Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth
2016-11-29
Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xavier, G B; Vilela de Faria, G; Temporao, G P; Von der Weid, J P [Centre for Telecommunication Studies, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro-R Marques de Sao Vicente 225 Gavea, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Walenta, N; Gisin, N; Zbinden, H [GAP-Optique, University of Geneva, rue de l' Ecole-de-Medecine 20, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)], E-mail: guix@opto.cetuc.puc-rio.br
2009-04-15
In this paper we demonstrate an active polarization drift compensation scheme for optical fibres employed in a quantum key distribution experiment with polarization encoded qubits. The quantum signals are wavelength multiplexed in one fibre along with two classical optical side channels that provide the control information for the polarization compensation scheme. This set-up allows us to continuously track any polarization change without the need to interrupt the key exchange. The results obtained show that fast polarization rotations of the order of 40{pi} rad s{sup -1} are effectively compensated for. We demonstrate that our set-up allows continuous quantum key distribution even in a fibre stressed by random polarization fluctuations. Our results pave the way for Bell-state measurements using only linear optics with parties separated by long-distance optical fibres.
Collins, Robert J.; Amiri, Ryan; Fujiwara, Mikio; Honjo, Toshimori; Shimizu, Kaoru; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Takeoka, Masahiro; Andersson, Erika; Buller, Gerald S.; Sasaki, Masahide
2016-11-01
Quantum digital signatures apply quantum mechanics to the problem of guaranteeing message integrity and non-repudiation with information-theoretical security, which are complementary to the confidentiality realized by quantum key distribution. Previous experimental demonstrations have been limited to transmission distances of less than 5-km of optical fiber in a laboratory setting. Here we report the first demonstration of quantum digital signatures over installed optical fiber as well as the longest transmission link reported to date. This demonstration used a 90-km long differential phase shift quantum key distribution system to achieve approximately one signed bit per second - an increase in the signature generation rate of several orders of magnitude over previous optical fiber demonstrations.
Quantum Cryptography Beyond Quantum Key Distribution
Broadbent, A.; Schaffner, C
2015-01-01
textabstractQuantum cryptography is the art and science of exploiting quantum mechanical effects in order to perform cryptographic tasks. While the most well-known example of this discipline is quantum key distribution (QKD), there exist many other applications such as quantum money, randomness generation, secure two- and multi-party computation and delegated quantum computation. Quantum cryptography also studies the limitations and challenges resulting from quantum adversaries—including the ...
Experimental integration of quantum key distribution and gigabit-capable passive optical network
Sun, Wei; Wang, Liu-Jun; Sun, Xiang-Xiang; Mao, Yingqiu; Yin, Hua-Lei; Wang, Bi-Xiao; Chen, Teng-Yun; Pan, Jian-Wei
2018-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) ensures information-theoretic security for the distribution of random bits between two remote parties. To extend QKD applications to fiber-to-the-home optical communications, such as gigabit-capable passive optical networks (GPONs), an effective method is the use of wavelength-division multiplexing. However, the Raman scattering noise from intensive classical traffic and the huge loss introduced by the beam splitter in a GPON severely limits the performance of QKD. Here, we demonstrate the integration of QKD and a commercial GPON system with fiber lengths up to 14 km, in which the maximum splitting ratio of the beam splitter reaches 1:64. By placing the QKD transmitter on the optical line terminal side, we reduce the Raman noise collected at the QKD receiver. Using a bypass structure, the loss of the beam splitter is circumvented effectively. Our results pave the way to extending the applications of QKD to last-mile communications.
DECOY STATE QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sellami Ali
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Experimental weak + vacuum protocol has been demonstrated using commercial QKD system based on a standard bi-directional ‘Plug & Play’ set-up. By making simple modifications to a commercial quantum key distribution system, decoy state QKD allows us to achieve much better performance than QKD system without decoy state in terms of key generation rate and distance. We demonstrate an unconditionally secure key rate of 6.2931 x 10-4per pulse for a 25 km fiber length.
Quantum cryptography beyond quantum key distribution
Broadbent, A.; Schaffner, C.
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography is the art and science of exploiting quantum mechanical effects in order to perform cryptographic tasks. While the most well-known example of this discipline is quantum key distribution (QKD), there exist many other applications such as quantum money, randomness generation,
Quantum cryptography beyond quantum key distribution
A. Broadbent (Anne); C. Schaffner (Christian)
2016-01-01
textabstractQuantum cryptography is the art and science of exploiting quantum mechanical effects in order to perform cryptographic tasks. While the most well-known example of this discipline is quantum key distribution (QKD), there exist many other applications such as quantum money, randomness
Collins, Robert J; Amiri, Ryan; Fujiwara, Mikio; Honjo, Toshimori; Shimizu, Kaoru; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Takeoka, Masahiro; Andersson, Erika; Buller, Gerald S; Sasaki, Masahide
2016-11-01
Quantum digital signatures (QDSs) apply quantum mechanics to the problem of guaranteeing message integrity and non-repudiation with information-theoretical security, which are complementary to the confidentiality realized by quantum key distribution (QKD). Previous experimental demonstrations have been limited to transmission distances of less than 5 km of optical fiber in a laboratory setting. Here we report, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of QDSs over installed optical fiber, as well as the longest transmission link reported to date. This demonstration used a 90 km long differential phase shift QKD to achieve approximately one signed bit per second, an increase in the signature generation rate of several orders of magnitude over previous optical fiber demonstrations.
Experimental quantum data locking
Liu, Yang; Cao, Zhu; Wu, Cheng; Fukuda, Daiji; You, Lixing; Zhong, Jiaqiang; Numata, Takayuki; Chen, Sijing; Zhang, Weijun; Shi, Sheng-Cai; Lu, Chao-Yang; Wang, Zhen; Ma, Xiongfeng; Fan, Jingyun; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-08-01
Classical correlation can be locked via quantum means: quantum data locking. With a short secret key, one can lock an exponentially large amount of information in order to make it inaccessible to unauthorized users without the key. Quantum data locking presents a resource-efficient alternative to one-time pad encryption which requires a key no shorter than the message. We report experimental demonstrations of a quantum data locking scheme originally proposed by D. P. DiVincenzo et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 067902 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.067902] and a loss-tolerant scheme developed by O. Fawzi et al. [J. ACM 60, 44 (2013), 10.1145/2518131]. We observe that the unlocked amount of information is larger than the key size in both experiments, exhibiting strong violation of the incremental proportionality property of classical information theory. As an application example, we show the successful transmission of a photo over a lossy channel with quantum data (un)locking and error correction.
Space division multiplexing chip-to-chip quantum key distribution
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bacco, Davide; Ding, Yunhong; Dalgaard, Kjeld
2017-01-01
nodes of the quantum keys to their respective destinations. In this paper we present an experimental demonstration of a photonic integrated silicon chip quantum key distribution protocols based on space division multiplexing (SDM), through multicore fiber technology. Parallel and independent quantum...... keys are obtained, which are useful in crypto-systems and future quantum network....
Space division multiplexing chip-to-chip quantum key distribution.
Bacco, Davide; Ding, Yunhong; Dalgaard, Kjeld; Rottwitt, Karsten; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo
2017-09-29
Quantum cryptography is set to become a key technology for future secure communications. However, to get maximum benefit in communication networks, transmission links will need to be shared among several quantum keys for several independent users. Such links will enable switching in quantum network nodes of the quantum keys to their respective destinations. In this paper we present an experimental demonstration of a photonic integrated silicon chip quantum key distribution protocols based on space division multiplexing (SDM), through multicore fiber technology. Parallel and independent quantum keys are obtained, which are useful in crypto-systems and future quantum network.
Collins, Robert J; Amiri, Ryan; Fujiwara, Mikio; Honjo, Toshimori; Shimizu, Kaoru; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide; Andersson, Erika; Buller, Gerald S
2017-06-12
Ensuring the integrity and transferability of digital messages is an important challenge in modern communications. Although purely mathematical approaches exist, they usually rely on the computational complexity of certain functions, in which case there is no guarantee of long-term security. Alternatively, quantum digital signatures offer security guaranteed by the physical laws of quantum mechanics. Prior experimental demonstrations of quantum digital signatures in optical fiber have typically been limited to operation over short distances and/or operated in a laboratory environment. Here we report the experimental transmission of quantum digital signatures over channel losses of up to 42.8 ± 1.2 dB in a link comprised of 90 km of installed fiber with additional optical attenuation introduced to simulate longer distances. The channel loss of 42.8 ± 1.2 dB corresponds to an equivalent distance of 134.2 ± 3.8 km and this represents the longest effective distance and highest channel loss that quantum digital signatures have been shown to operate over to date. Our theoretical model indicates that this represents close to the maximum possible channel attenuation for this quantum digital signature protocol, defined as the loss for which the signal rate is comparable to the dark count rate of the detectors.
Quantum key distribution with two-segment quantum repeaters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kampermann, Hermann; Abruzzo, Silvestre; Bruss, Dagmar [Theoretische Physik III, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf (Germany)
2014-07-01
Quantum repeaters represent one possible way to achieve long-distance quantum key distribution. One way of improving the repeater rate and decreasing the memory coherence time is the usage of multiplexing. Motivated by the experimental fact that long-range connections are practically demanding, we extend the analysis of the quantum repeater multiplexing protocol to the case of short-range connections. We derive formulas for the repeater rate and we show that short-range connections lead to most of the benefits of a full-range multiplexing protocol. A less demanding QKD-protocol without quantum memories was recently introduced by Lo et al. We generalize this measurement-device-independent quantum key Distribution protocol to the scenario where the repeater Station contains also heralded quantum memories. We assume either single-photon sources or weak coherent pulse sources plus decay states. We show that it is possible to significantly outperform the original proposal, even in presence of decoherence of the quantum memory. We give formulas in terms of device imperfections i.e., the quantum bit error rate and the repeater rate.
Failure of Kak quantum key distribution protocol
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Keywords. Quantum cryptography; quantum key distribution. Abstract. Kak's quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol provides not only the distribution but also the integrity of secret key simultaneously in quantum channel. Consequently the additional exchange of information, used to check whether an eavesdropper exists, ...
Detector decoy quantum key distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moroder, Tobias; Luetkenhaus, Norbert [Quantum Information Theory Group, Institute of Theoretical Physics I, University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Staudtstrasse 7/B2, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Curty, Marcos [ETSI Telecomunicacion, Department of Signal Theory and Communications, University of Vigo, Campus Universitario, E-36310 Vigo (Spain)], E-mail: tmoroder@iqc.ca
2009-04-15
Photon number resolving detectors can enhance the performance of many practical quantum cryptographic setups. In this paper, we employ a simple method to estimate the statistics provided by such a photon number resolving detector using only a threshold detector together with a variable attenuator. This idea is similar in spirit to that of the decoy state technique, and is especially suited to those scenarios where only a few parameters of the photon number statistics of the incoming signals have to be estimated. As an illustration of the potential applicability of the method in quantum communication protocols, we use it to prove security of an entanglement-based quantum key distribution scheme with an untrusted source without the need for a squash model and by solely using this extra idea. In this sense, this detector decoy method can be seen as a different conceptual approach to adapt a single-photon security proof to its physical, full optical implementation. We show that in this scenario, the legitimate users can now even discard the double click events from the raw key data without compromising the security of the scheme, and we present simulations on the performance of the BB84 and the 6-state quantum key distribution protocols.
Chau, H. F.; Wang, Qinan; Wong, Cardythy
2017-02-01
Recently, Chau [Phys. Rev. A 92, 062324 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.062324] introduced an experimentally feasible qudit-based quantum-key-distribution (QKD) scheme. In that scheme, one bit of information is phase encoded in the prepared state in a 2n-dimensional Hilbert space in the form (|i > ±|j >) /√{2 } with n ≥2 . For each qudit prepared and measured in the same two-dimensional Hilbert subspace, one bit of raw secret key is obtained in the absence of transmission error. Here we show that by modifying the basis announcement procedure, the same experimental setup can generate n bits of raw key for each qudit prepared and measured in the same basis in the noiseless situation. The reason is that in addition to the phase information, each qudit also carries information on the Hilbert subspace used. The additional (n -1 ) bits of raw key comes from a clever utilization of this extra piece of information. We prove the unconditional security of this modified protocol and compare its performance with other existing provably secure qubit- and qudit-based protocols on market in the one-way classical communication setting. Interestingly, we find that for the case of n =2 , the secret key rate of this modified protocol using nondegenerate random quantum code to perform one-way entanglement distillation is equal to that of the six-state scheme.
Quantum key distribution in single-photon communication system
Tretyakov, D. B.; Kolyako, A. V.; Pleshkov, A. S.; Entin, V. M.; Ryabtsev, I. I.; Neizvestny, I. G.
2016-09-01
This paper presents a brief review of experimental studies in quantum cryptography and quantum key distribution by single photons in atmospheric and fiber-optic quantum communication channels. Two experimental setups for quantum key distribution developed at the Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS are described. The dependence of the quantum key distribution rate on the average number of photons μ in the laser pulse was studied. For μ > 0.3, there is a discrepancy between theory and experiment. The reasons for this are, first, the nonzero probability of multiphoton pulses occurring in quantum transmission and counted as single photons by single-photon detectors and, second, the rejection of the cases where several single-photon detectors click simultaneously in quantum key sifting because the measurement result is not determined in these cases.
Finite key analysis in quantum cryptography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meyer, T.
2007-10-31
In view of experimental realization of quantum key distribution schemes, the study of their efficiency becomes as important as the proof of their security. The latter is the subject of most of the theoretical work about quantum key distribution, and many important results such as the proof of unconditional security have been obtained. The efficiency and also the robustness of quantum key distribution protocols against noise can be measured by figures of merit such as the secret key rate (the fraction of input signals that make it into the key) and the threshold quantum bit error rate (the maximal error rate such that one can still create a secret key). It is important to determine these quantities because they tell us whether a certain quantum key distribution scheme can be used at all in a given situation and if so, how many secret key bits it can generate in a given time. However, these figures of merit are usually derived under the ''infinite key limit'' assumption, that is, one assumes that an infinite number of quantum states are send and that all sub-protocols of the scheme (in particular privacy amplification) are carried out on these infinitely large blocks. Such an assumption usually eases the analysis, but also leads to (potentially) too optimistic values for the quantities in question. In this thesis, we are explicitly avoiding the infinite key limit for the analysis of the privacy amplification step, which plays the most important role in a quantum key distribution scheme. We still assume that an optimal error correction code is applied and we do not take into account any statistical errors that might occur in the parameter estimation step. Renner and coworkers derived an explicit formula for the obtainable key rate in terms of Renyi entropies of the quantum states describing Alice's, Bob's, and Eve's systems. This results serves as a starting point for our analysis, and we derive an algorithm that efficiently computes
Experimental quantum forgery of quantum optical money
Bartkiewicz, Karol; Černoch, Antonín; Chimczak, Grzegorz; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam; Nori, Franco
2017-03-01
Unknown quantum information cannot be perfectly copied (cloned). This statement is the bedrock of quantum technologies and quantum cryptography, including the seminal scheme of Wiesner's quantum money, which was the first quantum-cryptographic proposal. Surprisingly, to our knowledge, quantum money has not been tested experimentally yet. Here, we experimentally revisit the Wiesner idea, assuming a banknote to be an image encoded in the polarization states of single photons. We demonstrate that it is possible to use quantum states to prepare a banknote that cannot be ideally copied without making the owner aware of only unauthorized actions. We provide the security conditions for quantum money by investigating the physically-achievable limits on the fidelity of 1-to-2 copying of arbitrary sequences of qubits. These results can be applied as a security measure in quantum digital right management.
Quantum hacking on quantum key distribution using homodyne detection
Huang, Jing-Zheng; Kunz-Jacques, Sébastien; Jouguet, Paul; Weedbrook, Christian; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2014-03-01
Imperfect devices in commercial quantum key distribution systems open security loopholes that an eavesdropper may exploit. An example of one such imperfection is the wavelength-dependent coupling ratio of the fiber beam splitter. Utilizing this loophole, the eavesdropper can vary the transmittances of the fiber beam splitter at the receiver's side by inserting lights with wavelengths different from what is normally used. Here, we propose a wavelength attack on a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution system using homodyne detection. By inserting light pulses at different wavelengths, this attack allows the eavesdropper to bias the shot-noise estimation even if it is done in real time. Based on experimental data, we discuss the feasibility of this attack and suggest a prevention scheme by improving the previously proposed countermeasures.
Security of practical quantum key distribution systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jain, Nitin
2015-02-24
This thesis deals with practical security aspects of quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. At the heart of the theoretical model of any QKD system lies a quantum-mechanical security proof that guarantees perfect secrecy of messages - based on certain assumptions. However, in practice, deviations between the theoretical model and the physical implementation could be exploited by an attacker to break the security of the system. These deviations may arise from technical limitations and operational imperfections in the physical implementation and/or unrealistic assumptions and insufficient constraints in the theoretical model. In this thesis, we experimentally investigate in depth several such deviations. We demonstrate the resultant vulnerabilities via proof-of-principle attacks on a commercial QKD system from ID Quantique. We also propose countermeasures against the investigated loopholes to secure both existing and future QKD implementations.
Quantum Cryptography: Key Distribution and Beyond
Akshata Shenoy-Hejamadi; Anirban Pathak; Srikanth Radhakrishna
2017-01-01
Uniquely among the sciences, quantum cryptography has driven both foundational research as well as practical real-life applications. We review the progress of quantum cryptography in the last decade, covering quantum key distribution and other applications. Quanta 2017; 6: 1–47.
Quantum Cryptography: Key Distribution and Beyond
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akshata Shenoy-Hejamadi
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Uniquely among the sciences, quantum cryptography has driven both foundational research as well as practical real-life applications. We review the progress of quantum cryptography in the last decade, covering quantum key distribution and other applications. Quanta 2017; 6: 1–47.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elezov M.S.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Recently bright-light control of the SSPD has been demonstrated. This attack employed a “backdoor” in the detector biasing scheme. Under bright-light illumination, SSPD becomes resistive and remains “latched” in the resistive state even when the light is switched off. While the SSPD is latched, Eve can simulate SSPD single-photon response by sending strong light pulses, thus deceiving Bob. We developed the experimental setup for investigation of a dependence on latching threshold of SSPD on optical pulse length and peak power. By knowing latching threshold it is possible to understand essential requirements for development countermeasures against blinding attack on quantum key distribution system with SSPDs.
Interactive simulations for quantum key distribution
Kohnle, Antje
2016-01-01
Secure communication protocols are becoming increasingly important, e.g. for internet-based communication. Quantum key distribution allows two parties, commonly called Alice and Bob, to generate a secret sequence of 0s and 1s called a key that is only known to themselves. Classically, Alice and Bob could never be certain that their communication was not compromised by a malicious eavesdropper. Quantum mechanics however makes secure communication possible. The fundamental principle of quantum mechanics that taking a measurement perturbs the system (unless the measurement is compatible with the quantum state) also applies to an eavesdropper. Using appropriate protocols to create the key, Alice and Bob can detect the presence of an eavesdropper by errors in their measurements. As part of the QuVis Quantum Mechanics Visualization Project, we have developed a suite of four interactive simulations that demonstrate the basic principles of three different quantum key distribution protocols. The simulations use either...
Failure of Kak quantum key distribution protocol
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Kak's quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol provides not only the dis- tribution but also the integrity of secret key simultaneously in quantum channel. Conse- quently the additional exchange of information, used to check whether an eavesdropper exists, is unnecessary. In this comment, we will point out the ...
TASQC Quantum Key Transfer Program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2016-11-04
Securely transferring timing information in the electrical grid is a critical component of securing the nation's infrastructure from cyber attacks. One solution to this problem is to use quantum information to securely transfer the timing information across sites. This software provides such an infrastructure using a standard Java webserver that pulls the quantum information from associated hardware.
Experimental quantum fingerprinting with weak coherent pulses
Xu, Feihu; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Wei, Kejin; Wang, Wenyuan; Palacios-Avila, Pablo; Feng, Chen; Sajeed, Shihan; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2015-01-01
Quantum communication holds the promise of creating disruptive technologies that will play an essential role in future communication networks. For example, the study of quantum communication complexity has shown that quantum communication allows exponential reductions in the information that must be transmitted to solve distributed computational tasks. Recently, protocols that realize this advantage using optical implementations have been proposed. Here we report a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the best-known classical protocol. Our implementation is based on a modified version of a commercial quantum key distribution system using off-the-shelf optical components over telecom wavelengths, and is practical for messages as large as 100 Mbits, even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results provide a first step in the development of experimental quantum communication complexity. PMID:26515586
Imperfect state preparation in continuous-variable quantum key distribution
Liu, Wenyuan; Wang, Xuyang; Wang, Ning; Du, Shanna; Li, Yongmin
2017-10-01
In continuous-variable quantum key distribution, the loss and excess noise of the quantum channel are key parameters that determine the secure key rate and the maximal distribution distance. We investigate the imperfect quantum state preparation in Gaussian modulation coherent-state protocol both theoretically and experimentally. We show that the Gaussian distribution characteristic of the prepared states in phase space is broken due to the incorrect calibration of the working parameters for the amplitude modulator and phase modulator. This further causes a significant increase of the excess noise and misestimate of the channel loss. To ensure an accurate estimate of the quantum channel parameters and achieve a reliable quantum key distribution, we propose and demonstrate two effective schemes to calibrate the working parameters of the modulators.
Quantum attacks on public-key cryptosystems
Yan, Song Y
2013-01-01
The cryptosystems based on the Integer Factorization Problem (IFP), the Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP) and the Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem (ECDLP) are essentially the only three types of practical public-key cryptosystems in use. The security of these cryptosystems relies heavily on these three infeasible problems, as no polynomial-time algorithms exist for them so far. However, polynomial-time quantum algorithms for IFP, DLP and ECDLP do exist, provided that a practical quantum computer exists.Quantum Attacks on Public-Key Cryptosystems presemts almost all?known quantum comput
Optimization of Quantum Key Distribution Protocols
Tannous, C.; Langlois, J.
2017-01-01
Quantum Key Distribution is a practically implementable information-theoretic secure method for transmitting keys to remote partners performing quantum communication. After examining various protocols from the simplest such as QC and BB84 we move on to describe BBM92, DPSK, SARG04 and finally MDI from the largest possible communication distance and highest secret key bitrate. We discuss how any protocol can be optimized by reviewing the various steps and underlying assumptions proper to every...
Quantum key distribution network for multiple applications
Tajima, A.; Kondoh, T.; Ochi, T.; Fujiwara, M.; Yoshino, K.; Iizuka, H.; Sakamoto, T.; Tomita, A.; Shimamura, E.; Asami, S.; Sasaki, M.
2017-09-01
The fundamental architecture and functions of secure key management in a quantum key distribution (QKD) network with enhanced universal interfaces for smooth key sharing between arbitrary two nodes and enabling multiple secure communication applications are proposed. The proposed architecture consists of three layers: a quantum layer, key management layer and key supply layer. We explain the functions of each layer, the key formats in each layer and the key lifecycle for enabling a practical QKD network. A quantum key distribution-advanced encryption standard (QKD-AES) hybrid system and an encrypted smartphone system were developed as secure communication applications on our QKD network. The validity and usefulness of these systems were demonstrated on the Tokyo QKD Network testbed.
Synchronization in Quantum Key Distribution Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anton Pljonkin
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In the description of quantum key distribution systems, much attention is paid to the operation of quantum cryptography protocols. The main problem is the insufficient study of the synchronization process of quantum key distribution systems. This paper contains a general description of quantum cryptography principles. A two-line fiber-optic quantum key distribution system with phase coding of photon states in transceiver and coding station synchronization mode was examined. A quantum key distribution system was built on the basis of the scheme with automatic compensation of polarization mode distortions. Single-photon avalanche diodes were used as optical radiation detecting devices. It was estimated how the parameters used in quantum key distribution systems of optical detectors affect the detection of the time frame with attenuated optical pulse in synchronization mode with respect to its probabilistic and time-domain characteristics. A design method was given for the process that detects the time frame that includes an optical pulse during synchronization. This paper describes the main quantum communication channel attack methods by removing a portion of optical emission. This paper describes the developed synchronization algorithm that takes into account the time required to restore the photodetector’s operation state after the photon has been registered during synchronization. The computer simulation results of the developed synchronization algorithm were analyzed. The efficiency of the developed algorithm with respect to synchronization process protection from unauthorized gathering of optical emission is demonstrated herein.
Quantum key distribution using three basis states
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This note presents a method of public key distribution using quantum communication of photons that simultaneously provides a high probability that the bits have not been tampered. It is a variant of the quantum method of Bennett and Brassard (BB84) where the transmission states have been decreased from 4 to 3 and ...
Computational Complexity of Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution
Zhao, Yi-Bo; Gui, You-Zhen; Chen, Jin-Jian; Han, Zheng-Fu; Guo, Guang-Can
2006-01-01
The continuous variable quantum key distribution has been considered to have the potential to provide high secret key rate. However, in present experimental demonstrations, the secret key can be distilled only under very small loss rates. Here, by calculating explicitly the computational complexity with the channel transmission, we show that under high loss rate it is hard to distill the secret key in present continuous variable scheme and one of its advantages, the potential of providing hig...
Quantum probabilities from quantum entanglement: experimentally unpacking the Born rule
Harris, Jérémie; Bouchard, Frédéric; Santamato, Enrico; Zurek, Wojciech H.; Boyd, Robert W.; Karimi, Ebrahim
2016-05-01
The Born rule, a foundational axiom used to deduce probabilities of events from wavefunctions, is indispensable in the everyday practice of quantum physics. It is also key in the quest to reconcile the ostensibly inconsistent laws of the quantum and classical realms, as it confers physical significance to reduced density matrices, the essential tools of decoherence theory. Following Bohr’s Copenhagen interpretation, textbooks postulate the Born rule outright. However, recent attempts to derive it from other quantum principles have been successful, holding promise for simplifying and clarifying the quantum foundational bedrock. A major family of derivations is based on envariance, a recently discovered symmetry of entangled quantum states. Here, we identify and experimentally test three premises central to these envariance-based derivations, thus demonstrating, in the microworld, the symmetries from which the Born rule is derived. Further, we demonstrate envariance in a purely local quantum system, showing its independence from relativistic causality.
Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution
Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Denisenko, Natalia
2016-01-01
Based on the firm laws of physics rather than unproven foundations of mathematical complexity, quantum cryptography provides a radically different solution for encryption and promises unconditional security. Quantum cryptography systems are typically built between two nodes connected to each other through fiber optic. This chapter focuses on quantum cryptography systems operating over free-space optical channels as a cost-effective and license-free alternative to fiber optic counterparts. It provides an overview of the different parts of an experimental free-space quantum communication link developed in the Spanish National Research Council (Madrid, Spain).
Experimental search for quantum gravity
2018-01-01
This book summarizes recent developments in the research area of quantum gravity phenomenology. A series of short and nontechnical essays lays out the prospects of various experimental possibilities and their current status. Finding observational evidence for the quantization of space-time was long thought impossible. In the last decade however, new experimental design and technological advances have changed the research landscape and opened new perspectives on quantum gravity. Formerly dominated by purely theoretical constructions, quantum gravity now has a lively phenomenology to offer. From high precision measurements using macroscopic quantum oscillators to new analysis methods of the cosmic microwave background, no stone is being left unturned in the experimental search for quantum gravity. This book sheds new light on the connection of astroparticle physics with the quantum gravity problem. Gravitational waves and their detection are covered. It illustrates findings from the interconnection between gene...
Experimental plug and play quantum coin flipping
Pappa, Anna; Jouguet, Paul; Lawson, Thomas; Chailloux, André; Legré, Matthieu; Trinkler, Patrick; Kerenidis, Iordanis; Diamanti, Eleni
2014-04-01
Performing complex cryptographic tasks will be an essential element in future quantum communication networks. These tasks are based on a handful of fundamental primitives, such as coin flipping, where two distrustful parties wish to agree on a randomly generated bit. Although it is known that quantum versions of these primitives can offer information-theoretic security advantages with respect to classical protocols, a demonstration of such an advantage in a practical communication scenario has remained elusive. Here we experimentally implement a quantum coin flipping protocol that performs strictly better than classically possible over a distance suitable for communication over metropolitan area optical networks. The implementation is based on a practical plug and play system, developed by significantly enhancing a commercial quantum key distribution device. Moreover, we provide combined quantum coin flipping protocols that are almost perfectly secure against bounded adversaries. Our results offer a useful toolbox for future secure quantum communications.
Experimental Aspects of Quantum Computing
Everitt, Henry O
2005-01-01
Practical quantum computing still seems more than a decade away, and researchers have not even identified what the best physical implementation of a quantum bit will be. There is a real need in the scientific literature for a dialog on the topic of lessons learned and looming roadblocks. These papers, which appeared in the journal of "Quantum Information Processing" are dedicated to the experimental aspects of quantum computing These papers highlight the lessons learned over the last ten years, outline the challenges over the next ten years, and discuss the most promising physical implementations of quantum computing.
Continuous variable quantum key distribution with modulated entangled states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Lars S; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Lassen, Mikael
2012-01-01
based on coherent states and continuous variable measurements are resilient to high loss in the channel, but are strongly affected by small amounts of channel excess noise. Here we propose and experimentally address a continuous variable quantum key distribution protocol that uses modulated fragile...... entangled states of light to greatly enhance the robustness to channel noise. We experimentally demonstrate that the resulting quantum key distribution protocol can tolerate more noise than the benchmark set by the ideal continuous variable coherent state protocol. Our scheme represents a very promising...
Continuous variable quantum key distribution
Li, Yong-Min; Wang, Xu-Yang; Bai, Zeng-Liang; Liu, Wen-Yuan; Yang, Shen-Shen; Peng, Kun-Chi
2017-04-01
Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61378010 and 11504219), the Key Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2016YFA0301403), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2014011007-1), and the Program for the Outstanding Innovative Teams of Higher Learning Institutions of Shanxi Province, China.
Fully device-independent quantum key distribution.
Vazirani, Umesh; Vidick, Thomas
2014-10-03
Quantum cryptography promises levels of security that are impossible to replicate in a classical world. Can this security be guaranteed even when the quantum devices on which the protocol relies are untrusted? This central question dates back to the early 1990s when the challenge of achieving device-independent quantum key distribution was first formulated. We answer this challenge by rigorously proving the device-independent security of a slight variant of Ekert's original entanglement-based protocol against the most general (coherent) attacks. The resulting protocol is robust: While assuming only that the devices can be modeled by the laws of quantum mechanics and are spatially isolated from each other and from any adversary's laboratory, it achieves a linear key rate and tolerates a constant noise rate in the devices. In particular, the devices may have quantum memory and share arbitrary quantum correlations with the eavesdropper. The proof of security is based on a new quantitative understanding of the monogamous nature of quantum correlations in the context of a multiparty protocol.
Quantum entanglement and composite keys in quantum cryptography
Molotkov, S. N.
2017-06-01
The security of quantum cryptography protocols after a quantum key distribution (QKD) session is formulated in terms of proximity between two situations: quantum states corresponding to real and ideal situations after QKD. The measure of proximity is the trace distance. It is more reasonable to formulate security directly in terms of the smallness of probability of successive guessing of keys by an eavesdropper after an arbitrary number of QKD sessions. There is a fundamental question the answer to which is a priori very unobvious: Is the security criterion in terms of the proximity of the real and ideal situations for a single QKD session sufficient to guarantee the security of keys in terms of the smallness of probability of guessing of keys by the eavesdropper after an arbitrary number of QKD sessions? It has been shown that the answer to this question is positive.
Interactive simulations for quantum key distribution
Kohnle, Antje; Rizzoli, Aluna
2017-05-01
Secure communication protocols are becoming increasingly important, e.g. for internet-based communication. Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties, commonly called Alice and Bob, to generate a secret sequence of 0s and 1s called a key that is only known to themselves. Classically, Alice and Bob could never be certain that their communication was not compromised by a malicious eavesdropper. Quantum mechanics however makes secure communication possible. The fundamental principle of quantum mechanics that taking a measurement perturbs the system (unless the measurement is compatible with the quantum state) also applies to an eavesdropper. Using appropriate protocols to create the key, Alice and Bob can detect the presence of an eavesdropper by errors in their measurements. As part of the QuVis Quantum Mechanics Visualisation Project, we have developed a suite of four interactive simulations that demonstrate the basic principles of three different QKD protocols. The simulations use either polarised photons or spin 1/2 particles as physical realisations. The simulations and accompanying activities are freely available for use online or download, and run on a wide range of devices including tablets and PCs. Evaluation with students over three years was used to refine the simulations and activities. Preliminary studies show that the refined simulations and activities help students learn the basic principles of QKD at both the introductory and advanced undergraduate levels.
Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution
Liao, Sheng-Kai; Cai, Wen-Qi; Liu, Wei-Yue; Zhang, Liang; Li, Yang; Ren, Ji-Gang; Yin, Juan; Shen, Qi; Cao, Yuan; Li, Zheng-Ping; Li, Feng-Zhi; Chen, Xia-Wei; Sun, Li-Hua; Jia, Jian-Jun; Wu, Jin-Cai; Jiang, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Jian-Feng; Huang, Yong-Mei; Wang, Qiang; Zhou, Yi-Lin; Deng, Lei; Xi, Tao; Ma, Lu; Hu, Tai; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Yu-Ao; Liu, Nai-Le; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Zhu, Zhen-Cai; Lu, Chao-Yang; Shu, Rong; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Yu; Pan, Jian-Wei
2017-09-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) uses individual light quanta in quantum superposition states to guarantee unconditional communication security between distant parties. However, the distance over which QKD is achievable has been limited to a few hundred kilometres, owing to the channel loss that occurs when using optical fibres or terrestrial free space that exponentially reduces the photon transmission rate. Satellite-based QKD has the potential to help to establish a global-scale quantum network, owing to the negligible photon loss and decoherence experienced in empty space. Here we report the development and launch of a low-Earth-orbit satellite for implementing decoy-state QKD—a form of QKD that uses weak coherent pulses at high channel loss and is secure because photon-number-splitting eavesdropping can be detected. We achieve a kilohertz key rate from the satellite to the ground over a distance of up to 1,200 kilometres. This key rate is around 20 orders of magnitudes greater than that expected using an optical fibre of the same length. The establishment of a reliable and efficient space-to-ground link for quantum-state transmission paves the way to global-scale quantum networks.
Short Review on Quantum Key Distribution Protocols.
Giampouris, Dimitris
2017-01-01
Cryptographic protocols and mechanisms are widely investigated under the notion of quantum computing. Quantum cryptography offers particular advantages over classical ones, whereas in some cases established protocols have to be revisited in order to maintain their functionality. The purpose of this paper is to provide the basic definitions and review the most important theoretical advancements concerning the BB84 and E91 protocols. It also aims to offer a summary on some key developments on the field of quantum key distribution, closely related with the two aforementioned protocols. The main goal of this study is to provide the necessary background information along with a thorough review on the theoretical aspects of QKD, concentrating on specific protocols. The BB84 and E91 protocols have been chosen because most other protocols are similar to these, a fact that makes them important for the general understanding of how the QKD mechanism functions.
Tomographic quantum cryptography: equivalence of quantum and classical key distillation.
Bruss, Dagmar; Christandl, Matthias; Ekert, Artur; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Macchiavello, Chiara
2003-08-29
The security of a cryptographic key that is generated by communication through a noisy quantum channel relies on the ability to distill a shorter secure key sequence from a longer insecure one. For an important class of protocols, which exploit tomographically complete measurements on entangled pairs of any dimension, we show that the noise threshold for classical advantage distillation is identical with the threshold for quantum entanglement distillation. As a consequence, the two distillation procedures are equivalent: neither offers a security advantage over the other.
High-capacity quantum Fibonacci coding for key distribution
Simon, David S.; Lawrence, Nate; Trevino, Jacob; Dal Negro, Luca; Sergienko, Alexander V.
2013-03-01
Quantum cryptography and quantum key distribution (QKD) have been the most successful applications of quantum information processing, highlighting the unique capability of quantum mechanics, through the no-cloning theorem, to securely share encryption keys between two parties. Here, we present an approach to high-capacity, high-efficiency QKD by exploiting cross-disciplinary ideas from quantum information theory and the theory of light scattering of aperiodic photonic media. We propose a unique type of entangled-photon source, as well as a physical mechanism for efficiently sharing keys. The key-sharing protocol combines entanglement with the mathematical properties of a recursive sequence to allow a realization of the physical conditions necessary for implementation of the no-cloning principle for QKD, while the source produces entangled photons whose orbital angular momenta (OAM) are in a superposition of Fibonacci numbers. The source is used to implement a particular physical realization of the protocol by randomly encoding the Fibonacci sequence onto entangled OAM states, allowing secure generation of long keys from few photons. Unlike in polarization-based protocols, reference frame alignment is unnecessary, while the required experimental setup is simpler than other OAM-based protocols capable of achieving the same capacity and its complexity grows less rapidly with increasing range of OAM used.
Experimental quantum computing without entanglement.
Lanyon, B P; Barbieri, M; Almeida, M P; White, A G
2008-11-14
Deterministic quantum computation with one pure qubit (DQC1) is an efficient model of computation that uses highly mixed states. Unlike pure-state models, its power is not derived from the generation of a large amount of entanglement. Instead it has been proposed that other nonclassical correlations are responsible for the computational speedup, and that these can be captured by the quantum discord. In this Letter we implement DQC1 in an all-optical architecture, and experimentally observe the generated correlations. We find no entanglement, but large amounts of quantum discord-except in three cases where an efficient classical simulation is always possible. Our results show that even fully separable, highly mixed, states can contain intrinsically quantum mechanical correlations and that these could offer a valuable resource for quantum information technologies.
Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution with a Noisy Laser
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacobsen, Christian Scheffmann; Gehring, Tobias; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2015-01-01
Existing experimental implementations of continuous-variable quantum key distribution require shot-noise limited operation, achieved with shot-noise limited lasers. However, loosening this requirement on the laser source would allow for cheaper, potentially integrated systems. Here, we implement...... a theoretically proposed prepare-and-measure continuous-variable protocol and experimentally demonstrate the robustness of it against preparation noise stemming for instance from technical laser noise. Provided that direct reconciliation techniques are used in the post-processing we show that for small distances...... large amounts of preparation noise can be tolerated in contrast to reverse reconciliation where the key rate quickly drops to zero. Our experiment thereby demonstrates that quantum key distribution with non-shot-noise limited laser diodes might be feasible....
An improved quantum key distribution protocol
Wu, Ting-wan; Wu, Guo-hua
2008-08-01
This paper presented an improved quantum key distribution protocol of the quantum cryptology. Using the same measure polarizer as BB84 protocol, the improved protocol we designed with not any classical channel, but a new looped quantum channel instead, so the job of sending and receiving can be finished only by one same person. It brings several good points: the utilization ratio of photons 100% in perfect condition, at least twice over other protocols, or even higher; the public channel easy to be attacked is avoided. Further, the improved protocol authenticates the legal communicators with pre-share information, so that no attacker can jump over the progress of authentication. Be alien from the protocol of BB84, the improved protocol uses message summary to detect whether messages intercepted by attacker. Because the message summary is encrypted by one-time-pad method using pre-share information, attacker could not alter the message summary and that not to be discovered. Moreover, some theoretical analysis to the improved protocol given with information theory: we used the measure channel concept for quantum detection, and calculated the information quantity obtained by attacker in the quantum secrecy communication. The analysis results provide the theory criterion for the legal communicators and the attackers.
Quantum key distribution over multicore fiber.
Dynes, J F; Kindness, S J; Tam, S W-B; Plews, A; Sharpe, A W; Lucamarini, M; Fröhlich, B; Yuan, Z L; Penty, R V; Shields, A J
2016-04-18
We present the first quantum key distribution (QKD) experiment over multicore fiber. With space division multiplexing, we demonstrate that weak QKD signals can coexist with classical data signals launched at full power in a 53 km 7-core fiber, while showing negligible degradation in performance. Based on a characterization of intercore crosstalk, we perform additional simulations highlighting that classical data bandwidths beyond 1Tb/s can be supported with high speed QKD on the same fiber.
Quantum key distribution over multicore fiber
Dynes, JF; Kindness, Stephen; Tam, SW-B; Plews, A.; Sharpe, AW; Lucamarini, M.; Fröhlich, B.; Yuan, ZL; Penty, Richard Vincent; Shields, AJ
2016-01-01
We present the first quantum key distribution (QKD) experiment over multicore fiber. With space division multiplexing, we demonstrate that weak QKD signals can coexist with classical data signals launched at full power in a 53 km 7-core fiber, while showing negligible degradation in performance. Based on a characterization of intercore crosstalk, we perform additional simulations highlighting that classical data bandwidths beyond 1Tb/s can be supported with high speed QKD on the same fiber.
Self-Referenced Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution Protocol
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel B. S. Soh
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We introduce a new continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD protocol, self-referenced CV-QKD, that eliminates the need for transmission of a high-power local oscillator between the communicating parties. In this protocol, each signal pulse is accompanied by a reference pulse (or a pair of twin reference pulses, used to align Alice’s and Bob’s measurement bases. The method of phase estimation and compensation based on the reference pulse measurement can be viewed as a quantum analog of intradyne detection used in classical coherent communication, which extracts the phase information from the modulated signal. We present a proof-of-principle, fiber-based experimental demonstration of the protocol and quantify the expected secret key rates by expressing them in terms of experimental parameters. Our analysis of the secret key rate fully takes into account the inherent uncertainty associated with the quantum nature of the reference pulse(s and quantifies the limit at which the theoretical key rate approaches that of the respective conventional protocol that requires local oscillator transmission. The self-referenced protocol greatly simplifies the hardware required for CV-QKD, especially for potential integrated photonics implementations of transmitters and receivers, with minimum sacrifice of performance. As such, it provides a pathway towards scalable integrated CV-QKD transceivers, a vital step towards large-scale QKD networks.
Quantum cryptography using coherent states: Randomized encryption and key generation
Corndorf, Eric
With the advent of the global optical-telecommunications infrastructure, an increasing number of individuals, companies, and agencies communicate information with one another over public networks or physically-insecure private networks. While the majority of the traffic flowing through these networks requires little or no assurance of secrecy, the same cannot be said for certain communications between banks, between government agencies, within the military, and between corporations. In these arenas, the need to specify some level of secrecy in communications is a high priority. While the current approaches to securing sensitive information (namely the public-key-cryptography infrastructure and deterministic private-key ciphers like AES and 3DES) seem to be cryptographically strong based on empirical evidence, there exist no mathematical proofs of secrecy for any widely deployed cryptosystem. As an example, the ubiquitous public-key cryptosystems infer all of their secrecy from the assumption that factoring of the product of two large primes is necessarily time consuming---something which has not, and perhaps cannot, be proven. Since the 1980s, the possibility of using quantum-mechanical features of light as a physical mechanism for satisfying particular cryptographic objectives has been explored. This research has been fueled by the hopes that cryptosystems based on quantum systems may provide provable levels of secrecy which are at least as valid as quantum mechanics itself. Unfortunately, the most widely considered quantum-cryptographic protocols (BB84 and the Ekert protocol) have serious implementation problems. Specifically, they require quantum-mechanical states which are not readily available, and they rely on unproven relations between intrusion-level detection and the information available to an attacker. As a result, the secrecy level provided by these experimental implementations is entirely unspecified. In an effort to provably satisfy the cryptographic
Progress in satellite quantum key distribution
Bedington, Robert; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Ling, Alexander
2017-08-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a family of protocols for growing a private encryption key between two parties. Despite much progress, all ground-based QKD approaches have a distance limit due to atmospheric losses or in-fibre attenuation. These limitations make purely ground-based systems impractical for a global distribution network. However, the range of communication may be extended by employing satellites equipped with high-quality optical links. This manuscript summarizes research and development which is beginning to enable QKD with satellites. It includes a discussion of protocols, infrastructure, and the technical challenges involved with implementing such systems, as well as a top level summary of on-going satellite QKD initiatives around the world.
Quantum exhaustive key search with simplified-DES as a case study.
Almazrooie, Mishal; Samsudin, Azman; Abdullah, Rosni; Mutter, Kussay N
2016-01-01
To evaluate the security of a symmetric cryptosystem against any quantum attack, the symmetric algorithm must be first implemented on a quantum platform. In this study, a quantum implementation of a classical block cipher is presented. A quantum circuit for a classical block cipher of a polynomial size of quantum gates is proposed. The entire work has been tested on a quantum mechanics simulator called libquantum. First, the functionality of the proposed quantum cipher is verified and the experimental results are compared with those of the original classical version. Then, quantum attacks are conducted by using Grover's algorithm to recover the secret key. The proposed quantum cipher is used as a black box for the quantum search. The quantum oracle is then queried over the produced ciphertext to mark the quantum state, which consists of plaintext and key qubits. The experimental results show that for a key of n-bit size and key space of N such that [Formula: see text], the key can be recovered in [Formula: see text] computational steps.
Tight finite-key analysis for quantum cryptography.
Tomamichel, Marco; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Gisin, Nicolas; Renner, Renato
2012-01-17
Despite enormous theoretical and experimental progress in quantum cryptography, the security of most current implementations of quantum key distribution is still not rigorously established. One significant problem is that the security of the final key strongly depends on the number, M, of signals exchanged between the legitimate parties. Yet, existing security proofs are often only valid asymptotically, for unrealistically large values of M. Another challenge is that most security proofs are very sensitive to small differences between the physical devices used by the protocol and the theoretical model used to describe them. Here we show that these gaps between theory and experiment can be simultaneously overcome by using a recently developed proof technique based on the uncertainty relation for smooth entropies.
Tight finite-key analysis for quantum cryptography
Tomamichel, Marco; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Gisin, Nicolas; Renner, Renato
2012-01-01
Despite enormous theoretical and experimental progress in quantum cryptography, the security of most current implementations of quantum key distribution is still not rigorously established. One significant problem is that the security of the final key strongly depends on the number, M, of signals exchanged between the legitimate parties. Yet, existing security proofs are often only valid asymptotically, for unrealistically large values of M. Another challenge is that most security proofs are very sensitive to small differences between the physical devices used by the protocol and the theoretical model used to describe them. Here we show that these gaps between theory and experiment can be simultaneously overcome by using a recently developed proof technique based on the uncertainty relation for smooth entropies.
Experimental quantum secret sharing and third-man quantum cryptography.
Chen, Yu-Ao; Zhang, An-Ning; Zhao, Zhi; Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Lu, Chao-Yang; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Yang, Tao; Pan, Jian-Wei
2005-11-11
Quantum secret sharing (QSS) and third-man quantum cryptography (TQC) are essential for advanced quantum communication; however, the low intensity and fragility of the multiphoton entanglement source in previous experiments have made their realization an extreme experimental challenge. Here, we develop and exploit an ultrastable high intensity source of four-photon entanglement to report an experimental realization of QSS and TQC. The technology developed in our experiment will be important for future multiparty quantum communication.
Experimental realization of nonadiabatic holonomic quantum computation.
Feng, Guanru; Xu, Guofu; Long, Guilu
2013-05-10
Because of its geometric nature, holonomic quantum computation is fault tolerant against certain types of control errors. Although proposed more than a decade ago, the experimental realization of holonomic quantum computation is still an open challenge. In this Letter, we report the first experimental demonstration of nonadiabatic holonomic quantum computation in a liquid NMR quantum information processor. Two noncommuting one-qubit holonomic gates, rotations about x and z axes, and the two-qubit holonomic CNOT gate are realized by evolving the work qubits and an ancillary qubit nonadiabatically. The successful realizations of these universal elementary gates in nonadiabatic holonomic quantum computation demonstrates the experimental feasibility of this quantum computing paradigm.
Chip-based quantum key distribution
Sibson, P.; Erven, C.; Godfrey, M.; Miki, S.; Yamashita, T.; Fujiwara, M.; Sasaki, M.; Terai, H.; Tanner, M. G.; Natarajan, C. M.; Hadfield, R. H.; O'Brien, J. L.; Thompson, M. G.
2017-01-01
Improvement in secure transmission of information is an urgent need for governments, corporations and individuals. Quantum key distribution (QKD) promises security based on the laws of physics and has rapidly grown from proof-of-concept to robust demonstrations and deployment of commercial systems. Despite these advances, QKD has not been widely adopted, and large-scale deployment will likely require chip-based devices for improved performance, miniaturization and enhanced functionality. Here we report low error rate, GHz clocked QKD operation of an indium phosphide transmitter chip and a silicon oxynitride receiver chip—monolithically integrated devices using components and manufacturing processes from the telecommunications industry. We use the reconfigurability of these devices to demonstrate three prominent QKD protocols—BB84, Coherent One Way and Differential Phase Shift—with performance comparable to state-of-the-art. These devices, when combined with integrated single photon detectors, pave the way for successfully integrating QKD into future telecommunications networks. PMID:28181489
Chip-based quantum key distribution.
Sibson, P; Erven, C; Godfrey, M; Miki, S; Yamashita, T; Fujiwara, M; Sasaki, M; Terai, H; Tanner, M G; Natarajan, C M; Hadfield, R H; O'Brien, J L; Thompson, M G
2017-02-09
Improvement in secure transmission of information is an urgent need for governments, corporations and individuals. Quantum key distribution (QKD) promises security based on the laws of physics and has rapidly grown from proof-of-concept to robust demonstrations and deployment of commercial systems. Despite these advances, QKD has not been widely adopted, and large-scale deployment will likely require chip-based devices for improved performance, miniaturization and enhanced functionality. Here we report low error rate, GHz clocked QKD operation of an indium phosphide transmitter chip and a silicon oxynitride receiver chip-monolithically integrated devices using components and manufacturing processes from the telecommunications industry. We use the reconfigurability of these devices to demonstrate three prominent QKD protocols-BB84, Coherent One Way and Differential Phase Shift-with performance comparable to state-of-the-art. These devices, when combined with integrated single photon detectors, pave the way for successfully integrating QKD into future telecommunications networks.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ding, Yunhong; Bacco, Davide; Dalgaard, Kjeld
2017-01-01
-dimensional quantum states, and enables breaking the information efficiency limit of traditional quantum key distribution protocols. In addition, the silicon photonic circuits used in our work integrate variable optical attenuators, highly efficient multicore fiber couplers, and Mach-Zehnder interferometers, enabling......Quantum key distribution provides an efficient means to exchange information in an unconditionally secure way. Historically, quantum key distribution protocols have been based on binary signal formats, such as two polarization states, and the transmitted information efficiency of the quantum key...... is intrinsically limited to 1 bit/photon. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a high-dimensional quantum key distribution protocol based on space division multiplexing in multicore fiber using silicon photonic integrated lightwave circuits. We successfully realized three mutually...
A cost-effective measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution system for quantum networks
Valivarthi, Raju; Zhou, Qiang; John, Caleb; Marsili, Francesco; Verma, Varun B.; Shaw, Matthew D.; Nam, Sae Woo; Oblak, Daniel; Tittel, Wolfgang
2017-12-01
We experimentally realize a measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) system. It is based on cost-effective and commercially available hardware such as distributed feedback lasers and field-programmable gate arrays that enable time-bin qubit preparation and time-tagging, and active feedback systems that allow for compensation of time-varying properties of photons after transmission through deployed fiber. We examine the performance of our system, and conclude that its design does not compromise performance. Our demonstration paves the way for MDI-QKD-based quantum networks in star-type topology that extend over more than 100 km distance.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Mafu, M
2013-09-01
Full Text Available We present an experimental study of higher-dimensional quantum key distribution protocols based on mutually unbiased bases, implemented by means of photons carrying orbital angular momentum. We perform (d + 1) mutually unbiased measurements in a...
Quantum Public-Key Cryptography and Quantum Circuits of Viterbi Decoding
横尾, 隆文; 清野, 光弘; Yokoo, Takafumi; Seino, Mitsuhiro
2014-01-01
The quantum circuits to generate the public-key determined by OTU2000 are suggested. The quantum circuits structured by n units for Shor's algorithm are discussed. Public-keys calculated by the quantum computer implemented quantum circuits proposed in this paper are generated in polynomial time by using discrete logarithm transformation. And the quantum circuits programmed by Grover's algorithm which perform Viterbi decoding processing on the assumption that communications are realized by OTU...
Single-quadrature continuous-variable quantum key distribution
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gehring, Tobias; Jacobsen, Christian Scheffmann; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2016-01-01
Most continuous-variable quantum key distribution schemes are based on the Gaussian modulation of coherent states followed by continuous quadrature detection using homodyne detectors. In all previous schemes, the Gaussian modulation has been carried out in conjugate quadratures thus requiring two...... commercialization of continuous-variable quantum key distribution, provided that the low noise requirement can be achieved....
Quantum Public Key Cryptosystem Based on Bell States
Wu, WanQing; Cai, QingYu; Zhang, HuanGuo; Liang, XiaoYan
2017-11-01
Classical public key cryptosystems ( P K C), such as R S A, E I G a m a l, E C C, are no longer secure in quantum algorithms, and quantum cryptography has become a novel research topic. In this paper we present a quantum asymmetrical cryptosystem i.e. quantum public key cryptosystem ( Q P K C) based on the Bell states. In particular, in the proposed QPKC the public key are given by the first n particles of Bell states and generalized Pauli operations. The corresponding secret key are the last n particles of Bell states and the inverse of generalized Pauli operations. The proposed QPKC encrypts the message using a public key and decrypts the ciphertext using a private key. By H o l e v o ' s theorem, we proved the security of the secret key and messages during the QPKC.
Quantum key distribution with an entangled light emitting diode
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dzurnak, B.; Stevenson, R. M.; Nilsson, J.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Skiba-Szymanska, J.; Shields, A. J. [Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)
2015-12-28
Measurements performed on entangled photon pairs shared between two parties can allow unique quantum cryptographic keys to be formed, creating secure links between users. An advantage of using such entangled photon links is that they can be adapted to propagate entanglement to end users of quantum networks with only untrusted nodes. However, demonstrations of quantum key distribution with entangled photons have so far relied on sources optically excited with lasers. Here, we realize a quantum cryptography system based on an electrically driven entangled-light-emitting diode. Measurement bases are passively chosen and we show formation of an error-free quantum key. Our measurements also simultaneously reveal Bell's parameter for the detected light, which exceeds the threshold for quantum entanglement.
Quantum key distribution protocol based on contextuality monogamy
Singh, Jaskaran; Bharti, Kishor; Arvind
2017-06-01
The security of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols hinges upon features of physical systems that are uniquely quantum in nature. We explore the role of quantumness, as qualified by quantum contextuality, in a QKD scheme. A QKD protocol based on the Klyachko-Can-Binicioğlu-Shumovsky (KCBS) contextuality scenario using a three-level quantum system is presented. We explicitly show the unconditional security of the protocol by a generalized contextuality monogamy relationship based on the no-disturbance principle. This protocol provides a new framework for QKD which has conceptual and practical advantages over other protocols.
Multi-party Semi-quantum Key Agreement with Delegating Quantum Computation
Liu, Wen-Jie; Chen, Zhen-Yu; Ji, Sai; Wang, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Jun
2017-10-01
A multi-party semi-quantum key agreement (SQKA) protocol based on delegating quantum computation (DQC) model is proposed by taking Bell states as quantum resources. In the proposed protocol, the participants only need the ability of accessing quantum channel and preparing single photons {|0〉, |1〉, |+〉, |-〉}, while the complicated quantum operations, such as the unitary operations and Bell measurement, will be delegated to the remote quantum center. Compared with previous quantum key agreement protocols, this client-server model is more feasible in the early days of the emergence of quantum computers. In order to prevent the attacks from outside eavesdroppers, inner participants and quantum center, two single photon sequences are randomly inserted into Bell states: the first sequence is used to perform the quantum channel detection, while the second is applied to disorder the positions of message qubits, which guarantees the security of the protocol.
Approaches to a global quantum key distribution network
Islam, Tanvirul; Bedington, Robert; Ling, Alexander
2017-10-01
Progress in realising quantum computers threatens to weaken existing public key encryption infrastructure. A global quantum key distribution (QKD) network can play a role in computational attack-resistant encryption. Such a network could use a constellation of high altitude platforms such as airships and satellites as trusted nodes to facilitate QKD between any two points on the globe on demand. This requires both space-to-ground and inter-platform links. However, the prohibitive cost of traditional satellite based development limits the experimental work demonstrating relevant technologies. To accelerate progress towards a global network, we use an emerging class of shoe-box sized spacecraft known as CubeSats. We have designed a polarization entangled photon pair source that can operate on board CubeSats. The robustness and miniature form factor of our entanglement source makes it especially suitable for performing pathfinder missions that studies QKD between two high altitude platforms. The technological outcomes of such mission would be the essential building blocks for a global QKD network.
Public-key quantum digital signature scheme with one-time pad private-key
Chen, Feng-Lin; Liu, Wan-Fang; Chen, Su-Gen; Wang, Zhi-Hua
2018-01-01
A quantum digital signature scheme is firstly proposed based on public-key quantum cryptosystem. In the scheme, the verification public-key is derived from the signer's identity information (such as e-mail) on the foundation of identity-based encryption, and the signature private-key is generated by one-time pad (OTP) protocol. The public-key and private-key pair belongs to classical bits, but the signature cipher belongs to quantum qubits. After the signer announces the public-key and generates the final quantum signature, each verifier can verify publicly whether the signature is valid or not with the public-key and quantum digital digest. Analysis results show that the proposed scheme satisfies non-repudiation and unforgeability. Information-theoretic security of the scheme is ensured by quantum indistinguishability mechanics and OTP protocol. Based on the public-key cryptosystem, the proposed scheme is easier to be realized compared with other quantum signature schemes under current technical conditions.
SYNCHRONIZATION SIGNAL DISTORTION IN SUBCARRIER WAVE QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Varvara D. Dubrovskaya
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with temperature effects dependence of the synchronization signal parameters in an optical fiber cable for a subcarrier wave quantum communication system. Two main causes of signal distortion are considered: the change in the refractive index as a function of the average daily temperature and the dispersion effects in the optical fiber, over which the signal is transmitted in the system. Method. To account for these effects, a temperature model has been created. The signal delay is calculated as a result of external influences in the system working with a standard fiber-optic cable. Real operational conditions are taken into account, including cable laying conditions, average daily temperature and wind speed. Main Results. The simulations were carried out on the standard single-mode fiber ITU-T G.652D. It was experimentally obtained that the maximum calculated phase mismatch of the synchronization signal for a system operating at a 100 km fiber length corresponds to a 1.7 ps signal time delay. The maximum operating intervals of the system without the use of phase adjustment are calculated. The obtained results are used to improve the parameters of the subcarrier wave quantum communication system. It is determined that the change in the refractive index in the fiber causes significant distortion of the signal. It is shown that stable operation is possible with adjustment every 158 ms. The additional phase delay resulting from the dispersion effects should be adjusted every 2.3 hours. Practical Relevance. The obtained results enable to optimize the parameters of the subcarrier wave quantum key distribution system to increase the overall key generation rate.
Quantum Encryption Minimising Key Leakage under Known Plaintext Attacks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Thomas Brochmann
2006-01-01
In this dissertation we show how, by using a quantum channel, we can get more unconditionally secret communication with a symmetric key under known plaintext attacks. In unconditionally secret encryption schemes the key is necessarily an expensive resource since it cannot safely be reused for mor....... In this encryption scheme the entire key can be safely recycled when no eavesdropping is detected....
Distributing Secret Keys with Quantum Continuous Variables: Principle, Security and Implementations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eleni Diamanti
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The ability to distribute secret keys between two parties with information-theoretic security, that is regardless of the capacities of a malevolent eavesdropper, is one of the most celebrated results in the field of quantum information processing and communication. Indeed, quantum key distribution illustrates the power of encoding information on the quantum properties of light and has far-reaching implications in high-security applications. Today, quantum key distribution systems operate in real-world conditions and are commercially available. As with most quantum information protocols, quantum key distribution was first designed for qubits, the individual quanta of information. However, the use of quantum continuous variables for this task presents important advantages with respect to qubit-based protocols, in particular from a practical point of view, since it allows for simple implementations that require only standard telecommunication technology. In this review article, we describe the principle of continuous-variable quantum key distribution, focusing in particular on protocols based on coherent states. We discuss the security of these protocols and report on the state-of-the-art in experimental implementations, including the issue of side-channel attacks. We conclude with promising perspectives in this research field.
Three Party Quantum Authenticated Key Distribution Protocol Using Superposition States
K. Sathi Reddy; Raja Kumar Medapati
2011-01-01
This paper presents a Quantum authenticated key distribution protocol that can perform key distribution and also ensure that the participants of the communication are authentic, both implicitly and explicitly. This protocol provides new directions in Classical cryptography and Quantum cryptography.The Participants of the protocol trust the third party regarding the authentication part only. Thus the proposed protocol will be preferable for network systems which deal with highly sensitive info...
Robust shot-noise measurement for continuous-variable quantum key distribution
Kunz-Jacques, Sébastien; Jouguet, Paul
2015-02-01
We study a practical method to measure the shot noise in real time in continuous-variable quantum key distribution systems. The amount of secret key that can be extracted from the raw statistics depends strongly on this quantity since it affects in particular the computation of the excess noise (i.e., noise in excess of the shot noise) added by an eavesdropper on the quantum channel. Some powerful quantum hacking attacks relying on faking the estimated value of the shot noise to hide an intercept and resend strategy were proposed. Here, we provide experimental evidence that our method can defeat the saturation attack and the wavelength attack.
Trojan horse attacks on counterfactual quantum key distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Xiuqing, E-mail: xqqyang@163.com [School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); College of Science, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, 010051 Hohhot (China); Wei, Kejin; Ma, Haiqiang [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Sun, Shihai, E-mail: shsun@nudt.edu.cn [Department of Physics, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Du, Yungang [College of Science, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, 010051 Hohhot (China); Wu, Lingan [Laboratory of Optical Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)
2016-04-22
There has been much interest in “counterfactual quantum cryptography” (T.-G. Noh, 2009 [10]). It seems that the counterfactual quantum key distribution protocol without any photon carrier through the quantum channel provides practical security advantages. However, we show that it is easy to break counterfactual quantum key distribution systems in practical situations. We introduce the two types of Trojan horse attacks that are available for the two-way protocol and become possible for practical counterfactual systems with our eavesdropping schemes. - Highlights: • We find the attacks available for the two-way protocol become possible for the practical counterfactual systems. • It does not require the assumption that it works on the counterfactual systems only in a finite key scenario. • Compared to the other attack models, our scheme is relatively simple for an eavesdropper.
Two High-Dimensional Cartesian Bases for Quantum Key Distribution
Tentrup, Tristan Bernhard Horst; Luiten, Willemijn; Hooijschuur, Peter; van der Meer, Reinier; Pinkse, Pepijn W.H.
2017-01-01
Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) provides a secure way of generating shared cryptographic keys between a sender (Alice) and a receiver (Bob). The original BB84 protocol uses a two-dimensional polarization basis, limiting the information content of a single photon to 1 bit. Using the transverse
Multi-party Quantum Key Agreement without Entanglement
Cai, Bin-Bin; Guo, Gong-De; Lin, Song
2017-04-01
A new efficient quantum key agreement protocol without entanglement is proposed. In this protocol, each user encodes his secret key into the traveling particles by performing one of four rotation operations that one cannot perfectly distinguish. In the end, all users can simultaneously obtain the final shared key. The security of the presented protocol against some common attacks is discussed. It is shown that this protocol can effectively protect the privacy of each user and satisfy the requirement of fairness in theory. Moreover, the quantum carriers and the encoding operations used in the protocol can be achieved in realistic physical devices. Therefore, the presented protocol is feasible with current technology.
Quantum hacking: Saturation attack on practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution
Qin, Hao; Kumar, Rupesh; Alléaume, Romain
2016-07-01
We identify and study a security loophole in continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) implementations, related to the imperfect linearity of the homodyne detector. By exploiting this loophole, we propose an active side-channel attack on the Gaussian-modulated coherent-state CVQKD protocol combining an intercept-resend attack with an induced saturation of the homodyne detection on the receiver side (Bob). We show that an attacker can bias the excess noise estimation by displacing the quadratures of the coherent states received by Bob. We propose a saturation model that matches experimental measurements on the homodyne detection and use this model to study the impact of the saturation attack on parameter estimation in CVQKD. We demonstrate that this attack can bias the excess noise estimation beyond the null key threshold for any system parameter, thus leading to a full security break. If we consider an additional criterion imposing that the channel transmission estimation should not be affected by the attack, then the saturation attack can only be launched if the attenuation on the quantum channel is sufficient, corresponding to attenuations larger than approximately 6 dB. We moreover discuss the possible countermeasures against the saturation attack and propose a countermeasure based on Gaussian postselection that can be implemented by classical postprocessing and may allow one to distill the secret key when the raw measurement data are partly saturated.
Finite Key Size Analysis of Two-Way Quantum Cryptography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jesni Shamsul Shaari
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Quantum cryptographic protocols solve the longstanding problem of distributing a shared secret string to two distant users by typically making use of one-way quantum channel. However, alternative protocols exploiting two-way quantum channel have been proposed for the same goal and with potential advantages. Here, we overview a security proof for two-way quantum key distribution protocols, against the most general eavesdropping attack, that utilize an entropic uncertainty relation. Then, by resorting to the “smooth” version of involved entropies, we extend such a proof to the case of finite key size. The results will be compared to those available for one-way protocols showing some advantages.
Quantum key distribution for composite dimensional finite systems
Shalaby, Mohamed; Kamal, Yasser
2017-06-01
The application of quantum mechanics contributes to the field of cryptography with very important advantage as it offers a mechanism for detecting the eavesdropper. The pioneering work of quantum key distribution uses mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) to prepare and measure qubits (or qudits). Weak mutually unbiased bases (WMUBs) have weaker properties than MUBs properties, however, unlike MUBs, a complete set of WMUBs can be constructed for systems with composite dimensions. In this paper, we study the use of weak mutually unbiased bases (WMUBs) in quantum key distribution for composite dimensional finite systems. We prove that the security analysis of using a complete set of WMUBs to prepare and measure the quantum states in the generalized BB84 protocol, gives better results than using the maximum number of MUBs that can be constructed, when they are analyzed against the intercept and resend attack.
Fundamental finite key limits for one-way information reconciliation in quantum key distribution
Tomamichel, Marco; Martinez-Mateo, Jesus; Pacher, Christoph; Elkouss, David
2017-11-01
The security of quantum key distribution protocols is guaranteed by the laws of quantum mechanics. However, a precise analysis of the security properties requires tools from both classical cryptography and information theory. Here, we employ recent results in non-asymptotic classical information theory to show that one-way information reconciliation imposes fundamental limitations on the amount of secret key that can be extracted in the finite key regime. In particular, we find that an often used approximation for the information leakage during information reconciliation is not generally valid. We propose an improved approximation that takes into account finite key effects and numerically test it against codes for two probability distributions, that we call binary-binary and binary-Gaussian, that typically appear in quantum key distribution protocols.
Zhao, Yi-bo; Han, Zheng-fu; Chen, Jin-jian; Gui, You-zhen; Guo, Guang-can
2006-01-01
The continuous variable quantum key distribution is expected to provide high secret key rate without single photon source and detector, but the lack of the secure and effective key distillation method makes it unpractical. Here, we present a secure single-bit-reverse-reconciliation protocol combined with secret information concentration and post-selection, which can distill the secret key with high efficiency and low computational complexity. The simulation results show that this protocol can...
Passive Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution with Coherent Light
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcos Curty
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Signal state preparation in quantum key distribution schemes can be realized using either an active or a passive source. Passive sources might be valuable in some scenarios; for instance, in those experimental setups operating at high transmission rates, since no externally driven element is required. Typical passive transmitters involve parametric down-conversion. More recently, it has been shown that phase-randomized coherent pulses also allow passive generation of decoy states and Bennett–Brassard 1984 (BB84 polarization signals, though the combination of both setups in a single passive source is cumbersome. In this paper, we present a complete passive transmitter that prepares decoy-state BB84 signals using coherent light. Our method employs sum-frequency generation together with linear optical components and classical photodetectors. In the asymptotic limit of an infinite long experiment, the resulting secret key rate (per pulse is comparable to the one delivered by an active decoy-state BB84 setup with an infinite number of decoy settings.
Experimental loss-tolerant quantum coin flipping
Berlín, Guido; Brassard, Gilles; Bussières, Félix; Godbout, Nicolas; Slater, Joshua A.; Tittel, Wolfgang
2011-11-01
Coin flipping is a cryptographic primitive in which two distrustful parties wish to generate a random bit to choose between two alternatives. This task is impossible to realize when it relies solely on the asynchronous exchange of classical bits: one dishonest player has complete control over the final outcome. It is only when coin flipping is supplemented with quantum communication that this problem can be alleviated, although partial bias remains. Unfortunately, practical systems are subject to loss of quantum data, which allows a cheater to force a bias that is complete or arbitrarily close to complete in all previous protocols and implementations. Here we report on the first experimental demonstration of a quantum coin-flipping protocol for which loss cannot be exploited to cheat better. By eliminating the problem of loss, which is unavoidable in any realistic setting, quantum coin flipping takes a significant step towards real-world applications of quantum communication.
Quantum gravity from theory to experimental search
Kiefer, Claus; Lämmerzahl, Claus
2003-01-01
The relation between quantum theory and the theory of gravitation remains one of the most outstanding unresolved issues of modern physics. According to general expectation, general relativity as well as quantum (field) theory in a fixed background spacetime cannot be fundamentally correct. Hence there should exist a broader theory comprising both in appropriate limits, i.e., quantum gravity. This book gives readers a comprehensive introduction accessible to interested non-experts to the main issues surrounding the search for quantum gravity. These issues relate to fundamental questions concerning the various formalisms of quantization; specific questions concerning concrete processes, like gravitational collapse or black-hole evaporation; and the all important question concerning the possibility of experimental tests of quantum-gravity effects.
Airborne demonstration of a quantum key distribution receiver payload
Pugh, Christopher J.; Kaiser, Sarah; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Jin, Jeongwan; Sultana, Nigar; Agne, Sascha; Anisimova, Elena; Makarov, Vadim; Choi, Eric; Higgins, Brendon L.; Jennewein, Thomas
2017-06-01
Satellite-based quantum terminals are a feasible way to extend the reach of quantum communication protocols such as quantum key distribution (QKD) to the global scale. To that end, prior demonstrations have shown QKD transmissions from airborne platforms to receivers on ground, but none have shown QKD transmissions from ground to a moving aircraft, the latter scenario having simplicity and flexibility advantages for a hypothetical satellite. Here, we demonstrate QKD from a ground transmitter to a receiver prototype mounted on an airplane in flight. We have specifically designed our receiver prototype to consist of many components that are compatible with the environment and resource constraints of a satellite. Coupled with our relocatable ground station system, optical links with distances of 3-10 km were maintained and quantum signals transmitted while traversing angular rates similar to those observed of low-Earth-orbit satellites. For some passes of the aircraft over the ground station, links were established within 10 s of position data transmission, and with link times of a few minutes and received quantum bit error rates typically ≈3%-5% , we generated secure keys up to 868 kb in length. By successfully generating secure keys over several different pass configurations, we demonstrate the viability of technology that constitutes a quantum receiver satellite payload and provide a blueprint for future satellite missions to build upon.
Experimental Joint Quantum Measurements with Minimum Uncertainty
Ringbauer, Martin; Biggerstaff, Devon N.; Broome, Matthew A.; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Branciard, Cyril; White, Andrew G.
2014-01-01
Quantum physics constrains the accuracy of joint measurements of incompatible observables. Here we test tight measurement-uncertainty relations using single photons. We implement two independent, idealized uncertainty-estimation methods, the three-state method and the weak-measurement method, and adapt them to realistic experimental conditions. Exceptional quantum state fidelities of up to 0.999 98(6) allow us to verge upon the fundamental limits of measurement uncertainty.
Provably secure and high-rate quantum key distribution with time-bin qudits.
Islam, Nurul T; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Cahall, Clinton; Kim, Jungsang; Gauthier, Daniel J
2017-11-01
The security of conventional cryptography systems is threatened in the forthcoming era of quantum computers. Quantum key distribution (QKD) features fundamentally proven security and offers a promising option for quantum-proof cryptography solution. Although prototype QKD systems over optical fiber have been demonstrated over the years, the key generation rates remain several orders of magnitude lower than current classical communication systems. In an effort toward a commercially viable QKD system with improved key generation rates, we developed a discrete-variable QKD system based on time-bin quantum photonic states that can generate provably secure cryptographic keys at megabit-per-second rates over metropolitan distances. We use high-dimensional quantum states that transmit more than one secret bit per received photon, alleviating detector saturation effects in the superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors used in our system that feature very high detection efficiency (of more than 70%) and low timing jitter (of less than 40 ps). Our system is constructed using commercial off-the-shelf components, and the adopted protocol can be readily extended to free-space quantum channels. The security analysis adopted to distill the keys ensures that the demonstrated protocol is robust against coherent attacks, finite-size effects, and a broad class of experimental imperfections identified in our system.
Toward Designing a Quantum Key Distribution Network Simulation Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miralem Mehic
2016-01-01
Full Text Available As research in quantum key distribution network technologies grows larger and more complex, the need for highly accurate and scalable simulation technologies becomes important to assess the practical feasibility and foresee difficulties in the practical implementation of theoretical achievements. In this paper, we described the design of simplified simulation environment of the quantum key distribution network with multiple links and nodes. In such simulation environment, we analyzed several routing protocols in terms of the number of sent routing packets, goodput and Packet Delivery Ratio of data traffic flow using NS-3 simulator.
Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum digital signatures.
Roberts, G L; Lucamarini, M; Yuan, Z L; Dynes, J F; Comandar, L C; Sharpe, A W; Shields, A J; Curty, M; Puthoor, I V; Andersson, E
2017-10-23
The development of quantum networks will be paramount towards practical and secure telecommunications. These networks will need to sign and distribute information between many parties with information-theoretic security, requiring both quantum digital signatures (QDS) and quantum key distribution (QKD). Here, we introduce and experimentally realise a quantum network architecture, where the nodes are fully connected using a minimum amount of physical links. The central node of the network can act either as a totally untrusted relay, connecting the end users via the recently introduced measurement-device-independent (MDI)-QKD, or as a trusted recipient directly communicating with the end users via QKD. Using this network, we perform a proof-of-principle demonstration of QDS mediated by MDI-QKD. For that, we devised an efficient protocol to distil multiple signatures from the same block of data, thus reducing the statistical fluctuations in the sample and greatly enhancing the final QDS rate in the finite-size scenario.
Experimenters' Free Will and Quantum Certainty
Bisognano, Joseph J
2012-01-01
Physics has long lived with a schizophrenia that desires determinism for measured systems while demanding that experimenters decide what to measure on a whim. Intriguingly, such a free will assumption for experimenters has thwarted many attempts to provide a satisfactory explanation of how quantum probabilities evolve to clear-cut measurements. An overview of this quantum measurement problem is presented without equations, and the lesson is drawn that denial of experimenters' free will may be the only workable solutions. If the free will assumption is rejected, then a door is open that may ultimately reconcile quantum mechanics with the definiteness of individual experiments. A holistic view is offered for an Escher-like self-consistent space-time net of events rather than a conspiracy of initial conditions as a way forward.
Efficient multiparty quantum key agreement with collective detection.
Huang, Wei; Su, Qi; Liu, Bin; He, Yuan-Hang; Fan, Fan; Xu, Bing-Jie
2017-11-10
As a burgeoning branch of quantum cryptography, quantum key agreement is a kind of key establishing processes where the security and fairness of the established common key should be guaranteed simultaneously. However, the difficulty on designing a qualified quantum key agreement protocol increases significantly with the increase of the number of the involved participants. Thus far, only few of the existing multiparty quantum key agreement (MQKA) protocols can really achieve security and fairness. Nevertheless, these qualified MQKA protocols are either too inefficient or too impractical. In this paper, an MQKA protocol is proposed with single photons in travelling mode. Since only one eavesdropping detection is needed in the proposed protocol, the qubit efficiency and measurement efficiency of it are higher than those of the existing ones in theory. Compared with the protocols which make use of the entangled states or multi-particle measurements, the proposed protocol is more feasible with the current technologies. Security and fairness analysis shows that the proposed protocol is not only immune to the attacks from external eavesdroppers, but also free from the attacks from internal betrayers.
Quantum key distribution using card, base station and trusted authority
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nordholt, Jane E.; Hughes, Richard John; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Peterson, Charles Glen; Rosenberg, Danna; McCabe, Kevin Peter; Tyagi, Kush T.; Dallmann, Nicholas
2017-06-14
Techniques and tools for quantum key distribution ("QKD") between a quantum communication ("QC") card, base station and trusted authority are described herein. In example implementations, a QC card contains a miniaturized QC transmitter and couples with a base station. The base station provides a network connection with the trusted authority and can also provide electric power to the QC card. When coupled to the base station, after authentication by the trusted authority, the QC card acquires keys through QKD with a trust authority. The keys can be used to set up secure communication, for authentication, for access control, or for other purposes. The QC card can be implemented as part of a smart phone or other mobile computing device, or the QC card can be used as a fillgun for distribution of the keys.
Quantum key distribution using card, base station and trusted authority
Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Hughes, Richard John; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Peterson, Charles Glen; Rosenberg, Danna; McCabe, Kevin Peter; Tyagi, Kush T; Dallman, Nicholas
2015-04-07
Techniques and tools for quantum key distribution ("QKD") between a quantum communication ("QC") card, base station and trusted authority are described herein. In example implementations, a QC card contains a miniaturized QC transmitter and couples with a base station. The base station provides a network connection with the trusted authority and can also provide electric power to the QC card. When coupled to the base station, after authentication by the trusted authority, the QC card acquires keys through QKD with a trusted authority. The keys can be used to set up secure communication, for authentication, for access control, or for other purposes. The QC card can be implemented as part of a smart phone or other mobile computing device, or the QC card can be used as a fillgun for distribution of the keys.
Mixed basis quantum key distribution with linear optics.
Pavičić, Mladen; Benson, Oliver; Schell, Andreas W; Wolters, Janik
2017-10-02
Two-qubit quantum codes have been suggested to obtain better efficiency and higher loss tolerance in quantum key distribution. Here, we propose a two-qubit quantum key distribution protocol based on a mixed basis consisting of two Bell states and two states from the computational basis. All states can be generated from a single entangled photon pair resource by using local operations on only one auxiliary photon. Compared to other schemes it is also possible to deterministically discriminate all states using linear optics. Additionally, our protocol can be implemented with today's technology. When discussing the security of our protocol we find a much improved resistance against certain attacks as compared to the standard BB84 protocol.
Quantum-key-distribution protocol with pseudorandom bases
Trushechkin, A. S.; Tregubov, P. A.; Kiktenko, E. O.; Kurochkin, Y. V.; Fedorov, A. K.
2018-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) offers a way for establishing information-theoretical secure communications. An important part of QKD technology is a high-quality random number generator for the quantum-state preparation and for post-processing procedures. In this work, we consider a class of prepare-and-measure QKD protocols, utilizing additional pseudorandomness in the preparation of quantum states. We study one of such protocols and analyze its security against the intercept-resend attack. We demonstrate that, for single-photon sources, the considered protocol gives better secret key rates than the BB84 and the asymmetric BB84 protocols. However, the protocol strongly requires single-photon sources.
Notes on a Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution Scheme
Ichikawa, Tsubasa; Hirano, Takuya; Matsubara, Takuto; Ono, Motoharu; Namiki, Ryo
2017-09-01
We develop a physical model to describe the signal transmission for a continuous-variable quantum key distribution scheme and investigate its security against a couple of eavesdropping attacks assuming that the eavesdropper's power is partly restricted owing to today's technological limitations. We consider an eavesdropper performing quantum optical homodyne measurement on the signal obtained by a type of beamsplitting attack. We also consider the case in which the eavesdropper Eve is unable to access a quantum memory and she performs heterodyne measurement on her signal without performing a delayed measurement. Our formulation includes a model in which the receiver's loss and noise are unaccessible by the eavesdropper. This setup enables us to investigate the condition that Eve uses a practical fiber differently from the usual beamsplitting attack where she can deploy a lossless transmission channel. The secret key rates are calculated in both the direct and reverse reconciliation scenarios.
Security of quantum key distribution with iterative sifting
Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Mizutani, Akihiro; Kato, Go; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Azuma, Koji; Curty, Marcos
2018-01-01
Several quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols employ iterative sifting. After each quantum transmission round, Alice and Bob disclose part of their setting information (including their basis choices) for the detected signals. This quantum phase then ends when the basis dependent termination conditions are met, i.e., the numbers of detected signals per basis exceed certain pre-agreed threshold values. Recently, however, Pfister et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 053001) showed that the basis dependent termination condition makes QKD insecure, especially in the finite key regime, and they suggested to disclose all the setting information after finishing the quantum phase. However, this protocol has two main drawbacks: it requires that Alice possesses a large memory, and she also needs to have some a priori knowledge about the transmission rate of the quantum channel. Here we solve these two problems by introducing a basis-independent termination condition to the iterative sifting in the finite key regime. The use of this condition, in combination with Azuma’s inequality, provides a precise estimation on the amount of privacy amplification that needs to be applied, thus leading to the security of QKD protocols, including the loss-tolerant protocol (Tamaki et al 2014 Phys. Rev. A 90 052314), with iterative sifting. Our analysis indicates that to announce the basis information after each quantum transmission round does not compromise the key generation rate of the loss-tolerant protocol. Our result allows the implementation of wider classes of classical post-processing techniques in QKD with quantified security.
Upconversion-based receivers for quantum hacking-resistant quantum key distribution
Jain, Nitin; Kanter, Gregory S.
2016-07-01
We propose a novel upconversion (sum frequency generation)-based quantum-optical system design that can be employed as a receiver (Bob) in practical quantum key distribution systems. The pump governing the upconversion process is produced and utilized inside the physical receiver, making its access or control unrealistic for an external adversary (Eve). This pump facilitates several properties which permit Bob to define and control the modes that can participate in the quantum measurement. Furthermore, by manipulating and monitoring the characteristics of the pump pulses, Bob can detect a wide range of quantum hacking attacks launched by Eve.
Heralded-qubit amplifiers for practical device-independent quantum key distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Curty, Marcos [ETSI Telecomunicacion, Department of Signal Theory and Communications, University of Vigo, Campus Universitario, E-36310 Vigo, Pontevedra (Spain); Moroder, Tobias [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Technikerstrasse 21A, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)
2011-07-15
Device-independent quantum key distribution does not need a precise quantum mechanical model of employed devices to guarantee security. Despite its beauty, it is still a very challenging experimental task. We compare a recent proposal by Gisin et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 070501 (2010)] to close the detection loophole problem with that of a simpler quantum relay based on entanglement swapping with linear optics. Our full-mode analysis for both schemes confirms that, in contrast to recent beliefs, the second scheme can indeed provide a positive key rate which is even considerably higher than that of the first alternative. The resulting key rates and required detection efficiencies of approximately 95% for both schemes, however, strongly depend on the underlying security proof.
Xiao, Hailin; Zhang, Zhongshan
2017-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) system is presently being developed for providing high-security transmission in future free-space optical communication links. However, current QKD technique restricts quantum secure communication to a low bit rate. To improve the QKD bit rate, we propose a subcarrier multiplexing multiple-input multiple-output quantum key distribution (SCM-MQKD) scheme with orthogonal quantum states. Specifically, we firstly present SCM-MQKD system model and drive symmetrical SCM-MQKD system into decoherence-free subspaces. We then utilize bipartite Werner and isotropic states to construct multiple parallel single photon with orthogonal quantum states that are invariant for unitary operations. Finally, we derive the density matrix and the capacity of SCM-MQKD system, respectively. Theoretical analysis and numerical results show that the capacity of SCM-MQKD system will increase {log _2}(N^2+1) times than that of single-photon QKD system.
Quantum key distribution based on orthogonal states allows secure quantum bit commitment
He, Guang Ping
2011-11-01
For more than a decade, it was believed that unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment (QBC) is impossible. But based on a previously proposed quantum key distribution scheme using orthogonal states, here we build a QBC protocol in which the density matrices of the quantum states encoding the commitment do not satisfy a crucial condition on which the no-go proofs of QBC are based. Thus, the no-go proofs could be evaded. Our protocol is fault-tolerant and very feasible with currently available technology. It reopens the venue for other ‘post-cold-war’ multi-party cryptographic protocols, e.g. quantum bit string commitment and quantum strong coin tossing with an arbitrarily small bias. This result also has a strong influence on the Clifton-Bub-Halvorson theorem which suggests that quantum theory could be characterized in terms of information-theoretic constraints.
Quantum Experimental Data in Psychology and Economics
Aerts, Diederik; D'Hooghe, Bart; Haven, Emmanuel
2010-12-01
We prove a theorem which shows that a collection of experimental data of probabilistic weights related to decisions with respect to situations and their disjunction cannot be modeled within a classical probabilistic weight structure in case the experimental data contain the effect referred to as the ‘disjunction effect’ in psychology. We identify different experimental situations in psychology, more specifically in concept theory and in decision theory, and in economics (namely situations where Savage’s Sure-Thing Principle is violated) where the disjunction effect appears and we point out the common nature of the effect. We analyze how our theorem constitutes a no-go theorem for classical probabilistic weight structures for common experimental data when the disjunction effect is affecting the values of these data. We put forward a simple geometric criterion that reveals the non classicality of the considered probabilistic weights and we illustrate our geometrical criterion by means of experimentally measured membership weights of items with respect to pairs of concepts and their disjunctions. The violation of the classical probabilistic weight structure is very analogous to the violation of the well-known Bell inequalities studied in quantum mechanics. The no-go theorem we prove in the present article with respect to the collection of experimental data we consider has a status analogous to the well known no-go theorems for hidden variable theories in quantum mechanics with respect to experimental data obtained in quantum laboratories. Our analysis puts forward a strong argument in favor of the validity of using the quantum formalism for modeling the considered psychological experimental data as considered in this paper.
High-efficiency reconciliation for continuous variable quantum key distribution
Bai, Zengliang; Yang, Shenshen; Li, Yongmin
2017-04-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) is the most mature application of quantum information technology. Information reconciliation is a crucial step in QKD and significantly affects the final secret key rates shared between two legitimate parties. We analyze and compare various construction methods of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes and design high-performance irregular LDPC codes with a block length of 106. Starting from these good codes and exploiting the slice reconciliation technique based on multilevel coding and multistage decoding, we realize high-efficiency Gaussian key reconciliation with efficiency higher than 95% for signal-to-noise ratios above 1. Our demonstrated method can be readily applied in continuous variable QKD.
Continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols over noisy channels.
García-Patrón, Raúl; Cerf, Nicolas J
2009-04-03
A continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol based on squeezed states and heterodyne detection is introduced and shown to attain higher secret key rates over a noisy line than any other one-way Gaussian protocol. This increased resistance to channel noise can be understood as resulting from purposely adding noise to the signal that is converted into the secret key. This notion of noise-enhanced tolerance to noise also provides a better physical insight into the poorly understood discrepancies between the previously defined families of Gaussian protocols.
Experimentally exploring compressed sensing quantum tomography
Steffens, A.; Riofrío, C. A.; McCutcheon, W.; Roth, I.; Bell, B. A.; McMillan, A.; Tame, M. S.; Rarity, J. G.; Eisert, J.
2017-06-01
In the light of the progress in quantum technologies, the task of verifying the correct functioning of processes and obtaining accurate tomographic information about quantum states becomes increasingly important. Compressed sensing, a machinery derived from the theory of signal processing, has emerged as a feasible tool to perform robust and significantly more resource-economical quantum state tomography for intermediate-sized quantum systems. In this work, we provide a comprehensive analysis of compressed sensing tomography in the regime in which tomographically complete data is available with reliable statistics from experimental observations of a multi-mode photonic architecture. Due to the fact that the data is known with high statistical significance, we are in a position to systematically explore the quality of reconstruction depending on the number of employed measurement settings, randomly selected from the complete set of data, and on different model assumptions. We present and test a complete prescription to perform efficient compressed sensing and are able to reliably use notions of model selection and cross validation to account for experimental imperfections and finite counting statistics. Thus, we establish compressed sensing as an effective tool for quantum state tomography, specifically suited for photonic systems.
Security analysis of quantum key distribution on passive optical networks.
Lim, Kyongchun; Ko, Heasin; Suh, Changho; Rhee, June-Koo Kevin
2017-05-15
Needs for providing security to end users have brought installation of quantum key distribution (QKD) in one-to-many access networks such as passive optical networks. In the networks, a presence of optical power splitters makes issues for secure key rate more important. However, researches for QKD in access networks have mainly focused on implementation issues rather than protocol development for key rate enhancement. Since secure key rate is theoretically limited by a protocol, researches without protocol development cannot overcome the limit of secure key rate given by a protocol. This brings need of researches for protocol development. In this paper, we provide a new approach which provides secure key rate enhancement over the conventional protocol. Specifically, we propose the secure key rate formula in a passive optical network by extending the secure key rate formula based on the decoy-state BB84 protocol. For a passive optical network, we provide a way that incorporates cooperation across end users. Then, we show that the way can mitigate a photon number splitting (PNS) attack which is crucial in an well known decoy BB84 protocol. Especially, the proposed scheme enables multi-photon states to serve as secure keys unlike the conventional decoy BB84 protocol. Numerical simulations demonstrate that our proposed scheme outperforms the decoy BB84 protocol in secure key rate.
Conditional beam splitting attack on quantum key distribution
Calsamiglia, John; Barnett, Stephen M.; Lütkenhaus, Norbert
2001-01-01
We present a novel attack on quantum key distribution based on the idea of adaptive absorption [calsam01]. The conditional beam splitting attack is shown to be much more efficient than the conventional beam spitting attack, achieving a performance similar to the, powerful but currently unfeasible, photon number splitting attack. The implementation of the conditional beam splitting attack, based solely on linear optical elements, is well within reach of current technology.
Side Channel Passive Quantum Key Distribution with One Uninformative State
Kang, Guo-Dong; Zhou, Qing-Ping; Fang, Mao-Fa
2017-03-01
In most of quantum key distribution schemes, real random number generators are required on both sides for preparation and measurement bases choice. In this paper, via entangled photon pairs, we present a side channel passive quantum key distribution scheme, in which random number generator is unneeded on the receiver side. On the sender Alice side, along with massive of signal photons, small amount of uninformative photons are randomly sent to her partner Bob for eavesdropper-presence testing and error estimation. While on the other side channel, without using random number generator Bob do not actively measure the income signals randomly in two non-orthogonal bases. Instead, he just passively register photon click events, in two settled symmetric (i.e. X) bases, and the raw key(click events) is the probable outcomes of a special quantum measurement module constructed by Alice and Bob. Further, security analysis and formulas of security bounds for this scheme is also investigated under reasonable assumptions. Our work shows that the uninformative state employed in this paper is powerful to fight against eavesdropper Eve.
Long distance free-space quantum key distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmitt-Manderbach, T.
2007-10-16
The aim of the presented experiment was to investigate the feasibility of satellite-based global quantum key distribution. In this context, a free-space quantum key distribution experiment over a real distance of 144 km was performed. The transmitter and the receiver were situated in 2500 m altitude on the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, respectively. The small and compact transmitter unit generated attenuated laser pulses, that were sent to the receiver via a 15-cm optical telescope. The receiver unit for polarisation analysis and detection of the sent pulses was integrated into an existing mirror telescope designed for classical optical satellite communications. To ensure the required stability and efficiency of the optical link in the presence of atmospheric turbulence, the two telescopes were equipped with a bi-directional automatic tracking system. Still, due to stray light and high optical attenuation, secure key exchange would not be possible using attenuated pulses in connection with the standard BB84 protocol. The photon number statistics of attenuated pulses follows a Poissonian distribution. Hence, by removing a photon from all pulses containing two or more photons, an eavesdropper could measure its polarisation without disturbing the polarisation state of the remaining pulse. In this way, he can gain information about the key without introducing detectable errors. To protect against such attacks, the presented experiment employed the recently developed method of using additional 'decoy' states, i.e., the the intensity of the pulses created by the transmitter were varied in a random manner. By analysing the detection probabilities of the different pulses individually, a photon-number-splitting attack can be detected. Thanks to the decoy-state analysis, the secrecy of the resulting quantum key could be ensured despite the Poissonian nature of the emitted pulses. For a channel attenuation as high as 35 dB, a secret key rate of up to 250
Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution by Rotation-Invariant Twisted Photons
Vallone, Giuseppe; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Sponselli, Anna; Slussarenko, Sergei; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Villoresi, Paolo
2014-08-01
"Twisted photons" are photons carrying a well-defined nonzero value of orbital angular momentum (OAM). The associated optical wave exhibits a helical shape of the wavefront (hence the name) and an optical vortex at the beam axis. The OAM of light is attracting a growing interest for its potential in photonic applications ranging from particle manipulation, microscopy, and nanotechnologies to fundamental tests of quantum mechanics, classical data multiplexing, and quantum communication. Hitherto, however, all results obtained with optical OAM were limited to laboratory scale. Here, we report the experimental demonstration of a link for free-space quantum communication with OAM operating over a distance of 210 m. Our method exploits OAM in combination with optical polarization to encode the information in rotation-invariant photonic states, so as to guarantee full independence of the communication from the local reference frames of the transmitting and receiving units. In particular, we implement quantum key distribution, a protocol exploiting the features of quantum mechanics to guarantee unconditional security in cryptographic communication, demonstrating error-rate performances that are fully compatible with real-world application requirements. Our results extend previous achievements of OAM-based quantum communication by over 2 orders of magnitude in the link scale, providing an important step forward in achieving the vision of a worldwide quantum network.
Experimental quantum digital signature over 102 km
Yin, Hua-Lei; Fu, Yao; Liu, Hui; Tang, Qi-Jie; Wang, Jian; You, Li-Xing; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Chen, Si-Jing; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Teng-Yun; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei
2017-03-01
Quantum digital signature (QDS) is an approach to guarantee the nonrepudiation, unforgeability, and transferability of a signature with information-theoretical security. Previous experimental realizations of QDS relied on an unrealistic assumption of secure channels and the longest distance is several kilometers. Here, we have experimentally demonstrated a recently proposed QDS protocol without assuming any secure channel. Exploiting the decoy state modulation, we have successfully signed a one-bit message through an up to 102-km optical fiber. Furthermore, we continuously run the system to sign the longer message "USTC" with 32 bits at the distance of 51 km. Our results pave the way towards the practical application of QDS.
Nearest private query based on quantum oblivious key distribution
Xu, Min; Shi, Run-hua; Luo, Zhen-yu; Peng, Zhen-wan
2017-12-01
Nearest private query is a special private query which involves two parties, a user and a data owner, where the user has a private input (e.g., an integer) and the data owner has a private data set, and the user wants to query which element in the owner's private data set is the nearest to his input without revealing their respective private information. In this paper, we first present a quantum protocol for nearest private query, which is based on quantum oblivious key distribution (QOKD). Compared to the classical related protocols, our protocol has the advantages of the higher security and the better feasibility, so it has a better prospect of applications.
Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with discrete modulation
Hirano, Takuya; Ichikawa, Tsubasa; Matsubara, Takuto; Ono, Motoharu; Oguri, Yusuke; Namiki, Ryo; Kasai, Kenta; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh; Tsurumaru, Toyohiro
2017-06-01
We have developed a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system that employs discrete quadrature-amplitude modulation and homodyne detection of coherent states of light. We experimentally demonstrated automated secure key generation with a rate of 50 kbps when a quantum channel is a 10 km optical fibre. The CV-QKD system utilises a four-state and post-selection protocol and generates a secure key against the entangling cloner attack. We used a pulsed light source of 1550 nm wavelength with a repetition rate of 10 MHz. A commercially available balanced receiver is used to realise shot-noise-limited pulsed homodyne detection. We used a non-binary LDPC code for error correction (reverse reconciliation) and the Toeplitz matrix multiplication for privacy amplification. A graphical processing unit card is used to accelerate the software-based post-processing.
Experimental quantum tossing of a single coin
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nguyen, A T [Service OPERA photonique, CP 194/5, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Avenue F D Roosevelt 50, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Frison, J; Massar, S [Laboratoire dInformation Quantique, CP 225, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Huy, K Phan [Departement dOptique P M Duffieux, Institut FEMTO-ST, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique UMR 6174, Universite de Franche-Comte, 25030 Besancon (France)], E-mail: annguyen@ulb.ac.be, E-mail: smassar@ulb.ac.be
2008-08-15
The cryptographic protocol of coin tossing consists of two parties, Alice and Bob, who do not trust each other, but want to generate a random bit. If the parties use a classical communication channel and have unlimited computational resources, one of them can always cheat perfectly. If the parties use a quantum communication channel, there exist protocols such that neither party can cheat perfectly, although they may be able to significantly bias the coin. Here, we analyze in detail how the performance of a quantum coin tossing experiment should be compared to classical protocols, taking into account the inevitable experimental imperfections. We then report an all-optical fiber experiment in which a single coin is tossed whose randomness is higher than achievable by any classical protocol and present some easily realizable cheating strategies by Alice and Bob.
Experimental quantum tossing of a single coin
Nguyen, A. T.; Frison, J.; Phan Huy, K.; Massar, S.
2008-08-01
The cryptographic protocol of coin tossing consists of two parties, Alice and Bob, who do not trust each other, but want to generate a random bit. If the parties use a classical communication channel and have unlimited computational resources, one of them can always cheat perfectly. If the parties use a quantum communication channel, there exist protocols such that neither party can cheat perfectly, although they may be able to significantly bias the coin. Here, we analyze in detail how the performance of a quantum coin tossing experiment should be compared to classical protocols, taking into account the inevitable experimental imperfections. We then report an all-optical fiber experiment in which a single coin is tossed whose randomness is higher than achievable by any classical protocol and present some easily realizable cheating strategies by Alice and Bob.
Li, Ao; Chen, Tian; Zhou, Yiheng; Wang, Xiangbin
2016-05-01
Quantum blockades as a nonlinear quantum optical process have been well studied in recent years. Using the quantum trajectory method, we calculate and discuss the output photon number distributions of a single-photon blockade process in a Kerr nonlinear dissipative resonator, revealing that the probability of the single-photon state can be optimized. Then we show through numerical simulations that such a quasi-single-photon source can drastically raise the key rate in the decoy-state quantum key distribution.
Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication
Hwang, Won-Young
2003-08-01
We propose a decoy-pulse method to overcome the photon-number-splitting attack for Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum key distribution protocol in the presence of high loss: A legitimate user intentionally and randomly replaces signal pulses by multiphoton pulses (decoy pulses). Then they check the loss of the decoy pulses. If the loss of the decoy pulses is abnormally less than that of signal pulses, the whole protocol is aborted. Otherwise, to continue the protocol, they estimate the loss of signal multiphoton pulses based on that of decoy pulses. This estimation can be done with an assumption that the two losses have similar values. We justify that assumption.
Self-referenced continuous-variable quantum key distribution
Soh, Daniel B. S.; Sarovar, Mohan; Camacho, Ryan
2017-01-24
Various technologies for continuous-variable quantum key distribution without transmitting a transmitter's local oscillator are described herein. A receiver on an optical transmission channel uses an oscillator signal generated by a light source at the receiver's location to perform interferometric detection on received signals. An optical reference pulse is sent by the transmitter on the transmission channel and the receiver computes a phase offset of the transmission based on quadrature measurements of the reference pulse. The receiver can then compensate for the phase offset between the transmitter's reference and the receiver's reference when measuring quadratures of received data pulses.
Extremal quantum correlations: Experimental study with two-qubit states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiuri, A.; Mataloni, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Ottica (INO-CNR), L.go E. Fermi 6, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Vallone, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Via Panisperna 89/A, Compendio del Viminale, I-00184 Roma (Italy); Paternostro, M. [Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)
2011-08-15
We explore experimentally the space of two-qubit quantum-correlated mixed states, including frontier states as defined by the use of quantum discord and von Neumann entropy. Our experimental setup is flexible enough to allow for high-quality generation of a vast variety of states. We address quantitatively the relation between quantum discord and a recently suggested alternative measure of quantum correlations.
Handheld free space quantum key distribution with dynamic motion compensation.
Chun, Hyunchae; Choi, Iris; Faulkner, Grahame; Clarke, Larry; Barber, Bryan; George, Glenn; Capon, Colin; Niskanen, Antti; Wabnig, Joachim; O'Brien, Dominic; Bitauld, David
2017-03-20
Mobile devices have become an inseparable part of our everyday life. They are used to transmit an ever-increasing amount of sensitive health, financial and personal information. This exposes us to the growing scale and sophistication of cyber-attacks. Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) can provide unconditional and future-proof data security but implementing it for handheld mobile devices comes with specific challenges. To establish security, secret keys of sufficient length need to be transmitted during the time of a handheld transaction (~1s) despite device misalignment, ambient light and user's inevitable hand movements. Transmitters and receivers should ideally be compact and low-cost, while avoiding security loopholes. Here we demonstrate the first QKD transmission from a handheld transmitter with a key-rate large enough to overcome finite key effects. Using dynamic beam-steering, reference-frame-independent encoding and fast indistinguishable pulse generation, we obtain a secret key rate above 30kb/s over a distance of 0.5m.
Security of quantum key distribution with multiphoton components
Yin, Hua-Lei; Fu, Yao; Mao, Yingqiu; Chen, Zeng-Bing
2016-07-01
Most qubit-based quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols extract the secure key merely from single-photon component of the attenuated lasers. However, with the Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, the unconditionally secure key can be extracted from the two-photon component by modifying the classical post-processing procedure in the BB84 protocol. Employing the merits of SARG04 QKD protocol and six-state preparation, one can extract secure key from the components of single photon up to four photons. In this paper, we provide the exact relations between the secure key rate and the bit error rate in a six-state SARG04 protocol with single-photon, two-photon, three-photon, and four-photon sources. By restricting the mutual information between the phase error and bit error, we obtain a higher secure bit error rate threshold of the multiphoton components than previous works. Besides, we compare the performances of the six-state SARG04 with other prepare-and-measure QKD protocols using decoy states.
Quantum hacking of a continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution system using a wavelength attack
Huang, Jing-Zheng; Weedbrook, Christian; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Li, Hong-Wei; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2013-06-01
The security proofs of continuous-variable quantum key distribution are based on the assumptions that the eavesdropper can neither act on the local oscillator nor control Bob's beam splitter. These assumptions may be invalid in practice due to potential imperfections in the implementations of such protocols. In this paper, we consider the problem of transmitting the local oscillator in a public channel and propose a wavelength attack which allows the eavesdropper to control the intensity transmission of Bob's beam splitter by switching the wavelength of the input light. Specifically we target continuous-variable quantum key distribution systems that use the heterodyne detection protocol using either direct or reverse reconciliation. Our attack is proved to be feasible and renders all of the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure, even if they have monitored the intensity of the local oscillator. To prevent our attack on commercial systems, a simple wavelength filter should be randomly added before performing monitoring detection.
FPGA based digital phase-coding quantum key distribution system
Lu, XiaoMing; Zhang, LiJun; Wang, YongGang; Chen, Wei; Huang, DaJun; Li, Deng; Wang, Shuang; He, DeYong; Yin, ZhenQiang; Zhou, Yu; Hui, Cong; Han, ZhengFu
2015-12-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a technology with the potential capability to achieve information-theoretic security. Phasecoding is an important approach to develop practical QKD systems in fiber channel. In order to improve the phase-coding modulation rate, we proposed a new digital-modulation method in this paper and constructed a compact and robust prototype of QKD system using currently available components in our lab to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The system was deployed in laboratory environment over a 50 km fiber and continuously operated during 87 h without manual interaction. The quantum bit error rate (QBER) of the system was stable with an average value of 3.22% and the secure key generation rate is 8.91 kbps. Although the modulation rate of the photon in the demo system was only 200 MHz, which was limited by the Faraday-Michelson interferometer (FMI) structure, the proposed method and the field programmable gate array (FPGA) based electronics scheme have a great potential for high speed QKD systems with Giga-bits/second modulation rate.
Quantum-Relay-Assisted Key Distribution over High Photon Loss Channels
Zhang, An-Ning; Chen, Yu-Ao; Lu, Chao-Yang; Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Zhao, Zhi; ZHANG, QIANG; Yang, Tao; Pan, Jian-Wei
2005-01-01
The maximum distance of quantum communication is limited due to the photon loss and detector noise. Exploiting entanglement swapping, quantum relay could offer ways to extend the achievable distance by increasing the signal to noise ratio. In this letter we present an experimental simulation of long distance quantum communication, in which the superiority of quantum relay is demonstrated. Assisted by quantum relay, we greatly extend the distance limit of unconditional secure quantum communica...
Quantum Hall effects recent theoretical and experimental developments
Ezawa, Zyun Francis
2013-01-01
Enthusiasm for research on the quantum Hall effect (QHE) is unbounded. The QHE is one of the most fascinating and beautiful phenomena in all branches of physics. Tremendous theoretical and experimental developments are still being made in this sphere. Composite bosons, composite fermions and anyons were among distinguishing ideas in the original edition. In the 2nd edition, fantastic phenomena associated with the interlayer phase coherence in the bilayer system were extensively described. The microscopic theory of the QHE was formulated based on the noncommutative geometry. Furthermore, the unconventional QHE in graphene was reviewed, where the electron dynamics can be treated as relativistic Dirac fermions and even the supersymmetric quantum mechanics plays a key role. In this 3rd edition, all chapters are carefully reexamined and updated. A highlight is the new chapter on topological insulators. Indeed, the concept of topological insulator stems from the QHE. Other new topics are recent prominent experime...
Kawakami, Shun; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Koashi, Masato
2017-07-01
An essential step in quantum key distribution is the estimation of parameters related to the leaked amount of information, which is usually done by sampling of the communication data. When the data size is finite, the final key rate depends on how the estimation process handles statistical fluctuations. Many of the present security analyses are based on the method with simple random sampling, where hypergeometric distribution or its known bounds are used for the estimation. Here we propose a concise method based on Bernoulli sampling, which is related to binomial distribution. Our method is suitable for the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol with weak coherent pulses [C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (IEEE, New York, 1984), Vol. 175], reducing the number of estimated parameters to achieve a higher key generation rate compared to the method with simple random sampling. We also apply the method to prove the security of the differential-quadrature-phase-shift (DQPS) protocol in the finite-key regime. The result indicates that the advantage of the DQPS protocol over the phase-encoding BB84 protocol in terms of the key rate, which was previously confirmed in the asymptotic regime, persists in the finite-key regime.
Pu, Y-F; Jiang, N.; Chang, W.; Yang, H-X; Li, C.; Duan, L-M
2017-01-01
To realize long-distance quantum communication and quantum network, it is required to have multiplexed quantum memory with many memory cells. Each memory cell needs to be individually addressable and independently accessible. Here we report an experiment that realizes a multiplexed DLCZ-type quantum memory with 225 individually accessible memory cells in a macroscopic atomic ensemble. As a key element for quantum repeaters, we demonstrate that entanglement with flying optical qubits can be stored into any neighboring memory cells and read out after a programmable time with high fidelity. Experimental realization of a multiplexed quantum memory with many individually accessible memory cells and programmable control of its addressing and readout makes an important step for its application in quantum information technology. PMID:28480891
Pu, Y.-F.; Jiang, N.; Chang, W.; Yang, H.-X.; Li, C.; Duan, L.-M.
2017-05-01
To realize long-distance quantum communication and quantum network, it is required to have multiplexed quantum memory with many memory cells. Each memory cell needs to be individually addressable and independently accessible. Here we report an experiment that realizes a multiplexed DLCZ-type quantum memory with 225 individually accessible memory cells in a macroscopic atomic ensemble. As a key element for quantum repeaters, we demonstrate that entanglement with flying optical qubits can be stored into any neighboring memory cells and read out after a programmable time with high fidelity. Experimental realization of a multiplexed quantum memory with many individually accessible memory cells and programmable control of its addressing and readout makes an important step for its application in quantum information technology.
Quantum adiabatic algorithm for factorization and its experimental implementation.
Peng, Xinhua; Liao, Zeyang; Xu, Nanyang; Qin, Gan; Zhou, Xianyi; Suter, Dieter; Du, Jiangfeng
2008-11-28
We propose an adiabatic quantum algorithm capable of factorizing numbers, using fewer qubits than Shor's algorithm. We implement the algorithm in a NMR quantum information processor and experimentally factorize the number 21. In the range that our classical computer could simulate, the quantum adiabatic algorithm works well, providing evidence that the running time of this algorithm scales polynomially with the problem size.
Prospects and applications near ferroelectric quantum phase transitions: a key issues review
Chandra, P.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Rowley, S. E.; Scott, J. F.
2017-11-01
The emergence of complex and fascinating states of quantum matter in the neighborhood of zero temperature phase transitions suggests that such quantum phenomena should be studied in a variety of settings. Advanced technologies of the future may be fabricated from materials where the cooperative behavior of charge, spin and current can be manipulated at cryogenic temperatures. The progagating lattice dynamics of displacive ferroelectrics make them appealing for the study of quantum critical phenomena that is characterized by both space- and time-dependent quantities. In this key issues article we aim to provide a self-contained overview of ferroelectrics near quantum phase transitions. Unlike most magnetic cases, the ferroelectric quantum critical point can be tuned experimentally to reside at, above or below its upper critical dimension; this feature allows for detailed interplay between experiment and theory using both scaling and self-consistent field models. Empirically the sensitivity of the ferroelectric T c’s to external and to chemical pressure gives practical access to a broad range of temperature behavior over several hundreds of Kelvin. Additional degrees of freedom like charge and spin can be added and characterized systematically. Satellite memories, electrocaloric cooling and low-loss phased-array radar are among possible applications of low-temperature ferroelectrics. We end with open questions for future research that include textured polarization states and unusual forms of superconductivity that remain to be understood theoretically.
Prospects and applications near ferroelectric quantum phase transitions: a key issues review.
Chandra, P; Lonzarich, G G; Rowley, S E; Scott, J F
2017-11-01
The emergence of complex and fascinating states of quantum matter in the neighborhood of zero temperature phase transitions suggests that such quantum phenomena should be studied in a variety of settings. Advanced technologies of the future may be fabricated from materials where the cooperative behavior of charge, spin and current can be manipulated at cryogenic temperatures. The progagating lattice dynamics of displacive ferroelectrics make them appealing for the study of quantum critical phenomena that is characterized by both space- and time-dependent quantities. In this key issues article we aim to provide a self-contained overview of ferroelectrics near quantum phase transitions. Unlike most magnetic cases, the ferroelectric quantum critical point can be tuned experimentally to reside at, above or below its upper critical dimension; this feature allows for detailed interplay between experiment and theory using both scaling and self-consistent field models. Empirically the sensitivity of the ferroelectric T c's to external and to chemical pressure gives practical access to a broad range of temperature behavior over several hundreds of Kelvin. Additional degrees of freedom like charge and spin can be added and characterized systematically. Satellite memories, electrocaloric cooling and low-loss phased-array radar are among possible applications of low-temperature ferroelectrics. We end with open questions for future research that include textured polarization states and unusual forms of superconductivity that remain to be understood theoretically.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Hong-Wei [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information,University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450004 (China); Wang, Shuang; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Fang-Yi; Zhou, Zheng; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information,University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Bao, Wan-Su [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450004 (China)
2011-12-15
It is well known that the unconditional security of quantum-key distribution (QKD) can be guaranteed by quantum mechanics. However, practical QKD systems have some imperfections, which can be controlled by the eavesdropper to attack the secret key. With current experimental technology, a realistic beam splitter, made by fused biconical technology, has a wavelength-dependent property. Based on this fatal security loophole, we propose a wavelength-dependent attacking protocol, which can be applied to all practical QKD systems with passive state modulation. Moreover, we experimentally attack a practical polarization encoding QKD system to obtain all the secret key information at the cost of only increasing the quantum bit error rate from 1.3 to 1.4%.
Cascaded Kerr photon-blockade soruces and applications in quantum key distribution.
Li, Ao; Zhou, Yiheng; Wang, Xiang-Bin
2017-08-04
To raise the repetition rate, a single-photon source based on Kerr quantum blockade in a cascaded quantum system is studied. Using the quantum trajectory method, we calculate and simulate the photon number distributions out of a two-cavity system. A high quality single-photon source can be achieved through optimizing parameters. The designed photon source is further applied to the decoy state quantum key distribution (QKD). With and without statistical fluctuation, the key rate can be both raised drastically.
Experimental realization of quantum zeno dynamics.
Schäfer, F; Herrera, I; Cherukattil, S; Lovecchio, C; Cataliotti, F S; Caruso, F; Smerzi, A
2014-01-01
It is generally impossible to probe a quantum system without disturbing it. However, it is possible to exploit the back action of quantum measurements and strong couplings to tailor and protect the coherent evolution of a quantum system. This is a profound and counterintuitive phenomenon known as quantum Zeno dynamics. Here we demonstrate quantum Zeno dynamics with a rubidium Bose-Einstein condensate in a five-level Hilbert space. We harness measurements and strong couplings to dynamically disconnect different groups of quantum states and constrain the atoms to coherently evolve inside a two-level subregion. In parallel to the foundational importance due to the realization of a dynamical superselection rule and the theory of quantum measurements, this is an important step forward in protecting and controlling quantum dynamics and, broadly speaking, quantum information processing.
Quantum sealed-bid auction using a modified scheme for multiparty circular quantum key agreement
Sharma, Rishi Dutt; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban
2017-07-01
A feasible, secure and collusion attack-free quantum sealed-bid auction protocol is proposed using a modified scheme for multiparty circular quantum key agreement. In the proposed protocol, the set of all ( n) bidders is grouped into l subsets (sub-circles) in such a way that only the initiator (who prepares the quantum state to be distributed for a particular round of communication and acts as the receiver in that round) is a member of all the subsets (sub-circles) prepared for a particular round, while any other bidder is part of only a single subset. All n bidders and auctioneer initiate one round of communication, and each of them prepares l copies of a ( r-1) -partite entangled state (one for each sub-circle), where r=n/l+1. The efficiency and security of the proposed protocol are critically analyzed. It is shown that the proposed protocol is free from the collusion attacks that are possible on the existing schemes of quantum sealed-bid auction. Further, it is observed that the security against collusion attack increases with the increase in l, but that reduces the complexity (number of entangled qubits in each entangled state) of the entangled states to be used and that makes the scheme scalable and implementable with the available technologies. The additional security and scalability are shown to arise due to the use of a circular structure in place of a complete-graph or tree-type structure used earlier.
Experimental Bayesian Quantum Phase Estimation on a Silicon Photonic Chip.
Paesani, S; Gentile, A A; Santagati, R; Wang, J; Wiebe, N; Tew, D P; O'Brien, J L; Thompson, M G
2017-03-10
Quantum phase estimation is a fundamental subroutine in many quantum algorithms, including Shor's factorization algorithm and quantum simulation. However, so far results have cast doubt on its practicability for near-term, nonfault tolerant, quantum devices. Here we report experimental results demonstrating that this intuition need not be true. We implement a recently proposed adaptive Bayesian approach to quantum phase estimation and use it to simulate molecular energies on a silicon quantum photonic device. The approach is verified to be well suited for prethreshold quantum processors by investigating its superior robustness to noise and decoherence compared to the iterative phase estimation algorithm. This shows a promising route to unlock the power of quantum phase estimation much sooner than previously believed.
Experimental realization of quantum cheque using a five-qubit quantum computer
Behera, Bikash K.; Banerjee, Anindita; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.
2017-12-01
Quantum cheques could be a forgery-free way to make transaction in a quantum networked banking system with perfect security against any no-signalling adversary. Here, we demonstrate the implementation of quantum cheque, proposed by Moulick and Panigrahi (Quantum Inf Process 15:2475-2486, 2016), using the five-qubit IBM quantum computer. Appropriate single qubit, CNOT and Fredkin gates are used in an optimized configuration. The accuracy of implementation is checked and verified through quantum state tomography by comparing results from the theoretical and experimental density matrices.
Robust continuous-variable quantum key distribution against practical attacks
Huang, Peng; Huang, Jingzheng; Wang, Tao; Li, Huasheng; Huang, Duan; Zeng, Guihua
2017-05-01
Recently, several practical attacks on continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) were proposed based on faking the estimated value of channel excess noise to hide the intercept-and-resend eavesdropping strategy, including the local oscillator (LO) fluctuation, calibration, wavelength, and saturation attacks. However, the known countermeasures against all these practical attacks will inevitably increase the complexity of the implementation of CVQKD and affect its performance. We develop here an asynchronous countermeasure strategy without structural modifications of the conventional CVQKD scheme. In particular, two robust countermeasures are proposed by adding peak-valley seeking and Gaussian postselection steps in conventional data postprocessing procedure. The analysis shows that the peak-valley seeking method naturally make the schemes immune to all known types of calibration attacks even when Eve simultaneously performs wavelength or LO fluctuation attacks and exhibit simpler implementation and better performance than the known countermeasures. Meanwhile, since the Gaussian postselection is able to resist the saturation attacks, the proposed schemes are secure against all known types of practical attacks.
Quantum Gravity Mathematical Models and Experimental Bounds
Fauser, Bertfried; Zeidler, Eberhard
2007-01-01
The construction of a quantum theory of gravity is the most fundamental challenge confronting contemporary theoretical physics. The different physical ideas which evolved while developing a theory of quantum gravity require highly advanced mathematical methods. This book presents different mathematical approaches to formulate a theory of quantum gravity. It represents a carefully selected cross-section of lively discussions about the issue of quantum gravity which took place at the second workshop "Mathematical and Physical Aspects of Quantum Gravity" in Blaubeuren, Germany. This collection covers in a unique way aspects of various competing approaches. A unique feature of the book is the presentation of different approaches to quantum gravity making comparison feasible. This feature is supported by an extensive index. The book is mainly addressed to mathematicians and physicists who are interested in questions related to mathematical physics. It allows the reader to obtain a broad and up-to-date overview on ...
Subcarrier Wave Quantum Key Distribution in Telecommunication Network with Bitrate 800 kbit/s
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gleim A.V.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In the course of work on creating the first quantum communication network in Russia we demonstrated quantum key distribution in metropolitan optical network infrastructure. A single-pass subcarrier wave quantum cryptography scheme was used in the experiments. BB84 protocol with strong reference was chosen for performing key distribution. The registered sifted key rate in an optical cable with 1.5 dB loss was 800 Kbit/s. Signal visibility exceeded 98%, and quantum bit error rate value was 1%. The achieved result is a record for this type of systems.
Experimental comparison of two quantum computing architectures.
Linke, Norbert M; Maslov, Dmitri; Roetteler, Martin; Debnath, Shantanu; Figgatt, Caroline; Landsman, Kevin A; Wright, Kenneth; Monroe, Christopher
2017-03-28
We run a selection of algorithms on two state-of-the-art 5-qubit quantum computers that are based on different technology platforms. One is a publicly accessible superconducting transmon device (www. ibm.com/ibm-q) with limited connectivity, and the other is a fully connected trapped-ion system. Even though the two systems have different native quantum interactions, both can be programed in a way that is blind to the underlying hardware, thus allowing a comparison of identical quantum algorithms between different physical systems. We show that quantum algorithms and circuits that use more connectivity clearly benefit from a better-connected system of qubits. Although the quantum systems here are not yet large enough to eclipse classical computers, this experiment exposes critical factors of scaling quantum computers, such as qubit connectivity and gate expressivity. In addition, the results suggest that codesigning particular quantum applications with the hardware itself will be paramount in successfully using quantum computers in the future.
Experimental Blind Quantum Computing for a Classical Client.
Huang, He-Liang; Zhao, Qi; Ma, Xiongfeng; Liu, Chang; Su, Zu-En; Wang, Xi-Lin; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Sanders, Barry C; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2017-08-04
To date, blind quantum computing demonstrations require clients to have weak quantum devices. Here we implement a proof-of-principle experiment for completely classical clients. Via classically interacting with two quantum servers that share entanglement, the client accomplishes the task of having the number 15 factorized by servers who are denied information about the computation itself. This concealment is accompanied by a verification protocol that tests servers' honesty and correctness. Our demonstration shows the feasibility of completely classical clients and thus is a key milestone towards secure cloud quantum computing.
Experimental Blind Quantum Computing for a Classical Client
Huang, He-Liang; Zhao, Qi; Ma, Xiongfeng; Liu, Chang; Su, Zu-En; Wang, Xi-Lin; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Sanders, Barry C.; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2017-08-01
To date, blind quantum computing demonstrations require clients to have weak quantum devices. Here we implement a proof-of-principle experiment for completely classical clients. Via classically interacting with two quantum servers that share entanglement, the client accomplishes the task of having the number 15 factorized by servers who are denied information about the computation itself. This concealment is accompanied by a verification protocol that tests servers' honesty and correctness. Our demonstration shows the feasibility of completely classical clients and thus is a key milestone towards secure cloud quantum computing.
Intensity fluctuation of a gain-switched semiconductor laser for quantum key distribution systems.
Nakata, Kensuke; Tomita, Akihisa; Fujiwara, Mikio; Yoshino, Ken-Ichiro; Tajima, Akio; Okamoto, Atsushi; Ogawa, Kazuhisa
2017-01-23
Security certification of quantum key distribution (QKD) systems under practical conditions is necessary for social deployment. This article focused on the transmitter, and, in particular, investigated the intensity fluctuation of the optical pulses emitted by a gain-switched semiconductor laser used in QKD systems implementing decoy-BB84 protocol. A large intensity fluctuation was observed for low excitation, showing strong negative correlation between the adjacent pulses, which would affect the final key rate. The fluctuation decreased and the correlation disappeared as excitation increased. Simulation with rate equations successfully reproduced the experimental results and revealed that the large fluctuation originates from an intrinsic instability of gain-switched lasers driven periodically at a rate comparable to the inverse of carrier lifetime, as in GHz-clock QKD systems. Methods for further reduction of the intensity fluctuation were also discussed.
Superdense Coding with GHZ and Quantum Key Distribution with W in the ZX-calculus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anne Hillebrand
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Quantum entanglement is a key resource in many quantum protocols, such as quantum teleportation and quantum cryptography. Yet entanglement makes protocols presented in Dirac notation difficult to verify. This is why Coecke and Duncan have introduced a diagrammatic language for quantum protocols, called the ZX-calculus. This diagrammatic notation is both intuitive and formally rigorous. It is a simple, graphical, high level language that emphasises the composition of systems and naturally captures the essentials of quantum mechanics. In the author's MSc thesis it has been shown for over 25 quantum protocols that the ZX-calculus provides a relatively easy and more intuitive presentation. Moreover, the author embarked on the task to apply categorical quantum mechanics on quantum security; earlier works did not touch anything but Bennett and Brassard's quantum key distribution protocol, BB84. Superdense coding with the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state and quantum key distribution with the W-state are presented in the ZX-calculus in this paper.
Experimental demonstration of nonbilocal quantum correlations.
Saunders, Dylan J; Bennet, Adam J; Branciard, Cyril; Pryde, Geoff J
2017-04-01
Quantum mechanics admits correlations that cannot be explained by local realistic models. The most studied models are the standard local hidden variable models, which satisfy the well-known Bell inequalities. To date, most works have focused on bipartite entangled systems. We consider correlations between three parties connected via two independent entangled states. We investigate the new type of so-called "bilocal" models, which correspondingly involve two independent hidden variables. These models describe scenarios that naturally arise in quantum networks, where several independent entanglement sources are used. Using photonic qubits, we build such a linear three-node quantum network and demonstrate nonbilocal correlations by violating a Bell-like inequality tailored for bilocal models. Furthermore, we show that the demonstration of nonbilocality is more noise-tolerant than that of standard Bell nonlocality in our three-party quantum network.
Multi-party semi-quantum key distribution-convertible multi-party semi-quantum secret sharing
Yu, Kun-Fei; Gu, Jun; Hwang, Tzonelih; Gope, Prosanta
2017-08-01
This paper proposes a multi-party semi-quantum secret sharing (MSQSS) protocol which allows a quantum party (manager) to share a secret among several classical parties (agents) based on GHZ-like states. By utilizing the special properties of GHZ-like states, the proposed scheme can easily detect outside eavesdropping attacks and has the highest qubit efficiency among the existing MSQSS protocols. Then, we illustrate an efficient way to convert the proposed MSQSS protocol into a multi-party semi-quantum key distribution (MSQKD) protocol. The proposed approach is even useful to convert all the existing measure-resend type of semi-quantum secret sharing protocols into semi-quantum key distribution protocols.
Experimental Realization of a Quantum Spin Pump
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Watson, Susan; Potok, R.; M. Marcus, C.
2003-01-01
We demonstrate the operation of a quantum spin pump based on cyclic radio-frequency excitation of a GaAs quantum dot, including the ability to pump pure spin without pumping charge. The device takes advantage of bidirectional mesoscopic fluctuations of pumped current, made spin......-dependent by the application of an in-plane Zeeman field. Spin currents are measured by placing the pump in a focusing geometry with a spin-selective collector....
Multi-partite entanglement can speed up quantum key distribution in networks
Epping, Michael; Kampermann, Hermann; macchiavello, Chiara; Bruß, Dagmar
2017-09-01
The laws of quantum mechanics allow for the distribution of a secret random key between two parties. Here we analyse the security of a protocol for establishing a common secret key between N parties (i.e. a conference key), using resource states with genuine N-partite entanglement. We compare this protocol to conference key distribution via bipartite entanglement, regarding the required resources, achievable secret key rates and threshold qubit error rates. Furthermore we discuss quantum networks with bottlenecks for which our multipartite entanglement-based protocol can benefit from network coding, while the bipartite protocol cannot. It is shown how this advantage leads to a higher secret key rate.
Experimental violation of local causality in a quantum network
Carvacho, Gonzalo; Andreoli, Francesco; Santodonato, Luca; Bentivegna, Marco; Chaves, Rafael; Sciarrino, Fabio
2017-03-01
Bell's theorem plays a crucial role in quantum information processing and thus several experimental investigations of Bell inequalities violations have been carried out over the years. Despite their fundamental relevance, however, previous experiments did not consider an ingredient of relevance for quantum networks: the fact that correlations between distant parties are mediated by several, typically independent sources. Here, using a photonic setup, we investigate a quantum network consisting of three spatially separated nodes whose correlations are mediated by two distinct sources. This scenario allows for the emergence of the so-called non-bilocal correlations, incompatible with any local model involving two independent hidden variables. We experimentally witness the emergence of this kind of quantum correlations by violating a Bell-like inequality under the fair-sampling assumption. Our results provide a proof-of-principle experiment of generalizations of Bell's theorem for networks, which could represent a potential resource for quantum communication protocols.
Experimental violation of local causality in a quantum network
Carvacho, Gonzalo; Andreoli, Francesco; Santodonato, Luca; Bentivegna, Marco; Chaves, Rafael; Sciarrino, Fabio
2017-01-01
Bell's theorem plays a crucial role in quantum information processing and thus several experimental investigations of Bell inequalities violations have been carried out over the years. Despite their fundamental relevance, however, previous experiments did not consider an ingredient of relevance for quantum networks: the fact that correlations between distant parties are mediated by several, typically independent sources. Here, using a photonic setup, we investigate a quantum network consisting of three spatially separated nodes whose correlations are mediated by two distinct sources. This scenario allows for the emergence of the so-called non-bilocal correlations, incompatible with any local model involving two independent hidden variables. We experimentally witness the emergence of this kind of quantum correlations by violating a Bell-like inequality under the fair-sampling assumption. Our results provide a proof-of-principle experiment of generalizations of Bell's theorem for networks, which could represent a potential resource for quantum communication protocols. PMID:28300068
Direct and Reverse Secret-Key Capacities of a Quantum Channel
Pirandola, Stefano; Garcia-Patron, Raul; Braunstein, Samuel L.; Lloyd, Seth
2008-01-01
We define the direct and reverse secret-key capacities of a memoryless quantum channel as the optimal rates that entanglement-based quantum key distribution protocols can reach by using a single forward classical communication (direct reconciliation) or a single feedback classical communication (reverse reconciliation). In particular, the reverse secret-key capacity can be positive for antidegradable channels, where no forward strategy is known to be secure. This property is explicitly shown ...
Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution by controlling excess noise
Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography founded on the laws of physics could revolutionize the way in which communication information is protected. Significant progresses in long-distance quantum key distribution based on discrete variables have led to the secure quantum communication in real-world conditions being available. However, the alternative approach implemented with continuous variables has not yet reached the secure distance beyond 100 km. Here, we overcome the previous range limitation by controlling system excess noise and report such a long distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution experiment. Our result paves the road to the large-scale secure quantum communication with continuous variables and serves as a stepping stone in the quest for quantum network.
Quasi-quantum phenomena: the key to understanding homeopathy.
Molski, Marcin
2010-04-01
On the basis of the first- and second-order Gompertzian kinetics it has been proved that the crystallization and its reciprocal process of dissolution belong to the class of quasi-quantum non-local coherent phenomena. Hence, there exists a direct link to homeopathy: molecules of the remedy prepared in the process of dilution of the active substance are non-locally interconnected at-a-distance. The results obtained provide strong arguments justifying formulated ad hoc macroscopic versions of quantum non-locality, entanglement and coherence employed in interpretation of the homeopathic remedies activity and effectiveness. In particular they are consistent with the predictions of the weak quantum theory developed by Atmanspacher and coworkers.
Experimental observation of quantum corrections to electrical ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
X-ray diffraction patterns of nanocrystalline Fe–Cu–Nb–Si–B (FINEMET) alloys reveal that bcc -Fe/-FeSi crystallites with the average grain size of 20(5) nm are dispersed in amorphous matrix. Enhanced electron–electron interaction (EEI) and quantum interference (QI) effects as well as electron–magnon (and/or ...
Quantum key distribution over multicore fiber based on silicon photonics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ding, Yunhong; Bacco, Davide; Dalgaard, Kjeld
-compact chips [10, 11]. In fact, integrated photonic circuits provides excellent performances (compacts, good optical phase stability, access to new degrees of freedom), and are particularly suitable for the manipulation of quantum states. Some recent experiments have already demonstrated conventional binary...
Experimental quantum compressed sensing for a seven-qubit system
Riofrío, C. A.; Gross, D.; Flammia, S. T.; Monz, T.; Nigg, D.; Blatt, R.; Eisert, J.
2017-05-01
Well-controlled quantum devices with their increasing system size face a new roadblock hindering further development of quantum technologies. The effort of quantum tomography--the reconstruction of states and processes of a quantum device--scales unfavourably: state-of-the-art systems can no longer be characterized. Quantum compressed sensing mitigates this problem by reconstructing states from incomplete data. Here we present an experimental implementation of compressed tomography of a seven-qubit system--a topological colour code prepared in a trapped ion architecture. We are in the highly incomplete--127 Pauli basis measurement settings--and highly noisy--100 repetitions each--regime. Originally, compressed sensing was advocated for states with few non-zero eigenvalues. We argue that low-rank estimates are appropriate in general since statistical noise enables reliable reconstruction of only the leading eigenvectors. The remaining eigenvectors behave consistently with a random-matrix model that carries no information about the true state.
Experimental determination of the degree of polarization of quantum states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kothe-Termén, Christian; Madsen, Lars Skovgaard; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2013-01-01
We demonstrate experimental excitation-manifold-resolved polarization characterization of quantum states of light ranging from the few-photon to the many-photon level. In contrast to the traditional characterization of polarization that is based on the Stokes parameters, we experimentally determi...
A Secure Key Distribution System of Quantum Cryptography Based on the Coherent State
Guo, Guang-Can; Zhang, Xiao-Yu
1996-01-01
The cryptographic communication has a lot of important applications, particularly in the magnificent prospects of private communication. As one knows, the security of cryptographic channel depends crucially on the secrecy of the key. The Vernam cipher is the only cipher system which has guaranteed security. In that system the key must be as long as the message and most be used only once. Quantum cryptography is a method whereby key secrecy can be guaranteed by a physical law. So it is impossible, even in principle, to eavesdrop on such channels. Quantum cryptography has been developed in recent years. Up to now, many schemes of quantum cryptography have been proposed. Now one of the main problems in this field is how to increase transmission distance. In order to use quantum nature of light, up to now proposed schemes all use very dim light pulses. The average photon number is about 0.1. Because of the loss of the optical fiber, it is difficult for the quantum cryptography based on one photon level or on dim light to realize quantum key-distribution over long distance. A quantum key distribution based on coherent state is introduced in this paper. Here we discuss the feasibility and security of this scheme.
Secure multi-party communication with quantum key distribution managed by trusted authority
Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Hughes, Richard John; Peterson, Charles Glen
2013-07-09
Techniques and tools for implementing protocols for secure multi-party communication after quantum key distribution ("QKD") are described herein. In example implementations, a trusted authority facilitates secure communication between multiple user devices. The trusted authority distributes different quantum keys by QKD under trust relationships with different users. The trusted authority determines combination keys using the quantum keys and makes the combination keys available for distribution (e.g., for non-secret distribution over a public channel). The combination keys facilitate secure communication between two user devices even in the absence of QKD between the two user devices. With the protocols, benefits of QKD are extended to multi-party communication scenarios. In addition, the protocols can retain benefit of QKD even when a trusted authority is offline or a large group seeks to establish secure communication within the group.
Secure multi-party communication with quantum key distribution managed by trusted authority
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, Richard John; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Peterson, Charles Glen
2017-06-14
Techniques and tools for implementing protocols for secure multi-party communication after quantum key distribution ("QKD") are described herein. In example implementations, a trusted authority facilitates secure communication between multiple user devices. The trusted authority distributes different quantum keys by QKD under trust relationships with different users. The trusted authority determines combination keys using the quantum keys and makes the combination keys available for distribution (e.g., for non-secret distribution over a public channel). The combination keys facilitate secure communication between two user devices even in the absence of QKD between the two user devices. With the protocols, benefits of QKD are extended to multi-party communication scenarios. In addition, the protocols can retain benefit of QKD even when a trusted authority is offline or a large group seeks to establish secure communication within the group.
High-Rate Field Demonstration of Large-Alphabet Quantum Key Distribution
2017-05-22
Public Release ∗To whom correspondence should be addressed; E-mail: englund@mit.edu. May 22, 2017 A central goal of quantum information science is to...distribution field test, using photons encoded in a high-dimensional alphabet to increase the secure information yield per de- 1 tected photon. By adjusting the...fiber networks. Introduction Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties, Alice and Bob, to establish provably se- cure encryption keys at a
Mailloux, Logan O.; Grimaila, Michael R.; Hodson, Douglas D.; Ryan Engle; Colin McLaughlin; Gerald Baumgartner
2017-01-01
Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) systems exploit the laws of quantum mechanics to generate secure keying material for cryptographic purposes. To date, several commercially viable decoy state enabled QKD systems have been successfully demonstrated and show promise for high-security applications such as banking, government, and military environments. In this work, a detailed performance analysis of decoy state enabled QKD systems is conducted through model and simulation of several common decoy s...
Experimental demonstration of a programmable quantum computer by NMR.
Kim, Jaehyun; Lee, Jae-Seung; Hwang, Taesoon; Lee, Soonchil
2004-01-01
A programmable quantum computer is experimentally demonstrated by nuclear magnetic resonance using one qubit for the program and two qubits for data. A non-separable two-qubit operation is performed in a programmable way to show the successful demonstration. Projective measurements required in the programmable quantum computer are simulated by averaging the results of experiments just like when producing an effective pure state.
Provably Secure Experimental Quantum Bit-String Generation
Lamoureux, L. P.; Brainis, E.; Amans, D.; Barrett, J.; Massar, S.
2005-02-01
Coin tossing is a cryptographic task in which two parties who do not trust each other aim to generate a common random bit. Using classical communication this is impossible, but nontrivial coin tossing is possible using quantum communication. Here we consider the case when the parties do not want to toss a single coin, but many. This is called bit-string generation. We report the experimental generation of strings of coins which are provably more random than achievable using classical communication. The experiment is based on the “plug and play” scheme developed for quantum cryptography, and therefore well suited for long distance quantum communication.
Wang, Tianyi; Gong, Feng; Lu, Anjiang; Zhang, Damin; Zhang, Zhengping
2017-12-01
In this paper, we propose a scheme that integrates quantum key distribution and private classical communication via continuous variables. The integrated scheme employs both quadratures of a weak coherent state, with encrypted bits encoded on the signs and Gaussian random numbers encoded on the values of the quadratures. The integration enables quantum and classical data to share the same physical and logical channel. Simulation results based on practical system parameters demonstrate that both classical communication and quantum communication can be implemented over distance of tens of kilometers, thus providing a potential solution for simultaneous transmission of quantum communication and classical communication.
Seaworthy Quantum Key Distribution Design and Validation (SEAKEY)
2016-12-09
of two prisms on either side of a half-wave plate. The wave plate is mounted in a precision rotation stage. The parts are mounted in a ThorLabs... couplers and conducted the experimentation shown in the experimental section of this report. This experimentation was conducted within the confines of a
Channel analysis for single photon underwater free space quantum key distribution.
Shi, Peng; Zhao, Shi-Cheng; Gu, Yong-Jian; Li, Wen-Dong
2015-03-01
We investigate the optical absorption and scattering properties of underwater media pertinent to our underwater free space quantum key distribution (QKD) channel model. With the vector radiative transfer theory and Monte Carlo method, we obtain the attenuation of photons, the fidelity of the scattered photons, the quantum bit error rate, and the sifted key generation rate of underwater quantum communication. It can be observed from our simulations that the most secure single photon underwater free space QKD is feasible in the clearest ocean water.
Kukita, Tatsuya; Takada, Hiroshi; Inoue, Kyo
2010-12-01
Since it was noted that quantum computers could break public key cryptosystems based on number theory, extensive studies have been undertaken on quantum cryptography, which offers unconditionally secure communication based on quantum mechanics. We investigate a quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme using macroscopic coherent light with optically pre-amplified direct differential detection. A transmitter “Alice” sends a series of two macroscopic nonorthogonal coherent states that partially overlap due to quantum noise. A receiver “Bob” amplifies and receives it with direct differential detection followed by a thresholding process. To avoid difficulties in detection, our scheme uses conventional direct differential photodetection, not single-photon detection or homodyne detection as in previous QKD protocols. System performance assuming some eavesdropping is evaluated, the results of which suggest that our scheme is usable for short or medium distance.
Ko, Heasin; Choi, Byung-Seok; Choe, Joong-Seon; Kim, Kap-Joong; Kim, Jong-Hoi; Youn, Chun Ju
2017-08-21
Most polarization-based BB84 quantum key distribution (QKD) systems utilize multiple lasers to generate one of four polarization quantum states randomly. However, random bit generation with multiple lasers can potentially open critical side channels that significantly endangers the security of QKD systems. In this paper, we show unnoticed side channels of temporal disparity and intensity fluctuation, which possibly exist in the operation of multiple semiconductor laser diodes. Experimental results show that the side channels can enormously degrade security performance of QKD systems. An important system issue for the improvement of quantum bit error rate (QBER) related with laser driving condition is further addressed with experimental results.
Experimental realization of a one-way quantum computer algorithm solving Simon's problem.
Tame, M S; Bell, B A; Di Franco, C; Wadsworth, W J; Rarity, J G
2014-11-14
We report an experimental demonstration of a one-way implementation of a quantum algorithm solving Simon's problem-a black-box period-finding problem that has an exponential gap between the classical and quantum runtime. Using an all-optical setup and modifying the bases of single-qubit measurements on a five-qubit cluster state, key representative functions of the logical two-qubit version's black box can be queried and solved. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first experimental realization of the quantum algorithm solving Simon's problem. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical model, demonstrating the successful performance of the algorithm. With a view to scaling up to larger numbers of qubits, we analyze the resource requirements for an n-qubit version. This work helps highlight how one-way quantum computing provides a practical route to experimentally investigating the quantum-classical gap in the query complexity model.
Quantum-Locked Key Distribution at Nearly the Classical Capacity Rate
Lupo, Cosmo; Lloyd, Seth
2014-10-01
Quantum data locking is a protocol that allows for a small secret key to (un)lock an exponentially larger amount of information, hence yielding the strongest violation of the classical one-time pad encryption in the quantum setting. This violation mirrors a large gap existing between two security criteria for quantum cryptography quantified by two entropic quantities: the Holevo information and the accessible information. We show that the latter becomes a sensible security criterion if an upper bound on the coherence time of the eavesdropper's quantum memory is known. Under this condition, we introduce a protocol for secret key generation through a memoryless qudit channel. For channels with enough symmetry, such as the d-dimensional erasure and depolarizing channels, this protocol allows secret key generation at an asymptotic rate as high as the classical capacity minus one bit.
Experimental realization of Shor's quantum factoring algorithm using qubit recycling
Martín-López, Enrique; Laing, Anthony; Lawson, Thomas; Alvarez, Roberto; Zhou, Xiao-Qi; O'Brien, Jeremy L.
2012-11-01
Quantum computational algorithms exploit quantum mechanics to solve problems exponentially faster than the best classical algorithms. Shor's quantum algorithm for fast number factoring is a key example and the prime motivator in the international effort to realize a quantum computer. However, due to the substantial resource requirement, to date there have been only four small-scale demonstrations. Here, we address this resource demand and demonstrate a scalable version of Shor's algorithm in which the n-qubit control register is replaced by a single qubit that is recycled n times: the total number of qubits is one-third of that required in the standard protocol. Encoding the work register in higher-dimensional states, we implement a two-photon compiled algorithm to factor N = 21. The algorithmic output is distinguishable from noise, in contrast to previous demonstrations. These results point to larger-scale implementations of Shor's algorithm by harnessing scalable resource reductions applicable to all physical architectures.
Experimental demonstration of macroscopic quantum coherence in Gaussian states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marquardt, C.; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Leuchs, G.
2007-01-01
We witness experimentally the presence of macroscopic coherence in Gaussian quantum states using a recently proposed criterion [E. G. Cavalcanti and M. D. Reid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 170405 (2006)]. The macroscopic coherence stems from interference between macroscopically distinct states in phase...... space, and we prove experimentally that a coherent state contains these features with a distance in phase space of 0.51 +/- 0.02 shot noise units. This is surprising because coherent states are generally considered being at the border between classical and quantum states, not yet displaying any...
Experimental demonstration of squeezed-state quantum averaging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Madsen, Lars Skovgaard; Sabuncu, Metin
2010-01-01
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a universal quantum averaging process implementing the harmonic mean of quadrature variances. The averaged variances are prepared probabilistically by means of linear optical interference and measurement-induced conditioning. We verify that the implemented...... harmonic mean yields a lower value than the corresponding value obtained for the standard arithmetic-mean strategy. The effect of quantum averaging is experimentally tested for squeezed and thermal states as well as for uncorrelated and partially correlated noise sources. The harmonic-mean protocol can...
Fundamental rate-loss tradeoff for optical quantum key distribution
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Takeoka, Masahiro; Guha, Saikat; Wilde, Mark M
2014-01-01
.... Here we show that the secret key agreement capacity of a lossy and noisy optical channel assisted by unlimited two-way public classical communication is limited by an upper bound that is solely...
Randomized dynamical decoupling strategies and improved one-way key rates for quantum cryptography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kern, Oliver
2009-05-25
The present thesis deals with various methods of quantum error correction. It is divided into two parts. In the first part, dynamical decoupling methods are considered which have the task of suppressing the influence of residual imperfections in a quantum memory. Such imperfections might be given by couplings between the finite dimensional quantum systems (qudits) constituting the quantum memory, for instance. The suppression is achieved by altering the dynamics of an imperfect quantum memory with the help of a sequence of local unitary operations applied to the qudits. Whereas up to now the operations of such decoupling sequences have been constructed in a deterministic fashion, strategies are developed in this thesis which construct the operations by random selection from a suitable set. Formulas are derived which estimate the average performance of such strategies. As it turns out, randomized decoupling strategies offer advantages and disadvantages over deterministic ones. It is possible to benefit from the advantages of both kind of strategies by designing combined strategies. Furthermore, it is investigated if and how the discussed decoupling strategies can be employed to protect a quantum computation running on the quantum memory. It is shown that a purely randomized decoupling strategy may be used by applying the decoupling operations and adjusted gates of the quantum algorithm in an alternating fashion. Again this method can be enhanced by the means of deterministic methods in order to obtain a combined decoupling method for quantum computations analogously to the combining strategies for quantum memories. The second part of the thesis deals with quantum error-correcting codes and protocols for quantum key distribution. The focus is on the BB84 and the 6-state protocol making use of only one-way communication during the error correction and privacy amplification steps. It is shown that by adding additional errors to the preliminary key (a process called
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moroder, Tobias
2009-07-31
security analysis of an idealized quantum key distribution protocol to the real experiment. We develop a formalism to check whether a given realistic measurement device has such a squash model or not and provide relevant detection schemes with and without this particular property. We also address an experimental option which equally well provides security of a realistic quantum key distribution experiment by just using the idealized version of it. We exploit the idea that one can combine a variable beam splitter with a simple click/no-click detector in order to achieve the statistics of a photon number resolving detector. Via this hardware change it is straightforward to estimate the crucial parameters for the security statement. Lastly we focus on experimental entanglement verification. Considering the mere question of entanglement verification this practicality issue occurs since one often uses - because of various reasons - an oversimplified model for the performed measurements. We show that via such a misinterpretation of the measurement results one can indeed make mistakes, nevertheless we are more interested in conditions under which such errors can be excluded. For that we introduce and investigate a similar, but less restrictive, concept of the squash model. As an application we show that the usual tomography entanglement test, typically used in parametric down-conversion or even multipartite photonic experiments, can easily be made error-free. (orig.)
QSPIN: A High Level Java API for Quantum Computing Experimentation
Barth, Tim
2017-01-01
QSPIN is a high level Java language API for experimentation in QC models used in the calculation of Ising spin glass ground states and related quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) problems. The Java API is intended to facilitate research in advanced QC algorithms such as hybrid quantum-classical solvers, automatic selection of constraint and optimization parameters, and techniques for the correction and mitigation of model and solution errors. QSPIN includes high level solver objects tailored to the D-Wave quantum annealing architecture that implement hybrid quantum-classical algorithms [Booth et al.] for solving large problems on small quantum devices, elimination of variables via roof duality, and classical computing optimization methods such as GPU accelerated simulated annealing and tabu search for comparison. A test suite of documented NP-complete applications ranging from graph coloring, covering, and partitioning to integer programming and scheduling are provided to demonstrate current capabilities.
Shukla, Chitra; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban
2017-12-01
Semi-quantum protocols that allow some of the users to remain classical are proposed for a large class of problems associated with secure communication and secure multiparty computation. Specifically, first-time semi-quantum protocols are proposed for key agreement, controlled deterministic secure communication and dialogue, and it is shown that the semi-quantum protocols for controlled deterministic secure communication and dialogue can be reduced to semi-quantum protocols for e-commerce and private comparison (socialist millionaire problem), respectively. Complementing with the earlier proposed semi-quantum schemes for key distribution, secret sharing and deterministic secure communication, set of schemes proposed here and subsequent discussions have established that almost every secure communication and computation tasks that can be performed using fully quantum protocols can also be performed in semi-quantum manner. Some of the proposed schemes are completely orthogonal-state-based, and thus, fundamentally different from the existing semi-quantum schemes that are conjugate coding-based. Security, efficiency and applicability of the proposed schemes have been discussed with appropriate importance.
Quantum Flows for Secret Key Distribution in the Presence of the Photon Number Splitting Attack
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis A. Lizama-Pérez
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Physical implementations of quantum key distribution (QKD protocols, like the Bennett-Brassard (BB84, are forced to use attenuated coherent quantum states, because the sources of single photon states are not functional yet for QKD applications. However, when using attenuated coherent states, the relatively high rate of multi-photonic pulses introduces vulnerabilities that can be exploited by the photon number splitting (PNS attack to brake the quantum key. Some QKD protocols have been developed to be resistant to the PNS attack, like the decoy method, but those define a single photonic gain in the quantum channel. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a new QKD protocol, called ack-QKD, which is resistant to the PNS attack. Even more, it uses attenuated quantum states, but defines two interleaved photonic quantum flows to detect the eavesdropper activity by means of the quantum photonic error gain (QPEG or the quantum bit error rate (QBER. The physical implementation of the ack-QKD is similar to the well-known BB84 protocol.
Li, Jian; Yang, Yu-Guang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2016-08-19
A novel quantum private database query protocol is proposed, based on passive round-robin differential phase-shift quantum key distribution. Compared with previous quantum private database query protocols, the present protocol has the following unique merits: (i) the user Alice can obtain one and only one key bit so that both the efficiency and security of the present protocol can be ensured, and (ii) it does not require to change the length difference of the two arms in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and just chooses two pulses passively to interfere with so that it is much simpler and more practical. The present protocol is also proved to be secure in terms of the user security and database security.
One-time pad, complexity of verification of keys, and practical security of quantum cryptography
Molotkov, S. N.
2016-11-01
A direct relation between the complexity of the complete verification of keys, which is one of the main criteria of security in classical systems, and a trace distance used in quantum cryptography is demonstrated. Bounds for the minimum and maximum numbers of verification steps required to determine the actual key are obtained.
One-time pad, complexity of verification of keys, and practical security of quantum cryptography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Molotkov, S. N., E-mail: sergei.molotkov@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solid State Physics (Russian Federation)
2016-11-15
A direct relation between the complexity of the complete verification of keys, which is one of the main criteria of security in classical systems, and a trace distance used in quantum cryptography is demonstrated. Bounds for the minimum and maximum numbers of verification steps required to determine the actual key are obtained.
Direct and reverse secret-key capacities of a quantum channel.
Pirandola, Stefano; García-Patrón, Raul; Braunstein, Samuel L; Lloyd, Seth
2009-02-06
We define the direct and reverse secret-key capacities of a memoryless quantum channel as the optimal rates that entanglement-based quantum-key-distribution protocols can reach by using a single forward classical communication (direct reconciliation) or a single feedback classical communication (reverse reconciliation). In particular, the reverse secret-key capacity can be positive for antidegradable channels, where no forward strategy is known to be secure. This property is explicitly shown in the continuous variable framework by considering arbitrary one-mode Gaussian channels.
Quantum Key Distribution in the Presence of the Intercept-Resend with Faked States Attack
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis Adrian Lizama-Pérez
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Despite the unconditionally secure theory of the Quantum Key Distribution (Q K D, several attacks have been successfully implemented against commercial Q K D systems. Those systems have exhibited some flaws, as the secret key rate of corresponding protocols remains unaltered, while the eavesdropper obtains the entire secret key. We propose the negative acknowledgment state quantum key distribution protocol as a novel protocol capable of detecting the eavesdropping activity of the Intercept Resend with Faked Sates (I R F S attack without requiring additional optical components different from the B B 84 protocol because the system can be implemented as a high software module. In this approach, the transmitter interleaves pairs of quantum states, referred to here as parallel and orthogonal states, while the receiver uses active basis selection.
A System-Level Throughput Model for Quantum Key Distribution
2015-09-17
Equations, and Sequences ...........................................................24 viii 3.5 Baseline Configuration and Testing ...Central Processing Unit GPU = Graphical Processing Unit RSA = Rivest, Shamir, Adleman, in reference to the public-key cryptosystem MPN = Mean Photon...discrete logarithms in a finite field [35]. Arguably the most popular asymmetric encryption scheme is the RSA algorithm, published a year later in
Post-Quantum Key Exchange -- A new hope
E. Alkin; L. Ducas (Léo); T. Pöppelmann; P. Schwabe
2016-01-01
htmlabstractAt IEEE Security & Privacy 2015, Bos, Costello, Naehrig, and Stebila proposed an instantiation of Peikert's ring-learning-with-errors--based (Ring-LWE) key-exchange protocol (PQCrypto 2014), together with an implementation integrated into OpenSSL, with the affirmed goal of providing
Multiplexing scheme for simplified entanglement-based large-alphabet quantum key distribution
Dada, Adetunmise C.
2015-05-01
We propose a practical quantum cryptographic scheme which combines high information capacity, such as provided by high-dimensional quantum entanglement, with the simplicity of a two-dimensional Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell test for security verification. By applying a state combining entanglement in a two-dimensional degree of freedom, such as photon polarization, with high-dimensional correlations in another degree of freedom, such as photon orbital angular momentum (OAM) or path, the scheme provides a considerably simplified route towards security verification in quantum key distribution (QKD) aimed at exploiting high-dimensional quantum systems for increased secure key rates. It also benefits from security against collective attacks and is feasible using currently available technologies.
Zhang, Long; Sun, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Ke-Jia; Jia, Heng-Yue
2017-03-01
In this paper, a new quantum encryption based on the key-controlled chained CNOT operations, which is named KCCC encryption, is proposed. With the KCCC encryption, an improved arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) protocol is presented. Compared with the existing protocols, our protocol can effectively prevent forgery attacks and disavowal attacks. Moreover, only single state is required in the protocol. We hope it is helpful to further research in the design of AQS protocols in future.
Memory-assisted quantum key distribution resilient against multiple-excitation effects
Lo Piparo, Nicolò; Sinclair, Neil; Razavi, Mohsen
2018-01-01
Memory-assisted measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MA-MDI-QKD) has recently been proposed as a technique to improve the rate-versus-distance behavior of QKD systems by using existing, or nearly-achievable, quantum technologies. The promise is that MA-MDI-QKD would require less demanding quantum memories than the ones needed for probabilistic quantum repeaters. Nevertheless, early investigations suggest that, in order to beat the conventional memory-less QKD schemes, the quantum memories used in the MA-MDI-QKD protocols must have high bandwidth-storage products and short interaction times. Among different types of quantum memories, ensemble-based memories offer some of the required specifications, but they typically suffer from multiple excitation effects. To avoid the latter issue, in this paper, we propose two new variants of MA-MDI-QKD both relying on single-photon sources for entangling purposes. One is based on known techniques for entanglement distribution in quantum repeaters. This scheme turns out to offer no advantage even if one uses ideal single-photon sources. By finding the root cause of the problem, we then propose another setup, which can outperform single memory-less setups even if we allow for some imperfections in our single-photon sources. For such a scheme, we compare the key rate for different types of ensemble-based memories and show that certain classes of atomic ensembles can improve the rate-versus-distance behavior.
An improved proposal on the practical quantum key distribution with biased basis
Mao, Chen-Chen; Li, Jian; Zhu, Jian-Rong; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Qin
2017-10-01
In this manuscript, we propose an improved scheme on the decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) under practical experimental conditions with biased basis. Compared with the standard decoy-state method with biased basis (prepare signal pulses in both X and Z basis with certain probabilities, and weak decoy pulses as well), the difference here is, we prepare signal pulses in both X and Z basis, but the weak decoy state in only X basis. In the follow-up, we adopt this scheme to conducting numerical simulations on the QKD with the mostly often used source, i.e., weak coherent source by taking statistical fluctuations into account. Furthermore, we carry out full parameter optimization on it. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that our new scheme can present a higher key generation rate and a longer transmission distance compared with standard three-intensity decoy-state method with biased basis. Moreover, it shows drastically improved performance by conducting full parameter optimization in our new scheme compared with partial optimization.
Quantum hacking of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution using Trojan-horse attack
Ma, Hong-Xin; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Hong-Wei; Chou, Chun
2016-08-01
We present a Trojan-horse attack on the practical two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution system. Our attack mainly focuses on the imperfection of the practical system that the modulator has a redundancy of modulation pulse-width, which leaves a loophole for the eavesdropper inserting a Trojan-horse pulse. Utilizing the unique characteristics of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution that Alice only takes modulation operation on the received mode without any measurement, this attack allows the eavesdropper to render all of the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure without being detected. After analyzing the feasibility of the attack, the corresponding countermeasures are put forward. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB338002) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11304397 and 61505261).
Quantum key distribution and 1 Gbps data encryption over a single fibre
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eraerds, P; Walenta, N; Gisin, N; Zbinden, H [Group of Applied Physics-Optique, University of Geneva, Rue de l' Ecole-de-Medecine 20, 1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Legre, M, E-mail: patrick.eraerds@unige.c, E-mail: nino.walenta@unige.c [idQuantique SA, Chemin de la Marbrerie 3, 1227, Geneva (Switzerland)
2010-06-15
We perform quantum key distribution (QKD) over a single fibre in the presence of four classical channels in a C-band dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) configuration using a commercial QKD system. The classical channels are used for key distillation and 1 Gbps encrypted communication, rendering the entire system independent of any other communication channel than a single dedicated fibre. We successfully distil secret keys over fibre spans of up to 50 km. The separation between the quantum channel at 1551.72 nm and the nearest classical channel is only 200 GHz, while the classical channels are all separated by 100 GHz. In addition to that, we discuss possible improvements and alternative configurations, e.g. whether it is advantageous to choose the quantum channel at 1310 nm or to opt for a pure C-band (1530-1565 nm) configuration.
Practical issues in decoy-state quantum key distribution based on the central limit theorem
Trushechkin, A. S.; Kiktenko, E. O.; Fedorov, A. K.
2017-08-01
Decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) is a standard tool for long-distance quantum communications. An important issue in this field is processing the decoy-state statistics taking into account statistical fluctuations (or "finite-key effects"). In this work, we propose and analyze an option for decoy statistics processing, which is based on the central limit theorem. We discuss such practical issues as inclusion of the failure probability of the decoy-state statistical estimates in the total failure probability of a QKD protocol and also taking into account the deviations of the binomially distributed random variables used in the estimations from the Gaussian distribution. The results of numerical simulations show that the obtained estimations are quite tight. The proposed technique can be used as a part of post-processing procedures for industrial quantum key distribution systems.
Coexistence of High-Bit-Rate Quantum Key Distribution and Data on Optical Fiber
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. A. Patel
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Quantum key distribution (QKD uniquely allows the distribution of cryptographic keys with security verified by quantum mechanical limits. Both protocol execution and subsequent applications require the assistance of classical data communication channels. While using separate fibers is one option, it is economically more viable if data and quantum signals are simultaneously transmitted through a single fiber. However, noise-photon contamination arising from the intense data signal has severely restricted both the QKD distances and secure key rates. Here, we exploit a novel temporal-filtering effect for noise-photon rejection. This allows high-bit-rate QKD over fibers up to 90 km in length and populated with error-free bidirectional Gb/s data communications. With a high-bit rate and range sufficient for important information infrastructures, such as smart cities and 10-Gbit Ethernet, QKD is a significant step closer toward wide-scale deployment in fiber networks.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
da Lio, Beatrice; Bacco, Davide; Ding, Yunhong
2017-01-01
We experimentally prove a novel two-dimensional QKD scheme, relying on differential phasetime shifting (DPTS) of strongly attenuated weak coherent pulses. We demonstrate QKD transmission up to 170 km standard fiber, and even include a classical channel up to 90 km....
Experimental verification of multipartite entanglement in quantum networks
McCutcheon, W.; Pappa, A.; Bell, B. A.; McMillan, A.; Chailloux, A.; Lawson, T.; Mafu, M.; Markham, D.; Diamanti, E.; Kerenidis, I.; Rarity, J. G.; Tame, M. S.
2016-11-01
Multipartite entangled states are a fundamental resource for a wide range of quantum information processing tasks. In particular, in quantum networks, it is essential for the parties involved to be able to verify if entanglement is present before they carry out a given distributed task. Here we design and experimentally demonstrate a protocol that allows any party in a network to check if a source is distributing a genuinely multipartite entangled state, even in the presence of untrusted parties. The protocol remains secure against dishonest behaviour of the source and other parties, including the use of system imperfections to their advantage. We demonstrate the verification protocol in a three- and four-party setting using polarization-entangled photons, highlighting its potential for realistic photonic quantum communication and networking applications.
Experimental bit commitment based on quantum communication and special relativity.
Lunghi, T; Kaniewski, J; Bussières, F; Houlmann, R; Tomamichel, M; Kent, A; Gisin, N; Wehner, S; Zbinden, H
2013-11-01
Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Bob wishes to commit a secret bit to Alice. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is however possible when Alice and Bob split into several agents exchanging classical and quantum information at times and locations suitably chosen to satisfy specific relativistic constraints. Here we report on an implementation of a bit commitment protocol using quantum communication and special relativity. Our protocol is based on [A. Kent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 130501 (2012)] and has the advantage that it is practically feasible with arbitrary large separations between the agents in order to maximize the commitment time. By positioning agents in Geneva and Singapore, we obtain a commitment time of 15 ms. A security analysis considering experimental imperfections and finite statistics is presented.
Clarke, Patrick J; Collins, Robert J; Dunjko, Vedran; Andersson, Erika; Jeffers, John; Buller, Gerald S
2012-01-01
Digital signatures are frequently used in data transfer to prevent impersonation, repudiation and message tampering. Currently used classical digital signature schemes rely on public key encryption techniques, where the complexity of so-called 'one-way' mathematical functions is used to provide security over sufficiently long timescales. No mathematical proofs are known for the long-term security of such techniques. Quantum digital signatures offer a means of sending a message, which cannot be forged or repudiated, with security verified by information-theoretical limits and quantum mechanics. Here we demonstrate an experimental system, which distributes quantum signatures from one sender to two receivers and enables message sending ensured against forging and repudiation. Additionally, we analyse the security of the system in some typical scenarios. Our system is based on the interference of phase-encoded coherent states of light and our implementation utilizes polarization-maintaining optical fibre and photons with a wavelength of 850 nm.
Škorić, Boris; de Vries, Manon
Perfect encryption of quantum states using the Quantum One-Time Pad (QOTP) requires two classical key bits per qubit. Almost-perfect encryption, with information-theoretic security, requires only slightly more than 1. We slightly improve lower bounds on the key length. We show that key length n+2log1ɛ suffices to encrypt n qubits in such a way that the cipherstate’s L1-distance from uniformity is upperbounded by ɛ. For a stricter security definition involving the ∞-norm, we prove sufficient key length n+logn+2log1ɛ+1+1nlog1δ+logln21-ɛ, where δ is a small probability of failure. Our proof uses Pauli operators, whereas previous results on the ∞-norm needed Haar measure sampling. We show how to QOTP-encrypt classical plaintext in a nontrivial way: we encode a plaintext bit as the vector ±(1,1,1)/3 on the Bloch sphere. Applying the Pauli encryption operators results in eight possible cipherstates which are equally spread out on the Bloch sphere. This encoding, especially when combined with the half-keylength option of QOTP, has advantages over 4-state and 6-state encoding in applications such as Quantum Key Recycling (QKR) and Unclonable Encryption (UE). We propose a key recycling scheme that is more efficient and can tolerate more noise than a recent scheme by Fehr and Salvail. For 8-state QOTP encryption with pseudorandom keys, we do a statistical analysis of the cipherstate eigenvalues. We present numerics up to nine qubits.
An Empirical Analysis of the Cascade Secret Key Reconciliation Protocol for Quantum Key Distribution
2011-09-01
sifted key generation, the simulation utilizes the pseudo-random number generator Mersenne Twister developed by Matsumoto and Nishimura (Matsumoto...Mersenne Twister pseudo-random number generator. A cryptographically secure pseudo-random number generator may be a better choice for future... twister : a 623-dimensionally equidistributed uniform pseudo-random number generator. ACM Trans. Model. Comput. Simul. , 8 (1), 3-30. Maurer, U. M
An Efficient and Secure Arbitrary N-Party Quantum Key Agreement Protocol Using Bell States
Liu, Wen-Jie; Xu, Yong; Yang, Ching-Nung; Gao, Pei-Pei; Yu, Wen-Bin
2018-01-01
Two quantum key agreement protocols using Bell states and Bell measurement were recently proposed by Shukla et al. (Quantum Inf. Process. 13(11), 2391-2405, 2014). However, Zhu et al. pointed out that there are some security flaws and proposed an improved version (Quantum Inf. Process. 14(11), 4245-4254, 2015). In this study, we will show Zhu et al.'s improvement still exists some security problems, and its efficiency is not high enough. For solving these problems, we utilize four Pauli operations { I, Z, X, Y} to encode two bits instead of the original two operations { I, X} to encode one bit, and then propose an efficient and secure arbitrary N-party quantum key agreement protocol. In the protocol, the channel checking with decoy single photons is introduced to avoid the eavesdropper's flip attack, and a post-measurement mechanism is used to prevent against the collusion attack. The security analysis shows the present protocol can guarantee the correctness, security, privacy and fairness of quantum key agreement.
An Efficient and Secure Arbitrary N-Party Quantum Key Agreement Protocol Using Bell States
Liu, Wen-Jie; Xu, Yong; Yang, Ching-Nung; Gao, Pei-Pei; Yu, Wen-Bin
2017-09-01
Two quantum key agreement protocols using Bell states and Bell measurement were recently proposed by Shukla et al. (Quantum Inf. Process. 13(11), 2391-2405, 2014). However, Zhu et al. pointed out that there are some security flaws and proposed an improved version (Quantum Inf. Process. 14(11), 4245-4254, 2015). In this study, we will show Zhu et al.'s improvement still exists some security problems, and its efficiency is not high enough. For solving these problems, we utilize four Pauli operations {I, Z, X, Y} to encode two bits instead of the original two operations {I, X} to encode one bit, and then propose an efficient and secure arbitrary N-party quantum key agreement protocol. In the protocol, the channel checking with decoy single photons is introduced to avoid the eavesdropper's flip attack, and a post-measurement mechanism is used to prevent against the collusion attack. The security analysis shows the present protocol can guarantee the correctness, security, privacy and fairness of quantum key agreement.
W-state Analyzer and Multi-party Measurement-device-independent Quantum Key Distribution.
Zhu, Changhua; Xu, Feihu; Pei, Changxing
2015-12-08
W-state is an important resource for many quantum information processing tasks. In this paper, we for the first time propose a multi-party measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol based on W-state. With linear optics, we design a W-state analyzer in order to distinguish the four-qubit W-state. This analyzer constructs the measurement device for four-party MDI-QKD. Moreover, we derived a complete security proof of the four-party MDI-QKD, and performed a numerical simulation to study its performance. The results show that four-party MDI-QKD is feasible over 150 km standard telecom fiber with off-the-shelf single photon detectors. This work takes an important step towards multi-party quantum communication and a quantum network.
Improved two-way six-state protocol for quantum key distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shaari, J.S., E-mail: jesni_shamsul@yahoo.com [Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahari, Asma' Ahmad [Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)
2012-10-01
A generalized version for a qubit based two-way quantum key distribution scheme was first proposed in the paper [Phys. Lett. A 358 (2006) 85] capitalizing on the six quantum states derived from three mutually unbiased bases. While boasting of a higher level of security, the protocol was not designed for ease of practical implementation. In this work, we propose modifications to the protocol, resulting not only in improved security but also in a more efficient and practical setup. We provide comparisons for calculated secure key rates for the protocols in noisy and lossy channels. -- Highlights: ► Modification for efficient generalized two-way QKD is proposed. ► Calculations include secure key rates in noisy and lossy channels for selected attack scenario. ► Resulting proposal provides for higher secure key rate in selected attack scheme.
Secure detection in quantum key distribution by real-time calibration of receiver
Marøy, Øystein; Makarov, Vadim; Skaar, Johannes
2017-12-01
The single-photon detectionefficiency of the detector unit is crucial for the security of common quantum key distribution protocols like Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84). A low value for the efficiency indicates a possible eavesdropping attack that exploits the photon receiver’s imperfections. We present a method for estimating the detection efficiency, and calculate the corresponding secure key generation rate. The estimation is done by testing gated detectors using a randomly activated photon source inside the receiver unit. This estimate gives a secure rate for any detector with non-unity single-photon detection efficiency, both inherit or due to blinding. By adding extra optical components to the receiver, we make sure that the key is extracted from photon states for which our estimate is valid. The result is a quantum key distribution scheme that is secure against any attack that exploits detector imperfections.
Multi-party Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution Based on Cluster States
Liu, Chuanqi; Zhu, Changhua; Ma, Shuquan; Pei, Changxing
2017-12-01
We propose a novel multi-party measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol based on cluster states. A four-photon analyzer which can distinguish all the 16 cluster states serves as the measurement device for four-party MDI-QKD. Any two out of four participants can build secure keys after the analyzers obtains successful outputs and the two participants perform post-processing. We derive a security analysis for the protocol, and analyze the key rates under different values of polarization misalignment. The results show that four-party MDI-QKD is feasible over 280 km in the optical fiber channel when the key rate is about 10- 6 with the polarization misalignment parameter 0.015. Moreover, our work takes an important step toward a quantum communication network.
Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization
Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei
2014-04-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.
Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution over Untrustful Metropolitan Network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan-Lin Tang
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Quantum cryptography holds the promise to establish an information-theoretically secure global network. All field tests of metropolitan-scale quantum networks to date are based on trusted relays. The security critically relies on the accountability of the trusted relays, which will break down if the relay is dishonest or compromised. Here, we construct a measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDIQKD network in a star topology over a 200-square-kilometer metropolitan area, which is secure against untrustful relays and against all detection attacks. In the field test, our system continuously runs through one week with a secure key rate 10 times larger than previous results. Our results demonstrate that the MDIQKD network, combining the best of both worlds—security and practicality, constitutes an appealing solution to secure metropolitan communications.
2 GHz clock quantum key distribution over 260 km of standard telecom fiber.
Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Guo, Jun-Fu; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Zheng; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2012-03-15
We report a demonstration of quantum key distribution (QKD) over a standard telecom fiber exceeding 50 dB in loss and 250 km in length. The differential phase shift QKD protocol was chosen and implemented with a 2 GHz system clock rate. By careful optimization of the 1 bit delayed Faraday-Michelson interferometer and the use of the superconducting single photon detector (SSPD), we achieved a quantum bit error rate below 2% when the fiber length was no more than 205 km, and of 3.45% for a 260 km fiber with 52.9 dB loss. We also improved the quantum efficiency of SSPD to obtain a high key rate for 50 km length.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Logan O. Mailloux
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Quantum Key Distribution (QKD systems exploit the laws of quantum mechanics to generate secure keying material for cryptographic purposes. To date, several commercially viable decoy state enabled QKD systems have been successfully demonstrated and show promise for high-security applications such as banking, government, and military environments. In this work, a detailed performance analysis of decoy state enabled QKD systems is conducted through model and simulation of several common decoy state configurations. The results of this study uniquely demonstrate that the decoy state protocol can ensure Photon Number Splitting (PNS attacks are detected with high confidence, while maximizing the system’s quantum throughput at no additional cost. Additionally, implementation security guidance is provided for QKD system developers and users.
Li, Bingpeng
2017-02-01
Realizing long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) in fiber channel where classical optical communications and quantum signals are multiplexed by their different wavelengths has attracted considerable attentions. The achievable secure distance of commonly-used Bennet-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol is lowered severely due to inevitable crosstalk from classical optical pulses. Unlike conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, round-robin differential-phase-shift (RRDPS) QKD protocol has a high tolerance for noise, since the potential information leakage in this protocol can be bounded without monitoring signal disturbance. Thus, it may be a promising protocol under noisy channel. In this work, we investigate the performance, e.g., achievable secure distance of RRPDS protocol, when crosstalk from classical communication is considered. Surprisingly, we find that RRPDS only has quite limited advantage over BB84 protocol when optical misalignment of QKD system is serious. If misalignment is trivial, BB84 can even outperform RRDPS protocol.
Quantum mechanics of excitation transport in photosynthetic complexes: a key issues review.
Levi, Federico; Mostarda, Stefano; Rao, Francesco; Mintert, Florian
2015-07-01
For a long time microscopic physical descriptions of biological processes have been based on quantum mechanical concepts and tools, and routinely employed by chemical physicists and quantum chemists. However, the last ten years have witnessed new developments on these studies from a different perspective, rooted in the framework of quantum information theory. The process that more, than others, has been subject of intense research is the transfer of excitation energy in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes, a consequence of the unexpected experimental discovery of oscillating signals in such highly noisy systems. The fundamental interdisciplinary nature of this research makes it extremely fascinating, but can also constitute an obstacle to its advance. Here in this review our objective is to provide an essential summary of the progress made in the theoretical description of excitation energy dynamics in photosynthetic systems from a quantum mechanical perspective, with the goal of unifying the language employed by the different communities. This is initially realized through a stepwise presentation of the fundamental building blocks used to model excitation transfer, including protein dynamics and the theory of open quantum system. Afterwards, we shall review how these models have evolved as a consequence of experimental discoveries; this will lead us to present the numerical techniques that have been introduced to quantitatively describe photo-absorbed energy dynamics. Finally, we shall discuss which mechanisms have been proposed to explain the unusual coherent nature of excitation transport and what insights have been gathered so far on the potential functional role of such quantum features.
Quantum mechanics of excitation transport in photosynthetic complexes: a key issues review
Levi, Federico; Mostarda, Stefano; Rao, Francesco; Mintert, Florian
2015-07-01
For a long time microscopic physical descriptions of biological processes have been based on quantum mechanical concepts and tools, and routinely employed by chemical physicists and quantum chemists. However, the last ten years have witnessed new developments on these studies from a different perspective, rooted in the framework of quantum information theory. The process that more, than others, has been subject of intense research is the transfer of excitation energy in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes, a consequence of the unexpected experimental discovery of oscillating signals in such highly noisy systems. The fundamental interdisciplinary nature of this research makes it extremely fascinating, but can also constitute an obstacle to its advance. Here in this review our objective is to provide an essential summary of the progress made in the theoretical description of excitation energy dynamics in photosynthetic systems from a quantum mechanical perspective, with the goal of unifying the language employed by the different communities. This is initially realized through a stepwise presentation of the fundamental building blocks used to model excitation transfer, including protein dynamics and the theory of open quantum system. Afterwards, we shall review how these models have evolved as a consequence of experimental discoveries; this will lead us to present the numerical techniques that have been introduced to quantitatively describe photo-absorbed energy dynamics. Finally, we shall discuss which mechanisms have been proposed to explain the unusual coherent nature of excitation transport and what insights have been gathered so far on the potential functional role of such quantum features.
Provably Secure Experimental Quantum Bit-String Generation
Lamoureux, Louis-Philippe; Brainis, Edouard; Amans, David; Barrett, Jonathan; Massar, Serge
2004-01-01
Coin tossing is a cryptographic task in which two parties who do not trust each other aim to generate a common random bit. Using classical communication this is impossible, but non trivial coin tossing is possible using quantum communication. Here we consider the case when the parties do not want to toss a single coin, but many. This is called bit string generation. We report the experimental generation of strings of coins which are provably more random than achievable using classical communi...
Security conditions for sub-carrier wave quantum key distribution protocol in errorless channel
Gaidash, A.; Kozubov, A.; Chistyakov, V.; Miroshnichenko, G.; Egorov, V.; Gleim, A.
2017-11-01
Article deals with security criterion for sub-carrier wave quantum key distribution (SCW QKD) protocol in errorless channel. SCW QKD is promising type of QKD system in a field of telecommunications due to its compatibility and very efficient using of channel spectral bandwidth. Corresponding expression of security condition was derived for the first time in this work.
Mailloux, Logan O.; Grimaila, Michael R.; Hodson, Douglas D.; Engle, Ryan D.; McLaughlin, Colin V.; Gerald B. Baumgartner
2016-01-01
Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is an innovative quantum communications protocol which exploits the laws of quantum mechanics to generate unconditionally secure cryptographic keying material between two geographically separated parties. The unique nature of QKD shows promise for high-security applications such as those found in banking, government, and military environments. However, QKD systems contain implementation non-idealities which can negatively impact their performance and security.In...
High-dimensional quantum key distribution with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yang [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Bao, Wan-Su, E-mail: 2010thzz@sina.com [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Bao, Hai-Ze; Zhou, Chun; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Li, Hong-Wei [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)
2017-04-25
High-dimensional quantum key distribution (HD-QKD) can generate more secure bits for one detection event so that it can achieve long distance key distribution with a high secret key capacity. In this Letter, we present a decoy state HD-QKD scheme with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state (ESPACS) source. We present two tight formulas to estimate the single-photon fraction of postselected events and Eve's Holevo information and derive lower bounds on the secret key capacity and the secret key rate of our protocol. We also present finite-key analysis for our protocol by using the Chernoff bound. Our numerical results show that our protocol using one decoy state can perform better than that of previous HD-QKD protocol with the spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) using two decoy states. Moreover, when considering finite resources, the advantage is more obvious. - Highlights: • Implement the single-photon-added coherent state source into the high-dimensional quantum key distribution. • Enhance both the secret key capacity and the secret key rate compared with previous schemes. • Show an excellent performance in view of statistical fluctuations.
High-dimensional decoy-state quantum key distribution over multicore telecommunication fibers
Cañas, G.; Vera, N.; Cariñe, J.; González, P.; Cardenas, J.; Connolly, P. W. R.; Przysiezna, A.; Gómez, E. S.; Figueroa, M.; Vallone, G.; Villoresi, P.; da Silva, T. Ferreira; Xavier, G. B.; Lima, G.
2017-08-01
Multiplexing is a strategy to augment the transmission capacity of a communication system. It consists of combining multiple signals over the same data channel and it has been very successful in classical communications. However, the use of enhanced channels has only reached limited practicality in quantum communications (QC) as it requires the manipulation of quantum systems of higher dimensions. Considerable effort is being made towards QC using high-dimensional quantum systems encoded into the transverse momentum of single photons, but so far no approach has been proven to be fully compatible with the existing telecommunication fibers. Here we overcome such a challenge and demonstrate a secure high-dimensional decoy-state quantum key distribution session over a 300-m-long multicore optical fiber. The high-dimensional quantum states are defined in terms of the transverse core modes available for the photon transmission over the fiber, and theoretical analyses show that positive secret key rates can be achieved through metropolitan distances.
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond
Lo Piparo, Nicoló; Razavi, Mohsen; Munro, William J.
2017-02-01
Memory-assisted measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MA-MDI-QKD) has recently been proposed as a possible intermediate step towards the realization of quantum repeaters. Despite its relaxing some of the requirements on quantum memories, the choice of memory in relation to the layout of the setup and the protocol has a stark effect on our ability to beat existing no-memory systems. Here, we investigate the suitability of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers, as quantum memories, in MA-MDI-QKD. We particularly show that moderate cavity enhancement is required for NV centers if we want to outperform no-memory QKD systems. Using system parameters mostly achievable by today's state of the art, we then anticipate some total key rate advantage in the distance range between 300 and 500 km for cavity-enhanced NV centers. Our analysis accounts for major sources of error including the dark current, the channel loss, and the decoherence of the quantum memories.
Guo, Ying; Xie, Cailang; Liao, Qin; Zhao, Wei; Zeng, Guihua; Huang, Duan
2017-08-01
The survival of Gaussian quantum states in a turbulent atmospheric channel is of crucial importance in free-space continuous-variable (CV) quantum key distribution (QKD), in which the transmission coefficient will fluctuate in time, thus resulting in non-Gaussian quantum states. Different from quantum hacking of the imperfections of practical devices, here we propose a different type of attack by exploiting the security loopholes that occur in a real lossy channel. Under a turbulent atmospheric environment, the Gaussian states are inevitably afflicted by decoherence, which would cause a degradation of the transmitted entanglement. Therefore, an eavesdropper can perform an intercept-resend attack by applying an entanglement-distillation operation on the transmitted non-Gaussian mixed states, which allows the eavesdropper to bias the estimation of the parameters and renders the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure. Our proposal highlights the practical CV QKD vulnerabilities with free-space quantum channels, including the satellite-to-earth links, ground-to-ground links, and a link from moving objects to ground stations.
Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum random-number generation
Nie, You-Qi; Guan, Jian-Yu; Zhou, Hongyi; Zhang, Qiang; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-12-01
The randomness from a quantum random-number generator (QRNG) relies on the accurate characterization of its devices. However, device imperfections and inaccurate characterizations can result in wrong entropy estimation and bias in practice, which highly affects the genuine randomness generation and may even induce the disappearance of quantum randomness in an extreme case. Here we experimentally demonstrate a measurement-device-independent (MDI) QRNG based on time-bin encoding to achieve certified quantum randomness even when the measurement devices are uncharacterized and untrusted. The MDI-QRNG is randomly switched between the regular randomness generation mode and a test mode, in which four quantum states are randomly prepared to perform measurement tomography in real time. With a clock rate of 25 MHz, the MDI-QRNG generates a final random bit rate of 5.7 kbps. Such implementation with an all-fiber setup provides an approach to construct a fully integrated MDI-QRNG with trusted but error-prone devices in practice.
High performance reconciliation for continuous-variable quantum key distribution with LDPC code
Lin, Dakai; Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Peng, Jinye; Zeng, Guihua
2015-03-01
Reconciliation is a significant procedure in a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system. It is employed to extract secure secret key from the resulted string through quantum channel between two users. However, the efficiency and the speed of previous reconciliation algorithms are low. These problems limit the secure communication distance and the secure key rate of CV-QKD systems. In this paper, we proposed a high-speed reconciliation algorithm through employing a well-structured decoding scheme based on low density parity-check (LDPC) code. The complexity of the proposed algorithm is reduced obviously. By using a graphics processing unit (GPU) device, our method may reach a reconciliation speed of 25 Mb/s for a CV-QKD system, which is currently the highest level and paves the way to high-speed CV-QKD.
Quantum Key Distribution with High Order Fibonacci-like Orbital Angular Momentum States
Pan, Ziwen; Cai, Jiarui; Wang, Chuan
2017-08-01
The coding space in quantum communication could be expanded to high-dimensional space by using orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of photons, as both the capacity of the channel and security are enhanced. Here we present a novel approach to realize high-capacity quantum key distribution (QKD) by exploiting OAM states. The innovation of the proposed approach relies on a unique type of entangled-photon source which produces entangled photons with OAM randomly distributed among high order Fiboncci-like numbers and a new physical mechanism for efficiently sharing keys. This combination of entanglement with mathematical properties of high order Fibonacci sequences provides the QKD protocol immunity to photon-number-splitting attacks and allows secure generation of long keys from few photons. Unlike other protocols, reference frame alignment and active modulation of production and detection bases are unnecessary.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gehring, Tobias; Haendchen, Vitus; Duhme, Joerg
2015-01-01
-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our......Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State...... with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Myhr, Geir Ove
2010-11-08
Just like we can divide the set of bipartite quantum states into separable states and entangled states, we can divide it into states with and without a symmetric extension. The states with a symmetric extension - which includes all the separable states - behave classically in many ways, while the states without a symmetric extension - which are all entangled - have the potential to exhibit quantum effects. The set of states with a symmetric extension is closed under local quantum operations assisted by one-way classical communication (1-LOCC) just like the set of separable states is closed under local operations assisted by two-way classical communication (LOCC). Because of this, states with a symmetric extension often play the same role in a one-way communication setting as the separable states play in a two-way communication setting. We show that any state with a symmetric extension can be decomposed into a convex combination of states that have a pure symmetric extension. A necessary condition for a state to have a pure symmetric extension is that the spectra of the local and global density matrices are equal. This condition is also sufficient for two qubits, but not for any larger systems. We present a conjectured necessary and sufficient condition for two-qubit states with a symmetric extension. Proofs are provided for some classes of states: rank-two states, states on the symmetric subspace, Bell-diagonal states and states that are invariant under S x S, where S is a phase gate. We also show how the symmetric extension problem for multi-qubit Bell-diagonal states can be simplified and the simplified problem implemented as a semidefinite program. Quantum key distribution protocols such as the six-state protocol and the BB84 protocol effectively gives Alice and Bob Bell-diagonal states that they measure in the standard basis to obtain a raw key which they may then process further to obtain a secret error-free key. When the raw key has a high error rate, the
High-Rate Field Demonstration of Large-Alphabet Quantum Key Distribution
2016-10-12
detectors, as illustrated in Figure 1(b). In this regime, which extends to approximately 100 km for these parameters, the best strategy to maximize the secret...2009). [14] Wang, S. et al. 2 GHz clock quantum key distribution over 260 km of standard telecom fiber. Opt. Lett. 37, 1008–1010 (2012). [15] Korzh, B...by controlling excess noise. Sci. Rep. 6, 19201 (2016). [30] Treiber, A. et al. A fully automated entanglement-based quantum cryptography system for telecom fiber networks. New J. Phys. 11, 045013 (2009).
Two-dimensional distributed-phase-reference protocol for quantum key distribution
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bacco, Davide; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.
2016-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) and quantum communication enable the secure exchange of information between remote parties. Currently, the distributed-phase-reference (DPR) protocols, which are based on weak coherent pulses, are among the most practical solutions for long-range QKD. During the last...... 10 years, long-distance fiber-based DPR systems have been successfully demonstrated, although fundamental obstacles such as intrinsic channel losses limit their performance. Here, we introduce the first two-dimensional DPR-QKD protocol in which information is encoded in the time and phase of weak...
Security of a semi-quantum protocol where reflections contribute to the secret key
Krawec, Walter O.
2016-05-01
In this paper, we provide a proof of unconditional security for a semi-quantum key distribution protocol introduced in a previous work. This particular protocol demonstrated the possibility of using X basis states to contribute to the raw key of the two users (as opposed to using only direct measurement results) even though a semi-quantum participant cannot directly manipulate such states. In this work, we provide a complete proof of security by deriving a lower bound of the protocol's key rate in the asymptotic scenario. Using this bound, we are able to find an error threshold value such that for all error rates less than this threshold, it is guaranteed that A and B may distill a secure secret key; for error rates larger than this threshold, A and B should abort. We demonstrate that this error threshold compares favorably to several fully quantum protocols. We also comment on some interesting observations about the behavior of this protocol under certain noise scenarios.
Quantum-Enhanced Cyber Security: Experimental Computation on Quantum-Encrypted Data
2017-03-02
of using polarization qubits on a chip is coupling the photons from free space spontaneous parametric down- conversion sources to the chip...respect to regular quantum computer architectures , creating processes without a causal order is an experimental task. Supported by this project we...definite causal order by measuring a causal witness. This mathematical object incorporates a series of measurements which are designed to yield a
Gleim, A V; Egorov, V I; Nazarov, Yu V; Smirnov, S V; Chistyakov, V V; Bannik, O I; Anisimov, A A; Kynev, S M; Ivanova, A E; Collins, R J; Kozlov, S A; Buller, G S
2016-02-08
A quantum key distribution system based on the subcarrier wave modulation method has been demonstrated which employs the BB84 protocol with a strong reference to generate secure bits at a rate of 16.5 kbit/s with an error of 0.5% over an optical channel of 10 dB loss, and 18 bits/s with an error of 0.75% over 25 dB of channel loss. To the best of our knowledge, these results represent the highest channel loss reported for secure quantum key distribution using the subcarrier wave approach. A passive unidirectional scheme has been used to compensate for the polarization dependence of the phase modulators in the receiver module, which resulted in a high visibility of 98.8%. The system is thus fully insensitive to polarization fluctuations and robust to environmental changes, making the approach promising for use in optical telecommunication networks. Further improvements in secure key rate and transmission distance can be achieved by implementing the decoy states protocol or by optimizing the mean photon number used in line with experimental parameters.
Numerical assessment and optimization of discrete-variable time-frequency quantum key distribution
Rödiger, Jasper; Perlot, Nicolas; Mottola, Roberto; Elschner, Robert; Weinert, Carl-Michael; Benson, Oliver; Freund, Ronald
2017-05-01
The discrete-variables (DV) time-frequency (TF) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol is a BB84-like protocol, which utilizes time and frequency as complementary bases. As orthogonal modulations, pulse position modulation (PPM) and frequency shift keying (FSK) are capable of transmitting several bits per symbol, i.e., per photon. However, unlike traditional binary polarization shift keying, PPM and FSK do not allow perfectly complementary bases. So information is not completely deleted when the wrong-basis filters are applied. Since a general security proof does not yet exist, we numerically assess DV-TF-QKD. We show that the secret key rate increases with a higher number of symbols per basis. Further we identify the optimal pulse relations in the two bases in terms of key rate and resistance against eavesdropping attacks.
High speed and adaptable error correction for megabit/s rate quantum key distribution.
Dixon, A R; Sato, H
2014-12-02
Quantum Key Distribution is moving from its theoretical foundation of unconditional security to rapidly approaching real world installations. A significant part of this move is the orders of magnitude increases in the rate at which secure key bits are distributed. However, these advances have mostly been confined to the physical hardware stage of QKD, with software post-processing often being unable to support the high raw bit rates. In a complete implementation this leads to a bottleneck limiting the final secure key rate of the system unnecessarily. Here we report details of equally high rate error correction which is further adaptable to maximise the secure key rate under a range of different operating conditions. The error correction is implemented both in CPU and GPU using a bi-directional LDPC approach and can provide 90-94% of the ideal secure key rate over all fibre distances from 0-80 km.
Experimentally freezing quantum discord in a dephasing environment using dynamical decoupling
Singh, Harpreet; Arvind; Dorai, Kavita
2017-06-01
The discovery of the intriguing phenomenon that certain kinds of quantum correlations remain impervious to noise up to a specific point in time and then suddenly decay, has generated immense recent interest. We exploit dynamical decoupling sequences to prolong the persistence of time-invariant quantum correlations in a system of two NMR qubits decohering in independent dephasing environments. We experimentally prepare two-qubit Bell-diagonal quantum states that interact with individual noise channels and demonstrate that we are able to freeze quantum correlations over long time scales via dynamical decoupling. Our results have important implications for experimental quantum control and for quantum information processing protocols.
Two-dimensional distributed-phase-reference protocol for quantum key distribution
Bacco, Davide; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge; Castaneda, Mario A. Usuga; Ding, Yunhong; Forchhammer, Søren; Rottwitt, Karsten; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo
2016-12-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) and quantum communication enable the secure exchange of information between remote parties. Currently, the distributed-phase-reference (DPR) protocols, which are based on weak coherent pulses, are among the most practical solutions for long-range QKD. During the last 10 years, long-distance fiber-based DPR systems have been successfully demonstrated, although fundamental obstacles such as intrinsic channel losses limit their performance. Here, we introduce the first two-dimensional DPR-QKD protocol in which information is encoded in the time and phase of weak coherent pulses. The ability of extracting two bits of information per detection event, enables a higher secret key rate in specific realistic network scenarios. Moreover, despite the use of more dimensions, the proposed protocol remains simple, practical, and fully integrable.
Takeoka, Masahiro; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Wilde, Mark M.
2017-10-01
We consider quantum key distribution (QKD) and entanglement distribution using a single-sender multiple-receiver pure-loss bosonic broadcast channel. We determine the unconstrained capacity region for the distillation of bipartite entanglement and secret key between the sender and each receiver, whenever they are allowed arbitrary public classical communication. A practical implication of our result is that the capacity region demonstrated drastically improves upon rates achievable using a naive time-sharing strategy, which has been employed in previously demonstrated network QKD systems. We show a simple example of a broadcast QKD protocol overcoming the limit of the point-to-point strategy. Our result is thus an important step toward opening a new framework of network channel-based quantum communication technology.
Takeoka, Masahiro; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P; Wilde, Mark M
2017-10-13
We consider quantum key distribution (QKD) and entanglement distribution using a single-sender multiple-receiver pure-loss bosonic broadcast channel. We determine the unconstrained capacity region for the distillation of bipartite entanglement and secret key between the sender and each receiver, whenever they are allowed arbitrary public classical communication. A practical implication of our result is that the capacity region demonstrated drastically improves upon rates achievable using a naive time-sharing strategy, which has been employed in previously demonstrated network QKD systems. We show a simple example of a broadcast QKD protocol overcoming the limit of the point-to-point strategy. Our result is thus an important step toward opening a new framework of network channel-based quantum communication technology.
Multi-channel parallel continuous variable quantum key distribution with Gaussian modulation
Fang, Jian; Huang, Peng; Zeng, Guihua
2013-01-01
We propose a novel scheme for continuous variable quantum key distribution(CV-QKD) using the subcarrier multiplexing technique which was employed in microwave photonics. This scheme allows to distribute N channels independent Gaussian modulated CV-QKD in parallel with one laser source and several phase modulators. We analyze the influence of nonlinear signal mixing and the security in the asymptotic limit. Results indicate that by using this multiplexing technique, each channel will be introd...
Some Physics And System Issues In The Security Analysis Of Quantum Key Distribution Protocols
Yuen, Horace P.
2014-01-01
In this paper we review a number of issues on the security of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols that bear directly on the relevant physics or mathematical representation of the QKD cryptosystem. It is shown that the cryptosystem representation itself may miss out many possible attacks which are not accounted for in the security analysis and proofs. Hence the final security claims drawn from such analysis are not reliable, apart from foundational issues about the security criteria that ...
Secure Communication via Key Generation with Quantum Measurement Advantage in the Telecom Band
2013-10-30
quantum Zeno blockade in nonlinear optical systems [12]. Considering specifically a lithium- niobate microresonator, we found that a deterministic phase...and KCQ key generation, employs secrecy protection mechanisms at the physical signal level away from the bit level at the application layer end of...communications and is referred to as optical CDMA (OCDMA). OCDMA can provide an inherent physical layer security and is also capable of various networking
Long-distance copropagation of quantum key distribution and terabit classical optical data channels
Wang, Liu-Jun; Zou, Kai-Heng; Sun, Wei; Mao, Yingqiu; Zhu, Yi-Xiao; Yin, Hua-Lei; Chen, Qing; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Teng-Yun; Pan, Jian-Wei
2017-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) generates symmetric keys between two remote parties and guarantees the keys are not accessible to any third party. Wavelength-division multiplexing between QKD and classical optical communications by sharing the existing fiber-optics infrastructure is highly desired in order to reduce the cost of QKD applications. However, comparing to the light for classical transmission, quantum signals are very weak and easily affected by impairments from classical light, such as the spontaneous Raman-scattering effect. Here, by selecting an optimal wavelength of quantum signals, we significantly reduce the influence of the Raman-scattering effect. In addition, through coherent optical communication technology, we achieve high-speed classical data transmission with relatively low launch powers, thereby further reducing the impairments from classical light. As a result, we realize the multiplexing and long-distance copropagation of QKD and terabit classical data transmission up to 80 km. The data capacity is two orders of magnitude larger than the existing results. Our demonstration verifies the feasibility of QKD and classical communication to share the resources of backbone fiber links and thus taking the utility of QKD a great step forward.
Chen, Dong; Shang-Hong, Zhao; MengYi, Deng
2018-03-01
The multiple crystal heralded source with post-selection (MHPS), originally introduced to improve the single-photon character of the heralded source, has specific applications for quantum information protocols. In this paper, by combining decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) with spontaneous parametric downconversion process, we present a modified MDI-QKD scheme with MHPS where two architectures are proposed corresponding to symmetric scheme and asymmetric scheme. The symmetric scheme, which linked by photon switches in a log-tree structure, is adopted to overcome the limitation of the current low efficiency of m-to-1 optical switches. The asymmetric scheme, which shows a chained structure, is used to cope with the scalability issue with increase in the number of crystals suffered in symmetric scheme. The numerical simulations show that our modified scheme has apparent advances both in transmission distance and key generation rate compared to the original MDI-QKD with weak coherent source and traditional heralded source with post-selection. Furthermore, the recent advances in integrated photonics suggest that if built into a single chip, the MHPS might be a practical alternative source in quantum key distribution tasks requiring single photons to work.
Integrated quantum key distribution sender unit for daily-life implementations
Mélen, Gwenaelle; Vogl, Tobias; Rau, Markus; Corrielli, Giacomo; Crespi, Andrea; Osellame, Roberto; Weinfurter, Harald
2016-03-01
Unlike currently implemented encryption schemes, Quantum Key Distribution provides a secure way of generating and distributing a key among two parties. Although a multitude of research platforms has been developed, the integration of QKD units within classical communication systems remains a tremendous challenge. The recently achieved maturity of integrated photonic technologies could be exploited to create miniature QKD add-ons that could extend the primary function of various existing systems such as mobile devices or optical stations. In this work we report on an integrated optics module enabling secure short-distance communication for, e.g., quantum access schemes. Using BB84-like protocols, Alice's mobile low-cost device can exchange secure key and information everywhere within a trusted node network. The new optics platform (35×20×8mm) compatible with current smartphone's technology generates NIR faint polarised laser pulses with 100MHz repetition rate. Fully automated beam tracking and live basis-alignment on Bob's side ensure user-friendly operation with a quantum link efficiency as high as 50% stable over a few seconds.
Implementation of a Wireless Time Distribution Testbed Protected with Quantum Key Distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonior, Jason D [ORNL; Evans, Philip G [ORNL; Sheets, Gregory S [ORNL; Jones, John P [ORNL; Flynn, Toby H [ORNL; O' Neil, Lori Ross [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Hutton, William [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Pratt, Richard [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Carroll, Thomas E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)
2017-01-01
Secure time transfer is critical for many timesensitive applications. the Global Positioning System (GPS) which is often used for this purpose has been shown to be susceptible to spoofing attacks. Quantum Key Distribution offers a way to securely generate encryption keys at two locations. Through careful use of this information it is possible to create a system that is more resistant to spoofing attacks. In this paper we describe our work to create a testbed which utilizes QKD and traditional RF links. This testbed will be used for the development of more secure and spoofing resistant time distribution protocols.
Field test of classical symmetric encryption with continuous variables quantum key distribution.
Jouguet, Paul; Kunz-Jacques, Sébastien; Debuisschert, Thierry; Fossier, Simon; Diamanti, Eleni; Alléaume, Romain; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe; Leverrier, Anthony; Pache, Philippe; Painchault, Philippe
2012-06-18
We report on the design and performance of a point-to-point classical symmetric encryption link with fast key renewal provided by a Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution (CVQKD) system. Our system was operational and able to encrypt point-to-point communications during more than six months, from the end of July 2010 until the beginning of February 2011. This field test was the first demonstration of the reliability of a CVQKD system over a long period of time in a server room environment. This strengthens the potential of CVQKD for information technology security infrastructure deployments.
Experimental demonstration of a fully inseparable quantum state with nonlocalizable entanglement.
Mičuda, M; Koutný, D; Miková, M; Straka, I; Ježek, M; Mišta, L
2017-03-27
Localizability of entanglement in fully inseparable states is a key ingredient of assisted quantum information protocols as well as measurement-based models of quantum computing. We investigate the existence of fully inseparable states with nonlocalizable entanglement, that is, with entanglement which cannot be localized between any pair of subsystems by any measurement on the remaining part of the system. It is shown, that the nonlocalizable entanglement occurs already in suitable mixtures of a three-qubit GHZ state and white noise. Further, we generalize this set of states to a two-parametric family of fully inseparable three-qubit states with nonlocalizable entanglement. Finally, we demonstrate experimentally the existence of nonlocalizable entanglement by preparing and characterizing one state from the family using correlated single photons and linear optical circuit.
Multi-party quantum key agreement protocol secure against collusion attacks
Wang, Ping; Sun, Zhiwei; Sun, Xiaoqiang
2017-07-01
The fairness of a secure multi-party quantum key agreement (MQKA) protocol requires that all involved parties are entirely peer entities and can equally influence the outcome of the protocol to establish a shared key wherein no one can decide the shared key alone. However, it is found that parts of the existing MQKA protocols are sensitive to collusion attacks, i.e., some of the dishonest participants can collaborate to predetermine the final key without being detected. In this paper, a multi-party QKA protocol resisting collusion attacks is proposed. Different from previous QKA protocol resisting N-1 coconspirators or resisting 1 coconspirators, we investigate the general circle-type MQKA protocol which can be secure against t dishonest participants' cooperation. Here, t < N. We hope the results of the presented paper will be helpful for further research on fair MQKA protocols.
Wang, Chao; Huang, Peng; Huang, Duan; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua
2016-02-01
Practical security of the continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) system with finite sampling bandwidth of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) at the receiver's side is investigated. We find that the finite sampling bandwidth effects may decrease the lower bound of secret key rate without awareness of the legitimate communicators. This leaves security loopholes for Eve to attack the system. In addition, this effect may restrains the linear relationship of secret key bit rate with repetition rate of the system; subsequently, there is a saturation value for the secret key bit rate with the repetition rate. To resist such kind of effects, we propose a dual sampling detection approach in which two ADCs are employed so that the finite sampling bandwidth effects are removed.
Round-robin differential quadrature phase-shift quantum key distribution
Zhou, Chun; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Mu-Sheng
2017-02-01
Recently, a round-robin differential phase-shift (RRDPS) protocol was proposed [Nature 509, 475 (2014)], in which the amount of leakage is bounded without monitoring the signal disturbance. Introducing states of the phase-encoded Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol (PE-BB84) to the RRDPS, this paper presents another quantum key distribution protocol called round-robin differential quadrature phase-shift (RRDQPS) quantum key distribution. Regarding a train of many pulses as a single packet, the sender modulates the phase of each pulse by one of {0, π/2, π, 3π/2}, then the receiver measures each packet with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer having a phase basis of 0 or π/2. The RRDQPS protocol can be implemented with essential similar hardware to the PE-BB84, so it has great compatibility with the current quantum system. Here we analyze the security of the RRDQPS protocol against the intercept-resend attack and the beam-splitting attack. Results show that the proposed protocol inherits the advantages arising from the simplicity of the RRDPS protocol and is more robust against these attacks than the original protocol. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61505261 and 11304397) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB338002)
Quantum information and coherence
Öhberg, Patrik
2014-01-01
This book offers an introduction to ten key topics in quantum information science and quantum coherent phenomena, aimed at graduate-student level. The chapters cover some of the most recent developments in this dynamic research field where theoretical and experimental physics, combined with computer science, provide a fascinating arena for groundbreaking new concepts in information processing. The book addresses both the theoretical and experimental aspects of the subject, and clearly demonstrates how progress in experimental techniques has stimulated a great deal of theoretical effort and vice versa. Experiments are shifting from simply preparing and measuring quantum states to controlling and manipulating them, and the book outlines how the first real applications, notably quantum key distribution for secure communication, are starting to emerge. The chapters cover quantum retrodiction, ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices, optomechanics, quantum algorithms, quantum key distribution, quantum cont...
Experimental Realization of Continuous-Variable Quantum Error Correction Codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Madsen, Lars Skovgaard; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
Quantum information processing relies on the robust and faithful transmission, storage and manipulation of quantum information. However, since different decoherent processes are inherent to any realistic implementation, the future of quantum information systems strongly relies on the ability to d...... to detect and perform error code correction and noise filtration. We present two different schemes to eliminate erasure errors and channel excess noise in continuous-variable quantum channels.......Quantum information processing relies on the robust and faithful transmission, storage and manipulation of quantum information. However, since different decoherent processes are inherent to any realistic implementation, the future of quantum information systems strongly relies on the ability...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abdali, Salim; Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Bohr, Henrik
2003-01-01
This paper describes a theoretical and experimental study of [Leu]enkephalin conformations with respect to the quantum estates of the atomic structure of the peptide. Results from vibrational absorption measurements and quantum calculations are used to outline a quantum picture and to assign vibr...
Monitoring of continuous-variable quantum key distribution system in real environment.
Liu, Weiqi; Peng, Jinye; Huang, Peng; Huang, Duan; Zeng, Guihua
2017-08-07
How to guarantee the practical security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) system has been an important issue in the quantum cryptography applications. In contrast to the previous practical security strategies, which focus on the intercept-resend attack or the Gaussian attack, we investigate the practical security strategy based on a general attack, i.e., an arbitrated individual attack or collective attack on the system by Eve in this paper. The low bound of intensity disturbance of the local oscillator signal for eavesdropper successfully concealing herself is obtained, considering all noises can be used by Eve in the practical environment. Furthermore, we obtain an optimal monitoring condition for the practical CVQKD system so that legitimate communicators can monitor the general attack in real-time. As examples, practical security of two special systems, i.e., the Gaussian modulated coherent state CVQKD system and the middle-based CVQKD system, are investigated under the intercept-resend attacks.
Xu, Kebiao; Xie, Tianyu; Li, Zhaokai; Xu, Xiangkun; Wang, Mengqi; Ye, Xiangyu; Kong, Fei; Geng, Jianpei; Duan, Changkui; Shi, Fazhan; Du, Jiangfeng
2017-03-31
The adiabatic quantum computation is a universal and robust method of quantum computing. In this architecture, the problem can be solved by adiabatically evolving the quantum processor from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to that of a final one, which encodes the solution of the problem. Adiabatic quantum computation has been proved to be a compatible candidate for scalable quantum computation. In this Letter, we report on the experimental realization of an adiabatic quantum algorithm on a single solid spin system under ambient conditions. All elements of adiabatic quantum computation, including initial state preparation, adiabatic evolution (simulated by optimal control), and final state read-out, are realized experimentally. As an example, we found the ground state of the problem Hamiltonian S_{z}I_{z} on our adiabatic quantum processor, which can be mapped to the factorization of 35 into its prime factors 5 and 7.
Experimental Demonstration of Quantum Imaging by Coherent Enhancement
McConnell, Robert; Bruzewicz, Colin; Low, Guang Hao; Yoder, Theodore; Chiaverini, John; Sage, Jeremy; Chuang, Isaac
2016-05-01
Classical (incoherent) imaging requires scattering many photons from a target to be imaged and provides resolution which improves statistically with the square root of the number of scattered photons, and hence with the square root of interrogation time. In contrast, quantum imaging by coherent enhancement utilizes coherent excitation of the target to provide imaging resolution which improves linearly with time, achieving the Heisenberg limit for scaling. We present experimental progress towards the realization of quantum-enhanced imaging in a trapped-ion system. A narrow-linewidth laser drives a long-coherence-time transition in a confined 88 Sr+ ion; precise phase control over the excitation sequence allows an optimally narrow and unambiguous excitation of the ion as a function of laser intensity which results in very precise localization of the target within the profile of the addressing beam. This technique may have applications in radar imaging, where long-wavelength radiation is used to penetrate clouds or other obstructions but where large diffraction-limited spot size ordinarily limits resolution.
Experimental Realization of a Compressed Quantum Simulation of a 32-Spin Ising Chain
Li, Zhaokai; Zhou, Hui; Ju, Chenyong; Chen, Hongwei; Zheng, Wenqiang; Lu, Dawei; Rong, Xing; Duan, Changkui; Peng, Xinhua; Du, Jiangfeng
2014-06-01
Certain n-qubit quantum systems can be faithfully simulated by quantum circuits with only O(log(n)) qubits [B. Kraus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 250503 (2011)]. Here we report an experimental realization of this compressed quantum simulation on a one-dimensional Ising chain. By utilizing an nuclear magnetic resonance quantum simulator with only five qubits, the property of ground-state magnetization of an open-boundary 32-spin Ising model is experimentally simulated, prefacing the expected quantum phase transition in the thermodynamic limit. This experimental protocol can be straightforwardly extended to systems with hundreds of spins by compressing them into up to merely 10-qubit systems. Our experiment paves the way for exploring physical phenomena in large-scale quantum systems with quantum simulators under current technology.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zeghuzi, A., E-mail: zeghuzi@mailbox.tu-berlin.de; Schmeckebier, H.; Stubenrauch, M.; Bimberg, D. [Department of Solid-State Physics, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Meuer, C.; Schubert, C. [Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications, Heinrich Hertz Institute, Einsteinufer 37, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Bunge, C.-A. [Hochschule fuer Telekommunikation Leipzig (HfTL), Gustav-Freytag-Str. 43-45, 04277 Leipzig (Germany)
2015-05-25
Error-free generation of 25-Gbit/s differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) signals via direct modulation of InAs quantum-dot (QD) based semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) is experimentally demonstrated with an input power level of −5 dBm. The QD SOAs emit in the 1.3-μm wavelength range and provide a small-signal fiber-to-fiber gain of 8 dB. Furthermore, error-free DPSK modulation is achieved for constant optical input power levels from 3 dBm down to only −11 dBm for a bit rate of 20 Gbit/s. Direct phase modulation of QD SOAs via current changes is thus demonstrated to be much faster than direct gain modulation.
Experimental adaptive quantum tomography of two-qubit states
Struchalin, G. I.; Pogorelov, I. A.; Straupe, S. S.; Kravtsov, K. S.; Radchenko, I. V.; Kulik, S. P.
2016-01-01
We report an experimental realization of adaptive Bayesian quantum state tomography for two-qubit states. Our implementation is based on the adaptive experimental design strategy proposed in the work by Huszár and Houlsby [F. Huszár and N. M. T. Houlsby, Phys. Rev. A 85, 052120 (2012)., 10.1103/PhysRevA.85.052120] and provides an optimal measurement approach in terms of the information gain. We address the practical questions which one faces in any experimental application: the influence of technical noise and the behavior of the tomographic algorithm for an easy-to-implement class of factorized measurements. In an experiment with polarization states of entangled photon pairs, we observe a lower instrumental noise floor and superior reconstruction accuracy for nearly pure states of the adaptive protocol compared to a nonadaptive protocol. At the same time, we show that for the mixed states, the restriction to factorized measurements results in no advantage for adaptive measurements, so general measurements have to be used.
A New Quantum Key Distribution Scheme based on Frequency and Time Coding
Zhu, Chang-hua; Pei, Chang-xing; Quan, Dong-xiao; Chen, Nan; Yi, Yun-hui
2010-01-01
A new scheme of quantum key distribution (QKD) using frequency and time coding is proposed, in which the security is based on the frequency-time uncertainty relation. In this scheme, the binary information sequence is encoded randomly on either the central frequency or the time delay at the sender. The central frequency of the single photon pulse is set as omega1 for bit "0" and set as omega2 for bit "1" when frequency coding is selected. While, the single photon pulse is not delayed for bit ...
Transceivers and receivers for quantum key distribution and methods pertaining thereto
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DeRose, Christopher; Sarovar, Mohan; Soh, Daniel B.S.; Lentine, Anthony; Davids, Paul; Camacho, Ryan
2018-02-27
Various technologies for performing continuous-variable (CV) and discrete-variable (DV) quantum key distribution (QKD) with integrated electro-optical circuits are described herein. An integrated DV-QKD system uses Mach-Zehnder modulators to modulate a polarization of photons at a transmitter and select a photon polarization measurement basis at a receiver. An integrated CV-QKD system uses wavelength division multiplexing to send and receive amplitude-modulated and phase-modulated optical signals with a local oscillator signal while maintaining phase coherence between the modulated signals and the local oscillator signal.
Noiseless Linear Amplifiers in Entanglement-Based Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yichen Zhang
2015-06-01
Full Text Available We propose a method to improve the performance of two entanglement-based continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols using noiseless linear amplifiers. The two entanglement-based schemes consist of an entanglement distribution protocol with an untrusted source and an entanglement swapping protocol with an untrusted relay. Simulation results show that the noiseless linear amplifiers can improve the performance of these two protocols, in terms of maximal transmission distances, when we consider small amounts of entanglement, as typical in realistic setups.
Security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution against general attacks.
Leverrier, Anthony; García-Patrón, Raúl; Renner, Renato; Cerf, Nicolas J
2013-01-18
We prove the security of Gaussian continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent states against arbitrary attacks in the finite-size regime. In contrast to previously known proofs of principle (based on the de Finetti theorem), our result is applicable in the practically relevant finite-size regime. This is achieved using a novel proof approach, which exploits phase-space symmetries of the protocols as well as the postselection technique introduced by Christandl, Koenig, and Renner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 020504 (2009)].
Rubenok, A; Slater, J A; Chan, P; Lucio-Martinez, I; Tittel, W
2013-09-27
Several vulnerabilities of single-photon detectors have recently been exploited to compromise the security of quantum-key-distribution (QKD) systems. In this Letter, we report the first proof-of-principle implementation of a new quantum-key-distribution protocol that is immune to any such attack. More precisely, we demonstrated this new approach to QKD in the laboratory over more than 80 km of spooled fiber, as well as across different locations within the city of Calgary. The robustness of our fiber-based implementation, together with the enhanced level of security offered by the protocol, confirms QKD as a realistic technology for safeguarding secrets in transmission. Furthermore, our demonstration establishes the feasibility of controlled two-photon interference in a real-world environment and thereby removes a remaining obstacle to realizing future applications of quantum communication, such as quantum repeaters and, more generally, quantum networks.
Trusted Noise in Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution: A Threat and a Defense
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladyslav C. Usenko
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We address the role of the phase-insensitive trusted preparation and detection noise in the security of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution, considering the Gaussian protocols on the basis of coherent and squeezed states and studying them in the conditions of Gaussian lossy and noisy channels. The influence of such a noise on the security of Gaussian quantum cryptography can be crucial, even despite the fact that a noise is trusted, due to a strongly nonlinear behavior of the quantum entropies involved in the security analysis. We recapitulate the known effect of the preparation noise in both direct and reverse-reconciliation protocols, as well as the detection noise in the reverse-reconciliation scenario. As a new result, we show the negative role of the trusted detection noise in the direct-reconciliation scheme. We also describe the role of the trusted preparation or detection noise added at the reference side of the protocols in improving the robustness of the protocols to the channel noise, confirming the positive effect for the coherent-state reverse-reconciliation protocol. Finally, we address the combined effect of trusted noise added both in the source and the detector.
Experimental quantum Zeno effect in NMR with entanglement-based measurement
Zheng, Wenqiang; Xu, D. Z.; Peng, Xinhua; Zhou, Xianyi; Du, Jiangfeng; Sun, C. P.
2013-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate a new dynamic fashion of quantum Zeno effect in nuclear magnetic resonance systems. The frequent measurements are implemented through quantum entanglement between the target qubit(s) and the measuring qubit, which dynamically results from the unitary evolution of duration $\\tau_{m}$ due to dispersive-coupling. Experimental results testify the presence of "the critical measurement time effect", that is, the quantum Zeno effect does not occur when $\\tau_{m}$ takes ...
Practical round-robin differential phase-shift quantum key distribution.
Zhang, Ying-Ying; Bao, Wan-Su; Zhou, Chun; Li, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Mu-Sheng
2016-09-05
Recently, a novel protocol named round-robin differential phase-shift (RRDPS) quantum key distribution [Nature 509, 475(2014)] has been proposed. It can estimate information leakage without monitoring bit error rate. In this paper, we study the performance of RRDPS using heralded single photon source (HSPS) without and with decoy-state method, then compare it with the performance of weak coherent pulses (WCPs). From numerical simulation, we can see that HSPS performs better especially for shorter packet and higher bit error rate. Moreover, we propose a general theory of decoy-state method for RRDPS protocol based on only three decoy states and one signal state. Taking WCPs as an example, the three-intensity decoy-state protocol can distribute secret keys over a distance of 128 km when the length of pulses packet is 32, which confirms great practical interest of our method.
Jogenfors, Jonathan; Elhassan, Ashraf Mohamed; Ahrens, Johan; Bourennane, Mohamed; Larsson, Jan-Åke
2015-12-01
Photonic systems based on energy-time entanglement have been proposed to test local realism using the Bell inequality. A violation of this inequality normally also certifies security of device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) so that an attacker cannot eavesdrop or control the system. We show how this security test can be circumvented in energy-time entangled systems when using standard avalanche photodetectors, allowing an attacker to compromise the system without leaving a trace. We reach Bell values up to 3.63 at 97.6% faked detector efficiency using tailored pulses of classical light, which exceeds even the quantum prediction. This is the first demonstration of a violation-faking source that gives both tunable violation and high faked detector efficiency. The implications are severe: the standard Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality cannot be used to show device-independent security for energy-time entanglement setups based on Franson's configuration. However, device-independent security can be reestablished, and we conclude by listing a number of improved tests and experimental setups that would protect against all current and future attacks of this type.
Zhang, Wei; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Dong, Ming-Xin; Shi, Shuai; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shi-Long; Li, Yan; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-11-14
Entanglement in multiple degrees of freedom has many benefits over entanglement in a single one. The former enables quantum communication with higher channel capacity and more efficient quantum information processing and is compatible with diverse quantum networks. Establishing multi-degree-of-freedom entangled memories is not only vital for high-capacity quantum communication and computing, but also promising for enhanced violations of nonlocality in quantum systems. However, there have been yet no reports of the experimental realization of multi-degree-of-freedom entangled memories. Here we experimentally established hyper- and hybrid entanglement in multiple degrees of freedom, including path (K-vector) and orbital angular momentum, between two separated atomic ensembles by using quantum storage. The results are promising for achieving quantum communication and computing with many degrees of freedom.
Annular tautomerism: experimental observations and quantum mechanics calculations
Cruz-Cabeza, Aurora J.; Schreyer, Adrian; Pitt, William R.
2010-06-01
The use of MP2 level quantum mechanical (QM) calculations on isolated heteroaromatic ring systems for the prediction of the tautomeric propensities of whole molecules in a crystalline environment was examined. A Polarisable Continuum Model was used in the calculations to account for environment effects on the tautomeric relative stabilities. The calculated relative energies of tautomers were compared to relative abundances within the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The work was focussed on 84 annular tautomeric forms of 34 common ring systems. Good agreement was found between the calculations and the experimental data even if the quantity of these data was limited in many cases. The QM results were compared to those produced by much faster semiempirical calculations. In a search for other sources of the useful experimental data, the relative numbers of known compounds in which prototropic positions were often substituted by heavy atoms were also analysed. A scheme which groups all annular tautomeric transformations into 10 classes was developed. The scheme was designed to encompass a comprehensive set of known and theoretically possible tautomeric ring systems generated as part of a previous study. General trends across analogous ring systems were detected as a result. The calculations and statistics collected on crystallographic data as well as the general trends observed should be useful for the better modelling of annular tautomerism in the applications such as computer-aided drug design, small molecule crystal structure prediction, the naming of compounds and the interpretation of protein—small molecule crystal structures.
Towards polarisation-encoded quantum key distribution in optical fibre networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sharmini Pillay
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Quantum key distribution a process that encodes digital information often utilises fibre optic technologies for commercial applications. Fibre provides the benefit of a dark channel as well as the convenience of independence of a line-of-sight connection between the sender and receiver. In order to implement quantum key distribution protocols utilising polarisation encoding, the birefringence effects of fibre must be compensated for. Birefringence is caused by manufacturing impurities in the fibre or a change in environmental conditions and results in a rotation of the state of polarisation of light as it is propagated through the fibre. With dynamic environmental conditions, the birefringence effects should be monitored with a test signal at regular time intervals so that the polarisation of each photon can be appropriately compensated to its original state. Orthogonal states are compensated simultaneously, but most protocols, such as BB84 and B92, require non-orthogonal basis sets. Instead of using a compensator for each basis, the presented scheme fixes the polarisation controller onto the plane on the Poincar that passes through both bases, compensating both non-orthogonal bases simultaneously.
Experimental magic state distillation for fault-tolerant quantum computing.
Souza, Alexandre M; Zhang, Jingfu; Ryan, Colm A; Laflamme, Raymond
2011-01-25
Any physical quantum device for quantum information processing (QIP) is subject to errors in implementation. In order to be reliable and efficient, quantum computers will need error-correcting or error-avoiding methods. Fault-tolerance achieved through quantum error correction will be an integral part of quantum computers. Of the many methods that have been discovered to implement it, a highly successful approach has been to use transversal gates and specific initial states. A critical element for its implementation is the availability of high-fidelity initial states, such as |0〉 and the 'magic state'. Here, we report an experiment, performed in a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum processor, showing sufficient quantum control to improve the fidelity of imperfect initial magic states by distilling five of them into one with higher fidelity.
Hagar, Amit
Among the alternatives of non-relativistic quantum mechanics (NRQM) there are those that give different predictions than quantum mechanics in yet-untested circumstances, while remaining compatible with current empirical findings. In order to test these predictions, one must isolate one's system from environmental induced decoherence, which, on the standard view of NRQM, is the dynamical mechanism that is responsible for the 'apparent' collapse in open quantum systems. But while recent advances in condensed-matter physics may lead in the near future to experimental setups that will allow one to test the two hypotheses, namely genuine collapse vs. decoherence, hence make progress toward a solution to the quantum measurement problem, those philosophers and physicists who are advocating an information-theoretic approach to the foundations of quantum mechanics are still unwilling to acknowledge the empirical character of the issue at stake. Here I argue that in doing so they are displaying an unwarranted double standard.
Liu, Li; Guo, Fen-Zhuo; Wen, Qiao-Yan
2017-09-12
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) with the active decoy state method can remove all detector loopholes, and resist the imperfections of sources. But it may lead to side channel attacks and break the security of QKD system. In this paper, we apply the passive decoy state method to the MDI-QKD based on polarization encoding mode. Not only all attacks on detectors can be removed, but also the side channel attacks on sources can be overcome. We get that the MDI-QKD with our passive decoy state method can have a performance comparable to the protocol with the active decoy state method. To fit for the demand of practical application, we discuss intensity fluctuation in the security analysis of MDI-QKD protocol using passive decoy state method, and derive the key generation rate for our protocol with intensity fluctuation. It shows that intensity fluctuation has an adverse effect on the key generation rate which is non-negligible, especially in the case of small data size of total transmitting signals and long distance transmission. We give specific simulations on the relationship between intensity fluctuation and the key generation rate. Furthermore, the statistical fluctuation due to the finite length of data is also taken into account.
Experimental nested purification for a linear optical quantum repeater
Chen, Luo-Kan; Yong, Hai-Lin; Xu, Ping; Yao, Xing-Can; Xiang, Tong; Li, Zheng-Da; Liu, Chang; Lu, He; Liu, Nai-Le; Li, Li; Yang, Tao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei
2017-11-01
Quantum repeaters1-4 are essential elements for demonstrating global-scale quantum communication. Over the past few decades, tremendous efforts have been dedicated to implementing a practical quantum repeater5-10. However, nested purification1, the backbone of a quantum repeater, remains a challenge because the capacity for successive entanglement manipulation is still absent. Here, we propose and demonstrate an architecture of nested purification using spontaneous parametric downconversion sources11. A heralded entangled photon pair with higher fidelity is successfully purified from two copies of low-fidelity pairs that experience entanglement swapping and noisy channels. By delicately designing the optical circuits, double-pair emission noise is eliminated automatically and the purified state can be used for scalable entanglement connections to extend the communication distance. Combined with a quantum memory, our approach can be applied immediately in the implemention of a practical quantum repeater.
Experimental demonstration of quantum leader election in linear optics
Okubo, Yuta; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Jiang, Yun-Kun; Tani, Seiichiro; Tomita, Akihisa
2007-01-01
Linear optics is a promising candidate to enable the construction of quantum computers. A number of quantum protocols gates based on linear optics have been demonstrated. However, it is well-known that these gates are non-deterministic and that higher order nonlinearity is necessary for deterministic operations. We found the quantum leader election protocol (QLE) can be operated deterministically only with linear optics, and we have demonstrated the nearly deterministic operation which overco...
Entanglement and Quantum non-locality: an experimental perspective
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Avella Alessio
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The theory of Quantum Mechanics is one of the mainstay of modern physics, a well-established mathematical clockwork whose strength and accuracy in predictions are currently experienced in worldwide research laboratories. As a matter of fact, Quantum Mechanics laid the groundwork of a rich variety of studies ranging from solid state physics to cosmology, from bio-physics to particle physics. The up-to-date ability of manipulating single quantum states is paving the way for emergent quantum technologies as quantum information and computation, quantum communication, quantum metrology and quantum imaging. In spite of the impressive matemathical capacity, a long-standing debate is even revolving around the foundational axioms of this theory, the main bones of content being the non-local effects of entangled states, the wave function collapse and the concept of measurement in Quantum Mechanics, the macro-objectivation problem (the transition from a microscopic probabilistic world to a macroscopic deterministic world described by classical mechanics. Problems that, beyond their fundamental interest in basic science, now also concern the impact of these developing technologies. Without claiming to be complete, this article provides in outline the living matter concerning some of these problems, the implications of which extend deeply on the connection between entanglement and space-time structure.
Countermeasure against probabilistic blinding attack in practical quantum key distribution systems
Qian, Yong-Jun; Li, Hong-Wei; He, De-Yong; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shuang; Han, Zheng-Fu
2015-09-01
In a practical quantum key distribution (QKD) system, imperfect equipment, especially the single-photon detector, can be eavesdropped on by a blinding attack. However, the original blinding attack may be discovered by directly detecting the current. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic blinding attack model, where Eve probabilistically applies a blinding attack without being caught by using only an existing intuitive countermeasure. More precisely, our countermeasure solves the problem of how to define the bound in the limitation of precision of current detection, and then we prove security of the practical system by considering the current parameter. Meanwhile, we discuss the bound of the quantum bit error rate (QBER) introduced by Eve, by which Eve can acquire information without the countermeasure. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CBA00200 and 2011CB921200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61475148, 61201239, 61205118, and 11304397), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2013M540514).
Feasibility of quantum key distribution through a dense wavelength division multiplexing network
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qi Bing; Qian Li; Lo, Hoi-Kwong [Center for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Zhu Wen, E-mail: bqi@physics.utoronto.c [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)
2010-10-15
In this paper, we study the feasibility of conducting quantum key distribution (QKD) together with classical communication through the same optical fiber by employing dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) technology at telecom wavelength. The impact of classical channels on the quantum channel has been investigated for both QKD based on single-photon detection and QKD based on homodyne detection. Our studies show that the latter can tolerate a much higher level of contamination from classical channels than the former. This is because the local oscillator used in the homodyne detector acts as a 'mode selector', which can suppress noise photons effectively. We have performed simulations based on both the decoy BB84 QKD protocol and the Gaussian-modulated coherent state (GMCS) QKD protocol. While the former cannot tolerate even one classical channel (with a power of 0 dBm), the latter can be multiplexed with 38 classical channels (0 dBm power per channel) and still has a secure distance around 10 km. A preliminary experiment has been conducted based on a 100 MHz bandwidth homodyne detector.
Security of Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution via a Gaussian de Finetti Reduction
Leverrier, Anthony
2017-05-01
Establishing the security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution against general attacks in a realistic finite-size regime is an outstanding open problem in the field of theoretical quantum cryptography if we restrict our attention to protocols that rely on the exchange of coherent states. Indeed, techniques based on the uncertainty principle are not known to work for such protocols, and the usual tools based on de Finetti reductions only provide security for unrealistically large block lengths. We address this problem here by considering a new type of Gaussian de Finetti reduction, that exploits the invariance of some continuous-variable protocols under the action of the unitary group U (n ) (instead of the symmetric group Sn as in usual de Finetti theorems), and by introducing generalized S U (2 ,2 ) coherent states. Crucially, combined with an energy test, this allows us to truncate the Hilbert space globally instead as at the single-mode level as in previous approaches that failed to provide security in realistic conditions. Our reduction shows that it is sufficient to prove the security of these protocols against Gaussian collective attacks in order to obtain security against general attacks, thereby confirming rigorously the widely held belief that Gaussian attacks are indeed optimal against such protocols.
Floodlight quantum key distribution: Demonstrating a framework for high-rate secure communication
Zhang, Zheshen; Zhuang, Quntao; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.
2017-01-01
Floodlight quantum key distribution (FL-QKD) is a radically different QKD paradigm that can achieve gigabit-per-second secret-key rates over metropolitan area distances without multiplexing [Q. Zhuang et al., Phys. Rev. A 94, 012322 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.012322]. It is a two-way protocol that transmits many photons per bit duration and employs a high-gain optical amplifier, neither of which can be utilized by existing QKD protocols, to mitigate channel loss. FL-QKD uses an optical bandwidth that is substantially larger than the modulation rate and performs decoding with a unique broadband homodyne receiver. Essential to FL-QKD is Alice's injection of photons from a photon-pair source—in addition to the light used for key generation—into the light she sends to Bob. This injection enables Alice and Bob to quantify Eve's intrusion and thus secure FL-QKD against collective attacks. Our proof-of-concept experiment included 10 dB propagation loss—equivalent to 50 km of low-loss fiber—and achieved a 55 Mbit/s secret-key rate (SKR) for a 100 Mbit/s modulation rate, as compared to the state-of-the-art system's 1 Mbit/s SKR for a 1 Gbit/s modulation rate [M. Lucamarini et al., Opt. Express 21, 24550 (2013), 10.1364/OE.21.024550], representing ˜500 -fold and ˜50 -fold improvements in secret-key efficiency (bits per channel use) and SKR (bits per second), respectively.
Plug-and-play round-robin differential phase-shift quantum key distribution.
Mao, Qian-Ping; Wang, Le; Zhao, Sheng-Mei
2017-11-13
The round-robin differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution (RRDPS-QKD) protocol could provide an effective way to estimate the leakage information without monitoring the signal disturbance. Moreover, the self-compensating property of plug-and-play (P&P) setup can eliminate the variations of phase or polarization in QKD procedure. In the paper, we introduce the P&P concept into RRDPS-QKD, and propose a QKD protocol, named P&P RRDPS-QKD protocol, to make the RRDPS-QKD scheme more practical. We analyze the security, and discuss the key generation rate with infinite-intensity decoy state method. The results show that the proposed protocol is a good solution to RRDPS-QKD protocol with untrusted sources. It has a high security and its key generation rate could be as good as the protocol with trusted sources when the average input photon number N is greater than 10(6). In addition, the proposed protocol has a high noise tolerance in comparison with P&P BB84-QKD protocol.
Round-robin differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution with a passive decoy state method.
Liu, Li; Guo, Fen-Zhuo; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan
2017-02-13
Recently, a new type of protocol named Round-robin differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution (RRDPS QKD) was proposed, where the security can be guaranteed without monitoring conventional signal disturbances. The active decoy state method can be used in this protocol to overcome the imperfections of the source. But, it may lead to side channel attacks and break the security of QKD systems. In this paper, we apply the passive decoy state method to the RRDPS QKD protocol. Not only can the more environment disturbance be tolerated, but in addition it can overcome side channel attacks on the sources. Importantly, we derive a new key generation rate formula for our RRDPS protocol using passive decoy states and enhance the key generation rate. We also compare the performance of our RRDPS QKD to that using the active decoy state method and the original RRDPS QKD without any decoy states. From numerical simulations, the performance improvement of the RRDPS QKD by our new method can be seen.
Quantum key distribution with hacking countermeasures and long term field trial.
Dixon, A R; Dynes, J F; Lucamarini, M; Fröhlich, B; Sharpe, A W; Plews, A; Tam, W; Yuan, Z L; Tanizawa, Y; Sato, H; Kawamura, S; Fujiwara, M; Sasaki, M; Shields, A J
2017-05-16
Quantum key distribution's (QKD's) central and unique claim is information theoretic security. However there is an increasing understanding that the security of a QKD system relies not only on theoretical security proofs, but also on how closely the physical system matches the theoretical models and prevents attacks due to discrepancies. These side channel or hacking attacks exploit physical devices which do not necessarily behave precisely as the theory expects. As such there is a need for QKD systems to be demonstrated to provide security both in the theoretical and physical implementation. We report here a QKD system designed with this goal in mind, providing a more resilient target against possible hacking attacks including Trojan horse, detector blinding, phase randomisation and photon number splitting attacks. The QKD system was installed into a 45 km link of a metropolitan telecom network for a 2.5 month period, during which time the system operated continuously and distributed 1.33 Tbits of secure key data with a stable secure key rate over 200 kbit/s. In addition security is demonstrated against coherent attacks that are more general than the collective class of attacks usually considered.
Attacks on quantum key distribution protocols that employ non-ITS authentication
Pacher, C.; Abidin, A.; Lorünser, T.; Peev, M.; Ursin, R.; Zeilinger, A.; Larsson, J.-Å.
2016-01-01
We demonstrate how adversaries with large computing resources can break quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols which employ a particular message authentication code suggested previously. This authentication code, featuring low key consumption, is not information-theoretically secure (ITS) since for each message the eavesdropper has intercepted she is able to send a different message from a set of messages that she can calculate by finding collisions of a cryptographic hash function. However, when this authentication code was introduced, it was shown to prevent straightforward man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks against QKD protocols. In this paper, we prove that the set of messages that collide with any given message under this authentication code contains with high probability a message that has small Hamming distance to any other given message. Based on this fact, we present extended MITM attacks against different versions of BB84 QKD protocols using the addressed authentication code; for three protocols, we describe every single action taken by the adversary. For all protocols, the adversary can obtain complete knowledge of the key, and for most protocols her success probability in doing so approaches unity. Since the attacks work against all authentication methods which allow to calculate colliding messages, the underlying building blocks of the presented attacks expose the potential pitfalls arising as a consequence of non-ITS authentication in QKD post-processing. We propose countermeasures, increasing the eavesdroppers demand for computational power, and also prove necessary and sufficient conditions for upgrading the discussed authentication code to the ITS level.
Li, Na; Zhang, Yu; Wen, Shuang; Li, Lei-lei; Li, Jian
2017-09-01
Noise is a problem that communication channels cannot avoid. It is, thus, beneficial to analyze the security of MDI-QKD in noisy environment. An analysis model for collective-rotation noise is introduced, and the information theory methods are used to analyze the security of the protocol. The maximum amount of information that Eve can eavesdrop is 50%, and the eavesdropping can always be detected if the noise level ɛ ≤ 0.68. Therefore, MDI-QKD protocol is secure as quantum key distribution protocol. The maximum probability that the relay outputs successful results is 16% when existing eavesdropping. Moreover, the probability that the relay outputs successful results when existing eavesdropping is higher than the situation without eavesdropping. The paper validates that MDI-QKD protocol has better robustness.
Li, Na; Zhang, Yu; Wen, Shuang; Li, Lei-lei; Li, Jian
2018-01-01
Noise is a problem that communication channels cannot avoid. It is, thus, beneficial to analyze the security of MDI-QKD in noisy environment. An analysis model for collective-rotation noise is introduced, and the information theory methods are used to analyze the security of the protocol. The maximum amount of information that Eve can eavesdrop is 50%, and the eavesdropping can always be detected if the noise level ɛ ≤ 0.68. Therefore, MDI-QKD protocol is secure as quantum key distribution protocol. The maximum probability that the relay outputs successful results is 16% when existing eavesdropping. Moreover, the probability that the relay outputs successful results when existing eavesdropping is higher than the situation without eavesdropping. The paper validates that MDI-QKD protocol has better robustness.
Batalhão, Tiago B; Souza, Alexandre M; Mazzola, Laura; Auccaise, Ruben; Sarthour, Roberto S; Oliveira, Ivan S; Goold, John; De Chiara, Gabriele; Paternostro, Mauro; Serra, Roberto M
2014-10-03
We report the experimental reconstruction of the nonequilibrium work probability distribution in a closed quantum system, and the study of the corresponding quantum fluctuation relations. The experiment uses a liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance platform that offers full control on the preparation and dynamics of the system. Our endeavors enable the characterization of the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of a quantum spin from a finite-time thermodynamics viewpoint.
Experimental bath engineering for quantitative studies of quantum control
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Soare, A
2014-04-01
Full Text Available We develop and demonstrate a technique to engineer universal unitary baths in quantum systems. Using the correspondence between unitary decoherence due to ambient environmental noise and errors in a control system for quantum bits, we show how a...
Experimentally feasible quantum erasure-correcting code for continuous variables
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nisset, J.; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Cerf, N.J.
2008-01-01
We devise a scheme that protects quantum coherent states of light from probabilistic losses, thus achieving the first continuous-variable quantum erasure-correcting code. If the occurrence of erasures can be probed, then the decoder enables, in principle, a perfect recovery of the original light ...
Jiang, Xue-Qin; Huang, Peng; Huang, Duan; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua
2017-02-01
Achieving information theoretic security with practical complexity is of great interest to continuous-variable quantum key distribution in the postprocessing procedure. In this paper, we propose a reconciliation scheme based on the punctured low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Compared to the well-known multidimensional reconciliation scheme, the present scheme has lower time complexity. Especially when the chosen punctured LDPC code achieves the Shannon capacity, the proposed reconciliation scheme can remove the information that has been leaked to an eavesdropper in the quantum transmission phase. Therefore, there is no information leaked to the eavesdropper after the reconciliation stage. This indicates that the privacy amplification algorithm of the postprocessing procedure is no more needed after the reconciliation process. These features lead to a higher secret key rate, optimal performance, and availability for the involved quantum key distribution scheme.
Experimental demonstration of efficient quantum state tomography of matrix product states.
Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Hou, Zhibo; Xiang, Guo-Yong; Han, Yong-Jian; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2017-04-17
Quantum state tomography is a key technology for fully determining a quantum state. Unfortunately, standard quantum state tomography is intractable for general many-body quantum states, because the number of measurements and the post-processing time increase exponentially with the size of the system. However, for the matrix product states (MPSs), there exists an efficient method using linearly scaled local measurements and polynomially scaled post-processing times. In this study, we demonstrate the validity of the method in practice by reconstructing a four-photon MPS from its local two- or three-photon reduced-density matrices with the presence of statistical errors and systematical errors in experiment.
Shibata, Hiroyuki; Honjo, Toshimori; Shimizu, Kaoru
2014-09-01
We report the first quantum key distribution (QKD) experiment over a 72 dB channel loss using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SSPD, SNSPD) with the dark count rate (DCR) of 0.01 cps. The DCR of the SSPD, which is dominated by the blackbody radiation at room temperature, is blocked by introducing cold optical bandpass filter. We employ the differential phase shift QKD (DPS-QKD) scheme with a 1 GHz system clock rate. The quantum bit error rate (QBER) below 3% is achieved when the length of the dispersion shifted fiber (DSF) is 336 km (72 dB loss), which is low enough to generate secure keys.
Experimental Study of Optimal Measurements for Quantum State Tomography
Sosa-Martinez, H.; Lysne, N. K.; Baldwin, C. H.; Kalev, A.; Deutsch, I. H.; Jessen, P. S.
2017-10-01
Quantum tomography is a critically important tool to evaluate quantum hardware, making it essential to develop optimized measurement strategies that are both accurate and efficient. We compare a variety of strategies using nearly pure test states. Those that are informationally complete for all states are found to be accurate and reliable even in the presence of errors in the measurements themselves, while those designed to be complete only for pure states are far more efficient but highly sensitive to such errors. Our results highlight the unavoidable trade-offs inherent in quantum tomography.
Efficient and universal quantum key distribution based on chaos and middleware
Jiang, Dong; Chen, Yuanyuan; Gu, Xuemei; Xie, Ling; Chen, Lijun
2017-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) promises unconditionally secure communications, however, the low bit rate of QKD cannot meet the requirements of high-speed applications. Despite the many solutions that have been proposed in recent years, they are neither efficient to generate the secret keys nor compatible with other QKD systems. This paper, based on chaotic cryptography and middleware technology, proposes an efficient and universal QKD protocol that can be directly deployed on top of any existing QKD system without modifying the underlying QKD protocol and optical platform. It initially takes the bit string generated by the QKD system as input, periodically updates the chaotic system, and efficiently outputs the bit sequences. Theoretical analysis and simulation results demonstrate that our protocol can efficiently increase the bit rate of the QKD system as well as securely generate bit sequences with perfect statistical properties. Compared with the existing methods, our protocol is more efficient and universal, it can be rapidly deployed on the QKD system to increase the bit rate when the QKD system becomes the bottleneck of its communication system.
Zhou, Zong-Quan; Huelga, Susana F; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2015-09-11
We discuss the use of inequalities of the Leggett-Garg type (LGtI) to witness quantum coherence and present the first experimental violation of this type of inequalities using a light-matter interfaced system. By separately benchmarking the Markovian character of the evolution and the translational invariance of the conditional probabilities, the observed violation of a LGtI is attributed to the quantum coherent character of the process. These results provide a general method to benchmark "quantumness" when the absence of memory effects can be independently certified and confirm the persistence of quantum coherent features within systems of increasing complexity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rameez Asif
2017-01-01
Full Text Available There is current significant interest in Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH networks, that is, end-to-end optical connectivity. Currently, it may be limited due to the presence of last-mile copper wire connections. However, in near future, it is envisaged that FTTH connections will exist, and a key offering would be the possibility of optical encryption that can best be implemented using Quantum Key Distribution (QKD. However, it is very important that the QKD infrastructure is compatible with the already existing networks for a smooth transition and integration with the classical data traffic. In this paper, we report the feasibility of using off-the-shelf telecommunication components to enable high performance Continuous Variable-Quantum Key Distribution (CV-QKD systems that can yield secure key rates in the range of 100 Mbits/s under practical operating conditions. Multilevel phase modulated signals (m-PSK are evaluated in terms of secure key rates and transmission distances. The traditional receiver is discussed, aided by the phase noise cancellation based digital signal processing module for detecting the complex quantum signals. Furthermore, we have discussed the compatibility of multiplexers and demultiplexers for wavelength division multiplexed Quantum-to-the-Home (QTTH network and the impact of splitting ratio is analyzed. The results are thoroughly compared with the commercially available high-cost encryption modules.
Quantum computational supremacy
Harrow, Aram W.; Montanaro, Ashley
2017-09-01
The field of quantum algorithms aims to find ways to speed up the solution of computational problems by using a quantum computer. A key milestone in this field will be when a universal quantum computer performs a computational task that is beyond the capability of any classical computer, an event known as quantum supremacy. This would be easier to achieve experimentally than full-scale quantum computing, but involves new theoretical challenges. Here we present the leading proposals to achieve quantum supremacy, and discuss how we can reliably compare the power of a classical computer to the power of a quantum computer.
Experimental quantum computing to solve systems of linear equations.
Cai, X-D; Weedbrook, C; Su, Z-E; Chen, M-C; Gu, Mile; Zhu, M-J; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2013-06-07
Solving linear systems of equations is ubiquitous in all areas of science and engineering. With rapidly growing data sets, such a task can be intractable for classical computers, as the best known classical algorithms require a time proportional to the number of variables N. A recently proposed quantum algorithm shows that quantum computers could solve linear systems in a time scale of order log(N), giving an exponential speedup over classical computers. Here we realize the simplest instance of this algorithm, solving 2×2 linear equations for various input vectors on a quantum computer. We use four quantum bits and four controlled logic gates to implement every subroutine required, demonstrating the working principle of this algorithm.
Experimental demonstration of spatial quantum correlations in multiple scattering media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Smolka, Stephan; Huck, Alexander; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2009-01-01
We demonstrate that spatial quantum correlations are induced by multiple scattering of squeezed light. The correlation relates multiple scattered photons at different spatial positions, and is tunable by varying photon fluctuations of the illuminating beam.......We demonstrate that spatial quantum correlations are induced by multiple scattering of squeezed light. The correlation relates multiple scattered photons at different spatial positions, and is tunable by varying photon fluctuations of the illuminating beam....
Experimental realization of Deutsch's algorithm in a one-way quantum computer.
Tame, M S; Prevedel, R; Paternostro, M; Böhi, P; Kim, M S; Zeilinger, A
2007-04-06
We report the first experimental demonstration of an all-optical one-way implementation of Deutsch's quantum algorithm on a four-qubit cluster state. All the possible configurations of a balanced or constant function acting on a two-qubit register are realized within the measurement-based model for quantum computation. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical model, therefore demonstrating the successful performance of the algorithm.
The Qubit as Key to Quantum Physics Part II: Physical Realizations and Applications
Dür, Wolfgang; Heusler, Stefan
2016-01-01
Using the simplest possible quantum system--the qubit--the fundamental concepts of quantum physics can be introduced. This highlights the common features of many different physical systems, and provides a unifying framework when teaching quantum physics at the high school or introductory level. In a previous "TPT" article and in a…
Experimental quantum simulations of many-body physics with trapped ions.
Schneider, Ch; Porras, Diego; Schaetz, Tobias
2012-02-01
Direct experimental access to some of the most intriguing quantum phenomena is not granted due to the lack of precise control of the relevant parameters in their naturally intricate environment. Their simulation on conventional computers is impossible, since quantum behaviour arising with superposition states or entanglement is not efficiently translatable into the classical language. However, one could gain deeper insight into complex quantum dynamics by experimentally simulating the quantum behaviour of interest in another quantum system, where the relevant parameters and interactions can be controlled and robust effects detected sufficiently well. Systems of trapped ions provide unique control of both the internal (electronic) and external (motional) degrees of freedom. The mutual Coulomb interaction between the ions allows for large interaction strengths at comparatively large mutual ion distances enabling individual control and readout. Systems of trapped ions therefore exhibit a prominent system in several physical disciplines, for example, quantum information processing or metrology. Here, we will give an overview of different trapping techniques of ions as well as implementations for coherent manipulation of their quantum states and discuss the related theoretical basics. We then report on the experimental and theoretical progress in simulating quantum many-body physics with trapped ions and present current approaches for scaling up to more ions and more-dimensional systems.
Experimental Investigation of the Evolution of Gaussian Quantum Discord in an Open System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Lars S.; Berni, Adriano; Lassen, Mikael
2012-01-01
Gaussian quantum discord is a measure of quantum correlations in Gaussian systems. Using Gaussian discord, we quantify the quantum correlations of a bipartite entangled state and a separable two-mode mixture of coherent states. We experimentally analyze the effect of noise addition and dissipatio...... on Gaussian discord and show that the former noise degrades the discord, while the latter noise for some states leads to an increase of the discord. In particular, we experimentally demonstrate the near death of discord by noisy evolution and its revival through dissipation....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Dan; Shah, Jagdeep; Shchegrov, Andrei V.
2000-01-01
Resonant Rayleigh scattering from quantum well excitons is investigated using ultrafast spectral interferometry. We isolate the coherent Rayleigh scattering from incoherent luminescence in a single speckle. Averaging the resonant Rayleigh intensity over several speckles allows us to identify...... features in support of quantum corrections to the classical description of the underlying scattering process....
Aguado, Alejandro; Hugues-Salas, Emilio; Haigh, Paul Anthony; Marhuenda, Jaume; Price, Alasdair B.; Sibson, Philip; Kennard, Jake E.; Erven, Chris; Rarity, John G.; Thompson, Mark Gerard; Lord, Andrew; Nejabati, Reza; Simeonidou, Dimitra
2017-04-01
We demonstrate, for the first time, a secure optical network architecture that combines NFV orchestration and SDN control with quantum key distribution (QKD) technology. A novel time-shared QKD network design is presented as a cost-effective solution for practical networks.
Experimental Investigation of Hot Carriers in Terahertz Quantum Cascade Lasers
Scamarcio, G.; Vitiello, M. S.; Spagnolo, V.
2008-03-01
The nature of the electron distribution and the electron-lattice energy relaxation phenomena in all classes of quantum cascade lasers operating in the THz range, namely, resonant-phonon, bound-to-continuum, and interlaced photon-phonon designs are reviewed. Thermalized hot-electron distributions are found in all cases. However, electronic temperatures of individual conduction subband are strongly influenced by the specific quantum design and the actual electron-lattice energy relaxation channels. A wealth of information was obtained both below and above laser threshold from the analysis of micro-probe band-to-band photoluminescence spectra recorded with a spatial resolution of ≈ 2 μm. The influence of the detailed knowledge of the hot electron distributions on the design of improved THz quantum cascade lasers aiming at high temperature operation will be discussed.
Fujiwara, M.; Waseda, A.; Nojima, R.; Moriai, S.; Ogata, W.; Sasaki, M.
2016-07-01
Distributed storage plays an essential role in realizing robust and secure data storage in a network over long periods of time. A distributed storage system consists of a data owner machine, multiple storage servers and channels to link them. In such a system, secret sharing scheme is widely adopted, in which secret data are split into multiple pieces and stored in each server. To reconstruct them, the data owner should gather plural pieces. Shamir’s (k, n)-threshold scheme, in which the data are split into n pieces (shares) for storage and at least k pieces of them must be gathered for reconstruction, furnishes information theoretic security, that is, even if attackers could collect shares of less than the threshold k, they cannot get any information about the data, even with unlimited computing power. Behind this scenario, however, assumed is that data transmission and authentication must be perfectly secure, which is not trivial in practice. Here we propose a totally information theoretically secure distributed storage system based on a user-friendly single-password-authenticated secret sharing scheme and secure transmission using quantum key distribution, and demonstrate it in the Tokyo metropolitan area (≤90 km).
Implementation of quantum key distribution network simulation module in the network simulator NS-3
Mehic, Miralem; Maurhart, Oliver; Rass, Stefan; Voznak, Miroslav
2017-10-01
As the research in quantum key distribution (QKD) technology grows larger and becomes more complex, the need for highly accurate and scalable simulation technologies becomes important to assess the practical feasibility and foresee difficulties in the practical implementation of theoretical achievements. Due to the specificity of the QKD link which requires optical and Internet connection between the network nodes, to deploy a complete testbed containing multiple network hosts and links to validate and verify a certain network algorithm or protocol would be very costly. Network simulators in these circumstances save vast amounts of money and time in accomplishing such a task. The simulation environment offers the creation of complex network topologies, a high degree of control and repeatable experiments, which in turn allows researchers to conduct experiments and confirm their results. In this paper, we described the design of the QKD network simulation module which was developed in the network simulator of version 3 (NS-3). The module supports simulation of the QKD network in an overlay mode or in a single TCP/IP mode. Therefore, it can be used to simulate other network technologies regardless of QKD.
Bovino, Fabio Antonio; Messina, Angelo
2016-10-01
In a very simplistic way, the Command and Control functions can be summarized as the need to provide the decision makers with an exhaustive, real-time, situation picture and the capability to convey their decisions down to the operational forces. This two-ways data and information flow is vital to the execution of current operations and goes far beyond the border of military operations stretching to Police and disaster recovery as well. The availability of off-the shelf technology has enabled hostile elements to endanger the security of the communication networks by violating the traditional security protocols and devices and hacking sensitive databases. In this paper an innovative approach based to implementing Device Independent Quantum Key Distribution system is presented. The use of this technology would prevent security breaches due to a stolen crypto device placed in an end-to-end communication chain. The system, operating with attenuated laser, is practical and provides the increasing of the distance between the legitimate users.
Experimental continuous-variable cloning of partial quantum information
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sabuncu, Metin; Leuchs, Gerd; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2008-01-01
The fidelity of a quantum transformation is strongly linked with the prior partial information of the state to be transformed. We illustrate this interesting point by proposing and demonstrating the superior cloning of coherent states with prior partial information. More specifically, we propose...
Experimental and quantum chemical studies on corrosion inhibition ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The corrosion inhibition effect of fluconazole (FLU) was investigated on steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution. Weight loss measurements and atomic force microscope analysis were utilized to investigate the corrosion inhibition properties and film formation behaviour of FLU. Quantum chemical approach was also ...
Experimental and quantum chemical studies on corrosion inhibition ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The corrosion inhibition effect of fluconazole (FLU) was investigated on steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution. Weight loss measurements and atomic force microscope analysis were utilized to investigate the corrosion inhibition properties and film formation behaviour of FLU. Quantum chemical approach was also used to ...
Wu, Xiao Dong; Chen, Feng; Wu, Xiang Hua; Guo, Ying
2017-02-01
Continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) can provide detection efficiency, as compared to discrete-variable quantum key distribution (DVQKD). In this paper, we demonstrate a controllable CVQKD with the entangled source in the middle, contrast to the traditional point-to-point CVQKD where the entanglement source is usually created by one honest party and the Gaussian noise added on the reference partner of the reconciliation is uncontrollable. In order to harmonize the additive noise that originates in the middle to resist the effect of malicious eavesdropper, we propose a controllable CVQKD protocol by performing a tunable linear optics cloning machine (LOCM) at one participant's side, say Alice. Simulation results show that we can achieve the optimal secret key rates by selecting the parameters of the tuned LOCM in the derived regions.
Experimental Implementation of a Kochen-Specker Set of Quantum Tests
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vincenzo D’Ambrosio
2013-02-01
Full Text Available The conflict between classical and quantum physics can be identified through a series of yes-no tests on quantum systems, without it being necessary that these systems be in special quantum states. Kochen-Specker (KS sets of yes-no tests have this property and provide a quantum-versus-classical advantage that is free of the initialization problem that affects some quantum computers. Here, we report the first experimental implementation of a complete KS set that consists of 18 yes-no tests on four-dimensional quantum systems and show how to use the KS set to obtain a state-independent quantum advantage. We first demonstrate the unique power of this KS set for solving a task while avoiding the problem of state initialization. Such a demonstration is done by showing that, for 28 different quantum states encoded in the orbital-angular-momentum and polarization degrees of freedom of single photons, the KS set provides an impossible-to-beat solution. In a second experiment, we generate maximally contextual quantum correlations by performing compatible sequential measurements of the polarization and path of single photons. In this case, state independence is demonstrated for 15 different initial states. Maximum contextuality and state independence follow from the fact that the sequences of measurements project any initial quantum state onto one of the KS set’s eigenstates. Our results show that KS sets can be used for quantum-information processing and quantum computation and pave the way for future developments.
Zhang, P; Aungskunsiri, K; Martín-López, E; Wabnig, J; Lobino, M; Nock, R W; Munns, J; Bonneau, D; Jiang, P; Li, H W; Laing, A; Rarity, J G; Niskanen, A O; Thompson, M G; O'Brien, J L
2014-04-04
We demonstrate a client-server quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme. Large resources such as laser and detectors are situated at the server side, which is accessible via telecom fiber to a client requiring only an on-chip polarization rotator, which may be integrated into a handheld device. The detrimental effects of unstable fiber birefringence are overcome by employing the reference-frame-independent QKD protocol for polarization qubits in polarization maintaining fiber, where standard QKD protocols fail, as we show for comparison. This opens the way for quantum enhanced secure communications between companies and members of the general public equipped with handheld mobile devices, via telecom-fiber tethering.
Quantum Computation and Information From Theory to Experiment
Imai, Hiroshi
2006-01-01
Recently, the field of quantum computation and information has been developing through a fusion of results from various research fields in theoretical and practical areas. This book consists of the reviews of selected topics charterized by great progress and cover the field from theoretical areas to experimental ones. It contains fundamental areas, quantum query complexity, quantum statistical inference, quantum cloning, quantum entanglement, additivity. It treats three types of quantum security system, quantum public key cryptography, quantum key distribution, and quantum steganography. A photonic system is highlighted for the realization of quantum information processing.
Rutkowski, Adam; Buraczewski, Adam; Horodecki, Paweł; Stobińska, Magdalena
2017-01-13
Quantum steering is a relatively simple test for proving that the values of quantum-mechanical measurement outcomes come into being only in the act of measurement. By exploiting quantum correlations, Alice can influence-steer-Bob's physical system in a way that is impossible in classical mechanics, as shown by the violation of steering inequalities. Demonstrating this and similar quantum effects for systems of increasing size, approaching even the classical limit, is a long-standing challenging problem. Here, we prove an experimentally feasible unbounded violation of a steering inequality. We derive its universal form where tolerance for measurement-setting errors is explicitly built in by means of the Deutsch-Maassen-Uffink entropic uncertainty relation. Then, generalizing the mutual unbiasedness, we apply the inequality to the multisinglet and multiparticle bipartite Bell state. However, the method is general and opens the possibility of employing multiparticle bipartite steering for randomness certification and development of quantum technologies, e.g., random access codes.
Rauch, Helmut
2015-01-01
The quantum interference of de Broglie matter waves is probably one of the most startling and fundamental aspects of quantum mechanics. It continues to tax our imaginations and leads us to new experimental windows on nature. Quantum interference phenomena are vividly displayed in the wide assembly of neutron interferometry experiments, which have been carried out since the first demonstration of a perfect silicon crystal interferometer in 1974. Since the neutron experiences all four fundamental forces of nature (strong, weak, electromagnetic, and gravitational), interferometry with neutrons provides a fertile testing ground for theory and precision measurements. Many Gedanken experiments of quantum mechanics have become real due to neutron interferometry. Quantum mechanics is a part of physics where experiment and theory are inseparably intertwined. This general theme permeates the second edition of this book. It discusses more than 40 neutron interferometry experiments along with their theoretical motivation...
Reality, locality and all that: "experimental metaphysics" and the quantum foundations
Cavalcanti, Eric G.
2008-10-01
In recent decades there has been a resurge of interest in the foundations of quantum theory, partly motivated by new experimental techniques, partly by the emerging field of quantum information science. Old questions, asked since the seminal article by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR), are being revisited. The work of John Bell has changed the direction of investigation by recognising that those fundamental philosophical questions can have, after all, input from experiment. Abner Shimony has aptly termed this new field of enquiry "experimental metaphysics". The objective of this Thesis is to contribute to that body of research, by formalising old concepts, proposing new ones, and finding new results in well-studied areas. Without losing from sight that the appeal of experimental metaphysics comes from the adjective, every major result is followed by clear experimental proposals for quantum-atom optical setups.
Visualization of the Invisible: The Qubit as Key to Quantum Physics
Dür, Wolfgang; Heusler, Stefan
2014-01-01
Quantum mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics, however rather difficult to teach at the introductory level due to the conceptual difficulties and the required advanced mathematics. Nevertheless, attempts to identify relevant features of quantum mechanics and to put forward concepts of how to teach it have been proposed. Here we present…
Frodo: Take off the ring! Practical, quantum-secure key exchange from LWE
J. Bos; C.J. Costello (Craig); L. Ducas (Léo); Mironov (I); Naehrig (Michael); Nikolaendo (Valieria); Ragghunathan (Ananth); Stebila (Douglas)
2016-01-01
textabstractLattice-based cryptography offers some of the most attractive primitives believed to be resistant to quantum computers. Following increasing interest from both companies and government agencies in building quantum computers, a number of works have proposed instantiations of practical
Experimental ladder proof of Hardy's nonlocality for high-dimensional quantum systems
Chen, Lixiang; Zhang, Wuhong; Wu, Ziwen; Wang, Jikang; Fickler, Robert; Karimi, Ebrahim
2017-08-01
Recent years have witnessed a rapidly growing interest in high-dimensional quantum entanglement for fundamental studies as well as towards novel applications. Therefore, the ability to verify entanglement between physical qudits, d -dimensional quantum systems, is of crucial importance. To show nonclassicality, Hardy's paradox represents "the best version of Bell's theorem" without using inequalities. However, so far it has only been tested experimentally for bidimensional vector spaces. Here, we formulate a theoretical framework to demonstrate the ladder proof of Hardy's paradox for arbitrary high-dimensional systems. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate the ladder proof by taking advantage of the orbital angular momentum of high-dimensionally entangled photon pairs. We perform the ladder proof of Hardy's paradox for dimensions 3 and 4, both with the ladder up to the third step. Our paper paves the way towards a deeper understanding of the nature of high-dimensionally entangled quantum states and may find applications in quantum information science.
Experimental investigation of a four-qubit linear-optical quantum logic circuit.
Stárek, R; Mičuda, M; Miková, M; Straka, I; Dušek, M; Ježek, M; Fiurášek, J
2016-09-20
We experimentally demonstrate and characterize a four-qubit linear-optical quantum logic circuit. Our robust and versatile scheme exploits encoding of two qubits into polarization and path degrees of single photons and involves two crossed inherently stable interferometers. This approach allows us to design a complex quantum logic circuit that combines a genuine four-qubit C(3)Z gate and several two-qubit and single-qubit gates. The C(3)Z gate introduces a sign flip if and only if all four qubits are in the computational state |1〉. We verify high-fidelity performance of this central four-qubit gate using Hofmann bounds on quantum gate fidelity and Monte Carlo fidelity sampling. We also experimentally demonstrate that the quantum logic circuit can generate genuine multipartite entanglement and we certify the entanglement with the use of suitably tailored entanglement witnesses.
Tamaki, K
2005-01-01
In this presentation, we show some counter-examples to a naive belief that the security of QKD is based on no-cloning theorem. One example is shown by explicitly proving that one can indeed generate an unconditionally secure key from Alice's two-photon emission part in "SARG04 protocol" proposed by V. Scarani et al, in Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057901 (2004). This protocol differs from BB84 only in the classical communication. It is, thus, interesting to see how only the classical communication of QKD protocol might qualitatively change its security. We also show that one can generate an unconditionally secure key from the single to the four-photon part in a generalized SARG04 that uses six states. Finally, we also compare the bit error rate threshold of these protocols with the one in BB84 and the original six-state protocol assuming a depolarizing channel.
Experimental circular quantum secret sharing over telecom fiber network.
Wei, Ke-Jin; Ma, Hai-Qiang; Yang, Jian-Hui
2013-07-15
We present a robust single photon circular quantum secret sharing (QSS) scheme with phase encoding over 50 km single mode fiber network using a circular QSS protocol. Our scheme can automatically provide a perfect compensation of birefringence and remain stable for a long time. A high visibility of 99.3% is obtained. Furthermore, our scheme realizes a polarization insensitive phase modulators. The visibility of this system can be maintained perpetually without any adjustment to the system every time we test the system.
Experimental realization of Shor's quantum factoring algorithm using nuclear magnetic resonance.
Vandersypen, L M; Steffen, M; Breyta, G; Yannoni, C S; Sherwood, M H; Chuang, I L
The number of steps any classical computer requires in order to find the prime factors of an l-digit integer N increases exponentially with l, at least using algorithms known at present. Factoring large integers is therefore conjectured to be intractable classically, an observation underlying the security of widely used cryptographic codes. Quantum computers, however, could factor integers in only polynomial time, using Shor's quantum factoring algorithm. Although important for the study of quantum computers, experimental demonstration of this algorithm has proved elusive. Here we report an implementation of the simplest instance of Shor's algorithm: factorization of N = 15 (whose prime factors are 3 and 5). We use seven spin-1/2 nuclei in a molecule as quantum bits, which can be manipulated with room temperature liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. This method of using nuclei to store quantum information is in principle scalable to systems containing many quantum bits, but such scalability is not implied by the present work. The significance of our work lies in the demonstration of experimental and theoretical techniques for precise control and modelling of complex quantum computers. In particular, we present a simple, parameter-free but predictive model of decoherence effects in our system.
Ko, Heasin; Lim, Kyongchun; Oh, Junsang; Rhee, June-Koo Kevin
2016-10-01
Quantum channel loopholes due to imperfect implementations of practical devices expose quantum key distribution (QKD) systems to potential eavesdropping attacks. Even though QKD systems are implemented with optical devices that are highly selective on spectral characteristics, information theory-based analysis about a pertinent attack strategy built with a reasonable framework exploiting it has never been clarified. This paper proposes a new type of trojan horse attack called hidden pulse attack that can be applied in a plug-and-play QKD system, using general and optimal attack strategies that can extract quantum information from phase-disturbed quantum states of eavesdropper's hidden pulses. It exploits spectral characteristics of a photodiode used in a plug-and-play QKD system in order to probe modulation states of photon qubits. We analyze the security performance of the decoy-state BB84 QKD system under the optimal hidden pulse attack model that shows enormous performance degradation in terms of both secret key rate and transmission distance.
Quantum random oracle model for quantum digital signature
Shang, Tao; Lei, Qi; Liu, Jianwei
2016-10-01
The goal of this work is to provide a general security analysis tool, namely, the quantum random oracle (QRO), for facilitating the security analysis of quantum cryptographic protocols, especially protocols based on quantum one-way function. QRO is used to model quantum one-way function and different queries to QRO are used to model quantum attacks. A typical application of quantum one-way function is the quantum digital signature, whose progress has been hampered by the slow pace of the experimental realization. Alternatively, we use the QRO model to analyze the provable security of a quantum digital signature scheme and elaborate the analysis procedure. The QRO model differs from the prior quantum-accessible random oracle in that it can output quantum states as public keys and give responses to different queries. This tool can be a test bed for the cryptanalysis of more quantum cryptographic protocols based on the quantum one-way function.
Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution with a High Generation Rate KTP Waveguide Photon-Pair Source
Wilson, J.; Chaffee, D.; Wilson, N.; Lekki, J.; Tokars, R.; Pouch, J.; Lind, A.; Cavin, J.; Helmick, S.; Roberts, T.;
2016-01-01
NASA awarded Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contracts to AdvR, Inc to develop a high generation rate source of entangled photons that could be used to explore quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols. The final product, a photon pair source using a dual-element periodically- poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) waveguide, was delivered to NASA Glenn Research Center in June of 2015. This paper describes the source, its characterization, and its performance in a B92 (Bennett, 1992) protocol QKD experiment.
Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum digital signatures over a metropolitan network
Yin, Hua-Lei; Wang, Wei-Long; Tang, Yan-Lin; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Hui; Sun, Xiang-Xiang; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Li, Hao; Puthoor, Ittoop Vergheese; You, Li-Xing; Andersson, Erika; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Xiao; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Qiang; Curty, Marcos; Chen, Teng-Yun; Pan, Jian-Wei
2017-04-01
Quantum digital signatures (QDSs) provide a means for signing electronic communications with information-theoretic security. However, all previous demonstrations of quantum digital signatures assume trusted measurement devices. This renders them vulnerable against detector side-channel attacks, just like quantum key distribution. Here we exploit a measurement-device-independent (MDI) quantum network, over a metropolitan area, to perform a field test of a three-party MDI QDS scheme that is secure against any detector side-channel attack. In so doing, we are able to successfully sign a binary message with a security level of about 10-7. Remarkably, our work demonstrates the feasibility of MDI QDSs for practical applications.
Thermalization, Freeze-out, and Noise: Deciphering Experimental Quantum Annealers
Marshall, Jeffrey; Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Hen, Itay
2017-12-01
By contrasting the performance of two quantum annealers operating at different temperatures, we address recent questions related to the role of temperature in these devices and their function as "Boltzmann samplers." Using a method to reliably calculate the degeneracies of the energy levels of large-scale spin-glass instances, we are able to estimate the instance-dependent effective temperature from the output of annealing runs. Our results corroborate the "freeze-out" picture which posits two regimes, one in which the final state corresponds to a Boltzmann distribution of the final Hamiltonian with a well-defined "effective temperature" determined at a freeze-out point late in the annealing schedule, and another regime in which such a distribution is not necessarily expected. We find that the output distributions of the annealers do not, in general, correspond to a classical Boltzmann distribution for the final Hamiltonian. We also find that the effective temperatures at different programing cycles fluctuate greatly, with the effect worsening with problem size. We discuss the implications of our results for the design of future quantum annealers to act as more-effective Boltzmann samplers and for the programing of such annealers.
Sisodia, Mitali; Shukla, Abhishek; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban
2017-12-01
An explicit scheme (quantum circuit) is designed for the teleportation of an n-qubit quantum state. It is established that the proposed scheme requires an optimal amount of quantum resources, whereas larger amount of quantum resources have been used in a large number of recently reported teleportation schemes for the quantum states which can be viewed as special cases of the general n-qubit state considered here. A trade-off between our knowledge about the quantum state to be teleported and the amount of quantum resources required for the same is observed. A proof-of-principle experimental realization of the proposed scheme (for a 2-qubit state) is also performed using 5-qubit superconductivity-based IBM quantum computer. The experimental results show that the state has been teleported with high fidelity. Relevance of the proposed teleportation scheme has also been discussed in the context of controlled, bidirectional, and bidirectional controlled state teleportation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Ramanujam, P.S.; Johansen, P.M.
1998-01-01
The microscopic properties of azobenzene chromophores are important for a correct description of optical storage systems based on photoinduced anisotropy in azobenzene polymers. A quantum model of these properties is presented and verified by comparison to experimental absorption spectra for trans...... and cis isomers of cyano methoxy azobenzene. In addition, the trans --> cis quantum efficiency is measured, and hence the combined experimental and theoretical work allows one to determine the essential molecular properties, including magnitude and anisotropy of the absorption cross section and various...
Optical quantum memory based on electromagnetically induced transparency.
Ma, Lijun; Slattery, Oliver; Tang, Xiao
2017-04-01
Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is a promising approach to implement quantum memory in quantum communication and quantum computing applications. In this paper, following a brief overview of the main approaches to quantum memory, we provide details of the physical principle and theory of quantum memory based specifically on EIT. We discuss the key technologies for implementing quantum memory based on EIT and review important milestones, from the first experimental demonstration to current applications in quantum information systems.
Experimental considerations for quantum-entanglement studies with relativistic fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlemme, Steffen; Peck, Marius; Enders, Joachim [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Bodek, Kazimierz; Rozpedzik, Dagmara; Zejma, Jacek [Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Caban, Pawel; Rembielinski, Jakub [University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Ciborowski, Jacek; Dragowski, Michal; Wlodarczyk, Marta [Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland); Kozela, Adam [Institute of Nuclear Physics, PAS, Cracow (Poland)
2015-07-01
The QUEST (Quantum entanglement of Ultra-relativistic Electrons in Singlet and Triplet states) project is aimed at the determination of the electron spin correlation function at relativistic energies. Electron pairs are created through Moeller scattering, and polarization observables are planned to be measured in Mott scattering. The predicted spin correlation function is energy dependent with values of several per cent at energies of 10-20 MeV. The results of a first test experiment at the S-DALINAC were not sensitive enough to detect entangled and Mott-scattered electron pairs at the expected energies. Further steps are either to improve the former setup or design a new polarimeter for lower energies to improve statistics due to the higher scattering cross sections. This contribution presents general considerations, test results, and an outlook.
Surface Traps in Colloidal Quantum Dots: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Perspective.
Giansante, Carlo; Infante, Ivan
2017-10-19
Surface traps are ubiquitous to nanoscopic semiconductor materials. Understanding their atomistic origin and manipulating them chemically have capital importance to design defect-free colloidal quantum dots and make a leap forward in the development of efficient optoelectronic devices. Recent advances in computing power established computational chemistry as a powerful tool to describe accurately complex chemical species and nowadays it became conceivable to model colloidal quantum dots with realistic sizes and shapes. In this Perspective, we combine the knowledge gathered in recent experimental findings with the computation of quantum dot electronic structures. We analyze three different systems: namely, CdSe, PbS, and CsPbI3 as benchmark semiconductor nanocrystals showing how different types of trap states can form at their surface. In addition, we suggest experimental healing of such traps according to their chemical origin and nanocrystal composition.
Physics-based mathematical models for quantum devices via experimental system identification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schirmer, S G; Oi, D K L; Devitt, S J [Department of Applied Maths and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Rd, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); National Institute of Informatics, 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8430 (Japan)], E-mail: sgs29@cam.ac.uk
2008-03-15
We consider the task of intrinsic control system identification for quantum devices. The problem of experimental determination of subspace confinement is considered, and simple general strategies for full Hamiltonian identification and decoherence characterization of a controlled two-level system are presented.
Polarization states encoded by phase modulation for high bit rate quantum key distribution
Liu, Xiaobao; Tang, Zhilie; Liao, Changjun; Lu, Yiqun; Zhao, Feng; Liu, Songhao
2006-10-01
We present implementation of quantum cryptography with polarization code by wave-guide type phase modulator. At four different low input voltages of the phase modulator, coder encodes pulses into four different polarization states, 45°, 135° linearly polarized or right, left circle polarized, while the decoder serves as the complementary polarizers.
Wang, Tao; Huang, Peng; Zhou, Yingming; Liu, Weiqi; Zeng, Guihua
2018-01-01
In a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) system, real-time shot-noise measurement (RTSNM) is an essential procedure for preventing the eavesdropper exploiting the practical security loopholes. However, the performance of this procedure itself is not analyzed under the real-world condition. Therefore, we indicate the RTSNM practical performance and investigate its effects on the CVQKD system. In particular, due to the finite-size effect, the shot-noise measurement at the receiver's side may decrease the precision of parameter estimation and consequently result in a tight security bound. To mitigate that, we optimize the block size for RTSNM under the ensemble size limitation to maximize the secure key rate. Moreover, the effect of finite dynamics of amplitude modulator in this scheme is studied and its mitigation method is also proposed. Our work indicates the practical performance of RTSNM and provides the real secret key rate under it.
Quantum memories: emerging applications and recent advances.
Heshami, Khabat; England, Duncan G; Humphreys, Peter C; Bustard, Philip J; Acosta, Victor M; Nunn, Joshua; Sussman, Benjamin J
2016-11-12
Quantum light-matter interfaces are at the heart of photonic quantum technologies. Quantum memories for photons, where non-classical states of photons are mapped onto stationary matter states and preserved for subsequent retrieval, are technical realizations enabled by exquisite control over interactions between light and matter. The ability of quantum memories to synchronize probabilistic events makes them a key component in quantum repeaters and quantum computation based on linear optics. This critical feature has motivated many groups to dedicate theoretical and experimental research to develop quantum memory devices. In recent years, exciting new applications, and more advanced developments of quantum memories, have proliferated. In this review, we outline some of the emerging applications of quantum memories in optical signal processing, quantum computation and non-linear optics. We review recent experimental and theoretical developments, and their impacts on more advanced photonic quantum technologies based on quantum memories.
Experimental characterization of a quantum many-body system via higher-order correlations
Schweigler, Thomas; Kasper, Valentin; Erne, Sebastian; Mazets, Igor; Rauer, Bernhard; Cataldini, Federica; Langen, Tim; Gasenzer, Thomas; Berges, Jürgen; Schmiedmayer, Jörg
2017-05-01
Quantum systems can be characterized by their correlations. Higher-order (larger than second order) correlations, and the ways in which they can be decomposed into correlations of lower order, provide important information about the system, its structure, its interactions and its complexity. The measurement of such correlation functions is therefore an essential tool for reading, verifying and characterizing quantum simulations. Although higher-order correlation functions are frequently used in theoretical calculations, so far mainly correlations up to second order have been studied experimentally. Here we study a pair of tunnel-coupled one-dimensional atomic superfluids and characterize the corresponding quantum many-body problem by measuring correlation functions. We extract phase correlation functions up to tenth order from interference patterns and analyse whether, and under what conditions, these functions factorize into correlations of lower order. This analysis characterizes the essential features of our system, the relevant quasiparticles, their interactions and topologically distinct vacua. From our data we conclude that in thermal equilibrium our system can be seen as a quantum simulator of the sine-Gordon model, relevant for diverse disciplines ranging from particle physics to condensed matter. The measurement and evaluation of higher-order correlation functions can easily be generalized to other systems and to study correlations of any other observable such as density, spin and magnetization. It therefore represents a general method for analysing quantum many-body systems from experimental data.
Experimental investigation of spin-orbit coupling in n-type PbTe quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peres, M. L.; Monteiro, H. S.; Castro, S. de [Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Federal University of Itajubá, PB 50, 37500-903 Itajubá, MG (Brazil); Chitta, V. A.; Oliveira, N. F. [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, PB 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mengui, U. A.; Rappl, P. H. O.; Abramof, E. [Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, PB 515, 12201-970 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Maude, D. K. [Grenoble High Magnetic Field Laboratory, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)
2014-03-07
The spin-orbit coupling is studied experimentally in two PbTe quantum wells by means of weak antilocalization effect. Using the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model through a computational global optimization procedure, we extracted the spin-orbit and inelastic scattering times and estimated the strength of the zero field spin-splitting energy Δ{sub so}. The values of Δ{sub so} are linearly dependent on the Fermi wave vector (k{sub F}) confirming theoretical predictions of the existence of large spin-orbit coupling in IV-VI quantum wells originated from pure Rashba effect.
Experimentally modeling stochastic processes with less memory by the use of a quantum processor.
Palsson, Matthew S; Gu, Mile; Ho, Joseph; Wiseman, Howard M; Pryde, Geoff J
2017-02-01
Computer simulation of observable phenomena is an indispensable tool for engineering new technology, understanding the natural world, and studying human society. However, the most interesting systems are often so complex that simulating their future behavior demands storing immense amounts of information regarding how they have behaved in the past. For increasingly complex systems, simulation becomes increasingly difficult and is ultimately constrained by resources such as computer memory. Recent theoretical work shows that quantum theory can reduce this memory requirement beyond ultimate classical limits, as measured by a process' statistical complexity, C. We experimentally demonstrate this quantum advantage in simulating stochastic processes. Our quantum implementation observes a memory requirement of Cq = 0.05 ± 0.01, far below the ultimate classical limit of C = 1. Scaling up this technique would substantially reduce the memory required in simulations of more complex systems.
Experimental demonstration of real-time adaptive one-qubit quantum-state tomography
Yin, Qi; Li, Li; Xiang, Xiao; Xiang, Guo-Yong; Li, Chuang-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2017-01-01
Quantum-state tomography plays a pivotal role in quantum computation and information processing. To improve the accuracy in estimating an unknown state, carefully designed measurement schemes, such as adopting an adaptive strategy, are necessarily needed, which have gained great interest recently. In this work, based on the proposal of Sugiyama et al. [Phys. Rev. A 85, 052107 (2012)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.85.052107, we experimentally realize an adaptive quantum-state tomography for one qubit in an optical system. Since this scheme gives an analytical solution to the optimal measurement basis problem, our experiment is updated in real time and the infidelity between the real state and the estimated state is tracked with the detected photons. We observe an almost 1 /N scaling rule of averaged infidelity against the overall number of photons, N , in our experiment, which outperforms 1 /√{N } of nonadaptive schemes.
Sisodia, Mitali; Shukla, Abhishek; Pathak, Anirban
2017-12-01
A scheme for distributed quantum measurement that allows nondestructive or indirect Bell measurement was proposed by Gupta et al [1]. In the present work, Gupta et al.'s scheme is experimentally realized using the five-qubit super-conductivity-based quantum computer, which has been recently placed in cloud by IBM Corporation. The experiment confirmed that the Bell state can be constructed and measured in a nondestructive manner with a reasonably high fidelity. A comparison of the outcomes of this study and the results obtained earlier in an NMR-based experiment (Samal et al. (2010) [10]) has also been performed. The study indicates that to make a scalable SQUID-based quantum computer, errors introduced by the gates (in the present technology) have to be reduced considerably.
Experimentally modeling stochastic processes with less memory by the use of a quantum processor
Palsson, Matthew S.; Gu, Mile; Ho, Joseph; Wiseman, Howard M.; Pryde, Geoff J.
2017-01-01
Computer simulation of observable phenomena is an indispensable tool for engineering new technology, understanding the natural world, and studying human society. However, the most interesting systems are often so complex that simulating their future behavior demands storing immense amounts of information regarding how they have behaved in the past. For increasingly complex systems, simulation becomes increasingly difficult and is ultimately constrained by resources such as computer memory. Recent theoretical work shows that quantum theory can reduce this memory requirement beyond ultimate classical limits, as measured by a process’ statistical complexity, C. We experimentally demonstrate this quantum advantage in simulating stochastic processes. Our quantum implementation observes a memory requirement of Cq = 0.05 ± 0.01, far below the ultimate classical limit of C = 1. Scaling up this technique would substantially reduce the memory required in simulations of more complex systems. PMID:28168218
Experimental implementation of a quantum walk on a circle with single photons
Bian, Zhi-Hao; Li, Jian; Zhan, Xiang; Twamley, Jason; Xue, Peng
2017-05-01
We experimentally implement a quantum walk on a circle in position space. Using a different arrangement of linear optical elements, our experiment realizes clockwise-cycling and counterclockwise-cycling walks. Periodic evolutions in quantum walks on three- and four-node circles with uniform coin flipping for each step and a localized initial walker state are observed, and the full revival of the walker+coin state occurs. Coherent information encoded in the coin state shows the periodic collapse and revival due to the interaction between the coin and walker. The technology to realize clockwise-cycling and counterclockwise-cycling walks can be expanded to simulate a quantum walk on a circle with arbitrary nodes.
Guo, Ying; Liao, Qin; Wang, Yijun; Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Zeng, Guihua
2017-03-01
A suitable photon-subtraction operation can be exploited to improve the maximal transmission of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) in point-to-point quantum communication. Unfortunately, the photon-subtraction operation faces solving the improvement transmission problem of practical quantum networks, where the entangled source is located in the third part, which may be controlled by a malicious eavesdropper, instead of in one of the trusted parts, controlled by Alice or Bob. In this paper, we show that a solution can come from using a non-Gaussian operation, in particular, the photon-subtraction operation, which provides a method to enhance the performance of entanglement-based (EB) CVQKD. Photon subtraction not only can lengthen the maximal transmission distance by increasing the signal-to-noise rate but also can be easily implemented with existing technologies. Security analysis shows that CVQKD with an entangled source in the middle (ESIM) from applying photon subtraction can well increase the secure transmission distance in both direct and reverse reconciliations of the EB-CVQKD scheme, even if the entangled source originates from an untrusted part. Moreover, it can defend against the inner-source attack, which is a specific attack by an untrusted entangled source in the framework of ESIM.
Zhu, Jian-Rong; Li, Jian; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Qin
2017-10-01
The decoy-state method has been widely used in commercial quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. In view of the practical decoy-state QKD with both source errors and statistical fluctuations, we propose a universal model of full parameter optimization in biased decoy-state QKD with phase-randomized sources. Besides, we adopt this model to carry out simulations of two widely used sources: weak coherent source (WCS) and heralded single-photon source (HSPS). Results show that full parameter optimization can significantly improve not only the secure transmission distance but also the final key generation rate. And when taking source errors and statistical fluctuations into account, the performance of decoy-state QKD using HSPS suffered less than that of decoy-state QKD using WCS.
Peterson, J P S; Sarthour, R S; Souza, A M; Oliveira, I S; Goold, J; Modi, K; Soares-Pinto, D O; Céleri, L C
2016-04-01
Landauer's principle sets fundamental thermodynamical constraints for classical and quantum information processing, thus affecting not only various branches of physics, but also of computer science and engineering. Despite its importance, this principle was only recently experimentally considered for classical systems. Here we employ a nuclear magnetic resonance set-up to experimentally address the information to energy conversion in a quantum system. Specifically, we consider a three nuclear spins [Formula: see text] (qubits) molecule-the system, the reservoir and the ancilla-to measure the heat dissipated during the implementation of a global system-reservoir unitary interaction that changes the information content of the system. By employing an interferometric technique, we were able to reconstruct the heat distribution associated with the unitary interaction. Then, through quantum state tomography, we measured the relative change in the entropy of the system. In this way, we were able to verify that an operation that changes the information content of the system must necessarily generate heat in the reservoir, exactly as predicted by Landauer's principle. The scheme presented here allows for the detailed study of irreversible entropy production in quantum information processors.
Quantum optics with semiconductor nanostructures
Jahnke, Frank
2012-01-01
A guide to the theory, application and potential of semiconductor nanostructures in the exploration of quantum optics. It offers an overview of resonance fluorescence emission.$bAn understanding of the interaction between light and matter on a quantum level is of fundamental interest and has many applications in optical technologies. The quantum nature of the interaction has recently attracted great attention for applications of semiconductor nanostructures in quantum information processing. Quantum optics with semiconductor nanostructures is a key guide to the theory, experimental realisation, and future potential of semiconductor nanostructures in the exploration of quantum optics. Part one provides a comprehensive overview of single quantum dot systems, beginning with a look at resonance fluorescence emission. Quantum optics with single quantum dots in photonic crystal and micro cavities are explored in detail, before part two goes on to review nanolasers with quantum dot emitters. Light-matter interaction...
Experimental Test of the State Estimation-Reversal Tradeoff Relation in General Quantum Measurements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Geng Chen
2014-06-01
Full Text Available When a measurement has limited strength, only partial information, regarding the initial state, is extracted, and, correspondingly, there is a probability to reverse its effect on the system and retrieve the original state. Recently, a clear and direct quantitative description of this complementary relationship, in terms of a tradeoff relation, was developed by Y. K. Cheong and S. W. Lee. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 150402 (2012]. Here, this tradeoff relation is experimentally verified using polarization-encoded single photons from a quantum dot. Measurement operators representing a complete range, from not affecting the system to a projection to a single polarization state, are realized. In addition, for each measurement operator, an optimal reversal operator is also implemented. The upper bound of the tradeoff relation is mapped to experimental parameters representing the measurement strength. Our results complement the theoretical work and provide a hands-on characterization of general quantum measurements.
Experimental Tests of Quantum Mechanics: Pauli Exclusion Principle and Spontaneous Collapse Models
Petrascu, Catalina Curceanu; Bragadireanu, Mario; Clozza, Alberto; Guaraldo, Carlo; Iliescu, Mihai; Rizzo, Alessandro; Vidal, Antonio Romero; Scordo, Alessandro; Sirghi, Diana Laura; Sirghi, Florin; Sperandio, Laura; Doce, Oton Vazquez; Bassi, Angelo; Donadi, Sandro; Milotti, Edoardo; Laubenstein, Matthias; Bertolucci, Sergio; Bragadireanu, Mario; Curceanu, Catalina; Pietreanu, Dorel; Ponta, Titus; Cargnelli, Michael; Ishiwatari, Tomoichi; Marton, Johann; Widmann, Eberhard; Zmeskal, Johann; Matteo, Sergio di; Egger, Jean Pierre
2014-01-01
The Pauli exclusion principle (PEP), as a consequence or the spin-statistics connection, is one of the basic principles of the modern physics. Being at the very basis of our understanding of matter, it spurs a lively debate on its possible limits, deeply rooted as it is in the very foundations of Quantum Field Theory. The VIP (VIolation of the Pauli exclusion principle) experiment is searching for a possible small violation of the PEP for electrons, using the method of searching for Pauli Exclusion Principle forbidden atomic transitions in copper. We describe the experimental method and the obtained results; we briefly present future plans to go beyond the actual limit by upgrading the experiment using vetoed new spectroscopic fast Silicon Drift Detectors. We also mention the possibility of using a similar experimental technique to search for possible X-rays generated in the spontaneous collapse models of quantum mechanics.
S. Fehr (Serge); L. Salvail (Louis)
2017-01-01
textabstractWe propose an information-theoretically secure encryption scheme for classical messages with quantum ciphertexts that offers detection of eavesdropping attacks, and re-usability of the key in case no eavesdropping took place: the entire key can be securely re-used for encrypting new
Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Villoresi, P; Bonato, C [Department of Information Engineering, University of Padova and INFM-CNR LUXOR Laboratory for Ultraviolet and X-ray Optical Research, Padova (Italy); Jennewein, T; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (IQOQI), Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Tamburini, F; Barbieri, C [Department of Astronomy, University of Padova (Italy); Ursin, R [Faculty of Physics, Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Vienna (Austria); Pernechele, C [INAF-Cagliari, Capoterra (Canada) (Italy); Luceri, V [Centro di Geodesia Spaziale ' G Colombo' , e-GEOS SpA, Matera (Italy); Bianco, G [Centro di Geodesia Spaziale ' G Colombo' , Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, Matera (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.villoresi@unipd.it
2008-03-15
Extending quantum communication to space environments would enable us to perform fundamental experiments on quantum physics as well as applications of quantum information at planetary and interplanetary scales. Here, we report on the first experimental study of the conditions for the implementation of the single-photon exchange between a satellite and an Earth-based station. We built an experiment that mimics a single photon source on a satellite, exploiting the telescope at the Matera Laser Ranging Observatory of the Italian Space Agency to detect the transmitted photons. Weak laser pulses, emitted by the ground-based station, are directed toward a satellite equipped with cube-corner retroreflectors. These reflect a small portion of the pulse, with an average of less-than-one photon per pulse directed to our receiver, as required for faint-pulse quantum communication. We were able to detect returns from satellite Ajisai, a low-Earth orbit geodetic satellite, whose orbit has a perigee height of 1485 km.
Experimental estimation of average fidelity of a Clifford gate on a 7-qubit quantum processor.
Lu, Dawei; Li, Hang; Trottier, Denis-Alexandre; Li, Jun; Brodutch, Aharon; Krismanich, Anthony P; Ghavami, Ahmad; Dmitrienko, Gary I; Long, Guilu; Baugh, Jonathan; Laflamme, Raymond
2015-04-10
One of the major experimental achievements in the past decades is the ability to control quantum systems to high levels of precision. To quantify the level of control we need to characterize the dynamical evolution. Full characterization via quantum process tomography is impractical and often unnecessary. For most practical purposes, it is enough to estimate more general quantities such as the average fidelity. Here we use a unitary 2-design and twirling protocol for efficiently estimating the average fidelity of Clifford gates, to certify a 7-qubit entangling gate in a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum processor. Compared with more than 10^{8} experiments required by full process tomography, we conducted 1656 experiments to satisfy a statistical confidence level of 99%. The average fidelity of this Clifford gate in experiment is 55.1%, and rises to at least 87.5% if the signal's decay due to decoherence is taken into account. The entire protocol of certifying Clifford gates is efficient and scalable, and can easily be extended to any general quantum information processor with minor modifications.
Quantum computing on encrypted data.
Fisher, K A G; Broadbent, A; Shalm, L K; Yan, Z; Lavoie, J; Prevedel, R; Jennewein, T; Resch, K J
2014-01-01
The ability to perform computations on encrypted data is a powerful tool for protecting privacy. Recently, protocols to achieve this on classical computing systems have been found. Here, we present an efficient solution to the quantum analogue of this problem that enables arbitrary quantum computations to be carried out on encrypted quantum data. We prove that an untrusted server can implement a universal set of quantum gates on encrypted quantum bits (qubits) without learning any information about the inputs, while the client, knowing the decryption key, can easily decrypt the results of the computation. We experimentally demonstrate, using single photons and linear optics, the encryption and decryption scheme on a set of gates sufficient for arbitrary quantum computations. As our protocol requires few extra resources compared with other schemes it can be easily incorporated into the design of future quantum servers. These results will play a key role in enabling the development of secure distributed quantum systems.
High-Rate Field Demonstration of Large-Alphabet Quantum Key Distribution
2016-12-13
allowing secure communication in the presence of an eaves- dropper. It commonly relies on detecting single photons, but the secret-key generation rates...such large-alphabet schemes can encode more secure information per detected photon, boosting secure communication rates, and also provide increased...efficiency, timing resolution of tens of picoseconds, and few kcps dark count rates (24). A single optical fiber is coupled to four interleaved nanowires
Experimental investigations of synchrotron radiation at the onset of the quantum regime
Andersen, Kristoffer K; Knudsen, H; Thomsen, H D; Uggerhøj, U I; Sona, P; Mangiarotti, A; Ketel, T J; Dizdar, A; Ballestrero, S
2012-01-01
The classical description of synchrotron radiation fails at large Lorentz factors, $\\gamma$, for relativistic electrons crossing strong transverse magnetic fields $B$. In the rest frame of the electron this field is comparable to the so-called critical field $B_0 = 4.414\\cdot10^9$ T. For $\\chi = \\gamma B/B_0 \\simeq 1$ quantum corrections are essential for the description of synchrotron radiation to conserve energy. With electrons of energies 10-150 GeV penetrating a germanium single crystal along the $$ axis, we have experimentally investigated the transition from the regime where classical synchrotron radiation is an adequate description, to the regime where the emission drastically changes character; not only in magnitude, but also in spectral shape. The spectrum can only be described by quantum synchrotron radiation formulas. Apart from being a test of strong-field quantum electrodynamics, the experimental results are also relevant for the design of future linear colliders where beamstrahlung - a closely r...
Experimental Minimum-Error Quantum-State Discrimination in High Dimensions.
Solís-Prosser, M A; Fernandes, M F; Jiménez, O; Delgado, A; Neves, L
2017-03-10
Quantum mechanics forbids perfect discrimination among nonorthogonal states through a single shot measurement. To optimize this task, many strategies were devised that later became fundamental tools for quantum information processing. Here, we address the pioneering minimum-error (ME) measurement and give the first experimental demonstration of its application for discriminating nonorthogonal states in high dimensions. Our scheme is designed to distinguish symmetric pure states encoded in the transverse spatial modes of an optical field; the optimal measurement is performed by a projection onto the Fourier transform basis of these modes. For dimensions ranging from D=2 to D=21 and nearly 14 000 states tested, the deviations of the experimental results from the theoretical values range from 0.3% to 3.6% (getting below 2% for the vast majority), thus showing the excellent performance of our scheme. This ME measurement is a building block for high-dimensional implementations of many quantum communication protocols, including probabilistic state discrimination, dense coding with nonmaximal entanglement, and cryptographic schemes.
Experimental Minimum-Error Quantum-State Discrimination in High Dimensions
Solís-Prosser, M. A.; Fernandes, M. F.; Jiménez, O.; Delgado, A.; Neves, L.
2017-03-01
Quantum mechanics forbids perfect discrimination among nonorthogonal states through a single shot measurement. To optimize this task, many strategies were devised that later became fundamental tools for quantum information processing. Here, we address the pioneering minimum-error (ME) measurement and give the first experimental demonstration of its application for discriminating nonorthogonal states in high dimensions. Our scheme is designed to distinguish symmetric pure states encoded in the transverse spatial modes of an optical field; the optimal measurement is performed by a projection onto the Fourier transform basis of these modes. For dimensions ranging from D =2 to D =21 and nearly 14 000 states tested, the deviations of the experimental results from the theoretical values range from 0.3% to 3.6% (getting below 2% for the vast majority), thus showing the excellent performance of our scheme. This ME measurement is a building block for high-dimensional implementations of many quantum communication protocols, including probabilistic state discrimination, dense coding with nonmaximal entanglement, and cryptographic schemes.
Experimental investigations of synchrotron radiation at the onset of the quantum regime
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Kristoffer; Uggerhøj, Ulrik Ingerslev
the magnetic field is comparable to the critical field, quantum corrections are essential for the description of synchrotron radiation to conserve energy. With electrons of energies 10-150 GeV penetrating a germanium single crystal along the axis, we have experimentally investigated the transition from......The classical description of synchrotron radiation fails at large Lorentz factors for relativistic electrons crossing strong transverse magnetic fields. In the rest frame of the electron this field is comparable to the so-called critical field of 4.414*109 T. When the Lorentz factor times...... the regime where classical synchrotron radiation is an adequate description, to the regime where the emission drastically changes character; not only in magnitude, but also in spectral shape. The spectrum can only be described by quantum synchrotron radiation formulas. Apart from being a test of strong...
Experimental investigations of synchrotron radiation at the onset of the quantum regime
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Kristoffer; Knudsen, Helge; Uggerhøj, Ulrik Ingerslev
2012-01-01
= \\gamma B/B_0 \\simeq 1$ quantum corrections are essential for the description of synchrotron radiation to conserve energy. With electrons of energies 10-150 GeV penetrating a germanium single crystal along the $\\langle110\\rangle$ axis, we have experimentally investigated the transition from the regime......The classical description of synchrotron radiation fails at large Lorentz factors, $\\gamma$, for relativistic electrons crossing strong transverse magnetic fields $B$. In the rest frame of the electron this field is comparable to the so-called critical field $B_0 = 4.414\\cdot10^9$ T. For $\\chi...... where classical synchrotron radiation is an adequate description, to the regime where the emission drastically changes character; not only in magnitude, but also in spectral shape. The spectrum can only be described by quantum synchrotron radiation formulas. Apart from being a test of strong...
Wang, Le; Zhao, Sheng-Mei; Gong, Long-Yan; Cheng, Wei-Wen
2015-12-01
In this paper, we propose a measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol using orbital angular momentum (OAM) in free space links, named the OAM-MDI-QKD protocol. In the proposed protocol, the OAM states of photons, instead of polarization states, are used as the information carriers to avoid the reference frame alignment, the decoy-state is adopted to overcome the security loophole caused by the weak coherent pulse source, and the high efficient OAM-sorter is adopted as the measurement tool for Charlie to obtain the output OAM state. Here, Charlie may be an untrusted third party. The results show that the authorized users, Alice and Bob, could distill a secret key with Charlie’s successful measurements, and the key generation performance is slightly better than that of the polarization-based MDI-QKD protocol in the two-dimensional OAM cases. Simultaneously, Alice and Bob can reduce the number of flipping the bits in the secure key distillation. It is indicated that a higher key generation rate performance could be obtained by a high dimensional OAM-MDI-QKD protocol because of the unlimited degree of freedom on OAM states. Moreover, the results show that the key generation rate and the transmission distance will decrease as the growth of the strength of atmospheric turbulence (AT) and the link attenuation. In addition, the decoy states used in the proposed protocol can get a considerable good performance without the need for an ideal source. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61271238 and 61475075), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20123223110003), the Natural Science Research Foundation for Universities of Jiangsu Province of China (Grant No. 11KJA510002), the Open Research Fund of Key Laboratory of Broadband Wireless Communication and Sensor Network Technology, Ministry of Education, China (Grant No. NYKL2015011), and the
Klimov, A. N.; Kulik, S. P.; Molotkov, S. N.; Potapova, T. A.
2017-03-01
In the paper by Gleim et al (2016 Opt. Express 24 2619), it was declared that the system of quantum cryptography, exploiting quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol BB84 with the additional reference state and encoding in a sub-carrier, is able to distribute secret keys at a distance of 210 km. The following shows that a simple attack realized with a beam splitter results in a loss of privacy of the keys over substantially smaller distances. It turns out that the actual length of the secret key transmission for the QKD system encoding in the sub-carrier frequency is ten times less than that declared in Gleim et al (2016 Opt. Express 24 2619). Therefore it is impossible to safely use the keys when distributed at a larger length of the communication channel than shown below. The maximum communication distance does not exceed 22 km, even in the most optimistic scenario.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Eichler
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Improving the understanding of strongly correlated quantum many-body systems such as gases of interacting atoms or electrons is one of the most important challenges in modern condensed matter physics, materials research, and chemistry. Enormous progress has been made in the past decades in developing both classical and quantum approaches to calculate, simulate, and experimentally probe the properties of such systems. In this work, we use a combination of classical and quantum methods to experimentally explore the properties of an interacting quantum gas by creating experimental realizations of continuous matrix product states—a class of states that has proven extremely powerful as a variational ansatz for numerical simulations. By systematically preparing and probing these states using a circuit quantum electrodynamics system, we experimentally determine a good approximation to the ground-state wave function of the Lieb-Liniger Hamiltonian, which describes an interacting Bose gas in one dimension. Since the simulated Hamiltonian is encoded in the measurement observable rather than the controlled quantum system, this approach has the potential to apply to a variety of models including those involving multicomponent interacting fields. Our findings also hint at the possibility of experimentally exploring general properties of matrix product states and entanglement theory. The scheme presented here is applicable to a broad range of systems exploiting strong and tunable light-matter interactions.
2014-09-18
e0g0. once a minute, greatly *-+ 7=5EI9G 2 7 JifjYm cZ HiUbhia BYm ;]ghf] Vih ]cb %HB;& KYW\\bc`c[]Yg reducing the required RLE key generation rate which is...of this *-,HiUbhia _Ym X]ghf] Vih ]cb gmghYag interference were measured using a time/gated single/photon Bvalanche Qhoto Eiode +BQE, detector0 @U^P JWM...in RLE \\38^0 *-- 7=5EI9G 2 7 JifjYm cZ HiUbhia BYm ;]ghf] Vih ]cb %HB;& KYW\\bc`c[]Yg 3XW]RW^X^\\ _J[RJKUN A;4/ \\QX[]$[JWPNM K^] OJ\\] JWM \\NL^[N Uhe first
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eric Baranowski
Full Text Available Mechanisms underlying pathogenic processes in mycoplasma infections are poorly understood, mainly because of limited sequence similarities with classical, bacterial virulence factors. Recently, large-scale transposon mutagenesis in the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae identified the NIF locus, including nifS and nifU, as essential for mycoplasma growth in cell culture, while dispensable in axenic media. To evaluate the importance of this locus in vivo, the infectivity of two knock-out mutants was tested upon experimental infection in the natural host. In this model, the parental PG2 strain was able to establish a systemic infection in lactating ewes, colonizing various body sites such as lymph nodes and the mammary gland, even when inoculated at low doses. In these PG2-infected ewes, we observed over the course of infection (i the development of a specific antibody response and (ii dynamic changes in expression of M. agalactiae surface variable proteins (Vpma, with multiple Vpma profiles co-existing in the same animal. In contrast and despite a sensitive model, none of the knock-out mutants were able to survive and colonize the host. The extreme avirulent phenotype of the two mutants was further supported by the absence of an IgG response in inoculated animals. The exact role of the NIF locus remains to be elucidated but these data demonstrate that it plays a key role in the infectious process of M. agalactiae and most likely of other pathogenic mycoplasma species as many carry closely related homologs.
Baranowski, Eric; Bergonier, Dominique; Sagné, Eveline; Hygonenq, Marie-Claude; Ronsin, Patricia; Berthelot, Xavier; Citti, Christine
2014-01-01
Mechanisms underlying pathogenic processes in mycoplasma infections are poorly understood, mainly because of limited sequence similarities with classical, bacterial virulence factors. Recently, large-scale transposon mutagenesis in the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae identified the NIF locus, including nifS and nifU, as essential for mycoplasma growth in cell culture, while dispensable in axenic media. To evaluate the importance of this locus in vivo, the infectivity of two knock-out mutants was tested upon experimental infection in the natural host. In this model, the parental PG2 strain was able to establish a systemic infection in lactating ewes, colonizing various body sites such as lymph nodes and the mammary gland, even when inoculated at low doses. In these PG2-infected ewes, we observed over the course of infection (i) the development of a specific antibody response and (ii) dynamic changes in expression of M. agalactiae surface variable proteins (Vpma), with multiple Vpma profiles co-existing in the same animal. In contrast and despite a sensitive model, none of the knock-out mutants were able to survive and colonize the host. The extreme avirulent phenotype of the two mutants was further supported by the absence of an IgG response in inoculated animals. The exact role of the NIF locus remains to be elucidated but these data demonstrate that it plays a key role in the infectious process of M. agalactiae and most likely of other pathogenic mycoplasma species as many carry closely related homologs. PMID:24699671
Mizutani, Akihiro; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Kato, Go; Takeuchi, Yuki; Tamaki, Kiyoshi
2018-01-01
We prove the information-theoretic security of the differential-phase-shift (DPS) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol in the asymptotic regime based on the complementarity approach (arXiv:0704.3661 (2007)). Our security proof provides a slightly better key generation rate compared to the one derived in the previous security proof in (arXiv:1208.1995 (2012)) that is based on the Shor–Preskill approach (Shor and Preskill 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 441). This improvement is obtained because the complementarity approach can employ more detailed information on Alice’s sending state in estimating the leaked information to an eavesdropper. Moreover, we remove the necessity of the numerical calculation that was needed in the previous analysis to estimate the leaked information. This leads to an advantage that our security proof enables us to evaluate the security of the DPS protocol with any block size. This paper highlights one of the fundamental differences between the Shor–Preskill and the complementarity approaches.
Al-Khalili, Jim
2003-01-01
In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.
La Cour, Brian R.
2017-07-01
An experiment has recently been performed to demonstrate quantum nonlocality by establishing contextuality in one of a pair of photons encoding four qubits; however, low detection efficiencies and use of the fair-sampling hypothesis leave these results open to possible criticism due to the detection loophole. In this Letter, a physically motivated local hidden-variable model is considered as a possible mechanism for explaining the experimentally observed results. The model, though not intrinsically contextual, acquires this quality upon post-selection of coincident detections.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poel, Mike van der; Gehrig, Edeltraud; Hess, Ortwin
2005-01-01
Ultrafast gain dynamics in an optical amplifier with an active layer of self-organized quantum dots (QDs) emitting near 1.3$muhbox m$is characterized experimentally in a pump-probe experiment and modeled theoretically on the basis of QD Maxwell–Bloch equations. Experiment and theory are in good...... agreement and show ultrafast subpicoseconds gain recovery followed by a slower 5 ps recovery. This behavior is found to be mainly caused by longitudinal optical phonon scattering and strongly dependents on electronic structure and confinement energy of the dots. A low amplitude-phase coupling ($alpha$factor...
Máttar, A.; Skrzypczyk, P.; Aguilar, G. H.; Nery, R. V.; Souto Ribeiro, P. H.; Walborn, S. P.; Cavalcanti, D.
2017-03-01
Recently, Cavalcanti et al (2015) proposed a method to certify the presence of entanglement in asymmetric networks, where some users do not have control over the measurements they are performing. Such asymmetry naturally emerges in realistic situations, such as in cryptographic protocols over quantum networks. Here we implement such ‘semi-device-independent’ techniques to experimentally witness all types of entanglement on a three-qubit photonic W state. Furthermore, we analyse the amount of genuine randomness that can be certified in this scenario from any bipartition of the three-qubit W state.
Teles, João; Rivera-Ascona, Christian; Polli, Roberson S.; Oliveira-Silva, Rodrigo; Vidoto, Edson L. G.; Andreeta, José P.; Bonagamba, Tito J.
2015-06-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been widely used in the context of quantum information processing (QIP). However, despite the great similarities between NMR and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), no experimental implementation for QIP using NQR has been reported. We describe the implementation of basic quantum gates and their applications on the creation and manipulation of pseudopure states using linearly polarized radiofrequency pulses under static magnetic field perturbation. The NQR quantum operations were implemented using a single-crystal sample of and observing nuclei, which possess spin 3/2 and give rise to a two-qubit system. The results are very promising and indicate that NQR can be successfully used for performing fundamental experiments in QIP. One advantage of NQR in comparison with NMR is that the main interaction is internal to the sample, which makes the system more compact, lowering its cost and making it easier to be miniaturized to solid-state devices. Furthermore, as an example, the study of squeezed spin states could receive relevant contributions from NQR.
Experimental Test of the “Special State” Theory of Quantum Measurement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lawrence S. Schulman
2012-04-01
Full Text Available An experimental test of the “special state” theory of quantum measurement is proposed. It should be feasible with present-day laboratory equipment and involves a slightly elaborated Stern–Gerlach setup. The “special state” theory is conservative with respect to quantum mechanics, but radical with respect to statistical mechanics, in particular regarding the arrow of time. In this article background material is given on both quantum measurement and statistical mechanics aspects. For example, it is shown that future boundary conditions would not contradict experience, indicating that the fundamental equal-a-priori-probability assumption at the foundations of statistical mechanics is far too strong (since future conditioning reduces the class of allowed states. The test is based on a feature of this theory that was found necessary in order to recover standard (Born probabilities in quantum measurements. Specifically, certain systems should have “noise” whose amplitude follows the long-tailed Cauchy distribution. This distribution is marked by the occasional occurrence of extremely large signals as well as a non-self-averaging property. The proposed test is a variant of the Stern–Gerlach experiment in which protocols are devised, some of which will require the presence of this noise, some of which will not. The likely observational schemes would involve the distinction between detection and non-detection of that “noise”. The signal to be detected (or not would be either single photons or electric fields (and related excitations in the neighborhood of the ends of the magnets.
Experimental study of the Ca–Mg–Zn system using diffusion couples and key alloys
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yi-Nan Zhang, Dmytro Kevorkov, Florent Bridier and Mamoun Medraj
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Nine diffusion couples and 32 key samples were prepared to map the phase diagram of the Ca–Mg–Zn system. Phase relations and solubility limits were determined for binary and ternary compounds using scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and x-ray diffraction (XRD. The crystal structure of the ternary compounds was studied by XRD and electron backscatter diffraction. Four ternary intermetallic (IM compounds were identified in this system: Ca3MgxZn15−x (4.6≤x≤12 at 335 °C, IM1, Ca14.5Mg15.8Zn69.7 (IM2, Ca2Mg5Zn13 (IM3 and Ca1.5Mg55.3Zn43.2 (IM4. Three binary compounds were found to have extended solid solubility into ternary systems: CaZn11, CaZn13 and Mg2Ca form substitutional solid solutions where Mg substitutes for Zn atoms in the first two compounds, and Zn substitutes for both Ca and Mg atoms in Mg2Ca. The isothermal section of the Ca–Mg–Zn phase diagram at 335 °C was constructed on the basis of the obtained experimental results. The morphologies of the diffusion couples in the Ca–Mg–Zn phase diagram at 335 °C were studied. Depending on the terminal compositions of the diffusion couples, the two-phase regions in the diffusion zone have either a tooth-like morphology or contain a matrix phase with isolated and/or dendritic precipitates.
Elsworth, D.
2013-12-01
Significant uncertainties remain and influence the recovery of energy from the subsurface. These uncertainties include the fate and transport of long-lived radioactive wastes that result from the generation of nuclear power and have been the focus of an active network of international underground research laboratories dating back at least 35 years. However, other nascent carbon-free energy technologies including conventional and EGS geothermal methods, carbon-neutral methods such as carbon capture and sequestration and the utilization of reduced-carbon resources such as unconventional gas reservoirs offer significant challenges in their effective deployment. We illustrate the important role that in situ experiments may play in resolving behaviors at extended length- and time-scales for issues related to chemical-mechanical interactions. Significantly, these include the evolution of transport and mechanical characteristics of stress-sensitive fractured media and their influence of the long-term behavior of the system. Importantly, these interests typically relate to either creating reservoirs (hydroshearing in EGS reservoirs, artificial fractures in shales and coals) or maintaining seals at depth where the permeating fluids may include mixed brines, CO2, methane and other hydrocarbons. Critical questions relate to the interaction of these various fluid mixtures and compositions with the fractured substrate. Important needs are in understanding the roles of key processes (transmission, dissolution, precipitation, sorption and dynamic stressing) on the modification of effective stresses and their influence on the evolution of permeability, strength and induced seismicity on the resulting development of either wanted or unwanted fluid pathways. In situ experimentation has already contributed to addressing some crucial issues of these complex interactions at field scale. Important contributions are noted in understanding the fate and transport of long-lived wastes
Gully, Neville; Bright, Richard; Marino, Victor; Marchant, Ceilidh; Cantley, Melissa; Haynes, David; Butler, Catherine; Dashper, Stuart; Reynolds, Eric; Bartold, Mark
2014-01-01
To investigate the suggested role of Porphyromonas gingivalis peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) in the relationship between the aetiology of periodontal disease and experimentally induced arthritis and the possible association between these two conditions. A genetically modified PAD-deficient strain of P. gingivalis W50 was produced. The effect of this strain, compared to the wild type, in an established murine model for experimental periodontitis and experimental arthritis was assessed. Experimental periodontitis was induced following oral inoculation with the PAD-deficient and wild type strains of P. gingivalis. Experimental arthritis was induced via the collagen antibody induction process and was monitored by assessment of paw swelling and micro-CT analysis of the radio-carpal joints. Experimental periodontitis was monitored by micro CT scans of the mandible and histological assessment of the periodontal tissues around the mandibular molars. Serum levels of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) and P. gingivalis were assessed by ELISA. The development of experimental periodontitis was significantly reduced in the presence of the PAD-deficient P. gingivalis strain. When experimental arthritis was induced in the presence of the PAD-deficient strain there was less paw swelling, less erosive bone damage to the joints and reduced serum ACPA levels when compared to the wild type P. gingivalis inoculated group. This study has demonstrated that a PAD-deficient strain of P. gingivalis was associated with significantly reduced periodontal inflammation. In addition the extent of experimental arthritis was significantly reduced in animals exposed to prior induction of periodontal disease through oral inoculation of the PAD-deficient strain versus the wild type. This adds further evidence to the potential role for P. gingivalis and its PAD in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and exacerbation of arthritis. Further studies are now needed to elucidate the mechanisms
Quantum Hall resistance standard in graphene devices under relaxed experimental conditions
Ribeiro-Palau, R.; Lafont, F.; Brun-Picard, J.; Kazazis, D.; Michon, A.; Cheynis, F.; Couturaud, O.; Consejo, C.; Jouault, B.; Poirier, W.; Schopfer, F.
2015-11-01
The quantum Hall effect provides a universal standard for electrical resistance that is theoretically based on only the Planck constant h and the electron charge e. Currently, this standard is implemented in GaAs/AlGaAs, but graphene's electronic properties have given hope for a more practical device. Here, we demonstrate that the experimental conditions necessary for the operation of devices made of high-quality graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition on silicon carbide can be extended and significantly relaxed compared with those for state-of-the-art GaAs/AlGaAs devices. In particular, the Hall resistance can be accurately quantized to within 1 × 10-9 over a 10 T wide range of magnetic flux density, down to 3.5 T, at a temperature of up to 10 K or with a current of up to 0.5 mA. This experimental simplification highlights the great potential of graphene in the development of user-friendly and versatile quantum standards that are compatible with broader industrial uses beyond those in national metrology institutes. Furthermore, the measured agreement of the quantized Hall resistance in graphene and GaAs/AlGaAs, with an ultimate uncertainty of 8.2 × 10-11, supports the universality of the quantum Hall effect. This also provides evidence of the relation of the quantized Hall resistance with h and e, which is crucial for the new Système International d'unités to be based on fixing such fundamental constants of nature.
Curceanu, C; Bragadireanu, M; Pietreanu, T; Sperandio, L; Marton, J; Sirghi, D L; Widmann, E; Ishiwatari, T; Zmeskal, J; Ponta, T; Laubenstein, M; Cargnelli, M; Milotti, E; Bartalucci, S; Iliescu, M; Guaraldo, C; Doce, O V; Bertolucci, S; Egger, J P; Vidal, A R; Sirghi, F; Di Matteo, S
2011-01-01
The Pauli exclusion principle (PEP) is one of the basic principles of modern physics. Being at the very basis of our understanding of matter, as many other fundamental principles it spurs, presently, a lively debate on its possible limits, deeply rooted in the very foundations of Quantum Field Theory. Therefore, it is extremely important to test the limits of its validity. Quon theory provides a suitable mathematical framework of possible violation of PEP, where the violation parameter q translates into a probability of violating PEP. Experimentally, setting a bound on PEP violation means confining the violation parameter to a value very close to either 1 (for bosons) or -1 (for fermions). The VIP (VIolation of the Pauli exclusion principle) experiment established a limit on the probability that PEP is violated by electrons, using the method of searching for PEP forbidden atomic transitions in copper. We describe the experimental method, the obtained results, both in terms of the q-parameter from quon theory ...
Towards optimal experimental tests on the reality of the quantum state
Knee, George C.
2017-02-01
The Barrett-Cavalcanti-Lal-Maroney (BCLM) argument stands as the most effective means of demonstrating the reality of the quantum state. Its advantages include being derived from very few assumptions, and a robustness to experimental error. Finding the best way to implement the argument experimentally is an open problem, however, and involves cleverly choosing sets of states and measurements. I show that techniques from convex optimisation theory can be leveraged to numerically search for these sets, which then form a recipe for experiments that allow for the strongest statements about the ontology of the wavefunction to be made. The optimisation approach presented is versatile, efficient and can take account of the finite errors present in any real experiment. I find significantly improved low-cardinality sets which are guaranteed partially optimal for a BCLM test in low Hilbert space dimension. I further show that mixed states can be more optimal than pure states.
Brown, Justin; Woolf, David; Hensley, Joel
2016-05-01
Quantum key distribution can provide secure optical data links using the established BB84 protocol, though solar backgrounds severely limit the performance through free space. Several approaches to reduce the solar background include time-gating the photon signal, limiting the field of view through geometrical design of the optical system, and spectral rejection using interference filters. Despite optimization of these parameters, the solar background continues to dominate under daytime atmospheric conditions. We demonstrate an improved spectral filter by replacing the interference filter (Δν ~ 50 GHz) with an atomic line filter (Δν ~ 1 GHz) based on optical rotation of linearly polarized light through a warm Rb vapor. By controlling the magnetic field and the optical depth of the vapor, a spectrally narrow region can be transmitted between crossed polarizers. We find that the transmission is more complex than a single peak and evaluate peak transmission as well as a ratio of peak transmission to average transmission of the local spectrum. We compare filters containing a natural abundance of Rb with those containing isotopically pure 87 Rb and 85 Rb. A filter providing > 95 % transmission and Δν ~ 1.1 GHz is achieved.
Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Chaffee, Dalton W.; Wilson, Nathaniel C.; Lekki, John D.; Tokars, Roger P.; Pouch, John J.; Roberts, Tony D.; Battle, Philip; Floyd, Bertram M.; Lind, Alexander J.;
2016-01-01
A high generation rate photon-pair source using a dual element periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PP KTP) waveguide is described. The fully integrated photon-pair source consists of a 1064-nanometer pump diode laser, fiber-coupled to a dual element waveguide within which a pair of 1064-nanometer photons are up-converted to a single 532-nanometer photon in the first stage. In the second stage, the 532-nanometer photon is down-converted to an entangled photon-pair at 800 nanometer and 1600 nanometer which are fiber-coupled at the waveguide output. The photon-pair source features a high pair generation rate, a compact power-efficient package, and continuous wave (CW) or pulsed operation. This is a significant step towards the long term goal of developing sources for high-rate Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) to enable Earth-space secure communications. Characterization and test results are presented. Details and preliminary results of a laboratory free-space QKD experiment with the B92 protocol are also presented.
The key roles of four Experimental Forests in the LTSP International Research Program [Chapter 23
Robert F. Powers; David H. Alban; Robert Denner; John D. Elioff; Gary O. Fiddler; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Felix Ponder; Allan E. Tiarks; Peter E. Avers; Richard G. Cline; Nelson S. Loftus
2014-01-01
Four Experimental Forests were pivotal in piloting the long-term soil productivity (LTSP) cooperative research program - one of the most successful and extensive collaborative science efforts yet undertaken by the USDA Forest Service. Launched on the Palustris, Challenge, Marcell, and Priest River Experimental Forests, LTSP traces to a seminal discussion during a field...
Nguyen, Quynh Nhu Ngoc
The results of quantum chemical calculations reveal that polyanionic gallium-based cages accelerate cyclization reactions of pentadienyl alcohols by significantly increasing basicity of the substrate hydroxyl group. The energy barrier for cyclization of the pentadienyl cation after water loss is already low in the background reaction and is altered fairly little by the cage. The calculations for other non-alcohol substrates also suggest that the cage increases the basicity of amine and phosphine groups, though to a lesser extend comparing to the alcohol substrate. Due to their twisting patterns, alpha-helical peptides are known to have overall "macrodipoles" along the principal axes as the result of the backbone carbonyl groups pointing toward the C-terminus. As the dipoles have implications in helical bundles, interactions with lipid bilayers, and distribution of charge, chemists have long been interested in employing the macrodipole in modifications of peptides' catalytic activities. In this studied, we examined the impact of both global and local noncovalent interactions between peptide catalysts and substrates in the first transesterification step, in hope of designing a better peptide catalysts to aid in ester metabolism. Quantum mechanical calculations helped predict whether the targeted medium-sized cyclic peptide products would more likely be the major products, before the experimental team invested extensive resources and time to carry out the syntheses. Many systems were found to favor the medium-sized cyclic peptides, whereas one system was predicted to result in polycyclic product, and the latter experimental observations agreed with these predictions. Naturally occurring cyclic peptides display various biological activities due to their diverse structures. Understanding the dominant structures of these peptides could help give insight into protein-protein interactions or substrate-protein binding. With the experimental NMR data obtained for the
High-dimensional quantum cloning and applications to quantum hacking.
Bouchard, Frédéric; Fickler, Robert; Boyd, Robert W; Karimi, Ebrahim
2017-02-01
Attempts at cloning a quantum system result in the introduction of imperfections in the state of the copies. This is a consequence of the no-cloning theorem, which is a fundamental law of quantum physics and the backbone of security for quantum communications. Although perfect copies are prohibited, a quantum state may be copied with maximal accuracy via various optimal cloning schemes. Optimal quantum cloning, which lies at the border of the physical limit imposed by the no-signaling theorem and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, has been experimentally realized for low-dimensional photonic states. However, an increase in the dimensionality of quantum systems is greatly beneficial to quantum computation and communication protocols. Nonetheless, no experimental demonstration of optimal cloning machines has hitherto been shown for high-dimensional quantum systems. We perform optimal cloning of high-dimensional photonic states by means of the symmetrization method. We show the universality of our technique by conducting cloning of numerous arbitrary input states and fully characterize our cloning machine by performing quantum state tomography on cloned photons. In addition, a cloning attack on a Bennett and Brassard (BB84) quantum key distribution protocol is experimentally demonstrated to reveal the robustness of high-dimensional states in quantum cryptography.
Theoretical studies for experimental implementation of quantum computing with trapped ions
Yoshimura, Bryce T.
Certain quantum many-body physics problems, such as the transverse field Ising model are intractable on a classical computer, meaning that as the number of particles grows, or spins, the amount of memory and computational time required to solve the problem exactly increases faster than a polynomial behavior. However, quantum simulators are being developed to efficiently solve quantum problems that are intractable via conventional computing. Some of the most successful quantum simulators are based on ion traps. Their success depends on the ability to achieve long coherence time, precise spin control, and high fidelity in state preparation. In this work, I present calculations that characterizes the oblate Paul trap that creates two-dimensional Coulomb crystals in a triangular lattice and phonon modes. We also calculate the spin-spin Ising-like interaction that can be generated in the oblate Paul trap using the same techinques as the linear radiofrequency Paul trap. In addition, I discuss two possible challenges that arise in the Penning trap: the effects of defects ( namely when Be+ → BeH+) and the creation of a more uniform spin-spin Ising-like interaction. We show that most properties are not significantly influenced by the appearance of defects, and that by adding two potentials to the Penning trap a more uniform spin-spin Ising-like interaction can be achieved. Next, I discuss techniques tfor preparing the ground state of the Ising-like Hamiltonian. In particular, we explore the use of the bang-bang protocol to prepare the ground state and compare optimized results to conventional adiabatic ramps ( the exponential and locally adiabatic ramp ). The bang-bang optimization in general outperforms the exponential; however the locally adiabatic ramp consistently is somewhat better. However, compared to the locally adiabatic ramp, the bang-bang optimization is simpler to implement, and it has the advantage of providingrovide a simple procedure for estimating the
Continuous photodetection model: quantum jumps engineering and hints for experimental verification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dodonov, A V [Departamento de Fisica, CCET, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Via Washington Luiz km 235, 13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Mizrahi, S S [Departamento de Fisica, CCET, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Via Washington Luiz km 235, 13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Dodonov, V V [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de BrasIlia, PO Box 04455, 70910-900, BrasIlia, DF (Brazil)
2007-10-15
We examine some aspects of the continuous photodetection model for photocounting processes in cavities. First, we work out a microscopic model that describes the field-detector interaction and deduce a general expression for the Quantum Jump Superoperator (QJS), that shapes the detector's post-action on the field upon a detection. We show that in particular cases our model recovers the QJSs previously proposed ad hoc in the literature and point out that by adjusting the detector parameters one can engineer QJSs. Then we set up schemes for experimental verification of the model. By taking into account the ubiquitous non-idealities, we show that by measuring the lower photocounts moments and the mean waiting time one can check which QJS better describes the photocounting phenomenon.
Interpretations of Probability in Quantum Mechanics: A Case of "Experimental Metaphysics"
Hellman, Geoffrey
After reviewing paradigmatic cases of "experimental metaphysics" basing inferences against local realism and determinism on experimental tests of Bells theorem (and successors), we concentrate on clarifying the meaning and status of "objective probability" in quantum mechanics. The terms "objective" and "subjective" are found ambiguous and inadequate, masking crucial differences turning on the question of what the numerical values of probability functions measure vs. the question of the nature of the "events" on which such functions are defined. This leads naturally to a 2×2 matrix of types of interpretations, which are then illustrated with salient examples. (Of independent interest are the splitting of "Copenhagen interpretation" into "objective" and "subjective" varieties in one of the dimensions and the splitting of Bohmian hidden variables from (other) modal interpretations along that same dimension.) It is then explained why Everett interpretations are difficult to categorize in these terms. Finally, we argue that Bohmian mechanics does not seriously threaten the experimental-metaphysical case for ultimate randomness and purely physical probabilities.
Interpretations of Probability in Quantum Mechanics: A Case of ``Experimental Metaphysics''
Hellman, Geoffrey
After reviewing paradigmatic cases of “experimental metaphysics” basing inferences against local realism and determinism on experimental tests of Bells theorem (and successors), we concentrate on clarifying the meaning and status of “objective probability” in quantum mechanics. The terms “objective” and “subjective” are found ambiguous and inadequate, masking crucial differences turning on the question of what the numerical values of probability functions measure vs. the question of the nature of the “events” on which such functions are defined. This leads naturally to a 2×2 matrix of types of interpretations, which are then illustrated with salient examples. (Of independent interest are the splitting of “Copenhagen interpretation” into “objective” and “subjective” varieties in one of the dimensions and the splitting of Bohmian hidden variables from (other) modal interpretations along that same dimension.) It is then explained why Everett interpretations are difficult to categorize in these terms. Finally, we argue that Bohmian mechanics does not seriously threaten the experimental-metaphysical case for ultimate randomness and purely physical probabilities.
Bhomian Mechanics vs. Standard Quantum Mechanics: a Difference in Experimental Predictions
Szczepanski, Artur
2010-01-01
Standard Quantum Mechanics (QM) predicts an anti-intuitive fenomenon here referred to as "quantum autoscattering", which is excluded by Bhomian Mechanics. The scheme of a gedanken experiment testing the QM prediction is briefly discussed.
Quantum cloning attacks against PUF-based quantum authentication systems
Yao, Yao; Gao, Ming; Li, Mo; Zhang, Jian
2016-08-01
With the advent of physical unclonable functions (PUFs), PUF-based quantum authentication systems have been proposed for security purposes, and recently, proof-of-principle experiment has been demonstrated. As a further step toward completing the security analysis, we investigate quantum cloning attacks against PUF-based quantum authentication systems and prove that quantum cloning attacks outperform the so-called challenge-estimation attacks. We present the analytical expression of the false-accept probability by use of the corresponding optimal quantum cloning machines and extend the previous results in the literature. In light of these findings, an explicit comparison is made between PUF-based quantum authentication systems and quantum key distribution protocols in the context of cloning attacks. Moreover, from an experimental perspective, a trade-off between the average photon number and the detection efficiency is discussed in detail.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lund-Hansen, Toke; Stobbe, Søren; Julsgaard, Brian
2008-01-01
We present time-resolved spontaneous emission measurements of single quantum dots embedded in photonic crystal waveguides. Quantum dots that couple to a photonic crystal waveguide are found to decay up to 27 times faster than uncoupled quantum dots. From these measurements -factors of up to 0...
Experimental Study of Quantum Graphs With and Without Time-Reversal Invariance
Anlage, Steven Mark; Fu, Ziyuan; Koch, Trystan; Antonsen, Thomas; Ott, Edward
An experimental setup consisting of a microwave network is used to simulate quantum graphs. The random coupling model (RCM) is applied to describe the universal statistical properties of the system with and without time-reversal invariance. The networks which are large compared to the wavelength, are constructed from coaxial cables connected by T junctions, and by making nodes with circulators time-reversal invariance for microwave propagation in the networks can be broken. The results of experimental study of microwave networks with and without time-reversal invariance are presented both in frequency domain and time domain. With the measured S-parameter data of two-port networks, the impedance statistics and the nearest-neighbor spacing statistics are examined. Moreover, the experiments of time reversal mirrors for networks demonstrate that the reconstruction quality can be used to quantify the degree of the time-reversal invariance for wave propagation. Numerical models of networks are also presented to verify the time domain experiments. We acknowledge support under contract AFOSR COE Grant FA9550-15-1-0171 and the ONR Grant N000141512134.
Quantum memories with zero-energy Majorana modes and experimental constraints
Ippoliti, Matteo; Rizzi, Matteo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mazza, Leonardo
2016-06-01
In this work we address the problem of realizing a reliable quantum memory based on zero-energy Majorana modes in the presence of experimental constraints on the operations aimed at recovering the information. In particular, we characterize the best recovery operation acting only on the zero-energy Majorana modes and the memory fidelity that can be therewith achieved. In order to understand the effect of such restriction, we discuss two examples of noise models acting on the topological system and compare the amount of information that can be recovered by accessing either the whole system, or the zero modes only, with particular attention to the scaling with the size of the system and the energy gap. We explicitly discuss the case of a thermal bosonic environment inducing a parity-preserving Markovian dynamics in which the memory fidelity achievable via a read-out of the zero modes decays exponentially in time, independent from system size. We argue, however, that even in the presence of said experimental limitations, the Hamiltonian gap is still beneficial to the storage of information.
Quantum systems, channels, information. A mathematical introduction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holevo, Alexander S.
2012-07-01
The subject of this book is theory of quantum system presented from information science perspective. The central role is played by the concept of quantum channel and its entropic and information characteristics. Quantum information theory gives a key to understanding elusive phenomena of quantum world and provides a background for development of experimental techniques that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems. This is important for the new efficient applications such as quantum computing, communication and cryptography. Research in the field of quantum informatics, including quantum information theory, is in progress in leading scientific centers throughout the world. This book gives an accessible, albeit mathematically rigorous and self-contained introduction to quantum information theory, starting from primary structures and leading to fundamental results and to exiting open problems.
Demonstration of blind quantum computing.
Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip
2012-01-20
Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.
Experimental demonstration of a compiled version of Shor's algorithm with quantum entanglement.
Lanyon, B P; Weinhold, T J; Langford, N K; Barbieri, M; James, D F V; Gilchrist, A; White, A G
2007-12-21
Shor's powerful quantum algorithm for factoring represents a major challenge in quantum computation. Here, we implement a compiled version in a photonic system. For the first time, we demonstrate the core processes, coherent control, and resultant entangled states required in a full-scale implementation. These are necessary steps on the path towards scalable quantum computing. Our results highlight that the algorithm performance is not the same as that of the underlying quantum circuit and stress the importance of developing techniques for characterizing quantum algorithms.
Hémery, Thérèse; Huenerbein, Robert; Fröhlich, Roland; Grimme, Stefan; Hoppe, Dieter
2010-08-20
Experimental investigations as well as high-level quantum chemical calculations are performed on the two epimeric pairs of complexes 4.2 and 6.2 obtained by lithiation of cinnamyl carbamate (1) and 1-naphthyl derivative 5 in the presence of BOX ligands (S,S)- and (R,R)-2. Indeed, in the case of configurationally labile complexes and a dynamic thermodynamic resolution, which is found to take place, one of both epimers is energetically favored. The quantum chemical computations allow the prediction of the enantiomeric excess that can be expected.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Nuttall, Robert K; Edwards, Dylan R
2004-01-01
animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We used real-time RT-PCR to profile the expression of all 22 known mouse MMPs, seven ADAMs, and all four known TIMPs in spinal cord from SJL/J mice and mice with adoptively transferred myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific EAE. A significant...... and >3-fold alteration in expression was observed for MMP-8, MMP-10, MMP-12, ADAM-12, and TIMP-1, which were up-regulated, and for MMP-15, which was down-regulated. Expression levels correlated with disease course, with all but ADAM-12 returning toward control levels in remission. To examine potential...
Arsenijević, Dejan; Bimberg, Dieter
2016-04-01
We report on the dynamic properties of 1.31 μm InAs/GaAs and 1.55 μm InAs/InP quantum-dot Fabry-Perot lasers with the main focus on the increase of their large-signal modulation capabilities. A GaAs-based edge-emitter structure incorporating a standard p-doped active region with ten quantum-dot layers enables 15 Gbit/s data transmission at 70 °C upon direct modulation. The large number of layers and wide barriers cause significant carrier transport limitations. Since the carrier distribution across the stack is not uniform, a graded p-doping profile is implemented leading to an increased data rate of 20 Gbit/s, but at the expense of somewhat lower temperature stability. GaAs-based lasers operating exclusively from the first excited state demonstrate a further data rate increase to presently 25 Gbit/s, due to the larger degeneracy of the higher quantum-dot energy levels. 25 Gbit/s data transmission at 70 °C is also achieved with InAs/InP quantum-dot devices emitting in the C-band. Four- and eight-level pulse-amplitude modulation formats are utilized to increase the data rate at a given bandwidth compared to a standard on-off keying scheme. Data rates up to 35 Gbit/s are presented for both wavelength bands. Monolithically integrated two-section mode-locked lasers based on the graded pdoping structure provide low-jitter optical pulse trains and are utilized as optical sources for non-return-to-zero transmitters. 80 Gbit/s on-off keying and 80 GBd (160 Gbit/s) differential quadrature phase-shift keying data transmission based on optical time-division multiplexing are demonstrated using a packaged 40 GHz module.
Quantum Communication with Photons
Krenn, Mario; Malik, Mehul; Scheidl, Thomas; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton
The secure communication of information plays an ever increasing role in our society today. Classical methods of encryption inherently rely on the difficulty of solving a problem such as finding prime factors of large numbers and can, in principle, be cracked by a fast enough machine. The burgeoning field of quantum communication relies on the fundamental laws of physics to offer unconditional information security. Here we introduce the key concepts of quantum superposition and entanglement as well as the no-cloning theorem that form the basis of this field. Then, we review basic quantum communication schemes with single and entangled photons and discuss recent experimental progress in ground and space-based quantum communication. Finally, we discuss the emerging field of high-dimensional quantum communication, which promises increased data rates and higher levels of security than ever before. We discuss recent experiments that use the orbital angular momentum of photons for sharing large amounts of information in a secure fashion.
Holländer, H.; Schoenheinz, D.; Stadler, S.
2012-04-01
Catchments are open dynamic systems that process mass and momentum, and drive energy and entropy towards an equilibrium state of development. The formulation of equations to explain these systems results in a number of redundant variables for which constitutive relationships are required at the scale of integration. This so called "closure problem" exists due to the generally unknown relationship between hydrologic state variables and fluxes. Traditionally, we deal with two complementary approaches in hydrological research: i) experimental catchment studies and ii) physically-based hydrological modelling. The unique character of each catchment and of its eco-hydrological processes often does not allow conclusions by analogy, which would require similarity and homogeneity of catchment features. Generalised theories to cope with both the closure problem and the singularity of catchments in hydrological research have not been derived so far, and the modelling of flow processes in catchments is still impeded e. g. by scale incompatibilities of involved parameters. One of the main questions addressed in our contribution is: How much improvement in hydrological research is possible by well-controlled experimentation fields as artificially created catchments? The definition of parameters and boundary conditions in such well-controlled experiments allows for an improvement in observation strategies and therefore a systematic learning from observed data and an enhanced understanding of the interrelation of given structures and process triggers. Also, the conditions for targeted testing of hydrological hypotheses are considered to be the best possible. In our contribution we identify examples for the determination of such processes and their description e.g. for water transport in the soil matrix, structure and dynamics of sedimentation as well as erosion in the artificial catchment Chicken Creek, Lusatia, Germany. We also show that there are still challenging aspects even
Atzori, Matteo; Morra, Elena; Tesi, Lorenzo; Albino, Andrea; Chiesa, Mario; Sorace, Lorenzo; Sessoli, Roberta
2016-09-07
In the search for long-lived quantum coherence in spin systems, vanadium(IV) complexes have shown record phase memory times among molecular systems. When nuclear spin-free ligands are employed, vanadium(IV) complexes can show at low temperature sufficiently long quantum coherence times, Tm, to perform quantum operations, but their use in real devices operating at room temperature is still hampered by the rapid decrease of T1 caused by the efficient spin-phonon coupling. In this work we have investigated the effect of different coordination environments on the magnetization dynamics and the quantum coherence of two vanadium(IV)-based potential molecular spin qubits in the solid state by introducing a unique structural difference, i.e., an oxovanadium(IV) in a square pyramidal versus a vanadium(IV) in an octahedral environment featuring the same coordinating ligand, namely, the 1,3-dithiole-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate. This investigation, performed by a combined approach of alternate current (ac) susceptibility measurements and continuous wave (CW) and pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies revealed that the effectiveness of the vanadyl moiety in enhancing quantum coherence up to room temperature is related to a less effective mechanism of spin-lattice relaxation that can be quantitatively evaluated by the exponent n (ca. 3) of the temperature dependence of the relaxation rate. A more rapid collapse is observed for the non-oxo counterpart (n = 4) hampering the observation of quantum coherence at room temperature. Record coherence time at room temperature (1.04 μs) and Rabi oscillations are also observed for the vanadyl derivative in a very high concentrated material (5 ± 1%) as a result of the additional benefit provided by the use of a nuclear spin-free ligand.
Experimental determination of the key heat transfer mechanisms in pharmaceutical freeze-drying.
Ganguly, Arnab; Nail, Steven L; Alexeenko, Alina
2013-05-01
The study is aimed at quantifying the relative contribution of key heat transfer modes in lyophilization. Measurements of vial heat transfer rates in a laboratory-scale freeze-dryer were performed using pure water, which was partially sublimed under various conditions. The separation distance between the shelf and the vial was systematically varied, and sublimation rates were determined gravimetrically. The heat transfer rates were observed to be independent of separation distance between the vial and the shelf and linearly dependent on pressure in the free molecular flow limit, realized at low pressures (120 mTorr), heat transfer rates were independent of pressure and inversely proportional to separation distance. Previous heat transfer studies in conventional freeze-drying cycles have attributed a dominant portion of the total heat transfer to radiation, the rest to conduction, whereas convection has been found to be insignificant. Although the measurements reported here confirm the significance of the radiative and gas conduction components, the convective component has been found to be comparable to the gas conduction contribution at pressures greater than 100 mTorr. The current investigation supports the conclusion that the convective component of the heat transfer cannot be ignored in typical laboratory-scale freeze-drying conditions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
2016-01-26
wavelength upon fabrication. This wavelength is ideal for strained InGaAs quantum well structures which can be embedded into the GaAs/AlGaAs matrix[3... quantum dot or an InGaAs quantum well . The band gap can be varied in addition to include either one or two electronic levels of a multi-level system...Electronic and Optoelectronic Devices,” SAND99-0921, July 1999. 4. R. L. S. Devine, “Photoluminescence characterization of InGaAs /GaAs quantum well
Mishra, Rashmi; Joshi, Bhawani Datt; Srivastava, Anubha; Tandon, Poonam; Jain, Sudha
2014-01-01
The study concentrates on an important natural product, phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid Corlumine (COR) [(6R)-6-[(1S)-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-methylisoquinolin-1-yl] furo [3,4-e]-1,3-benzodioxol-8(6H)-one] well known to exhibit spasmolytic and GABA antagonist activity. It was fully characterized by a variety of experimental methods including vibrational spectroscopy (IR and Raman), thermal analysis (DSC), UV and SEM. For a better interpretation and analysis of the results quantum chemical calculations employing DFT were also performed. TD-DFT was employed to elucidate electronic properties for both gaseous and solvent environment using IEF-PCM model. Graphical representation of HOMO and LUMO would provide a valuable insight into the nature of reactivity and some of the structural and physical properties of the title molecule. The structure-activity relationship have been interpreted by mapping electrostatic potential surface (MEP), which is valuable information for the quality control of medicines and drug-receptor interactions. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalisation has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Computation of thermodynamical properties would help to have a deep insight into the molecule for further applications.
Experimental Identification of Non-Abelian Topological Orders on a Quantum Simulator.
Li, Keren; Wan, Yidun; Hung, Ling-Yan; Lan, Tian; Long, Guilu; Lu, Dawei; Zeng, Bei; Laflamme, Raymond
2017-02-24
Topological orders can be used as media for topological quantum computing-a promising quantum computation model due to its invulnerability against local errors. Conversely, a quantum simulator, often regarded as a quantum computing device for special purposes, also offers a way of characterizing topological orders. Here, we show how to identify distinct topological orders via measuring their modular S and T matrices. In particular, we employ a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum simulator to study the properties of three topologically ordered matter phases described by the string-net model with two string types, including the Z_{2} toric code, doubled semion, and doubled Fibonacci. The third one, non-Abelian Fibonacci order is notably expected to be the simplest candidate for universal topological quantum computing. Our experiment serves as the basic module, built on which one can simulate braiding of non-Abelian anyons and ultimately, topological quantum computation via the braiding, and thus provides a new approach of investigating topological orders using quantum computers.
Observable measure of quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems.
Girolami, Davide
2014-10-24
Quantum coherence is the key resource for quantum technology, with applications in quantum optics, information processing, metrology, and cryptography. Yet, there is no universally efficient method for quantifying coherence either in theoretical or in experimental practice. I introduce a framework for measuring quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems. I define a theoretical measure which satisfies the reliability criteria established in the context of quantum resource theories. Then, I present an experimental scheme implementable with current technology which evaluates the quantum coherence of an unknown state of a d-dimensional system by performing two programmable measurements on an ancillary qubit, in place of the O(d2) direct measurements required by full state reconstruction. The result yields a benchmark for monitoring quantum effects in complex systems, e.g., certifying nonclassicality in quantum protocols and probing the quantum behavior of biological complexes.
Secure communications using quantum cryptography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.; Kwiat, P.G. [and others
1997-08-01
The secure distribution of the secret random bit sequences known as {open_quotes}key{close_quotes} material, is an essential precursor to their use for the encryption and decryption of confidential communications. Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions, nor evade detection (eavesdropping raises the key error rate above a threshold value). We have developed experimental quantum cryptography systems based on the transmission of non-orthogonal single-photon states to generate shared key material over multi-kilometer optical fiber paths and over line-of-sight links. In both cases, key material is built up using the transmission of a single-photon per bit of an initial secret random sequence. A quantum-mechanically random subset of this sequence is identified, becoming the key material after a data reconciliation stage with the sender. In our optical fiber experiment we have performed quantum key distribution over 24-km of underground optical fiber using single-photon interference states, demonstrating that secure, real-time key generation over {open_quotes}open{close_quotes} multi-km node-to-node optical fiber communications links is possible. We have also constructed a quantum key distribution system for free-space, line-of-sight transmission using single-photon polarization states, which is currently undergoing laboratory testing. 7 figs.
Karthick, T.; Tandon, Poonam; Singh, Swapnil; Agarwal, Parag; Srivastava, Anubha
2017-02-01
The investigations of structural conformers, molecular interactions and vibrational characterization of pharmaceutical drug are helpful to understand their behaviour. In the present work, the 2D potential energy surface (PES) scan has been performed on the dihedral angles C6sbnd O4sbnd S1sbnd C5 and C25sbnd S22sbnd O19sbnd C16 to find the stable conformers of busulfan. In order to show the effects of long range interactions, the structures on the global minima of PES scan have been further optimized by B3LYP/6-311 ++G(d,p) method with and without empirical dispersion functional in Gaussian 09W package. The presence of n → σ* and σ → σ* interactions which lead to stability of the molecule have been predicted by natural bond orbital analysis. The strong and weak hydrogen bonds between the functional groups of busulfan were analyzed using quantum topological atoms in molecules analysis. In order to study the long-range forces, such as van der Waals interactions, steric effect in busulfan, the reduced density gradient as well as isosurface defining these interactions has been plotted using Multiwfn software. The spectroscopic characterization on the solid phase of busulfan has been studied by experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. From the 13C and 1H NMR spectra, the chemical shifts of individual C and H atoms of busulfan have been predicted. The maximum absorption wavelengths corresponding to the electronic transitions between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of busulfan have been found by UV-vis spectrum.
Karthick, T; Tandon, Poonam; Singh, Swapnil; Agarwal, Parag; Srivastava, Anubha
2017-02-15
The investigations of structural conformers, molecular interactions and vibrational characterization of pharmaceutical drug are helpful to understand their behaviour. In the present work, the 2D potential energy surface (PES) scan has been performed on the dihedral angles C6O4S1C5 and C25S22O19C16 to find the stable conformers of busulfan. In order to show the effects of long range interactions, the structures on the global minima of PES scan have been further optimized by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method with and without empirical dispersion functional in Gaussian 09W package. The presence of n→σ* and σ→σ* interactions which lead to stability of the molecule have been predicted by natural bond orbital analysis. The strong and weak hydrogen bonds between the functional groups of busulfan were analyzed using quantum topological atoms in molecules analysis. In order to study the long-range forces, such as van der Waals interactions, steric effect in busulfan, the reduced density gradient as well as isosurface defining these interactions has been plotted using Multiwfn software. The spectroscopic characterization on the solid phase of busulfan has been studied by experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. From the (13)C and (1)H NMR spectra, the chemical shifts of individual C and H atoms of busulfan have been predicted. The maximum absorption wavelengths corresponding to the electronic transitions between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of busulfan have been found by UV-vis spectrum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Quantum Phase Transitions in Quantum Dots
Rau, I. G.; Amasha, S.; Oreg, Y.; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.
2013-01-01
This review article describes theoretical and experimental advances in using quantum dots as a system for studying impurity quantum phase transitions and the non-Fermi liquid behavior at the quantum critical point.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pryo Utomo
2017-06-01
Full Text Available One Time Pad (OTP is a cryptographic algorithm that is quite easy to be implemented. This algorithm works by converting plaintext and key into decimal then converting into binary number and calculating Exclusive-OR logic. In this paper, the authors try to make the comparison of OTP cryptography using KPI and KCT so that the ciphertext will be generated more difficult to be known. In the Key and Plaintext Insertion (KPI Method, we modify the OTP algorithm by adding the key insertion in the plaintext that has been splitted. Meanwhile in the Key Coloumnar Transposition (KCT Method, we modify the OTP algorithm by dividing the key into some parts in matrix of rows and coloumns. Implementation of the algorithms using PHP programming language.
Quantum cloning machines and the applications
Fan, Heng; Wang, Yi-Nan; Jing, Li; Yue, Jie-Dong; Shi, Han-Duo; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Mu, Liang-Zhu
2014-11-01
No-cloning theorem is fundamental for quantum mechanics and for quantum information science that states an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned perfectly. However, we can try to clone a quantum state approximately with the optimal fidelity, or instead, we can try to clone it perfectly with the largest probability. Thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed for different quantum information protocols. Specifically, quantum cloning machines can be designed to analyze the security of quantum key distribution protocols such as BB84 protocol, six-state protocol, B92 protocol and their generalizations. Some well-known quantum cloning machines include universal quantum cloning machine, phase-covariant cloning machine, the asymmetric quantum cloning machine and the probabilistic quantum cloning machine. In the past years, much progress has been made in studying quantum cloning machines and their applications and implementations, both theoretically and experimentally. In this review, we will give a complete description of those important developments about quantum cloning and some related topics. On the other hand, this review is self-consistent, and in particular, we try to present some detailed formulations so that further study can be taken based on those results.
Quantum cloning machines and the applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fan, Heng, E-mail: hfan@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Yi-Nan; Jing, Li [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yue, Jie-Dong [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Shi, Han-Duo; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Mu, Liang-Zhu [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
2014-11-20
No-cloning theorem is fundamental for quantum mechanics and for quantum information science that states an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned perfectly. However, we can try to clone a quantum state approximately with the optimal fidelity, or instead, we can try to clone it perfectly with the largest probability. Thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed for different quantum information protocols. Specifically, quantum cloning machines can be designed to analyze the security of quantum key distribution protocols such as BB84 protocol, six-state protocol, B92 protocol and their generalizations. Some well-known quantum cloning machines include universal quantum cloning machine, phase-covariant cloning machine, the asymmetric quantum cloning machine and the probabilistic quantum cloning machine. In the past years, much progress has been made in studying quantum cloning machines and their applications and implementations, both theoretically and experimentally. In this review, we will give a complete description of those important developments about quantum cloning and some related topics. On the other hand, this review is self-consistent, and in particular, we try to present some detailed formulations so that further study can be taken based on those results.
Renner, R; Cirac, J I
2009-03-20
We show that the quantum de Finetti theorem holds for states on infinite-dimensional systems, provided they satisfy certain experimentally verifiable conditions. This result can be applied to prove the security of quantum key distribution based on weak coherent states or other continuous variable states against general attacks.
Organic molecule fluorescence as an experimental test-bed for quantum jumps in thermodynamics.
Browne, Cormac; Farrow, Tristan; Dahlsten, Oscar C O; Taylor, Robert A; Vlatko, Vedral
2017-08-01
We demonstrate with an experiment how molecules are a natural test bed for probing fundamental quantum thermodynamics. Single-molecule spectroscopy has undergone transformative change in the past decade with the advent of techniques permitting individual molecules to be distinguished and probed. We demonstrate that the quantum Jarzynski equality for heat is satisfied in this set-up by considering the time-resolved emission spectrum of organic molecules as arising from quantum jumps between states. This relates the heat dissipated into the environment to the free energy difference between the initial and final state. We demonstrate also how utilizing the quantum Jarzynski equality allows for the detection of energy shifts within a molecule, beyond the relative shift.
Du, Jinjian; Cao, Leiming; Zhang, Kai; Jing, Jietai
2017-06-01
Extensive attention has been drawn in generating multimode quantum states in recent years. Many efforts have been made during the last decade to produce such states. In this paper, we have experimentally demonstrated a scheme for generating a multi-spatial-mode quantum light source by a non-degenerated four-wave mixing process with a conical pump and a conical probe in a hot atomic vapor cell. The degree of the intensity-difference squeezing between the generated twin beams is about -4.1 dB. Due to the similar conical shape of the concentric quantum correlated beams, both the amplified probe and the generated conjugate beams can be decomposed into many angular modes. We have also experimentally verified the multi-spatial-mode nature of the generated quantum correlation by comparing the noise levels' variation tendencies of global attenuation and local cutting attenuations. In addition, we have also found the optimal values of each parameter in this scheme for further applications. Due to our scheme's advantages such as compactness, phase-insensitivity, and easy scalability, we have already shown a promising candidate for generating multi-spatial-mode quantum states, which may find potential applications in quantum metrology and quantum imaging, such as quantum-enhanced superresolution and the generation of multiple quantum correlated images.
Zhao, X L; Han, J X
2013-12-01
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) developed based on ancient Chinese philosophy. Its characteristics include abstract theories, fuzzy concepts, subjective diagnostic methods and it lacks clarity, and rigor as well as vindication from modern sciences, which makes development of TCM remain stagnant. Thus, how to free the theory of TCM from heavy philosophy to achieve separation of medicine and philosophy, and to use the contemporary cutting-edge science and technology to transform the theory of TCM and then to achieve its scientific paradigm shift, is a way for TCM to get out of the woods. This article, focusing on the problems existing in the development of the modernization of TCM, introduces the concept, the connotation as well as the important role of Quantum TCM in the modernization of TCM. Additionally, based on the view that the body's electromagnetic radiation can characterize the human "Qi" in TCM, we discuss several experimental technology systems for the diagnosis of Quantum TCM in detail. By analyzing and comparing these technology systems, we come to the conclusion that the biophoton analytical technology (BPAT) is more worthy of further study in building the experimental technology system for the diagnosis of Quantum TCM.
Dibble, Theodore S.
Quantum chemical calculations have obtained significant and useful information about chemical reactions relevant to atmospheric chemistry. This article reviews two problems for which it would seem that such calculations could readily provide a great deal of helpful information, but for which that potential has not been fully realized. The first is the formation of alkylnitrates (RONO 2) from the reaction of peroxy radicals (ROO rad ) with NO. Several studies of this process have been carried out, but most clearly yielded unphysical results due to methodological pitfalls. The one study which appears valid [Zhao, Y., Houk, K.N., Olson, L.P., 2004. Mechanisms of peroxynitrous acid and methyl peroxynitrite, ROONO (R=H, Me), rearrangements: a conformation-dependent homolytic dissociation. Journal of Physical Chemistry A 108, 5864-5871] suggests an indirect route between ROONO and RONO 2, and implies that statistical rate theory will be insufficient to understand the yields of RONO 2. The second problem discussed here is the competition between radical production and disproportionation in the self-reaction of organic peroxy radicals, for which only one quantum chemical study has found a plausible mechanism connecting reactants with products.
Zhang, Jingfu; Cucchietti, Fernando M.; Laflamme, Raymond; Suter, Dieter
2017-04-01
Systems passing through quantum critical points at finite rates have a finite probability of undergoing transitions between different eigenstates of the instantaneous Hamiltonian. This mechanism was proposed by Kibble as the underlying mechanism for the formation of topological defects in the early universe and by Zurek for condensed matter systems. Here, we use a system of nuclear spins as an experimental quantum simulator undergoing a non-equilibrium quantum phase transition. The experimental data confirm the validity of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism of defect formation.
Palmer, Denni T; Kirby, Robert
2005-01-01
We have developed an experimental research program to the study of the photoemission properties of copper photocathodes as a function of various plasma cleaning/etching parameters. The quantum efficiency, QE, and topology, Ra and Rpp, of Copper Photocathodes, , will be monitored while undergoing plasma cleaning/etching process. We will monitor the QE as a function of time for the various test coupons while we optimize the various plasma processing parameters. In addition, surface topology, will be studied to determine the suitability of the cleaning/etching process to produce an acceptable photoemitter. We propose to use two metrics in the evaluation of the plasma cleaning process as an acceptable cleaning method for metallic photocathodes, Quantum Efficiency versus Wavelength and Surface roughness: Ra and Rpp represent the Average Roughness and Peak to Peak Roughness parameters, respectively.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tokuhiro, Akira; Potirniche, Gabriel; Cogliati, Joshua; Ougouag, Abderrafi
2014-07-08
An experimental and computational study, consisting of modeling and simulation (M&S), of key thermal-mechanical issues affecting the design and safety of pebble-bed (PB) reactors was conducted. The objective was to broaden understanding and experimentally validate thermal-mechanic phenomena of nuclear grade graphite, specifically, spheres in frictional contact as anticipated in the bed under reactor relevant pressures and temperatures. The contact generates graphite dust particulates that can subsequently be transported into the flowing gaseous coolent. Under postulated depressurization transients and with the potential for leaked fission products to be adsorbed onto graphite 'dust', there is the potential for fission products to escape from the primary volume. This is a design safety concern. Furthermore, earlier safety assessment identified the distinct possibility for the dispersed dust to combust in contact with air if sufficient conditions are met. Both of these phenomena were noted as important to design review and containing uncertainty to warrant study. The team designed and conducted two separate effects tests to study and benchmark the potential dust-generation rate, as well as study the conditions under which a dust explosion may occure in a standardized, instrumented explosion chamber.
Experimental Study of Low Density Quantum Hall Fabry-Perot Interferometer
Glinskis, Simas; An, Sanghun; Kang, Woowon; Ocola, Leonidas; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Baldwin, Kirk
2015-03-01
In this talk we report on study of interference oscillations observed in Fabry-Perot 1 . 5 μm diameter interferometers fabricated from low density, high mobility AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures. The Fabry-Perot interferometers were fabricated using e-beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma etching to minimize sample damage. Optimization of the quantum point contacts were made by systematically varying the etching depth and monitoring the resistance of the device. So far we have been able to detect clear interference oscillations which are observed at integer quantum Hall states. The interference oscillations occur in the low magnetic field side of the Hall plateaus when there is substantial backscattering at the quantum point contacts. A linear relationship between filled Landau levels and oscillation frequencies establishes that our interferometers are in the Coulomb dominated regime described by the interacting model of quantum Hall Fabry-Perot interferometers. Study of interference oscillations in the fractional quantum Hall states are currently under progress and will be discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Martin; Maack, Johan; Thomasen, Andreas
2014-01-01
The advantages of D-shape fiber in combination with an optical analog of Ramsey fringes using LPGs are presented. The mode-profiles of the sensor were characterized experimentally to provide deeper knowledge about improved functionality.......The advantages of D-shape fiber in combination with an optical analog of Ramsey fringes using LPGs are presented. The mode-profiles of the sensor were characterized experimentally to provide deeper knowledge about improved functionality....
Controlled Alternate Quantum Walks based Quantum Hash Function.
Li, Dan; Yang, Yu-Guang; Bi, Jing-Lin; Yuan, Jia-Bin; Xu, Juan
2018-01-09
Through introducing controlled alternate quantum walks, we present controlled alternate quantum walks (CAQW) based quantum hash function. CAQW based quantum hash function have excellent security, outstanding statistical performance and splendid expansibility. Furthermore, due to the structure of alternate quantum walks, implementing CAQW based quantum hash function significantly reduces the resources necessary for its feasible experimental realization than implementing other quantum hash functions.
Quantum information processing with mesoscopic photonic states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Lars Skovgaard
2012-01-01
The thesis is built up around a versatile optical experimental setup based on a laser, two optical parametric ampliers, a few sets of modulators and two sets of homodyne detectors, which together with passive linear optics generate, process and characterize various types of Gaussian quantum states....... Using this setup we have experimentally and theoretically investigated Gaussian quantum discord, continuous variable quantum key distribution and quantum polarization. The Gaussian discord broadens the definition of non-classical correlations from entanglement, to all types of correlations which cannot...... in the mixture of coherent states. Further we investigate the robustness of the discord of a broader range of states and suggest a toolbox of states which can be used to test if a protocol is discord based, before performing a rigid proof. Gaussian quantum key distribution can be implemented with current...
Leonard, Edward, Jr.; Beck, Matthew; Thorbeck, Ted; Zhu, Shaojiang; Howington, Caleb; Nelson, Jj; Plourde, Britton; McDermott, Robert
We describe the characterization of a single flux quantum (SFQ) pulse generator cofabricated with a superconducting quantum circuit on a single chip. Resonant trains of SFQ pulses are used to induce coherent qubit rotations on the Bloch sphere. We describe the SFQ drive characteristics of the qubit at the fundamental transition frequency and at subharmonics (ω01 / n , n = 2 , 3 , 4 , ⋯). We address the issue of quasiparticle poisoning due to the proximal SFQ pulse generator, and we characterize the fidelity of SFQ-based rotations using randomized benchmarking. Present address: IBM T.J. Watson Research Center.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Qin; Stobbe, Søren; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup
We have systematically measured the variation of the spontaneous emission rate with polarization for self-assembled single quantum dots in two-dimensional photonic crystal membranes and obtained a maximum anisotropy factor of 6 between the decay rates of the two nondegenerate bright exciton states....
Foulkes, Stephen
2013-04-01
Monte Carlo simulations of the Freedman-Clauser experiment are used to test the Copenhagen interpretation and a local realistic interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. The simulated results are compared to the actual results of the experiment which confirmed the quantum mechanical calculation for nine different relative angles between the two polarization analyzers. For each simulation 5x10^7 total simulated photon pairs were generated at each relative angle. The Copenhagen interpretation model closely followed the general shape of the theoretical calculation but differed from the calculated values by 2.5% to 3.3% for angles less than or equal to π/8 and differed by 15.0% to 52.5% for angles greater than or equal to 3π/8. The local realistic interpretation model did not replicate the experimental results but was generally within 1% of a classical calculation for all analyzer angles. An alternative, ``fuzzy polarization'' interpretation wherein the photon polarization is not assumed to have a fixed value, yielded values within 1% of the quantum mechanical calculation.
Towards a quantum network of room temperature quantum devices
Jordaan, Bertus; Shahrokhshahi, Reihaneh; Namazi, Mehdi; Goham, Connor; Figueroa, Eden
2017-04-01
Progressing quantum technologies to room temperature operation is key to unlock the potential and economical viability of novel many-device architectures. Along these lines, warm vapor alleviates the need for laser trapping and cooling in vacuum or cooling to cryogenic temperatures. Here we report our progress towards building a prototypical quantum network, containing several high duty cycle room-temperature quantum memories interconnected using high rate single photon sources. We have already demonstrated important capabilities, such as memory-built photon-shaping techniques, compatibility with BB84-like quantum communication links, and the possibility of interfacing with low bandwidth (MHz range), cavity enhanced, SPDC-based photon source tuned to the Rb transitions. This body of works suggest that an elementary quantum network of room temperature devices is already within experimental reach.
Liu, Kang; Li, Jian; Zhu, Jian-Rong; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Qin
2017-12-01
Not Available Project supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2017YFA0304100), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61475197, 61590932, 11774180, and 61705110), the Natural Science Foundation of the Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (Grant Nos. 15KJA120002 and 17KJB140016), the Outstanding Youth Project of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20150039), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20170902), and the Science Fund from the Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China (Grant No. NY217006).
Limitations on practical quantum cryptography
Brassard; Lutkenhaus; Mor; Sanders
2000-08-07
We provide limits to practical quantum key distribution, taking into account channel losses, a realistic detection process, and imperfections in the "qubits" sent from the sender to the receiver. As we show, even quantum key distribution with perfect qubits might not be achievable over long distances when the other imperfections are taken into account. Furthermore, existing experimental schemes (based on weak pulses) currently do not offer unconditional security for the reported distances and signal strength. Finally we show that parametric down-conversion offers enhanced performance compared to its weak coherent pulse counterpart.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Lorite
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The agglomeration state facilitates particle-particle interaction which produces important effects in the phonon confinement effects at the nanoscale. A partial phonon transmission between close nanoparticles yields a lower momentum conservation relaxation than in a single isolated nanoparticle. It means a larger red shift and broadening of the Raman modes than the expected ones for Raman quantum confinement effects. This particle-particle interaction can drive to error when Raman responses are used to estimate the size of the nanoscaled materials. In this work different corrections are suggested to overtake this source of error.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lorite, I., E-mail: lorite@physik.uni-leipzig.de [Electroceramic Department, Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio, CSIC, Kelsen 5, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Division of Superconductivity and Magnetism, Faculty of Physics and Earth Sciences, Linnestrasse 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Romero, J. J.; Fernandez, J. F. [Electroceramic Department, Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio, CSIC, Kelsen 5, 28049, Madrid (Spain)
2015-03-15
The agglomeration state facilitates particle-particle interaction which produces important effects in the phonon confinement effects at the nanoscale. A partial phonon transmission between close nanoparticles yields a lower momentum conservation relaxation than in a single isolated nanoparticle. It means a larger red shift and broadening of the Raman modes than the expected ones for Raman quantum confinement effects. This particle-particle interaction can drive to error when Raman responses are used to estimate the size of the nanoscaled materials. In this work different corrections are suggested to overtake this source of error.
Experimental and Quantum-mechanical Investigation of the Vinylsilane-Iminium Ion Cyclization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kværnø, Lisbet; Norrby, Per-Ola; Tanner, David Ackland
2003-01-01
be obtained for iminium species derived from 7. Quantum-mechanical investigations of the general reaction mechanism underlined the lack of reactivity of ketiminium species and also convincingly explained the observed diastereoselectivities of aldiminium species. The calculations further revealed that (Z......)-vinylsilanes cyclize via a silicon-stabilized b-carbocation, and that any formal aza-Cope rearrangement of the starting material to an allylsilane-iminium species does not take place in a concerted fashion. However, the calculations show that the aza-Cope rearrangement precedes cyclization for the corresponding (E...
Naik, Gururaj V.; Welch, Alex J.; Dionne, Jennifer A.
2016-09-01
Plasmon resonances in metallic nanoparticles result in enhanced light absorption and hot carrier generation. Although hot carriers are short-lived, their energy can be extracted in optical form resulting in photon upconversion. Two low energy photons absorbed by a plasmonic nanostructure, create a hot electron and a hot hole. These hot carriers get injected into an adjacent semiconductor quantum well where they radiatively recombine to emit a higher energy photon resulting in photon upconversion. This process involves injection of an electron and a hole across the same interface making it charge neutral. The upconversion emission has a linear dependence on the incident light intensity, making it promising for applications requiring low power operation. Theoretical studies show that a silver/semiconductor system can have an ideal efficiency of 25%. Our experimental demonstration of this new scheme utilizes GaN/InGaN quantum wells decorated with both silver and gold. The use of two metals reduces band-bending in the semiconductor. Illuminating the sample with light spanning wavelengths of 500-540 nm produces upconversion photoluminescence centered at 435 nm. Control samples including undecorated quantum wells and metal nanostructures on a glass substrate do not show any upconversion ruling out possibilities of upconversion in individual materials. Further, the linear dependence of the upconverted light intensity with incident intensity rules out any non-linear or Auger mediated mechanisms. We will describe how this hot carrier upconversion process promises to be broadband, tunable, and more efficient than existing solid-state upconversion schemes, and discuss potential applications in solar energy, security, and photodetection applications.
Fischer, Johannes Karl; Molle, Lutz; Nölle, Markus; Gross, Dirk-Daniel; Schmidt-Langhorst, Carsten; Schubert, Colja
2011-12-12
We experimentally investigate 28-GBd (84-Gb/s) and 37.3-GBd (112-Gb/s) polarization-switched quadrature phase-shift keying (PS-QPSK) signals. In single-channel transmission experiments over up to 12500 km ultra large effective area fiber, we compare their performance to that of polarization-division multiplexing quadrature phase-shift keying (PDM-QPSK) signals at the same bit rates. The experimental results show that PS-QPSK not only benefits from its better sensitivity but also offers an increased tolerance to intra-channel nonlinearities. © 2011 Optical Society of America
FREE-SPACE QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY IN DAYLIGHT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T. [and others
2000-01-01
Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generate shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light. The security of these transmissions is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics and information-theoretically secure post-processing methods. An adversary can neither successfully tap the quantum transmissions, nor evade detection, owing to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. In this paper we describe the theory of quantum cryptography, and the most recent results from our experimental free-space system with which we have demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of quantum key generation over a point-to-point outdoor atmospheric path in daylight. We achieved a transmission distance of 0.5 km, which was limited only by the length of the test range. Our results provide strong evidence that cryptographic key material could be generated on demand between a ground station and a satellite (or between two satellites), allowing a satellite to be securely re-keyed on orbit. We present a feasibility analysis of surface-to-satellite quantum key generation.
Wei, Hai-Rui; Deng, Fu-Guo
2014-12-18
Quantum logic gates are the key elements in quantum computing. Here we investigate the possibility of achieving a scalable and compact quantum computing based on stationary electron-spin qubits, by using the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in double-sided optical microcavities as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. We design the compact quantum circuits for implementing universal and deterministic quantum gates for electron-spin systems, including the two-qubit CNOT gate and the three-qubit Toffoli gate. They are compact and economic, and they do not require additional electron-spin qubits. Moreover, our devices have good scalability and are attractive as they both are based on solid-state quantum systems and the qubits are stationary. They are feasible with the current experimental technology, and both high fidelity and high efficiency can be achieved when the ratio of the side leakage to the cavity decay is low.
Quantum entanglement between an optical photon and a solid-state spin qubit.
Togan, E; Chu, Y; Trifonov, A S; Jiang, L; Maze, J; Childress, L; Dutt, M V G; Sørensen, A S; Hemmer, P R; Zibrov, A S; Lukin, M D
2010-08-05
Quantum entanglement is among the most fascinating aspects of quantum theory. Entangled optical photons are now widely used for fundamental tests of quantum mechanics and applications such as quantum cryptography. Several recent experiments demonstrated entanglement of optical photons with trapped ions, atoms and atomic ensembles, which are then used to connect remote long-term memory nodes in distributed quantum networks. Here we realize quantum entanglement between the polarization of a single optical photon and a solid-state qubit associated with the single electronic spin of a nitrogen vacancy centre in diamond. Our experimental entanglement verification uses the quantum eraser technique, and demonstrates that a high degree of control over interactions between a solid-state qubit and the quantum light field can be achieved. The reported entanglement source can be used in studies of fundamental quantum phenomena and provides a key building block for the solid-state realization of quantum optical networks.
Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory
Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman
2016-01-01
Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution. PMID:27241946
Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory.
Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman
2016-05-31
Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution.
Experimentally feasible security check for n-qubit quantum secret sharing
Schauer, Stefan; Huber, Marcus; Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.
2010-12-01
In this article we present a general security strategy for quantum secret sharing (QSS) protocols based on the scheme presented by Hillery, Bužek, and Berthiaume (HBB) [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.59.1829 59, 1829 (1999)]. We focus on a generalization of the HBB protocol to n communication parties thus including n-partite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states. We show that the multipartite version of the HBB scheme is insecure in certain settings and impractical when going to large n. To provide security for such QSS schemes in general we use the framework presented by some of the authors [M. Huber, F. Mintert, A. Gabriel, B. C. Hiesmayr, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.104.210501 104, 210501 (2010)] to detect certain genuine n-partite entanglement between the communication parties. In particular, we present a simple inequality which tests the security.
Verevkin, Sergey P; Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N; Varfolomeev, Mikhail A; Solomonov, Boris N; Zherikova, Kseniya V; Melkhanova, Svetlana V
2014-12-11
Temperature dependence of vapor pressures for 12 dihalogen-substituted benzenes (halogen = F, Cl, Br, I) was studied by the transpiration method, and molar vaporization or sublimation enthalpies were derived. These data together with results available in the literature were collected and checked for internal consistency using structure-property correlations. Gas-phase enthalpies of formation of dihalogen-substituted benzenes were calculated by using quantum-chemical methods. Evaluated vaporization enthalpies in combination with gas-phase enthalpies of formation were used for estimation liquid-phase enthalpies of formation of dihalogen-substituted benzenes. Pairwise interactions of halogens on the benzene ring were derived and used for development of simple group additivity procedures for estimation of vaporization enthalpies, gas-phase, and liquid-phase enthalpies of formation of dihalogen-substituted benzenes.
Classical command of quantum systems.
Reichardt, Ben W; Unger, Falk; Vazirani, Umesh
2013-04-25
Quantum computation and cryptography both involve scenarios in which a user interacts with an imperfectly modelled or 'untrusted' system. It is therefore of fundamental and practical interest to devise tests that reveal whether the system is behaving as instructed. In 1969, Clauser, Horne, Shimony and Holt proposed an experimental test that can be passed by a quantum-mechanical system but not by a system restricted to classical physics. Here we extend this test to enable the characterization of a large quantum system. We describe a scheme that can be used to determine the initial state and to classically command the system to evolve according to desired dynamics. The bipartite system is treated as two black boxes, with no assumptions about their inner workings except that they obey quantum physics. The scheme works even if the system is explicitly designed to undermine it; any misbehaviour is detected. Among its applications, our scheme makes it possible to test whether a claimed quantum computer is truly quantum. It also advances towards a goal of quantum cryptography: namely, the use of 'untrusted' devices to establish a shared random key, with security based on the validity of quantum physics.
BOOK REVIEW Quantum Measurement and Control Quantum Measurement and Control
Kiefer, Claus
2010-12-01
In the last two decades there has been an enormous progress in the experimental investigation of single quantum systems. This progress covers fields such as quantum optics, quantum computation, quantum cryptography, and quantum metrology, which are sometimes summarized as `quantum technologies'. A key issue there is entanglement, which can be considered as the characteristic feature of quantum theory. As disparate as these various fields maybe, they all have to deal with a quantum mechanical treatment of the measurement process and, in particular, the control process. Quantum control is, according to the authors, `control for which the design requires knowledge of quantum mechanics'. Quantum control situations in which measurements occur at important steps are called feedback (or feedforward) control of quantum systems and play a central role here. This book presents a comprehensive and accessible treatment of the theoretical tools that are needed to cope with these situations. It also provides the reader with the necessary background information about the experimental developments. The authors are both experts in this field to which they have made significant contributions. After an introduction to quantum measurement theory and a chapter on quantum parameter estimation, the central topic of open quantum systems is treated at some length. This chapter includes a derivation of master equations, the discussion of the Lindblad form, and decoherence - the irreversible emergence of classical properties through interaction with the environment. A separate chapter is devoted to the description of open systems by the method of quantum trajectories. Two chapters then deal with the central topic of quantum feedback control, while the last chapter gives a concise introduction to one of the central applications - quantum information. All sections contain a bunch of exercises which serve as a useful tool in learning the material. Especially helpful are also various separate
Gournay, Pierre; Rolland, Benjamin; Kučera, Jan; Vojáčková, Lucie
2017-01-01
An on-site comparison of the quantum Hall effect (QHE) resistance standards of the Czech Metrology Institute (CMI) and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was made in April 2017. Measurements of a 100 Ω standard in terms of the conventional value of the von Klitzing constant, RK-90, agreed to 6 parts in 1010 with a relative combined standard uncertainty uc = 25 × 10‑10. Measurements of 10000 Ω/100 Ω and 100 Ω/1 Ω ratios agreed to 11 parts in 1010 with uc = 22 × 10‑10 and to 33 parts in 1010 with uc = 32 × 10‑10, respectively. The influence of the current reversal time has been systematically investigated in order to take into account possible errors due to the Peltier effect, which may be particularly large in 1 Ω standards. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).
Counterfactual quantum cryptography.
Noh, Tae-Gon
2009-12-04
Quantum cryptography allows one to distribute a secret key between two remote parties using the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. The well-known established paradigm for the quantum key distribution relies on the actual transmission of signal particle through a quantum channel. In this Letter, we show that the task of a secret key distribution can be accomplished even though a particle carrying secret information is not in fact transmitted through the quantum channel. The proposed protocols can be implemented with current technologies and provide practical security advantages by eliminating the possibility that an eavesdropper can directly access the entire quantum system of each signal particle.
Miska, P; Even, J; Bertru, N; Corre, A L; Dehaese, O
2002-01-01
An experimental and theoretical comparative study of InAs quantum dots grown on (001) and (113)B InP substrates is performed. The difference between the optical transitions in the dots on the two substrates is attributed to strain effects. The influence of the first InP capping layer is also studied.
Quantum chemical and experimental studies on polymorphism of antiviral drug Lamivudine
Ramkumaar, G. R.; Srinivasan, S.; Bhoopathy, T. J.; Gunasekaran, S.
2012-12-01
Lamivudine, is chemically known as [4-amino-1-[(2R,5S)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-oxathiolan-5-yl]-1,2-dihydropyrimidin-2-one], is an anti-HIV agent belonging to the class of the non-nucleoside inhibitors of the HIV-1 virus reverse transcriptase. Spectral characteristics of Lamivudine have been studied by methods of FTIR, NMR and quantum chemistry. The FTIR and spectra of Lamivudine was recorded in the regions 4000-400 cm-1. The thermal stability of Lamivudine was studied by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The isotropic 13C-nuclear magnetic shielding constants of this compound were calculated by employing the direct implementation of the gauge including-atomic-orbital (GIAO) method at the HF and B3LYP density functional theory using 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The optimized molecular geometry, bond orders, harmonic vibrational spectrum of anhydrous and hydrated Lamivudine were calculated by restricted Hartree Fock and density functional B3LYP method with the 6-31G(d,p) basis set using Gaussian 03W program.
Pal, Rajat; Panigrahi, Swati; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar
2013-08-01
Quercetin and several other bioflavonoids possess antioxidant property. These biomolecules can reduce the diabetic complications, but metabolize very easily in the body. Nanoparticle-mediated delivery of a flavonoid may further increase its efficacy. Gold nanoparticle is used by different groups as vehicle for drug delivery, as it is least toxic to human body. Prior to search for the enhanced efficacy, the gold nanoparticle-flavonoid complex should be prepared and well characterized. In this article, we report the interaction of gold nanoparticle with quercetin. The interaction is confirmed by different biophysical techniques, such as Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Circular Dichroism (CD), Fourier-Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and cross checked by quantum chemical calculations. These studies indicate that gold clusters are covered by citrate groups, which are hydrogen bonded to the quercetin molecules in the complex. We have also provided evidences how capping is important in stabilizing the gold nanoparticle and further enhances its interaction with other molecules, such as drugs. Our finding also suggests that gold nanoparticle-quercetin complex can pass through the membranes of human red blood cells.
Quantum Information: Opportunities and Challenges
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bennink, Ryan S [ORNL
2008-01-01
Modern society is shaped by the ability to transmit, manipulate, and store large amounts of information. Although we tend to think of information as abstract, information is physical, and computing is a physical process. How then should we understand information in a quantum world, in which physical systems may exist in multiple states at once and are altered by the very act of observation? This question has evolved into an exciting new field of research called Quantum Information (QI). QI challenges many accepted rules and practices in computer science. For example, a quantum computer would turn certain hard problems into soft problems, and would render common computationally-secure encryption methods (such as RSA) insecure. At the same time, quantum communication would provide an unprecedented kind of intrinsic information security at the level of the smallest physical objects used to store or transmit the information. This talk provides a general introduction to the subject of quantum information and its relevance to cyber security. In the first part, two of the stranger aspects of quantum physics namely, superposition and uncertainty are explained, along with their relation to the concept of information. These ideas are illustrated with a few examples: quantum ID cards, quantum key distribution, and Grover s quantum search algorithm. The state-of-the-art in quantum computing and communication hardware is then discussed, along with the daunting technological challenges that must be overcome. Relevant experimental and theoretical efforts at ORNL are highlighted. The talk concludes with speculations on the short- and long-term impact of quantum information on cyber security.
Marty, F.; Gueuné, H.; Malard, E.; Sánchez-Amaya, J.M.; Sjögren, L.; Abbas, B.; Quillet, L.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Muyzer, G.
2014-01-01
Biotic and abiotic factors favoring Accelerated Low Water Corrosion (ALWC) on harbor steel structures remain unclear warranting their study under controlled experimental tidal conditions. Initial stimulation of marine microbial consortia by a pulse of organic matter resulted in localized corrosion
Gonzalez, E; Lino, J; Deriabina, A; Herrera, J N F; Poltev, V I
2013-01-01
To elucidate details of the DNA-water interactions we performed the calculations and systemaitic search for minima of interaction energy of the systems consisting of one of DNA bases and one or two water molecules. The results of calculations using two force fields of molecular mechanics (MM) and correlated ab initio method MP2/6-31G(d, p) of quantum mechanics (QM) have been compared with one another and with experimental data. The calculations demonstrated a qualitative agreement between geometry characteristics of the most of local energy minima obtained via different methods. The deepest minima revealed by MM and QM methods correspond to water molecule position between two neighbor hydrophilic centers of the base and to the formation by water molecule of hydrogen bonds with them. Nevertheless, the relative depth of some minima and peculiarities of mutual water-base positions in' these minima depend on the method used. The analysis revealed insignificance of some differences in the results of calculations performed via different methods and the importance of other ones for the description of DNA hydration. The calculations via MM methods enable us to reproduce quantitatively all the experimental data on the enthalpies of complex formation of single water molecule with the set of mono-, di-, and trimethylated bases, as well as on water molecule locations near base hydrophilic atoms in the crystals of DNA duplex fragments, while some of these data cannot be rationalized by QM calculations.
2016-09-01
collected ....................... 5 7. Experimentally measured noise figure and gain for several low- noise amplifiers , including COTF and cryogenically...frequency domain of the two cryogenically cooled low noise amplifiers in comparison with the ideal simulation when all the data is normalized...resonance). Both of these procedures require microwave and RF pulses, respectively, at various phase shifts, power , and duration to control the spin. An I/Q
Gilbert, Gerald; Hamrick, Michael
2013-01-01
This book provides a detailed account of the theory and practice of quantum cryptography. Suitable as the basis for a course in the subject at the graduate level, it crosses the disciplines of physics, mathematics, computer science and engineering. The theoretical and experimental aspects of the subject are derived from first principles, and attention is devoted to the practical development of realistic quantum communications systems. The book also includes a comprehensive analysis of practical quantum cryptography systems implemented in actual physical environments via either free-space or fiber-optic cable quantum channels. This book will be a valuable resource for graduate students, as well as professional scientists and engineers, who desire an introduction to the field that will enable them to undertake research in quantum cryptography. It will also be a useful reference for researchers who are already active in the field, and for academic faculty members who are teaching courses in quantum information s...
Are quantum-mechanical-like models possible, or necessary, outside quantum physics?
Plotnitsky, Arkady
2014-12-01
This article examines some experimental conditions that invite and possibly require recourse to quantum-mechanical-like mathematical models (QMLMs), models based on the key mathematical features of quantum mechanics, in scientific fields outside physics, such as biology, cognitive psychology, or economics. In particular, I consider whether the following two correlative features of quantum phenomena that were decisive for establishing the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics play similarly important roles in QMLMs elsewhere. The first is the individuality and discreteness of quantum phenomena, and the second is the irreducibly probabilistic nature of our predictions concerning them, coupled to the particular character of the probabilities involved, as different from the character of probabilities found in classical physics. I also argue that these features could be interpreted in terms of a particular form of epistemology that suspends and even precludes a causal and, in the first place, realist description of quantum objects and processes. This epistemology limits the descriptive capacity of quantum theory to the description, classical in nature, of the observed quantum phenomena manifested in measuring instruments. Quantum mechanics itself only provides descriptions, probabilistic in nature, concerning numerical data pertaining to such phenomena, without offering a physical description of quantum objects and processes. While QMLMs share their use of the quantum-mechanical or analogous mathematical formalism, they may differ by the roles, if any, the two features in question play in them and by different ways of interpreting the phenomena they considered and this formalism itself. This article will address those differences as well.
Quantum games as quantum types
Delbecque, Yannick
In this thesis, we present a new model for higher-order quantum programming languages. The proposed model is an adaptation of the probabilistic game semantics developed by Danos and Harmer [DH02]: we expand it with quantum strategies which enable one to represent quantum states and quantum operations. Some of the basic properties of these strategies are established and then used to construct denotational semantics for three quantum programming languages. The first of these languages is a formalisation of the measurement calculus proposed by Danos et al. [DKP07]. The other two are new: they are higher-order quantum programming languages. Previous attempts to define a denotational semantics for higher-order quantum programming languages have failed. We identify some of the key reasons for this and base the design of our higher-order languages on these observations. The game semantics proposed in this thesis is the first denotational semantics for a lambda-calculus equipped with quantum types and with extra operations which allow one to program quantum algorithms. The results presented validate the two different approaches used in the design of these two new higher-order languages: a first one where quantum states are used through references and a second one where they are introduced as constants in the language. The quantum strategies presented in this thesis allow one to understand the constraints that must be imposed on quantum type systems with higher-order types. The most significant constraint is the fact that abstraction over part of the tensor product of many unknown quantum states must not be allowed. Quantum strategies are a new mathematical model which describes the interaction between classical and quantum data using system-environment dialogues. The interactions between the different parts of a quantum system are described using the rich structure generated by composition of strategies. This approach has enough generality to be put in relation with other
Practical secure quantum communications
Diamanti, Eleni
2015-05-01
We review recent advances in the field of quantum cryptography, focusing in particular on practical implementations of two central protocols for quantum network applications, namely key distribution and coin flipping. The former allows two parties to share secret messages with information-theoretic security, even in the presence of a malicious eavesdropper in the communication channel, which is impossible with classical resources alone. The latter enables two distrustful parties to agree on a random bit, again with information-theoretic security, and with a cheating probability lower than the one that can be reached in a classical scenario. Our implementations rely on continuous-variable technology for quantum key distribution and on a plug and play discrete-variable system for coin flipping, and necessitate a rigorous security analysis adapted to the experimental schemes and their imperfections. In both cases, we demonstrate the protocols with provable security over record long distances in optical fibers and assess the performance of our systems as well as their limitations. The reported advances offer a powerful toolbox for practical applications of secure communications within future quantum networks.
Experimental and quantum chemical studies of a novel synthetic prenylated chalcone
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Espinoza-Hicks José C
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chalcones are ubiquitous natural compounds with a wide variety of reported biological activities, including antitumoral, antiviral and antimicrobial effects. Furthermore, chalcones are being studied for its potential use in organic electroluminescent devices; therefore the description of their spectroscopic properties is important to elucidate the structure of these molecules. One of the main techniques available for structure elucidation is the use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR. Accordingly, the prediction of the NMR spectra in this kind of molecules is necessary to gather information about the influence of substituents on their spectra. Results A novel substituted chalcone has been synthetized. In order to identify the functional groups present in the new synthesized compound and confirm its chemical structure, experimental and theoretical 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra were analyzed. The theoretical molecular structure and NMR spectra were calculated at both the Hartree-Fock and Density Functional (meta: TPSS; hybrid: B3LYP and PBE1PBE; hybrid meta GGA: M05-2X and M06-2X levels of theory in combination with a 6-311++G(d,p basis set. The structural parameters showed that the best method for geometry optimization was DFT:M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p, whereas the calculated bond angles and bond distances match experimental values of similar chalcone derivatives. The NMR calculations were carried out using the Gauge-Independent Atomic Orbital (GIAO formalism in a DFT:M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p optimized geometry. Conclusion Considering all HF and DFT methods with GIAO calculations, TPSS and PBE1PBE were the most accurate methods used for calculation of 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR chemical shifts, which was almost similar to the B3LYP functional, followed in order by HF, M05-2X and M06-2X methods. All calculations were done using the Gaussian 09 software package. Theoretical calculations can be used to predict and confirm the structure of
Brahmachari, Goutam; Mondal, Avijit; Nayek, Nayana; Kumar, Abhishek; Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar; Misra, Neeraj
2017-09-01
Poriferasterol, a biologically relevant phytosterol, has been isolated and identified first-time from Cassia sophera Linn. (family: Caesalpiniaceae) based on detailed spectral studies. Exhaustive theoretical studies on the molecular structure, vibrational spectra, HOMO, LUMO, MESP surfaces and reactivity descriptor of this plant-derived natural molecule have been performed. The experimentally observed FT-IR spectrum of the title compound has been compared with spectral data obtained by DFT-B3LYP/6-311 + G (d,p) method. The UV-visible spectrum of the title compound has also been recorded and the electronic properties, such as frontier orbitals and band gap energy are measured by TD-DFT approach. The 1H and 13C NMR spectrum has been calculated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital method and compared with the observed data.
Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor
Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Wang, Jingbo B.; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.
2016-01-01
The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor. PMID:27146471
Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor.
Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Wang, Jingbo B; Matthews, Jonathan C F
2016-05-05
The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor.
Marty, Florence; Gueuné, Hervé; Malard, Emilie; Sánchez-Amaya, José M; Sjögren, Lena; Abbas, Ben; Quillet, Laurent; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Muyzer, Gerard
2014-01-01
Biotic and abiotic factors favoring Accelerated Low Water Corrosion (ALWC) on harbor steel structures remain unclear warranting their study under controlled experimental tidal conditions. Initial stimulation of marine microbial consortia by a pulse of organic matter resulted in localized corrosion and the highest corrosion rates (up to 12-times higher than non-stimulated conditions) in the low water zone, persisting after nine months exposure to natural seawater. Correlations between corrosion severity and the abundance and composition of metabolically active sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) indicated the importance and persistence of specific bacterial populations in accelerated corrosion. One phylotype related to the electrogenic SRB Desulfopila corrodens appeared as the major causative agent of the accelerated corrosion. The similarity of bacterial populations related to sulfur and iron cycles, mineral and tuberculation with those identified in ALWC support the relevance of experimental simulation of tidal conditions in the management of steel corrosion exposed to harbor environments.
Using a quantum computer to investigate quantum chaos
Schack, Ruediger
1997-01-01
We show that the quantum baker's map, a prototypical map invented for theoretical studies of quantum chaos, has a very simple realization in terms of quantum gates. Chaos in the quantum baker's map could be investigated experimentally on a quantum computer based on only 3 qubits.
A combined experimental (IR, Raman and UV-Vis) and quantum chemical study of canadine
Joshi, Bhawani Datt; Srivastava, Anubha; Tandon, Poonam; Jain, Sudha; Ayala, A. P.
2018-02-01
Plant based natural products cover a major sector of the medicinal field, as such focus on plant research has been increased all over the world. As an attempt to aid that research, we have performed structural and spectroscopic analysis of a natural product, an alkaloid: canadine. Both ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) employing B3LYP using 6-311 ++G(d,p) basis set were used for the calculations. The calculated vibrational frequencies were scaled and compared with the experimental infrared and Raman spectra. The complete vibrational assignments were made using potential energy distribution. The structure-activity relation has also been interpreted by mapping electrostatic potential surface and evaluating the reactivity descriptors, which are valuable information for quality control of medicines and drug-receptor interactions. Natural bond orbital analysis has also been performed to understand the stability and hyperconjugative interactions of the molecule. Furthermore, UV-Vis spectra have been recorded in an ethanol solvent (EtOH) and the electronic property has been analyzed employing TD-DFT for both gaseous and solvent phase. The HOMO and LUMO calculation with their energy gap show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Additionally, the nonlinear optical properties of the title compound have been interpreted that predicts it's the best candidate for the NLO materials.
A high repetition rate experimental setup for quantum non-linear optics with cold Rydberg atoms
Busche, Hannes; Ball, Simon W.; Huillery, Paul
2016-12-01
Using electromagnetically induced transparency and photon storage, the strong dipolar interactions between Rydberg atoms and the resulting dipole blockade can be mapped onto light fields to realise optical non-linearities and interactions at the single photon level. We report on the realisation of an experimental apparatus designed to study interactions between single photons stored as Rydberg excitations in optically trapped microscopic ensembles of ultracold 87Rb atoms. A pair of in-vacuum high numerical aperture lenses focus excitation and trapping beams down to 1 μm, well below the Rydberg blockade. Thanks to efficient magneto-optical trap (MOT) loading from an atomic beam generated by a 2D MOT and the ability to recycle the microscopic ensembles more than 20000 times without significant atom loss, we achieve effective repetition rates exceeding 110 kHz to obtain good photon counting statistics on reasonable time scales. To demonstrate the functionality of the setup, we present evidence of strong photon interactions including saturation of photon storage and the retrieval of non-classical light. Using in-vacuum antennae operating at up to 40 GHz, we perform microwave spectroscopy on photons stored as Rydberg excitations and observe an interaction induced change in lineshape depending on the number of stored photons.
Quantum Cryptography for Secure Communications to Low-Earth Orbit Satellites
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.; Kwiat, P.G.; Lamoreaux, S.K.; Morgan, G.L.; Peterson, C.G.; Twyeffort, E.; Simmons, C.M.; Nordholt, J.E.
1999-06-03
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generate shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light. The security of these transmissions is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics. An adversary can neither successfully tap the quantum transmissions, nor evade detection. Key material is built up using the transmission of a single-photon per bit. We have developed an experimental quantum cryptography system based on the transmission of non-orthogonal single-photon polarization states to generate shared key material over line-of-sight optical links. Our results provide strong evidence that cryptographic key material could be generated on demand between a ground station and a satellite (or between two satellites), allowing a satellite to be securely re-keyed on in orbit.
Al-Otaibi, Jamelah S.; Teesdale Spittle, Paul; El Gogary, Tarek M.
2017-01-01
Anthraquinones form the basis of several anticancer drugs. Anthraquinones anticancer drugs carry out their cytotoxic activities through their interaction with DNA, and inhibition of topoisomerase II activity. Anthraquinones (AQ4 and AQ4H) were synthesized and studied along with 1,4-DAAQ by computational and experimental tools. The purpose of this study is to shade more light on mechanism of interaction between anthraquinone DNA affinic agents and different types of DNA. This study will lead to gain of information useful for drug design and development. Molecular structures were optimized using DFT B3LYP/6-31 + G(d). Depending on intramolecular hydrogen bonding interactions two conformers of AQ4 were detected and computed as 25.667 kcal/mol apart. Molecular reactivity of the anthraquinone compounds was explored using global and condensed descriptors (electrophilicity and Fukui functions). Molecular docking studies for the inhibition of CDK2 and DNA binding were carried out to explore the anti cancer potency of these drugs. NMR and UV-VIS electronic absorption spectra of anthraquinones/DNA were investigated at the physiological pH. The interaction of the three anthraquinones (AQ4, AQ4H and 1,4-DAAQ) were studied with three DNA (calf thymus DNA, (Poly[dA].Poly[dT]) and (Poly[dG].Poly[dC]). NMR study shows a qualitative pattern of drug/DNA interaction in terms of band shift and broadening. UV-VIS electronic absorption spectra were employed to measure the affinity constants of drug/DNA binding using Scatchard analysis.
Fröhlich, Bernd; Dynes, James F; Lucamarini, Marco; Sharpe, Andrew W; Yuan, Zhiliang; Shields, Andrew J
2013-09-05
The theoretically proven security of quantum key distribution (QKD) could revolutionize the way in which information exchange is protected in the future. Several field tests of QKD have proven it to be a reliable technology for cryptographic key exchange and have demonstrated nodal networks of point-to-point links. However, until now no convincing answer has been given to the question of how to extend the scope of QKD beyond niche applications in dedicated high security networks. Here we introduce and experimentally demonstrate the concept of a 'quantum access network': based on simple and cost-effective telecommunication technologies, the scheme can greatly expand the number of users in quantum networks and therefore vastly broaden their appeal. We show that a high-speed single-photon detector positioned at a network node can be shared between up to 64 users for exchanging secret keys with the node, thereby significantly reducing the hardware requirements for each user added to the network. This point-to-multipoint architecture removes one of the main obstacles restricting the widespread application of QKD. It presents a viable method for realizing multi-user QKD networks with efficient use of resources, and brings QKD closer to becoming a widespread technology.
Quantum Optics with Quantum Dots in Photonic Nanowires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gérard, J. M.; Claudon, J.; Bleuse, J.
2012-01-01
We review recent experimental and theoretical results, which highlight the strong interest of the photonic wire geometry for solid-state quantum optics and quantum optoelectronic devices.......We review recent experimental and theoretical results, which highlight the strong interest of the photonic wire geometry for solid-state quantum optics and quantum optoelectronic devices....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ying-Ju Lai
Full Text Available Gamma-secretase-mediated Notch3 signaling is involved in smooth muscle cell (SMC hyper-activity and proliferation leading to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. In addition, Propylthiouracil (PTU, beyond its anti-thyroid action, has suppressive effects on atherosclerosis and PAH. Here, we investigated the possible involvement of gamma-secretase-mediated Notch3 signaling in PTU-inhibited PAH. In rats with monocrotaline-induced PAH, PTU therapy improved pulmonary arterial hypertrophy and hemodynamics. In vitro, treatment of PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats with PTU inhibited their proliferation and migration. Immunocyto, histochemistry, and western blot showed that PTU treatment attenuated the activation of Notch3 signaling in PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats, which was mediated via inhibition of gamma-secretase expression especially its presenilin enhancer 2 (Pen-2 subunit. Furthermore, over-expression of Pen-2 in PASMCs from control rats increased the capacity of migration, whereas knockdown of Pen-2 with its respective siRNA in PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats had an opposite effect. Transfection of PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats with Pen-2 siRNA blocked the inhibitory effect of PTU on PASMC proliferation and migration, reflecting the crucial role of Pen-2 in PTU effect. We present a novel cell-signaling paradigm in which overexpression of Pen-2 is essential for experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension to promote motility and growth of smooth muscle cells. Propylthiouracil attenuates experimental PAH via suppression of the gamma-secretase-mediated Notch3 signaling especially its presenilin enhancer 2 (Pen-2 subunit. These findings provide a deep insight into the pathogenesis of PAH and a novel therapeutic strategy.
Juliyana, M.; Santhana Krishnan, R.
2018-02-01
The sandwich composite panels consisting of facesheet and core material are used as a primary structural member for aerospace, civil and marine areas due to its high stiffness to weight ratio. But the debonding nature of facesheet from the foam core under shear loading conditions leads to failure of the composite structure. To inhibit the debonding, an innovative methodology of introducing semi-torus key is used in the present study. The polyvinyl chloride foam core(PVC) is grooved and filled with semi-torus shaped chopped strand prepregs which are sandwiched between alternate layers of woven roven(WR) and chopped strand mat(CSM) skins by vacuum infusion process. The sandwich panel manufactured with semi-torus keys is evaluated regarding experimental and numerical simulations under shear loading conditions. The present innovative concept delays the debonding between face-sheet and foam core with enhancement the shear load carrying capability as the initial stiffness is higher than the conventional model. Also, the shear behaviour of the proposed concept is in good agreement with experimental results. The split semi-torus keys sustain the shear failure resulting in resistance to debonding capability.
Fomin, Vladimir M
2013-01-01
This book deals with a new class of materials, quantum rings. Innovative recent advances in experimental and theoretical physics of quantum rings are based on the most advanced state-of-the-art fabrication and characterization techniques as well as theoretical methods. The experimental efforts allow to obtain a new class of semiconductor quantum rings formed by capping self-organized quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Novel optical and magnetic properties of quantum rings are associated with non-trivial topologies at the nanoscale. An adequate characterization of quantum rings is po
Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Quantum Memory.
Zhang, Wei; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Sheng, Yu-Bo; Zhou, Lan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2017-06-02
Quantum communication provides an absolute security advantage, and it has been widely developed over the past 30 years. As an important branch of quantum communication, quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) promotes high security and instantaneousness in communication through directly transmitting messages over a quantum channel. The full implementation of a quantum protocol always requires the ability to control the transfer of a message effectively in the time domain; thus, it is essential to combine QSDC with quantum memory to accomplish the communication task. In this Letter, we report the experimental demonstration of QSDC with state-of-the-art atomic quantum memory for the first time in principle. We use the polarization degrees of freedom of photons as the information carrier, and the fidelity of entanglement decoding is verified as approximately 90%. Our work completes a fundamental step toward practical QSDC and demonstrates a potential application for long-distance quantum communication in a quantum network.
Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Quantum Memory
Zhang, Wei; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Sheng, Yu-Bo; Zhou, Lan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2017-06-01
Quantum communication provides an absolute security advantage, and it has been widely developed over the past 30 years. As an important branch of quantum communication, quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) promotes high security and instantaneousness in communication through directly transmitting messages over a quantum channel. The full implementation of a quantum protocol always requires the ability to control the transfer of a message effectively in the time domain; thus, it is essential to combine QSDC with quantum memory to accomplish the communication task. In this Letter, we report the experimental demonstration of QSDC with state-of-the-art atomic quantum memory for the first time in principle. We use the polarization degrees of freedom of photons as the information carrier, and the fidelity of entanglement decoding is verified as approximately 90%. Our work completes a fundamental step toward practical QSDC and demonstrates a potential application for long-distance quantum communication in a quantum network.
Faraday-Michelson system for quantum cryptography.
Mo, Xiao-Fan; Zhu, Bing; Han, Zheng-Fu; Gui, You-Zhen; Guo, Guang-Can
2005-10-01
Quantum key distribution provides unconditional security for communication. Unfortunately, current experimental schemes are not suitable for long-distance fiber transmission because of phase drift or Rayleigh backscattering. In this Letter we present a unidirectional intrinsically stable scheme that is based on Michelson-Faraday interferometers, in which ordinary mirrors are replaced with 90 degree Faraday mirrors. With the scheme, a demonstration setup was built and excellent stability of interference fringe visibility was achieved over a fiber length of 175 km. Through a 125 km long commercial communication fiber cable between Beijing and Tianjin, the key exchange was performed with a quantum bit-error rate of less than 6%, which is to our knowledge the longest reported quantum key distribution experiment under field conditions.
Steffen, Matthias
Solving computational problems require resources such as time, memory, and space. In the classical model of computation, computational complexity theory has categorized problems according to how difficult it is to solve them as the problem size increases. Remarkably, a quantum computer could solve certain problems using fundamentally fewer resources compared to a conventional computer, and therefore has garnered significant attention. Yet because of the delicate nature of entangled quantum states, the construction of a quantum computer poses an enormous challenge for experimental and theoretical scientists across multi-disciplinary areas including physics, engineering, materials science, and mathematics. While the field of quantum computing still has a long way to grow before reaching full maturity, state-of-the-art experiments on the order of 10 qubits are beginning to reach a fascinating stage at which they can no longer be emulated using even the fastest supercomputer. This raises the hope that small quantum computer demonstrations could be capable of approximately simulating or solving problems that also have practical applications. In this talk I will review the concepts behind quantum computing, and focus on the status of superconducting qubits which includes steps towards quantum error correction and quantum simulations.
Non-classical state engineering for quantum networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vollmer, Christina E.
2014-01-24
The wide field of quantum information processing and quantum networks has developed very fast in the last two decades. Besides the regime of discrete variables, which was developed first, the regime of continuous variables represents an alternative approach to realize many quantum applications. Non-classical states of light, like squeezed or entangled states, are a fundamental resource for quantum applications like quantum repeaters, quantum memories, quantum key distribution, quantum spectroscopy, and quantum metrology. These states can be generated successfully in the infrared wavelength regime. However, for some tasks other wavelengths, especially in the visible wavelength regime, are desirable. To generate non-classical states of light in this wavelength regime frequency up-conversion can be used, since all quantum properties are maintained in this process. The first part of this thesis deals with the experimental frequency up-conversion of quantum states. Squeezed vacuum states of light at 1550 nm were up-converted to 532 nm and a noise reduction of -1.5 dB at 532 nm was achieved. These states can be used for increasing the sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors or spectroscopic measurements. Furthermore, one part of an entangled state at 1550 nm was up-converted to 532 nm and, thus, entanglement between these two wavelengths was generated and characterized to -1.4 dB following Duan et al. With such a quantum link it is possible to establish a quantum network, which takes advantage of the low optical loss at 1550 nm for information transmission and of atomic transitions around 532 nm for a quantum memory in a quantum repeater. For quantum networks the distribution of entanglement and especially of a quantum key is essential. In the second part of this thesis the experimental distribution of entanglement by separable states is demonstrated. The underlying protocol requires a special three-mode state, which is separable in two of the three splittings. With
Zagoskin, Alexandre
2015-01-01
Written by Dr Alexandre Zagoskin, who is a Reader at Loughborough University, Quantum Mechanics: A Complete Introduction is designed to give you everything you need to succeed, all in one place. It covers the key areas that students are expected to be confident in, outlining the basics in clear jargon-free English, and then providing added-value features like summaries of key ideas, and even lists of questions you might be asked in your exam. The book uses a structure that is designed to make quantum physics as accessible as possible - by starting with its similarities to Newtonian physics, ra
Approximate Quantum Adders with Genetic Algorithms: An IBM Quantum Experience
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Rui
2017-07-01
Full Text Available It has been proven that quantum adders are forbidden by the laws of quantum mechanics. We analyze theoretical proposals for the implementation of approximate quantum adders and optimize them by means of genetic algorithms, improving previous protocols in terms of efficiency and fidelity. Furthermore, we experimentally realize a suitable approximate quantum adder with the cloud quantum computing facilities provided by IBM Quantum Experience. The development of approximate quantum adders enhances the toolbox of quantum information protocols, paving the way for novel applications in quantum technologies.
Approximate Quantum Adders with Genetic Algorithms: An IBM Quantum Experience
Li, Rui; Alvarez-Rodriguez, Unai; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique
2017-07-01
It has been proven that quantum adders are forbidden by the laws of quantum mechanics. We analyze theoretical proposals for the implementation of approximate quantum adders and optimize them by means of genetic algorithms, improving previous protocols in terms of efficiency and fidelity. Furthermore, we experimentally realize a suitable approximate quantum adder with the cloud quantum computing facilities provided by IBM Quantum Experience. The development of approximate quantum adders enhances the toolbox of quantum information protocols, paving the way for novel applications in quantum technologies.
16-QAM Quantum Receiver with Hybrid Structure Outperforming the Standard Quantum Limit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zuo Yuan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum receivers which can discriminate phase shift keying (PSK and pulse position modulation (PPM signals below the standard quantum limit have been proposed and some have been demonstrated experimentally. But for quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM signals, few literatures have been reported so far. It is important to reduce the average error probability of QAM signals below the standard quantum limit (SQL, since these modulation have a high spectral efficiency. In this paper, we present a quantum receiver for 16-QAM signals discrimination with hybrid structure, which contains a homodyne receiver and a displacement receiver. By numerical simulation, we prove that the performance of the quantum receiver can outperform the SQL, and it can be improved by an optimized displacement.
Practical Quantum Cryptography for Secure Free-Space Communications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buttler, W.T.; Hughes, R.J.; Kwiat, P.G.; Lamoreaux, S.K.; Morgan, G.L.; Nordholt, J.E.; Peterson, C.G.
1999-02-01
Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generate shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light. The security of these transmissions is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics and information-theoretically secure post-processing methods. An adversary can neither successfully tap the quantum transmissions, nor evade detection, owing to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. In this paper we describe the theory of quantum cryptography, and the most recent results from our experimental free-space system with which we have demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of quantum key generation over a point-to-point outdoor atmospheric path in daylight. We achieved a transmission distance of 0.5 km, which was limited only by the length of the test range. Our results provide strong evidence that cryptographic key material could be generated on demand between a ground station and a satellite (or between two satellites), allowing a satellite to be securely re-keyed on orbit. We present a feasibility analysis of surface-to-satellite quantum key generation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hatim eSalih
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The phenomenon of quantum erasure has long intrigued physicists, but has surprisingly found limited practical application. Here, we propose a protocol for quantum key distribution (QKD based on quantum erasure, promising inherent security against detector attacks. We particularly demonstrate its security against a powerful detector-blinding attack.
Salih, Hatim
2016-05-01
The phenomenon of quantum erasure has long intrigued physicists, but has surprisingly found limited practical application. Here, we propose a protocol for quantum key distribution (QKD) based on quantum erasure, promising inherent security against detector attacks. We particularly demonstrate its security against a powerful detector-blinding attack.
Quantum gases finite temperature and non-equilibrium dynamics
Szymanska, Marzena; Davis, Matthew; Gardiner, Simon
2013-01-01
The 1995 observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic vapours spawned the field of ultracold, degenerate quantum gases. Unprecedented developments in experimental design and precision control have led to quantum gases becoming the preferred playground for designer quantum many-body systems. This self-contained volume provides a broad overview of the principal theoretical techniques applied to non-equilibrium and finite temperature quantum gases. Covering Bose-Einstein condensates, degenerate Fermi gases, and the more recently realised exciton-polariton condensates, it fills a gap by linking between different methods with origins in condensed matter physics, quantum field theory, quantum optics, atomic physics, and statistical mechanics. Thematically organised chapters on different methodologies, contributed by key researchers using a unified notation, provide the first integrated view of the relative merits of individual approaches, aided by pertinent introductory chapters and the guidance of ed...
Recent Findings From The Quantum Network in Durban
Mirza, Abdul; Petruccione, Francesco
2011-10-01
The QuantumCity and QuantumStadium projects are aimed at developing and examining quantum-secured communication networks in a long-term, commercial environment. Many Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) experimental setups to date have failed to provide a long-term analysis of the systems as well as report on the robustness of the devices within an industrial context. The aforementioned projects provide an insight into these characteristics respectively. The projects are hosted within the eThekwini Municipality's fibre optic network. They securely connect relevant Municipal buildings, providing the client nodes with an option of quantumsecured communication. The QuantumCity initiative has deployed QKD solutions for almost 2 years while the QuantumStadium project ran for the duration of the 2010 FIFA World Cup.