipping tolerance on this license because the items are controlled by an ECCN where “$ value” is the...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.162 Ship's boilers. (a) Before...

  17. 27 CFR 44.187 - Shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44... Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container in which tobacco products, or cigarette... same containers in which they were received from the factory. (72 Stat. 1418, as amended; 26 U.S.C...

  18. 27 CFR 44.254 - Shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.254 Section 44.254 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Requirements § 44.254 Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container, in which cigars are...

  19. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 176.24 Section 176.24... Requirements § 176.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by vessel unless that person has received a shipping paper prepared in...

  20. 49 CFR 177.817 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 177.817 Section 177.817... Information and Regulations § 177.817 Shipping papers. (a) General requirements. A person may not accept a... received a shipping paper prepared in accordance with part 172 of this subchapter or the material is...

  1. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in accordance...

  2. Improving the competitiveness of green ship recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The end of life of a ship is determined by its owner on the basis of various commercial and technical factors. Once decided to scrap a ship, almost all end-of-life (EOL) ships are sold to recycling yards for dismantling; except for a few which are converted into museums, hotels, storage, and

  3. Characterisation of open-door electrical cabinet fires in compartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutin, M., E-mail: mickael.coutin@irsn.fr; Plumecocq, W.; Zavaleta, P.; Audouin, L.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Heat release rate of electrical cabinet fire source in a vitiated atmosphere. • Experimental database for proper validation the combustible modelling, taking into account the oxygen depletion in an enclosure. • New model for complex fire source. - Abstract: The study of electrical fires is a major concern for fire safety in the industry and more particularly for fire safety in nuclear facilities. To investigate this topic, IRSN conducted a large number of real-scale experiments involving open-door electrical cabinets burning firstly under a calorimetric hood and then inside a mechanically-ventilated compartment. The main challenges are to determine accurately the heat release rate of such a complex fire source in a vitiated atmosphere and to provide an experimental database for validating properly the combustible modelling, taking into account the oxygen depletion in an enclosure. After providing a detailed description of the fire scenarios and of the experimental apparatus, this paper focuses on the characteristic stages of the cabinet fire development, essentially based on the heat release rate time evolution of the fire. The effects of the confinement, of the outlet branch location, of the ventilation management and of the fire barrier on the fire source were then investigated. The reproducibility of electrical cabinet fires is also studied. A new model for complex fire source (applied in this study for open-door electrical cabinet fires) was then developed. This model was introduced in the zone code SYLVIA and the major features of the compartment fire experiments, such as characteristic heat release rate with effect of oxygen depletion and over-pressure peak were then calculated with a rather good agreement for this complex fire source (i.e. electrical cabinet)

  4. The sodium fire tests performed in the FAUNA facility on up to 12m2 fire areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherdron, W.; Jordan, S.

    1983-08-01

    The FAUNA test facility started operation in 1979. It serves to investigate large area sodium fires in closed containments and to study the generation, behaviour and removal of sodium fire aerosols. In this report, the experimental results of the 6 sodium pool fires are described which were performed with up to 500 kg of sodium in fire pans of 2 m 2 , 5 m 2 and 12 m 2 surface area, respectively. Both, the thermodynamic data and the data of the reaction kinetics of the fires were determined. In addition, the behaviour of the released aerosols during and after the fire was studied. On the basis of measurements of the temperature profiles at various levels above the fire areas it was shown that the convective flows above fire areas of different sizes in closed containments differ markedly and, obviously, exert an influence on the development of the fire and the release of particles. Whilst in rather small fires the gas above the pan rises as in a chimney and flows back on the walls, no chimney effect can be observed in a large pool fire. In rather large fires higher burning rates and aerosol release rates were observed. Some meters above the fire area temperatures around 300-400 0 C, temporarily even up to 700 0 C, were measured. The tests F5 and F6 were performed above all to observe the fire behaviour in terms of thermodynamics and reaction kinetics in a fully closed containment. (orig./RW) [de

  5. Fires, ecological effects of

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Bond; Robert Keane

    2017-01-01

    Fire is both a natural and anthropogenic disturbance influencing the distribution, structure, and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems around the world. Many plants and animals depend on fire for their continued existence. Others species, such as rainforest plants species, are extremely intolerant of burning and need protection from fire. The properties of a fire...

  6. A POSSIBLE SOLUTION WITH PASSIVE PROTECTION STRUCTURAL RESISTANCE ELEMENTS TO CARGO SHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU Ildikó Renata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors are proposing an additional fire protection solution (semi-passive for cargo ships, by inserting in the tubular strength structure (hollow section, some rectangular, thin wall pipes manufactured of copper alloy, filled with cooling fluid, that, once the fire bursts, it will be activated (i.e. will be pumped into a closed circuit; this closed system contains also a well dimensioned radiator. This innovative solution could bring improvements with regard to the classic one, of intumescent paints, by extending the safe period for evacuating people and goods.

  7. Development of a Relationship Between Residual Ultimate Longitudinal Strength Versus Grounding Damage Index Diagram For Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Han Byul; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    Various accidents such as grounding, collision, fire, and explosion commonly occur on operating ships. The structural damage caused by such accidents is often accompanied by casualties and serious pollution. Therefore, an accidental risk- based approach that is in line with the goal-based standard...

  8. Intelligent Prediction of Ship Maneuvering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Lacki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presents an idea of the intelligent ship maneuvering prediction system with the usage of neuroevolution. This may be also be seen as the ship handling system that simulates a learning process of an autonomous control unit, created with artificial neural network. The control unit observes input signals and calculates the values of required parameters of the vessel maneuvering in confined waters. In neuroevolution such units are treated as individuals in population of artificial neural networks, which through environmental sensing and evolutionary algorithms learn to perform given task efficiently. The main task of the system is to learn continuously and predict the values of a navigational parameters of the vessel after certain amount of time, regarding an influence of its environment. The result of a prediction may occur as a warning to navigator to aware him about incoming threat.

  9. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad

    .The contributions of this thesis cover modeling, methodology, and applications.The developed methods address operational (cargo routing), tactical (speed optimization and service selection), and strategic (network design) planning problems faced by liner shipping companies. Ultimately, the proposed methods help...... take the container transportation times that can be realized in the network nor the number of transshipments into consideration. This is mainly because the optimization problem is based on other transportation networks where these constraints are not decisive to the quality of the network. Furthermore......, the problem in itself is challenging to optimize due to its size and complexity. However, the field has seen crucial progress and is mature to include handling of competitiveness in the actual design of the network.As a liner shipping network is an organic entity, which is constantly changed to reflect...

  10. Approximate Method of Calculating Forces on Rudder During Ship Sailing on a Shipping Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zelazny

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Service speed of a ship in real weather conditions is a basic design parameter. Forecasting of this speed at preliminary design stage is made difficult by the lack of simple but at the same accurate models of forces acting upon a ship sailing on a preset shipping route. The article presents a model for calculating forces and moment on plane rudder, useful for forecasting of ship service speed at preliminary stages of ship design.

  11. Evaluation of the Service Performance of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Borrod, Anne-Sophie; Blanchot, Hervé

    2005-01-01

    A simple method has been established for the evaluation of the service performance of ships. Input data are easily collected daily on board and transformed to a well-defined condition that makes possible the comparison between ships, for instance, sister ships, and between different time periods...... of voyages for the same ship. The procedure has been applied to two ships that are identical, with the exception that one has a conventional propeller, whereas the other one is fitted with a high-efficiency propeller of the KAPPEL type. The results are obtained from a period of 2 years steaming for both...

  12. Naval Ship Database: Database Design, Implementation, and Schema

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    ClassId Class identifier Name Ship name Pendant Ship pendant CommissionDate Ship commission date DecommissionDate Ship decommission date; NULL if still...active FlagshipId Ship Id of the ship Figure 3: Ship table definition Table 3: Ship table example rows Id Prefix ClassId Name Pendant ...computation if required. A bridged connection will allow computation analysis to be done in Matlab and allow the processed data to be imported back

  13. Building 431 fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Ford, H.W.; Magee, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    An extensive discussion of considerations for fire protection in the LLL mirror fusion test facility (MFTF) is presented. Because of the large volume and high bays of the building, sufficient data on fire detection is unavailable. Results of fire detection tests using controlled fire sources in the building are presented. Extensive data concerning the behavior of the building atmosphere are included. Candidate fire detection instrumentation and extinguishing systems for use in the building are briefly reviewed

  14. Fire-Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  15. Fire, safety and ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-02-01

    Correct ventilation in tunnel environments is vital for the comfort and safety of the people passing through. This article gives details of products from several manufacturers of safety rescue and fire fighting equipment, fire and fume detection equipment, special fire resistant materials, fire resistant hydraulic oils and fire dampers, and ventilation systems. Company addresses and fax numbers are supplied. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 10 photos.

  16. The Human Element and Autonomous Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauli Ahvenjärvi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous ship technology has become a “hot” topic in the discussion about more efficient, environmentally friendly and safer sea transportation solutions. The time is becoming mature for the introduction of commercially sensible solutions for unmanned and fully autonomous cargo and passenger ships. Safety will be the most interesting and important aspect in this development. The utilization of the autonomous ship technology will have many effects on the safety, both positive and negative. It has been announced that the goal is to make the safety of an unmanned ship better that the safety of a manned ship. However, it must be understood that the human element will still be present when fully unmanned ships are being used. The shore-based control of a ship contains new safety aspects and an interesting question will be the interaction of manned and unmanned ships in the same traffic area. The autonomous ship technology should therefore be taken into account on the training of seafarers. Also it should not be forgotten that every single control algorithm and rule of the internal decision making logic of the autonomously navigating ship has been designed and coded by a human software engineer. Thus the human element is present also in this point of the lifetime navigation system of the autonomous ship.

  17. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nautical school ship. 167.05-25 Section 167.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a vessel operated by or in connection with a nautical school...

  18. Fire analog: a comparison between fire plumes and energy center cooling tower plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orgill, M.M.

    1977-10-01

    Thermal plumes or convection columns associated with large fires are compared to thermal plumes from cooling towers and proposed energy centers to evaluate the fire analog concept. Energy release rates of mass fires are generally larger than for single or small groups of cooling towers but are comparable to proposed large energy centers. However, significant physical differences exist between cooling tower plumes and fire plumes. Cooling tower plumes are generally dominated by ambient wind, stability and turbulence conditions. Fire plumes, depending on burning rates and other factors, can transform into convective columns which may cause the fire behavior to become more violent. This transformation can cause strong inflow winds and updrafts, turbulence and concentrated vortices. Intense convective columns may interact with ambient winds to create significant downwind effects such as wakes and Karman vortex streets. These characteristics have not been observed with cooling tower plumes to date. The differences in physical characteristics between cooling tower and fire plumes makes the fire analog concept very questionable even though the approximate energy requirements appear to be satisfied in case of large energy centers. Additional research is suggested in studying the upper-level plume characteristics of small experimental fires so this information can be correlated with similar data from cooling towers. Numerical simulation of fires and proposed multiple cooling tower systems could also provide comparative data.

  19. Large scale fire experiments in the HDR containment as a basis for fire code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosser, D.; Dobbernack, R.

    1993-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1991 7 different series of large scale fire experiments and related numerical and theoretical investigations have been performed in the containment of a high pressure reactor in Germany (known as HDR plant). The experimental part included: gas burner tests for checking the containment behaviour; naturally ventilated fires with wood cribs; naturally and forced ventilated oil pool fires; naturally and forced ventilated cable fires. Many results of the oil pool and cable fires can directly be applied to predict the impact of real fires at different locations in a containment on mechanical or structural components as well as on plant personnel. But the main advantage of the measurements and observations was to serve as a basis for fire code development and validation. Different types of fire codes have been used to predict in advance or evaluate afterwards the test results: zone models for single room and multiple room configurations; system codes for multiple room configurations; field models for complex single room configurations. Finally, there exist codes of varying degree of specialization which have proven their power and sufficient exactness to predict fire effects as a basis for optimum fire protection design. (author)

  20. Mathematical modelling of fire in forced ventilated enclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, G.; Kumar, S.

    1985-01-01

    The application of a computer fire simulation model to the prediction of conditions in a forced ventilated experimental fire test cell at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is discussed. Comparisons between theoretical and experimental determinations are shown to be in reasonable agreement and areas requiring further research indicated

  1. Thermal analysis of a one-element PWR spent fuel shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, S.R.

    1979-06-01

    The transient thermal behavior of a typical one-element PWR spent fuel shipping cask, following a hypothetical accident and fire, has been simulated. The objectives of the study were to determine the transient behavior of the cask and its spent fuel primary coolant through the pressure relief system and possible fuel pin clad failure due to overheating following loss of coolant. 15 figures, 7 tables

  2. Use of Distributed Temperature Sensing Technology to Characterize Fire Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Cram

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the potential of a fiber optic cable connected to distributed temperature sensing (DTS technology to withstand wildland fire conditions and quantify fire behavior parameters. We used a custom-made ‘fire cable’ consisting of three optical fibers coated with three different materials—acrylate, copper and polyimide. The 150-m cable was deployed in grasslands and burned in three prescribed fires. The DTS system recorded fire cable output every three seconds and integrated temperatures every 50.6 cm. Results indicated the fire cable was physically capable of withstanding repeated rugged use. Fiber coating materials withstood temperatures up to 422 °C. Changes in fiber attenuation following fire were near zero (−0.81 to 0.12 dB/km indicating essentially no change in light gain or loss as a function of distance or fire intensity over the length of the fire cable. Results indicated fire cable and DTS technology have potential to quantify fire environment parameters such as heat duration and rate of spread but additional experimentation and analysis are required to determine efficacy and response times. This study adds understanding of DTS and fire cable technology as a potential new method for characterizing fire behavior parameters at greater temporal and spatial scales.

  3. Special closures for steel drum shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Otts, J.V.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop special lid closures for typical, steel drum, radioactive material shipping containers. Previous experience and testing had shown that the existing container was adequate to withstand the required environmental tests for certification, but that the lid and closure were just marginally effective. Specifically, the lid closure failed to consistently maintain a tight seal between the container and the lid after drop tests, thus causing the package contents to be vulnerable in the subsequent fire test. Recognizing the deficiency, the United States Energy Research and Development Administration requested the development of new closure(s) which would: (1) be as strong and resistant to a drop as the bottom of the container; (2) have minimal economic impact on the overall container cost; (3) maximize the use of existing container designs; (4) consider crush loads; and (5) result in less dependence on personnel and loading procedures. Several techniques were evaluated and found to be more effective than the standard closure mechanism. Of these, three new closure techniques were designed, fabricated, and proven to be structurally adequate to provide containment when a 454-kg drum was drop tested from 9.14-m onto an unyielding surface. The three designs were: (1) a 152-mm long lid extension or skirt welded to the standard drum lid, (2) a separate inner lid, with 152-mm long skirt and (3) C-clamps used at the container-lid interface. Based upon structural integrity, economic impact, and minimal design change, the lid extension is the recommended special closure

  4. Croton megalocarpus oil-fired micro-trigeneration prototype for remote and self-contained applications: experimental assessment of its performance and gaseous and particulate emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dawei; Roskilly, Anthony P.; Yu, Hongdong

    2013-01-01

    According to the International Energy Agency's World Energy Outlook 2011, 60 per cent of the population in Africa, some 587 million people, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, lacked access to electricity in 2009. We developed a 6.5 kWe micro-trigeneration prototype, on the basis of internal combustion engine with pure Croton megalocarpus oil (CMO) fuelling, which configures a distributed energy system to generate power, heating and cooling from a single sustainable fuel source for remote users. Croton megalocarpus is an indigenous tree in East and South Africa which has recently attracted lots of interests as a biofuel source because of its high oil-yield rate. The direct and local use of CMO, instead of CMO biodiesel converted by the transesterification process, minimizes the carbon footprints left behind because of the simple fuel production of CMO. The experimental assessment proves that the prototype fuelled with CMO achieves similar efficiency as with diesel. Also, with the elevation of the oil injection temperature, the gaseous and particulate emissions of CMO could be ameliorated to some extent as improvement of the atomization in the spray and the combustion in the engine cylinder. PMID:24427514

  5. FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System - A program for fire danger rating analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Larry S. Bradshaw

    1997-01-01

    A computer program, FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System, provides methods for evaluating the performance of fire danger rating indexes. The relationship between fire danger indexes and historical fire occurrence and size is examined through logistic regression and percentiles. Historical seasonal trends of fire danger and fire occurrence can be...

  6. Nuclear power plant fire protection: philosophy and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report combines a fire severity analysis technique with a fault tree methodology for assessing the importance to nuclear power plant safety of certain combinations of components and systems. Characteristics unique to fire, such as propagation induced by the failure of barriers, have been incorporated into the methodology. By applying the resulting fire analysis technique to actual conditions found in a representative nuclear power plant, it is found that some safety and nonsafety areas are both highly vulnerable to fire spread and impotant to overall safety, while other areas prove to be of marginal importance. Suggestions are made for further experimental and analytical work to supplement the fire analysis method

  7. Sewage Treatment Systems of Cruise Ships and The Parameters Affect on Dilution of Effluent at Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan ŞAHİN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cruise ships play an inevitable role in tourism sector across the world. Increasing in cruise ship tourism accompanies with significant environmental problems. Due to both size of cruise ships and the amount of passengers and consumables, cruise ships have a great potential for producing considerable amounts of wastes. Various types of wastes are produced in cruise ships depending on the daily consumptions of these wastes. Sewage, which consists mainly the toilet wastes, is the most important problem. Sewage contains various types of heavy metal, chemicals and pathogens that have harmful effects on marine species and ecosystem. Many national and international regulations and conventions are established in order to prevent the harmful effects of wastes. Studies on preventing and minimizing ship-related pollution contribute to both developing new waste management systems and forming new procedures for removing the wastes in both ship and port. In this study, Marine Sanitation Device (MSD and Advanced Wastewater Treatment (AWT and treatment procedures are investigated. ‘Dilution factor’ obtained by theoretical and experimental studies is explained in detail and variation of dilution factor depending on ship dimensions and velocity is investigated.

  8. Development of nuclear powered ship in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroshi

    1976-01-01

    The development of nuclear merchant ship in Japan was started in 1955 by the establishment of Nuclear Ship Study Group, and since then, the investigation, test and research on nuclear ships have been continued. As a result, a nuclear ocean observation and supply ship was designed for trial. Researches were carried out also in JAERI and Institute for Technical Research of Ships. Meanwhile, the nuclear icebreaker Lenin was completed in Soviet Union in 1959, the nuclear ship Savannah set out for maiden voyage in U.S. in 1962, and the construction of the nuclear ore carrier Otto Hahn was prepared in FRG. Japan Nuclear Ship Development Corp. was established in 1963, and started the design and construction of the first nuclear ship in Japan, Mutsu. The basic policy in the construction is the improvement of nuclear ship technology, the securing of safety, and the use of domestic technologies as far as possible. The progress of the design, construction and test of the Mutsu is described. Owing to the problem of radiation leak, the development of nuclear ships stagnated for a while, but the nuclear plant of the Mutsu demonstrated the expected performance in the functional test, land criticality test and zero output test, and it is expected that the bud of the independent development brought up so far can bear valuable fruit. The independent development of marine nuclear reactors should be continued by selecting the way most suitable to Japan. (Kako, I.)

  9. Exit choice, (pre-)movement time and (pre-)evacuation behaviour in hotel fire evacuation – Behavioural analysis and validation of the use of serious gaming in experimental research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobes, M.; Helsloot, I.; Vries, de B.; Post, J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Human behaviour in fires is mainly studied by incident evaluations and real-life experiments, such as unannounced evacuation drills. The possibilities of virtual reality for studying human behaviour in fires are so far hardly adopted by researchers. Nevertheless, the application of a behavioural

  10. Heat transfer studies in pool fire environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitsche, F.

    1993-01-01

    A Type B package has to withstand severe thermal accident conditions. To calculate the temperature behaviour of such a package in a real fire environment, heat transfer parameters simulating the effect of the fire are needed. For studying such heat transfer parameters, a systematic programme of experimental and theoretical investigations was performed which was part of the IAEA Coordinated Research Programme (Nitsche and Weib 1990). The studies were done by means of small, unfinned and finned, steel model containers of simplified design in hydrocarbon fuel open fire tests. By using various methods, flame and container temperatures were measured and also container surface absorptivity before and after the test to study the effect of sooting and surface painting on heat transfer. Based on all these experimental data and comparative calculations, simplified, effective heat transfer parameters could be derived, simulating the effect of the real fire on the model containers. (J.P.N.)

  11. UK position paper on sodium fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, G J [National Nuclear Corporation Ltd., Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Glass, D [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment, Thurso, Caithness (United Kingdom); Newman, R N [Central Electricity Generating Board, Berekely Nuclear Laboratory, Berkeley, Gloucestershire (United Kingdom); Ramsdale, S A [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Safety and Reliability Directorate, Culcheth, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Snelling, K W [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1989-07-01

    The UK has over several years developed a philosophy for the prevention, mitigation and extinguishment of sodium fires. The systems which were developed for PFR have been continuously revised and modified and from these considerations systems were proposed for CDFR. The latest phases of this development are described with reference to the CDFR plant. The current analytical and experimental work on fires, aerosols and sodium concrete reactions is also discussed. The UK are developing codes to analyse the effects of a sodium fire in a building and to model aerosol behaviour following a fire. Experimental work on small scale fires, aerosol behaviour, filtration devices and sodium concrete reaction is being carried out on a laboratory scale. Techniques for aerosol measurement and characterisation have also been developed and used both In the laboratory and large scale tests. Larger scale tests of sodium fire extinguishment techniques have also been performed. Currently a programme of tests (SOFA) of large scale fires in the open to investigate the chemical and physical changes in the aerosol and its dispersion in the atmosphere are just beginning. The UK studies are intended to both assist in the development of prevention and mitigation systems for design base and beyond design base accidents in any building which contains sodium (or sodium potassium alloy) and also to provide methods for assessing the risks from such accidents. (author)

  12. UK position paper on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, G.J.; Glass, D.; Newman, R.N.; Ramsdale, S.A.; Snelling, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    The UK has over several years developed a philosophy for the prevention, mitigation and extinguishment of sodium fires. The systems which were developed for PFR have been continuously revised and modified and from these considerations systems were proposed for CDFR. The latest phases of this development are described with reference to the CDFR plant. The current analytical and experimental work on fires, aerosols and sodium concrete reactions is also discussed. The UK are developing codes to analyse the effects of a sodium fire in a building and to model aerosol behaviour following a fire. Experimental work on small scale fires, aerosol behaviour, filtration devices and sodium concrete reaction is being carried out on a laboratory scale. Techniques for aerosol measurement and characterisation have also been developed and used both In the laboratory and large scale tests. Larger scale tests of sodium fire extinguishment techniques have also been performed. Currently a programme of tests (SOFA) of large scale fires in the open to investigate the chemical and physical changes in the aerosol and its dispersion in the atmosphere are just beginning. The UK studies are intended to both assist in the development of prevention and mitigation systems for design base and beyond design base accidents in any building which contains sodium (or sodium potassium alloy) and also to provide methods for assessing the risks from such accidents. (author)

  13. Performance of Ships and Offshore Structures in Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukui Liu

    2012-01-01

    for predicting large amplitude motions of ships and floating structures in response to incoming waves in the frame of potential theory. The developed alternative set of time domain methods simulate the hydrodynamic forces acting on ships advancing in waves with constant speed. For motions’ simulation, the diffraction forces and radiation forces are calculated up to the mean wetted surface, while the Froude-Krylov forces and hydrostatic restoring forces are calculated up to the undisturbed incident wave surface in case of large incident wave amplitude. This enables the study of the above waterline hull form effect. Characteristic case studies on simulating the hydrodynamic forces and motions of standard type of ships have been conducted for validation purpose. Good agreement with other numerical codes and experimental data has been observed. Furthermore, the added resistance of ships in waves can be calculated by the presented methods. This capability supports the increased demand of this type of tools for the proper selection of engine/propulsion systems accounting for ship’s performance in realistic sea conditions, or when optimizing ship’s sailing route for minimum fuel consumption and toxic gas emissions.

  14. BBN Model with Quantitative Inputs for Risk Analysis of Uncontrolled Fire in Machinery Space

    OpenAIRE

    Azizpour, Hooshyar

    2016-01-01

    The past decades has witnessed a significant increase in the number and volume of international trade through the sea. Thousands of ships are sailing in the coastal and international waters all over the world. Accident in the sea transport not only results loss of property for the owners of vessels and traders of cargo, but also threatens the environment and the humans who are directly or indirectly associated with the marine industry. One of the most dangerous accidents in ships is fire and...

  15. Program to develop analytical tools for environmental and safety assessment of nuclear material shipping container systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, T.A.

    1978-11-01

    This paper describes a program for developing analytical techniques to evaluate the response of nuclear material shipping containers to severe accidents. Both lumped-mass and finite element techniques are employed to predict shipping container and shipping container-carrier response to impact. The general impact problem is computationally expensive because of its nonlinear, three-dimensional nature. This expense is minimized by using approximate models to parametrically identify critical cases before more exact analyses are performed. The computer codes developed for solving the problem are being experimentally substantiated with test data from full-scale and scale-model container drop tests. 6 figures, 1 table

  16. Benchmark study of some thermal and structural computer codes for nuclear shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takeshi; Kanae, Yoshioki; Shimada, Hirohisa; Shimoda, Atsumu; Halliquist, J.O.

    1984-01-01

    There are many computer codes which could be applied to the design and analysis of nuclear material shipping casks. One of problems which the designer of shipping cask faces is the decision regarding the choice of the computer codes to be used. For this situation, the thermal and structural benchmark tests for nuclear shipping casks are carried out to clarify adequacy of the calculation results. The calculation results are compared with the experimental ones. This report describes the results and discussion of the benchmark test. (author)

  17. Analytical support management shipping company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Tarasenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article to determine areas of improvement of the economic analysis of the shipping companies tested, allowing to identify the problems of organization and methods, which are as follows: lack of regulation of economic analysis, unregulated and methods of economic analysis, using methods such as coefficient method, absolute differences method relative differences groupings balance method, while as factor analysis and correlation are ignored. Proved that today the priority targets of management that should be subject to economic analysis are: analysis of the efficiency of the fleet; analysis of the efficiency of transport services; analysis of the cost of transport services and costs; analysis of the efficiency of resource use.

  18. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

  19. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... leg are used to balance sailing speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results...

  20. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... leg are used to balance sailings speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results...

  1. Decommission of nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateyama, Takeshi

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear-powered ship 'MUTSU' was decommissioned by removing the reactor room in June 1995, which was hoisted and transported by a floating crane to a shore storage room at Sekinehama, Aomori Prefecture. This work was carried out in three stages: extraction of the spent fuel assemblies and neutron sources, dismantling of the machinery in the reactor auxiliary room, and separation and transportation of the reactor together with the secondary shielding structure and surrounding hull. IHI mainly conducted the third stage work. The separation work of the reactor room structure using a semisubmersible barge is outlined. Stress analysis and design of the reactor room for lifting work is also described. (author)

  2. TMI-2 Core Shipping Preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, L.J.; Barkanic, R.J.; Conaway, W.T. II; Schmoker, D. S.; Post, Roy G.

    1988-01-01

    Shipping the damaged core from the Unit 2 reactor of Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station near Harrisburg, PA, to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, ID, required development and implementation of a completely new spent fuel transportation system. This paper describes of the equipment developed, the planning and activities used to implement the hard-ware-systems into the facilities, and the planning involved in making the rail shipments. It also includes a summary of recommendations resulting from this experience. (author)

  3. Evaluation of mechanical properties and low velocity impact characteristics of balsa wood and urethane foam applied to impact limiter of nuclear spent fuel shipping cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Junsung; Shin, Kwangbok [Hanbat Nat' l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Woosuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    The paper aims to evaluate the low velocity impact responses and mechanical properties of balsa wood and urethane foam core materials and their sandwich panels, which are applied as the impact limiter of a nuclear spent fuel shipping cask. For the urethane foam core, which is isotropic, tensile, compressive, and shear mechanical tests were conducted. For the balsa wood core, which is orthotropic and shows different material properties in different orthogonal directions, nine mechanical properties were determined. The impact test specimens for the core material and their sandwich panel were subjected to low velocity impact loads using an instrumented testing machine at impact energy levels of 1, 3, and 5J. The experimental results showed that both the urethane foam and the balsa wood core except in the growth direction (z-direction) had a similar impact response for the energy absorbing capacity, contact force, and indentation. Furthermore, it was found that the urethane foam core was suitable as an impact limiter material owing to its resistance to fire and low cost, and the balsa wood core could also be strongly considered as an impact limiter material for a lightweight nuclear spent fuel shipping cask.

  4. Development of a nuclear ship safety philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    A unique safety philosophy must be recognized and accepted as an integral part of the design and operation of a nuclear ship. For the nuclear powered ship, the ultimate safety of the reactor and therefore the crew and the environment lies with the safety of the ship itself. The basis for ship safety is its ability to navigate and survive the conditions or the environment in which it may find itself. The subject of traditional ship safety is examined along with its implication for reactor protection and safety. Concepts of reactor safety are also examined. These two philosophies are combined in a manner so as to provide a sound philosophy for the safety of nuclear ships, their crews, and the environment

  5. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas

    A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

  6. Ignition and combustion of sodium, fire consequences, extinguishment and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    This document presents the results of work carried out at the IPSN on: sodium inflammation, sodium combustion (pool fires and sprayed jet fires), extinguishment (passive means and extinguishing powder), the physico-chemical behaviour of aerosols and their filtration, the protection means of concretes, intervention during and after a fire, treatment of residues, intervention equipment. The calculation codes developed during these studies are described. The experimental basis which allowed the qualification of these codes and the technological means aimed at prevention and sodium fire fighting, was obtained using programmes carried out in the experimental facilities existing in Cadarache or in collaboration with the German teams of Karlsruhe

  7. Ignition and combustion of sodium, fire consequences, extinguishment and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratoire d' Experimentation de Modelisation des Feux, C.E. Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). E-mail: malet at ipsncad.cea.fr

    1996-07-01

    This document presents the results of work carried out at the IPSN on: sodium inflammation, sodium combustion (pool fires and sprayed jet fires), extinguishment (passive means and extinguishing powder), the physico-chemical behaviour of aerosols and their filtration, the protection means of concretes, intervention during and after a fire, treatment of residues, intervention equipment. The calculation codes developed during these studies are described. The experimental basis which allowed the qualification of these codes and the technological means aimed at prevention and sodium fire fighting, was obtained using programmes carried out in the experimental facilities existing in Cadarache or in collaboration with the German teams of Karlsruhe.

  8. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Brown; Jane Kapler Smith

    2000-01-01

    VOLUME 2: This state-of-knowledge review about the effects of fire on flora and fuels can assist land managers with ecosystem and fire management planning and in their efforts to inform others about the ecological role of fire. Chapter topics include fire regime classification, autecological effects of fire, fire regime characteristics and postfire plant community...

  9. A review of fire interactions and mass fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Finney; Sara S. McAllister

    2011-01-01

    The character of a wildland fire can change dramatically in the presence of another nearby fire. Understanding and predicting the changes in behavior due to fire-fire interactions cannot only be life-saving to those on the ground, but also be used to better control a prescribed fire to meet objectives. In discontinuous fuel types, such interactions may elicit fire...

  10. On the collision protection of ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.

    1976-01-01

    A brief survey of the literature extant on the collision protection of ships is presented herein. An examination of the characteristics of different energy-absorbing methods suggests that honeycomb structures provide an alternative to deck structures which are currently used to achieve the collision protection of ships. Various features of honeycomb panels are explored and a particular structural arrangement which utilizes both sides of a hull and incorporates honeycomb panels is proposed for the collision protection of a ship. (Auth.)

  11. Auxiliary facilities on nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, Shotaro; Takigami, Yoshio.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear ship 'MUTSU' has been moored at SEKINEHAMA, MUTU City in AOMORI Prefecture and several tests and works are being carried out on the ship. The construction of the auxiliary facilities for these works on the ship was completed in safety in August 1988. After that the facilities have fulfilled their function. The outlines of design, fabrication and construction of the facilities are described in this paper. (author)

  12. Fires and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Fires and Food Safety Fire! Few words can strike such terror. Residential ...

  13. Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rorty, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober......Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober...

  14. Tunnel fire dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

  15. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  16. Seerley Road Fire Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    A barn caught fire at on Seerley Road, Indianapolis. Five storage drums believed to contain metallic potassium were involved in the fire. EPA will perform additional sampling as part of removal operations and safe offsite transportation.

  17. Buildings exposed to fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 24 lectures presented to the colloquium cover the following subject fields: (1) Behaviour of structural components exposed to fire; (2) Behaviour of building materials exposed to fire; (3) Thermal processes; (4) Safety related, theoretical studies. (PW) [de

  18. Interagency Wildland Fire Cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    Wildlife Fire Assistance includes training personnel, forms partnerships for prescribed burns, state and regional data for fire management plans, develops agreements for DoD civilians to be reimbursed...

  19. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  20. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  1. The OECD FIRE database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angner, A.; Berg, H.P.; Roewekamp, M.; Werner, W.; Gauvain, J.

    2007-01-01

    Realistic modelling of fire scenarios is still difficult due to the scarcity of reliable data needed for deterministic and probabilistic fire safety analysis. Therefore, it has been recognized as highly important to establish a fire event database on an international level. In consequence, several member countries of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD have decided in 2000 to establish the International Fire Data Exchange Project (OECD FIRE) to encourage multilateral co-operation in the collection and analysis of data related to fire events at nuclear power plants. This paper presents the OECD FIRE project objectives, work scope and current status of the OECD FIRE database after 3 years of operation as well as first preliminary statistical insights gained from the collected data. (orig.)

  2. Confirmation tests of PWR surveillance capsule shipping container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, N.; Ue, K.; Ohashi, M.; Asada, K.; Yoneda, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. carried out the confirmation tests to confirm the reliability of the PWR surveillance capsule shipping container and to collect cask design data using a 10-ton weight full scale model at Kobe Shipyard and Engine Works. This report presents the outline of these tests. The B Type container was a cylinder 3289 mm long, 1080 mm in diameter and designed in accordance with the new modified Japanese regulations similar to IAEA regulation. These tests consist of four 9 m drop tests, two 1 m puncture tests, a fire test and an immersion test. In conclusion, safetyness of this container has been proved and various technical data for cask design were also collected through these tests. (author)

  3. Ship Engine Room Casualty Analysis by Using Decision Tree Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömür Yaşar SAATÇİOĞLU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ships may encounter undesirable conditions during operations. In consequence of a casualty, fire, explosion, flooding, grounding, injury even death may occur. Besides, these results can be avoidable with precautions and preventive operating processes. In maritime transportation, casualties depend on various factors. These were listed as misuse of the engine equipment and tools, defective machinery or equipment, inadequacy of operational procedure and measure of safety and force majeure effects. Casualty reports which were published in Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom, Canada and United States until 2015 were examined and the probable causes and consequences of casualties were determined with their occurrence percentages. In this study, 89 marine investigation reports regarding engine room casualties were analyzed. Casualty factors were analyzed with their frequency percentages and also their main causes were constructed. This study aims to investigate engine room based casualties, frequency of each casualty type and main causes by using decision tree method.

  4. FIRE CHARACTERISTICS FOR ADVANCED MODELLING OF FIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Dvořák

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the material and fire properties of solid flammable/combustible materials /substances /products, which are used as inputs for the computer numerical fire models. At the same time it gives the test standards for their determination.

  5. MASTER OF THE SHIP, MANAGER AND INSTRUCTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Florin IORDANOAIA

    2010-01-01

    The master of the ship is the person on the board who has the qualification and the necessary certificate of competency for running a maritime transport ship. He is the one who takes the ship into administration from the ship-owner, he is the only leader, the legal and direct chief of the entire crew, being invested with authority upon all the members of the crew. The master fulfils the attributes and displays his activity according to the legal laws of his flag, of the marine regulations and...

  6. Nuclear powered freight ships - safe and reliable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafstall, H.C.

    1978-12-01

    The five nuclear-powered ships built in the world so far have entered over 100 ports in 14 countries about 1000 times in 15 years, during which there were no accidents endangering the safety of a ship. However, for the expansion of freight shipping with nuclear power, comprehensive international regulations for safety requirements, responsibility etc., are necessary. Although the NEA/IAEO symposium excluded economic questions on the safety of nuclear powered ships, the trends regarding further development in individual countries became clear

  7. Shipping/Receiving and Quality Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Shipping receiving, quality control, large and precise inspection and CMM machines. Coordinate Measuring Machines, including "scanning" probes, optical comparators,...

  8. Potential of biofuels for shipping. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florentinus, A.; Hamelinck, C.; Van den Bos, A.; Winkel, R.; Cuijpers, M. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Biofuels could be one of the options to realize a lower carbon intensity in the propulsion of ships and also possibly reduce the effect of ship emissions on local air quality. Therefore, EMSA, the European Maritime Safety Agency, is evaluating if and how biofuels could be used in the shipping sector as an alternative fuel. To determine the potential of biofuels for ships, a clearer picture is needed on technical and organizational limitations of biofuels in ships, both on board of the ship as in the fuel supply chain to the ship. Economic and sustainability analysis of biofuels should be included in this picture, as well as an overview on current and potential policy measures to stimulate the use of biofuels in shipping. Ecofys has determined the potential of biofuels, based on analysis of collected data through literature review, own expertise and experiences, direct communication with EMSA, research publications, market developments based on press and other media, and consultations with relevant stakeholders in the shipping market.

  9. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  10. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Le service SHIPPING du groupe de radioprotection souhaite vous rappeler qu'avant toute expédition de matériel susceptible d'être radioactif, une demande de transport doit être établie par EDH en cochant la case appropriée (danger radioactif). Merci de bien vouloir prendre note des informations figurant dans le site Web: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Toute demande non conforme ne sera pas prise en compte. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shippingTél: 73171Fax: 69200

  11. Measurements in large JP-4 pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keltner, N.R.; Kent, L.A.; Schneider, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past four years, Sandia National Laboratories has conducted a number of large pool fire tests to evaluate the design of radioactive material (RAM) shipping containers. Some of these tests have been designed to define the thermal environment and some have been used for certification testing. In each test there have been a number of fire diagnostic measurements. The simplest sets of diagnostics have involved measurements of temperature at several elevations on arrays of towers, measurements of hot wall heat flux with small calorimeters suspended from the towers, the average fuel recession rate, and the wind speed and direction. The most complex sets of diagnostics have included the above and in various tests added radiometers in the lower flame zone, centerline velocity measurements at a number of elevations, radiometers and calorimeters at the fuel surface, large cylindrical and flat plate calorimeters, infrared imaging, time resolved fuel recession rates, and a variety of soot particle concentration and size measurements made in the plume with a tethered balloon and an instrumented airplane. All of the large fires have been conducted in a 9.1 m by 18.3 m pool using JP-4 as the fuel. Typical duration is one-half hour. Covering all of the results is beyond the scope of a single paper. Conditionally sampled temperature and velocity measurements from one fire will be presented; for this fire, a 20 cm layer of fuel was floated on 61 cm of water. Pool surface heat flux, fuel recession rate data, and smoke emission data from a second fire are given. Because the wind has a strong effect on the temperature and velocity measurements, conditional sampling has been used to try to obtain data during periods of low winds. 10 refs., 3 figs

  12. Loft fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, E.R.; Jensen, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Quantified criteria that was developed and applied to provide in-depth fire protection for the Loss of Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility are presented. The presentation describes the evolution process that elevated the facility's fire protection from minimal to that required for a highly protected risk or improved risk. Explored are some infrequently used fire protection measures that are poorly understood outside the fire protection profession

  13. International Standardization in the Design of "Shore to Ship" - Power Supply Systems of Ships in Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnapowicz, Dariusz; German-Galkin, Sergiej

    2018-03-01

    The decisive source of air pollution emissions in ports is the berthed ships. This is primarily caused by the work of ship's autonomous generator sets. One way of reducing the air pollution emissions in ports is the supply of ships from electricity inland system. The main problem connected with the power connection of ships to the inland network is caused by different values of levels and frequencies of voltages in these networks (in various countries) in relation to different values of levels and frequencies of voltages present in the ship's network. It is also important that the source power can range from a few hundred kW up to several MW. In order to realize a universal „Shore to Ship" system that allows the connection of ships to the electricity inland network, the international standardization is necessary. This article presents the current recommendations, standards and regulations for the design of „Shore to Ship" systems.

  14. Navy Ships: Turning Over Auxiliary Ship Operations to the Military Sealift Command Could Save Millions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... One additional multiproduct ship of a new class is currently under construction. The Navy has delegated operational control of 27 of these ships to MSC, the military's single manager for sealift, to better...

  15. Ship Technology Workshop Materials from Collaboration with Mexico to Reduce Emissions from Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    On September 26, 2012, a ship technology seminar was held to provide Mexican stakeholders with information about some of the ship technologies needed to meet the requirements of MARPOL Annex VI and an ECA.

  16. Fire as Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project that deals with fire production as an aspect of technology. The project challenges students to be survivors in a five-day classroom activity. Students research various materials and methods to produce fire without the use of matches or other modern combustion devices, then must create "fire" to keep…

  17. Fourmile Canyon Fire Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell Graham; Mark Finney; Chuck McHugh; Jack Cohen; Dave Calkin; Rick Stratton; Larry Bradshaw; Ned Nikolov

    2012-01-01

    The Fourmile Canyon Fire burned in the fall of 2010 in the Rocky Mountain Front Range adjacent to Boulder, Colorado. The fire occurred in steep, rugged terrain, primarily on privately owned mixed ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir forests. The fire started on September 6 when the humidity of the air was very dry (¡Ö

  18. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de

    1998-01-01

    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  19. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...

  20. Fire Department Emergency Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.; Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services