WorldWideScience

Sample records for experimental results ir x

  1. Experimental results from a DC photocathode electron gun for an IR FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehne, D.; Engwall, D.; Legg, R.; Shinn, M.

    1997-01-01

    A 350 keV DC photocathode gun capable of delivering the high-brightness CW electron beam necessary for Jefferson Lab's infrared free-electron laser is described. The gun is to be used with a superconducting radiofrequency linac operating at 1.497 GHz and is mode-locked to the 40th subharmonic of the fundamental using a Nd:YLF drive laser. The gun provides 20--25 ps bunches at up to 135 pC/bunch. Experimental measurements of transverse and longitudinal beam properties are presented. Transverse emittance is measured using a slit-wire scanner emittance meter, and energy spread is measured using the slit and a spectrometer magnet. Longitudinal emittance is measured using a combination of sampling aperture, kicker cavity, slit and spectrometer. Measurements for bunch charges of 135 pC are described and compared with simulations

  2. Catalysis of GTP hydrolysis by small GTPases at atomic detail by integration of X-ray crystallography, experimental, and theoretical IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudack, Till; Jenrich, Sarah; Brucker, Sven; Vetter, Ingrid R; Gerwert, Klaus; Kötting, Carsten

    2015-10-02

    Small GTPases regulate key processes in cells. Malfunction of their GTPase reaction by mutations is involved in severe diseases. Here, we compare the GTPase reaction of the slower hydrolyzing GTPase Ran with Ras. By combination of time-resolved FTIR difference spectroscopy and QM/MM simulations we elucidate that the Mg(2+) coordination by the phosphate groups, which varies largely among the x-ray structures, is the same for Ran and Ras. A new x-ray structure of a Ran·RanBD1 complex with improved resolution confirmed this finding and revealed a general problem with the refinement of Mg(2+) in GTPases. The Mg(2+) coordination is not responsible for the much slower GTPase reaction of Ran. Instead, the location of the Tyr-39 side chain of Ran between the γ-phosphate and Gln-69 prevents the optimal positioning of the attacking water molecule by the Gln-69 relative to the γ-phosphate. This is confirmed in the RanY39A·RanBD1 crystal structure. The QM/MM simulations provide IR spectra of the catalytic center, which agree very nicely with the experimental ones. The combination of both methods can correlate spectra with structure at atomic detail. For example the FTIR difference spectra of RasA18T and RanT25A mutants show that spectral differences are mainly due to the hydrogen bond of Thr-25 to the α-phosphate in Ran. By integration of x-ray structure analysis, experimental, and theoretical IR spectroscopy the catalytic center of the x-ray structural models are further refined to sub-Å resolution, allowing an improved understanding of catalysis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Catalysis of GTP Hydrolysis by Small GTPases at Atomic Detail by Integration of X-ray Crystallography, Experimental, and Theoretical IR Spectroscopy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudack, Till; Jenrich, Sarah; Brucker, Sven; Vetter, Ingrid R.; Gerwert, Klaus; Kötting, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Small GTPases regulate key processes in cells. Malfunction of their GTPase reaction by mutations is involved in severe diseases. Here, we compare the GTPase reaction of the slower hydrolyzing GTPase Ran with Ras. By combination of time-resolved FTIR difference spectroscopy and QM/MM simulations we elucidate that the Mg2+ coordination by the phosphate groups, which varies largely among the x-ray structures, is the same for Ran and Ras. A new x-ray structure of a Ran·RanBD1 complex with improved resolution confirmed this finding and revealed a general problem with the refinement of Mg2+ in GTPases. The Mg2+ coordination is not responsible for the much slower GTPase reaction of Ran. Instead, the location of the Tyr-39 side chain of Ran between the γ-phosphate and Gln-69 prevents the optimal positioning of the attacking water molecule by the Gln-69 relative to the γ-phosphate. This is confirmed in the RanY39A·RanBD1 crystal structure. The QM/MM simulations provide IR spectra of the catalytic center, which agree very nicely with the experimental ones. The combination of both methods can correlate spectra with structure at atomic detail. For example the FTIR difference spectra of RasA18T and RanT25A mutants show that spectral differences are mainly due to the hydrogen bond of Thr-25 to the α-phosphate in Ran. By integration of x-ray structure analysis, experimental, and theoretical IR spectroscopy the catalytic center of the x-ray structural models are further refined to sub-Å resolution, allowing an improved understanding of catalysis. PMID:26272610

  4. Polarimetric Emission of Rain Events: Simulation and Experimental Results at X-Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Duffo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate models are used today for infrared and microwave satellite radiance simulations of the first two Stokes elements in the physical retrieval, data assimilation etc. of surface and atmospheric parameters. Although in the past a number of theoretical and experimental works have studied the polarimetric emission of some natural surfaces, specially the sea surface roughened by the wind (Windsat mission, very limited studies have been conducted on the polarimetric emission of rain cells or other natural surfaces. In this work, the polarimetric emission (four Stokes elements of a rain cell is computed using the polarimetric radiative transfer equation assuming that raindrops are described by Pruppacher-Pitter shapes and that their size distribution follows the Laws-Parsons law. The Boundary Element Method (BEM is used to compute the exact bistatic scattering coefficients for each raindrop shape and different canting angles. Numerical results are compared to the Rayleigh or Mie scattering coefficients, and to Oguchi’s ones, showing that above 1-2 mm raindrop size the exact formulation is required to model properly the scattering. Simulation results using BEM are then compared to the experimental data gathered with a X-band polarimetric radiometer. It is found that the depolarization of the radiation caused by the scattering of non-spherical raindrops induces a non-zero third Stokes parameter, and the differential phase of the scattering coefficients induces a non-zero fourth Stokes parameter.

  5. Gas phase UV and IR absorption spectra of CxF2x+1CHO (x=1-4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashikawa, Y; Kawasaki, M; Waterland, RL

    2004-01-01

    The UV and IR spectra of CxF2x+1 CHO (x = 1-4) were investigated using computational and experimental techniques. CxF2x+1CHO (x = 1-4) have broad UV absorption features centered at 300-310 nm. The maximum absorption cross-section increases significantly and shifts slightly to the red with increased...

  6. Mechanism of CO 2 Fixation by Ir I -X Bonds (X = OH, OR, N, C)

    KAUST Repository

    Vummaleti, Sai V. C.; Talarico, Giovanni; Nolan, Steven P.; Cavallo, Luigi; Poater, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been used to investigate the CO2 fixation mechanism proposed by Nolan et al. for the IrI complex [Ir(cod)(IiPr)(OH)] (1; cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene; IiPr = 1,3-diisopropylimidazol-2-ylidene) and its derivatives. For 1, our results suggest that CO2 insertion is the rate-limiting step rather than the dimerization step. Additionally, in agreement with the experimental results, our results show that CO2 insertion into the Ir-OR1 (R1 = H, methyl, and phenyl) and Ir-N bonds is kinetically facile, and the calculated activation energies span a range of only 12.0-23.0 kcal/mol. Substantially higher values (35.0-50.0 kcal/mol) are reported for analogous Ir-C bonds. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Mechanism of CO 2 Fixation by Ir I -X Bonds (X = OH, OR, N, C)

    KAUST Repository

    Vummaleti, Sai V. C.

    2015-09-08

    Density functional theory calculations have been used to investigate the CO2 fixation mechanism proposed by Nolan et al. for the IrI complex [Ir(cod)(IiPr)(OH)] (1; cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene; IiPr = 1,3-diisopropylimidazol-2-ylidene) and its derivatives. For 1, our results suggest that CO2 insertion is the rate-limiting step rather than the dimerization step. Additionally, in agreement with the experimental results, our results show that CO2 insertion into the Ir-OR1 (R1 = H, methyl, and phenyl) and Ir-N bonds is kinetically facile, and the calculated activation energies span a range of only 12.0-23.0 kcal/mol. Substantially higher values (35.0-50.0 kcal/mol) are reported for analogous Ir-C bonds. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Transport modeling for W7-X on the basis of W7-AS experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beidler, C.D.; Geiger, J.; Maassberg, H.; Marushchenko, N.B.; Turkin, Yu.

    2008-01-01

    Exploratory simulations of plasma confinement in the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator are presented, concentrating on scenarios which simultaneously achieve high temperature and high β (normalized plasma pressure) at the full magnetic field of B=2.5 T. Efficient 1-D transport and ray-tracing codes are combined to provide an approximately self-consistent description of the heating and current drive (ECCD) to be expected from up to 10 MW of electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in W7-X. Best performance is exhibited in high density (n=1.8x10 20 m -3 ) simulations heated at the second harmonic of the ordinary mode, although control of the magnetic topology at the plasma edge - needed to insure functioning of the island divertor - becomes problematic due to the imbalance of the bootstrap current and ECCD. (author)

  9. Experimental results of near real-time protection system for plasma facing components in Wendelstein 7-X at GLADIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A.; Jakubowski, M.; Greuner, H.; Böswirth, B.; Moncada, V.; Sitjes, A. Puig; Neu, R.; Pedersen, T. S.; the W7-X Team

    2017-12-01

    One of the aims of stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X), is to investigate steady state operation, for which power exhaust is an important issue. The predominant fraction of the energy lost from the confined plasma region will be absorbed by an island divertors, which is designed for 10 {{MWm}}-2 steady state operation. In order to protect the divertor targets from overheating, 10 state-of-the-art infrared endoscopes will be installed at W7-X. In this work, we present the experimental results obtained at the high heat flux test facility GLADIS (Garching LArge DIvertor Sample test facility in IPP Garching) [1] during tests of a new plasma facing components (PFCs) protection algorithm designed for W7-X. The GLADIS device is equipped with two ion beams that can generate a heat load in the range from 3 MWm-2 to 55 MWm-2. The algorithms developed at W7-X to detect defects and hot spots are based on the analysis of surface temperature evolution and are adapted to work in near real-time. The aim of this work was to test the near real-time algorithms in conditions close to those expected in W7-X. The experiments were performed on W7-X pre-series tiles to detect CFC/Cu delaminations. For detection of surface layers, carbon fiber composite (CFC) blocks from the divertor of the Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator were used to observe temporal behavior of fully developed surface layers. These layers of re-deposited materials, like carbon, boron, oxygen and iron, were formed during the W7-AS operation. A detailed analysis of the composition and their thermal response to high heat fluxes (HHF) are described in [2]. The experiments indicate that the automatic detection of critical events works according to W7-X PFC protection requirements.

  10. 640 X 480 MOS PtSi IR sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Donald J.; Shallcross, Frank V.; Hseuh, Fu-Lung; Meray, Grazyna M.; Levine, Peter A.; Gilmartin, Harvey R.; Villani, Thomas S.; Esposito, Benjamin J.; Tower, John R.

    1991-12-01

    The design of a 1st and 2nd generation 640(H) X 480(V) element PtSi Schottky-barrier infrared image sensor employing a low-noise MOS X-Y addressable readout multiplexer and on-chip low-noise output amplifier is described. Measured performance characteristics for Gen 1 devices are presented along with calculated performance for the Gen 2 design. A multiplexed horizontal/vertical input address port and on-chip decoding is used to load scan data into CMOS horizontal and vertical scanning registers. This allows random access to any sub-frame in the 640 X 480 element focal plane array. By changing the digital pattern applied to the vertical scan register, the FPA can be operated in either an interlaced or non- interlaced format, and the integration time may be varied over a wide range (60 microsecond(s) to > 30 ms, for RS170 operation) resulting in a form of 'electronic shutter,' or variable exposure control. The pixel size of 24-micrometers X 24-micrometers results in a fill factor of 38% for 1.5-micrometers process design rules. The overall die size for the IR imager is 13.7 mm X 17.2 mm. All digital inputs to the chip are TTL compatible and include ESD protection.

  11. Characterization of an extrapolation chamber for low-energy X-rays: Experimental and Monte Carlo preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Lucio P., E-mail: lpneves@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Eric A.B., E-mail: ebrito@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Perini, Ana P., E-mail: aperini@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Maidana, Nora L., E-mail: nmaidana@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Travessa R 187, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    The extrapolation chamber is a parallel-plate ionization chamber that allows variation of its air-cavity volume. In this work, an experimental study and MCNP-4C Monte Carlo code simulations of an ionization chamber designed and constructed at the Calibration Laboratory at IPEN to be used as a secondary dosimetry standard for low-energy X-rays are reported. The results obtained were within the international recommendations, and the simulations showed that the components of the extrapolation chamber may influence its response up to 11.0%. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A homemade extrapolation chamber was studied experimentally and with Monte Carlo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was characterized as a secondary dosimetry standard, for low energy X-rays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several characterization tests were performed and the results were satisfactory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simulation showed that its components may influence the response up to 11.0%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This chamber may be used as a secondary standard at our laboratory.

  12. X = Pt, Os, Ru, Ir, Rh

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    The compressibility of five compounds in the stoichiometry X Al was evaluated from 0K to 2000K using the. 3 ... atom model framework, using the Sutton and Chen potentials. Keywords: ... However, alloys based on these ... computer code (Turodov et al., 2006). DL-POLY is a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation package.

  13. First-principles quantum molecular dynamics study of Ti x Zr1-x N(111)/SiN y heterostructures and comparison with experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashchenko, Volodymyr; Veprek, Stan; Pogrebnjak, Alexander; Postolnyi, Bogdan

    2014-04-01

    The heterostructures of five monolayers B1-Ti x Zr 1- x N(111), x = 1.0, 0.6, 0.4 and 0.0 (where B1 is a NaCl-type structure) with one monolayer of a Si 3 N 4 -like Si 2 N 3 interfacial layer were investigated by means of first-principles quantum molecular dynamics and a structure optimization procedure using the Quantum ESPRESSO code. Slabs consisting of stoichiometric TiN and ZrN and random, as well as segregated, B1-Ti x Zr 1- x N(111) solutions were considered. The calculations of the B1-Ti x Zr 1- x N solid solutions, as well as of the heterostructures, showed that the pseudo-binary TiN-ZrN system exhibits a miscibility gap. The segregated heterostructures in which Zr atoms surround the Si y N z interface were found to be the most stable. For the Zr-rich heterostructures, the total energy of the random solid solution was lower compared to that of the segregated one, whereas for the Ti-rich heterostructures the opposite tendency was observed. Hard and super hard Zr-Ti-Si-N coatings with thicknesses from 2.8 to 3.5 μ m were obtained using a vacuum arc source with high frequency stimulation. The samples were annealed in a vacuum and in air at 1200 °C. Experimental investigations of Zr-Ti-N, Zr-Ti-Si-N and Ti-Si-N coatings with different Zr, Ti and Si concentrations were carried out for comparison with results obtained from Ti x Zr 1 - x N(111)/SiN y systems. During annealing, the hardness of the best series samples was increased from (39.6 ± 1.4) to 53.6 GPa, which seemed to indicate that a spinodal segregation along grain interfaces was finished. A maximum hardness of 40.8 GPa before and 55 GPa after annealing in air at 500 °C was observed for coatings with a concentration of elements of Si≽ (7-8) at.%, Ti ≽ 22 at.% and Zr ⩽ 70 at.%.

  14. New particles: experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, J.E.

    The results of studies on production and properties of psi(3100) and psi(3700) resonances are presented, particular attention being given to spin, parity, g-parity and isospin determination. Evidence obtained in the SPEAR and DORIS storage rings in psi'→γ chi and psi→γX intermediate states are presented, together with SPEAR results on e-μ events and high energy jet production. (39 references) [fr

  15. Complete titanium substitution by boron in a tetragonal prism: exploring the complex boride series Ti(3-x)Ru(5-y)Ir(y)B(2+x) (0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and 1 theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokwa, Boniface P T; Hermus, Martin

    2011-04-18

    Polycrystalline samples and single crystals of four members of the new complex boride series Ti(3-x)Ru(5-y)Ir(y)B(2+x) (0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and 1 X-ray diffraction as well as energy- and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses. They crystallize with the tetragonal Ti(3)Co(5)B(2) structure type in space group P4/mbm (No. 127). Tetragonal prisms of Ru/Ir atoms are filled with titanium in the boron-poorest phase (Ti(3)Ru(2.9)Ir(2.1)B(2)). Gradual substitution of titanium by boron then results in the successive filling of this site by a Ti/B mixture en route to the complete boron occupation, leading to the boron-richest phase (Ti(2)Ru(2.8)Ir(2.2)B(3)). Furthermore, both ruthenium and iridium share two sites in these structures, but a clear Ru/Ir site preference is found. First-principles density functional theory calculations (Vienna ab initio simulation package) on appropriate structural models (using a supercell approach) have provided more evidence on the stability of the boron-richest and -poorest phases, and the calculated lattice parameters corroborate very well with the experimentally found ones. Linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation calculations further supported these findings through crystal orbital Hamilton population bonding analyses, which also show that the Ru/Ir-B and Ru/Ir-Ti heteroatomic interactions are mainly responsible for the structural stability of these compounds. Furthermore, some stable and unstable phases of this complex series could be predicted using the rigid-band model. According to the density of states analyses, all phases should be metallic conductors, as was expected from these metal-rich borides.

  16. PDX experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, D.; Arunasalam, V.; Barnes, C.

    1981-01-01

    During the initial period of operation PDX has obtained the following results: (a) Production of macroscopically stable poloidal divertor configurations with dee, inverse-dee and single null plasma shapes. (b) Determined vertical positional instability growth rates for passively stabilized elongated dee-shaped plasmas with surface elongations from 1 to 1.4. (c) Production of Z approximately equal to 1 plasmas in a diverted dee configuration with confinement times approaching 80 ms for plasmas with Isub(p) approximately equal to 300 kA, Bsub(T)=17 kG, a=38 cm, q approximately equal to 3 and anti nsub(e) approximately equal to 4x10 13 cm -3 . (d) Extended the Ohmic heating regime to q approximately equal to 2 at nsub(e)R/Bsub(T) approximately equal to 10 15 cm -2 T -1 and q approximately equal to 3 at anti nsub(e)R/Bsub(T) approximately equal to 4.5x10 15 cm -2 T -1 . Neutral beam injection has extended anti nsub(e)R/Bsub(T) to approximately 6x10 15 cm -2 T -1 . (e) Initial neutral beam injection experiments with 1-2 MW injected perpendicularly have been used to study ion and electron heating with divertor control of density and impurities. (f) Divertor physics studies indicate that the divertor captures approximately 70% of the input power, while approximately 30% of the power is radiated. (g) Particle and energy flow onto the divertor neutralizer plate is in qualitative agreement with a simple sheath model. (author)

  17. Experimental verification of active IR stealth technology by controlling the surface temperature using a thermoelectric element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Geon; Han, Kuk Il; Choi, Jun Hyuk; Kim, Tae Kuk [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, we propose a technique for IR low-observability that uses an active IR signal tuning through the real time control of the object surface temperature according to the varying background environment. This is achieved by applying the proper object surface temperature obtained to result in the minimum radiance difference between the object and the background. Experimental verification by using the thermoelectric temperature control element shows that the IR radiance contrast between the object and the background can be reduced up to 99% during the night and up to 95% during the day time as compared to the un-tuned original radiance contrast values. The stealth technology demonstrated in this paper may be applied for many military systems needed for the IR stealth performance when a suitable temperature control unit is developed.

  18. Experimental verification of active IR stealth technology by controlling the surface temperature using a thermoelectric element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Geon; Han, Kuk Il; Choi, Jun Hyuk; Kim, Tae Kuk

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a technique for IR low-observability that uses an active IR signal tuning through the real time control of the object surface temperature according to the varying background environment. This is achieved by applying the proper object surface temperature obtained to result in the minimum radiance difference between the object and the background. Experimental verification by using the thermoelectric temperature control element shows that the IR radiance contrast between the object and the background can be reduced up to 99% during the night and up to 95% during the day time as compared to the un-tuned original radiance contrast values. The stealth technology demonstrated in this paper may be applied for many military systems needed for the IR stealth performance when a suitable temperature control unit is developed

  19. Ultraviolet and soft X-ray free-electron lasers introduction to physical principles, experimental results, technological challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Schmüser, Peter; Rossbach, Jörg; Fujimori, A; Kühn, J; Müller, T; Steiner, F; Trümper, J; Varma, C; Wölfle, P

    2008-01-01

    In the introduction accelerator-based light sources are considered and a comparison is made between free-electron lasers and conventional quantum lasers. The motion and radiation of relativistic electrons in undulator magnets is discussed. The principle of a low-gain free-electron laser is explained and the pendulum equations are introduced that characterize the electron dynamics in the field of a light wave. The differential equations of the high-gain FEL are derived from the Maxwell equations of electrodynamics. Analytical and numerical solutions of the FEL equations are presented and important FEL parameters are defined, such as gain length, FEL bandwidth and saturation power. A detailed numerical study of the all-important microbunching process is presented. The mechanism of Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission is described theoretically and illustrated with numerous experimental results. Three-dimensional effects such as betatron oscillations and optical diffraction are addressed and their impact on the F...

  20. Study on an x-ray microcalorimeter using Ir superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Yuichi; Zen, Nobuyuki; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2005-01-01

    We fabricated a ten-pixel Ir/Au-transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter, and investigated its signal and noise-property. The device was successfully operated in electro-thermal feedback (ETF) mode. More than six position groups could be discrete by using pulse height and rise time parameters of observed x-ray signals. It seems that the separation groups reflect the pixel position of the TES. The best energy resolution was 18.8 eV (FWHM) for 5.9 keV. The noise spectrum showed that noise level of ten-pixel was larger than that of single pixel. A unexplained peak was observed in the plot of current noise for each bias point. (author)

  1. Experimental results of a Mach 10 conical-flow derived waverider to 14-X hypersonic aerospace vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Cavalcanti Rolim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research in the development of the 14-X hypersonic airspace vehicle at Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv from Department of Science and Aerospace Technology (DCTA of the Brazilian Air Force (FAB. The 14-X project objective is to develop a higher efficient satellite launch alternative, using a Supersonic Combustion Ramjet (SCRAMJET engine and waverider aerodynamics. For this development, the waverider technology is under investigation in Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics Laboratory (LHTN, in IEAv/DCTA. The investigation has been conducted through ground test campaigns in Hypersonic Shock Tunnel T3. The 14-X Waverider Vehicle characteristic was verified in shock tunnel T3 where surface static pressures and pitot pressure for Mach number 10 were measured and, using Schlieren photographs Diagnostic Method, it was possible to identify a leading-edge attached shock wave in 14-X lower surface.

  2. NLCTA injector experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeremian, A.D.; Adolphsen, C.; Miller, R.H.; Nantista, C.D.; Wang, J.W.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) at SLAC is to integrate the new technologies of X-band accelerator structures and RF systems for the Next Linear Collider (NLC), demonstrate multibunch beam-loading energy compensation and suppression of high-order deflecting modes, measure the transverse components of the accelerating field, and measure the dark current generated by RF field emission in the accelerator. For beam loading R and D, an average current of about 1 A in a 120 ns long bunch train is required. The initial commissioning of the NLCTA injector, as well as the rest of the accelerator have been progressing very well. The initial beam parameters are very close to the requirement and they expect that injector will meet the specified requirements by the end of this summer

  3. Plan Merging : Experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerdt, M.M.; Van der Krogt, R.P.J.; Zutt, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the results of a plan merging algorithm. This algorithm coordinates the plans of multiple, autonomous agents, each able to independently find a plan. This algorithm is evaluated using realistic data from a taxi company. We show that when we allow passengers to be a few

  4. Experimental results from Stripa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, M.

    1979-06-01

    The results indicate that the temperature fields in a rock mass containing geologic discontinuities can be predicted accurately using the simple theory of heat conduction. Geologic discontinuities appear to introduce significant nonlinear thermomechanical deformation into the rock mass, as a result of which the thermally induced displacements are much less than those predicted by the simple theory of thermo-elasticity. In addition, the assumption that the rock properties are temperature independent appears to increase the values predicted for these displacements significantly. Therefore, it is important that the temperature dependence of these properties is known and that these values be used in the calculations. The onset of significant thermal spalling along the walls of the heater boreholes appears to be related to conditions where the maximum induced compressive stress exceeds the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock. 7 figures

  5. Exchange, x-ray and IR spectral behaviour of lanthanum and praseodymium exchanged zeolite X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, D.; Upreti, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    Exchange behaviour of lanthanum and praseodymium ions in zeolite X involves three steps: preferential exchange, intrazeolitic exchange and irreversible exchange. At room temperature , higher exchange has been observed with La(III) than with Pr(III) which is attributed to the smaller hydrosphere of lanthanum than praseodymium. IR spectra of these zeolites in KBr pellets show a shift in the major Si-O stretching vibration of 972 cm -1 to higher frequencies. Their x-ray diffraction patterns remain unchanged except a large decrease of the line intensities caused by the absorption of x-rays by heavy La(III) and Pr(III) ions. The present study reports the preparation and physicochemical properties of lanthanum and praseodymium exchanged zeolite X. (author). 12 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Temperature Profile of IR Blocking Windows Used in Cryogenic X-Ray Spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, S.; Funk, T.; Drury, O.; Labov, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    Cryogenic high-resolution X-ray spectrometers are typically operated with thin IR blocking windows to reduce radiative heating of the detector while allowing good x-ray transmission. We have estimated the temperature profile of these IR blocking windows under typical operating conditions. We show that the temperature in the center of the window is raised due to radiation from the higher temperature stages. This can increase the infrared photon flux onto the detector, thereby increasing the IR noise and decreasing the cryostat hold time. The increased window temperature constrains the maximum window size and the number of windows required. We discuss the consequences for IR blocking window design

  7. Power load limits of the WENDELSTEIN 7-X target elements-comparison of experimental results and design values for power loads up to the critical heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greuner, H; Boeswirth, B; Boscary, J; Leuprecht, A; Plankensteiner, A

    2007-01-01

    The power load limits of the WENDELSTEIN7-X divertor target elements were experimentally evaluated with heat loads considerably exceeding the expected operating conditions. The water-cooled elements are designed for steady-state heat flux of 10 MW m -2 and to remove a power load up to 100 kW. The elements must allow a limited operation time at 12 MW m -2 steady-state and should not fail for short pulses of up to 15 MW m -2 for cooling conditions in the subcooled nucleate boiling regime. In the framework of the qualification phase, pre-series target elements were loaded up to 24 MW m -2 without loss of CFC tiles. A critical heat flux at the target of 31 MW m -2 was achieved. The paper discusses the results of the tests performed at the high heat flux test facility GLADIS. The experimental results compared to transient nonlinear fine element method (FEM) calculations confirm a high thermal safety margin of the target design sufficient for plasma operation in W7-X

  8. An experimental MOSFET approach to characterize (192)Ir HDR source anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toye, W C; Das, K R; Todd, S P; Kenny, M B; Franich, R D; Johnston, P N

    2007-09-07

    The dose anisotropy around a (192)Ir HDR source in a water phantom has been measured using MOSFETs as relative dosimeters. In addition, modeling using the EGSnrc code has been performed to provide a complete dose distribution consistent with the MOSFET measurements. Doses around the Nucletron 'classic' (192)Ir HDR source were measured for a range of radial distances from 5 to 30 mm within a 40 x 30 x 30 cm(3) water phantom, using a TN-RD-50 MOSFET dosimetry system with an active area of 0.2 mm by 0.2 mm. For each successive measurement a linear stepper capable of movement in intervals of 0.0125 mm re-positioned the MOSFET at the required radial distance, while a rotational stepper enabled angular displacement of the source at intervals of 0.9 degrees . The source-dosimeter arrangement within the water phantom was modeled using the standardized cylindrical geometry of the DOSRZnrc user code. In general, the measured relative anisotropy at each radial distance from 5 mm to 30 mm is in good agreement with the EGSnrc simulations, benchmark Monte Carlo simulation and TLD measurements where they exist. The experimental approach employing a MOSFET detection system of small size, high spatial resolution and fast read out capability allowed a practical approach to the determination of dose anisotropy around a HDR source.

  9. A nanostructured electrode of IrO{sub x} foil on the carbon nanotubes for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yi-Min; Cai, Jhen-Hong; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Lee, Kuei-Yi [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43 Keelung Road, Section 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Dah-Shyang [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43 Keelung Road, Section 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Tiong, Kwong-Kau, E-mail: ysh@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-02

    IrO{sub x} nanofoils (IrO{sub x}NF) of high surface area are sputtered on multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT) in the preparation of a structured electrode on a stainless steel (SUS) substrate for supercapacitor applications. This IrO{sub x}/CNT/SUS electrode is featured with intriguing IrO{sub x} curved foils of 2-3 nm in thickness and 400-500 nm in height, grown on top of the vertically aligned CNT film with a tube diameter of {approx} 40 nm. These nanofoils are moderately oxidized during reactive sputtering and appeared translucent under the electron microscope. Detailed structural analysis shows that they are comprised of contiguous grains of iridium metal, iridium dioxide, and glassy iridium oxide. Considerable Raman line broadening is also evidenced for the attributed nanosized iridium oxides. Two capacitive properties of the electrode are significantly enhanced with addition of the curved IrO{sub x} foils. First, IrO{sub x}NF reduces the electrode Ohmic resistance, which was measured at 3.5 {Omega} cm{sup 2} for the CNT/SUS and 2.5 {Omega} cm{sup 2} for IrO{sub x}NF/CNT/SUS using impedance spectroscopy. Second, IrO{sub x}NF raises the electrode capacitance from 17.7 F g{sup -1} (CNT/SUS) to 317 F g{sup -1} (IrO{sub x}/CNT/SUS), measured with cyclic voltammetry. This notable increase is further confirmed by the galvanostatic charge/discharge experiment, measuring 370 F g{sup -1} after 2000 uninterrupted cycles between - 1.0 and 0.0 V (versus Ag/AgCl).

  10. Synthesis and characterization of Sr{sub 2}Ir{sub 1-x}M{sub x}O{sub 4} (M=Ti, Fe, Co) solid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatimu, Alvin J.; Berthelot, Romain; Muir, Sean; Sleight, Arthur W. [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Subramanian, M.A., E-mail: mas.subramanian@oregonstate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The effects of Ti, Fe and Co substitutions for Ir on the structure and on the physical properties of Sr{sub 2}IrO{sub 4} are investigated. A complete solid solution Sr{sub 2}Ir{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 4} is obtained while both Fe and Co doping are relatively limited. In each case however, the c-axis cell parameter and the initial IrO{sub 6} octahedra tilting decreases with substitution. Doping with Ti, Fe and Co results in a decrease of the magnetic susceptibility and in an increase in the paramagnetic effective moment for Co and Fe doped samples and a suppression of the weak ferromagnetic ordering observed for Sr{sub 2}IrO{sub 4}. - Graphical abstract: Solid solutions of Sr{sub 2}Ir{sub 1-x}M{sub x}O{sub 4} (M=Ti, Fe, Co) have been synthesized and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, magnetism and electrical measurements. Changes in the a parameter and decreases in both the c-axis cell parameters and the initial IrO{sub 6} octahedra tilting are found to be correlated. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid Solutions of Sr{sub 2}Ir{sub 1-x}M{sub x}O{sub 4} (M=Ti, Fe, Co) are synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Sr{sub 2}Ir{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 4} solid solution is complete while those of Fe and Co are relatively limited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The change in a cell parameter with substitution is much less than that of the c parameter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreased tilting and the smaller size of the M cation contrastingly affect the a parameter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doping results in a suppression of the weak ferromagnetic ordering in Sr{sub 2}IrO{sub 4}.

  11. Experimental Waterflow Determination of the Dynamic Hydraulic Transfer Function for the J-2X Oxidizer Turbopump. Part Two; Results and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Tom; Patel, Sandeep; Lee, Erik; Karon, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Experimental results describing the hydraulic dynamic pump transfer matrix (Yp) for a cavitating J-2X oxidizer turbopump inducer+impeller tested in subscale waterflow are presented. The transfer function is required for integrated vehicle pogo stability analysis as well as optimization of local inducer pumping stability. Dynamic transfer functions across widely varying pump hydrodynamic inlet conditions are extracted from measured data in conjunction with 1D-model based corrections. Derived Dynamic transfer functions are initially interpreted relative to traditional Pogo pump equations. Water-to-liquid oxygen scaling of measured cavitation characteristics are discussed. Comparison of key dynamic transfer matrix terms derived from waterflow testing are made with those implemented in preliminary Ares Upper Stage Pogo stability modeling. Alternate cavitating pump hydraulic dynamic equations are suggested which better reflect frequency dependencies of measured transfer matrices.

  12. Donor Acceptor Bond in [NPCl2]3—MCl3 Adducts, a DFT Study and Comparison of Results with Experimental X-Ray Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Akbari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular structures of [PCl2N]3-MCl3 adducts, M=B, Al, Ga, In, Tl, have been studied employing HF, B3LYP*, B3LYP , PW91, BLYP, OLYP, BP and LDA methods using DZP basis set (as defined in Amsterdam Density Functional, ADF, package. Some aspects of adduct formation like considering the difference between Front and Back dihedral angles and also ring puckering showed that the [PCl2N]3-AlCl3 is the most stable adduct comparing the others. Based on the comparison between the X-ray and theoretical geometrical parameters of [NPCl2]3(AlCl3 and [NPCl2]3(GaCl3, the LDA method and BP, PW91 and OLYP functionals combined with DZP basis set were found to yield the most satisfactory agreement. Results showed that with surprise, the LDA(DZP method has the maximum matching with experimental data, comparing the others.

  13. Magnetic and transport behaviour in Pr3X(X=In,Sn,Ga,Ge,Ni,Co,Ru,Ir) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garde, C.S.; Ray, J.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic and transport studies on Pr 3 X (X=In, Sn, Ga, Ge, Ni, Co, Ru, Ir) systems gave evidence for complex magnetic behaviour. All the systems, except X=Sn, exhibit ferromagnetic ordering. The X=Sn system exhibits antiferromagnetic ordering. For X=Ga and Sn, metamagnetic behaviour has been observed. Crystal field effects are found to play an important role in influencing magnetic behaviour. The strength of the crystal field term has also been estimated. (orig.)

  14. Experimental thin-target and thick-target yields for natOs(α, xn)Pt, natOs(α, X)Os, Ir and natMo(p, xn)Tc nuclear reactions from threshold up to 38 and 45 MeV, by combined single and stacked foil techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birattari, Claudio; Bonardi, Mauro; Gini, Luigi; Groppi, Flavia; Menapace, Enzo

    2002-01-01

    The experimental values of thin-target excitation functions for the nuclear reactions: nat Os(α, X) 188,189,191 Pt, 192g,194m Ir in the energy range 11 - 38 MeV and nat Mo(p, xn) 94g,95g,95m,96(m+g) Tc in the energy range 5 - 44 MeV are presented. The experimental values were obtained by cyclotron activation followed by off-line HPGe γ-spectrometry and corrected at the End Of an Instantaneous Bombardment, EOIB. In different cases use was made of single foil and stacked foil techniques, which present significantly different advantages and disadvantages. The thin-target yield values can be easily either numerically or analytically integrated, as a function of both incoming particle energy and energy loss in target itself, in order to calculate apriori the thick-target yield of various radionuclides under any different experimental condition. Moreover, the thin-target yields are directly related to the effective cross-sections of various nuclear reaction channels involved. The data are of relevant interest for optimizing cyclotron production of platinum and technetium radionuclides to be used as radiotracers for metallo-biochemical, biomedical, toxicological and environmental studies. (author)

  15. Synthesis and characterization of Sr2Ir1−xMxO4 (M=Ti, Fe, Co) solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatimu, Alvin J.; Berthelot, Romain; Muir, Sean; Sleight, Arthur W.; Subramanian, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of Ti, Fe and Co substitutions for Ir on the structure and on the physical properties of Sr 2 IrO 4 are investigated. A complete solid solution Sr 2 Ir 1−x Ti x O 4 is obtained while both Fe and Co doping are relatively limited. In each case however, the c-axis cell parameter and the initial IrO 6 octahedra tilting decreases with substitution. Doping with Ti, Fe and Co results in a decrease of the magnetic susceptibility and in an increase in the paramagnetic effective moment for Co and Fe doped samples and a suppression of the weak ferromagnetic ordering observed for Sr 2 IrO 4 . - Graphical abstract: Solid solutions of Sr 2 Ir 1−x M x O 4 (M=Ti, Fe, Co) have been synthesized and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, magnetism and electrical measurements. Changes in the a parameter and decreases in both the c-axis cell parameters and the initial IrO 6 octahedra tilting are found to be correlated. Highlights: ► Solid Solutions of Sr 2 Ir 1−x M x O 4 (M=Ti, Fe, Co) are synthesized. ► The Sr 2 Ir 1−x Ti x O 4 solid solution is complete while those of Fe and Co are relatively limited. ► The change in a cell parameter with substitution is much less than that of the c parameter. ► Decreased tilting and the smaller size of the M cation contrastingly affect the a parameter. ► Doping results in a suppression of the weak ferromagnetic ordering in Sr 2 IrO 4 .

  16. Experimental study and nuclear model calculations on the $^{192}Os (p, n)^{192}$Ir reaction Comparison of reactor and cyclotron production of the therapeutic radionuclide $^{192}$Ir

    CERN Document Server

    Hilgers, K; Sudar, S; 10.1016/j.apradiso.2004.12.010

    2005-01-01

    In a search for an alternative route of production of the important therapeutic radionuclide /sup 192/Ir (T/sub 1/2/=78.83 d), the excitation function of the reaction /sup 192/Os(p, n)/sup 192/Ir was investigated from its threshold up to 20MeV. Thin samples of enriched /sup 192/Os were obtained by electrodeposition on Ni, and the conventional stacked-foil technique was used for cross section measurements. The experimental data were compared with the results of theoretical calculations using the codes EMPIRE-II and ALICE-IPPE. Good agreement was found with EMPIRE-II, but slightly less with the ALICE-IPPE calculations. The theoretical thick target yield of /sup 192/Ir over the energy range E/sub p/=16 to 8MeV amounts to only 0.16MBq/ mu A.h. A comparison of the reactor and cyclotron production methods is given. In terms of yield and radionuclidic purity of /sup 192/Ir the reactor method appears to be superior; the only advantage of the cyclotron method could be the higher specific activity of the product.

  17. TPD IR studies of CO desorption from zeolites CuY and CuX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datka, Jerzy; Kozyra, Paweł

    2005-06-01

    The desorption of CO from zeolites CuY and CuX was followed by TPD-IR method. This is a combination of temperature programmed desorption and IR spectroscopy. In this method, the status of activated zeolite (before adsorption), the process of adsorption, and the status of adsorbed molecules can be followed by IR spectroscopy, and the process of desorption (with linear temperature increase) can be followed both by IR spectroscopy and by mass spectrometry. IR spectra have shown two kinds of Cu + sites in both CuY and CuX. Low frequency (l.f.) band (2140 cm -1 in CuY and 2130 cm -1 in CuX) of adsorbed CO represents Cu + sites for which π back donation is stronger and σ donation is weaker whereas high frequency h.f. band (2160 cm -1 in CuY and 2155 cm -1 in CuX) represent Cu + sites for which π back donation is weaker and σ donation is stronger. The TPD-IR experiments evidenced that the Cu + sites represented by l.f. band bond CO more weakly than those represented by h.f. one, indicating that σ donation has more important impact to the strength of Cu +-CO bonding. On the contrary, π back donation has bigger contribution to the activation of adsorbed molecules.

  18. Experimental results obtained at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrel, V.

    1993-01-01

    A review of experimental results obtained at GANIL on the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions with secondary radioactive beams is presented. Mass measurements by means of the GANIL cyclotrons are described. The possibilities of GANIL/LISE3 for the production and separation of radioactive beams are illustrated through a large variety of experiments. (author). 19 refs., 8 figs

  19. High-pressure synthesis and structural, physical properties of CaIr1-xPtxO3 and CaIr1-xRhxO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, S.; Bromiley, G. D.; Klemme, S.; Irifune, T.; Ohfuji, H.; Attfield, P.; Nishiyama, N.

    2010-12-01

    in terms of materials science applications. To our knowledge, this will be the first report on structural, magnetic and charge-transport properties of B-site substituted solid solutions of post-perovskite oxides with 4d/5d transition metals. High-quality polycrystalline samples of CaIr1-xPtxO3 and CaIr1-xRhxO3 have been obtained at high pressures, and structural, magnetic and charge-transport properties of the compounds will be reported. ODF analysis reveals that solutions of CaIrO3, CaPtO3 and CaRhO3 exhibit similar grain growth features to the mother compound, although growth in [0 1 0] plays a more dominant role than the growth in [0 0 1] for the solid solutions. CaIrO3 is a characteristic hard magnet suitable for applications such as magnetic recording, with TN = 108K. A new phase of CaIr1-xPtxO3 synthesized at a high P/T condition has Raman modes which resemble those of CaIrO3 perovskite, suggesting this phase has a perovskite structure.The instability of the perovskite phase of CaIr1-xPtxO3 reveals why the post-perovskite to peovskite phase transition has not been observed for CaPtO3 unlike the case for CaIrO3, CaRhO3 and CaRuO3.

  20. The Bigfoot Drive; Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kevin; Thomas, Cliff; Khan, Shahab; Casey, Daniel; Spears, Brian; Nora, Ryan; Munro, Davis; Eder, David; Milovich, Jose; Berger, Dick; Strozzi, David; Goyon, Clement; Turnbull, David; Ma, Tammy; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Benedetti, Robin; Millot, Marius; Celliers, Peter; Yeamans, Charles; Hatarik, Robert; Landen, Nino; Hurricane, Omar; Callahan, Debbie

    2016-10-01

    The Bigfoot platform was developed on the National Ignition Facility to investigate low convergence, high adiabat, high rhoR hotspot implosions. This platform was designed to be less susceptible to wall motion, LPI and CBET and to be more robust against capsule hydrodynamic instabilities. To date experimental studies have been carried out at two hohlraum scales, a 5.75 and 5.4 mm diameter hohlraum. We will present experimental results from these tuning campaigns including the shape vs. cone fraction, surrogacy comparisons of self-emission from the capsules vs. radiography of the imploding capsule and doped vs. undoped capsules. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. TMX-U experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, T.C.; Allen, S.L.; Casper, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes results from the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U). Mirror-confined electrons with 30 to 70 keV mean energy densities of 0.5 to 2.0 x 10 12 cm -3 and average betas of 3 to 5% are produced using electron-cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH). These results are consistent with an electron Fokker-Planck code. Improved ion-cyclotron microstability is observed using neutral beam injection at 47 0 to the magnetic axis, rather than at 90 0 as in the previous experiment, TMX. Strong end plugging has been produced using a combination of ECRH gyrotrons with sloshing-ion beam injection. In these low-density central cell experiments (3 x 10 11 cm -3 ) the axial losses (tau/sub parallel/ = 20 to 80 ms) are smaller than the nonambipolar radial losses (tau/sub perpendicular/ = 4 to 8 ms). Plugging has been achieved with a central cell density double that of the end plugs. Although no direct measurements are yet available to determine if a thermal barrier potential dip is generated, these experiments support many theoretical features of the thermal barrier concept

  2. X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and thermal characterization of partially hydrolyzed guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, B S

    2012-05-01

    Guar gum was hydrolyzed using cellulase from Aspergillus niger at 5.6 pH and 50°C temperature. Hydrolyzed guar gum sample was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, dilute solution viscometry and rotational viscometry. Viscometry analysis of native guar gum showed a molecular weight of 889742.06, whereas, after enzymatic hydrolysis, the resultant product had a molecular weight of 7936.5. IR spectral analysis suggests that after enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum there was no major transformation of functional group. Thermal analysis revealed no major change in thermal behavior of hydrolyzed guar gum. It was shown that partial hydrolysis of guar gum could be achieved by inexpensive and food grade cellulase (Aspergillus niger) having commercial importance and utilization as a functional soluble dietary fiber for food industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental and theoretical IR study of methanol and ethanol converson over H-SAPO-34

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemelsoet, K.L.J.; Ghysels, A.; Mores, D.; De Wispelaere, K.; Van Speybroeck, V.; Weckhuysen, B.M.; Waroquier, M.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental IR data are combined to gain insight into the methanol and ethanol conversion over an acidic H-SAPO-34 catalyst. The theoretical simulations use a large finite cluster and the initial physisorption energy of both alcohols is calculated. Dispersive contributions turn out

  4. Experimental results on evaporation waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana Otero, Jose; Parra Fabian, Ignacio

    2010-11-01

    A liquid contained in a vertical glass tube is suddenly depressurized from a high initial pressure down to one for which the stable state is vapour, so vaporization sets off at the free surface. For large enough evaporation rates, the planar vapour-liquid interface is Darrieus-Landau unstable [1], leading to the interface surface rippling close to the instability threshold. Further increasing the initial to final pressure ratio brings about evaporation waves [2,3], in which a highly corrugated front propagates downwards into the liquid. A new experimental method is presented as well as some experimental results obtained by tracking the evolution of the front with a high speed camera. In addition, a number of new phenomena related to the dynamics of bubbles growth at the walls has been uncovered. In particular, a new mode of propagation of the evaporation front is found. In this mode the front originates from below the interface, so the propagation is upwards against gravity with a curved but smooth front.[4pt] [1] F. J. Higuera, Phys. Fluids, V. 30, 679 (1987).[0pt] [2] J.E.Shepherd and B.Sturtevant, J.Fluid Mech., V.121,379 (1982).[0pt] [3] P.Reinke and G.Yadigaroglu, Int.J.Multiph. Flow, V.27,1487 (2001).

  5. Structural investigations on some cadmium-borotellurate glasses using ultrasonic, FT-IR and X-ray techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaafar, M.S., E-mail: m.gaafar@mu.edu.sa [Physics Department, College of Sciences, Majmaah University (Saudi Arabia); Ultrasonic Laboratory, National Institute for Standards, Tersa Str., P.O. Box 136, El-Haram, El-Giza 12211 (Egypt); Shaarany, I. [Physics Department, College of Sciences, Majmaah University (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Alharbi, T. [Physics Department, College of Sciences, Majmaah University (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • 50B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–(50 – x)TeO{sub 2}–xCdO glass system has been prepared by melt quenching technique. • Both sound velocities decrease with increase in x. • Studies on the structure of these glasses, have revealed that Cd{sup 2+} ions are incorporated in the form of CdO{sub 6}. - Abstract: Glasses in the system 50B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–(50 − x)TeO{sub 2}–xCdO with different CdO contents (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mol%), have been prepared by melt quenching technique. Elastic properties, X-ray and FT-IR spectroscopic studies have been employed to study the role of CdO on the structure of the investigated glass system. Elastic properties and Debye temperature have been investigated using sound wave velocity measurements at 4 MHz at room temperature. The results showed that the density increase and the molar volume decrease while both sound velocities decrease with increase in x. Elastic properties, FT-IR and X-ray diffraction studies on the network structure of these glass structures, have revealed that Cd{sup 2+} ions are incorporated in the form of CdO{sub 6}, decreasing the molar volume and compensate for the decrease in the average coordination number of tellurium atoms which was the reason for the increase in elastic moduli.

  6. Development of X-ray microcalorimeter using Ir/Au-TES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Yuichi; Ohno, Masashi; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohkubo, Masataka; Hirayama, Huminori; Ataka, Manabu

    2004-01-01

    We are developing x-ray mirocalorimeters using transition edge sensors of iridium/gold (Ir/Au-TES) for high resolution x-ray spectroscopy. TES microcalorimeters can achieve faster response than conventional microcalorimeters by keeping the operating point of TES in the transition region through the use of strong negative electrothermal feedback (ETF). At present, the energy resolution of 9.4 eV (FWHM) was achieved for a 5899 eV Mn K al line. At a synchrotron X-ray radiation facility, we demonstrated microscopic signal response profile of the device and high-resolution X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy using a small amount of sample. (author)

  7. Majorana Thermosyphon Prototype Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, James E.; Reid, Douglas J.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao

    2010-01-01

    The Majorana demonstrator will operate at liquid Nitrogen temperatures to ensure optimal spectrometric performance of its High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector modules. In order to transfer the heat load of the detector module, the Majorana demonstrator requires a cooling system that will maintain a stable liquid nitrogen temperature. This cooling system is required to transport the heat from the detector chamber outside the shield. One approach is to use the two phase liquid-gas equilibrium to ensure constant temperature. This cooling technique is used in a thermosyphon. The thermosyphon can be designed so the vaporization/condensing process transfers heat through the shield while maintaining a stable operating temperature. A prototype of such system has been built at PNNL. This document presents the experimental results of the prototype and evaluates the heat transfer performance of the system. The cool down time, temperature gradient in the thermosyphon, and heat transfer analysis are studied in this document with different heat load applied to the prototype.

  8. Electrical resistivity, heat capacity and magnetic susceptibility anomalies in Ce{sub 1-x}La{sub x}Ir{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, R; Sampathkumaran, E V; Paulose, P L [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India)

    1997-02-01

    The results of electrical resistivity {rho} (1.4-300 K), heat capacity C and magnetic susceptibility {chi} measurements on the alloys, Ce{sub 1-x}La{sub x}Ir{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, are reported. The results establish that CeIr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} is one of the rare Ce compounds with a Kondo coherence temperature as large as 80 K in the trivalent limit of Ce. Apparently, {rho} exhibits non-Fermi liquid behaviour in the low-temperature {rho} data, though there is no corresponding anomaly in the C data. There is a low-temperature tail in {chi} which appears to be intrinsic. (orig.).

  9. Optical Response of Cu1-xZnxIr2S4 Due to Metal--Insulator Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Matsunami, M.; Nanba, T.; Cao, G.; Suzuki, H.; Isobe, M.; Matsumoto, T.

    2003-01-01

    The mother material CuIr 2 S 4 of the thiospinel system Cu 1-x Zn x Ir 2 S 4 undergoes a temperature-induced metal--insulator (Mi) transition. We report the temperature dependence of the optical reflection spectra of Cu 1-x Zn x Ir 2 S 4 (x ≤ 0.5) at the temperatures of 8-300 K in the energy regions of 0.005--30 eV in order to study the change in the electronic structure due to the Zn substitution for Cu. Zn substitution induced mainly the splitting of the hybridization band between the Ir-5d(t 2g ) and S-3 p states crossing the E F . Obtained optical conductivity (σ ) spectrum is discussed in relation to the change in the electronic structure close to the E F . (author)

  10. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of the series of double perovskites (Ca,Sr){sub 2−x}La{sub x}FeIrO{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bufaiçal, L., E-mail: lbufaical@ufg.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74001-970 Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Adriano, C. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin”, UNICAMP, 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Lora-Serrano, R. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Duque, J.G.S. [Núcleo de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Itabaiana, 49500-000 Itabaiana, SE (Brazil); Mendonça-Ferreira, L. [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-170 Santo André, SP (Brazil); Rojas-Ayala, C.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; Bittar, E.M. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pagliuso, P.G. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin”, UNICAMP, 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-04-01

    Polycrystalline samples of the series of double perovskites Sr{sub 2−x}La{sub x}FeIrO{sub 6} were synthesized. Their structural, electronic and magnetic properties were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity and electrical resistivity experiments. The compounds crystallize in a monoclinic structure and were fitted in space group P2{sub 1}/n, with a significant degree of Fe/Ir cationic disorder. As in Ca{sub 2−x}La{sub x}FeIrO{sub 6} the Sr-based system seems to evolve from an antiferromagnetic ground state for the end members (x=0.0 and x=2.0) to a ferrimagnetic order in the intermediate regions (x∼1). Since Mössbauer spectra indicate that Fe valence remains 3+ with doping, this tendency of change in the nature of the microscopic interaction could be attributed to Ir valence changes, induced by La{sup 3+} electrical doping. Upon comparing both Ca and Sr series, Sr{sub 2−x}La{sub x}FeIrO{sub 6} is more structurally homogenous and presents higher magnetization and transition temperatures. Magnetic susceptibility measurements at high temperatures on Sr{sub 1.2}La{sub 0.8}FeIrO{sub 6} indicate a very high ferrimagnetic Curie temperature T{sub C}∼700K. For the Sr{sub 2}FeIrO{sub 6} compound, electrical resistivity experiments under applied pressure suggest that this material might be a Mott insulator. - Graphical abstract: The Weiss constant as a function of La doping for the (Ca,Sr){sub 2−x}La{sub x}FeIrO{sub 6} series, indicating changes in Fe–Ir magnetic coupling on both families. - Highlights: • The double perovskite series (Ca,Sr){sub 2−x}La{sub x}FeIrO{sub 6} were synthesized. • Changes in the Fe-Ir magnetic coupling due to La doping on both series. • Evidence of high T{sub C} on Sr{sub 1.2}La{sub 0.8}FeIrO{sub 6}. • Indication of Mott insulator behavior on Sr{sub 2}FeIrO{sub 6}.

  11. Infrared (IR) vs x-ray power generation in the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatchyn, R.

    1993-05-01

    The LCLS, a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) designed for operation at a first harmonic energy of 300 eV (λ congruent 40 Angstrom) in the Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime, will utilize electron bunches compressed down to durations of <0.5ps, or lengths of <150 μ. It is natural to inquire whether coherent radiation of this (and longer) wavelength will constitute a significant component of the total coherent output of the FEL. In this paper a determination of a simple upper bound on the IR that can be generated by the compressed bunches is outlines. Under the assumed operating parameters of the LCLS undulator, it is shown that that IR component of the coherent output should be strongly dominated by the x-ray component

  12. Experimental results surprise quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, C.

    1986-01-01

    Interest in results from Darmstadt that positron-electron pairs are created in nuclei with high atomic numbers (in the Z range from 180-188) lies in the occurrence of a quantized positron kinetic energy peak at 300. The results lend substance to the contention of Erich Bagge that the traditionally accepted symmetries in positron-electron emission do not exist and, therefore, there is no need to posit the existence of the neutrino. The search is on for the decay of a previously unknown boson to account for the findings, which also points to the need for a major revision in quantum theory. 1 figure

  13. Contact spectroscopy of high-temperature superconductors (Review). I - Physical and methodological principles of the contact spectroscopy of high-temperature superconductors. Experimental results for La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 and their discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianson, I. K.

    1991-03-01

    Research in the field of high-temperature superconductors based on methods of tunneling and microcontact spectroscopy is reviewed in a systematic manner. The theoretical principles of the methods are presented, and various types of contacts are described and classified. Attention is given to deviations of the measured volt-ampere characteristics from those predicted by simple theoretical models and those observed for conventional superconductors. Results of measurements of the energy gap and fine structure of volt ampere characteristic derivatives are presented for La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4.

  14. Phase-matched generation of coherent soft and hard X-rays using IR lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Bahabad, Alon; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.

    2013-06-11

    Phase-matched high-order harmonic generation of soft and hard X-rays is accomplished using infrared driving lasers in a high-pressure non-linear medium. The pressure of the non-linear medium is increased to multi-atmospheres and a mid-IR (or higher) laser device provides the driving pulse. Based on this scaling, also a general method for global optimization of the flux of phase-matched high-order harmonic generation at a desired wavelength is designed.

  15. A high resolution IR/visible imaging system for the W7-X limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurden, G. A.; Dunn, J. P.; Stephey, L. A.; Biedermann, C.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Gamradt, M.

    2016-01-01

    A high-resolution imaging system, consisting of megapixel mid-IR and visible cameras along the same line of sight, has been prepared for the new W7-X stellarator and was operated during Operational Period 1.1 to view one of the five inboard graphite limiters. The radial line of sight, through a large diameter (184 mm clear aperture) uncoated sapphire window, couples a direct viewing 1344 × 784 pixel FLIR SC8303HD camera. A germanium beam-splitter sends visible light to a 1024 × 1024 pixel Allied Vision Technologies Prosilica GX1050 color camera. Both achieve sub-millimeter resolution on the 161 mm wide, inertially cooled, segmented graphite tiles. The IR and visible cameras are controlled via optical fibers over full Camera Link and dual GigE Ethernet (2 Gbit/s data rates) interfaces, respectively. While they are mounted outside the cryostat at a distance of 3.2 m from the limiter, they are close to a large magnetic trim coil and require soft iron shielding. We have taken IR data at 125 Hz to 1.25 kHz frame rates and seen that surface temperature increases in excess of 350 °C, especially on leading edges or defect hot spots. The IR camera sees heat-load stripe patterns on the limiter and has been used to infer limiter power fluxes (∼1–4.5 MW/m"2), during the ECRH heating phase. IR images have also been used calorimetrically between shots to measure equilibrated bulk tile temperature, and hence tile energy inputs (in the range of 30 kJ/tile with 0.6 MW, 6 s heating pulses). Small UFO’s can be seen and tracked by the FLIR camera in some discharges. The calibrated visible color camera (100 Hz frame rate) has also been equipped with narrow band C-III and H-alpha filters, to compare with other diagnostics, and is used for absolute particle flux determination from the limiter surface. Sometimes, but not always, hot-spots in the IR are also seen to be bright in C-III light.

  16. A high resolution IR/visible imaging system for the W7-X limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurden, G. A., E-mail: wurden@lanl.gov; Dunn, J. P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Stephey, L. A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Biedermann, C.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Gamradt, M. [Max Planck Institut für Plasma Physik, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    A high-resolution imaging system, consisting of megapixel mid-IR and visible cameras along the same line of sight, has been prepared for the new W7-X stellarator and was operated during Operational Period 1.1 to view one of the five inboard graphite limiters. The radial line of sight, through a large diameter (184 mm clear aperture) uncoated sapphire window, couples a direct viewing 1344 × 784 pixel FLIR SC8303HD camera. A germanium beam-splitter sends visible light to a 1024 × 1024 pixel Allied Vision Technologies Prosilica GX1050 color camera. Both achieve sub-millimeter resolution on the 161 mm wide, inertially cooled, segmented graphite tiles. The IR and visible cameras are controlled via optical fibers over full Camera Link and dual GigE Ethernet (2 Gbit/s data rates) interfaces, respectively. While they are mounted outside the cryostat at a distance of 3.2 m from the limiter, they are close to a large magnetic trim coil and require soft iron shielding. We have taken IR data at 125 Hz to 1.25 kHz frame rates and seen that surface temperature increases in excess of 350 °C, especially on leading edges or defect hot spots. The IR camera sees heat-load stripe patterns on the limiter and has been used to infer limiter power fluxes (∼1–4.5 MW/m{sup 2}), during the ECRH heating phase. IR images have also been used calorimetrically between shots to measure equilibrated bulk tile temperature, and hence tile energy inputs (in the range of 30 kJ/tile with 0.6 MW, 6 s heating pulses). Small UFO’s can be seen and tracked by the FLIR camera in some discharges. The calibrated visible color camera (100 Hz frame rate) has also been equipped with narrow band C-III and H-alpha filters, to compare with other diagnostics, and is used for absolute particle flux determination from the limiter surface. Sometimes, but not always, hot-spots in the IR are also seen to be bright in C-III light.

  17. Physico-chemical and electrochemical characterization of Ti/RhO{sub x}-IrO{sub 2} electrodes using sol-gel technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klink, M.J.; Makgae, M.E. [Institute of Molecular Sciences, School of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Jorrissen Street, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Crouch, A.M., E-mail: Andrew.Crouch@wits.ac.za [Institute of Molecular Sciences, School of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Jorrissen Street, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa)

    2010-11-01

    Sol-gel technology has been successfully used for the incorporation of RhO{sub x}-IrO{sub 2} on a Ti substrate. RhO{sub x}-IrO{sub 2} was prepared from chloride precursors of Rh and Ir, for surface studies. These metal oxides were then immobilised on solid Ti substrates via dip withdrawal coating methods to form thin films. The Ti/RhO{sub x}-IrO{sub 2} thin films were extensively characterized in terms of surface characterization and chemical composition and used in the oxidation of phenol. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) determined the calcination temperature at 700 deg. C where no further structural changes occurred due to mass loss. The rhodium oxide showed two-phase formations, RhO{sub 2} and Rh{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which were attributed to high calcinated temperatures compare to one phase IrO{sub 2} which was stable at lower temperatures. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the morphology of the film was found to be rough with a grain-like appearance in the 150-nm range. The phase composition of these metal oxides was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and found to have crystalline structures. The results obtained from Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) revealed information regarding the chemical composition of the metal oxides and confirmed the diffusion of Rh and Ir into the Ti substrate. Electrochemical characterization of the Ti/RhO{sub x}-IrO{sub 2} electrode, via cyclic voltammetry (CV), showed distinctive redox peaks: anodic and cathodic peaks associated with the oxidation and reduction of the ferricyanide-ferrocyanide couple was seen at 250 and 100 mV respectively; the peak observed at 1000 mV was associated with oxygen evolution and a broad reductive wave at -600 mV can be ascribed to the Ti/RuO{sub x}-IrO{sub 2} reduction, which proved that the Ti/RhO{sub x}-IrO{sub 2} electrode were electroactive and exhibit fast electrochemistry.

  18. Experimental results on photon-photon interactions at Adone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldini Celio, R.; Capon, G.; Fabbro, R. del; Santis, P. de; Grilli, M.; Iarocci, E.; Mencuccini, C.; Murtas, G.P.; Spinetti, M.; Valente, V.; Bacci, C.; Zorzi, C. de; Penso, G.; Stella, B.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental results for the reactions e + e - →e + e - +X are presented for X=e + e - ,μ + μ - ,π + π - ,eta'. A tagging technique has been used to detect final electrons and positrons. A QED test is performed and an upper limit of 20 keV is derived for the partial width GAMMA(eta'→γγ). (Auth.)

  19. Visible/IR light and x-rays in femtosecond synchronism from an x-ray free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, B. A.; Experimental Facilities Division

    2005-01-01

    A way is proposed to obtain pulses of visible/infrared light in femtosecond synchronism with x-rays from an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL), using the recently proposed emittance-slicing technique. In an XFEL undulator, only the short section of an electron bunch whose emittance is left unchanged by the slicing will emit intense coherent x-rays in the XFEL undulator. At the same time, the bunch emits highly collimated transition undulator radiation (TUR) into a cone whose opening angle is the reciprocal relativisticity parameter gamma. Due to the variation of the transverse momentum induced by the emittance slicing, the effective number of charges contributing to the TUR varies along the bunch, and is higher in the sliced-out part that emits the coherent x-rays. As with coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR), the TUR is thus coherently enhanced (CTUR) at near-infrared wavelengths. Coming from the same part of the bunch the CTUR and the coherent x-rays are perfectly synchronized to each other. Because both types of radiation are generated in the long straight XFEL undulator, there are no dispersion effects that might induce a timing jitter. With typical XFEL parameters, the energy content of the single optical cycle of near-IR CTUR light is about 100 Nano-Joule, which is quite sufficient for most pump-probe experiments

  20. Structural and magnetic properties of Sr{sub 2}Y{sub 1+x}Ir{sub 1-x}O{sub 6} materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslan Cansever, Gizem; Geyer, Maximilian; Blum, Christian G.F.; Gass, Sebastian; Corredor, Laura T.; Maljuk, Andrey; Wolter, A.U.B. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, IFW Dresden (Germany); Manna, Kaustuv [Max-Planck-Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); Hammerath, Franziska; Wurmehl, Sabine; Buechner, Bernd [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, IFW Dresden (Germany); Institute for Solid State Physics, TU Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Ir-based materials have attracted a lot of attention because of the competition between the spin-orbit coupling, Coulomb interaction and crystal field. Sr{sub 2}YIrO{sub 6} double perovskites with Ir{sup +5} (5d{sup 4}) ions are generally considered to have a nonmagnetic ground state (J=0). However, Sr{sub 2}YIrO{sub 6} double perovskites have been reported to exhibit long-range magnetic order at low temperature and the distorted IrO{sub 6} octahedra were discussed to cause the magnetism in this compound [2]. In this study Sr{sub 2}Y{sub 1+x}Ir{sub 1-x}O{sub 6} materials were investigated in relation to structural and magnetic properties with varying Y and Ir concentrations. The samples were prepared by solid-state chemical reaction method. Magnetic susceptibility measurements were performed down to 0.4 K.

  1. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at IrL2,3 edges in Fe100−xIrx and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Japan Synchrotron Radiation Institute, SPring8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Mikazuki,. Hyogo 679-5198, Japan. ∗. Email: krishna@postman.riken.go.jp. Abstract. The formation of induced 5d magnetic moment on Ir in Fe100−x Irx (x=3, 10 and 17) and. Co100−x Irx (x =5, 17, 25 and 32) alloys has been investigated by X-ray magnetic ...

  2. Recent experimental results and diagnostics on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahata, Kazuo

    2001-01-01

    LHD is a superconducting heliotron type device with 1=2/m=10 continuous helical coils and three pairs of poloidal coils. The major and minor radii of the plasma are 3.5-3.9 m and 0.6 m, respectively. The plasma experiment was started at the end of March 1998 with the magnetic field of 1.5 T. Subsequently, the magnetic field has been gradually increased checking carefully the stability of the SC coils, and the maximum magnetic field used in the plasma experiment was 2.89 T at the magnetic axis of R ax =3.6 m. The heating power has been gradually increased, i.e., NBI up to 5.2 MW (with two beam lines), ICRF up to 2.7 MW (with two antenna system), and ECRH up to 1.0 MW (with six gyrotron tubes). The carbon tiles were installed as divertor plates to meet high power heatings, resulting in significant reduction in metal impurity concentration (Fe) and total radiation power. Upgrading of the key hardware system has led to (i) higher Te [Te(0)=4.4 keV at =5.3x10 18 m -3 and P abs =1.8 MW], (ii) higher confinement [τ E =0.3 s, Te(0)=1.1 keV at =6.5x10 19 m -3 and P abs =2.0 MW], (iii) higher stored energy W p dia =1.0 MJ, (iv) the highest β value in helical devices [2.4% at 1.3 T, >30% at 0.5 T]. In this workshop, we will report the recent experimental results on the LHD and plasma diagnostics related to mm and sub-mm wave diagnostics. (author)

  3. Experimental and theoretical studies on IR, Raman, and UV-Vis spectra of quinoline-7-carboxaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumru, M; Küçük, V; Kocademir, M; Alfanda, H M; Altun, A; Sarı, L

    2015-01-05

    Spectroscopic properties of quinoline-7-carboxaldehyde (Q7C) have been studied in detail both experimentally and theoretically. The FT-IR (4000-50 cm(-1)), FT-Raman (4000-50 cm(-1)), dispersive-Raman (3500-50 cm(-1)), and UV-Vis (200-400 nm) spectra of Q7C were recorded at room temperature (25 °C). Geometry parameters, potential energy surface about CCH(O) bond, harmonic vibrational frequencies, IR and Raman intensities, UV-Vis spectrum, and thermodynamic characteristics (at 298.15K) of Q7C were computed at Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional B3LYP levels employing the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Frontier molecular orbitals, molecular electrostatic potential, and Mulliken charge analyses of Q7C have also been performed. Q7C has two stable conformers that are energetically very close to each other with slight preference to the conformer that has oxygen atom of the aldehyde away from the nitrogen atom of the quinoline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Substoichiometric cobalt oxide monolayer on Ir(100)-(1 x 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubo, M; Ebensperger, C; Meyer, W; Hammer, L; Heinz, K

    2009-01-01

    A substoichiometric monolayer of cobalt oxide has been prepared by deposition and oxidation of slightly less than one monolayer of cobalt on the unreconstructed surface of Ir(100). The ultrathin film was investigated by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and quantitative low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). The cobalt species of the film reside in or near hollow positions of the substrate with, however, unoccupied sites (vacancies) in a 3 x 3 arrangement. In the so-formed 3 x 3 supercell the oxide's oxygen species are both threefold and fourfold coordinated to cobalt, forming pyramids with a triangular and square cobalt basis, respectively. These pyramids are the building blocks of the oxide. Due to the reduced coordination as compared to the sixfold one in the bulk of rock-salt-type CoO, the Co-O bond lengths are smaller than in the latter. For the threefold coordination they compare very well with the bond length in oxygen terminated CoO(111) films investigated recently. The substoichiometric 3 x 3 oxide monolayer phase transforms to a stoichiometric c(10 x 2)-periodic oxide monolayer under oxygen exposure, in which, however, cobalt and oxygen species are in (111) orientation and so form a CoO(111) layer.

  5. Ab initio study for the IR spectroscopy of PbTiO3 and PbZrO3, primary blocks of PbZr1‑x Ti x O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peperstraete, Yoann; Amzallag, Emilie; Tétot, Robert; Roy, Pascale

    2018-05-01

    PbTiO3 (PT) and PbZrO3 (PZ) are the two primary blocks of the solid solution PbZr1‑x Ti x O3 (PZT). They can be modelled in different ways; but, in order to do comparable DFT calculations on PZT, with different values of x, one must find a unique method that can be used for both PT and PZ. In particular, we want to evaluate their vibrational properties to compare them with experimental data. Density functional theory (DFT) is used to perform structure geometry optimizations and electronic structure calculations, both on low- and high-temperature phase. Then, harmonic vibrational frequencies of their low-temperature phase are determined for transverse and longitudinal optical (TO & LO) phonons. Moreover, a detailed study of the eigenvectors shows that accurate calculations are necessary to correctly interpret and understand the IR spectra. In the end, the comparison of our theoretical results with previous experimental and theoretical data confirm the strong potential of the SOGGA (second-order generalized gradient approximation) functional to correctly describe PT, PZ and, hopefully, PZT; especially their structural and vibrational properties.

  6. Vibrational frequency analysis, FT-IR, DFT and M06-2X studies on tert-Butyl N-(thiophen-2yl)carbamate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Yusuf; Singer, L. M.; Findlater, M.; Doğan, Hatice; Çırak, Ç.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the experimental and theoretical vibrational frequencies of a newly synthesized tert-Butyl N-(thiophen-2yl)carbamate have been investigated. The experimental FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) spectrum of the molecule in the solid phase have been recorded. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and optimized geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles) have been calculated by using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP: Becke, 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr) and DFT/M06-2X (the highly parametrized, empirical exchange correlation function) quantum chemical methods with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set by Gaussian 09W software, for the first time. The vibrational frequencies have been assigned using potential energy distribution (PED) analysis by using VEDA 4 software. The computational optimized geometric parameters and vibrational frequencies have been found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data, and with related literature results. In addition, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies and the other related molecular energy values have been calculated and are depicted.

  7. An overview on the research of Sr2IrO4-based system probed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Zhu, Chaomin; Ma, Jingyuan; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shengli

    2018-03-01

    Investigations of materials with 5d transition metal ions have opened up new paradigms in condensed-matter physics because of their large spin-orbit coupling (SOC) interactions. The typical compound is Sr2IrO4, which attracted much attention due to its similarities to the parent compound of high-Tc cuprate superconductor La2CuO4. Theoretical calculations predicted that the unconventional superconductivity can occur in carrier doped-Sr2IrO4 system. Until now, hundreds of experimental methods were devoted to investigate the carrier doping effect on Sr2IrO4. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) made great contributions to the local lattice and electronic structure, and also the intimate relationship between the local structure and physical properties induced by carrier doping. The aim of this review is a short introduction to the progress of research on Sr2IrO4-based system probed by the unique technique — XAS, including the strength of the SOC, valence changes upon doping and even local lattice structure with atomic level for this Sr2IrO4-based family.

  8. Computations for a condenser. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walden, Jean.

    1975-01-01

    Computations for condensers are presented with experimental results. The computations are concerned with the steam flux at the condenser input, and inside the tube bundle. Experimental results are given for the flux inside the condenser sleeve and the flow passing through the tube bundle [fr

  9. Energy relaxation in IR laser excited Hg{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storebo, A K; Brudevoll, T [FFI - Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, PO Box 25, NO-2027 Kjeller, Norway NTNU (Norwegian University of Science and Technology) (Norway); Olsen, O; Norum, O C [Department of Physics and Department of Electronics and Telecommunications NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Breivik, M, E-mail: asta-katrine.storebo@ffi.n [Department of Electronics and Telecommunications NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2009-11-15

    IR laser excitation of Hg{sub l-x}Cd{sub x}Te by low-fluence femtosecond and high fluence microsecond pulses was explored for the technologically important alloy fractions x {approx} 0.2 and x {approx} 0.28. We have used first principles (LAPW) electronic structure calculations and finite element modelling, supported by Monte Carlo simulation for the description of femtosecond pulse carrier relaxation and the transport parameters. Laser wavelengths considered were 6.4 - 10.6 {mu}m for x {approx} 0.2 and 3.8 - 4.8 {mu}m for x {approx} 0.28, with an incident 1 microsecond pulse fluence of 2 J/cm{sup 2}. Many energy transfer mechanisms are invoked due to the long timescales of the microsecond pulses, and a main challenge is therefore to elucidate how these interplay in situations away from thermal equilibrium. Mechanisms studied include one- and two-photon absorption (OPA and TPA) across the band gap, inter-valence band absorption (IVA) between light- and heavy hole bands, electron-hole recombination/impact ionization, band gap renormalisation, intra-band free carrier absorption (FCA), excess carrier temperatures, non-equilibrium phonon generation, and refractive index changes. In the high fluence case, lattice temperatures evolve considerably during the laser pulse in response to the heated carriers. The chosen photon energies lie just above the band gap at the starting lattice temperature of 77 K, and nonlinear effects therefore dominate as the material heats up and the band gap begins to exceed the photon energy. Because of the low photon energy we must rely on Auger recombination, inter-valence band absorption and free carrier absorption to heat the carrier plasma. Although some Hg{sub l-x}Cd{sub x}Te material parameters are now relatively well known, existing data for many of the processes are inadequate for cases far away from thermal equilibrium. Furthermore, the role of Auger recombination in relation to non-intrinsic recombination has been a matter of debate

  10. FT-IR and X-ray spectroscopic investigations of Na-diclofenac-cyclodextrins interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratu, I.; Astilean, S.; Ionesc, Corina; Indrea, E.; Huvenne, J. P.; Legrand, P.

    1998-01-01

    The association of DCF-Na (the salt of the 2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino]-phenyl-acetic acid) with β-CD (cyclodextrin) in some therapeutic formulas can contribute to the optimisation of the physico-chemical and pharmaceutical properties of the parent drug. The understanding of the interaction between DCF with β-CD represents the objective of this study. FT-IR spectroscopy is one of the methods which clarify the nature of these interactions in complexes of such type. Therefore the changes in FT-IR spectra of binary dispersed systems DCF/ β-CD in physical mixture and coprecipitate from methanol (molar ratios: 1/1, 1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 7/4) were analysed. The analysis of the broadening of the X-ray powder diffraction line has been applied to investigate the average effective crystallite size, the mean square of the microstrain caused by distortions within β-CD crystallite and the fault probability in the binary dispersed DCF/ β-CD coprecipitate system.

  11. Energy relaxation in IR laser excited Hg1-xCdxTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storebo, A K; Brudevoll, T; Olsen, O; Norum, O C; Breivik, M

    2009-01-01

    IR laser excitation of Hg l-x Cd x Te by low-fluence femtosecond and high fluence microsecond pulses was explored for the technologically important alloy fractions x ∼ 0.2 and x ∼ 0.28. We have used first principles (LAPW) electronic structure calculations and finite element modelling, supported by Monte Carlo simulation for the description of femtosecond pulse carrier relaxation and the transport parameters. Laser wavelengths considered were 6.4 - 10.6 μm for x ∼ 0.2 and 3.8 - 4.8 μm for x ∼ 0.28, with an incident 1 microsecond pulse fluence of 2 J/cm 2 . Many energy transfer mechanisms are invoked due to the long timescales of the microsecond pulses, and a main challenge is therefore to elucidate how these interplay in situations away from thermal equilibrium. Mechanisms studied include one- and two-photon absorption (OPA and TPA) across the band gap, inter-valence band absorption (IVA) between light- and heavy hole bands, electron-hole recombination/impact ionization, band gap renormalisation, intra-band free carrier absorption (FCA), excess carrier temperatures, non-equilibrium phonon generation, and refractive index changes. In the high fluence case, lattice temperatures evolve considerably during the laser pulse in response to the heated carriers. The chosen photon energies lie just above the band gap at the starting lattice temperature of 77 K, and nonlinear effects therefore dominate as the material heats up and the band gap begins to exceed the photon energy. Because of the low photon energy we must rely on Auger recombination, inter-valence band absorption and free carrier absorption to heat the carrier plasma. Although some Hg l-x Cd x Te material parameters are now relatively well known, existing data for many of the processes are inadequate for cases far away from thermal equilibrium. Furthermore, the role of Auger recombination in relation to non-intrinsic recombination has been a matter of debate lately. In this respect, information from

  12. Ames S-32 O-16 O-18 Line List for High-Resolution Experimental IR Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    By comparing to the most recent experimental data and spectra of the SO2 628 ?1/?3 bands (see Ulenikov et al., JQSRT 168 (2016) 29-39), this study illustrates the reliability and accuracy of the Ames-296K SO2 line list, which is accurate enough to facilitate such high-resolution spectroscopic analysis. The SO2 628 IR line list is computed on a recently improved potential energy surface (PES) refinement, denoted Ames-Pre2, and the published purely ab initio CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVQZ dipole moment surface. Progress has been made in both energy level convergence and rovibrational quantum number assignments agreeing with laboratory analysis models. The accuracy of the computed 628 energy levels and line list is similar to what has been achieved and reported for SO2 626 and 646, i.e. 0.01-0.03 cm(exp -1) for bands up to 5500 cm(exp -1). During the comparison, we found some discrepancies in addition to overall good agreements. The three-IR-list based feature-by-feature analysis in a 0.25 cm(exp -1) spectral window clearly demonstrates the power of the current Ames line lists with new assignments, correction of some errors, and intensity contributions from varied sources including other isotopologues. We are inclined to attribute part of detected discrepancies to an incomplete experimental analysis and missing intensity in the model. With complete line position, intensity, and rovibrational quantum numbers determined at 296 K, spectroscopic analysis is significantly facilitated especially for a spectral range exhibiting such an unusually high density of lines. The computed 628 rovibrational levels and line list are accurate enough to provide alternatives for the missing bands or suspicious assignments, as well as helpful to identify these isotopologues in various celestial environments. The next step will be to revisit the SO2 828 and 646 spectral analyses.

  13. Experimental investigations of atomic ordering effects in the epitaxial Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}P, coherently grown on GaAs (100) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seredin, P.V., E-mail: paul@phys.vsu.ru [Voronezh State University, Universitetskaya pl., 1, 394006 Voronezh (Russian Federation); Goloshchapov, D.L.; Khudyakov, Yu.Yu.; Lenshin, A.S.; Lukin, A.N. [Voronezh State University, Universitetskaya pl., 1, 394006 Voronezh (Russian Federation); Arsentyev, I.N., E-mail: arsentyev@mail.ioffe.ru [Ioffe Physical and Technical Institute, Polytekhnicheskaya, 26, 194021 St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Prutskij, Tatiana, E-mail: prutskij@yahoo.com [Instituto de Ciencias, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Privada 17 Norte, No 3417, Col San Miguel Hueyotlipan, 72050 Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2017-03-15

    A range of structural and spectroscopic techniques were used for the study of the properties of epitaxial Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}P alloys with an ordered arrangement of atoms in a crystal lattice grown by MOCVD on single-crystalline substrates of GaAs (100). The appearance of atomic ordering in the coherent growth conditions of the ordered Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}P alloy on GaAs (100) resulted in cardinal changes of the structural and optical properties of semiconductor in comparison to disordered alloys, including the change of the crystal lattice parameter and, consequently, reduced crystal symmetry, decreased band gap and formation of two different types of surface nanorelief. This is the first report of the calculation of parameters of the crystal lattice in Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}P with ordering taking into account the elastic stresses dependent on long-range ordering. Based on the variance analysis data with regard to the IR-reflection spectra as well as the UV-spectroscopy data obtained in the transmission-reflection mode, the main optical characteristics of the ordered Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}P alloys were determined for the first time, namely, refractive index dispersion and high-frequency dielectric constant. All of the experimental results were in good agreement with the previously developed theoretical beliefs.

  14. Nanoparticle Nucleation Is Termolecular in Metal and Involves Hydrogen: Evidence for a Kinetically Effective Nucleus of Three {Ir3H2x·P2W15Nb3O62}6- in Ir(0)n Nanoparticle Formation From [(1,5-COD)IrI·P2W15Nb3O62]8- Plus Dihydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkar, Saim; Finke, Richard G

    2017-04-19

    The nucleation process yielding Ir(0) ∼300 nanoparticles from (Bu 4 N) 5 Na 3 [(1,5-COD)Ir·P 2 W 15 Nb 3 O 62 ] (abbreviated hereafter as (COD)Ir·POM 8- , where POM 9- = the polyoxometalate, P 2 W 15 Nb 3 O 62 9- ) under H 2 is investigated to learn the true molecularity, and hence the associated kinetically effective nucleus (KEN), for nanoparticle formation for the first time. Recent work with this prototype transition-metal nanoparticle formation system ( J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014 , 136 , 17601 - 17615 ) revealed that nucleation in this system is an apparent second-order in the precatalyst, A = (COD)Ir·POM 8- , not the higher order implied by classic nucleation theory and its nA ⇌ A n , "critical nucleus", A n concept. Herein, the three most reasonable more intimate mechanisms of nucleation are tested: bimolecular nucleation, termolecular nucleation, and a mechanism termed "alternative termolecular nucleation" in which 2(COD)Ir + and 1(COD)Ir·POM 8- yield the transition state of the rate-determining step of nucleation. The results obtained definitively rule out a simple bimolecular nucleation mechanism and provide evidence for the alternative termolecular mechanism with a KEN of 3, Ir 3 . All higher molecularity nucleation mechanisms were also ruled out. Further insights into the KEN and its more detailed composition involving hydrogen, {Ir 3 H 2x POM} 6- , are also obtained from the established role of H 2 in the Ir(0) ∼300 formation balanced reaction stoichiometry, from the p(H 2 ) dependence of the kinetics, and from a D 2 /H 2 kinetic isotope effect of 1.2(±0.3). Eight insights and conclusions are presented. A section covering caveats in the current work, and thus needed future studies, is also included.

  15. New experimental results on strangeness production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapozhnikov, M.G.

    1998-01-01

    New experimental results on the production of φ and f 2 ' (1525) mesons in the annihilation of stopped antiprotons are discussed. The explanation of these facts in the framework of the polarized strangeness model is considered

  16. Experimental results of the betatron sum resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Ball, M.; Brabson, B.

    1993-06-01

    The experimental observations of motion near the betatron sum resonance, ν x + 2ν z = 13, are presented. A fast quadrupole (Panofsky-style ferrite picture-frame magnet with a pulsed power supplier) producing a betatron tune shift of the order of 0.03 at rise time of 1 μs was used. This quadrupole was used to produce betatron tunes which jumped past and then crossed back through a betatron sum resonance line. The beam response as function of initial betatron amplitudes were recorded turn by turn. The correlated growth of the action variables, J x and J z , was observed. The phase space plots in the resonance frame reveal the features of particle motion near the nonlinear sum resonance region

  17. Structure, magnetism and electronic properties in 3d-5d based double perovskite ({Sr_{1-x}} Y x )2FeIrO6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkwal, K. C.; Pramanik, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    The 3d-5d based double perovskites are of current interest as they provide model systems to study the interplay between electronic correlation (U) and spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Here, we report detailed structural, magnetic and transport properties of doped double perovskite material (Sr1-x Y x )2FeIrO6 with x ≤slant 0.2 . With substitution of Y, the system retains its original crystal structure but structural parameters change with x in nonmonotonic fashion. The magnetization data for Sr2FeIrO6 show antiferromagnetic type magnetic transition around 45 K however, a close inspection of the data indicates a weak magnetic phase transition around 120 K. No change of structural symmetry has been observed down to low temperature, although the lattice parameters show sudden changes around the magnetic transitions. Sr2FeIrO6 shows an insulating behavior over the whole temperature range, which nevertheless does not change with Y substitution. The nature of charge conduction is found to follow thermally activated Mott’s variable range hopping and power law behavior for parent and doped samples, respectively. Interestingly, evolution of structural, magnetic and transport behavior in (Sr1-x Y x )2FeIrO6 is observed to reverse with x > 0.1 , which is believed to arise due to a change in the transition metal ionic state.

  18. FT-IR X-ray diffraction and porosimetry studies of archaeologic artifacts recently excavated from Rajakkamangalam in Tamilnadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu Suresh; Velraj, Gothandapani

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, fragmented pottery sample were collected from the recently excavated archaeologic site named Rajakkamangalam, India. The samples were collected at different depths. The samples were subjected to FT-IR, X-ray diffraction and also porosimetry study was done, The spectroscopic method Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) has been employed to find the mineralogical composition of the potteries. And the complementary technique to find the clay minerals present using XRD. The major primary minerals present in the samples are Kaolinite and the secondary mineral present is quartz and the accessory minerals present in the sample are hematite and magnetite. In addition to the used mineral the orthoclase and orthopyroxene are present in the sample of interest. The firing temperature of the samples at the time of manufacturing is also estimated from apparent porosity of the samples. The percentage of the potteries lies in the range of porosity is 17-42 percentages. The results obtained from Porosimetry techniques on pottery shreds provide information of the firing temperature might have been fired below 1000 deg C at the time of manufacturing the potteries. (author)

  19. Primarily Experimental Results for a W Wire Array Z Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuai Bin; Aici, Qiu; Wang Liangping; Zeng Zhengzhong; Wang Wensheng; Cong Peitian; Gai Tongyang; Wei Fuli; Guo Ning; Zhang Zhong

    2006-01-01

    Primarily experimental results are given for a W wire array Z pinch imploded with up to 2 MA in 100 ns on a Qiangguang-I pulsed power generator. The configuration and parameters of the generator, the W wire array load assembly and the diagnostic system for the experiment are described. The total X-ray energy has been obtained with a averaged power of X-ray radiation of 1.28 TW

  20. Free-air ionization chamber, FAC-IR-300, designed for medium energy X-ray dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, S.M.; Tavakoli-Anbaran, H.; Zeinali, H.Z.

    2017-01-01

    The primary standard for X-ray photons is based on parallel-plate free-air ionization chamber (FAC). Therefore, the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) is tried to design and build the free-air ionization chamber, FAC-IR-300, for low and medium energy X-ray dosimetry. The main aim of the present work is to investigate specification of the FAC-IR-300 ionization chamber and design it. FAC-IR-300 dosimeter is composed of two parallel plates, a high voltage (HV) plate and a collector plate, along with a guard electrode that surrounds the collector plate. The guard plate and the collector were separated by an air gap. For obtaining uniformity in the electric field distribution, a group of guard strips was used around the ionization chamber. These characterizations involve determining the exact dimensions of the ionization chamber by using Monte Carlo simulation and introducing correction factors.

  1. Design of the free-air ionization chamber, FAC-IR-150, for X-ray dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Seyed Mostafa; Tavakoli-Anbaran, Hossein

    2018-03-01

    The primary standard for X-ray dosimetry is based on the free-air ionization chamber (FAC). Therefore, the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) designed the free-air ionization chamber, FAC-IR-150, for low and medium energy X-ray dosimetry. The purpose of this work is the study of the free-air ionization chamber characteristics and the design of the FAC-IR-150. The FAC-IR-150 dosimeter has two parallel plates, a high voltage plate and a collector plate. A guard electrode surrounds the collector and is separated by an air gap. A group of guard strips is used between up and down electrodes to produce a uniform electric field in all the ion chamber volume. This design involves introducing the correction factors and determining the exact dimensions of the ionization chamber by using Monte Carlo simulation.

  2. Experimental results on RPC neutron sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbrescia, M.; Altieri, S.; Baratti, V.; Barnaba, O.; Belli, G.; Bruno, G.; Colaleo, A.; De Vecchi, C.; Guida, R. E-mail: roberto.guida@pv.infn.it; Iaselli, G.; Imbres, E.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; Musitelli, G.; Nardo, R.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pugliese, G.; Ranieri, A.; Ratti, S.; Riccardi, C.; Romano, F.; Torre, P.; Vicini, A.; Vitulo, P

    2003-08-01

    RPC neutron sensitivity has been studied during two tests done with different neutrons energies. In the first test, neutrons from spontaneous fission events of {sup 252}Cf were used (average energy 2 MeV); while in the second test neutrons were produced using a 50 MeV deuteron beam on a 1 cm thick beryllium target (average energy 20 MeV). Preliminary results show that the neutron sensitivity in double gap mode is (0.52{+-}0.03)x10{sup -3} at about 2 MeV and (5.3{+-}0.5)x10{sup -3} at about 20 MeV.

  3. First Test Results of the 150 mm Aperture IR Quadrupole Models for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, G; Wanderer, P; Ferracin, P; Sabbi, G

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN will use large aperture (150 mm) quadrupole magnets to focus the beams at the interaction points. The high field in the coils requires Nb$_{3}$Sn superconductor technology, which has been brought to maturity by the LHC Accelerator Re-search Program (LARP) over the last 10 years. The key design targets for the new IR quadrupoles were established in 2012, and fabrication of model magnets started in 2014. This paper discusses the results from the first single short coil test and from the first short quadrupole model test. Remaining challenges and plans to address them are also presented and discussed.

  4. First Test Results of the 150 mm Aperture IR Quadrupole Models for the High Luminosity LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, G. [Fermilab; Chlachidze, G. [Fermilab; Wanderer, P. [Brookhaven; Ferracin, P. [CERN; Sabbi, G. [LBNL, Berkeley

    2016-10-06

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN will use large aperture (150 mm) quadrupole magnets to focus the beams at the interaction points. The high field in the coils requires Nb3Sn superconductor technology, which has been brought to maturity by the LHC Accelerator Re-search Program (LARP) over the last 10 years. The key design targets for the new IR quadrupoles were established in 2012, and fabrication of model magnets started in 2014. This paper discusses the results from the first single short coil test and from the first short quadrupole model test. Remaining challenges and plans to address them are also presented and discussed.

  5. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the products of the interaction of gaseous IrF6 with fine UO2F2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prusakov Vladimir N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear fuel reprocessing by fluorination, a dry method of regeneration of spent nuclear fuel, uses UO2F2 for the separation of plutonium from gaseous mixtures. Since plutonium requires special treatment, IrF6 was used as a thermodynamic model of PuF6. The model reaction of the interaction of gaseous IrF6 with fine UO2F2 in the sorption column revealed a change of color of the sorption column contents from pale-yellow to gray and black, indicating the formation of products of such an interaction. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study showed that the interaction of gaseous IrF6 with fine UO2F2 at 125 °C results in the formation of stable iridium compounds where the iridium oxidation state is close to Ir3+. The dependence of the elemental compositions of the layers in the sorption column on the penetration depth of IrF6 was established.

  6. Experimental bandstructure of the 5 d transition metal oxide IrO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Jason; Nie, Yuefeng; Uchida, Masaki; Schlom, Darrell; Shen, Kyle

    2015-03-01

    In the 5 d iridium oxides the close energy scales of spin-orbit coupling and electron-electron correlations lead to emergent quantum phenomena. Much research has focused on the ternary iridium oxides, e.g. the Ruddlesden-Poppers An + 1BnO3 n + 1 , which exhibit behavior from metal to antiferromagnetic insulator ground states, share common features with the cuprates, and may host a number of topological phases. The binary rutile IrO2 is another important 5 d oxide, which has technological importance for spintronics due to its large spin Hall effect and also applications in catalysis. IrO2 is expected to share similar physics as its perovskite-based cousins; however, due to bond-length distortions of the IrO6 octahedra in the rutile structure, the extent of similarities remains an open question. Here we use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to perform momentum-resolved measurements of the electronic structure of IrO2 . IrO2 thin films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on TiO2 (110) substrates using an Ir e-beam source and distilled ozone. Films were subsequently transferred through ultrahigh vacuum to a connected ARPES system. Combined with first-principles calculations we explore the interplay of spin-orbit coupling and correlations in IrO2 .

  7. Study of the atomic ordering in the alloys Ni-Ir using diffuse X-ray scattering and pseudopotentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, T.

    1982-06-01

    Experiments were performed on the Ni-Ir alloys to measure the diffuse X-ray scattering intensity after annealing from high temperatures. It was established that the short-range order exists in these alloys when the samples are quenched from 1200 0 C and 1400 0 C. The ordering potentials for various concentrations of Ir in Ni were calculated using the pseudopotentials of Animalu. The method of incorporating the d electrons in the dielectric screening function was proposed. It was shown that the ordering potential is severely affected by the new type of screening. (author)

  8. Automated jitter correction for IR image processing to assess the quality of W7-X high heat flux components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greuner, H; De Marne, P; Herrmann, A; Boeswirth, B; Schindler, T; Smirnow, M

    2009-01-01

    An automated IR image processing method was developed to evaluate the surface temperature distribution of cyclically loaded high heat flux (HHF) plasma facing components. IPP Garching will perform the HHF testing of a high percentage of the series production of the WENDELSTEIN 7-X (W7-X) divertor targets to minimize the number of undiscovered uncertainties in the finally installed components. The HHF tests will be performed as quality assurance (QA) complementary to the non-destructive examination (NDE) methods used during the manufacturing. The IR analysis of an HHF-loaded component detects growing debonding of the plasma facing material, made of carbon fibre composite (CFC), after a few thermal cycles. In the case of the prototype testing, the IR data was processed manually. However, a QA method requires a reliable, reproducible and efficient automated procedure. Using the example of the HHF testing of W7-X pre-series target elements, the paper describes the developed automated IR image processing method. The algorithm is based on an iterative two-step correlation analysis with an individually defined reference pattern for the determination of the jitter.

  9. Decoupling of magnetism and electric transport in single-crystal (Sr1‑x A x )2IrO4 (A  =  Ca or Ba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. D.; Terzic, J.; Zheng, H.; Ni, Y. F.; Zhang, Y.; Ye, Feng; Schlottmann, P.; Cao, G.

    2018-06-01

    We report a systematical structural, transport and magnetic study of Ca or Ba doped Sr2IrO4 single crystals. Isoelectronically substituting Ca2+ (up to 15%) or Ba2+ (up to 4%) ion for the Sr2+ ion provides no additional charge carriers but effectively changes the lattice parameters in Sr2IrO4. In particular, 15% Ca doping considerably reduces the c-axis and the unit cell by nearly 0.45% and 1.00%, respectively. These significant, anisotropic compressions in the lattice parameters conspicuously cause no change in the Néel temperature which remains at 240 K, but drastically reduces the electrical resistivity by up to five orders of magnitude or even precipitates a sharp insulator-to-metal transition at lower temperatures, i.e. the vanishing insulating state accompanies an unchanged Néel temperature in (Sr1‑x A x )2IrO4. This observation brings to light an intriguing difference between chemical pressure and applied pressure, the latter of which does suppress the long-range magnetic order in Sr2IrO4. This difference reveals the importance of the Ir1–O2–Ir1 bond angle and homogenous volume compression in determining the magnetic ground state. All results, along with a comparison drawn with results of Tb and La doped Sr2IrO4, underscore that the magnetic transition plays a nonessential role in the formation of the charge gap in the spin–orbit-tuned iridate.

  10. Synthesis, X-ray diffraction method, spectroscopic characterization (FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR), antimicrobial activity, Hirshfeld surface analysis and DFT computations of novel sulfonamide derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircioğlu, Zeynep; Özdemir, Fethi Ahmet; Dayan, Osman; Şerbetçi, Zafer; Özdemir, Namık

    2018-06-01

    Synthesized compounds of N-(2-aminophenyl)benzenesulfonamide 1 and (Z)-N-(2-((2-nitrobenzylidene)amino)phenyl)benzenesulfonamide 2 were characterized by antimicrobial activity, FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR. Two new Schiff base ligands containing aromatic sulfonamide fragment of (Z)-N-(2-((3-nitrobenzylidene)amino)phenyl)benzenesulfonamide 3 and (Z)-N-(2-((4-nitrobenzylidene)amino)phenyl)benzenesulfonamide 4 were synthesized and investigated by spectroscopic techniques including 1H and 13C NMR, FT-IR, single crystal X-ray diffraction, Hirshfeld surface, theoretical method analyses and by antimicrobial activity. The molecular geometry obtained from the X-ray structure determination was optimized Density Functional Theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set in ground state. From the optimized geometry of the molecules of 3 and 4, the geometric parameters, vibrational wavenumbers and chemical shifts were computed. The optimized geometry results, which were well represented the X-ray data, were shown that the chosen of DFT/B3LYP 6-311G++(d,p) was a successful choice. After a successful optimization, frontier molecular orbitals, chemical activity, non-linear optical properties (NLO), molecular electrostatic mep (MEP), Mulliken population method, natural population analysis (NPA) and natural bond orbital analysis (NBO), which cannot be obtained experimentally, were calculated and investigated.

  11. CVM-X: Calibrating contingent values with experimental auction markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.A.; Shogren, J.F.; Hayes, D.J.; Kliebenstein, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    We design and implement a method, CVM-X, to calibrate hypothetical survey values using experimental auction markets. We test the procedure using consumer willingness-to-pay for irradiated/nonirradiated meat. Our results show that calibration factors for those who favor the irradiation process (0.67-0.69) are less severe than for those with an initial dislike of the process (0.55-0.59), suggesting that calibration may be commodity specific

  12. A bulk micromachined lead zinconate titanate cantilever energy harvester with inter-digital IrO(x) electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jongcheol; Park, Jae Yeong

    2013-10-01

    A piezoelectric vibration energy harvester with inter-digital IrO(x) electrode was developed by using silicon bulk micromachining technology. Most PZT cantilever based energy harvesters have utilized platinum electrode material. However, the PZT fatigue characteristics and adhesion/delamination problems caused by the platinum electrode might be serious problem in reliability of energy harvester. To address these problems, the iridium oxide was newly applied. The proposed energy harvester was comprised of bulk micromachined silicon cantilever with 800 x 1000 x 20 microm3, which having a silicon supporting membrane, sol-gel-spin coated Pb(Zr52, Ti48)O3 thin film, and sputtered inter-digitally shaped IrO(x) electrodes, and silicon inertial mass with 1000 x 1000 x 500 microm3 to adjust its resonant frequency. The fabricated energy harvester generated 1 microW of electrical power to 470 komega of load resistance and 1.4 V(peak-to-peak) from a vibration of 0.4 g at 1.475 kHz. The corresponding power density was 6.25 mW x cm(-3) x g(-2). As expected, its electrical failure was significantly improved.

  13. OGTT results in obese adolescents with normal HOMA-IR values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nursel Muratoglu; Kinik, Sibel Tulgar; Tekindal, Mustafa Agah

    2013-01-01

    To investigate insulin resistance (IR) with OGTT in obese adolescents who have normal fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). A total of 97 obese adolescents who had values of HOMA-IR IR using an insulin peak of ≥150 μU/mL (1041.8 pmol/L) and/or ≥75 μU/mL (520.9 pmol/L) 120 min after glucose charge and the sum of insulin levels >2083.5 pmol/L (300 μU/mL) in OGTT. IR risk factors were defined as family history of diabetes mellitus, acanthosis nigricans (AN), and hepatic steatosis. IR was detected in 61 (62.9%) patients. The IR group had significantly more frequent AN (p=0.0001). As the number of risk factors increased, the frequency of IR also increased (p=0.01). We advise to perform OGTT in obese adolescents with normal HOMA-IR, if they have risk factors for IR.

  14. Robustness of dynamic magnetism in the triangle-based antiferromagnets Ba3Ru1- x Ir x Ti2O9 ( x = 0.5 and 0.8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W.-J.; Do, S.-H.; Lee, S.; Choi, Y.-S.; Choi, K.-Y.; Yoon, Sungwon; Suh, Byoungjin; Jang, Zeehoon

    2018-01-01

    We report on the spin dynamics of the strong spin-orbit coupled antiferromagnets Ba3Ru1- x Ir x Ti2O9 ( x = 0.5 and 0.8), which comprise a mixture of edge- and corner-sharing triangles. Muon spin-relaxation measurements give no hints of long-range magnetic order down to 25 mK. Rather, the muon spin-relaxation rates λ( T) show persistent spin dynamics below 1 K, indicating that fast fluctuations are dominant in spite of Ir4+( J eff = 1/2)/Ru4+( S = 1) randomness. The muon spin depolarization of both compounds is well described by a stretched exponential function with the stretching exponent β = 0.4 (0.6) for x = 0.5 (0.8) at low temperatures, which is larger than β = 1/3 expected for a spin glass. Our results suggest that randomness in the spin number and the exchange interaction induces a partial spin freezing, but the majority of spins remain dynamically fluctuating.

  15. Cross-correlating Cosmic IR and X-ray Background Fluctuations: Evidence of Significant Black Hole Populations Among the CIB Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelluti, N.; Kashlinsky, A.; Arendt, R. G.; Comastri, A.; Fazio, G. G.; Finoguenov, A.; Hasinger, G.; Mather, J. C.; Miyaji, T; Moseley, S. H.

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the nature of the sources producing the recently uncovered cosmic infrared background (CIB) fluctuations, we study cross-correlations between the fluctuations in the source-subtracted CIB from Spitzer/IRAC data and the unresolved cosmic X-ray background from deep Chandra observations. Our study uses data from the EGS/AEGIS field, where both data sets cover an approx = 8' x 45' region of the sky. Our measurement is the cross-power spectrum between the IR and X-ray data. The cross-power signal between the IRAC maps at 3.6 micron and 4.5 micron and the Chandra [0.5-2] keV data has been detected, at angular scales approx >20'', with an overall significance of approx = 3.8 sigma and approx. = 5.6 sigma, respectively. At the same time we find no evidence of significant cross-correlations at the harder Chandra bands. The cross-correlation signal is produced by individual IR sources with 3.6 micron and 4.5 micron magnitudes m(sub AB) approx. > 25-26 and [0.5-2] keV X-ray fluxes black holes than among the known populations. We discuss the various possible origins for the cross-power signal and show that neither local foregrounds nor the known remaining normal galaxies and active galactic nuclei can reproduce the measurements. These observational results are an important new constraint on theoretical modeling of the near-IR CIB fluctuations. local foregrounds, nor the known remaining normal galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGN) can reproduce the measurements. These observational results are an important new constraint on theoretical modeling of the near-IR CIB fluctuations

  16. Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectra at the Ir L-edge in Na{sub 2}IrO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, Jun-ichi, E-mail: junichi.igarashi.kiryu@vc.ibaraki.ac.jp [Faculty of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Nagao, Tatsuya, E-mail: nagao@gunma-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • A theoretical framework of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) on the basis of the itinerant electron scheme has been developed. • The RIXS theory is applied to iridate Na{sub 2}IrO{sub 3}. • The origins of the multi-peak structure of the excitation spectra found in the RIXS experiment have been assigned to the magnetic and excitonic excitations. - Abstract: We analyze resonant X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra in Na{sub 2}IrO{sub 3} on the basis of the itinerant electron picture. Employing a multi-orbital tight-binding model on a honeycomb lattice, we find that the zigzag magnetic order is the most stable with sizable energy gap in the one-electron band within the Hartree–Fock approximation. We derive the RIXS spectra, which are connected to the generalized density–density correlation function. We calculate the spectra as a function of excitation energy ω, within the random phase approximation. The spectra consist of the peaks with ω < 20 meV, and of the peaks with 0.4 < ω < 0.8 eV. The former peaks are composed of four bound states in the density–density correlation function, and may be identified as the magnetic excitations, while the latter peaks are composed of 16 bound states below the energy continuum of individual electron–hole pair excitations, and may be identified as the excitonic excitations. The calculated spectra agree qualitatively with the recent RIXS experiment.

  17. Synthesis IR spectra and crystal structure of N-(4-bromophenyl)-1,1,1-trifluoroacetyl-acetonimine HN(C6H4Br)xC(Me)xCHxC(CF3)xO(HL) and its molecular complex with tungstene(4) oxotetrachloride WOCl4xHL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergienko, V.S.; Ilyukhin, A.B.; Abramenko, V.L.

    1997-01-01

    Synthesis, IR spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction studies of compound HN(C 6 H 4 Br)xC(Me)xCHxC(CF 3 )xO(HL) (1) and of molecular complex WOCl 4 xHL(2) have been conducted. In 1 and 2 HL molecule exists in ketoamine tautomeric form (acid proton is localized at nitrogen atom). The results of 1 and 2 study are compared with literature data on structures of HL type molecules and Mo(6) molecular complexes with β-enaminevinylketone, as well as with the structure of chelate compound WOCl 3 L 1 , where L 1 - anion of N-phenylacetylacetonimine

  18. PDX experimental results in FY82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, S.M.; Bell, M.; Bol, K.

    1983-08-01

    This report presents a detailed summary of the major experimental results of PDX in FY82 and represents the efforts of the entire PDX group. Topics covered include β-scaling and fishbone studies, fluctuations, disruptions, impurities and impurity transport, power handling, limiter conditioning, edge studies, plasma fueling, counter-injection, and diagnostic development. A less detailed version will appear as the FY82 PDX contribution to the PPPL Annual Report

  19. Experimental results from the TFTR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Arunasalam, V.; Bell, J.D.

    1986-10-01

    Recent experiments on TFTR have extended the operating regime of TFTR in both ohmic- and neutral-beam-heated discharges. The TFTR tokamak has reached its original machine design specifications (I/sub p/ = 2.5 MA and B/sub T/ = 5.2 T). Initial neutral-beam-heating experiments used up to 6.3 MW of deuterium beams. With the recent installation of two additional beamlines, the power has been increased up to 11 MW. A deuterium pellet injector was used to increase the central density to 2.5 x 10 20 m -3 in high current discharges. At the opposite extreme, by operating at low plasma current (I/sub p/ ∼ 0.8 MA) and low density (anti n/sub e/ ∼ 1 x 10 19 m -3 ), high ion temperatures (9 +- 2 keV) and rotation speeds (7 x 10 5 m/s) have been achieved during injection. In addition, plasma compression experiments have demonstrated acceleration of beam ions from 82 keV to 150 keV, in accord with expectations. The wide operating range of TFTR, together with an extensive set of diagnostics and a flexible control system, has facilitated transport and scaling studies of both ohmic- and neutral-beam-heated discharges. The results of these confinement studies are presented

  20. Predictions of High Energy Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comay E.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Eight predictions of high energy experimental results are presented. The predictions contain the $Sigma ^+$ charge radius and results of two kinds of experiments using energetic pionic beams. In addition, predictions of the failure to find the following objects are presented: glueballs, pentaquarks, Strange Quark Matter, magnetic monopoles searched by their direct interaction with charges and the Higgs boson. The first seven predictions rely on the Regular Charge-Monopole Theory and the last one relies on mathematical inconsistencies of the Higgs Lagrangian density.

  1. IR photometry results and dust envelope model for symbiotic Mira star candidate V 335 Vul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, M. B.; Taranova, O. G.; Shenavrin, V. I.

    2017-10-01

    We present the results of JHKLM-photometry for the symbiotic Mira star candidate V 335 Vul. Based on the average flux data, supplemented by IRAS, MSX, AKARI, and WISE mid-IR observations, we calculated a model of a spherically symmetric dust envelope of the star, made up of amorphous carbon and silicon carbide particles. The optical depth of the envelope in the visible range with a dust temperature at the inner boundary of T 1 = 1300 K is τ V = 0.58. For an envelope expansion velocity of 26.5 km s-1, the estimated mass loss rate is equal to 5.7 × 10-7 M ⊙ yr-1.

  2. High-z X-ray Obscured Quasars in Galaxies with Extreme Mid-IR/Optical Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piconcelli, E.; Lanzuisi, G.; Fiore, F.; Feruglio, C.; Vignali, C.; Salvato, M.; Grappioni, C.

    2009-05-01

    Extreme Optical/Mid-IR color cuts have been used to uncover a population of dust-enshrouded, mid-IR luminous galaxies at high redshifts. Several lines of evidence point towards the presence of an heavily absorbed, possibly Compton-thick quasar at the heart of these systems. Nonetheless, the X-ray spectral properties of these intriguing sources still remain largely unexplored. Here we present an X-ray spectroscopic study of a large sample of 44 extreme dust-obscured galaxies (EDOGs) with F24 μm/FR>2000 and F24 μm>1.3 mJy selected from a 6 deg2 region in the SWIRE fields. The application of our selection criteria to a wide area survey has been capable of unveiling a population of X-ray luminous, absorbed z>1 quasars which is mostly missed in the traditional optical/X-ray surveys performed so far. Advances in the understanding of the X-ray properties of these recently-discovered sources by Simbol-X observations will be also discussed.

  3. THE SPECTACULAR RADIO-NEAR-IR-X-RAY JET OF 3C 111: THE X-RAY EMISSION MECHANISM AND JET KINEMATICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clautice, Devon; Perlman, Eric S. [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 W. University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Georganopoulos, Markos [Department of Physics, University of Maryland—Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Lister, Matthew L.; Hogan, Brandon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Tombesi, Francesco [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Cara, Mihai [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Marshall, Herman L. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kazanas, Demos [NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 663, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Relativistic jets are the most energetic manifestation of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) phenomenon. AGN jets are observed from the radio through gamma-rays and carry copious amounts of matter and energy from the sub-parsec central regions out to the kiloparsec and often megaparsec scale galaxy and cluster environs. While most spatially resolved jets are seen in the radio, an increasing number have been discovered to emit in the optical/near-IR and/or X-ray bands. Here we discuss a spectacular example of this class, the 3C 111 jet, housed in one of the nearest, double-lobed FR II radio galaxies known. We discuss new, deep Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) observations that reveal both near-IR and X-ray emission from several components of the 3C 111 jet, as well as both the northern and southern hotspots. Important differences are seen between the morphologies in the radio, X-ray, and near-IR bands. The long (over 100 kpc on each side), straight nature of this jet makes it an excellent prototype for future, deep observations, as it is one of the longest such features seen in the radio, near-IR/optical, and X-ray bands. Several independent lines of evidence, including the X-ray and broadband spectral shape as well as the implied velocity of the approaching hotspot, lead us to strongly disfavor the EC/CMB model and instead favor a two-component synchrotron model to explain the observed X-ray emission for several jet components. Future observations with NuSTAR , HST , and Chandra will allow us to further constrain the emission mechanisms.

  4. Pt{sub X}Ru{sub Y}Ir{sub Z} as a bifunctional electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in a PEM fuel cell; Pt{sub X}Ru{sub Y}Ir{sub Z} como electrocatalizador bifuncional para la reaccion redox del oxigeno en una celda tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, L.; Fernandez, A.M. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: limos@cie.unam.mx; Cano, U. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    This work presents the synthesis and characterization of the ternary material Pt{sub X}Ru{sub Y}Ir{sub Z}, obtained by chemical reduction with NaBH{sub 4}. Two different atomic compositions were developed (sample A and B) in order to observe the kinetic effect, as suggested by the combinatorial libraries. The main objective of this synthesis is to study the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR and OER) and its potential use in the construction of a bifunctional catalyst. In addition, each of the metals are synthesized separately using the same technique in order to make the corresponding comparison. The compounds obtained were characterized by sweep electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and composition using fluorescence and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The results showed a displacement of the x-ray diffraction peaks for Ir and Pt in sample A, and displacement in sample B for Ru and Ir peaks. These changes suggest the possible formation of a solid solution substitution. Separate cyclic and linear voltamperometry studies were performed for the oxygen reduction and release reactions. The electrochemical analysis showed improved kinetic behavior when combining the three metals according to the composition of sample B. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta la sintesis y caracterizacion del material ternario Pt{sub X}Ru{sub Y}Ir{sub Z}, elaborado por la tecnica de Reduccion Quimica utilizando al NaBH{sub 4}. Se elaboraron dos composiciones atomicas diferentes (Muestra A y B) con el fin de observar el efecto cinetico, como lo sugieren las librerias combinatorias. El objetivo principal de esta sintesis es para el estudio de la Reaccion Redox del Oxigeno (RRO y REO) y su potencial uso para la construccion de un catalizador bifuncional. Asi mismo, se realiza la sintesis de cada uno de los metales por separado empleando la misma tecnica, con el proposito de realizar la comparacion correspondiente. Los compuestos obtenidos se caracterizaron por Microscopia Electronica de

  5. First results from a 1-D imaging spectrometer using Ir TESs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.J.Stephen J. E-mail: sts@star.le.ac.uk; Whitford, Chris; Fraser, George W.; Holland, Andrew D.; Goldie, David; Ashton, Terence J.R.; Limpenny, Robert J.; Stevenson, Tim

    2004-03-11

    We are investigating Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs) for future X-ray Astronomy missions. In this paper, we report the first X-ray results from a one-dimensional imaging spectrometer or Distributed Read-Out Imaging Device (DROID). The DROID consists of two Iridium TESs with transitions temperatures of {approx}172 mK, at the ends of a 250 {mu}m by 4.7 mm Gold absorber. The event position can be determined from pulse height and rise/fall time information. Initial results were obtained by reading one end of the DROID only.

  6. First results from a 1-D imaging spectrometer using Ir TESs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.J.Stephen J.; Whitford, Chris; Fraser, George W.; Holland, Andrew D.; Goldie, David; Ashton, Terence J.R.; Limpenny, Robert J.; Stevenson, Tim

    2004-01-01

    We are investigating Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs) for future X-ray Astronomy missions. In this paper, we report the first X-ray results from a one-dimensional imaging spectrometer or Distributed Read-Out Imaging Device (DROID). The DROID consists of two Iridium TESs with transitions temperatures of ∼172 mK, at the ends of a 250 μm by 4.7 mm Gold absorber. The event position can be determined from pulse height and rise/fall time information. Initial results were obtained by reading one end of the DROID only

  7. F(α) curves: Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazier, J.A.; Gunaratne, G.; Libchaber, A.

    1988-01-01

    We study the transition to chaos at the golden and silver means for forced Rayleigh-Benard (RB) convection in mercury. We present f(α) curves below, at, and above the transition, and provide comparisons to the curves calculated for the one-dimensional circle map. We find good agreement at both the golden and silver means. This confirms our earlier observation that for low amplitude forcing, forced RB convection is well described by the one-dimensional circle map and indicates that the f(α) curve is a good measure of the approach to criticality. For selected subcritical experimental data sets we calculate the degree of subcriticality. We also present both experimental and calculated results for f(α) in the presence of a third frequency. Again we obtain agreement: The presence of random noise or a third frequency narrows the right-hand (negative q) side of the f(α) curve. Subcriticality results in symmetrically narrowed curves. We can also distinguish these cases by examining the power spectra and Poincare sections of the time series

  8. The Importance of Surface IrOx in Stabilizing RuO2 for Oxygen Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escribano, Maria Escudero; Pedersen, Anders Filsøe; Paoli, Elisa Antares

    2018-01-01

    consisting of RuO2 thin films with sub-monolayer (1, 2 and 4 Å) amounts of IrOx deposited on top. Operando extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) on the Ir L-3 edge revealed a rutile type IrO2 structure with some Ir sites occupied by Ru, IrOx being at the surface of the RuO2 thin film. We monitor...... corrosion on IrOx/RuO2 thin films by combining electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We elucidate the importance of sub-monolayer surface IrOx in minimizing Ru dissolution. Our work shows that we can tune the surface properties of active OER...

  9. Quasi-simultaneous observations of BL Lac object Mrk 501 in X-ray, UV, visible, IR, and radio frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Y.; Worrall, D. M.; Oke, J. B.; Yee, H. K. C.; Neugebauer, G.; Matthews, K.; Feldman, P. A.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Hackney, R. L.; Hackney, K. R. H.

    1981-01-01

    Observations in the X-ray, UV, visible, IR and radio regions of the BL Lac object Mrk 501 made over the course of two months are reported. The measurements were made with the A2 experiment on HEAO 1 (X-ray), the SWP and LWR cameras on IUE (UV), the 5-m Hale telescope (visible), the 2.5-m telescope at Mount Wilson (IR), the NRAO 92-m radio telescope at Green Bank (4750 MHz) and the 46-m radio telescope at the Algonquin Observatory (10275 and 10650 MHz). The quasi-simultaneously observed spectral slope is found to be positive and continuous from the X-ray to the UV, but to gradually flatten and possibly turn down from the mid-UV to the visible; the optical-radio emission cannot be accounted for by a single power law. The total spectrum is shown to be compatible with a synchrotron self-Compton emission mechanism, while the spectrum from the visible to the X-ray is consistent with synchrotron radiation or inverse-Compton scattering by a hot thermal electron cloud. The continuity of the spectrum from the UV to the X-ray is noted to imply a total luminosity greater than previous estimates by a factor of 3-4.

  10. Experimental results from a stepped frequency GPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Signore

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of a nationally funded project, a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR has been developed by the Italian Consortium for Research on Advanced Remote Sensing Systems (CO.RI.S.T.A.. The system was described in a previous paper (Alberti et al., 2002. As new aspects, the system is a stepped frequency GPR that can work both in gated and ungated mode, and the antennas can be moved automatically in a controlled fashion. As aspects of geophysical interest, the system is exploitable in situations wherein a high resolution and a shallow penetration in the soil (a few meters are required. Possibly, this is an example of probing a landscape. This paper completes the results of Alberti et al. (2002, wherein laboratory tests where described, by providing the main results obtained during an outdoor experimental campaign, performed fi rst in a controlled site and then in an archaeological site.

  11. Investigations in MnAs{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x}: Experimental validation of a new magnetocaloric composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, A. de, E-mail: acampos@icte.uftm.edu.br [Instituto de Ciências Tecnológicas e Exatas, Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro (UFTM), 38066-200 Uberaba (Brazil); Luz, M.S. da; Campos, Adriana de [Instituto de Ciências Tecnológicas e Exatas, Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro (UFTM), 38066-200 Uberaba (Brazil); Coelho, A.A.; Cardoso, L.P. [Instituto deFísica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), 13083-970 Campinas (Brazil); Santos, A.O. dos [Centro de Ciências Sociais, Saúde e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Maranhão – (UFMA), 65900-000 Imperatriz, MA (Brazil); Gama, S. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, 09971-270 SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    An overview of the magnetocaloric properties of the MnAs{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x} is presented. The temperature dependence of the isothermal magnetic entropy, ΔS{sub mag}, and the refrigerant capacity, RC, have been investigated theoretically and experimentally in a composite based on second order MnAs{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x} phases. This work demonstrates the outstanding agreement between the experimental results and the continuous curves predicted by numerical calculations, indicating that this approach can be used to design magnetic refrigerant materials with enhanced magnetocaloric response in magnetic refrigerator performing an Ericsson cycle near room temperature. - Highlights: • This is the first report showing the magnetocaloric properties of the MnAs{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x} composite. • This work demonstrates a good agreement between experimental and the predicted by numerical calculations. The results indicating that this approach can be used to design magnetic refrigerant materials.

  12. X-ray-phase and IR-spectral study of clay rocks mineral content of the Caspian Sea Gulf depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakonov, A.N.; Mukhanova, M.U.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of clays selected from different oil fields (Sazankurak, Kemerkol, Kozha and others) and deposition depths are examined on both the X-ray diffractometers (Dron-2 and Dron-4) and the infrared-spectrometers (IR-20). In this diagnostic the American file with different minerals X-ray systematized data is used. The X-ray reflections, which are in compliance with suitable inter-plane distances and clay impurities reflex intensities are determined. With confirmation purpose for mineral content correctness obtained according X-ray-phase analysis the infrared-spectrometric method is used, in which principal attention was paid to absorption field (3,400-3,700 cm -1 ) of H 2 O and OH valency frequency vibrations

  13. Importance of the Electron Correlation and Dispersion Corrections in Calculations Involving Enamines, Hemiaminals, and Aminals. Comparison of B3LYP, M06-2X, MP2, and CCSD Results with Experimental Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Alvarez, Alejandro; Carneros, Héctor; Sánchez, Dani; Vilarrasa, Jaume

    2015-12-18

    While B3LYP, M06-2X, and MP2 calculations predict the ΔG° values for exchange equilibria between enamines and ketones with similar acceptable accuracy, the M06-2X/6-311+G(d,p) and MP2/6-311+G(d,p) methods are required for enamine formation reactions (for example, for enamine 5a, arising from 3-methylbutanal and pyrrolidine). Stronger disagreement was observed when calculated energies of hemiaminals (N,O-acetals) and aminals (N,N-acetals) were compared with experimental equilibrium constants, which are reported here for the first time. Although it is known that the B3LYP method does not provide a good description of the London dispersion forces, while M06-2X and MP2 may overestimate them, it is shown here how large the gaps are and that at least single-point calculations at the CCSD(T)/6-31+G(d) level should be used for these reaction intermediates; CCSD(T)/6-31+G(d) and CCSD(T)/6-311+G(d,p) calculations afford ΔG° values in some cases quite close to MP2/6-311+G(d,p) while in others closer to M06-2X/6-311+G(d,p). The effect of solvents is similarly predicted by the SMD, CPCM, and IEFPCM approaches (with energy differences below 1 kcal/mol).

  14. Experimental investigation of integrated refrigeration system (IRS) with gas engine, compression chiller and absorption chiller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z.G.

    2008-01-01

    An integrated refrigeration system (IRS) with a gas engine, a vapor-compression chiller and an absorption chiller is set up and tested. The vapor-compression refrigeration cycle is operated directly by the gas engine. The waste heat from the gas engine operates the absorption refrigeration cycle, which provides additional cooling. The performance of the IRS is described. The cooling capacity of the IRS is about 596 kW, and primary energy ratio (PER) reaches 1.84 at air-conditioning rated conditions. The refrigerating capacity of the prototype increased and PER of prototype decreased with the increase of the gas engine speed. The gas engine speed was preferably regulated at part load condition in order to operate the prototype at high-energy efficiency. The refrigerating capacity and PER of the prototype increased with the increase of the outlet temperature of chilled water or the decrease of the inlet temperature of cooling water. The integrated refrigeration chiller in this work saves running costs as compared to the conventional refrigeration system by using the waste heat

  15. Intraoperative Ir-192 implantation for early breast cancer. Techniques and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    Patients with early breast cancer (T1-2 N0-1) can be treated by lumpectomy and irradiation with a local control and survival equal to more radical surgery. Between 1982 and 1988, 323 patients with early breast cancer were treated, when possible, with Ir-192 implants at the time of lumpectomy to a local dose of 2000 cGy in 40-50 hours. Ten to 14 days later, the whole breast was treated to 4500 cGy at 180 per fraction in 5 weeks. The 6-year actuarial survival for stages I and II disease was 98% and 91%, respectively, and the recurrence-free survival was 96% and 98%, respectively. When these 323 patients were evaluated by T status, a local control of 97% was the same for T1 and T2 lesions. The cosmetic results were good to excellent in 95% of the patients. This approach has improved our ability to accurately place the boost dose in the breast

  16. Overview of the initial NSTX experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    The main aim of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the spherical torus (ST) concept. The NSTX device began plasma operations in February 1999 and the plasma current I p was successfully brought up to the design value of 1 MA on 14 December 1999. The planned plasma shaping parameters, elongation κ=1:6-2.2 and triangularity δ=0:2-0.4, were achieved in inner wall limited, and single null and double null diverted configurations. The coaxial helicity injection (CHI) and high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) experiments were also initiated. CHI current of 27 kA produced up to 260 kA toroidal current without using an ohmic solenoid. With the injection of 2.3 MW of HHFW power, using 12 antennas connected to six transmitters, electrons were heated from a central temperature of 400 eV to 900 eV at a central density of 3.5x10 13 cm 3 , increasing the plasma energy to 59 kJ and the toroidal β, β T , to 10%. The NBI system commenced operation in September 2000. The initial results with two ion sources (P NBI =2:8 MW) show good heating, producing a total plasma stored energy of 90 kJ corresponding to β T ∼18% at a plasma current of 1.1 MA. (author)

  17. Overview of the initial NSTX experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.

    2001-01-01

    The main aim of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the spherical torus (ST) concept. The NSTX device began plasma operations in February 1999 and the plasma current I p was successfully brought up to the design value of 1 million amperes on December 14, 1999. The planned plasma shaping parameters, κ=1.6-2.2 and δ=0.2-0.4, were achieved in inner limited, single null and double null configurations. The CHI (Coaxial Helicity Injection) and HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) experiments were also initiated. A CHI injected current of 27 kA produced up to 260 kA of toroidal current without using an ohmic solenoid. With an injection of 2.3 MW of HHFW power, using twelve antennas connected to six transmitters, electrons were heated from a central temperature of 400 eV to 900 eV at a central density of 3.5x10 13 cm -3 increasing the plasma energy to 59 kJ and the toroidal beta, β T to 10 %. Finally, the NBI system commenced operation in Sept. 2000. The initial results with two ion sources (P NBI =2.8MW) shows good heating, producing a total plasma stored energy of 90 kJ corresponding to β T ∼18% at a plasma current of 1.1 MA. (author)

  18. Overview of the Initial NSTX Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.; Bell, R. E.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.

    2000-01-01

    The main aim of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the spherical torus (ST) concept. The NSTX device began plasma operations in February 1999 and the plasma current Ip was successfully brought up to the design value of 1 million amperes on December 14, 1999. The planned plasma shaping parameters, k = 1.6 ± 2.2 and d = 0.2 ± 0.4, were achieved in inner limited, single null and double null configurations. The CHI (Coaxial Helicity Injection) and HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) experiments were also initiated. A CHI injected current of 27 kA produced up to 260 kA of toroidal current without using an ohmic solenoid. With an injection of 2.3 MW of HHFW power, using twelve antennas connected to six transmitters, electrons were heated from a central temperature of 400 eV to 900 eV at a central density of 3.5 x 1013 cm-3 increasing the plasma energy to 59 kJ and the toroidal beta, bT to 10 %. Finally, the NBI system commenced operation in Sept. 2000. The initial results with two ion sources (PNBI = 2.8 MW) shows good heating, producing a total plasma stored energy of 90 kJ corresponding to bT = 18 % at a plasma current of 1.1 MA

  19. Energy-resolved computed tomography: first experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikhaliev, Polad M

    2008-01-01

    First experimental results with energy-resolved computed tomography (CT) are reported. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in CT has been improved with x-ray energy weighting for the first time. Further, x-ray energy weighting improved the CNR in material decomposition CT when applied to CT projections prior to dual-energy subtraction. The existing CT systems use an energy (charge) integrating x-ray detector that provides a signal proportional to the energy of the x-ray photon. Thus, the x-ray photons with lower energies are scored less than those with higher energies. This underestimates contribution of lower energy photons that would provide higher contrast. The highest CNR can be achieved if the x-ray photons are scored by a factor that would increase as the x-ray energy decreases. This could be performed by detecting each x-ray photon separately and measuring its energy. The energy selective CT data could then be saved, and any weighting factor could be applied digitally to a detected x-ray photon. The CT system includes a photon counting detector with linear arrays of pixels made from cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) semiconductor. A cylindrical phantom with 10.2 cm diameter made from tissue-equivalent material was used for CT imaging. The phantom included contrast elements representing calcifications, iodine, adipose and glandular tissue. The x-ray tube voltage was 120 kVp. The energy selective CT data were acquired, and used to generate energy-weighted and material-selective CT images. The energy-weighted and material decomposition CT images were generated using a single CT scan at a fixed x-ray tube voltage. For material decomposition the x-ray spectrum was digitally spilt into low- and high-energy parts and dual-energy subtraction was applied. The x-ray energy weighting resulted in CNR improvement of calcifications and iodine by a factor of 1.40 and 1.63, respectively, as compared to conventional charge integrating CT. The x-ray energy weighting was also applied

  20. Structure and property relationships of amorphous CN sub x a joint experimental and theoretical study

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, M C D

    2000-01-01

    Amorphous CN sub x and CN sub x :H have been prepared by the ion beam assisted deposition technique. Samples were characterized through X-ray and UV photoemission, IR absorption and Raman spectroscopies. These spectra have been interpreted with the aid of quantum chemical calculations based upon the Hartree-Fock theory on several molecular models. The understanding of the electronic and structural properties of the amorphous alloy as a function of nitrogen content could help in the task of synthesizing the metastable silicon-nitride like-phase beta-C sub 3 N sub 4 , a solid which has been predicted to be as hard as diamond. The physical picture emerging from the present study helps to clarify the difficulties in obtaining the crystalline phase of the material, suggesting new experimental directions for syntheses.

  1. Vibrational spectroscopy (FT-IR and Laser-Raman) investigation, and computational (M06-2X and B3LYP) analysis on the structure of 4-(3-fluorophenyl)-1-(propan-2-ylidene)-thiosemicarbazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Yusuf; Miroslaw, Barbara; Çırak, Çağrı; Doğan, Hatice; Szulczyk, Daniel; Struga, Marta

    2014-07-15

    In this study, the experimental and theoretical vibrational spectral analysis of 4-(3-fluorophenyl)-1-(propan-2-ylidene)-thiosemicarbazone have been carried out. The experimental FT-IR (4000-400 cm(-1)) and Laser-Raman spectra (4000-100 cm(-1)) have been recorded for the solid state samples. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and the optimized geometric parameters (bond lengths and angles) have been calculated for gas phase using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP: Becke, 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr) and M06-2X (the highly parametrized, empirical exchange correlation function) quantum chemical methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The diversity in molecular geometry of fluorophenyl substituted thiosemicarbazones has been discussed based on the X-ray crystal structure reports and theoretical calculation results from the literature. The assignments of the vibrational frequencies have been done on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED) analysis by using VEDA4 software. A good correlation was found between the computed and experimental geometric and vibrational data. In addition, the highest occupied (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied (LUMO) molecular orbital energy levels and other related molecular energy values of the compound have been determined using the same level of theoretical calculations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Beam Cleaning in Experimental IRs in HL-LHC for the Incoming Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Morales, H; Bruce, Roderik; Redaelli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The HL-LHC will store 675 MJ of energy per beam, about 300 MJ more than the nominal LHC. Due to the increase in stored energy and a different interaction region (IR) optics layout, the collimation system for the incoming beam must be revisited in order to avoid dangerous losses that could cause quenches or machine damage. This paper studies the effectiveness of the current LHC collimation system in intercepting cleaning losses close to the experiments in the HL-LHC. The study reveals that additional tertiary collimators would be beneficial in order to protect not only the final focusing triplets but also the two quadrupoles further upstream.

  3. Beam cleaning of the incoming beam in experimental IRs in HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Morales, Hector; Redaelli, Stefano; De Maria, Riccardo; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    The HL-LHC will store 675 MJ of energy per beam, about 300 MJ more than the nominal LHC. Due to the increase in stored energy and a different interaction region (IR) layout and optics design, the collimation system for the incoming beam must be revisited in order to avoid dangerous losses that could cause quenches and machine damage. This paper studies the effectiveness of the current LHC collimation system in intercepting cleaning losses close to the experiments in the HL-LHC. The study reveals that in addition to the triplet also the Q4 needs local protection, which could be provided by an additional pair of TCTs.

  4. Ferromagnetism and Crystalline Electric Field Effects in Cubic UX2Zn20 (X=Co, Rh, Ir)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, E. D.; Ronning, F.; Silhanek, A.; Harrison, N.; Thompson, J. D.; Sarrao, J. L.; Movshovich, R.; Hundley, M. F.; Jaime, M.; Daniel, E.; Booth, C. H.

    2006-03-01

    The properties of a new class of cubic UX2Zn20 (X=Co, Rh, Ir) heavy fermion compounds have been investigated by means of magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, electrical resistivity, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Both UCo2Zn20 and URh2Zn20 show peaks in C(T) and χ(T) at ˜5-10 K suggesting the presence of crystalline electric field (CEF) effects in these materials, i.e., a localized 5f^2 configuration of uranium. In addition, measurements in high magnetic fields up to 40 T are consistent with a CEF model of a nonmagnetic ground state and a magnetic first excited state separated by ˜ 20 K. In contrast, UIr2Zn20 exhibits a first-order ferromagnetic transition at Tc=2.75 K with a saturation moment μsat=0.5 μB in the ferromagnetic state. All compounds in this series are heavy fermion materials with enhanced electronic specific heat coefficients γ˜ 150-300 mJ/molK^2. The physical properties of UX2Zn20 (X=Co, Rh, Ir) will be discussed.

  5. Overview of recent experimental results on MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, B.; Akers, R.J.; Ahn, J-W.

    2003-01-01

    The low aspect ratio of MAST allows differentiation between different forms of the H-mode threshold scaling. With optimised fuelling (inboard puffing) and magnetic configuration (connected DND) the H-mode power threshold data lie somewhat above ( ∼ x1.7) recent scaling laws. Slight magnetic configuration changes (of the order of the ion Larmor radius) around a connected DND significantly influence H-mode access. H-mode confinement in discharges with low frequency ELMs is generally consistent with the IPB98(y,2) scaling. Strong indications of both particle and energy internal transport barriers have been seen. Normalised beta values β N > 5 have been obtained, approaching the ideal n = 1 no wall external kink stability limit. Sawtooth triggered NTMs (3/2, 2/1) have been observed; numerical modelling of the island evolution reproduces mode behaviour well and confirms the significance of stabilising field curvature effects. Divertor power loading studies, including transient effects (e.g. due to ELMs), show a strong bias of power efflux to the outboard targets where it is more easily handled. ELM energy losses ΔW ELM are less than 4% of the stored energy in all regimes explored so far, but ELM effluxes extending 30cm outside the outboard separatrix have been measured. Toroidally asymmetric divertor biasing resulted in significant broadening of the Dα profile on the biased components and a reduction in the total power to the unbiased components. Halo current magnitudes and asymmetries are generally small compared with conventional tokamaks; recent measurements show that the plasma behaves more as a voltage source than a current source. Initial neutral beam current drive experiments indicate non-inductively driven current values (I NBI ∼ 0.3I p ) comparable with code predictions. (author)

  6. Elastic properties and structural studies on some zinc-borate glasses derived from ultrasonic, FT-IR and X-ray techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaafar, M.S.; El-Aal, N.S. Abd; Gerges, O.W.; El-Amir, G.

    2009-01-01

    Glasses in the system (1 - x) [29Na 2 O- 4Al 2 O 3 - 67B 2 O 3 ]- xZnO (0 ≤ x ≤ 35 mol%), have been prepared by the melt quenching technique. Elastic properties, X-ray and FT-IR spectroscopic studies have been employed to study the role of ZnO on the structure of the investigated glass system. Elastic properties and Debye temperature have been investigated using sound wave velocity measurements at 4 MHz at room temperature. The results showed that the density increases and the molar volume decreases while both sound velocities and the determined glass transition temperatures decrease with increase in x. X-ray and infrared spectra of the glasses reveal that the borate network consists of diborate units and is affected by the increase in the concentration of ZnO content. These results are interpreted in terms of the decrease in the N 4 values (fraction of tetrahedral coordinated boron atoms), and substitution of longer bond lengths of Zn-O in place of shorter B-O bond. The results indicate that Zinc ions have been substituted for boron ions as tetrahedral network former ions. The elastic moduli are observed to increase with the increase of ZnO content.

  7. Impurity quadrupole Kondo ground state in a dilute Pr system Y1-xPrxIr2Zn20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Yu; Onimaru, Takahiro; Uenishi, Kazuto; Wakiya, Kazuhei; Matsumoto, Keisuke T.; Umeo, Kazunori; Takabatake, Toshiro

    2018-05-01

    The electrical resistivity ρ and specific heat C of a dilute Pr system Y1-xPrxIr2Zn20 for 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.44 were measured to study the phenomena arising from active quadrupoles of the Pr3+ ion with 4f2 configuration. On cooling, ρ's of all samples monotonically decrease, while the residual resistivity ratio ρ(300 K)/ρ(3 K) drastically decreases with x. In the whole range x ≤ 0.44, the magnetic contribution to the specific heat divided by temperature Cm/T shows a broad maximum at around 10 K, which can be reproduced by a two-level model with a first-excited triplet separated by 30 K from a ground state doublet. This indicates that the crystalline electric field ground state of the Pr ions remains in the Γ3 doublet for the cubic Td point group. On cooling, the Cm/T data for x = 0.085 and 0.44 approach constant values at Texpected from the random two-level model. By contrast, Cm/T for x = 0.044 increases continuously down to 0.08 K, suggesting a non-Fermi liquid state due to the impurity quadrupole Kondo effect.

  8. An XXX male resulting from paternal X-Y interchange and maternal X-X nondisjunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annerén, G; Andersson, M; Page, D C; Brown, L G; Berg, M; Läckgren, G; Gustavson, K H; de la Chapelle, A

    1987-01-01

    A 2-year-old boy was found to have a 47,XXX karyotype. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism analysis showed that, of his three X chromosomes, one is of paternal and two are of maternal origin. The results of Y-DNA hybridization were reminiscent of those in XX males in two respects. First, hybridization to Southern transfers revealed the presence in this XXX male of sequences derived from the Y-chromosomal short arm. Second, in situ hybridization showed that this Y DNA was located on the tip of the X-chromosomal short arm. We conclude that this XXX male resulted from the coincidence of X-X nondisjunction during maternal meiosis and aberrant X-Y interchange either during or prior to paternal meiosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2889356

  9. IR emission and electrical conductivity of Nd/Nb-codoped TiO{sub x} (1.5 < x < 2) thin films grown by pulsed-laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchiffo-Tameko, C.; Cachoncinlle, C. [GREMI, UMR 7344 CNRS-Université Orléans, 45067 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Perriere, J. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, UMR 7588, INSP, 75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7588, INSP, 75005 Paris (France); Nistor, M. [NILPRP, L 22 P.O. Box MG-36, 77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Petit, A.; Aubry, O. [GREMI, UMR 7344 CNRS-Université Orléans, 45067 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Pérez Casero, R. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Millon, E., E-mail: eric.millon@univ-orleans.fr [GREMI, UMR 7344 CNRS-Université Orléans, 45067 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Nd/Nb-codoped TiO{sub 2} PLD films are electrically insulating and transparent in the UV visible NIR spectral domain. • Nd/Nb-codoped oxygen deficient TiO{sub x} (x ≈ 1.5) films are conductive and absorbent. • IR emission of Nd{sup 3+} in codoped TiO{sub x} films is quenched due to oxygen deficiency. • High Nb-doping rate decreases the IR emission of Nd{sup 3+} in Nd/Nb-codoped TiO{sub 2} films. - Abstract: The effect of the co-doping with Nd and Nb on electrical and optical properties of TiO{sub x} films is reported. The role of oxygen vacancies on the physical properties is also evidenced. The films are grown by pulsed-laser deposition onto (001) sapphire and (100) silicon substrates. The substrate temperature was fixed at 700 °C. To obtain either stoichiometric (TiO{sub 2}) or highly oxygen deficient (TiO{sub x} with x < 1.6) thin films, the oxygen partial pressure was adjusted at 10{sup −1} and 10{sup −6} mbar, respectively. 1%Nd-1%Nb, 1%Nd-5%Nb and 5%Nd-1%Nb co-doped TiO{sub 2} were used as bulk ceramic target. Composition, structural and morphological properties of films determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, are correlated to their optical (UV–vis transmission and photoluminescence) and electrical properties (resistivity at room temperature). The most intense Nd{sup 3+} emission in the IR domain is obtained for stoichiometric films. Codoping Nd-TiO{sub x} films by Nb{sup 5+} ions is found to decrease the photoluminescence efficiency. The oxygen pressure during the growth allows to tune the optical and electrical properties: insulating and highly transparent (80% in the visible range) Nd/Nb codoped TiO{sub 2} films are obtained at high oxygen pressure, while conductive and absorbent films are grown under low oxygen pressure (10{sup −6} mbar).

  10. Study of fluorine doped (Nb,Ir)O_2 solid solution electro-catalyst powders for proton exchange membrane based oxygen evolution reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadakia, Karan Sandeep; Jampani, Prashanth H.; Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I.; Datta, Moni Kanchan; Patel, Prasad; Chung, Sung Jae; Park, Sung Kyoo; Poston, James A.; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: High surface area (∼300 m"2/g) nanostructured powders of nominal composition (Nb_1_−_xIr_x)O_2 and (Nb_1_−_xIr_x)O_2:10F have been synthesized and tested as oxygen evolution electro-catalysts for PEM based water electrolysis using a simple two-step chemical synthesis procedure. Superior electrochemical activity was demonstrated by fluorine doped compositions of (Nb_1_−_xIr_x)O_2 with an optimal composition (Nb_0_._7_5Ir_0_._2_5)O_2:10F (x = 0.25) demonstrating on-par performance with commercial hydrated IrO_2 and nanostructured in-house chemically synthesized IrO_2. Using first principles calculations, the electronic structure modification resulting in ∼75 at.% reduction (experimentally observed) in noble metal content without loss in catalytic performance and stability has been established. - Highlights: • (Nb_1_−_xIr_x)O_2:10F nanopowder electrocatalysts have been wet chemically synthesized. • (Nb_0_._7_5Ir_0_._2_5)O_2:10F exhibits superior electrochemical activity than pure IrO_2. • Stability of the (Nb,Ir)O_2:10F nanomaterials is comparable to pure (Nb,Ir)O_2. • High surface area F doped (Nb,Ir)O_2 are promising OER anode electro-catalysts. - Abstract: High surface area (∼300 m"2/g) nanostructured powders of (Nb_1_−_xIr_x)O_2 and (Nb_1_−_xIr_x)O_2:10F (∼100 m"2/g) have been examined as promising oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electro-catalysts for proton exchange membrane (PEM) based water electrolysis. Nb_2O_5 and 10 wt.% F doped Nb_2O_5 powders were prepared by a low temperature sol-gel process which were then converted to solid solution (Nb,Ir)O_2 and 10 wt.% F doped (Nb,Ir)O_2 [(NbIr)O_2:10F] electro-catalysts by soaking in IrCl_4 followed by heat treatment in air. Electro-catalyst powders of optimal composition (Nb_0_._7_5Ir_0_._2_5)O_2:10F with ∼75 at.% reduction in noble metal content exhibited comparable OER activity to commercial hydrated IrO_2 and nanostructured in-house chemically synthesized IrO_2

  11. Study of fluorine doped (Nb,Ir)O{sub 2} solid solution electro-catalyst powders for proton exchange membrane based oxygen evolution reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadakia, Karan Sandeep [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Jampani, Prashanth H., E-mail: pjampani@pitt.edu [Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I.; Datta, Moni Kanchan [Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Center for Complex Engineered Multifunctional Materials, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Patel, Prasad [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Chung, Sung Jae [Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Park, Sung Kyoo [Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Poston, James A.; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu [US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507 (United States); Kumta, Prashant N. [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Center for Complex Engineered Multifunctional Materials, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Department of Oral Biology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15217 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Graphical abstract: High surface area (∼300 m{sup 2}/g) nanostructured powders of nominal composition (Nb{sub 1−x}Ir{sub x})O{sub 2} and (Nb{sub 1−x}Ir{sub x})O{sub 2}:10F have been synthesized and tested as oxygen evolution electro-catalysts for PEM based water electrolysis using a simple two-step chemical synthesis procedure. Superior electrochemical activity was demonstrated by fluorine doped compositions of (Nb{sub 1−x}Ir{sub x})O{sub 2} with an optimal composition (Nb{sub 0.75}Ir{sub 0.25})O{sub 2}:10F (x = 0.25) demonstrating on-par performance with commercial hydrated IrO{sub 2} and nanostructured in-house chemically synthesized IrO{sub 2}. Using first principles calculations, the electronic structure modification resulting in ∼75 at.% reduction (experimentally observed) in noble metal content without loss in catalytic performance and stability has been established. - Highlights: • (Nb{sub 1−x}Ir{sub x})O{sub 2}:10F nanopowder electrocatalysts have been wet chemically synthesized. • (Nb{sub 0.75}Ir{sub 0.25})O{sub 2}:10F exhibits superior electrochemical activity than pure IrO{sub 2}. • Stability of the (Nb,Ir)O{sub 2}:10F nanomaterials is comparable to pure (Nb,Ir)O{sub 2}. • High surface area F doped (Nb,Ir)O{sub 2} are promising OER anode electro-catalysts. - Abstract: High surface area (∼300 m{sup 2}/g) nanostructured powders of (Nb{sub 1−x}Ir{sub x})O{sub 2} and (Nb{sub 1−x}Ir{sub x})O{sub 2}:10F (∼100 m{sup 2}/g) have been examined as promising oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electro-catalysts for proton exchange membrane (PEM) based water electrolysis. Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and 10 wt.% F doped Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} powders were prepared by a low temperature sol-gel process which were then converted to solid solution (Nb,Ir)O{sub 2} and 10 wt.% F doped (Nb,Ir)O{sub 2} [(NbIr)O{sub 2}:10F] electro-catalysts by soaking in IrCl{sub 4} followed by heat treatment in air. Electro-catalyst powders of optimal composition (Nb{sub 0.75}Ir

  12. Probing single magnon excitations in Sr₂IrO₄ using O K-edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Dean, M P M; Liu, J; Chiuzbăian, S G; Jaouen, N; Nicolaou, A; Yin, W G; Rayan Serrao, C; Ramesh, R; Ding, H; Hill, J P

    2015-05-27

    Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at the L-edge of transition metal elements is now commonly used to probe single magnon excitations. Here we show that single magnon excitations can also be measured with RIXS at the K-edge of the surrounding ligand atoms when the center heavy metal elements have strong spin-orbit coupling. This is demonstrated with oxygen K-edge RIXS experiments on the perovskite Sr2IrO4, where low energy peaks from single magnon excitations were observed. This new application of RIXS has excellent potential to be applied to a wide range of magnetic systems based on heavy elements, for which the L-edge RIXS energy resolution in the hard x-ray region is usually poor.

  13. Experimental (FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H NMR) and theoretical study of magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium picolinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderski, G; Kalinowska, M; Wojtulewski, S; Lewandowski, W

    2006-05-01

    The experimental IR, Raman, and 1H NMR spectra of picolinic acid, as well as magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium picolinates were registered, assigned and studied. Characteristic changes in the spectra of metal picolinates in comparison with the spectrum of ligand were observed, which lead to the conclusion that perturbation of the aromatic system of picolinates increases along with the series Mg-->Ca-->Sr-->Ba. Theoretical structures of beryllium and magnesium picolinates, as well as theoretical IR spectrum of magnesium picolinate were calculated in B3PW91/6-311++G(d, p) level. On the basis of calculated bond lengths in pyridine ring geometric, aromaticity indexes HOMA were calculated. The idea of these indexes is based on the fact that the essential factor in aromatic stabilization is the pi delocalization manifested in: planar geometry, equalization of the bond lengths and angles, and symmetry. The decidedly lower value of HOMA for magnesium picolinate (i.e. 0.545; 0.539) than that for beryllium picolinate (i.e. 0.998; 0.998) indicate higher aromatic properties of Be picolinate than of Mg picolinate. The comparison of theoretical and literature experimental structures of magnesium picolinate was done. The experimental structure contains two water molecules, so the calculations for hydrated magnesium picolinate were carried on, and the influence of coordinated water molecule on the structure of picolinates was discussed. The HOMAs for hydrated experimental and calculated Mg picolinate amount to 0.870; 0.743, and 0.900; 0.890, respectively, whereas for anhydrous structure, it is as described above, i.e. 0.545; 0.539. Thus, the calculations clearly showed that water molecules coordinated to the central atom weakens the effect of metal on the electronic system of ligand.

  14. Updating experimental results on light meson spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diekmann, B.

    1991-06-01

    A recollection and summary is given on the understanding of light qanti q (q = u,d,s) mesons under the regime of the qanti q potential turning from a coulombic behaviour to a 'confining' one. In the second part the experimental knowledge obtained in the last years is updated: e + e - experiments, fixed target experiments with hadrons (kaons) and photons and panti p annihilations at LEAR discovered unknown objects and added new constraints on known but not fully understood states. (orig.)

  15. Mirrors for High Resolution X-Ray Optics---Figure Preserving IR/PT Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Olsen, Lawrence; Sharpe, Marton; Numata, Ai; McClelland, Ryan; Saha, Timo; Zhang, Will

    2016-01-01

    Coating stress of 10 - 20 nm of Ir is sufficiently high to distort the figure of arc-second thin lightweight mirrors. For iridium: --Stress sigma 4 GPa for 15 nm film implies 60 Nm integrated stress-- Need less than 3 N/m (or stress less than 200 MPa) for sub-arcsecond optics. Basic Approaches for Mitigation. A. Annealing the film-- Glass can be heat up to 400 C without distortion. Silicon is even more resistant.-- It was found that recovery is limited by residual thermal stress from taking the mirror down from high T. B. Coating bi-layer films with compressive stress with tensile stress. C. Front-and-back coating with magnetron sputtering or atomic layer deposition-- Sputtering involve spanning of substrates. Geometric difference in setup (convexness/concaveness of curved mirrors) does not permit precise front-and-back matching-- Atomic layer deposition can provide a uniform deposition front and back simultaneously.

  16. Safety Study of the X-Ray Reference Laboratory for Radiation Protection Levels (IR-14D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.

    1999-01-01

    This report is a study about the safety of the X-ray reference laboratory that has been recently constructed in the building 2 of the CIEMAT. After a brief description of the apparatus, we present the method used to calculate the exposure and absorbed dose rates in the most characteristic points of the laboratory. This method takes into account the spectral distribution of the radiation beams as a function of the accelerating voltage. The built-up factors of the absorbent materials have been considered to calculate the transmission of the radiation beams through the filters and shielding. Scattered radiations has been introduced in the calculations by means of a semiempirical method. This model supposes that multiple scattering processes give an isotropic contribution to the reflected beams and the single scattered can be described in terms of the differential cross section of Klein-Nishina. The results of this study have been applied to determine the maximum dose equivalent that the personnel of the laboratory could receive in normal operation conditions. (Author) 5 refs

  17. Isotope effects of reactions in quantum solids initiated by IR + UV lasers: quantum model simulations for Cl((2)P(3/2)) + X(2)(ν) → XCl + X in X(2) matrices (X = H, D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolkov, M V; Manz, J; Schild, A

    2010-09-16

    Six isotope effects (i)-(vi) are discovered for the reactions Cl + H(2)(ν) → HCl + H in solid para-H(2) ( 1 ) versus Cl + D(2)(ν) → DCl + D in ortho-D(2) ( 2 ), by means of quantum reaction dynamics simulations, within the frame of our simple model ( J. Phys. Chem. A 2009 , 113 , 7630 . ). Experimentally, the reactions may be initiated for ν = 0 and ν ≥ 1, by means of "UV only" photodissociation of the matrix-isolated precursor, Cl(2), or by "IR + UV" coirradiation ( Kettwich , S. C. , Raston , P. L. , and Anderson , D. T. J. Phys. Chem. A 2009 , 113 , 7621 . ), respectively. Specifically, (i) various shape and Feshbach reaction resonances correlate with vibrational thresholds of reactants and products, due to the near-thermoneutrality and low barrier of the system. The energetic density of resonances increases as the square root of mass, from M(X) = M(H) to M(D). (ii) The state selective reaction ( 1 ), ν = 1, is supported by a shape resonance, whereas this type of resonance is absent in ( 2 ), ν = 1. As a consequence, time-resolved measurements should monitor different three-step versus direct error-function type evolutions of the formation of the products. (iii) The effective barrier is lower for reaction 1 , ν = 0, enhancing the tunneling rate, as compared to that for reaction 2 , ν = 0. (iv) For reference, the reaction probabilities P versus total energy E(tot) in the gas exhibit sharp resonance peaks or zigzag behaviors of the reaction probability P versus total energy, near the levels of resonances ( Persky , A. and Baer , M. J. Chem. Phys . 1974 , 60 , 133 . ). These features tend to be washed out and broadened for reaction 1 , and even more so for reaction 2 . For comparison, they disappear for reactions in classical solids. (v) The slopes of P versus E(tot) below the potential barrier increase more steeply for reaction 1 , ν = 0, than for reaction 2 , ν = 0. This enhances the tunneling rate of the heavier isotopomer, reaction 2 , ν = 0

  18. Experimental Determination of Damage Threshold Characteristics of IR Compatible Optical Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soong, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The accelerating gradient in a laser-driven dielectric accelerating structure is often limited by the laser damage threshold of the structure. For a given laser-driven dielectric accelerator design, we can maximize the accelerating gradient by choosing the best combination of the accelerator's constituent material and operating wavelength. We present here a model of the damage mechanism from ultrafast infrared pulses and compare that model with experimental measurements of the damage threshold of bulk silicon. Additionally, we present experimental measurements of a variety of candidate materials, thin films, and nanofabricated accelerating structures.

  19. Experimental FT-IR, Laser-Raman and DFT spectroscopic analysis of a potential chemotherapeutic agent 6-(2-methylpropyl)-4-oxo-2-sulfanylidene-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carbonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Yusuf; Al-Turkistani, Abdulghafoor A; Al-Deeb, Omar A; El-Emam, Ali A; Ucun, Fatih; Çırak, Çağrı

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the experimental and theoretical vibrational frequencies of a newly synthesized potential chemotherapeutic agent namely, 6-(2-methylpropyl)-4-oxo-2-sulfanylidene-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carbonitrile have been investigated. The experimental FT-IR (4000-400 cm(-1)) and Laser-Raman spectra (4000-100 cm(-1)) of the molecule in solid phase have been recorded. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and optimized geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles) have been calculated by using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP: Becke, 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr) and M06-2X (the highly parametrized, empirical exchange correlation function) quantum chemical methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set by Gaussian 09 W software, for the first time. The assignments of the vibrational frequencies have been done by potential energy distribution (PED) analysis by using VEDA 4 software. The theoretical optimized geometric parameters and vibrational frequencies have been found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data, and with the results in the literature. In addition, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies and the other related molecular energy values have been calculated and depicted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental (FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H, 13C NMR) and theoretical study of alkali metal 2-aminobenzoates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonowicz, M.; Świsłocka, R.; Regulska, E.; Lewandowski, W.

    2008-09-01

    The influence of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium on the electronic system of the 2-aminobenzoic acid was studied by the methods of molecular spectroscopy. The vibrational (FT-IR, FT-Raman) and NMR ( 1H and 13C) spectra for 2-aminobenzoic acid and its alkali metal salts were recorded. The assignment of vibrational spectra was done on the basis of literature data, theoretical calculations and our previous experience. Characteristic shifts of bands and changes in intensities of bands along the metal series were observed. The changes of chemical shifts of protons ( 1H NMR) and carbons ( 13C NMR) in the series of studied alkali metal 2-aminobenzoates were observed too. Optimized geometrical structures of studied compounds were calculated by B3LYP method using 6-311++G ∗∗ basis set. Geometric aromaticity indices, dipole moments and energies were also calculated. The theoretical wavenumbers and intensities of IR and Raman spectra were obtained. The calculated parameters were compared to experimental characteristic of studied compounds.

  1. Stress analysis of local blisters coupling Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Correlation between experimental results and continuous damage modelling for buckling in an iron oxide/phosphated iron system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panicaud, B., E-mail: benoit.panicaud@utt.fr [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), CNRS UMR 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); Grosseau-Poussard, J.L. [LEMMA, Pole Sciences et Technologie, Universite de La Rochelle, Av. M. Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle Cedex (France)

    2010-12-01

    In this present work, local stress development in the iron oxide layers growing on phosphated {alpha}-Fe at 400 deg. C in ambient air is investigated by Raman spectroscopy. Coupled with X-ray diffraction it enables to obtain directly local stresses' maps in the oxide layers. Use of Raman spectroscopy allows obtaining better accuracy on mechanical behaviour at local scale. This characterisation technique is very useful to study systems developing mechanical heterogeneities on surface, especially in case of buckling phenomenon. Investigations on particular local blisters have been done to measure some characteristic lengths at local scale. From local measurements, we are able to evaluate general effect of buckling from simplified scale transition. So, a macroscopic approach has been performed to calculate global stress evolution of the oxide layer, based on continuous damage mechanics. Consequently, it leads to good comparison between modelling and experimental values (global stresses versus oxidation time) in {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxide.

  2. FT-IR and Raman vibrational analysis, B3LYP and M06-2X simulations of 4-bromomethyl-6-tert-butyl-2H-chromen-2-one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Yusuf; Puttaraju, K. B.; Keskinoğlu, Sema; Shivashankar, K.; Ucun, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the experimental and theoretical vibrational frequencies of a newly synthesized bacteriostatic and anti-tumor molecule namely, 4-bromomethyl-6-tert-butyl-2H-chromen-2-one have been investigated. The experimental FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) and Raman spectra (4000-100 cm-1) of the compound in solid phase have been recorded. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and optimized geometric parameters have been calculated using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP: Becke, 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr and DFT/M06-2X: highly parametrized, empirical exchange correlation function) with 6-311++G(d, p) basis set by Gaussian 03 software, for the first time. The assignments of the vibrational frequencies have been done by potential energy distribution (PED) analysis using VEDA 4 software. The theoretical optimized geometric parameters and vibrational frequencies have been found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data and results in the literature. In addition, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy and the other related molecular energy values of the compound have been investigated using the same theoretical calculations.

  3. Comparative FT-Raman, FT-IR and colour shifts spectroscopic evaluation of gamma irradiated experimental models of oil paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manca, M.M.; Virgolici, M.; Cutrubinis, M.; Moise, I.V.; Ponta, C.C.; Negut, C.D.; Stanculescu, I.R.; Bucharest University

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The present study follows the changes of gamma irradiated historic pigments and experimental models of oil paintings with non-destructive and non-contact spectroscopic analytical techniques which are the only ones accepted by the conservators/restorers community. Molecular structure characterization was performed by FT-IR / Raman spectroscopy using a Bruker Vertex 70 class equipped with two mobile probes: a MIR fibre module for MIR probes (with LN2 cooled detector) and a Raman RAM II module (LN2 Ge detector) with a RAMPROBE fibre. Colour was measured by a portable reflectance spectrophotometer (Miniscan XE Plus, HunterLab) in diffuse/8 deg geometry with a beam diameter of 4 mm and specular component included. Correlations between colour shifts and changes in molecular structure induced by gamma irradiation were further investigated.

  4. Structure, magnetism and electronic properties in 3d-5d based double perovskite (Sr1-xYx)2FeIrO6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkwal, Kishor Chandra; Pramanik, Ashim Kumar

    2017-10-17

    The 3$d$-5$d$ based double perovskites are of current interest as they provide model system to study the interplay between electronic correlation ($U$) and spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Here we report detailed structural, magnetic and transport properties of doped double perovskite material (Sr$_{1-x}$Y$_x$)$_2$FeIrO$_6$ with $x$ $\\leq$ 0.2. With substitution of Y, system retains its original crystal structure but structural parameters modify with $x$ in nonmonotonic fashion. The magnetization data for Sr$_2$FeIrO$_6$ show antiferromagnetic type magnetic transition around 45 K, however, a close inspection in data indicates a weak magnetic phase transition around 120 K. No change of structural symmetry has been observed down to low temperature, although the lattice parameters show sudden changes around the magnetic transitions. Sr$_2$FeIrO$_6$ shows an insulating behavior over the whole temperature range which yet does not change with Y substitution. Nature of charge conduction is found to follow thermally activated Mott's variable range hopping and power law behavior for parent and doped samples, respectively. Interestingly, evolution of structural, magnetic and transport behavior in (Sr$_{1-x}$Y$_x$)$_2$FeIrO$_6$ is observed to reverse with $x$ $>$ 0.1 which is believed to arise due to change in transition metal ionic state. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. Experimental results and analysis on hydrogen combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorofeev, S.B.; Efimenko, A.A.; Kochurko, A.S.; Sidorov, V.P.; Bezmelnitsin, A.V.

    1994-01-01

    The Small-Scale Development Apparatus (SSDA) was constructed to provide a preliminary set of experimental data to characterize the effect of temperature on the ability of hydrogen-air-steam-mixtures to undergo detonations and, equally important, to support design of the larger-scale High-Temperature Combustion Facility (HTCF) by providing a test bed for solution of a number of high-temperature design and operational problems. The SSDA, the central element of which is 10-cm inside diameter, 6.1-m long tubular test vessel designed to permit detonation experiments at temperatures up to 700K, was employed to study self-sustained detonations in gaseous mixtures of hydrogen, air, and steam at temperature between 300K and 650K at a fixed pressure of 0.1 MPa. Detonation cell size measurements provide clear evidence that the effect of hydrogen-air gas mixture temperature, in the range 300K to 650K, is to decrease cell size and, hence, to increase the sensitivity of the mixture to undergo detonations. The effect of steam content, at any given temperature, is to increase the cell size and, thereby, to decrease the sensitivity of stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixtures. The one-dimensional ZND model does a very good job at predicting the overall trends in the cell size data over the range of hydrogen-air-steam mixture compositions and temperature studied in the experiments. Experiments were conducted to measure the rate of hydrogen oxidation in the absence of ignition sources at temperatures of 500K and 650K, for hydrogen-air mixtures of 15% and 50%, and for a mixture of equimolar hydrogen-air and 30% steam at 650K. The rate of hydrogen oxidation was found to be significant at 650K. Reduction of hydrogen concentration by chemical reaction from 50 to 44% hydrogen, and from 15 to 11% hydrogen, were observed on a time frame of minutes. The DeSoete rate equation predicts the 50% experiment very well, but greatly underestimates the reaction rate of the lean mixtures

  6. Numerical and experimental investigation of NO{sub x} formation in lean premixed combustion of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtsson, K; Benz, P; Marti, T; Schaeren, R; Schlegel, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    A high pressure jet-stirred reactor has been built and employed to investigate NO{sub x} formation in lean premixed combustion of methane/air. Experimental results are compared with numerical predictions using the model of a perfectly stirred reactor and elementary reaction mechanisms. Four reaction mechanisms are considered with respect to NO{sub x} formation. (author) 3 figs., 6 refs.

  7. Experimental and statistical requirements for developing a well-defined K/sub IR/ curve. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Server, W.L.; Oldfield, W.; Wullaert, R.A.

    1977-05-01

    Further development of a statistically well-defined reference fracture toughness curve to verify and compliment the K/sub IR/ curve presently specified in Appendix G, Section III of the ASME Code was accomplished by performing critical experiments in small specimen fracture mechanics and improving techniques for statistical analysis of the data. Except for cleavage-initiated fracture, crack initiation was observed to occur prior to maximum load for all of the materials investigated. Initiation fracture toughness values (K/sub Jc/) based on R-curve heat-tinting studies were up to 50 percent less than the previously reported equivalent energy values (K*/sub d/). At upper shelf temperatures, the initiation fracture toughness (K/sub Jc/) generally increased with stress intensification rate. Both K/sub Jc/--Charpy V-notch and K/sub Ic/--specimen strength ratio correlations are promising methods for predicting thick-section behavior from small specimens. The previously developed tanh curve fitting procedure was improved to permit estimates of the variances and covariances of the regression coefficients to be computed. The distribution of the fracture toughness data was determined as a function of temperature. Instrumented precracked Charpy results were used to normalize the larger specimen fracture toughness data. The transformed large specimen fracture toughness data are used to generate statistically based lower-bound fracture toughness curves for either static or dynamic test results. A comparison of these lower bound curves with the K/sub IR/ curve shows that the K/sub IR/ curve is more conservative over most of its range. 143 figures, 26 tables

  8. Experimental results from the TUMAN 3 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golant, V.E.; Andrejko, M.V.; Askinazi, L.G.; Korneev, V.A.; Krikunov, S.V.; Lipin, B.M.; Lebedev, S.V.; Levin, L.S.; Podushnikova, K.A.; Razdobarin, G.T.; Rozhansky, V.A.; Rozhdestvensky, V.V.; Tendler, M.; Tukachinsky, A.S.; Jaroshevich, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    The open-quote open-quote TUMAN-3 close-quote close-quote Tokamak programme concentrates on issues of improved confinement. In 1989 the transition from an ordinary Ohmic regime into an improved confinement mode was achieved. The signatures of the H-mode in auxiliary heated tokamaks have been observed in this regime. The crucial role of the boundary radial electric field was found in the experiments with internal bias probe. Other techniques were demonstrated to disturb the boundary plasma which led to H-mode triggering: short increase of working gas puffing, minor radius magnetic compression and pellet injection. The role scaling of the energy confinement time in the Ohmic H-mode was obtained, which differs dramatically from the scaling for the ordinary Ohmic regime. There were found a strong dependence of τ E on plasma current and a weak dependence on density. The maximum value of τ E was 10 times longer than in the ordinary Ohmic region. The τ E scaling for the Ohmic H-mode is consistent with the scaling proposed for devices with powerful auxiliary heating. The results shows that H-mode physics is universal in tokamaks with different geometries and heating methods. (AIP) copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  9. Experimental investigation of smectite hydration from the simulation of 001 X-ray diffraction lines. Implications for the characterization of mineralogical modifications of the 'argilite' from the Meuse - Haute Marne site as a result of a thermal perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrage, E.

    2004-10-01

    The structural modifications affecting the reactive mineral constituents of the clay barriers (smectite) and possibly resulting from the thermal pulse related to nuclear waste storage are essentially limited to the amount and location of the layer charge deficit. These modifications likely impact the hydration properties of these minerals, and a specific methodology has thus been developed to describe, using simulation of X-ray diffraction profiles (001 reflections), these hydration properties and specifically the heterogeneity resulting from the inter-stratification of different layer types, each exhibiting a specific hydration state. The detailed study of the hydration properties of a low-charge montmorillonite (octahedral charge) has shown that the affinity of the interlayer cation for water rules the hydration state and the thickness of hydrated smectite layers. If the layer charge is increased, the transition between the different hydration states is shifted, following a water desorption isotherm, towards lower relative humidities. In addition, the hydration of studied beidellites (tetrahedral charge) was shown to be more heterogeneous than that of montmorillonites. The developed methodology also allowed describing the structural modifications resulting from a chemical perturbation (chlorinated anionic background, pH). Finally, the link between the thickness of elementary layers and the amount of interlayer water molecules has been evidenced. A new structure model has also been determined for these interlayer species allowing an improved description of their positional distribution in bi-hydrated interlayers. (author)

  10. A combined experimental (IR, Raman and UV-Vis) and quantum chemical study of canadine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Bhawani Datt; Srivastava, Anubha; Tandon, Poonam; Jain, Sudha; Ayala, A. P.

    2018-02-01

    Plant based natural products cover a major sector of the medicinal field, as such focus on plant research has been increased all over the world. As an attempt to aid that research, we have performed structural and spectroscopic analysis of a natural product, an alkaloid: canadine. Both ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) employing B3LYP using 6-311 ++G(d,p) basis set were used for the calculations. The calculated vibrational frequencies were scaled and compared with the experimental infrared and Raman spectra. The complete vibrational assignments were made using potential energy distribution. The structure-activity relation has also been interpreted by mapping electrostatic potential surface and evaluating the reactivity descriptors, which are valuable information for quality control of medicines and drug-receptor interactions. Natural bond orbital analysis has also been performed to understand the stability and hyperconjugative interactions of the molecule. Furthermore, UV-Vis spectra have been recorded in an ethanol solvent (EtOH) and the electronic property has been analyzed employing TD-DFT for both gaseous and solvent phase. The HOMO and LUMO calculation with their energy gap show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Additionally, the nonlinear optical properties of the title compound have been interpreted that predicts it's the best candidate for the NLO materials.

  11. Synthesis of iridacarborane halide complexes [(η-9-SMe2-7,8-C2B9H10)IrX2]2 (X=Cl, Br, I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, A.R.; Perekalin, D.S.; Petrovskij, P.V.

    2001-01-01

    By interaction between Na[9-SMe 2 -7,8-C 2 B 9 H 10 ] and [(Cod)IrCl] 2 (Cod - cycloocta-1,5-diene) iridium complex (η-9-SMe 2 -7,8-C 2 B 9 H 10 )Ir(Cod), which under the action of anhydrous hydrohalogenic acids HX (X=Cl, Br, I) yields iridacarborane halide complexes [(η-9-SMe 2 -7,8-C 2 B 9 H 10 )IrX 2 ] 2 , being analogs of cyclopentadienyl complexes [(C 5 Me 5 )IrX 2 ] 2 . The complexes prepared were characterized on the basis of data of elementary analysis and 1 H, 11 B NMR spectra [ru

  12. Synthesis and XRD, FT-IR vibrational, UV-vis, and nonlinear optical exploration of novel tetra substituted imidazole derivatives: A synergistic experimental-computational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Saeed; Khalid, Muhammad; Shaheen, Muhammad Ashraf; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Khan, Muhammad Usman; Braga, Ataualpa Albert Carmo; Shad, Hazoor Ahmad

    2018-04-01

    Heterocyclic compounds have potential applications in many fields of life. We synthesized novel tetra substituted imidazoles by four-component condensation of benzil, substituted aldehydes, substituted anilines and ammonium acetate as a source of ammonia and acetic acid as the solvent. Their chemical structures were resolved through X-ray crystallographic and spectroscopic (Fourier transform IR and UV-vis) techniques. In addition to experimental analysis, density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) level were performed on 4-bromo-2-(1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole-2-yl)phenol (1), 4-bromo-2-(1-(1-naphthalen-yl)-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole-2-yl)phenol (2), and 2-(1-(2-chlorophenyl)-4,5-diphenyl-1-H-imidazole-2-yl)-6-methoxyphenol (3) to obtain the optimized geometry and spectroscopic (Fourier transform IR and UV-vis) and non-linear optical properties. Frontier molecular orbital analysis was performed at the Hartee-Fock/6-311+g(d,p) and DFT/B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) levels of theory. Natural bond orbital (NBO) and UV-vis spectral analyses were performed at the M06-2X/6-31+G(d,p) and time-dependent DFT/B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) levels, respectively. Overall, the DFT findings show good agreement with the experimental data. The hyper conjugative interaction network, which is responsible for the stability of compounds 1, 2 and 3 was explored by the NBO approach. The global reactivity parameters were explored with use of the energy of the frontier molecular orbitals. DFT calculations predict the first-order hyperpolarizabilities of compounds 1, 2 and 3 are 294.89 × 10-30, 219.45 × 10-30 and 146.77 × 10-30 esu, respectively. A two-state model was used to describe the non-linear optical properties of the compounds investigated.

  13. Experimental 3D dosimetry around a high-dose-rate clinical 192Ir source using a polyacrylamide gel (PAG) dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McJury, M.; Tapper, P.D.; Griffin, S.; Cosgrove, V.P.; Webb, S.; Murphy, P.S.; Leach, M.O.; Oldham, M.

    1999-01-01

    It is well known that the experimental dosimetry of brachytherapy sources presents a challenge. Depending on the particular dosimeter used, measurements can suffer from poor spatial resolution (ion chambers), lack of 3D information (film) or errors due to the presence of the dosimeter itself distorting the radiation flux. To avoid these problems, we have investigated the dosimetry of a clinical 192 Ir source using a polyacrylamide gel (PAG) dosimeter. Experimental measurements of dose versus radial distance from the centre of the source (cross-line plots) were compared with calculations produced with a Nucletron NPS planning system. Good agreement was found between the planning system and gel measurements in planes selected for analysis. Gel dosimeter measurements in a coronal plane through the phantom showed a mean difference between measured absorbed dose and calculated dose of 0.17 Gy with SD=0.13Gy. Spatially, the errors at the reference point remain within one image pixel (1.0 mm). The use of polymer gel dosimetry shows promise for brachytherapy applications, offering complete, three-dimensional dose information, good spatial resolution and small measurement errors. Measurements close to the source, however, are difficult, due to some of the limiting properties of the polyacrylamide gel. (author)

  14. Dirbančiųjų x ir y ir būsimų z kartos slaugytojų darbo motyvacijos ypatumai

    OpenAIRE

    Eidikienė, Eglė

    2016-01-01

    Labor purpose. reveal X,Y,Z nurses generation work motivation specificity. Investigative questions : 1. What are the X and Y generation work motivation peculiarities of the health care facility? 2. What are the Z generation work (learning) motivation peculiarities of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences? 3. What are the similarities and differences between the X, Y, Z generations? Methods: It was carried out a qualitative study, data in the selected semi-structured intervie...

  15. Solution Structures of Highly Active Molecular Ir Water-Oxidation Catalysts from Density Functional Theory Combined with High-Energy X-ray Scattering and EXAFS Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke R; Matula, Adam J; Kwon, Gihan; Hong, Jiyun; Sheehan, Stafford W; Thomsen, Julianne M; Brudvig, Gary W; Crabtree, Robert H; Tiede, David M; Chen, Lin X; Batista, Victor S

    2016-05-04

    The solution structures of highly active Ir water-oxidation catalysts are elucidated by combining density functional theory, high-energy X-ray scattering (HEXS), and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. We find that the catalysts are Ir dimers with mono-μ-O cores and terminal anionic ligands, generated in situ through partial oxidation of a common catalyst precursor. The proposed structures are supported by (1)H and (17)O NMR, EPR, resonance Raman and UV-vis spectra, electrophoresis, etc. Our findings are particularly valuable to understand the mechanism of water oxidation by highly reactive Ir catalysts. Importantly, our DFT-EXAFS-HEXS methodology provides a new in situ technique for characterization of active species in catalytic systems.

  16. X-43A Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle - Artist Concept in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    An artist's conception of the X-43A Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle, or 'Hyper-X' in flight. The X-43A was developed to flight test a dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only fuel. By eliminating the need to carry oxygen, future hypersonic vehicles will

  17. Spectral filter for splitting a beam with electromagnetic radiation having wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) or soft X-Ray (Soft X) and the infrared (IR) wavelength range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, F.A.; Bijkerk, Frederik; van den Boogaard, Toine; van den Boogaard, A.J.R.; van der Meer, R.

    2012-01-01

    Spectral filter for splitting the primary radiation from a generated beam with primary electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV radiation) or soft X-ray (soft X) wavelength range and parasitic radiation having a wavelength in the infrared wavelength range (IR

  18. V{sub 1+x}Nb{sub 1-x}IrB{sub 2} (x ∼ 0.1), the first quaternary metal-rich -boride adopting the Mo{sub 2}IrB{sub 2}-type structure: Synthesis, crystal and electronic structure and bonding analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerens, Christian; Fokwa, Boniface P.T. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Polycrystalline samples and single crystals of the new metal-rich boride V{sub 1+x}Nb{sub 1-x}IrB{sub 2} (x ∼ 0.1), were synthesized by arc-melting the elements in a water-cooled copper crucible under an argon atmosphere and characterized by X-ray diffraction and EDX measurements. The crystal structure was refined on the basis of single crystal data. The new phase adopts the Mo{sub 2}IrB{sub 2}-type structure (space group Pnnm, no. 58) with the lattice parameters a = 7.301(7) Aa, b = 9.388(9) Aa and c = 3.206(5) Aa. It is the first quaternary representative of Mo{sub 2}IrB{sub 2}-type structure. The structure contains zigzag B{sub 4}-fragments with boron-boron distances of 1.83-1.85 Aa. The electronic density of states and crystal orbital Hamilton population (for bonding analysis) were calculated, using the linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation (LMTO-ASA) method. According to these calculations, this metal-rich compound should be metallic, as expected. Furthermore, very strong boron-boron interactions are observed in the zigzag B{sub 4}-fragment and two significantly different Ir-B interactions are observed in the new phase and the prototype Mo{sub 2}IrB{sub 2}. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Proposed procedure for experimental determination of the spin-parity of the new particle X(3410)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, P; Tseng, T; Chou, C

    1977-01-01

    A procedure is proposed for the experimental determination of the spin-parity of the new particle X(3410). It consists of choosing the events representing the radiative decay psi ..-->.. X(3410) + ..gamma.. from the psi-production experiment at ..sqrt..s = 6.84 GeV, and measuring the angular distribution of the ..gamma.. photon produced in the process, and also the energy distribution of two pseudo-scalar mesons from the subsequent decay of X. The result of calculation shows that the spin-parity of X(3410) can be determined with certainty and good sensitivity.

  20. Workshop on the coupling of synchrotron radiation IR and X-rays with tip based scanning probe microscopies X-TIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comin, F.; Martinez-Criado, G.; Mundboth, K.; Susini, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 38 - Grenoble (France); Purans, J.; Sammelselg, V. [Tartu Univ. (Estonia); Chevrier, J.; Huant, S. [Universite Joseph-Fourier, Grenoble I, LEPES, 38 (France); Hamilton, B. [School of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Manchester (United Kingdom); Saito, A. [Osaka Univ., RIKEN/SPring8 (Japan); Dhez, O. [OGG, INFM/CNR, 38 - Grenoble (France); Brocklesby, W.S. [Southampton Univ., Optoelectronics Research Centre (United Kingdom); Alvarez-Prado, L.M. [Ovieado, Dept. de Fisica (Spain); Kuzmin, A. [Institute of Solid State Physics - Riga (Latvia); Pailharey, D. [CRMC-N - CNRS, 13 - Marseille (France); Tonneau, D. [CRMCN - Faculte des sciences de Luminy, 13 - Marseille (France); Chretien, P. [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Paris, 75 - Paris (France); Cricenti, A. [ISM-CNR, Rome (Italy); DeWilde, Y. [ESPCI, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    The coupling of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) with synchrotron radiation is attracting increasing attention from nano-science community. By combining these 2 tools one can visualize, for example, the sample nano-structure prior to any X-ray characterization. Coupled with focusing devices or independently, SPM can provide spatial resolution below the optical limits. Furthermore, the possibility of employing SPM to manipulate nano-objects under X-ray beams is another exciting perspective. This document gathers the transparencies of 6 of the presentations made at the workshop: 1) the combination of atomic force microscopy and X-ray beam - experimental set-up and objectives; 2) the combination of scanning probe microscope and X-rays for detection of electrons; 3) towards soft X-ray scanning microscopy using tapered capillaries and laser-based high harmonic sources; 4) near-field magneto-optical microscopy; 5) near-field scanning optical microscopy - a brief overview -; and 6) from aperture-less near-field optical microscopy to infra-red near-field night vision. 4 posters entitled: 1) development of laboratory setup for X-ray/AFM experiments, 2) towards X-ray diffraction on single islands, 3) nano-XEOL using near-field detection, and 4) local collection with a STM tip of photoelectrons emitted by a surface irradiated by visible of UV laser beam, are included in the document.

  1. Workshop on the coupling of synchrotron radiation IR and X-rays with tip based scanning probe microscopies X-TIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comin, F.; Martinez-Criado, G.; Mundboth, K.; Susini, J.; Purans, J.; Sammelselg, V.; Chevrier, J.; Huant, S.; Hamilton, B.; Saito, A.; Dhez, O.; Brocklesby, W.S.; Alvarez-Prado, L.M.; Kuzmin, A.; Pailharey, D.; Tonneau, D.; Chretien, P.; Cricenti, A.; DeWilde, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The coupling of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) with synchrotron radiation is attracting increasing attention from nano-science community. By combining these 2 tools one can visualize, for example, the sample nano-structure prior to any X-ray characterization. Coupled with focusing devices or independently, SPM can provide spatial resolution below the optical limits. Furthermore, the possibility of employing SPM to manipulate nano-objects under X-ray beams is another exciting perspective. This document gathers the transparencies of 6 of the presentations made at the workshop: 1) the combination of atomic force microscopy and X-ray beam - experimental set-up and objectives; 2) the combination of scanning probe microscope and X-rays for detection of electrons; 3) towards soft X-ray scanning microscopy using tapered capillaries and laser-based high harmonic sources; 4) near-field magneto-optical microscopy; 5) near-field scanning optical microscopy - a brief overview -; and 6) from aperture-less near-field optical microscopy to infra-red near-field night vision. 4 posters entitled: 1) development of laboratory setup for X-ray/AFM experiments, 2) towards X-ray diffraction on single islands, 3) nano-XEOL using near-field detection, and 4) local collection with a STM tip of photoelectrons emitted by a surface irradiated by visible of UV laser beam, are included in the document

  2. Determination of manganese interdiffusion parameters in CoFe/IrMn bilayers by X-ray reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Pablo Forlam Ribeiro; Andrade, Leandro Hostalacio Freire; Fernandez-Outon, Luis Eugenio; Macedo, Waldemar Augusto de Almeida, E-mail: pfrb@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Interfacial diffusion is expected to have strong influence on the exchange bias coupling in ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic bilayers, basic structures for spintronic devices [1]. In this work, X-ray reflectometry (XRR) in combination with the Fick's second law [2] was applied to determine manganese interdiffusion parameters in CoFe/IrMn exchange-biased bilayers prepared by magnetron sputtering. The layer thickness and the interfacial roughness of the samples were obtained by fitting the reflectivity curves and the values confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The manganese diffusion coefficient at the interfaces is in the range of 10{sup -22} m{sup 2}/s, and the activation energy for the interfacial diffusion of manganese is in the order of a few tens of kJ/mol, based on the values of interfacial roughness for different annealing temperatures. References: [1] L. E. Fernandez-Outon, M. S. Araujo Filho, R. E. Araujo, J. D. Ardisson, and W. A. A. Macedo. J. Appl. Phys. 113, 17D704 (2013). [2] J. Y. Wang, A. Zalar, Y.H. Zhao, E.J. Mittemeijer. Thin Solid Films. 433, 92 (2003). (author)

  3. Induction of resistance to blast disease (Pyricularia oryzae) in the high yielding variety, Ratna (IR8xTKM6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, S.; Padmanabhan, S.Y.; Kaur, P.

    1977-01-01

    The high yielding variety, Ratna (IR8 x TKM6), susceptible to blast disease (Pyricularia oryzae Cav.), was taken up for induction of resistance to the disease through EMS treatment. The seeds of individual M 1 plants were harvested and grown as M 2 generation in a ''uniform blast nursery''. The scoring and classification of blast reaction was done according to the method described by Padmanabhan and Ganguly. The seeds of ''resistant'' selections and ''susceptible'' selections were harvested, grown and tested again in the ''uniform blast nursery'' for M 3 , M 4 and M 5 generations. Ratna (untreated) developed 'B', 'C', and 'D' type of spots whereas the EMS-treated populations in all generations, i.e. M 2 -M 4 , developed 'O', 'A' and 'E' types of spot, in addition to 'B', 'C' and 'D' types, in both resistant and susceptible selections. This indicated that the chemical mutagen EMS induced variability in both negative and positive directions. In M 5 generation, 50 out of 1500 originally selected lines were found to be breeding true for disease resistance. Some mutants retain the grain characters of Ratna, and the high yield. The mutagen treatment also induced variability in grain characters. Ratna has a long slender grain. Some mutants have medium slender, short bold or long bold grain. (author)

  4. Experimental study of the neck formation in an X pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artyomov, A P; Chaikovsky, S A; Fedunin, A V; Labetskaya, N A; Rousskikh, A G; Zhigalin, A S; Oreshkin, V I

    2014-01-01

    X-pinch experiments have been performed on a compact 250 kA, 180 ns pulsed power generator specially designed for this purpose at the Institute of High Current Electronics (Tomsk, Russia). The X pinches were composed of two molybdenum wires of diameter 25 μm making an angle of 36° with the z-axis. The X-pinch dynamics was recorded with a 3 ns exposure time using an HSFC Pro four-frame camera. Axial plasma jets propagating toward both the anode and the cathode were observed. The jets became noticeable within 10 ns after the onset of current flow, which approximately corresponded to the time at which the electrical explosion of the X-pinch wires occurred. The velocity of the anode-directed jet reached 10 7 cm/s, which was about 1.5 times the velocity of the cathode-directed jet. These high jet velocities are inconsistent with the plasma temperature resulting from the wire explosion. Hence, these jets seem to develop due to implosion of the light plasma layer stripped by magnetic forces from the wire surface, and the increase in their velocities is perhaps due to cumulative effects taking place at the X-pinch axis. The X-pinch neck formed as a rule above the initial wire cross point (closer to the anode). In this region, the plasma diameter gradually increased with time and then drastically decreased 10-15 ns prior to the x-ray pulse. Immediately before the x-ray pulse, in the (250-300 μm long) plasma neck, a lower scale constriction developed, forming a h ot spot . It has been confirmed that the anode-directed plasma jet could take some part of the X-pinch wire current because of the evident jet pinching in the anode region. This process seems to determine the neck length

  5. Experimental determination of the radial dose distribution in high gradient regions around 192Ir wires: Comparison of electron paramagnetic resonance imaging, films, and Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbun, N.; Leveque, Ph.; Abboud, F.; Bol, A.; Vynckier, S.; Gallez, B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The experimental determination of doses at proximal distances from radioactive sources is difficult because of the steepness of the dose gradient. The goal of this study was to determine the relative radial dose distribution for a low dose rate 192 Ir wire source using electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) and to compare the results to those obtained using Gafchromic EBT film dosimetry and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Methods: Lithium formate and ammonium formate were chosen as the EPR dosimetric materials and were used to form cylindrical phantoms. The dose distribution of the stable radiation-induced free radicals in the lithium formate and ammonium formate phantoms was assessed by EPRI. EBT films were also inserted inside in ammonium formate phantoms for comparison. MC simulation was performed using the MCNP4C2 software code. Results: The radical signal in irradiated ammonium formate is contained in a single narrow EPR line, with an EPR peak-to-peak linewidth narrower than that of lithium formate (∼0.64 and 1.4 mT, respectively). The spatial resolution of EPR images was enhanced by a factor of 2.3 using ammonium formate compared to lithium formate because its linewidth is about 0.75 mT narrower than that of lithium formate. The EPRI results were consistent to within 1% with those of Gafchromic EBT films and MC simulations at distances from 1.0 to 2.9 mm. The radial dose values obtained by EPRI were about 4% lower at distances from 2.9 to 4.0 mm than those determined by MC simulation and EBT film dosimetry. Conclusions: Ammonium formate is a suitable material under certain conditions for use in brachytherapy dosimetry using EPRI. In this study, the authors demonstrated that the EPRI technique allows the estimation of the relative radial dose distribution at short distances for a 192 Ir wire source.

  6. Synthesis, single crystal X-ray, spectroscopic (FT-IR, UV-vis, fluorescence, 1H &13C NMR), computational (DFT/B3LYP) studies of some imidazole based picrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockia doss, M.; Rajarajan, G.; Thanikachalam, V.; Selvanayagam, S.; Sridhar, B.

    2018-04-01

    2,4,5-triphenyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium picrate (1), 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium picrate (2), 2-(4-methylphenyl)-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium picrate (3) were synthesised. These compounds 1-3 were characterized by elemental, FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR analyses. The structure of compound 3 was further confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The studies reveal that the molecule is associated with weak Nsbnd H⋯O and Csbnd H⋯N and van der Waals interactions which are responsible for the formation and strengthening of supramolecular assembly. The nature of the interactions and their importance are explored using the Hirshfeld surface method. The physicochemical properties of the compounds 1-3 were evaluated by UV-vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. According to thermal data the salts possess excellent thermal stabilities with decomposition temperatures ranging from 220 to 280 °C. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) results exposed that the picrates 1-3 were about 1.13-1.50 times greater than potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP). Here we also used Density functional theory (DFT) calculations in order to investigate the opto-electronic properties. The obtained theoretical results validate with available experimental data.

  7. Thermodynamic modeling and experimental investigation of the phase stability at the Ni-rich region of the Ni-Al-Cr-Ir system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, C.; Zhang, F.; Chen, S.-L.; Cao, W.-S.; Chang, Y.A.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of adding 3 at.% Cr on the phase stability of the Ni-Al-Ir system was studied experimentally at 1250 deg. C. A thermodynamic description of the Ni-Al-Cr-Ir quaternary system in the Ni-rich region was then developed based on the microstructures, the crystal structures and the phase compositions determined by experiment for eight alloys in both as-cast and 1250 deg. C annealed states. The calculated isothermal section at 1250 deg. C using the obtained description was consistent with the phase-equilibrium data obtained in this study. The calculated two-dimensional section of liquidus projection was also in accordance with the primary phases of solidification observed from alloys in the as-cast state. The effects of Cr additions to the Ni-Al-Ir alloys on the as-cast and annealed microstructures were elucidated through Scheil simulation and phase-equilibrium calculation using Pandat.

  8. EOL3 M0 X-ray Tomography Test Results

    CERN Document Server

    Avramidou, R; Bozhko, N; Borisov, A; Goriatchev, V; Goriatchev, S; Gushin, V; Fakhroutdinov, R; Kojine, A; Kononov, A; Larionov, A; Salomatin, Yu I; Schuh, S; Sedykh, Yu; Tchougouev, A

    2001-01-01

    Results of X-ray tomography test of EOL3 module 0 chamber is presented in the note. Peculiarities of the X-ray tomography of the chamber are discussed. Comparison of the tomography results with predictions of the production site measurements is made.

  9. High-pressure high-temperature stability of hcp-IrxOs1-x (x = 0.50 and 0.55) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusenko, Kirill V.; Bykova, Elena; Bykov, Maxim; Gromilov, Sergey A.; Kurnosov, Alexander V.; Prescher, Clemens; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Crichton, Wilson A.; Hanfland, Michael; Margadonna, Serena; Dubrovinsky, Leonid S.

    2016-12-23

    Hcp-Ir0.55Os0.45 and hcp-Ir0.50Os0.50 alloys were synthesised by thermal decomposition of single-source precursors in hydrogen atmosphere. Both alloys correspond to a miscibility gap in the Ir–Os binary phase diagram and therefore are metastable at ambient conditions. An in situ powder X-ray diffraction has been used for a monitoring a formation of hcp-Ir0.55Os0.45 alloy from (NH4)2[Ir0.55Os0.45Cl6] precursor. A crystalline intermediate compound and nanodimentional metallic particles with a large concentration of defects has been found as key intermediates in the thermal decomposition process in hydrogen flow. High-temperature stability of titled hcp-structured alloys has been investigated upon compression up to 11 GPa using a multi-anvil press and up to 80 GPa using laser-heated diamond-anvil cells to obtain a phase separation into fcc + hcp mixture. Compressibility curves at room temperature as well as thermal expansion at ambient pressure and under compression up to 80 GPa were collected to obtain thermal expansion coefficients and bulk moduli. hcp-Ir0.55Os0.45 alloy shows bulk moduli B0 = 395 GPa. Thermal expansion coefficients were estimated as α = 1.6·10-5 K-1 at ambient pressure and α = 0.3·10-5 K-1 at 80 GPa. Obtained high-pressure high-temperature data allowed us to construct the first model for pressure-dependent Ir–Os phase diagram.

  10. Experimental study on x-rays dose enhancement effects for floating gate ROMs

    CERN Document Server

    Guo Hong Xia; Chen Yu Sheng; Han Fu Bin; He Chao Hui; Zhao Hui

    2002-01-01

    Experimental results of x-ray dose enhancement effects are given for floating gate read-only memory (ROMs) irradiated in the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The wrong byte numbers vs. total irradiation dose have been tested and the equivalent relation of total dose damage is provided compared the response of devices irradiated with sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma-ray source. The x-ray dose enhancement factors for floating gate ROMs are obtained firstly in China. These results can be an effective evaluation data for x-rays radiation hardening technology

  11. Advantageous GOES IR results for ash mapping at high latitudes: Cleveland eruptions 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Rose, William I.; Schneider, D.J.; Bluth, G.J.S.; Watson, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    The February 2001 eruption of Cleveland Volcano, Alaska allowed for comparisons of volcanic ash detection using two-band thermal infrared (10-12 ??m) remote sensing from MODIS, AVHRR, and GOES 10. Results show that high latitude GOES volcanic cloud sensing the range of about 50 to 65??N is significantly enhanced. For the Cleveland volcanic clouds the MODIS and AVHRR data have zenith angles 6-65 degrees and the GOES has zenith angles that are around 70 degrees. The enhancements are explained by distortion in the satellite view of the cloud's lateral extent because the satellite zenith angles result in a "side-looking" aspect and longer path lengths through the volcanic cloud. The shape of the cloud with respect to the GOES look angle also influences the results. The MODIS and AVHRR data give consistent retrievals of the ash cloud evolution over time and are good corrections for the GOES data. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Comparison of experimental data with results of some drying models for regularly shaped products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Ahmet [Aksaray University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aksaray (Turkey); Aydin, Orhan [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Trabzon (Turkey); Dincer, Ibrahim [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of drying of moist slab, cylinder and spherical products to study dimensionless moisture content distributions and their comparisons. Experimental study includes the measurement of the moisture content distributions of slab and cylindrical carrot, slab and cylindrical pumpkin and spherical blueberry during drying at various temperatures (e.g., 30, 40, 50 and 60 C) at specific constant velocity (U = 1 m/s) and the relative humidity {phi}=30%. In theoretical analysis, two moisture transfer models are used to determine drying process parameters (e.g., drying coefficient and lag factor) and moisture transfer parameters (e.g., moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient), and to calculate the dimensionless moisture content distributions. The calculated results are then compared with the experimental moisture data. A considerably high agreement is obtained between the calculations and experimental measurements for the cases considered. The effective diffusivity values were evaluated between 0.741 x 10{sup -5} and 5.981 x 10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/h for slab products, 0.818 x 10{sup -5} and 6.287 x 10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/h for cylindrical products and 1.213 x 10{sup -7} and 7.589 x 10{sup -7} m{sup 2}/h spherical products using the model-I and 0.316 x 10{sup -5}-5.072 x 10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/h for slab products, 0.580 x 10{sup -5}-9.587 x 10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/h for cylindrical products and 1.408 x 10{sup -7}-13.913 x 10{sup -7} m{sup 2}/h spherical products using the model-II. (orig.)

  13. Experimental results on charmonium from E760 (FNAL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, T.A.; Hasan, M.A.; Lewis, R.A.; Majewska, A.M.; Reid, J.D.; Smith, G.A.; Zhang, Y.; Bettoni, D.; Borreani, G.; Calabrese, R.; Dalpiaz, P.; Dalpiaz, P.F.; Fabbri, M.; Luppi, E.; Martini, M.; Petrucci, F.; Savrie, M.; Bharadwaj, V.; Church, M.D.; Hahn, A.A.; Hsueh, S.Y.; Marsh, W.; Peoples, J. Jr.; Pordes, S.; Rapidis, P.A.; Werkema, S.J.; Biino, C.; Ceccucci, A.; Cester, R.; Marchetto, F.; Menichetti, E.; Migliori, A.; Mussa, R.; Palestini, S.; Pastrone, N.; Pesando, L.; Rinaudo, G.; Tecchio, L.; Broemmelsiek, D.R.; Fast, J.E.; Gee, M.; Gollwitzer, K.E.; Mandelkern, M.A.; Marques, J.L.; Schultz, J.; Weber, M.F.; Zioulas, G.; Buzzo, A.; Dameri, M.; Ferroni, S.; Macri, M.; Marinelli, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pia, M.G.; Santroni, A.; Tommasini, S.; Zito, M.; Dimitroyannis, D.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Masuzawa, M.; Rosen, J.L.; Sarmiento, M.; Seth, K.K.; Trokenheim, S.; Zhao, J.L.; Ray, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    E760 is a fixed target experiment dedicated to the study of charmonium spectroscopy in anti pp annihilations. Results on X 1 and X 2 resonance parameters from 1990 data taking are presented, consisting of precise measurement of mass, total width and partial width to anti pp. A preliminary result is presented on the first determination of Ψ'width from line shape analysis. (orig.)

  14. Results of the studies on energy deposition in IR6 superconducting magnets from continuous beam loss on the TCDQ system

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Presland, A; Redaelli, S; Sarchiapone, L; Weiler, T

    2007-01-01

    A single sided mobile graphite diluter block TCDQ, in combination with a two-sided secondary collimator TCS and an iron shield TCDQM, will be installed in front of the superconducting quadrupole Q4 magnets in IR6, in order to protect it and other downstream LHC machine elements from destruction in the event of a beam dump that is not synchronised with the abort gap. The TCDQ will be positioned close to the beam, and will intercept the particles from the secondary halo during low beam lifetime. Previous studies (1-4) have shown that the energy deposited in the Q4 magnet coils can be close to or above the quench limit. In this note the results of the latest FLUKA energy deposition simulations for Beam 2 are described, including an upgrade possibility for the TCDQ system with an additional shielding device. The results are discussed in the context of the expected performance levels for the different phases of LHC operation.

  15. ac impedance, DSC and FT-IR investigations on (x)PVAc-(1 - x)PVdF blends with LiClO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskaran, R.; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Kuwata, N.; Kawamura, J.; Hattori, T.

    2006-01-01

    The blended polymer electrolytes comprising poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc)-poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) have been prepared for different blend composition with constant lithium perchlorate (LiClO 4 ) ratio by solution casting technique. The formation of the blend polymer electrolyte complex has been confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy analysis. DSC analysis has been performed in order to observe the change in transition temperature that is caused by the blending of polymers and addition of LiClO 4 . The ac impedance and dielectric spectroscopy studies are carried out on the blended matrix to identify the optimized blend composition, which is having high ionic conductivity. The temperature dependence of conductivity of the polymer electrolytes is found to follow VTF type equation. The high ionic conductivity of 6.4 x 10 -4 S cm -1 at 343 K has been observed for blended polymer electrolyte having blend ratio 75:25 (PVAc:PVdF). The ionic transference number of mobile ions has been estimated by Wagner's polarization method and the value is reported to be t ion is 0.95-0.98 for all the blended samples. The modulus spectra reveal the non-Debye nature and distribution of relaxation times of the samples. The dielectric spectra show the low frequency dispersion, which implies the space charge effects arising from the electrodes

  16. Preliminary results of interstitial [sup 192]Ir brachytherapy for malignant gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Kengo; Nakagawa, Minoru; Higashi, Hisato [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; and others

    1992-09-01

    Twenty-six patients with recurrent or unremovable malignant gliomas were treated by interstitial brachytherapy with iridium-192 seeds. Stereotactic implantation of the afterloading catheters using the Brown-Roberts-Wells computed tomography (CT)-guided stereotactic system was performed in 24 patients and surgical CT, magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical examination. Tumor regression was seen in 17 patients 1-3 months after implantation. Tumor progression was seen in only three patients. After interstitial brachytherapy, the most commonly observed CT finding was central low density. Median survival time was 18 months after implantation. Autopsies in five patients revealed the delayed effects of radiation injury such as typical vascular changes, microcalcification, and coagulative necrosis in the implant area and tumor recurrence at the periphery. The results suggest that brachytherapy is not curative but prolonged the median survival time by 6 months. (author).

  17. Unidirectional spin density wave state in metallic (Sr1-xLax)2IrO4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiang; Schmehr, Julian L.; Islam, Zahirul; Porter, Zach; Zoghlin, Eli; Finkelstein, Kenneth; Ruff, Jacob P. C.; Wilson, Stephen D.

    2018-01-09

    Materials that exhibit both strong spin–orbit coupling and electron correlation effects are predicted to host numerous new electronic states. One prominent example is the Jeff = 1/2 Mott state in Sr2IrO4, where introducing carriers is predicted to manifest high temperature superconductivity analogous to the S=1/2 Mott state of La2CuO4. While bulk super- conductivity currently remains elusive, anomalous quasiparticle behaviors paralleling those in the cuprates such as pseudogap formation and the formation of a d-wave gap are observed upon electron-doping Sr2IrO4. Here we establish a magnetic parallel between electron-doped Sr2IrO4 and hole-doped La2CuO4 by unveiling a spin density wave state in electron-doped Sr2IrO4. Our magnetic resonant X-ray scattering data reveal the presence of an incom- mensurate magnetic state reminiscent of the diagonal spin density wave state observed in the monolayer cuprate (La1-xSrx)2CuO4. This link supports the conjecture that the quenched Mott phases in electron-doped Sr2IrO4 and hole-doped La2CuO4 support common competing electronic phases.

  18. A soft X-Ray flat field grating spectrograph and its experimental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Yuanlong; Mao Chusheng

    2001-01-01

    The principle, structure, and application results of a flat field grating spectrograph for X-ray laser research is presented. There are two kinds of the spectrograph. One uses a varied space grating with nominal line spacing 1200 l/mm, the spectral detection range is 5 - 50 nm, and another uses a 2400 l/mm varied line space grating, detection range is 1 - 10 nm. The experimental results of the former is introduced only. Both experimental results of this instrument using the soft X-ray film and a streak camera as the detecting elements are given. The spectral resolutions are 0.01 nm and 0.05 nm, respectively. The temporal resolution is 30 ps. Finally, the stigmatic structure of the spectrograph is introduced, which uses cylindrical mirror and spherical mirror as a focusing system. The magnification is 5, spatial resolution is 25 μm. The experimental results are given as well

  19. Artist Concept of X-43A/Hyper-X Hypersonic Experimental Research Vehicle in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    An artist's conception of the X-43A Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle, or 'Hyper-X' in flight. The X-43A was developed to flight test a dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only fuel. By eliminating the need to carry oxygen, future hypersonic vehicles will

  20. Computational modelling of Ti50Pt50-xMx shape memory alloys (M: Ni, Ir or Pd and x = 6.25-43.75 at.%)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modiba, Rosinah M

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The ab initio density functional theory approach was employed to study the effect of Ni, Ir or Pd addition to the TiPt shape memory alloy. The supercell approach in VASP was used to substitute Pt with 6.25, 18.75, 25.00, 31.25 and 43.75 at.% Ni, Ir...

  1. Experimental results on polarized structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, L.

    1994-08-01

    A summary is given of experimental results on spin structure functions of the proton g 1 p (x,Q 2 ), deuteron g 1 d (x,Q 2 ), and neutron g 1 n (x,Q 2 ) as measured in deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons from a polarized target. All results are consistent with the Bjorken sum rule predictions at the Q 2 of each experiment. The data do not support the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule prediction for the proton which implies that the hencity carried by the strange quark may be nonzero and that the net quark helicity is smaller than expected from simple quark models

  2. DEVELOPMENT A METHOD OF IR PASTEURIZATION OF MILK AND COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF QUALITY OF THE RESULTING PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Babenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the question of the relevance of IR pasteurization, a method, and comprehensive assess-ment of the quality of the product in small food enterprises and dairy and cattle farms.

  3. Sub-millimeter planar imaging with positron emitters: EGS4 code simulation and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, D.; Del Guerra, A.; Di Domenico, G.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental data for Planar Imaging with positron emitters (pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution) obtained with two matrices of 25 crystals (2 x 2 x 30 mm 3 each) of YAP:Ce coupled with a Position Sensitive PhotoMultiplier (Hamamatsu R2486-06) have been reproduced with high accuracy using the EGS4 code. Extensive simulation provides a detailed description of the performance of this type of detector as a function of the matrix granularity, the geometry of the detector and detection threshold. We present the Monte Carlo simulation and the preliminary experimental results of a prototype planar imaging system made of two matrices, each one consisting of 400 (2 x 2 x 30 mm 3 ) crystals of YAP-Ce

  4. Master-Slave synchronization of robot manipulators: experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondhus, A.K.; Pettersen, K.Y.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results for master-slave synchronization of two robot manipulators using a recently developed observer-controller scheme. The paper aims to investigate the value and the limitations of the theory. In particular, the theoretical result of uniform ultimate boundedness

  5. Sodium fires. Progress achieved in research and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.; Duverger de Cuy, G.; Casselman, C.; Charpenel, J.; Natta, M.; Devillers, C.

    1979-08-01

    This paper describes the sodium fire programs undertaken by the CEA's Nuclear Safety Department. Experimental results concerning sodium ignition and combustion, sodium fire suppression, sodium aerosol filtration and sodium-concrete contact reactions are given and the applications of these results in the Super-Phenix reactor is discussed

  6. IR and TPD studies of the interaction of alkenes with Cu + sites in CuNaY and CuNaX zeolites of various Cu content. The heterogeneity of Cu + sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datka, J.; Kukulska-Zajaç, E.; Kozyra, P.

    2006-08-01

    Cu + ions in zeolites activate organic molecules containing π electrons by π back donation, which results in a distinct weakening of multiple bonds. In this study, we followed the activation of alkenes (ethene and propene) by Cu + ions in CuY and CuX zeolites of various Cu content. We also studied the strength of bonding of alkenes to Cu + ions. IR studies have shown that there are two kinds of Cu + sites of various electron donor properties. We suppose that they could be attributed to the presence of Cu + ions of various number of oxygen atoms surrounding the cation. IR studies have shown that Cu ions introduced into Y and X zeolites in the first-order (at low Cu content) form Cu + ions of stronger electron donor properties (i.e. activate alkenes to larger extend) than Cu ions introduced in the next order (at higher Cu content). IR and TPD studies of alkenes desorption evidenced that Cu + ions of stronger electron donor properties bond alkenes stronger than less electron donor ones. It suggests that π back donation has more important contribution to the strength of bonding alkenes to cation than π donation.

  7. First results from protective ECRH diagnostics for Wendelstein 7-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsen, S.; Corre, Y.; Laqua, H. P.; Moncada, V.; Moseev, D.; Niemann, H.; Preynas, M.; Stange, T.; The W7-X Team

    2017-08-01

    Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is a steady state capable optimised stellarator. The main heating system is electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) operating at 140 GHz providing up to 9 MW microwave power. The power is launched into the machine by front steerable quasi-optical launchers in X- or O-mode. While in X-mode the first pass absorption is 99%, it is only 40... 70% in O-mode. O2-mode heating is forseen for high density operation above the X2 cutoff density of 1.2\\centerdot {{10}20} m-3. A set of diagnostics has been developed to protect the machine from non absorbed ECRH power which can easily damage in vessel components. The non absorbed power hitting the inner wall is measured by waveguides embedded in the first wall (ECA diagnostic). In order to prevent the inner wall from overheating or arcing, a near-infra red sensitive video diagnostic with a dynamic range of 450...1200 °C was integrated in the ECRH launchers. Thermal calculations for the carbon tiles predict a temperature increase above the detection threshold for scenarios of plasma start-up failure or poor absorption on a time scale of 50 ms. However, the temperature increase measured by an IR camera in experiments with failed break down, i.e. no ECRH absorption for up to 50 ms, was only Δ T≈ 70{{~}\\circ} C. In discharges with ≈ 5% transmission the measured temperature increase was comparable. The stray radiation level inside the machine is measured by so called sniffer probes resembling microwave diode detectors which were designed to collect all radiation approaching the probing surface independent of incident angle and polarization. Five sniffer probes are installed at different toroidal positions. They were integrated in the ECRH interlock system. During the first operational phase of W7-X this was the only available plasma interlock system. The signal quality proofed to be high enough for a reliable termination in case of poor absorption. After a breakdown phase of 10 ms, the sniffer

  8. First experimental results on CMOS Integrated Nickel Electroplated Resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Hansen, Ole

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results on MEMS metallic add-on post-fabrication effects on complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) transistors. Two versions of add-on processing, that use either e-beam evaporation or magnetron sputtering, are compared through investigation of the electri...

  9. Construction of a WMR for Trajectory Tracking Control: Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Silva-Ortigoza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a solution for trajectory tracking control of a differential drive wheeled mobile robot (WMR based on a hierarchical approach. The general design and construction of the WMR are described. The hierarchical controller proposed has two components: a high-level control and a low-level control. The high-level control law is based on an input-output linearization scheme for the robot kinematic model, which provides the desired angular velocity profiles that the WMR has to track in order to achieve the desired position (x*,y* and orientation (φ*. Then, a low-level control law, based on a proportional integral (PI approach, is designed to control the velocity of the WMR wheels to ensure those tracking features. Regarding the trajectories, this paper provides the solution or the following cases: (1 time-varying parametric trajectories such as straight lines and parabolas and (2 smooth curves fitted by cubic splines which are generated by the desired data points x1*,y1*,…,xn*,yn*. A straightforward algorithm is developed for constructing the cubic splines. Finally, this paper includes an experimental validation of the proposed technique by employing a DS1104 dSPACE electronic board along with MATLAB/Simulink software.

  10. A Prospective Cohort Study on IRS Gene Polymorphisms in Type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insulin resistance status was determined using the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Results: IRS1 polymorphisms were associated with increased insulin resistance (X2 = 5.09, p = 0.023) in T2DM patients with severe/acute hyperglycemia. IRS2 polymorphisms were not associated with ...

  11. Recent experimental results on Coherent Pion production in neutrino interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camilleri, L. [Columbia University, Nevis Labs Irvington on Hudson, New York 10533 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Recent experimental results on charged current ({pi}{sup +}) coherent production by KEK and SciBooNE and neutral current ({pi}{sup 0}) production by MiniBooNE, SciBooNE and NOMAD will be discussed. The NOMAD results are at an average neutrino energy of 25 GeV whereas the energies of the other experiments are in an average energy range of 1-2 GeV. A comparison with some theoretical models will be presented.

  12. Experimental and theoretical studies of the physical processes occurring in thin plane targets irradiated by intense X-ray pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugrov, A. E.; Burdonskii, I. N.; Gavrilov, V. V.; Gol'tsov, A. Yu.; Grabovskii, E. V.; Efremov, V. P.; Zhuzhukalo, E. V.; Zurin, M. V.; Koval'skii, N. G.; Kondrashov, V. N.; Oleinik, G. M.; Potapenko, A. I.; Samokhin, A. A.; Smirnov, V. P.; Fortov, V. E.; Frolov, I. N.

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented from experimental and theoretical studies of the interaction of intense X-ray pulses with different types of plane targets, including low-density (∼10 mg/cm 3 ) ones, in the Angara-5-1 facility. It is found experimentally that a dense low-temperature plasma forms on the target surface before the arrival of the main heating X-ray pulse. It is demonstrated that the contrast of the X-ray pulse can be increased by placing a thin organic film between the target and the discharge gap. The expansion velocity of the plasma created on the target surface irradiated by Z-pinch-produced X rays was found to be (3-4) x 10 6 cm/s. A comparison between the simulation and experimental results confirms the validity of the physical-mathematical model used

  13. Experimental device for the X-ray energetic distribution measurement in a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Navarro, A.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental system to measure the X-ray spectrum in a tokamak plasma is described, emphasizing its characteristics: resolution, dead time and the pulse pile-up distortion effects on the X-ray spectra. (author) [es

  14. Feedback control of a cupola - concepts and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, K.L. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Abdelrahman, M.A. [Tenn. Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Larsen, E.; Clark, D. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); King, P. [US Dept. of Energy Albany Research Center, Albany, OR (United States)

    1998-10-01

    In this paper we present some final results from a research project focused on introducing automatic control to the operation of cupola iron furnaces. The main aim of this research is to improve the operational efficiency and performance of the cupola furnace, an important foundry process used to melt iron. Previous papers have described the development of appropriate control system architectures for the cupola. These results are summarized. Then we describe the experimental results obtained with the U.S. Department of Energy Albany Research Center`s research cupola. First, experimental data is used to calibrate the model, which is taken as a first-order multivariable system with time delay. Then relative gain analysis is used to select loop pairings to be used in a multi-loop controller. The resulting controller pairs meltrate with blast volume, iron temperature with oxygen addition, and carbon composition with percent coke. Special (nonlinear) filters are used to compute meltrate from actual scale readings of the amount of iron produced and to smooth the temperature measurement. The temperature and meltrate loops use single-loop PI control. The composition loop uses a Smith predictor to discount the deadtime associated with mass transport through the furnace. Experimental results validate the conceptual controller design and provide proof-of-concept of the idea of controlling a foundry cupola. Future research directions are discussed, including the concept of an integrated, intelligent industrial process controller, or I{sup 3}PC.

  15. Synthesis, structural, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies and IR induced anisotropy of Tl{sub 4}HgI{sub 6} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parasyuk, O.V. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University, Voli Ave. 13, Lutsk, 43025 (Ukraine); Khyzhun, O.Y. [Frantsevych Institute for Problems of Materials Science, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 3 Krzhyzhanivsky St., 03142, Kyiv (Ukraine); Piasecki, M. [Institute of Physics, J. Dlugosz University Częstochowa, Armii Krajowej 13/15, Częstochowa (Poland); Kityk, I.V., E-mail: iwank74@gmail.com [Electrical Engineering Department, Czestochowa University Technology, Armii Krajowej 17, PL-42-217, Czestochowa (Poland); Lakshminarayana, G. [Wireless and Photonic Networks Research Centre, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Luzhnyi, I. [Frantsevych Institute for Problems of Materials Science, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 3 Krzhyzhanivsky St., 03142, Kyiv (Ukraine); Fochuk, P.M. [Yuriy Fed’kovych Chernivtsi National University, 2 Kotziubynskoho Str., 58012, Chernivtsi (Ukraine); Fedorchuk, A.O. [Department of Inorganic and Organic Chemistry, Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Pekarska Street 50, 79010, Lviv (Ukraine); Levkovets, S.I.; Yurchenko, O.M.; Piskach, L.V. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University, Voli Ave. 13, Lutsk, 43025 (Ukraine)

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, we report on the synthesis and structural properties including X-ray protoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of Tl{sub 4}HgI{sub 6} crystals that were grown by Bridgman-Stockbarger method up to 80 mm in length and 18 mm in diameter. The existence of the ternary compound Tl{sub 4}HgI{sub 6} that melts incongruently at 641 K was confirmed. Phase equilibria and structural properties for the TlI–HgI{sub 2} system were investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. X-ray photoelectron spectra were measured for both pristine and Ar{sup +} ion-bombarded Tl{sub 4}HgI{sub 6} single crystal surfaces. The data reveal that the Tl{sub 4}HgI{sub 6} single crystal is sensitive with respect to Ar{sup +} ion-bombardment as 3.0 keV Ar{sup +} irradiation over 5 min at an ion current density 14 μA/cm{sup 2} induces changes to the elemental stoichiometry of the Tl{sub 4}HgI{sub 6} surface, leading to a decrease of the mercury content in the topmost surface layers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements indicate very low hygroscopic nature of the Tl{sub 4}HgI{sub 6} single crystal surface. The IR coherent bicolor laser treatment at wavelengths 10.6/5.3 μm has shown an occurrence of anisotropy at wavelengths 1540 nm of Er:glass laser. This may open the applications of Tl{sub 4}HgI{sub 6} as a material for IR laser triggering. - Highlights: • Phase diagram of the HgI{sub 2}–TlI system was built. • Tl{sub 4}HgI{sub 6} single crystals were grown by Bridgman Stockbarger method. • XRD, XPS analysis was done. • Ir induced anisotropy was established. • The compounds may be proposed as Ir laser operated polarizers.

  16. Role of Bi promotion and solvent in platinum-catalyzed alcohol oxidation probed by in situ X-ray absorption and ATR-IR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondelli, C.; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Ferri, D.

    2010-01-01

    the catalysts under working conditions using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), aiming at uncovering the roles of the metal promoter and the reaction medium. XAS confirms that Bi is oxidized more easily than Pt, maintaining the catalytic...... surfaces than on step or kink sites. Side products, CO and benzoate species, appearing during the reaction reveal that the geometric suppression of undesired reactions does not occur to the same extent on Pt-based catalysts as on Pd, suggesting that decarbonylation of the produced aldehyde on Pt may occur...

  17. Sediment dispersal during ne monsoon over northern Bay of Bengal: Preliminary results using IRS-P4 OCM data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anuradha, T.; Suneethi, J.; Dash, S.K.; Pradhan, Y.; Prasad, J.S.; Rajawat, A.S.; Nayak, S.R.; Chauhan, O.S.

    False Color Composite (FCC) from the sequential satellite images of Indian Remote Sensing Satellite IRS-P4 OCM (bands around 443, 555, and 845 nm) together with sea truth data acquisition at 42 stations along the Orissa coast have been used...

  18. Comparative investigation of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the determination of cotton fiber crystallinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongliang; Thibodeaux, Devron; Gamble, Gary; Bauer, Philip; VanDerveer, Don

    2012-08-01

    Despite considerable efforts in developing curve-fitting protocols to evaluate the crystallinity index (CI) from X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, in its present state XRD can only provide a qualitative or semi-quantitative assessment of the amounts of crystalline or amorphous fraction in a sample. The greatest barrier to establishing quantitative XRD is the lack of appropriate cellulose standards, which are needed to calibrate the XRD measurements. In practice, samples with known CI are very difficult to prepare or determine. In a previous study, we reported the development of a simple algorithm for determining fiber crystallinity information from Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hence, in this study we not only compared the fiber crystallinity information between FT-IR and XRD measurements, by developing a simple XRD algorithm in place of a time-consuming and subjective curve-fitting process, but we also suggested a direct way of determining cotton cellulose CI by calibrating XRD with the use of CI(IR) as references.

  19. Diphosphine- and CO-Induced Fragmentation of Chloride-bridged Dinuclear Complex and Cp*Ir(mu-Cl)(3)Re(CO)(3) and Attempted Synthesis of Cp*Ir(mu-Cl)(3)Mn(CO)(3): Spectroscopic Data and X-ray Diffraction Structures of the Pentamethylcyclopentadienyl Compounds [Cp*IrCl{(Z)-Ph2PCH = CHPPh2}][Cl]center dot 2CHCl(3) and Cp*Ir(CO)Cl-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, Casey [University of North Texas; Wang, Xiaoping [ORNL; Nesterov, Vladimir [University of North Texas; Richmond, Michael G. [University of North Texas

    2010-01-01

    The confacial bioctahedral compound Cp*Ir(mu-Cl)(3)Re(CO)(3) (1) undergoes rapid fragmentation in the presence of the unsaturated diphosphine ligand (Z)-Ph2PCH = CHPPh2 to give the mononuclear compounds [Cp*IrCl {(Z)-Ph2PCH = CHPPh2}][Cl] (2) and fac-ClRe(CO)(3)[(Z)-Ph2PCH = CHPPh2] (3). 2 has been characterized by H-1 and P-31 NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. 2 center dot 2CHCl(3) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c, a = 35.023 (8) angstrom, b = 10.189 (2) angstrom, c = 24.003 (6) angstrom, b = 103.340 (3), V = 8,335 (3) angstrom 3, Z = 8, and d(calc) = 1.647 Mg/m(3); R = 0.0383, R-w = 0.1135 for 8,178 reflections with I> 2 sigma(I). The Ir(III) center in 2 exhibits a six-coordinate geometry and displays a chelating diphosphine group. Compound 1 reacts with added CO with fragmentation to yield the known compounds Cp*Ir(CO)Cl-2 (4) and ClRe(CO)(5) (5) in near quantitative yield by IR spectroscopy. Using the protocol established by our groups for the synthesis of 1, we have explored the reaction of [Cp*IrCl2](2) with ClMn(CO)(5) as a potential route to Cp*Ir(mu-Cl)(3)Mn(CO)(3); unfortunately, 4 was the only product isolated from this reaction. The solid-state structure of 4 was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. 4 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1, a = 7.4059 (4) angstrom, b = 7.8940 (4) angstrom, c = 11.8488 (7) angstrom, alpha = 80.020 (1), beta = 79.758 (1), gamma = 68.631 (1), V = 630.34 (6) angstrom(3), Z = 2, and d(calc) = 2.246 Mg/m(3); R = 0.0126, R-w = 0.0329 for 2,754 reflections with I> 2 sigma(I). The expected three-legged piano-stool geometry in 4 has been crystallographically confirmed.

  20. Thermodynamic properties of indan: Experimental and computational results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirico, Robert D.; Steele, William V.; Kazakov, Andrei F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat capacities were measured for the temperature range (5 to 445) K. • Vapor pressures were measured for the temperature range (338 to 495) K. • Densities at saturation pressure were measured from T = (323 to 523) K. • Computed and experimentally derived properties for ideal gas entropies are in excellent accord. • Thermodynamic consistency analysis revealed anomalous literature data. - Abstract: Measurements leading to the calculation of thermodynamic properties in the ideal-gas state for indan (Chemical Abstracts registry number [496-11-7], 2,3-dihydro-1H-indene) are reported. Experimental methods were adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, comparative ebulliometry, and vibrating-tube densitometry. Molar thermodynamic functions (enthalpies, entropies, and Gibbs energies) for the condensed and ideal-gas states were derived from the experimental studies at selected temperatures. Statistical calculations were performed based on molecular geometry optimization and vibrational frequencies calculated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d, p) level of theory. Computed ideal-gas properties derived with the rigid-rotor harmonic-oscillator approximation are shown to be in excellent accord with ideal-gas entropies derived from thermophysical property measurements of this research, as well as with experimental heat capacities for the ideal-gas state reported in the literature. Literature spectroscopic studies and ab initio calculations report a range of values for the barrier to ring puckering. Results of the present work are consistent with a large barrier that allows use of the rigid-rotor harmonic-oscillator approximation for ideal-gas entropy and heat-capacity calculations, even with the stringent uncertainty requirements imposed by the calorimetric and physical property measurements reported here. All experimental results are compared with property values reported in the literature.

  1. Experimental studies on pulse soft X-ray generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chengrong; Yang Qinchi; Luo Chengmu; Han Min

    1990-01-01

    Emission sources of soft x rays (2 keV < hv < 6 keV) from hot plasmas have been studied in a small gas-puff Z-pinch. The emission sources are a group of uncontinuous hot spots. The output of soft x rays from the hot spots have been measured and the effect of the initial gas density on the yield of soft x rays has been investigated

  2. Recent experimental results on level densities for compound reaction calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinov, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    There is a problem related to the choice of the level density input for Hauser-Feshbach model calculations. Modern computer codes have several options to choose from but it is not clear which of them has to be used in some particular cases. Availability of many options helps to describe existing experimental data but it creates problems when it comes to predictions. Traditionally, different level density systematics are based on experimental data from neutron resonance spacing which are available for a limited spin interval and one parity only. On the other hand reaction cross section calculations use the total level density. This can create large uncertainties when converting the neutron resonance spacing to the total level density that results in sizable uncertainties in cross section calculations. It is clear now that total level densities need to be studied experimentally in a systematic manner. Such information can be obtained only from spectra of compound nuclear reactions. The question is does level densities obtained from compound nuclear reactions keep the same regularities as level densities obtained from neutron resonances- Are they consistent- We measured level densities of 59-64 Ni isotopes from proton evaporation spectra of 6,7 Li induced reactions. Experimental data are presented. Conclusions of how level density depends on the neutron number and on the degree of proximity to the closed shell ( 56 Ni) are drawn. The level density parameters have been compared with parameters obtained from the analysis of neutron resonances and from model predictions

  3. Results of experimental electromagnetic studies of the Crimean region

    OpenAIRE

    Burakhovich, T. K.; Kushnir, A. M.; Nikolaev, I. Yu.; Sheremet, E. M.; Shirkov, B. I.

    2017-01-01

    Spatial-temporal pattern of distribution of geomagnetic variations and the electric field on the Earth’s surface was obtained as a result of the modern experimental observations conducted in 2007—2013 along 9 profiles (48 points) by the methods of magnetotelluric sounding (MTS) and magnetovariation profiling (MVP). These profiles cross various geological structures of the Crimean region. It is possible to estimate the value of the electrical conductivity and vertical and horizontal geoelectri...

  4. Heavy ions testing experimental results on programmable integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazco, R.; Provost-Grellier, A.

    1988-01-01

    The natural radiation environment in space has been shown to produce anomalies in satellite-borne microelectronics. It becomes then mandatory to define qualification strategies allowing to choose the less vulnerable circuits. In this paper, is presented a strategy devoted to one of the most critical effects, the soft errors (so called upset). The method addresses programmable integrated circuits i.e. circuits able to execute an instruction or command set. Experimental results on representative circuits will illustrate the approach. 11 refs [fr

  5. Thermodynamic calculation and an experimental study of the combustion synthesis of (Mo{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x})Si{sub 2} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaohong, E-mail: matinbow@163.com; Lu, Qiong; Wu, Guangzhi; Shi, Jialing; Sun, Zhi

    2015-08-25

    Highlights: • (Mo{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x})Si{sub 2} alloys were synthesized by a simple and energy-saving process of SHS. • Theoretical adiabatic temperature of (Mo{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x})Si{sub 2} was calculated for the first time. • The variation of the actual temperature is consistent with theoretical temperature. - Abstract: The theoretical adiabatic temperature of (Mo{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x})Si{sub 2} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) is calculated. The results indicate that the theoretical adiabatic temperature of (Mo{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x})Si{sub 2} increases with an increasing Nb content when (Mo{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x})Si{sub 2} is of a single-phase structure, but decreases with an increasing Nb content when (Mo{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x})Si{sub 2} is of a double-phase structure. All of the temperatures are higher than 1800 K, indicating that (Mo{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x})Si{sub 2} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) can be prepared by the combustion synthesis method. In this work, (Mo{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x})Si{sub 2} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) alloys are successfully synthesized by the combustion synthesis process from elemental powders of Mo, Nb, and Si. The highest combustion temperature and combustion product structure are studied. The results confirm that the variation of the experimental maximum combustion temperature of (Mo{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x})Si{sub 2} is consistent with that of the theoretical adiabatic temperature. The combustion products are non-equilibrium species, and a supersaturated solid solution of C11{sub b} type (Mo{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x})Si{sub 2} forms during combustion synthesis.

  6. FT-IR study and solvent-implicit and explicit effect on stepwise tautomerism of Guanylurea: M06-2X as a case of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Morteza; Manouchehri, Neda; Saberi, Dariush; Niknam, Khodabakhsh

    2018-06-15

    All 66 conformers of guanylurea were optimized and frequency calculations were performed at M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Theses conformers were categorized into five tautomers, and the most stable conformer of each tautomer were found. Geometrical parameters indicated that these tautomers have almost planar structure. Complete stepwise tautomerism were studied through both intramolecular proton transfer routs and internal rotations. Results indicated that the proton transfer routs involving four-membered heterocyclic structures were rate-determining steps. Also, intramolecular proton movement having six-membered transition state structures had very low energy barrier comparable to the transition states of internal rotation routs. Differentiation of studied tautomers could easily be done through their FT-IR spectra in the range of 3200 to 3900cm -1 by comparing absorption bands and intensity of peaks. Solvent-implicit effects on the stability of tautomers were also studied through re-optimization and frequency calculation in four solvents. Water, DMSO, acetone and toluene had stabilization effect on all considered tautomers, but the order of stabilization effect was as follows: water>DMSO>acetone>toluene. Finally, solvent-explicit, base-explicit and acid-explicit effect were also studied by taking place of studied tautomer nearside of acid, base or solvent and optimization of them. Frequency calculation for proton movement by contribution of explicit effect showed that formic acid had a very strong effect on proton transfer from tautomer A1 to tautomer D8 by lowering the energy barrier from 42.57 to 0.8kcal/mol. In addition, ammonia-explicit effect was found to lower the barrier from 42.57 to 22.46kcal/mol, but this effect is lower than that of water and methanol-explicit effect. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. FT-IR study and solvent-implicit and explicit effect on stepwise tautomerism of Guanylurea: M06-2X as a case of study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Morteza; Manouchehri, Neda; Saberi, Dariush; Niknam, Khodabakhsh

    2018-06-01

    All 66 conformers of guanylurea were optimized and frequency calculations were performed at M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Theses conformers were categorized into five tautomers, and the most stable conformer of each tautomer were found. Geometrical parameters indicated that these tautomers have almost planar structure. Complete stepwise tautomerism were studied through both intramolecular proton transfer routs and internal rotations. Results indicated that the proton transfer routs involving four-membered heterocyclic structures were rate-determining steps. Also, intramolecular proton movement having six-membered transition state structures had very low energy barrier comparable to the transition states of internal rotation routs. Differentiation of studied tautomers could easily be done through their FT-IR spectra in the range of 3200 to 3900 cm-1 by comparing absorption bands and intensity of peaks. Solvent-implicit effects on the stability of tautomers were also studied through re-optimization and frequency calculation in four solvents. Water, DMSO, acetone and toluene had stabilization effect on all considered tautomers, but the order of stabilization effect was as follows: water > DMSO > acetone > toluene. Finally, solvent-explicit, base-explicit and acid-explicit effect were also studied by taking place of studied tautomer nearside of acid, base or solvent and optimization of them. Frequency calculation for proton movement by contribution of explicit effect showed that formic acid had a very strong effect on proton transfer from tautomer A1 to tautomer D8 by lowering the energy barrier from 42.57 to 0.8 kcal/mol. In addition, ammonia-explicit effect was found to lower the barrier from 42.57 to 22.46 kcal/mol, but this effect is lower than that of water and methanol-explicit effect.

  8. Experimental results pertaining to the performance of thermal igniters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmel, M.K.

    1989-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of various experimental programs regarding the performance of thermal igniters for the deliberate ignition of hydrogen in light water reactors. Experiments involving both premixed combustion and combustion with continuous hydrogen injection are reviewed. Combustion characteristics examined include flammability limits of hydrogen:air and hydrogen:air:steam mixtures, combustion pressure rises, combustion completeness, flame speeds, and heat transfer aspects. Comparisons of igniter type and igniter reliability under simulated reactor accident conditions are included. The results of the research programs provide a broad data base covering nearly all aspects of hydrogen combustion related to the performance of deliberate ignition systems

  9. OIL DECONTAMINATION OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS EXPERIMENTAL WORK RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lushnikov Sergey V.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of experimental work during 2004-2005 on oil decontamination of bottom sediments of Lake Schuchye, situated in the Komi Republic (Northern Russia. The cause of thecontamination were huge oil spills occurred after a series of accidental ruptures on the Harjaga-Usinsk and Vozej-Usinsk oil-pipe lines in 1994. Flotation technology was used for the cleaning of bottom sediments.157 tons of crude oil were removed during the course of 2-year experimental work from an area of 4,1 ha.The content of aliphatic and alicyclic oil hydrocarbons was reduced from 53,3 g/kg to 2,2 g/kg, on average.Hydrobiological investigations revealed that bottom sediments started to be inhabited by benthos organisms, dominantly Oligochaeta. Besides Oligochaeta, Chironomidae maggots and Bivalvia were detected. Theappearance of Macrozoobenthos organisms can serve as a bioindicator of water quality.

  10. Design and Preliminary Results of a Feedback Circuit for Plasma Displacement Control in IR-T1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TalebiTaher, A.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Tarkeshian, R.; Salem, M. K.; Khorshid, P.

    2008-01-01

    Since displacement is very important for plasma position control, in IR-T1 tokamak a combination of two cosine coils and two saddle sine coils is used for horizontal displacement measurement. According to the multiple moment theory, the output of these coils linearly depends to radial displacement of plasma column. A new circuit for adding these signals to feedback system designed and unwanted effects of other fields in final output compensated. After compensation and calibration of the system, the output of horizontal displacement circuits applied to feedback control system. By considers the required auxiliary vertical field, a proportional amplifier and driver circuit are constructed to drive power transistors these power transistors switch the feedback bank capacitors. In the experiment, a good linear proportionality between displacement and output observed by applying an appropriate feedback field, the linger confinement time in IR-T1 tokamak obtained, applying this system to discharge increased the plasma duration and realizes repetitive discharges

  11. Probing single magnon excitations in Sr2IrO4 using O K-edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X; Ding, H; Dean, M P M; Yin, W G; Hill, J P; Liu, J; Ramesh, R; Chiuzbăian, S G; Jaouen, N; Nicolaou, A; Serrao, C Rayan

    2015-01-01

    Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at the L-edge of transition metal elements is now commonly used to probe single magnon excitations. Here we show that single magnon excitations can also be measured with RIXS at the K-edge of the surrounding ligand atoms when the center heavy metal elements have strong spin–orbit coupling. This is demonstrated with oxygen K-edge RIXS experiments on the perovskite Sr 2 IrO 4 , where low energy peaks from single magnon excitations were observed. This new application of RIXS has excellent potential to be applied to a wide range of magnetic systems based on heavy elements, for which the L-edge RIXS energy resolution in the hard x-ray region is usually poor. (fast track communication)

  12. Structural Analysis of InxGa1−xN/GaN MQWs by Different Experimental Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Bin-Beng; Pan Feng; Fa Tao; Cheng Feng-Feng; Yao Shu-De; Feng Zhe-Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Structural properties of In x Ga 1−x N/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) grown on sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition are investigated by synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction (SRXRD), Rutherford backscattering/channelling (RBS/C) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The sample consists of eight periods of In x Ga 1−x N/GaN wells of 2.1 nm thickness and 8.5 nm thickness of GaN barrier, and the results are very close, which verifies the accuracy of the three methods. The indium content in In x Ga 1−x N/GaN MQWs by SRXRD and RBS/C is estimated, and results are in general the same. By RBS/C random spectra, the indium atomic lattice substitution rate is 94.0%, indicating that almost all indium atoms in In x Ga 1−x N/GaN MQWs are at substitution, that the indium distribution of each layer in In x Ga 1−x N/GaN MQWs is very homogeneous and that the In x Ga 1−x N/GaN MQWs have a very good crystalline quality. It is not accurate to estimate indium content in In x Ga 1−x N/GaN MQWs by photoluminescence (PL) spectra, because the result from the PL experimental method is very different from the results by the SRXRD and RBS/C experimental methods. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  13. Characterization of Ir/Au pixel TES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Zen, N.; Damayanthi, R.M.T.; Mori, F.; Fujita, K.; Nakazawa, M.; Fukuda, D.; Ohkubo, M.

    2006-01-01

    Signal shapes and noise characteristics of an asymmetrical ten-pixel Ir/Au-TES have been studied. The asymmetric design may be effective to realize an imaging spectrometer. Distinct two exponential decays observed for X-ray events are consistent with a two-step R-T curve. A theoretical thermal model for noise in multi-pixel devices reasonably explains the experimental data

  14. The role of the emergency medical dispatch centre (EMDC) and prehospital emergency care safety: results from an incident report (IR) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaro, Alberto; Pascu, Diana; Zerman, Tamara; Vallaperta, Enrico; Schönsberg, Alberto; Tardivo, Stefano; Pancheri, Serena; Romano, Gabriele; Moretti, Francesca

    2015-07-01

    The role of the emergency medical dispatch centre (EMDC) is essential to ensure coordinated and safe prehospital care. The aim of this study was to implement an incident report (IR) system in prehospital emergency care management with a view to detecting errors occurring in this setting and guiding the implementation of safety improvement initiatives. An ad hoc IR form for the prehospital setting was developed and implemented within the EMDC of Verona. The form included six phases (from the emergency call to hospital admission) with the relevant list of potential error modes (30 items). This descriptive observational study considered the results from 268 consecutive days between February and November 2010. During the study period, 161 error modes were detected. The majority of these errors occurred in the resource allocation and timing phase (34.2%) and in the dispatch phase (31.0%). Most of the errors were due to human factors (77.6%), and almost half of them were classified as either moderate (27.9%) or severe (19.9%). These results guided the implementation of specific corrective actions, such as the adoption of a more efficient Medical Priority Dispatch System and the development of educational initiatives targeted at both EMDC staff and the population. Despite the intrinsic limits of IR methodology, results suggest how the implementation of an IR system dedicated to the emergency prehospital setting can act as a major driver for the development of a "learning organization" and improve both efficacy and safety of first aid care.

  15. Endurance test on IR rig for RI production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Heung June; Youn, Y. J.; Han, H. S.; Hong, S. B.; Cho, Y. G.; Ryu, J. S.

    2000-12-01

    This report presents the pressure drop, vibration and endurance test results for IR rig for RI production which were desigened and fabricated by KAERI. From the pressure drop test results, it is noted that the flow rate through the IR rig corresponding to the pressure drop of 200 kPa is measured to be about 3.12 kg/sec. Vibration frequency for the IR rig ranges from 13 to 17 Hz. RMS(Root Mean Square) displacement for the IR rig is less than 30 μm, and the maximum displacement is less than 110μm. These experimental results show that the design criteria of IR rig meet the HANARO limit conditions. Endurance test results show that the appreciable fretting wear for the IR rig does not occur, however tiny trace of wear between contact points is observed

  16. The IPIRG-1 pipe system fracture tests: Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.; Olson, R.J.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the First International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-1) program, six dynamic pipe system experiments were conducted. The objective of these experiments was to generate experimental data to assess analysis methodologies for characterizing the fracture behavior of circumferentially cracked pipe in a representative piping system subjected to combined inertial and displacement-controlled stresses. A unique experimental facility was designed and constructed. The pipe system evaluated was an expansion loop with over 30 m (100 feet) of 16-inch nominal diameter Schedule 100 pipe. The experimental facility was equipped with special hardware to ensure that system boundary conditions could be appropriately modeled. The test matrix involved one uncracked and five cracked dynamic pipe system experiments. The uncracked-pipe experiment was conducted to evaluate the piping system damping and natural frequency characteristics. The cracked-pipe experiments were conducted to evaluate the fracture behavior, piping system response, and fracture stability characteristics of five different materials. All cracked-pipe experiments were conducted at PWR conditions. Material characterization efforts provided the tensile and fracture toughness properties of the different pipe materials at various strain rates and temperatures. Key results from the six pipe system experiments and material characterization efforts are presented. Detailed analyses will be published in a companion paper

  17. Ge-rich graded-index Si1-xGex devices for MID-IR integrated photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, J. M.; Vakarin, V.; Liu, Q.; Frigerio, J.; Ballabio, A.; Le Roux, X.; Benedikovic, D.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Isella, G.; Vivien, L.; Marris-Morini, D.

    2018-02-01

    Mid-infrared (mid-IR) silicon photonics is becoming a prominent research with remarkable potential in several applications such as in early medical diagnosis, safe communications, imaging, food safety and many more. In the quest for the best material platform to develop new photonic systems, Si and Ge depart with a notable advantage over other materials due to the high processing maturity accomplished during the last part of the 20th century through the deployment of the CMOS technology. From an optical viewpoint, combining Si with Ge to obtain SiGe alloys with controlled stoichiometry is also of interest for the photonic community since permits to increase the effective refractive index and the nonlinear parameter, providing a fascinating playground to exploit nonlinear effects. Furthermore, using Ge-rich SiGe gives access to a range of deep mid-IR wavelengths otherwise inaccessible (λ 2-20 μm). In this paper, we explore for the first time the limits of this approach by measuring the spectral loss characteristic over a broadband wavelength range spanning from λ = 5.5 μm to 8.5 μm. Three different SiGe waveguide platforms are compared, each one showing higher compactness than the preceding through the engineering of the vertical Ge profile, giving rise to different confinement characteristics to the propagating modes. A flat propagation loss characteristic of 2-3 dB/cm over the entire wavelength span is demonstrated in Ge-rich graded-index SiGe waveguides of only 6 μm thick. Also, the role of the overlap fraction of the confined optical mode with the Si-rich area at the bottom side of the epitaxial SiGe waveguide is put in perspective, revealing a lossy characteristic compared to the other designs were the optical mode is located in the Ge-rich area at the top of the waveguide uniquely. These Ge-rich graded-index SiGe waveguides may pave the way towards a new generation of photonic integrated circuits operating at deep mid-IR wavelengths.

  18. Comparison the Results of Numerical Simulation And Experimental Results for Amirkabir Plasma Focus Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Shervin; Amrollahi, R.; Niknam Sharak, M.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper the results of the numerical simulation for Amirkabir Mather-type Plasma Focus Facility (16 kV, 36μF and 115 nH) in several experiments with Argon as working gas at different working conditions (different discharge voltages and gas pressures) have been presented and compared with the experimental results. Two different models have been used for simulation: five-phase model of Lee and lumped parameter model of Gonzalez. It is seen that the results (optimum pressures and current signals) of the Lee model at different working conditions show better agreement than lumped parameter model with experimental values.

  19. Comparison the results of numerical simulation and experimental results for Amirkabir plasma focus facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudarzi, Shervin; Amrollahi, R; Sharak, M Niknam

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the results of the numerical simulation for Amirkabir Mather-type Plasma Focus Facility (16 kV, 36μF and 115 nH) in several experiments with Argon as working gas at different working conditions (different discharge voltages and gas pressures) have been presented and compared with the experimental results. Two different models have been used for simulation: five-phase model of Lee and lumped parameter model of Gonzalez. It is seen that the results (optimum pressures and current signals) of the Lee model at different working conditions show better agreement than lumped parameter model with experimental values.

  20. ANOVA parameters influence in LCF experimental data and simulation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vercelli A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The virtual design of components undergoing thermo mechanical fatigue (TMF and plastic strains is usually run in many phases. The numerical finite element method gives a useful instrument which becomes increasingly effective as the geometrical and numerical modelling gets more accurate. The constitutive model definition plays an important role in the effectiveness of the numerical simulation [1, 2] as, for example, shown in Figure 1. In this picture it is shown how a good cyclic plasticity constitutive model can simulate a cyclic load experiment. The component life estimation is the subsequent phase and it needs complex damage and life estimation models [3-5] which take into account of several parameters and phenomena contributing to damage and life duration. The calibration of these constitutive and damage models requires an accurate testing activity. In the present paper the main topic of the research activity is to investigate whether the parameters, which result to be influent in the experimental activity, influence the numerical simulations, thus defining the effectiveness of the models in taking into account of all the phenomena actually influencing the life of the component. To obtain this aim a procedure to tune the parameters needed to estimate the life of mechanical components undergoing TMF and plastic strains is presented for commercial steel. This procedure aims to be easy and to allow calibrating both material constitutive model (for the numerical structural simulation and the damage and life model (for life assessment. The procedure has been applied to specimens. The experimental activity has been developed on three sets of tests run at several temperatures: static tests, high cycle fatigue (HCF tests, low cycle fatigue (LCF tests. The numerical structural FEM simulations have been run on a commercial non linear solver, ABAQUS®6.8. The simulations replied the experimental tests. The stress, strain, thermal results from the thermo

  1. Experimental results for a novel rotary active magnetic regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan; Bahl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigerators represent an alternative to vapor compression technology and have great potential in realizing cooling devices with high efficiency, which are highly desirable for a broad range of applications. The technology relies on the magnetocaloric effect...... in a solid refrigerant rather than the temperature change that occurs when a gas is compressed/expanded. This paper presents the general considerations for the design and construction of a high frequency rotary AMR device. Experimental results are presented at various cooling powers for a range of operating...

  2. Experimental study and modelling of X-ray photo-triggering of a discharge for exciplex laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvet, Yolande

    1986-01-01

    As the excitation of the laser medium by using a photo-triggered discharge revealed to be more reliable that an excitation by pre-ionised discharge, this research thesis reports the use of such an excitation and the study of initiation mechanisms for discharges photo-triggered by X rays. The author first recalls the main characteristics of excimer and exciplex systems, and presents the principle of discharge photo-triggering. He presents the experimental set-up, and reports the use of an original method to characterise the X radiation. This method uses theoretical data related to Bremsstrahlung emission, and results are validated by experimental tests. Realistic data regarding X ray properties are introduced into the theoretical model which also takes X-ray-induced ionisation reactions and photo-electron energetic degradation into account. By using this model, the author determines the electron distribution function produced by the X pre-ionisation, and the resulting thermalized electron density [fr

  3. A new tridentate Schiff base Cu(II) complex: synthesis, experimental and theoretical studies on its crystal structure, FT-IR and UV-Visible spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheb, Vahid; Sheikhshoaie, Iran; Setoodeh, Nasim; Rudbari, Hadi Amiri; Bruno, Giuseppe

    2013-06-01

    A new Cu(II) complex [Cu(L)(NCS)] has been synthesized, using 1-(N-salicylideneimino)-2-(N,N-methyl)-aminoethane as tridentate ONN donor Schiff base ligand (HL). The dark green crystals of the compound are used for single-crystal X-ray analysis and measuring Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and UV-Visible spectra. Electronic structure calculations at the B3LYP and MP2 levels of theory are performed to optimize the molecular geometry and to calculate the UV-Visible and FT-IR spectra of the compound. Vibrational assignments and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound are performed. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) method is used to calculate the electronic transitions of the complex. A scaling factor of 1.015 is obtained for vibrational frequencies computed at the B3LYP level using basis sets 6-311G(d,p). It is found that solvent has a profound effect on the electronic absorption spectrum. The UV-Visible spectrum of the complex recorded in DMSO and DMF solution can be correctly predicted by a model in which DMSO and DMF molecules are coordinated to the central Cu atom via their oxygen atoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Photodynamic Treatment of Cultured Human Malignant Melanoma cells and Assessment of Resultant Cell Death and Inflicted Bio molecular Damage As Determined by Synchrotron I.R. Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamoon, A.; Ruppel, M.; Miller, L.M.; Smith, S.; Tsang, T.; Miller, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a very serious skin cancer that if not discovered early and treated by surgery can become fatal. Photodynamic treatment involves the use of a photosensitive dye that is not toxic by itself and is taken up by all cells normal and tumor cells. However it is released from normal cells in a short time while it is kept inside tumor cells for a longer time. A laser light of wave length that is maximally absorbed by the used dye is then used to illuminate tumor cells, still having the dye, and a reaction takes place resulting in the liberation of s inglet oxygen , a very active form of oxygen that damages important biomolecules and results eventually in cell death. The photosensitive dye I ndocyanine green a nd a Ti - Sapphire laser (780 nm wave length ) and power density of 55 m Watt/ cm 2 were used. The percentage of cell death increased slowly with the strength of the PDT until it reached 75% death of the exposed cells at a net dye concentration of 150 u M and laser exposure dose of 60 minute duration.Synchrotron infrared imaging was carried out on control and experimental cultures at the national synchrotron light source (BNL) using FTIR spectro microscopy to reveal the I.R. absorption characteristics of protein, lipids and nucleic acids biomolecules. It was found that increasing the strength of the PDT had an increasingly damaging effect on the concentration of cellular biomolecules, the largest effect being in the protein, lipids and nucleic acid components of the cell. More experiments are planned involving changes in the strengths of the PDT treatments for eventually reaching 100% melanoma cell death

  5. Experimental demonstration of vector E x vector B plasma divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, E.J.; Kerst, D.W.; Sprott, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    The vector E x vector B drift due to an applied radial electric field in a tokamak with poloidal divertor can speed the flow of plasma out of the scrape-off region, and provide a means of externally controlling the flow rate and thus the width of the density fall-off. An experiment in the Wisconsin levitated toroidal octupole, using vector E x vector B drifts alone, demonstrates divertor-like behavior, including 70% reduction of plasma density near the wall and 40% reduction of plasma flux to the wall, with no adverse effects on confinement of the main plasma

  6. Comparison of ATHENA/RELAP results against ice experimental data

    CERN Document Server

    Moore-Richard, L

    2002-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the adequacy of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design from a safety stand point as well as investigating the behavior of two-phase flow phenomena during an ingress of coolant event, an integrated ICE test facility was constructed in Japan. The data generated from the ICE facility offers a valuable means to validate computer codes such as ATHENA /RELAP5, which is one of the codes used at the Idaho National Engineering And Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to evaluate the safety of various fusion reactor concepts. In this paper we compared numerical results generated by the ATHENA code with corresponding test data from the ICE facility. Overall we found good agreement between the test data and the predicted results.

  7. Spectroscopic imaging of limiter heat and particle fluxes and the resulting impurity sources during Wendelstein 7-X startup plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephey, L; Wurden, G A; Schmitz, O; Frerichs, H; Effenberg, F; Biedermann, C; Harris, J; König, R; Kornejew, P; Krychowiak, M; Unterberg, E A

    2016-11-01

    A combined IR and visible camera system [G. A. Wurden et al., "A high resolution IR/visible imaging system for the W7-X limiter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. (these proceedings)] and a filterscope system [R. J. Colchin et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2068 (2003)] were implemented together to obtain spectroscopic data of limiter and first wall recycling and impurity sources during Wendelstein 7-X startup plasmas. Both systems together provided excellent temporal and spatial spectroscopic resolution of limiter 3. Narrowband interference filters in front of the camera yielded C-III and H α photon flux, and the filterscope system provided H α , H β , He-I, He-II, C-II, and visible bremsstrahlung data. The filterscopes made additional measurements of several points on the W7-X vacuum vessel to yield wall recycling fluxes. The resulting photon flux from both the visible camera and filterscopes can then be compared to an EMC3-EIRENE synthetic diagnostic [H. Frerichs et al., "Synthetic plasma edge diagnostics for EMC3-EIRENE, highlighted for Wendelstein 7-X," Rev. Sci. Instrum. (these proceedings)] to infer both a limiter particle flux and wall particle flux, both of which will ultimately be used to infer the complete particle balance and particle confinement time τ P .

  8. Spectroscopic imaging of limiter heat and particle fluxes and the resulting impurity sources during Wendelstein 7-X startup plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephey, L., E-mail: stephey@wisc.edu; Schmitz, O.; Frerichs, H.; Effenberg, F. [University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Wurden, G. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Biedermann, C.; König, R.; Kornejew, P.; Krychowiak, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasma Physik, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Harris, J.; Unterberg, E. A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A combined IR and visible camera system [G. A. Wurden et al., “A high resolution IR/visible imaging system for the W7-X limiter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (these proceedings)] and a filterscope system [R. J. Colchin et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2068 (2003)] were implemented together to obtain spectroscopic data of limiter and first wall recycling and impurity sources during Wendelstein 7-X startup plasmas. Both systems together provided excellent temporal and spatial spectroscopic resolution of limiter 3. Narrowband interference filters in front of the camera yielded C-III and H{sub α} photon flux, and the filterscope system provided H{sub α}, H{sub β}, He-I, He-II, C-II, and visible bremsstrahlung data. The filterscopes made additional measurements of several points on the W7-X vacuum vessel to yield wall recycling fluxes. The resulting photon flux from both the visible camera and filterscopes can then be compared to an EMC3-EIRENE synthetic diagnostic [H. Frerichs et al., “Synthetic plasma edge diagnostics for EMC3-EIRENE, highlighted for Wendelstein 7-X,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (these proceedings)] to infer both a limiter particle flux and wall particle flux, both of which will ultimately be used to infer the complete particle balance and particle confinement time τ{sub P}.

  9. Electrical and thermal behavior of unsaturated soils: experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouveau, Marie; Grandjean, Gilles; Leroy, Philippe; Philippe, Mickael; Hedri, Estelle; Boukcim, Hassan

    2016-05-01

    When soil is affected by a heat source, some of its properties are modified, and in particular, the electrical resistivity due to changes in water content. As a result, these changes affect the thermal properties of soil, i.e., its thermal conductivity and diffusivity. We experimentally examine the changes in electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity for four soils with different grain size distributions and clay content over a wide range of temperatures, from 20 to 100 °C. This temperature range corresponds to the thermal conditions in the vicinity of a buried high voltage cable or a geothermal system. Experiments were conducted at the field scale, at a geothermal test facility, and in the laboratory using geophysical devices and probing systems. The results show that the electrical resistivity decreases and the thermal conductivity increases with temperature up to a critical temperature depending on soil types. At this critical temperature, the air volume in the pore space increases with temperature, and the resulting electrical resistivity also increases. For higher temperatures , the thermal conductivity increases sharply with temperature up to a second temperature limit. Beyond it, the thermal conductivity drops drastically. This limit corresponds to the temperature at which most of the water evaporates from the soil pore space. Once the evaporation is completed, the thermal conductivity stabilizes. To explain these experimental results, we modeled the electrical resistivity variations with temperature and water content in the temperature range 20 - 100°C, showing that two critical temperatures influence the main processes occurring during heating at temperatures below 100 °C.

  10. Experimental results of the ATF in-line injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.J.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Batchelor, K.

    1995-01-01

    The initial experimental results of the Brookhaven accelerator test facility (ATF) in-line injector is presented. The ATF in-line injector employed a full copper RF gun with a pair of solenoid magnets for emittance compensation. The maximum acceleration field of the RF gun was measured to be 130 MV/m. The electron yield from the copper cathode was maximized using p- polarized laser and the Schottky effect. The quantum efficiency under optimum conditions was measured to be 0.04%. The measured electron bunch length was less than 11 ps, which agreed with the laser pulse length measurement using a streak camera. The normalized rms. emittance for 0.25 nC charge is 0.9 ± 0.1 mm-mrad, which is almost four times smaller than the emittance predicted by the space-charge effect for a non-emittance compensation photocathode RF gun. The normalized rms for 0.6 nC charge was measured range from 1 to 3 mm-mrad. This measurement was first experimental demonstration of emittance compensation in a high-gradient, S-band photocathode RF gun

  11. Interpretation of PISCES -- A RF antenna system experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothweil, D.A.; Phelps, D.A.; Doerner, R.

    1995-10-01

    The paper describes experimental data from rf coupling experiments using one to four coil antenna arrays that encircle a linear magnetized plasma column. Experimental results using single turn coil that produce symmetric (i.e. m = 0), dipole (m = 1), and radial rf magnetic fields for coupling to ion waves are compared. By operating without a Faraday shield, it was observed for the first time that the plasma resistive load seen by these different antenna types tends to increase with the number of turns to at least the second power. A four-turn m = 0 coil experienced a record 3--5 Ω loading, corresponding to over 90% power coupling to the plasma. A four-turn m = 1 coil experienced up to 1--1.5 Ω loading, also higher than previous observations. First time observations using a two coil array of m = 0 coil are also reported. As predicted, the loading decreases with increasing phase between coil from 0 degree to 180 degree. Experiments using four coil arrays were difficult to optimize and interpret primarily due to complexity of the manual tuning. To facilitate this optimization in the future, a proposed feedback control system that automatically matches load variations between 0.2 and 10 Ω is described

  12. Experimental and numerical results from hybrid retrofitted photovoltaic panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Cecilia; Tagliafico, Luca A.; Scarpa, Federico; Bianco, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The experimental study focuses on the feasibility of hybrid PV/T panels retrofitting. • The critical role of a thin layer of air between PV panel and back plate is evidenced. • The benefit of the addition of a conductive paste layer is analyzed via FEM simulations. • The use of wood ribs to stick the back plate represents a cheap effective solution. - Abstract: The aim of present study is to investigate different methodologies to achieve a better contact between a photovoltaic panel and a thermal plate, in order to cool the PV panel by means of water in the perspective of coupling it with a heat pump. It is believed that this kind of system allows to obtain a higher energy efficiency. The analysis is developed both experimentally and numerically, testing different kinds of configurations in different operating conditions. Simulations are employed to analyze the effect of the variations of the contact resistance between the panel and the thermal plates, demonstrating that the use of a conductive paste increases the overall performance of the panel. Results show interesting possibilities in terms of retrofitting of existing photovoltaic panels by employing very simple solutions, such as to fix the thermal plate on the rear of the panel by means of wood ribs

  13. Automation in dairy cattle milking: experimental results and considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisanna Speroni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of two experimental programs financed to the Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia are presented. The objective of the two Italian programs was the verify if automatic milking is a suitable practice for Italian dairy system. Results are summarised and compared to those obtained in other international projects. Results refer to animal behaviour, milk yield, milk quality an animal welfare. In a trial comparing cows milked with an automatic milking system and cows milked in a milking parlour, we observed that when the temperature and humidity are very high cows reduce their activity, have lower milking frequency and milk yield than in cold seasons. In comparison to milking parlour, automatic milking system did not increase milk yield which was affected significantly by season, stage of lactation, parity, season per treatment and parity per treatment. The causes of the negative results obtained by this group and by other international groups are discussed. We also presented the results obtained in four trials thereby four appetizers or flavourings were tested to improve efficiency of automatic milking system. Comparing the two milking systems, automatic milking determined a worsening of milk quality, but from these data is not possible to exclude the possibility to use automatic milking for Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano-type cheeses. Animal welfare is not negatively influenced by automatic milking system, which has the potentiality to improve the control and care of cows.

  14. Experimental installation of refrigeration solar-first results; Instalacion experimental de refrigeracion solar-primeros resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moone, C.; Guallar, J.; Alonso, S.; Palacin, F.

    2008-07-01

    In this article they are and the first results of an installation of solar refrigeration composed by a field of flat solar collector are analysed and absorption chillers of simple effect (BrLi-H{sub 2}O), used to give cold to a gymnasium of the university sport pavilion. The data correspond to the registered experimental values during the summer of 2007 (months of June, Julio and August). (Author)

  15. Hyperfine interactions and electric dipole moments in the [16.0]1.5(v = 6), [16.0]3.5(v = 7), and X2Δ(5/2) states of iridium monosilicide, IrSi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Anh; Steimle, Timothy C; Morse, Michael D; Garcia, Maria A; Cheng, Lan; Stanton, John F

    2013-12-19

    The (6,0)[16.0]1.5-X(2)Δ(5/2) and (7,0)[16.0]3.5-X(2)Δ(5/2) bands of IrSi have been recorded using high-resolution laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The field-free spectra of the (191)IrSi and (193)IrSi isotopologues were modeled to generate a set of fine, magnetic hyperfine, and nuclear quadrupole hyperfine parameters for the X(2)Δ(5/2)(v = 0), [16.0]1.5(v = 6), and [16.0]3.5 (v = 7) states. The observed optical Stark shifts for the (193)IrSi and (191)IrSi isotopologues were analyzed to produce the permanent electric dipole moments, μ(el), of -0.414(6) D and 0.782(6) D for the X(2)Δ(5/2) and [16.0]1.5 (v = 6) states, respectively. Properties of the X(2)Δ(5/2) state computed using relativistic coupled-cluster methods clearly indicate that electron correlation plays an essential role. Specifically, inclusion of correlation changes the sign of the dipole moment and is essential for achieving good accuracy for the nuclear quadrupole coupling parameter eQq0.

  16. Structural dependence of the efficiency of functionalization of silica-coated FeO{sub x} magnetic nanoparticles studied by ATR-IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Angelo; Shnitko, Ivan [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang Pauli Strasse 10, Hoenggerberg, HCI, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Teleki, Alexandra [Institute of Process Engineering, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Weyeneth, Stephen [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Pratsinis, Sotiris E. [Institute of Process Engineering, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Baiker, Alfons, E-mail: baiker@chem.ethz.ch [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang Pauli Strasse 10, Hoenggerberg, HCI, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    The efficiency of propylamino functionalization of magnetic silica-coated FeO{sub x} nanoparticles prepared by different methods, including coprecipitation and flame aerosol synthesis, has been evaluated by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) combined with a specific surface reaction, thus revealing the availability of the grafted functional groups. Large differences in the population of reactive groups were observed for the investigated materials, underlining the tight relation between the structure of nanoparticles and their suitability for organic functionalization. The materials possessed different core structure, surface area, and porosity, as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. Grafting of aminopropyl groups using a standard procedure based on reaction with (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane as source of the propylamino groups was performed, followed by classical dry analysis methods to determine the specific concentration of the organic functional groups (in mmol g{sup -1} of material). ATR-IR spectroscopy in a specially constructed reactor cell was applied as wet methodology to determine the chemically available amount of such functional groups, showing that the materials possess largely different loading capacity, with a variability of up to 70% in the chemical availability of the organic functional group. The amount of (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane used for functionalization was optimized, thus reaching a saturation limit characteristic of the material.

  17. The feasibility of boron containing phosphors in thermal neutron image plates, in particular the systems M sub 2 B sub 5 O sub 9 X : Eu sup 2 sup + (M=Ca, Sr, Ba; X=Cl, Br) Part II: experimental results

    CERN Document Server

    Knitel, M J; Dorenbos, P; Eijk, C W E; Berezovskaya, I V; Dotsenko, V

    2000-01-01

    The storage phosphor properties of the compounds M sub 2 B sub 5 O sub 9 X : Eu sup 2 sup + (M=Ca, Sr, Ba; X=Cl, Br) have been studied. The best compounds, Sr sub 2 B sub 5 O sub 9 Br : Eu sup 2 sup + and Ca sub 2 B sub 5 O sub 9 Br : Eu sup 2 sup + , show a photostimulated luminescence yield of, respectively, 21 and 14 photons per incident thermal neutron. They contain natural boron. With these yields, image plates with detective quantum efficiency values of more than 40% are envisaged when using enriched sup 1 sup 0 B, but the stimulation energy at 633 nm is too high.

  18. Blanking and piercing theory, applications and recent experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A. I. O.

    2013-01-01

    Blanking and piercing are manufacturing processes by which certain geometrical shapes are sheared off a sheet metal. If the sheared off part is the one required, the processes referred to as blanking and if the remaining part in the sheet is the one required, the process is referred to as piercing. In this paper, the theory and practice of these processes are reviewed and discussed The main parameters affecting these processes are presented and discussed. These include: the radial clearance percentage, punch and die geometrical parameters, for example punch and die profile radii. The above mentioned parameters on the force and energy required to effect blanking together with their effect on the quality of the products are also presented and discussed. Recent experimental results together with photomacrographs and photomicrographs are also included and discussed. Finally, the effect of punch and die wear on the quality of the blanks is also given and discussed. (author)

  19. Blanking and piercing theory, applications and recent experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, Adnan l O

    2014-01-01

    Blanking and piercing are manufacturing processes by which certain geometrical shapes are sheared off a sheet metal. If the sheared off part is the one required, the processes referred to as blanking and if the remaining part in the sheet is the one required, the process is referred to as piercing. In this paper, the theory and practice of these processes are reviewed and discussed The main parameters affecting these processes are presented and discussed. These include: the radial clearance percentage, punch and die geometrical parameters, for example punch and die profile radii. The abovementioned parameters on the force and energy required to effect blanking together with their effect on the quality of the products are also presented and discussed. Recent experimental results together with photomacrographs and photomicrographs are also included and discussed. Finally, the effect of punch and die wear on the quality of the blanks is alsogiven and discussed

  20. Experimental results of some cluster tests in NSRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shinsho; Ohnishi, Nobuaki; Yoshimura, Tomio; Lussie, W.G.

    1978-01-01

    The NSRR programme is in progress in JAERI using a pulsed reactor to evaluate the behavior of reactor fuels under reactivity accident conditions. This report describes briefly the experimental results and preliminary analysis of two cluster tests. In the cluster configuration of five fuel rods, the power distribution in outer fuel rods are not symmetric due to neutron absorption in central fuel rod. The cladding temperature on the exterior boundaries of the cluster is higher than that in interior. Good agreement was obtained between the calculated and measured cladding temperature histories. In the 3.8$ excess reactivity test, cluster averaged energy deposition of 237 cal/g.UO 2 , cladding melting and deformation were limited to the portions of the fuel rods that were on the exterior boundaries of the cluster. (auth.)

  1. Quasi-simultaneous observations of BL Lac object Mrk 501 in X-ray, UV, visible, IR, and radio frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.; Worrall, D.M.; Mushotzky, R.F.; Hackney, R.L.; Hackney, K.R.H.; Oke, J.B.; Yee, H.K.C.; Neugebauer, G.; Matthews, K.; Feldman, P.A.; Brown, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Quasi-simultaneous observations of the BL Lac object Mrk 501 were performed for the first time at X-ray, ultraviolet, visible infrared, and radio frequencies. As the BL Lac objects are known to vary in their flux, such a ''quasi-instantaneous'' spectral energy profile is necessary in order to describe properly the energy generation mechanism. The observed spectral slope from the X-ray to UV regions is positive and continuous, but that from the mid-UV to visible light region becomes gradually flat and possibly turns down toward lower frequencies; the optical-radio emission cannot be accounted for by a single power law. Several theoretical models have been considered for the emission mechanism. In some cases quantitative comparison with the data is not practical. However, most of the models are, at least, not inconsistent with the observations. A quantitative comparison has been peformed with the synchroton self-Compton model; the total spectrum is found consistent with this model. The spectrum from visible light to X-ray is consistent with synchrotron radiation or with inverse-Compton scattering by a hot thermal cloud of electrons. The continuity of the spectral slope from X-ray to UV implied by the current data suggests that the previous estimates of the total luminosity of this BL Lac object has been underestimated by a factor of about 3 or 4

  2. X-shooter: UV-to-IR intermediate-resolution high-efficiency spectrograph for the ESO VLT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Odorico, S.; Andersen, M.I.; Conconi, P.; De Caprio, V.; Delabre, B.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Dekker, H.; Downing, M.D.; Finger, G.; Groot, P.; Hanenburg, H.H.; Hammer, F.; Horville, D.; Hjorth, J.; Kaper, L.; Klougart, J.; Kjaergaard-Rasmussen, P.; Lizon, J.-L.; Marteaud, M.; Mazzoleni, R.; Michaelsen, N.; Pallavicini, R.; Rigal, F.; Santin, P.; Norup Soerensen, A.; Spano, P.; Venema, L.; Vola, P.; Zerbi, F.M.; Hasinger, G.; Turner, M.J.L.

    2004-01-01

    X-shooter is a single target spectrograph for the Cassegrain focus of one of the VLT UTs. It covers in a single exposure the spectral range from the UV to the H band with a possible extension into part of the K band. It is designed to maximize the sensitivity in this spectral range through the

  3. Far IR spectra of Th(IV) halide complexes of some heterocyclic bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.K.; Agarwal, R.K.; Srivastava, M.; Kapoor, V.; Srivastava, T.N.

    1981-01-01

    The synthesis and IR spectra of Th(IV) perchlorato, nitrato and thiocyanato complexes of some heterocyclic bases have been reported. Halogens are common ligands in coordination chemistry forming coordinate bonds with metals readily. Metal halogen (M-X) stretching bands show a strong absorption in the far-IR region. Very little information is available on Th-X stretching frequencies. In the present communication, adducts of Th(IV) halide with certain nitrogen heterocyclic bases such as pyridine, α-picoline, 2-amino pyridine, 2:4-lutidine, 2:6-lutidine, quinoline, 2,2'-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline were synthesised and characterised. Experimental details are given. Results are presented and discussed. (author)

  4. Crystal growth and characterization of Ir-Te compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurzhals, Philipp; Weber, Frank; Zocco, Diego; Adelmann, Peter; Merz, Michael; Wolf, Thomas; Kuntz, Sebastian; Grube, Kai [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Solid State Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    IrTe{sub 2} is distinguished by a structural phase transition whose origin is not understood up to the present day. We grew crystals using the self-flux method starting from the reagents iridium and tellurium and got specimen with varying amounts of IrTe{sub 2} and Ir{sub 3}Te{sub 8}, analyzed by x-ray powder diffraction. We studied the transition near T = 280 K in magnetization measurements down to T = 1.8 K probing also for superconductivity, which was reported for intercalated samples. Results indicate that the structural transition happens over an extended range in temperature and superconductivity is absent in our samples. Ir{sub 3}Te{sub 8} is not studied to such an extent as IrTe{sub 2}. In previous publications a structural phase transition is reported. We characterized the transition by performing magnetization measurements and X-ray diffraction.

  5. Integrated assessment of thermal hydraulic processes in W7-X fusion experimental facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaliatka, T., E-mail: tadas.kaliatka@lei.lt; Uspuras, E.; Kaliatka, A.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The model of Ingress of Coolant Event experiment facility was developed using the RELAP5 code. • Calculation results were compared with Ingress of Coolant Event experiment data. • Using gained experience, the numerical model of Wendelstein 7-X facility was developed. • Performed analysis approved pressure increase protection system for LOCA event. - Abstract: Energy received from the nuclear fusion reaction is one of the most promising options for generating large amounts of carbon-free energy in the future. However, physical and technical problems existing in this technology are complicated. Several experimental nuclear fusion devices around the world have already been constructed, and several are under construction. However, the processes in the cooling system of the in-vessel components, vacuum vessel and pressure increase protection system of nuclear fusion devices are not widely studied. The largest amount of radioactive materials is concentrated in the vacuum vessel of the fusion device. Vacuum vessel is designed for the vacuum conditions inside the vessel. Rupture of the in-vessel components of the cooling system pipe may lead to a sharp pressure increase and possible damage of the vacuum vessel. To prevent the overpressure, the pressure increase protection system should be designed and implemented. Therefore, systematic and detailed experimental and numerical studies, regarding the thermal-hydraulic processes in cooling system, vacuum vessel and pressure increase protection system, are important and relevant. In this article, the numerical investigation of thermal-hydraulic processes in cooling systems of in-vessel components, vacuum vessels and pressure increase protection system of fusion devices is presented. Using the experience gained from the modelling of “Ingress of Coolant Event” experimental facilities, the numerical model of Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) experimental fusion device was developed. The integrated analysis of the

  6. Generation and application of soft-X-ray by means of inverse compton scattering between high quality election beam and IR laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washio, M.; Sakaue, K.; Hama, Y.; Kamiya, Y.; Moriyama, R.; Hezume, K.; Saito, T.; Kuroda, R.; Kashiwagi, S.; Ushida, K.; Hayano, H.; Urakawa, J.

    2006-01-01

    High quality beam generation project based on High-Tech Research Center Project, which has been approved by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in 1999, has been conducted by advance research institute for science and engineering, Waseda University. In the project, laser photo-cathode RF-gun has been selected for the high quality electron beam source. RF cavities with low dark current, which were made by diamond turning technique, have been successfully manufactured. The low emittance electron beam was realized by choosing the modified laser injection technique. The obtained normalized emittance was about 3 mm·mrad at 100 pC of electron charge. The soft X-ray beam generation with the energy of 370 eV, which is in the energy region of so-called 'water window', by inverse Compton scattering has been performed by the collision between IR laser and the low emittance electron beams. (authors)

  7. Experimental and Monte Carlo simulated spectra of a liquid-metal-jet x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marziani, M.; Gambaccini, M.; Di Domenico, G.; Taibi, A.; Cardarelli, P.

    2014-01-01

    A prototype x-ray system based on a liquid-metal-jet anode was evaluated within the framework of the LABSYNC project. The generated spectrum was measured using a CZT-based spectrometer and was compared with spectra simulated by three Monte Carlo codes: MCNPX, PENELOPE and EGS5. Notable differences in the simulated spectra were found. These are mainly attributable to differences in the models adopted for the electron-impact ionization cross section. The simulation that more closely reproduces the experimentally measured spectrum was provided by PENELOPE. - Highlights: • The x-ray spectrum of a liquid-jet x-ray anode was measured with a CZT spectrometer. • Results were compared with Monte Carlo simulations using MCNPX, PENELOPE, EGS5. • Notable differences were found among the Monte Carlo simulated spectra. • The key role was played by the electron-impact ionization cross-section model used. • The experimentally measured spectrum was closely reproduced by the PENELOPE code

  8. Internal wave emission from baroclinic jets: experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcia, Ion D.; Rodda, Costanza; Harlander, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale balanced flows can spontaneously radiate meso-scale inertia-gravity waves (IGWs) and are thus in fact unbalanced. While flow-dependent parameterizations for the radiation of IGWs from orographic and convective sources do exist, the situation is less developed for spontaneously emitted IGWs. Observations identify increased IGW activity in the vicinity of jet exit regions. A direct interpretation of those based on geostrophic adjustment might be tempting. However, directly applying this concept to the parameterization of spontaneous imbalance is difficult since the dynamics itself is continuously re-establishing an unbalanced flow which then sheds imbalances by GW radiation. Examining spontaneous IGW emission in the atmosphere and validating parameterization schemes confronts the scientist with particular challenges. Due to its extreme complexity, GW emission will always be embedded in the interaction of a multitude of interdependent processes, many of which are hardly detectable from analysis or campaign data. The benefits of repeated and more detailed measurements, while representing the only source of information about the real atmosphere, are limited by the non-repeatability of an atmospheric situation. The same event never occurs twice. This argues for complementary laboratory experiments, which can provide a more focused dialogue between experiment and theory. Indeed, life cycles are also examined in rotating-annulus laboratory experiments. Thus, these experiments might form a useful empirical benchmark for theoretical and modeling work that is also independent of any sort of subgrid model. In addition, the more direct correspondence between experimental and model data and the data reproducibility makes lab experiments a powerful testbed for parameterizations. Here we show first results from a small rotating annulus experiments and we will further present our new experimental facility to study wave emission from jets and fronts.

  9. An i.r. investigation on some calcium aluminate hydrates, Ca2Al(OH)6+X-.yH2O (= 3CaO.Al2O3.CaX2.nH2O, X- = univalent anion)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtepen, C.J.M.; Stein, H.N.

    1976-01-01

    The i.r. spectra of some hydrated and dehydrated calcium aluminate hydrates of the type Ca2Al(OH)6+X-·yH2O with X- = Cl-, Br-, J-, ClO3-, NO3-, ClO4- (y = 2) and X- = BrO3-, JO3- (2

  10. Optical, Near-IR, and X-Ray Observations of SN 2015J and Its Host Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucita, A. A.; De Paolis, F.; Saxton, R.; Testa, V.; Strafella, F.; Read, A.; Licchelli, D.; Ingrosso, G.; Convenga, F.; Boutsia, K.

    2017-12-01

    SN 2015J was discovered on 2015 April 27th and is classified as an SN IIn. At first, it appeared to be an orphan SN candidate, I.e., without any clear identification of its host galaxy. Here, we present an analysis of the observations carried out by the VLT 8 m class telescope with the FORS2 camera in the R band and the Magellan telescope (6.5 m) equipped with the IMACS Short-Camera (V and I filters) and the FourStar camera (Ks filter). We show that SN 2015J resides in what appears to be a very compact galaxy, establishing a relation between the SN event and its natural host. We also present and discuss archival and new X-ray data centered on SN 2015J. At the time of the supernova explosion, Swift/XRT observations were made and a weak X-ray source was detected at the location of SN 2015J. Almost one year later, the same source was unambiguously identified during serendipitous observations by Swift/XRT and XMM-Newton, clearly showing an enhancement of the 0.3-10 keV band flux by a factor ≃ 30 with respect to the initial state. Swift/XRT observations show that the source is still active in the X-rays at a level of ≃ 0.05 counts s-1. The unabsorbed X-ray luminosity derived from the XMM-Newton slew and SWIFT observations, {L}x≃ 5× {10}41 erg s-1, places SN 2015J among the brightest young supernovae in X-rays. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA, with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla-Paranal Observatory under program ID 298.D-5016(A), and with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. We also acknowledge the use of public data from the Swift data archive.

  11. Experimental Results of Guided Wave Travel Time Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Arno; Mast, Arjan; Bloom, Joost

    2010-02-01

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Currently inspections are conducted at regular intervals to ensure a sufficient integrity level of these assets. Both economical and social requirements are pushing the industry to even higher levels of availability, reliability and safety of installations. The concept of predictive maintenance using permanent sensors that monitor the integrity of an installation is an interesting addition to the current method of periodic inspections reducing uncertainty and extending inspection intervals. Guided wave travel time tomography is a promising method to monitor the wall thickness quantitatively over large areas. Obviously the robustness and reliability of such a monitoring system is of paramount importance. Laboratory experiments have been carried out on a 10″ pipe with a nominal wall thickness of 8 mm. Multiple, inline defects have been created with a realistic morphology. The depth of the defects was increased stepwise from 0.5 mm to 2 mm. Additionally the influences of the presence of liquid inside the pipe and surface roughness have been evaluated as well. Experimental results show that this method is capable of providing quantitative wall thickness information over a distance of 4 meter, with a sufficient accuracy such that results can be used for trending. The method has no problems imaging multiple defects.

  12. New experimental results on beam-plasma interaction in solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzhannikov, A.V.; Burdakov, A.V.; Kapitonov, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    New results are presented on studying the beam-plasma interaction and plasma heating dynamics at the INAR device. The specific features of the generation of ''hot'' (E greater than or ∼ 1 keV) plasma electrons containing the main part of the plasma energy are studied. In the case of a beam with a small initial angular spread, the ''hot'' electrons are shown to be mainly generated near the point where the beam is injected into the plasma. Also reported are the results of the experiments in which the magnetic field in the beam-plasma interaction region was increased up to 70 kOe. In this case, at the plasma length of 75 cm, the total beam energy losses exceed 40%. The growth of the plasma energy content at higher magnetic field is observed. The first stage of the GOL-3 experiment is described which is aimed at the study of the plasma heating is solonoid by a 100 kJ microsecond electron beam. This new experimental device is now ready for operation (author)

  13. Theoretical and Experimental Results Regarding LENR/CF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert W. Bass; Wm. Stan Gleeson

    2000-01-01

    We challenge the predominant view that low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) are prohibited by standard quantum mechanics (QM). This view, supposedly based on standard nuclear theory, need not apply in condensed-matter environments. These considerations indicate that seemingly novel experimental evidence of rapid aneutronic bulk-process transmutation, at extraordinarily low-energy levels, in a simple electrochemical reactor, can occur. This explains: (a) induced rapid decay of radioactive thorium into stable nuclides, e.g., Cu and (b) resulting, anomalous distribution of Cu isotopes. We reexamine arguments of Peebles cited as evidence that standard QM 'forbids' cold fusion (CF). We note oversimplifications in those and present an alternative, more sophisticated calculation (see Bass, Refs. 3 through 8) demonstrating that conventional wisdom about impenetrability of the 'Coulomb barrier' fails as a result of periodic-order-induced resonance. We also examine empirical evidence. In three independent tests of an LENR electrolysis cell, using different I-V-T (current/voltage/time) protocols, the percentage of radiation reduction (RR) transmutation achieved η=[23%, 50%, 83%] versus expended energy E=[0.6535, 32.5, 74.6] (Watt-hours), obtained by numerical integration of recorded product I · V for processing time T, provides near-perfect straight-line correlation: η=α·E + η 0 , α=0.8105, η 0 =22.888, (0.65 < E < 0.75)

  14. Experimentally increasing sedentary behavior results in decreased life satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan K. Edwards

    2017-03-01

    behavior-inducing randomized controlled intervention on life satisfaction. Methods: Active, young adults between the ages of 18-35 were recruited and randomly assigned into a sedentary behavior intervention group (n = 26 or a control group (n = 13. The intervention group participants were instructed to eliminate all exercise and restrict daily steps (as measured via pedometry to 5000 or less per day for one week. The control group was instructed to maintain regular levels of exercise and other physical activity for one week. Both groups completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS pre-intervention and immediately post-intervention. Results: There was a significant group x time interaction (F = 32.75, P < 0.001, with post-hoc contrast tests indicating decreased SWLS score (indicating lower levels of life satisfaction in the intervention group during Visit 2 (post-intervention compared with Visit 1 (pre-intervention; this corresponded with a mean absolute (Visit 2 minus Visit 1 change of -8.58 (95% CI: -5.91, -11.24 for SWLS scores in the intervention group (31.1% reduction. Conclusion: A one-week sedentary behavior-inducing intervention may negatively impact life satisfaction in an active, young adult population. Regular physical activity may be imperative in avoiding negative life satisfaction-related consequences.

  15. Theoretical analysis of experimental results on SG-1 FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhenhua; Wu Shangqing; Tian Shihong; Dong Zhiwei; Wu Yupu

    1994-01-01

    In order to study the SG-1 FEL and the beam transport thoroughly, and draw certain quantitative conclusions, we developed 3-D WAGFEL code to describe the FEL evolution and 3-D CEBQ code to describe the beam transport. The CEBQ code can simulate the 3-D transport of the electron beam in the modulation section with linear approximation of space charge. According to the first ASE experiments results, the LIA provided a 2 kA, 3.0 MeV beam with a normalized emittance of 0.6 πrad·cm, an energy spread (FWHM) of 4%, resulting in a beam brightness nearly 10 8 A/(πm·rad) 2 . The numerical simulation showed that the quality of the beam was good enough to abandon the 9-m long beam line and substitute it with a 2-m long drifting and focusing region. The second series of ASE and amplifier experiments began in October 1992. The beam transport section was modified. The ASE output power, the amplifier output power and detuning curve was measured. We analysed the experimental results using the WAGFEL and CEBQ codes with parameters equal to those of experiments. Firstly we followed 4096 electrons to simulate the transport process of the beam in the beam line under the condition of I = 2 kA, r b = 1 cm, γ = 6.8, Δγ/γ 4%, ε rms = 0.6 (πrad·cm). Through the simulation, we predicted that the beam current injected into the wiggler was about 611 A. Based on these beam parameters at the entrance of the wiggler, we simulated the FEL process with P in = 300 W. The results are also in Fig.7,8,9

  16. Review of JT-60U experimental results in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    The results of JT-60U experiments in 2000, from February to December, are reviewed. The performance under the full non-inductive current drive has been greatly advanced both in high β p H-mode plasmas and in reversed shear (RS) plasmas. In the high β p H-mode, with injection of the negative ion based neutral beam (NNB) of 360 keV and 4 MW into a high electron temperature plasma (T e (0) ∼ 13 keV), a high fusion triple product n D (0)T i (0)τ E = 2.0 x 10 20 keVm -3 s has been obtained at the plasma current of 1.5 MA, and the highest value of current drive efficiency of NNB (1.55 x 10 19 A/W/m 2 ) has been achieved. In RS, LHCD and NNB-CD were employed for current drive and high confinement (HH y2 ∼ 1.4) at high density (f GW ∼ 0.80) has been achieved. In the 110 GHz ECRF system, two more gyrotrons have been installed in addition to the one installed in 1999 and 1.5 MW was injected into the torus for 3 s. Complete stabilization of neoclassical tearing mode (NTM), realization of high confinement plasmas with T e ∼ T i , a high value (1 MA) of NNB-driven current in the high T e regime, and measurement of localized EC driven current were achieved with the upgraded EC system. The multiple pellet injection system has been newly installed. In high power NB heated plasmas, high-field-side pellet injection was more effective than low-field-side injection, and it extended the regime of high confinement high β p H-mode to a higher density. A new method, called CCS (Cauchy-condition surface method), for the control of the plasma position and shape in real-time became available and was found very useful especially for the control of plasma-wall clearance in LH and IC experiments. The active control of ITB strength by the switch of the injection direction of toroidal angular momentum was successfully demonstrated. In high triangularity H-mode plasmas, higher pressure and temperature at the edge pedestal were observed, which resulted in higher temperature and

  17. Experimental investigation of void coalescence in a dual phase steel using X-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landron, C.; Bouaziz, O.; Maire, E.; Adrien, J.

    2013-01-01

    In situ tensile tests were carried out during X-ray microtomography imaging of a smooth and a notched specimen of dual phase steel. The void coalescence was first qualitatively observed and quantitative data concerning this damage step was then acquired. The void coalescence criteria of Brown and Embury and of Thomason were then tested against the experimental data at both the macroscopic and local levels. Although macroscopic implementation of the criteria gave acceptable results, the local approach was probably closest to the real nature of void coalescence, because it takes into account local coalescence events observed experimentally before final fracture. The correlation between actual coalescing couples of cavities and local implementation of the two criteria showed that the Thomason criterion is probably the best adapted to predict the local coalescence events in the case of the material studied

  18. Observation of MHD fluctuation by ECE on W7-X first experimental campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Hayato; Hirsch, Matthias; Weir, Gavin; Hofel, Udo; Beurskens, Marc; Masuzaki, Suguru; W7-X Team

    2016-10-01

    Wendelstein 7-X is an optimized stellarator for ECRH high density steady-state discharges at reactor relevant collisionality regimes. The first experiment (OP1.1) was successfully conducted from Dec.2015. ECE (Electron Cyclotron Emission diagnostic) is one of the main diagnostic during the first experimental campaign. The 2nd harmonic x-mode emission is obtained by outside-antenna and detected by 32-channel heterodyne radiometer. The frequency band is from 126GHz to 162GHz. Radiometers are calibrated by LN2 temperature and room temperature. The absolute calibration error was estimated to be 10%. The electron temperature radial profile obtained by ECE agrees the Thomson scattering and imaging X-ray spectroscopy result. The asymmetric profile is still indicated due to mix of O2-mode. Fluctuations derived from MHD instability are often observed by electron temperature and magnetic fluctuations. The radial mode structure is clearly identified by ECE. It indicates the existence of magnetic island and from its appearance on both sides of the X2 emission spectrum the knowledge on the localization of the ECE channels can be improved by symmetrization.

  19. Design and experimental results of coaxial circuits for gyroklystron amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaherty, M.K.E.; Lawson, W.; Cheng, J.; Calame, J.P.; Hogan, B.; Latham, P.E.; Granatstein, V.L.

    1994-01-01

    At the University of Maryland high power microwave source development for use in linear accelerator applications continues with the design and testing of coaxial circuits for gyroklystron amplifiers. This presentation will include experimental results from a coaxial gyroklystron that was tested on the current microwave test bed, and designs for second harmonic coaxial circuits for use in the next generation of the gyroklystron program. The authors present test results for a second harmonic coaxial circuit. Similar to previous second harmonic experiments the input cavity resonated at 9.886 GHz and the output frequency was 19.772 GHz. The coaxial insert was positioned in the input cavity and drift region. The inner conductor consisted of a tungsten rod with copper and ceramic cylinders covering its length. Two tungsten rods that bridged the space between the inner and outer conductors supported the whole assembly. The tube produced over 20 MW of output power with 17% efficiency. Beam interception by the tungsten rods resulted in minor damage. Comparisons with previous non-coaxial circuits showed that the coaxial configuration increased the parameter space over which stable operation was possible. Future experiments will feature an upgraded modulator and beam formation system capable of producing 300 MW of beam power. The fundamental frequency of operation is 8.568 GHz. A second harmonic coaxial gyroklystron circuit was designed for use in the new system. A scattering matrix code predicts a resonant frequency of 17.136 GHz and Q of 260 for the cavity with 95% of the outgoing microwaves in the desired TE032 mode. Efficiency studies of this second harmonic output cavity show 20% expected efficiency. Shorter second harmonic output cavity designs are also being investigated with expected efficiencies near 34%

  20. The complex metal-rich boride Ti{sub 1+x}Rh{sub 2-x+y}Ir{sub 3-y}B{sub 3} (x=0.68, y=1.06) with a new structure type containing B{sub 4} zigzag fragments: Synthesis, crystal chemistry and theoretical calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerens, Christian [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Landoltweg 1, 52064 Aachen (Germany); Fokwa, Boniface P.T., E-mail: boniface.fokwa@ac.rwth-aachen.de [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Landoltweg 1, 52064 Aachen (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Polycrystalline samples and single crystals of the new complex boride Ti{sub 1+x}Rh{sub 2-x+y}Ir{sub 3-y}B{sub 3} (x=0.68; y=1.06) were synthesized by arc-melting the elements in a water-cooled copper crucible under an argon atmosphere and characterized by X-Ray diffraction as well as EDX measurements. The crystal structure was refined on the basis of single crystal data. The new phase, which represents a new structure type containing trans zigzag B{sub 4} fragments as well as isolated boron atoms crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbam (Nr. 55) with the lattice parameters a=8.620(1) A, b=14.995(2) A and c=3.234(1) A. First-principles density functional theory calculations using the Vienna ab-initio simulation package (VASP) were performed on an appropriate structural model (using a supercell approach) and the experimental crystallographic data could be reproduced accurately. Based on this model, the density of states and crystal orbital Hamilton population (for bonding analysis) were calculated, using the linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation (LMTO-ASA) method. According to these calculations, this metal-rich compound should be metallic, as expected. Furthermore, very strong boron-boron interactions are observed in the trans zigzag B{sub 4} fragment, which induce a clear differentiation of two types of metal-boron contacts with different strength. The observed three-dimensional metal-metal interaction is in good agreement with the predicted metallic behavior. - graphical abstract: The structure of Ti{sub 1.68(2)}Rh{sub 2.38(6)}Ir{sub 1.94(4)} B{sub 3}, a new structure type containing planar trans zigzag B{sub 4} units, is another example which illustrates the tendency of metal-rich borides to form B-B bonds with increasing boron content. Beside the B{sub 4} fragment it exhibits one-dimensional chains of titanium atoms and hold one-dimensional strings of face-sharing empty tetrahedral and square pyramidal clusters (see figure). Highlights

  1. Experimental results for an experimental condensation heat exchanger with a spiral minichanel tube. Comparison to numerical imulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrubý J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes new results for an experimental heat exchanger equipped with a single corrugated capillary tube, basic information about the measurements and the experimental setup. Some of the results were compared with numerical simulations.

  2. Probing Large-scale Coherence between Spitzer IR and Chandra X-Ray Source-subtracted Cosmic Backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelluti, N.; Urry, M. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Arendt, R. [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Kashlinsky, A. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Li, Y.; Hasinger, G. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Helgason, K. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Natarajan, P. [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Finoguenov, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, D-85741, Garching bei München (Germany)

    2017-09-20

    We present new measurements of the large-scale clustering component of the cross-power spectra of the source-subtracted Spitzer -IRAC cosmic infrared background and Chandra -ACIS cosmic X-ray background surface brightness fluctuations Our investigation uses data from the Chandra Deep Field South, Hubble Deep Field North, Extended Groth Strip/AEGIS field, and UDS/SXDF surveys, comprising 1160 Spitzer hours and ∼12 Ms of Chandra data collected over a total area of 0.3 deg{sup 2}. We report the first (>5 σ ) detection of a cross-power signal on large angular scales >20″ between [0.5–2] keV and the 3.6 and 4.5 μ m bands, at ∼5 σ and 6.3 σ significance, respectively. The correlation with harder X-ray bands is marginally significant. Comparing the new observations with existing models for the contribution of the known unmasked source population at z < 7, we find an excess of about an order of magnitude at 5 σ confidence. We discuss possible interpretations for the origin of this excess in terms of the contribution from accreting early black holes (BHs), including both direct collapse BHs and primordial BHs, as well as from scattering in the interstellar medium and intra-halo light.

  3. Comprehensive Evaluation of Algal Biofuel Production: Experimental and Target Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin M. Beal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, algal biofuel research and development efforts have focused on increasing the competitiveness of algal biofuels by increasing the energy and financial return on investments, reducing water intensity and resource requirements, and increasing algal productivity. In this study, analyses are presented in each of these areas—costs, resource needs, and productivity—for two cases: (1 an Experimental Case, using mostly measured data for a lab-scale system, and (2 a theorized Highly Productive Case that represents an optimized commercial-scale production system, albeit one that relies on full-price water, nutrients, and carbon dioxide. For both cases, the analysis described herein concludes that the energy and financial return on investments are less than 1, the water intensity is greater than that for conventional fuels, and the amounts of required resources at a meaningful scale of production amount to significant fractions of current consumption (e.g., nitrogen. The analysis and presentation of results highlight critical areas for advancement and innovation that must occur for sustainable and profitable algal biofuel production can occur at a scale that yields significant petroleum displacement. To this end, targets for energy consumption, production cost, water consumption, and nutrient consumption are presented that would promote sustainable algal biofuel production. Furthermore, this work demonstrates a procedure and method by which subsequent advances in technology and biotechnology can be framed to track progress.

  4. Laser long-range remote-sensing program experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highland, Ronald G.; Shilko, Michael L.; Fox, Marsha J.; Gonglewski, John D.; Czyzak, Stanley R.; Dowling, James A.; Kelly, Brian; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Ruffatto, Donald; Loando, Sharon; Matsuura, Chris; Senft, Daniel C.; Finkner, Lyle; Rae, Joe; Gallegos, Joe

    1995-12-01

    A laser long range remote sensing (LRS) program is being conducted by the United States Air Force Phillips Laboratory (AF/PL). As part of this program, AF/PL is testing the feasibility of developing a long path CO(subscript 2) laser-based DIAL system for remote sensing. In support of this program, the AF/PL has recently completed an experimental series using a 21 km slant- range path (3.05 km ASL transceiver height to 0.067 km ASL target height) at its Phillips Laboratory Air Force Maui Optical Station (AMOS) facility located on Maui, Hawaii. The dial system uses a 3-joule, (superscript 13)C isotope laser coupled into a 0.6 m diameter telescope. The atmospheric optical characterization incorporates information from an infrared scintillometer co-aligned to the laser path, atmospheric profiles from weather balloons launched from the target site, and meteorological data from ground stations at AMOS and the target site. In this paper, we report a description of the experiment configuration, a summary of the results, a summary of the atmospheric conditions and their implications to the LRS program. The capability of such a system for long-range, low-angle, slant-path remote sensing is discussed. System performance issues relating to both coherent and incoherent detection methods, atmospheric limitations, as well as, the development of advanced models to predict performance of long range scenarios are presented.

  5. Experimental result of poloidal limiter baking of Aditya tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadeja, K.A.; Arambhadiya, B.G.; Bhatt, S.B.; Bora, D.

    2005-01-01

    In tokamak Aditya, Poloidal limiter function as the operational limiter and are subjected to very high particles load and heat flux during plasma discharge. In addition, Poloidal limiter is the first material surface to come in contact with the hot plasma. In plasma discharge, the impurity generations from limiter are mostly by adsorbed particles. The baking of limiter provides high degassing rate and thermal desorption of adsorbed particles of limiter to reduce impurities from the limiter tiles. The series of experiments are done with different conditions like, Baking of limiter SS ring by heating element with and without limiter tiles in atmosphere and vacuum. Than Poloidal limiter is structured with 14 numbers of graphite tiles and electrical isolated to the vessel and support structure. As a heating element and for electrical isolation, Nychrome wire and ceramic block with ceramic tubes are used. In addition, Thermo couple and two DC power supply (0-10 Ampere) are used for limiter baking. Mass analyzer gives partial pressures of different species to observe effect of limiter baking. For the period of Poloidal limiter baking in Aditya, the partial pressures of different species like hydrogen, water vapor, and oxygen are extremely increased with time duration. This paper presents series of experimental results of poloidal limiter baking. (author)

  6. Acoustic analysis in Mudejar-Gothic churches: experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of research work in acoustics, conducted in a set of 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. Despite common architectural style, the churches feature individual characteristics and have volumes ranging from 3947 to 10 708 m3. Acoustic parameters were measured in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. An extensive experimental study was carried out using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. It covered aspects such as reverberation (reverberation times, early decay times), distribution of sound levels (sound strength); early to late sound energy parameters derived from the impulse responses (center time, clarity for speech, clarity, definition, lateral energy fraction), and speech intelligibility (rapid speech transmission index), which all take both spectral and spatial distribution into account. Background noise was also measured to obtain the NR indices. The study describes the acoustic field inside each temple and establishes a discussion for each one of the acoustic descriptors mentioned by using the theoretical models available and the principles of architectural acoustics. Analysis of the quality of the spaces for music and speech is carried out according to the most widespread criteria for auditoria.

  7. Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, September 1965: Review Of Experimental Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzer, Lyman Jr. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1966-04-15

    To my way of thinking the most significant milestone of the present meeting is the substantial body of evidence that has been presented on the hydromagnetic stabilization of open-ended systems. The success of minimum magnetic-field ('minimum-B') configurations in stabilizing a plasma marks one more area where theory and experiment in the field of plasma physics have been brought together with gratifying results. Let me go back a little into history and discuss the gradual growth of our information on hydromagnetic instabilities generally. Many of you will remember that hydromagnetic theory was applied to the self-pinched discharge in the early years of the controUed fusion programme. The predictions of this theory were very shortly fulfilled by the observations; the effects were so unmistakable that it was not difficult to compare the theory with the observations. On the streak pictures of the linear or toroidal discharges that were obtained in those early years one saw clearly the diffuse plasma column, which first contracted to a narrow filament and then started to distort and kink until finally it hit the wall. Under some conditions the plasma was observed to break up into a series of blobs like a string of sausages. Since the behaviour was exactly what the theory had predicted, it took no very great experimental wisdom to conclude that observations had confirmed theory.

  8. Experimental results on transport and focusing of laser accelerated protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busold, Simon; Deppert, Oliver; Roth, Markus [TU Darmstadt, IKP, Schlossgartenstr. 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Schumacher, Dennis; Blazevic, Abel; Zielbauer, Bernhard; Hofmann, Ingo; Bagnoud, Vincent [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Brabetz, Christian; Al-Omari, Husam [JWG Universitaet Frankfurt, IAP, Max von Laue Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Joost, Martin; Kroll, Florian; Cowan, Tom [Helmholtzzentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: LIGHT-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Irradiation of thin foils with high-intensity laser pulses became a reliable tool during the last decade for producing high-intensity proton bunches in about a pico-second from a sub-millimeter source. However, the energy distribution is of an exponential shape with a currently achievable cut-off energy <100 MeV (TNSA mechanism) and the beam is highly divergent with an energy-dependent envelope-divergence of up to 60 deg. Thus, for most applications it is necessary to be able to capture and control these protons as well as select a specific energy. In the frame of the LIGHT collaboration, experimental studies were done at the PHELIX laser at GSI Darmstadt using a pulsed high-field solenoid and alternatively a permanent magnet quadrupole triplet in order to match the beam for injection into a RF cavity. The beam was characterized at several distances after the source and the results are compared to particle tracking simulations.

  9. Acoustic analysis in Mudejar-Gothic churches: Experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of research work in acoustics, conducted in a set of 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. Despite common architectural style, the churches feature individual characteristics and have volumes ranging from 3947 to 10 708 m3. Acoustic parameters were measured in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. An extensive experimental study was carried out using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. It covered aspects such as reverberation (reverberation times, early decay times), distribution of sound levels (sound strength); early to late sound energy parameters derived from the impulse responses (center time, clarity for speech, clarity, definition, lateral energy fraction), and speech intelligibility (rapid speech transmission index), which all take both spectral and spatial distribution into account. Background noise was also measured to obtain the NR indices. The study describes the acoustic field inside each temple and establishes a discussion for each one of the acoustic descriptors mentioned by using the theoretical models available and the principles of architectural acoustics. Analysis of the quality of the spaces for music and speech is carried out according to the most widespread criteria for auditoria. .

  10. The complex metal-rich boride Ti1+xRh2-x+yIr3-yB3 (x=0.68, y=1.06) with a new structure type containing B4 zigzag fragments: Synthesis, crystal chemistry and theoretical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerens, Christian; Fokwa, Boniface P. T.

    2012-08-01

    Polycrystalline samples and single crystals of the new complex boride Ti1+xRh2-x+yIr3-yB3 (x=0.68; y=1.06) were synthesized by arc-melting the elements in a water-cooled copper crucible under an argon atmosphere and characterized by X-Ray diffraction as well as EDX measurements. The crystal structure was refined on the basis of single crystal data. The new phase, which represents a new structure type containing trans zigzag B4 fragments as well as isolated boron atoms crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbam (Nr. 55) with the lattice parameters a=8.620(1) Å, b=14.995(2) Å and c=3.234(1) Å. First-principles density functional theory calculations using the Vienna ab-initio simulation package (VASP) were performed on an appropriate structural model (using a supercell approach) and the experimental crystallographic data could be reproduced accurately. Based on this model, the density of states and crystal orbital Hamilton population (for bonding analysis) were calculated, using the linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation (LMTO-ASA) method. According to these calculations, this metal-rich compound should be metallic, as expected. Furthermore, very strong boron-boron interactions are observed in the trans zigzag B4 fragment, which induce a clear differentiation of two types of metal-boron contacts with different strength. The observed three-dimensional metal-metal interaction is in good agreement with the predicted metallic behavior.

  11. A global analysis of recent experimental results: How well determined are the parton distribution functions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfin, J.G.

    1990-08-01

    Following is a brief summary of the results of an analysis of experimental data performed to extract the patron distribution functions. In contrast to other global analyses, this study investigated how the fit results depend on: Experimental Systematic Errors; Kinematic Cuts on the Analyzed Data and Choice of Initial Functional Forms, with a prime goal being a close look at the range of low-x behavior allowed by data. This is crucial for predictions for the SSC/LHC, HERA, and even at Tevatron Collider energies. Since all details can be found in the just released Fermilab preprint Parton Distributions from a Global QCD Analysis of Deep Inelastic Scattering and Lepton-Pair Production by J. G. M. and Wu-Ki Tung, this summary will be only a brief outline of major results. 11 refs., 13 figs

  12. Recent advances in continuum plasticity: phenomenological modeling and experimentation using X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, John Kearney

    This work explores the field of continuum plasticity from two fronts. On the theory side, we establish a complete specification of a phenomenological theory of plasticity for single crystals. The model serves as an alternative to the popular crystal plasticity formulation. Such a model has been previously proposed in the literature; the new contribution made here is the constitutive framework and resulting simulations. We calibrate the model to available data and use a simple numerical method to explore resulting predictions in plane strain boundary value problems. Results show promise for further investigation of the plasticity model. Conveniently, this theory comes with a corresponding experimental tool in X-ray diffraction. Recent advances in hardware technology at synchrotron sources have led to an increased use of the technique for studies of plasticity in the bulk of materials. The method has been successful in qualitative observations of material behavior, but its use in quantitative studies seeking to extract material properties is open for investigation. Therefore in the second component of the thesis several contributions are made to synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments, in terms of method development as well as the quantitative reporting of constitutive parameters. In the area of method development, analytical tools are developed to determine the available precision of this type of experiment—a crucial aspect to determine if the method is to be used for quantitative studies. We also extract kinematic information relating to intragranular inhomogeneity which is not accessible with traditional methods of data analysis. In the area of constitutive parameter identification, we use the method to extract parameters corresponding to the proposed formulation of plasticity for a titanium alloy (HCP) which is continuously sampled by X-ray diffraction during uniaxial extension. These results and the lessons learned from the efforts constitute early reporting

  13. OPERA and MINOS Experimental Result Prove Big Bang Theory Invalid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, David E.

    2012-03-01

    The greatest error in the history of science is the misinterpretation of the Michelson-Morley Experiment. The speed of light was measured to travel at the same speed in all three directions (x, y, z axis) in ones own inertial reference system; however, c will always be measured as having an absolute different speed in all other inertial frames at different energy levels. Time slows down due to motion or a gravity field. Time is the rate of physical process. Speed = Distance/Time. If the time changes the distance must change. Therefore, BOTH mirrors must move towards the center of the interferometer and space must contract in all-three-directions; C-Space. Gravity is a C-Space condition, and is the cause of redshift in our universe-not motion. The universe is not expanding. OPERA results are directly indicated; at the surface of earth, the strength of the gravity field is at maximum-below the earth's surface, time and space is less distorted, C-Space; therefore, c is faster. Newtonian mechanics dictate that a spherical shell of matter at greater radii, with uniform density, produces no net force on an observer located centrally. An observer located on the sphere's surface, like our Earth's or a large sphere, like one located in a remote galaxy, will construct a picture centered on himself to be identical to the one centered inside the spherical shell of mass. Both observers will view the incoming radiation, emitted by the other observer, as redshifted, because they lay on each others radial line. The Universe is static and very old.

  14. SU-F-T-16: Experimental Determination of Ionization Chamber Correction Factors for In-Phantom Measurements of Reference Air Kerma Rate and Absorbed Water Dose Rate of Brachytherapy 192Ir Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, M; Lee, V; Wong, M; Leung, R; Law, G; Lee, K; Cheung, S; Tung, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Following the method of in-phantom measurements of reference air kerma rate (Ka) at 100cm and absorbed water dose rate (Dw1) at 1cm of high-dose-rate 192Ir brachytherapy source using 60Co absorbed-dose-to-water calibrated (ND,w,60Co) ionization chamber (IC), we experimentally determined the in-phantom correction factors (kglob) of the PTW30013 (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) IC by comparing the Monte Carlo (MC)-calculated kglob of the other PTW30016 IC. Methods: The Dw1 formalism of in-phantom measurement is: M*ND,w,60Co*(kglob)Dw1, where M is the collected charges, and (kglob)Dw1 the in-phantom Dw1 correction factor. Similarly, Ka is determined by M*ND,w,60Co*(kglob)ka, where (kglob)ka the in-phantom Ka correction factor. Two thimble ICs PTW30013 and another PTW30016 having a ND,w,60Co from the German primary standard laboratory (PTB) were simultaneously exposed to the microselectron 192Ir v2 source at 8cm in a PMMA phantom. A reference well chamber (PTW33004) with a PTB transfer Ka calibration Nka was used for comparing the in-phantom measurements to derive the experimental (kglob)ka factors. We determined the experimental (kglob)Dw1 of the PTW30013 by comparing the PTW30016 measurements with MC-calculated (kglob)Dw1. Results: Ka results of the PTW30016 based on ND,w,60Co and MC-calculated (kglob)ka differ from the well chamber results based on Nka by 1.6% and from the manufacturer by 1.0%. Experimental (kglob)ka factors for the PTW30016 and two other PTW30013 are 0.00683, 0.00681 and 0.00679, and vary <0.5% with 1mm source positioning uncertainty. Experimental (kglob)Dw1 of the PTW30013 ICs are 75.3 and 75.6, and differ by 1.6% from the conversion by dose rate constant from the AAPM report 229. Conclusion: The 1.7% difference between MC and experimental (kglob)ka for the PTW30016 IC is within the PTB 2.5% expanded uncertainty in Ka calibration standard. Using a single IC with ND,w,60Co to calibrate the brachytherapy source and dose output in external

  15. High-pressure behavior of α-boron studied on single crystals by X-ray diffraction, Raman and IR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuvashova, Irina, E-mail: irina.chuvashova@gmail.com [Material Physics and Technology at Extreme Conditions, Laboratory of Crystallography, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Bayerisches Geoinstitut, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Bykova, Elena; Bykov, Maxim [Bayerisches Geoinstitut, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Svitlyk, Volodymyr [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Gasharova, Biliana [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); IBPT, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Mathis, Yves-Laurent [ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); IBPT, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Caracas, Razvan [CNRS, Laboratoire de Géologie de Lyon, ENS de Lyon, UCBL Lyon 1, Université de Lyon (France); Dubrovinsky, Leonid [Bayerisches Geoinstitut, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Dubrovinskaia, Natalia [Material Physics and Technology at Extreme Conditions, Laboratory of Crystallography, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    In the present study single crystals of rhombohedral α-B were investigated under pressure to 60 GPa by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The bulk modulus of α-B was found to be K=224(7) GPa (K′=3.0(3)). Measurements of interatomic distances as a function of pressure revealed that the intericosahedral two-center two-electron (2c–2e) bonds are almost as stiff as some of intraicosahedral ones. The three-center two-electron (3c–2e) intericosahedral bonds show much higher compliance compared to other bonds in α-B. The vibrational properties of α-B under pressure were investigated by Raman spectroscopy at pressures up to 160 GPa and IR spectroscopy at pressures up to 53 GPa. - Graphical abstract: The rhombohedral α-B is highly incompressible and extremely stable: it maintains its crystal structure up to 160 GPa and its intericosahedral 2e2c bonds are almost as stiff as some of intraicosahedral ones. - Highlights: • Structural stability of α-B has been investigated up to 160 GPa on single crystals. • Single-crystal x-ray diffraction reveals that α-B is highly incompressible. • Compressibility of B{sub 12} icosahedra is considerably lower than that of the bulk material. • Intericosahedral 2e2c bonds are almost as stiff as some of intraicosahedral ones.

  16. Experimental design: Case studies of diagnostics optimization for W7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreier, H.; Dinklage, A.; Fischer, R.; Hartfuss, H.-J.; Hirsch, M.; Kornejew, P.; Pasch, E.; Turkin, Yu.

    2005-01-01

    The preparation of diagnostics for Wendelstein 7-X is accompanied by diagnostics simulations and optimization. Starting from the physical objectives, the design of diagnostics should incorporate predictive modelling (e.g. transport modelling) and simulations of respective measurements. Although technical constraints are governing design considerations, it appears that several design parameters of different diagnostics can be optimized. However, a general formulation for fusion diagnostics design in terms of optimization is lacking. In this paper, first case studies of Bayesian experimental design aiming at applications on W7-X diagnostics preparation are presented. The information gain of a measurement is formulated as a utility function which is expressed in terms of the Kullback-Leibler divergence. Then, the expected range of data is to be included and the resulting expected utility represents the objective for optimization. Bayesian probability theory gives a framework allowing us for an appropriate formulation of the design problem in terms of probability distribution functions. Results are obtained for the information gain from interferometry and for the design of polychromators for Thomson scattering. For interferometry, studies of the choice of line-of-sights for optimum signal and for the reproduction of gradient positions are presented for circular, elliptical and W7-X geometries. For Thomson scattering, the design of filter transmissions for density and temperature measurements are discussed. (author)

  17. Doping effect on the structural properties of Cu{sub 1−x}(Ni, Zn, Al and Fe){sub x}O samples (0<x<0.10): An experimental and computational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, J.B. [Faculdade Estácio de Sergipe, 49020-530 Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Araujo, R.M. [Coordenação de Química, IPISE/PIC, Faculdade Pio Décimo, 49095-000 Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Pedra, P.P. [CETEC, Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, 44380-000 Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil); Meneses, C.T.; Duque, J.G.S. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Prof. Alberto Carvalho, 49500-000 Itabaiana, SE (Brazil); Rezende, M.V. dos S, E-mail: mvsrezende@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Prof. Alberto Carvalho, 49500-000 Itabaiana, SE (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    In this work, the effect of insertion of transition metal, TM (=Ni, Zn, Al and Fe), ions in Cu{sub 1−x}TM{sub x}O samples (0<x<0.10) prepared via co-precipitation method is studied through experimental and computational methods. The analyses of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns using Rietveld refinement show that i) at x=0, all samples present a monoclinic crystal system with space group C2/c and ii) for increasing the TM-doping, Ni and Zn-doped samples show a small amount of spurious phases for concentrations above x=0.05. Based on these results, a defect disorder study for using atomistic computational simulations which is based on the lattice energy minimization technique is employed to predict the location of the dopant ions in the structure. In agreement with XRD data, our computational results indicate that the trivalent (Al and Fe ions) are more favorable to be incorporated into CuO matrix than the divalent (Ni and Zn ions). - Graphical Abstract: The effect of insertion of transition metal, TM (=Ni, Zn, Al and Fe), ions in Cu{sub 1−x}TM{sub x}O samples (0<x<0.10) prepared via co-precipitation method is studied through experimental and computational methods. Display Omitted.

  18. Luminescence of Er3+ doped double lead halide crystals under X-ray, UV, VIS and IR excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serazetdinov, A. R.; Smirnov, A. A.; Pustovarov, V. A.; Isaenko, L. I.

    2017-09-01

    Er3+ doped double lead halide crystals incorporate a number of properties making them interesting for practical use in light conducting materials. X-ray excited luminescence (XRL) spectra, photoluminescence (PL) spectra in region of 1.5-3.5 eV, photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra (2.75-5 eV) and anti-stokes luminescence (ASL) spectra were measured at room temperature in KPb2Cl5 (KPC) and RbPb2Br5 (RPB) matrices doped with Er3+ (1%) ions and in KPC doped with Er3++ Yb3+ ions(1:3 ratio concentration). Intraconfigurational f→f transitions are observed in Er3+ ions in most of the cases. The concrete spectrum form is strongly dependent on the excitation energy. Under 980 nm excitation upper Er3+ levels are excited, showing upconversional processes. In case of 313 nm (UV) and 365 nm (VIS) excitation self trapped exciton luminescence was detected in RPB crystal. Additional Yb3+ doping ions strongly increase quantum yield under 980 nm excitation and this doping cause insignificant influence on quantum yield under VIS or UV excitation.

  19. Optical spectra of Zn{sub 1-x}Be{sub x}Te mixed crystals determined by IR-VIS-UV ellipsometry and photoluminescence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wronkowska, A.A., E-mail: aleksandra.wronkowska@utp.edu.p [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, University of Technology and Life Sciences, S. Kaliskiego 7, PL-85796 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Arwin, H. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University, SE-58183 Linkoeping (Sweden); Firszt, F.; Legowski, S. [Institute of Physics, Nicholas Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun (Poland); Wronkowski, A.; Skowronski, L. [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, University of Technology and Life Sciences, S. Kaliskiego 7, PL-85796 Bydgoszcz (Poland)

    2011-02-28

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry in the photon energy range from 0.04 eV to 6.50 eV is used for investigation of the optical response of Zn{sub 1-x}Be{sub x}Te crystals grown by a high-pressure Bridgman method in the composition range x {<=} 0.12. Infrared spectra display absorption bands centred between 411 cm{sup -1} and 420 cm{sup -1} associated with BeTe-type optical phonon modes. The positions of the transverse-optical and longitudinal-optical phonon modes have been found by modelling the line shape of the complex dielectric functions, {epsilon}-tilde and Im(-{epsilon}-tilde{sup -1}), using a classical damped Lorentzian oscillator approach. Ellipsometric measurements in the VIS-UV range allow determination of the fundamental energy-gap (E{sub 0}) and the higher threshold energies (E{sub 1}, E{sub 1} + {Delta}{sub 1}, E{sub 2}) originating from the band edge and spin-orbit splitting critical points. We have found that the Be content x = 0.12 causes an increase of the fundamental energy gap about 0.15 eV at room temperature when compared to the E{sub 0} = 2.23 eV of ZnTe crystal at the same temperature. Photoluminescence spectra were measured in the temperature range from 30 K to room temperature. Luminescence at temperature T > 200 K is very weak. The peak positions of the exciton emission lines agree well with the E{sub 0} band-gaps derived from ellipsometric data if corrected for their temperature dependence.

  20. X-ray structure determination, Hirshfeld surface analysis, spectroscopic (FT-IR, NMR, UV-Vis, fluorescence), non-linear optical properties, Fukui function and chemical activity of 4‧-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2,2‧:6‧,2″-terpyridine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircioğlu, Zeynep; Yeşil, Ahmet Emin; Altun, Mehmet; Bal-Demirci, Tülay; Özdemir, Namık

    2018-06-01

    The compound 4‧-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2,2‧:6‧,2″-terpyridine (Mtpyr) was synthesized and investigated using X-ray single crystal structure determination, combined with Hirshfeld topology analysis of the molecular packing. In addition, Mtpyr was characterized by experimental and theoretical FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and fluorescence emission spectra. The optimized molecular geometry (bond length, bond angle, torsion angle), the complete vibrational frequency and all other theoretical computations were calculated by using density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method with the help of 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. From the recorded UV-Vis spectrum, the electronic properties such as excitation energies, wavelength and oscillator strength are evaluated by TD-DFT in chloroform solution. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by the gauge-independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with experimental results. The calculated HOMO-LUMO band gap energies confirmed that charge transfer and chemical stability within the molecule. The hyperconjugative interaction energy E(2) and electron densities of donor (i) and acceptor (j) bonds were calculated using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Besides Mulliken and natural population charges (NPA), non-linear optic properties (NLO), Fukui Function analysis, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) were also computed which helps to identifying the electrophilic/nucleophilic nature.

  1. Preliminary experimental results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinches on primary test stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xian-Bin; Zhou, Shao-Tong; Dan, Jia-Kun; Ren, Xiao-Dong, E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Wang, Kun-Lun; Zhang, Si-Qun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Cai, Hong-Chun; Duan, Shu-Chao; Ouyang, Kai; Chen, Guang-Hua; Ji, Ce; Wei, Bing; Feng, Shu-Ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-Ping; Deng, Jian-Jun [Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power, Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-108, Mianyang, Sichuan 621999 (China); Zhou, Xiu-Wen; Yang, Yi [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-987, Mianyang, Sichuan 621999 (China)

    2015-07-15

    The Primary Test Stand (PTS) developed at the China Academy of Engineering Physics is a 20 TW pulsed power driver, which can deliver a ∼10 MA, 70 ns rise-time (10%–90%) current to a short-circuit load and has important applications in Z-pinch driven inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics. Preliminary results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinch experiments on PTS are presented. The load geometries investigated include 15-mm-tall cylindrical single and nested arrays with diameter ranging from 13 mm to 30 mm, consisting of 132–300 tungsten wires with 5–10 μm in diameter. Multiple diagnostics were fielded to characterize the x-ray radiation from wire-array Z pinches. The x-ray peak power (∼50 TW) and total radiated energy (∼500 kJ) were obtained from a single 20-mm-diam array with 80-ns stagnation time. The highest x-ray peak power up to 80 TW with 2.4 ns FWHM was achieved by using a nested array with 20-mm outer diameter, and the total x-ray energy from the nested array is comparable to that of single array. Implosion velocity estimated from the time-resolved image measurement exceeds 30 cm/μs. The detailed experimental results and other findings are presented and discussed.

  2. A Result on a 2x2 Survival Experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arami, Ramin

    1997-01-01

    .... The proposed model is a combination of Cox's proportional hazards model and ANOVA model. The existence of a solution to the marginal likelihood function is examined for the case of 2x2 two-way classification...

  3. Experimental studies of x-ray laser spectral profiles: Observation of gain narrowing and saturation behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.A.; MacGowan, B.J.; Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.L.; Mrowka, S.; Underwood, J.H.; Batson, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss our recent measurements of the spectral width of the 206.38 Angstrom x-ray laser transition in Ne-like Se. These measurements used a high-resolution grating spectrometer and were performed over a wide range of laser amplifier lengths. The data have enabled us to extrapolate the intrinsic line width and to observe the effects of gain-narrowing and saturation on the line profile. We find an intrinsic width which is 1.4 times the Doppler width, we observe gain-narrowing in intermediate length amplifiers, and we observe no re-broadening in long, saturated amplifiers. These results suggest that collisional line-broadening has a significant effect on the line profile and saturation behavior of this laser. We discuss modeling we have performed in order to simulate the experimental data, and we discuss future experimental and theoretical efforts we believe are necessary in order to understand line broadening and line transfer issues in x-ray laser plasmas

  4. Review of JT-60 experimental results from June to October, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    After the achievement of AEC (Atomic Energy Commission) milestone in October, 1987, a new divertor coil has been installed to produce divertor plasmas with a single null at the buttom. A pellet injector was also installed during the same shut down period. This report presents the results from the experiment held from June to October in 1988. Major experimental issues during this phase are: 1) confinement and 2) divertor characteristics of lower X-point discharges, 3) enhancement of confinement with pellet injection, 4) ion heating with ICRF of LHRF, 5) current drive with LHRF or ICRF, and evaluation of bootstrap current. (J.P.N.)

  5. The Cornell field-reversed ion ring experiment FIREX: experimental design and first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podulka, W J; Greenly, J B; Anderson, D E; Glidden, S C; Hammer, D A; Omelchenko, Yu A; Sudan, R N [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Laboratory of Plasma Studies

    1997-12-31

    The goal of FIREX (Field-reversed Ion Ring EXperiment) is to produce a fully field-reversed ring with 1 MeV protons. Such a ring requires about (2-3) x 10{sup 17} protons, or 30-50 mC of charge. This charge is to be injected as an annular proton beam through a suitable magnetic cusp configuration to produce a compact ring. The critical design issues for the ion beam accelerator are described. First experimental results of ion diode operation indicate that the design is capable of producing the required beam parameters. (author). 4 figs., 4 refs.

  6. The Cornell field-reversed ion ring experiment FIREX: experimental design and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podulka, W.J.; Greenly, J.B.; Anderson, D.E.; Glidden, S.C.; Hammer, D.A.; Omelchenko, Yu.A.; Sudan, R.N.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of FIREX (Field-reversed Ion Ring EXperiment) is to produce a fully field-reversed ring with 1 MeV protons. Such a ring requires about (2-3) x 10 17 protons, or 30-50 mC of charge. This charge is to be injected as an annular proton beam through a suitable magnetic cusp configuration to produce a compact ring. The critical design issues for the ion beam accelerator are described. First experimental results of ion diode operation indicate that the design is capable of producing the required beam parameters. (author). 4 figs., 4 refs

  7. Results of Experimental Study on Flexitime and Family Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winett, Richard A.; Neale, Michael S.

    1980-01-01

    According to two small experimental studies of flexible working hours, federal workers with young children choose to arrive at and depart from work earlier, allowing them to increase the time spent with their families and to engage in recreational, educational, and household activities. (Author/SK)

  8. Alkali Metal Backup Cooling for Stirling Systems - Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendeman, Carl; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Cornell, Peggy A.

    2013-01-01

    In a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (RPS), heat must be continuously removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an early termination of the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) can be used to passively allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. In a previous NASA SBIR Program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a series of sodium VCHPs as backup cooling systems for Stirling RPS. The operation of these VCHPs was demonstrated using Stirling heater head simulators and GPHS simulators. In the most recent effort, a sodium VCHP with a stainless steel envelope was designed, fabricated and tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with a Stirling convertor for two concepts; one for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) back up cooling system and one for the Long-lived Venus Lander thermal management system. The VCHP is designed to activate and remove heat from the stopped convertor at a 19 degC temperature increase from the nominal vapor temperature. The 19 degC temperature increase from nominal is low enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation and spoiling of the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI). In addition, the same backup cooling system can be applied to the Stirling convertor used for the refrigeration system of the Long-lived Venus Lander. The VCHP will allow the refrigeration system to: 1) rest during transit at a lower temperature than nominal; 2) pre-cool the modules to an even lower temperature before the entry in Venus atmosphere; 3) work at nominal temperature on Venus surface; 4) briefly stop multiple times on the Venus surface to allow scientific measurements. This paper presents the experimental

  9. Experimental results and modeling of a dynamic hohlraum on SATURN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derzon, M.S.; Allshouse, G.O.; Deeney, C.; Leeper, R.J.; Nash, T.J.; Matuska, W.; Peterson, D.L.; MacFarlane, J.J.; Ryutov, D.D.

    1998-06-01

    Experiments were performed at SATURN, a high current z-pinch, to explore the feasibility of creating a hohlraum by imploding a tungsten wire array onto a low-density foam. Emission measurements in the 200--280 eV energy band were consistent with a 110--135 eV Planckian before the target shock heated, or stagnated, on-axis. Peak pinch radiation temperatures of nominally 160 eV were obtained. Measured early time x-ray emission histories and temperature estimates agree well with modeled performance in the 200--280 eV band using a 2D radiation magneto-hydrodynamics code. However, significant differences are observed in comparisons of the x-ray images and 2D simulations

  10. Simbol-X Hard X-ray Focusing Mirrors: Results Obtained During the Phase A Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagliaferri, G.; Basso, S.; Civitani, M.; Conconi, P.; Cotroneo, V.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Borghi, G.; Garoli, D.; Mattarello, V.; Orlandi, A.; Valsecchi, G.; Vernani, D.; Burkert, W.; Freyberg, M.; Hartner, G.; Citterio, O.; Gorenstein, P.; Romaine, S.

    2009-01-01

    Simbol-X will push grazing incidence imaging up to 80 keV, providing a strong improvement both in sensitivity and angular resolution compared to all instruments that have operated so far above 10 keV. The superb hard X-ray imaging capability will be guaranteed by a mirror module of 100 electroformed Nickel shells with a multilayer reflecting coating. Here we will describe the technogical development and solutions adopted for the fabrication of the mirror module, that must guarantee an Half Energy Width (HEW) better than 20 arcsec from 0.5 up to 30 keV and a goal of 40 arcsec at 60 keV. During the phase A, terminated at the end of 2008, we have developed three engineering models with two, two and three shells, respectively. The most critical aspects in the development of the Simbol-X mirrors are i) the production of the 100 mandrels with very good surface quality within the timeline of the mission, ii) the replication of shells that must be very thin (a factor of 2 thinner than those of XMM-Newton) and still have very good image quality up to 80 keV, iii) the development of an integration process that allows us to integrate these very thin mirrors maintaining their intrinsic good image quality. The Phase A study has shown that we can fabricate the mandrels with the needed quality and that we have developed a valid integration process. The shells that we have produced so far have a quite good image quality, e.g. HEW < or approx. 30 arcsec at 30 keV, and effective area. However, we still need to make some improvements to reach the requirements. We will briefly present these results and discuss the possible improvements that we will investigate during phase B.

  11. Simbol-X Hard X-ray Focusing Mirrors: Results Obtained During the Phase A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, G.; Basso, S.; Borghi, G.; Burkert, W.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M.; Conconi, P.; Cotroneo, V.; Freyberg, M.; Garoli, D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hartner, G.; Mattarello, V.; Orlandi, A.; Pareschi, G.; Romaine, S.; Spiga, D.; Valsecchi, G.; Vernani, D.

    2009-05-01

    Simbol-X will push grazing incidence imaging up to 80 keV, providing a strong improvement both in sensitivity and angular resolution compared to all instruments that have operated so far above 10 keV. The superb hard X-ray imaging capability will be guaranteed by a mirror module of 100 electroformed Nickel shells with a multilayer reflecting coating. Here we will describe the technogical development and solutions adopted for the fabrication of the mirror module, that must guarantee an Half Energy Width (HEW) better than 20 arcsec from 0.5 up to 30 keV and a goal of 40 arcsec at 60 keV. During the phase A, terminated at the end of 2008, we have developed three engineering models with two, two and three shells, respectively. The most critical aspects in the development of the Simbol-X mirrors are i) the production of the 100 mandrels with very good surface quality within the timeline of the mission, ii) the replication of shells that must be very thin (a factor of 2 thinner than those of XMM-Newton) and still have very good image quality up to 80 keV, iii) the development of an integration process that allows us to integrate these very thin mirrors maintaining their intrinsic good image quality. The Phase A study has shown that we can fabricate the mandrels with the needed quality and that we have developed a valid integration process. The shells that we have produced so far have a quite good image quality, e.g. HEW <~30 arcsec at 30 keV, and effective area. However, we still need to make some improvements to reach the requirements. We will briefly present these results and discuss the possible improvements that we will investigate during phase B.

  12. Review of JT-60U experimental results from March to October, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    Experimental results achieved in the initial operation of JT-60U are described in this paper. Experiments of JT-60U were initiated in March 1991, and deuterium experiments started in the middle of July. Multivariable non-interacting control, H-mode experiments, the high-q and high-β p regime with hot ion enhanced confinement, the divertor heat flux, etc. are reported. Achieved values of the first experiment of the JT-60U LHCD in 1991 were P LH = 1.5 MW, driven current I RF = 2MA, current drive efficiency η CD (=n-bar e R p I RF /P LH ) = 0.25 x 10 20 m -2 A/W and current driven product CDP(=n-bar e R p I RF ) = 3 x 10 20 m -2 MA. (J.P.N.)

  13. Experimental results from a large volume active target made of glass capillaries and liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annis, P.; Buontempo, S.; Brunner, J.; De Jong, M.; Fabre, J.P.; Frenkel, A.; Galeazzi, F.; Golovkin, S.; Gregoire, G.; Hoepfner, K.; Konijn, J.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Kushnirenko, A.; Martellotti, G.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Medvedkov, A.; Michel, L.; Mondardini, M.R.; Panman, J.; Penso, G.; Petukhov, Y.; Riccardi, F.; Siegmund, W.P.; Strack, R.; Tyukov, V.; Vasilchenko, V.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Winter, K.; Wong, H.; Zymin, K.

    1995-01-01

    We are investigating the feasibility of high-resolution tracking with an active target made of glass capillaries filled with organic liquid scintillator. This technique allows real time detection of short-lived particle decays. In this paper, we report on experimental results obtained from an active target having 2 x 2 cm 2 cross section and 180 cm length, installed in front of the CHORUS detector and exposed to the CERN Wide Band Neutrino Beam. The detector consists of 5.1 x 10 5 capillaries with 20 μm inner diameter, read out by a single optoelectronic chain and a Megapixel CCD. Details on tests in the neutrino beam will be reported. First neutrino interactions have been detected. (orig.)

  14. Electronic structure, local magnetism, and spin-orbit effects of Ir(IV)-, Ir(V)-, and Ir(VI)-based compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laguna-Marco, M. A.; Kayser, P.; Alonso, J. A.; Martínez-Lope, M. J.; van Veenendaal, M.; Choi, Y.; Haskel, D.

    2015-06-01

    Element- and orbital-selective x-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism measurements are carried out to probe the electronic structure and magnetism of Ir 5d electronic states in double perovskite Sr2MIrO6 (M = Mg, Ca, Sc, Ti, Ni, Fe, Zn, In) and La2NiIrO6 compounds. All the studied systems present a significant influence of spin-orbit interactions in the electronic ground state. In addition, we find that the Ir 5d local magnetic moment shows different character depending on the oxidation state despite the net magnetization being similar for all the compounds. Ir carries an orbital contribution comparable to the spin contribution for Ir4+ (5d(5)) and Ir5+ (5d(4)) oxides, whereas the orbital contribution is quenched for Ir6+ (5d(3)) samples. Incorporation of a magnetic 3d atom allows getting insight into the magnetic coupling between 5d and 3d transition metals. Together with previous susceptibility and neutron diffractionmeasurements, the results indicate that Ir carries a significant local magnetic moment even in samples without a 3d metal. The size of the (small) net magnetization of these compounds is a result of predominant antiferromagnetic interactions between local moments coupled with structural details of each perovskite structure

  15. Internal stress distribution of X-ring using photoelastic experimental hybrid method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Alunda Ouma [Dedan Kimathi University of Technology, Nyeri (Kenya); Hawong, Jai Sug; Lim, Hyun Seok [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Chul [Koje College, Geoje (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Sealing elements are essential parts of many machines, and are used to prevent the loss of a fluid or gas. When such fluids are not properly sealed, catastrophic failures may result. Many different types of rings have been developed to suit various industrial needs. Considerable research has been done on the O-ring. We analyze the internal stresses developed in an X-ring under a uniform squeeze rate of 20%, which is suitable for static applications, using a photoelastic experimental hybrid method. The internal pressures applied were 0.98, 1.96, 2.94, 3.92, 4.90, and 5.88 MPa. We show that sealing rings with X geometry have considerably higher internal stresses than O-ring seals. In addition, we demonstrate that after extrusion, for an internal pressure of 5.88 MPa, the two lobes on the upper contact surface merge, thereby increasing the contact length of the upper side significantly. Extrusion in the X-ring occurred when the internal pressure was 4.90 MPa.

  16. Experimental study on the effect of x-irradiation in the rat bone matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Dong Soo

    1979-01-01

    The author studied on the side effects of x-ray irradiation to the developing mandible of the gestation and period of grow the stage rats. For experimental observation, 100 rads, 200 rads, and 300 rads of x-ray were irradiated in regular order at the lower abdomen of the 8th day gestated rats. 5 weeks after conception, their offspring were sacrificed and their mandibles were extracted with intact form. All the extracted mandible were examined for their developing modes histological findings. The results were as followed; 1) In 10 -200 rads irradiated rats offsprings, their mandibles were not revealed any morphological changes except of the irregular pattern of trabeculatum. In accompany with this findings, most of all the fibroblasts and osteoclasts had their nucleus with shrunken and eccentric position. 2) In according to the increasing x-ray irradiation, marked advent of osteoclast and cortical bone remuamsorption were observed. 3) In 300 rads irradiated rats offsprings, there irregular pattern of trabeculae and widening of bone morrow cavity in their alveolar proper.

  17. Phase diagram Fe-Sn-Sr. New experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieva, N; Jimenez, M.J; Gomez, A; Corvalan Moya, C; Arias, D

    2012-01-01

    Zr-based alloys are widely used in nuclear industry due to their specific characteristics. The information of the phase diagrams of the ternary system Fe-Zr-Sn is scarce. In this work we investigate, in a experimental way, the central and the Fe-Sn binary adjacent regions of the Fe-Sn-Zr Gibbs triangle at the temperature of 800 o C. For the experimental work, a set of seven ternary alloys was designed, produced and examined by different complementary techniques. There were performed two types of heat treatments: one of medium and another of long duration. We present a new proposal for the 800 o C isothermal section. The boundaries of the identified phases and the fields of one, two and three phases are indicated in the diagram

  18. Experimental results from a flowing-lithium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annese, C.E.; Schwartz, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    Hydraulic stability of a free surface lithium jet was demonstrated at 260 0 C and from the middle-vacuum region of 0.01 Pa (10 - 4 Torr) up to 124 kPa (18 psia). The jet is formed by flowing lithium at rates to 0.04 m 3 /s (600 GPM) through a precisely defined nozzle which directs the flow along a curved wall where velocities of up to 17 m/s are attained. This nozzle and curved wall configuration form the basis of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium target. A full-size experimental model of this target is presently under test with flowing lithium in the Experimental Lithium System (ELS). The FMIT is being developed for the Department of Energy by the Westinghouse Hanford Company at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory

  19. Experimentally increasing sedentary behavior results in decreased life satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Meghan K.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: No study has experimentally manipulated sedentary behavior and evaluated its effect on life satisfaction. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a free-living, sedentary behavior-inducing randomized controlled intervention on life satisfaction. Methods: Active, young adults between the ages of 18-35 were recruited and randomly assigned into a sedentary behavior intervention group (n = 26) or a control group (n = 13). The intervention group par...

  20. High temperature pressure water's blowdown into water. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Toshihisa; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Iida, Hiromasa

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the present experimental study is to clarify the phenomena in blowdown of high temperature and pressure water in pressure vessel into the containment water for evaluation of design of an advanced marine reactor(MRX). The water blown into the containment water flushed and formed steam jet plume. The steam jet condensed in the water, but some stream penetrated to gas phase of containment and contributed to increase of containment pressure. (author)

  1. Comparison of CFD simulations with experimental Jet Erosion Tests results

    OpenAIRE

    Mercier, F.; Bonelli, S.; Pinettes, P.; Golay, F.; Anselmet, F.; Philippe, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Jet Erosion Test (JET) is an experimental device increasingly used to quantify the resistance of soils to erosion. This resistance is characterised by two geotechnical parameters: the critical shear stress and the erosion coefficient. The JET interpretation model of Hanson and Cook (2004) provides an estimation of these erosion parameters. But Hanson's model is simplified, semi-empirical and several assumed hypotheses can be discussed. Our aim is to determine the relevance of the JET inte...

  2. Bond Shortening (1.4 Å) in the Singlet and Triplet Excited States of [Ir2(dimen)4]2+ in Solution Determined by Time-Resolved X-ray Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Martin Kristoffer; Harlang, Tobias; Christensen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Ground- and excited-state structures of the bimetallic, ligand-bridged compound Ir2(dimen)42+ are investigated in acetonitrile by means of time-resolved X-ray scattering. Following excitation by 2 ps laser pulses at 390 nm, analysis of difference scattering patterns obtained at eight different ti...

  3. Experimental Validation of Pulse Phase Tracking for X-Ray Pulsar Based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Pulsars are a form of variable celestial source that have shown to be usable as aids for autonomous, deep space navigation. Particularly those sources emitting in the X-ray band are ideal for navigation due to smaller detector sizes. In this paper X-ray photons arriving from a pulsar are modeled as a non-homogeneous Poisson process. The method of pulse phase tracking is then investigated as a technique to measure the radial distance traveled by a spacecraft over an observation interval. A maximum-likelihood phase estimator (MLE) is used for the case where the observed frequency signal is constant. For the varying signal frequency case, an algorithm is used in which the observation window is broken up into smaller blocks over which an MLE is used. The outputs of this phase estimation process were then looped through a digital phase-locked loop (DPLL) in order to reduce the errors and produce estimates of the doppler frequency. These phase tracking algorithms were tested both in a computer simulation environment and using the NASA Goddard Space flight Center X-ray Navigation Laboratory Testbed (GXLT). This provided an experimental validation with photons being emitted by a modulated X-ray source and detected by a silicon-drift detector. Models of the Crab pulsar and the pulsar B1821-24 were used in order to generate test scenarios. Three different simulated detector trajectories were used to be tracked by the phase tracking algorithm: a stationary case, one with constant velocity, and one with constant acceleration. All three were performed in one-dimension along the line of sight to the pulsar. The first two had a constant signal frequency and the third had a time varying frequency. All of the constant frequency cases were processed using the MLE, and it was shown that they tracked the initial phase within 0.15% for the simulations and 2.5% in the experiments, based on an average of ten runs. The MLE-DPLL cascade version of the phase tracking algorithm was used in

  4. Development of Ir/Au-TES microcalorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Yuichi; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohno, Masashi; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Ataka, Manabu; Ohkubo, Masataka; Hirayama, Fuminori

    2004-01-01

    We are developing X-ray microcalorimeters using transition edge sensors (TES) for high resolution x-ray spectroscopy. Microcalorimeters are thermal detectors which measure the energy of an incident x-ray photon using a TES thermometer operated at a sharp transition edge between normal and superconducting states. TES microcalorimeters can achieve faster response than conventional microcalorimeters by keeping the operating point of TES in the transition region through the use of strong negative electrothermal feedback (ETF). We developed a bilayer TES where a normal metal Au was deposited on a superconductor Ir in order to improve the thermal conductivity of the Ir-TES. We investigated resistance-temperature characteristics. As a result, it showed a very sharp transition within 1 mK at the temperature of 110 mK. The energy resolution of 9.4 eV (FWHM) was achieved for a 5899 eV Mn K al line. (author)

  5. QCD results for small x and for heavy flavor production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Two areas of perturbative quantum chromodynamics are reviewed. The first is hard collisions of partons whose momentum is a small fraction, named x, of the total center-of-mass energy of the momenta of their parent hadrons. The second is production of heavy strongly-interacting particles, such as ordinary heavy quarks, squarks, or gluinos. The discussion of the small x problem includes Monte Carlo calculations of multiple scattering and theoretical calculations of parton-parton shadowing effects. As for heavy flavor production, it is shown that ordinary perturbative methods should apply. 22 refs., 7 figs

  6. Experimental and theoretical contributions to X-ray phase-contrast techniques for medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diemoz, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Several X-ray phase-contrast techniques have recently been developed. Unlike conventional X-ray methods, which measure the absorption properties of the tissues, these techniques derive contrast also from the modulation of the phase produced by the sample. Since the phase shift can be significant even for small details characterized by weak or absent absorption, the achievable image contrast can be greatly increased, notably for the soft biological tissues. These methods are therefore very promising for applications in the medical domain. The aim of this work is to contribute to a deeper understanding of these techniques, in particular propagation-based imaging (PBI), analyzer-based imaging (ABI) and grating interferometry (GIFM), and to study their potential and the best practical implementation for medical imaging applications. An important part of this work is dedicated to the use of mathematical algorithms for the extraction, from the acquired images, of quantitative sample information (the absorption, refraction and scattering sample properties). In particular, five among the most known algorithms based on the geometrical optics approximation have been theoretically analysed and experimentally compared, in planar and tomographic modalities, by using geometrical phantoms and human bone-cartilage and breast samples. A semi-quantitative method for the acquisition and reconstruction of tomographic images in the ABI and GIFM techniques has also been proposed. The validity conditions are analyzed in detail and the method, enabling a considerable simplification of the imaging procedure, has been experimentally checked on phantoms and human samples. Finally, a theoretical and experimental comparison of the PBI, ABI and GIFM techniques is presented. The advantages and drawbacks of each of these techniques are discussed. The results obtained from this analysis can be very useful for determining the most adapted technique for a given application. (author)

  7. Experimental and theoretical studies of (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible and DFT) 4-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl) butan-2-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindasamy, P; Gunasekaran, S

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out by using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy in the range 4000-50 cm(-1) and 4000-450 cm(-1) respectively for 4-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl) butan-2-one (abbreviated as 4MNBO) molecule. Theoretical calculations were performed by density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method using 6-311G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. The difference between the observed and calculated wavenumber value of most of the fundamentals were very small. The complete vibrational assignments of wavenumbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED). The UV-Vis spectrum was recorded in the methanol solution. The energy, wavelength and oscillator's strength were calculated by Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) and matched to the experimental findings. The intramolecular contacts have been interpreted using natural bond orbital (NBO) and natural localized molecular orbital (NLMO) analysis. Thermodynamic properties of 4MNBO at different temperature have been calculated. The molecular electrostatic potential surface (MESP) and Frontier molecular orbital's (FMO's) analysis were investigated using theoretical calculations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of experimental design in examination of the dissolution rate of carbamazepine from formulations: Characterization of the optimal formulation by DSC, TGA, FT-IR and PXRD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Marko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor solubility is one of the key reasons for the poor bioavailability of these drugs. This paper displays a formulation of a solid surfactant system with carbamazepine, in order to increase its dissolution rate. Solid state surfactant systems are formed by application of fractal experimental design. Poloxamer 237 and Poloxamer 338 were used as surfactants and Brij® 35 was used as the co-surfactant. The ratios of the excipients and carbamazepine were varied and their effects on the dissolution rate of carbamazepine were examined. Moreover, the effects of the addition of natural (diatomite and a synthetic adsorbent carrier (Neusiline UFL2 on the dissolution rate of carbamazepine were also tested. The prepared surfactant systems were characterized and the influence of the excipients on possible changes of the polymorphous form of carbamazepine examined by application of analytical techniques (DSC, TGA, FT-IR, PXRD. It was determined that an appropriate selection of the excipient type and ratio could provide a significant increase in the carbamazepine dissolution rate. By application of analytical techniques, it was found that that the employed excipients induce a transition of carbamazepine into the amorphous form and that the selected sample was stable for three months, when kept under ambient conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR34007

  9. Observer Based Sliding Mode Attitude Control: Theoretical and Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Jørgensen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the design of a sliding mode controller for attitude control of spacecraft actuated by three orthogonal reaction wheels. The equilibrium of the closed loop system is proved to be asymptotically stable in the sense of Lyapunov. Due to cases where spacecraft do not have angular velocity measurements, an estimator for the generalized velocity is derived and asymptotic stability is proven for the observer. The approach is tested on an experimental platform with a sphere shaped Autonomous Underwater Vehicle SATellite: AUVSAT, developed at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.

  10. Experimental results from the BNL TestEBIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, E.; Alessi, J.; Hershcovitch, A.; Kponou, A.; Pikin, A.; Prelec, K.; Stein, P.; Schmieder, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory, an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) is operational and has produced charge states such as N 7+ , Ar 16+ , and Xe 26+ using neutral gas injection. Ions such as Na 7+ and Tl 41+ have been produced using external ion injection. The BNL EBIS effort is directed at reaching intensities of interest to RHIC, approximately 3 x 10 9 particles/pulse which will require EBIS electron beams on the order of 10A. Pulsed electron beams up to 1.14 A have been produced using a 3mm LaB 6 cathode. Ion yields corresponding to 50% of the maximum trap capacity for electron beams up to 0.5A have been obtained. The goal for the TestEBIS is to produce a uranium ion charge state distribution peaks at U 45+ with 50% of the trap capacity for a 1A electron beam

  11. Liner Stability Experiments at Pegasus: Diagnostics and Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.A.; Morgan, D.V.; Rodriguez, G.

    1998-01-01

    A series of experiments to compare imploding liner performance with magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) modeling has been performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Pegasus II pulse power machine. Liner instability growth originating from initial perturbations machined into the liner has been observed with high resolution. Three major diagnostics were used: radiography, Velocity Interferometer for a Surface of Any Reflector (VISAR), and fiber optic impact pins. For radiography, three flash x-ray units were mounted radially to observe liner shape at three different times during the implosion. Liner velocity was measured continuously with the VISAR for the entire distance traveled in two experiments. Optical impact pins provide a high-resolution measure of liner symmetry and shape near the end of travel. Liner performance has compared well with predictions

  12. Curcumin-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex: stability, solubility, characterisation by FT-IR, FT-Raman, X-ray diffraction and photoacoustic spectroscopy, and food application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangolim, Camila Sampaio; Moriwaki, Cristiane; Nogueira, Ana Claudia; Sato, Francielle; Baesso, Mauro Luciano; Neto, Antônio Medina; Matioli, Graciette

    2014-06-15

    Curcumin was complexed with β-CD using co-precipitation, freeze-drying and solvent evaporation methods. Co-precipitation enabled complex formation, as indicated by the FT-IR and FT-Raman techniques via the shifts in the peaks that were assigned to the aromatic rings of curcumin. In addition, photoacoustic spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, with the disappearance of the band related to aromatic rings, by Gaussian fitting, and modifications in the spectral lines, respectively, also suggested complex formation. The possible complexation had an efficiency of 74% and increased the solubility of the pure colourant 31-fold. Curcumin-β-CD complex exhibited a sunlight stability 18% higher than the pure colourant. This material was stable to pH variations and storage at -15 and 4°C. With an isothermal heating at 100 and 150°C for 2h, the material exhibited a colour retention of approximately 99%. The application of curcumin-β-CD complex in vanilla ice creams intensified the colour of the products and produced a great sensorial acceptance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental results on spin physics at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makdisi, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    The AGS ran with polarized protons towards the end of 1985 and through the first two months of 1986. This comprised commissioning periods interleaved with two runs for physics at 13.5 GeV/c with beam polarization of 50 to 60%, and 18.5 GeV/c with an average beam polarization of 40%. Later, the AGS polarized beam reached peak energy of 22 GeV/c and polarization of 46%. This article describes the various spin related experimental efforts since the VI Symposium at Marseille. These will be grouped into those using unpolarized beams and the rest are the polarized proton beam users. Afterwards the future of the program is described as extensions of current experiments in addition to other measurements that are yet to be proposed

  14. Experimental MR imaging with Gd-DOTA: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schouman-Claeys, E.; Kien, P.; Caille, J.M.; Bonnemain, B.; Frija, G.

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate the paramagnetic properties of a new gadolinium chelate, Gd-DOTA, in vitro and in vivo MR imaging was performed with a 0.5-T supraconductive magnet. The in vitro study consisted in measuring the MR signal obtained with various concentrations of Gd-DOTA and Gd-DTPA in different solutions. Potentialization of the paramagnetic properties of both DOTA and DTPA can be achieved by deuterium, glycerol, and protein solutions. The in vivo study was performed in rabbits with various experimental lesions. Enhancement of anatomic details was obtained with both Gd-DOTA and Gd-DTPA. There was no significant difference between Gd-DOTA and Gd-DTPA, both for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Gd-DOTA appears to be a potential paramagnetic agent for MR imaging

  15. Waste glass corrosion modeling: Comparison with experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourcier, W.L.

    1994-01-01

    Models for borosilicate glass dissolution must account for the processes of (1) kinetically-controlled network dissolution, (2) precipitation of secondary phases, (3) ion exchange, (4) rate-limiting diffusive transport of silica through a hydrous surface reaction layer, and (5) specific glass surface interactions with dissolved cations and anions. Current long-term corrosion models for borosilicate glass employ a rate equation consistent with transition state theory embodied in a geochemical reaction-path modeling program that calculates aqueous phase speciation and mineral precipitation/dissolution. These models are currently under development. Future experimental and modeling work to better quantify the rate-controlling processes and validate these models are necessary before the models can be used in repository performance assessment calculations

  16. A first glance at the initial ATF experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, B.A.; Dominguez, N.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Lynch, V.E.; Charlton, L.A.

    1989-05-01

    In the initial phase of ATF operation, the plasma minor radius and the edge rotational transform were reduced by field errors. This caused an effective change of the magnetic configuration: it improved the stability properties but worsened the equilibrium properties. The threshold for the second stability regime was lowered to β 0 /approximately/ 1.5%. Experimental profile data are compatible with operation in the second stability regime, and the achieved beta values, β 0 /approximately/ 3%, are well beyond the theoretically calculated threshold. Magnetic fluctuation measurements showed the effects of beta self-stabilization. They are in reasonable agreement with the predictions of the theory and support the evidence that ATF has already operated in the second stability regime. 24 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab

  17. Theory and preliminary experimental verification of quantitative edge illumination x-ray phase contrast tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, C K; Diemoz, P C; Endrizzi, M; Rigon, L; Dreossi, D; Arfelli, F; Lopez, F C M; Longo, R; Olivo, A

    2014-04-07

    X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCi) methods are sensitive to phase in addition to attenuation effects and, therefore, can achieve improved image contrast for weakly attenuating materials, such as often encountered in biomedical applications. Several XPCi methods exist, most of which have already been implemented in computed tomographic (CT) modality, thus allowing volumetric imaging. The Edge Illumination (EI) XPCi method had, until now, not been implemented as a CT modality. This article provides indications that quantitative 3D maps of an object's phase and attenuation can be reconstructed from EI XPCi measurements. Moreover, a theory for the reconstruction of combined phase and attenuation maps is presented. Both reconstruction strategies find applications in tissue characterisation and the identification of faint, weakly attenuating details. Experimental results for wires of known materials and for a biological object validate the theory and confirm the superiority of the phase over conventional, attenuation-based image contrast.

  18. X-ray diffraction, inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and infrared (IR) studies on 2:1 hexamethylbenzene (HMB)-tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlukojc, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, ul. Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Sawka-Dobrowolska, W. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Bator, G. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Sobczyk, L. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland)], E-mail: sobczyk@chem.uni.wroc.pl; Grech, E. [Institute of Chemistry and Environmental Protection, Szczecin University of Technology, Piastow Al. 12, 71-065 Szczecin (Poland); Nowicka-Scheibe, J. [Institute of Chemistry and Environmental Protection, Szczecin University of Technology, Piastow Al. 12, 71-065 Szczecin (Poland)

    2006-09-11

    The structure of the 2:1 hexamethylbenzene (HMB)-tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) complex was determined at 100 K. In the crystalline lattice the molecules of HMB (D) and TCNE (A) are arranged in DDADDADD stacks along the b-axis. Based on the red shift of the {nu}(C{identical_to}N) IR frequencies the charge transfer (CT) degree (Z) was estimated to be equal to 0.14. It is markedly higher than that for the complex of HMB with tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) for which Z = 0.06. The analysis of vibrational modes connected with torsional motion in the low frequency region was performed based on the inelastic neutron scattering (INS) experiments and DFT theoretical calculations. The correlation between {nu} {sub exp}/{nu} {sub calc} and {nu} {sub calc} shows a deviation of experimental values from calculated ones. It is the higher the lower is the frequency of the analysed mode. The comparison of correlations for neat HMB and its complexes with TCNQ and TCNE suggests that some role in decreasing the barrier to rotation can be played by the charge transfer between D and A molecules.

  19. X-ray diffraction, inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and infrared (IR) studies on 2:1 hexamethylbenzene (HMB)-tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlukojc, A.; Sawka-Dobrowolska, W.; Bator, G.; Sobczyk, L.; Grech, E.; Nowicka-Scheibe, J.

    2006-01-01

    The structure of the 2:1 hexamethylbenzene (HMB)-tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) complex was determined at 100 K. In the crystalline lattice the molecules of HMB (D) and TCNE (A) are arranged in DDADDADD stacks along the b-axis. Based on the red shift of the ν(C≡N) IR frequencies the charge transfer (CT) degree (Z) was estimated to be equal to 0.14. It is markedly higher than that for the complex of HMB with tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) for which Z = 0.06. The analysis of vibrational modes connected with torsional motion in the low frequency region was performed based on the inelastic neutron scattering (INS) experiments and DFT theoretical calculations. The correlation between ν exp /ν calc and ν calc shows a deviation of experimental values from calculated ones. It is the higher the lower is the frequency of the analysed mode. The comparison of correlations for neat HMB and its complexes with TCNQ and TCNE suggests that some role in decreasing the barrier to rotation can be played by the charge transfer between D and A molecules

  20. X-ray diffraction, inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and infrared (IR) studies on 2:1 hexamethylbenzene (HMB) tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlukojć, A.; Sawka-Dobrowolska, W.; Bator, G.; Sobczyk, L.; Grech, E.; Nowicka-Scheibe, J.

    2006-09-01

    The structure of the 2:1 hexamethylbenzene (HMB)-tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) complex was determined at 100 K. In the crystalline lattice the molecules of HMB (D) and TCNE (A) are arranged in DDADDADD stacks along the b-axis. Based on the red shift of the ν(C tbnd N) IR frequencies the charge transfer (CT) degree ( Z) was estimated to be equal to 0.14. It is markedly higher than that for the complex of HMB with tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) for which Z = 0.06. The analysis of vibrational modes connected with torsional motion in the low frequency region was performed based on the inelastic neutron scattering (INS) experiments and DFT theoretical calculations. The correlation between νexp/ νcalc and νcalc shows a deviation of experimental values from calculated ones. It is the higher the lower is the frequency of the analysed mode. The comparison of correlations for neat HMB and its complexes with TCNQ and TCNE suggests that some role in decreasing the barrier to rotation can be played by the charge transfer between D and A molecules.

  1. Review of JT-60U experimental results in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, H.; Akasaka, H.; Akino, N.

    1999-09-01

    Based on the high confinement regimes such as reversed shear mode, high-β p mode and H-mode, the JT-60U experiment in 1998 was devoted to expand the discharge regimes in terms of 1) achievement of high fusion gain, 2) concept optimization for long sustainment of the advanced modes for >>τ E and >τ p * with the current profile close to the steady-state solution, 3) high confinement by electron heating (T e >T i ), 4) high confinement at high electron density and/or at high divertor radiation and 5) active control of multiple parameters including both core and divertor plasmas. As for the reversed shear mode, high performance discharges satisfying Q DT eq (DT equivalent fusion gain ) >1 were obtained reproducibly and the record value of Q DT eq =1.25 was achieved in a reactor-relevant thermonuclear dominant regime due to the optimized discharge scenario using feedback control of the neutron production rate where β-values were kept in the MHD stable region during the I p ramping phase with a large radius of the internal transport barrier (ITB). The reduction of Z eff obtained after installation of W-shaped pumped divertor increased fusion reaction rate. Concerning long sustainment, the reversed shear ELMy H-mode with H 89PL -factor∼1.5-2 and β N =1.0-1.4 was kept for 5.5 s with NB heating. By off axis LH current drive, the reversed shear current profile with the ITB was kept constant for 4.7 s under full non- inductive current drive condition (LHCD=77%, bootstrap=23%) at T e -1.2T i . In the high-β p ELMy H-mode regime, benefits of the high triangularity shape were demonstrated. At a high triangularity δ X ∼0.46, β N =2.5-2.7 was sustained for 3.5 s even at the low value of q 95 =2.9-3.3. The product of β N xH-factor sustainable for >5τ E (>τ p *) increases with δ x and reaches ∼6 at δ X ∼0.46. In addition to extension of the discharge regimes, the key phenomena determining transport and stability around ITBs were studied intensively. For the

  2. Overview of Recent DIII-D Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenstermacher, Max

    2015-11-01

    Recent DIII-D experiments have added to the ITER physics basis and to physics understanding for extrapolation to future devices. ELMs were suppressed by RMPs in He plasmas consistent with ITER non-nuclear phase conditions, and in steady state hybrid plasmas. Characteristics of the EHO during both standard high torque, and low torque enhanced pedestal QH-mode with edge broadband fluctuations were measured, including edge localized density fluctuations with a microwave imaging reflectometer. The path to Super H-mode was verified at high beta with a QH-mode edge, and in plasmas with ELMs triggered by Li granules. ITER acceptable TQ mitigation was obtained with low Ne fraction Shattered Pellet Injection. Divertor ne and Te data from Thomson Scattering confirm predicted drift-driven asymmetries in electron pressure, and X-divertor heat flux reduction and detachment were characterized. The crucial mechanisms for ExB shear control of turbulence were clarified. In collaboration with EAST, high beta-p scenarios were obtained with 80 % bootstrap fraction, high H-factor and stability limits, and large radius ITBs leading to low AE activity. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Review of JT-60U experimental results in 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, H.; Akasaka, H.; Akino, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    1999-09-01

    Based on the high confinement regimes such as reversed shear mode, high-{beta}{sub p} mode and H-mode, the JT-60U experiment in 1998 was devoted to expand the discharge regimes in terms of 1) achievement of high fusion gain, 2) concept optimization for long sustainment of the advanced modes for >>{tau}{sub E} and >{tau}{sub p}* with the current profile close to the steady-state solution, 3) high confinement by electron heating (T{sub e}>T{sub i}), 4) high confinement at high electron density and/or at high divertor radiation and 5) active control of multiple parameters including both core and divertor plasmas. As for the reversed shear mode, high performance discharges satisfying Q{sub DT}{sup eq} (DT equivalent fusion gain ) >1 were obtained reproducibly and the record value of Q{sub DT}{sup eq}=1.25 was achieved in a reactor-relevant thermonuclear dominant regime due to the optimized discharge scenario using feedback control of the neutron production rate where {beta}-values were kept in the MHD stable region during the I{sub p} ramping phase with a large radius of the internal transport barrier (ITB). The reduction of Z{sub eff} obtained after installation of W-shaped pumped divertor increased fusion reaction rate. Concerning long sustainment, the reversed shear ELMy H-mode with H{sup 89PL}-factor{approx}1.5-2 and {beta}{sub N}=1.0-1.4 was kept for 5.5 s with NB heating. By off axis LH current drive, the reversed shear current profile with the ITB was kept constant for 4.7 s under full non- inductive current drive condition (LHCD=77%, bootstrap=23%) at T{sub e}-1.2T{sub i}. In the high-{beta}{sub p} ELMy H-mode regime, benefits of the high triangularity shape were demonstrated. At a high triangularity {delta}{sub X}{approx}0.46, {beta}{sub N}=2.5-2.7 was sustained for 3.5 s even at the low value of q{sub 95}=2.9-3.3. The product of {beta}{sub N}xH-factor sustainable for >5{tau}{sub E} (>{tau}{sub p}*) increases with {delta}{sub x} and reaches {approx}6 at {delta

  4. X-ray Spectroscopy of Hot Dense Plasmas: Experimental Limits, Line Shifts and Field Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, Oldrich; Sauvan, Patrick; Dalimier, Elisabeth; Riconda, Caterina; Rosmej, Frank B.; Weber, Stefan; Nicolai, Philippe; Peyrusse, Olivier; Uschmann, Ingo; Hoefer, Sebastian; Kaempfer, Tino; Loetzsch, Robert; Zastrau, Ulf; Foerster, Eckhart; Oks, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy is capable of providing complex information on environmental conditions in hot dense plasmas. Benefiting from application of modern spectroscopic methods, we report experiments aiming at identification of different phenomena occurring in laser-produced plasma. Fine features observed in broadened profiles of the emitted x-ray lines and their satellites are interpreted using theoretical models predicting spectra modification under diverse experimental situations.

  5. Parallel of semi-empirical results simulated by MCNP of X-ray spectra with a semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.R.; Vivolo, V.; Potiens, M.P.A.; Navarro, M.V.T.; Santos, W.S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the MCNPX radiation transport code to simulate X-ray spectra generated by a constant voltage system in a CdTe semiconductor detector. As part of the validation process, we obtained a series of experimental spectra. Comparatively, in all cases there is a good correlation between the two spectra. There were no statistically significant differences between the experimental results with the simulated. (author)

  6. Vaporization inside a mini microfin tube: experimental results and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diani, A.; Rossetto, L.

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes a comparison among the common R134a and the extremely low GWP refrigerant R1234yf during vaporization inside a mini microfin tube. This microfin tube has an internal diameter of 2.4 mm, it has 40 fins, with a fin height of 0.12 mm. Due to the high heat transfer coefficients shown by this tube, this technology can lead to a refrigerant charge reduction. Tests were run in the Heat Transfer in Micro Geometries Lab of the Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale of the Università di Padova. Mass velocities range between 375 and 940 kg m-2 s-1, heat fluxes from 10 to 50 kW m-2, vapour qualities from 0.10 to 0.99, at a saturation temperature of 30°C. The comparison among the two fluids is proposed at the same operating conditions, in order to highlight the heat transfer and pressure drop differences among the two refrigerants. In addition, two correlations are proposed to estimate the heat transfer coefficient and frictional pressure drop during refrigerant flow boiling inside mini microfin tubes. These correlations well predict the experimental values, and thus they can be used as a useful tool to design evaporators based on these mini microfin tubes.

  7. Waste glass corrosion modeling: Comparison with experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourcier, W.L.

    1993-11-01

    A chemical model of glass corrosion will be used to predict the rates of release of radionuclides from borosilicate glass waste forms in high-level waste repositories. The model will be used both to calculate the rate of degradation of the glass, and also to predict the effects of chemical interactions between the glass and repository materials such as spent fuel, canister and container materials, backfill, cements, grouts, and others. Coupling between the degradation processes affecting all these materials is expected. Models for borosilicate glass dissolution must account for the processes of (1) kinetically-controlled network dissolution, (2) precipitation of secondary phases, (3) ion exchange, (4) rate-limiting diffusive transport of silica through a hydrous surface reaction layer, and (5) specific glass surface interactions with dissolved cations and anions. Current long-term corrosion models for borosilicate glass employ a rate equation consistent with transition state theory embodied in a geochemical reaction-path modeling program that calculates aqueous phase speciation and mineral precipitation/dissolution. These models are currently under development. Future experimental and modeling work to better quantify the rate-controlling processes and validate these models are necessary before the models can be used in repository performance assessment calculations

  8. Modeling of rock friction 1. Experimental results and constitutive equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieterich, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Direct shear experiments on ground surfaces of a granodiorite from Raymond, California, at normal stresses of approx.6 MPa demonstrate that competing time, displacement, and velocity, effects control rock friction. It is proposed that the strength of the population of points of contacts between sliding surfaces determines frictional strength and that the population of contacts changes continuously with displacements. Previous experiments demonstrate that the strength of the contacts increases with the age of the contacts. The present experiments establish that a characteristic displacement, proportional to surface roughness, is required to change the population of contacts. Hence during slip the average age of the points of contact and therefore frictional strength decrease as slip velocity increases. Displacement weakening and consequently the potential for unstable slip occur whenever displacement reduces the average age of the contacts. In addition to this velocity dependency, which arises from displacement dependency and time dependency, the experiments also show a competing but transient increase in friction whenever slip velocity increases. Creep of the sliding surface at stresses below that for steady state slip also observed. Constitutive relationships are developed that permit quantitative simulation of the friction versus displacement data as a function of surface roughness and for different time and velocity histories. Unstable slip in experiments is controlled by these constitutive effects and by the stiffness of the experimental system. It is argued that analogous properties control earthquake instability

  9. Experimental results with hydrogen fueled internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, P. C. T.; Mclean, W. J.; Homan, H. S.

    1975-01-01

    The paper focuses on the most important experimental findings for hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines, with particular reference to the application of these findings to the assessment of the potential of hydrogen engines. Emphasis is on the various tradeoffs that can be made, such as between maximum efficiency, maximum power, and minimum NO emissions. The various possibilities for induction and ignition are described. Some projections are made about areas in which hydrogen engines may find their initial application and about optimum ways to design such engines. It is shown that hydrogen-fueled reciprocal internal combustion engines offer important advantages with respect to thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions. Problems arising from preignition can suitably be avoided by restricting the fuel-air equivalence ratio to values below about 0.5. The direct cylinder injection appears to be a very attractive way to operate the engine, because it combines a wide range of possible power outputs with a high thermal efficiency and very low NO emissions at part loads.

  10. Experimental Results from a Microwave Cavity Beam Position Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakin, V.; Bazhan, A.; Lunev, P.; Solyak, N.; Vogel, V.; Zhogolev, P.; Lisitsyn, A.; Yakimenko, V.

    1999-01-01

    Future Linear Colliders have hard requirements for the beam transverse position stability in the accelerator. A beam Position Monitor (BPM) with the resolution better than 0.1 micron in the single bunch regime is needed to control the stability of the beam position along the linac. Proposed BPM is based on the measurement of the asymmetrical mode excited by single bunch in the cavity. Four stages of signal processing (space-, time-, frequency- and phase-filtering providing the required signal-to-noise ratio) are used to obtain extremely high resolution. The measurement set-up was designed by BINP and installed at ATF/BNL to test experimentally this concept. The set-up includes three two-coordinates BPM's at the frequency of 13.566 GHz, and reference intensity/phase cavity. BPM's were mounted on support table. The two-coordinates movers allow to move and align BPM's along the straight line, using the signals from the beam. The position of each monitor is controlled by the sensors with the accuracy 0.03 micron. The information from three monitors allows to exclude angle and position jitter of the beam and measure BPM resolution. In the experiments the resolution of about 0.15 micron for 0.25 nC beam intensity was obtained, that is close to the value required

  11. Experimental Investigation of Brazilian 14-X B Hypersonic Scramjet Aerospace Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Felipe de Araujo Martos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian hypersonic scramjet aerospace vehicle 14-X B is a technological demonstrator of a hypersonic airbreathing propulsion system based on the supersonic combustion (scramjet to be tested in flight into the Earth’s atmosphere at an altitude of 30 km and Mach number 7. The 14-X B has been designed at the Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics, Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv, Brazil. The IEAv T3 Hypersonic Shock Tunnel is a ground-test facility able to produce high Mach number and high enthalpy flows in the test section close to those encountered during the flight of the 14-X B into the Earth’s atmosphere at hypersonic flight speeds. A 1 m long stainless steel 14-X B model was experimentally investigated at T3 Hypersonic Shock Tunnel, for freestream Mach numbers ranging from 7 to 8. Static pressure measurements along the lower surface of the 14-X B, as well as high-speed Schlieren photographs taken from the 5.5° leading edge and the 14.5° deflection compression ramp, provided experimental data. Experimental data was compared to the analytical theoretical solutions and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations, showing good qualitative agreement and in consequence demonstrating the importance of these methods in the project of the 14-X B hypersonic scramjet aerospace vehicle.

  12. First Results from The GlueX Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Curtis [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The GlueX experiment at Jefferson Lab ran with its first commissioning beam in late 2014 and the spring of 2015. Data were collected on both plastic and liquid hydrogen targets, and much of the detector has been commissioned. All of the detector systems are now performing at or near design specifications and events are being fully reconstructed, including exclusive production of pi^0, eta and omega mesons. Linearly-polarized photons were successfully produced through coherent bremsstrahlung and polarization transfer to the ρ has been observed.

  13. X-15 Research Results with a Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    temperatures ad pressures. A suit that met these requirements was developed by the David C. Clark Co., which had created a means of giving the wearer high...E. J.; FETTERMAN , D. E. JR.; AND SALTZMAN, E. J., "Com- parison of Full-Scale Lift and Drag Characteristics of the X-15 Air- plane with Wind-Tunnel...Elasticity of air, 49 Data analysis of flights, 45 Electronics Data-reduction, flight data, 35 Automatic damping, 75 David C. Clark Co., pressure suit de

  14. Data base of reactor physics experimental results in Kyoto University critical assembly experimental facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihara, Chihiro; Fujine, Shigenori; Hayashi, Masatoshi

    1986-01-01

    The Kyoto University critical assembly experimental facilities belong to the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, and are the versatile critical assembly constructed for experimentally studying reactor physics and reactor engineering. The facilities are those for common utilization by universities in whole Japan. During more than ten years since the initial criticality in 1974, various experiments on reactor physics and reactor engineering have been carried out using many experimental facilities such as two solidmoderated cores, a light water-moderated core and a neutron generator. The kinds of the experiment carried out were diverse, and to find out the required data from them is very troublesome, accordingly it has become necessary to make a data base which can be processed by a computer with the data accumulated during the past more than ten years. The outline of the data base, the data base CAEX using personal computers, the data base supported by a large computer and so on are reported. (Kako, I.)

  15. A review of experimental results at the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeorandel, Joerg R.

    2006-01-01

    Results of experiments investigating air showers in the energy region of the knee are summarized. The all-particle energy spectrum, the mean logarithmic mass, and the average depth of the shower maximum will be discussed. Spectra for groups of elements from air shower data are compared to results from direct measurements

  16. Acquiring molecular interference functions of X-ray coherent scattering for breast tissues by combination of simulation and experimental methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaparian, A.; Oghabian, M. A.; Changizi, V.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, it has been indicated that X-ray coherent scatter from biological tissues can be used to access signature of tissue. Some scientists are interested in studying this effect to get early detection of breast cancer. Since experimental methods for optimization are time consuming and expensive, some scientists suggest using simulation. Monte Carlo codes are the best option for radiation simulation: however, one permanent defect with Monte Carlo codes has been the lack of a sufficient physical model for coherent (Rayleigh) scattering, including molecular interference effects. Materials and Methods: It was decided to obtain molecular interference functions of coherent X-ray scattering for normal breast tissues by combination of modeling and experimental methods. A Monte Carlo simulation program was written to simulate the angular distribution of scattered photons for the normal breast tissue samples. Moreover, experimental diffraction patterns of these tissues were measured by means of energy dispersive X-ray diffraction method. The simulation and experimental data were used to obtain a tabulation of molecular interference functions for breast tissues. Results: With this study a tabulation of molecular interference functions for normal breast tissues Was prepared to facilitate the simulation diffraction patterns of the tissues without any experimental. Conclusion: The method may lead to design new systems for early detection of breast cancer.

  17. [Experimental model of severe local radiation injuries of the skin after X-rays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenko, K V; Moroz, B B; Nasonova, T A; Dobrynina, O A; LIpengolz, A A; Gimadova, T I; Deshevoy, Yu B; Lebedev, V G; Lyrschikova, A V; Eremin, I I

    2013-01-01

    The experimental model of severe local radiation injuries skin under the influence of a relatively soft X-rays on a modified device RAP 100-10 produced by "Diagnostica-M" (Russia) was proposed. The model can be used as pre-clinical studies in small experimental animals in order to improve the treatment of local radiation injuries, especially in the conditions of application of cellular therapy.

  18. Results of agriclimatological studies using multiple satellite sensors like NOAA AVHRR; GMS IR and LANDSAT MSS and TM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, A.M.

    1990-08-01

    Bangladesh Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization (SPARRSO) routinely receives NOAA and GMS imagery and uses them in agrometeorological monitoring, it also uses LANDSAT MSS and TM data for this purpose. Analysis of multiple satellite sensor data shows advantages for high resolution sensors. However, in the ease of crop monitoring, a good correlation has been obtained between results obtained with NOAA AVHRR and LANDSAT MSS for vegetation index. Crop estimation has been made using all kinds of sensors and it has been found that higher resolution data always give more accurate results. (author). 3 refs

  19. Molecular structure, electronic properties, NLO, NBO analysis and spectroscopic characterization of Gabapentin with experimental (FT-IR and FT-Raman) techniques and quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Leena; Karabacak, Mehmet; Narayan, V.; Cinar, Mehmet; Prasad, Onkar

    2013-05-01

    Gabapentin (GP), structurally related to the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), mimics the activity of GABA and is also widely used in neurology for the treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain. It exists in zwitterionic form in solid state. The present communication deals with the quantum chemical calculations of energies, geometrical structure and vibrational wavenumbers of GP using density functional (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. In view of the fact that amino acids exist as zwitterions as well as in the neutral form depending on the environment (solvent, pH, etc.), molecular properties of both the zwitterionic and neutral form of GP have been analyzed. The fundamental vibrational wavenumbers as well as their intensities were calculated and compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The fundamental assignments were done on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method. The electric dipole moment, polarizability and the first hyperpolarizability values of the GP have been calculated at the same level of theory and basis set. The nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior of zwitterionic and neutral form has been compared. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital analysis. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrum of the title molecule has also been calculated using TD-DFT method. The thermodynamic properties of both the zwitterionic and neutral form of GP at different temperatures have been calculated.

  20. PAL-XFEL soft X-ray scientific instruments and X-ray optics: First commissioning results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Han; Kim, Minseok; Min, Changi-Ki; Eom, Intae; Nam, Inhyuk; Lee, Heung-Soo; Kang, Heung-Sik; Kim, Hyeong-Do; Jang, Ho Young; Kim, Seonghan; Hwang, Sun-min; Park, Gi-Soo; Park, Jaehun; Koo, Tae-Yeong; Kwon, Soonnam

    2018-05-01

    We report an overview of soft X-ray scientific instruments and X-ray optics at the free electron laser (FEL) of the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, with selected first-commissioning results. The FEL exhibited a pulse energy of 200 μJ/pulse, a pulse width of power of 10 500 was achieved. The estimated total time resolution between optical laser and X-ray pulses was <270 fs. A resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectrometer was set up; its commissioning results are also reported.

  1. Liquid blanket MHD effects experimental results from LMEL facility at SWIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zengyu; Pan Chuanjie; Liu Yong; Pan Chuanhong; Reed, C.B.

    2007-01-01

    The self-cooled /helium-cooled liquid metal blanket concept is an attractive ITER and DEMO blanket candidate as it has low operating pressure, simplicity, and a convenient tritium breeding cycle. But MHD pressure drop remains a key issue, especially in ducts with flow channel inserts (FCI), where the reduction in MHD pressure drop is difficult to predict with existing tools, and there are no available experimental data to check current predictions. To understand well various kinds of MHD effects, it is important for us to analyze and understand FCI effects. In this paper, we present measurements of the MHD effects due to off normal power shutdown, two-dimensional effects due to channel velocity profiles, three-dimensional effects caused by manifolds, and surface/bulk instability effects as a result of insulator coating imperfections. These results were collected from the Liquid Metal Experimental Loop (LMEL) facility at Southwestern Institute of Physics, China and in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, US under an umbrella of the People's Republic of China/United States program of cooperation in magnetic fusion. Some results were observed for the first time, such as two dimensional effects and instabilities due to insulator coating imperfections. The experiments were conducted under the following conditions: a uniform magnetic field volume of 80 x 170 x 740 mm and a maximum value of magnetic field, B 0 , of 2 Tesla. The mean flow velocity v 0 was measured with an electromagnetic (EM) flow meter (error of 1.2%); a Liquid-metal Electro-magnetic Velocity Instrument (LEVI) was provided by Argonne National Laboratory. The flow was driven by two Electro-magnetic (EM) pumps (6.5+11.6 m3/h); the operating temperature was 85 centigrade degree due to self-heating by the EM pump and friction of the fluid against the loop piping. Experimental parameters were: Hartmann number, M, up to 3500, velocity v 0 up to 1.2 m/s under magnetic field, and B 0 =1.95 Tesla

  2. New experimental results on electron cooling at COSY-Juelich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, J.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.; Stein, H.J.; Kobets, A.; Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.; Smirnov, A.

    2007-01-01

    Recent results of electron cooling of proton beams at COSY-Juelich are reported. Cooling at an electron energy of 70 keV has been studied for the first time. At the injection energy level of COSY, corresponding to 24.5 keV electron energy, the features of the cooled proton beam at extremely low intensities have been investigated in order to find out whether an ordering of the proton beam can be achieved. Such investigations are motivated by the results of a numerical simulation of the ordering process by the BETACOOL code. (author)

  3. Comments on experimental results of energy confinement of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.K.

    1989-04-01

    The results of energy-confinement experiments on steady-state tokamak plasmas are examined. For plasmas with auxiliary heating, an analysis based on the heat diffusion equation is used to define heat confinement time (the incremental energy confinement time). For ohmically sustained plasmas, experiments show that the onset of the saturation regime of energy confinement, marfeing, detachment, and disruption are marked by distinct values of the parameter /bar n//sub e///bar j/. The confinement results of the two types of experiments can be described by a single surface in 3-dimensional space spanned by the plasma energy, the heating power, and the plasma density: the incremental energy confinement time /tau//sub inc/ = ΔW/ΔP is the correct concept for describing results of heat confinement in a heating experiment; the commonly used energy confinement time defined by /tau//sub E/ = W/P is not. A further examination shows that the change of edge parameters, as characterized by the change of the effective collision frequency ν/sub e/*, governs the change of confinement properties. The totality of the results of tokamak experiments on energy confinement appears to support a hypothesis that energy transport is determined by the preservation of the pressure gradient scale length. 70 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  4. Growth and phase transformations of Ir on Ge(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, C. H.; Stenger, B. H.; Durand, A. M.; Morad, J. A.; Sato, Y.; Poppenheimer, E. C.; Chiang, S.

    2017-12-01

    The growth of Ir on Ge(111) as a function of temperature between 23 °C and 820 °C is characterized with low energy electron microscopy (LEEM), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Deposition onto a substrate at 350 °C revealed a novel growth mode consisting of multilayer Ir islands with (√3 × √3)R30° (abbreviated as √3) structure interconnected by ;bridges; of single-layer Ir several atoms wide. For deposition onto substrates above 500 °C, the √3 Ir phase grows with dendritic morphology, and substrate step bunches act as barriers to √3 Ir growth. LEEM images showed Stranski-Krastanov growth for 650-820 °C: after the √3 phase covers the surface, corresponding to 2 monolayers (ML) Ir coverage, multilayer hexagonal-shaped Ir islands form, surrounded by regions of IrGe alloy. Hexagonal-shaped Ir islands also formed upon heating 1.2 ML of √3 Ir beyond 830 °C, which resulted in the elimination of √3 structure from the surface. The transformation from √3 to (1 × 1) structure upon heating to 830 °C was an irreversible surface phase transition. Annealing > 2.0 ML of Ir in the √3 phase above the 830 °C disorder temperature, followed by cooling, produced a (3 × 1) structure. Subsequent heating and cooling through 830 °C give evidence for a reversible (3 × 1) to (1 × 1) phase transition.

  5. Experimental validation of a kilovoltage x-ray source model for computing imaging dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, Yannick, E-mail: yannick.poirier@cancercare.mb.ca [CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Ave, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada); Kouznetsov, Alexei; Koger, Brandon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Tambasco, Mauro, E-mail: mtambasco@mail.sdsu.edu [Department of Physics, San Diego State University, San Diego, California 92182-1233 and Department of Physics and Astronomy and Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To introduce and validate a kilovoltage (kV) x-ray source model and characterization method to compute absorbed dose accrued from kV x-rays. Methods: The authors propose a simplified virtual point source model and characterization method for a kV x-ray source. The source is modeled by: (1) characterizing the spatial spectral and fluence distributions of the photons at a plane at the isocenter, and (2) creating a virtual point source from which photons are generated to yield the derived spatial spectral and fluence distribution at isocenter of an imaging system. The spatial photon distribution is determined by in-air relative dose measurements along the transverse (x) and radial (y) directions. The spectrum is characterized using transverse axis half-value layer measurements and the nominal peak potential (kVp). This source modeling approach is used to characterize a Varian{sup ®} on-board-imager (OBI{sup ®}) for four default cone-beam CT beam qualities: beams using a half bowtie filter (HBT) with 110 and 125 kVp, and a full bowtie filter (FBT) with 100 and 125 kVp. The source model and characterization method was validated by comparing dose computed by the authors’ inhouse software (kVDoseCalc) to relative dose measurements in a homogeneous and a heterogeneous block phantom comprised of tissue, bone, and lung-equivalent materials. Results: The characterized beam qualities and spatial photon distributions are comparable to reported values in the literature. Agreement between computed and measured percent depth-dose curves is ⩽2% in the homogeneous block phantom and ⩽2.5% in the heterogeneous block phantom. Transverse axis profiles taken at depths of 2 and 6 cm in the homogeneous block phantom show an agreement within 4%. All transverse axis dose profiles in water, in bone, and lung-equivalent materials for beams using a HBT, have an agreement within 5%. Measured profiles of FBT beams in bone and lung-equivalent materials were higher than their

  6. Experimental high power plasma-filled backward wave oscillator results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, K.; Lou, W.R.; Destler, W.W.; Kehs, R.A.; Granatstein, V.L.; Carmel, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Previous results have indicated that a background gas can be used to increase the output microwave power of relativistic backward wave oscillators (BWOs) two or three times the vacuum case. In their experiments, two methods of plasma production are investigated in detail: the use of the electron beam to ionize a background gas, and the use of a plasma gun to inject a background plasma into the slow-wave structure of a BWO. It is found in the first case that there was a resonant increase in microwave power at a particular pressure of the background gas by a factor of ten. In the second case, power also increased compared with power production in vacuum. Detailed results are presented and the relative merits of the two approaches is discussed and compared with theoretical expectations

  7. Verification of aseismic design model by using experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, N.; Sugiyama, N.; Suzuki, T.; Shibata, Y.; Miura, K.; Miyagawa, N.

    1985-01-01

    A lattice model is applied as an analysis model for an aseismic design of the Hamaoka nuclear reactor building. With object to verify an availability of this design model, two reinforced concrete blocks are constructed on the ground and the forced vibration tests are carried out. The test results are well followed by simulation analysis using the lattice model. Damping value of the ground obtained from the test is more conservative than the design value. (orig.)

  8. Comparison of Computational and Experimental Microphone Array Results for an 18%-Scale Aircraft Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, David P.; Humphreys, William M.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Fares, Ehab; Casalino, Damiano; Ravetta, Patricio A.

    2015-01-01

    An 18%-scale, semi-span model is used as a platform for examining the efficacy of microphone array processing using synthetic data from numerical simulations. Two hybrid RANS/LES codes coupled with Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings solvers are used to calculate 97 microphone signals at the locations of an array employed in the NASA LaRC 14x22 tunnel. Conventional, DAMAS, and CLEAN-SC array processing is applied in an identical fashion to the experimental and computational results for three different configurations involving deploying and retracting the main landing gear and a part span flap. Despite the short time records of the numerical signals, the beamform maps are able to isolate the noise sources, and the appearance of the DAMAS synthetic array maps is generally better than those from the experimental data. The experimental CLEAN-SC maps are similar in quality to those from the simulations indicating that CLEAN-SC may have less sensitivity to background noise. The spectrum obtained from DAMAS processing of synthetic array data is nearly identical to the spectrum of the center microphone of the array, indicating that for this problem array processing of synthetic data does not improve spectral comparisons with experiment. However, the beamform maps do provide an additional means of comparison that can reveal differences that cannot be ascertained from spectra alone.

  9. Experimental study of soft X-ray intensity with different anode tips in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-06-15

    Jun 15, 2016 ... c Indian Academy of Sciences. DOI 10.1007/s12043-016-1224-8. Experimental study of soft X-ray intensity with different anode tips in Amirkabir plasma focus device. MORTEZA HABIBI. ∗ and MAHSA MAHTAB. Energy Engineering and Physics Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

  10. LHC IR Upgrade Nb-Ti, 120mm Aperture Model Quadrupole Test Results at 1.8K

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, G A; Bajko, M; Datskov, V I; Durante, M; Fessia, P; Feuvrier, J; Guinchard, M; Giloux, C; Granieri, P P; Manil, P; Perez, J C; Ravaioli, E; Rifflet, J M; Russenschuck, S; Sahner, T; Segreti, M; Todesco, E; Willering, G

    2014-01-01

    Over the last five years, the model MQXC quadruple, a 120 mm aperture, 120 T/m, 1.8 m long, Nb-Ti version of the LHC insertion upgrade (due in 2021), has been developed at CERN. The magnet incorporates several novel concepts to extract high levels of heat flux and provide high quality field harmonics throughout the full operating current range. Existing LHC-dipole cable with new, open cable and ground insulation was used. Two, nominally identical 1.8 m long magnets were built and tested at 1.8 K at the CERN SM18 test facility. This paper compares in detail the two magnet tests and presents: quench performance, internal stresses, heat extraction simulating radiation loading in the superconducting coils, and quench protection measurements. The first set of tests highlighted the conflict between high magnet cooling capability and quench protection. The second magnet had additional instrumentation to investigate further this phenomenon. Finally we present test results from a new type of superconducting magnet pro...

  11. Calculation results and experimental testing of doppler feedback coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shunhai

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler feedback coefficients are calculated by the interpolation and group collapsing method from multigroup self-shielding factors and infinite dilution cross sections rather than effective resonance integrals by using resonance data base. Since many updated sets of multigroup data are in existence to be selected, the calculation process can be simplified. The heterogeneous effects are taken into account by equivalence relation. The computer code of Doppler feedback coefficients is created on computer CYBER-825 and PDP-11. The results calculated are in good agreement with the experiments

  12. Experimental test accelerator: description and results of initial experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.; Birx, D.; Briggs, R.

    1980-01-01

    The ETA is a high current (10,000 Amp) linear induction accelerator that produces short (30 ns) pulses of electrons at 5 MeV twice per second or in bursts of 5 pulses separated by as little as one millisecond. At this time the machine has operated at 65% of its design current and 90% of the design voltage. This report contains a description of the accelerator and its diagnostics; the results of the initial year of operation; a comparison of design codes with experiments on beam transport; and a discussion of some of the special problems and their status

  13. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Experimental Operations & Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Aaron; Mehta, Manish; MacLean, Matthew; Seaford, Mark; Holden, Michael

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) uses four clustered liquid rocket engines along with two solid rocket boosters. The interaction between all six rocket exhaust plumes will produce a complex and severe thermal environment in the base of the vehicle. This work focuses on a recent 2% scale, hot-fire SLS base heating test. These base heating tests are short-duration tests executed with chamber pressures near the full-scale values with gaseous hydrogen/oxygen engines and RSRMV analogous solid propellant motors. The LENS II shock tunnel/Ludwieg tube tunnel was used at or near flight duplicated conditions up to Mach 5. Model development was based on the Space Shuttle base heating tests with several improvements including doubling of the maximum chamber pressures and duplication of freestream conditions. Test methodology and conditions are presented, and base heating results from 76 runs are reported in non-dimensional form. Regions of high heating are identified and comparisons of various configuration and conditions are highlighted. Base pressure and radiometer results are also reported.

  14. Preliminary experimental results from a linear reciprocating magnetic refrigerator prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagliafico, Luca Antonio; Scarpa, Federico; Valsuani, Federico; Tagliafico, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    A linear reciprocating magnetic refrigerator prototype was designed and built with the aid of an industrial partner. The refrigerator is based on the Active Magnetic Regenerative cycle, and exploits two regenerators working in parallel. The active material is Gadolinium in plates, 0.8 mm thick, for a total mass of 0.36 kg. The device is described and results about magnetic field and temperature span measurements are presented. The designed permanent magnet structure, based on an improved cross-type arrangement, generates a maximum magnetic field intensity of 1.55 T in air, over a gap of (13 × 50 × 100) mm 3 . The maximum temperature span achieved is 5.0 K, in a free run condition. -- Highlights: ► We give preliminary results from a linear reciprocating magnetic refrigerator prototype. ► The design is intended to process visualization and investigation. ► The prototype behavior gives us various suggestions to improve its general performance

  15. Impacts of changing hydrology on permanent gully growth: experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Stephanie S.; Gran, Karen B.; Paola, Chris

    2018-06-01

    Permanent gullies grow through head cut propagation in response to overland flow coupled with incision and widening in the channel bottom leading to hillslope failures. Altered hydrology can impact the rate at which permanent gullies grow by changing head cut propagation, channel incision, and channel widening rates. Using a set of small physical experiments, we tested how changing overland flow rates and flow volumes alter the total volume of erosion and resulting gully morphology. Permanent gullies were modeled as both detachment-limited and transport-limited systems, using two different substrates with varying cohesion. In both cases, the erosion rate varied linearly with water discharge, such that the volume of sediment eroded was a function not of flow rate, but of total water volume. This implies that efforts to reduce peak flow rates alone without addressing flow volumes entering gully systems may not reduce erosion. The documented response in these experiments is not typical when compared to larger preexisting channels where higher flow rates result in greater erosion through nonlinear relationships between water discharge and sediment discharge. Permanent gullies do not respond like preexisting channels because channel slope remains a free parameter and can adjust relatively quickly in response to changing flows.

  16. Influence of experimental conditions on atom column visibility in energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dycus, J.H.; Xu, W.; Sang, X. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, 911 Partners Way Engineering Building 1, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); D' Alfonso, A.J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Chen, Z. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Weyland, M. [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Allen, L.J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Findlay, S.D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); LeBeau, J.M., E-mail: jmlebeau@ncsu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, 911 Partners Way Engineering Building 1, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Here we report the influence of key experimental parameters on atomically resolved energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). In particular, we examine the role of the probe forming convergence semi-angle, sample thickness, lattice spacing, and dwell/collection time. We show that an optimum specimen-dependent probe forming convergence angle exists to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of the atomically resolved signal in EDX mapping. Furthermore, we highlight that it can be important to select an appropriate dwell time to efficiently process the X-ray signal. These practical considerations provide insight for experimental parameters in atomic resolution energy dispersive X-ray analysis. - Highlights: • Impacts of microscope operating conditions on EDX signal and atom column contrast are demonstrated. • Influence of sample thickness and lattice spacing is shown. • Conditions for obtaining optimal signal and contrast for different sample types are discussed. • Effects of dwell time during EDX acquisition are discussed.

  17. Experimental results on low alpha electron-storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robin, D.; Hama, H.; Nadji, A.

    1995-09-01

    The authors report on experiments performed in two synchrotron light sources, UVSOR and Super-ACO, where the momentum compaction factor is reduced in order to reduce the bunch length. By controlling the second-order momentum compaction factor, UVSOR and Super-ACO have managed to reduce the first-order momentum compaction factor by 100. At low current the resulting bunch lengths are less than 10 ps, a factor of 10 smaller than normal. Measurements of current dependent bunch lengthening in UVSOR are presented and the cause of the bunch lengthening is determined to be potential-well distortion. The authors also show that by operating with a negative momentum compaction factor, SuperACO has achieved shorter bunch lengthening and higher peak currents than at positive momentum compaction

  18. New experimental results in atlas-based brain morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James C.; Fabella, Brian A.; Fernandes, Siddharth E.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Gur, Ruben C.; Gur, Raquel E.

    1999-05-01

    In a previous meeting, we described a computational approach to MRI morphometry, in which a spatial warp mapping a reference or atlas image into anatomic alignment with the subject is first inferred. Shape differences with respect to the atlas are then studied by calculating the pointwise Jacobian determinant for the warp, which provides a measure of the change in differential volume about a point in the reference as it transforms to its corresponding position in the subject. In this paper, the method is used to analyze sex differences in the shape and size of the corpus callosum in an ongoing study of a large population of normal controls. The preliminary results of the current analysis support findings in the literature that have observed the splenium to be larger in females than in males.

  19. Experimental results: Pilot plant calcine dissolution and liquid feed stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, R.S.; Fryer, D.S.; Brewer, K.N.; Johnson, C.K.; Todd, T.A.

    1995-02-01

    The dissolution of simulated Idaho Chemical Processing Plant pilot plant calcines, containing none of the radioactive actinides, lanthanides or fission products, was examined to evaluate the solubility of calcine matrix materials in acidic media. This study was a necessary precursor to dissolution and optimization experiments with actual radionuclide-containing calcines. The importance of temperature, nitric acid concentration, ratio of acid volume to calcine mass, and time on the amount, as a weight percentage of calcine dissolved, was evaluated. These parameters were studied for several representative pilot plant calcine types: (1) Run No. 74 Zirconia calcine; (2) Run No. 17 Zirconia/Sodium calcine; (3) Run No. 64 Zirconia/Sodium calcine; (3) Run No. 1027 Alumina calcine; and (4) Run No. 20 Alumina/Zirconia/Sodium calcine. Statistically designed experiments with the different pilot plant calcines indicated the effect of the studied process variables on the amount of calcine dissolved decreases in the order: Acid/Calcine Ratio > Temperature > HNO 3 Concentration > Dissolution Time. The following conditions are suitable to achieve greater than 90 wt. % dissolution of most Zr, Al, or Na blend calcines: (1) Maximum nitric acid concentration of 5M; (2) Minimum acid/calcine ratio of 10 mL acid/1 gram calcine; (3) Minimum dissolution temperature of 90 degrees C; and (4) Minimum dissolution time of 30 minutes. The formation of calcium sulphate (CaSO 4 ) precipitates was observed in certain dissolved calcine solutions during the dissolution experiments. Consequently, a study was initiated to evaluate if and under what conditions the resulting dissolved calcine solutions would be unstable with regards to precipitate formation. The results indicate that precipitate formation in the calcine solutions prepared under the above proposed dissolution conditions are not anticipated

  20. [Experimental results of erbium:YAG laser vitrectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrochen, M; Petersen, H; Wüllner, C; Seiler, T

    1998-01-01

    Vitrectomy performed by conventional guillotine devices includes the risk of mechanical damage to retina as well as other ocular structures. The present study aims to investigate the efficacy of the Er:YAG laser for vitreous liquefaction. Vitreous liquefaction by means of Er:YAG laser pulses was performed using a special handpiece. The output of an Er:YAG laser operating at 2.94 microns was coupled into a ZrF optical fibre (length 2 m) which ended inside a cavity located at the quartz tip (diameter 320 microns) of the handpiece where tissue ablation took place. The viscosity of the liquefied vitreous was determined by rotation viscosimetry and compared to liquefied vitreous obtained by mechanical vitrectomy. In addition, the aspiration flow (ml/min) was correlated to the repetition/cutting rate of the laser and the cutter. The temperature rise at the handpiece was recorded with a micro thermocouple. The cutting threshold was determined to 5 mJ +/- 3 mJ at a pulse duration of 200 microseconds. The viscosity of the vitreous liquefied with the Er:YAG laser was 31 +/- 10 mPa s which is similar to the results of mechanical vitrectomy (42 +/- 19 mPa s) but significant less than that of normal vitreous (880 +/- 280 mPa s). The aspiration of the laser handpiece in dependence to the repetition rate increases linear up to 2.6 ml/min at 30 Hz. The temperature increase at the handpiece was < 1 K under vitrectomy conditions (aspiration and irrigation) with an averaged laser power of 0.3 W (10 mJ at 30 Hz). The decreased vacuum forces used by the laser vitrectomy system may result in less mechanical stress to the retina as well as intravitreal structures which may be attached to it. An Er:YAG laser vitrectomy system may offer the potential of fewer complications during vitrectomy.

  1. Experimental and theoretical study of Bragg-Fresnel focalizing optical systems engraved on multi layers interferential mirrors adapted to X and X-UV fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idir, M.

    1995-02-01

    This work concerns the study of a particular type of X-ray focusing optics known as Bragg-Fresnel lenses, formed through ion-etching of multilayered structures. Using the Super-ACO (LURE/Orsay) synchrotron storage ring, we tested several Bragg-Fresnel lenses having either linear or elliptical geometries (producing a line or a point focus, respectively). Diffraction profiles were first obtained for the linear lenses ion-etched on W/Si multilayers of nano-metric period. The experimental results were compared with our theoretical predictions. We next proposed and tested a solution to the problem superposing the different diffraction orders in the focal plane, that of fabricating Bragg-Fresnel lenses with an off-axis configuration, first for the linear and then the elliptical geometry. An experimental application, for an off-axis elliptical lens produced a focused X-ray spot of 5 x 10 microns 2 for the Super-ACO synchrotron source. The same lens also produced a 1/3-size X-ray image of a grid-like object at 1750 eV using the first and third diffraction orders. (author)

  2. Induction of resistance to bacterial leaf blight (Xanthomonas oryzae) disease in the high yielding variety Vijaya (IR 8 x T 90)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanabhan, S.Y.; Kaur, S.; Rao, M.

    1976-01-01

    The high-yield variety Vijaya ( IR 8 x T 90), susceptible to bacterial leaf blight (Xanthomonas oryzae, Uyeda and Ishiyama Dawson), was treated with EMS to induce resistance. Dehusked seeds were pre-soaked in distilled water for 4 hrs, and subjected to 0.1% and 0.2% EMS for 6 hrs. Seed germination and survival was low in 0.2% EMS. Seedlings of M 1 were raised in pots, and panicles of individual plants harvested separately. The seeds of M 2 (8800 plants) generation were grown in nursery beds, and transplanted in field after 30 days. The plants were inoculated at the boot leaf stage with X.oryzae by the clipping method, and lesion length measured 15 days later. The frequency distribution of controls was bimodal, the EMS-treated population polymodal with new peaks. A wider range of variability was induced on the resistant and susceptible side. In M 2 0.36% resistant and 0.62% moderately resistant plants occurred. The seeds of (11) resistant and (20) moderately resistant plants of M 2 were sown for M 3 generation. These plants also segregated in the range of 0-31 and 0-32 cm lesion length. The frequency distribution curve was polymodal. M 2 from ''R'' showed 1.07% of resistant plants and 0.42% from ''MR'', against, 4.28% of moderately resistant plants from ''R'' and 3.22% from ''MR''. Susceptible plants of M 2 also segregated towards resistance (1.15%) and moderately resistant (6.96%) plants in M 3 generation. Resistant (25) and moderately resistant (147) plants of M 3 were carried forward to M 4 generation, and segregated in the range of 2.1-25 cm lesion length. The frequency curve was polymodal. No resistant plant (up to 2.0 cm lesion length) could be isolated in M 4 . The percentage of moderately resistant plants was 4.44% from ''R'' of M 3 and 4.82% from ''MR'' of M 3 and 4.77% from ''S'' of M 3 generation. The yield of resistant plants was low whereas the yield of moderately resistant plants equalled the parent; the yield of susceptible segregants equalled or

  3. Slit-scanning differential phase-contrast mammography: first experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessl, Ewald; Daerr, Heiner; Koehler, Thomas; Martens, Gerhard; van Stevendaal, Udo

    2014-03-01

    The demands for a large field-of-view (FOV) and the stringent requirements for a stable acquisition geometry rank among the major obstacles for the translation of grating-based, differential phase-contrast techniques from the laboratory to clinical applications. While for state-of-the-art Full-Field-Digital Mammography (FFDM) FOVs of 24 cm x 30 cm are common practice, the specifications for mechanical stability are naturally derived from the detector pixel size which ranges between 50 and 100 μm. However, in grating-based, phasecontrast imaging, the relative placement of the gratings in the interferometer must be guaranteed to within micro-meter precision. In this work we report on first experimental results on a phase-contrast x-ray imaging system based on the Philips MicroDose L30 mammography unit. With the proposed approach we achieve a FOV of about 65 mm x 175 mm by the use of the slit-scanning technique. The demand for mechanical stability on a micrometer scale was relaxed by the specific interferometer design, i.e., a rigid, actuator-free mount of the phase-grating G1 with respect to the analyzer-grating G2 onto a common steel frame. The image acquisition and formation processes are described and first phase-contrast images of a test object are presented. A brief discussion of the shortcomings of the current approach is given, including the level of remaining image artifacts and the relatively inefficient usage of the total available x-ray source output.

  4. Review of JT-60 experimental results from June to October, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This is a prompt report on JT-60 experimental results from June to October, 1987. Experiments in hydrogen plasmas have been undertaken with up to 3.2 MA of plasma current in limiter discharges, 2.7 MA in divertor discharges, and 30 MW of total NB (H 0 → H + ) and RF injection power. In limiter discharges with ∼3 MA plasma current, the maximum central electron density of 1.3 x 10 20 m -3 and the energy confinement time of 0.15 - 0.18 sec were obtained with heating powers of 13 - 20 MW. The total plasma stored energy of 3.1 MJ, and n e (0)τ E of 1.4 - 1.8 x 10 19 m -3 sec were achieved. The best set of parameters achieved is n e (0)τ E = 1.8 x 10 19 m -3 sec and T i (0) = 3.7 KeV at plasma current of 3.2 MA. By applying deutrium discharge condition, n e (0)τ E and T i (0) enter the JT-60 target area determined by Atomic Energy Commission. Many short periods (50 - 100 ms) of H-mode phase are found in outside X-point divertor discharges with NB or NB + RF (LH or IC) heating power of more than 16 MW, although at present the energy confinement improvement is limited to within 10 %. In combined LH and NB heating of low-n-bar e discharge, the plasma stored energy increases with the same rate as NB heating only, with preferential absorption of LH wave to the high energy beam ions. In combined NB and on-axis ICRF heating of low-n-bar e discharge, a high incremental energy confinement time is obtained, with strong high energy beam ion acceleration and electron heating in the central region of the plasma. (author)

  5. Experimental Results of Integrated Refrigeration and Storage System Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Jumper, K.

    2009-01-01

    Launch operations engineers at the Kennedy Space Center have identified an Integrated Refrigeration and Storage system as a promising technology to reduce launch costs and enable advanced cryogenic operations. This system uses a close cycle Brayton refrigerator to remove energy from the stored cryogenic propellant. This allows for the potential of a zero loss storage and transfer system, as well and control of the state of the propellant through densification or re-liquefaction. However, the behavior of the fluid in this type of system is different than typical cryogenic behavior, and there will be a learning curve associated with its use. A 400 liter research cryostat has been designed, fabricated and delivered to KSC to test the thermo fluid behavior of liquid oxygen as energy is removed from the cryogen by a simulated DC cycle cryocooler. Results of the initial testing phase focusing on heat exchanger characterization and zero loss storage operations using liquid oxygen are presented in this paper. Future plans for testing of oxygen densification tests and oxygen liquefaction tests will also be discussed. KEYWORDS: Liquid Oxygen, Refrigeration, Storage

  6. Bridge Testing With Ground-Based Interferometric Radar: Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiara, P.; Morelli, A.

    2010-01-01

    The research of innovative non-contact techniques aimed at the vibration measurement of civil engineering structures (also for damage detection and structural health monitoring) is continuously directed to the optimization of measures and methods. Ground-Based Radar Interferometry (GBRI) represents the more recent technique available for static and dynamic control of structures and ground movements.Dynamic testing of bridges and buildings in operational conditions are currently performed: (a) to assess the conformity of the structure to the project design at the end of construction; (b) to identify the modal parameters (i.e. natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios) and to check the variation of any modal parameters over the years; (c) to evaluate the amplitude of the structural response to special load conditions (i.e. strong winds, earthquakes, heavy railway or roadway loads). If such tests are carried out by using a non-contact technique (like GBRI), the classical issues of contact sensors (like accelerometers) are easily overtaken.This paper presents and discusses the results of various tests carried out on full-scale bridges by using a Stepped Frequency-Continuous Wave radar system.

  7. Bridge Testing With Ground-Based Interferometric Radar: Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, P.; Morelli, A.

    2010-05-01

    The research of innovative non-contact techniques aimed at the vibration measurement of civil engineering structures (also for damage detection and structural health monitoring) is continuously directed to the optimization of measures and methods. Ground-Based Radar Interferometry (GBRI) represents the more recent technique available for static and dynamic control of structures and ground movements. Dynamic testing of bridges and buildings in operational conditions are currently performed: (a) to assess the conformity of the structure to the project design at the end of construction; (b) to identify the modal parameters (i.e. natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios) and to check the variation of any modal parameters over the years; (c) to evaluate the amplitude of the structural response to special load conditions (i.e. strong winds, earthquakes, heavy railway or roadway loads). If such tests are carried out by using a non-contact technique (like GBRI), the classical issues of contact sensors (like accelerometers) are easily overtaken. This paper presents and discusses the results of various tests carried out on full-scale bridges by using a Stepped Frequency-Continuous Wave radar system.

  8. Recent experimental results on solutions of deuterium in lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihle, H.R.; Wu, C.H.

    1976-01-01

    The existence of a number of stable molecules containing lithium and hydrogen isotopes in the saturated vapor over dilute solutions of hydrogen isotopes in lithium causes an unexpectedly high density of hydrogen isotopes in the vapor at high temperature. An evaluation of the partial pressures of the gas species Li, Li 2 , LiD, Li 2 D, LiD 2 and D 2 over solutions of deuterium in lithium measured in the temperature range 770 to 970 0 K, and extrapolation to higher temperatures, leads to the conclusion that the ratio of the atom fraction of deuterium in the gas to its atom fraction in the liquid exceeds unity above approximately 1240 0 K; this ratio is independent of the deuterium atom fraction in the liquid at low concentrations. Therefore the thermodynamic supposition that hydrogen isotopes can be separated from lithium by fractional distillation even at extremely low concentration exists. A direct verification of this phenomenon was made by Rayleigh distillation of Li-D solutions in the temperature range 970 to 1600 0 K. These measurements yield also the ratio of the deuterium atom fraction in the gas to that in the liquid and are in good agreement with the data obtained by extrapolation of partial pressures. The enrichment and depletion of deuterium in dependence on the number of theoretical plates of a distillation column at total reflux is calculated using the results

  9. The experimental results and analysis of a borehole radar prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Sixin; Wu, Junjun; Dong, Hang; Fu, Lei; Wang, Fei

    2012-01-01

    A prototype of borehole radar has been successfully tested in three sites for different purposes under a field condition. The objective of the prototype is providing an effective down-hole tool for detecting targets in deep boreholes situated in a relatively high conductivity area such as the metal ores. The first testing site is at a geothermal field. The fractures extending more than 20 m from the borehole are delineated by the borehole radar in the single-hole reflection mode. The second testing site is located in a jade mine for basement evaluation. The cross-hole measurement mode was used to detect the cavities made by previous unorganized mining activities. Several high-velocity anomalies were found in the velocity profile and presumably the targets of the mine shafts and tunnels. The third test site is located in a mineralized belt characterized by low resistivity less than 1000 Ohm m, the surface-borehole measurement was carried out and the data were processed with velocity tomography. The low-velocity zone corresponds to a mineralized zone from geological records. The three testing results proved the readiness of this borehole radar prototype for further deployment in more complicated and realistic field situations. (paper)

  10. First experimental results on the IShTAR testbed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Inca, R.; Jacquot, J.; Ochoukov, R.; Morgal, I.; Fünfgelder, H.; Faugel, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Crombe, K.; Louche, F.; Van Eester, D. [LPP-ERM-KMS, TEC partner, Brussels (Belgium); Heuraux, S.; Devaux, S.; Moritz, J.; Faudot, E. [Institut Jean Lamour UMR 7198 CNRS-Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Noterdaeme, J.-M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University (Belgium)

    2015-12-10

    IShTAR (Ion cyclotron Sheath Test ARrangement) is a linear magnetized plasma test facility dedicated to the investigation of RF wave/plasma interaction [1] in the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF). It provides a better accessibility for the instrumentation than tokamaks while being representative of the neighboring region of the wave emitter. It is equipped with a magnetized plasma source (1 m long, 0.4 m diameter) powered by a helical antenna up to 3 kW at 11 MHz. We present the results of the first analysis of the plasma characteristics (plasma density, electron temperature) in function of the operating parameters (injected power, neutral pressure and magnetic field) as measured with fixed and movable Langmuir probes, spectrometer and cameras. The plasma is presently produced only by the helical antenna (no ICRF). We show that the plasma exists in three regime depending on the power level: the first two ones are stable and separated by a jump in density; a first spatial profile of the plasma density has been established for these modes; The third mode is unstable, characterized by strong oscillations of the plasma tube position.

  11. Equatorial spread F: a review of recent experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the authors review an intense research effort aimed at understanding the large scale disruption of the equatorial F layer which often commences just after sunset, and lasts for most of the night. A very attractive explanation for the phenomena, although one not universally accepted, is that the F layer is unstable to the classic Rayleigh-Taylor condition in which a heavy fluid, the plasma, is supported against gravity by a light 'fluid', the Earth's magnetic field. It is concluded that a reasonable case has been made for this explanation provided that the concept is extended to include nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor like buoyancy effects above the F peak where linear process is stable. Internal gravity waves in neutral atmosphere seem to play an important role in seeding the Rayleigh-Taylor process with large scale finite amplitude perturbations. One of the remarkable features of this phenomena is the nearly simultaneous generation of structure with scale sizes spanning five orders of magnitude. These results may have applications in astrophysical processes where the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is thought to play a role. (Auth.)

  12. The European Tracer Experiment - experimental results and database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nodop, K.; Connolly, R.; Girardi, F.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX) two successful atmospheric experiments were carried out in October and November, 1994. Perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracers were released into the atmosphere in Monterfil, Brittany, and air samples were taken at 168 stations in 17 European countries for 72 hours after the release. Upper air tracer measurements were made from three aircraft. During the first experiment a westerly air flow transported the tracer plume north-eastwards across Europe. During the second release the flow was eastwards. The results from the ground sampling network allowed the determination of the cloud evolution as far as Sweden, Poland and Bulgaria. Typical background concentrations of the tracer used are around 5 to 7 fl/l in ambient air. Concentrations in the plume ranged from 10 to above 200 fl/l. The tracer release characteristics, the tracer concentrations at the ground and in upper air, the routine and additional meteorological observations at the ground level and in upper air, trajectories derived from constant-level balloons and the meteorological input fields for long-range transport (LRT) models are assembled in the ETEX database. The ETEX database is accessible via the Internet

  13. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF THE NEPHELINE PHASE III STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2009-11-09

    This study is the third phase in a series of experiments designed to reduce conservatism in the model that predicts the formation of nepheline, a crystalline phase that can reduce the durability of high level waste glass. A Phase I study developed a series of glass compositions that were very durable while their nepheline discriminator values were well below the current nepheline discriminator limit of 0.62, where nepheline is predicted to crystallize upon slow cooling. A Phase II study selected glass compositions to identify any linear effects of composition on nepheline crystallization and that were restricted to regions that fell within the validation ranges of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models. However, it was not possible to identify any linear effects of composition on chemical durability performance for this set of study glasses. The results of the Phase II study alone were not sufficient to recommend modification of the current nepheline discriminator. It was recommended that the next series of experiments continue to focus not only on compositional regions where the PCCS models are considered applicable (i.e., the model validation ranges), but also be restricted to compositional regions where the only constraint limiting processing is the current nepheline discriminator. Two methods were used in selecting glasses for this Phase III nepheline study. The first was based on the relationship of the current nepheline discriminator model to the other DWPF PCCS models, and the second was based on theory of crystallization in mineral and glass melts. A series of 29 test glass compositions was selected for this study using a combination of the two approaches. The glasses were fabricated and characterized in the laboratory. After reviewing the data, the study glasses generally met the target compositions with little issue. Product Consistency Test results correlated well with the crystallization analyses in

  14. Locking of iridium magnetic moments to the correlated rotation of oxygen octahedra in Sr2IrO4 revealed by x-ray resonant scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boseggia, S.; Walker, H. C.; Vale, J.

    2013-01-01

    Sr2IrO4 is a prototype of the class of Mott insulators in the strong spin–orbit interaction (SOI) limit described by a Jeff = 1/2 ground state. In Sr2IrO4, the strong SOI is predicted to manifest itself in the locking of the canting of the magnetic moments to the correlated rotation by 11.8(1)° o...

  15. Laser program development at CEL-V: overview of recent experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buresi, E.; Coutant, J.; Dautray, R.

    1985-11-01

    A significant effort has been made recently at CEL-V to improve laser facilities. OCTAL, the eight beam, 2 kJ laser, has been equipped with phosphate glass and KDP frequency tripling systems. PHEBUS, a two beam 20 kJ neodymium glass laser based on NOVA technology was defined, built and will be tested in early 1986 in close collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National laboratory. In the field of diagnostics, the development of soft X-ray emission analysis has been emphasized. Most of recent experimental results have been obtained at short wave-length (0.35 μm). They deal with: effect of non-uniform illumination, 2D hydrodynamics with either plane or spherical targets, and study of thermal transport inhibition

  16. Impaired Insulin Signaling is Associated with Hepatic Mitochondrial Dysfunction in IR+/−-IRS-1+/− Double Heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Franko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a pivotal role in energy metabolism, but whether insulin signaling per se could regulate mitochondrial function has not been identified yet. To investigate whether mitochondrial function is regulated by insulin signaling, we analyzed muscle and liver of insulin receptor (IR+/−-insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1+/− double heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh mice, a well described model for insulin resistance. IR-IRS1dh mice were studied at the age of 6 and 12 months and glucose metabolism was determined by glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Mitochondrial enzyme activities, oxygen consumption, and membrane potential were assessed using spectrophotometric, respirometric, and proton motive force analysis, respectively. IR-IRS1dh mice showed elevated serum insulin levels. Hepatic mitochondrial oxygen consumption was reduced in IR-IRS1dh animals at 12 months of age. Furthermore, 6-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice demonstrated enhanced mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle, but a tendency of impaired glucose tolerance. On the other hand, 12-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice showed improved glucose tolerance, but normal muscle mitochondrial function. Our data revealed that deficiency in IR/IRS-1 resulted in normal or even elevated skeletal muscle, but impaired hepatic mitochondrial function, suggesting a direct cross-talk between insulin signaling and mitochondria in the liver.

  17. Phase transformation of guanosine 5'-monophosphate in drowning-out crystallization: Comparison of experimental results with mathematical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Anh-Tuan; Kang, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Woo-Sik [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seocheon-Dong, Giheung-Gu, 446-701 Yongin-Si (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Guang Jin [Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Inje University, 607 Uhbang-Dong, Gimhae, 621-746 Kyungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The phase transformation of Guanosine 5{sup '}-Monophousphate (GMP) in drowning-out crystallization using a batch system was experimentally monitored and mathematically modeled. The solid (amorphous and crystalline GMP hydrate) and liquid phases of the GMP products were simultaneously monitored using a video microscope, FT-IR, and UV/Vis spectroscopy during the phase transformation. For the modeling, the phase transformation was assumed to occur via the simultaneous dissolution of amorphous GMP and growth of crystalline GMP hydrate in the solution. Based on a comparison of the experimental results and model predictions, both the dissolution and growth of the GMP solids were found to contribute competitively to the phase transformation. When varying the crystallization conditions, in this case the agitation speed and feed concentration, the phase transformation was significantly promoted when increasing the agitation speed, yet independent of the feed concentration. The simple mathematical model used for the GMP phase transformation was quite successful in describing the experimental results. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    Concepts available for discussing stable crack growth have progressed sufficiently for similarities to be appreciated. Despite rather different starting points and diverse presentation, they are now tending to be complementary, each reinforcing by alternate arguments, the general trends and conclusions of various models for tearing instability

  19. Some new experimental results on the Zr-Nb-Fe system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, C. [Departamento de Fisica - CAC - Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, (1650) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: ciramos@cnea.gov.ar; Saragovi, C. [Departamento de Fisica - CAC - Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, (1650) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Granovsky, M.S. [Departamento de Materiales - CAC - Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, (1650) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-06-30

    The scope of this study is the identification and characterization of intermetallic phases and their binary and ternary fields in the Zr-Nb-Fe phase diagram. A construction of the central region of the phase diagram at 900 {sup o}C was proposed using new experimental results obtained by optical and scanning electron microscopies, X-ray diffraction and microprobe analysis. In addition to the well-known Laves C15-type (ZrNb)Fe{sub 2} phase (the polytypic C14 and C36 structures were not detected in the studied compositions), another Laves C14-type phase was found (Zr(NbFe){sub 2}). Watson and Bennett maps helped to predict the occurrence of both of these phases. Moreover, the validity of the Pettifor prediction model for Laves phases in pseudobinary systems with transition elements was checked, verifying the obtained experimental results in the Zr-Nb-Fe system. On the other hand it was determined that the Zr-Nb-Fe ternary system at 900 {sup o}C, as it happens in the binary Zr-Nb system, would have a miscibility gap ({beta}-Zr + {beta}-Nb) in the 25-70 at.% Nb composition range, accepting up to 3 at.% Fe approximately.

  20. Macromolecular crystallographic results obtained using a 2048x2048 CCD detector at CHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, D.J.; Ealick, S.E.; Tate, M.W.; Gruner, S.M.; Eikenberry, E.F.

    1996-01-01

    We present results of macromolecular crystallographic experiments performed at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) with a new CCD-based detector. This detector, installed in January 1995, complements a 1024x1024 CCD detector that has been in continuous operation at CHESS since December 1993. The new detector is based on a 4-port, 2048x2048 pixel CCD that is directly coupled to a Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb phosphor by a 3:1 tapered fiber optic. The active area of the phosphor is a square 82 mm on an edge. The readout time is 7 seconds. In the standard mode of operation, the pixel size at the active area is 41 μm on the edge leading to the capability of resolving approximately 200 orders of diffraction across the detector face. The detector also operates in a 1024x1024 mode in which the pixel size is electronically increased by a factor of 4 in area resulting in smaller data files and faster detector readout but at the expense of spatial resolution. Most of the data that has been collected by this detector has been collected in this mode. Dozens of data sets have been collected by many experimenters using this detector at CHESS during the four month period from its installation until the start of the six-month down period of the storage ring. The capabilities of the detector will be illustrated with results from various crystallographic measurements including experiments in which the recorded diffraction patterns extend in resolution as far as 1 A. The results demonstrate that this detector is capable of collecting data of quality at least equal to that of imaging plates but, in many circumstances, with much greater beamline efficiency. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. Experimental and numerical investigations of a zeolite 13X/water reactor for solar heat storage in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsidjodoung, Parfait; Le Pierrès, Nolwenn; Heintz, Julien; Lagre, Davy; Luo, Lingai; Durier, François

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An open cycle heat storage using zeolite 13X/H 2 O is investigated. • A 1D reactor model is developed and compared to experimental results. • 40 kg batches generated up to 38 °C of temperature lift during 8 h of discharging. - Abstract: This paper addresses the thermal performances of a zeolite-based open sorption heat storage system to provide thermal energy for space heating needs. The study focuses on the experimentation of a significant scale prototype using zeolite 13X/H 2 O as the reactive pair, and on the development of a 1D mathematical model used to predict both the charging (desorption) and the discharging (adsorption) processes occurring inside the storage unit. The experimental campaigns and the numerical results lead to some promising conclusions on the thermal performances of such a storage unit. With 40 kg of zeolite, a temperature lift of 38 °C on average at the outlet of each zeolite’s vessel during 8 h was achieved during the discharging with an airflow inlet at 20 °C, 10 g/kg of dry air of specific humidity and a flow rate of 180 m 3 /h. Some discrepancies between the experimental and simulation results were observed during both the charging and discharging tests, and were explained.

  2. X-Ray Processing of ChaMPlane Fields: Methods and Initial Results for Selected Anti-Galactic Center Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, JaeSub; van den Berg, Maureen; Schlegel, Eric M.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Koenig, Xavier; Laycock, Silas; Zhao, Ping

    2005-12-01

    We describe the X-ray analysis procedure of the ongoing Chandra Multiwavelength Plane (ChaMPlane) Survey and report the initial results from the analysis of 15 selected anti-Galactic center observations (90degusing custom-developed analysis tools appropriate for Galactic sources but also of general use: optimum photometry in crowded fields using advanced techniques for overlapping sources, rigorous astrometry and 95% error circles for combining X-ray images or matching to optical/IR images, and application of quantile analysis for spectral analysis of faint sources. We apply these techniques to 15 anti-Galactic center observations (of 14 distinct fields), in which we have detected 921 X-ray point sources. We present logN-logS distributions and quantile analysis to show that in the hard band (2-8 keV) active galactic nuclei dominate the sources. Complete analysis of all ChaMPlane anti-Galactic center fields will be given in a subsequent paper, followed by papers on sources in the Galactic center and bulge regions.

  3. Wavelength calibration of x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer on Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, W.; Chen, Z. Y.; Jin, W.; Huang, D. W.; Ding, Y. H.; Li, J. C.; Zhang, X. Q.; Zhuang, G.; Lee, S. G.; Shi, Y. J.

    2014-01-01

    The wavelength calibration of x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer is a key issue for the measurements of plasma rotation. For the lack of available standard radiation source near 3.95 Å and there is no other diagnostics to measure the core rotation for inter-calibration, an indirect method by using tokamak plasma itself has been applied on joint Texas experimental tokamak. It is found that the core toroidal rotation velocity is not zero during locked mode phase. This is consistent with the observation of small oscillations on soft x-ray signals and electron cyclotron emission during locked-mode phase

  4. Review of JT-60 experimental results from January to October, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    Emphases in recent JT-60 experiments are placed on 1) improvements in plasma confinement with profile control and 2) steady state operation study. Both limiter and lower X-point divertor configurations were employed. The operating gas was hydrogen and, in some cases, helium. Improvements in confinement were demonstrated with pellet injection, LH current drive, high-Ti mode operation or ICRF. Current profile controllability with energetic electrons has been improved by the new LH launcher. The H-mode was achieved in limiter discharges with LH current drive for the first time. Nearly steady-state ELM-free H-mode with durations up to 3.3. sec was established without significant impurity accumulation. High-Ti and high-βp discharges were obtained in high field and low plasma current. Major experimental issues for the steady-state operation research were non-inductive current drive and He-ash exhaust. The neoclassical bootstrap current was confirmed in the wide range of βp. 30 keV helium NB was injected into NB heated lower X-point discharges, which produced centrally peaked birth profile of α-particles. A simple extension of the present result is promising for the helium exhaust in future device. (J.P.N.)

  5. Monochromatic x-rays for low-dose digital mammography: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Kwon, Young Man; Choi, Byoung-Jung; Son, Hyun Hwa; Ryu, Cheol Woo; Chon, Kwon Su; Park, Seong Hoon; Juhng, Sun Kwan

    2012-12-01

    The feasibility of using monochromatic x-ray imaging generated from an x-ray tube and a multilayer reflector for digital mammography with a low radiation dose was examined. A multilayer mirror was designed to select the x-ray peak with an energy of 21.5 keV generated from an x-ray tube with a tungsten target and was fabricated by the ion-beam sputtering deposition system. Monochromatic x-ray images were obtained from an experimental digital mammography setup with a scanning stage. The performance of the system was evaluated using a breast phantom, a spectrometer, and a radiation dosimeter. We measured the contrast-to-noise ratio and performed the 10% modulation function test to determine image quality and resolution. The monochromatic beam from the multilayer reflector had a full-width-at-half-maximum of 0.9 keV at 21.5 keV, and the reflectivity was 0.70, which was 90% of the designed value. The polychromatic and monochromatic x-rays showed radiation doses of 0.497 and 0.0415 mGy, respectively. The monochromatic x-ray image shows fibers, calcifications, and masses more clearly than the polychromatic x-ray images do. The image contrast of the monochromatic x-rays was 1.85 times higher than that of the polychromatic x-rays. The experimental mammography setup had a spatial resolution of 7 lp/mm with both x-rays. Monochromatic x-rays generated using a multilayer mirror may be a useful diagnostic tool for breast examination by providing high contrast imaging with a low radiation dose.

  6. Theoretical and experimental determination of K - and L -shell x-ray relaxation parameters in Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, M.; Sampaio, J. M.; Parente, F.; Indelicato, P.; Hönicke, P.; Müller, M.; Beckhoff, B.; Marques, J. P.; Santos, J. P.

    2018-04-01

    Fluorescence yields (FY) for the Ni K and L shells were determined by a theoretical and an experimental group within the framework of the International Initiative on X-ray Fundamental Parameters (FPs) collaboration. Coster-Kronig (CK) parameters were also measured for the L shell of Ni. Theoretical calculations of the same parameters were performed using the Dirac-Fock method, including relativistic and QED corrections. The experimental values for the FY and CK were determined at the PTB laboratory in the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II, Berlin, Germany, and are compared to the corresponding calculated values.

  7. Smectite clays in Mars soil - Evidence for their presence and role in Viking biology experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, A.; Rishpon, J.

    1979-01-01

    Evidence for the presence of smectite clays in Martian soils is reviewed and results of experiments with certain active clays simulating the Viking biology experiments are reported. Analyses of Martian soil composition by means of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and dust storm spectroscopy and Martian geological history strongly suggest the presence of a mixture of weathered ferro-silicate minerals, mainly nontronite and montmorillonite, accompanied by soluble sulphate salts, as major constituents. Samples of montmorillonite and nontronite incubated with (C-14)-formate or the radioactive nutrient medium solution used in the Viking Labeled Release experiment, were found to produce patterns of release of radioactive gas very similar to those observed in the Viking experiments, indicating the iron-catalyzed decomposition of formate as the reaction responsible for the Viking results. The experimental results of Hubbard (1979) simulating the results of the Viking Pyrolytic Release experiment using iron montmorillonites are pointed out, and it is concluded that many of the results of the Viking biology experiments can be explained in terms of the surface activity of smectite clays in catalysis and adsorption.

  8. Comparison of experimental and theoretical efficiency of HPGe X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, B.P.; Balouria, P.; Garg, M.L.; Nandi, T.K.; Mittal, V.K.; Govil, I.M.

    2008-01-01

    The low energy high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are being increasingly used for the quantitative estimation of elements using X-ray spectrometric techniques. The softwares used for quantitative estimation normally evaluate model based efficiency of detector using manufacturer supplied detector physical parameters. The present work shows that the manufacturer supplied detector parameters for low energy HPGe detectors need to be verified by comparing model based efficiency with the experimental ones. This is particularly crucial for detectors with ion implanted P type contacts

  9. Experimental Demonstration of X-Ray Drive Enhancement with Rugby-Shaped Hohlraums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Monteil, M. C.; Liberatore, S.; Park, H. S.; Amendt, P.; Robey, H.; Sorce, C.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F.; Rosenberg, M.; Petrasso, R.; Glebov, V.; Stoeckl, C.

    2010-01-01

    Rugby-shaped hohlraums have been suggested as a way to enhance x-ray drive in the indirect drive approach to inertial confinement fusion. This Letter presents an experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylinder hohlraums used for D 2 and D 3 He-filled capsules implosions on the Omega laser facility, demonstrating an increase of x-ray flux by 18% in rugby-shaped hohlraums. The highest yields to date for deuterium gas implosions in indirect drive on Omega (1.5x10 10 neutrons) were obtained, allowing for the first time the measurement of a DD burn history. Proton spectra measurements provide additional validation of the higher drive in rugby-shaped hohlraums.

  10. Atomic holography with electrons and x-rays: Theoretical and experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Len, P.M.

    1997-06-01

    Gabor first proposed holography in 1948 as a means to experimentally record the amplitude and phase of scattered wavefronts, relative to a direct unscattered wave, and to use such a open-quotes hologramclose quotes to directly image atomic structure. But imaging at atomic resolution has not yet been possible in the way he proposed. Much more recently, Szoeke in 1986 noted that photoexcited atoms can emit photoelectron of fluorescent x-ray wavefronts that are scattered by neighboring atoms, thus yielding the direct and scattered wavefronts as detected in the far field that can then be interpreted as holographic in nature. By now, several algorithms for directly reconstructing three-dimensional atomic images from electron holograms have been proposed (e.g. by Barton) and successfully tested against experiment and theory. Very recently, Tegze and Faigel, and Grog et al. have recorded experimental x-ray fluorescence holograms, and these are found to yield atomic images that are more free of the kinds of aberrations caused by the non-ideal emission or scattering of electrons. The basic principles of these holographic atomic imaging methods are reviewed, including illustrative applications of the reconstruction algorithms to both theoretical and experimental electron and x-ray holograms. The author also discusses the prospects and limitations of these newly emerging atomic structural probes

  11. Experimental determination of the back scattering factor in X-ray microanalysis; Determination experimentale du facteur de retro-diffusion en microanalyse par emission X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derian, J C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    This paper describes the first experimental method which has fixed the relative value of the X-ray loss by electron back scattering. Measurements have been performed, using gold, copper and aluminium specimens and accelerating voltages from 10 to 30 kV. Our experimental results, although higher than back scattering factor values calculated before, agree fairly well with those obtained by a Monte-Carlo calculation, using recent experimental measurement on thin films. The higher values obtained here, show that the compensation between deceleration and back scattering effects is better: the discrepancy from a linearity law is then probably weaker than it has been generally shown previously. (author) [French] Le memoire decrit la premiere methode experimentale ayant permis de determiner l'importance relative de la fraction du rayonnement X perdue par retrodiffusion des electrons. Les mesures ont porte sur l'or, le cuivre et l'aluminium entre 10 et 30 kV. Les resultats, sensiblement superieurs aux estimations anterieures, sont en bon accord avec ceux deduits, par la methode de Monte-Carlo, des recentes mesures sur les lames minces. Les valeurs plus elevees du facteur de retrodiffusion mises ainsi en evidence, conduisent a une meilleure compensation entre les effets de ralentissement et de retrodiffusion: l'ecart a une simple loi de proportionnalite par effet de difference de nombre atomique est ainsi probablement plus faible qu'on ne le pensait generalement jusqu'ici. (auteur)

  12. Compressibility of Ir-Os alloys under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusenko, Kirill V.; Bykova, Elena; Bykov, Maxim; Gromilov, Sergey A.; Kurnosov, Alexander V.; Prescher, Clemens; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Hanfland, Michael; Smaalen, Sander van; Margadonna, Serena; Dubrovinsky, Leonid S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • fcc- and hcp-Ir-Os alloys were prepared from single-source precursors. • Their atomic volumes measured at ambient conditions using powder X-ray diffraction follow nearly linear dependence. • Compressibility of alloys have been studied up to 30 GPa at room temperature in diamond anvil cells. • Their bulk moduli increase with increasing osmium content. - Abstract: Several fcc- and hcp-structured Ir-Os alloys were prepared from single-source precursors in hydrogen atmosphere at 873 K. Their atomic volumes measured at ambient conditions using powder X-ray diffraction follow nearly linear dependence as a function of composition. Alloys have been studied up to 30 GPa at room temperature by means of synchrotron-based X-ray powder diffraction in diamond anvil cells. Their bulk moduli increase with increasing osmium content and show a deviation from linearity. Bulk modulus of hcp-Ir 0.20 Os 0.80 is identical to that of pure Os (411 GPa) within experimental errors. Peculiarities on fcc-Ir 0.80 Os 0.20 compressibility curve indicate possible changes of its electronic properties at ∼20 GPa

  13. Experimental observation of G banding verifying X-ray workers' chromosome translocation detected by FISH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuanming; Li Jin; Wang Qin; Tang Weisheng; Wang Zhiquan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: FISH is the most effective way of detecting chromosome aberration and many factors affect its accuracy. G-banding is used to verify the results of early X-ray workers' chromosome translocation examined by FISH. Methods: The chromosome translocations of early X-ray workers have been analysed by FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) and G-banding, yields of translocation treated with statistics. Results: The chromosome aberrations frequencies by tow methods are closely related. Conclusion: FISH is a feasible way to analyse chromosome aberrations of X-ray workers and reconstruct dose

  14. Recent results and future plans for a 45 actuator adaptive x-ray optics experiment at the advanced light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brejnholt, Nicolai F., E-mail: brejnholt1@llnl.gov; Poyneer, Lisa A.; Hill, Randal M.; Pardini, Tommaso; Hagler, Lisle; Jackson, Jessie; Jeon, Jae; McCarville, Thomas J.; Palmer, David W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Celestre, Richard [Advanced Light Source - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States); Brooks, Audrey D. [Northrop Grumman - AOA Xinetics Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-07-27

    We report on the current status of the Adaptive X-ray Optics project run by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). LLNL is collaborating with the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to demonstrate a near real-time adaptive X-ray optic. To this end, a custom-built 45 cm long deformable mirror has been installed at ALS beamline 5.3.1 (end station 2) for a two-year period that started in September 2014. We will outline general aspects of the instrument, present results from a recent experimental campaign and touch on future plans for the project.

  15. Surface Characterization and Electrocatalytic Properties of the Ti/Ir0.3Ti(0.7-xPbx O2-Coated Electrodes for Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Acidic Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira-Sousa Adriana de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a systematic investigation was carried out of the surface characterization and electrocatalytic activity of Ti/Ir0.3Ti(0.7-xPb x O2-coated electrodes (0 <= x <= 0.7, using the oxygen evolution reaction (OER in 0.5 mol dm-3 H2SO4 as model. The electrodes were prepared by thermal decomposition of IrCl3, TiCl3 and Pb(NO32 at 600 °C for 1 h using Ti as support. X-ray diffraction shows that the layers are crystalline and that the corresponding metal oxides are present. The surface morphology of the samples, before and after use under extensive oxygen evolution (Tafel experiment, was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy and the micrograph analyses show that the OER promotes the dissolution of the oxide layer. The redox processes occurring on the surface were characterized by cyclic voltammetry at 20 mV s-1 in 0.5 mol dm-3 aqueous H2SO4, at room temperature, and were controlled by the Ir3+/Ir4+ couple. The measured anodic voltammetric charge is related to the active area of the electrode showing that the replacement of TiO2 by PbO2 increases the surface area with the higher value being at 50 mol% PbO2. After oxygen evolution, the surface area increases slightly. Tafel slopes are independent of Pb content with the values around 60 mV decade-1, which suggest that only Ir sites are active for OER. The values of normalized current (i/q a show some inhibition of the OER as TiO2 is replaced by PbO2 suggesting that PbO2, can be a good choice, with potential to improve the selectivity of the system. The reaction order with respect to H+ ion is zero at constant overpotential and ionic strength. The values of Tafel slope and reaction order indicate that a single reaction mechanism is operating.

  16. Contact behavior analysis of elastomeric x-ring under uniform squeeze rate and internal pressure before and after forcing-out using the photoelastic experimental hybrid method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Alunda Ouma [Dedan Kimathi University of Technology, Nyeri (Kenya); Hawong, Jai Sug; Dong, Bai [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Chul [Koje College, Geoje (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Many different types of elastomeric rings have been developed to suit various needs in industry. The X-ring was introduced as a result of the limitations of O-rings that twist, especially during dynamic application. A better understanding of the behavior and the stress distribution of the X-ring under a uniform squeeze rate and internal pressure is needed. We analyzed the contact stresses and internal stresses developed in an X-ring before and after forcing-out by using the photoelastic experimental hybrid method, ascertained the packing ability of an X-ring, and studied the failure criterion of an X-ring under uniform squeeze rate and internal pressure. Forcing-out in the X-ring occurred when the internal pressure was 3.92 MPa. After forcing-out, at an internal pressure of 5.88 MPa, the two lobes on the upper contact surface merged one contact side of the upper side immensely. Even after extrusion of the X-ring, the X-ring can be used to effectively contain the fluid. This is because the effects of extrusion on the X-ring affected the stress distribution of only two lobes close to the assembly gap and the two lobes are merge into one lobe. In addition, our experimental results show that the maximum shear failure criterion is suitable for the prediction of failure in X-ring seals.

  17. Catalytic steam methane reforming over Ir/Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-x}: resistance to coke formation and sulfur poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postole, G.; Girona, K.; Kaddouri, A.; Gelin, P. [Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse et l' Environnement de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, IRCELYON, F-69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Toyir, J. [Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse et l' Environnement de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, IRCELYON, F-69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Universite Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah Fes, FP-Taza, B.P. 1223 Taza (Morocco)

    2012-04-15

    This work investigates the catalytic properties of Ir/Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-x} (Ir/CGO) catalyst and CGO support in steam reforming of methane in the absence or presence of H{sub 2}S (50 ppm) for further application in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) working under methane at intermediate temperatures and integrating a gradual internal reforming concept. The catalytic activity was measured at 750 C by using a 50 mol.% CH{sub 4}/5 mol.% H{sub 2}O/45 mol.% N{sub 2} mixture and a 10 mol.% CH{sub 4}/90 mol.% N{sub 2} mixture. The addition of Ir to CGO improves the catalytic activity in hydrogen production by two orders of magnitude with respect to that of CGO alone. Temperature programmed oxidation experiments were performed after reaction in both types of mixtures to study the eventual formation of carbon deposits. Over Ir/CGO, carbon formed in little amounts (even in the absence of H{sub 2}O in the feed), being highly reactive toward O{sub 2}. Upon H{sub 2}S addition, the CGO support exhibited surprisingly an improved catalytic activity on the contrary to Ir/CGO which partly deactivated. Upon suppression of H{sub 2}S in the feed the initial catalytic activity was fully restored for both catalysts. The catalytic behavior of CGO in the presence of H{sub 2}S was discussed, based upon temperature programmed reaction of CH{sub 4}. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Photochemistry of Fe:H2O Adducts in Argon Matrixes: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study in the Mid-IR and UV-Visible Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguin, Vincent; Mascetti, Joëlle; Simon, Aude; Ben Amor, Nadia; Aupetit, Christian; Latournerie, Sandra; Noble, Jennifer A

    2018-01-18

    The photochemistry of Fe:H 2 O adducts is of interest in fields as diverse as catalysis and astrochemistry. Industrially, iron can be used as a catalyst to convert H 2 O to H 2 , whereas in the interstellar medium it may be an important component of dust grains, influencing the chemistry on their icy surfaces. This study consisted of the deposition and spectral characterization of binary systems of atomic iron with H 2 O in cryogenic argon matrixes. In this way, we were able to obtain information about the interaction of the two species; we observed the formation of adducts of iron monomers and dimers with water molecules in the mid-IR and UV-visible spectral domains. Upon irradiation with a UV radiation source, the iron species were inserted into the water molecules to form HFeOH and HFe 2 OH, leading in some cases to the formation of FeO possibly accompanied by the production of H 2 . DFT and correlated multireference wave function calculations confirmed our attributions. This combination of IR and UV-visible spectroscopy with theoretical calculations allowed us to determine, for the first time, the spectral characteristics of iron adducts and their photoproducts in the UV-visible and in the OH stretching region of the mid-IR domain.

  19. Comparison of analysis results with experimental results for ENEA and CRIEPI rubber bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, B.; Lee, J.H.; Koo, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, the preliminary structural analyses of ENEA HDRB and CRIEPI NRB were performed by using computer code ABAQUS, and the analysis results were compared with the test results provided by Italy and Japan thru IAEA. The test data for the rubbers used for the fabrication of bearings were also provided thru IAEA, and were utilized for the formulation of the rubber models for the analyses. The analyses performed for the rubber bearings are for the combined compression and shear and for the compression. The analysis results show a good agreement in shear strains when compared with the test results of HDRB and NRB for the combined compression and shear and for the compression benchmarks, but show relatively smaller responses in displacements for the compression with offsets benchmarks. (author)

  20. Rod behaviour under base load, load follow and frequency control operation: CYRANO 2 code predictions versus experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, B.; Raybaud, A.

    1984-01-01

    The French PWR reactors are now currently operating under load follow and frequency control. In order to demonstrate that these operating conditions were not able to increase the fuel failure rate, fuel rod behaviour calculations have been performed by E.D.F. with CYRANO 2 code. In parallel with these theoretical calculations, code predictions have been compared to experimental results. The paper presents some of the comparisons performed on 17x17 fuel irradiated in FESSENHEIM 2 up to 30 GWd/tU under base load operation and in the CAP reactor under load follow and frequency control conditions. It is shown that experimental results can be predicted with a reasonable accuracy by CYRANO 2 code. The experimental work was carried out under joint R and D programs by EDF, FRAGEMA, CEA, and WESTINGHOUSE (CAP program by French partners only). (author)

  1. Overview of diagnostic performance and results for the first operation phase in Wendelstein 7-X (invited)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krychowiak, M.; Adnan, A.; Alonso, A.; Andreeva, T.; Baldzuhn, J.; Barbui, T.; Beurskens, Marc N.A.; Biel, W.; Biedermann, C.; Blackwell, B.D.; Bosch, H.S.; Bozhenkov, S.; Brakel, R.; Bräuer, T.; Brotas de Carvalho, B.; Burhenn, R.; Buttenschön, B.; Cappa, A.; Cseh, G.; Czarnecka, A.; Dinklage, A.; Drews, P.; Dzikowicka, A.; Effenberg, F.; Endler, M.; Erckmann, V.; Estrada, T.; Ford, O.; Fornal, T.; Frerichs, H.; Fuchert, G.; Geiger, J.; Grulke, O.; Harris, J.H.; Hartfuß, H.J.; Hartmann, D.; Hathiramani, D.; Hirsch, M.; Höfel, U.; Jabłoński, S.; Jakubowski, M.W.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Klinger, T.; Klose, S.; Knauer, J.; Kocsis, G.; König, R.; Kornejew, P.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Krawczyk, N.; Kremeyer, T.; Ksiazek, I.; Kubkowska, M.; Langenberg, A.; Laqua, H.P.; Laux, M.; Lazerson, S.; Liang, Y.; Liu, S.C.; Lorenz, A.; Marchuk, A.O.; Marsen, S.; Moncada, V.; Naujoks, D.; Neilson, H.; Neubauer, O.; Neuner, U.; Niemann, H.; Oosterbeek, J.W.; Otte, M.; Pablant, N.; Pasch, E.; Sunn Pedersen, T.; Pisano, F.; Rahbarnia, K.; Ryć, L.; Schmitz, O.; Schmuck, S.; Schneider, W.; Schröder, T.; Schuhmacher, H.; Schweer, B.; Standley, B.; Stange, T.; Stephey, L.; Svensson, J.; Szabolics, T.; Szepesi, T.; Thomsen, H.; Travère, J.M.; Trimino Mora, H.; Tsuchiya, H.; Weir, G.M.; Wenzel, U.; Werner, A.; Wiegel, B.; Windisch, T.; Wolf, R.; Wurden, G.A.; Zhang, D.; Zimbal, A.; Zoletnik, S.

    2016-01-01

    Wendelstein 7-X, a superconducting optimized stellarator built in Greifswald/Germany, started its first plasmas with the last closed flux surface (LCFS) defined by 5 uncooled graphite limiters in December 2015. At the end of the 10 weeks long experimental campaign (OP1.1) more than 20 independent

  2. X-ray spectroscopy: An experimental technique to measure charge state distribution during ion–solid interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Prashant, E-mail: prashant@iuac.res.in; Nandi, Tapan

    2016-01-08

    Charge state distributions of {sup 56}Fe and {sup 58}Ni projectile ions passing through thin carbon foils have been studied in the energy range of 1.65–2.69 MeV/u using a novel method involving the X-ray spectroscopy technique. Interestingly the charge state distribution in the bulk shows Lorentzian behavior instead of usual Gaussian distribution. Further, different parameters of charge state distribution like mean charge state, distribution width and asymmetric parameter are determined and compared with the empirical calculations and ETACHA predictions. It is found that the X-ray measurement technique is appropriate to determine the mean charge state during the ion–solid interaction or in the bulk. Interestingly, empirical formalism predicts much lower mean charge states of the projectile ions compared to X-ray measurements which clearly indicate multi-electron capture from the target surface. The ETACHA predictions and experimental results are found to be comparable for the present energy regime. - Highlights: • New method is proposed to determine charge state distribution using X-ray technique. • Charge state distribution parameters are calculated and compared with various theoretical predictions. • X-ray technique is found to be appropriate to segregate the charge state distribution in the bulk from the target surface. • ETACHA predictions are found satisfactory in the energy range of ≥1.65 MeV/u.

  3. Parallel ferromagnetic resonance and spin-wave excitation in exchange-biased NiFe/IrMn bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Marcos Antonio de, E-mail: marcossharp@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 74001-970 (Brazil); Pelegrini, Fernando [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 74001-970 (Brazil); Alayo, Willian [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, 96010-900 (Brazil); Quispe-Marcatoma, Justiniano; Baggio-Saitovitch, Elisa [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro, 22290-180 (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    Ferromagnetic Resonance study of sputtered Ru(7 nm)/NiFe(t{sub FM})/IrMn(6 nm)/Ru(5 nm) exchange-biased bilayers at X and Q-band microwave frequencies reveals the excitation of spin-wave and NiFe resonance modes. Angular variations of the in-plane resonance fields of spin-wave and NiFe resonance modes show the effect of the unidirectional anisotropy, which is about twice larger for the spin-wave mode due to spin pinning at the NiFe/IrMn interface. At Q-band frequency the angular variations of in-plane resonance fields also reveal the symmetry of a uniaxial anisotropy. A modified theoretical model which also includes the contribution of a rotatable anisotropy provides a good description of the experimental results.

  4. Results of bone regenerate study after osteosynthesis with bioinert and calcium phosphate-coated bioactive implants in experimental femoral neck fractures (experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Kazanin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective - to analyze the results of X-ray, cytomorphometric and immunohistochemistry experimental studies of bone regenerates after osteosynthesis with bioinert and calcium phosphate-coated bioactive implants. Material and methods. The study was conducted on experimental femoral neck fractures in rabbit males. Reparative osteogenesis processes were studied in groups of bioinert titanium implant osteosynthesis and calcium phosphate-coated bioactive titanium implant osteosynthesis. The animals were clinically followed-up during the postoperative period. X-ray, cytomorphometric and immunohistochemistry studies of samples extracted from femoral bones were conducted over time on days 1, 7, 14, 30 and 60. The animal experiments were kept and treated according to recommendations of international standards, Helsinki Declaration on animal welfare and approved by the local ethics committee. All surgeries were performed under anesthesia, and all efforts were made to minimize the suffering of the animals. Results. In the animal group without femoral neck fracture osteosynthesis, femoral neck pseudoarthrosis was observed at the end of the experiment. The results of cytomorphometric and immunohistochemistry studies conducted on day 60 of the experiment confirmed that the cellular composition of the bone regenerate in the group of calcium phosphate-coated bioactive titanium implants corresponded to a more mature bone tissue than in the group of bioinert titanium implants. Conclusion. The results of the statistical analysis of cytomorphometric and immunohistochemistry data show that the use of calcium phosphate-coated bioactive titanium implants allows to achieve significantly earlier bone tissue regeneration.

  5. Analysis of the accident with the coolant discharge into the plasma vessel of the W7-X fusion experimental facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ušpuras, E.; Kaliatka, A.; Kaliatka, T., E-mail: tadas@mail.lei.lt

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • The accident with water ingress into the plasma vessel in Wendelstein nuclear fusion device W7-X was analyzed. • The analysis of the processes in the plasma vessel and ventilation system was performed using thermal-hydraulic RELAP5 Mod3.3 code. • The suitability of pressure increase prevention system was assessed. • All analyses results will be used for the optimization of W7-X design and to ensure safe operation of this nuclear fusion device. -- Abstract: Fusion is the energy production technology, which could potentially solve problems with growing energy demand of population in the future. Starting 2007, Lithuanian Energy Institute (LEI) is a member of European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) organization. LEI is cooperating with Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP, Germany) in the frames of EFDA project by performing safety analysis of fusion device W7-X. Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is an experimental stellarator facility currently being built in Greifswald, Germany, which shall demonstrate that in the future energy could be produced in such type of fusion reactors. In this paper the safety analysis of 40 mm inner diameter coolant pipe rupture in cooling circuit and discharge of steam–water mixture through the leak into plasma vessel during the W7-X no-plasma “baking” operation mode is presented. For the analysis the model of W7-X cooling system (pumps, valves, pipes, hydro-accumulators, and heat exchangers) and plasma vessel was developed by employing system thermal-hydraulic state-of-the-art RELAP5 Mod3.3 code. This paper demonstrated that the developed RELAP5 model enables to analyze the processes in divertor cooling system and plasma vessel. The results of analysis demonstrated that the proposed burst disc, connecting the plasma vessel with venting system, opens and pressure inside plasma vessel does not exceed the limiting 1.1 × 10{sup 5} Pa absolute pressure. Thus, the plasma vessel remains intact after loss

  6. Molecular hyperpolarizabilities of push–pull chromophores: A comparison between theoretical and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capobianco, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Università di Salerno, via ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Centore, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica P. Corradini, Università di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Noce, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Università di Salerno, via ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Peluso, A., E-mail: apeluso@unisa.it [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biologia, Università di Salerno, via ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2013-01-16

    Highlights: ► Electro-optical determined and MP2/DFT computed NLO properties have been compared. ► Significant dependence of dipole moments of elongated NLO chromophores on conformations has been found. ► A thorough comparison between MP2 and DFT/TD-DFT computational approaches has been carried out. ► The two-state model overestimates hyperpolarizability. - Abstract: Electric dipole moments and static first order hyperpolarizabilities of two push–pull molecules with an extended π electron systems have been evaluated at different computational levels and compared with the results of electro-optical absorption measurements, based on the two state model. Calculations show that: (i) the dipole moments of such elongated systems depend significantly on conformation, a thorough conformational search is necessary for a meaningful comparison between theoretical and experimental results; (ii) DFT methods, in particular CAM-B3LYP and M05-2X, yield dipole moments which compare well with those obtained by post Hartree–Fock methods (MP2) and by EOA measurements; (iii) theoretical first order hyperpolarizabilities are largely underestimated, both by MP2 and DFT methods, possibly because of the failure of two state model used in electro-optical measurements.

  7. Experimental geothermal well at Bad Schinznach. First results; Geothermiebohrung Bad Schinznach. Erste Resultate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haering, M O [Haering Geo-Project, Steinmaur (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    The spa of Bad Schinznach (Canton Argovia, Switzerland) endeavours to cover its heating requirements with geothermal energy. A recently drilled well to a depth of 890 meters encountered the regional acquifer of thermal water (Oberer Muschelkalk, Triassic) in three levels. Preliminary results indicate a productive aquifer in the uppermost level with a wellhead temperature of 42 C. An additional exploitation of the bottomhole formation temperature of 63 C is envisaged. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Bad Schinznach (Kanton Aargau, Schweiz) moechte im Rahmen der wirtschaftlichen Moeglichkeiten seinen Waermebedarf mit der Nutzung des Thermalwassers aus dem Oberen Muschelkalk (Trias) decken. Eine neulich abgeteufte Bohrung bis auf 890 Meter Tiefe hat die Formation auf drei Niveaus angetroffen. Erste Resultate deuten auf ein nutzbares Vorkommen im obersten Horizont mit einer Austrittstemperatur von 42 C. Eine zusaetzliche Nutzung der hohen Formationstemperatur von 63 C auf Endtiefe wird erwogen. (orig.)

  8. Successful synthesis and thermal stability of immiscible metal Au-Rh, Au-Ir andAu-Ir-Rh nanoalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubin, Yury; Plyusnin, Pavel; Sharafutdinov, Marat; Makotchenko, Evgenia; Korenev, Sergey

    2017-05-01

    We successfully prepared face-centred cubic nanoalloys in systems of Au-Ir, Au-Rh and Au-Ir-Rh, with large bulk miscibility gaps, in one-run reactions under thermal decomposition of specially synthesised single-source precursors, namely, [AuEn2][Ir(NO2)6], [AuEn2][Ir(NO2)6] х [Rh(NO2)6]1-х and [AuEn2][Rh(NO2)6]. The precursors employed contain all desired metals ‘mixed’ at the atomic level, thus providing significant advantages for obtaining alloys. The observations using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy show that the nanoalloy structures are composed of well-dispersed aggregates of crystalline domains with a mean size of 5 ± 3 nm. Еnergy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) measurements confirm the formation of AuIr, AuRh, AuIr0.75Rh0.25, AuIr0.50Rh0.50 and AuIr0.25Rh0.75 metastable solid solutions. In situ high-temperature synchrotron XRD (HTXRD) was used to study the formation mechanism of nanoalloys. The observed transformations are described by the ‘conversion chemistry’ mechanism characterised by the primary development of particles comprising atoms of only one type, followed by a chemical reaction resulting in the final formation of a nanoalloy. The obtained metastable nanoalloys exhibit essential thermal stability. Exposure to 180 °C for 30 h does not cause any dealloying process.

  9. In-line phase-contrast stereoscopic X-ray imaging for radiological purposes: An initial experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegbahn, E.A.; Coan, P.; Zhou, S.-A.; Bravin, A.; Brahme, A.

    2011-01-01

    We report results from a pilot study in which the in-line propagation-based phase-contrast imaging technique is combined with the stereoscopic method. Two phantoms were imaged at several sample-detector distances using monochromatic, 30 keV, X-rays. High contrast- and spatial-resolution phase-contrast stereoscopic pairs of X-ray images were constructed using the anaglyph approach and a vivid stereoscopic effect was demonstrated. On the other hand, images of the same phantoms obtained with a shorter sample-to-detector distance, but otherwise the same experimental conditions (i.e. the same X-ray energy and absorbed radiation dose), corresponding to the conventional attenuation-based imaging mode, hardly revealed stereoscopic effects because of the lower image contrast produced. These results have confirmed our hypothesis that stereoscopic X-ray images of samples with objects composed of low-atomic-number elements are considerably improved if phase-contrast imaging is used. It is our belief that the high-resolution phase-contrast stereoscopic method will be a valuable new medical imaging tool for radiologists and that it will be of help to enhance the diagnostic capability in the examination of patients in future clinical practice, even though further efforts will be needed to optimize the system performance.

  10. Experimental results of two stage harmonic generation with picosecond pulses on the Stanford Mark III FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, B.A.; Utah Univ., Salt Lake City; Stanford Univ., CA; Benson, S.V.; Madey, M.J.; Cutolo, A.; Naples Univ.

    1988-01-01

    We report experimental results on upper harmonic conversion using a lithium niobate and a beta barium borate crystal to quadruple the FEL light up into the visible and near infrared. The effects of finite linewidth, birefringent walk-off, and group velocity walk-off on conversion efficiency will be discussed with reference to the experimental results. (orig.)

  11. Dynamic Coefficients of a Tilting Pad With Active Lubrication: Comparison Between Theoretical and Experimental Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Santos, Ilmar

    2015-01-01

    experimental results from the literature for industrial grade passive tilting pad bearings. This initial validation is followed by a comparison with experimental identification results obtained from a test rig featuring the active bearing design. Good overall agreement is observed in both configurations...

  12. Armature reaction effects on a high temperature superconducting field winding of an synchronous machine: experimental results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results from the Superwind laboratory setup. Particular focus in the paper has been placed on describing and quantifying the influence of armature reaction on performance of the HTS filed winding. Presented experimental results have confirmed the HTS field winding...

  13. Experimental and theoretical study of the electronic and magnetic structures of Mn1-xCr xAu2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, L.-S.; Murakawa, T.; Fujiwara, H.; Sekiyama, A.; Suga, S.; Imada, S.; Yano, M.; Miyamachi, T.; Higashimichi, H.; Yamaguchi, J.; Funabashi, G.; Yabashi, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Higashiya, A.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray photoemission spectra of Mn 1-x Cr x Au 2 (x = 0, 0.05, and 0.13) are presented and compared with theoretical total and partial density of state (DOS) curves. Site- and spin-decomposed partial DOS and magnetism of these materials are also discussed

  14. A new X-ray absorption experimental set-up dedicated to DeNOx catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revel, R.; Bazin, D.; Seigneurin, A.; Barthe, P.; Dubuisson, J.M.; Decamps, T.; Sonneville, H.; Poher, J.J.; Maire, F.; Lefrancois, P.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present a complete in situ X-ray absorption reaction cell that simulates DeNO x experimental conditions. In this device, the sample is placed at high temperature under the flow of a complex mixture of reactive gases (NO, C 3 H 6 , O 2 , N 2 ). Particular attention has been paid to the material and design of the sample holders in order to avoid preferential gas circulation and thus ensure a true diffusion of the reactive gases on the catalyst. Moreover, precise control of the gas flow is maintained by means of mass flow controllers, and the safety of the set-up is assured by CO, CO 2 and NO detectors directly relayed to an electronic device, which is itself linked to the various mass flow controllers. Finally, the possibilities of this device are illustrated through the in situ XANES study of a Cu-ZSM-5 catalytic system

  15. Experimental Demonstration of X-Ray Drive Enhancement with Rugby-Shaped Hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Monteil, M. C.; Liberatore, S.; Park, H. S.; Amendt, P.; Robey, H.; Sorce, C.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F.; Rosenberg, M.; Petrasso, R.; Glebov, V.; Stoeckl, C.

    2010-01-01

    Rugby-shaped hohlraums have been suggested as a way to enhance x-ray drive in the indirect drive approach to inertial confinement fusion. This Letter presents an experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylinder hohlraums used for D2 and DHe3-filled capsules implosions on the Omega laser facility, demonstrating an increase of x-ray flux by 18% in rugby-shaped hohlraums. The highest yields to date for deuterium gas implosions in indirect drive on Omega (1.5×1010 neutrons) were obtained, allowing for the first time the measurement of a DD burn history. Proton spectra measurements provide additional validation of the higher drive in rugby-shaped hohlraums.

  16. Experimental determination of the x-ray atomic fundamental parameters of nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménesguen, Y.; Lépy, M.-C.; Hönicke, P.; Müller, M.; Unterumsberger, R.; Beckhoff, B.; Hoszowska, J.; Dousse, J.-Cl; Błachucki, W.; Ito, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Fukushima, S.

    2018-02-01

    The x-ray atomic properties of nickel (Ni) were investigated in a unique approach combining different experimental techniques to obtain new, useful and reliable values of atomic fundamental parameters for x-ray spectrometric purposes and for comparison with theoretical predictions. We determined the mass attenuation coefficients in an energy range covering the L- and K-absorption edges, the K-shell fluorescence yield and the Kβ/Kα and Kβ1, 3/Kα1, 2 transition probability ratios. The obtained line profiles and linewidths of the Kα and Kβ transitions in Ni can be considered as the contribution of the satellite lines arising from the [KM] shake processes suggested by Deutsch et al (1995 Phys. Rev. A 51 283) and Ito et al (2016 Phys. Rev. A 94 042506). Comparison of the new data with several databases showed good agreement, but also discrepancies were found with existing tabulated values.

  17. The smoothing and fast Fourier transformation of experimental X-ray and neutron data from amorphous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, M.; Wright, A.C.; Hutchinson, P.

    1977-01-01

    The application of fast Fourier transformation techniques to the analysis of experimental X-ray and neutron diffraction patterns from amorphous materials is discussed and compared with conventional techniques using Filon's quadrature. The fast Fourier transform package described also includes cubic spline smoothing and has been extensively tested, using model data to which statistical errors have been added by means of a pseudo-random number generator with Gaussian shaper. Neither cubic spline nor hand smoothing has much effect on the resulting transform since the noise removed is of too high a frequency. (Auth.)

  18. Theoretical and experimental study of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering for NiO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotani, A.; Matsubara, M.; Uozumi, T.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Fracassi, F.; Dallera, C.; Tagliaferri, A.; Brookes, N.B.; Braicovich, L.

    2006-01-01

    Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra for Ni 2p to 3d excitation and 3d to 2p de-excitation of NiO are studied both theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical calculations with a single impurity Anderson model (SIAM) describe the charge transfer (CT) and d-d excitations in RIXS, and detailed study is made for the CT energy. High resolution RIXS measurements reveal the precise d-d excitation structure and its polarization dependence, and they are well reproduced by the SIAM calculation

  19. Doping effect on the structural properties of Cu1-x(Ni, Zn, Al and Fe)xO samples (0<x<0.10): An experimental and computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, J. B.; Araujo, R. M.; Pedra, P. P.; Meneses, C. T.; Duque, J. G. S.; dos S. Rezende, M. V.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the effect of insertion of transition metal, TM (=Ni, Zn, Al and Fe), ions in Cu1-xTMxO samples (0<x<0.10) prepared via co-precipitation method is studied through experimental and computational methods. The analyses of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns using Rietveld refinement show that i) at x=0, all samples present a monoclinic crystal system with space group C2/c and ii) for increasing the TM-doping, Ni and Zn-doped samples show a small amount of spurious phases for concentrations above x=0.05. Based on these results, a defect disorder study for using atomistic computational simulations which is based on the lattice energy minimization technique is employed to predict the location of the dopant ions in the structure. In agreement with XRD data, our computational results indicate that the trivalent (Al and Fe ions) are more favorable to be incorporated into CuO matrix than the divalent (Ni and Zn ions).

  20. Some complementary results to the granularity of industrial X-ray films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stade, J.

    1987-01-01

    The granularity of industrial x-ray films was examined by measurements of the Wiener spectra. The dependence of the Weiner spectra on film density, type of film, type of developer, energy of the exposing x-radiation, and light exposure, was also investigated. The results revealed that the Weiner spectrum or related quantities were suitable as a tool for measuring the influence of different radiographic parameters on the x-ray film, as well as to characterize its properties. (UK)

  1. Experimental study of the x-ray transitions in the heliumlike isoelectronic sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S.; Hill, K.W.

    1989-05-01

    The wavelengths of the transition 1s2p 1 P 1 → 1s 2 1 S 0 in heliumlike potassium, scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, and iron have been measured with an experimental precision of Δλ/λ ∼ 1/20,000. The data typically agree within error bars with recent theoretical predictions which include quantum electrodynamical corrections. However, the comparison shows that there are systematic differences between data and predictions, which indicate a need to include additional corrections in the calculations. In particular, it is found that the experimental wavelengths are consistently shorter than the calculated values by amounts which depend on the particular theoretical prediction used in the comparison. Measurements of the wavelengths of Δn ≥ 2 x-ray transitions in heliumlike argon, scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, and iron are also presented. 42 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Patient effective dose from endovascular brachytherapy with 192Ir Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perna, L.; Bianchi, C.; Novario, R.; Nicolini, G.; Tanzi, F.; Conte, L.

    2002-01-01

    The growing use of endovascular brachytherapy has been accompanied by the publication of a large number of studies in several fields, but few studies on patient dose have been found in the literature. Moreover, these studies were carried out on the basis of Monte Carlo simulation. The aim of the present study was to estimate the effective dose to the patient undergoing endovascular brachytherapy treatment with 192 Ir sources, by means of experimental measurements. Two standard treatments were taken into account: an endovascular brachytherapy of the coronary artery corresponding to the activity x time product of 184 GBq.min and an endovascular brachytherapy of the renal artery (898 GBq.min). Experimental assessment was accomplished by thermoluminescence dosemeters positioned in more than 300 measurement points in a properly adapted Rando phantom. A method has been developed to estimate the mean organ doses for all tissues and organs concerned in order to calculate the effective dose associated with intravascular brachytherapy. The normalised organ doses resulting from coronary treatment were 2.4x10 -2 mSv.GBq -1 .min -1 for lung, 0.9x10 -2 mSv.GBq -1 .min -1 for oesophagus and 0.48x10 -2 mSv.GBq -1 .min -1 for bone marrow. During brachytherapy of the renal artery, the corresponding normalised doses were 4.2x10 -2 mSv.GBq -1 .min -1 for colon, 7.8x10 -2 mSv.GBq -1 .min -1 for stomach and 1.7x10 -2 mSv.GBq -1 .min -1 for liver. Coronary treatment involved an effective dose of 0.046 mSv.GBq -1 .min -1 , whereas the treatment of the renal artery resulted in an effective dose of 0.15 mSv.GBq -1 .min -1 ; there were many similarities with data from former studies. Based on these results it can be concluded that the dose level of patients exposed during brachytherapy treatment is low. (author)

  3. MHD activity in the ISX-B tokamak: experimental results and theoretical interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, B.A.; Dunlap, J.L.; Bell, J.D.; Charlton, L.A.; Cooper, W.A.; Dory, R.A.; Hender, T.C.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Lynch, V.E.

    1982-01-01

    The observed spectrum of MHD fluctuations in the ISX-B tokamak is clearly dominated by the n=1 mode when the q=1 surface is in the plasma. This fact agrees well with theoretical predictions based on 3-D resistive MHD calculations. They show that the (m=1; n=1) mode is then the dominant instability. It drives other n=1 modes through toroidal coupling and n>1 modes through nonlinear couplings. These theoretically predicted mode structures have been compared in detail with the experimentally measured wave forms (using arrays of soft x-ray detectors). The agreement is excellent. More detailed comparisons between theory and experiment have required careful reconstructions of the ISX-B equilibria. The equilibria so constructed have permitted a precise evaluation of the ideal MHD stability properties of ISX-B. The present results indicate that the high ..beta.. ISX-B equilibria are marginally stable to finite eta ideal MHD modes. The resistive MHD calculations also show that at finite ..beta.. there are unstable resistive pressure driven modes.

  4. Experimental and numerical results of a high frequency rotating active magnetic refrigerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano, Jaime; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Experimental results for a recently developed prototype magnetic refrigeration device at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) were obtained and compared with numerical simulation results. A continuously rotating active magnetic regenerator (AMR) using 2.8 kg packed sphere regenerators...

  5. Experimental and numerical results of a high frequency rotating active magnetic refrigerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano, Jaime; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental results for a recently developed prototype magnetic refrigeration device at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) were obtained and compared with numerical simulation results. A continuously rotating active magnetic regenerator (AMR) using 2.8 kg packed sphere regenerators...

  6. On the separation of enantiomers of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroiodoethane by IR multiphoton excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochert, J.; Quack, M.; Seyfang, G.

    2002-01-01

    The first attempt to separate enantiomers of chiral molecules using IR-multiphoton excitation with circularly polarized light is reported. 1,1,1,2-Tetrafuoroiodoethane CF 3 CHFI has been chosen as its IR-spectroscopy and its IR-photochemistry is well characterized by our previous work. A theoretical model based on a master equation is presented to predict the enrichment factor. The experimental results show that the experimental sensitivity must be improved to reach the limit of the theoretical prediction. (author)

  7. SU-C-204-06: Monte Carlo Dose Calculation for Kilovoltage X-Ray-Psoralen Activated Cancer Therapy (X-PACT): Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mein, S [Duke University Medical Physics Graduate Program (United States); Gunasingha, R [Department of Radiation Safety, Duke University Medical Center (United States); Nolan, M [Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University (United States); Oldham, M; Adamson, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: X-PACT is an experimental cancer therapy where kV x-rays are used to photo-activate anti-cancer therapeutics through phosphor intermediaries (phosphors that absorb x-rays and re-radiate as UV light). Clinical trials in pet dogs are currently underway (NC State College of Veterinary Medicine) and an essential component is the ability to model the kV dose in these dogs. Here we report the commissioning and characterization of a Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning simulation tool to calculate X-PACT radiation doses in canine trials. Methods: FLUKA multi-particle MC simulation package was used to simulate a standard X-PACT radiation treatment beam of 80kVp with the Varian OBI x-ray source geometry. The beam quality was verified by comparing measured and simulated attenuation of the beam by various thicknesses of aluminum (2–4.6 mm) under narrow beam conditions (HVL). The beam parameters at commissioning were then corroborated using MC, characterized and verified with empirically collected commissioning data, including: percent depth dose curves (PDD), back-scatter factors (BSF), collimator scatter factor(s), and heel effect, etc. All simulations were conducted for N=30M histories at M=100 iterations. Results: HVL and PDD simulation data agreed with an average percent error of 2.42%±0.33 and 6.03%±1.58, respectively. The mean square error (MSE) values for HVL and PDD (0.07% and 0.50%) were low, as expected; however, longer simulations are required to validate convergence to the expected values. Qualitatively, pre- and post-filtration source spectra matched well with 80kVp references generated via SPEKTR software. Further validation of commissioning data simulation is underway in preparation for first-time 3D dose calculations with canine CBCT data. Conclusion: We have prepared a Monte Carlo simulation capable of accurate dose calculation for use with ongoing X-PACT canine clinical trials. Preliminary results show good agreement with measured data and hold

  8. Results of improvement of simultaneous and sequential x-ray fluorescence equipment for quantitative routine analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zsamboky, Jozsef

    1985-01-01

    Two main types of x-ray fluorescence analyzers measuring sequentially and simultaneously, respectively, the intensities at given wave lengths are described. The main parts of an up to date x-ray fluorescence analyzer are surveyed in detail. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed. Some results on calibration and optimization are given. (D.Gy.)

  9. Effects of Temperature and X-rays on Plastic Scintillating Fiber and Infrared Optical Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bongsoo; Shin, Sang Hun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Yoo, Wook Jae

    2015-05-11

    In this study, we have studied the effects of temperature and X-ray energy variations on the light output signals from two different fiber-optic sensors, a fiber-optic dosimeter (FOD) based on a BCF-12 as a plastic scintillating fiber (PSF) and a fiber-optic thermometer (FOT) using a silver halide optical fiber as an infrared optical fiber (IR fiber). During X-ray beam irradiation, the scintillating light and IR signals were measured simultaneously using a dosimeter probe of the FOD and a thermometer probe of the FOT. The probes were placed in a beaker with water on the center of a hotplate, under variation of the tube potential of a digital radiography system or the temperature of the water in the beaker. From the experimental results, in the case of the PSF, the scintillator light output at the given tube potential decreased as the temperature increased in the temperature range from 25 to 60 °C. We demonstrated that commonly used BCF-12 has a significant temperature dependence of -0.263 ± 0.028%/°C in the clinical temperature range. Next, in the case of the IR fiber, the intensity of the IR signal was almost uniform at each temperature regardless of the tube potential range from 50 to 150 kVp. Therefore, we also demonstrated that the X-ray beam with an energy range used in diagnostic radiology does not affect the IR signals transmitted via a silver halide optical fiber.

  10. {sup 3}He bubble evolution in ErT{sub 2}: A survey of experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, C.S., E-mail: cssnow@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Browning, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Bond, G.M. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Rodriguez, M.A.; Knapp, J.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    For the past several years we have been carrying out a long term experimental study of {sup 3}He in ErT{sub 2} (erbium di-tritide). This study has attempted to answer questions regarding the evolution of helium bubbles in ErT{sub 2-x}He{sub x}. ErT{sub 2} samples have been studied periodically over four years using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and Nano-Indentation (NI). In ErT{sub 2-x}He{sub x}, helium bubbles are plate-like and grow along {1 1 1} planes. The bubbles grow in three distinct phases. First, they nucleate and grow as “Griffith-cracks” until an age of ∼0.15 He:M. Second, around 0.15 He:M the diameter stops increasing and instead the bubbles grow in thickness by punching dislocation dipoles. Third, the bubbles grow in size until ∼0.3 He:M at which point the bubbles begin to link.

  11. Analysis of Consequences in the Loss-of-Coolant Accident in Wendelstein 7-X Experimental Nuclear Fusion Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uspuras, E., E-mail: algis@mail.lei.lt [Laboratory of Nuclear Installations Safety, Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2012-09-15

    . The results of analysis demonstrated that proposed burst disk, connecting the plasma vessel with torus hall, opens and pressure inside plasma vessel do not exceed the limiting 1100 kPa absolute pressure. Thus, the plasma vessel remains intact after loss-of-coolant accident during no-plasma operation of Wendelstein 7-X experimental nuclear fusion facility. (author)

  12. Electron microscopic studies on experimental skin cancer after combination treatment with X-ray, hematoporphyrin oligomer and caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Keiichi; Ishiguro, Kazumori; Takaishi, Kimiko; Hatcho, Masahiro; Nakagawa, Shigemori

    1992-01-01

    The effect of combination treatment with X-ray, hematoporphyrin oligomer (HpO) and caffeine (Caf) was compared electron microscopically with that of a single use of these treatments. In experimental skin cancer, ultrastructural changes of nuclei and cytoplasm of tumor cells after combination treatment with HpO, X-ray and Caf showed more remarkable changes than in single X-ray irradiation and in HpO and X-ray irradiation. It is concluded that the combination treatment of HpO, X-ray and Caf is useful to the skin cancers in clinical practice. (author)

  13. Electron microscopic studies on experimental skin cancer after combination treatment with X-ray, hematoporphyrin oligomer and caffeine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Keiichi; Ishiguro, Kazumori; Takaishi, Kimiko; Hatcho, Masahiro; Nakagawa, Shigemori (Fukui Medical School, Matsuoka (Japan))

    1992-05-01

    The effect of combination treatment with X-ray, hematoporphyrin oligomer (HpO) and caffeine (Caf) was compared electron microscopically with that of a single use of these treatments. In experimental skin cancer, ultrastructural changes of nuclei and cytoplasm of tumor cells after combination treatment with HpO, X-ray and Caf showed more remarkable changes than in single X-ray irradiation and in HpO and X-ray irradiation. It is concluded that the combination treatment of HpO, X-ray and Caf is useful to the skin cancers in clinical practice. (author).

  14. Experimental validation of a multi-energy x-ray adapted scatter separation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossin, A.; Rebuffel, V.; Tabary, J.; Létang, J. M.; Freud, N.; Verger, L.

    2016-12-01

    Both in radiography and computed tomography (CT), recently emerged energy-resolved x-ray photon counting detectors enable the identification and quantification of individual materials comprising the inspected object. However, the approaches used for these operations require highly accurate x-ray images. The accuracy of the images is severely compromised by the presence of scattered radiation, which leads to a loss of spatial contrast and, more importantly, a bias in radiographic material imaging and artefacts in CT. The aim of the present study was to experimentally evaluate a recently introduced partial attenuation spectral scatter separation approach (PASSSA) adapted for multi-energy imaging. For this purpose, a prototype x-ray system was used. Several radiographic acquisitions of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom were performed. Reference primary images were obtained via the beam-stop (BS) approach. The attenuation images acquired from PASSSA-corrected data showed a substantial increase in local contrast and internal structure contour visibility when compared to uncorrected images. A substantial reduction of scatter induced bias was also achieved. Quantitatively, the developed method proved to be in relatively good agreement with the BS data. The application of the proposed scatter correction technique lowered the initial normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) of 45% between the uncorrected total and the reference primary spectral images by a factor of 9, thus reducing it to around 5%.

  15. Rugby-like hohlraum experimental designs for demonstrating x-ray drive enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, Peter; Cerjan, C.; Hinkel, D. E.; Milovich, J. L.; Park, H.-S.; Robey, H. F.

    2008-01-01

    A suite of experimental designs for the Omega laser facility [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] using rugby and cylindrical hohlraums is proposed to confirm the energetics benefits of rugby-shaped hohlraums over cylinders under optimal implosion symmetry conditions. Postprocessed Dante x-ray drive measurements predict a 12-17eV (23%-36%) peak hohlraum temperature (x-ray flux) enhancement for a 1ns flattop laser drive history. Simulated core self-emission x-ray histories also show earlier implosion times by 200-400ps, depending on the hohlraum case-to-capsule ratio and laser-entrance-hole size. Capsules filled with 10 or 50atm of deuterium (DD) are predicted to give in excess of 1010 neutrons in two-dimensional hohlraum simulations in the absence of mix, enabling DD burn history measurements for the first time in indirect-drive on Omega. Capsule designs with 50atm of DHe3 are also proposed to make use of proton slowing for independently verifying the drive benefits of rugby hohlraums. Scale-5/4 hohlraum designs are also introduced to provide further margin to potential laser-plasma-induced backscatter and hot-electron production.

  16. Rugby-like hohlraum experimental designs for demonstrating x-ray drive enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendt, Peter; Cerjan, C.; Hinkel, D. E.; Milovich, J. L.; Park, H.-S.; Robey, H. F.

    2008-01-01

    A suite of experimental designs for the Omega laser facility [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] using rugby and cylindrical hohlraums is proposed to confirm the energetics benefits of rugby-shaped hohlraums over cylinders under optimal implosion symmetry conditions. Postprocessed Dante x-ray drive measurements predict a 12-17 eV (23%-36%) peak hohlraum temperature (x-ray flux) enhancement for a 1 ns flattop laser drive history. Simulated core self-emission x-ray histories also show earlier implosion times by 200-400 ps, depending on the hohlraum case-to-capsule ratio and laser-entrance-hole size. Capsules filled with 10 or 50 atm of deuterium (DD) are predicted to give in excess of 10 10 neutrons in two-dimensional hohlraum simulations in the absence of mix, enabling DD burn history measurements for the first time in indirect-drive on Omega. Capsule designs with 50 atm of D 3 He are also proposed to make use of proton slowing for independently verifying the drive benefits of rugby hohlraums. Scale-5/4 hohlraum designs are also introduced to provide further margin to potential laser-plasma-induced backscatter and hot-electron production

  17. Experimental coherent X-ray diffractive imaging: capabilities and limitations of the technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schropp, Andreas

    2008-08-01

    The investigations pursued during this work were focused on the testing of the applicability of the coherent X-ray diffractive imaging(CXDI)-method in the hard X-ray regime and different measurements were carried out at photon energies between 7 keV and 10 keV. The samples investigated were lithographically prepared two-dimensional gold structures with a size ranging from 3 μm to 10 μm as well as a cluster of gold spheres with a lateral extension of about 3.5 μm. Continuous diffraction patterns were recorded in small angle scattering geometry. In some of the measurements a scattering signal up to the edge of the detector could be measured which corresponds to a lateral resolution of about 30 nm. For certain samples it was possible to reconstruct the object from the measured diffraction data. Since the scattered intensity of non-periodic objects is weak at large scattering angles, the available photon flux is finally the main limitation of the method with regard to the achievable resolution. The experimental data were used to get an estimate of photon flux required for sub-nanometer resolution. The ptychographic iterative phase retrieval algorithm proposed by J. M. Rodenburg et al. (2004) was implemented and tested on simulated diffraction data. Additionally, a genetic algorithm has been developed and implemented for phase retrieval. This algorithm is very different from state-of-the-art algorithms and allows to introduce further experimentally important parameters such as a certain illumination function and partial coherence of the X-ray light. (orig.)

  18. Quantitative comparison between theoretical predictions and experimental results for the BCS-BEC crossover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perali, A.; Pieri, P.; Strinati, G.C.

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical predictions for the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-Bose-Einstein condensation crossover of trapped Fermi atoms are compared with recent experimental results for the density profiles of L 6 i. The calculations rest on a single theoretical approach that includes pairing fluctuations beyond mean-field. Excellent agreement with experimental results is obtained. Theoretical predictions for the zero-temperature chemical potential and gap at the unitarity limit are also found to compare extremely well with Quantum Monte Carlo simulations and with recent experimental results

  19. Experimental study of the X-ray spectra optimization for computed radiography mammography systems; Investigacao experimental da otimizacao do espectro de raios X em sistemas de mamografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomal, Alessandra, E-mail: atomal@ifi.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin; Cunha, Diego M. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Nogueira, Maria S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Gaspar, Fabio [Vigilancia Sanitaria, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Poletti, Martin E. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Departamento de Fisica

    2013-12-15

    Digital mammography is replacing screen-film mammography due to several advantages of digital receptors. The use of Computed Radiography (CR) mammography systems has been considered an alternative to achieve digital images with a low cost. Besides, the optimization of the X-ray spectrum, characterized by the anode/filter combination and tube potential, is an important step in order to improve the image quality with the lower dose to the breast. In this work, we investigated the optimal X-ray spectra using a figure of merit for two mammography equipment: Senographe DMR (General Electric Medical Systems) and Mammomat 3000 Nova (Siemens), both using an image plate Kodak EHR-M2 (Kodak DirectView). A PMMA phantom, simulating breast with thicknesses of 5 cm, was used. The anode/filter combinations evaluated were: Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh, Rh/Rh and Rh/Al for the Senographe system, and Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh, W/Rh for the Mammomat system, for all the intervals of tube potential range from 24 to 35 kVp. Results demonstrate that the higher values of FOM were achieved with the Rh/Rh at 29 kVp and Rh/Al at 26 kVp for the Senographe system, and for the W/Rh at 28 kVp in the Mammomat one. The reduction in the dose associated with the optimum spectra was 13 and 26% for the Senographe and Mammomat systems, respectively. Finally, our results suggest that anode/filter combinations of more energetic spectra than the standard Mo/Mo combination are recommended for thicker breast, in order to reduce the breast dose levels. (author)

  20. Electrocatalytic properties of Ti/Pt–IrO2 anode for oxygen evolution in PEM water electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feng; Li, Jianling; Wang, Xindong

    2010-01-01

    A novel Pt–IrO2 electrocatalyst was prepared using the dip-coating/calcinations method on titanium substrates. Titanium electrodes coated with oxides were investigated for oxygen evolution. Experimental results showed that Ti/Pt–IrO2 electrode containing 30mol% Pt in the coating exhibited signifi...

  1. Overview of diagnostic performance and results for the first operation phase in Wendelstein 7-X (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krychowiak, M; Adnan, A; Alonso, A; Andreeva, T; Baldzuhn, J; Barbui, T; Beurskens, M; Biel, W; Biedermann, C; Blackwell, B D; Bosch, H S; Bozhenkov, S; Brakel, R; Bräuer, T; Brotas de Carvalho, B; Burhenn, R; Buttenschön, B; Cappa, A; Cseh, G; Czarnecka, A; Dinklage, A; Drews, P; Dzikowicka, A; Effenberg, F; Endler, M; Erckmann, V; Estrada, T; Ford, O; Fornal, T; Frerichs, H; Fuchert, G; Geiger, J; Grulke, O; Harris, J H; Hartfuß, H J; Hartmann, D; Hathiramani, D; Hirsch, M; Höfel, U; Jabłoński, S; Jakubowski, M W; Kaczmarczyk, J; Klinger, T; Klose, S; Knauer, J; Kocsis, G; König, R; Kornejew, P; Krämer-Flecken, A; Krawczyk, N; Kremeyer, T; Książek, I; Kubkowska, M; Langenberg, A; Laqua, H P; Laux, M; Lazerson, S; Liang, Y; Liu, S C; Lorenz, A; Marchuk, A O; Marsen, S; Moncada, V; Naujoks, D; Neilson, H; Neubauer, O; Neuner, U; Niemann, H; Oosterbeek, J W; Otte, M; Pablant, N; Pasch, E; Sunn Pedersen, T; Pisano, F; Rahbarnia, K; Ryć, L; Schmitz, O; Schmuck, S; Schneider, W; Schröder, T; Schuhmacher, H; Schweer, B; Standley, B; Stange, T; Stephey, L; Svensson, J; Szabolics, T; Szepesi, T; Thomsen, H; Travere, J-M; Trimino Mora, H; Tsuchiya, H; Weir, G M; Wenzel, U; Werner, A; Wiegel, B; Windisch, T; Wolf, R; Wurden, G A; Zhang, D; Zimbal, A; Zoletnik, S

    2016-11-01

    Wendelstein 7-X, a superconducting optimized stellarator built in Greifswald/Germany, started its first plasmas with the last closed flux surface (LCFS) defined by 5 uncooled graphite limiters in December 2015. At the end of the 10 weeks long experimental campaign (OP1.1) more than 20 independent diagnostic systems were in operation, allowing detailed studies of many interesting plasma phenomena. For example, fast neutral gas manometers supported by video cameras (including one fast-frame camera with frame rates of tens of kHz) as well as visible cameras with different interference filters, with field of views covering all ten half-modules of the stellarator, discovered a MARFE-like radiation zone on the inboard side of machine module 4. This structure is presumably triggered by an inadvertent plasma-wall interaction in module 4 resulting in a high impurity influx that terminates some discharges by radiation cooling. The main plasma parameters achieved in OP1.1 exceeded predicted values in discharges of a length reaching 6 s. Although OP1.1 is characterized by short pulses, many of the diagnostics are already designed for quasi-steady state operation of 30 min discharges heated at 10 MW of ECRH. An overview of diagnostic performance for OP1.1 is given, including some highlights from the physics campaigns.

  2. The X-43A Hyper-X Mach 7 Flight 2 Guidance, Navigation, and Control Overview and Flight Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahm, Catherine; Baumann, Ethan; Martin, John; Bose, David; Beck, Roger E.; Strovers, Brian

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the Hyper-X program was to flight demonstrate an airframe-integrated hypersonic vehicle. On March 27, 2004, the Hyper-X program team successfully conducted flight 2 and achieved all of the research objectives. The Hyper-X research vehicle successfully separated from the Hyper-X launch vehicle and achieved the desired engine test conditions before the experiment began. The research vehicle rejected the disturbances caused by the cowl door opening and the fuel turning on and off and maintained the engine test conditions throughout the experiment. After the engine test was complete, the vehicle recovered and descended along a trajectory while performing research maneuvers. The last data acquired showed that the vehicle maintained control to the water. This report will provide an overview of the research vehicle guidance and control systems and the performance of the vehicle during the separation event and engine test. The research maneuvers were performed to collect data for aerodynamics and flight controls research. This report also will provide an overview of the flight controls related research and results.

  3. Animal model of atherosclerosis using rabbit experimentally induced by combination of X-ray and hypercholesterolemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Tomotoshi; Sawai, Takashi; Okuma, Tsuneo; Mori, Shozo

    1995-01-01

    An attempt was made to prepare an animal model of atherosclerosis similar to human lesions. The experimental animals were male Japanese white rabbits weighting about 2 kg. Hypercholesterolemia was experimentally induced by giving a 1% cholesterol diet. Four weeks later, a single dose of 45 Gy was delivered to the femur to produce vascular changes. Soon after irradiation, immunohistochemical examination revealed the adhesion and invasion of macrophages to endothelial cells, followed by accumulation of foam cells and thickness of the intimal plaques. Three months after irradiation, these thickened plaques became fibrotic, calcified, and necrotic. The tunica media was thinned and the internal elastic lamella was destroyed. Irradiated arteries exhibited not only severe narrowing of the lumen but also aneurysmal dilation and the lesions of the irradiated arteries resembled human atherosclerosis. In conclusion, the atherosclerotic model produced by combining experimental hypercholesterolemia and X-ray irradiaiton may serve as a useful model for studies on atherosclerosis because it can be prepared with no need of complicated or time-consuming procedures. (N.K.)

  4. Experimental elucidation: microscopic mechanism of resonant X-ray scattering in manganite films

    CERN Document Server

    Ohsumi, H; Kiyama, T

    2003-01-01

    Resonant X-ray scattering experiments have been performed on perovskite manganite La sub 0 sub . sub 5 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 5 MnO sub 3 thin films, which are grown on three distinct perovskite with a coherent epitaxial strain and have a forced ferro-type orbital ordering of Mn 3d orbitals. Using an interference technique, we have successfully observed the resonant X-ray scattering signal from the system having the ferro-type orbital ordering and also revealed the energy scheme of Mn 4p bands. For the forced ferro-type orbital ordering system, the present results evidence that the resonant X-ray scattering signal originates from the band structure effect due to the Jahn-Teller distortion of a MnO sub 6 octahedron, and not from the Coulomb interaction between 3d and 4p electrons. (author)

  5. An experimental evaluation of monochromatic x-ray beam position monitors at diamond light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomer, Chris, E-mail: chris.bloomer@diamond.ac.uk; Rehm, Guenther; Dolbnya, Igor P. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    Maintaining the stability of the X-ray beam relative to the sample point is of paramount importance for beamlines and users wanting to perform cutting-edge experiments. The ability to detect, and subsequently compensate for, variations in X-ray beam position with effective diagnostics has multiple benefits: a reduction in commissioning and start-up time, less ‘down-time’, and an improvement in the quality of acquired data. At Diamond Light Source a methodical evaluation of a selection of monochromatic X-ray Beam Position Monitors (XBPMs), using a range of position detection techniques, and from a range of suppliers, was carried out. The results of these experiments are presented, showing the measured RMS noise on the position measurement of each device for a given flux, energy, beam size, and bandwidth. A discussion of the benefits and drawbacks of each of the various devices and techniques is also included.

  6. An experimental evaluation of monochromatic x-ray beam position monitors at diamond light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomer, Chris; Rehm, Guenther; Dolbnya, Igor P.

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining the stability of the X-ray beam relative to the sample point is of paramount importance for beamlines and users wanting to perform cutting-edge experiments. The ability to detect, and subsequently compensate for, variations in X-ray beam position with effective diagnostics has multiple benefits: a reduction in commissioning and start-up time, less ‘down-time’, and an improvement in the quality of acquired data. At Diamond Light Source a methodical evaluation of a selection of monochromatic X-ray Beam Position Monitors (XBPMs), using a range of position detection techniques, and from a range of suppliers, was carried out. The results of these experiments are presented, showing the measured RMS noise on the position measurement of each device for a given flux, energy, beam size, and bandwidth. A discussion of the benefits and drawbacks of each of the various devices and techniques is also included.

  7. Comparative experimental study of PIXE and X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega B, L.R. De la.

    1994-01-01

    PIXE and X RF techniques are powerful analysis instruments in the determination of traces of elements. Although the physical processes characteristic X-rays production (ionization-emission) are similar in both methods, the representative background of each technique, responsible of its sensitivity, are different. This is because the interaction between exciter agents and the matter produces different effects. In PIXE, the background is caused by the radiation produced by the braking of the secondary electrons: Bremsstrahlung. In X RF, the background is due to the elastic and inelastic scattering of photons: Rayleigh and Compton effects. In this work, we have compared the results of the analysis of environmental samples using both methods, in order to know the scope of each one and develop them as complementary techniques. (Author)

  8. Characterization results from several commercial soft X-ray streak cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradling, G. L.; Studebaker, J. K.; Cavailler, C.; Launspach, J.; Planes, J.

    The spatio-temporal performance of four soft X-ray streak cameras has been characterized. The objective in evaluating the performance capability of these instruments is to enable us to optimize experiment designs, to encourage quantitative analysis of streak data and to educate the ultra high speed photography and photonics community about the X-ray detector performance which is available. These measurements have been made collaboratively over the space of two years at the Forge pulsed X-ray source at Los Alamos and at the Ketjak laser facility an CEA Limeil-Valenton. The X-ray pulse lengths used for these measurements at these facilities were 150 psec and 50 psec respectively. The results are presented as dynamically-measured modulation transfer functions. Limiting temporal resolution values were also calculated. Emphasis is placed upon shot noise statistical limitations in the analysis of the data. Space charge repulsion in the streak tube limits the peak flux at ultra short experiments duration times. This limit results in a reduction of total signal and a decrease in signal to no ise ratio in the streak image. The four cameras perform well with 20 1p/mm resolution discernable in data from the French C650X, the Hadland X-Chron 540 and the Hamamatsu C1936X streak cameras. The Kentech X-ray streak camera has lower modulation and does not resolve below 10 1p/mm but has a longer photocathode.

  9. Comparison of numerical results with experimental data for single-phase natural convection in an experimental sodium loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribando, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison is made between computed results and experimental data for single-phase natural convection in an experimental sodium loop. The tests were conducted in the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety (THORS) Facility, an engineering-scale high temperature sodium facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory used for thermal-hydraulic testing of simulated LMFBR subassemblies at normal and off-normal operating conditions. Heat generation in the 19 pin assembly during these tests was typical of decay heat levels. Tests were conducted both with zero initial forced flow and with a small initial forced flow. The bypass line was closed in most tests, but open in one. The computer code used to analyze these tests [LONAC (LOw flow and NAtural Convection)] is an ORNL-developed, fast running, one-dimensional, single-phase finite difference model for simulating forced and free convection transients in the THORS loop

  10. Removal of arsenic from wastewaters by cryptocrystalline magnesite: complimenting experimental results with modelling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available -1 Journal of Cleaner Production Removal of arsenic from wastewaters by cryptocrystalline magnesite: complimenting experimental results with modelling Vhahangwele Masindi W. Mugera Gitari Keywords: Arsenic Mine leachates Cryptocrystalline...

  11. Experimental and modelling results of a parallel-plate based active magnetic regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tura, A.; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Rowe, A.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a permanent magnet magnetic refrigerator (PMMR) using gadolinium parallel plates is described. The configuration and operating parameters are described in detail. Experimental results are compared to simulations using an established twodimensional model of an active magnetic...

  12. Intrinsic Instability of Cs2In(I)M(III)X6 (M = Bi, Sb; X = Halogen) Double Perovskites: A Combined Density Functional Theory and Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zewen; Du, Ke-Zhao; Meng, Weiwei; Wang, Jianbo; Mitzi, David B; Yan, Yanfa

    2017-05-03

    Recently, there has been substantial interest in developing double-B-cation halide perovskites, which hold the potential to overcome the toxicity and instability issues inherent within emerging lead halide-based solar absorber materials. Among all double perovskites investigated, In(I)-based Cs 2 InBiCl 6 and Cs 2 InSbCl 6 have been proposed as promising thin-film photovoltaic absorber candidates, with computational examination predicting suitable materials properties, including direct bandgap and small effective masses for both electrons and holes. In this study, we report the intrinsic instability of Cs 2 In(I)M(III)X 6 (M = Bi, Sb; X = halogen) double perovskites by a combination of density functional theory and experimental study. Our results suggest that the In(I)-based double perovskites are unstable against oxidation into In(III)-based compounds. Further, the results show the need to consider reduction-oxidation (redox) chemistry when predicting stability of new prospective electronic materials, especially when less common oxidation states are involved.

  13. Atmospheric Entry Experiments at IRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Endlich, P.; Herdrich, G.; Kurtz, H.; Laux, T.; Löhle, S.; Nazina, N.; Pidan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Entering the atmosphere of celestial bodies, spacecrafts encounter gases at velocities of several km/s, thereby being subjected to great heat loads. The thermal protection systems and the environment (plasma) have to be investigated by means of computational and ground facility based simulations. For more than a decade, plasma wind tunnels at IRS have been used for the investigation of TPS materials. Nevertheless, ground tests and computer simulations cannot re- place space flights completely. Particularly, entry mission phases encounter challenging problems, such as hypersonic aerothermodynamics. Concerning the TPS, radiation-cooled materials used for reuseable spacecrafts and ablator tech- nologies are of importance. Besides the mentioned technologies, there is the goal to manage guidance navigation, con- trol, landing technology and inflatable technologies such as ballutes that aim to keep vehicles in the atmosphere without landing. The requirement to save mass and energy for planned interplanetary missions such as Mars Society Balloon Mission, Mars Sample Return Mission, Mars Express or Venus Sample Return mission led to the need for manoeuvres like aerocapture, aero-breaking and hyperbolic entries. All three are characterized by very high kinetic vehicle energies to be dissipated by the manoeuvre. In this field flight data are rare. The importance of these manoeuvres and the need to increase the knowledge of required TPS designs and behavior during such mission phases point out the need of flight experiments. As result of the experience within the plasma diagnostic tool development and the plasma wind tunnel data base, flight experiments like the PYrometric RE-entry EXperiment PYREX were developed, fully qualified and successfully flown. Flight experiments such as the entry spectrometer RESPECT and PYREX on HOPE-X are in the conceptual phase. To increase knowledge in the scope of atmospheric manoeuvres and entries, data bases have to be created combining both

  14. Preferred orientation of a naturally and experimentally deformed pyrrhotite ore by X-ray and neutron diffraction texture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederschlag, E.; Brokmeier, H.G.; Siemes, H.

    1994-01-01

    Two samples of polycrystalline naturally deformed hexagonal Pyrrhotite were deformed experimentally in axial compression tests with different temperatures and strain. The texture of the naturally deformed ore was investigated both by X-ray and neutron texture analyses. Texture measurements on the experimentally deformed ore were carried out by neutron diffraction. (orig.)

  15. X-Ray-induced Deuterium Enrichment of N-rich Organics in Protoplanetary Disks: An Experimental Investigation Using Synchrotron Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavilan, Lisseth; Carrasco, Nathalie [LATMOS, Université Versailles St Quentin, UPMC Université Paris 06, CNRS, 11 blvd d’Alembert, F-78280 Guyancourt (France); Remusat, Laurent; Roskosz, Mathieu [IMPMC, CNRS UMR 7590, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, IRD, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, CP 52, 57 rue Cuvier, Paris F-75231 (France); Popescu, Horia; Jaouen, Nicolas [SEXTANTS beamline, SOLEIL synchrotron, L’Orme des Merisiers, F-91190 Saint-Aubin (France); Sandt, Christophe [SMIS beamline, SOLEIL synchrotron, L’Orme des Merisiers, F-91190 Saint-Aubin (France); Jäger, Cornelia [Laboratory Astrophysics and Cluster Physics Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy at the Friedrich Schiller University and Institute of Solid State Physics, Helmholtzweg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Henning, Thomas [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Simionovici, Alexandre [Institut des Sciences de la Terre, Observatoire des Sciences de l’Univers de Grenoble, BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Lemaire, Jean Louis [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay (ISMO), CNRS, Univ. Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91405 Orsay (France); Mangin, Denis, E-mail: lisseth.gavilan@latmos.ipsl.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS, Université de Lorraine, F-54011 Nancy (France)

    2017-05-01

    The deuterium enrichment of organics in the interstellar medium, protoplanetary disks, and meteorites has been proposed to be the result of ionizing radiation. The goal of this study is to simulate and quantify the effects of soft X-rays (0.1–2 keV), an important component of stellar radiation fields illuminating protoplanetary disks, on the refractory organics present in the disks. We prepared tholins, nitrogen-rich organic analogs to solids found in several astrophysical environments, e.g., Titan’s atmosphere, cometary surfaces, and protoplanetary disks, via plasma deposition. Controlled irradiation experiments with soft X-rays at 0.5 and 1.3 keV were performed at the SEXTANTS beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron, and were immediately followed by ex-situ infrared, Raman, and isotopic diagnostics. Infrared spectroscopy revealed the preferential loss of singly bonded groups (N–H, C–H, and R–N≡C) and the formation of sp{sup 3} carbon defects with signatures at ∼1250–1300 cm{sup −1}. Raman analysis revealed that, while the length of polyaromatic units is only slightly modified, the introduction of defects leads to structural amorphization. Finally, tholins were measured via secondary ion mass spectrometry to quantify the D, H, and C elemental abundances in the irradiated versus non-irradiated areas. Isotopic analysis revealed that significant D-enrichment is induced by X-ray irradiation. Our results are compared to previous experimental studies involving the thermal degradation and electron irradiation of organics. The penetration depth of soft X-rays in μ m-sized tholins leads to volume rather than surface modifications: lower-energy X-rays (0.5 keV) induce a larger D-enrichment than 1.3 keV X-rays, reaching a plateau for doses larger than 5 × 10{sup 27} eV cm{sup −3}. Synchrotron fluences fall within the expected soft X-ray fluences in protoplanetary disks, and thus provide evidence of a new non-thermal pathway to deuterium fractionation of

  16. X-Ray-induced Deuterium Enrichment of N-rich Organics in Protoplanetary Disks: An Experimental Investigation Using Synchrotron Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilan, Lisseth; Remusat, Laurent; Roskosz, Mathieu; Popescu, Horia; Jaouen, Nicolas; Sandt, Christophe; Jäger, Cornelia; Henning, Thomas; Simionovici, Alexandre; Lemaire, Jean Louis; Mangin, Denis; Carrasco, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    The deuterium enrichment of organics in the interstellar medium, protoplanetary disks, and meteorites has been proposed to be the result of ionizing radiation. The goal of this study is to simulate and quantify the effects of soft X-rays (0.1-2 keV), an important component of stellar radiation fields illuminating protoplanetary disks, on the refractory organics present in the disks. We prepared tholins, nitrogen-rich organic analogs to solids found in several astrophysical environments, e.g., Titan’s atmosphere, cometary surfaces, and protoplanetary disks, via plasma deposition. Controlled irradiation experiments with soft X-rays at 0.5 and 1.3 keV were performed at the SEXTANTS beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron, and were immediately followed by ex-situ infrared, Raman, and isotopic diagnostics. Infrared spectroscopy revealed the preferential loss of singly bonded groups (N-H, C-H, and R-N≡C) and the formation of sp3 carbon defects with signatures at ˜1250-1300 cm-1. Raman analysis revealed that, while the length of polyaromatic units is only slightly modified, the introduction of defects leads to structural amorphization. Finally, tholins were measured via secondary ion mass spectrometry to quantify the D, H, and C elemental abundances in the irradiated versus non-irradiated areas. Isotopic analysis revealed that significant D-enrichment is induced by X-ray irradiation. Our results are compared to previous experimental studies involving the thermal degradation and electron irradiation of organics. The penetration depth of soft X-rays in μm-sized tholins leads to volume rather than surface modifications: lower-energy X-rays (0.5 keV) induce a larger D-enrichment than 1.3 keV X-rays, reaching a plateau for doses larger than 5 × 1027 eV cm-3. Synchrotron fluences fall within the expected soft X-ray fluences in protoplanetary disks, and thus provide evidence of a new non-thermal pathway to deuterium fractionation of organic matter.

  17. A beamline for x-ray laser spectroscopy at the experimental storage ring at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, D F A; Bagnoud, V; Ecker, B; Eisenbarth, U; Götte, S; Kuehl, Th; Stöhlker, Th; Zielbauer, B; Neumayer, P; Spielmann, C

    2013-01-01

    By combining an x-ray laser (XRL) with a heavy-ion storage ring, precision laser spectroscopy of the fine-structure splitting in heavy Li-like ions will be possible. An initial study has been performed to determine the feasibility of a first experiment at the experimental storage ring at GSI in Darmstadt, which also has great potential for the experiments planned for FAIR. We plan to perform a unique, direct and precise measurement of a fine-structure transition in a heavy Li-like ion. Such a measurement will test state-of-the-art atomic structure calculations in strong fields. This endeavour will require that the existing infrastructure is complemented by a dedicated beamline for the XRL. In this paper, we will discuss the details of this project and outline a proof-of-principle experiment. (paper)

  18. Operando XAS Study of the Surface Oxidation State on a Monolayer IrOx on RuOx and Ru Oxide Based Nanoparticles for Oxygen Evolution in Acidic Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Filsøe; Escribano, Maria Escudero; Sebok, Bela

    2018-01-01

    that the average Ir oxidation state change is strongly affected by the coverage of atomic O. The observed shifts in oxidation state suggest that the surface has a high coverage of O at potentials just below the potential where oxygen evolution is exergonic in free energy. This observation is consistent...

  19. Modeling of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) concentrations resulting from ships at berth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah A; Elkamel, Ali; Al Balushi, Abdullah S; Al-Damkhi, Ali M; Siddiqui, Rafiq A

    2008-12-01

    Oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emissions from ships (marine vessels) contribute to poor air quality that negatively impacts public health and communities in coastal areas and far inland. These emissions often excessively harm human health, environment, wildlife habituates, and quality of life of communities and indigenous of people who live near ports. This study was conducted to assess the impact of NO(x) emissions origination from ships at berth on a nearby community. It was undertaken at Said Bin Sultan Naval base in Wullayat Al-Mussana (Sultanate of Oman) during the year 2005. The Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST) model was adopted to determine the dispersion of NO(x) into port and beyond into surrounding urban areas. The hourly and monthly contours (isopleths) of NO(x) concentrations in and around the port were plotted. The results were analyzed to determine the affected area and the level of NO(x) concentrations. The highest concentration points in the studied area were also identified. The isopleths of NO(x) indicated that most shipping emissions of NO(x) occur at the port can be transported over land. The output results can help to derive advice of recommendations ships operators and environmentalists to take the correct decision to prevent workers and surrounded environment from pollution.

  20. Increase in the temperature of a laser plasma formed by two-frequency UV - IR irradiation of metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, A A; Grasyuk, Arkadii Z; Efimovskii, S V; Kurbasov, Sergei V; Losev, Leonid L; Soskov, V I

    1998-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made of a laser plasma formed by successive irradiation of a metal target with 30-ps UV and IR laser pulses. The UV prepulse, of 266 nm wavelength, was of relatively low intensity (∼ 10 12 W cm -2 ), whereas the intensity of an IR pulse, of 10.6 μm wavelength, was considerably higher (∼3 x 10 14 W cm -2 ) and it was delayed by 0 - 6 ns (the optimal delay was 2 ns). Such two-frequency UV - IR irradiation produced a laser plasma with an electron temperature 5 times higher than that of a plasma created by singe-frequency IR pulses of the same (∼3 x 10 14 W cm -2 ) intensity. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  1. Experimental study and analytical model of deformation of magnetostrictive films as applied to mirrors for x-ray space telescopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Knapp, Peter; Vaynman, S; Graham, M E; Cao, Jian; Ulmer, M P

    2014-09-20

    The desire for continuously gaining new knowledge in astronomy has pushed the frontier of engineering methods to deliver lighter, thinner, higher quality mirrors at an affordable cost for use in an x-ray observatory. To address these needs, we have been investigating the application of magnetic smart materials (MSMs) deposited as a thin film on mirror substrates. MSMs have some interesting properties that make the application of MSMs to mirror substrates a promising solution for making the next generation of x-ray telescopes. Due to the ability to hold a shape with an impressed permanent magnetic field, MSMs have the potential to be the method used to make light weight, affordable x-ray telescope mirrors. This paper presents the experimental setup for measuring the deformation of the magnetostrictive bimorph specimens under an applied magnetic field, and the analytical and numerical analysis of the deformation. As a first step in the development of tools to predict deflections, we deposited Terfenol-D on the glass substrates. We then made measurements that were compared with the results from the analytical and numerical analysis. The surface profiles of thin-film specimens were measured under an external magnetic field with white light interferometry (WLI). The analytical model provides good predictions of film deformation behavior under various magnetic field strengths. This work establishes a solid foundation for further research to analyze the full three-dimensional deformation behavior of magnetostrictive thin films.

  2. Exploratory X-ray monitoring of luminous radio-quiet quasars at high redshift: Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Stein, Matthew S. [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Paolillo, Maurizio [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università Federico II di Napoli, via Cinthia 6, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Kaspi, Shai [School of Physics and Astronomy and the Wise Observatory, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Vignali, Cristian [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Università degli studi di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Lira, Paulina [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Santiago (Chile); Gibson, Robert R., E-mail: ohad@unt.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We present initial results from an exploratory X-ray monitoring project of two groups of comparably luminous radio-quiet quasars (RQQs). The first consists of four sources at 4.10 ≤ z ≤ 4.35, monitored by Chandra, and the second is a comparison sample of three sources at 1.33 ≤ z ≤ 2.74, monitored by Swift. Together with archival X-ray data, the total rest-frame temporal baseline spans ∼2-4 yr and ∼5-13 yr for the first and second group, respectively. Six of these sources show significant X-ray variability over rest-frame timescales of ∼10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} days; three of these also show significant X-ray variability on rest-frame timescales of ∼1-10 days. The X-ray variability properties of our variable sources are similar to those exhibited by nearby and far less luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). While we do not directly detect a trend of increasing X-ray variability with redshift, we do confirm previous reports of luminous AGNs exhibiting X-ray variability above that expected from their luminosities, based on simplistic extrapolation from lower luminosity sources. This result may be attributed to luminous sources at the highest redshifts having relatively high accretion rates. Complementary UV-optical monitoring of our sources shows that variations in their optical-X-ray spectral energy distribution are dominated by the X-ray variations. We confirm previous reports of X-ray spectral variations in one of our sources, HS 1700+6416, but do not detect such variations in any of our other sources in spite of X-ray flux variations of up to a factor of ∼4. This project is designed to provide a basic assessment of the X-ray variability properties of RQQs at the highest accessible redshifts that will serve as a benchmark for more systematic monitoring of such sources with future X-ray missions.

  3. Simulated and experimental spectroscopic performance of GaAs X-ray pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisogni, M.G.; Cola, A.; Fantacci, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    In pixel detectors, the electrode geometry affects the signal shape and therefore the spectroscopic performance of the device. This effect is enhanced in semiconductors where carrier trapping is relevant. In particular, semi insulating (SI) GaAs crystals present an incomplete charge collection due to a high concentration of deep traps in the bulk. In the last few years, SI GaAs pixel detectors have been developed as soft X-ray detectors for medical imaging applications. In this paper, we present a numerical method to evaluate the local charge collection properties of pixel detectors. A bi-dimensional description has been used to represent the detector geometry. According to recent models, the active region of a reverse biased SI GaAs detector is almost neutral. Therefore, the electrostatic potential inside a full active detector has been evaluated using the Laplace equation. A finite difference method with a fixed step orthogonal mesh has been adopted. The photon interaction point has been generated with a Monte Carlo method according to the attenuation length of a monochromatic X-ray beam in GaAs. The number of photogenerated carriers for each interaction has been extracted using a gaussian distribution. The induced signal on the collecting electrode has been calculated according to the Ramo's theorem and the trapping effect has been modeled introducing electron and hole lifetimes. The noise of the charge preamplifier have been also taken into account. A comparison between simulated and experimental X-ray spectra from a 241 Am source acquired with different GaAs pixel detectors has been carried out

  4. Some results of experimental investigation of super-deep penetration into the metal's targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andilevko, S.K.; Roman, O.V.; Usherenko, S.M.; Shilkin, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of Super-Deep Penetration (SDP) is briefly presented. Various experimental techniques, including that based on neutron-activated autoradiography (NAAR), for experimentally investigating this phenomenon are described. Results from a number of investigations in which the effect on SDP of initial target temperature, the dependence of the concentration on depth for different powder particles and the use of bimetallic targets, are reviewed. The complicated nature of the SDP process and the need for a wider range of experimental data if it is to be fully understood are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Experimental Results and Numerical Simulation of the Target RCS using Gaussian Beam Summation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanmi Helmi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical and experimental study of Radar Cross Section (RCS of radar targets using Gaussian Beam Summation (GBS method. The purpose GBS method has several advantages over ray method, mainly on the caustic problem. To evaluate the performance of the chosen method, we started the analysis of the RCS using Gaussian Beam Summation (GBS and Gaussian Beam Launching (GBL, the asymptotic models Physical Optic (PO, Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD and the rigorous Method of Moment (MoM. Then, we showed the experimental validation of the numerical results using experimental measurements which have been executed in the anechoic chamber of Lab-STICC at ENSTA Bretagne. The numerical and experimental results of the RCS are studied and given as a function of various parameters: polarization type, target size, Gaussian beams number and Gaussian beams width.

  6. Analysis and presentation of experimental results with examples, problems and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Christodoulides, Costas

    2017-01-01

    This book is intended as a guide to the analysis and presentation of experimental results. It develops various techniques for the numerical processing of experimental data, using basic statistical methods and the theory of errors. After presenting basic theoretical concepts, the book describes the methods by which the results can be presented, both numerically and graphically. The book is divided into three parts, of roughly equal length, addressing the theory, the analysis of data, and the presentation of results. Examples are given and problems are solved using the Excel, Origin, Python and R software packages. In addition, programs in all four languages are made available to readers, allowing them to use them in analyzing and presenting the results of their own experiments. Subjects are treated at a level appropriate for undergraduate students in the natural sciences, but this book should also appeal to anyone whose work involves dealing with experimental results.

  7. Experimental investigations of the dosimetric features of x-ray radiation used in x-ray diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prostyakova, M A

    1975-10-01

    For radiation hygiene estimates of the extent of the irradiation of various organs and tissues in roentgenological investigations, the quality and quantity of the primary radiation beam and its behaviour in the irradiated medium are assessed. It is shown that the effective energy of x-rays generated at 50-100 kV and with different radiation field dimensions at different depths in a tissue-equivalent irradiated medium is more or less constant, varying within the range 25 to 32 keV. The constancy of effective x-ray energies in a tissue-equivalent medium enables one to use, for different x-ray tube regimes, constant values of the roentgen-rad conversion factor for soft tissue and bone tissue. The investigations confirm the desirability of using high voltages across the x-ray tube in practical x-ray work.

  8. An experimental apparatus for diffraction-limites soft x-ray nanofocusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merthe, Daniel; Goldberg, Kenneth; Yashchuk, Valeriy; Yuan, Sheng; McKinney, Wayne; Celestre, Richard; Mochi, Iacopo; Macdougall, James; Morrison, Gregory; Rakawa, Senajith; Anderson, Erik; Smith, Brian; Domning, Edward; Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard

    2011-10-21

    Realizing the experimental potential of high-brightness, next generation synchrotron and free-electron laser light sources requires the development of reflecting x-ray optics capable of wavefront preservation and high-resolution nano-focusing. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) beamline 5.3.1, we are developing broadly applicable, high-accuracy, in situ, at-wavelength wavefront measurement techniques to surpass 100-nrad slope measurement accuracy for diffraction-limited Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors. The at-wavelength methodology we are developing relies on a series of wavefront-sensing tests with increasing accuracy and sensitivity, including scanning-slit Hartmann tests, grating-based lateral shearing interferometry, and quantitative knife-edge testing. We describe the original experimental techniques and alignment methodology that have enabled us to optimally set a bendable KB mirror to achieve a focused, FWHM spot size of 150 nm, with 1 nm (1.24 keV) photons at 3.7 mrad numerical aperture. The predictions of wavefront measurement are confirmed by the knife-edge testing.The side-profiled elliptically bent mirror used in these one-dimensional focusing experiments was originally designed for a much different glancing angle and conjugate distances. This work demonstrates that high-accuracy, at-wavelength wavefront-slope feedback can be used to optimize the pitch, roll, and mirror-bending forces in situ, using procedures that are deterministic and repeatable.

  9. Experimental search for B=2, T=0 states in the d+d->d+X reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes, M.P.; Berthet, P.; Frascaria, R.; Perdrisat, C.F.; Tatischeff, B.; Willis, N.; Aslanides, E.; Hibou, F.; Bing, O.; Beurtey, R.; Boivin, M.; Hutcheon, D.; Le Bornec, Y.; Fabbri, F.; Picozza, P.; Satta, L.; Yonnet, J.

    1984-01-01

    A search for isoscalar dibaryonic resonances by means of missing-mass spectra in the d + d -> d + X reaction has been attempted using deuteron beams of T = 2.29, 2.00 and 1.65 GeV. The results do not show any evidence for a narrow peak with a limit of 30 nb/GeV 2 for a 15 MeV width or a broad enhancement which could be unambiguously attributed to a dibaryonic resonance. (orig.)

  10. Experimental verification of the axial and lateral stiffness of large W7-X rectangular bellows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, J.; Cardella, A.; Koppe, T.; Missal, B.; Capriccioli, A.; Loehrer, W.; Langone, S.; Sassone, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    The WENDELSTEIN 7-X (W7-X) is a super-conducting helical advanced stellarator. W7-X is provided with 299 ports, which connect the plasma vessel with the outer vessel. All the ports are equipped with bellows, which, during bake-out and final adjustment, compensate the relative movements of the vessels. The bellows have different shapes and dimensions ranging from 100 mm circular to 1170 x 570 mm rectangular sizes. During various load-cases the axial and lateral stiffness of all bellows will create a resulting spring-force which acts on the supports of the vessels directly. The higher the stiffness the more is the significant influence on the supports. The lateral stiffness which was calculated with the established standard EJMA-code (Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association) seemed to be relatively small. This appeared to be not correct in particular for non circular bellows. That is why the stiffness of rectangular, multi-layer bellows have then been re-calculated with the Finite Element Method (FEM) code ANSYS. The maximum difference between the FEM and EJMA code resulted to be up to 250 % in particular with movements along the longer side of the bellows. In order to clarify the differences a test-campaign with the largest rectangular bellows was performed. A special test rack allowed predefined displacements in pure lateral and axial directions taking into consideration of the friction in the moving elements. During the tests the load-displacement diagram was recorded permanently. The outcome of the FEM-results was then verified by the tests in axial and lateral directions. The EJMA-code is well proved for circular bellows. The tests showed that instead any calculation of rectangular bellows has to be confirmed by experiments. The paper summarises the calculation, describes the test activities, the apparatus and reports the final results. (author)

  11. Innovative monolithic detector for tri-spectral (THz, IR, Vis) imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocas, S.; Perenzoni, M.; Massari, N.; Simoens, F.; Meilhan, J.; Rabaud, W.; Martin, S.; Delplanque, B.; Imperinetti, P.; Goudon, V.; Vialle, C.; Arnaud, A.

    2012-10-01

    Fusion of multispectral images has been explored for many years for security and used in a number of commercial products. CEA-Leti and FBK have developed an innovative sensor technology that gathers monolithically on a unique focal plane arrays, pixels sensitive to radiation in three spectral ranges that are terahertz (THz), infrared (IR) and visible. This technology benefits of many assets for volume market: compactness, full CMOS compatibility on 200mm wafers, advanced functions of the CMOS read-out integrated circuit (ROIC), and operation at room temperature. The ROIC houses visible APS diodes while IR and THz detections are carried out by microbolometers collectively processed above the CMOS substrate. Standard IR bolometric microbridges (160x160 pixels) are surrounding antenna-coupled bolometers (32X32 pixels) built on a resonant cavity customized to THz sensing. This paper presents the different technological challenges achieved in this development and first electrical and sensitivity experimental tests.

  12. Experimental strategies for imaging bioparticles with femtosecond hard X-ray pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt J. Daurer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the capabilities of the Coherent X-ray Imaging Instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source to image small biological samples. The weak signal from small samples puts a significant demand on the experiment. Aerosolized Omono River virus particles of ∼40 nm in diameter were injected into the submicrometre X-ray focus at a reduced pressure. Diffraction patterns were recorded on two area detectors. The statistical nature of the measurements from many individual particles provided information about the intensity profile of the X-ray beam, phase variations in the wavefront and the size distribution of the injected particles. The results point to a wider than expected size distribution (from ∼35 to ∼300 nm in diameter. This is likely to be owing to nonvolatile contaminants from larger droplets during aerosolization and droplet evaporation. The results suggest that the concentration of nonvolatile contaminants and the ratio between the volumes of the initial droplet and the sample particles is critical in such studies. The maximum beam intensity in the focus was found to be 1.9 × 1012 photons per µm2 per pulse. The full-width of the focus at half-maximum was estimated to be 500 nm (assuming 20% beamline transmission, and this width is larger than expected. Under these conditions, the diffraction signal from a sample-sized particle remained above the average background to a resolution of 4.25 nm. The results suggest that reducing the size of the initial droplets during aerosolization is necessary to bring small particles into the scope of detailed structural studies with X-ray lasers.

  13. DoSSiER: Database of Scientific Simulation and Experimental Results

    CERN Document Server

    Wenzel, Hans; Genser, Krzysztof; Elvira, Daniel; Pokorski, Witold; Carminati, Federico; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Ribon, Alberto; Folger, Gunter; Dotti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The Geant4, GeantV and GENIE collaborations regularly perform validation and regression tests for simulation results. DoSSiER (Database of Scientific Simulation and Experimental Results) is being developed as a central repository to store the simulation results as well as the experimental data used for validation. DoSSiER can be easily accessed via a web application. In addition, a web service allows for programmatic access to the repository to extract records in json or xml exchange formats. In this article, we describe the functionality and the current status of various components of DoSSiER as well as the technology choices we made.

  14. Biocompatibility of Ir/Ti-oxide coatings: Interaction with platelets, endothelial and smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habibzadeh, Sajjad [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Li, Ling [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Omanovic, Sasha [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Shum-Tim, Dominique [Divisions of Cardiac Surgery and Surgical Research, Department of Surgery, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Davis, Elaine C., E-mail: elaine.davis@mcgill.ca [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ir/Ti-oxide coated surfaces are characterized by the so-called “cracked-mud” morphology. • 40% Ir in the coating material results in a morphologically uniform coating. • ECs and SMCs showed a desirable response to the Ir/Ti-oxide coated surfaces. • Ir/Ti-oxide coated surfaces are more bio/hemocompatible than the untreated 316L stainless steel. - Abstract: Applying surface coatings on a biomedical implant is a promising modification technique which can enhance the implant's biocompatibility via controlling blood constituents- or/and cell-surface interaction. In this study, the influence of composition of Ir{sub x}Ti{sub 1−x}-oxide coatings (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1) formed on a titanium (Ti) substrate on the responses of platelets, endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) was investigated. The results showed that a significant decrease in platelet adhesion and activation was obtained on Ir{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8}-oxide and Ir{sub 0.4}Ti{sub 0.6}-oxide coatings, rendering the surfaces more blood compatible, in comparison to the control (316L stainless steel, 316L-SS) and other coating compositions. Further, a substantial increase in the EC/SMC surface count ratio after 4 h of cell attachment to the Ir{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8}-oxide and Ir{sub 0.4}Ti{sub 0.6}-oxide coatings, relative to the 316L-SS control and the other coating compositions, indicated high potential of these coatings for the enhancement of surface endothelialization. This indicates the capability of the corresponding coating compositions to promote EC proliferation on the surface, while inhibiting that of SMCs, which is important in cardiovascular stents applications.

  15. Parallel of semi-empirical results simulated by MCNP of X-ray spectra with a semiconductor; Paralelo de resultado semi- empiricos simulados por MCNPX de espectros de raios-X com um semicondutor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, L.R.; Vivolo, V.; Potiens, M.P.A., E-mail: dossantos.lucasrodrigues@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Navarro, M.V.T.; Santos, W.S. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (INFIS/UFU), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to use the MCNPX radiation transport code to simulate X-ray spectra generated by a constant voltage system in a CdTe semiconductor detector. As part of the validation process, we obtained a series of experimental spectra. Comparatively, in all cases there is a good correlation between the two spectra. There were no statistically significant differences between the experimental results with the simulated. (author)

  16. Vastus Medialis advancement: clinical results and correlation with tangential X-rays of the patellofemoral joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Beirne, J.; O'Connell, R.J.; White, M.

    1986-01-01

    Thirteen patients who had recurrent dislocation of the patella treated by vastus medialis advancement were reviewed, and tangential X-rays of the patellofemoral joint were taken at the time of review. Clinically the results were excellent or good in ten (77%). However, the X-ray appearances were similar to what would be expected in a group of patients with untreated recurrent dislocation, probably because the corrective action of the vastus medialis did not apply with the quadriceps relaxed for X-ray. We conclude that vastus medialis advancement is a successful operation for recurrent patellar dislocation but that tangential X-rays of the patellofemoral joint are not an indicator of the outcome of surgery. (author)

  17. Experimental Comparison of 2-3MV X-Ray Sources for Flash Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MENGE, PETER RICHARD; JOHNSON, DAVID LEE; MAENCHEN, JOHN E.; OLSON, CRAIG L.; ROVANG, DEAN C.; DROEMER, D.; HUNT, E.; OLIVER, BRYAN VELTEN; ROSE, DAVID VINCENT; WELCH, DALE ROBERT

    2002-01-01

    High-brightness flash x-ray sources are needed for penetrating dynamic radiography for a variety of applications. Various bremsstrahlung source experiments have been conducted on the TriMeV accelerator (3MV, 60 Ω 20 ns) to determine the best diode and focusing configuration in the 2-3 MV range. Three classes of candidate diodes were examined: gas cell focusing, magnetically immersed, and rod pinch. The best result for the gas cell diode was 6 rad at 1 meter from the source with a 5 mm diameter x-ray spot. Using a 0.5 mm diameter cathode immersed in a 17 T solenoidal magnetic field, the best shot produced 4.1 rad with a 2.9 mm spot. The rod pinch diode demonstrated very reproducible radiographic spots between 0.75 and 0.8 mm in diameter, producing 1.2 rad. This represents a factor of eight improvement in the TriMeV flash radiographic capability above the original gas cell diode to a figure of merit (dose/spot diameter) > 1.8 rad/mm. These results clearly show the rod pinch diode to be the choice x-ray source for flash radiography at 2-3 M V

  18. Comparison of numerical results with experimental data for single-phase natural convection in an experimental sodium loop. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribando, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison is made between computed results and experimental data for a single-phase natural convection test in an experimental sodium loop. The test was conducted in the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety (THORS) facility, an engineering-scale high temperature sodium loop at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) used for thermal-hydraulic testing of simulated Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) subassemblies at normal and off-normal operating conditions. Heat generation in the 19 pin assembly during the test was typical of decay heat levels. The test chosen for analysis in this paper was one of seven natural convection runs conducted in the facility using a variety of initial conditions and testing parameters. Specifically, in this test the bypass line was open to simulate a parallel heated assembly and the test was begun with a pump coastdown from a small initial forced flow. The computer program used to analyze the test, LONAC (LOw flow and NAtural Convection) is an ORNL-developed, fast-running, one-dimensional, single-phase, finite-difference model used for simulating forced and free convection transients in the THORS loop.

  19. Comparison of numerical results with experimental data for single-phase natural convection in an experimental sodium loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribando, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison is made between computed results and experimental data for a single-phase natural convection test in an experimental sodium loop. The test was conducted in the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety (THORS) facility, an engineering-scale high temperature sodium loop at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) used for thermal-hydraulic testing of simulated Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) subassemblies at normal and off-normal operating conditions. Heat generation in the 19 pin assembly during the test was typical of decay heat levels. The test chosen for analysis in this paper was one of seven natural convection runs conducted in the facility using a variety of initial conditions and testing parameters. Specifically, in this test the bypass line was open to simulate a parallel heated assembly and the test was begun with a pump coastdown from a small initial forced flow. The computer program used to analyze the test, LONAC (LOw flow and NAtural Convection) is an ORNL-developed, fast-running, one-dimensional, single-phase, finite-difference model used for simulating forced and free convection transients in the THORS loop

  20. Experimental investigation on NO{sub x} emission and carbon burnout from a radially biased pulverized coal whirl burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Shan; Hui, Shi' en; Zhou, Qulan; Xu, Tongmo; Hu, Hongli [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Taisheng [Dongfang Boiler Group Co., Ltd., Zigong, Sichuan 643001 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Experiments have been performed on 1 MW pulverized coal (pc) furnace in order to investigate the characteristics of coal combustion and NO{sub x} emission from a new type of radially biased dual register whirl burner. The burner is characterized by a primary air pipe with a continuously changing cross-section and an impact ring. The mixture of pulverized coal and air inside the primary pipe is split into two streams, which are the outer pc rich annular jet and the inner pc lean annular jet respectively. Three Chinese coals, which are high rank bituminous coal, low rank bituminous coal and meager coal respectively, are used in the experiments. We examine the influences of various parameters such as the relative position of the over-fire air (OFA) nozzle, over-fire air ratio (19.1%), primary air ratio, inner secondary air ratio, outer secondary air ratio, inner secondary air swirling intensity, and outer secondary air swirling intensity on NO{sub x} formation and unburned carbon in fly ash. With the primary air ratio increasing from 13.4% to 23.4%, the value of the NO{sub x} emission of the SH coal decreases by 26.7% at first, and then increases by 21.7%. In contrast, the value of the carbon in fly ash (C{sub FA}) increases by 40.1% at first, and then decreases by 58.3%. According to the experimental results, the influence of each individual parameter on NO{sub x} formation and unburned carbon in fly ash agrees well with the existing literature. In this study, the influences of various combinations of these parameters are also examined, thus providing some reference for the design of the radial biased whirl burner, the configuration of the furnace and the distribution of the air. (author)

  1. First e⁻/γ Commissioning Results for the GlueX Experiment/Hall D at CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaughan, Michael D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Satogata, Todd J. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Roblin, Yves R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Benesch, Jay F. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Experimental Hall D, with flagship experiment GlueX, was constructed as part of the 12 GeV CEBAF upgrade. A new magnetically extracted electron beam line was installed to support this hall. Bremsstrahlung photons from retractable radiators are delivered to the experiment through a series of collimators following a long drift to allow for beam convergence. Coherent Bremsstrahlung generated by interaction with a diamond radiator will achieve a nominal 40% linear polarization and photon energies between 8.5 and 9 GeV from 12.1 GeV electrons, which are then tagged or diverted to a medium power 60kW electron dump. The expected photon flux is 107-108 Hz. This paper discusses the experimental line design, commissioning experience gained since first beam in spring 2014, and the present results of beam commissioning by the experiment.

  2. Injury Based on Its Study in Experimental Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mendes-Braz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review focuses on the numerous experimental models used to study the complexity of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. Although experimental models of hepatic I/R injury represent a compromise between the clinical reality and experimental simplification, the clinical transfer of experimental results is problematic because of anatomical and physiological differences and the inevitable simplification of experimental work. In this review, the strengths and limitations of the various models of hepatic I/R are discussed. Several strategies to protect the liver from I/R injury have been developed in animal models and, some of these, might find their way into clinical practice. We also attempt to highlight the fact that the mechanisms responsible for hepatic I/R injury depend on the experimental model used, and therefore the therapeutic strategies also differ according to the model used. Thus, the choice of model must therefore be adapted to the clinical question being answered.

  3. Quasi-simultaneous observations of the BL Lac object MK 501 in X-ray, UV, visible, IR and radio frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, D. M.; Worrall, D. M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Hackney, R. L.; Hackney, K. H.; Oke, J. B.; Yee, H.; Neugebauer, G.; Matthews, K.; Feldman, P. A.

    1980-01-01

    Quasi-simultaneous observations of the BL Lacertae (Lac) objects MK 501 were performed for the first time at X-ray, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, and radio frequencies. The observed spectral slope from the X-ray to UV regions is positive and continuous, but that from the mid UV to visible light region becomes gradually flat and possibly turns down toward lower frequencies; the optical radio emission can not be accounted for by a single power law. Several theoretical models were considered for the emission mechanism. A quantitative comparison was performed with the synchrotron-self-Compton model; the total spectrum is found consistent with this model. The spectrum from visible light to X-ray is consistent with synchrotron radiation or with inverse-Compton scattering by a hot thermal cloud of electrons. The continuity of the spectral slope from X-ray to UV implied by the current data suggests that the previous estimates of the total luminosity of this BL Lac object is underestimated by a factor of about three or four.

  4. Application of experimental design in examination of the dissolution rate of carbamazepine from formulations: Characterization of the optimal formulation by DSC, TGA, FT-IR and PXRD analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Krstić Marko; Ražić Slavica; Vasiljević Dragana; Spasojević Đurđija; Ibrić Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Poor solubility is one of the key reasons for the poor bioavailability of these drugs. This paper displays a formulation of a solid surfactant system with carbamazepine, in order to increase its dissolution rate. Solid state surfactant systems are formed by application of fractal experimental design. Poloxamer 237 and Poloxamer 338 were used as surfactants and Brij® 35 was used as the co-surfactant. The ratios of the excipients and carbamazepine were varied...

  5. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN: Signatures, physical observables and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.W.

    1988-02-01

    Experimental results on high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions have become available with the recent experiments at CERN utilizing 200 GeV/n oxygen and sulfur beams. Physics motivations for these experiments are presented: a description of predicted signatures for possible formation of a quark-gluon plasma and physical observables that are expected to provide important information for understanding the dynamics of these collisions. A presentation will be made of some of the first experimental results to emerge from this new field. 28 refs., 9 figs

  6. Mixed-mode chaotic circuit with Wien-bridge configuration: The results of experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, Recai [Erciyes University, Department of Electronic Engineering, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)]. E-mail: kilic@erciyes.edu.tr

    2007-05-15

    In this paper, we deal with the experimentally implementation of inductorless Wien bridge-based mixed-mode chaotic circuit (MMCC) which is capable to exhibit both linear and nonlinear oscillations. The results of experimental implementation agree with the results of theoretical and computer simulation presented in literature. Since the proposed implementation of MMCC circuit uses different design blocks such as Wien bridge-based autonomous circuit part, CFOA (current feedback operational amplifier)-based floating inductance simulator, CFOA-based Chua's diode and switching mechanism, it offers very versatile chaotic circuit model for studying autonomous and nonautonomous chaotic dynamics.

  7. Mixed-mode chaotic circuit with Wien-bridge configuration: The results of experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Recai

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the experimentally implementation of inductorless Wien bridge-based mixed-mode chaotic circuit (MMCC) which is capable to exhibit both linear and nonlinear oscillations. The results of experimental implementation agree with the results of theoretical and computer simulation presented in literature. Since the proposed implementation of MMCC circuit uses different design blocks such as Wien bridge-based autonomous circuit part, CFOA (current feedback operational amplifier)-based floating inductance simulator, CFOA-based Chua's diode and switching mechanism, it offers very versatile chaotic circuit model for studying autonomous and nonautonomous chaotic dynamics

  8. Experimental results for characterization of a tapered plastic optical fiber sensor based on SPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cennamo, N.; Galatus, R.; Zeni, L.

    2015-05-01

    The experimental results obtained with two different Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) geometries, tapered and not-tapered, for a sensor based on Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) are presented. SPR is used for determining the refractive index variations at the interface between a gold layer and a dielectric medium (aqueous medium). In this work SPR sensors in POF configurations, useful for bio-sensing applications, have been realized for the optimization of the sensitivity and experimentally tested. The results show as the sensitivity increases with the tapered POF configuration, when the refractive index of aqueous medium increases.

  9. THE GLOBAL TANDEM-X DEM: PRODUCTION STATUS AND FIRST VALIDATION RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huber

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The TanDEM-X mission will derive a global digital elevation model (DEM with satellite SAR interferometry. Two radar satellites (TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X will map the Earth in a resolution and accuracy with an absolute height error of 10m and a relative height error of 2m for 90% of the data. In order to fulfill the height requirements in general two global coverages are acquired and processed. Besides the final TanDEM-X DEM, an intermediate DEM with reduced accuracy is produced after the first coverage is completed. The last step in the whole workflow for generating the TanDEM-X DEM is the calibration of remaining systematic height errors and the merge of single acquisitions to 1°x1° DEM tiles. In this paper the current status of generating the intermediate DEM and first validation results based on GPS tracks, laser scanning DEMs, SRTM data and ICESat points are shown for different test sites.

  10. Experimental determination of spin-dependent electron density by joint refinement of X-ray and polarized neutron diffraction data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Maxime; Claiser, Nicolas; Pillet, Sébastien; Chumakov, Yurii; Becker, Pierre; Gillet, Jean Michel; Gillon, Béatrice; Lecomte, Claude; Souhassou, Mohamed

    2012-11-01

    New crystallographic tools were developed to access a more precise description of the spin-dependent electron density of magnetic crystals. The method combines experimental information coming from high-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) and polarized neutron diffraction (PND) in a unified model. A new algorithm that allows for a simultaneous refinement of the charge- and spin-density parameters against XRD and PND data is described. The resulting software MOLLYNX is based on the well known Hansen-Coppens multipolar model, and makes it possible to differentiate the electron spins. This algorithm is validated and demonstrated with a molecular crystal formed by a bimetallic chain, MnCu(pba)(H(2)O)(3)·2H(2)O, for which XRD and PND data are available. The joint refinement provides a more detailed description of the spin density than the refinement from PND data alone.

  11. Central X-ray beam correction of radiographic acetabular cup measurement after THA: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, T; Weber, M; Wörner, M; Renkawitz, T; Grifka, J; Craiovan, B

    2017-05-01

    Accurate assessment of cup orientation on postoperative radiographs is essential for evaluating outcome after THA. However, accuracy is impeded by the deviation of the central X-ray beam in relation to the cup and the impossibility of measuring retroversion on standard pelvic radiographs. In an experimental trial, we built an artificial cup holder enabling the setting of different angles of anatomical anteversion and inclination. Twelve different cup orientations were investigated by three examiners. After comparing the two methods for radiographic measurement of the cup position developed by Lewinnek and Widmer, we showed how to differentiate between anteversion and retroversion in each cup position by using a second plane. To show the effect of the central beam offset on the cup, we X-rayed a defined cup position using a multidirectional central beam offset. According to Murray's definition of anteversion and inclination, we created a novel corrective procedure to balance measurement errors caused by deviation of the central beam. Measurement of the 12 different cup positions with the Lewinnek's method yielded a mean deviation of [Formula: see text] (95 % CI 1.3-2.3) from the original cup anteversion. The respective deviation with the Widmer/Liaw's method was [Formula: see text] (95 % CI 2.4-4.0). In each case, retroversion could be differentiated from anteversion with a second radiograph. Because of the multidirectional central beam offset ([Formula: see text] cm) from the acetabular cup in the cup holder ([Formula: see text] anteversion and [Formula: see text] inclination), the mean absolute difference for anteversion was [Formula: see text] (range [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] (range [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] for inclination. The application of our novel mathematical correction of the central beam offset reduced deviation to a mean difference of [Formula: see text] for anteversion and [Formula: see text

  12. Synthesis of a highly active carbon-supported Ir-V/C catalyst for the hydrogen oxidation reaction in PEMFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bing; Qiao Jinli; Yang Daijun; Zheng Junsheng; Ma Jianxin; Zhang Jiujun; Wang Haijiang

    2009-01-01

    The active, carbon-supported Ir and Ir-V nanoclusters with well-controlled particle size, dispersity, and composition uniformity, have been synthesized via an ethylene glycol method using IrCl 3 and NH 4 VO 3 as the Ir and V precursors. The nanostructured catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The catalytic activities of these carbon-supported nanoclusters were screened by applying on-line cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques, which were used to characterize the electrochemical properties of fuel cells using several anode Ir/C and Ir-V/C catalysts. It was found that Ir/C and Ir-V/C catalysts affect the performance of electrocatalysts significantly based on the discharge characteristics of the fuel cell. The catalyst Ir-V/C at 40 wt.% displayed the highest catalytic activity to hydrogen oxidation reaction and, therefore, high cell performance is achieved which results in a maximum power density of 563 mW cm -2 at 0.512 V and 70 deg. C in a real H 2 /air fuel cell. This performance is 20% higher as compared to the commercial available Pt/C catalyst. Fuel cell life test at a constant current density of 1000 mA cm -2 in a H 2 /O 2 condition shows good stability of anode Ir-V/C after 100 h of continuous operation.

  13. Characterization of Archaeological Sediments Using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Portable X-ray Fluorescence (pXRF): An Application to Formative Period Pyro-Industrial Sites in Pacific Coastal Southern Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Hector; Bigney, Scott J; Sakai, Sachiko; Burger, Paul R; Garfin, Timothy; George, Richard G; Culleton, Brendan J; Kennett, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological sediments from mounds within the mangrove zone of far-southern Pacific coastal Chiapas, Mexico, are characterized in order to test the hypothesis that specialized pyro-technological activities of the region's prehistoric inhabitants (salt and ceramic production) created the accumulations visible today. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is used to characterize sediment mineralogy, while portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) is used to determine elemental concentrations. Elemental characterization of natural sediments by both instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and pXRF also contribute to understanding of processes that created the archaeological deposits. Radiocarbon dates combined with typological analysis of ceramics indicate that pyro-industrial activity in the mangrove zone peaked during the Late Formative and Terminal Formative periods, when population and monumental activity on the coastal plain and piedmont were also at their peaks. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction analysis of the experimental dehydration of serpentine at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Toru; Yoshimi, Isamu; Yamada, Akihiro; Kikegawa, Takumi

    2009-01-01

    Time-resolved, in situ X-ray diffraction analysis was used to determine the dehydration rate and kinetics of serpentine during experimental dehydration at high pressures. The capsule used comprises a diamond sleeve fitted with Au or Pt lids in order to provide high-quality, time-resolved X-ray diffraction data. Antigorite quickly dehydrated to enstatite + forsterite + fluid within 2 h at 650degC below ∼6 GPa. Avrami modeling of the results and SEM observations of the partially dehydrated sample revealed that the nucleation rate was quite high for enstatite but low for forsterite, showing incubation periods of ∼10 min before appearing. The crystallization of these minerals is controlled largely by the composition of the fluid generated from serpentine dehydration. The dehydration boundary determined below 6 GPa in the present study is consistent with the results of previous phase equilibrium studies. This study indicates that serpentine in a subducting slab dehydrates rapidly below 6 GPa when the slab intersects the dehydration boundary conditions. (author)

  15. Healthy Chilean Adolescents with HOMA-IR ≥ 2.6 Have Increased Cardiometabolic Risk: Association with Genetic, Biological, and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Burrows

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the optimal cutoff of the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR for diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS in adolescents and examine whether insulin resistance (IR, determined by this method, was related to genetic, biological, and environmental factors. Methods. In 667 adolescents (16.8 ± 0.3 y, BMI, waist circumference, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, diet, and physical activity were measured. Fat and fat-free mass were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Family history of type 2 diabetes (FHDM was reported. We determined the optimal cutoff of HOMA-IR to diagnose MetS (IDF criteria using ROC analysis. IR was defined as HOMA-IR values above the cutoff. We tested the influence of genetic, biological, and environmental factors on IR using logistic regression analyses. Results. Of the participants, 16% were obese and 9.4 % met criteria for MetS. The optimal cutoff for MetS diagnosis was a HOMA-IR value of 2.6. Based on this value, 16.3% of participants had IR. Adolescents with IR had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity, abdominal obesity, fasting hyperglycemia, and MetS compared to those who were not IR. FHDM, sarcopenia, obesity, and low adiponectin significantly increased the risk of IR. Conclusions. In adolescents, HOMA-IR ≥ 2.6 was associated with greater cardiometabolic risk.

  16. Planck early results. X. Statistical analysis of Sunyaev-Zeldovich scaling relations for X-ray galaxy clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.

    2011-01-01

    All-sky data from the Planck survey and the Meta-Catalogue of X-ray detected Clusters of galaxies (MCXC) are combined to investigate the relationship between the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) signal and X-ray luminosity. The sample comprises ~1600 X-ray clusters with redshifts up to ~1 and spans...

  17. The relevance of animal experimental results for the assessment of radiation genetic risks in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, G.

    1981-01-01

    No suitable data are available from man for the quantitative assessment of genetic radiation risk. Therefore, the results from experiments on animals must be utilized. Two hypotheses are presented here in drawing analogical conclusions from one species to another. Although the extrapolation of results from animal experiments remains an open question, the use of experimental results from mice seems to be justified for an assessment of the genetic radiation risk in man. (orig.) [de

  18. Experimental demonstration of direct L-shell x-ray fluorescence imaging of gold nanoparticles using a benchtop x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohar, Nivedh; Reynoso, Francisco J.; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a proof-of-principle L-shell x-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging system that locates and quantifies sparse concentrations of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using a benchtop polychromatic x-ray source and a silicon (Si)-PIN diode x-ray detector system.Methods: 12-mm-diameter water-filled cylindrical tubes with GNP concentrations of 20, 10, 5, 0.5, 0.05, 0.005, and 0 mg/cm 3 served as calibration phantoms. An imaging phantom was created using the same cylindrical tube but filled with tissue-equivalent gel containing structures mimicking a GNP-loaded blood vessel and approximately 1 cm 3 tumor. Phantoms were irradiated by a 3-mm-diameter pencil-beam of 62 kVp x-rays filtered by 1 mm aluminum. Fluorescence/scatter photons from phantoms were detected at 90° with respect to the beam direction using a Si-PIN detector placed behind a 2.5-mm-diameter lead collimator. The imaging phantom was translated horizontally and vertically in 0.3-mm steps to image a 6 mm × 15 mm region of interest (ROI). For each phantom, the net L-shell XRF signal from GNPs was extracted from background, and then corrected for detection efficiency and in-phantom attenuation using a fluorescence-to-scatter normalization algorithm.Results: XRF measurements with calibration phantoms provided a calibration curve showing a linear relationship between corrected XRF signal and GNP mass per imaged voxel. Using the calibration curve, the detection limit (at the 95% confidence level) of the current experimental setup was estimated to be a GNP mass of 0.35 μg per imaged voxel (1.73 × 10 −2 cm 3 ). A 2D XRF map of the ROI was also successfully generated, reasonably matching the known spatial distribution as well as showing the local variation of GNP concentrations.Conclusions: L-shell XRF imaging can be a highly sensitive tool that has the capability of simultaneously imaging the spatial distribution and determining the local concentration of GNPs presented on the order of parts

  19. Measurement of relative intensities of L-shell X-rays of some heavy elements using Cd-109 radioisotope source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darko, J.B.; Tetteh, G.K.

    1992-01-01

    The relative L-shell x-ray intensities of Sm, W, Ir, Au, Hg, Pb and U were measured using a Cd-109 radioisotope source and a Si(Li) detector. The measured relative intensities were compared with the theoretically calculated values due to Scofield, computed for the present excitation energy of 22.6 keV. The experimental results were found to agree with theory in most cases. (author)

  20. Measurement of relative intensities of L-shell X-rays of some heavy elements using Cd-109 radioisotope source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darko, J.B.; Tetteh, G.K. (Ghana Univ., Legon (Ghana). Dept. of Physics)

    The relative L-shell x-ray intensities of Sm, W, Ir, Au, Hg, Pb and U were measured using a Cd-109 radioisotope source and a Si(Li) detector. The measured relative intensities were compared with the theoretically calculated values due to Scofield, computed for the present excitation energy of 22.6 keV. The experimental results were found to agree with theory in most cases. (author).