Kirkeby, S.; Hammer, A. S.; Høiby, N.
The nasal and sinus cavities in children may serve as reservoirs for microorganisms that cause recurrent and chronic lung infections. This study evaluates whether the mink can be used as an animal model for studying Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino-sinusitis since there is no suitable...... in the infected mink shows features of carbohydrate expression comparable to what has been described in the respiratory system after Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in humans. It is suggested that the mink is suitable for studying Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino-sinusitis....
Schiff, J B; Small, G J; Pennington, J E
The therapeutic efficacy of ciprofloxacin, an investigational quinoline derivative, was compared with those of ticarcillin and tobramycin in guinea pigs with experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Guinea pigs challenged with tracheal instillations of 10(8) CFU of P. aeruginosa developed acute pneumonia, for which survival rates were: controls, 0%; ticarcillin treatment, 37%; ciprofloxacin treatment, 57%; and tobramycin treatment, 69%. Intrapulmonary killing of P. aeruginosa was greate...
Kemmerich, B; Small, G J; Pennington, J E
The therapeutic activity of ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, and ofloxacin was evaluated in guinea pigs with acute and chronic experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Intratracheal instillations of P. aeruginosa resulted in fatal pneumonia in all untreated animals within 36 h. Among treatment groups (80 mg/kg [body weight] per day), cumulative survival rates were: 47%, ciprofloxacin; 55%, enoxacin; and 42%, ofloxacin. These rates were not significantly different. Intrapulmonary killing of P. a...
Oguntibeju, O.O.; Nwobu, R.A.U.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in post-operative wound infection. Results: Out of the 60 bacterial isolates found in post-operative wound infection, 20 (33.3%) were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, followed by Staphylococcus aureus 13(21.7%), Klebsiella species 10(16.7%), Escherichia coli 7(11.7%), Atypical coliform 4(6.7%), Proteus species 4(6.7%), Streptococcus pyogenes 1(1.7%) and Enterococcus faecalis 1(1.7%) in the order. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections was higher in female than male, ratio 3:2 and was found more among young and elderly debilitated patients. The in vitro sensitivity pattern of 20 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed colistin (100%), gentamicin (75%), streptomycin (30%), and tetracycline (10%). Conclusion: The role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an agent of nosocomial infection is re-emphasised. (author)
Klausen, M.; Gjermansen, Morten; Kreft, J.-U.
Surface-associated microbial communities in many cases display dynamic developmental patterns. Model biofilms formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida in laboratory flow-chamber setups represent examples of such behaviour. Dependent on the experimental conditions the bacteria...
infections by Ps. aeruginosa is contra-indicated. In our study only 2,3 % of the Ps. aeruginosa strains were resistant to gentamicin (MIC 25 Ilg/ml). In view of the synergy reported for combined gentamicin and carbeni- cillin therapy," a combination of these two drugs may be recommended in the treatment of all Pseudomonas.
Johansen, Helle Krogh; Gøtzsche, Peter C
Chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis results in progressive lung damage. Once colonisation of the lungs with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, it is almost impossible to eradicate. Vaccines, aimed at reducing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have been developed.......Chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis results in progressive lung damage. Once colonisation of the lungs with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, it is almost impossible to eradicate. Vaccines, aimed at reducing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have been developed....
Moser, Claus; van Gennip, Maria; Bjarnsholt, Thomas
Moser C, van Gennip M, Bjarnsholt T, Jensen PO, Lee B, Hougen HP, Calum H, Ciofu O, Givskov M, Molin S, Hoiby N. Novel experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection model mimicking long-term host-pathogen interactions in cystic fibrosis. APMIS 2009; 117: 95-107. The dominant cause of premature...... death in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) is chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The chronic lung infection often lasts for decades with just one clone. However, as a result of inflammation, antibiotic treatment and different niches in the lungs, the clone undergoes...... and 2003) of the chronic lung infection of one CF patient using the seaweed alginate embedment model. The results showed that the non-mucoid clones reduced their virulence over time, resulting in faster clearing of the bacteria from the lungs, improved pathology and reduced pulmonary production...
Alhede, Morten; Alhede, Maria; Bjarnsholt, Thomas
Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes infection in all parts of the human body. The bacterium is naturally resistant to a wide range of antibiotics. In addition to resistance mechanisms such as efflux pumps, the ability to form aggregates, known as biofilm, further reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
Burns, F R; Paterson, C A; Gray, R D; Wells, J T
Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase is a zinc metalloproteinase which is released during P. aeruginosa infections. Pseudomonas keratitis, which occurs following contact lens-induced corneal trauma, can lead to rapid, liquefactive necrosis of the cornea. This destruction has been attributed to the release of both host-derived enzymes and the bacterial products P. aeruginosa elastase, alkaline protease, exotoxin A, and lipopolysaccharide endotoxin. A synthetic metalloproteinase inhibitor, HSCH2 (DL...
Johansen, H.K.; Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Johansen, Helle Krogh
BACKGROUND: Chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis results in progressive lung damage. Once colonisation of the lungs with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, it is almost impossible to eradicate. Vaccines, aimed at reducing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have been developed. OBJECTIVES......: To assess the effectiveness of vaccination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register using the terms vaccines AND pseudomonas (last search May 2008) and PubMed using the terms vaccin* AND cystic...... fibrosis (last search May 2008). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials (published or unpublished) comparing Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccines (oral, parenteral or intranasal) with control vaccines or no intervention in cystic fibrosis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The authors independently selected trials...
Johansen, Helle Krogh; Gøtzsche, Peter C
BACKGROUND: Chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis results in progressive lung damage. Once colonisation of the lungs with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, it is almost impossible to eradicate. Vaccines, aimed at reducing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have been developed....... This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of vaccination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register using the terms vaccines AND pseudomonas (last search 30...... March 2015). We previously searched PubMed using the terms vaccin* AND cystic fibrosis (last search 30 May 2013). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials (published or unpublished) comparing Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccines (oral, parenteral or intranasal) with control vaccines or no intervention in cystic...
Ghibu, Laura; Miftode, Egidia; Teodor, Andra; Bejan, Codrina; Dorobăţ, Carmen Mihaela
Since their introduction in clinical practice,carbapenems have been among the most powerful antibiotics for treating serious infections cased by Gram-negative nosocomial pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The emergence of betalactamases with carbapenem-hydrolyzing activity is of major clinical concern. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of nosocomial infection. Risk factors for colonization with carbapenems-resistant Pseudomonas in hospital are: history of P. aeruginosa infection or colonization within the previous year, (length of hospital stay, being bedridden or in the ICU, mechanical ventilation, malignant disease, and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have all been identified as independent risk factors for MDR P. aeruginosa infection. Long-term-care facilities are also reservoirs of resistant bacteria. Risk factors for colonization of LTCF residents with resistant bacteria included age > 86 years, antibiotic treatment in the previous 3 months, indwelling devices, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, physical disability, and the particular LTCF unit.
Degiorgi, C.F.; Fernandez, R.O.; Pizarro, R.A.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa has shown an increased sensitivity compared with that of Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae, when they were exposed to 0.4 kJ/m2 of ultraviolet-B radiation. The rapid decay in cell viability observed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa after the irradiation was influenced by factors such as culture media and the presence of pyocyanine during the irradiation. The radioinduced lethal damage could be prevented by photoreactivating treatment, indicating that pyrimidine dimer formation was the mechanism causing bacterial death. The results indicate that several environmental conditions may act as protective agents against ultraviolet-B-induced damage
ABSTRACT: This work investigated the prevalence and antibiotics sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from ... skin triggers coagulation and an acute inflammatory response ... agents with anti-pseudomonal activity, life-threatening.
Liu, Xiang; Chen, Haihong; Wang, Shengqing
To observe the effect of biyuanshu oral liquid on the formation of pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in vitro. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm was established by plate culture and detected by Scanning electron microscopy and AgNO3 staining. After treated with different dosages of biyuanshu oral liquid and erythromycin, the pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms were observed by AgNO3 staining and the number of viable bacteria were measured by serial dilution. The pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms could be detected by SEM at the seventh culture day and it was consistent with the detection of AgNO3 staining. The biyuanshu oral liquid and erythromycin have the effect on inhibiting the formation of pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. But with the already formed pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms the inhibition was not significant. The serial dilution method showed that the viable counts of bacteria of biyuanshu oral liquid and erythromycin treated groups were significantly lower than those untreated groups (P formation of pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in vitro.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly identified opportunistic pathogen associated with pool acquired bather disease. To better understand why this microorganism poses this protracted problem we recently appraised P. aeruginosa pool risk management. Much is known about the ...
Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Jelsbak, Lars; Søndergaard, Ib
in the contact area of A. niger, A. flavus, A. oryzae, but not A. fumigatus. In addition, other metabolites with UV chromophores similar to the phenazines were only found in the contact zone between Aspergillus and Pseudomonas. No change in secondary metabolite profiles were seen for the Aspergilli, when......Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen, commonly infecting cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Aspergilli, especially Aspergillus fumigatus, are also frequently isolated from CF patients. Our aim was to examine the possible interaction between P. aeruginosa and different...... Aspergillus species. Methods: A suspension of fungal spores was streaked onto WATM agar plates. After 24 hours incubation at 37 °C, a P. aeruginosa overnight culture was streaked out perpendicular to the fungal streak. The plates were incubated at 37 °C for five days, examined and plugs were extracted...
Cross, Megan; Biberacher, Sonja; Park, Suk-Youl; Rajan, Siji; Korhonen, Pasi; Gasser, Robin B; Kim, Jeong-Sun; Coster, Mark J; Hofmann, Andreas
The opportunistic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been recognized as an important pathogen of clinical relevance and is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. The presence of a glycolytic enzyme in Pseudomonas, which is known to be inhibited by trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P) in other organisms, suggests that these bacteria may be vulnerable to the detrimental effects of intracellular T6P accumulation. In the present study, we explored the structural and functional properties of trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) in P. aeruginosa in support of future target-based drug discovery. A survey of genomes revealed the existence of 2 TPP genes with either chromosomal or extrachromosomal location. Both TPPs were produced as recombinant proteins, and characterization of their enzymatic properties confirmed specific, magnesium-dependent catalytic hydrolysis of T6P. The 3-dimensional crystal structure of the chromosomal TPP revealed a protein dimer arising through β-sheet expansion of the individual monomers, which possess the overall fold of halo-acid dehydrogenases.-Cross, M., Biberacher, S., Park, S.-Y., Rajan, S., Korhonen, P., Gasser, R. B., Kim, J.-S., Coster, M. J., Hofmann, A. Trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Background. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is a major cause of morbidity in burns patients. There is a paucity of publications dealing with this infection in the paediatric population. We describe the incidence, microbiology and impact of P. aeruginosa infection in a dedicated paediatric burns unit. Methods.
Mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, associated almost exclusively with chronic respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis, possess a capsule composed of alginic acid similar to one produced by Azotobacter vinelandii. Recent reports have provided evidence that the biosynthetic pathway for alginate in P. aeruginosa may differ from the pathway proposed for A. vinelandii in that synthesis in P. aeruginosa may occur by way of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Incorporation of isotope from (6-/sup 14/C)glucose into alginate by both P. aueroginosa and A. vinelandii was 10-fold greater than that from either (1-/sup 14/C)/sup -/ or (2-/sup 14/C)glucose, indicating preferential utilization of the bottom half of the glucose molecule for alginate biosynthesis. These data strongly suggest that the Entner-Doudoroff pathway plays a major role in alginate synthesis in both P. aeruginosa and A. vinelandii. The enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa appear to be unchanged whether alignate is actively produced or not and activities do not differ significantly from nonmucoid strain PAO.
Of 64 carbenicillin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains 40 transferred this resistance to Escherichia coli. R factor RP-638 isolated from Ps. aeruginosa strain 638 conferred resistance to ampicillin, carbenicillin, kanamycin, neomycin and tetracycline. This R factor was transferred at frequencies 01 10-7 to 10-4 between ...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Family Pseudomonadaceae) is an obligate aerobic, motile, gram negative bacillus.which is able to grow and survive in almost any environment and resistant to temperature extremes. It is involved in the etiology of several diseases i.
Wali, N.; Mirza, I. A.
Objective: To compare the in vitro efficacy of doripenem and imipenem against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa from various clinical specimens. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from November 2012 to November 2013. Methodology: MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from various clinical samples were included in the study. Susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa against doripenem and imipenem was performed by E-test strip and agar dilution methods. The results were interpreted as recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: The maximum number of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from pure pus and pus swabs. In vitro efficacy of doripenem was found to be more effective as compared to imipenem against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa with both E-test strip and agar dilution methods. Overall, p-values of 0.014 and 0.037 were observed when susceptibility patterns of doripenem and imipenem were evaluated with E-test strip and agar dilution methods. Conclusion: In vitro efficacy of doripenem was found to be better against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa as compared to imipenem when tested by both E-test and agar dilution methods. (author)
Rella, Antonella; Yang, Mo Wei; Gruber, Jordon; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Luberto, Chiara; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Del Poeta, Maurizio
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous and opportunistic bacterium that inhibits the growth of different microorganisms, including Gram-positive bacteria and fungi such as Candida spp. and Aspergillus fumigatus. In this study, we investigated the interaction between P. aeruginosa and Cryptococcus spp. We found that P. aeruginosa PA14 and, to a lesser extent, PAO1 significantly inhibited the growth of Cryptococcus spp. The inhibition of growth was observed on solid medium by the visualization of a zone of inhibition of yeast growth and in liquid culture by viable cell counting. Interestingly, such inhibition was only observed when P. aeruginosa and Cryptococcus were co-cultured. Minimal inhibition was observed when cell-cell contact was prevented using a separation membrane, suggesting that cell contact is required for inhibition. Using mutant strains of Pseudomonas quinoline signaling, we showed that P. aeruginosa inhibited the growth of Cryptococcus spp. by producing antifungal molecules pyocyanin, a redox-active phenazine, and 2-heptyl-3,4-dihydroxyquinoline (PQS), an extracellular quorum-sensing signal. Because both P. aeruginosa and Cryptococcus neoformans are commonly found in lung infections of immunocompromised patients, this study may have important implication for the interaction of these microbes in both an ecological and a clinical point of view.
Wali, Nadia; Mirza, Irfan Ali
To compare the in vitro efficacy of doripenem and imipenem against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa from various clinical specimens. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from November 2012 to November 2013. MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from various clinical samples were included in the study. Susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa against doripenem and imipenem was performed by E-test strip and agar dilution methods. The results were interpreted as recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines. The maximum number of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from pure pus and pus swabs. In vitro efficacy of doripenem was found to be more effective as compared to imipenem against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa with both E-test strip and agar dilution methods. Overall, p-values of 0.014 and 0.037 were observed when susceptibility patterns of doripenem and imipenem were evaluated with E-test strip and agar dilution methods. In vitro efficacy of doripenem was found to be better against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosaas compared to imipenem when tested by both E-test and agar dilution methods.
Obernesser, H.J.; Doering, G.
A sensitive and specific solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) for detection of the elastase (Ela) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) was developed and the RIA was used to assay 10 PA strains of various origin and serotype. A great strain variability of Ela production was found which different from 94.1 to 0.1 μg per ml of culture supernatant fluid (CSF). The Ela and alkaline protease (AP) concentrations were converted to proteolytic activity and combined. The sum of the calculated enzymatic values of Ela and AP correlated well with the experimentally determined values of total proteolytic activity of the CSF. (orig.) [de
Saiman, L.; Cacalano, G.; Prince, A.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas cepacia are both opportunistic pathogens of patients with cystic fibrosis. The binding characteristics of these two species were compared to determine if they use similar mechanisms to adhere to respiratory epithelial cells. P. cepacia 249 was shown to be piliated, but there was no detectable homology between P. aeruginosa pilin gene probes and P. cepacia genomic DNA. P. cepacia and P. aeruginosa did not appear to compete for epithelial receptors. In the presence of purified P. aeruginosa pili, the adherence of 35S-labeled strain 249 to respiratory epithelial monolayers was unaffected, while that of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was decreased by 55%. The binding of P. cepacia 249 and 715j was increased by 2.4-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively, in the presence of an equal inoculum of PAO1. Interbacterial agglutination contributed to the increased adherence of P. cepacia, as the binding of 249 was increased twofold in the presence of irradiated PAO1. PAO1 exoproducts had a marked effect in enhancing the ability of the P. cepacia strains to adhere to the epithelial monolayers. A PAO1 supernatant increased the binding of 249 by eightfold and that of 715j by fourfold. Thus, there appears to be a synergistic relationship between P. aeruginosa and P. cepacia in which PAO1 exoproducts modify the epithelial cell surface, exposing receptors and facilitating increased P. cepacia attachment
Fernanda Rodrigues Mendes
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sanitization and storage temperature on the quality of commercial eggs inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We used 240 large eggs, without cracks, from Dekalb White laying hens at 30 to 40 weeks of age. The experimental design used was two blocks in a 2 x 2 factorial arrange (washed/non-washed and refrigerated/non-refrigerated with twelve replicates. The eggs were contaminated by handling, with 1.5 x 105 colony-forming units (CFU of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and stored at 5 °C and 25 °C for 30 days. Each ten days the eggshell and contents were submitted to bacteriological analyses. Variance analyses were performed and the data were compared by Tukey test. The results showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from the shells and contents of all eggs. Therefore, when the eggs were sanitized and stored at 5 ºC the contamination was less intense. The correlation between the presences of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the shell and contents was high, when the eggs were not sanitized nor refrigerated. The conclusion of this study was that the egg must be sanitized and refrigerated when the stored for more than 30 days.
Shabani, M. A.; Irannajad, M.; Azadmehr, A. R.; Meshkini, M.
Bioleaching is an environmentally friendly method for extraction of metal from ores. In this study, bioleaching of copper oxide ore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a heterotrophic bacterium that can produce various organic acids in an appropriate culture medium, and these acids can operate as leaching agents. The parameters, such as particle size, glucose percentage in the culture medium, bioleaching time, and solid/liquid ratio were optimized. Optimum bioleaching conditions were found as follows: particle size of 150-177 μm, glucose percentage of 6%, bioleaching time of 8 d, and solid/liquid ratio of 1:80. Under these conditions, 53% of copper was extracted.
Full Text Available Orbital apex syndrome is commonly been thought to have a poor prognosis. Many cases of this syndrome have been reported to be caused by paranasal sinus mycosis. We encountered a very rare case (60-year-old woman of sinusitis with orbital apex syndrome due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. She had received insulin and dialysis for diabtes and diabetic nephropathy, moreover anticoagulants after heart by-pass surgery. She underwent endoscopic sinus operation and was treated with antibiotics, but her loss of left vision did not improve. Recently, sinusitis cases due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa were reported to be a increasing. Therefore, we should consider the possibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as mycosis as infections of the sinus, especially inpatients who are immunocompromised body.
Osthoff, Michael; Brown, Karl D; Kong, David C M; Daniell, Mark; Eisen, Damon P
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) microbial keratitis (MK) is a sight-threatening disease. Previous animal studies have identified an important contribution of the complement system to the clearance of P. aeruginosa infection of the cornea. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a pattern recognition receptor of the lectin pathway of complement, has been implicated in the host defense against P. aeruginosa. However, studies addressing the role of the lectin pathway in P. aeruginosa MK are lacking. Hence, we sought to determine the activity of the lectin pathway in human MK caused by P. aeruginosa. Primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) from cadaveric donors were exposed to two different P. aeruginosa strains. Gene expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, MBL, and other complement proteins was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and MBL synthesis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and intracellular flow cytometry. MBL gene expression was not detected in unchallenged HCECs. Exposure of HCECs to P. aeruginosa resulted in rapid induction of the transcriptional expression of MBL, IL-6, and IL-8. In addition, expression of several complement proteins of the classical and lectin pathways, but not the alternative pathway, were upregulated after 5 h of challenge, including MBL-associated serine protease 1. However, MBL protein secretion was not detectable 18 h after challenge with P. aeruginosa. MK due to P. aeruginosa triggers activation of MBL and the lectin pathway of complement. However, the physiologic relevance of this finding is unclear, as corresponding MBL oligomer production was not observed.
Johansen, Helle Krogh; Gøtzsche, Peter C
Chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis results in progressive lung damage. Once colonisation of the lungs with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, it is almost impossible to eradicate. Vaccines, aimed at reducing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have been developed. This is an update of a previously published review. To assess the effectiveness of vaccination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register using the terms vaccines AND pseudomonas (last search 30 March 2015). We previously searched PubMed using the terms vaccin* AND cystic fibrosis (last search 30 May 2013). Randomised trials (published or unpublished) comparing Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccines (oral, parenteral or intranasal) with control vaccines or no intervention in cystic fibrosis. The authors independently selected trials, assessed them and extracted data. Six trials were identified. Two trials were excluded since they were not randomised and one old, small trial because it was not possible to assess whether is was randomised. The three included trials comprised 483, 476 and 37 patients, respectively. No data have been published from one of the large trials, but the company stated in a press release that the trial failed to confirm the results from an earlier study and that further clinical development was suspended. In the other large trial, relative risk for chronic infection was 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.55 to 1.49), and in the small trial, the risk was also close to one. In the large trial, one patient was reported to have died in the observation period. In that trial, 227 adverse events (4 severe) were registered in the vaccine group and 91 (1 severe) in the control group. In this large trial of a vaccine developed against flagella antigens, antibody titres against the epitopes contained in the vaccine were higher in the vaccine group compared to the placebo group (P Vaccines against
Bioenergetic analysis of the growth of the binary mixed culture (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescence) on phenol chemostat culture was carried out. The data were checked for consistency using carbon and available electron balances. When more than the minimum number of variables are measured, ...
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa is devided into 20 serotypes on the base of the International Antigenic Typing Scheme. P. aeruginosa serotyping is important because of few reasons but epidemiological is the most important. The aim of the study was serotyping of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates, analysing of single clinical isolates P. aeruginosa present in the particular samples, and analysing of pyocianin and fluorescin production in different isolates of P. aeruginosa. Methods. A total of 223 isolates of P. aeruginosa, isolated in the microbiological laboratory of the Health Center “Aleksinac”, Aleksinac, were examinated. P. aeruginosa isolates were put on the pseudomonas isolation agar, pseudomonas agar base, acetamid agar, asparagin prolin broth, pseudomonas asparagin broth, Bushnnell-Haas agar, cetrimid agar base, King A and King B plates, plates for pyocianin production, plates for fluorescin production and tripticasa soya agar (Himedia. Polyvalent and monovalent serums were used in the agglutination (Biorad. Pigment production was analysed on the bases of growth on the plates for pyocianin and fluorescin production. Results. Serologically, we identificated the serovars as follows: O1, O3, O4, O5, O6, O7, O8, O10, O11 and O12. O1 (38% was the most often serovar, then O11 (19% and O6 (8.6%. A total of 18.6% (42 isolates did not agglutinate with any serum, whereas 21 isolates agglutinated only with polyvalent serum. The majority of P. aeruginosa isolates produced fluorescin, 129 (58.54%, 53 (22.94% produced pyocianin whereas 49 (21.21% isolates produced both pigments. Conclusion. P. aeruginosa was isolated most of the from urine, sputum and other materials. The majority often serovars were O1, O6 and O11. The most of isolates produced fluorescin (58.54%, while 22.94% producted pyocianin and 21.21% both pigments.
Davies, Corey B; Harrison, Mark D; Huygens, Flavia
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative pathogen and the major cause of mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis. The mechanisms that P. aeruginosa strains use to regulate intracellular zinc have an effect on infection, antibiotic resistance and the propensity to form biofilms. However, zinc homeostasis in P. aeruginosa strains of variable infectivity has not been compared. In this study, zinc homeostasis in P. aeruginosa Trent, a highly infectious clinical strain, was compared to that of a laboratory P. aeruginosa strain, ATCC27853. Trent was able to tolerate higher concentrations of additional zinc in rich media than ATCC27853. Further, pre-adaptation to additional zinc enhanced the growth of Trent at non-inhibitory concentrations but the impact of pre-adaption on the growth of ATCC27853 under the same conditions was minimal. The results establish clear differences in zinc-induced responses in Trent and ATCC27853, and how zinc homeostasis can be a promising target for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies for P. aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis patients. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Huang, Weiliang; Brewer, Luke K; Jones, Jace W; Nguyen, Angela T; Marcu, Ana; Wishart, David S; Oglesby-Sherrouse, Amanda G; Kane, Maureen A; Wilks, Angela
The Pseudomonas aeruginosaMetabolome Database (PAMDB, http://pseudomonas.umaryland.edu) is a searchable, richly annotated metabolite database specific to P. aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa is a soil organism and significant opportunistic pathogen that adapts to its environment through a versatile energy metabolism network. Furthermore, P. aeruginosa is a model organism for the study of biofilm formation, quorum sensing, and bioremediation processes, each of which are dependent on unique pathways and metabolites. The PAMDB is modelled on the Escherichia coli (ECMDB), yeast (YMDB) and human (HMDB) metabolome databases and contains >4370 metabolites and 938 pathways with links to over 1260 genes and proteins. The database information was compiled from electronic databases, journal articles and mass spectrometry (MS) metabolomic data obtained in our laboratories. For each metabolite entered, we provide detailed compound descriptions, names and synonyms, structural and physiochemical information, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and MS spectra, enzymes and pathway information, as well as gene and protein sequences. The database allows extensive searching via chemical names, structure and molecular weight, together with gene, protein and pathway relationships. The PAMBD and its future iterations will provide a valuable resource to biologists, natural product chemists and clinicians in identifying active compounds, potential biomarkers and clinical diagnostics. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Full Text Available Biosorption of Cd(II and Pb(II ions from aqueous solution using lyophilized Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAOI cells were observed under various experimental conditions. The effect of pH, initial metal concentration, equilibration time and temperature on bioadsorption was investigated. The optimum pH value for Pb(II adsorption was found to be 5.0, and for Cd(II 5.0 − 6.0. The Pb(II and Cd(II bioadsorption equilibrium were analyzed by using Freundlich and Langmuir model using nonlinear least-squares estimation. The experimental maximum uptake capacity of Pb(II and Cd(II was estimated to be 164 mg g-1 and 113 mg g-1, respectively. For biosorption kinetic study the pseudo second-order kinetic model was applied at various temperatures. The temperature had no significant effect on Pb(II bioadsorption. In case of Cd(II bioadsorption the adsorbed amount decreased with increasing temperature.
Jensen, E T; Kharazmi, A; Garred, P
In chronic infections, such as the bronchopulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, bacteria persist despite an intact host immune defense and frequent antibiotic treatment. An important reason for the persistence of the bacteria is their capacity for the biofilm...... mode of growth. In this study we investigated the role of biofilms in activation of complement, a major contributor to the inflammatory process. Complement activation by P. aeruginosa was examined in a complement consumption assay, production of C3 and factor B conversion products assessed by crossed...... immuno-electrophoresis, C5a generation tested by a PMN chemotactic assay, and terminal complement complex formation measured by ELISA. Two of the four assays showed that P. aeruginosa grown in biofilm activated complement less than planktonic bacteria, and all assays showed that activation by intact...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous member of marine biofilm, and reduces thiosulfate to produce toxic hydrogen sulfide gas. In this study, lytic bacteriophages were isolated and applied to inhibit the growth of P. aeruginosa in planktonic mode at different temperature, pH, and salinity. Bacteriophages showed optimal infectivity at a multiplicity of infection of 10 in saline conditions, and demonstrated lytic abilities over all tested temperature (25, 30, 37, and 45°C) and pH 6–9. Planktonic P. aeruginosa exhibited significantly longer lag phase and lower specific growth rates upon exposure to bacteriophages. Bacteriophages were subsequently applied to P. aeruginosa-enriched biofilm and were determined to lower the relative abundance of Pseudomonas-related taxa from 0.17 to 5.58% in controls to 0.01–0.61% in treated microbial communities. The relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria, Pseudoalteromonas, and Planococcaceae decreased, possibly due to the phage-induced disruption of the biofilm matrix. Lastly, when applied to mitigate biofouling of ultrafiltration membranes, bacteriophages were determined to reduce the transmembrane pressure increase by 18% when utilized alone, and by 49% when used in combination with citric acid. The combined treatment was more effective compared with the citric acid treatment alone, which reported ca. 30% transmembrane pressure reduction. Collectively, the findings demonstrated that bacteriophages can be used as a biocidal agent to mitigate undesirable P. aeruginosa-associated problems in seawater applications.
Johansen, H K; Espersen, F; Pedersen, S S
We have compared a chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa embedded in alginate beads in normal and athymic rats with an acute infection with free live P. aeruginosa bacteria. The following parameters were observed and described: mortality, macroscopic and microscopic pathologic changes...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa multiresistente em unidade de cuidados intensivos: desafios que procedem? Pseudomonas aeruginosa multiresistente en una unidad de cuidados intensivos: desafíos que proceden? Multi-resistant pseudomonas aeruginosa among patients from an intensive care unit: persistent challenge?
Maria Verônica Guilherme Ferrareze
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a ocorrência de infecção hospitalar por Pseudomonas aeruginosa multiresistente em pacientes hospitalizados em uma unidade de cuidados intensivos. MÉTODO: estudo retrospectivo realizado de outubro de 2003 a setembro de 2004 em um hospital de emergências. RESULTADOS: Totalizou-se 68 portadores de bactérias multiresistentes sendo 10 (14,7% de P. aeruginosa. Destes, 8 pacientes eram do sexo masculino, as médias de idade e de internação foram respectivamente de 57 anos a média de idade, 43,7 a média de dias de internação e 7 pacientes morreram. Isolaram-se 8 cepas no sangue, cinco na urina, duas em cateteres venosos e uma no líquor, das quais sete sensíveis somente a polimixina e três ao imipenem. CONCLUSÃO: O perfil microbiológico deve ser avaliado periodicamente visto que é específico de uma unidade ou instituição, e demanda ações correlatas.OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la ocurrencia de infección hospitalaria por Pseudomonas aeruginosa multiresistente en pacientes hospitalizados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos. MÉTODO: estudio retrospectivo realizado de octubre del 2003 a setiembre del 2004 en un hospital de emergencias. RESULTADOS: Se tuvo un total de 68 portadores de bacterias multiresistentes de las cuales 10 (14,7% de P. aeruginosa. De éstos, 8 pacientes eran del sexo masculino, los promedios de edad y de internamiento fueron respectivamente de 57 años y 43,7 de días de internamiento y 7 pacientes murieron. Se aislaron 8 cepas en la sangre, cinco en la orina, dos en catéteres venosos y una en el licor, de ellas siete eran sensibles sólo a la polimixina y tres al imipenem. CONCLUSIÓN: El perfil microbiológico debe ser evaluado periódicamente dado que es específico de una unidad o institución, y demanda acciones correlatas.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the occurrence of multi-resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa infection among patients from an Intensive Care Unit. METHODS: This retrospective study was
Yang, Liang; Barken, Kim Bundvig; Skindersø, Mette Elena
Extracellular DNA is one of the major matrix components in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. It functions as an intercellular connector and plays a role in stabilization of the biofilms. Evidence that DNA release in P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms is controlled by the las-rhl and pqs quorum-sensing sy......Extracellular DNA is one of the major matrix components in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. It functions as an intercellular connector and plays a role in stabilization of the biofilms. Evidence that DNA release in P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms is controlled by the las-rhl and pqs quorum......-sensing systems has been previously presented. This paper provides evidence that DNA release in P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms is also under iron regulation. Experiments involving cultivation of P. aeruginosa in microtitre trays suggested that pqs expression, DNA release and biofilm formation were favoured in media...
Armour, Alexis D; Shankowsky, Heather A; Swanson, Todd; Lee, Jonathan; Tredget, Edward E
Nosocomially-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains a serious cause of infection and septic mortality in burn patients. This study was conducted to quantify the impact of nosocomially-transmitted resistant P. aeruginosa in a burn population. Using a TRACS burn database, 48 patients with P. aeruginosa resistant to gentamicin were identified (Pseudomonas group). Thirty-nine were case-matched to controls without resistant P. aeruginosa cultures (control group) for age, total body surface area, admission year, and presence of inhalation injury. Mortality and various morbidity endpoints were examined, as well as antibiotic costs. There was a significantly higher mortality rate in the Pseudomonas group (33% vs. 8%, p products used (packed cells 51.1 +/- 8.0 vs. 21.1 +/- 3.4, p < 0.01; platelets 11.9 +/- 3.0 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.7, p < 0.01) were all significantly higher in the Pseudomonas group. Cost of antibiotics was also significantly higher ($2,658.52 +/- $647.93 vs. $829.22 +/- $152.82, p < 0.01). Nosocomial colonization or infection, or both, of burn patients with aminoglycoside-resistant P. aeruginosa is associated with significantly higher morbidity, mortality, and cost of care. Increased resource consumption did not prevent significantly higher mortality rates when compared with that of control patients. Thus, prevention, identification, and eradication of nosocomial Pseudomonas contamination are critical for cost-effective, successful burn care.
negative bacilli in patients with impaired host defences emphasizes the need for information on the antibiotic susceptibility of the organisms that infects such patients. Pseudomonas aeruginosa are becoming increasingly resistant to ...
Fluge, G; Ojeniyi, B; Høiby, N
OBJECTIVES: Typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from Norwegian cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic Pseudomonas lung infection in order to see whether cross-infection might have occurred. METHODS: Isolates from 60 patients were collected during the years 1994-98, and typed by pulsed...
Pratiwi Apridamayanti; Khairunnisa Azani Meilinasary; Rafika Sari
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients are at risk to have the diabetic ulcer. The main reason for DM’s patient with ulcer complication to be treated and healed in hospital is bacterial infection. One of many bacteria that infects diabetic ulcer is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This conditian can be treated by antibiotic. The using antibiotic is often inaccurate causing the microbe resistance. To choose the right antibiotic, it needs to test the antibiotic’s sensitivity towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The...
Schultz, Marc J.; Knapp, Sylvia; Florquin, Sandrine; Pater, Jennie; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Akira, Shizuo; van der Poll, Tom
Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a potent cytokine with many different proinflammatory activities. To study the role of IL-18 in the pathogenesis of Pseudomonas pneumonia, IL-18-deficient (IL-18(-/-)) and wild-type mice were intranasally inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. IL-18 deficiency was
Full Text Available Adaptation is likely to be an important determinant of the success of many pathogens, for example when colonizing a new host species, when challenged by antibiotic treatment, or in governing the establishment and progress of long-term chronic infection. Yet, the genomic basis of adaptation is poorly understood in general, and for pathogens in particular. We investigated the genetics of adaptation to cystic fibrosis-like culture conditions in the presence and absence of fluoroquinolone antibiotics using the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Whole-genome sequencing of experimentally evolved isolates revealed parallel evolution at a handful of known antibiotic resistance genes. While the level of antibiotic resistance was largely determined by these known resistance genes, the costs of resistance were instead attributable to a number of mutations that were specific to individual experimental isolates. Notably, stereotypical quinolone resistance mutations in DNA gyrase often co-occurred with other mutations that, together, conferred high levels of resistance but no consistent cost of resistance. This result may explain why these mutations are so prevalent in clinical quinolone-resistant isolates. In addition, genes involved in cyclic-di-GMP signalling were repeatedly mutated in populations evolved in viscous culture media, suggesting a shared mechanism of adaptation to this CF-like growth environment. Experimental evolutionary approaches to understanding pathogen adaptation should provide an important complement to studies of the evolution of clinical isolates.
Snesrud, Erik; Maybank, Rosslyn; Kwak, Yoon I; Jones, Anthony R; Hinkle, Mary K; Mc Gann, Patrick
Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of historical Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates identified a chromosomal copy of mcr-5 within a Tn 3 -like transposon in P. aeruginosa MRSN 12280. The isolate was non-susceptible to colistin by broth microdilution and genome analysis revealed no mutations known to confer colistin resistance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of mcr in colistin non-susceptible P. aeruginosa .
Full Text Available Background: A majority of the studies done on the western population have shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes many severe infections in patients with bronchiectasis as compared to other pathogens. There is scarcity of similar data from the Asian population. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was undertaken to identify the various pathogens isolated from the respiratory samples of 117 patients with bronchiectasis from south India and to compare the clinicomicrobiological profile of infections caused by P. aeruginosa and other respiratory pathogens. Results: The respiratory pathogens were isolated from 63 (53.8% patients. P. aeruginosa was the most common isolate (46.0% followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.3% and other pathogenic bacteria. Patients included in the P. aeruginosa group had a higher number of exacerbations (p: 0.008, greater number of hospital admissions (p: 0.007, a prolonged hospital stay (p: 0.03, and poor lung function, compared to the patients infected with the non-Pseudomonas group. Conclusion: It is necessary to investigate the etiology of respiratory tract infections among bronchiectasis patients followed by the prompt management of cases diagnosed with P. aeruginosa infections, so as to lower the morbidity and have a better prognosis.
Utari, Putri Dwi; Quax, Wim J.
The susceptibility of Caenorhabditis elegans to different virulent phenotypes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa makes the worms an excellent model for studying host-pathogen interactions. Including the recently described liquid killing, five different killing assays are now available offering superb
Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Dolce, Daniela; Madsen Sommer, Lea Mette
Chronic infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and a more complete understanding of P. aeruginosa within-host genomic evolution, transmission, and population genomics may provide a basis for improving intervention strate...
Yang, Liang; Liu, Yang; Sternberg, Claus
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen which is responsible for a wide range of infections. Production of virulence factors and biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa are partly regulated by cell-to-cell communication quorum-sensing systems. Identification of quorum-quenching reagents...... which block the quorum-sensing process can facilitate development of novel treatment strategies for P. aeruginosa infections. We have used molecular dynamics simulation and experimental studies to elucidate the efficiencies of two potential quorum-quenching reagents, triclosan and green tea...... epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which both function as inhibitors of the enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (ENR) from the bacterial type II fatty acid synthesis pathway. Our studies suggest that EGCG has a higher binding affinity towards ENR of P. aeruginosa and is an efficient quorum-quenching reagent...
Gilani, M.; Munir, T.; Latif, M.; Rehman, S.
To assess the in vitro efficacy of doripenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii using Epsilometer strips. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi and National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, from May 2014 to September 2014. Methodology: A total of 60 isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa collected from various clinical samples received from Military Hospital were included in the study. The specimens were inoculated onto blood, MacConkey and chocolate agars. The isolates were identified using Gram staining, motility, catalase test, oxidase test and API 20NE (Biomeriux, France). Organisms identified as Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were included in the study. Bacterial suspensions equivalent to 0.5 McFarland turbidity standard of the isolates were prepared and applied on Mueller Hinton agar. Epsilometer strip was placed in the center of the plate and incubated for 18-24 hours. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was taken to be the point where the epsilon intersected the E-strip. MIC of all the isolates was noted. Results: For Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, MIC50 was 12 micro g/mL and MIC90 was 32 micro g/mL. For Acinetobacter baumannii MIC 50 and MIC90 was 32 micro g/mL. Conclusion: Doripenem is no more effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii in our setting. (author)
Abbas, S.H.; Khan, M.Z.U.; Naeem, M.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a highly virulent opportunistic pathogen and a leading cause of nosocomial infections.Affected patients are often hospitalized in an intensive care unit, and are immuno-compromised as a result of disease and treatment. Suspected P. aeruginosa require timely, adequate and empirical antibiotic therapy to ensure improved outcomes. The purpose of the study was to find the sensitivity and resistance pattern of P. aeruginosa to various groups of drugs, in clinical isolates collected from two major tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar. Methods: Different clinical isolate were taken from patients admitted in various wards of Khyber Teaching Hospital and Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar. Results: A total of 258 clinical isolates were positive for P. aeruginosa out of 2058 clinical isolates. Pseudomonas showed high degree of resistance to third generation Cephalosporins (Ceftazidime, and Ceftriaxone) and moderate degree of resistance to Quinolones and Aminoglycosides (Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin and Amikacin). Low resistance was observed to different combinations (Cefoperazone + Sulbactum, Piperacillin + Tazobactum). Meropenem and Imipenem had negligible resistance. Conclusion: There is growing resistance to different classes of antibiotics. Combination drugs are useful approach for empirical treatment in suspected Pseudomonas infection. Imipenem and Meropenem are extremely effective but should be in reserve. (author)
Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Kirketerp-Møller, K.; Kristiansen, S.
bacteria in both the planktonic and biofilm modes of growth. The action of silver on mature in vitro biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a primary pathogen of chronic infected wounds, was investigated. The results show that silver is very effective against mature biofilms of P. aeruginosa......, but that the silver concentration is important. A concentration of 5-10 ig/mL silver sulfadiazine eradicated the biofilm whereas a lower concentration (1 ig/mL) had no effect. The bactericidal concentration of silver required to eradicate the bacterial biofilm was 10-100 times higher than that used to eradicate...... planktonic bacteria. These observations strongly indicate that the concentration of silver in currently available wound dressings is much too low for treatment of chronic biofilm wounds. It is suggested that clinicians and manufacturers of the said wound dressings consider whether they are treating wounds...
Yang, Liang; Hengzhuang, Wang; Wu, Hong
Chronic lung infection by mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major pathologic features in patients with cystic fibrosis. Mucoid P. aeruginosa is notorious for its biofilm forming capability and resistance to immune attacks. In this study, the roles of extracellular polymeric substances f...
J. L. Aguilar Salinas
Full Text Available The photocatalytic activity of semiconductors is increasingly being used to disinfect water, air, soils, and surfaces. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 is widely used as a photocatalyst in thin films, powder, and in mixtures with other semiconductors or metals. This work presents the antibacterial effects of TiO2 and light exposure (at 365 nm on Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. TiO2 powder was prepared from a mixture of titanium isopropoxide, ethanol, and nitric acid using a green and short time sol-gel technique. The obtained gel annealed at 450°C was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The nanocomposite effectively catalyzed the inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Following 90 minutes exposure to TiO2 and UV light, logarithm of cell density was reduced from 6 to 3. These results were confirmed by a factorial design incorporating two experimental replicates and two independent factors.
Moore, B A; Jevons, S; Brammer, K W
Peptidoglycan transpeptidase activity has been studied in cells of Escherichia coli 146 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 56 made permeable to exogenous, nucleotide-sugar peptidoglycan precursors by ether treatment. Transpeptidase activity was inhibited, in both organisms, by a range of penicillins and cephalosporins, the Pseudomonas enzyme being more sensitive to inhibition in each case. Conversely, growth of E. coli 146 was more susceptible to these antibiotics than growth of P. aeruginosa 56. Furthermore, similar transpeptidase inhibition values were ob-obtained for the four penicillins examined against the Pseudomonas enzyme, although only two of these (carbenicillin and pirbenicillin) inhibited the growth of this organism. We therefore conclude that the high resistance of P. aeruginosa 56 to growth inhibition by most beta-lactam antibiotics cannot be due to an insensitive peptidoglycan transpeptidase.
Kominos, Spyros D.; Copeland, Charles E.; Grosiak, Barbara; Postic, Bosko
Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from tomatoes, radishes, celery, carrots, endive, cabbage, cucumbers, onions, and lettuce obtained from the kitchen of a general hospital, with tomatoes yielding both highest frequencies of isolation and highest counts. Presence of P. aeruginosa on the hands of kitchen personnel and cutting boards and knives which they used suggests acquisition of the organism through contact with these vegetables. It is estimated that a patient consuming an average portion of tomato salad might ingest as many as 5 × 103 colony-forming units of P. aeruginosa. Pyocine types of P. aeruginosa isolated from clinical specimens were frequently identical to those recovered from vegetables, thus implicating tomatoes and other vegetables as an important source and vehicle by which P. aeruginosa colonizes the intestinal tract of patients. PMID:4628795
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The practice of immersion in burn patient has been abandoned in many parts of the world but in Brazil it is still common. The aim of this study was to ascertain if balneotherapy is a risk factor for Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in thermally injured patients. Eighteen patients from a Burn Center were studied for 14 weeks for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Samples were collected by swabbing the exudate of wounds, before and after giving bath to the patients and from balneotherapy table. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to determine bacterial genetic relatedness. Thirty-seven P. aeruginosa isolates were detected from 292 swabs collected from patients' burn surface area and from the balneotherapy table. Profile analysis of P. aeruginosa DNA fragmentation showed 10 clones among the 37 strains analyzed. Type A is the most prevalent clone, with 23 strains distributed into eight subtypes. These were present in the swabs collected, before and after the patients' bath, from the surface of the bath table, suggesting that there was cross-contamination between the patients in different ways. This work demonstrates that balneotherapy is a risk factor in the Burn Center studied, because the same clone was found among P. aeruginosa isolates collected at various points and times.
Rahmat Sayyid Zharfan
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the main cause of nosocomial infection which is responsible for 10% of hospital-acquired infection. Pseudomonas aeruginosa tends to mutate and displays potential for development of antibiotic resistance. Approximately, 10% of global bacterial isolates are found as Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pseudomonas aeruginosa have a quite tremendous severity index, especially on pneumonia and urinary tract infections, even sepsis, which 50% mortality rate. Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr has antimicrobial properties. The active antimicrobial compounds in Ananas comosus L. Merr include saponin and bromelain. This research aims to find the potency of antimicrobial effect of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr extract towards Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa specimen is obtained from patient’s pus in orthopaedic department, Dr Soetomo Public Hospital, Surabaya. Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa specimen is resistant to all antibiotic agents except cefoperazone-sulbactam. This research is conducted by measuring the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC through dilution test with Mueller-Hinton broth medium. Pineapple extract (Ananas comosus L. Merr. is dissolved in aquadest, then poured into test tube at varying concentrations (6 g/ml; 3 g/ml; 1.5 g/ml; 0.75 g/ml, 0.375 g/ml; and 0.1875 g/ml. After 24 hours’ incubation, samples are plated onto nutrient agar plate, to determine the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC. The extract of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr has antimicrobial activities against Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC could not be determined, because turbidity changes were not seen. The Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC of pineapple extract (Ananas comosus L. Merr to Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is 0.75 g/ml. Further study of in vivo is needed.
Tramper-Stranders, G.A.; Ent, C.K. van der; Wolfs, T.F.
the other groups. A group of clonal isolates was observed among patients from the CF-chronic and CF-1 groups. These or different clonal isolates were not encountered among the three other patient groups. No characteristic resistance pattern could be identified among isolates from the distinct patient groups......Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogen that often infects patients who are either immunocompromised or have local defects in host defences. It is known that cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are sometimes infected with certain clonal isolates. It is not clear whether these clonal isolates also infect non......-CF patients and whether clonality of isolates occurs in other patient groups. The aim of this study was to investigate P. aeruginosa diversity and the occurrence of clones within five distinct paediatric patient groups susceptible to P. aeruginosa infection. P. aeruginosa isolates were cultured from 157...
Pederick, Victoria G.; Eijkelkamp, Bart A.; Ween, Miranda P.; Begg, Stephanie L.; Paton, James C.
In microaerophilic or anaerobic environments, Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes nitrate reduction for energy production, a process dependent on the availability of the oxyanionic form of molybdenum, molybdate (MoO42−). Here, we show that molybdate acquisition in P. aeruginosa occurs via a high-affinity ATP-binding cassette permease (ModABC). ModA is a cluster D-III solute binding protein capable of interacting with molybdate or tungstate oxyanions. Deletion of the modA gene reduces cellular molybdate concentrations and results in inhibition of anaerobic growth and nitrate reduction. Further, we show that conditions that permit nitrate reduction also cause inhibition of biofilm formation and an alteration in fatty acid composition of P. aeruginosa. Collectively, these data highlight the importance of molybdate for anaerobic growth of P. aeruginosa and reveal novel consequences of nitrate reduction on biofilm formation and cell membrane composition. PMID:25172858
COPYRIGHT 2014. AFR. J. CLN. EXPER. .... Effective management of P. aeruginosa infections requires good ... a guide for doctors managing patients with. Pseudomonas .... Principles and practice of infectious diseases.5th edition. Edited by ...
Schneider, Henriette; Geginat, Gernot; Hogardt, Michael; Kramer, Alexandra; Dürken, Matthias; Schroten, Horst; Tenenbaum, Tobias
We analyzed an outbreak of invasive infections with an exotoxin U positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain within a pediatric oncology care unit. Environmental sampling and molecular characterization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains led to identification of the outbreak source. An errant water jet into the sink within patient rooms was observed. Optimized outbreak management resulted in an abundance of further Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections within the pediatric oncology care unit.
Mary E. Peek
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common pathogen that persists in the cystic fibrosis lungs. Bacteria such as P. aeruginosa secrete siderophores (iron-chelating molecules and the host limits bacterial growth by producing neutrophil-gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL that specifically scavenges bacterial siderophores, therefore preventing bacteria from establishing infection. P. aeruginosa produces a major siderophore known as pyoverdine, found to be important for bacterial virulence and biofilm development. We report that pyoverdine did not bind to NGAL, as measured by tryptophan fluorescence quenching, while enterobactin bound to NGAL effectively causing a strong response. The experimental data indicate that pyoverdine evades NGAL recognition. We then employed a molecular modeling approach to simulate the binding of pyoverdine to human NGAL using NGAL’s published crystal structures. The docking of pyoverdine to NGAL predicted nine different docking positions; however, neither apo- nor ferric forms of pyoverdine docked into the ligand-binding site in the calyx of NGAL where siderophores are known to bind. The molecular modeling results offer structural support that pyoverdine does not bind to NGAL, confirming the results obtained in the tryptophan quenching assay. The data suggest that pyoverdine is a stealth siderophore that evades NGAL recognition allowing P. aeruginosa to establish chronic infections in CF lungs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dihydrolinalool and terpineol are sources of fragrances that provide a unique volatile terpenoid alcohol of low toxicity and thus are widely used in the perfumery industry, in folk medicine, and in aromatherapy. They are important chemical constituents of the essential oil of many plants. Previous studies have concerned the biotransformation of limonene by Pseudomonas putida. The objective of this research was to study biotransformation of myrcene by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The culture preparation was done using such variables as different microbial methods and incubation periods to obtain maximum cells of P. aeruginosa for myrcene biotransformation. Results It was found that myrcene was converted to dihydrolinalool and 2,6-dimethyloctane in high percentages. The biotransformation products were identified by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, ultraviolet (UV analysis, gas chromatography (GC, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Comparison of the different incubation times showed that 3 days was more effective, the major products being 2,6-dimethyloctane (90.0% and α-terpineol (7.7% and comprising 97.7%. In contrast, the main compounds derived for an incubation time of 1.5 days were dihydrolinalool (79.5% and 2,6-dimethyloctane (9.3%, with a total yield of 88.8%.
Janssen, Dick B.; Camp, Huub J.M. op den; Leenen, Pieter J.M.; Drift, Chris van der
Glutamine synthetase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is regulated by repression/derepression of enzyme synthesis and by adenylylation/deadenylylation control. High levels of deadenylylated biosynthetically active glutamine synthetase were observed in cultures growing with limiting amounts of nitrogen
Wu, Hong; Lee, Baoleri; Yang, Liang
protected animal models from developing chronic lung infection by P. aeruginosa. In the present study, the effects of ginseng on the formation of P. aeruginosa biofilms were further investigated in vitro and in vivo. Ginseng aqueous extract at concentrations of 0.5-2.0% did not inhibit the growth of P......Biofilm-associated chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis are virtually impossible to eradicate with antibiotics because biofilm-growing bacteria are highly tolerant to antibiotics and host defense mechanisms. Previously, we found that ginseng treatments....... aeruginosa, but significantly prevented P. aeruginosa from forming biofilm. Exposure to 0.5% ginseng aqueous extract for 24 h destroyed most 7-day-old mature biofilms formed by both mucoid and nonmucoid P. aeruginosa strains. Ginseng treatment enhanced swimming and twitching motility, but reduced swarming...
Uptake of heavy metals, silver and cadmium by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a Gram negative bacterium) and Micrococcus luteus (a Gram positive bacterium) was investigated in Cadmium and Silver stock solution using ion selective electrodes. Silver and cadmium uptake by the two organisms was described by Langmuir ...
Bosire, Erick M; Blank, Lars M; Rosenbaum, Miriam A
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important, thriving member of microbial communities of microbial bioelectrochemical systems (BES) through the production of versatile phenazine redox mediators. Pure culture experiments with a model strain revealed synergistic interactions of P. aeruginosa with fermenting microorganisms whereby the synergism was mediated through the shared fermentation product 2,3-butanediol. Our work here shows that the behavior and efficiency of P. aeruginosa in mediated current production is strongly dependent on the strain of P. aeruginosa We compared levels of phenazine production by the previously investigated model strain P. aeruginosa PA14, the alternative model strain P. aeruginosa PAO1, and the BES isolate Pseudomonas sp. strain KRP1 with glucose and the fermentation products 2,3-butanediol and ethanol as carbon substrates. We found significant differences in substrate-dependent phenazine production and resulting anodic current generation for the three strains, with the BES isolate KRP1 being overall the best current producer and showing the highest electrochemical activity with glucose as a substrate (19 μA cm(-2) with ∼150 μg ml(-1) phenazine carboxylic acid as a redox mediator). Surprisingly, P. aeruginosa PAO1 showed very low phenazine production and electrochemical activity under all tested conditions. Microbial fuel cells and other microbial bioelectrochemical systems hold great promise for environmental technologies such as wastewater treatment and bioremediation. While there is much emphasis on the development of materials and devices to realize such systems, the investigation and a deeper understanding of the underlying microbiology and ecology are lagging behind. Physiological investigations focus on microorganisms exhibiting direct electron transfer in pure culture systems. Meanwhile, mediated electron transfer with natural redox compounds produced by, for example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa might enable an entire microbial
Lange, K H; Hougen, H P; Høiby, N
In a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection mimicking cystic fibrosis, we investigated the possibility of preventing chronic lung inflammation or decreasing the progression of the infection. We compared the lethality, pathology, bacterial clearance, and immunogenicity after...... with either E. coli LPS or P. aeruginosa sonicate. Four and two weeks prior to challenge other rats were vaccinated with either E. coli LPS or P. aeruginosa sonicate. Controls did not receive any stimulation or vaccination. The lethality after challenge was lower in rats stimulated with E. coli LPS (p = 0...... but not to prevent the chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection and inflammation caused by alginate-embedded bacteria....
Rybtke, Morten T; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Høiby, Niels
Biofilm formation by bacteria is recognized as a major problem in chronic infections due to their recalcitrance against the immune defense and available antibiotic treatment schemes. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has drawn special attention in this regard due to its severity o...... treatment strategies where the underlying targets are less prone for resistance development as bacteria, in retrospect, have a unique ability to evade the actions of classic antibiotics.......Biofilm formation by bacteria is recognized as a major problem in chronic infections due to their recalcitrance against the immune defense and available antibiotic treatment schemes. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has drawn special attention in this regard due to its severity......-up of the extracellular matrix encasing the biofilm-associated bacteria as well as the elaborate signaling mechanisms employed by the bacterium enables it to withstand the continuous stresses imposed by the immune defense and administered antibiotics resulting in a state of chronic inflammation that damages the host...
Alessandra Lo Sciuto
Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most dreaded pathogens in the hospital setting, and represents a prototype of multi-drug resistant "superbug" for which effective therapeutic options are very limited. The identification and characterization of new cellular functions that are essential for P. aeruginosa viability and/or virulence could drive the development of anti-Pseudomonas compounds with novel mechanisms of action. In this study we investigated whether TolB, the periplasmic component of the Tol-Pal trans-envelope protein complex of Gram-negative bacteria, represents a potential drug target in P. aeruginosa. By combining conditional mutagenesis with the analysis of specific pathogenicity-related phenotypes, we demonstrated that TolB is essential for P. aeruginosa growth, both in laboratory and clinical strains, and that TolB-depleted P. aeruginosa cells are strongly defective in cell-envelope integrity, resistance to human serum and several antibiotics, as well as in the ability to cause infection and persist in an insect model of P. aeruginosa infection. The essentiality of TolB for P. aeruginosa growth, resistance and pathogenicity highlights the potential of TolB as a novel molecular target for anti-P. aeruginosa drug discovery.
Full Text Available A rhamnolipid producing bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from contaminated soil with oily wastes. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown with glucose and corn oil as a carbon source produced bio-surfactant. This biosurfactant was purified by procedures that included chloroform-ethanol extraction and 0.05M bicarbonate treatments. The active compound was identified as rhamnolipid by using thin layer chromatography. The emulsification activity of bio-surfactant, the coconut oil responded better than the olive oil, groundnut oil and sunflower oil and gave a maximum level of 1 cm.
Høiby, Niels; Ciofu, Oana; Bjarnsholt, Thomas
The persistence of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is due to biofilm-growing mucoid (alginate-producing) strains. A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria, embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein...... and DNA. In CF lungs, the polysaccharide alginate is the major part of the P. aeruginosa biofilm matrix. Bacterial biofilms cause chronic infections because they show increased tolerance to antibiotics and resist phagocytosis, as well as other components of the innate and the adaptive immune system....... As a consequence, a pronounced antibody response develops, leading to immune complex-mediated chronic inflammation, dominated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The chronic inflammation is the major cause of the lung tissue damage in CF. Biofilm growth in CF lungs is associated with an increased frequency...
Moffie, B G; Hoogeterp, J J; Lim, T; Douwes-Idema, A E; Mattie, H
The activity of netilmicin and tobramycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed in vitro in the presence of constant and exponentially declining concentrations, and in mice in an experimental thigh infection. The activity in vitro at constant concentrations was expressed as the maximal killing rate (ER) during 3 h of exposure. On the basis of the quantitative relation between E(R) and the drug concentration, the numbers of cfu expected at consecutive times, at constant as well as at declining concentrations, were predicted. The relationship between observed numbers and predicted values of ERt were similar under both conditions for both drugs. On the same basis the numbers of cfu expected in the experimental thigh infection were predicted. There was indeed a significant linear relationship between observed numbers of cfu in homogenized muscle and the values predicted on the basis of the pharmacokinetics of the aminoglycosides, but the slope of this relationship was only 0.22. There was no difference in this respect between the two antibiotics. It is concluded that the efficacy of netilmicin and tobramycin against P. aeruginosa is considerably less in vivo than in vitro, but the relation is about the same for the two drugs; therefore the slightly higher activity of tobramycin in vitro is relevant in the in-vivo situation.
Full Text Available The airways of cystic fibrosis (CF patients have thick mucus, which fosters chronic, polymicrobial infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are two of the most prevalent respiratory pathogens in CF patients. In this study, we tested whether P. aeruginosa influences the susceptibility of S. aureus to frontline antibiotics used to treat CF lung infections. Using our in vitro coculture model, we observed that addition of P. aeruginosa supernatants to S. aureus biofilms grown either on epithelial cells or on plastic significantly decreased the susceptibility of S. aureus to vancomycin. Mutant analyses showed that 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO, a component of the P. aeruginosa Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS system, protects S. aureus from the antimicrobial activity of vancomycin. Similarly, the siderophores pyoverdine and pyochelin also contribute to the ability of P. aeruginosa to protect S. aureus from vancomycin, as did growth under anoxia. Under our experimental conditions, HQNO, P. aeruginosa supernatant, and growth under anoxia decreased S. aureus growth, likely explaining why this cell wall-targeting antibiotic is less effective. P. aeruginosa supernatant did not confer additional protection to slow-growing S. aureus small colony variants. Importantly, P. aeruginosa supernatant protects S. aureus from other inhibitors of cell wall synthesis as well as protein synthesis-targeting antibiotics in an HQNO- and siderophore-dependent manner. We propose a model whereby P. aeruginosa causes S. aureus to shift to fermentative growth when these organisms are grown in coculture, leading to reduction in S. aureus growth and decreased susceptibility to antibiotics targeting cell wall and protein synthesis.
Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of cefepime in the treatment of experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa endophthalmitis. We compared the findings with the standard dose of ceftazidime (1 mg/0.1 ml. Thirty-six New-Zealand White rabbits were divided into 6 equal groups and were treated with different methods (Group 1 = sham, Group 2 = 0.5 mg/0.1 ml cefepime, Group 3 = 1 mg/0.1 ml cefepime, Group 4 = 2 mg/0.1 ml cefepime, Group 5 = 1 mg/0.1 ml ceftazidime, Group 6 = control. The eyes of rabbits in each group were examined clinically on 1 st , 3 rd , and 6 th day of the experiment. At 6 th day, 0.1 ml vitreous humor aspirates were obtained and plated for quantification on the blood agar and the results were expressed as colony-forming unit/ml. Subsequently, the eyeballs were enucleated and the histopathological evaluation was performed. Our findings denoted beneficial effects of cefepime in treatment groups (especially, in Groups 3 and 4. Intravitreal cefepime may be an alternative drug in the treatment of P. aeruginosa endophthalmitis.
Kalpana Badami Nagaraj
Full Text Available A 65-year-old male presented with decreased vision in the left eye of 15-day duration after having undergone an uneventful cataract surgery 10 months back. He had been previously treated with systemic steroids for recurrent uveitis postoperatively on three occasions in the same eye. B-scan ultrasonography showed multiple clumplike echoes suggestive of vitreous inflammation. Aqueous tap revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa sensitive to ciprofloxacin. The patient was treated with intravitreal ciprofloxacin and vancomycin along with systemic ciprofloxacin with good clinical response. Even a virulent organism such as P.aeruginosa can present as a chronic uveitis, which, if missed, can lead to a delay in accurate diagnosis and appropriate management.
Mateos, I; Valencia, R; Torres, M J; Cantos, A; Conde, M; Aznar, J
We describe an outbreak of nosocomial endophthalmitis due to a common source, which was determined to be trypan blue solution prepared in the hospital's pharmacy service. We assume that viable bacteria probably gained access to the trypan blue stock solution during cooling after autoclaving. The temporal cluster of Pseudomonas aeruginosa endophthalmitis was readily perceived on the basis of clinical and microbiological findings, and an exogenous source of contamination was unequivocally identified by means of DNA fingerprinting.
Martínez Martínez, Luis
En 1882 Gessard aisló por primera vez Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Bacillus pyoceaneus) de muestras procedentes de heridas quirúrgicas. Hasta 1947 sólo se conocían 91 casos de bacteriemia por este microorganismo, pero en la década actual, cien años después de su descripción, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ha pasado a ser un microorganismo de creciente interés en patología humana debido a su estrecha relación con enfermos inmun...
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 produces three polysaccharides, alginate, Psl and Pel that play distinct roles in attachment and biofilm formation for monospecies biofilms. Considerably less is known about their role in the development of mixed species biofilm communities. This study has investigated the roles of alginate, Psl and Pel during biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa in a defined and experimentally informative mixed species biofilm community, consisting of P. aeruginosa, Pseudomonas protegens and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Loss of the Psl polysaccharide had the biggest impact on the integration of P. aeruginosa in the mixed species biofilms, where the percent composition of the psl mutant was significantly lower (0.06% than its wild-type parent (2.44%. In contrast, loss of the Pel polysaccharide had no impact on mixed species biofilm development. Loss of alginate or its overproduction resulted in P. aeruginosa representing 8.4% and 18.11%, respectively, of the mixed species biofilm. Dual species biofilms of P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae were not affected by loss of alginate, Pel or Psl, while the mucoid P. aeruginosa strain achieved a greater biomass than its parent strain. When P. aeruginosa was grown with P. protegens, loss of the Pel or alginate polysaccharides resulted in biofilms that were not significantly different from biofilms formed by the wild-type PAO1. In contrast, overproduction of alginate resulted in biofilms that were comprised of 35-40% of P. aeruginosa, which was significantly higher than the wild-type (5-20%. Loss of the Psl polysaccharide significantly reduced the percentage composition of P. aeruginosa in dual species biofilms with P. protegens (<1%. Loss of the Psl polysaccharide significantly disrupted the communal stress resistance of the three species biofilms. Thus, the polysaccharide composition of an individual species significantly impacts mixed species biofilm development and the emergent properties of such
Full Text Available One of the most striking features of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is its outstanding capacity for developing antimicrobial resistance to nearly all available antipseudomonal agents through the selection of chromosomal mutations, leading to the failure of the treatment of severe hospital-acquired or chronic infections. Recent whole-genome sequencing (WGS data obtained from in vitro assays on the evolution of antibiotic resistance, in vivo monitoring of antimicrobial resistance development, analysis of sequential cystic fibrosis isolates, and characterization of widespread epidemic high-risk clones have provided new insights into the evolutionary dynamics and mechanisms of P. aeruginosa antibiotic resistance, thus motivating this review. Indeed, the analysis of the WGS mutational resistome has proven to be useful for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of classical resistance pathways and to describe new mechanisms for the majority of antipseudomonal classes, including β-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, or polymixins. Beyond addressing a relevant scientific question, the analysis of the P. aeruginosa mutational resistome is expected to be useful, together with the analysis of the horizontally-acquired resistance determinants, for establishing the antibiotic resistance genotype, which should correlate with the antibiotic resistance phenotype and as such, it should be useful for the design of therapeutic strategies and for monitoring the efficacy of administered antibiotic treatments. However, further experimental research and new bioinformatics tools are still needed to overcome the interpretation limitations imposed by the complex interactions (including those leading to collateral resistance or susceptibility between the 100s of genes involved in the mutational resistome, as well as the frequent difficulties for differentiating relevant mutations from simple natural polymorphisms.
López-Causapé, Carla; Cabot, Gabriel; Del Barrio-Tofiño, Ester; Oliver, Antonio
One of the most striking features of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is its outstanding capacity for developing antimicrobial resistance to nearly all available antipseudomonal agents through the selection of chromosomal mutations, leading to the failure of the treatment of severe hospital-acquired or chronic infections. Recent whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data obtained from in vitro assays on the evolution of antibiotic resistance, in vivo monitoring of antimicrobial resistance development, analysis of sequential cystic fibrosis isolates, and characterization of widespread epidemic high-risk clones have provided new insights into the evolutionary dynamics and mechanisms of P. aeruginosa antibiotic resistance, thus motivating this review. Indeed, the analysis of the WGS mutational resistome has proven to be useful for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of classical resistance pathways and to describe new mechanisms for the majority of antipseudomonal classes, including β-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, or polymixins. Beyond addressing a relevant scientific question, the analysis of the P. aeruginosa mutational resistome is expected to be useful, together with the analysis of the horizontally-acquired resistance determinants, for establishing the antibiotic resistance genotype, which should correlate with the antibiotic resistance phenotype and as such, it should be useful for the design of therapeutic strategies and for monitoring the efficacy of administered antibiotic treatments. However, further experimental research and new bioinformatics tools are still needed to overcome the interpretation limitations imposed by the complex interactions (including those leading to collateral resistance or susceptibility) between the 100s of genes involved in the mutational resistome, as well as the frequent difficulties for differentiating relevant mutations from simple natural polymorphisms.
Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P.; Gilmore, Brendan F.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are the most prevalent Gram-negative biofilm forming medical device associated pathogens, particularly with respect to catheter associated urinary tract infections. In a similar manner to Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative biofilm formation is fundamentally determined by a series of steps outlined more fully in this review, namely adhesion, cellular aggregation, and the production of an extracellular polymeric matrix. More specifically this review will explore the biosynthesis and role of pili and flagella in Gram-negative adhesion and accumulation on surfaces in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The process of biofilm maturation is compared and contrasted in both species, namely the production of the exopolysaccharides via the polysaccharide synthesis locus (Psl), pellicle Formation (Pel) and alginic acid synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose and colonic acid synthesis in Escherichia coli. An emphasis is placed on the importance of the LuxR homologue sdiA; the luxS/autoinducer-II; an autoinducer-III/epinephrine/norepinephrine and indole mediated Quorum sensing systems in enabling Gram-negative bacteria to adapt to their environments. The majority of Gram-negative biofilms consist of polysaccharides of a simple sugar structure (either homo- or heteropolysaccharides) that provide an optimum environment for the survival and maturation of bacteria, allowing them to display increased resistance to antibiotics and predation. PMID:25438014
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are the most prevalent Gram-negative biofilm forming medical device associated pathogens, particularly with respect to catheter associated urinary tract infections. In a similar manner to Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative biofilm formation is fundamentally determined by a series of steps outlined more fully in this review, namely adhesion, cellular aggregation, and the production of an extracellular polymeric matrix. More specifically this review will explore the biosynthesis and role of pili and flagella in Gram-negative adhesion and accumulation on surfaces in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The process of biofilm maturation is compared and contrasted in both species, namely the production of the exopolysaccharides via the polysaccharide synthesis locus (Psl, pellicle Formation (Pel and alginic acid synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose and colonic acid synthesis in Escherichia coli. An emphasis is placed on the importance of the LuxR homologue sdiA; the luxS/autoinducer-II; an autoinducer-III/epinephrine/norepinephrine and indole mediated Quorum sensing systems in enabling Gram-negative bacteria to adapt to their environments. The majority of Gram-negative biofilms consist of polysaccharides of a simple sugar structure (either homo- or heteropolysaccharides that provide an optimum environment for the survival and maturation of bacteria, allowing them to display increased resistance to antibiotics and predation.
RESEARCH ARTICLE Biofilm Formation Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Predicted via Genome-Scale Kinetic Models of Bacterial Metabolism Francisco G...email@example.com Abstract A hallmark of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is its ability to establish biofilm -based infections that are difficult to...eradicate. Biofilms are less susceptible to host inflammatory and immune responses and have higher antibiotic tolerance than free-living planktonic
Ghosal, Anubrata; Nielsen, Peter E
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen causing severe infections in hospital settings, especially with immune compromised patients, and the increasing prevalence of multidrug resistant strains urges search for new drugs with novel mechanisms of action. In this study we introduce...... significantly reduced bacterial survival. These results open the possibility of development of antisense antibacterials for treatment of Pseudomonas infections....
Sara C. Esnard
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa, patógeno gramnegativo versátil y oportunista debido a su gran adaptabilidad fisiológica, potencial metabólico y mecanismos de virulencia, es causa frecuente a escala mundial de severas o letales infecciones en pacientes hospitalizados. El empeño por lograr terapias alternativas para prevenir o combatir las infecciones producidas por P. aeruginosa ha ocupado a investigadores de todo el mundo desde la segunda mitad del pasado siglo y actualmente se continúan reportando trabajos que respaldan los ensayos de candidatos vacunales, fundamentalmente a partir de antígenos proteicos, mayoritariamente basados en la construcción de vacunas recombinantes. En este artículo se presenta una revisión de trabajos publicados sobre las investigaciones desarrolladas en diferentes países, con el objetivo de obtener candidatos vacunales para la prevención o tratamiento de las infecciones causadas por Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a partir de la década de los años 50 del siglo XX hasta el 2003.
Hansen, C.R.; Pressler, T.; Høiby, Niels
BACKGROUND: Since 1989, CF-patients intermittently colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been treated with inhaled colistin and oral ciprofloxacin in the Copenhagen CF-centre. The study evaluates 15 years results of this treatment. METHODS: All isolates of P. aeruginosa from CF-patients inte......BACKGROUND: Since 1989, CF-patients intermittently colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been treated with inhaled colistin and oral ciprofloxacin in the Copenhagen CF-centre. The study evaluates 15 years results of this treatment. METHODS: All isolates of P. aeruginosa from CF......-patients intermittently colonized with P. aeruginosa from 1989 to 2003 were identified All anti-P. aeruginosa treatments were evaluated for antibiotics used, treatment duration, pseudomonas-free interval and development of chronic infection. All P. aeruginosa isolates were assessed for resistance and for non......-mucoid or mucoid phenotype. RESULTS: 146 CF-patients were included in the study (1106 patient-years). 99 patients had first ever isolate during the study period. Median observation time 7 years (0.1-14.9). 12 patients developed chronic infection. A Kaplan Meyer plot showed protection from chronic infection in up...
Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a known opportunistic pathogen frequently causing serious infections. It exhibits innate resistance to a wide range of antibiotics thus causing high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Objective: This study was done to determine the distribution and the antibiotic susceptibility ...
Eltablawy, S.Y.; Elhifnawi, H.N.
The antimicrobial activity and other medical benefits of garlic oil have been attributed to the presence of sulphides in it. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a multidrug resistance opportunistic human pathogen that infect many patients .To control these infections, there is a need for other agents with greater antimicrobial activity and less toxicity. In this study, the effect of irradiated and non-irradiated garlic oil has been evaluated. The irradiation of garlic oil at 10.0 kGy decreased slightly its antibacterial activity against the tested Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results revealed that there was no effect of garlic oil either irradiated or non-irradiated on the adherent cells formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa tested organism on tissue culture plate. Garlic oil (irradiated or nonirradiated) was administrated subcutaneously as treatment for a mouse infection model. Bacteriological examination and mortality rate were used as indicators. The treatment with non-irradiated garlic oil decreased the number of bacteria in the infected group in contrast with the placebo group (saline), while, irradiation of garlic oil with 10.0 kGy had no effect on the infected bacteria. Also, the results indicated that, the treatment with non-irradiated garlic oil decreased the mortality in comparison with irradiated garlic oil which did not show any effect. Scanning electron microscopy study revealed that there were morphological changes in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa treated with non- irradiated garlic oil in comparison with untreated one
Webb, J.S.; Thompson, L.S.; James, S.
Bacteria growing in biofilms often develop multicellular, three-dimensional structures known as microcolonies. Complex differentiation within biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, leading to the creation of voids inside microcolonies and to the dispersal of cells from within these voids....... However, key developmental processes regulating these events are poorly understood. A normal component of multicellular development is cell death. Here we report that a repeatable pattern of cell death and lysis occurs in biofilms of P. aeruginosa during the normal course of development. Cell death...... occurred with temporal and spatial organization within biofilms, inside microcolonies, when the biofilms were allowed to develop in continuous-culture flow cells. A subpopulation of viable cells was always observed in these regions. During the onset of biofilm killing and during biofilm development...
Jørgensen, Karin Meinike; Wassermann, Tina; Johansen, Helle Krogh
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the dominant pathogen infecting the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. During the intermittent colonization phase, P. aeruginosa resembles environmental strains but later evolves to the chronic adapted phenotype characterized by resistance to antibiotics and mutat......Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the dominant pathogen infecting the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. During the intermittent colonization phase, P. aeruginosa resembles environmental strains but later evolves to the chronic adapted phenotype characterized by resistance to antibiotics...
Gilbertsen, Adam; Williams, Bryan
Agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, is an important intermediary in polyamine production for many prokaryotes, but serves higher functions in eukaryotes such as nitric oxide inhibition and roles in neurotransmission. Pseudomonas aeruginosa relies on the arginine decarboxylase and agmatine deiminase pathways to convert arginine into putrescine. One of the two known agmatine deiminase operons, aguBA, contains an agmatine sensitive TetR promoter controlled by AguR. We have discovered that this pr...
Folders, J. (Jindra); Algra, J. (Jon); Roelofs, M.S. (Marc); Loon, L.C. van; Tommassen, J.P.M.; Bitter, Wilbert
The gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes many proteins into its extracellular environment via the type I, II, and III secretion systems. In this study, a gene, chiC, coding for an extracellular chitinolytic enzyme, was identified. The chiC gene encodes a polypeptide of 483 amino
Bacteria in natural, industrial and clinical settings predominantly live in biofilms, i.e., sessile structured microbial communities encased in self-produced extracellular matrix material. One of the most important characteristics of microbial biofilms is that the resident bacteria display...... a remarkable increased tolerance toward antimicrobial attack. Biofilms formed by opportunistic pathogenic bacteria are involved in devastating persistent medical device-associated infections, and chronic infections in individuals who are immune-compromised or otherwise impaired in the host defense. Because...... the use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...
Maděrová, Z.; Horská, K.; Kim, S.-R.; Lee, Ch.-H.; Pospíšková, K.; Šafaříková, Miroslava; Šafařík, Ivo
Roč. 73, č. 9 (2016), s. 2143-2149 ISSN 0273-1223 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biofilm * food waste materials * magnetic spent grain * Pseudomonas aeruginosa Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.197, year: 2016
Fong, Stephanie A.; Drilling, Amanda; Morales, Sandra; Cornet, Marjolein E.; Woodworth, Bradford A.; Fokkens, Wytske J.; Psaltis, Alkis J.; Vreugde, Sarah; Wormald, Peter-John
Introduction:Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are prevalent amongst chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) sufferers. Many P. aeruginosa strains form biofilms, leading to treatment failure. Lytic bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that infect, replicate within, and lyse bacteria, causing bacterial death.
ZirakFaqe Ahmed Abdulrahman
This study concerned with the isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from various clinical cases in human which include (burn, wound and urine) that admitted to Emergency hospital and internal lab of teaching hospital in Erbil city. Forty isolates of P. aeruginosa from out of 120 samples were identified by using cultured, morphological and biochemical tests in addition to vitek machine. According to the resistance of the isolates to these antibiotics they showed variation in their resistance; th...
Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Høiby, Niels
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the best described bacterium with regards to quorum sensing (QS), in vitro biofilm formation and the development of antibiotic tolerance. Biofilms composed of P. aeruginosa are thought to be the underlying cause of many chronic infections, including those in wounds...... and in the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis. In this review, we provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in QS, QS-enabled virulence, biofilm formation and biofilm-enabled antibiotic tolerance. We now have substantial knowledge of the multicellular behaviour of P. aeruginosa in vitro. A major...
Elafin is a 6-kDa innate immune protein present at several epithelial surfaces including the pulmonary epithelium. It is a canonical protease inhibitor of two neutrophil serine proteases [neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase 3] with the capacity to covalently bind extracellular matrix proteins by transglutamination. In addition to these properties, elafin also possesses antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteases on elafin function. We found that P. aeruginosa PAO1-conditioned medium and two purified Pseudomonas metalloproteases, pseudolysin (elastase) and aeruginolysin (alkaline protease), are able to cleave recombinant elafin. Pseudolysin was shown to inactivate the anti-NE activity of elafin by cleaving its protease-binding loop. Interestingly, antibacterial properties of elafin against PAO1 were found to be unaffected after pseudolysin treatment. In contrast to pseudolysin, aeruginolysin failed to inactivate the inhibitory properties of elafin against NE. Aeruginolysin cleaves elafin at the amino-terminal Lys6-Gly7 peptide bond, resulting in a decreased ability to covalently bind purified fibronectin following transglutaminase activity. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that elafin is susceptible to proteolytic cleavage at alternative sites by P. aeruginosa metalloproteinases, which can affect different biological functions of elafin.
Ramírez-Estrada, Sergio; Borgatta, Bárbara; Rello, Jordi
Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the most common infection in intensive care unit patients associated with high morbidity rates and elevated economic costs; Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most frequent bacteria linked with this entity, with a high attributable mortality despite adequate treatment that is increased in the presence of multiresistant strains, a situation that is becoming more common in intensive care units. In this manuscript, we review the current management of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to P. aeruginosa, the most recent antipseudomonal agents, and new adjunctive therapies that are shifting the way we treat these infections. We support early initiation of broad-spectrum antipseudomonal antibiotics in present, followed by culture-guided monotherapy de-escalation when susceptibilities are available. Future management should be directed at blocking virulence; the role of alternative strategies such as new antibiotics, nebulized treatments, and vaccines is promising. PMID:26855594
Chiang, Wen-Chi; Nilsson, Martin; Jensen, Peter Østrup
Within recent years, it has been established that extracellular DNA is a key constituent of the matrix of microbial biofilms. In addition, it has recently been demonstrated that DNA binds positively charged antimicrobials such as aminoglycosides and antimicrobial peptides. In the present study, we...... provide evidence that extracellular DNA shields against aminoglycosides in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. We show that exogenously supplemented DNA integrates into P. aeruginosa biofilms and increases their tolerance toward aminoglycosides. We provide evidence that biofilms formed by a DNA release......-deficient P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing mutant are more susceptible to aminoglycoside treatment than wild-type biofilms but become rescued from the detrimental action of aminoglycosides upon supplementation with exogenous DNA. Furthermore, we demonstrate that exposure to lysed polymorphonuclear leukocytes...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogen associated with cystic fibrosis that has potential to decrease lung function and cause respiratory failure. Paranasal sinuses are increasingly recognised as potential reservoirs for intermittent colonisation by P. aeruginosa. This case documents investigation and outcome of P. aeruginosa recurrence in a male paediatric patient over an eight year period.
Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Jochumsen, Nicholas; Johansen, Helle Krogh
Pseudomonas aeruginosa frequently establishes chronic infections in the airways of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). Here, we report the draft genome sequences of four P. aeruginosa B3 strains isolated from a chronically infected CF patient undergoing antibiotic chemotherapy.......Pseudomonas aeruginosa frequently establishes chronic infections in the airways of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). Here, we report the draft genome sequences of four P. aeruginosa B3 strains isolated from a chronically infected CF patient undergoing antibiotic chemotherapy....
Pimienta, A.L; Diaz M, M. P; Carvajal S, F.G; Grosso V, J.L.
The bio surfactant production by strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from Colombian hydrocarbon contaminated sludge has been determined. The methodology included the isolation of microorganisms, standardization of batch culture conditions for good surfactant production and characterization of the produced rhamnolipid. Several carbon sources were evaluated with regard to the growth and production curves. The stability of the rhamnolipid was also determined under variable conditions of pH, temperature and salt concentration. The strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa BS 3 showed bio surfactant production capabilities of rhamnolipid resulting in concentrations up to 2 g-dm with surface tensions of 30 - 32 mN-m in batch cultures with commercial nutrients
Davies, Anna M.; Tata, Renée; Chauviac, François-Xavier; Sutton, Brian J.; Brown, Paul R.
The crystal structure of an acetyltransferase encoded by the gene PA1377 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been determined at 2.25 Å resolution. Comparison with a related acetyltransferase revealed a structural difference in the active site that was taken to reflect a difference in substrate binding and/or specificity between the two enzymes. Gene PA1377 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes a 177-amino-acid conserved hypothetical protein of unknown function. The structure of this protein (termed pitax) has been solved in space group I222 to 2.25 Å resolution. Pitax belongs to the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase family and contains all four sequence motifs conserved among family members. The β-strand structure in one of these motifs (motif A) is disrupted, which is believed to affect binding of the substrate that accepts the acetyl group from acetyl-CoA
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a human opportunistic pathogen that causes mortality in cystic fibrosis and immunocompromised patients. While many virulence factors of this pathogen have already been identified, several remain to be discovered. In this respect we set an unprecedented genome-wide screen of a P. aeruginosa expression library based on a yeast growth phenotype. 51 candidates were selected in a three-round screening process. The robustness of the screen was validated by the selection of three well known secreted proteins including one demonstrated virulence factor, the protease LepA. Further in silico sorting of the 51 candidates highlighted three potential new Pseudomonas effector candidates (Pec. By testing the cytotoxicity of wild type P. aeruginosa vs pec mutants towards macrophages and the virulence in the Caenorhabditis elegans model, we demonstrated that the three selected Pecs are novel virulence factors of P. aeruginosa. Additional cellular localization experiments in the host revealed specific localization for Pec1 and Pec2 that could inform about their respective functions.
Full Text Available Background: Type I interferon (IFN-I predisposes to bacterial superinfections, an important problem during viral infection or treatment with interferon-alpha (IFN-α. IFN-I-induced neutropenia is one reason for the impaired bacterial control; however there is evidence that more frequent bacterial infections during IFN-α-treatment occur independently of neutropenia. Methods: We analyzed in a mouse model, whether Pseudomonas aeruginosa control is influenced by co-infection with the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV. Bacterial titers, numbers of neutrophils and the gene-expression of liver-lysozyme-2 were determined during a 24 hours systemic infection with P. aeruginosa in wild-type and Ifnar-/- mice under the influence of LCMV or poly(I:C. Results: Virus-induced IFN-I impaired the control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This was associated with neutropenia and loss of lysozyme-2-expression in the liver, which had captured P. aeruginosa. A lower release of IFN-I by poly(I:C-injection also impaired the bacterial control in the liver and reduced the expression of liver-lysozyme-2. Low concentration of IFN-I after infection with a virulent strain of P. aeruginosa alone impaired the bacterial control and reduced lysozyme-2-expression in the liver as well. Conclusion: We found that during systemic infection with P. aeruginosa Kupffer cells quickly controlled the bacteria in cooperation with neutrophils. Upon LCMV-infection this cooperation was disturbed.
Aanaes, Kasper; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Poulsen, Steen Seier
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa sinusitis may be the focus for intermittent lung colonization in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The sinusitis may induce elevated IgA levels in nasal secretion and saliva against P. aeruginosa. METHODS: 120 CF patients chronically infected, intermittently...... colonized or without P. aeruginosa in the lungs participated in this cross-sectional study. IgA and IgG against P. aeruginosa sonicate and alginate were measured in nasal secretions, saliva, and in serum by ELISA. RESULTS: The intermittently colonized patients had significantly higher IgA levels in nasal...... secretions and saliva than those without P. aeruginosa in the lungs, indicating that P. aeruginosa sinusitis may precede intermittent colonization and chronic infection of the lungs. CONCLUSIONS: Specific IgA against P. aeruginosa in nasal secretions and saliva can contribute to differentiation between...
Kirienko, Natalia V; Cezairliyan, Brent O; Ausubel, Frederick M; Powell, Jennifer R
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a simple model host for studying the interaction between bacterial pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the metazoan innate immune system. Powerful genetic and molecular tools in both C. elegans and P. aeruginosa facilitate the identification and analysis of bacterial virulence factors as well as host defense factors. Here we describe three different assays that use the C. elegans-P. aeruginosa strain PA14 host-pathogen system. Fast Killing is a toxin-mediated death that depends on a diffusible toxin produced by PA14 but not on live bacteria. Slow Killing is due to an active infection in which bacteria colonize the C. elegans intestinal lumen. Liquid Killing is designed for high-throughput screening of chemical libraries for anti-infective compounds. Each assay has unique features and, interestingly, the PA14 virulence factors involved in killing are different in each assay.
Kelly E. Diaz; Susanna K. Remold; Ogochukwu Onyiri; Maura Bozeman; Peter A. Raymond; Paul E. Turner; Paul E. Turner
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen of particular concern to immune-compromised people, such as cystic fibrosis patients and burn victims. These bacteria grow in built environments including hospitals and households, and in natural environments such as rivers and estuaries. However, there is conflicting evidence whether recent environments like the human lung and open ocean affect P. aeruginosa growth performance in alternate environments. We hypothesized that bacteria recentl...
Full Text Available Antibiotics represent our bulwark to combat bacterial infections, but the spread of antibiotic resistance compromises their clinical efficacy. Alternatives to conventional antibiotics are urgently needed in order to complement the existing antibacterial arsenal. The macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZM provides a paradigmatic example of an unconventional antibacterial drug. Besides its growth-inhibiting activity, AZM displays potent anti-inflammatory properties, as well as antivirulence activity on some intrinsically resistant bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this bacterium, the antivirulence activity of AZM mainly relies on its ability to interact with the ribosome, resulting in direct and/or indirect repression of specific subsets of genes involved in virulence, quorum sensing, biofilm formation and intrinsic antibiotic resistance. Both clinical experience and clinical trials have shown the efficacy of AZM in the treatment of chronic pulmonary infections caused by P. aeruginosa. The aim of this review is to combine results from laboratory studies with evidence from clinical trials in order to unify the information on the in vivo mode of action of AZM in P. aeruginosa infection.
Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is caused by biofilm-growing mucoid strains. Biofilms can be prevented by early aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis or therapy, and they can be treated by chronic suppressive therapy. New results from one small trial sug...... patients without P. aeruginosa infection did not improve lung function. Here I review the recent advances in the treatment of P. aeruginosa lung infections with a focus on inhalation treatments targeted at prophylaxis and chronic suppressive therapy....
As part of our attempt at isolating and stocking some indigenous microbial species, we isolated a bacterium from a waste dumpsite with appreciable dechlorination activity. 16S rDNA profiling revealed the isolate to be a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the sequence has been deposited in the NCBI nucleotide ...
Papareddy, Praveen; Kasetty, Gopinath; Kalle, Martina; Bhongir, Ravi K V; Mörgelin, Matthias; Schmidtchen, Artur; Malmsten, Martin
Increasing resistance to antibiotics makes antimicrobial peptides interesting as novel therapeutics. Here, we report on studies of the peptide NLF20 (NLFRKLTHRLFRRNFGYTLR), corresponding to an epitope of the D helix of heparin cofactor II (HCII), a plasma protein mediating bacterial clearance. Peptide effects were evaluated by a combination of in vitro and in vivo methods, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity assays, fluorescence and electron microscopy, and experimental models of endotoxin shock and Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis. The results showed that NLF20 displayed potent antimicrobial effects against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and P. aeruginosa, the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and the fungi Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis. Importantly, this antimicrobial effect was retained in human blood, particularly for P. aeruginosa. Fluorescence and electron microscopy studies showed that the peptide exerted membrane-breaking effects. In an animal model of P. aeruginosa sepsis, NLF20 reduced bacterial levels, resulting in improved survival. Reduced mortality was also observed in experimental animal models of endotoxin shock, which was paralleled with modulated IFN-γ, IL-10 and coagulation responses. Together, these results indicate that functional epitopes of HCII may have therapeutic potential against bacterial infection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Bilocq, Florence; Pot, Bruno; Cornelis, Pierre; Zizi, Martin; Van Eldere, Johan; Deschaght, Pieter; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Jennes, Serge; Pitt, Tyrone; De Vos, Daniel
At present there are strong indications that Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits an epidemic population structure; clinical isolates are indistinguishable from environmental isolates, and they do not exhibit a specific (disease) habitat selection. However, some important issues, such as the worldwide emergence of highly transmissible P. aeruginosa clones among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and the spread and persistence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains in hospital wards with high antibiotic pressure, remain contentious. To further investigate the population structure of P. aeruginosa, eight parameters were analyzed and combined for 328 unrelated isolates, collected over the last 125 years from 69 localities in 30 countries on five continents, from diverse clinical (human and animal) and environmental habitats. The analysed parameters were: i) O serotype, ii) Fluorescent Amplified-Fragment Length Polymorphism (FALFP) pattern, nucleotide sequences of outer membrane protein genes, iii) oprI, iv) oprL, v) oprD, vi) pyoverdine receptor gene profile (fpvA type and fpvB prevalence), and prevalence of vii) exoenzyme genes exoS and exoU and viii) group I pilin glycosyltransferase gene tfpO. These traits were combined and analysed using biological data analysis software and visualized in the form of a minimum spanning tree (MST). We revealed a network of relationships between all analyzed parameters and non-congruence between experiments. At the same time we observed several conserved clones, characterized by an almost identical data set. These observations confirm the nonclonal epidemic population structure of P. aeruginosa, a superficially clonal structure with frequent recombinations, in which occasionally highly successful epidemic clones arise. One of these clones is the renown and widespread MDR serotype O12 clone. On the other hand, we found no evidence for a widespread CF transmissible clone. All but one of the 43 analysed CF strains belonged to a ubiquitous P
de Vrankrijker, Angélica M M; Wolfs, Tom F W; Ciofu, Oana
virus infections in facilitating colonization and infection with P. aeruginosa. A study was undertaken to determine whether respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection could facilitate the initiation of an acute infection with P. aeruginosa in vivo. Balb/c mice were infected intranasally with P......Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals and patients ventilated mechanically and is the major pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis, in which it causes chronic infections. Epidemiological, in vitro and animal data suggest a role for respiratory....... These results suggest that RSV can facilitate the initiation of acute P. aeruginosa infection without the RSV infection being clinically apparent. This could have implications for treatment strategies to prevent opportunistic P. aeruginosa lung infection....
Rasmussen, Benjamin Schnack; Christensen, Nikolas; Sørensen, Jan
the outbreak and 12 months later. The audits were conducted by the method of direct observation. RESULTS: Several PFGE types were involved with no clear association to isolates from environmental samples. The audit revealed poor hygiene related to the handling of central venous catheters. After optimising......INTRODUCTION: Infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. In Denmark, an increase in P. aeruginosa isolates from blood cultures from a haematology department prompted a hygienic audit in 2007. METHODS: Blood cultures...... catheter hygiene, the number of P. aeruginosa bacteraemia cases fell significantly. CONCLUSION: Since no clear association between patient and environmental genotype was established, it was suspected that central venous catheters were the main portal of entry. This was further supported by a simultaneous...
Full Text Available The 2-alkyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H-quinolone 2,4-dioxygenase HodC was previously described to cleave the Pseudomonas quinolone signal, PQS, which is exclusively used in the complex quorum sensing (QS system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen employing QS to regulate virulence and biofilm development. Degradation of PQS by exogenous addition of HodC to planktonic cells of P. aeruginosa attenuated production of virulence factors, and reduced virulence in planta. However, proteolytic cleavage reduced the efficacy of HodC. Here, we identified the secreted protease LasB of P. aeruginosa to be responsible for HodC degradation. In static biofilms of the P. aeruginosa PA14 lasB::Tn mutant, the catalytic activity of HodC led to an increase in viable biomass in newly formed but also in established biofilms, and reduced the expression of genes involved in iron metabolism and siderophore production, such as pvdS, pvdL, pvdA and pvdQ. This is likely due to an increase in the levels of bioavailable iron by degradation of PQS, which is able to sequester iron from the surrounding environment. Thus, HodC, despite its ability to quench the production of virulence factors, is contraindicated for combating P. aeruginosa biofilms.
Trias, J; Dufresne, J; Levesque, R C; Nikaido, H
The outer membrane of imipenem-resistant mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to have decreased permeability to imipenem but not to cephaloridine. These experiments were performed with intact cells and liposomes containing imipenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase derived from Pseudomonas maltophilia, in both cases utilizing an imipenem concentration of 50 microM. In contrast, liposome swelling assays using imipenem at 8 mM detected no significant difference between the imipenem-resistant mu...
Kos, Veronica N; Déraspe, Maxime; McLaughlin, Robert E; Whiteaker, James D; Roy, Paul H; Alm, Richard A; Corbeil, Jacques; Gardner, Humphrey
Many clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cause infections that are difficult to eradicate due to their resistance to a wide variety of antibiotics. Key genetic determinants of resistance were identified through genome sequences of 390 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, obtained from diverse geographic locations collected between 2003 and 2012 and were related to microbiological susceptibility data for meropenem, levofloxacin, and amikacin. β-Lactamases and integron cassette arrangements were enriched in the established multidrug-resistant lineages of sequence types ST111 (predominantly O12) and ST235 (O11). This study demonstrates the utility of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in defining relevant resistance elements and highlights the diversity of resistance determinants within P. aeruginosa. This information is valuable in furthering the design of diagnostics and therapeutics for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
The identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) isolates in sputum from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients can be challenging due to the multitude of phenotypic changes isolates undergo during adaptation to the microenvironment of the CF lung.
Full Text Available Increasing resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa to conventional treatments demands the search for novel therapeutic strategies. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of dehydroleucodine (DhL, a sesquiterpene lactone obtained from Artemisia (A. douglasiana, was screened against several pathogenic virulence effectors of P. aeruginosa. In vitro, minimum inhibitory concentration of DhL was determined against P. aeruginosa strains PAO1, PA103, PA14, and multidrug resistant clinical strain, CDN118. Results showed that DhL was active against each strain where PAO1 and PA103 showed higher susceptibility (MIC 0.48 mg/mL as compared to PA14 (MIC 0.96 mg/mL and CDN118 (MIC 0.98 mg/mL. Also, when PAO1 strain was grown in the presence of DhL (MIC50, 0.12 mg/mL, a delay in the generation time was noticed along with significant inhibition of secretory protease and elastase activities, interruption in biofilm attachment phase in a stationary culture, and a significant decline in Type III effector ExoS. At MIC50, DhL treatment increased the sensitivity of P. aeruginosa towards potent antibiotics. Furthermore, treatment of P. aeruginosa with DhL prevented toxin-induced apoptosis in macrophages. These observations suggest that DhL activity was at the bacterial transcriptional level. Hence, antimicrobial activity of DhL may serve as leads in the development of new anti-Pseudomonas pharmaceuticals.
Pamp, Sünje Johanna; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim
Recent studies have indicated that biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa play a role both in maintaining channels between multicellular structures in biofilms and in dispersal of cells from biofilms. Through the use of flow cell technology and enhanced confocal laser scanning microscopy......, we have obtained results which suggest that the biosurfactants produced by P. aeruginosa play additional roles in structural biofilm development. We present genetic evidence that during biofilm development by P. aeruginosa, biosurfactants promote microcolony formation in the initial phase...... and facilitate migration-dependent structural development in the later phase. P. aeruginosa rhl4 mutants, deficient in synthesis of biosurfactants, were not capable of forming microcolonies in the initial phase of biofilm formation. Experiments involving two-color-coded mixed-strain biofilms showed that P...
Gilchrist, F. J.; Alcock, A.; Belcher, J.; Brady, M.; Jones, A.; Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik; Webb, K.; Lenney, W.
Roč. 38, č. 2 (2011), s. 409-414 ISSN 0903-1936 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : microbiology * pseudomonas aeruginosa Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.895, year: 2011
Fadilah Sfouq Aleanizy
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to study the antimicrobial activity of chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs on Pseudomonas aeruginosa with special emphasis on their sensitivity to pH and the effect of pH on their activity. Methodology: Antimicrobial activity of CSNPs against Pseudomonas aeruginosa at different pH was tested using broth dilution method. Further assessment of antivirulence activity and sensitization of CSNPs on Pseudomonas aeruginosa were examined. Results: Significant antimicrobial effects of CSNPs against Pseudomonas aeruginosa were detected at slightly acidic pH 5, whereas the activity was abolished at a pH of greater than 7. The antivirulence activity of CSNPs was then investigated and treatment with CSNPs (1000 ppm resulted in a significant reduction or even complete inhibition of pyocyanin production by P. aeruginosa compared with untreated P. aeruginosa indicating the antivirulence activity of CSNPs. CSNPs also sensitized P. aeruginosa to the lytic effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS; such sensitization was not blocked by washing chitosan-treated cells prior to SDS exposure revealing that CSNPs disturb the outer membrane leading to irreversible sensitivity to detergent even at low concentration (100 ppm. Conclusions: These findings highlight CSNPs as potentially useful as indirect antimicrobial agents for a variety of applications. Keywords: Chitosan nanoparticles, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, pH, Antimicrobial, Virulence
Full Text Available Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a nosocomial pathogen which especially causes infections among burn patients. Carbapenems are extensively used for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates. The emergence of carbapenemases producing isolates is an outcome of increased utilization of carbapenems. The aim of this study was to determine the bla-IMP-1 and bla-IMP-2 genes in metallo-β-lactamase (MBL -producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn patients in Isfahan. Material and Methods: A total of 150 P. aeruginosa were isolated from burn patients hospitalized in Imam-Mousakazem hospital in Isfahan. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using disk diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Double Disk Synergy Test (DDST was carried out for screening of MBL production in imipenem-resistant strains. PCR assays were used for detection of bla-IMP-1 and bla-IMP-2 genes among metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. The purified PCR products were sequenced. Results: Of 150 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, %100 identified as multi-drug resistant strains. The most resistance rates were seen against ciprofloxacin, tobromycin, meropenem and imipenem. All of 144 imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were MBL producing by DDST test. Twenty-nine (19.3% and 8(5.3% MBL producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates harbored bla-IMP-1 and bla-IMP-2 genes respectively. Conclusions: According to results of this study high level resistance to imipenem and MBl genes carriage was seen among Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn patient infections in our region.
Braun, P; Bitter, W; Tommassen, J
The propeptide of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase functions both as an intramolecular chaperone required for the folding of the enzyme and as an inhibitor that prevents activity of the enzyme before its secretion into the extracellular medium. Since expression of the lasB gene, which encodes
Full Text Available In this study, the BOX-PCR fingerprinting technique was evaluated for the discrimination of clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. All isolates were typeable and nearly half showed unique banding patterns. According to our results, BOX-PCR fingerprinting is applicable for typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates and can be considered a useful complementary tool for epidemiological studies of members of this genus. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 734–738
Tramper-Stranders, G. A.; van der Ent, C. K.; Molin, Søren
Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18: 567574 Abstract Despite intensive eradication therapy, some CF patients with early Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection rapidly develop a chronic infection. To elucidate factors associated with this persistence, bacterial characteristics of early P. aeruginosa isolates...
Hannah K Bayes
Full Text Available We set out to determine the magnitude of antigen-specific memory T helper cell responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in healthy humans and patients with cystic fibrosis.Peripheral blood human memory CD4(+ T cells were co-cultured with dendritic cells that had been infected with different strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The T helper response was determined by measuring proliferation, immunoassay of cytokine output, and immunostaining of intracellular cytokines.Healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis had robust antigen-specific memory CD4(+ T cell responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa that not only contained a Th1 and Th17 component but also Th22 cells. In contrast to previous descriptions of human Th22 cells, these Pseudomonal-specific Th22 cells lacked the skin homing markers CCR4 or CCR10, although were CCR6(+. Healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis had similar levels of Th22 cells, but the patient group had significantly fewer Th17 cells in peripheral blood.Th22 cells specific to Pseudomonas aeruginosa are induced in both healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis. Along with Th17 cells, they may play an important role in the pulmonary response to this microbe in patients with cystic fibrosis and other conditions.
Giwercman, B; Jensen, E T; Høiby, N
Imipenem induced high levels of beta-lactamase production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Piperacillin also induced beta-lactamase production in these biofilms but to a lesser degree. The combination of beta-lactamase production with other protective properties of the biofilm mode of growth c...... could be a major reason for the persistence of this sessile bacterium in chronic infections....
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic suppurative otitis media is one among the commonest ENT disease seen in day-to-day practice. It is seen mainly among low socioeconomic class. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted in the Department of ENT, Shadan Institute of Medical Sciences. Fifty patients with CSOM of all age groups and both sexes attending the Outpatient Department of ENT were selected randomly for the study. RESULTS From our study, we found mainly children of age group 10-11 years commonly affected. They belong to poor socioeconomic background. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common organism isolated in the present study. Ciprofloxacin was found to be the most sensitive antibiotic to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. CONCLUSION We noticed that drug resistance is on the rise due to misuse of antibiotics, over-the-counter treatment, inadequate period of therapy and less awareness among public regarding drug resistance. Constant monitoring of antibiotic sensitivity is needed to prevent drug resistance in CSOM.
La Rosa, Ruggero; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Molin, Søren
fibrosis (CF) infection. In this work, we investigated how and through which trajectories evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs when migrating from the environment to the airways of CF patients, and specifically, we determined reduction of growth rate and metabolic specialization as signatures...... of adaptive evolution. We show that central metabolic pathways of three distinct Pseudomonas aeruginosa lineages coevolving within the same environment become restructured at the cost of versatility during long-term colonization. Cell physiology changes from naive to adapted phenotypes resulted in (i......) alteration of growth potential that particularly converged to a slow-growth phenotype, (ii) alteration of nutritional requirements due to auxotrophy, (iii) tailored preference for carbon source assimilation from CF sputum, (iv) reduced arginine and pyruvate fermentation processes, and (v) increased oxygen...
Full Text Available Agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, is an important intermediary in polyamine production for many prokaryotes, but serves higher functions in eukaryotes such as nitric oxide inhibition and roles in neurotransmission. Pseudomonas aeruginosa relies on the arginine decarboxylase and agmatine deiminase pathways to convert arginine into putrescine. One of the two known agmatine deiminase operons, aguBA, contains an agmatine sensitive TetR promoter controlled by AguR. We have discovered that this promoter element can produce a titratable induction of its gene products in response to agmatine, and utilized this discovery to make a luminescent agmatine biosensor in P. aeruginosa. The genome of the P. aeruginosa lab strain UCBPP-PA14 was altered to remove both its ability to synthesize or destroy agmatine, and insertion of the luminescent reporter construct allows it to produce light in proportion to the amount of exogenous agmatine applied from ~100 nM to 1mM. Furthermore it does not respond to related compounds including arginine or putrescine. To demonstrate potential applications the biosensor was used to detect agmatine in spent supernatants, to monitor the development of arginine decarboxylase over time, and to detect agmatine in the spinal cords of live mice.
Sio, CF; Otten, LG; Cool, RH; Diggle, SP; Braun, PG; Daykin, M; Camara, M; Williams, P; Quax, WJ; Bos, R
The virulence of the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 is controlled by an N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-dependent quorum-sensing system. During functional analysis of putative acylase genes in the P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome, the PA2385 gene was found to encode an acylase
Allydice-Francis, Kashina; Brown, Paul D.
With the increased focus on healthy eating and consuming raw vegetables, this study assessed the extent of contamination of fresh vegetables by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Jamaica and examined the antibiotic susceptibility profiles and the presence of various virulence associated determinants of P. aeruginosa. Analyses indicated that vegetables from retail markets and supermarkets were widely contaminated by P. aeruginosa; produce from markets were more frequently contaminated, but the differen...
McConnell, Kevin W; McDunn, Jonathan E; Clark, Andrew T; Dunne, W Michael; Dixon, David J; Turnbull, Isaiah R; Dipasco, Peter J; Osberghaus, William F; Sherman, Benjamin; Martin, James R; Walter, Michael J; Cobb, J Perren; Buchman, Timothy G; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M
Pathogens that cause pneumonia may be treated in a targeted fashion by antibiotics, but if this therapy fails, then treatment involves only nonspecific supportive measures, independent of the inciting infection. The purpose of this study was to determine whether host response is similar after disparate infections with similar mortalities. Prospective, randomized controlled study. Animal laboratory in a university medical center. Pneumonia was induced in FVB/N mice by either Streptococcus pneumoniae or two different concentrations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from septic animals was assayed by a microarray immunoassay measuring 18 inflammatory mediators at multiple time points. The host response was dependent on the causative organism as well as kinetics of mortality, but the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses were independent of inoculum concentration or degree of bacteremia. Pneumonia caused by different concentrations of the same bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, also yielded distinct inflammatory responses; however, inflammatory mediator expression did not directly track the severity of infection. For all infections, the host response was compartmentalized, with markedly different concentrations of inflammatory mediators in the systemic circulation and the lungs. Hierarchical clustering analysis resulted in the identification of five distinct clusters of the host response to bacterial infection. Principal components analysis correlated pulmonary macrophage inflammatory peptide-2 and interleukin-10 with progression of infection, whereas elevated plasma tumor necrosis factor sr2 and macrophage chemotactic peptide-1 were indicative of fulminant disease with >90% mortality within 48 hrs. Septic mice have distinct local and systemic responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Targeting specific host inflammatory responses induced by distinct bacterial infections could represent a
Hammer, Anne Sofie; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, Thomas Holmen
Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from clinical infections in mink were subjected to serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SpeI. A total of 212 isolates of P aeruginosa from the year 1998 to 2001 were included in this study: 168 isolates from mink obtained from 74 farm out...
Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup
Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics combined with an increasing acknowledgement of the role of biofilms in chronic infections has led to a growing interest in new antimicrobial strategies that target the biofilm mode of growth. In the aggregated biofilm mode, cell-to-cell communication...... alternative antibacterial strategies. Here, we review state of the art research of quorum sensing inhibitors against the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is found in a number of biofilm-associated infections and identified as the predominant organism infecting the lungs of cystic...
Bohn, Yu-Sing Tammy; Brandes, Gudrun; Rakhimova, Elza
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils are the most important mammalian host defence cells against infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Screening of a signature tagged mutagenesis library of the non-piliated P. aeruginosa strain TBCF10839 uncovered that transposon inactivation of its pilY1 gene rendere...
Lee, Keehoon; Yoon, Sang Sun
A biofilm is a community of microbes that typically inhabit on surfaces and are encased in an extracellular matrix. Biofilms display very dissimilar characteristics to their planktonic counterparts. Biofilms are ubiquitous in the environment and influence our lives tremendously in both positive and negative ways. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterium known to produce robust biofilms. P. aeruginosa biofilms cause severe problems in immunocompromised patients, including those with cystic fibrosis or wound infection. Moreover, the unique biofilm properties further complicate the eradication of the biofilm infection, leading to the development of chronic infections. In this review, we discuss the history of biofilm research and general characteristics of bacterial biofilms. Then, distinct features pertaining to each stage of P. aeruginosa biofilm development are highlighted. Furthermore, infections caused by biofilms on their own or in association with other bacterial species ( i.e. , multispecies biofilms) are discussed in detail.
Mahmoud Bahmani; Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei; Hassan Hassanzadazar; Morovat Taherikalani
Background and Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium found in water and soil. It is a normal flora in skin and gastrointestinal tract of human beings. P. aeruginosa as an opportunistic pathogen involved in nosocomial infections having multiple pathogenic factors and shows high rate of resistance to different antibiotics. The aim of this study was to identify the most important native medicinal plants of Iran effective on P. aeruginosa.Materials and Methods: ...
Guida, Marco; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Gall?, Francesca; Gesuele, Renato; Valeriani, Federica; Liguori, Renato; Romano Spica, Vincenzo; Liguori, Giorgio
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is frequently isolated in swimming pool settings. Nine recreational and rehabilitative swimming pools were monitored according to the local legislation. The presence of P. aeruginosa was correlated to chlorine concentration. The ability of the isolates to form a biofilm on plastic materials was also investigated. In 59.5% of the samples, microbial contamination exceeded the threshold values. P. aeruginosa was isolated in 50.8% of these samples. The presence of P. aerugi...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger are popular as pets and are often used as laboratory animals for various studies. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major infectious agent that causes otitis media, pneumonia, septicaemia enteritis, and sudden death in chinchillas. This bacterium is also a leading cause of nosocomial infections in humans. To prevent propagation of P. aeruginosa infection among humans and animals, detailed characteristics of the isolates, including antibiotic susceptibility and genetic features, are needed. In this study, we surveyed P. aeruginosa distribution in chinchillas bred as pets or laboratory animals. We also characterized the isolates from these chinchillas by testing for antibiotic susceptibility and by gene analysis. Results P. aeruginosa was isolated from 41.8% of the 67 chinchillas included in the study. Slide agglutination and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis discriminated 5 serotypes and 7 unique patterns, respectively. For the antibiotic susceptibility test, 40.9% of isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, 77.3% to ciprofloxacin, 77.3% to imipenem, and 72.7% to ceftazidime. DNA analyses confirmed that none of the isolates contained the gene encoding extended-spectrum β-lactamases; however, 2 of the total 23 isolates were found to have a gene similar to the pilL gene that has been identified in the pathogenicity island of a clinical isolate of P. aeruginosa. Conclusions P. aeruginosa is widely spread in chinchillas, including strains with reduced susceptibility to the antibiotics and highly virulent strains. The periodic monitoring should be performed to help prevent the propagation of this pathogen and reduce the risk of infection from chinchillas to humans.
Zhang, Jingchao; He, Jing; Zhai, Chunhui; Ma, Luyan Z; Gu, Lichuan; Zhao, Kun
PslG attracted a lot of attention recently due to its great potential abilities in inhibiting biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa However, how PslG affects biofilm development still remains largely unexplored. Here, we focused on the surface motility of bacterial cells, which is critical for biofilm development. We studied the effect of PslG on bacterial surface movement in early biofilm development at a single-cell resolution by using a high-throughput bacterial tracking technique. The results showed that compared with no exogenous PslG addition, when PslG was added to the medium, bacterial surface movement was significantly faster by 4 ∼ 5 times, and was in a more random way with no clear preferred direction. A further study revealed that the fraction of walking mode increased when PslG was added, which then resulted in an elevated average speed. The differences of motility due to PslG addition led to a clear distinction in patterns of bacterial surface movement, and retarded microcolony formation greatly. Our results provide insight into developing new PslG-based biofilm-control techniques. IMPORTANCE Biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are a major cause for hospital-acquired infections. They are notoriously difficult to eradicate and pose serious health hazard to our human society. So finding new ways to control biofilms are urgently needed. Recent work on PslG showed that PslG might be a good candidate for inhibiting/disassembling biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa through Psl-based regulation. However, to fully explore PslG functions in biofilm-control, a better understanding of PslG-Psl interactions is needed. Toward this end, we examined the effect of PslG on the surface movement of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in this work. The significance of our work is in greatly enhancing our understanding of the inhibiting mechanism of PslG on biofilms by providing a detailed picture of bacterial surface movement at a single-cell level, which will allow a full understanding
Zhu, H.; Bandara, R.; Conibear, T.C.
To understand the importance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing systems in the development of corneal infection, the genotypic characteristics and pathogenesis of seven ocular isolates with low-protease and acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) activity and quorum-sensing mutants of PAO1 deficient...
Guthrie, R. K.
The effects of increased concentrations of PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS in the total bacterial flora of small animals exposed to simulated spacecraft environments were evaluated. Tests to detect changes in infectivity, effects of antibiotic treatments, immune responses to bacterial antigens, and effectiveness of immune responses in the experimental environment were conducted. The most significant results appear to be the differences in immune responses at simulated altitudes and the production of infection in the presence of a specific antibody.
Zhao, Kun; Lee, Calvin; Anda, Jaime; Wong, Gerard
For monotrichous bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, after cell division, one daughter cell inherits the old flagellum from its mother cell, and the other grows a new flagellum during or after cell division. It had been shown that the new flagellum grows at the distal pole of the dividing cell when the two daughter cells haven't completely separated. However, for those daughter cells who grow new flagella after division, it still remains unknown at which pole the new flagellum will grow. Here, by combining our newly developed bacteria family tree tracking techniques with genetic manipulation method, we showed that for the daughter cell who did not inherit the old flagellum, a new flagellum has about 90% chances to grow at the newly formed pole. We proposed a model for flagellation of P. aeruginosa.
Rau, Martin Holm
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen capable of transition from an environmental lifestyle to a host-associated lifestyle, as exemplified in the life-long airway infection of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Long-term infection is associated with extensive genetic adaptation of P...... the framework upon which this thesis is based. Early P. aeruginosa colonization of the CF airways is the period in which the outcome of infection is determined, i.e. if the bacteria are eventually eradicated or persist. In three patient cases the evolutionary events from initiation of infection were explored...... to unravel the early adaptive processes possibly securing bacterial persistence. In this early stage, clinical isolates displayed few adaptive events however these included phenotypes often observed in late chronic infection isolates including the conversion to a mucoid phenotype and increased antibiotic...
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a synthetic medium is stimulated by the presence of glycine. Methionine enhances this stimulation but will not substitute for glycine as a stimulator of cyanogenesis. Threonine and phenylalanine are effective substitutes for glycine in the stimulation of HCN production. Glycine, threonine, and serine are good radioisotope precursors of HCN, but methionine and phenylalanine are not. Cell extracts of P. aeruginosa convert [ 14 C]threonine to [ 14 C]glycine. H14CN is produced with low dilution of label from either [1- 14 C]glycine or [2- 14 C]glycine, indicating a randomization of label either in the primary or secondary metabolism of glycine. When whole cells were fed [1,2- 14 C]glycine, cyanide and bicarbonate were the only radioactive extracellular products observed
Pazos, Michael A; Lanter, Bernard B; Yonker, Lael M; Eaton, Alex D; Pirzai, Waheed; Gronert, Karsten; Bonventre, Joseph V; Hurley, Bryan P
Excessive neutrophil infiltration of the lungs is a common contributor to immune-related pathology in many pulmonary disease states. In response to pathogenic infection, airway epithelial cells produce hepoxilin A3 (HXA3), initiating neutrophil transepithelial migration. Migrated neutrophils amplify this recruitment by producing a secondary gradient of leukotriene B4 (LTB4). We sought to determine whether this two-step eicosanoid chemoattractant mechanism could be exploited by the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ExoU, a P. aeruginosa cytotoxin, exhibits phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity in eukaryotic hosts, an enzyme critical for generation of certain eicosanoids. Using in vitro and in vivo models of neutrophil transepithelial migration, we evaluated the impact of ExoU expression on eicosanoid generation and function. We conclude that ExoU, by virtue of its PLA2 activity, augments and compensates for endogenous host neutrophil cPLA2α function, leading to enhanced transepithelial migration. This suggests that ExoU expression in P. aeruginosa can circumvent immune regulation at key signaling checkpoints in the neutrophil, resulting in exacerbated neutrophil recruitment.
Michael A Pazos
Full Text Available Excessive neutrophil infiltration of the lungs is a common contributor to immune-related pathology in many pulmonary disease states. In response to pathogenic infection, airway epithelial cells produce hepoxilin A3 (HXA3, initiating neutrophil transepithelial migration. Migrated neutrophils amplify this recruitment by producing a secondary gradient of leukotriene B4 (LTB4. We sought to determine whether this two-step eicosanoid chemoattractant mechanism could be exploited by the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ExoU, a P. aeruginosa cytotoxin, exhibits phospholipase A2 (PLA2 activity in eukaryotic hosts, an enzyme critical for generation of certain eicosanoids. Using in vitro and in vivo models of neutrophil transepithelial migration, we evaluated the impact of ExoU expression on eicosanoid generation and function. We conclude that ExoU, by virtue of its PLA2 activity, augments and compensates for endogenous host neutrophil cPLA2α function, leading to enhanced transepithelial migration. This suggests that ExoU expression in P. aeruginosa can circumvent immune regulation at key signaling checkpoints in the neutrophil, resulting in exacerbated neutrophil recruitment.
Cournet, Amandine [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, LU49, Adhesion bacterienne et formation de biofilms, 35 chemin des Maraichers, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 09 (France)] [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique CNRS UMR5503, 4 allee Emile Monso, BP 84234, 31432 Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Berge, Mathieu; Roques, Christine [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, LU49, Adhesion bacterienne et formation de biofilms, 35 chemin des Maraichers, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 09 (France); Bergel, Alain [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique CNRS UMR5503, 4 allee Emile Monso, BP 84234, 31432 Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Delia, Marie-Line, E-mail: email@example.com [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique CNRS UMR5503, 4 allee Emile Monso, BP 84234, 31432 Toulouse Cedex 04 (France)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa has already been shown to catalyze oxidation processes in the anode compartment of a microbial fuel cell. The present study focuses on the reverse capacity of the bacterium, i.e. reduction catalysis. Here we show that P. aeruginosa is able to catalyze the electrochemical reduction of oxygen. The use of cyclic voltammetry showed that, for a given range of potential values, the current generated in the presence of bacteria could reach up to four times the current obtained without bacteria. The adhesion of bacteria to the working electrode was necessary for the catalysis to be observed but was not sufficient. The electron transfer between the working electrode and the bacteria did not involve mediator metabolites like phenazines. The transfer was by direct contact. The catalysis required a certain contact duration between electrodes and live bacteria but after this delay, the metabolic activity of cells was no longer necessary. Membrane-bound proteins, like catalase, may be involved. Various strains of P. aeruginosa, including clinical isolates, were tested and all of them, even catalase-defective mutants, presented the same catalytic property. P. aeruginosa offers a new model for the analysis of reduction catalysis and the protocol designed here may provide a basis for developing an interesting tool in the field of bacterial adhesion.
Walters, Heather L; Measley, Robert
Case report. To report 2 unusual cases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa epidural abscesses and cervical osteomyelitis after routine dental extractions and to review relevant literature. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rare cause of cervical osteomyelitis in patients after dental extractions. Only 1 prior case could be found in the literature. The cases of an 18-year-old male and a 23-year-old female are presented. PubMed was used to search for relevant literature. Our 2 patients presented with excruciating neck pain within 24 hours of routine dental extractions and, by imaging were found to have cervical epidural abscesses and osteomyelitis. Both patients were taken to the operating room for drainage and corpectomy and treated with prolonged courses of intravenous antibiotics. When seen in follow up 3 months later, neither patient demonstrated any neurologic sequelae. Pseudomonas aeruginosa epidural abscesses and osteomyelitis of the cervical spine have only rarely been reported in healthy patients after dental extractions. To our knowledge, the 2 patients reported here are only the second 2 such cases reported in the literature. Unfortunately, as in prior cases, these 2 patients had a significant delay in diagnosis. Therefore, a strong suspicion must be maintained for all patients presenting with neck pain after a recent dental extraction and appropriate imaging must be obtained urgently.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa septic shock associated with ecthyma gangrenosum in an infant with agammaglobulinemia Choque séptico por Pseudomonas aeruginosa associado a éctima gangrenosa em criança com agamaglobulinemia
João Fernando Lourenço de ALMEIDA
Full Text Available Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rare and invasive infection that can be associated with agammaglobulinemia. The cornerstone of the treatment is based on prompt recognition with appropriate antibiotic coverage and intravenous immunoglobulin. The authors report a case of EG emphasizing the clinical and therapeutic aspects of this condition.Éctima Gangrenosa (EG por Pseudomonas aeruginosa é uma infecção rara e invasiva que pode ser associada com agamaglobulinemia. O tratamento fundamental é baseado no pronto reconhecimento com cobertura de antibiótico apropriada e imunoglobulina intravenosa. Os autores relatam caso de EG dando ênfase aos aspectos clínicos e terapêuticos desta condição.
Rahme, Laurence G.; Tan, Man-Wah; Le, Long; Wong, Sandy M.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Ausubel, Frederick M.
We used plants as an in vivo pathogenesis model for the identification of virulence factors of the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Nine of nine TnphoA mutant derivatives of P. aeruginosa strain UCBPP-PA14 that were identified in a plant leaf assay for less pathogenic mutants also exhibited significantly reduced pathogenicity in a burned mouse pathogenicity model, suggesting that P. aeruginosa utilizes common strategies to infect both hosts. Seven of these nine mutants contain TnphoA insertions in previously unknown genes. These results demonstrate that an alternative nonvertebrate host of a human bacterial pathogen can be used in an in vivo high throughput screen to identify novel bacterial virulence factors involved in mammalian pathogenesis. PMID:9371831
Anusree V. Nair
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium having a versatile metabolic potential and great ecological and clinical significance. The geographical distribution of P. aeruginosahas revealed the existence of an unbiased genetic arrangement in terrestrial isolates. In contrast, there are very few reports about P. aeruginosa strains from marine environments. The present work was aimed at studying the distribution of P. aeruginosa in coastal waters along the Indian Peninsula and understanding the environmental influence on genotypic, metabolic and phenotypic characteristics by comparing marine and clinical isolates. Of the 785 marine isolates obtained on selective media, only 32 (~4.1% were identified as P. aeruginosa, based on their fatty acid methyl ester profiles. A low Euclidian distance value (P. aeruginosa. While biogeographical separation was not evident based solely on phenotypic and metabolic typing, genomic and metatranscriptomic studies are more likely to show differences between these isolates. Thus, newer and more insightful methods are required to understand the ecological distribution of this complex group of bacteria.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa: disseminação de resistência antimicrobiana em efluente hospitalar e água superficial Pseudomonas aeruginosa: spread of antimicrobial resistance in hospital effluent and surface water
Daiane Bopp Fuentefria
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar amostras de efluente do Hospital São Vicente de Paulo com amostras de água do Rio Passo Fundo, quanto ao perfil de susceptibilidade de isolados de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, para inferir sobre a presença de isolados de origem hospitalar em amostras de água superficial. A significância estatística entre os perfis de susceptibilidade das amostras foi testada por análise de variância e a comparação das amostras foi feita por contrastes de interesse. Foram identificados 198 isolados de Pseudomonas aeruginosa a partir das amostras analisadas. O fenótipo de multirresistência não foi observado nas amostras do Rio Passo Fundo, embora alguns isolados resistentes a carbapenêmicos tenham sido identificados, indicando a presença de contaminação com bactérias provenientes de um ambiente sob forte pressão seletiva. Diferenças significativas entre as amostras de água e efluente hospitalar foram observadas a partir da análise de variância por contrastes de interesse.The aim of this study was to compare sewage samples from Hospital São Vicente de Paulo with water samples from the Passo Fundo river, with regard to the susceptibility profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, in order to make inferences about the presence of strains of hospital origin in surface water samples. The statistical significance between the susceptibility profiles of the samples was tested using analysis of variance, and the samples were compared by means of contrasts of interest. One hundred and ninety-eight isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were recovered from the samples analyzed. No phenotype for multiresistance was found in the samples from the Passo Fundo river, although some carbapenem-resistant isolates were identified, thereby indicating the presence of contamination with bacteria derived from an environment under strong selection pressure. Significant differences between the water and hospital effluent samples were
Taghreed A. Mohammad
Full Text Available The first aim of the present study was to diagnosis Pseudomonas aeruginosa by many tests. This study consisted "200 patients " who suffered from burn wound and compare with 100 health individuals (male and female as a control group, Vitek test was used to diagnose 118 (87 "local isolate ATCC 15692" with 31 other isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ((ATCC 15690, ATCC 15688 from 200 samples which were taken from burn patients. This result was similar to Analytical profile index ( API test (118 isolates of P. aeruginosa with 82 isolations of other bacteria. Then the detection P. aeruginosa isolate ATCC 15692 by new ELISA Technique and comparing its with modify the ordinary ELISA kit.
Giamarellou, H; Petrikkos, G
In vitro interactions of ciprofloxacin with imipenem and amikacin were evaluated by the killing-curve technique against 26 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains resistant to amikacin and resistant or moderately susceptible to ciprofloxacin and imipenem. Imipenem enhanced killing by ciprofloxacin in tests with 11 strains, whereas amikacin enhanced killing in tests with only 4 strains.
Full Text Available This work describes the experimental results carried out on the optimization of the fermentation media of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 44T1 which produces surface active products when grown on glucose as carbon source. Several parameters of the media have been found to be critical for the production of biosurfactants by this strain. The C/N ratio, the iron concentration and the incubation temperature cause a high increase of the CMC-1 values as a measure of surfactant production.En este trabajo se describen los resultados experimentales destinados a la optimización de la producción de biotensioactivos por Pseudomonas aeruginosa 44T1 en un medio mineral con glucosa como fuente de carbono. Se han ensayado diversos componentes del medio de cultivo y condiciones de incubación, siendo la relación C/N, la concentración de hierro así como la temperatura de incubación, los parámetros fundamentales que han incrementado los valores de CMC-1 como medida de la acumulación de tensioactivos.
Schaber, J. Andy; Triffo, W.J.; Suh, Sang J.; Oliver, Jeffrey W.; Hastert, Mary C.; Griswold, John A.; Auer, Manfred; Hamood, Abdul N.; Rumbaugh, Kendra P.
Biofilms are bacterial communities residing within a polysaccharide matrix that are associated with persistence and antibiotic resistance in chronic infections. We show that the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms biofilms within 8 hours of infection in thermally-injured mice, demonstrating that biofilms contribute to bacterial colonization in acute infections. P. aeruginosa biofilms were visualized within burned tissue surrounding blood vessels and adipose cells. Although quorum sensing (QS), a bacterial signaling mechanism, coordinates differentiation of biofilms in vitro, wild type and QS-deficient P. aeruginosa formed similar biofilms in vivo. Our findings demonstrate that P. aeruginosa forms biofilms on specific host tissues independent of QS.
Lima, Flavia Luna; Joazeiro, Paulo Pinto; Lancellotti, Marcelo; de Hollanda, Luciana Maria; de Araújo Lima, Bruna; Linares, Edlaine; Augusto, Ohara; Brocchi, Marcelo; Giorgio, Selma
The seriousness to treat burn wounds infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa led us to examine whether the effect of the carbapenem antibiotic imipenem is enhanced by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). The effects of HBO (100% O2, 3 ATA, 5 h) in combination with imipenen on bacterial counts of six isolates of P. aeruginosa and bacterial ultrastructure were investigated. Infected macrophages were exposed to HBO (100% O2, 3 ATA, 90 min) and the production of reactive oxygen species monitored. HBO enhanced the effects of imipenen. HBO increased superoxide anion production by macrophages and likely kills bacteria by oxidative mechanisms. HBO in combination with imipenem can be used to kill P. aeruginosa in vitro and such treatment may be beneficial for the patients with injuries containing the P. aeruginosa.
Thomsen, Kim; Christophersen, Lars; Jensen, Peter Østrup
Moderation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) as part of a critical defense against invading pathogens may offer a promising therapeutic approach to supplement the antibiotic eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in non-chronically infected cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We have...... observed that egg yolk antibodies (IgY) harvested from White leghorn chickens that target P. aeruginosa opsonize the pathogen and enhance the PMN-mediated respiratory burst and subsequent bacterial killing in vitro. The effects on PMN phagocytic activity were observed in different Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
Sendra, H; Murialdo, S; Passoni, L
This proposal deals with the technique for detection of motile response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using dynamic laser speckle or biospeckle as an alternative method. The study of bacterial displacement plays an essential role in biocatalysts processes and biodegradation. Hence, some biodegrading enzymes are benign catalytic that could be used for the production of industrially useful compounds as well as in wastewater treatments. This work presents an experimental set up and a computational process using frame sequences of dynamic laser speckle as a novel application. The objective was the detection of different levels of motility in bacteria. The encouraging results were achieved through a direct and non invasive observation method of the phenomenon
Pesquisa de Acinetobacter sp e Pseudomonas aeruginosa produtores de metalo-β-lactamase em hospital de emergência de Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Investigation of metallo-β-lactamase-producing Acinetobacter sp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at an emergency hospital in Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Vani Dos Santos Laranjeira
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O aparecimento de Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Acinetobacter sp produtores de metalo-β-lactamases (MBLs é um desafio para os hospitais. MÉTODOS: Verificou-se a produção de MBL em cepas clínicas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Acinetobacter sp de um hospital de emergência de Porto Alegre pelo método de aproximação de disco e E-test MBL. Os genes bla foram pesquisados pela PCR. RESULTADOS: Duas cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa e oito Acinetobacter sp demonstraram fenótipo de MBLs. A amplificação do gene blaSPM-1 confirmou a enzima em P. aeruginosa.. CONCLUSÕES: Deve-se ter cautela ao avaliar testes fenotípicos utilizados na detecção rotineira de metalo-enzima.INTRODUCTION: The appearance of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter sp. is a challenge for hospitals. METHODS: The production of MBL in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter sp. From an emergency hospital in Porto Alegre was investigated using the disk approximation test and MBL E-test. The bla genes were determined using PCR. RESULTS: Two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and eight of Acinetobacter sp were shown to be MBL phenotypes. Amplification of the blaSPM-1 gene confirmed the presence of the enzyme in P. aeruginosa. CONCLUSIONS: Caution is needed in evaluating phenotype tests used for routine detection of metallo-β-lactamases.
Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance has become the main deadly factor in infections, as bacteria can protect themselves by hiding in a self-constructed biofilm. Consequently, more attention is being paid to the search for “non-antibiotic drugs” to solve this problem. Phytoanticipins, the natural antibiotics from plants, could be a suitable alternative, but few works on this aspect have been reported. In this study, a preliminary study on the synergy between sodium houttuyfonate (SH and levofloxacin (LFX against the biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was performed. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of LFX and SH, anti-biofilm formation and synergistic effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and quantification of alginate were determined by the microdilution method, crystal violet (CV assay, checkerboard method, and hydroxybiphenyl colorimetry. The biofilm morphology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was observed by fluorescence microscope and scanning electric microscope (SEM. The results showed that: (i LFX and SH had an obvious synergistic effect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC values of 0.25 μg/mL and 128 μg/mL, respectively; (ii ½ × MIC SH combined with 2 × MIC LFX could suppress the biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa effectively, with up to 73% inhibition; (iii the concentration of alginate decreased dramatically by a maximum of 92% after treatment with the combination of antibiotics; and (iv more dead cells by fluorescence microscope and more removal of extracellular polymeric structure (EPS by SEM were observed after the combined treatment of LFX and SH. Our experiments demonstrate the promising future of this potent antimicrobial agent against biofilm-associated infections.
Sokolová, L.; Williamson, H.; Sýkora, Jan; Hof, Martin; Gray, H. B.; Brutschy, B.; Vlček, Antonín
Roč. 115, č. 16 (2011), s. 4790-4800 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10124; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : mass spectrometry * oligomers * pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin solutions Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.696, year: 2011
Freschi, Luca; Jeukens, Julie; Kukavica-Ibrulj, Irena
The International Pseudomonas aeruginosa Consortium is sequencing over 1000 genomes and building an analysis pipeline for the study of Pseudomonas genome evolution, antibiotic resistance and virulence genes. Metadata, including genomic and phenotypic data for each isolate of the collection, are a...... implicated in human and animal infections, understand how patients become infected and how the infection evolves over time as well as identify prognostic markers for better evidence-based decisions on patient care....
Bielecki, P.; Puchalka, J.; Wos-Oxley, M.L.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a threatening, opportunistic pathogen causing disease in immunocompromised individuals. The hallmark of P. aeruginosa virulence is its multi-factorial and combinatorial nature. It renders such bacteria infectious for many organisms and it is often resistant to antibiotics.
Full Text Available Partial purification and characterization of alkalophilic protease production from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from the gut of marine and coastal waters shrimp Penaeus monodon. The protease production was assayed in submerged fermentation to produce maximum protease activity (423 ± 0.09 U/ml. The enzyme was precipitated with ammonium sulphate and partially purified by ion exchange chromatography through DEAE Sephadex A-50 column. In 10th fraction showed maximum protease activity (734 ± 0.18 U/ml with increase in purification fold. The molecular weight of protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was recorded as 60 kDa. The stability of protease was tested at various pH and temperature; it showed maximum protease activity at pH-9 and temperature 50ºC. Among the various surfactants tested for enzyme stability, maximum activity was retained in poly ethylene glycol. The compatibility of protease enzyme with various commercial detergents; the enzyme retained maximum protease activity in tide. The results are indicated that all these properties make the bacterial proteases are most suitable for wide industrial applications.
Herrmann, G.; Yang, Liang; Wu, H.
Background. Antibiotic combination therapy might be more efficient than single antibiotics to combat Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis. We tested the ability of colistin sulphatetobramycin combinations and single antibiotics to kill P. aeruginosa...... biofilms. Methods. P. aeruginosa biofilms were generated in vitro and in rat lungs. In a pilot study, 5 patients with cystic fibrosis inhaled colistin and then tobramycin for 4 weeks. The changes in P. aeruginosa counts and lung function were assessed before and after therapy. Results. Antibiotic...... combination therapy significantly reduced the number of P. aeruginosa cells in P. aeruginosa biofilm models in vitro. When rats were challenged with 1 x 10(7) cfu of P. aeruginosa, which was embedded in alginate beads, mortality rates, lung pathologic findings, and bacterial colony-forming unit counts were...
O. A. Nazarchuk
Full Text Available Background. Infections caused by Pseudomonas are one of the topical issues of medicine. Objective. The aim of the research was to study sensityvity to antibiotics, antiseptics of P. aeruginosa clinical strains that cause infectious complications in patients with burns. Methods. Microbiological study of biological material, received from 435 patients with burns of the 3rd-4th stages (2011-2015 years. In early terms of burn disease 127 clinical strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated from patients. Standard methods were used to identify clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa by their morphological, tinctirial, culture and biochemical properties. The research of antimicrobial action of antiseptics, antibiotics against Pseudomonas were carried out by means of standard methods according to the Directive of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine (No. 167 from 05.04.2007 р. and guidelines of National Committee of Clinical and Laboratory Study (NCCLS, 2002. Results. It was established that P. aeruginosa caused infectious complications in 23.9% of patients among other pathogens. Clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were found to be low sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanate (30.76%, ceftazidime (25.92%, cefoperazonum/sulbactam (46.15%, aztreonam (51.85%, tobramycin (38.46%, amicacin (70.34%, doxiciclini (26.92%, fluoroquinolones (59.26%. The analitical progistic criteria of decrease of sensitivity to ceftazidime, cefepim, meropenem and gatifloxacin were found in P. aeruginosa. This pathogen was determined to be sensitive to decasan ®, antimicrobial composition of decamethoxine ®, iodine pvidone. Conclusions. Clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, being highly resistant to antibiotics, are also very sensitive to antiseptics decasan ®, antimicrobial of decamethoxine®, povidone iodine.
Lomholt, JA; Kilian, Mogens
keratitis, endophthalmitis, contact lens associated red eye (CLARE), and contact lens storage cases showed MIC values below 1 mg/l. Several allelic forms of gyrA and a single variation in the mexR gene product were detected in 10 ciprofloxacin susceptible strains. CONCLUSIONS: The vast majority of eye......AIM: To examine the ciprofloxacin susceptibility of 106 Pseudomonas aeruginosa eye isolates from the United Kingdom, Denmark, India, the United States, and Australia, and to determine the molecular mechanisms of resistance. METHODS: Ciprofloxacin susceptibility was tested by an agar dilution method...... isolates of P aeruginosa from European countries are fully susceptible to ciprofloxacin and the concentration of ciprofloxacin eye drops used for local treatment (3000 mg/l) exceeds MIC values for strains recorded as resistant. Mutations in more than one target gene were associated with higher MIC values....
Lomholt, JA; Kilian, Mogens
AIM: To examine the ciprofloxacin susceptibility of 106 Pseudomonas aeruginosa eye isolates from the United Kingdom, Denmark, India, the United States, and Australia, and to determine the molecular mechanisms of resistance. METHODS: Ciprofloxacin susceptibility was tested by an agar dilution method...... keratitis, endophthalmitis, contact lens associated red eye (CLARE), and contact lens storage cases showed MIC values below 1 mg/l. Several allelic forms of gyrA and a single variation in the mexR gene product were detected in 10 ciprofloxacin susceptible strains. CONCLUSIONS: The vast majority of eye...... isolates of P aeruginosa from European countries are fully susceptible to ciprofloxacin and the concentration of ciprofloxacin eye drops used for local treatment (3000 mg/l) exceeds MIC values for strains recorded as resistant. Mutations in more than one target gene were associated with higher MIC values....
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogenic micro-organism responsible for many hospital-acquired infections. It is able to adhere to solid surfaces and develop an immobilized community or so-called biofilm. Many studies have been focusing on the use of specific materials to prevent the formation of these biofilms, but the reactivity of the bacteria in contact to surfaces remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the abiotic surface on the physiology of adherent bacteria. Three different materials, stainless steel (SS, glass (G, and polystyrene (PS that were relevant to industrial or medical environments were characterized at the physicochemical level in terms of their hydrophobicity and roughness. We showed that SS was moderately hydrophilic and rough, potentially containing crevices, G was hydrophilic and smooth while PS was hydrophobic and smooth. We further showed that P. aeruginosa cells were more likely able to adhere to SS and G rather than PS surfaces under our experimental conditions. The physiological response of P. aeruginosa when adhering to each of these materials was then evaluated by global proteomic analysis. The abundance of 70 proteins was shown to differ between the materials suggesting that their abundance was modified as a function of the material to which bacteria adhered. Our data lead to enabling the identification of abundance patterns that appeared to be specific to a given surface. Taken together, our data showed that P. aeruginosa is capable of sensing and responding to a surface probably via specific programmes to adapt its physiological response accordingly.
Full Text Available This study reported the efficacy of the metabolites of Plectosphaerella cucumerina, one phyllosphere fungus from Orychophragmus violaceus, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS and QS-regulated biofilms. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc extract from P. cucumerina against P. aeruginosa PAO1 was 1.25 mg mL−1. At sub-MIC concentrations, P. cucumerina extract (0.25–1 mg mL−1 not only inhibited biofilm formation but also disrupted preformed biofilms of P. aeruginosa PAO1 without affecting its growth. Fluorescence and scanning electron microscope (SEM showed architectural disruption of the biofilms when treated with P. cucumerina metabolites. Further investigation demonstrated that metabolites in P. cucumerina attenuated the QS-dependent virulence factors. LC-MS/MS spectra coupled with experimentally standard samples suggested that patulin and emodin might act as the principal components possessing anti-biofilm and antivirulence activities. This is the first report of (1 the isolation of P. cucumerina from the phyllosphere of O. violaceus and (2 anti-biofilm, antivirulence, and biofilm disruption activities of this fungus. Thus, this study provides fascinating new pathways for screening antipathogenic agents.
Kolpen, Mette; Lerche, Christian J; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov
Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is characterized by the presence of endobronchial antibiotic-tolerant biofilm subject to strong oxygen (O2) depletion due to the activity of surrounding polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The exact mechanisms affecting the antibiotic susceptibility...... metabolism activity and the endogenous formation of reactive O2 radicals (ROS). In this study we aimed to apply hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) in order to sensitize anoxic P. aeruginosa agarose-biofilms established to mimic situations with intense O2 consumption by the host response in the cystic...... fibrosis (CF) lung. Application of HBOT resulted in enhanced bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin at clinically relevant durations and was accompanied by indications of restored aerobic respiration, involvement of endogenous lethal oxidative stress and increased bacterial growth. The findings highlight...
dendrimers would provide added benefits as a delivery vehicle of QSI compounds to inhibit PA biofilms, by both increasing the transport of QSI as drug...Pseudomonas aeruginosa Wound Infections by Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors Mediated by Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) Dendrimers PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Development of Topical Treatment for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Wound Infections by Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors Mediated by Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) Dendrimers
Kirienko, Natalia V; Kirienko, Daniel R; Larkins-Ford, Jonah; Wählby, Carolina; Ruvkun, Gary; Ausubel, Frederick M
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes serious human infections, but effective treatments and the mechanisms mediating pathogenesis remain elusive. Caenorhabditis elegans shares innate immune pathways with humans, making it invaluable to investigate infection. To determine how P. aeruginosa disrupts host biology, we studied how P. aeruginosa kills C. elegans in a liquid-based pathogenesis model. We found that P. aeruginosa-mediated killing does not require quorum-sensing pathways or host colonization. A chemical genetic screen revealed that iron chelators alleviate P. aeruginosa-mediated killing. Consistent with a role for iron in P. aeruginosa pathogenesis, the bacterial siderophore pyoverdin was required for virulence and was sufficient to induce a hypoxic response and death in the absence of bacteria. Loss of the C. elegans hypoxia-inducing factor HIF-1, which regulates iron homeostasis, exacerbated P. aeruginosa pathogenesis, further linking hypoxia and killing. As pyoverdin is indispensable for virulence in mice, pyoverdin-mediated hypoxia is likely to be relevant in human pathogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yang, Liang; Nilsson, Martin; Gjermansen, Morten
Using flow chamber-grown Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms as model system, we show in the present study that formation of heterogeneous biofilms may occur through mechanisms that involve complex subpopulation interactions. One example of this phenomenon is expression of the iron...
Kolmos, H J; Lerche, A; Kristoffersen, Kirsten Lydia
Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 8 consecutive patients undergoing bronchoscopy at an infectious diseases unit. None of the patients developed signs of respiratory tract infection that could be ascribed to the organism. The source of contamination...
Janssen, D.B.; Drift, C. van der
The formation of the allantoin-degrading enzymes allantoinase, allantoicase and ureidoglycolase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be regulated by induction, catabolite repression and nitrogen control. Induction was observed when urate, allantoin or allantoate were included in the growth medium,
Poole, K; Young, L; Neshat, S
A pyoverdine-deficient strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was unable to grow in an iron-deficient minimal medium in the presence of the nonmetabolizable iron chelator ethylene diamine-di(omega-hydroxyphenol acetic acid) (EDDHA), although addition of enterobactin to EDDHA-containing minimal media did restore growth of the pyoverdine-deficient P. aeruginosa. Consistent with the apparent ability of enterobactin to provide iron to P. aeruginosa, enterobactin-dependent 55Fe3+ uptake was observed in cells of P. aeruginosa previously grown in an iron-deficient medium containing enterobactin (or enterobactin-containing Escherichia coli culture supernatant). This uptake was energy dependent, was observable at low concentrations (60 nM) of FeCl3, and was absent in cells cultured without enterobactin. A novel protein with a molecular weight of approximately 80,000 was identified in the outer membranes of cells grown in iron-deficient minimal medium containing enterobactin, concomitant with the induction of enterobactin-dependent iron uptake. A Tn501 insertion mutant lacking this protein was isolated and shown to be deficient in enterobactin-mediated iron transport at 60 nM FeCl3, although it still exhibited enterobactin-dependent growth in iron-deficient medium containing EDDHA. It was subsequently observed that the mutant was, however, capable of enterobactin-mediated iron transport at much higher concentrations (600 nM) of FeCl3. Indeed, enterobactin-dependent iron uptake at this concentration of iron was observed in both the mutant and parent strains irrespective of whether they had been cultured in the presence of enterobactin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:2174865
Kokjohn, T.A.; Miller, R.V.
The recA gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO has been isolated and introduced into Escherichia coli K-12. Resistance to killing by UV irradiation was restored in several RecA-E. coli K-12 hosts by the P. aeruginosa gene, as was resistance to methyl methanesulfonate. Recombination proficiency was also restored, as measured by HfrH-mediated conjugation and by the ability to propagate Fec-phage lambda derivatives. The cloned P. aeruginosa recA gene restored both spontaneous and mitomycin C-stimulated induction of lambda prophage in lysogens of a recA strain of E. coli K-12.
Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, P. Ø.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg
The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant micro-organism of chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients. P. aeruginosa colonizes the lungs by forming biofilm microcolonies throughout the lung. Quorum sensing (QS) renders the biofilm bacteria highly tolerant......-treated biofilm. Garlic extract was administered as treatment for a mouse pulmonary infection model. Mice were treated with garlic extract or placebo for 7 days, with the initial 2 days being prophylactic before P. aeruginosa was instilled in the left lung of the mice. Bacteriology, mortality, histopathology...... and phagocytosis by PMNs, as well as leading to an improved outcome of pulmonary infections....
Full Text Available The emergence, persistence and spread of antibiotic-resistant human pathogenic bacteria heralds a growing global health crisis. Drug-resistant strains of gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are especially dangerous and the medical and economic burden they impose underscore the critical need for finding new antimicrobials. Recent studies have demonstrated that plant-expressed bacteriocins of the colicins family can be efficient antibacterials against all major enteropathogenic strains of E. coli. We extended our studies of colicin-like bacteriocins to pyocins, which are produced by strains of P. aeruginosa for ecological advantage against other strains of the same species. Using a plant-based transient expression system, we expressed six different pyocins, namely S5, PaeM, L1, L2, L3 and one new pyocin, PaeM4, and purified them to homogeneity. Among these pyocins, PaeM4 demonstrated the broadest spectrum of activity by controlling 53 of 100 tested clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa. The activity of plant-made pyocins was confirmed in the agar drop, liquid culture susceptibility and biofilm assays, and in the Galleria mellonella animal infection model.
Abd El-Aziz, M.; Badr, Y.; Mahmoud, M. A.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Consequently, Au NPs were formed due to reduction of gold ion by bacterial cell supernatant of P. aeruginos ATCC 90271, P. aeruginos (2) and P. aeruginos (1). The UV-Vis. and fluorescence spectra of the bacterial as well as chemical prepared Au NPs were recorded. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrograph showed the formation of well-dispersed gold nanoparticles in the range of 15-30 nm. The process of reduction being extracellular and may lead to the development of an easy bioprocess for synthesis of Au NPs
Miller, R.V.; Kokjohn, T.A.; Sayler, G.S.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is used as a model organism to study genome alteration in freshwater microbial populations and horizontal gene transmission by both transduction and conjugation has been demonstrated. The studies have also provided data which suggest that intracellular genome instability may be increased in the aquatic environment as a result of stresses encountered by the cell in this habitat. The role of the P. aeruginosa recA analog in regulating genome instability is also addressed
van der Plas, Mariena J A; Bhongir, Ravi K V; Kjellström, Sven
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen known for its immune evasive abilities amongst others by degradation of a large variety of host proteins. Here we show that digestion of thrombin by P. aeruginosa elastase leads to the release of the C-terminal thrombin-derived peptide FYT21...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an extracellular opportunistic pathogen, utilizes two major mechanisms to evade the host defence system. One of these mechanisms is the production of a large number of extracellular products, such as proteases, toxins, and lipases. The two proteases, alkaline protease and ...
Neut, D; Hendriks, JGE; van Horn, Jim R.; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ
Background Infection is an infrequent but serious complication of prosthetic joint surgery. These infections will usually not clear until the implant is removed and re-implantation has a high failure rate, especially when Pseudomonas aeruginosa is involved. Material and methods We examined
Kirienko, Natalia V; Ausubel, Frederick M; Ruvkun, Gary
In the arms race of bacterial pathogenesis, bacteria produce an array of toxins and virulence factors that disrupt core host processes. Hosts mitigate the ensuing damage by responding with immune countermeasures. The iron-binding siderophore pyoverdin is a key virulence mediator of the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but its pathogenic mechanism has not been established. Here we demonstrate that pyoverdin enters Caenorhabditis elegans and that it is sufficient to mediate host killing. Moreover, we show that iron chelation disrupts mitochondrial homeostasis and triggers mitophagy both in C. elegans and mammalian cells. Finally, we show that mitophagy provides protection both against the extracellular pathogen P. aeruginosa and to treatment with a xenobiotic chelator, phenanthroline, in C. elegans. Although autophagic machinery has been shown to target intracellular bacteria for degradation (a process known as xenophagy), our report establishes a role for authentic mitochondrial autophagy in the innate immune defense against P. aeruginosa.
Kammouni, W; Figarella, C; Baeza, N; Marchand, S; Merten, M D
Human tracheal gland (HTG) serous cells are now believed to play a major role in the physiopathology of cystic fibrosis. Because of the persistent inflammation and the specific infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lung, we looked for the action of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of this bacteria on human tracheal gland cells in culture by studying the secretion of the secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) which is a specific serous secretory marker of these cells. Treatment with Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase in the basal production of SLPI (+ 250 +/- 25%) whilst the SLPI transcript mRNA levels remained unchanged. This LPS-induced increase in secretion was inhibited by glucocorticoides. Furthermore, LPS treatment of HTG cells induces a loss of responsiveness to carbachol and isoproterenol but not to adenosine triphosphate. These findings indicate that HTG cells treated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS have the same behavior as those previously observed with CF-HTG cells. Exploration by using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction amplification showed that LPS downregulated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mRNA expression in HTG cells indicative of a link between CFTR function and consequent CF-like alteration in protein secretory process.
Tham, Heng L; Jacob, Megan E; Bizikova, Petra
An acute onset furunculosis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa following grooming is a well recognized entity. Although contaminated shampoos have been suspected to be the source of the infection, a molecular confirmation of this association has been missing. This case report describes a dog with postgrooming furunculosis in which Pseudomonas aeruginosa with an identical genetic fingerprint was isolated from the skin lesions as well as from the shampoo used prior to the disease onset. The dog presented for lethargy, anorexia, pain and rapidly progressing skin lesions consistent with haemorrhagic papules, pustules, coalescing ulcers and crusts localized to the dorsal and lateral aspects of the thorax and gluteal region, which developed within 24 h after a bath. Cytology demonstrated suppurative inflammation with occasional intracellular rod-shaped bacteria. Bacterial culture from skin lesions and the shampoo bottle yielded Pseudomonas aeruginosa with an identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. Treatment with oral ciprofloxacin and topical antimicrobial shampoo resulted in a complete resolution of skin lesions within eight weeks. Our clinical investigation suggests a link between Pseudomonas-contaminated shampoo and development of postgrooming furunculosis, and underscores the need for hygienic management of shampoos to help limit this disease. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.
Hernandez, D; Rowe, J J
Oxygen had an immediate and reversible inhibitory effect on nitrate respiration by denitrifying cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Inhibition of nitrate utilization by oxygen appeared to be at the level of nitrate uptake, since nitrate reduction to nitrite in cell extracts was not affected by oxygen. The degree of oxygen inhibition was dependent on the concentration of oxygen, and increasing nitrate concentrations could not overcome the inhibition. The inhibitory effect of oxygen was maximal...
Kasper, Stephen H; Bonocora, Richard P; Wade, Joseph T; Musah, Rabi Ann; Cady, Nathaniel C
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes multiple quorum sensing (QS) pathways to coordinate an arsenal of virulence factors. We previously identified several cysteine-based compounds inspired by natural products from the plant Petiveria alliacea which are capable of antagonizing multiple QS circuits as well as reducing P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. To understand the global effects of such compounds on virulence factor production and elucidate their mechanism of action, RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis was performed on P. aeruginosa PAO1 exposed to S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide, the most potent inhibitor from the prior study. Exposure to this inhibitor down-regulated expression of several QS-regulated virulence operons (e.g., phenazine biosynthesis, type VI secretion systems). Interestingly, many genes that were differentially regulated pertain to the related metabolic pathways that yield precursors of pyochelin, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, phenazines, and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS). Activation of the MexT-regulon was also indicated, including the multidrug efflux pump encoded by mexEF-oprN, which has previously been shown to inhibit QS and pathogenicity. Deeper investigation of the metabolites involved in these systems revealed that S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide has structural similarity to kynurenine, a precursor of anthranilate, which is critical for P. aeruginosa virulence. By supplementing exogenous anthranilate, the QS-inhibitory effect was reversed. Finally, it was shown that S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide competitively inhibits P. aeruginosa kynureninase (KynU) activity in vitro and reduces PQS production in vivo. The kynurenine pathway has been implicated in P. aeruginosa QS and virulence factor expression; however, this is the first study to show that targeted inhibition of KynU affects P. aeruginosa gene expression and QS, suggesting a potential antivirulence strategy.
Gamero Delgado, M C; García-Mayorgas, A D; Rodríguez, F; Ibarra, A; Casal, M
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic microorganism that is frequently the cause of nosocomial infections. Multiple mechanisms are involved in its natural and acquired resistance to many of the antimicrobial agents commonly used in clinical practice. The objective of this study was to assess the susceptibility and resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa strains isolated in Hospital Reina Sofia between 2000 and 2005, as well as to analyze the differences between intrahospital and extrahospital isolates in 2005 and to compare the results with those obtained in other studies. A total of 3,019 strains of P. aeruginosa from different hospitals and nonhospital settings were evaluated, taking into consideration their degree of sensitivity to different antibiotics. The MICs were determined by means of the Wider I automated system (Soria Melguizo), taking into consideration the criteria of susceptibility and resistance recommended by MENSURA. Results of the analysis showed that P. aeruginosa maintained similar levels of antimicrobial susceptibility during the period 2000-2005, with increased susceptibility to amikacin, gentamicin and tobramycin. There were also important differences in the degree of susceptibility between intrahospital and extrahospital strains, except for imipenem and fosfomycin. The intrahospital difference in susceptibility was also evaluated, emphasizing the importance of periodically studying susceptibility and resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa in each setting in order to evaluate different therapeutic guidelines, as it is not always advisable to extrapolate data from different regions. These differences can be explained by the different use of antibiotics in each center and the geographic variations of the resistance mechanisms of P. aeruginosa.
Andersen, A S; Joergensen, B; Bjarnsholt, T
Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) is widely used for debridement of chronic infected wounds; however, for wounds harbouring specific bacteria limited effect or failure of the treatment has been described. Here we studied the survival of Lucilia sericata maggots encountering Pseudomonas aeruginosa...... PAO1 in a simple assay with emphasis on the quorum-sensing (QS)-regulated virulence. The maggots were challenged with GFP-tagged P. aeruginosa wild-type (WT) PAO1 and a GFP-tagged P. aeruginosa DeltalasR rhlR (DeltaRR) QS-deficient mutant in different concentrations. Maggots were killed...
Flemming, CA; Palmer, RJ; Arrage, AA; van der Mei, H.C.; White, DC
The hydrophobic and electrostatic characteristics of bacterial cell surfaces were compared with attachment proclivity and biomass accumulation over time between wildtype Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotype O6 (possesses A and B band LPS), and three LPS-deficient mutants, vi;. A28 (A(+)B(-)), R5
Rybtke, Morten T.; Borlee, Bradley R.; Murakami, Keiji
The increased tolerance toward the host immune system and antibiotics displayed by biofilm-forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other bacteria in chronic infections such as cystic fibrosis bronchopneumonia is of major concern. Targeting of biofilm formation is believed to be a key aspect in the dev...
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen and one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. The difficulty in treatment of pseudomonas infections arises from being multidrug resistant (MDR and exhibits resistance to most antimicrobial agents due to the expression of different mechanisms overcoming their effects. Of these resistance mechanisms, the active efflux pumps in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that belong to the resistance nodulation division (RND plays a very important role in extruding the antibiotics outside the bacterial cells providing a protective means against their antibacterial activity. Beside its role against the antimicrobial agents, these pumps can extrude biocides, detergents, and other metabolic inhibitors. It is clear that efflux pumps can be targets for new antimicrobial agents. Peptidomimetic compounds such as phenylalanine arginyl β-naphthylamide (PAβN have been introduced as efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs; their mechanism of action is through competitive inhibition with antibiotics on the efflux pump resulting in increased intracellular concentration of antibiotic, hence, restoring its antibacterial activity. The advantage of EPIs is the difficulty to develop bacterial resistance against them, but the disadvantage is their toxic property hindering their clinical application. The structure activity relationship of these compounds showed other derivatives from PAβN that are higher in their activity with higher solubility in biological fluids and decreased toxicity level. This raises further questions on how can we compact Pseudomonas infections. Of particular importance, the recent resurgence in the use of older antibiotics such as polymyxins and probably applying stricter control measures in order to prevent their spread in clinical sittings.
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to intrinsic antibiotic resistance and the propensity of this pathogen to accumulate diverse resistance mechanisms. Hyperexpression of efflux pumps of the Resistance-Nodulation-Division-type multidrug efflux pumps (e.g. MexAB-OprM, chromosomally encoded by mexAB-oprM, mexCD-oprJ, mexEF-oprN, and mexXY (-oprA is often detected in clinical isolates and contributes to worrying multi-drug resistance phenotypes.Not all antibiotics are affected to the same extent by the aforementioned RND efflux pumps. The impact of efflux on antibiotic activity varies not only between different classes of antibiotics but also between members of the same family of antibiotics. Subtle differences in physicochemical features of compound-pump and compound-solvent interactions largely determine how compounds are affected by efflux activity.The combination of different high-resolution techniques helps to gain insight into the functioning of these molecular machineries. This review discusses substrate recognition patterns based on experimental evidence and computer simulations with a focus on MexB, the pump subunit of the main RND transporter in P. aeruginosa.
Glícia Maria Torres Calazans
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa é conhecida por sua versatilidade metabólica e extrema capacidade de adaptação a diferentes ambientes, inclusive aquáticos. Para desinfecção de águas, o cloro e agentes que contêm cloro continuam sendo os mais usados no mundo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência ao cloro de linhagens de P. aeruginosa, isoladas de amostras de águas de diversos ambientes. Foram testados diferentes tempos de contato (1, 5, 10, 20, 30 e 40 minutos e soluções aquosas de cloro, com concentrações definidascom base na legislação vigente no país para água potável: 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 ppm. O teste de resistência ao cloro foi desenvolvido por meio da exposição direta das bactérias às soluções. Os resultados revelaram que P. aeruginosa, isoladas de diferentes fontes de água, têm ahabilidade de sobreviver a diferentes concentrações de cloro. Na concentração de 1 ppm, a maioria das linhagens não foi inibida. As linhagens mais resistentes ao cloro também apresentaram relação de multirresistência à maioria dos antibióticos testados.The nutritional versatility and the adaptability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to different environments, including water, are well known. Chlorine and other chlorine agents are used as water disinfecting all around the world. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible chlorine resistance amongst P. aeruginosa strains isolated from different aquatic sources by using different contact time (1, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes in solutions with known chlorine concentrations according current legislation in the country to potable water: 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 ppm. The chlorine resistance test was done by direct exposure of P. aeruginosa under a solution with known chlorine concentration. Results showed that P. aeruginosa strains isolated from different aquatic sources are able tosurvive in different chlorine concentrations. At 1 ppm, most of them were not inhibited. It was also observed
Full Text Available AIM: To explore the feasibility, safety and effect of the full-thickness lamellar keratoplasty for the treatment of pseudomonas aeruginosa corneal ulcer. METHODS: Based on a retrospective non-controlled study, 25 patients were given the full-thickness lamellar keratoplasty for clinical diagnosis of pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and corneal ulcer medication conventional anti-gram-negative bacteria. Routine follow-up were carried out at postoperative 1wk; 1, 3, 6, 12, 18mo to observe the situation of corneal epithelial healing, recurrent infection, immune rejection, graft transparency and best corrected visual acuity, etc. At the 6 and 12mo postoperative, corneal endothelial cell density was reexamined.RESULTS: No patients because of Descemet's membrane rupture underwent penetrating keratoplasty surgery: One only in cases of bacterial infection after 1mo, once again did not cultivate a culture of bacteria pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the remaining 24 cases average follow-up 14±6mo, corneal graft were transparent, the cure rate was 96%. At the sixth month after surgery, there were 16 cases of eye surgery best corrected visual acuity ≥4.5, of which 3 cases ≥4.8. At the sixth month after surgery, the average corneal endothelial cell density 2 425±278/mm2; At 12mo postoperatively, it was 2 257± 326/mm2.CONCLUSION: Full-thickness lamellar keratoplasty is an effective method of pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the treatment of corneal ulcers, corneal drying material glycerol can be achieved by visual effects.
Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup
Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have increased susceptibility to chronic lung infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but the ecophysiology within the CF lung during infections is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate the in vivo growth physiology of P. aeruginosa within lungs...... of chronically infected CF patients. A novel, quantitative peptide nucleic acid (PNA) fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH)-based method was used to estimate the in vivo growth rates of P. aeruginosa directly in lung tissue samples from CF patients and the growth rates of P. aeruginosa in infected lungs...... in a mouse model. The growth rate of P. aeruginosa within CF lungs did not correlate with the dimensions of bacterial aggregates but showed an inverse correlation to the concentration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) surrounding the bacteria. A growth-limiting effect on P. aeruginosa by PMNs was also...
Goeminne Pieter C
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Chronic pulmonary infection is the hallmark of Cystic Fibrosis lung disease. Searching for faster and easier screening may lead to faster diagnosis and treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa. Our aim was to analyze and build a model to predict the presence of P. aeruginosa in sputa. Methods Sputa from 28 bronchiectatic patients were used for bacterial culturing and analysis of volatile compounds by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Data analysis and model building were done by Partial Least Squares Regression Discriminant analysis (PLS-DA. Two analysis were performed: one comparing P. aeruginosa positive with negative cultures at study visit (PA model and one comparing chronic colonization according to the Leeds criteria with P. aeruginosa negative patients (PACC model. Results The PA model prediction of P. aeruginosa presence was rather poor, with a high number of false positives and false negatives. On the other hand, the PACC model was stable and explained chronic P. aeruginosa presence for 95% with 4 PLS-DA factors, with a sensitivity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 86% and a negative predictive value of 100%. Conclusion Our study shows the potential for building a prediction model for the presence of chronic P. aeruginosa based on volatiles from sputum.
Wendy E Kaman
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a number of proteases that are associated with virulence and disease progression. A substrate able to detect P. aeruginosa-specific proteolytic activity could help to rapidly alert clinicians to the virulence potential of individual P. aeruginosa strains. For this purpose we designed a set of P. aeruginosa-specific fluorogenic substrates, comprising fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET-labeled peptides, and evaluated their applicability to P. aeruginosa virulence in a range of clinical isolates. A FRET-peptide comprising three glycines (3xGly was found to be specific for the detection of P. aeruginosa proteases. Further screening of 97 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates showed a wide variation in 3xGly cleavage activity. The absence of 3xGly degradation by a lasI knock out strain indicated that 3xGly cleavage by P. aeruginosa could be quorum sensing (QS-related, a hypothesis strengthened by the observation of a strong correlation between 3xGly cleavage, LasA staphylolytic activity and pyocyanin production. Additionally, isolates able to cleave 3xGly were more susceptible to the QS inhibiting antibiotic azithromycin (AZM. In conclusion, we designed and evaluated a 3xGly substrate possibly useful as a simple tool to predict virulence and AZM susceptibility.
Luyt, Charles-Edouard; Aubry, Alexandra; Lu, Qin; Micaelo, Maïté; Bréchot, Nicolas; Brossier, Florence; Brisson, Hélène; Rouby, Jean-Jacques; Trouillet, Jean-Louis; Combes, Alain; Jarlier, Vincent; Chastre, Jean
Only limited data exist on Pseudomonas aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) treated with imipenem, meropenem, or doripenem. Therefore, we conducted a prospective observational study in 169 patients who developed Pseudomonas aeruginosa VAP. Imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem MICs for Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were determined using Etests and compared according to the carbapenem received. Among the 169 isolates responsible for the first VAP episode, doripenem MICs were lower (Pimipenem and meropenem (MIC50s, 0.25, 2, and 0.38, respectively); 61%, 64%, and 70% were susceptible to imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem, respectively (P was not statistically significant). Factors independently associated with carbapenem resistance were previous carbapenem use (within 15 days) and mechanical ventilation duration before VAP onset. Fifty-six (33%) patients had at least one VAP recurrence, and 56 (33%) died. Factors independently associated with an unfavorable outcome (recurrence or death) were a high day 7 sequential organ failure assessment score and mechanical ventilation dependency on day 7. Physicians freely prescribed a carbapenem to 88 patients: imipenem for 32, meropenem for 24, and doripenem for 32. The remaining 81 patients were treated with various antibiotics. Imipenem-, meropenem-, and doripenem-treated patients had similar VAP recurrence rates (41%, 25%, and 22%, respectively; P=0.15) and mortality rates (47%, 25%, and 22%, respectively; P=0.07). Carbapenem resistance emerged similarly among patients treated with any carbapenem. No carbapenem was superior to another for preventing carbapenem resistance emergence.
Shen, Jiangsheng; Meldrum, Allison; Poole, Keith
Alignment of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa ferric pyoverdine receptor, FpvA, with similar ferric-siderophore receptors revealed that the mature protein carries an extension of ca. 70 amino acids at its N terminus, an extension shared by the ferric pseudobactin receptors of P. putida. Deletion of fpvA from the chromosome of P. aeruginosa reduced pyoverdine production in this organism, as a result of a decline in expression of genes (e.g., pvdD) associated with the biosynthesis of the pyoverdine peptide moiety. Wild-type fpvA restored pvd expression in the mutant, thereby complementing its pyoverdine deficiency, although a deletion derivative of fpvA encoding a receptor lacking the N terminus of the mature protein did not. The truncated receptor was, however, functional in pyoverdine-mediated iron uptake, as evidenced by its ability to promote pyoverdine-dependent growth in an iron-restricted medium. These data are consistent with the idea that the N-terminal extension plays a role in FpvA-mediated pyoverdine biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa.
Osipiuk, Jerzy; Xu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Savchenko, Alexei; Edwards, Aled; Joachimiak, Andrzej
The Type VI secretion pathway transports proteins across the cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic Gram-negative bacterial pathogen infecting humans, uses the type VI secretion pathway to export specific effector proteins crucial for its pathogenesis. The HSI-I virulence locus encodes for several proteins that has been proposed to participate in protein transport including the Hcp1 protein, which forms hexameric rings that assemble into nanotubes in vitro. Two Hcp1 paralogues have been identified in the P. aeruginosa genome, Hsp2 and Hcp3. Here, we present the structure of the Hcp3 protein from P. aeruginosa. The overall structure of the monomer resembles Hcp1 despite the lack of amino-acid sequence similarity between the two proteins. The monomers assemble into hexamers similar to Hcp1. However, instead of forming nanotubes in head-to-tail mode like Hcp1, Hcp3 stacks its rings in head-to-head mode forming double-ring structures.
Studemeister, A E; Quinn, J P
The permeability of the outer membranes of imipenem-susceptible and imipenem-resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated by the liposome swelling assay. Sugars and cephaloridine penetrated rapidly, whereas imipenem penetrated poorly into liposomes constructed from porin-rich outer membrane fractions of the resistant isolates.
In laboratory studies, the soil isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa CHL004 (Vesper et al 1996) has been found to concentrated Pb2+ in the cytoplasm by formation of particles that contain Pb2+ and phosphorus. Upon examination of the washed lyophilized cells grown in the presence of lea...
Goldufsky, Josef; Wood, Stephen J; Jayaraman, Vijayakumar; Majdobeh, Omar; Chen, Lin; Qin, Shanshan; Zhang, Chunxiang; DiPietro, Luisa A; Shafikhani, Sasha H
Diabetic foot ulcers are responsible for more hospitalizations than any other complication of diabetes. Bacterial infection is recognized as an important factor associated with impaired healing in diabetic ulcers. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most frequently detected Gram-negative pathogen in diabetic ulcers. P. aeruginosa infection has been shown to impair healing in diabetic wounds in a manner that correlates with its ability to form biofilm. While the majority of infections in diabetic ulcers are biofilm associated, 33% of infections are nonbiofilm in nature. P. aeruginosa is the most prevalent Gram-negative pathogen in all diabetic wound types, which suggests that the deleterious impact of P. aeruginosa on healing in diabetic wounds goes beyond its ability to form biofilm and likely involves other factors. The Type III Secretion System (T3SS) virulence structure is required for the pathogenesis of all P. aeruginosa clinical isolates, suggesting that it may also play a role in the inhibition of wound repair in diabetic skin ulcers. We evaluated the role of T3SS in mediating P. aeruginosa-induced tissue damage in the wounds of diabetic mice. Our data demonstrate that P. aeruginosa establishes a robust and persistent infection in diabetic wounds independent of its ability to form biofilm and causes severe wound damage in a manner that primarily depends on its T3SS. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.
Evans, David J.; Fleiszig, Suzanne M. J.
Purpose To provide our perspective on why the cornea is resistant to infection based on our research results with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Perspective We focus on our current understanding of the interplay between bacteria, tear fluid and the corneal epithelium that determine health as the usual outcome, and propose a theoretical model for how contact lens wear might change those interactions to enable susceptibility to P. aeruginosa infection. Methods Use of “null-infection” in vivo models, cultured human corneal epithelial cells, contact lens-wearing animal models, and bacterial genetics help to elucidate mechanisms by which P. aeruginosa survive at the ocular surface, adheres, and traverses multilayered corneal epithelia. These models also help elucidate the molecular mechanisms of corneal epithelial innate defense. Results and Discussion Tear fluid and the corneal epithelium combine to make a formidable defense against P. aeruginosa infection of the cornea. Part of that defense involves the expression of antimicrobials such as β-defensins, the cathelicidin LL-37, cytokeratin-derived antimicrobial peptides, and RNase7. Immunomodulators such as SP-D and ST2 also contribute. Innate defenses of the cornea depend in part on MyD88, a key adaptor protein of TLR and IL-1R signaling, but the basal lamina represents the final barrier to bacterial penetration. Overcoming these defenses involves P. aeruginosa adaptation, expression of the type three secretion system, proteases, and P. aeruginosa biofilm formation on contact lenses. Conclusion After more than two decades of research focused on understanding how contact lens wear predisposes to P. aeruginosa infection, our working hypothesis places blame for microbial keratitis on bacterial adaptation to ocular surface defenses, combined with changes to the biochemistry of the corneal surface caused by trapping bacteria and tear fluid against the cornea under the lens. PMID:23601656
Norman, Anders; Ciofu, Oana; Amador Hierro, Cristina Isabel
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen associated with chronic pulmonary infections and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of stable mucoid P. aeruginosa strain DK1-NH57388A, a CF isolate which has previously been used...
Jensen, E T; Giwercman, B; Ojeniyi, B
Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients often suffer from Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection yet the source of this organism is not known. In order to determine whether CF patients might be contaminated with P. aeruginosa from dental equipment, a total of 103 water samples from 25 dental sessions...... samples (5.5%) from nine sessions (11%) were positive for P. aeruginosa. In one case, genotypically identical (RFLP, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) P. aeruginosa strains were found both in water from the dental equipment and in the CF patients sputum. This indicates a small risk for acquiring P...
Full Text Available Honey has a complex chemistry, and its broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity varies with floral source, climate, and harvesting conditions. Methylglyoxal was identified as the dominant antibacterial component of manuka honey. Although it has been known that methylglyoxal has antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, there is not much information describing its activity against gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we report the effect of methylglyoxal against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP using 53 clinically isolated strains. We also assessed the effect of deleting the five multidrug efflux systems in P. aeruginosa, as well as the efflux systems in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, on MICs of methylglyoxal. Our results indicate that methylglyoxal inhibits the growth of MDRP at concentrations of 128–512 µg/ml (1.7–7.1 mM and is not recognized by drug efflux systems.
Full Text Available The quorum sensing (QS circuit plays a role in the precise regulation of genes controlling virulence factors and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. QS-controlled biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in clinical settings has remained controversial due to emerging drug resistance; therefore, screening diverse compounds for anti-biofilm or anti-QS activities is important. This study demonstrates the ability of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs of baicalin, an active natural compound extracted from the traditional Chinese medicinal Scutellaria baicalensis, to inhibit the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and enhance the bactericidal effects of various conventional antibiotics in vitro. In addition, baicalin exerted dose-dependent inhibitory effects on virulence phenotypes (LasA protease, LasB elastase, pyocyanin, rhamnolipid, motilities and exotoxin A regulated by QS in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, the expression levels of QS-regulatory genes, including lasI, lasR, rhlI, rhlR, pqsR and pqsA, were repressed after sub-MIC baicalin treatment, resulting in significant decreases in the QS signaling molecules 3-oxo-C12-HSL and C4-HSL, confirming the ability of baicalin-mediated QS inhibition to alter gene and protein expression. In vivo experiments indicated that baicalin treatment reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenicity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Greater worm survival in the baicalin-treated group manifested as an increase in the LT50 from 24 to 96 h. In a mouse peritoneal implant infection model, baicalin treatment enhanced the clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the implants of mice infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared with the control group. Moreover, the combination of baicalin and antibiotics significantly reduced the numbers of colony-forming units in the implants to a significantly greater degree than antibiotic treatment alone. Pathological and histological analyses revealed
Cao, Huiluo; Lai, Yong; Bougouffa, Salim; Xu, Zeling; Yan, Aixin
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was isolated from a hospital blood specimen in 1971 and has been widely used as a model strain to survey antibiotics susceptibilities, biofilm development, and metabolic activities of Pseudomonas spp.. Although four
Torres, Iviana M; Demirdjian, Sally; Vargas, Jennifer; Goodale, Britton C; Berwin, Brent
Bacterial infection can lead to acidosis of the local microenvironment, which is believed to exacerbate disease pathogenesis; however, the mechanisms by which changes in pH alter disease progression are poorly understood. We test the hypothesis that acidosis enhances respiratory epithelial cell death in response to infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Our findings support the idea that acidosis in the context of P. aeruginosa infection results in increased epithelial cell cytotoxicity due to ExoU intoxication. Importantly, enforced maintenance of neutral pH during P. aeruginosa infection demonstrates that cytotoxicity is dependent on the acidosis. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms revealed that host cell cytotoxicity correlated with increased bacterial survival during an acidic infection that was due to reduced bactericidal activity of host-derived antimicrobial peptides. These findings extend previous reports that the activities of antimicrobial peptides are pH-dependent and provide novel insights into the consequences of acidosis on infection-derived pathology. Therefore, this report provides the first evidence that physiological levels of acidosis increase the susceptibility of epithelial cells to acute Pseudomonas infection and demonstrates the benefit of maintaining pH homeostasis during a bacterial infection. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Jeganathan, Lakshmi Priya; Prakash, Logambiga; Neelamegam, Sivakumar; Antony, Aju; Alqarawi, Sami; Prajna, Lalitha; Devarajan, Bharanidharan; Mohankumar, Vidyarani
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are difficult to treat due to the presence of a multitude of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. aeruginosa BK1, an invasive and multidrug-resistant strain
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is responsible for numerous bloodstream infections associated with severe adverse outcomes in case of inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy. The present study was aimed to develop a novel quantitative PCR (qPCR assay, using ecfX as the specific target gene, for the rapid and accurate identification of P. aeruginosa from positive blood cultures (BCs. Methods Over the period August 2008 to June 2009, 100 BC bottles positive for gram-negative bacilli were tested in order to evaluate performances of the qPCR technique with conventional methods as gold standard (i.e. culture and phenotypic identification. Results Thirty-three strains of P. aeruginosa, 53 strains of Enterobactericaeae, nine strains of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and two other gram-negative species were isolated while 3 BCs were polymicrobial including one mixture containing P. aeruginosa. All P. aeruginosa clinical isolates were detected by qPCR except a single strain in mixed culture. Performances of the qPCR technique were: specificity, 100%; positive predictive value, 100%; negative predictive value, 98.5%; and sensitivity, 97%. Conclusions This reliable technique may offer a rapid (
Fong, July; Yuan, Mingjun; Jakobsen, Tim Holm
Since its discovery 22 years ago, the bacterial cell-to-cell communication system, termed quorum sensing (QS), has shown potential as antipathogenic target. Previous studies reported that ajoene from garlic inhibits QS in opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, screening...
Hmelo, Laura R; Borlee, Bradley R; Almblad, Henrik
Allelic exchange is an efficient method of bacterial genome engineering. This protocol describes the use of this technique to make gene knockouts and knock-ins, as well as single-nucleotide insertions, deletions and substitutions, in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Unlike other approaches to allelic exch...
Gorbunova, S.A.; Yanenko, A.S.; Akhverdyan, V.Z.; Reulets, M.A.; Krylov, V.N.
Expression of the genomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa transposable phages (TP) in the cells of a heterologous host, P. putida PpGl, was studied. A high efficiency of TP lytic growth in PpGl cells was obtained both after zygotic induction following RP4::TP plasmid transfer and after thermoinduction of PpGl cells lysogenic for thermoinducible prophage D3112cts15. Characteristic for PpGl cells was a high TP yield (20-25 phage D3112cts15 particles per cell), which was evidence of a high level of TP transposition in cells of this species. The frequency of RP4::TP transfer into PpGl and PA01 cells was equal, but the lysogeny detection rat was somewhat lower in PpGl. Pseudomonas aeruginosa TP can integrate into the PpGl chromosome, producing inducible lysogens. The presence of RP4 is not necessary for the expression of the TP genome in PpGl cells. The D3112cts15 TP may be used for interspecific transduction of plasmids and chromosomal markers.
Gorbunova, S.A.; Yanenko, A.S.; Akhverdyan, V.Z.; Reulets, M.A.; Krylov, V.N.
Expression of the genomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa transposable phages (TP) in the cells of a heterologous host, P. putida PpGl, was studied. A high efficiency of TP lytic growth in PpGl cells was obtained both after zygotic induction following RP4::TP plasmid transfer and after thermoinduction of PpGl cells lysogenic for thermoinducible prophage D3112cts15. Characteristic for PpGl cells was a high TP yield (20-25 phage D3112cts15 particles per cell), which was evidence of a high level of TP transposition in cells of this species. The frequency of RP4::TP transfer into PpGl and PA01 cells was equal, but the lysogeny detection rat was somewhat lower in PpGl. Pseudomonas aeruginosa TP can integrate into the PpGl chromosome, producing inducible lysogens. The presence of RP4 is not necessary for the expression of the TP genome in PpGl cells. The D3112cts15 TP may be used for interspecific transduction of plasmids and chromosomal markers
Thomsen, K.; Christophersen, L.; Bjarnsholt, T.
Background: Oral prophylactic therapy by gargling with pathogen-specific egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) may reduce the initial airway colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. IgY antibodies impart passive immunization and we investigated the effects of anti......-P. aeruginosa IgY antibodies on bacterial eradication in a murine pneumonia model. Methods: P. aeruginosa pneumonia was established in Balb/c mice and the effects of prophylactic IgY administration on lung bacteriology, clinical parameters and subsequent inflammation were compared to controls. Results......: Prophylactic administration of IgY antibodies targeting P. aeruginosa significantly reduced the bacterial burden by 2-log 24 h post-infection compared to controls and was accompanied by significantly reduced clinical symptom scores and successive inflammatory cytokine profile indicative of diminished lung...
Kotnik Pirš, Ana; Krivec, Uroš; Simčič, Saša; Seme, Katja
The aim of this study was to assess whether serology and spirometry and the combination of both can complement culture-based detection for earlier recognition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in children with cystic fibrosis. A 4 year longitudinal prospective study that included 67 Slovenian children with cystic fibrosis with a mean age of 10.5 years was conducted. Serology, spirometry and a scoring system combining serology and spirometry were assessed and compared. Infection was confirmed with isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from respiratory samples. There was a significantly positive correlation between serology and the combination of serology and spirometry and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolation (P spirometry and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolation (P spirometry the highest sensitivity (0.90). Both had a high negative predictive value (0.93 and 0.79 respectively). Using serology and the combination of serology and lung function measurement can be beneficial for earlier detection of infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in children with cystic fibrosis when done simultaneously with standard culture-based detection from respiratory samples.
Dallidis, Stylianos E; Karafyllidis, Ioannis G
To coordinate their behavior and virulence and to synchronize attacks against their hosts, bacteria communicate by continuously producing signaling molecules (called autoinducers) and continuously monitoring the concentration of these molecules. This communication is controlled by biological circuits called quorum sensing (QS) circuits. Recently QS circuits and have been recognized as an alternative target for controlling bacterial virulence and infections without the use of antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects insects, plants, animals and humans and can cause acute infections. This bacterium has three interconnected QS circuits that form a very complex and versatile QS system, the operation of which is still under investigation. Here we use Boolean networks to model the complete QS system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and we simulate and analyze its operation in both synchronous and asynchronous modes. The state space of the QS system is constructed and it turned out to be very large, hierarchical, modular and scale-free. Furthermore, we developed a simulation tool that can simulate gene knock-outs and study their effect on the regulons controlled by the three QS circuits. The model and tools we developed will give to life scientists a deeper insight to this complex QS system.
Koeva, Martina; Gutu, Alina D; Hebert, Wesley; Wager, Jeffrey D; Yonker, Lael M; O'Toole, George A; Ausubel, Frederick M; Moskowitz, Samuel M; Joseph-McCarthy, Diane
Bacterial persisters are a quasidormant subpopulation of cells that are tolerant to antibiotic treatment. The combination of the aminoglycoside tobramycin with fumarate as an antibacterial potentiator utilizes an antipersister strategy that is aimed at reducing recurrent Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections by enhancing the killing of P. aeruginosa persisters. Stationary-phase cultures of P. aeruginosa were used to generate persister cells. A range of tobramycin concentrations was tested with a range of metabolite concentrations to determine the potentiation effect of the metabolite under a variety of conditions, including a range of pH values and in the presence of azithromycin or cystic fibrosis (CF) patient sputum. In addition, 96-well dish biofilm and colony biofilm assays were performed, and the cytotoxicity of the tobramycin-fumarate combination was determined utilizing a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Enhanced killing of up to 6 orders of magnitude of P. aeruginosa persisters over a range of CF isolates, including mucoid and nonmucoid strains, was observed for the tobramycin-fumarate combination compared to killing with tobramycin alone. Furthermore, significant fumarate-mediated potentiation was seen in the presence of azithromycin or CF patient sputum. Fumarate also reduced the cytotoxicity of tobramycin-treated P. aeruginosa to human epithelial airway cells. Finally, in mucoid and nonmucoid CF isolates, complete eradication of P. aeruginosa biofilm was observed in the colony biofilm assay due to fumarate potentiation. These data suggest that a combination of tobramycin with fumarate as an antibacterial potentiator may be an attractive therapeutic for eliminating recurrent P. aeruginosa infections in CF patients through the eradication of bacterial persisters. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Emam, Aufaugh; Carter, William G; Lingwood, Clifford
Internalization of PAK strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa into human respiratory epithelial cell lines and HeLa cervical cancer cells in vitro was readily demonstrable via a gentamycin protection assay. Depletion of target cell glycosphingolipids (GSLs) using a glucosyl ceramide synthase inhibitor, P4, completely prevented P. aeruginosa internalization. In contrast, P4 treatment had no effect on the internalization of Salmonella typhimurium into HeLa cells. Internalized P. aeruginosa were within membrane vacuoles, often containing microvesicles, between the bacterium and the limiting membrane. P. aeruginosa internalization was markedly enhanced by target cell pretreatment with the exogenous GSL, deacetyl gangliotetraosyl ceramide (Gg4). Gg4 binds the lipid raft marker, GM1 ganglioside. Target cell pretreatment with TLCK, but not other (serine) protease inhibitors, prevented both P. aeruginosa host cell binding and internalization. NFkB inhibition also prevented internalization. A GSL-containing lipid-raft model of P. aeruginosa host cell binding/internalization is proposed PMID:21270937
Hashem, Hany; Hanora, Amro; Abdalla, Salah; Shawky, Alaa; Saad, Alaa
Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a serious concern for antimicrobial therapy, as the common isolates exhibit variable grades of resistance, involving beta-lactamase enzymes, beside native defense mechanisms. The present study was designed to determine the occurrence of Metallo-β- Lactamases (MBL) and Amp C harboring P. aeruginosa isolates from Suez Canal university hospital in Ismailia, Egypt. A total of 147 P. aeruginosa isolates, recovered from 311 patients during a 10-month period, were collected between May 2013 and February 2014; the isolates were collected from urine, wound and sputum. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determined by agar dilution methods was ≥2 μg/mL for meropenem and imipenem. Identification of P. aeruginosa was confirmed using API 20NE. Metallo-β- Lactamases and Amp C were detected based on different phenotypic methods. Overall, 26.5% of P. aeruginosa isolates (39/147) were carbapenem resistant isolates. Furthermore, 64.1% (25/39) were MBL producers, these isolates were screened by the combined disc and disc diffusion methods to determine the ability of MBL production. Both MBL and Amp C harbored P. aeruginosa isolates were 28% (7/25). Sixty-four percent of P. aeruginosa isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR) (16/25). The sensitivity toward polymyxin, imipenem, norfloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam and gentamicin was 99%, 91%, 88%, 82% and 78%, respectively. The resistance rate towards cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam and meropenem was 98.6%, 86%, 71.4%, 34% and 30%, respectively. Multidrug resistance was significantly associated with MBL production in P. aeruginosa . Early detection of MBL-producing P. aeruginosa and hospital antibiotic policy prescription helps proper antimicrobial therapy and avoidance of dissemination of these multidrug resistance isolates.
Ventre, I.; Goodman, A.L.; Vallet-Gely, I.
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is responsible for a wide range of acute and chronic infections. The transition to chronic infections is accompanied by physiological changes in the bacteria favoring formation of biofilm communities. Here we report the identification of LadS, a h...
Kolpen, Mette; Hansen, C. R.; Bjarnsholt, Thomas
BACKGROUND: Chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most severe complication for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This infection is characterised by endobronchial mucoid biofilms surrounded by numerous polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs). The mucoid phenotype offers protection...
Baig, Nameera; Polisetti, Sneha; Morales-Soto, Nydia; Dunham, Sage J. B.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Shrout, Joshua D.; Bohn, Paul W.
Biofilms, such as those formed by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are complex, matrix enclosed, and surface-associated communities of cells. Bacteria that are part of a biofilm community are much more resistant to antibiotics and the host immune response than their free-floating counterparts. P. aeruginosa biofilms are associated with persistent and chronic infections in diseases such as cystic fibrosis and HIV-AIDS. P. aeruginosa synthesizes and secretes signaling molecules such as the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) which are implicated in quorum sensing (QS), where bacteria regulate gene expression based on population density. Processes such as biofilms formation and virulence are regulated by QS. This manuscript describes the powerful molecular imaging capabilities of confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in conjunction with multivariate statistical tools such as principal component analysis (PCA) for studying the spatiotemporal distribution of signaling molecules, secondary metabolites and virulence factors in biofilm communities of P. aeruginosa. Our observations reveal that the laboratory strain PAO1C synthesizes and secretes 2-alkyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxides and 2-alkyl-4-hydroxyquinolones in high abundance, while the isogenic acyl homoserine lactone QS-deficient mutant (ΔlasIΔrhlI) strain produces predominantly 2-alkyl-quinolones during biofilm formation. This study underscores the use of CRM, along with traditional biological tools such as genetics, for studying the behavior of microbial communities at the molecular level.
Sy, Aileen; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Lalitha, Prajna; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Ray, Kathryn J; Glidden, David; Zegans, Michael E; McLeod, Stephen D; Lietman, Thomas M; Acharya, Nisha R
To compare the clinical course and effect of adjunctive corticosteroid therapy in Pseudomonas aeruginosa with those of all other strains of bacterial keratitis. Subanalyses were performed on data collected in the Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial (SCUT), a large randomized controlled trial in which patients were treated with moxifloxacin and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 adjunctive treatment arms: corticosteroid or placebo (4 times a day with subsequent reduction). Multivariate analysis was used to determine the effect of predictors, organism, and treatment on outcomes, 3-month best-spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), and infiltrate/scar size. The incidence of adverse events over a 3-month follow-up period was compared using Fisher's exact test. SCUT enrolled 500 patients. One hundred ten patients had P. aeruginosa ulcers; 99 of 110 (90%) enrolled patients returned for follow-up at 3 months. Patients with P. aeruginosa ulcers had significantly worse visual acuities than patients with other bacterial ulcers (P = 0.001) but showed significantly more improvement in 3-month BSCVA than those with other bacterial ulcers, adjusting for baseline characteristics (-0.14 logMAR; 95% confidence interval, -0.23 to -0.04; P = 0.004). There was no significant difference in adverse events between P. aeruginosa and other bacterial ulcers. There were no significant differences in BSCVA (P = 0.69), infiltrate/scar size (P = 0.17), and incidence of adverse events between patients with P. aeruginosa ulcers treated with adjunctive corticosteroids and patients given placebo. Although P. aeruginosa corneal ulcers have a more severe presentation, they appear to respond better to treatment than other bacterial ulcers. The authors did not find a significant benefit with corticosteroid treatment, but they also did not find any increase in adverse events. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00324168.).
Osipiuk, Jerzy; Xu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Savchenko, Alexei; Edwards, Aled; Joachimiak, Andrzej
The Type VI secretion pathway transports proteins across the cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic Gram-negative bacterial pathogen infecting humans, uses the type VI secretion pathway to export specific effector proteins crucial for its pathogenesis. The HSI-I virulence locus encodes for several proteins that has been proposed to participate in protein transport including the Hcp1 protein, which forms hexameric rings that assemble into nanotubes in...
S. Potivichayanon; T. Sungmon; W. Chaikongmao; S. Kamvanin
Production of biogas from bakery waste was enhanced by additional bacterial cell. This study was divided into 2 steps. First step, grease waste from bakery industry-s grease trap was initially degraded by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The concentration of byproduct, especially glycerol, was determined and found that glycerol concentration increased from 12.83% to 48.10%. Secondary step, 3 biodigesters were set up in 3 different substrates: non-degraded waste as substrate in fir...
Biggs, Matthew B.; Papin, Jason A.
Multiscale modeling is used to represent biological systems with increasing frequency and success. Multiscale models are often hybrids of different modeling frameworks and programming languages. We present the MATLAB-NetLogo extension (MatNet) as a novel tool for multiscale modeling. We demonstrate the utility of the tool with a multiscale model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation that incorporates both an agent-based model (ABM) and constraint-based metabolic modeling. The hybrid mod...
Dreier, Jürg; Ruggerone, Paolo
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to intrinsic antibiotic resistance and the propensity of this pathogen to accumulate diverse resistance mechanisms. Hyperexpression of eﬄux pumps of the Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division (RND)-type multidrug eﬄux pumps (e.g., MexAB-OprM), chromosomally encoded by mexAB-oprM, mexCD-oprJ, mexEF-oprN, and mexXY (-oprA) is often detected in clinical isolates and contributes to worrying multi-drug resistance phenotypes. Not all antibiotics are affected to the same extent by the aforementioned RND eﬄux pumps. The impact of eﬄux on antibiotic activity varies not only between different classes of antibiotics but also between members of the same family of antibiotics. Subtle differences in physicochemical features of compound-pump and compound-solvent interactions largely determine how compounds are affected by eﬄux activity. The combination of different high-resolution techniques helps to gain insight into the functioning of these molecular machineries. This review discusses substrate recognition patterns based on experimental evidence and computer simulations with a focus on MexB, the pump subunit of the main RND transporter in P. aeruginosa. PMID:26217310
Sperber, Jesper; Nyberg, Axel; Lipcsey, Miklos; Melhus, Åsa; Larsson, Anders; Sjölin, Jan; Castegren, Markus
Mechanical ventilation with positive end expiratory pressure and low tidal volume, i.e. protective ventilation, is recommended in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the effect of protective ventilation on bacterial growth during early pneumonia in non-injured lungs is not extensively studied. The main objectives were to compare two different ventilator settings on Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth in lung tissue and the development of lung injury. A porcine model of severe pneumonia was used. The protective group (n = 10) had an end expiratory pressure of 10 cm H 2 O and a tidal volume of 6 ml x kg -1 . The control group (n = 10) had an end expiratory pressure of 5 cm H 2 O and a tidal volume of 10 ml x kg -1 . 10 11 colony forming units of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were inoculated intra-tracheally at baseline, after which the experiment continued for 6 h. Two animals from each group received only saline, and served as sham animals. Lung tissue samples from each animal were used for bacterial cultures and wet-to-dry weight ratio measurements. The protective group displayed lower numbers of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (p protective group was unchanged (p protective ventilation with lower tidal volume and higher end expiratory pressure has the potential to reduce the pulmonary bacterial burden and the development of lung injury.
I Dinev1, S Denev2* and G Beev2
Full Text Available Clinical, pathoanatomical, histological, and bacteriological studies were performed on broiler chickens, growing broiler parents, and growing egg layers, in three different poultry farms, after an outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. The method of contamination of the birds was established. Several local and systemic clinico-morphological forms of spontaneous P. aeruginosa infections in various categories of stock birds were described: cases of P. aeruginosa infection resulting from injection of contaminated vaccines; case of P. aeruginosa infections through contaminated aerosol vaccine and cases of pododermatitis, periarthritis and arthritis in broiler chickens associated with P. aeruginosa infection. In different cases mortality range between 0.5 and 50%. The results showed that apart from embryonic mortality in hatcheries, and septicemic infections in newly hatched chickens, the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa was associated with localized and systemic lesions in this category, as well as in young and growing birds. On one hand, these results have a theoretical significance, contributing for the confirmation and expansion of the wide array of clinico-morphological forms of P. aeruginosa infections in birds. On the other hand, the knowledge on these forms has a purely practical significance in the diagnostics of P. aeruginosa infections by poultry pathologists and veterinary practitioners.
Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Søndergaard, Mette S. R.; Pedersen, Søren Damkiær
The emergence of antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important concern in the treatment of long-term airway infections in cystic fibrosis patients. In this study, we report the occurrence of azithromycin resistance among clinical P. aeruginosa DK2 isolates. We demonstrate that resis...... that resistance is associated with specific mutations (A2058G, A2059G, and C2611T in Escherichia coli numbering) in domain V of 23S rRNA and that introduction of A2058G and C2611T into strain PAO1 results in azithromycin resistance....
Harmsen, Morten; Yang, Liang; Pamp, Sünje Johanna
We review the recent advances in the understanding of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm lifestyle from studies using in vitro laboratory setups such as flow chambers and microtiter trays. Recent work sheds light on the role of nutrients, motility, and quorum sensing in structure formation in P....... aeruginosa biofilms. The second messenger, c-di-GMP, is established as an important regulator of the synthesis of polysaccharide and protein components of the biofilm matrix. Extracellular DNA is shown to be an essential component of the biofilm matrix. It has become apparent that biofilm formation involves...... interactions between different subpopulations. The molecular mechanisms underlying the tolerance of biofilm bacteria to antimicrobial agents are beginning to be unraveled, and new knowledge has been obtained regarding the environmental cues and regulatory mechanisms involved in biofilm dispersal....
Full Text Available Background Phenolic compounds, phenol and phenol derivatives are environmental contaminants in some industrial effluents. Entrance of such substances into the environment causes severe environmental pollution, especially pollution of water resources. Biological treatment is a method that uses the potential of microorganisms to clean up contaminated environments. Among microorganisms, bacteria play an important role in treating wastewater contaminated with phenol. Objectives This study aimed to examine the effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on degradation of phenol in wastewater contaminated with this pollutant. Methods In this method, the growth rate of P. aeruginosa bacteria was investigated using different concentrations of salt and phenol. This is an experimental study conducted as a pilot in a batch reactor with different concentrations of phenol (25, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 600 mg L-1 and salt (0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2.5% and 5% during 9, 12 and 15 hours. During three days, from 5 experimental and 3 control samples, 18 samples were taken a day forming a sample size of 54 samples for each phenol concentration. Given the number of phenol concentrations (n = 6, a total of 324 samples were analyzed using a spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 600 nm. Results The phenol concentration of 600 mg L-1 was toxic for P. aeruginosa. However, at a certain concentration, it acts as a carbon source for P. aeruginosa. During investigations, it was found that increasing the concentration of phenol increases the rate of bacteria growth. The highest bacteria growth rate occurred was at the salt concentration of zero and phenol concentration of 600 mg L-1. Conclusions The findings of the current study indicate that at high concentrations of salt, the growth of bacteria reduces so that it stops at a concentration of 50 mg L-1 (5%. Thus, the bacterium is halotolerant or halophilic. With an increase in phenol concentration, the growth rate increased. Phenol toxicity appears
Selim, Samy; El Kholy, Iman; Hagagy, Nashwa; El Alfay, Sahar; Aziz, Mohamed Abdel
Twenty clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates recovered from patients admitted to The General Hospital in Ismailia Governorate (Egypt) were examined in this study. We analysed P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 (as a control strain) and 19 of the isolates after digestion with SpeI restriction endonuclease. After this we conducted a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and typed the obtained 10 unique patterns, designated as A, A1, B, B1, C, C1, D, D1, E and F. We evaluated the genetic relatedness between all strains, based on ≥87% band identity. As a result, the isolates were grouped in the 10 clusters as follows: patterns A, A1, B, B1, C contained two strains each and patterns C1, D, D1, E contained a single strain each; the five remaining strains were closely related (genomic pattern F). One isolate belonged to antibiotype 'b'. The genotype patterns of the P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 control strain and isolate no. 11 were closely related and had two different antibiotypes 'd' and 'c', respectively.
Full Text Available Sergio Ramírez-Estrada,1 Bárbara Borgatta,1,2 Jordi Rello3,4 1Critical Care Department, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, 2CRIPS, Vall d'Hebron Institute of Research (VHIR, 3Department of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB, Barcelona, 4Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedad Respiratoria – CIBERES, Madrid, Spain Abstract: Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the most common infection in intensive care unit patients associated with high morbidity rates and elevated economic costs; Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most frequent bacteria linked with this entity, with a high attributable mortality despite adequate treatment that is increased in the presence of multiresistant strains, a situation that is becoming more common in intensive care units. In this manuscript, we review the current management of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to P. aeruginosa, the most recent antipseudomonal agents, and new adjunctive therapies that are shifting the way we treat these infections. We support early initiation of broad-spectrum antipseudomonal antibiotics in present, followed by culture-guided monotherapy de-escalation when susceptibilities are available. Future management should be directed at blocking virulence; the role of alternative strategies such as new antibiotics, nebulized treatments, and vaccines is promising. Keywords: multidrug-resistant, ICU, new-antibiotics, adjunctive-therapies, care-bundles
Paulsson, Magnus; Singh, Birendra; Al-Jubair, Tamim
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogen that frequently colonizes patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Several pathogens are known to bind vitronectin to increase their virulence. Vitronectin has been shown to enhance P. aeruginosa adhesion...
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous bacterium capable of forming problematic biofilms in many environments. They cause biocorrosion of medical implants and industrial equipment and infrastructure. Aerobic corrosion of P. aeruginosa against stainless steels has been reported by some researchers while there is a lack of reports on anaerobic P. aeruginosa corrosion in the literature. In this work, the corrosion by a wild-type P. aeruginosa (strain PAO1 biofilm against 304 stainless steel (304 SS was investigated under strictly anaerobic condition for up to 14 days. The anaerobic corrosion of 304 SS by P. aeruginosa was reported for the first time. Results showed that the average sessile cell counts on 304 SS coupons after 7- and 14-day incubations were 4.8 × 107 and 6.2 × 107 cells/cm2, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy corroborated the sessile cell counts. The X-ray diffraction analysis identified the corrosion product as iron nitride, confirming that the corrosion was caused by the nitrate reducing biofilm. The largest pit depths on 304 SS surfaces after the 7- and 14-day incubations with P. aeruginosa were 3.9 and 7.4 μm, respectively. Electrochemical tests corroborated the pitting data.
Full Text Available The study of chromosomal organization and segregation in a handful of bacteria has revealed surprising variety in the mechanisms mediating such fundamental processes. In this study, we further emphasized this diversity by revealing an original organization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosome. We analyzed the localization of 20 chromosomal markers and several components of the replication machinery in this important opportunistic γ-proteobacteria pathogen. This technique allowed us to show that the 6.3 Mb unique circular chromosome of P. aeruginosa is globally oriented from the old pole of the cell to the division plane/new pole along the oriC-dif axis. The replication machinery is positioned at mid-cell, and the chromosomal loci from oriC to dif are moved sequentially to mid-cell prior to replication. The two chromosomal copies are subsequently segregated at their final subcellular destination in the two halves of the cell. We identified two regions in which markers localize at similar positions, suggesting a bias in the distribution of chromosomal regions in the cell. The first region encompasses 1.4 Mb surrounding oriC, where loci are positioned around the 0.2/0.8 relative cell length upon segregation. The second region contains at least 800 kb surrounding dif, where loci show an extensive colocalization step following replication. We also showed that disrupting the ParABS system is very detrimental in P. aeruginosa. Possible mechanisms responsible for the coordinated chromosomal segregation process and for the presence of large distinctive regions are discussed.
Full Text Available The occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was monitored at a broad spatial scale in French agricultural soils, from various soil types and under various land uses to evaluate the ability of soil to be a natural habitat for that species. To appreciate the impact of agricultural practices on the potential dispersion of P. aeruginosa, we further investigated the impact of organic amendment at experimental sites in France and Burkina Faso. A real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR approach was used to analyze a set of 380 samples selected within the French RMQS (‘Réseau de Mesures de la Qualité des Sols’ soil library. In parallel, a culture-dependent approach was tested on a subset of samples. The results showed that P. aeruginosa was very rarely detected suggesting a sporadic presence of this bacterium in soils from France and Burkina Faso, whatever the structural and physico-chemical characteristics or climate. When we analyzed the impact of organic amendment on the prevalence of P. aeruginosa, we found that even if it was detectable in various manures (at levels from 103 to 105 CFU or DNA targets (g drywt-1 of sample, it was hardly ever detected in the corresponding soils, which raises questions about its survival. The only case reports were from a vineyard soil amended with a compost of mushroom manure in Burgundy, and a few samples from two fields amended with raw urban wastes in the sub-urban area of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. In these soils the levels of culturable cells were below 10 CFU (g drywt-1.
Mamoudou, Savadogo; Bellaud, Guillaume; Ana, Canestri; Gilles, Pialoux
Rapporter deux cas cliniques de coinfections pulmonaires par Pneumocystis jirovecii et par Pseudomonas aeruginosa chez des patients vivant avec le VIH. Les deux patients étaient âgés respectivement de 32 ans et 46 ans. Un patient a été pris en charge à l'hôpital Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou au Burkina Faso et l'autre a été pris en charge à l'hôpital Ténon de Paris, en France. Les deux souffraient de pneumopathie confirmée à la radiographie et à la tomodensitométrie. L'un des patients était sévèrement immuno déprimé, contrairement à l'autre. L'examen bactériologique dans les crachats avait permis d'isoler Pseudomonas aeruginosa et Pneumocystis jirovecii chez les deux patients. Sous traitement, l’évolution a été favorable. Les coinfections morbides sont relativement fréquentes chez les patients vivant avec le VIH. Devant une symptomatologie respiratoire du sujet vivant avec le VIH, il faut savoir rechercher en plus du Bacille de Koch, Pneumocystis jirovecii et Pseudomonas aeruginosa par un lavage broncho alvéolaire. PMID:26516396
Argyraki, A.; Markvart, M.; Nielsen, Anne; Bjarnsholt, T.; Bjørndal, L.; Petersen, P. M.
Disinfection routines are important in all clinical applications. The uprising problem of antibiotic resistance has driven major research efforts towards alternative disinfection approaches, involving light-based solutions. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a common bacterium that can cause skin, soft tissue, lungs, kidney and urinary tract infections. Moreover, it can be found on and in medical equipment causing often cross infections in hospitals. The objective of this study was to test the efficiency, of two different light-based disinfection treatments, namely UVB and UVC irradiation, on P. aeruginosa biofilms at different growth stages. In our experiments a new type of UV light emitting diodes (LEDs) were used to deliver UV irradiation on the biofilms, in the UVB (296nm) and UVC (266nm) region. The killing rate was studied as a function of dose for 24h grown biofilms. The dose was ramped from 72J/m2 to 10000J/m2. It was shown that UVB irradiation was more effective than UVC irradiation in inactivating P. aeruginosa biofilms. No colony forming units (CFU) were observed for the UVB treated biofilms when the dose was 10000 J/m2 (CFU in control sample: 7.5 x 104). UVB irradiation at a dose of 20000J/m2 on mature biofilms (72h grown) resulted in a 3.9 log killing efficacy. The fact that the wavelength of 296nm exists in daylight and has such disinfection ability on biofilms gives new perspectives for applications within disinfection at hospitals.
Argyraki, Aikaterini; Markvart, M.; Nielsen, Anne
skin, soft tissue, lungs, kidney and urinary tract infections. Moreover, it can be found on and in medical equipment causing often cross infections in hospitals. The objective of this study was to test the efficiency, of two different light-based disinfection treatments, namely UVB and UVC irradiation......, on P. aeruginosa biofilms at different growth stages. In our experiments a new type of UV light emitting diodes (LEDs) were used to deliver UV irradiation on the biofilms, in the UVB (296nm) and UVC (266nm) region. The killing rate was studied as a function of dose for 24h grown biofilms. The dose......Disinfection routines are important in all clinical applications. The uprising problem of antibiotic resistance has driven major research efforts towards alternative disinfection approaches, involving light-based solutions. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a common bacterium that can cause...
Full Text Available Understanding the pathology resulting from Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa polymicrobial wound infections is of great importance due to their ubiquitous nature, increasing prevalence, growing resistance to antimicrobial agents, and ability to delay healing. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus USA300 is the leading cause of community-associated bacterial infections resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. We utilized a well-established porcine partial thickness wound healing model to study the synergistic effects of USA300 and P. aeruginosa on wound healing. Wound re-epithelialization was significantly delayed by mixed-species biofilms through suppression of keratinocyte growth factor 1. Pseudomonas showed an inhibitory effect on USA300 growth in vitro while both species co-existed in cutaneous wounds in vivo. Polymicrobial wound infection in the presence of P. aeruginosa resulted in induced expression of USA300 virulence factors Panton-Valentine leukocidin and α-hemolysin. These results provide evidence for the interaction of bacterial species within mixed-species biofilms in vivo and for the first time, the contribution of virulence factors to the severity of polymicrobial wound infections.
Byrd, Matthew S; Pang, Bing; Hong, Wenzhou; Waligora, Elizabeth A; Juneau, Richard A; Armbruster, Chelsie E; Weimer, Kristen E D; Murrah, Kyle; Mann, Ethan E; Lu, Haiping; Sprinkle, April; Parsek, Matthew R; Kock, Nancy D; Wozniak, Daniel J; Swords, W Edward
Biofilms contribute to Pseudomonas aeruginosa persistence in a variety of diseases, including cystic fibrosis, burn wounds, and chronic suppurative otitis media. However, few studies have directly addressed P. aeruginosa biofilms in vivo. We used a chinchilla model of otitis media, which has previously been used to study persistent Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae infections, to show that structures formed in vivo are biofilms of bacterial and host origin within a matrix that includes Psl, a P. aeruginosa biofilm polysaccharide. We evaluated three biofilm and/or virulence mediators of P. aeruginosa known to affect biofilm formation in vitro and pathogenesis in vivo--bis-(3',5')-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP), flagella, and quorum sensing--in a chinchilla model. We show that c-di-GMP overproduction has a positive impact on bacterial persistence, while quorum sensing increases virulence. We found no difference in persistence attributed to flagella. We conclude from these studies that a chinchilla otitis media model provides a means to evaluate pathogenic mediators of P. aeruginosa and that in vitro phenotypes should be examined in multiple infection systems to fully understand their role in disease.
Werner, E.; Roe, F.; Bugnicourt, A.
In this study, stratified patterns of protein synthesis and growth were demonstrated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Spatial patterns of protein synthetic activity inside biofilms were characterized by the use of two green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene constructs. One construct...... synthesis was restricted to a narrow band in the part of the biofilm adjacent to the source of oxygen. The zone of active GFP expression was approximately 60 Am wide in colony biofilms and 30 Am wide in flow cell biofilms. The region of the biofilm in which cells were capable of elongation was mapped...... by treating colony biofilms with carbenicillin, which blocks cell division, and then measuring individual cell lengths by transmission electron microscopy. Cell elongation was localized at the air interface of the biofilm. The heterogeneous anabolic patterns measured inside these biofilms were likely a result...
Full Text Available Soil- and waterborne bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa are constantly challenging body surfaces. Since infections of healthy skin are unexpectedly rare, we hypothesized that the outermost epidermis, the stratum corneum, and sweat glands directly control the growth of P. aeruginosa by surface-provided antimicrobials. Due to its high abundance in the upper epidermis and eccrine sweat glands, filaggrin-2 (FLG2, a water-insoluble 248 kDa S100 fused-type protein, might possess these innate effector functions. Indeed, recombinant FLG2 C-terminal protein fragments display potent antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa and other Pseudomonads. Moreover, upon cultivation on stratum corneum, P. aeruginosa release FLG2 C-terminus-containing FLG2 fragments from insoluble material, indicating liberation of antimicrobially active FLG2 fragments by the bacteria themselves. Analyses of the underlying antimicrobial mechanism reveal that FLG2 C-terminal fragments do not induce pore formation, as known for many other antimicrobial peptides, but membrane blebbing, suggesting an alternative mode of action. The association of the FLG2 fragment with the inner membrane of treated bacteria and its DNA-binding implicated an interference with the bacterial replication that was confirmed by in vitro and in vivo replication assays. Probably through in situ-activation by soil- and waterborne bacteria such as Pseudomonads, FLG2 interferes with the bacterial replication, terminates their growth on skin surface and thus may contributes to the skin's antimicrobial defense shield. The apparent absence of FLG2 at certain body surfaces, as in the lung or of burned skin, would explain their higher susceptibility towards Pseudomonas infections and make FLG2 C-terminal fragments and their derivatives candidates for new Pseudomonas-targeting antimicrobials.
Hansmann, Britta; Schröder, Jens-Michael; Gerstel, Ulrich
Soil- and waterborne bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa are constantly challenging body surfaces. Since infections of healthy skin are unexpectedly rare, we hypothesized that the outermost epidermis, the stratum corneum, and sweat glands directly control the growth of P. aeruginosa by surface-provided antimicrobials. Due to its high abundance in the upper epidermis and eccrine sweat glands, filaggrin-2 (FLG2), a water-insoluble 248 kDa S100 fused-type protein, might possess these innate effector functions. Indeed, recombinant FLG2 C-terminal protein fragments display potent antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa and other Pseudomonads. Moreover, upon cultivation on stratum corneum, P. aeruginosa release FLG2 C-terminus-containing FLG2 fragments from insoluble material, indicating liberation of antimicrobially active FLG2 fragments by the bacteria themselves. Analyses of the underlying antimicrobial mechanism reveal that FLG2 C-terminal fragments do not induce pore formation, as known for many other antimicrobial peptides, but membrane blebbing, suggesting an alternative mode of action. The association of the FLG2 fragment with the inner membrane of treated bacteria and its DNA-binding implicated an interference with the bacterial replication that was confirmed by in vitro and in vivo replication assays. Probably through in situ-activation by soil- and waterborne bacteria such as Pseudomonads, FLG2 interferes with the bacterial replication, terminates their growth on skin surface and thus may contributes to the skin's antimicrobial defense shield. The apparent absence of FLG2 at certain body surfaces, as in the lung or of burned skin, would explain their higher susceptibility towards Pseudomonas infections and make FLG2 C-terminal fragments and their derivatives candidates for new Pseudomonas-targeting antimicrobials.
Jeganathan, Lakshmi Priya
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are difficult to treat due to the presence of a multitude of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. aeruginosa BK1, an invasive and multidrug-resistant strain, isolated from a bacterial keratitis patient in southern India.
Nieuwenhuizen, W.F.; Leeuwen, S. van; Jack, R.W.; Egmond, M.R.; Götz, F.
Ceramidase (CDase) hydrolyzes the amide bond in ceramides to yield free fatty acid and sphingosine. From a 3-L Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 culture, 70 μg of extracellular alkaline, Ca2+-dependent CDase, was purified to homogeneity, the N-terminal sequence was determined, and the CDase gene was
Jennifer M Bomberger
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen chronically infecting the lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, pneumonia, cystic fibrosis (CF, and bronchiectasis. Cif (PA2934, a bacterial toxin secreted in outer membrane vesicles (OMV by P. aeruginosa, reduces CFTR-mediated chloride secretion by human airway epithelial cells, a key driving force for mucociliary clearance. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism whereby Cif reduces CFTR-mediated chloride secretion. Cif redirected endocytosed CFTR from recycling endosomes to lysosomes by stabilizing an inhibitory effect of G3BP1 on the deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB, USP10, thereby reducing USP10-mediated deubiquitination of CFTR and increasing the degradation of CFTR in lysosomes. This is the first example of a bacterial toxin that regulates the activity of a host DUB. These data suggest that the ability of P. aeruginosa to chronically infect the lungs of patients with COPD, pneumonia, CF, and bronchiectasis is due in part to the secretion of OMV containing Cif, which inhibits CFTR-mediated chloride secretion and thereby reduces the mucociliary clearance of pathogens.
Saraswathi, Padmanabhan; Beuerman, Roger W
Microbial biofilms commonly comprise part of the infectious scenario, complicating the therapeutic approach. The purpose of this study was to determine in a mouse model of corneal infection if mature biofilms formed and to visualize the stages of biofilm formation. A bacterial keratitis model was established using Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 (1 × 10(8) CFU/ml) to infect the cornea of C57BL/6 black mouse. Eyes were examined post-infection (PI) on days 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7, and imaged by slit lamp microscopy, and light, confocal, and electron microscopy to identify the stages of biofilm formation and the time of appearance. On PI day 1, Gram staining showed rod-shaped bacteria adherent on the corneal surface. On PI days 2 and 3, bacteria were seen within webs of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and glycocalyx secretion, imaged by confocal microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated microcolonies of active infectious cells bound with thick fibrous material. Transmission electron microscopy substantiated the formation of classical biofilm architecture with P. aeruginosa densely packed within the extracellular polymeric substances on PI days 5 and 7. Direct visual evidence showed that biofilms routinely developed on the biotic surface of the mouse cornea. The mouse model can be used to develop new approaches to deal therapeutically with biofilms in corneal infections. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mita, Luigi [National Laboratory on Endocrine Disruptors, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); Institute of Genetic and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples Italy (Italy); Grumiro, Laura [National Laboratory on Endocrine Disruptors, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); Rossi, Sergio [Institute of Genetic and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples Italy (Italy); Bianco, Carmen; Defez, Roberto [Institute of Biosciences and BioResources, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); Gallo, Pasquale [Dipartimento di Chimica, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno, Via della Salute 2, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy); Mita, Damiano Gustavo, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [National Laboratory on Endocrine Disruptors, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); Institute of Genetic and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples Italy (Italy); Diano, Nadia [National Laboratory on Endocrine Disruptors, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Via S.M. di Costantinopoli, 16, 80138 Naples Italy (Italy)
Highlights: • A fluidized bed reactor, filled with a Pseudomonas aeruginosa immobilized on GAC, has been used for BPA removal. • BPA removal resulted from a biological activated carbon (BAC) process. • Equations describing the results have been indicated. • BPA removal was analyzed as a function of time and biofilm reuse. - Abstract: Serratia rubidiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli K12 have been studied for their ability of Bisphenol A removal from aqueous systems and biofilm formation on activated granule carbon. Mathematical equations for biodegradation process have been elaborated and discussed. P. aeruginosa was found the best strain to be employed in the process of Bisphenol A removal. The yield in BPA removal of a P. aeruginosa biofilm grown on GAC and operating in a fluidized bed reactor has been evaluated. The results confirm the usefulness in using biological activated carbon (BAC process) to remove phenol compounds from aqueous systems.
Mita, Luigi; Grumiro, Laura; Rossi, Sergio; Bianco, Carmen; Defez, Roberto; Gallo, Pasquale; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Diano, Nadia
Highlights: • A fluidized bed reactor, filled with a Pseudomonas aeruginosa immobilized on GAC, has been used for BPA removal. • BPA removal resulted from a biological activated carbon (BAC) process. • Equations describing the results have been indicated. • BPA removal was analyzed as a function of time and biofilm reuse. - Abstract: Serratia rubidiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli K12 have been studied for their ability of Bisphenol A removal from aqueous systems and biofilm formation on activated granule carbon. Mathematical equations for biodegradation process have been elaborated and discussed. P. aeruginosa was found the best strain to be employed in the process of Bisphenol A removal. The yield in BPA removal of a P. aeruginosa biofilm grown on GAC and operating in a fluidized bed reactor has been evaluated. The results confirm the usefulness in using biological activated carbon (BAC process) to remove phenol compounds from aqueous systems
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that is a key factor in the mortality of cystic fibrosis patients, and infection represents an increased threat for human health worldwide. Because resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antibiotics is increasing, new inhibitors of pharmacologically validated targets of this bacterium are needed. Here we demonstrate that a cell-based yeast phenotypic assay, combined with a large-scale inhibitor screen, identified small molecule inhibitors that can suppress the toxicity caused by heterologous expression of selected Pseudomonas aeruginosa ORFs. We identified the first small molecule inhibitor of Exoenzyme S (ExoS, a toxin involved in Type III secretion. We show that this inhibitor, exosin, modulates ExoS ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in vitro, suggesting the inhibition is direct. Moreover, exosin and two of its analogues display a significant protective effect against Pseudomonas infection in vivo. Furthermore, because the assay was performed in yeast, we were able to demonstrate that several yeast homologues of the known human ExoS targets are likely ADP-ribosylated by the toxin. For example, using an in vitro enzymatic assay, we demonstrate that yeast Ras2p is directly modified by ExoS. Lastly, by surveying a collection of yeast deletion mutants, we identified Bmh1p, a yeast homologue of the human FAS, as an ExoS cofactor, revealing that portions of the bacterial toxin mode of action are conserved from yeast to human. Taken together, our integrated cell-based, chemical-genetic approach demonstrates that such screens can augment traditional drug screening approaches and facilitate the discovery of new compounds against a broad range of human pathogens.
BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) that persist and grow in household plumbing, habitats they share with humans. Infections caused by these OPPPs involve individuals with preexis...
Kharazmi, A; Høiby, N; Theander, T G
This report describes a Danish patient with severe Plasmodium falciparum infection and Pseudomonas aeruginosa septicaemia. The patient had been sailing along the coast of West Africa for ten years without taking any antimalaria prophylaxis and without any apparent previous history of malaria. He...
Wu, H; Song, Z; Hentzer, Morten
The pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is associated with expression of virulence factors, many of which are controlled by two N:-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum-sensing systems. Escherichia coli strains equipped with a luxR-based monitor system expressing green fluorescent protein ...
Riedel, K.; Hentzer, Morten; Geisenberger, O.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia are capable of forming mixed biofilms in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Both bacteria employ quorum-sensing systems, which rely on N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecules, to co- ordinate expression of virulence factors with the form...
Bardoel, Bart W; van Kessel, Kok P M; van Strijp, Jos A G; Milder, Fin J
Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes the virulence factor alkaline protease (AprA) to enhance its survival. AprA cleaves one of the key microbial recognition molecules, monomeric flagellin, and thereby diminishes Toll-like receptor 5 activation. In addition, AprA degrades host proteins such as complement proteins and cytokines. P. aeruginosa encodes a highly potent inhibitor of alkaline protease (AprI) that is solely located in the periplasm where it is presumed to protect periplasmic proteins against secreted AprA. We set out to study the enzyme-inhibitor interactions in more detail in order to provide a basis for future drug development. Structural and mutational studies reveal that the conserved N-terminal residues of AprI occupy the protease active site and are essential for inhibitory activity. We constructed peptides mimicking the N-terminus of AprI; however, these were incapable of inhibiting AprA-mediated flagellin cleavage. Furthermore, we expressed and purified AprI of P. aeruginosa and the homologous (37% sequence identity) AprI of Pseudomonas syringae, which remarkably show species specificity for their cognate protease. Exchange of the first five N-terminal residues between AprI of P. syringae and P. aeruginosa did not affect the observed specificity, whereas exchange of only six residues located at the AprI surface that contacts the protease did abolish specificity. These findings are elementary steps toward the design of molecules derived from the natural inhibitor of the virulence factor AprA and their use in therapeutic applications in Pseudomonas and other Gram-negative infections. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Migiyama, Yohei; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kaku, Norihito; Harada, Yosuke; Yamada, Koichi; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Akamatsu, Norihiko; Matsuda, Junichi; Izumikawa, Koichi; Kohrogi, Hirotsugu; Kohno, Shigeru
Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. However, P. aeruginosa bacteremia in immunocompetent patients has also been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of P. aeruginosa bacteremia in relation to the immune status of the patients. The medical records of 126 adult patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia in Nagasaki University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed between January 2003 and December 2012. Of 126 patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia, 60 patients (47.6%) were classified as immunocompetent. Mortality in immunocompetent patients tended to be lower than in immunocompromised patients (7-day mortality, 8% vs. 30%, P antibiotic therapy (HR: 0.21, P immunocompromised, but not immunocompetent patients, initial appropriate antibiotic therapy was associated with lower mortality (30-day mortality 20.5% vs. 66.7%, P < 0.01 by log-rank test).
Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Lemon, Katherine P; Martin, Thomas R; Allgaier, Martin; Kembel, Steven W; Knapp, Alixandra A; Lory, Stephen; Brodie, Eoin L; Lynch, Susan V; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Green, Jessica L; Maurer, Brian A; Kolter, Roberto
Polymicrobial bronchopulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) cause progressive lung damage and death. Although the arrival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa often heralds a more rapid rate of pulmonary decline, there is significant inter-individual variation in the rate of decline, the causes of which remain poorly understood. By coupling culture-independent methods with ecological analyses, we discovered correlations between bacterial community profiles and clinical disease markers in respiratory tracts of 45 children with CF. Bacterial community complexity was inversely correlated with patient age, presence of P. aeruginosa and antibiotic exposure, and was related to CF genotype. Strikingly, bacterial communities lacking P. aeruginosa were much more similar to each other than were those containing P. aeruginosa, regardless of antibiotic exposure. This suggests that community composition might be a better predictor of disease progression than the presence of P. aeruginosa alone and deserves further study.
Omeri, Ahmad Khalid; Okada, Fumito; Takata, Shoko; Ono, Asami; Sato, Haruka; Mori, Hiromu; Nakayama, Tomoko; Ando, Yumiko; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi
To compare pulmonary high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia to HRCT findings in patients with Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia. We studied 124 patients (77 men, 47 women; age range, 20-89 years; mean age, 65.4 years) with P. aeruginosa pneumonia and 44 patients (22 men, 22 women; age range, 36-86 years; mean age, 63.2 years) with CMV pneumonia. CT findings of consolidation (p < 0.005), bronchial wall thickening (p < 0.001), cavity (p < 0.05), and pleural effusion (p < 0.001) were significantly more frequent in patients with P. aeruginosa pneumonia than in those with CMV pneumonia. Centrilobular nodules, a crazy-paving appearance, and nodules were significantly more frequent in patients with CMV pneumonia than in those with P. aeruginosa pneumonia (all p < 0.001). Pulmonary HRCT findings, such as bronchial wall thickening, crazy-paving appearance, and nodules may be useful in distinguishing between P. aeruginosa pneumonia and CMV pneumonia. (orig.)
Omeri, Ahmad Khalid; Okada, Fumito; Takata, Shoko; Ono, Asami; Sato, Haruka; Mori, Hiromu [Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yufu, Oita (Japan); Nakayama, Tomoko [Oita Red Cross Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oita (Japan); Ando, Yumiko [Oita Nishibeppu National Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oita (Japan); Hiramatsu, Kazufumi [Oita University Hospital, Hospital Infection Control Center, Oita (Japan)
To compare pulmonary high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia to HRCT findings in patients with Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia. We studied 124 patients (77 men, 47 women; age range, 20-89 years; mean age, 65.4 years) with P. aeruginosa pneumonia and 44 patients (22 men, 22 women; age range, 36-86 years; mean age, 63.2 years) with CMV pneumonia. CT findings of consolidation (p < 0.005), bronchial wall thickening (p < 0.001), cavity (p < 0.05), and pleural effusion (p < 0.001) were significantly more frequent in patients with P. aeruginosa pneumonia than in those with CMV pneumonia. Centrilobular nodules, a crazy-paving appearance, and nodules were significantly more frequent in patients with CMV pneumonia than in those with P. aeruginosa pneumonia (all p < 0.001). Pulmonary HRCT findings, such as bronchial wall thickening, crazy-paving appearance, and nodules may be useful in distinguishing between P. aeruginosa pneumonia and CMV pneumonia. (orig.)
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium found in natural environments including plants, soils and warm moist surfaces. This organism is also in the top ten of nosocomial pathogens, and prevalent in cystic fibrosis (CF lung infections. The ability of P. aeruginosa to colonize a wide variety of environments in a lasting manner is associated with the formation of a resistant biofilm and the capacity to efficiently outcompete other microorganisms. Here we demonstrate that sub-inhibitory concentration of kanamycin not only induces biofilm formation but also induces expression of the type VI secretion genes in the H1-T6SS cluster. The H1-T6SS is known for its role in toxin production and bacterial competition. We show that the antibiotic induction of the H1-T6SS only occurs when a functional Gac/Rsm pathway is present. These observations may contribute to understand how P. aeruginosa responds to antibiotic producing competitors. It also suggests that improper antibiotic therapy may enhance P. aeruginosa colonization, including in the airways of CF patients.
Jelsbak, Lars; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Frost, Anne Louise Viborg
The ability to establish lifelong persistent infections is a fundamental aspect of the interactions between many pathogenic microorganisms and their mammalian hosts. One example is chronic lung infections by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients....... This infection process is associated with extensive genetic adaptation and microevolution of the infecting bacteria. Through investigations of P. aeruginosa populations and infection dynamics in a group of CF patients followed at the Danish CF Clinic in Copenhagen, we have identified two distinct and dominant...
Full Text Available Biodegradation of petroleum and hydrocarbon eicosane by Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate. Hydrocarbon are important environmental contaminants in soil and water. These compounds have a potential risk to human health, as many of them are carsinogenic and toxic to marine organisms such as diatome, gasthrophode, mussel, and fish. The purpose of this research was to know the ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to degradate the hydrocarbon (petroleum Hundill and eicosane substrate. Growing test used in two steps, the preculture and culture step. The biodegradation capacity was measured by quantitative and qualitative tests. The essay showed an increasing biodegradation capacitypercentage of bacteria cell mass on hydrocarbon substrate. The percentage on petroleum Hundill substrat as follows; log phase was 51,6%, descelerate phase was 73%, and linear phase was 81,4%. On eicosane substrate as follows; log phase was 62,7%, descelerate phase was 85,2%, and linear phase was 85,2%. The qualitative biodegradation capacity by chromatography result showed separate enchained of carbon n-alkana in each growth phase on petroleum Hundill substrate. Carbon chain termination as follows; C11, C12, C14, C15, C16, C18, C22 on log phase, C12, C17, C19, C20, C24 on descelerate phase, and C12 until C25 even better on linear phase.
Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Verotta, Davide; Huang, Liusheng
The selection and dose of antibiotic therapy for biofilm-related infections are based on traditional pharmacokinetic studies using planktonic bacteria. The objective of this study was to characterize the time course and spatial activity of human exposure levels of meropenem and tobramycin against...... Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms grown in an in vitro flow-chamber model. Pharmacokinetic profiles of meropenem and tobramycin used in human therapy were administered to GFP-labelled P. aeruginosa PAO1 grown in flow chambers for 24 or 72 h. Images were acquired using confocal laser scanning microscopy...... throughout antibiotic treatment. Bacterial biomass was measured using COMSTAT and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models were fitted using NONMEM7. Meropenem treatment resulted in more rapid and sustained killing of both the 24 and 72 h PAO1 biofilm compared with tobramycin. Biofilm regrowth after antibiotic...
Norman, Anders; Ciofu, Oana; Amador Hierro, Cristina Isabel
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen associated with chronic pulmonary infections and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of stable mucoid P. aeruginosa strain DK1-NH57388A, a CF isolate which has previously been used ...
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is frequently isolated in swimming pool settings. Nine recreational and rehabilitative swimming pools were monitored according to the local legislation. The presence of P. aeruginosa was correlated to chlorine concentration. The ability of the isolates to form a biofilm on plastic materials was also investigated. In 59.5% of the samples, microbial contamination exceeded the threshold values. P. aeruginosa was isolated in 50.8% of these samples. The presence of P. aeruginosa was not correlated with free or total chlorine amount (R2 < 0.1. All the isolates were moderate- to strong-forming biofilm (Optical Density O.D.570 range 0.7–1.2. To control biofilm formation and P. aeruginosa colonization, Quantum FreeBioEnergy© (QFBE, FreeBioEnergy, Brisighella, Italy, has been applied with encouraging preliminary results. It is a new, promising control strategy based on the change of an electromagnetic field which is responsible for the proliferation of some microorganisms involved in biofilm formation, such as P. aeruginosa.
van Gennip, Maria; Hultqvist, Louise Dahl; Alhede, Morten
(PMNs). In contrast, the number of cells of a P. aeruginosa rhlA mutant that cannot produce rhamnolipids was significantly reduced on the implants by day 1, and the bacteria were actively phagocytosed by infiltrating PMNs. In addition, we identified extracellular wire-like structures around the bacteria......Chronic infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa persist because the bacterium forms biofilms that are tolerant to antibiotic treatment and the host immune response. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to visualize biofilm development in vivo following...... intraperitoneal inoculation of mice with bacteria growing on hollow silicone tubes, as well as to examine the interaction between these bacteria and the host innate immune response. Wild-type P. aeruginosa developed biofilms within 1 day that trapped and caused visible cavities in polymorphonuclear leukocytes...
Full Text Available Eulalia Sans-Serramitjana,1 Marta Jorba,1 José Luis Pedraz,2 Teresa Vinuesa,1 Miguel Viñas1 1Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Antimicrobials, Department of Pathology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, 2Laboratory of Pharmaceutics, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, Vitoria, Spain Abstract: The emergence of colistin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF patients, particularly after long-term inhalation treatments, has been recently reported. Nanoencapsulation may enable preparations to overcome the limitations of conventional pharmaceutical forms. We have determined the time-dependent viability of P. aeruginosa biofilms treated with both free and nanoencapsulated colistin. We also examined the relationship between the optimal anti-biofilm activity of nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC-colistin and the structural organization of the biofilm itself. The results showed the more rapid killing of P. aeruginosa bacterial biofilms by NLC-colistin than by free colistin. However, the two formulations did not differ in terms of the final percentages of living and dead cells, which were higher in the inner than in the outer layers of the treated biofilms. The effective anti-biofilm activity of NLC-colistin and its faster killing effect recommend further studies of its use over free colistin in the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections in CF patients. Keywords: cystic fibrosis, colistin sulfate, lipid nanoparticles, P. aeruginosa, confocal laser scanning microscopy, anti-biofilm activity
Skindersø, Mette Elena; Zeuthen, Louise; Pedersen, Susanne Brix
Pseudomonas aeruginosa releases a wide array of toxins and tissue-degrading enzymes. Production of these malicious virulence factors is controlled by interbacterial communication in a process known as quorum sensing. An increasing body of evidence reveals that the bacterial signal molecule N-(3-o...
Full Text Available The use of microbial technologies in agriculture is currently expanding quite rapidly with the identification of new bacterial strains, which are more effective in promoting plant growth. In the present study 18 strains of Pseudomonas were isolated from soil sample of Balochistan coastline. Among isolated Pseudomonas strains four designated as SP19, SP22, PS24, and SP25 exhibited biocontrol activities against phytopathogenic fungi, that is, Rhizopus microsporus, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, and Penicillium digitatum; PS24 identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa by 16srRNA gene bank accession number EU081518 was selected on the basis of its antifungal activity to explore its potential as plant growth promotion. PS24 showed multiple plant growth promoting attributes such as phosphate solubilization activity, indole acetic acid (IAA, siderophore, and HCN production. In order to determine the basis for antifungal properties, antibiotics were extracted from King B broth of PS24 and analyzed by TLC. Pyrrolnitrin antibiotic was detected in the culture of strain PS24. PS24 exhibited antifungal activities found to be positive for hydrogen cyanide synthase Hcn BC gene. Sequencing of gene of Hcn BC gene of strain PS24 revealed 99% homology with the Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA01. The sequence of PS24 had been submitted in gene bank accession number KR605499. Ps. aeruginosa PS24 with its multifunctional biocontrol possessions can be used to bioprotect the crop plants from phytopathogens.
Stephanie O. Palmer
Full Text Available We have cloned genes encoding elongation factors EF-Tu and EF-Ts from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and expressed and purified the proteins to greater than 95% homogeneity. Sequence analysis indicated that P. aeruginosa EF-Tu and EF-Ts are 84% and 55% identical to E. coli counterparts, respectively. P. aeruginosa EF-Tu was active when assayed in GDP exchange assays. Kinetic parameters for the interaction of EF-Tu with GDP in the absence of EF-Ts were observed to be = 33 μM, = 0.003 s−1, and the specificity constant was s−1 μM−1. In the presence of EF-Ts, these values were shifted to = 2 μM, = 0.005 s−1, and the specificity constant was s−1 μM−1. The equilibrium dissociation constants governing the binding of EF-Tu to GDP ( were 30–75 nM and to GTP ( were 125–200 nM. EF-Ts stimulated the exchange of GDP by EF-Tu 10-fold. P. aeruginosa EF-Tu was active in forming a ternary complex with GTP and aminoacylated tRNA and was functional in poly(U-dependent binding of Phe-tRNAPhe at the A-site of P. aeruginosa ribosomes. P. aeruginosa EF-Tu was active in poly(U-programmed polyphenylalanine protein synthesis system composed of all P. aeruginosa components.
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause several acute and chronic infections in humans, and it has become an important cause of nosocomial infections and antibiotic resistance. Biofilm represents an important virulence factor for these bacteria, plays a role in P. aeruginosa infections and avoidance of immune defence mechanisms, and has the ability to protect the bacteria from antibiotics. Alginate, Psl and Pel, three exopolysaccharides, are the main components in biofilm matrix, with many biological functions attributed to them, especially with respect to the protection of the bacterial cell from antibiotics and the immune system. Pseudomonas infections, biofilm formation and development of resistance to antibiotics all require better understanding to achieve the best results using alternative treatment with phage therapy. This review describes the P. aeruginosa pathogenicity and virulence factors with a special focus on the biofilm and its role in infection and resistance to antibiotics and summarizes phage therapy as an alternative approach in treatment of P. aeruginosa infections.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The constant increase in development and spread of bacterial resistance to antibiotics poses a serious threat to human health. New sequencing technologies are now on the horizon that will yield massive increases in our capacity for DNA sequencing and will revolutionize the drug discovery process. Since essential genes are promising novel antibiotic targets, the prediction of gene essentiality based on genomic information has become a major focus. Results In this study we demonstrate that pooled sequencing is applicable for the analysis of sequence variations of strain collections with more than 10 individual isolates. Pooled sequencing of 36 clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates revealed that essential and highly expressed proteins evolve at lower rates, whereas extracellular proteins evolve at higher rates. We furthermore refined the list of experimentally essential P. aeruginosa genes, and identified 980 genes that show no sequence variation at all. Among the conserved nonessential genes we found several that are involved in regulation, motility and virulence, indicating that they represent factors of evolutionary importance for the lifestyle of a successful environmental bacterium and opportunistic pathogen. Conclusion The detailed analysis of a comprehensive set of P. aeruginosa genomes in this study clearly disclosed detailed information of the genomic makeup and revealed a large set of highly conserved genes that play an important role for the lifestyle of this microorganism. Sequencing strain collections enables for a detailed and extensive identification of sequence variations as potential bacterial adaptation processes, e.g., during the development of antibiotic resistance in the clinical setting and thus may be the basis to uncover putative targets for novel treatment strategies.
Sienkiewicz, Monika; Wasiela, Małgorzata; Głowacka, Anna
The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial properties of oregano (Origanum heracleoticum L.) essential oil against clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antibacterial activity of oregano essential oil was investigate against 2 tested and 20 clinical bacterial strains of Escherichia coli and 20 clinical strains o Pseudomonas aeruginosa come from patients with different clinical conditions. The agar dilution method was used for microbial growth inhibition at various concentrations ofoil. Susceptibility testing to antibiotics was carried out using disc-diffusion method. The results of experiments showed that the tested oil was active against all of the clinical strains from both genus of bacteria, but strains of Escherichia coli were more sensitive to tested oil. Essential oil from Origanum heracleoticum L. inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strains with different patters of resistance. The obtained outcomes will enable further investigations using oregano essential oil obtained from Origanum heracleoticum L. as alternative antibacterial remedies enhancing healing process in bacterial infections and as an effective means for the prevention of antibiotic-resistant strain development.
Kristiansen, S.; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Adeltoft, D.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses acyl-homoserine lactones to coordinate gene transcription in a process called quorum sensing (QS). The QS molecules C-4-HSL and C-12-oxo-HSL are synthesized from the universal precursor S-adenosyl methionine, which is also a precursor of polyamines in human cells...
Hentzer, Morten; Riedel, K.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg
Novel molecular tools have been constructed which allow for in situ detection of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. The reporter responds to AHL activation of LasR lay expression of an unstable version of the green-fluorescent protein (Gfp...
Full Text Available Abstract Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen that using several classes of antibiotics to treat has been led to the emergence of multiple drug resistance. One of the drug resistance mechanisms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is overexpression of mexXY-oprM efflux pump system. Silybin as main flavonolignan of silymarin extracted from Silybum marianum is a hepatoprotective agent that its anti-bacterial properties was studied, recently. In this study, the effect of combination of silybin and ciprofloxacin on oprM gene expression in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated. Materials and Methods: In this study, seven ciprofloxacin resistant isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were treated by ciprofloxacin (1/2MIC only (control sample and in the combination with silybin-encapsulated micelle (nanoparticles (test sample. After 24h, RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis were performed in silybin treated and un-treated cells and oprM gene expression was quantitatively investigated by realtime PCR method. Results: Results of this study showed that a silybin encapsulated in nanoparticles (400µg/ml induces death up to 50% in resistant isolates treated by ciprofloxacin (1/2MIC during 24h. Also, quantitative Real-Time PCR analysis revealed that silybin encapsulated in nanoparticles decreases the expression of oprM gene compared to silybin untreated cells. Conclusion: It seems that Decrease of oprM expression in resistant isolates lead to decrease of mexAB-oprM and mexXY-oprM in cell surface, subsequently decrease of antibiotic withdrawal to extracellular environment and increase of sensitivity to antibiotics.
Frederick, Jesse R.; Elkins, James G.; Bollinger, Nikki; Hassett, Daniel J.; McDermott, Timothy R.
Previous work with Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed that catalase activity in biofilms was significantly reduced relative to that in planktonic cells. To better understand biofilm physiology, we examined possible explanations for the differential expression of catalase in cells cultured in these two different conditions. For maximal catalase activity, biofilm cells required significantly more iron (25 μM as FeCl3) in the medium, whereas planktonic cultures required no addition of iron. However, ...
Bustamante, C I; Drusano, G L; Wharton, R C; Wade, J C
The combinations of imipenem plus ciprofloxacin and imipenem plus amikacin were investigated for their activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other bacterial pathogens. For imipenem-susceptible P. aeruginosa, synergy of imipenem plus ciprofloxacin and imipenem plus amikacin was observed against 36 and 45% of the strains, respectively. The incidence of synergy against imipenem-resistant isolates of P. aeruginosa was 10% for both combinations. Antagonism was not observed with either combin...
Subramaniyan, Jayanthi Siva; Sundaram, Jeya Meenakshi
ICU shows increasing incidence of infection associated with the use of invasive procedures for the diagnostic purpose as well as the indiscriminate use of antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species are "very successful" pathogen and the emergence of the Metallo-β-Lactamases (MBL) is becoming a therapeutic challenge. To isolate the Nonfermenting Gram negative bacilli from the ICU samples. To identify the metallo betalactamase producers and to detect the bla gene presence among the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii . The Nonfermenting Gram negative bacilli isolates from the ICU samples were taken over for 5 years (2009-2014) in a tertiary care hospital. The isolates of Pseudomonas species and Acinetobacter species were confirmed by API analyser and processed according to standard procedures. Detection of the MBL producers were done by E strip method and subjected for bla gene detection by PCR method. In our study a total of 195 isolates of NFGNB were obtained from various ICU. Of these MBL producers, 26 % were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 25 % were Acinetobacter baumannii . The subtypes of bla VIM MBL producing P.aeruginosa were 26%. The predominant gene coding for MBL activity in A.baumannii were found to be bla OXA gene 11.9%. The gene accession numbers were KF975367, KF975372. We have to control the development and dissemination of these superbugs among the ICU's.
Lauridsen, Rikke Kragh; Madsen Sommer, Lea Mette; Johansen, Helle Krogh
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the primary cause of chronic airway infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Persistent infections are seen from the first P. aeruginosa culture in about 75% of young CF patients, and it is important to discover new ways to detect P. aeruginosa at an earlier stage...... long-term infection, a mutation in the patho-adaptive lasR gene can alter the expression of HCN, which is why it is sometimes not possible to detect HCN in the breath of chronically infected patients. Four P. aeruginosa reference strains and 12 clinical P. aeruginosa strains isolated from CF children...... were evaluated, and HCN was clearly detected from overnight cultures of all wild type-like isolates and half of the later isolates from the same patients. The clinical impact could be that P. aeruginosa infections could be detected at an earlier stage, because daily breath sampling with an immediate...
Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, C; Kharazmi, A
BACKGROUND: Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is the major reason for premature death in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Infected patients experience a progressive deterioration of the lung tissue caused by a persistent accumulation of PMNs. We investigated if the pulmonary...... was reduced. CONCLUSION: G-CSF in the sera may contribute to the pulmonary inflammation in CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection by regulating the number of PMNs available for migration and may be considered as an indicator of clinical status....
Carroll, W.; Lenney, W.; Wang, T.; Španěl, Patrik; Alcock, A.; Smith, D.
Roč. 39, č. 5 (2005), s. 452-456 ISSN 8755-6863 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : pseudomonas aeruginosa * hydrogen cyanide * biomarkers * SIFT-MS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.589, year: 2005
Joyce Seow Fong Chin
Full Text Available Biofilm formation by opportunistic pathogens serves as one of the major causes of chronic and persistent infections. Bacterial cells in the biofilms are embedded in their self-generated protective extracellular polymeric substances (EPS, which include exopolysaccharides, large adhesin proteins and extracellular DNA. In this study, we identified an antimicrobial peptide (AMP LG21 that is able to interact specifically with the Psl exopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, thus it can be used as a diagnostic tool for P. aeruginosa biofilms. Molecular dynamics simulation analysis showed that residues numbered from 15 to 21 (WKRKRFG in LG21 are involved in interacting with Psl. Our study indicates that host immune systems might detect and interact with microbial biofilms through AMPs. Engineering biofilm EPS-targeting AMPs might provide novel strategies for biofilm detection and treatment.
Comparison of plant growth-promotion with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis in three vegetables Comparação da promoção de crescimento de plantas por Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Bacillus subtilis em três vegetais
Full Text Available Our objective was to compare some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR properties of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as representatives of their two genera. Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato, Abelmoschus esculentus (okra, and Amaranthus sp. (African spinach were inoculated with the bacterial cultures. At 60 days after planting, dry biomass for plants treated with B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa increased 31% for tomato, 36% and 29% for okra, and 83% and 40% for African spinach respectively over the non-bacterized control. Considering all the parameters tested, there were similarities but no significant difference at P Nosso objetivo foi comparar as propriedades PGPR (rizobactérias promotoras de crescimento de plantas de Bacillus subtilis e Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Solanum licopersicum (tomate, Asbelmoschus esculentus (ocra e Amaranthus sp (espinafre africano foram inoculados com as culturas bacterianas. Após 60 dias de plantio, a biomassa seca das plantas tratadas com B.subtilis e P. aeruginosa aumentou 31% para o tomate, 36% e 29% para ocra, e 83% e 40% para espinafre africano, respectivamente, em comparação com o controle não inoculado. Considerando os parâmetros testados, o desempenho dos dois microrganismos foi similar, sem diferença estatisticamente significativa (p< 0,05.
Yamachika, Shinichiro; Sugihara, Chika; Tsuji, Hayato; Muramatsu, Yasunori; Kamai, Yasuki; Yamashita, Makoto
In order to find new anti-Pseudomonas agents, we carried out whole-cell based P. aeruginosa growth assay, and identified 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,3,5-triazine (Compound A). This compound showed anti-Pseudomonas activity against wild as well as pumpless strain equally at a same concentration. Also, this compound was structurally very similar to A22, which is known to inhibit the bacterial actin-like protein MreB. By the analysis of resistant strains, the primary target of this compound in P. aeruginosa was definitely confirmed to be MreB. In addition, these compounds showed a bacteriostatic effect, and induced the morphology changes in P. aeruginosa from rod shape to sphere shape, which leads to be clinically favorable in terms of susceptibility to phagocytosis and release of endotoxin. These results display that Compound A is a very attractive compound which shows anti-P. aeruginosa activity based on inhibition of MreB without being affected by efflux pumps, and could provide a new step toward development of new promising anti-Pseudomonas agents, MreB inhibitors.
Gonzalez, Claudio F; Tchigvintsev, Anatoli; Brown, Greg; Flick, Robert; Evdokimova, Elena; Xu, Xiaohui; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Cuff, Marianne E; Lynch, Susan; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Savchenko, Alexei; Yakunin, Alexander F
The hotdog fold is one of the basic protein folds widely present in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. Many of these proteins exhibit thioesterase activity against fatty acyl-CoAs and play important roles in lipid metabolism, cellular signalling and degradation of xenobiotics. The genome of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa contains over 20 genes encoding predicted hotdog-fold proteins, none of which have been experimentally characterized. We have found that two P. aeruginosa hotdog proteins display high thioesterase activity against 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA and glutaryl-CoA (PA5202), and octanoyl-CoA (PA2801). Crystal structures of these proteins were solved (at 1.70 and 1.75 Å for PA5202 and PA2801 respectively) and revealed a hotdog fold with a potential catalytic carboxylate residue located on the long α-helix (Asp(57) in PA5202 and Glu(35) in PA2801). Alanine residue replacement mutagenesis of PA5202 identified four residues (Asn(42), Arg(43), Asp(57) and Thr(76)) that are critical for its activity and are located in the active site. A P. aeruginosa PA5202 deletion strain showed an increased secretion of the antimicrobial pigment pyocyanine and an increased expression of genes involved in pyocyanin biosynthesis, suggesting a functional link between PA5202 activity and pyocyanin production. Thus the P. aeruginosa hotdog thioesterases PA5202 and PA2801 have similar structures, but exhibit different substrate preferences and functions.
Robb, Craig S.; Assmus, Mark; Nano, Francis E.; Boraston, Alisdair B.
The crystal structure of the type VI secretion-system protein TssJ1 from P. aeruginosa was solved by iodide SAD at a resolution of 1.4 Å. The type VI secretion system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been shown to be responsible for the translocation of bacteriolytic effectors into competing bacteria. A mechanistic understanding of this widely distributed secretion system is developing and structural studies of its components are ongoing. Two representative structures of one highly conserved component, TssJ, from Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens have been published. Here, the X-ray crystal structure of TssJ1 from P. aeruginosa is presented at 1.4 Å resolution. The overall structure is conserved among the three proteins. This finding suggests that the homologues function in a similar manner and bolsters the understanding of the structure of this family of proteins
Thrane, Sandra Wingaard; Taylor, Véronique L.; Freschi, Luca
that serotype switching in combination with an antibiotic resistance determinant contributed to the dissemination of the O12 serotype in the clinic. This selective advantage coincides with the introduction of fluoroquinolones in the clinic. With the PAst program isolates can be serotyped using WGS data......Introduction: Since the 1980’s the serotype O12 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has emerged as the predominant serotype in clinical settings and in epidemic outbreaks. These serotype O12 isolates exhibit high levels of resistance to various classes of antibiotics.Methods: In this study, we explore how......).Results: While most serotypes were closely linked to the core genome phylogeny we observed horizontal exchange of LPS genes among distinct P. aeruginosa strains. Specifically, we identified a ‘serotype island’ containing the P. aeruginosa O12 LPS gene cluster and an antibiotic resistance determinant (gyrAC248T...
Wassermann, Tina; Meinike Jørgensen, Karin; Ivanyshyn, Karolina
Ciprofloxacin is a widely used antibiotic, in the class of quinolones, for treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. The immediate response of P. aeruginosa to subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin has been investigated previously. However, the long-term phenotypic adaptation, which...... populations compared to unexposed populations. Three replicate populations of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and its hypermutable mutant ΔmutS were cultured aerobically for approximately 940 generations by daily passages in LB medium with and without subinhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin and aliquots...
Sismaet, Hunter J; Pinto, Ameet J; Goluch, Edgar D
In clinical practice, delays in obtaining culture results impact patient care and the ability to tailor antibiotic therapy. Despite the advancement of rapid molecular diagnostics, the use of plate cultures inoculated from swab samples continues to be the standard practice in clinical care. Because the inoculation culture process can take between 24 and 48h before a positive identification test can be run, there is an unmet need to develop rapid throughput methods for bacterial identification. Previous work has shown that pyocyanin can be used as a rapid, redox-active biomarker for identifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa in clinical infections. However, further validation is needed to confirm pyocyanin production occurs in all clinical strains of P. aeruginosa. Here, we validate this electrochemical detection strategy using clinical isolates obtained from patients with hospital-acquired infections or with cystic fibrosis. Square-wave voltammetric scans of 94 different clinical P. aeruginosa isolates were taken to measure the concentration of pyocyanin. The results showed that all isolates produced measureable concentrations of pyocyanin with production rates correlated with patient symptoms and comorbidity. Further bioinformatics analysis confirmed that 1649 genetically sequenced strains (99.9%) of P. aeruginosa possess the two genes (PhzM and PhzS) necessary to produce pyocyanin, supporting the specificity of this biomarker. Confirming the production of pyocyanin by all clinically-relevant strains of P. aeruginosa is a significant step towards validating this strategy for rapid, point-of-care diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bruinsma, GM; Van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; de Vries, Jacob
Elemental surface compositions of contact lenses were measured after exposure to different lens care solutions (LCS) using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and were related to adhesion and detachment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Etafilcon A and polymacon contact lenses, prior to and after exposure to
Kolpen, Mette; Mousavi, Nabi; Sams, Thomas
Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is the most severe complication in cystic fibrosis patients. It is characterised by antibiotic-tolerant biofilms in the endobronchial mucus with zones of oxygen (O2) depletion mainly due to polymorphonuclear leucocyte activity. Whilst the exact mechan...
Tran, Cindy S; Rangel, Stephanie M; Almblad, Henrik
Clinical infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a deadly Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen of immunocompromised hosts, often involve the formation of antibiotic-resistant biofilms. Although biofilm formation has been extensively studied in vitro on glass or plastic surfaces, much less is known...... about biofilm formation at the epithelial barrier. We have previously shown that when added to the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells, P. aeruginosa rapidly forms cell-associated aggregates within 60 minutes of infection. By confocal microscopy we now show that cell-associated aggregates...... a previously unappreciated function for the type III translocon in the formation of P. aeruginosa biofilms at the epithelial barrier and demonstrate that biofilms may form at early time points of infection....
Maredia, Reshma; Devineni, Navya; Lentz, Peter; Dallo, Shatha F; Yu, Jiehjuen; Guentzel, Neal; Chambers, James; Arulanandam, Bernard; Haskins, William E; Weitao, Tao
Bacterial infections can be aggravated by antibiotic treatment that induces SOS response and vesiculation. This leads to a hypothesis concerning association of SOS with vesiculation. To test it, we conducted multiple analyses of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa wild type in which SOS is induced by ciprofloxacin and from the LexA noncleavable (lexAN) strain in which SOS is repressed. The levels of OMV proteins, lipids, and cytotoxicity increased for both the treated strains, demonstrating vesiculation stimulation by the antibiotic treatment. However, the further increase was suppressed in the lexAN strains, suggesting the SOS involvement. Obviously, the stimulated vesiculation is attributed by both SOS-related and unrelated factors. OMV subproteomic analysis was performed to examine these factors, which reflected the OMV-mediated cytotoxicity and the physiology of the vesiculating cells under treatment and SOS. Thus, SOS plays a role in the vesiculation stimulation that contributes to cytotoxicity.
Full Text Available The Pseudomonas aeruginosa-containing wastewater released by hospitals is treated by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs, generating sludge, which is used as a fertilizer, and effluent, which is discharged into rivers. We evaluated the risk of dissemination of antibiotic-resistant P. aeruginosa (AR-PA from the hospital to the environment via the wastewater network. Over a 10-week period, we sampled weekly 11 points (hospital and urban wastewater, untreated and treated water, sludge of the wastewater network and the river upstream and downstream of the WWTP of a city in eastern France. We quantified the P. aeruginosa load by colony counting. We determined the susceptibility to 16 antibiotics of 225 isolates, which we sorted into three categories (wild-type, antibiotic-resistant and multidrug-resistant. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs and metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs were identified by gene sequencing. All non-wild-type isolates (n = 56 and a similar number of wild-type isolates (n = 54 were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. Almost all the samples (105/110, 95.5% contained P. aeruginosa, with high loads in hospital wastewater and sludge (≥3×10(6 CFU/l or/kg. Most of the multidrug-resistant isolates belonged to ST235, CC111 and ST395. They were found in hospital wastewater and some produced ESBLs such as PER-1 and MBLs such as IMP-29. The WWTP greatly reduced P. aeruginosa counts in effluent, but the P. aeruginosa load in the river was nonetheless higher downstream than upstream from the WWTP. We conclude that the antibiotic-resistant P. aeruginosa released by hospitals is found in the water downstream from the WWTP and in sludge, constituting a potential risk of environmental contamination.
Frydenlund Michelsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Anne-Mette; Bojer, Martin Saxtorph
Interactions among members of polymicrobial infections or between pathogens and the commensal flora may determine disease outcomes. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are important opportunistic human pathogens and are both part of the polymicrobial infection communities in human...... hosts. In this study, we analyzed the in vitro interaction between S. aureus and a collection of P. aeruginosa isolates representing different evolutionary steps of a dominant lineage, DK2, that have evolved through decades of growth in chronically infected patients. While the early adapted P....... aeruginosa DK2 strains outcompeted S. aureus during coculture on agar plates, we found that later P. aeruginosa DK2 strains showed a commensal-like interaction, where S. aureus was not inhibited by P. aeruginosa and the growth activity of P. aeruginosa was enhanced in the presence of S. aureus. This effect...
Morales, Eva; Cots, Francesc; Sala, Maria; Comas, Mercè; Belvis, Francesc; Riu, Marta; Salvadó, Margarita; Grau, Santiago; Horcajada, Juan P; Montero, Maria Milagro; Castells, Xavier
We aimed to assess the hospital economic costs of nosocomial multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisition. A retrospective study of all hospital admissions between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2006 was carried out in a 420-bed, urban, tertiary-care teaching hospital in Barcelona (Spain). All patients with a first positive clinical culture for P. aeruginosa more than 48 h after admission were included. Patient and hospitalization characteristics were collected from hospital and microbiology laboratory computerized records. According to antibiotic susceptibility, isolates were classified as non-resistant, resistant and multi-drug resistant. Cost estimation was based on a full-costing cost accounting system and on the criteria of clinical Activity-Based Costing methods. Multivariate analyses were performed using generalized linear models of log-transformed costs. Cost estimations were available for 402 nosocomial incident P. aeruginosa positive cultures. Their distribution by antibiotic susceptibility pattern was 37.1% non-resistant, 29.6% resistant and 33.3% multi-drug resistant. The total mean economic cost per admission of patients with multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa strains was higher than that for non-resistant strains (15,265 vs. 4,933 Euros). In multivariate analysis, resistant and multi-drug resistant strains were independently predictive of an increased hospital total cost in compared with non-resistant strains (the incremental increase in total hospital cost was more than 1.37-fold and 1.77-fold that for non-resistant strains, respectively). P. aeruginosa multi-drug resistance independently predicted higher hospital costs with a more than 70% increase per admission compared with non-resistant strains. Prevention of the nosocomial emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms is essential to limit the strong economic impact.
Gomez-Suarez, C; Pasma, J; van der Borden, AJ; Wingender, J; Flemming, HC; Busscher, HJ; van der Mei, HC
In this study, the role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the initial adhesion of EPS-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa SG91 and SG81R1, a non-EPS-producing strain, to substrata with different hydrophobicity was investigated. The release of EPS by SG81 was concurrent with a decrease in
Liu, Wen-Chao; Wu, Bin-Bin; Li, Xiao-Sen; Lu, Dian-Nan; Liu, Yong-Min
Abstract: A naphthalene-degrading bacterium (referred as HD-5) was isolated from the diesel-contaminated soil and was assigned to Pseudomonas aeruginosa according to 16S rDNA sequences analysis. Gene nah, which encodes naphthalene dioxygenase, was identified from strain HD-5 by PCR amplification. Different bioremediation approaches, including nature attenuation, bioaugmentation with strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa, biostimulation, and an integrated degradation by bioaugmentation and biostimulation, were evaluated for their effectiveness in the remediating soil containing 5% naphthalene. The degradation rates of naphthalene in the soil were compared among the different bioremediation approaches, the FDA and dehydrogenase activity in bioremediation process were measured, and the gene copy number of 16S rRNA and nah in soil were dynamically monitored using real-time PCR. It was shown that the naphthalene removal rate reached 71.94%, 62.22% and 83.14% in approaches of bioaugmentation (B), biostimulation(S) and integrated degradation composed of bioaugmentation and biostimulation (BS), respectively. The highest removal rate of naphthalene was achieved by using BS protocol, which also gives the highest FDA and dehydrogenase activity. The gene copy number of 16S rRNA and nah in soil increased by about 2.67 x 10(11) g(-1) and 8.67 x 10(8) g(-1) after 31 days treatment using BS protocol. Above-mentioned results also demonstrated that the screened bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, could grow well in naphthalene-contaminated soil and effectively degrade naphthalene, which is of fundamental importance for bioremediation of naphthalene-contaminated soil.
Full Text Available Virulent and resistant strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa is one of the most important cause of UTIs in pediatrics. The present study was carried to investigate the frequency of virulence factors in the multi-drug resistant strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from pediatrics hospitalized due to the UTIs. One - hundred and forty three urine samples were collected from pediatric patients suffered from UTIs. Samples were cultured and those that were P. aeruginosa positive were analyzed for the presence of putative virulence genes. Seventy one out of 143 samples (49.65% were positive for P. aeruginosa. Monthly, sex and age-dependent prevalence were seen for P. aeruginosa. Bacterial strains had the highest levels of resistance against ampicillin (95.77%, gentamicin (92.95% and ciprofloxacin (81.69%. Of 71 P. aeruginosa isolates, 12 strains were resistant to more than 9 antibiotics (16.90%. The most commonly detected virulence factors in the cases of urethral infections were exoU and plcH while those of pyelonephritis and cystitis were were exoS and lasB. Our findings should raise awareness about antibiotic resistance in hospitalized pediatrics with UTIs in Iran. Clinicians should exercise caution in prescribing antibiotics, especially in cases of UTIs. Such information can help in identifying these virulence genes as useful diagnostic markers for clinical P. aeruginosa strains isolated from UTIs.
O. A. Nazarchuk; D. V. Paliy; N. I. Osadchuk
Background. Infections caused by Pseudomonas are one of the topical issues of medicine. Objective. The aim of the research was to study sensityvity to antibiotics, antiseptics of P. aeruginosa clinical strains that cause infectious complications in patients with burns. Methods. Microbiological study of biological material, received from 435 patients with burns of the 3rd-4th stages (2011-2015 years). In early terms of burn disease 127 clinical strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated fr...
Tam, Vincent H; Pérez, Cynthia; Ledesma, Kimberly R; Lewis, Russell E
The virulence of an isogenic pair of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains was studied under similar experimental conditions in two animal infection models. The time to death was significantly longer for the multidrug resistant (MDR) than the wild-type strain. The transcriptional profiles of 84 innate immune response genes in the lungs of immune competent Balb/C mice were further compared. Significantly weaker expression of genes involved in production of soluble pattern recognition receptor and complement were observed in animals infected with the MDR strain. Altered patterns of innate immune system activation may explain the attenuated virulence in MDR bacteria. © 2018 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Prabhakaran Priyaja; Puthumana Jayesh; Neil Scolastin Correya; Balachandran Sreelakshmi; Naduthalmuriparambil S Sudheer; Rosamma Philip; Isaac Sarogeni Bright Singh
Objective: To abrogate pathogenic vibrios in aquaculture by testing the potential of Pseudomonas isolates from fresh water, brackish and marine environments as probiotics.Methods:Antagonistic activity of the compound against 7 Vibrio spp. was performed. Influence of salinity on the production of pyocyanin and the toxicity was done through the compound using brine shrimp lethality assay. Molecular characterization was performed to confirm that the isolates werePseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: Salinity was found to regulate the levels of pyocyanin production, with 5-10 g/L as the optimum. All Pseudomonas isolates grew at salinities ranging from 5 to 70 g/L. Isolates of marine origin produced detectable levels of pyocyanin up to 45 g/L salinity. Brackish and freshwater isolates ceased to produce pyocyanin at salinities above 30 g/L and 20 g/L, respectively. Culture supernatants of all 5 Pseudomonas isolates possessed the ability to restrict the growth of Vibrio spp. and maximum antagonistic effect on Vibrio harveyi was obtained when they were grown at salinities of 5 to 10 g/L. The marine isolate MCCB117, even when grown at a salinity of 45 g/L possessed the ability to inhibit Vibrio spp.Conclusions:Purification and structural elucidation of antagonistic compound were carried out. ideal for application in freshwater, MCCB102 and MCCB103 in brackish water and MCCB117 and The present investigation showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCCB119 would be MCCB118 in marine aquaculture systems as putative probiotics in the management of vibrios.
Hu, M.Z.C.; Norman, J.M.; Faison, B.D.; Reeves, M.E.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain CSU, a nongenetically engineered bacterial strain known to bind dissolved hexavalent uranium (as UO 2 2+ and/or its cationic hydroxo complexes) was characterized with respect to its sorptive activity. The uranium biosorption equilibrium could be described by the Langmuir isotherm. The rate of uranium adsorption increased following permeabilization of the outer and/or cytoplasmic membrane by organic solvents such as acetone. P. aeruginosa CSU biomass was significantly more sorptive toward uranium than certain novel, patented biosorbents derived from algal or fungal biomass sources. P. aeruginosa CSU biomass was also competitive with commercial cation-exchange resins, particularly in the presence of dissolved transition metals. Uranium binding by P. aeruginosa CSU was clearly pH dependent. Uranium loading capacity increased with increasing pH under acidic conditions, presumably as a function of uranium speciation and due to the H + competition at some binding sites. Nevertheless, preliminary evidence suggests that this microorganism is also capable of binding anionic hexavalent uranium complexes. Ferric iron was a strong inhibitor of uranium binding to P. aeruginosa CSU biomass, and the presence of uranium also decreased the Fe 3+ loading when the biomass was not saturated with Fe 3+ . Thus, a two-state process in which iron and uranium are removed in consecutive steps was proposed for efficient use of the biomass as a biosorbent in uranium removal from mine wastewater, especially acidic leachates
Varma, Parvathi; Nisha, N; Dinesh, Kavitha R; Kumar, Anil V; Biswas, Raja
Surgical wounds and implant-associated Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are often difficult to treat because of limited susceptibility of several of these strains to conventional antibiotics. As a result, there is a constant need for new alternative drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial properties of Lactobacillus fermentum, a probiotic bacterium, which we have isolated from colonic biopsies. The inhibition of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa growth was evaluated by coincubating with L. fermentum strains. Growth inhibition was tested for several of their clinical isolates using agar well diffusion assays. For biofilm assay S. aureus and P. aeruginosa were grown on the glass slides and in 96-well plates in presence of 2.5 μg/ml culture filtrate of L. fermentum. Biofilms were photographed using confocal microscope or stained with 0.1% crystal violet. Reduction in the cytotoxicity of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa was observed in presence of 2.5 μg/ml L. fermentum-spent media. Using in vitroexperiments, we showed that L. fermentum-secreted compound(s) inhibits the growth, cytotoxicity and biofilm formation of several S. aureus and P. aeruginosa strains. Compound(s) present in the culture supernatant of L. fermentum may have promising applications in treating hospital-acquired infections. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Salih, Osman; He, Shaoda; Planamente, Sara; Stach, Lasse; MacDonald, James T; Manoli, Eleni; Scheres, Sjors H W; Filloux, Alain; Freemont, Paul S
Pseudomonas aeruginosa has three type VI secretion systems (T6SSs), H1-, H2-, and H3-T6SS, each belonging to a distinct group. The two T6SS components, TssB/VipA and TssC/VipB, assemble to form tubules that conserve structural/functional homology with tail sheaths of contractile bacteriophages and pyocins. Here, we used cryoelectron microscopy to solve the structure of the H1-T6SS P. aeruginosa TssB1C1 sheath at 3.3 Å resolution. Our structure allowed us to resolve some features of the T6SS sheath that were not resolved in the Vibrio cholerae VipAB and Francisella tularensis IglAB structures. Comparison with sheath structures from other contractile machines, including T4 phage and R-type pyocins, provides a better understanding of how these systems have conserved similar functions/mechanisms despite evolution. We used the P. aeruginosa R2 pyocin as a structural template to build an atomic model of the TssB1C1 sheath in its extended conformation, allowing us to propose a coiled-spring-like mechanism for T6SS sheath contraction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Andresen, Eva Kammer
extent these observations relate to natural microbial populations. The focus of this thesis has been to study how regulatory networks evolve in natural systems. By using a particular infectious disease scenario (human associated persistent airway infections caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa...... in global regulator genes facilitate the generation of novel phenotypes which again facilitate the shift in life-style of the bacterium from an environmental opportunistic pathogen to a human airway specific pathogen. These findings are not only applicable to P. aeruginosa specific studies, but suggest that...
Mahfoud, Maysa; Al Najjar, Mona; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak
Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a serious clinical challenge due to its frequent involvement in nosocomial infections and its tendency towards multidrug resistance. This study uncovered antibiotic susceptibility patterns in 177 isolates from inpatients in three key hospitals in Aleppo, the largest city in Syria. Exceptionally low susceptibility to most routinely used antibiotics was uncovered; resistance to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was 64.9% and 70.3%, respectively. Contrarily, susceptibility to colistin was the highest (89.1%). Multidrug resistance was rife, found at a rate of 53.67% among studied P. aeruginosa isolates.
Keravec, Marlene; Mounier, Jerome; Prestat , Emmanuel; Vallet, Sophie; Jansson, Janet K.; Bergaud , Gaetaqn; Rosec, Silvain; Gourious, Stephanie; Rault, Gilles; Coton, Emmanuel; Barbier, George; Hery-Arnaud, Geneveieve
Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays a major role in cystic fibrosis (CF) progression. Therefore, it is important to understand the initial steps of P. aeruginosa infection. The structure and dynamics of CF respiratory tract microbial communities during the early stages of P. aeruginosa colonization were characterized by pyrosequencing and cloning-sequencing. The respiratory microbiota showed high diversity, related to the young age of the CF cohort (mean age 10 years). Wide inter- and intra-individual variations were revealed. A common core microbiota of 5 phyla and 13 predominant genera was found, the majority of which were obligate anaerobes. A few genera were significantly more prevalent in patients never infected by P. aeruginosa. Persistence of an anaerobic core microbiota regardless of P. aeruginosa status suggests a major role of certain anaerobes in the pathophysiology of lung infections in CF. Some genera may be potential biomarkers of pulmonary infection state.
Auda, Ibtesam Ghadban; Al-Kadmy, Israa M S; Kareem, Sawsan Mohammed; Lafta, Aliaa Khyuon; A'Affus, Mustafa Hussein Obeid; Khit, Ibrahim Abd Aloahd; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Divakar, Darshan Devang; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of nosocomial infection in children and adults, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality due to its ability to acquire drug resistance. The ability of P. aeruginosa in the environment to cause infection in individuals has been reported previously; henceforth, surveillance of the emergence and transmission of P. aeruginosa strains among patients is important for infection control in a clinical setup. Various gene-typing methods have been used for epidemiological typing of P. aeruginosa isolates for the purpose of surveillance. In this work, the suitability and comparability of two typing methods, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR fingerprinting, were studied to characterize P. aeruginosa strains isolated from clinical and environmental sources. Forty-four clinical and environmental bacterial isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected between October 2015 and January 2016. DNA extraction, ERIC-PCR and RAPD-PCR, agarose gel electrophoresis, and phylogenetic analyses were carried using the unweighted pair-group method with mean. RAPD typing revealed less clonality among clinical isolates, whereas the ERIC method showed greater similarity in comparison with RAPD. Environmental isolates, however, showed greater similarity using RAPD compared with ERIC typing. With only a few exceptions, most clinical isolates were distinct from environmental isolates, irrespective of the typing method. In conclusion, both the RAPD and ERIC typing methods proved to be good tools in understanding clonal diversity. The results also suggest that there is no relationship between clinical and environmental isolates. The absence of clonality among the clinical isolates may indicate that most P. aeruginosa infection cases could be endemic and not epidemic and that endemic infections may be due to nonclonal strains of P. aeruginosa.
Qin, Zhiqiang; Yang, Liang; Qu, Di
Multiple bacterial species often coexist as communities, and compete for environmental resources. Here, we describe how an opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, uses extracellular products to interact with the nosocomial pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis. S. epidermidis biofilms and p...... of a novel strategy for controlling S. epidermidis biofilms....
Pan, Xiaolei; Dong, Yuanyuan; Fan, Zheng; Liu, Chang; Xia, Bin; Shi, Jing; Bai, Fang; Jin, Yongxin; Cheng, Zhihui; Jin, Shouguang; Wu, Weihui
During host infection, Pseudomonas aeruginosa coordinately regulates the expression of numerous genes to adapt to the host environment while counteracting host clearance mechanisms. As infected patients take antibiotics, the invading bacteria encounter antibiotics in the host milieu. P. aeruginosa is highly resistant to antibiotics due to multiple chromosomally encoded resistant determinants. And numerous in vitro studies have demonstrated the regulatory mechanisms of antibiotic resistance related genes in response to antibiotics. However, it is not well-known how host environment affects bacterial response to antibiotics. In this study, we found that P. aeruginosa cells directly isolated from mice lungs displayed higher susceptibility to tobramycin than in vitro cultured bacteria. In vitro experiments demonstrated that incubation with A549 and differentiated HL60 (dHL60) cells sensitized P. aeruginosa to tobramycin. Further studies revealed that reactive oxygen species produced by the host cells contributed to the increased bacterial susceptibility. At the same concentration of tobramycin, presence of A549 and dHL60 cells resulted in higher expression of heat shock proteins, which are known inducible by tobramycin. Further analyses revealed decreased membrane potential upon incubation with the host cells and modification of lipopolysaccharide, which contributed to the increased susceptibility to tobramycin. Therefore, our results demonstrate that contact with host cells increased bacterial susceptibility to tobramycin. PMID:28352614
Brand, Alexandra; Barnes, Julia D; Mackenzie, Kevin S; Odds, Frank C; Gow, Neil A R
The fungus, Candida albicans, and the bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are opportunistic human pathogens that have been coisolated from diverse body sites. Pseudomonas aeruginosa suppresses C. albicans proliferation in vitro and potentially in vivo but it is the C. albicans hyphae that are killed while yeast cells are not. We show that hyphal killing involves both contact-mediated and soluble factors. Bacterial culture filtrates contained heat-labile soluble factors that killed C. albicans hyphae. In cocultures, localized points of hyphal lysis were observed, suggesting that adhesion and subsequent bacteria-mediated cell wall lysis is involved in the killing of C. albicans hyphae. The glycosylation status of the C. albicans cell wall affected the rate of contact-dependent killing because mutants with severely truncated O-linked, but not N-linked, glycans were hypersensitive to Pseudomonas-mediated killing. Deletion of HWP1, ALS3 or HYR1, which encode major hypha-associated cell wall proteins, had no effect on fungal susceptibility.
Pressler, T.; Karpati, F.; Granstrom, M.
to characterize patients with different infection status. Elevated levels of specific anti-Pseudomonas antibodies showed to be the risk factor for developing chronic Pa infection. Due to the specificity of the tests, antibiotic treatment based on serology might be considered in selected cases. There is a window...... of opportunity for suppression and eradication of initial P. aeruginosa infection making measurement of specific anti-Pseudomonas antibodies helpful Udgivelsesdato: 2009/1...
Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Klausen, M; Ernst, RK
During Pseudomonas aeruginosa flow cell biofilm development, the cell population differentiates into a nonmotile subpopulation which forms microcolonies and a migrating subpopulation which eventually colonizes the top of the microcolonies, resulting in the development of mushroom-shaped multicell......During Pseudomonas aeruginosa flow cell biofilm development, the cell population differentiates into a nonmotile subpopulation which forms microcolonies and a migrating subpopulation which eventually colonizes the top of the microcolonies, resulting in the development of mushroom......-targeting antibacterial agents. All biofilm-associated cells were sensitive to the antibacterial agents when tested in standard plate assays. A mutation eliminating the production of type IV pili, and hence surface-associated motility, prevented the formation of regular mushroom-shaped structures in the flow cell...... that only the cap-forming subpopulation in biofilms treated with colistin expresses the pmr operon. These results suggest that increased antibiotic tolerance in biofilms may be a consequence of differentiation into distinct subpopulations with different phenotypic properties....
Abd-Alla, Mohamed H; Bashandy, Shymaa R
Eighteen organic compounds were present in growing onion bulbs cultivar Giza 6 infected with P. aeruginosa, but only fourteen of them are present in dry infected onion bulbs; however, four compounds were missing in dry onion. The missing compounds in dry infected onion bulbs are pantolactone, 4,5-dihydro-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(3H)-one, myristic acid, and linoleic acid. All of them were detected in growing onion (living cell) during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, and it is hypothesized that it may be produced by plants and act as defence system. Pantolactone and myristic acid were selected to explore their effects on growth and virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Exogenous application of pantolactone and myristic acid significantly inhibited pyocyanin production, protease, and lipase and polygalacturonase activity but did not have any significant effects on bacterial growth. The inhibition of virulence factors without reduction in bacterial growth may be providing strong support that these chemical molecules are general quorum sensing inhibitors than an antibacterial effect. Disruption of quorum sensing of pathogen indicates that this new approach has potential in fighting bacterial infections in human and plants.
Miller, R.V.; Kokjohn, T.A.
Western (immunoblot) analysis using Escherichia coli anti-RecA antiserum revealed that expression of the RecA protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO is induced upon exposure of the bacterium to UV irradiation or norfloxacin, a quinolone related to nalidixic acid
Nicola Ivan Lorè
Full Text Available The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is able to thrive in diverse ecological niches and to cause serious human infection. P. aeruginosa environmental strains are producing various virulence factors that are required for establishing acute infections in several host organisms; however, the P. aeruginosa phenotypic variants favour long-term persistence in the cystic fibrosis (CF airways. Whether P. aeruginosa strains, which have adapted to the CF-niche, have lost their competitive fitness in the other environment remains to be investigated. In this paper, three P. aeruginosa clonal lineages, including early strains isolated at the onset of infection, and late strains, isolated after several years of chronic lung infection from patients with CF, were analysed in multi-host model systems of acute infection. P. aeruginosa early isolates caused lethality in the three non-mammalian hosts, namely Caenorhabditis elegans, Galleria mellonella, and Drosophila melanogaster, while late adapted clonal isolates were attenuated in acute virulence. When two different mouse genetic background strains, namely C57Bl/6NCrl and Balb/cAnNCrl, were used as acute infection models, early P. aeruginosa CF isolates were lethal, while late isolates exhibited reduced or abolished acute virulence. Severe histopathological lesions, including high leukocytes recruitment and bacterial load, were detected in the lungs of mice infected with P. aeruginosa CF early isolates, while late isolates were progressively cleared. In addition, systemic bacterial spread and invasion of epithelial cells, which were detected for P. aeruginosa CF early strains, were not observed with late strains. Our findings indicate that niche-specific selection in P. aeruginosa reduced its ability to cause acute infections across a broad range of hosts while maintaining the capacity for chronic infection in the CF host.
Análise epidemiológica de isolados clínicos de Pseudomonas aeruginosa provenientes de hospital universitário Epidemiologic analysis of clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from an university hospital
Eduardo José Valença Cordeiro Pires
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: A Pseudomonas aeruginosa é um patógeno oportunista que tem se destacado quanto à prevalência em casos de infecções hospitalares. Sua ampla resistência aos diversos grupos de antimicrobianos garante a este microrganismo um papel de destaque entre as bactérias mais prevalentes associadas à infecção nosocomial. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar um levantamento epidemiológico da P. aeruginosa, bem como do seu perfil de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo baseado no livro de registro de secreções diversas do laboratório de bacteriologia do Hospital das Clínicas no período compreendido entre janeiro a junho de 2008. Entre os registros, identificamos aqueles que foram positivos para a P. aeruginosa, analisando sua origem e perfil de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos utilizados na rotina daquele laboratório. RESULTADOS: As bactérias mais freqüentes, isoladas das secreções diversas, foram P. aeruginosa (26% e S. aureus (25%. Quanto à origem, a P. aeruginosa foi isolada principalmente de infecções respiratórias, pois 33% das amostras positivas para esta bactéria foram provinientes de secreções traqueais e 21% nasais. Os antimicrobianos mais eficazes contra a P. aeruginosa foram: amicacina, imipenem, meropenem e aztreonam. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados mostram uma alta prevalência de P. aeruginosa, no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Apesar de apresentar grande resistência a antimicrobianos mais antigos como as cefalosporinas de primeira e segunda geração, assim como cloranfenicol, em geral, este patógeno demonstrou boa sensibilidade às drogas utilizadas na rotina deste hospital.OBJECTIVES: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an increasingly prevalent opportunistic pathogen in hospital infection cases. Its high resistance rates to many antimicrobials has given this
Full Text Available Abstract Background The intratracheal instillation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa entrapped in agar beads in the mouse lung leads to chronic lung infection in susceptible mouse strains. As the infection generates a strong inflammatory response with some lung edema, we tested if it could modulate the expression of genes involved in lung liquid clearance, such as the α, β and γ subunits of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC and the catalytic subunit of Na+-K+-ATPase. Methods Pseudomonas aeruginosa entrapped in agar beads were instilled in the lung of resistant (BalB/c and susceptible (DBA/2, C57BL/6 and A/J mouse strains. The mRNA expression of ENaC and Na+-K+-ATPase subunits was tested in the lung by Northern blot following a 3 hours to 14 days infection. Results The infection of the different mouse strains evoked regulation of α and β ENaC mRNA. Following Pseudomonas instillation, the expression of αENaC mRNA decreased to a median of 43% on days 3 and 7 after infection and was still decreased to a median of 45% 14 days after infection (p 1Na+-K+-ATPase mRNA, the catalytic subunit of the sodium pump, was recorded. The distinctive expression profiles of the three subunits were not different, between the susceptible and resistant mouse strains. Conclusions These results show that Pseudomonas infection, by modulating ENaC subunit expression, could influence edema formation and clearance in infected lungs.
Laarman, Alexander J; Bardoel, Bart W; Ruyken, Maartje; Fernie, Job; Milder, Fin J; van Strijp, Jos A G; Rooijakkers, Suzan H M
The complement system rapidly detects and kills Gram-negative bacteria and supports bacterial killing by phagocytes. However, bacterial pathogens exploit several strategies to evade detection by the complement system. The alkaline protease (AprA) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been associated with bacterial virulence and is known to interfere with complement-mediated lysis of erythrocytes, but its exact role in bacterial complement escape is unknown. In this study, we analyzed how AprA interferes with complement activation and whether it could block complement-dependent neutrophil functions. We found that AprA potently blocked phagocytosis and killing of Pseudomonas by human neutrophils. Furthermore, AprA inhibited opsonization of bacteria with C3b and the formation of the chemotactic agent C5a. AprA specifically blocked C3b deposition via the classical and lectin pathways, whereas the alternative pathway was not affected. Serum degradation assays revealed that AprA degrades both human C1s and C2. However, repletion assays demonstrated that the mechanism of action for complement inhibition is cleavage of C2. In summary, we showed that P. aeruginosa AprA interferes with classical and lectin pathway-mediated complement activation via cleavage of C2.
Moussa, T. A. A.; Mohamed, M. S.; Samak, N.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa TMN was used to produce rhamnolipid (RL) from a variety of carbon and nitrogen substrates. The most favorable carbon sources for RL production were glucose and glycerol (both at 40 g/L), giving a RL yield of 0.3 and 0.25 g/L, respectively. Meanwhile, sodium nitrate appeared to be the preferable nitrogen source, resulting in a RL production of 0.34g/L. Rhamnolipid production from P. aeruginosa TMN was affected by temperature, pH and agitation rate, with 37 °C, pH 7 and 200 rpm agitation favorable for rhamnolipid production. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electro spray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analyses indicated that the purified product contained one type of commonly found rhamnolipid, which is L-rhamnosyl-L-rhamnosyl-β- hydroxydecanoyl-β-hydroxydecanoate. The rhamnolipid product can reduce the surface tension of water to 34 mN/m with a critical micelle concentration of nearly 18.75 mg/L and emulsified kerosene by 46%. P. aeruginosa TMN strain is a potential source of rhamnolipid biosurfactant, which could be used for the development of bioremediation processes in the marine environment. (author)
Oldenburg, Catherine E; Lalitha, Prajna; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Borkar, Durga S; Ray, Kathryn J; Zegans, Michael E; McLeod, Stephen D; Porco, Travis C; Lietman, Thomas M; Acharya, Nisha R
To describe temporal trends in Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance to moxifloxacin in keratitis isolates from South India. The Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial (SCUT) was a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial assessing outcomes in patients with culture positive bacterial corneal ulcers randomized to receive prednisolone phosphate or placebo. All patients received moxifloxacin, and susceptibility to moxifloxacin was measured at baseline using Etest. We investigated trends in moxifloxacin susceptibility of P. aeruginosa during 2007, 2008, and 2009 isolated in SCUT in South India. There were 89 P. aeruginosa isolates during 2007, 2008, and 2009 in SCUT that were eligible for this study. There was an increase in the proportion of resistant isolates from 19% in 2007 to 52% in 2009 (p = 0.02, χ(2) test for trend). Logistic regression showed that there was a 2-fold increase in odds of resistance per 1 year increase during the study period (odds ratio 2.16, 95% confidence interval 1.09-4.26, p = 0.027). We found a sharp increase in the proportion of isolates that were resistant to moxifloxacin from 2007 to 2009. Further work needs to be done to characterize the nature of this increase.
Moussa, T. A. A.; Mohamed, M. S.; Samak, N., E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Cairo University (Egypt)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa TMN was used to produce rhamnolipid (RL) from a variety of carbon and nitrogen substrates. The most favorable carbon sources for RL production were glucose and glycerol (both at 40 g/L), giving a RL yield of 0.3 and 0.25 g/L, respectively. Meanwhile, sodium nitrate appeared to be the preferable nitrogen source, resulting in a RL production of 0.34g/L. Rhamnolipid production from P. aeruginosa TMN was affected by temperature, pH and agitation rate, with 37 °C, pH 7 and 200 rpm agitation favorable for rhamnolipid production. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electro spray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analyses indicated that the purified product contained one type of commonly found rhamnolipid, which is L-rhamnosyl-L-rhamnosyl-β- hydroxydecanoyl-β-hydroxydecanoate. The rhamnolipid product can reduce the surface tension of water to 34 mN/m with a critical micelle concentration of nearly 18.75 mg/L and emulsified kerosene by 46%. P. aeruginosa TMN strain is a potential source of rhamnolipid biosurfactant, which could be used for the development of bioremediation processes in the marine environment. (author)
Heacock-Kang, Yun; Sun, Zhenxin; Zarzycki-Siek, Jan; McMillan, Ian A; Norris, Michael H; Bluhm, Andrew P; Cabanas, Darlene; Fogen, Dawson; Vo, Hung; Donachie, Stuart P; Borlee, Bradley R; Sibley, Christopher D; Lewenza, Shawn; Schurr, Michael J; Schweizer, Herbert P; Hoang, Tung T
Bacterial cooperative associations and dynamics in biofilm microenvironments are of special interest in recent years. Knowledge of localized gene-expression and corresponding bacterial behaviors within the biofilm architecture at a global scale has been limited, due to a lack of robust technology to study limited number of cells in stratified layers of biofilms. With our recent pioneering developments in single bacterial cell transcriptomic analysis technology, we generated herein an unprecedented spatial transcriptome map of the mature in vitro Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm model, revealing contemporaneous yet altered bacterial behaviors at different layers within the biofilm architecture (i.e., surface, middle and interior of the biofilm). Many genes encoding unknown functions were highly expressed at the biofilm-solid interphase, exposing a critical gap in the knowledge of their activities that may be unique to this interior niche. Several genes of unknown functions are critical for biofilm formation. The in vivo importance of these unknown proteins was validated in invertebrate (fruit fly) and vertebrate (mouse) models. We envisage the future value of this report to the community, in aiding the further pathophysiological understanding of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Our approach will open doors to the study of bacterial functional genomics of different species in numerous settings. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hendricks, Matthew R; Lashua, Lauren P; Fischer, Douglas K; Flitter, Becca A; Eichinger, Katherine M; Durbin, Joan E; Sarkar, Saumendra N; Coyne, Carolyn B; Empey, Kerry M; Bomberger, Jennifer M
Clinical observations link respiratory virus infection and Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in chronic lung disease, including cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The development of P. aeruginosa into highly antibiotic-resistant biofilm communities promotes airway colonization and accounts for disease progression in patients. Although clinical studies show a strong correlation between CF patients' acquisition of chronic P. aeruginosa infections and respiratory virus infection, little is known about the mechanism by which chronic P. aeruginosa infections are initiated in the host. Using a coculture model to study the formation of bacterial biofilm formation associated with the airway epithelium, we show that respiratory viral infections and the induction of antiviral interferons promote robust secondary P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. We report that the induction of antiviral IFN signaling in response to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection induces bacterial biofilm formation through a mechanism of dysregulated iron homeostasis of the airway epithelium. Moreover, increased apical release of the host iron-binding protein transferrin during RSV infection promotes P. aeruginosa biofilm development in vitro and in vivo. Thus, nutritional immunity pathways that are disrupted during respiratory viral infection create an environment that favors secondary bacterial infection and may provide previously unidentified targets to combat bacterial biofilm formation.
Dohar, J E; Kenna, M A; Wadowsky, R M
The choice of antimicrobial agents used to treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections of the ear is quite empiric. Yet in spite of this, very little has been published examining susceptibility patterns of aural isolates of P. aeruginosa. Recently, increasing concern has emerged over the development of resistance to many of the commonly used ototopical preparations with activity against P. aeruginosa. This concern stems from the fact that these preparations have been in use for a long time, and P. aeruginosa is known to develop resistance fairly readily. We prospectively studied the susceptibilities of aural isolates of P. aeruginosa in 231 consecutive children who were seen in the outpatient Pediatric Otolaryngology Department at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh during the years 1992 and 1993. The agents tested included neomycin, polymyxin B, colistin, and norfloxacin. We found that only 17.8% of the isolates were sensitive to neomycin, as opposed to > 95% for each of the other agents tested (polymyxin B, 99.6%; colistin, 97.4%; and norfloxacin, 98.3%). This difference proved to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). Given the concern of aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity and the high rate of neomycin resistance, we believe that further investigation of other alternative ototopic agents with activity against P. aeruginosa is warranted.
Balibar, Carl J; Iwanowicz, Dorothy; Dean, Charles R
Elongation factor P (EF-P) is a highly conserved ribosomal initiation factor responsible for stimulating formation of the first peptide bond. Its essentiality has been debated and may differ depending on the organism. Here, we demonstrate that EF-P is dispensable in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa under laboratory growth conditions. Although knockouts are viable, growth rates are diminished compared with wild-type strains. Despite this cost in fitness, these mutants are not more susceptible to a wide range of antibiotics; including ribosome targeting antibiotics, such as lincomycin, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin, which have been shown previously to disrupt EF-P function in vitro. In Pseudomonas, knockout of efp leads to an upregulation of mexX, a phenotype previously observed with other genetic lesions affecting ribosome function and that can be induced by the treatment with antibiotics affecting protein synthesis.
Miguel A. Saucedo-Mora
Full Text Available Quorum sensing (QS in Pseudomonas aeruginosa coordinates the expression of virulence factors, some of which are used as public goods. Since their production is a cooperative behavior, it is susceptible to social cheating in which non-cooperative QS deficient mutants use the resources without investing in their production. Nevertheless, functional QS systems are abundant; hence, mechanisms regulating the amount of cheating should exist. Evidence that demonstrates a tight relationship between QS and the susceptibility of bacteria against the attack of lytic phages is increasing; nevertheless, the relationship between temperate phages and QS has been much less explored. Therefore, in this work, we studied the effects of having a functional QS system on the susceptibility to temperate bacteriophages and how this affects the bacterial and phage dynamics. We find that both experimentally and using mathematical models, that the lysogenic bacteriophages D3112 and JBD30 select QS-proficient P. aeruginosa phenotypes as compared to the QS-deficient mutants during competition experiments with mixed strain populations in vitro and in vivo in Galleria mellonella, in spite of the fact that both phages replicate better in the wild-type background. We show that this phenomenon restricts social cheating, and we propose that temperate phages may constitute an important selective pressure toward the conservation of bacterial QS.
Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to assess the hospital economic costs of nosocomial multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisition. Methods A retrospective study of all hospital admissions between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2006 was carried out in a 420-bed, urban, tertiary-care teaching hospital in Barcelona (Spain. All patients with a first positive clinical culture for P. aeruginosa more than 48 h after admission were included. Patient and hospitalization characteristics were collected from hospital and microbiology laboratory computerized records. According to antibiotic susceptibility, isolates were classified as non-resistant, resistant and multi-drug resistant. Cost estimation was based on a full-costing cost accounting system and on the criteria of clinical Activity-Based Costing methods. Multivariate analyses were performed using generalized linear models of log-transformed costs. Results Cost estimations were available for 402 nosocomial incident P. aeruginosa positive cultures. Their distribution by antibiotic susceptibility pattern was 37.1% non-resistant, 29.6% resistant and 33.3% multi-drug resistant. The total mean economic cost per admission of patients with multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa strains was higher than that for non-resistant strains (15,265 vs. 4,933 Euros. In multivariate analysis, resistant and multi-drug resistant strains were independently predictive of an increased hospital total cost in compared with non-resistant strains (the incremental increase in total hospital cost was more than 1.37-fold and 1.77-fold that for non-resistant strains, respectively. Conclusions P. aeruginosa multi-drug resistance independently predicted higher hospital costs with a more than 70% increase per admission compared with non-resistant strains. Prevention of the nosocomial emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms is essential to limit the strong economic impact.
Djonović, Slavica; Urbach, Jonathan M; Drenkard, Eliana; Bush, Jenifer; Feinbaum, Rhonda; Ausubel, Jonathan L; Traficante, David; Risech, Martina; Kocks, Christine; Fischbach, Michael A; Priebe, Gregory P; Ausubel, Frederick M
Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 is a multi-host pathogen that infects plants, nematodes, insects, and vertebrates. Many PA14 factors are required for virulence in more than one of these hosts. Noting that plants have a fundamentally different cellular architecture from animals, we sought to identify PA14 factors that are specifically required for plant pathogenesis. We show that synthesis by PA14 of the disaccharide trehalose is required for pathogenesis in Arabidopsis, but not in nematodes, insects, or mice. In-frame deletion of two closely-linked predicted trehalose biosynthetic operons, treYZ and treS, decreased growth in Arabidopsis leaves about 50 fold. Exogenously co-inoculated trehalose, ammonium, or nitrate, but not glucose, sulfate, or phosphate suppressed the phenotype of the double ΔtreYZΔtreS mutant. Exogenous trehalose or ammonium nitrate does not suppress the growth defect of the double ΔtreYZΔtreS mutant by suppressing the plant defense response. Trehalose also does not function intracellularly in P. aeruginosa to ameliorate a variety of stresses, but most likely functions extracellularly, because wild-type PA14 rescued the in vivo growth defect of the ΔtreYZΔtreS in trans. Surprisingly, the growth defect of the double ΔtreYZΔtreS double mutant was suppressed by various Arabidopsis cell wall mutants that affect xyloglucan synthesis, including an xxt1xxt2 double mutant that completely lacks xyloglucan, even though xyloglucan mutants are not more susceptible to pathogens and respond like wild-type plants to immune elicitors. An explanation of our data is that trehalose functions to promote the acquisition of nitrogen-containing nutrients in a process that involves the xyloglucan component of the plant cell wall, thereby allowing P. aeruginosa to replicate in the intercellular spaces in a leaf. This work shows how P. aeruginosa, a multi-host opportunistic pathogen, has repurposed a highly conserved "house-keeping" anabolic pathway (trehalose
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 is a multi-host pathogen that infects plants, nematodes, insects, and vertebrates. Many PA14 factors are required for virulence in more than one of these hosts. Noting that plants have a fundamentally different cellular architecture from animals, we sought to identify PA14 factors that are specifically required for plant pathogenesis. We show that synthesis by PA14 of the disaccharide trehalose is required for pathogenesis in Arabidopsis, but not in nematodes, insects, or mice. In-frame deletion of two closely-linked predicted trehalose biosynthetic operons, treYZ and treS, decreased growth in Arabidopsis leaves about 50 fold. Exogenously co-inoculated trehalose, ammonium, or nitrate, but not glucose, sulfate, or phosphate suppressed the phenotype of the double ΔtreYZΔtreS mutant. Exogenous trehalose or ammonium nitrate does not suppress the growth defect of the double ΔtreYZΔtreS mutant by suppressing the plant defense response. Trehalose also does not function intracellularly in P. aeruginosa to ameliorate a variety of stresses, but most likely functions extracellularly, because wild-type PA14 rescued the in vivo growth defect of the ΔtreYZΔtreS in trans. Surprisingly, the growth defect of the double ΔtreYZΔtreS double mutant was suppressed by various Arabidopsis cell wall mutants that affect xyloglucan synthesis, including an xxt1xxt2 double mutant that completely lacks xyloglucan, even though xyloglucan mutants are not more susceptible to pathogens and respond like wild-type plants to immune elicitors. An explanation of our data is that trehalose functions to promote the acquisition of nitrogen-containing nutrients in a process that involves the xyloglucan component of the plant cell wall, thereby allowing P. aeruginosa to replicate in the intercellular spaces in a leaf. This work shows how P. aeruginosa, a multi-host opportunistic pathogen, has repurposed a highly conserved "house-keeping" anabolic
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was isolated from a hospital blood specimen in 1971 and has been widely used as a model strain to survey antibiotics susceptibilities, biofilm development, and metabolic activities of Pseudomonas spp.. Although four draft genomes of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 have been sequenced, the complete genome of this strain is still lacking, hindering a comprehensive understanding of its physiology and functional genome.Here we sequenced and assembled the complete genome of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 using the Pacific Biosciences SMRT (PacBio) technology and Illumina sequencing platform. We found that accessory genes of ATCC 27853 including prophages and genomic islands (GIs) mainly contribute to the difference between P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and other P. aeruginosa strains. Seven prophages were identified within the genome of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Of the predicted 25 GIs, three contain genes that encode monoxoygenases, dioxygenases and hydrolases that could be involved in the metabolism of aromatic compounds. Surveying virulence-related genes revealed that a series of genes that encode the B-band O-antigen of LPS are lacking in ATCC 27853. Distinctive SNPs in genes of cellular adhesion proteins such as type IV pili and flagella biosynthesis were also observed in this strain. Colony morphology analysis confirmed an enhanced biofilm formation capability of ATCC 27853 on solid agar surface compared to Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. We then performed transcriptome analysis of ATCC 27853 and PAO1 using RNA-seq and compared the expression of orthologous genes to understand the functional genome and the genomic details underlying the distinctive colony morphogenesis. These analyses revealed an increased expression of genes involved in cellular adhesion and biofilm maturation such as type IV pili, exopolysaccharide and electron transport chain components in ATCC 27853 compared with PAO1. In addition, distinctive expression profiles of the
Johansen, H K; Cryz, S J; Hougen, H P
The ongoing lung tissue damage in chronically Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected cystic fibrosis (CF) patients has been shown to be caused by elastase liberated from polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), which dominate the chronic inflammation in these patients. Most CF patients, however, contract...... the chronic lung infection with P. aeruginosa after a one-year period (median) of intermittent colonization. Therefore, prevention of the onset of the chronic infection or prevention of the dominance of the inflammation by PMNs would be important goals for a vaccine strategy against P. aeruginosa in CF....... In a rat model of acute P. aeruginosa pneumonia we studied whether it was possible to improve the initial bacterial clearance and diminish the inflammatory response by vaccination prior to challenge with free, live P. aeruginosa. The vaccines studied were PAO 579 sonicate, O-polysaccharide toxin A (TA...
Bahmani, Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Hassanzadazar, Hassan; Taherikalani, Morovat
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium found in water and soil. It is a normal flora in skin and gastrointestinal tract of human beings. P. aeruginosa as an opportunistic pathogen involved in nosocomial infections having multiple pathogenic factors and shows high rate of resistance to different antibiotics. The aim of this study was to identify the most important native medicinal plants of Iran effective on P. aeruginosa. All required information was obtained by searching keywords such as P. aeruginosa , medicinal plant extracts or essential oils in published articles in authentic scientific databases such as Science Direct, Wiley-Blackwell, Springer, Google scholar, Scientific Information Database (SID) and Magiran. According to the literature review, our results showed 12 different native medicinal plants were effective against P. aeruginosa in Iran including Eucalyptus camadulensis, Marticaria chamomilla, Ferula gummosa Boiss, Lawsonia inermis, Ocimumgra tissimum, Allium sativum, Satureja hortensis L, Satureja bachtiarica Bunge, Satureja khuzestanica (Jamzad), Thymus daenensis Celak, Thymus carmanicus Jalals and Camellia sinensis. Phytochemical analysis has shown that bioactive compounds of medicinal plants with their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties can be good alternatives for the synthetic medicines in food and drug industry.
Full Text Available Some clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa stored in our culture collection did not grow or grew poorly and showed lysis on the culture plates when removed from the collection and inoculated on MacConkey agar. One hypothesis was that bacteriophages had infected and killed those clinical isolates. To check the best storage conditions to maintain viable P. aeruginosa for a longer time, clinical isolates were stored at various temperatures and were grown monthly. We investigated the presence of phage in 10 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa stored in our culture collection. Four strains of P. aeruginosa were infected by phages that were characterized by electron microscopy and isolated to assess their ability to infect. The best condition to maintain the viability of the strains during storage was in water at room temperature. Three Siphoviridae and two Myoviridae phages were visualized and characterized by morphology. We confirmed the presence of bacteriophages infecting clinical isolates, and their ability to infect and lyse alternative hosts. Strain PAO1, however, did not show lysis to any phage. Mucoid and multidrug resistant strains of P. aeruginosa showed lysis to 50% of the phages tested.
Jeffery, B.; Peppler, M.; Lima, R. S.; McDonald, A.
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been shown to exhibit photocatalytic bactericidal activity. This preliminary study focused on examining the photocatalytic activity of high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) sprayed nanostructured TiO2 coatings to kill Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The surfaces of the nanostructured TiO2 coatings were lightly polished before addition of the bacterial solution. Plates of P. aeruginosa were grown, and then suspended in a phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution. The concentration of bacteria used was determined by a photo-spectrometer, which measured the amount of light absorbed by the bacteria-filled solution. This solution was diluted and pipetted onto the coating, which was exposed to white light in 30-min intervals, up to 120 min. It was found that on polished HVOF-sprayed coatings exposed to white light, 24% of the bacteria were killed after exposure for 120 min. On stainless steel controls, approximately 6% of the bacteria were not recovered. These preliminary results show that thermal-sprayed nanostructured TiO2 coatings exhibited photocatalytic bactericidal activity with P. aeruginosa.
Johansen, H K; Hougen, H P; Rygaard, J
In a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection mimicking cystic fibrosis (CF), we studied whether the inflammatory response could be altered by intraperitoneal treatment with recombinant rat interferon-gamma (rrIFN-gamma). Rats were treated either before or after intratracheal ch...
Jensen, Palle Skovhus; Chi, Qijin; Zhang, Jingdong
We have prepared a "hybrid" of the blue copper protein azurin (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and a 3 nm gold nanoparticle (AuNP). The AuNP/azurin hybrid was assembled on a Au(111)-electrode surface in a two-step process. The AuNP was first attached to the Au(111) electrode via Au-S chemisorption of a 4...
Kiliç, Nur Koçberber; Dönmez, Gönül
Three different chromium-resistant microorganisms (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus sp., and Ochrobactrum sp.) were tested with regard to their EPS production at different pH levels, temperatures, Cr(VI) concentrations, and incubation periods. The optimum pH level was 7 for P. aeruginosa and Micrococcus sp., while it was 8 for Ochrobactrum sp. according to the highest EPS amount at 100 mg/L Cr(VI) concentration. The highest production of EPSs by the three bacteria was obtained under different environmental conditions. P. aeruginosa produced the highest EPS (863.3 mg/L) after incubation for 96 h on media with 50 mg/L Cr(VI) at 20 degrees C, Micrococcus sp. gave the highest yield (444.6 mg/L) after incubation for 72 h on media with 100 mg/L Cr(VI) at the same temperature, and Ochrobactrum sp. had the highest production (430.5 mg/L) on media with 150 mg/L Cr(VI) at 30 degrees C at the end of 48 h of incubation.
Baniasadi, Mahmoud; Xu, Zhe; Du, Yingjie; Lu, Hongbing; Minary-Jolandan, Majid; Gandee, Leah; Zimmern, Philippe
Bacterial biofilms are a source of many chronic infections. Biofilms and their inherent resistance to antibiotics are attributable to a range of health issues including affecting prosthetic implants, hospital-acquired infections, and wound infection. Mechanical properties of biofilm, in particular, at micro- and nano-scales, are governed by microstructures and porosity of the biofilm, which in turn may contribute to their inherent antibiotic resistance. We utilize atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanoindentation and finite element simulation to investigate the nanoscale mechanical properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial biofilm. This biofilm was derived from human samples and represents a medically relevant model. (paper)
Lanini, Simone; D'Arezzo, Silvia; Puro, Vincenzo; Martini, Lorena; Imperi, Francesco; Piselli, Pierluca; Montanaro, Marco; Paoletti, Simonetta; Visca, Paolo; Ippolito, Giuseppe
Background and Objective Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection represents a main cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. This study describes a fatal epidemic of P. aeruginosa that occurred in a hematology unit in Italy. Methods Retrospective cohort study, prospective surveillance, auditing, extensive testing on healthcare workers and environmental investigation were performed to define the dynamics and potential causes of transmission. RAPD, macrorestriction analyses and sequence typing were used to define relationships between P. aeruginosa isolates. Results Eighteen cases of infection were identified in the different phases of the investigation. Of these, five constitute a significant molecular cluster of infection. A P. aeruginosa strain with the same genetic fingerprint and sequence type (ST175) as clinical isolates strain was also isolated from a heavily contaminated triclosan soap dispenser. Discussion and Conclusions Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that patients became indirectly infected, e.g., during central venous catheter handling through contaminated items, and that the triclosan soap dispenser acted as a common continuous source of P. aeruginosa infection. Since P. aeruginosa is intrinsically unsusceptible to triclosan, the use of triclosan-based disinfectant formulations should be avoided in those healthcare settings hosting patients at high risk of P. aeruginosa infection. PMID:21359222
Sang Yeol Lee
Full Text Available The crude ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of Cornus macrophylla showed antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a leading cause of illness in immunocompromised individuals. Bioactivity-guided separation led to the isolation of kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (afzelin. The structure was determined based on evaluation of its spectroscopic (UV, MS, and NMR data. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of afzelin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be 31 µg/mL. In addition, the results indicated that a hydroxyl group at C3 of the C-ring of the flavone skeleton and the rhamnose group may act as a negative factor and an enhancing factor, respectively, in the antibacterial activities of afzelin.
Full Text Available Objective: To abrogate pathogenic vibrios in aquaculture by testing the potential of Pseudomonas isolates from fresh water, brackish and marine environments as probiotics. Methods: Purification and structural elucidation of antagonistic compound were carried out. Antagonistic activity of the compound against 7 Vibrio spp. was performed. Influence of salinity on the production of pyocyanin and the toxicity was done through the compound using brine shrimp lethality assay. Molecular characterization was performed to confirm that the isolates were Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: Salinity was found to regulate the levels of pyocyanin production, with 5-10 g/L as the optimum. All Pseudomonas isolates grew at salinities ranging from 5 to 70 g/L. Isolates of marine origin produced detectable levels of pyocyanin up to 45 g/L salinity. Brackish and freshwater isolates ceased to produce pyocyanin at salinities above 30 g/L and 20 g/L, respectively. Culture supernatants of all 5 Pseudomonas isolates possessed the ability to restrict the growth of Vibrio spp. and maximum antagonistic effect on Vibrio harveyi was obtained when they were grown at salinities of 5 to 10 g/L. The marine isolate MCCB117, even when grown at a salinity of 45 g/L possessed the ability to inhibit Vibrio spp. Conclusions: The present investigation showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCCB119 would be ideal for application in freshwater, MCCB102 and MCCB103 in brackish water and MCCB117 and MCCB118 in marine aquaculture systems as putative probiotics in the management of vibrios.
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a threatening, opportunistic pathogen causing disease in immunocompromised individuals. The hallmark of P. aeruginosa virulence is its multi-factorial and combinatorial nature. It renders such bacteria infectious for many organisms and it is often resistant to antibiotics. To gain insights into the physiology of P. aeruginosa during infection, we assessed the transcriptional programs of three different P. aeruginosa strains directly after isolation from burn wounds of humans. We compared the programs to those of the same strains using two infection models: a plant model, which consisted of the infection of the midrib of lettuce leaves, and a murine tumor model, which was obtained by infection of mice with an induced tumor in the abdomen. All control conditions of P. aeruginosa cells growing in suspension and as a biofilm were added to the analysis. We found that these different P. aeruginosa strains express a pool of distinct genetic traits that are activated under particular infection conditions regardless of their genetic variability. The knowledge herein generated will advance our understanding of P. aeruginosa virulence and provide valuable cues for the definition of prospective targets to develop novel intervention strategies.
Moskowitz, Samuel M; Brannon, Mark K; Dasgupta, Nandini
Pseudomonas aeruginosa can develop resistance to polymyxin and other cationic antimicrobial peptides. Previous work has shown that mutations in the PmrAB and PhoPQ regulatory systems can confer low to moderate levels of colistin (polymyxin E) resistance in laboratory strains and clinical isolates...
Zhang, Guo-liang; Wu, Yue-ting; Qian, Xin-ping; Meng, Qin
The potential biodegradation of crude oil was assessed based on the development of a fermentative process with a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa which produced 15.4 g/L rhamnolipids when cultured in a basal mineral medium using glycerol as a sole carbon source. However, neither cell growth nor rhamnolipid production was observed in the comparative culture system using crude oil as the sole carbon source instead. As rhamnolipid, an effective biosurfactant, has been reported to stimulate the b...
Hutchins, C F; Moore, G; Thompson, K-A; Webb, J; Walker, J T
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections have been linked to contaminated hospital taps, highlighting the potential for tap outlet fittings (OF) to harbour biofilm. P. aeruginosa may be transferred to OFs via contaminated cleaning cloths. Suggested interventions include flushing regimens and alternative OF designs. To investigate the transfer of P. aeruginosa from a contaminated cleaning cloth to conventional and 'antimicrobial/antibiofilm' OFs and to determine whether this contamination persists and/or leads to contamination of tap water. Microfibre cloths contaminated with P. aeruginosa (10 8 cfu/mL) were used to wipe four different types of OF [one of conventional design (OF-A) and three marketed as 'antimicrobial' and/or 'antibiofilm' (OF- B, -C and -D)]. OFs were inserted into an experimental water distribution system for up to 24 h. Survival was assessed by culture. Single and multiple water samples were collected and cultured for P. aeruginosa. The median number of P. aeruginosa transferred from cloth to OF was 5.7 × 10 5 cfu (OF-A), 1.9 × 10 6 cfu (OF-B), 1.4 × 10 5 cfu (OF-C) and 2.9 × 10 6 cfu (OF-D). Numbers declined on all OFs during the 24 h period with log reductions ranging from 3.5 (OF-C) to 5.2 (OF-B; P > 0.05). All water samples delivered immediately after OF contamination contained P. aeruginosa at ≥10 cfu per 100 mL. Contamination of water delivered from OF-A persisted despite continued flushing. Water delivered from OF-B did not contain P. aeruginosa beyond the first flush. Contaminated cleaning cloths may transfer P. aeruginosa to OFs, leading to contamination of tap water. Although not removing the potential for contamination, 'antimicrobial/antibiofilm' OFs may prevent P. aeruginosa from continually contaminating water delivered from the outlet. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. All rights reserved.
Zender, Michael; Klein, Tobias; Henn, Claudia; Kirsch, Benjamin; Maurer, Christine K; Kail, Dagmar; Ritter, Christiane; Dolezal, Olan; Steinbach, Anke; Hartmann, Rolf W
The human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa employs alkyl quinolones for cell-to-cell communication. The Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) regulates various virulence factors via interaction with the transcriptional regulator PqsR. Therefore, we consider the development of PqsR antagonists a novel strategy to limit the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa. A fragment identification approach using surface plasmon resonance screening led to the discovery of chemically diverse PqsR ligands. The optimization of the most promising hit (5) resulted in the oxadiazole-2-amine 37 showing pure antagonistic activity in Escherichia coli (EC50 = 7.5 μM) and P. aeruginosa (EC50 = 38.5 μM) reporter gene assays. 37 was able to diminish the production of the PQS precursor HHQ in a PqsH-deficient P. aeruginosa mutant. The level of the major virulence factor pyocyanin was significantly reduced in wild-type P. aeruginosa. In addition, site-directed mutagenesis in combination with isothermal titration calorimetry and NMR INPHARMA experiments revealed that the identified ligands bind to the same site of PqsR by adopting different binding modes. These findings will be utilized in a future fragment-growing approach aiming at novel therapeutic options for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections.
Mayr, Astrid; Hinterberger, Guido; Lorenz, Ingo H; Kreidl, Peter; Mutschlechner, Wolfgang; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia
An increase of extensively drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (XDR-PA) in various clinical specimens among intensive care unit patients (n = 7) initiated an outbreak investigation consisting of patient data analyses, control of adherence to infection control guidelines, microbiologic surveys, and molecular-based studies. XDR-PA was detected in a jointly used aroma-oil nursing bottle for aromatherapy. We implemented the restriction of oil sharing among patients. Hence, the outbreak was controlled successfully. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hawdon, Nicole A; Aval, Pouya Sadeghi; Barnes, Rebecca J
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major cause of chronic pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. During chronic infection, P. aeruginosa lose certain virulence factors, transform into a mucoid phenotype, and develop antibiotic resistance. We hypothesized that these genetic and phenotypic ...
Taki, Y; Seki, K; Ikigai, H; Nishihara, S; Ueno, H; Murota, K; Masuda, S
The effect of temperature on the antibacterial activity of lidocaine to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated in vitro. At 10 C at which S. aureus organisms do not grow and might be metabolically inactive, the antibacterial activity of lidocaine to S. aureus was not observed in a concentration of 1%, which was quite antibacterial to S. aureus at 37 C. On the other hand, at 40 C a conspicuously increased antibacterial activity to S. aureus of lidocaine was observed in a concentration of 0.25% which was not antibacterial to S. aureus organisms at 37 C. Similar results were obtained when P. aeruginosa organisms were examined in place of S. aureus, although P. aeruginosa was found to be less susceptible to lidocaine than S. aureus. The clinical significance of the thermal effect on the antibacterial activity of lidocaine was discussed in brief.
Full Text Available Septic arthritis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is uncommon in the immunocompetent population, despite its occurrence in younger patients with open injuries and in intravenous drug abusers. Here we report a case of septic arthritis caused by P. aeruginosa. This case is unique for several reasons. First, it is a case of septic arthritis in a pregnant woman with no traditional risk factors reported in the literature including history of prior traumatic events, hospitalisation, or chronic underlying disease. She was suspected of having transient osteoporosis associated with pregnancy to involve both hip joints. Second, this is the first reported case of a community acquired chronic septic arthritis due to P. aeruginosa involving large joints of both upper and lower extremities. The patient was treated successfully with a combination of ceftazidime and amikacin for 4 weeks followed by oral ciprofloxacin 750 mg twice daily for 8 weeks.
Folkesson, Anders; Jelsbak, Lars; Yang, Lei
evolves from a state of early, recurrent intermittent colonization of the airways of patients with CF to a chronic infection state, and how this process offers opportunities to study bacterial evolution in natural environments. We believe that such studies are valuable not only for our understanding......The airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are nearly always infected with many different microorganisms. This environment offers warm, humid and nutrient-rich conditions, but is also stressful owing to frequent antibiotic therapy and the host immune response. Pseudomonas aeruginosa...... is commonly isolated from the airways of patients with CF, where it most often establishes chronic infections that usually persist for the rest of the lives of the patients. This bacterium is a major cause of mortality and morbidity and has therefore been studied intensely. Here, we discuss how P. aeruginosa...
Di Napoli, Michela; Varcamonti, Mario; Basile, Adriana; Bruno, Maurizio; Maggi, Filippo; Zanfardino, Anna
Conium maculatum is a nitrophilous weed belonging to the Apiaceae family and occurring in hedgerows, pastures, waste ground, along rivers and roadsides. Little is known on the chemistry and bioactivity of other secondary metabolites occurring in the plant. In the present work, we have analysed the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils hydrodistilled from leaves and inflorescenes of C. maculatum growing in Sicily, Italy. The composition of essential oils was achieved by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, whereas the inhibitory effects on the growth of two Gram negative strains, namely Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were assessed by two different analysis. The essential oils exhibited different chemical profiles (1-butylpiperidine and myrcene in the inflorescenes), (mostly (E)-caryophyllene in the leaves). The latter oil was particularly active in inhibiting the growth of P. aeruginosa. These results shed light on the possible application of hemlock essential oils as antimicrobial agents.
García Ramírez, Dolores; Nicola, Federico; Zarate, Soledad; Relloso, Silvia; Smayevsky, Jorgelina; Arduino, Sonia
An outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenamase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae occurred at our institution. Multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa could have acquired this transmissible resistance mechanism, going unnoticed because its phenotypic detection in this species is difficult. We compared P. aeruginosa isolates obtained before and after the KPC-producing K. pneumoniae outbreak. No bla(KPC) genes were detected in the isolates obtained before the outbreak, whereas 33/76 (43%) of the isolates obtained after the outbreak harboured the bla(KPC) gene. P. aeruginosa may thus become a reservoir of this transmissible resistance mechanism. It is very important to understand the epidemiology of these multiresistant isolates, in order to achieve early implementation of adequate control measures to contain and reduce their dissemination in the hospital environment.
Ulrich, Martina; Beer, Isabelle; Braitmaier, Peter
Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) with Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections produce endobronchial mucus plugs allowing growth of obligate anaerobes including Prevotella spp. Whether obligate anaerobes contribute to the pathophysiology of CF lung disease is unknown....
Ceyssens, Pieter-Jan; Mesyanzhinov, Vadim; Sykilinda, Nina; Briers, Yves; Roucourt, Bart; Lavigne, Rob; Robben, Johan; Domashin, Artem; Miroshnikov, Konstantin; Volckaert, Guido; Hertveldt, Kirsten
Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage YuA (Siphoviridae) was isolated from a pond near Moscow, Russia. It has an elongated head, encapsulating a circularly permuted genome of 58,663 bp, and a flexible, noncontractile tail, which is terminally and subterminally decorated with short fibers. The YuA genome is neither Mu- nor lambda-like and encodes 78 gene products that cluster in three major regions involved in (i) DNA metabolism and replication, (ii) host interaction, and (iii) phage particle formation and host lysis. At the protein level, YuA displays significant homology with phages M6, phiJL001, 73, B3, DMS3, and D3112. Eighteen YuA proteins were identified as part of the phage particle by mass spectrometry analysis. Five different bacterial promoters were experimentally identified using a promoter trap assay, three of which have a sigma54-specific binding site and regulate transcription in the genome region involved in phage particle formation and host lysis. The dependency of these promoters on the host sigma54 factor was confirmed by analysis of an rpoN mutant strain of P. aeruginosa PAO1. At the DNA level, YuA is 91% identical to the recently (July 2007) annotated phage M6 of the Lindberg typing set. Despite this level of DNA homology throughout the genome, both phages combined have 15 unique genes that do not occur in the other phage. The genome organization of both phages differs substantially from those of the other known Pseudomonas-infecting Siphoviridae, delineating them as a distinct genus within this family.
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Microorganisms form biomass as biofilm in response to many factors, in order to adapt to hostile extracellular environments and biocides. Using different herbal compounds are of those strategies to deal with biofilm. It has been proved that plants extracts such as pomegranate, raspberry and chamomile essential oils have anti-biofilm effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of black peel pomegranate ex-tract on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation. Materials & Methods: In this experimental research the anti-biofilm effect, reducing the amount of biofilm formation and growth kinetics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in different treatments was measured by microtiter and plate colorimetric crystal violet method. Biofilm formation was also examined using a microscope. Statistical analysis of data obtained from the reading of the ELISA was performed using SPSS software, P value 0.05. Results: Findings of this study showed that bacteria cannot form any biofilm in first 6 hours of incubation, in all treatments. The amount of biofilm formation after 12 hours in 0.01 and 0.05 g/ mL treatments were medium. Among treatments, after 18 and 24 hours of incubation 0.001 g/ mL concentration of pomegranate peel extract had medium and strong inhibitory effect on biofilm formation, respectively. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that biofilm formation and biofilm reduction percent-age is directly related to the duration of exposure of bacteria that could be due to the different phases of growth. Growth kinetics study also revealed that in the majority of treatments the growth was incremental up to about 15 hours and decrement afterwards due to the effective-ness of different treatments. After 18 hours, treatments have greatest influence on biofilm formation. The foregoing has been fully confirmed by the results of microscopic slides. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (3: 195-202
Kokjohn, T.A.; Miller, R.V.
The Les- phenotype (lysogeny establishment deficient) is a pleiotropic effect of the lesB908 mutation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO. lesB908-containing strains are also (i) deficient in general recombination, (ii) sensitive to UV irradiation, and (iii) deficient in UV-stimulated induction of prophages. The P. aeruginosa recA-containing plasmid pKML3001 complemented each of these pleiotropic characteristics of the lesB908 mutation, supporting the hypothesis that lesB908 is an allele of the P. aeruginosa recA gene. The phenotypic effects of the lesB908 mutation may be best explained by the hypothesis that the lesB908 gene product is altered in such a way that it has lost synaptase activity but possesses intrinsic protease activity in the absence of DNA damage. The Les- phenotype is a result of the rapid destruction of newly synthesized phage repressor, resulting in lytic growth of the infecting virus. This hypothesis is consistent with the observations that increasing the number of copies of the phage repressor gene by increasing the multiplicity of infection (i.e., average number of phage genomes per cell) or by introducing the cloned phage repressor gene into a lesB908 mutant will also suppress the Les- phenotype in a phage-specific fashion
Full Text Available Introduction: Biosurfactants are amphiphilic biological compounds produced extracellularly or as part of the cell membranes by a variety of microorganisms. Because of their use in various industries, they are of a particular importance. The aim of this study was to identify a strain of bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas aeruginosa biosurfactant producers. Materials and methods: In this study, different samples of oil, water and soil contaminated with oil were prepared. Hemolytic activity, emulsification activity and measurement of surface tension were used and selected strains were identified by biochemical tests. The nature and effect of antibacterial biosurfactant was evaluated for strain selection.Results: In this study, eighty eight bacterial strains were isolated. Twenty four strains were isolated from the isolated strains with hemolytic activity. Among which, 14 strains have emulsification activity more than 70% and at last four strains reached surface tension to be less than 40 mN/m. Selected strain based on biochemical tests was recognized as a Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The nature of biosurfactant was determined by TLC, and proved to be of glycolipid kind. Therefore, the produced biosurfactant of the selected strain had antibacterial activity against six bacterial infectious. Sensitive bacteria to the effects of biosurfactant extract of Pseudomonas aeruginosa83, was Staphylococcus aureus and the most resistant bacteria to these extract, was the Proteus mirabilis. The results of MIC, MBC showed that MIC of the extract in concentration of 63 and 125 mg/ml on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus respectively. Also, the MBC were extract in concentration of 63 and 125mg/ml on Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus respectively.Discussion and conclusion: Pseudomonas aeruginosa had high potential in reducing the surface tension and biosurfactant extracted had high antibacterial effects. Therefore, it
Full Text Available Screening of anti-biofilm compounds from the burdock leaf based on metabolomics is reported here. The crystal violet assay indicated 34% ethanol elution fraction of burdock leaf could completely inhibit biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 1 mg·mL−1. Then, the chemical composition of burdock leaf fraction was analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS and 11 active compounds (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, ursolic acid, rutin, cynarin, luteolin, crocin, benzoic acid, and Tenacissoside I were identified. Lastly, UPLC-MS analysis was employed to obtain the metabolic fingerprints of burdock leaf fractions before and after inhibiting the biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The metabolic fingerprints were transformed to data, analyzed with PLS-DA (partial least squares discriminant analysis and the peaks whose area was significantly changed were found out. Thus, 81 compounds were screened as potential anti-biofilm ingredients. Among them, rutin, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and quercetin were identified and confirmed as the main anti-biofilm compounds in burdock leaf. The study provided basic anti-biofilm profile data for the compounds in burdock leaf, as well as provided a convenient method for fast screening of anti-biofilm compounds from natural plants.
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitously distributed opportunistic pathogen that inhabits soil and water as well as animal-, human-, and plant-host-associated environments. The ubiquity would be attributed to its very versatile energy metabolism. P. aeruginosa has a highly branched respiratory chain terminated by multiple terminal oxidases and denitrification enzymes. Five terminal oxidases for aerobic respiration have been identified in the P. aeruginosa cells. Three of them, the cbb3-1 oxidase, the cbb3-2 oxidase, and the aa3 oxidase, are cytochrome c oxidases and the other two, the bo3 oxidase and the cyanide-insensitive oxidase, are quinol oxidases. Each oxidase has a specific affinity for oxygen, efficiency of energy coupling, and tolerance to various stresses such as cyanide and reactive nitrogen species. These terminal oxidases are used differentially according to the environmental conditions. P. aeruginosa also has a complete set of the denitrification enzymes that reduce nitrate to molecular nitrogen via nitrite, nitric oxide (NO, and nitrous oxide. These nitrogen oxides function as alternative electron acceptors and enable P. aeruginosa to grow under anaerobic conditions. One of the denitrification enzymes, NO reductase, is also expected to function for detoxification of NO produced by the host immune defense system. The control of the expression of these aerobic and anaerobic respiratory enzymes would contribute to the adaptation of P. aeruginosa to a wide range of environmental conditions including in the infected hosts. Characteristics of these respiratory enzymes and the regulatory system that controls the expression of the respiratory genes in the P. aeruginosa cells are overviewed in this article.
Zheng, Zhaojun; Tharmalingam, Nagendran; Liu, Qingzhong; Kim, Wooseong; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Zhang, Rijun; Vilcinskas, Andreas
ABSTRACT The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance has created an urgent need for alternative drugs with new mechanisms of action. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising candidates that could address the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria, either alone or in combination with conventional antibiotics. We studied the antimicrobial efficacy and bactericidal mechanism of cecropin A2, a 36-residue α-helical cationic peptide derived from Aedes aegypti cecropin A, focusing on the common pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The peptide showed little hemolytic activity and toxicity toward mammalian cells, and the MICs against most clinical P. aeruginosa isolates were 32 to 64 μg/ml, and its MICs versus other Gram-negative bacteria were 2 to 32 μg/ml. Importantly, cecropin A2 demonstrated synergistic activity against P. aeruginosa when combined with tetracycline, reducing the MICs of both agents by 8-fold. The combination was also effective in vivo in the P. aeruginosa/Galleria mellonella model (P < 0.001). We found that cecropin A2 bound to P. aeruginosa lipopolysaccharides, permeabilized the membrane, and interacted with the bacterial genomic DNA, thus facilitating the translocation of tetracycline into the cytoplasm. In summary, the combination of cecropin A2 and tetracycline demonstrated synergistic antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa in vitro and in vivo, offering an alternative approach for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. PMID:28483966
Julia F Pielage
Full Text Available Internalization of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa by non-phagocytic cells is promoted by rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton, but the host pathways usurped by this bacterium are not clearly understood. We used RNAi-mediated gene inactivation of approximately 80 genes known to regulate the actin cytoskeleton in Drosophila S2 cells to identify host molecules essential for entry of P. aeruginosa. This work revealed Abl tyrosine kinase, the adaptor protein Crk, the small GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42, and p21-activated kinase as components of a host signaling pathway that leads to internalization of P. aeruginosa. Using a variety of complementary approaches, we validated the role of this pathway in mammalian cells. Remarkably, ExoS and ExoT, type III secreted toxins of P. aeruginosa, target this pathway by interfering with GTPase function and, in the case of ExoT, by abrogating P. aeruginosa-induced Abl-dependent Crk phosphorylation. Altogether, this work reveals that P. aeruginosa utilizes the Abl pathway for entering host cells and reveals unexpected complexity by which the P. aeruginosa type III secretion system modulates this internalization pathway. Our results furthermore demonstrate the applicability of using RNAi screens to identify host signaling cascades usurped by microbial pathogens that may be potential targets for novel therapies directed against treatment of antibiotic-resistant infections.
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium and causes respiratory infection especially in elderly patients. Royal jelly has been used worldwide as a traditional remedy and as a nutrient; however, the effect against P. aeruginosa is unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze antibacterial, antiadherent, and anti-inflammatory effects of royal jelly against P. aeruginosa. Wild-type strain PAO1 and clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were used for antibacterial assay and antiadherent assay to abiotic surface and epithelial cells, which are pharynx (Detroit 562 and lung (NCI-H292 epithelial cells. In anti-inflammatory assay, epithelial cells were pretreated with royal jelly before bacterial exposure to investigate its inhibitory effect on interleukin (IL-8 and macrophage inflammatory protein-3α/CCL20 overproduction. Although royal jelly did not have antibacterial activity at concentration of 50% w/v, antiadherent activity was confirmed on the abiotic surface and epithelial cells under concentration of 25%. Pretreatment with royal jelly significantly inhibited overproduction of IL-8 and CCL20 from both cells. These results demonstrated that royal jelly inhibits P. aeruginosa adherence and protects epithelial cells from excessive inflammatory responses against P. aeruginosa infection. Our findings suggested that royal jelly may be a useful supplement as complementary and alternative medicine for preventing respiratory infection caused by P. aeruginosa.
Lee, Bao le ri; Schjerling, Charlotte K.; Kirkby, Nikolai
Phenotypic and genotypic diversifications of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) promote long-term survival of bacteria during chronic lung infection. Twelve clonally related, sequential mucoid and non-mucoid paired P. aeruginosa isolates obtained from three......-mucoid isolates observed in this particular P. aeruginosa clone reflects different adaptation strategies used by these two phenotypes in the different niches of the CF lung environment....
Smyth, Alan R; Cifelli, Paramita M; Ortori, Catharine A
Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms biofilms in the cystic fibrosis lung. Quorum sensing (QS) controls biofilm maturation, immune evasion, antibiotic tolerance and virulence factor production. Garlic shows QS inhibitory activity in vitro and in animal models. We report the first clinical trial in man of...
Full Text Available Según estudios previos, el nuevo carbapeneme doripenem sería más activo frente a Pseudomonas aeruginosa en comparación con otros carbapenemes. En este estudio evaluamos la actividad in vitro del doripenem, el meropenem y el imipenem frente a 93 aislamientos de P. aeruginosa mediante los métodos de dilución en agar y de difusión con discos. Las CIM50 y CIM90 de los carbapenemes fueron (μg/ml: imipenem, 4 y 8; meropenem, 2 y 8; doripenem, 2 y 4, respectivamente. El doripenem fue 1 a 3 diluciones más activo que el imipenem para un 82% de los aislamientos. Comparado con el meropenem, el doripenem fue, 1-3 diluciones más activo frente a un 50% de los aislamientos, mientras que en el 49% la CIM fue la misma. Los porcentajes de resistencia según los métodos de dilución y de difusión fueron: imipenem = 7,5%/49,5% y meropenem = 3,2%/9,7%. Para el doripenem, estos valores variaron según los puntos de corte (PC que se consideraron: 1,1%/2,2% usando el PC del CLSI para el imipenem y el meropenem, o 1,1%/17,2% según los PC sugeridos por Brown et al. El método de difusión presentó un elevado porcentaje de errores menores en la categorización de los aislamientos respecto de la dilución en agar, lo que sobrestimó la resistencia. El doripenem mostró muy buena actividad frente a P. aeruginosa, superior a la del imipenem y al menos equiparable a la del meropenem, por lo que puede considerarse una interesante opción para el tratamiento de infecciones por esta bacteria.Doripenem, a new carbapenem, has shown to be more active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa than other carbapenems. The activity of doripenem, imipenem and meropenem was evaluated against 93 P. aeruginosa isolates, by agar dilution and disk diffusion methods. MIC50 and MIC90 were as follows (μg/ml: doripenem, 2 and 4; meropenem, 2 and 8; and imipenem, 4 and 8, respectively. Doripenem MICs were 1 to 3 dilutions lower (i.e. more active than those for imipenem in 82% of the isolates
Full Text Available Various carbapenems have been reported in Pseudomonas aeruginosa such as VIM, NDM & OXA-48, etc. In addition, carbapenemase producers are usually associated with many other non–β-lactam resistance determinants which give rise to multidrug and pan drug resistant isolates. Detection of these enzymes in infected patients and in carriers are the two main approaches for prevention of their spread. Potential carbapenemase producers are currently screened first by susceptibility testing, using breakpoint values for carbapenems. However, many carbapenemase producers do not confer obvious resistance levels to carbapenems. So there is need for Laboratories to search for carbapenemase producers. In such instance, phenotypic based test such as Modified Hodge Test (MHT is very much useful in confirming in vitro production of carbapenemase enzymes. But this test does not differentiate serine carbapenemase enzyme (i.e. Ambler class A & C from metallocarbapenemase (i.e. Ambler class B. To differentiate these two enzymes, MHT positive isolates can be subjected to Disc Synergy test. These two tests are highly sensitive and specific and adaptable to any laboratory in the world. Out of 100 ceftazidime resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 75(75% were sensitive, 7(7% were intermediate sensitive and 18(18% were resistant to imipenem. When the 18 imipenem resistant strains were subjected to Modified Hodge test, 15 gave positive results. When the 15 MHT positive strains subjected to disc synergy test, 8 were positive and 7 were negative showing that 8 were producing metallocarbapenemases and 7 were producing serine carbapenemases. Out of 7 intermediately imipenem sensitive isolates, 2 were producing metallocarbapenemase and 3 were producing serine carbapenemase. Hence, total number of imipenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were 23.
Carmeli, Yehuda; Eichelberger, Karen; Soja, Don; Dakos, Joanna; Venkataraman, Lata; DeGirolami, Paola; Samore, Matthew
False results showing an outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with resistance to imipenem were traced to a defective lot of microdilution MIC testing panels. These panels contained two- to threefold lower concentrations of imipenem than expected and resulted in artifactual two- to fourfold increases in MICs of imipenem. The quality-control MIC results for Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 were 4 μg/ml, the highest value within the range recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. We recommend that this value be considered out of the quality-control range. PMID:9466787
Tanaka, Shin-Ya; Narita, Shin-Ichiro; Tokuda, Hajime
Escherichia coli lipoproteins are localized to either the inner or the outer membrane depending on the residue that is present next to the N-terminal acylated Cys. Asp at position 2 causes the retention of lipoproteins in the inner membrane. In contrast, the accompanying study (9) revealed that the residues at positions 3 and 4 determine the membrane specificity of lipoproteins in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Since the five Lol proteins involved in the sorting of E. coli lipoproteins are conserved in P. aeruginosa, we examined whether or not the Lol proteins of P. aeruginosa are also involved in lipoprotein sorting but utilize different signals. The genes encoding LolCDE, LolA, and LolB homologues were cloned and expressed. The LolCDE homologue thus purified was reconstituted into proteoliposomes with lipoproteins. When incubated in the presence of ATP and a LolA homologue, the reconstituted LolCDE homologue released lipoproteins, leading to the formation of a LolA-lipoprotein complex. Lipoproteins were then incorporated into the outer membrane depending on a LolB homologue. As revealed in vivo, lipoproteins with Lys and Ser at positions 3 and 4, respectively, remained in proteoliposomes. On the other hand, E. coli LolCDE released lipoproteins with this signal and transferred them to LolA of not only E. coli but also P. aeruginosa. These results indicate that Lol proteins are responsible for the sorting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane of P. aeruginosa, as in the case of E. coli, but respond differently to inner membrane retention signals.
Lomholt, Jeanet Andersen; Kilian, Mogens
PURPOSE. To investigate the integrity of secretory IgA (S-IgA) in tear fluid during bacterial keratitis and to evaluate the significance of specific Pseudomonas aeruginosa extracellular proteases in the observed degradation of S-IgA. METHODS. The integrity of component chains of S-IgA in tear fluid...... from patients with keratitis caused by P. aeruginosa, Streptococcus group G, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and the IgA1 protease-producing Streptococcus pneumoniae were compared with S-IgA in tear fluid, colostrum, and saliva from healthy individuals......, and with tear S-IgA incubated with clinical isolates and genetically engineered P. aeruginosa strains with different protease profiles. Degradation of S-IgA and the significance of its glycosylation were analyzed in Western blots developed with antibodies against individual chains of S-IgA. RESULTS. Secretory...
Carevic, M.; Öz, H.; Fuchs, K.; Laval, J.; Schroth, C.; Frey, N.; Hector, A.; Bilich, T.; Haug, M.; Schmidt, A.; Autenrieth, S. E.; Bucher, K.; Beer-Hammer, S.; Gaggar, A.; Kneilling, M.; Benarafa, C.; Gao, J.; Murphy, P.; Schwarz, S.; Moepps, B.; Hartl, D.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a key opportunistic pathogen causing disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) and other lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the pulmonary host defense mechanisms regulating anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa immunity remain incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate, by studying an airway Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection model, in vivo bioluminescence imaging, neutrophil effector responses and human airway samples, that the chemokine receptor CXCR1 regulates pulmonary host defense against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mechanistically, CXCR1 regulated anti-Pseudomonas neutrophil responses through modulation of reactive oxygen species and interference with toll-like receptor 5 expression. These studies define CXCR1 as a novel non-canonical chemokine receptor that regulates pulmonary anti-Pseudomonas host defense with broad implications for CF, COPD and other infectious lung diseases. PMID:26950764
Nam, Ji Young; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)
As important human and veterinary medicines, antibiotics are being produced and consumed in large quantities around the world. For example, more than 50 million pounds (22,000 tons) of antibiotics are produced in the U.S. each year and annual production in Germany is about 2,000 tons. Antibiotics are low molecular weight microbial metabolites that at low concentrations inhibit the growth of other microorganisms. Resistant bacteria may also spread and become broader infection-control problems, not only within health care institutions, but in communities as well. Clinically important bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA is a common cause of infection among hospitalized patients. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of opportunistic infections among immunocompromised individuals. The spread of this organism in health care settings is often difficult to control due to the presence of multiple intrinsic and acquired mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance. In this study, we isolated novel bacterium which had strong antagonistic activity and separated antibiotic compounds from Pseudomonas sp., and analyzed characteristics and molecular weight of the antibiotic compound
Nam, Ji Young; Kim, Jin Kyu
As important human and veterinary medicines, antibiotics are being produced and consumed in large quantities around the world. For example, more than 50 million pounds (22,000 tons) of antibiotics are produced in the U.S. each year and annual production in Germany is about 2,000 tons. Antibiotics are low molecular weight microbial metabolites that at low concentrations inhibit the growth of other microorganisms. Resistant bacteria may also spread and become broader infection-control problems, not only within health care institutions, but in communities as well. Clinically important bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA is a common cause of infection among hospitalized patients. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of opportunistic infections among immunocompromised individuals. The spread of this organism in health care settings is often difficult to control due to the presence of multiple intrinsic and acquired mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance. In this study, we isolated novel bacterium which had strong antagonistic activity and separated antibiotic compounds from Pseudomonas sp., and analyzed characteristics and molecular weight of the antibiotic compound
Friedman, Lisa; Kolter, Roberto
Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms biofilms, which are cellular aggregates encased in an extracellular matrix. Molecular genetics studies of three common autoaggregative phenotypes, namely wrinkled colonies, pellicles, and solid-surface-associated biofilms, led to the identification of two loci, pel and psl, that are involved in the production of carbohydrate-rich components of the biofilm matrix. The pel gene cluster is involved in the production of a glucose-rich matrix material in P. aeruginosa strain PA14 (L. Friedman and R. Kolter, Mol. Microbiol. 51:675-690, 2004). Here we investigate the role of the pel gene cluster in P. aeruginosa strain ZK2870 and identify a second genetic locus, termed psl, involved in the production of a mannose-rich matrix material. The 11 predicted protein products of the psl genes are homologous to proteins involved in carbohydrate processing. P. aeruginosa is thus able to produce two distinct carbohydrate-rich matrix materials. Either carbohydrate-rich matrix component appears to be sufficient for mature biofilm formation, and at least one of them is required for mature biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa strains PA14 and ZK2870. Copyright 2004 American Society for Microbiology
Full Text Available We have previously shown that the C-type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP, a peptide produced by lungs, is able to impact Pseudomonas aeruginosa physiology. In the present work, the effect of CNP at different concentrations on P. aeruginosa biofilm formation was studied and the mechanisms of action of this human hormone on P. aeruginosa were deciphered. CNP was shown to inhibit dynamic biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner without affecting the bacterial growth at any tested concentrations. The most effective concentrations were 1 and 0.1 µM. At 0.1 µM, the biofilm formation inhibition was fully dependent on the CNP sensor protein AmiC, whereas it was only partially AmiC-dependent at 1 µM, revealing the existence of a second AmiC-independent mode of action of CNP on P. aeruginosa. At 1 µM, CNP reduced both P. aeruginosa adhesion on glass and di-rhamnolipid production and also increased the bacterial membrane fluidity. The various effects of CNP at 1 µM and 0.1 µM on P. aeruginosa shown here should have major consequences to design drugs for biofilm treatment or prevention.
Kalantar, Enayat; Taherzadeh, Shadi; Ghadimi, Tayeb; Soheili, Fariborz; Salimizand, Heiman; Hedayatnejad, Alireza
This study was conducted to determine the incidence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections among burn patients at Tohid Hospital, Iran. A total of 176 clinical specimens were obtained from 145 burn patients admitted to the burn unit of Tohid Hospital to detect the presence of P. aeruginosa. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted to detect extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing P. aeruginiosa using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines with the double disc synergy test (DDST). A polymerase chain reaction was used to detect PER-1 and OXA-10 among the isolates. The mean age, total body surface area and length of hospital stay among patients were 29 years, 37.7%, and 10 days, respectively. Kerosene was the commonest cause of burn (60%), followed by gas (30%). During the study, P. aeruginosa was detected in 100 isolates. The antibiotics they were most commonly resistant to were cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. Of the 100 P. aeroginusa isolates, 28% were positive for ESBL production with the DDST, 48% and 52% were PER-1 and OXA-10 producers, respectively. The high frequency of PER-1 and OXA-10 producers at this hospital is of concern considering their potential spread among burn patients.
Lauridsen, Rikke Kragh; Sommer, Lea M.; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Molin, Søren; Jelsbak, Lars; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Boisen, Anja
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the primary cause of chronic airway infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Persistent infections are seen from the first P. aeruginosa culture in about 75% of young CF patients, and it is important to discover new ways to detect P. aeruginosa at an earlier stage. The P. aeruginosa biomarker hydrogen cyanide (HCN) contains a triple bond, which is utilized in this study because of the resulting characteristic C≡N peak at 2135 cm-1 in a Raman spectrum. The Raman signal was enhanced by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) on a Au-coated SERS substrate. After long-term infection, a mutation in the patho-adaptive lasR gene can alter the expression of HCN, which is why it is sometimes not possible to detect HCN in the breath of chronically infected patients. Four P. aeruginosa reference strains and 12 clinical P. aeruginosa strains isolated from CF children were evaluated, and HCN was clearly detected from overnight cultures of all wild type-like isolates and half of the later isolates from the same patients. The clinical impact could be that P. aeruginosa infections could be detected at an earlier stage, because daily breath sampling with an immediate output could be possible with a point-of-care SERS device.
Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Boye, Mette; Høiby, N.
also occurred in farmed mink. The purpose of this study was to compare histological lesions of acute hemorrhagic pneumonia associated with both P. aeruginosa and E. coli in mink, including a description of tissue distribution of pathogens, in an attempt to differentiate between the 2 disease entities......, as P. aeruginosa was most often found surrounding blood vessels and lining the alveoli, while E. coli showed a more diffuse distribution in the lung tissue. Furthermore, P. aeruginosa often elicited a very hemorrhagic response in the lung, while infection with E. coli was associated with a higher......Hemorrhagic pneumonia can be a major cause of mortality in farmed mink in the fall. In its classic form, hemorrhagic pneumonia is caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In recent years, however, outbreaks of this type of pneumonia that are associated with hemolytic Escherichia coli have...
Thøgersen, Juliane Charlotte; Mørup, Morten; Pedersen, Søren Damkiær
is to introduce a method for DNA microarray analysis that provides an intuitive interpretation of data through dimension reduction and pattern recognition. We present the first “Archetypal Analysis” of global gene expression. The analysis is based on microarray data from five integrated studies of Pseudomonas...... aeruginosa isolated from the airways of cystic fibrosis patients. RESULTS: Our analysis clustered samples into distinct groups with comprehensible characteristics since the archetypes representing the individual groups are closely related to samples present in the data set. Significant changes in gene....... This suggests positive selection in the cystic fibrosis lung environment, and changes in gene expression for these isolates are therefore most likely related to adaptation of the bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: Archetypal analysis succeeded in identifying adaptive changes of P. aeruginosa. The combination of clustering...
Pereira, S G; Cardoso, O
The content of mobile genetic elements in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates of a pristine natural mineral water system associated with healthcare was compared with clinical isolates from respiratory infections. One isolate, from the therapy pool circuit, presented a class 1 integron, with 100% similarity to a class 1 integron contained in plasmid p4800 of the Klebsiella pneumoniae Kp4800 strain, which is the first time it has been reported in P. aeruginosa. Class 1 integrons were found in 25.6% of the clinical isolates. PAGI1 orf3 was more prevalent in environmental isolates, while PAGI2 c105 and PAGI3 sg100 were more prevalent in clinical isolates. Plasmids were not observed in either population. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
Actividad "in vitro" de diferentes antibacterianos sobre bacilos gram-negativos no fermentadores, excluidos Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Acinetobacter spp ‘In vitro' activity of different antimicrobial agents on gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli, excluding Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp
Full Text Available Los bacilos gram-negativos no fermentadores se encuentran ampliamente distribuidos en el medio ambiente. Además de causar dificultades en la identificación, a menudo presentan una marcada multirresistencia a los antimicrobianos incluyendo aquellos activos frente a Pseudomonas aeruginosa. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la actividad "in vitro" de diferentes antimicrobianos sobre 177 aislamientos de bacilos gram-negativos no fermentadores (excluidos Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Acinetobacter spp. provenientes de especimenes clínicos. Las concentraciones inhibitorias mínimas (CIM se determinaron por el método de dilución en agar Mueller Hinton frente a los siguientes antibacterianos: ampicilina, piperacilina, piperacilina-tazobactama, sulbactama, cefoperazona, cefoperazona-sulbactama, ceftazidima, cefepima, aztreonam, imipenem, meropenem, colistina, gentamicina, amicacina, trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol (TMS, cloranfenicol, eritromicina, rifampicina, norfloxacina, ciprofloxacina y minociclina. Sobre siete aislamientos: Sphingobacterium multivorum (2, Sphingobacterium spiritivorum (1, Empedobacter brevis (1, Weeksella virosa (1, Bergeyella zoohelcum (1 y Oligella urethralis (1 se ensayó la sensibilidad a amoxicilina-ácido clavulánico y ampicilina-sulbactama y no se determinó la actividad de cefoperazona ni de sulbactama. La multirresistencia fue comúnmente observada en los aislamientos de Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Burkholderia cepacia, Chryseobacterium spp., Myroides spp., Achromobacter xylosoxidans y Ochrobactrum anthropi. En cambio, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Shewanella putrefaciens-algae, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Bergeyella zoohelcum, Weeksella virosa y Oligella urethralis, fueron ampliamente sensibles a los antibacterianos ensayados. Debido a la gran variabilidad observada en la sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos en las distintas especies, se hace imprescindible realizar la prueba de sensibilidad a los
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are associated with progressive life threatening decline of lung function in cystic fibrosis sufferers. Growth of Ps. aeruginosa releases a "grape-like" odour that has been identified as the microbial volatile organic compound 2-aminoacetophenone (2-AA. Methods We investigated 2-AA for its specificity to Ps. aeruginosa and its suitability as a potential breath biomarker of colonisation or infection by Solid Phase Micro Extraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS. Results Cultures of 20 clinical strains of Ps. aeruginosa but not other respiratory pathogens had high concentrations of 2-AA in the head space of in vitro cultures when analysed by GC/MS. 2-AA was stable for 6 hours in deactivated glass sampling bulbs but was not stable in Tedlar® bags. Optimisation of GC/MS allowed detection levels of 2-AA to low pico mol/mol range in breath. The 2-AA was detected in a significantly higher proportion of subjects colonised with Ps. aeruginosa 15/16 (93.7% than both the healthy controls 5/17 (29% (p Ps. aeruginosa 4/13(30.7% (p Ps. aeruginosa in sputum and/or BALF was 93.8% (95% CI, 67-99 and 69.2% (95% CI, 38-89 respectively. The peak integration values for 2-AA analysis in the breath samples were significantly higher in Ps. aeruginosa colonised subjects (median 242, range 0-1243 than the healthy controls (median 0, range 0-161; p Ps. aeruginosa (median 0, range 0-287; p Conclusions Our results report 2-AA as a promising breath biomarker for the detection of Ps. aeruginosa infections in the cystic fibrosis lung.
Akinbobola, A B; Sherry, L; Mckay, W G; Ramage, G; Williams, C
Biofilm has been suggested as a cause of disinfection failures in flexible endoscopes where no lapses in the decontamination procedure can be identified. To test this theory, the activity of peracetic acid, one of the widely used disinfectants in the reprocessing of flexible endoscopes, was evaluated against both planktonic and sessile communities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To investigate the ability of P. aeruginosa biofilm to survive high-level peracetic acid disinfection. The susceptibility of planktonic cells of P. aeruginosa and biofilms aged 24, 48, 96, and 192 h to peracetic acid was evaluated by estimating their viability using resazurin viability and plate count methods. The biomass of the P. aeruginosa biofilms was also quantified using Crystal Violet assay. Planktonic cells of P. aeruginosa were treated with 5-30 ppm concentration of peracetic acid in the presence of 3.0 g/L of bovine serum albumin (BSA) for 5 min. Biofilms of P. aeruginosa were also treated with various peracetic acid concentrations (100-3000 ppm) for 5 min. Planktonic cells of P. aeruginosa were eradicated by 20 ppm of peracetic acid, whereas biofilms showed an age-dependent tolerance to peracetic acid, and 96 h biofilm was only eradicated at peracetic acid concentration of 2500 ppm. Ninety-six-hour P. aeruginosa biofilm survives 5 min treatment with 2000 ppm of peracetic acid, which is the working concentration used in some endoscope washer-disinfectors. This implies that disinfection failure of flexible endoscopes might occur when biofilms build up in the lumens of endoscopes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Keohane, Colleen E; Steele, Andrew D; Fetzer, Christian; Khowsathit, Jittasak; Van Tyne, Daria; Moynié, Lucile; Gilmore, Michael S; Karanicolas, John; Sieber, Stephan A; Wuest, William M
Natural products have served as an inspiration to scientists both for their complex three-dimensional architecture and exquisite biological activity. Promysalin is one such Pseudomonad secondary metabolite that exhibits narrow-spectrum antibacterial activity, originally isolated from the rhizosphere. We herein utilize affinity-based protein profiling (AfBPP) to identify succinate dehydrogenase (Sdh) as the biological target of the natural product. The target was further validated in silico, in vitro, in vivo, and through the selection, and sequencing, of a resistant mutant. Succinate dehydrogenase plays an essential role in primary metabolism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the only enzyme that is involved both in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and in respiration via the electron transport chain. These findings add credence to other studies that suggest that the TCA cycle is an understudied target in the development of novel therapeutics to combat P. aeruginosa, a significant pathogen in clinical settings.
Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Sommer, Lea Mette; Molin, Søren; Johansen, Helle Krogh
Little is known about how within-host evolution compares between genotypically different strains of the same pathogenic species. We sequenced the whole genomes of 474 longitudinally collected clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sampled from 34 children and young individuals with cystic fibrosis. Our analysis of 36 P. aeruginosa lineages identified convergent molecular evolution in 52 genes. This list of genes suggests a role in host adaptation for remodeling of regulatory networks and central metabolism, acquisition of antibiotic resistance and loss of extracellular virulence factors. Furthermore, we find an ordered succession of mutations in key regulatory networks. Accordingly, mutations in downstream transcriptional regulators were contingent upon mutations in upstream regulators, suggesting that remodeling of regulatory networks might be important in adaptation. The characterization of genes involved in host adaptation may help in predicting bacterial evolution in patients with cystic fibrosis and in the design of future intervention strategies.
Uzcategui, Valerie N.; Donadeo, John J.; Lombardi, Daniel R.; Costello, Michael J.; Sauer, Richard L.
Disinfection and maintenance of an acceptable level of asepsis in spacecraft potable water delivery systems is a formidable task. The major area of research for this project has been to monitor the formation and growth of biofilm, and biofilm attached microorganisms, on stainless steel surfaces (specifically coupons), and the use of ozone for the elimination of these species in a closed loop system. A number of different techniques have been utilized during the course of a typical run. Scraping and sonication of coupon surfaces with subsequent plating as well as epifluorescence microscopy have been utilized to enumerate biofilm protected Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, scanning electron microscopy is the method of choice to examine the integrity of the biofilm. For ozone determinations, the indigo decolorization spectrophotometric method seems most reliable. Both high- and low-nutrient cultured P. aeruginosa organisms were the target species for the ozone disinfection experiments.
Oh, Jungmin; Li, Xi-Hui; Kim, Soo-Kyong; Lee, Joon-Hee
Protease IV (PIV), a key virulence factor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a secreted lysyl-endopeptidase whose expression is induced by quorum sensing (QS). We found that PIV expressed in QS mutant has severe reduction of activity in culture supernatant (CS), even though it is overexpressed to high level. PIV purified from the QS mutant (M-PIV) had much lower activity than the PIV purified from wild type (P-PIV). We found that the propeptide cleaved from prepro-PIV was co-purified with M-PIV, bu...
Rahdar, Hossein Ali; Kazemian, Hossein; Bimanand, Lida; Zahedani, Shahram Shahraki; Feyisa, Seifu Gizaw; Taki, Elahe; Havaei, Seyed Asghar; Karami-Zarandi, Morteza
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is commonly known as nosocomial infection agent but rarely previously healthy peoples infected by P. aeruginosa. Here we report community acquired pneumonia in a 27 years old athleteman. 15 published P. aeruginosa CAP case reports are reviewed.1 53.3% of patients was female and 46.67% was male. The mean age was 44 years old (SD: ±13.54). In 8 report it is mentioned that the patient was smoker. Fatality rate was 46.6% and death rate was not significantly different between selected antibiotic regimen, sex and smoking in patient's outcome. Chest strike can be a risk factor for P. aeruginosa CAP in athlete people. Our reported patient treated by ciprofloxacin 400 mg per day and healed without any Secondary complication. Fast and timelymanner diagnosis and treatment is critical in Community acquired P. aeruginosapneumonia outcome. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Wu, H.; Song, Z.J.; Givskov, Michael Christian
To understand the importance of quorum sensing in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, the in vivo pathogenic effects of the wild-type P aeruginosa PAO1 and its double mutant, PAO1 lasI rhlI, in which the signal-generating parts of the quorum sensing systems are defective were compared....... The rat model of P. aeruginosa lung infection was used in the present study. The rats were killed on days 3, 7, 14 and 28 after infection with the P. aeruginosa strains. The results showed that during the early stages of infection, the PAO1 double mutant induced a stronger serum antibody response, higher...... number of lung bacteria, and minor serum IgG and IgG1 responses but increased lung interferon gamma production were detected in the group infected with the PAO1 double mutant when compared with the PAO1-infected group. Delayed immune responses were observed in the PAO1-infected group and they might...
Milojevic, Tetyana; Grishkovskaya, Irina; Sonnleitner, Elisabeth; Djinovic-Carugo, Kristina; Bläsi, Udo
The Crc protein has been shown to mediate catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas, leading to a preferential assimilation of carbon sources. It has been suggested that Crc acts as a translational repressor of mRNAs, encoding functions involved in uptake and breakdown of different carbon sources. Moreover, the regulatory RNA CrcZ, the level of which is increased in the presence of less preferred carbon sources, was suggested to bind to and sequester Crc, resulting in a relief of catabolite repression. Here, we determined the crystal structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Crc, a member of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease family, at 1.8 Å. Although Crc displays high sequence similarity with its orthologs, there are amino acid alterations in the area corresponding to the active site in AP proteins. Unlike typical AP endonuclease family proteins, Crc has a reduced overall positive charge and the conserved positively charged amino-acid residues of the DNA-binding surface of AP proteins are partially substituted by negatively charged, polar and hydrophobic residues. Crc protein purified to homogeneity from P. aeruginosa did neither display DNase activity, nor did it bind to previously identified RNA substrates. Rather, the RNA chaperone Hfq was identified as a contaminant in His-tagged Crc preparations purified by one step Ni-affinity chromatography from Escherichia coli, and was shown to account for the RNA binding activity observed with the His-Crc preparations. Taken together, these data challenge a role of Crc as a direct translational repressor in carbon catabolite repression in P. aeruginosa.
McEwan, Deborah L; Kirienko, Natalia V; Ausubel, Frederick M
Intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to both innocuous and pathogenic microbes, which need to be distinguished to mount an effective immune response. To understand the mechanisms underlying pathogen recognition, we investigated how Pseudomonas aeruginosa triggers intestinal innate immunity in Caenorhabditis elegans, a process independent of Toll-like pattern recognition receptors. We show that the P. aeruginosa translational inhibitor Exotoxin A (ToxA), which ribosylates elongation factor 2 (EF2), upregulates a significant subset of genes normally induced by P. aeruginosa. Moreover, immune pathways involving the ATF-7 and ZIP-2 transcription factors, which protect C. elegans from P. aeruginosa, are required for preventing ToxA-mediated lethality. ToxA-responsive genes are not induced by enzymatically inactive ToxA protein but can be upregulated independently of ToxA by disruption of host protein translation. Thus, C. elegans has a surveillance mechanism to recognize ToxA through its effect on protein translation rather than by direct recognition of either ToxA or ribosylated EF2. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. are found to be associated with biofilm and metallo-β-lactamase production and are the common causes of serious infections mainly in hospitalized patients. So, the main aims of this study were to determine the rates of biofilm production and metallo beta-lactamase production (MBL among the strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. isolated from hospitalized patients. Methods A total of 85 P. aeruginosa isolates and 50 Acinetobacter spp. isolates isolated from different clinical specimens from patients admitted to Shree Birendra Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal from July 2013 to May 2014 were included in this study. The bacterial isolates were identified with the help of biochemical tests. Modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Combined disc diffusion technique was used for the detection of MBL production, while Congo red agar method and tube adherence method were used for detection of biofilm production. Results Around 16.4% of P. aeruginosa isolates and 22% of the strains of Acinetobacter spp. were metallo β-lactamase producers. Out of 85 P. aeruginosa isolates, 23 (27.05% were biofilm producers according to tube adherence test while, only 13 (15.29% were biofilm producers as per Congo red agar method. Similarly, out of 50 Acinetobacter spp. 7 (14% isolates were biofilm producers on the basis of tube adherence test, while only 5 (10% were positive for biofilm production by Congo red agar method. Highest rates of susceptibility of P. aeruginosa as well as Acinetobacter spp. were seen toward colistin. Conclusion In our study, biofilm production and metallo beta-lactamase production were observed among Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. However, no statistically significant association could be established between biofilm production and metallo beta-lactamase production.
Livermore, David M; Hope, Russell; Brick, Geraldine; Lillie, Mark; Reynolds, Rosy
Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter spp. are important opportunists, notorious for resistance. Pseudomonas spp. are collected in the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) bacteraemia surveillance, with Acinetobacter spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia well represented in the 'other Gram-negatives' group. Data for collected isolates were reviewed together with LabBase bacteraemia reports to the Health Protection Agency (HPA). Isolates with unusual resistances were subjected to molecular investigation. From 2001 to 2006, the BSAC surveillance collected 1226 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 240 Acinetobacter spp.-125 of them Acinetobacter calcoaceticus/baumannii (Acb) complex-and 165 S. maltophilia. Among P. aeruginosa, non-susceptibility rates to beta-lactams and gentamicin fluctuated, without trend, below 10%; those to ciprofloxacin ranged from 16% to 22%. One P. aeruginosa isolate from 2001 had VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase. For Acb, the BSAC data indicated frequent non-susceptibility, except to imipenem, where only five non-susceptible isolates were collected, all after 2003, four of them belonging to the OXA-23 clone 1 lineage which is prevalent in Southeast England. Reports to the HPA indicated rising imipenem non-susceptibility in Acb (P /=16 mg/L for Acb OXA-23 clone 1. Ceftobiprole had higher MICs than ceftazidime for P. aeruginosa, but 81% of the isolates were inhibited at =4 mg/L. Tigecycline had activity against most Acb, including OXA-23 clone 1, and also against S. maltophilia. Most P. aeruginosa from bacteraemias in the UK and Ireland remain relatively susceptible by international standards; in contrast, multiresistance is widespread in Acb, with imipenem non-susceptibility emerging.
Adela M Luján
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen causing chronic airway infections, especially in cystic fibrosis (CF patients. The majority of the CF patients acquire P. aeruginosa during early childhood, and most of them develop chronic infections resulting in severe lung disease, which are rarely eradicated despite intensive antibiotic therapy. Current knowledge indicates that three major adaptive strategies, biofilm development, phenotypic diversification, and mutator phenotypes [driven by a defective mismatch repair system (MRS], play important roles in P. aeruginosa chronic infections, but the relationship between these strategies is still poorly understood. We have used the flow-cell biofilm model system to investigate the impact of the mutS associated mutator phenotype on development, dynamics, diversification and adaptation of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Through competition experiments we demonstrate for the first time that P. aeruginosa MRS-deficient mutators had enhanced adaptability over wild-type strains when grown in structured biofilms but not as planktonic cells. This advantage was associated with enhanced micro-colony development and increased rates of phenotypic diversification, evidenced by biofilm architecture features and by a wider range and proportion of morphotypic colony variants, respectively. Additionally, morphotypic variants generated in mutator biofilms showed increased competitiveness, providing further evidence for mutator-driven adaptive evolution in the biofilm mode of growth. This work helps to understand the basis for the specific high proportion and role of mutators in chronic infections, where P. aeruginosa develops in biofilm communities.
Rizvi, Meher; Ahmad, Junaid; Khan, Fatima; Shukla, Indu; Malik, Abida; Sami, Hiba
With the emergence of metallo-betalactamases (MBL) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), the value of carbapenem, the drug of last resort, is being severely compromised. Curtailing the use of carbapenems becomes paramount if resistance is to be reined in. To study the role of synergy between combinations of drugs as an alternative treatment choice for P. aeruginosa. Synergy was studied between combinations of levofloxacin with piperacillin-tazobactam and levofloxacin with cefoperazone-sulbactam by time-kill and chequerboard techniques. P. aeruginosa were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by the disc diffusion assay (260 isolates) and E-test (60 isolates). Synergy testing by chequerboard and time-kill assays was performed with combinations of piperacillin-tazobactam with levofloxacin (11 isolates) and cefoperazone-sulbactam with levofloxacin (10 isolates). Nearly all isolates were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam (96.1 per cent), followed by piperacillin (78.5 per cent). Seventy-one isolates (27.3 per cent) were found to be multidrug resistant and 19.6 per cent were ESBL producers. MIC50 of amikacin was 32μg/ml and MIC90 was 64μg/ml. MIC50 and MIC90 of cefoperazone-sulbactam was 32μg/ml and 64μg/ml, and for levofloxacin it was 10μg/ml and 240μg/ml, respectively. Piperacillin-tazobactam had MIC50 and MIC90 of 5μg/ml and 10μg/ml, respectively. Synergy was noted in 72.7 per cent isolates for levofloxacin and piperacillin-tazobactam combination, the remaining 27.3 per cent isolates showed addition by both chequerboard and time-kill assay. For levofloxacin and cefoperazone-sulbactam, only 30 per cent isolates had synergy, 40 per cent showed addition, 20 per cent indifference, and 10 per cent were antagonistic by the chequerboard method. The combination of levofloxacin and piperacillin-tazobactam is a good choice for treatment of such strains.
Christensen, Louise; van Gennip, Maria; Jakobsen, Tim H
Quorum sensing (QS)-deficient Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms formed in vitro are more susceptible to tobramycin than QS-proficient P. aeruginosa biofilms, and combination treatment with a QS inhibitor (QSI) and tobramycin shows synergistic effects on the killing of in vitro biofilms. We extended...
Full Text Available Vlado Antonic,1–3 Alexander Stojadinovic,3–5 Binxue Zhang,1–3 Mina J Izadjoo,1–3,5 Mohammad Alavi1–3 1Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Diagnostic and Translational Research Center, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 3Combat Wound Initiative Program, Bethesda, MD, USA; 4Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA; 5Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA Abstract: Staphyloxanthin is a virulence factor which protects Staphylococcus aureus in stress conditions. We isolated two pigment variants of S. aureus and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a single wound infection. S. aureus variants displayed white and yellow colony phenotypes. The sequence of the operons for staphyloxanthin synthesis indicated that coding and promoter regions were identical between the two pigment variants. Quorum sensing controls pigment synthesis in some bacteria. It is also shown that P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing molecules affect S. aureus transcription. We explored whether the co-infecting P. aeruginosa can affect pigment production in the white S. aureus variant. In co-culture experiments between the white variants and a selected number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, only P. aeruginosa induced pigment production in the white variant. Gene expression analysis of the white variant did not indicate upregulation of the crtM and other genes known to be involved in pigment production (sigB, sarA, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase gene [FPP-synthase], hfq. In contrast, transcription of the catalase gene was significantly upregulated after co-culture. P. aeruginosa-induced pigment synthesis and catalase upregulation correlated with increased resistance to polymyxin B, hydrogen peroxide, and the intracellular environment of macrophages. Our data indicate the presence of silent but functional staphyloxanthin synthesis machinery in a white phenotypic variant
van 't Wout, Emily F A; van Schadewijk, Annemarie; van Boxtel, Ria; Dalton, Lucy E; Clarke, Hanna J; Tommassen, J.P.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069127077; Marciniak, Stefan J; Hiemstra, Pieter S
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection can be disastrous in chronic lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Its toxic effects are largely mediated by secreted virulence factors including pyocyanin, elastase and alkaline protease (AprA). Efficient functioning of the
Eissner, B.;Matz, K.;Smorodchenko, A.;Röschmann, A.;Specht, B. U. v.
Background: Sepsis is still a major cause of death despite well-developed therapeutical strategies such as antibiotics and supportive medication. The aim of this study was to characterize the long-term effects of a two-hit porcine sepsis model with a hemorrhagic shock as ‘first hit’ followed by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa infusion as ‘second hit’. Materials and Methods: Twelve juvenile healthy pigs were anesthetized and hemodynamically monitored. The two-hit group (n = 6) underwent a hemorrhagic...
Chua, Song Lin; Yam, Joey Kuok Hoong; Hao, Piliang
Drug resistance and tolerance greatly diminish the therapeutic potential of antibiotics against pathogens. Antibiotic tolerance by bacterial biofilms often leads to persistent infections, but its mechanisms are unclear. Here we use a proteomics approach, pulsed stable isotope labelling with amino...... acids (pulsed-SILAC), to quantify newly expressed proteins in colistin-tolerant subpopulations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms (colistin is a 'last-resort' antibiotic against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens). Migration is essential for the formation of colistin-tolerant biofilm...
The immediate activities of the aminoglycoside antibiotic, tobramycin, were investigated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The influence of carbon growth substate and the antibiotic exposure environment in the magnitude of activity were examined. Lethality by 8 μg/ml tobramycin occurred rapidly (1 to 3 minutes). The release of specific cellular components into the supernatant was associated with lethality. This material was initially detected as an increase in UV-absorbance. Magnesium in the reaction mixture provided protection against lethality and leakage, but did not reverse lethal damage after a 3 minute tobramycin treatment. Also, uptake of 3 H-tobramycin was reduced in the presence of magnesium. Cells grown with glucose as a carbon source were more susceptible than organic acid grown cells as was the rapidity and amount of cell damage. Analyses of the leakage material revealed a 2-fold increase of protein in the supernatant after a 1-3 minute treatment which paralleled lethality. A prominent 29 kDa protein was observed by SDS-PAGE in the released material, which has been identified as the periplasmic enzyme, β-lactamase. The immediate activities of tobramycin did not involve (i) release of overall cell protein, (ii) massive loss of total pool amino acids, (iii) cell lysis, (iv) inhibition of proline uptake, (v) release of lipopolysaccharide, or (vi) leakage of ATP. Electron microscopy showed no apparent damage after a 3 minute exposure. 40% inhibition of protein synthesis had occurred by 3 minutes of exposure, while release of UV-absorbing material and lethality were detectable after only 1 minute. Resistant cystic fibrosis isolates of P. aeruginosa did not leak under the same experimental conditions, but one of two susceptible strains examined did show increased UV-absorbance following treatment
Zhao, Feng; Li, Ping; Guo, Chao; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Zhang, Ying
Considering the anoxic conditions within oil reservoirs, a new microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technology through in-situ biosurfactant production without air injection was proposed. High-throughput sequencing data revealed that Pseudomonas was one of dominant genera in Daqing oil reservoirs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa DQ3 which can anaerobically produce biosurfactant at 42 °C was isolated. Strain DQ3 was bioaugmented in an anaerobic bioreactor to approximately simulate MEOR process. During bioaugmentation process, although a new bacterial community was gradually formed, Pseudomonas was still one of dominant genera. Culture-based data showed that hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and biosurfactant-producing bacteria were activated, while sulfate reducing bacteria were controlled. Biosurfactant was produced at simulated reservoir conditions, decreasing surface tension to 33.8 mN/m and emulsifying crude oil with EI 24 = 58%. Core flooding tests revealed that extra 5.22% of oil was displaced by in-situ biosurfactant production. Bioaugmenting indigenous biosurfactant producer P. aeruginosa without air injection is promising for in-situ MEOR applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The extracellular production and the composition of the acetylated alginates of Azotobacter vinelandii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated. A reverse-phase HPLC method to determine D-mannuronate/L-guluronate (M/G) ratios in alginates was developed. Comparison between the HPLC procedure and a /sup 1/H-NMR method was made. Growth and alginate production by A. vinelandii in batch and continuous culture were studied. Polysaccharide production was favored in batch culture by reduced aeration rates by by intermediate aeration rates in continuous culture. The partitioning of Ca/sup 45/ in solution and associated with alginates during the growth cycle of A. vinelandii was studied. The change in the composition of polysaccharide produced during growth of A. vinelandii was related to the level of free Ca/sup + +/ which fell rapidly during initial stages of incubation. The degree of acetylation of the polyuronate was shown to be variable. Production of alginates with high O-acetate contents was observed in cultures maintained at high growth rates and high Ca/sup + +/ levels. The degree of acetylation of the polyuronate was not related to the level of epimerization in vivo although in vitro studies demonstrated that chemical acetylation of the alginate inhibited epimerization. Alginate production by clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to be unstable and no polyguluronate was isolated from cultures. It was also noted that Ca/sup + +/ played a less important role in the composition of the polysaccharide.
Ghanbari, Azadeh; Dehghany, Jaber; Schwebs, Timo; Müsken, Mathias; Häussler, Susanne; Meyer-Hermann, Michael
Pseudomonas aeruginosa often colonises immunocompromised patients and the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. It exhibits resistance to many antibiotics by forming biofilms, which makes it hard to eliminate. P. aeruginosa biofilms form mushroom-shaped structures under certain circumstances. Bacterial motility and the environment affect the eventual mushroom morphology. This study provides an agent-based model for the bacterial dynamics and interactions influencing bacterial biofilm shape. Cell motility in the model relies on recently published experimental data. Our simulations show colony formation by immotile cells. Motile cells escape from a single colony by nutrient chemotaxis and hence no mushroom shape develops. A high number density of non-motile colonies leads to migration of motile cells onto the top of the colonies and formation of mushroom-shaped structures. This model proposes that the formation of mushroom-shaped structures can be predicted by parameters at the time of bacteria inoculation. Depending on nutrient levels and the initial number density of stalks, mushroom-shaped structures only form in a restricted regime. This opens the possibility of early manipulation of spatial pattern formation in bacterial colonies, using environmental factors.
Ghanbari, Azadeh; Dehghany, Jaber; Schwebs, Timo; Müsken, Mathias; Häussler, Susanne; Meyer-Hermann, Michael
Pseudomonas aeruginosa often colonises immunocompromised patients and the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. It exhibits resistance to many antibiotics by forming biofilms, which makes it hard to eliminate. P. aeruginosa biofilms form mushroom-shaped structures under certain circumstances. Bacterial motility and the environment affect the eventual mushroom morphology. This study provides an agent-based model for the bacterial dynamics and interactions influencing bacterial biofilm shape. Cell motility in the model relies on recently published experimental data. Our simulations show colony formation by immotile cells. Motile cells escape from a single colony by nutrient chemotaxis and hence no mushroom shape develops. A high number density of non-motile colonies leads to migration of motile cells onto the top of the colonies and formation of mushroom-shaped structures. This model proposes that the formation of mushroom-shaped structures can be predicted by parameters at the time of bacteria inoculation. Depending on nutrient levels and the initial number density of stalks, mushroom-shaped structures only form in a restricted regime. This opens the possibility of early manipulation of spatial pattern formation in bacterial colonies, using environmental factors.
Background Chronic lung infection with the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the hallmarks of cystic fibrosis (CF) and is associated with worsening lung function, increased hospitalisation and reduced life expectancy. A virulent clonal strain of P. aeruginosa (Australian epidemic strain I; AES-I) has been found to be widespread in CF patients in eastern Australia. Methods Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was employed to identify genetic sequences that are present in the AES-I strain but absent from the sequenced reference strain PAO1. We used PCR to evaluate the distribution of several of the AES-I loci amongst a collection of 188 P. aeruginosa isolates which was comprised of 35 AES-I isolates (as determined by PFGE), 78 non-AES-I CF isolates including other epidemic CF strains as well as 69 P. aeruginosa isolates from other clinical and environmental sources. Results We have identified a unique AES-I genetic locus that is present in all 35 AES-I isolates tested and not present in any of the other 153 P. aeruginosa strains examined. We have used this unique AES-I locus to develop a diagnostic PCR and a real-time PCR assay to detect the presence of P. aeruginosa and AES-I in patient sputum samples. Conclusions We have developed diagnostic PCR assays that are 100% sensitive and 100% specific for the P. aeruginosa strain AES-I. We have also shown that Whatman FTA® Elute cards may be used with PCR-based assays to rapidly detect the presence of P. aeruginosa strains in CF sputum. PMID:20637114
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic lung infection with the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the hallmarks of cystic fibrosis (CF and is associated with worsening lung function, increased hospitalisation and reduced life expectancy. A virulent clonal strain of P. aeruginosa (Australian epidemic strain I; AES-I has been found to be widespread in CF patients in eastern Australia. Methods Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH was employed to identify genetic sequences that are present in the AES-I strain but absent from the sequenced reference strain PAO1. We used PCR to evaluate the distribution of several of the AES-I loci amongst a collection of 188 P. aeruginosa isolates which was comprised of 35 AES-I isolates (as determined by PFGE, 78 non-AES-I CF isolates including other epidemic CF strains as well as 69 P. aeruginosa isolates from other clinical and environmental sources. Results We have identified a unique AES-I genetic locus that is present in all 35 AES-I isolates tested and not present in any of the other 153 P. aeruginosa strains examined. We have used this unique AES-I locus to develop a diagnostic PCR and a real-time PCR assay to detect the presence of P. aeruginosa and AES-I in patient sputum samples. Conclusions We have developed diagnostic PCR assays that are 100% sensitive and 100% specific for the P. aeruginosa strain AES-I. We have also shown that Whatman FTA® Elute cards may be used with PCR-based assays to rapidly detect the presence of P. aeruginosa strains in CF sputum.
Eckmanns, T; Oppert, M; Martin, M; Amorosa, R; Zuschneid, I; Frei, U; Rüden, H; Weist, K
This study describes an outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections caused by contaminated bottled still water (BSW) in six intensive care units (ICUs) of a German university hospital. Clinical and environmental samples from these units were cultured and genotyped by amplified fragment-length polymorphism and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. Microbiological results were reviewed on a weekly basis to determine the number of P. aeruginosa infections and colonisations of ICU patients. Clinical specimens from 19 ICU patients--15 infections and four colonisations--yielded the same strain of P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, four of 103 environmental samples also yielded P. aeruginosa. However, only a P. aeruginosa strain isolated from unopened BSW was genetically identical to the P. aeruginosa strain isolated from the patients. In the 42-week period before the outbreak, the mean weekly number of new ICU patients infected or colonised with P. aeruginosa was 46.9 (95% CI 40.7-53.1)/1000 bed-days. During the 6-week period of the outbreak, the weekly number of new patients with P. aeruginosa was 88.9 (95% CI 54.3-122.2)/1000 bed-days. This number returned to the previous level after removal of the BSW. Thus, the microbiological and epidemiological findings revealed that the outbreak was related to BSW contaminated with P. aeruginosa. It was concluded that all untested BSW should be removed from ICUs.
Wei, Yong; Zhang, Heng; Gao, Zeng-Qiang; Xu, Jian-Hua; Liu, Quan-Sheng; Dong, Yu-Hui
The global metabolic regulator catabolite repression control (Crc) has recently been found to modulate the susceptibility to antibiotics and virulence in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and been suggested as a nonlethal target for novel antimicrobials. In P. aeruginosa, Crc couples with the CA motifs from the small RNA CrcZ to form a post-transcriptional regulator system and is removed from the 5'-end of the target mRNAs. In this study, we first reported the crystal structure of Crc from P. aeruginosa refined to 2.20 Å. The structure showed that it consists of two halves with similar overall topology and there are 11 β strands surrounded by 13 helices, forming a four-layered α/β-sandwich. The circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that it is thermostable in solution and shares similar characteristics to that in crystal. Comprehensive structural analysis and comparison with the homologies of Crc showed high similarity with several known nucleases and consequently may be classified into a member exodeoxyribonuclease III. However, it shows distinct substrate specificity (RNA as the preferred substrate) compared to these DNA endonucleases. Structural comparisons also revealed potential RNA recognition and binding region mainly consisting of five flexible loops. Our structure study provided the basis for the future application of Crc as a target to develop new antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Iara Rossi Gonçalves
Full Text Available Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes frequently nosocomial infections, currently becoming more difficult to treat due to the various resistance mechanisms and different virulence factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors independently associated with the development of bacteremia by carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa, the frequency of virulence genes in metallo-β-lactamases producers and to evaluate their ability to produce biofilm. We conducted a case–control study in the Uberlândia Federal University – Hospital Clinic, Brazil. Polymerase Chain Reaction was performed for metallo-β-lactamases and virulence genes. Adhesion and biofilm assays were done by quantitative tests. Among the 157 strains analyzed, 73.9% were multidrug-resistant, 43.9% were resistant to carbapenems, 16.1% were phenotypically positive for metallo-β-lactamases, and of these, 10.7% were positive for blaSPM gene and 5.3% positive for blaVIM. The multivariable analysis showed that mechanical ventilation, enteral/nasogastric tubes, primary bacteremia with unknown focus, and inappropriate therapy were independent risk factors associated with bacteremia. All tested strains were characterized as strongly biofilm producers. A higher mortality was found among patients with bacteremia by carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains, associated independently with extrinsic risk factors, however it was not evident the association with the presence of virulence and metallo-β-lactamases genes.
Estrellas, P S; Alionte, L G; Hobden, J A
Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteases are thought to be important virulence factors in the pathogenesis of corneal disease. This study examined protease production from two strains of P. aeruginosa responsible for two very distinct clinical diseases: strain Paer1, isolated from a Contact Lens-induced Acute Red Eye (CLARE), and strain KEI 1025, isolated from a corneal ulcer. Strains were compared to a laboratory strain (ATCC 19660) known to produce severe keratitis in experimentally infected mice for protease production and for ocular virulence. Protease production was examined with colorimetric assays, gelatin zymography and western blots. Elastase A activity was quantitated with a staphylolytic assay. Ocular virulence was examined using a mouse scratch model of keratitis. In contrast to strains KEI 1025 or ATCC 19660, Paer1 was unable to produce enzymatically active elastase A, elastase, and protease IV. All three strains produced active alkaline protease. Strains KEI 1025 and ATCC 19660 produced a fulminant keratitis in mice whereas Paer1 produced a mild transient infection. Restoration of elastase activity in Paer1 via genetic complementation did not result in a virulent phenotype. Co-infection of mouse eyes with strains Paer1 and ATCC 19660 resulted in the eventual loss of Paer1 from corneal tissue. These studies suggest that P. aeruginosa elastase A and/or protease IV, but not alkaline protease or elastase, contribute to the ocular virulence of this organism.
Full Text Available We report a case of blebitis that occurred 3 years later following a combined glaucoma and cataract surgery. It was an atypical presentation, as patient had no classical fiery looking signs of blebitis despite the isolated organism being Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Improvized surgical techniques like use of Mitomycin C, releasable flap sutures though considered as part of the recommended procedure for better surgical outcomes, their role as potential risk factors for visually blinding complications like endophthalmitis are often overlooked. This case report throws light on such risk factors for bleb associated infections and recommends removal or trimming of all releasable sutures and the need for a regular postoperative follow-up.
Madsen Sommer, Lea Mette
of natural environments, the primary obstacle is re-sampling of the samepopulation over time, especially if the population is small.Nevertheless, it has been accomplished: Chronic airway infections of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have offered a unique view into the adaptationand evolution of Pseudomonas...... to the CF airways. From this analysis we found common clonal lineages among the patients, evidence of patient-to-patient transmission, historic contingencies, and convergent evolution of 52 candidate pathoadaptive genes. By further genome sequencing 26 P. aeruginosa isolates from four Italian CF patients...
Liu, Xiao; Li, Wengui
Objective To study the pulmonary bacterial loads, splenocyte proliferation, distributions of T cell subsets and cell apoptosis in mice immunized with Bifidobacterium bifidum-vectored OprI (Bb-OprI) vaccine of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and challenged with P. aeruginosa PA01 strain. Methods BALB/c mice were immunized with 5×10 9 CFUs of vaccine by intragastric administration, 3 times a week for 3 weeks, and challenged intranasally with 5×10 6 CFUs of PA01 strain at the fourth week after the first immunization. At the second week after the challenge, all mice were sacrificed to separate their lungs and spleens, and the pulmonary bacterial loads were counted. The proliferation of the splenocytes was determined by MTT assay. The splenic CD4 + , CD8 + T cell subsets and the apoptotic rate of splenocytes were detected by flow cytometry. Results The number of pulmonary bacterial colonies in the mice immunized with the vaccine and challenged with PA01 strain decreased, while the proliferation of splenocytes and the proportion of CD4 + T cells markedly increased, and the apoptosis of splenocytes was notably reduced. Conclusion The intragastric vaccination of recombinant Bb-OprI vaccine can increase the proportion of CD4 + T cells and enhance the inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa.
Du, Ju; Bandara, H M H N; Du, Ping; Huang, Hui; Hoang, Khang; Nguyen, Dang; Mogarala, Sri Vasudha; Smyth, Hugh D C
The objective of this study was to develop a functionally enhanced antibiotic that would improve the therapeutic activity against bacterial biofilms. Tobramycin was chemically conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) via site-specific conjugation to form PEGylated-tobramycin (Tob-PEG). The antibacterial efficacy of Tob-PEG, as compared to tobramycin, was assessed on the planktonic phase and biofilms phase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC80) of Tob-PEG was higher (13.9 μmol/L) than that of tobramycin (1.4 μmol/L) in the planktonic phases. In contrast, the Tob-PEG was approximately 3.2-fold more effective in eliminating bacterial biofilms than tobramycin. Specifically, Tob-PEG had a MIC80 lower than those exhibited by tobramycin (27.8 μmol/L vs 89.8 μmol/L). Both confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy further confirmed these data. Thus, modification of antimicrobials by PEGylation appears to be a promising approach for overcoming the bacterial resistance in the established biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Pyzh, A É; Nikandrov, V N
To assess the contribution of blue-green pigments of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to hemolytic activity of its cultural fluid. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Eight hospital strains and reference strain ATCC 15442 were used. Growth dynamics of strains as well as features of accumulation of hemolytic and phospholipase activity were studied. Purified samples of pyoverdin and pyocyanin were extracted by gel-chromatography and chloroform extraction methods. Hemolytic and lecitinase activities of the samples as well as effect of active oxygen scavengers and chelating agents on these activities were studied. Dynamics of accumulation of hemolytic activity significantly differed from that of phospholipase activity when strains were grown in liquid medium. Chromatographic separation of the pigments from cultural fluid supernatants sharply reduced its hemolytic activity. Purified samples of pyoverdin and pyocyanin were capable to lyse erythrocytes and chicken egg lecitin. These characteristics of the pigments were inhibited by nitroblue tetrazolium and sensitive to chelating agents. Conclusion. Pyoverdin and pyocyanin of pathogenic strains of P. aeruginosa are capable to lyse erythrocytes and suspension of purified chicken egg lecitin, they contribute to total hemolytic activity of pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas, which is not determined only by phospholipase C produced by microorganism. Lytic activity of the pigments is blocked by nitroblue tetrazolium and susceptible to some chelating agents. Apparently, this activity is mediated by superoxide radical and determined by presence of metals with transient valence in pigments' molecules.
Full Text Available The genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa contains three open reading frames, PA2966, PA1869, and PA3334, which encode putative acyl carrier proteins, AcpP1, AcpP2, and AcpP3, respectively. In this study, we found that, although these apo-ACPs were successfully phosphopantetheinylated by P. aeruginosa phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PcpS and all holo-forms of these proteins could be acylated by Vibrio harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase (AasS, only AcpP1 could be used as a substrate for the synthesis of fatty acids, catalyzed by P. aeruginosa cell free extracts in vitro, and only acpP1 gene could restore growth in the Escherichia coliacpP mutant strain CY1877. And P. aeruginosaacpP1 could not be deleted, while disruption of acpP2 or acpP3 in the P. aeruginosa genome allowed mutant strains to grow as well as the wild type strain. These findings confirmed that only P. aeruginosa AcpP1 functions in fatty acid biosynthesis, and that acpP2 and acpP3 do not play roles in the fatty acid synthetic pathway. Moreover, disruption of acpP2 and acpP3 did not affect the ability of P. aeruginosa to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL, but replacement of P. aeruginosaacpP1 with E. coliacpP caused P. aeruginosa to reduce the production of AHL molecules, which indicated that neither P. aeruginosa AcpP2 nor AcpP3 can act as a substrate for synthesis of AHL molecules in vivo. Furthermore, replacement of acpP1 with E. coliacpP reduced the ability of P. aeruginosa to produce some exo-products and abolished swarming motility in P. aeruginosa.
Flávia L. P. C. Pellegrino
Full Text Available Previous analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa class-1 integrons from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed the blaGES gene in one isolate. We screened isolates of two widespread PFGE genotypes, A and B, at a public hospital in Rio, for the presence of blaGES. The gene was detected in all seven P. aeruginosa isolates belonging to genotype B. Three of the seven genotype-B isolates were resistant to amikacin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, cefepime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid. The other four isolates were resistant to all these agents, except gentamicin, imipenem, meropenem and piperacillin-tazobactam. A synergistic effect between ceftazidime and imipenem or clavulanic acid suggested the production of GES-type ESBL.
Coorens, Maarten; Banaschewski, Brandon J. H.; Baer, Brandon J.; Yamashita, Cory; van Dijk, Albert; Veldhuizen, Ruud A. W.; Veldhuizen, Edwin J. A.
ABSTRACT The development of antibiotic resistance by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major concern in the treatment of bacterial pneumonia. In the search for novel anti-infective therapies, the chicken-derived peptide cathelicidin-2 (CATH-2) has emerged as a potential candidate, with strong broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and the ability to limit inflammation by inhibiting Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 activation. However, as it is unknown how CATH-2 affects inflammation in vivo, we investigated how CATH-2-mediated killing of P. aeruginosa affects lung inflammation in a murine model. First, murine macrophages were used to determine whether CATH-2-mediated killing of P. aeruginosa reduced proinflammatory cytokine production in vitro. Next, a murine lung model was used to analyze how CATH-2-mediated killing of P. aeruginosa affects neutrophil and macrophage recruitment as well as cytokine/chemokine production in the lung. Our results show that CATH-2 kills P. aeruginosa in an immunogenically silent manner both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with CATH-2-killed P. aeruginosa showed reduced neutrophil recruitment to the lung as well as inhibition of cytokine and chemokine production, compared to treatment with heat- or gentamicin-killed bacteria. Together, these results show the potential for CATH-2 as a dual-activity antibiotic in bacterial pneumonia, which can both kill P. aeruginosa and prevent excessive inflammation. PMID:28947647
Varga, J.J.; Barbier, Mariette; Mulet, Xavier; Bielecki, Piotr; Bartell, J.A.; Owings, J.P.; Martinez-Ramos, Inmaculada; Hittle, L.E.; Davis, M.R.; Damron, F.H.; Liechti, G.W.; Puchałka, Jacek; Martins dos Santos, Vitor; Ernst, R.K.; Papin, J.A.; Albertí, Sebastian; Oliver, Antonio; Goldberg, J.B.
Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an environmentally ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium and important opportunistic human pathogen, causing severe chronic respiratory infections in patients with underlying conditions such as cystic fibrosis (CF) or bronchiectasis. In order to identify
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen causing severe infections often characterized by robust neutrophilic infiltration. Neutrophils provide the first line of defense against P. aeruginosa. Aside from their defense conferred by phagocytic activity, neutrophils also release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs to immobilize bacteria. Although NET formation is an important antimicrobial process, the details of its mechanism are largely unknown. The identity of the main components of P. aeruginosa responsible for triggering NET formation is unclear. In this study, our focus was to identify the main bacterial factors mediating NET formation and to gain insight into the underlying mechanism. We found that P. aeruginosa in its exponential growth phase promoted strong NET formation in human neutrophils while its NET-inducing ability dramatically decreased at later stages of bacterial growth. We identified the flagellum as the primary component of P. aeruginosa responsible for inducing NET extrusion as flagellum-deficient bacteria remained seriously impaired in triggering NET formation. Purified P. aeruginosa flagellin, the monomeric component of the flagellum, does not stimulate NET formation in human neutrophils. P. aeruginosa-induced NET formation is independent of the flagellum-sensing receptors TLR5 and NLRC4 in both human and mouse neutrophils. Interestingly, we found that flagellar motility, not flagellum binding to neutrophils per se, mediates NET release induced by flagellated bacteria. Immotile, flagellar motor-deficient bacterial strains producing paralyzed flagella did not induce NET formation. Forced contact between immotile P. aeruginosa and neutrophils restored their NET-inducing ability. Both the motAB and motCD genetic loci encoding flagellar motor genes contribute to maximal NET release; however the motCD genes play a more important role. Phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa and superoxide production by neutrophils were also
Hibbing, Michael E; Fuqua, Clay
Environmental biofilms often contain mixed populations of different species. In these dense communities, competition between biofilm residents for limited nutrients such as iron can be fierce, leading to the evolution of competitive factors that affect the ability of competitors to grow or form biofilms. We have discovered a compound(s) present in the conditioned culture fluids of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that disperses and inhibits the formation of biofilms produced by the facultative plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The inhibitory activity is strongly induced when P. aeruginosa is cultivated in iron-limited conditions, but it does not function through iron sequestration. In addition, the production of the biofilm inhibitory activity is not regulated by the global iron regulatory protein Fur, the iron-responsive extracytoplasmic function σ factor PvdS, or three of the recognized P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing systems. In addition, the compound(s) responsible for the inhibition and dispersal of A. tumefaciens biofilm formation is likely distinct from the recently identified P. aeruginosa dispersal factor, cis-2-decenoic acid (CDA), as dialysis of the culture fluids showed that the inhibitory compound was larger than CDA and culture fluids that dispersed and inhibited biofilm formation by A. tumefaciens had no effect on biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa.
Johansen, H K; Hougen, H P; Cryz, S J
In a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection mimicking cystic fibrosis (CF) we studied whether the inflammatory response could be altered by vaccination. Rats were immunized with either a depolymerized alginate toxin A conjugate (D-ALG toxin A), purified alginate, an O-polysacc......In a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection mimicking cystic fibrosis (CF) we studied whether the inflammatory response could be altered by vaccination. Rats were immunized with either a depolymerized alginate toxin A conjugate (D-ALG toxin A), purified alginate, an O......-polysaccharide toxin A conjugate, or sterile saline. After challenge none of the rats immunized with D-ALG toxin A died, in contrast to the other two vaccine groups combined (p = 0.03). A significant reduction in the severity of the macroscopic lung inflammation was seen in rats immunized with D-ALG toxin A, compared...... predominantly PMNs (TH2-like) to a chronic-type inflammation dominated by mononuclear leukocytes (TH1-like). In accordance, the antibody titers induced by the D-ALG toxin A vaccine were not different from those of the control rats after challenge. This study identifies a possible new way of modifying...
Full Text Available Background: 5TMetallo-β-lactamase (MBLs can hydrolyze a broad spectrum of beta-lactams, including penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. Genes encoding these enzymes are located on the plasmid that can easily be transferred to other bacteria. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains encoding VIM1 gene, in clinical samples, using the PCR technique. Materials and Methods: During a 4 month period, 100 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from clinical specimens were collected. Standard tests were performed to identify strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Resistance to antibiotics was examined and then the PCR was used to detect VIM1gene. Results:In this study, the highest rates of resistance to antibiotics, amikacin and cefotaxime was observed (65% and 62%, the lowest resistance to antibiotics piperacillin (48% and imipenem and cefepime with 55% resistance was reported. DDST method was performed for 37 strains for the MBl detection. Among the 37 isolate, 30 strains were MBL-producing with imipenem-EDTA method. Twelve strains (18% were carriers of VIM1 gene using the PCR method. Conclusion: In the present study, the prevalence of strains producing MBL genes in strains of hospitals is a growing trend; correct prescription of medications can prevent the spread of resistant pathogens. It is suggested that molecular methods for rapid detection of resistance genes can be used to prevent the spread of this genes.
Mita, Luigi; Grumiro, Laura; Rossi, Sergio; Bianco, Carmen; Defez, Roberto; Gallo, Pasquale; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Diano, Nadia
Serratia rubidiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli K12 have been studied for their ability of Bisphenol A removal from aqueous systems and biofilm formation on activated granule carbon. Mathematical equations for biodegradation process have been elaborated and discussed. P. aeruginosa was found the best strain to be employed in the process of Bisphenol A removal. The yield in BPA removal of a P. aeruginosa biofilm grown on GAC and operating in a fluidized bed reactor has been evaluated. The results confirm the usefulness in using biological activated carbon (BAC process) to remove phenol compounds from aqueous systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kuehn Meta J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major pathogen associated with chronic and ultimately fatal lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. To investigate how P. aeruginosa-derived vesicles may contribute to lung disease, we explored their ability to associate with human lung cells. Results Purified vesicles associated with lung cells and were internalized in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Vesicles from a CF isolate exhibited a 3- to 4-fold greater association with lung cells than vesicles from the lab strain PAO1. Vesicle internalization was temperature-dependent and was inhibited by hypertonic sucrose and cyclodextrins. Surface-bound vesicles rarely colocalized with clathrin. Internalized vesicles colocalized with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER marker, TRAPα, as well as with ER-localized pools of cholera toxin and transferrin. CF isolates of P. aeruginosa abundantly secrete PaAP (PA2939, an aminopeptidase that associates with the surface of vesicles. Vesicles from a PaAP knockout strain exhibited a 40% decrease in cell association. Likewise, vesicles from PAO1 overexpressing PaAP displayed a significant increase in cell association. Conclusion These data reveal that PaAP promotes the association of vesicles with lung cells. Taken together, these results suggest that P. aeruginosa vesicles can interact with and be internalized by lung epithelial cells and contribute to the inflammatory response during infection.
Full Text Available The failure of antibiotic therapies to clear Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, the key mortality factor for cystic fibrosis (CF patients, is partly attributed to the high tolerance of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Mannitol has previously been found to restore aminoglycoside sensitivity in Escherichia coli by generating a proton-motive force (PMF, suggesting a potential new strategy to improve antibiotic therapy and reduce disease progression in CF. Here, we used the commonly prescribed aminoglycoside tobramycin to select for P. aeruginosa persister cells during biofilm growth. Incubation with mannitol (10-40 mM increased tobramycin sensitivity of persister cells up to 1,000-fold. Addition of mannitol to pre-grown biofilms was able to revert the persister phenotype and improve the efficacy of tobramycin. This effect was blocked by the addition of a PMF inhibitor or in a P. aeruginosa mutant strain unable to metabolise mannitol. Addition of glucose and NaCl at high osmolarity also improved the efficacy of tobramycin although to a lesser extent compared to mannitol. Therefore, the primary effect of mannitol in reverting biofilm associated persister cells appears to be an active, physiological response, associated with a minor contribution of osmotic stress. Mannitol was tested against clinically relevant strains, showing that biofilms containing a subpopulation of persister cells are better killed in the presence of mannitol, but a clinical strain with a high resistance to tobramycin was not affected by mannitol. Overall, these results suggest that in addition to improvements in lung function by facilitating mucus clearance in CF, mannitol also affects antibiotic sensitivity in biofilms and does so through an active, physiological response.
van Gennip, Maria; Christensen, Louise Dahl; Alhede, Morten
Many of the virulence factors produced by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are quorum-sensing (QS) regulated. Among these are rhamnolipids, which have been shown to cause lysis of several cellular components of the human immune system, e.g. monocyte-derived macrophages and ...
Saeed, M.; Hussain, S.; Ahmad, A.
To evaluate the pathogen burden and antibiotic-resistance trends of Pseudomonas aeruginosa among hospitalised patients at a tertiary care hospital. Study Design:Retrospective, hospital record-based, cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study:Microbiology Laboratory, Allama Iqbal Medical College/Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from January 2014 to December 2016. Methodology:A total of 5,960 samples were collected from clinically suspected cases of bacterial infections, admitted to the hospital. Microbial identification and antibiotic susceptibility pattern were carried out and analysed. Results:Out of a total of 5,960 samples, Pseudomonas aeruginosawas isolated from 1,268 (21.2%) specimens. Department-wise isolation rate was n=600 (42.9%), n=268 (15.4%), n=201 (12.6%), and n=199 (16.0%) from intensive care unit (ICU), surgical units, medical units, and Gynae wards, respectively (p<0.0001). Sample-wise isolation rate was, wound swabs n=448 (35%), urine n=356 (28%), sputum n=187 (14 %), tracheal aspirate n=127 (10%), blood n=99 (7%), and broncho-alveolar lavage n=51 (4%) (p<0.0001). Drug-resistance pattern showed low rates for carbapenems (meropenem n=440 (35%), Imipenem n=436 (34%) and beta-lactam + beta-lactamase inhibitor combination (piperacillin+ tazobactam n=437 (34%) while alarming rates were observed for cephalosporins (ceftazidime n=716 (56%), fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin n=690 (54%), cefoperazone+sulbactam n=685 (54%), aminoglycosides (gentamicin, n=669 (53%), amikacin n=608 (48%), and monobactams (aztreonam n=666 (52%). Decreasing trend was observed only for amikacin 63% to 37%, aztreonam showed similar pattern throughout, while there was an increasing trend of drug resistance in all groups of antibiotics. Conclusion:Emerging drug-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosaare probably linked to the injudicious use of antibiotics, leading to ineffective empirical therapy. Therefore, we suggest that culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing should
Stephanie A. Fong
Full Text Available Introduction:Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are prevalent amongst chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS sufferers. Many P. aeruginosa strains form biofilms, leading to treatment failure. Lytic bacteriophages (phages are viruses that infect, replicate within, and lyse bacteria, causing bacterial death.Aim: To assess the activity of a phage cocktail in eradicating biofilms of ex vivo P.aeruginosa isolates from CRS patients.Methods: P. aeruginosa isolates from CRS patients with and without cystic fibrosis (CF across three continents were multi-locus sequence typed and tested for antibiotic resistance. Biofilms grown in vitro were treated with a cocktail of four phages (CT-PA. Biofilm biomass was measured after 24 and 48 h, using a crystal violet assay. Phage titrations were performed to confirm replication of the phages. A linear mixed effects model was applied to assess the effects of treatment, time, CF status, and multidrug resistance on the biomass of the biofilm.Results: The isolates included 44 strain types. CT-PA treatment significantly reduced biofilm biomass at both 24 and 48 h post-treatment (p < 0.0001, regardless of CF status or antibiotic resistance. Biomass was decreased by a median of 76% at 48 h. Decrease in biofilm was accompanied by a rise in phage titres for all except one strain.Conclusion: A single dose of phages is able to significantly reduce biofilms formed in vitro by a range of P.aeruginosa isolates from CRS patients. This represents an exciting potential and novel targeted treatment for P. aeruginosa biofilm infections and multidrug resistant bacteria.
Mohanty, Srujana; Maurya, Vijeta; Gaind, Rajni; Deb, Monorama
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobcter spp. are important nosocomial pathogens and carbapenem resistance is an emerging threat. Therapeutic options for infections with these isolates include colistin. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. bloodstream isolates, phenotypically characterize the resistance mechanisms and evaluate the in vitro activity of colistin. Consecutive 145 (95 P.aeruginosa and 50 Acinetobacter spp.) non-repeat isolates were included. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed per CLSI guidelines. MIC for carbapenems and colistin was performed using Etest. Isolates showing reduced susceptibility or resistance to the carbapenems were tested for metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production using imipenem-EDTA combined disk and MBL Etest. Carbapenem resistance was observed in 40% P. aeruginosa and 66.0% Acinetobacter spp. Carbapenem-resistant (CA-R) isolates were significantly (p carbapenem-susceptible isolates. Approximately half of the CA-R strains were multidrug-resistant, and 3.1-5.5% were resistant to all antibiotics tested. MBL was found in 76.3% and 69.7% of the P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp., respectively. Colistin resistance was observed in three (6.0%) Acinetobacter isolates and eight (8.4%) P. aeruginosa. MIC50 for carbapenems were two to four times higher for MBL-positive compared to MBL-negative isolates, but no difference was seen in MIC for colistin. Carbapenem resistance was observed to be mediated by MBL in a considerable number of isolates. Colistin is an alternative for infections caused by CA-R isolates; however, MIC testing should be performed whenever clinical use of colistin is considered.
Aleksić, Ivana; Šegan, Sandra; Andrić, Filip; Zlatović, Mario; Moric, Ivana; Opsenica, Dejan M; Senerovic, Lidija
Antibiotic resistance has become a serious global threat to public health; therefore, improved strategies and structurally novel antimicrobials are urgently needed to combat infectious diseases. Here we report a new type of highly potent 4-aminoquinoline derivatives as quorum sensing inhibitors in Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, exhibiting weak bactericidal activities (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 400 μM). Through detailed structure-activity study, we have identified 7-Cl and 7-CF 3 substituted N-dodecylamino-4-aminoquinolines (5 and 10) as biofilm formation inhibitors with 50% biofilm inhibition at 69 μM and 63 μM in S. marcescens and P. aeruginosa, respectively. These two compounds, 5 and 10, are the first quinoline derivatives with anti-biofilm formation activity reported in S. marcescens. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis identified structural descriptors such as Wiener indices, hyper-distance-path index (HDPI), mean topological charge (MTC), topological charge index (TCI), and log D(o/w) exp as the most influential in biofilm inhibition in this bacterial species. Derivative 10 is one of the most potent quinoline type inhibitors of pyocyanin production described so far (IC 50 = 2.5 μM). While we have demonstrated that 5 and 10 act as Pseudomonas quinolone system (PQS) antagonists, the mechanism of inhibition of S. marcescens biofilm formation with these compounds remains open since signaling similar to P. aeruginosa PQS system has not yet been described in Serratia and activity of these compounds on acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) signaling has not been detected. Our data show that 7-Cl and 7-CF 3 substituted N-dodecylamino-4-aminoquinolines present the promising scaffolds for developing antivirulence and anti-biofilm formation agents against multidrug-resistant bacterial species.
P. Sankar Ganesh
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa use small signaling molecules such as acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs, which play an important role in release virulence factors and toxin for further establishment of host infection. Thus, involving with the QS system would provide alternative ways of preventing the pathogenicity. In the present study, totally six medicinal plants (Terminalia bellerica, Celastrus paniculatus, Kingiodendron pinnatum, Schleichera oleosa, Melastoma malabathricum, Garcinia gummi-gutta were screened for anti-QS activity using biomonitor strain of Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472. The primary screening of antimicrobial activity of all the plant extracts have inhibited the growth of tested bacterial species. Of these at the sub-minimum inhibitory concentration the methanol extract of T. bellerica (0.0625–0.5 mg/ml has significantly inhibited violacein production (20.07–66.22% in C. violaceum (CV12472. Consequently, the extract of T. bellerica has reduced the production of pyocyanin, exopolysaccharide and biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa strains. Fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy analysis confirmed the reduction of biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa strains when treated with T. bellerica. GC–MS analysis showed the active compounds inhibited the production of virulence factors of P. aeruginosa. The results suggest the possible use of this T. bellerica as an anti-QS and anti-biofilm agent to control Pseudomonas infection. Interference of QS provides an important means for the inhibition of bacterial virulence and thus aids in treatment strategies.
Full Text Available "> Background: These days, the antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates toimipenem has significantly increased. Therefore the study of resistance to imipenem in thisorganism to imipenem in determining the appropriate treatment is crucial and necessary. The goalof this study is to compare three phenotypic methods of E-test, disk diffusion and micro brothdilution in the study of resistance to imipenem in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa.Methods: Within a 6-month interval, 120 clinical specimens were collected and evaluated. Allisolates were identified as P. aeruginosa by standard biochemical tests and amplification of 16SrRNA gene. Three phenotypic methods of E-test, disk diffusion, and micro broth dilution wereused to determine imipenem resistance in P. aeruginosa isolates.Results: Of the 96 P. aeruginosa isolates studied for their resistance to imipenem by the use ofE-test, disk diffusion and micro broth dilution methods, 38.5% of the strains in micro broth dilutionmethod and 33.3% in the two methods of E-test and disk diffusion were resistant to imipenem. Therate of sensitivity and specificity of disk diffusion and E-test methods were 100%, 90.1%, and theywere 100% and 83.1% for micro broth dilution, respectively.Conclusions: With regard to the results obtained from the comparison of the three methods100% agreement were observed among the antimicrobial susceptibility results obtained by the Etest and disk diffusion methods (P ≥ 0.05. Therefore, the use of disk diffusion method can bean appropriate replacement for E-test method with regard to its being easy and cost-effective.
Saba R. Khdair
Full Text Available A total of 50 environmental Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were collected from sewage and tap water in Baghdad, Iraq. The MICs of Cefotaxime and Ceftazidime were determined by using agar dilution method, The MIC ranged from 2 to 256 µg/ml.The results of antibiotic sensitivity test showed that among sewage P. aeruginosa isolates, resistance was observed most often to Ticarcillin (92%, Penicillin G (84%, Ceftazidime (12%, (8% for each of Cefotaxime and Ticarcillin. On the other hand, all tap water isolates were sensitive to Ofloxacin and Levofloxacin, Except (5% of isolates were resistant to Cefotaxime (25% to Ceftazidime and (95% to Ticarcillin. All isolates were tested for Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL production. Ten isolates (20% were found to be ESBL producers. All environmental P. aeruginosa isolates were screened for the presence of the blaCTX-M genes by application PCR, Only (30% of them were positive for this test.
Reduction in Fluoroquinolone Use following Introduction of Ertapenem into a Hospital Formulary Is Associated with Improvement in Susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Group 2 Carbapenems: a 10-Year Study▿
Cook, Paul P.; Gooch, Michael; Rizzo, Shemra
We examined the effect of the addition of ertapenem to our hospital formulary on the resistance of nosocomial Pseudomonas aeruginosa to group 2 carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem). This was a retrospective, observational study conducted between 1 January 2000 and 31 January 2009 at a large, tertiary-care hospital. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regression models were used to evaluate the effect of ertapenem use on the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to group 2 carbapenems as well as on the use of the group 2 carbapenems, ciprofloxacin, and other antipseudomonal drugs (i.e., tobramycin, cefepime, and piperacillin-tazobactam). Resistance was expressed as a percentage of total isolates as well as the number of carbapenem-resistant bacterial isolates per 10,000 patient days. Pearson correlation was used to assess the relationship between antibiotic use and carbapenem resistance. Following the addition of ertapenem to the formulary, there was a statistically significant decrease in the percentage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates resistant to the group 2 carbapenems (P = 0.003). Group 2 carbapenem use and the number of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates per 10,000 patient days did not change significantly over the time period. There was a large decrease in the use of ciprofloxacin (P = 0.0033), and there was a correlation of ciprofloxacin use with the percentage of isolates resistant to the group 2 carbapenems (ρ = 0.47, P = 0.002). We suspect that the improvement in susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to group 2 carbapenems was related to a decrease in ciprofloxacin use. PMID:21968357
Reduction in fluoroquinolone use following introduction of ertapenem into a hospital formulary is associated with improvement in susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to group 2 carbapenems: a 10-year study.
Cook, Paul P; Gooch, Michael; Rizzo, Shemra
We examined the effect of the addition of ertapenem to our hospital formulary on the resistance of nosocomial Pseudomonas aeruginosa to group 2 carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem). This was a retrospective, observational study conducted between 1 January 2000 and 31 January 2009 at a large, tertiary-care hospital. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regression models were used to evaluate the effect of ertapenem use on the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to group 2 carbapenems as well as on the use of the group 2 carbapenems, ciprofloxacin, and other antipseudomonal drugs (i.e., tobramycin, cefepime, and piperacillin-tazobactam). Resistance was expressed as a percentage of total isolates as well as the number of carbapenem-resistant bacterial isolates per 10,000 patient days. Pearson correlation was used to assess the relationship between antibiotic use and carbapenem resistance. Following the addition of ertapenem to the formulary, there was a statistically significant decrease in the percentage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates resistant to the group 2 carbapenems (P = 0.003). Group 2 carbapenem use and the number of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates per 10,000 patient days did not change significantly over the time period. There was a large decrease in the use of ciprofloxacin (P = 0.0033), and there was a correlation of ciprofloxacin use with the percentage of isolates resistant to the group 2 carbapenems (ρ = 0.47, P = 0.002). We suspect that the improvement in susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to group 2 carbapenems was related to a decrease in ciprofloxacin use.
Skindersø, Mette Elena
, which emphasises the urgent need for development of novel strategies that will help us to defeat this pathogen. P. aeruginosa biofilm cells display a multicellular-like coordinated behaviour and control expression of virulence factors, elements involved in biofilm development and immunomodulating...... factors by means of signal molecule mediated communication, known as quorum sensing. This thesis explores a strategy which aims to counteract P. aeruginosa virulence and pathogenicity by impeding its cell-to-cell communication. A treatment regime, which focuses on targeting bacterial communication instead......; two quorum sensing signal molecules; the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal and N-3-oxododecanoyl L-homoserine lactone exhibit the ability to modulate activities of the immune defence in addition to functioning as quorum sensing mediators. The two signal molecules impair activities of immune cells crucial...
Zhang, Lianbo; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Gao, Qingguo
Bacteria form complex surface-attached biofilm communities in nature. Biofilm cells differentiate into subpopulations which display tolerance towards antimicrobial agents. However, the signal transduction pathways regulating subpopulation differentiation in biofilms are largely unelucidated. In t....... In the present study, we show that the catabolite repression control protein Crc regulates the metabolic state of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells in biofilms, and plays an important role in the development of antimicrobial-tolerant subpopulations in P. aeruginosa biofilms....
Mohd, N.M.D.; Nurnajwa, M.H.; Lay, J.; Teoh, J.C.; Syafinaz, A.N.; Niazlin, M.T.
A case-control study was conducted based on medical cases of 100 hospitalized patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa-isolation at a Malaysian hospital. Cases with 50 multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa MDRPA and 50 non-multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa (NMDRPA) were randomly included and compared with socio-demographic and clinical data of the patients, using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests as the statistical tool. Analysis found no significant association between MDRPA with ages, gender and ethnicity of patients (p>0.050). Other risk factors being investigated were invasive procedure, immunosuppression, bedridden and clinical diagnosis such as central nervous- and respiratory-system disorder, as well as antibiotic exposure during hospitalization and duration of hospital stay with only the last two were found to have significant association (p=0.035 and 0.019, respectively). Some other studies also reported a similar association indicating that the two factors could serve as an important predictive tool for isolation of MDRPA. More studies involving a larger sampling size are warranted to establish the association. (author)
Full Text Available With the increased focus on healthy eating and consuming raw vegetables, this study assessed the extent of contamination of fresh vegetables by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Jamaica and examined the antibiotic susceptibility profiles and the presence of various virulence associated determinants of P. aeruginosa. Analyses indicated that vegetables from retail markets and supermarkets were widely contaminated by P. aeruginosa; produce from markets were more frequently contaminated, but the difference was not significant. Lettuce and carrots were the most frequently contaminated vegetables, while tomatoes were the least. Pigment production (Pyoverdine, pyocyanin, pyomelanin and pyorubin, fluorescein and alginate were common in these isolates. Imipenem, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were the most inhibitory antimicrobial agents. However, isolates were resistant or showed reduced susceptibility to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim and aztreonam, and up to 35% of the isolates were resistant to four antimicrobial agents. As many as 30% of the isolates were positive for the fpv1 gene, and 13% had multiple genes. Sixty-four percent of the isolates harboured an exoenzyme gene (exoS, exoT, exoU or exoY, and multiple exo genes were common. We conclude that P. aeruginosa is a major contaminant of fresh vegetables, which might be a source of infection for susceptible persons within the community.
Full Text Available Objective(s: Pseudomonas aeruginosais a Gram-negative and aerobic rod bacterium that displays mucoid and non-mucoid phenotype. Mucoid strains secrete alginate, which is the main agent of biofilms in chronic P. aeruginosa infections, show high resistance to antibiotics; consequently, the biological disruption of mucoid P. aeruginosa biofilms is an attractive area of study for researchers. Alginate lyase gene (algl is a member of alginate producing operon which by glycosidase activity produces primer for other enzymes in this cluster. Also this activity can destroy the extracellular alginate; therefore this enzyme participates in alginate production and destruction pathway. Alginate lyase causes detachment of a biofilm by reducing its adhesion to the surfaces, and increases phagocytosis and antibiotic susceptibility. In this study, alginate lyase was purified in just one step and its properties were investigated. Materials and Methods: The purification was done by affinity chromatography, analysed by SDS-PAGE, and its effect on P. aeruginosa biofilms was surveyed by micro titer plate assay and SEM. The substrate specificity of the enzyme was determined by PCR. Results: Alginate lyase from isolate 48 was purified in one step. It is more thermally resistant than alginate lyase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and poly M, poly G and poly MG alginate were the substrate of this enzyme. Moreover, it has an eradication effect on biofilms from P. aeruginosa 48 and PAO1. Conclusion: In this study an alginate lyase with many characteristics suitable in medicine such as thermal stability, effective on poly M alginate, and bacterial biofilm destructive was introduced and purified.
Full Text Available Virtually all cells living in multicellular structures such as tissues and organs are encased in an extracellular matrix. One of the most important features of a biofilm is the extracellular polymeric substance that functions as a matrix, holding bacterial cells together. Yet very little is known about how the matrix forms or how matrix components encase bacteria during biofilm development. Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms environmentally and clinically relevant biofilms and is a paradigm organism for the study of biofilms. The extracellular polymeric substance of P. aeruginosa biofilms is an ill-defined mix of polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins. Here, we directly visualize the product of the polysaccharide synthesis locus (Psl exopolysaccharide at different stages of biofilm development. During attachment, Psl is anchored on the cell surface in a helical pattern. This promotes cell-cell interactions and assembly of a matrix, which holds bacteria in the biofilm and on the surface. Chemical dissociation of Psl from the bacterial surface disrupted the Psl matrix as well as the biofilm structure. During biofilm maturation, Psl accumulates on the periphery of 3-D-structured microcolonies, resulting in a Psl matrix-free cavity in the microcolony center. At the dispersion stage, swimming cells appear in this matrix cavity. Dead cells and extracellular DNA (eDNA are also concentrated in the Psl matrix-free area. Deletion of genes that control cell death and autolysis affects the formation of the matrix cavity and microcolony dispersion. These data provide a mechanism for how P. aeruginosa builds a matrix and subsequently a cavity to free a portion of cells for seeding dispersal. Direct visualization reveals that Psl is a key scaffolding matrix component and opens up avenues for therapeutics of biofilm-related complications.
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa infections are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients due to antibiotic resistance. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of the anti-P. aeruginosa serotype O11 lipopolysaccharide monoclonal antibody Panobacumab in a clinically relevant murine model of neutropenia induced by cyclophosphamide and in combination with meropenem in susceptible and meropenem resistant P. aeruginosa induced pneumonia. We observed that P. aeruginosa induced pneumonia was dramatically increased in neutropenic mice compared to immunocompetent mice. First, Panobacumab significantly reduced lung inflammation and enhanced bacterial clearance from the lung of neutropenic host. Secondly, combination of Panobacumab and meropenem had an additive effect. Third, Panobacumab retained activity on a meropenem resistant P. aeruginosa strain. In conclusion, the present data established that Panobacumab contributes to the clearance of P. aeruginosa in neutropenic hosts as well as in combination with antibiotics in immunocompetent hosts. This suggests beneficial effects of co-treatment even in immunocompromised individuals, suffering most of the morbidity and mortality of P. aeruginosa infections.
Zaitseva, Julia; Granik, Vladimir; Belik, Alexandr; Koksharova, Olga; Khmel, Inessa
Antibacterial drugs in the nitrofuran series, such as nitrofurazone, furazidin, nitrofurantoin and nifuroxazide, as well as the nitric oxide generators sodium nitroprusside and isosorbide mononitrate in concentrations that do not suppress bacterial growth, were shown to increase the capacity of pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Burkholderia cenocepacia 370 to form biofilms. At 25-100microg/ml, nitrofurans 2-2.5-fold enhanced biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa PAO1, and NO donors 3-6-fold. For B. cenocepacia 370, the enhancement was 2-5-fold (nitrofurans) and 4.5-fold (sodium nitroprusside), respectively.
Cezairliyan, Brent; Vinayavekhin, Nawaporn; Grenfell-Lee, Daniel; Yuen, Grace J; Saghatelian, Alan; Ausubel, Frederick M
Pathogenic microbes employ a variety of methods to overcome host defenses, including the production and dispersal of molecules that are toxic to their hosts. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium, is a pathogen of a diverse variety of hosts including mammals and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we identify three small molecules in the phenazine class that are produced by P. aeruginosa strain PA14 that are toxic to C. elegans. We demonstrate that 1-hydroxyphenazine, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, and pyocyanin are capable of killing nematodes in a matter of hours. 1-hydroxyphenazine is toxic over a wide pH range, whereas the toxicities of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and pyocyanin are pH-dependent at non-overlapping pH ranges. We found that acidification of the growth medium by PA14 activates the toxicity of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, which is the primary toxic agent towards C. elegans in our assay. Pyocyanin is not toxic under acidic conditions and 1-hydroxyphenazine is produced at concentrations too low to kill C. elegans. These results suggest a role for phenazine-1-carboxylic acid in mammalian pathogenesis because PA14 mutants deficient in phenazine production have been shown to be defective in pathogenesis in mice. More generally, these data demonstrate how diversity within a class of metabolites could affect bacterial toxicity in different environmental niches.
Full Text Available Pathogenic microbes employ a variety of methods to overcome host defenses, including the production and dispersal of molecules that are toxic to their hosts. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium, is a pathogen of a diverse variety of hosts including mammals and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we identify three small molecules in the phenazine class that are produced by P. aeruginosa strain PA14 that are toxic to C. elegans. We demonstrate that 1-hydroxyphenazine, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, and pyocyanin are capable of killing nematodes in a matter of hours. 1-hydroxyphenazine is toxic over a wide pH range, whereas the toxicities of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and pyocyanin are pH-dependent at non-overlapping pH ranges. We found that acidification of the growth medium by PA14 activates the toxicity of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, which is the primary toxic agent towards C. elegans in our assay. Pyocyanin is not toxic under acidic conditions and 1-hydroxyphenazine is produced at concentrations too low to kill C. elegans. These results suggest a role for phenazine-1-carboxylic acid in mammalian pathogenesis because PA14 mutants deficient in phenazine production have been shown to be defective in pathogenesis in mice. More generally, these data demonstrate how diversity within a class of metabolites could affect bacterial toxicity in different environmental niches.
Lin, C.-C.; Lai, Y.-T.
In this study, immobilized Pseudomonas aeruginosa PU21 beads were used as an adsorbent for lead(II). Different weight percentages of chitosan were added to polyethylene glycol (PEG, 0.5 wt.% in aqueous solution) and alginate (18 wt.% in aqueous solution), and then blended or cross-linked using different concentrations of epichlorohydrin (ECH) to prepare beads of different sizes and increased mechanical strength. Before blending or cross-linking, different weight percentages of P. aeruginosa PU21 were added to increase lead(II) adsorption. Subsequently the optimized bead composition (concentration of ECH, percentages of chitosan and P. aeruginosa PU21) and the optimum adsorption conditions (agitation rate and pH in the aqueous solution) were ascertained. Finally, the optimized beads adsorbing lead(II) were regenerated by 0.1 M aqueous HCl solutions and the most effective desorption agitation rate was ascertained. The results indicate that the reuse of immobilized P. aeruginosa PU21 beads was feasible. In addition, the equilibrium adsorption, kinetics, changes in the thermodynamic properties of adsorption of lead(II) on optimized beads were also investigated
Masoumeh Ahmadi Jalali Moghadam
Full Text Available Background: River and underground waters are main sources of tap water in Guilan, Iran. Overlandwastes move into rivers during periods of heavy or extended rain that is very common in the area.Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila, and Escherichia coli are main human pathogenswith water source. This study is designed to determine the load of these bacteria in main water suppliesof the area.Methods: Samples were collected directly into sterile containers, concentrated by centrifuge,inoculated in enrichment medium and incubated for 3-4 days. DNA was extracted by using commercialkit. Several rounds of PCR was performed to search P. aeroginosa, integron I, Metallo-β-lactamasesgene, L. pneumophila, mip gene, and E. coli.Results: About 92.0% of the samples showed bacterial contamination as revealed by PCR with primersof 16S rRNAgene, 9.5% of the samples had L. pneumophila, and 11,1% had Pseudomonas aeruginosa,but Escherichia coli was not detected. We found the mip gene in 66.6% of the samples with L.pneumophila. Metallo-β-lactamasesgene was found in 11.1% of all samples. We also found Integrin 1in 28.5% of the samples with P. aeruginosa.Conclusion: This study indicates that in spite of chlorination, total bacterial contamination of potwaters in the area is high and contamination with L. pneumophila and P. aeroginosa is considerable. Itmight be related to the biofilm formation and the growth of water microflora. It seems that free residualchlorine is ineffective. We suggest a more effective decontamination procedure based on moderntechnology.
Shaladi, Ali Muftah; Crestani, Francesco; Bocchi, Anna; Saltari, Maria Rita; Piva, Bruno; Tartari, Stefano
Mesotherapy is a treatment method devised for controlling several diseases by means of subcutaneous microinjections given at or around the affected areas at short time intervals. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, amongst which all orthopaedic diseases and rheumatic pain. Mesotherapy is especially indicated for neck pain. The mechanism of action is twofold: a pharmacological effect due to the drug administered, and a reflexogenic effect, the skin containing many nerve endings that are sensitive to the mechanical action of the needle. Although this therapy is safe, like any other medical intervention it cannot be considered free of complications that may occur, such as allergies, haematomas, bruising, wheals, granulomas and telangiectasias. Infective complications are also possible, due to pathogenic bacteria that are inoculated through contamination of products, of the materials used for the procedure or even from germs on the skin. We present the case of a patient who had cervical lymphadenopathy due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa after mesotherapy treatment for neck pain.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa: freqüência de resistência a múltiplos fármacos e resistência cruzada entre antimicrobianos no Recife/PE Pseudomonas aeruginosa: frequency of resistance to multiple drugs and cross-resistance between antimicrobials in Recife/PE
Eduardo Andrada Pessoa de Figueiredo
Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A multi-resistência bacteriana tem crescido significativamente nos últimos anos. Entre os gram-negativos a P. aeruginosa demonstra maior facilidade de desenvolvimento de resistência aos antibióticos. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os padrões de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana, freqüência de resistência a múltiplos fármacos e de resistência cruzada entre antimicrobianos das cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MÉTODO: O estudo foi realizado entre setembro de 2004 e janeiro de 2006. Os testes de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana foram realizados em 304 cepas de P. aeruginosa segundo os padrões do National Committee for Clinical and Laboratory Standards (NCCLS. RESULTADOS: Os materiais mais freqüentes foram urina com 26,7% e secreção traqueal com 26,1%. Os seguintes antibióticos, com respectivos percentuais de susceptibilidade, foram observados: piperacilina-tazobactam (66,2%; aztreonam (59,8%; amicacina (59,4%; meropenem (58,2%; imipenem (57,7%; ciprofloxacina (49,7%; gentamicina e cefepima (48,6%; ceftazidima (30% e cefotaxima (6,8%. Detectou-se elevada prevalência de multi-resistência, com 49,7% das cepas resistentes a três antibióticos ou mais e 28% resistentes a seis antibióticos ou mais. Adicionalmente se demonstraram taxas de resistência cruzada entre os beta-lactâmicos (carbapenêmicos e piperacilina/tazobactam e os aminoglicosídeos e quinolonas entre 22,9% e 38,1% (fármacos comumente utilizados como adjuvantes no tratamento das infecções graves por pseudomonas, refletindo dificuldade nas opções de associação de antimicrobianos para tratamentos combinados. CONCLUSÕES: A freqüência de cepas multi-resistentes de P. aeruginosa foi semelhante à descrita na literatura nacional e maior do que a mundial. Para reduzir a freqüência destes clones multi-resistentes, monitorização epidemiológica e racionalização de antimicrobianos devem ser implementadas urgentemente.BACKGROUND AND
Zhang, Yanyan; Hunt, Heather K; Hu, Zhiqiang
Water and wastewater filtration systems often house pathogenic bacteria, which must be removed to ensure clean, safe water. Here, we determine the persistence of the model bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa in two types of filtration systems, and use P. aeruginosa bacteriophages to determine their ability to selectively remove P. aeruginosa. These systems used beds of either anthracite or granular activated carbon (GAC), which were operated at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 45 min. The clean bed filtration systems were loaded with an instantaneous dose of P. aeruginosa at a total cell number of 2.3 (± 0.1 [standard deviation]) × 10(7) cells. An immediate dose of P. aeruginosa phages (1 mL of phage stock at the concentration of 2.7 × 10(7) PFU (Plaque Forming Units)/mL) resulted in a reduction of 50% (± 9%) and >99.9% in the effluent P. aeruginosa concentrations in the clean anthracite and GAC filters, respectively. To further evaluate the effects of P. aeruginosa phages, synthetic stormwater was run through anthracite and GAC biofilters where mixed-culture biofilms were present. Eighty five days after an instantaneous dose of P. aeruginosa (2.3 × 10(7) cells per filter) on day 1, 7.5 (± 2.8) × 10(7) and 1.1 (± 0.5) × 10(7) P. aeruginosa cells/g filter media were detected in the top layer (close to the influent port) of the anthracite and GAC biofilters, respectively, demonstrating the growth and persistence of pathogenic bacteria in the biofilters. A subsequent 1-h dose of phages, at the concentration of 5.1 × 10(6) PFU/mL and flow rate of 1.6 mL/min, removed the P. aeruginosa inside the GAC biofilters and the anthracite biofilters by 70% (± 5%) and 56% (± 1%), respectively, with no P. aeruginosa detected in the effluent, while not affecting ammonia oxidation or the ammonia-oxidizing bacterial community inside the biofilters. These results suggest that phage treatment can selectively remove pathogenic bacteria with minimal impact on beneficial
El-Domany, Ramadan Ahmed; Emara, Mohamed; El-Magd, Mohammed A; Moustafa, Walaa H; Abdeltwab, Nesma M
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important human pathogen and the leading cause of nosocomial infections. P. aeruginosa is characterized by massive intrinsic resistance to a multiple classes of antibiotics with carbapenems being the most potent inhibitor of P. aeruginosa and considered the first choice for its treatment. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate novel mechanisms of resistance of P. aeruginosa to carbapenems for achieving successful therapy. A total of 114 P. aeruginosa isolates from two university hospitals in Egypt were recruited in this study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that 50 isolates (43.8%) exhibited multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype, of them 14 isolates (12.2%) were imipenem (IPM)-resistant. Of these 14 isolates, 13 isolates (11.4%) exhibited the metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) phenotype. MBLs encoding genes, VIM and IMP, were identified by PCR. PCR results revealed that four isolates harbored the VIM gene alone, one isolate harbored IMP gene alone, and four isolates harbored both genes. The correct size of PCR products of VIM and IMP genes (390 and 188 bp, respectively) were sequenced to confirm results of PCR and to look for any possible polymorphism among MBL genes of tested isolates. Data analysis of these sequences showed 100% identity of nucleotide sequences of MBL genes among tested Egyptian patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IMP carbapenemase-encoding gene in Africa and the first detection of the emergence of P. aeruginosa coproducing VIM and IMP genes in Egypt.
Campana, Eloiza Helena; Xavier, Danilo Elias; Petrolini, Fernanda Villas-Boas; Cordeiro-Moura, Jhonatha Rodrigo; Araujo, Maria Rita Elmor de; Gales, Ana Cristina
The mechanisms involved in the uncommon resistance phenotype, carbapenem resistance and broad-spectrum cephalosporin susceptibility, were investigated in 25 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates that exhibited this phenotype, which were recovered from three different hospitals located in São Paulo, Brazil. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined by CLSI broth microdilution. β-lactamase-encoding genes were investigated by PCR followed by DNA sequencing. Carbapenem hydrolysis activity was investigated by spectrophotometer and MALDI-TOF assays. The mRNA transcription level of oprD was assessed by qRT-PCR and the outer membrane proteins profile was evaluated by SDS-PAGE. Genetic relationship among P. aeruginosa isolates was assessed by PFGE. Carbapenems hydrolysis was not detected by carbapenemase assay in the carbapenem-resistant and cephalosporin-susceptible P. aueruginosa clinical isolates. OprD decreased expression was observed in all P. aeruginosa isolates by qRT-PCR. The outer membrane protein profile by SDS-PAGE suggested a change in the expression of the 46kDa porin that could correspond to OprD porin. The isolates were clustered into 17 genotypes without predominance of a specific PFGE pattern. These results emphasize the involvement of multiple chromosomal mechanisms in carbapenem-resistance among clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, alert for adaptation of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates under antimicrobial selective pressure and make aware of the emergence of an uncommon phenotype among P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Lu, Defen; Shang, Guijun; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Heqiao; Zhao, Yanyu; Cang, Huaixing; Gu, Lichuan; Xu, Sujuan; Huang, Yan
Tse3, one of the effectors of the type VI secretion system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has been crystallized and diffracted to 1.5 Å resolution. Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses the type VI secretion system (T6SS) to inject effector proteins into rival cells in niche competition. Tse3, one of the effectors of T6SS, is delivered into the periplasm of recipient cells. Tse3 functions as a muramidase that degrades the β-1,4-linkage between N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) in peptidoglycan, thus leading to lysis of the recipient cells and providing a competitive advantage to the donor cells. Here, the preliminary crystallographic study of Tse3 is reported. A crystal of Tse3 diffracted to 1.5 Å resolution. It belonged to space group C121, with unit-cell parameters a = 166.99, b = 70.13, c = 41.94 Å, α = 90.00, β = 90.52, γ = 90.00° and one molecule per asymmetric unit
Livermore, David M; Warner, Marina; Mushtaq, Shazad
MK-7655 is a novel inhibitor of class A and C β-lactamases. We investigated its potential to protect imipenem. Chequerboard MICs were determined by CLSI agar dilution: (i) for Enterobacteriaceae with carbapenemases; (ii) for Enterobacteriaceae with carbapenem resistance contingent on combinations of impermeability together with an extended-spectrum β-lactamase or AmpC enzyme; and (iii) for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other non-fermenters. At a concentration of 4 mg/L, MK-7655 reduced imipenem MICs for Enterobacteriaceae with KPC carbapenemases from 16-64 mg/L to 0.12-1 mg/L. Synergy also was seen for Enterobacteriaceae with impermeability-mediated carbapenem resistance, with weaker synergy seen for isolates with the OXA-48 enzyme. On the other hand, MK-7655 failed to potentiate imipenem against Enterobacteriaceae with metallo-carbapenemases. In the case of P. aeruginosa, where endogenous AmpC confers slight protection versus imipenem, 4 mg/L MK-7655 reduced the MIC of imipenem for all isolates, except those with metallo-carbapenemases: the MICs of imipenem fell from 1-2 mg/L to 0.25-0.5 mg/L for imipenem-susceptible P. aeruginosa and from 16-64 mg/L to 1-4 mg/L for OprD-deficient strains. No potentiation was seen for chryseobacteria or for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. MK-7655 potentiated imipenem against Enterobacteriaceae with KPC carbapenemases or combinations of β-lactamase and impermeability, but not those with metallo-carbapenemases. It augmented the activity of imipenem against P. aeruginosa in general and OprD mutants in particular.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quantity of Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., Acanthamoeba,Vermamoeba vermiformis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were estimated using qPCR methods. This dataset is...
Matthew B Biggs
Full Text Available Multiscale modeling is used to represent biological systems with increasing frequency and success. Multiscale models are often hybrids of different modeling frameworks and programming languages. We present the MATLAB-NetLogo extension (MatNet as a novel tool for multiscale modeling. We demonstrate the utility of the tool with a multiscale model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation that incorporates both an agent-based model (ABM and constraint-based metabolic modeling. The hybrid model correctly recapitulates oxygen-limited biofilm metabolic activity and predicts increased growth rate via anaerobic respiration with the addition of nitrate to the growth media. In addition, a genome-wide survey of metabolic mutants and biofilm formation exemplifies the powerful analyses that are enabled by this computational modeling tool.
Biggs, Matthew B; Papin, Jason A
Multiscale modeling is used to represent biological systems with increasing frequency and success. Multiscale models are often hybrids of different modeling frameworks and programming languages. We present the MATLAB-NetLogo extension (MatNet) as a novel tool for multiscale modeling. We demonstrate the utility of the tool with a multiscale model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation that incorporates both an agent-based model (ABM) and constraint-based metabolic modeling. The hybrid model correctly recapitulates oxygen-limited biofilm metabolic activity and predicts increased growth rate via anaerobic respiration with the addition of nitrate to the growth media. In addition, a genome-wide survey of metabolic mutants and biofilm formation exemplifies the powerful analyses that are enabled by this computational modeling tool.
Hashem, Hany; Hanora, Amro; Abdalla, Salah; Shaeky, Alaa; Saad, Alaa
This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected from Suez Canal University Hospital in Ismailia, Egypt. Antibiotic susceptibility testing and phenotypic and genotypic screening for MBLs were performed on 147 isolates of P. aeruginosa. MICs were determined by agar dilution method for carbapenem that was ≥2 μg/mL for meropenem. MBL genes were detected by multiplex and monoplex PCR for P. aeruginosa-harbored plasmids. Mutation profile of sequenced MBL genes was screened using online software Clustal Omega. Out of 147 P. aeruginosa, 39 (26.5%) were carbapenem-resistant isolates and 25 (64%) were confirmed to be positive for MBLs. The susceptibility rate of P. aeruginosa toward polymyxin B and norfloxacin was 99% and 88%, respectively. Identification of collected isolates by API analysis and constructed phylogenetic tree of 16S rRNA showed that the isolates were related to P. aeruginosa species. The frequency of blaGIM-1, blaSIM-1, and blaSPM-1 was 52%, 48%, and 24%, respectively. BlaVIM and blaIMP-like genes were 20% and 4% and the sequences confirm the isolate to be blaVIM-1, blaVIM-2, blaVIM-4, and blaIMP-1. Three mutations were identified in blaVIM-4 gene. Our study emphasizes the high occurrence of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa-producing MBL enzymes. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Orlandi, Viviana Teresa; Bolognese, Fabrizio; Barbieri, Paola
Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be isolated from skin wounds of burn patients, bedsore and diabetic ulcers. The healing of wounds is often impaired by the intrinsic antibiotic resistance, the tolerance to many antimicrobials and the ability to form biofilm of this opportunistic pathogen. Finding new topical treatments to combine with antibiotics is thus essential. Among natural products, the antimicrobial properties of honeys have been known for millennia. In this study honey and visible light have been combined to control the growth of P. aeruginosa PAO1. The irradiation by a broad spectrum light source of bacteria inoculated onto 2 % w/v fir and forest honeydew (HD) honeys caused a killing effect that the honeys alone or the light alone did not show. This antimicrobial activity was light energy-dose and honey-concentration dependent. Among the tested honeys, the fir and forest HD honeys were the most efficient ones. In particular, the irradiation by blue LED (λmax = 466 nm) yielded good rates of killing, that were significantly higher in comparison to irradiation alone and honey alone. Interestingly, a similar effect was obtained by plating bacteria on blue LED pre-irradiated HD honeys. The combined use of honey and blue light was also successful in inhibiting the biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa. The blue LED irradiation of PAO1 administered with 10 % w/v forest HD honey significantly enhanced the inhibition of biofilm formation in comparison to dark incubated honey.
Lee, C S; Wetzel, K; Buckley, T; Wozniak, D; Lee, J
For the rapid detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from chlorinated water and aerosols, gyrB gene-based real-time PCR assay was developed and investigated. Two novel primer sets (pa722F/746MGB/899R and pa722F/746MGB/788R) were designed using the most updated 611 Pseudomonas and 748 other bacterial gyrB genes for achieving high specificity. Their specificity showed 100% accuracy when tested with various strains including clinical isolates from cystic fibrosis patients. The assay was tested with Ps. aeruginosa-containing chlorinated water and aerosols to simulate the waterborne and airborne transmission routes (detection limit 3·3 × 10² CFU per PCR-2·3 × 10³ CFU per PCR). No chlorine interference in real-time PCR was observed at drinking water level (c. 1 mg l⁻¹), but high level of chorine (12 mg l⁻¹) interfered the assay, and thus neutralization was needed. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in aerosol was successfully detected after capturing with gelatin filters with minimum 2 min of sampling time when the initial concentration of 10⁴ CFU ml⁻¹ bacteria existed in the nebulizer. A highly specific and rapid assay (2-3 h) was developed by targeting gyrB gene for the detection of Ps. aeruginosa in chlorinated water and aerosols, combined with optimized sample collection methods and sample processing, so the direct DNA extraction from either water or aerosol was possible while achieving the desired sensitivity of the method. The new assay can provide timely and accurate risk assessment to prevent Ps. aeruginosa exposure from water and aerosol, resulting in reduced disease burden, especially among immune-compromised and susceptible individuals. This approach can be easily utilized as a platform technology for the detection of other types of micro-organisms, especially for those that are transmitted via water and aerosol routes, such as Legionella pneumophila. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenicity island 1 (PAPI-1) is one of the largest genomic islands of this important opportunistic human pathogen. Previous studies have shown that PAPI-1 encodes several putative virulence factors, a major regulator of biofilm formation, and antibiotic-resistance traits, a...
Rybtke, Morten; Berthelsen, Jens; Yang, Liang
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a clinically relevant species involved in biofilm-based chronic infections. We provide evidence that the P. aeruginosa LapG protein functions as a periplasmic protease that can cleave the protein adhesin CdrA off the cell surface, and thereby plays a role in biofilm...... formation and biofilm dispersal. The P. aeruginosa LapG protein is shown to be a functional homolog of the Pseudomonas putida LapG protein which has previously been shown to function as a periplasmic protease that targets the surface adhesin LapA. Transposon mutagenesis and characterization of defined...... and whole-cell protein fractions showed that CdrA was retained in the whole-cell protein fraction when LapG was absent, whereas it was found in the culture supernatant when LapG was present. The finding that CdrA is a target of LapG in P. aeruginosa is surprising because CdrA has no homology to LapA....
Brett H. Heintz
Full Text Available This research report assessed the differences in resistance rates and antimicrobial usage-versus-susceptibility relationships of Pseudomonas aeruginosa found in various hospital patient care areas. A simplified case control study was also performed to identify patient-specific risk factors associated with cefepime-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates. Last, we determined the consequence of combining mucoid and non-mucoid derived antimicrobial susceptibilities of P. aeruginosa into hospital antibiograms. Overall, susceptibility rates remained lower in the intensive care units (ICUs compared to the non-ICU patient care areas, except for cefepime over the last time period. Cefepime utilization and antimicrobial-resistance rates among P. aeruginosa isolates had a significant relationship. Decreased meropenem exposure was associated with lower resistance rates relative to cefepime. Risk factors independently associated with cefepime-resistant P. aeruginosa were structural lung disease, ICU admission, recent third generation cephalosporin use, frequent hospital admission and non-urine isolates. Large and statistically significant differences were observed between non-mucoid and combined percent susceptibility data for aminoglycosides. To control antimicrobial resistance and optimize initial empiric antimicrobial therapy, antimicrobial susceptibility and utilization patterns in specific patient care areas should be monitored and risk factors for antimicrobial resistance should be assessed. Mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa should not be included into antimicrobial susceptibility data as this may underestimate activity of most antipseudomonal agents.
Bruinsma, Gerda M; Rustema-Abbing, Minie; de Vries, Joop; Stegenga, Boudewijn; van der Mei, Henny C.; van der Linden, Matthijs L; Hooymans, Johanna MM; Busscher, Henk J.
PURPOSE. To determine changes in physicochemical surface properties of contact tenses (CLs) during daily wear and effects of lens wear on adhesion of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain from a patient with CL-related keratitis. METHODS. Ten new CL wearers used ionic, etafilcon A lenses with 58% water on
Wahjudi, Mariana; Papaioannou, Evelina; Hendrawati, Oktavia; van Assen, Aart H. G.; van Merkerk, Ronald; Cool, Robbert H.; Poelarends, Gerrit J.; Quax, Wim
The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 genome has at least two genes, pvdQ and quiP, encoding acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) acylases. Two additional genes, pa 1893 and pa0305, have been predicted to encode penicillin acylase proteins, but have not been characterized. Initial studies on a pa0305 transposon
Aoki, Nobumasa; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Saga, Tomoo; Kimura, Soichiro; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Tanabe, Yoshinari; Tsukada, Hiroki; Gejyo, Fumitake; Yamaguchi, Keizo
In this study, we have evaluated the efficacy of calcium-EDTA (Ca-EDTA) as an inhibitor of bacterial metalloenzymes, such as metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) and other proteases, in a mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. The simultaneous presence of Ca-EDTA (32 μg/ml) reduced the MICs of imipenem (IPM) in all MBL-producing P. aeruginosa isolates (IMP-1, -2, -7, and -10 and VIM-2) but not non-MBL-producing strains. In the pneumonia model, mice were intranasally infected with MBL-producing...
Full Text Available Qi Wang,1 J Manuel Perez,2 Thomas J Webster1,3 1Bioengineering Program, College of Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Nanoscience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA; 3Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Ceria (CeO2 nanoparticles have been widely studied for numerous applications, but only a few recent studies have investigated their potential applications in medicine. Moreover, there have been almost no studies focusing on their possible antibacterial properties, despite the fact that such nanoparticles may reduce reactive oxygen species. In this study, we coated CeO2 nanoparticles with dextran or polyacrylic acid (PAA because of their enhanced biocompatibility properties, minimized toxicity, and reduced clearance by the immune system. For the first time, the coated CeO2 nanoparticles were tested in bacterial assays involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the most significant bacteria responsible for infecting numerous medical devices. The results showed that CeO2 nanoparticles with either coating significantly inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, by up to 55.14%, after 24 hours compared with controls (no particles. The inhibition of bacterial growth was concentration dependent. In summary, this study revealed, for the first time, that the characterized dextran- and PAA-coated CeO2 nanoparticles could be potential novel materials for numerous antibacterial applications. Keywords: antibacterial, biomedical applications
Lee, Keehoon; Lee, Kang-Mu; Kim, Donggeun; Yoon, Sang Sun
Biofilms are microbial communities that inhabit various surfaces and are surrounded by extracellular matrices (ECMs). Clinical microbiologists have shown that the majority of chronic infections are caused by biofilms, following the introduction of the first biofilm infection model by J. W. Costerton and colleagues (J. Lam, R. Chan, K. Lam, and J. W. Costerton, Infect Immun 28:546-556, 1980). However, treatments for chronic biofilm infections are still limited to surgical removal of the infected sites. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis are two frequently identified bacterial species in biofilm infections; nevertheless, the interactions between these two species, especially during biofilm growth, are not clearly understood. In this study, we observed phenotypic changes in a dual-species biofilm of P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis , including a dramatic increase in biofilm matrix thickness. For clear elucidation of the spatial distribution of the dual-species biofilm, P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis were labeled with red and green fluorescence, respectively. E. faecalis was located at the lower part of the dual-species biofilm, while P. aeruginosa developed a structured biofilm on the upper part. Mutants with altered exopolysaccharide (EPS) productions were constructed in order to determine the molecular basis for the synergistic effect of the dual-species biofilm. Increased biofilm matrix thickness was associated with EPSs, not extracellular DNA. In particular, Pel and Psl contributed to interspecies and intraspecies interactions, respectively, in the dual-species P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis biofilm. Accordingly, targeting Pel and Psl might be an effective part of eradicating P. aeruginosa polymicrobial biofilms. IMPORTANCE Chronic infection is a serious problem in the medical field. Scientists have observed that chronic infections are closely associated with biofilms, and the vast majority of infection-causing biofilms are polymicrobial. Many studies
Diaz, Kelly E; Remold, Susanna K; Onyiri, Ogochukwu; Bozeman, Maura; Raymond, Peter A; Turner, Paul E
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen of particular concern to immune-compromised people, such as cystic fibrosis patients and burn victims. These bacteria grow in built environments including hospitals and households, and in natural environments such as rivers and estuaries. However, there is conflicting evidence whether recent environments like the human lung and open ocean affect P. aeruginosa growth performance in alternate environments. We hypothesized that bacteria recently isolated from dissimilar habitats should grow differently in media containing artificial versus natural resources. To test this idea, we examined growth of P. aeruginosa isolates from three environments (estuary, household, and clinic) in three media types: minimal-glucose lab medium, and media prepared from sugar maple leaves or big bluestem grass. We used automated spectrophotometry to measure high-resolution growth curves for all isolate by media combinations, and studied two fitness parameters: growth rate and maximum population density. Results showed high variability in growth rate among isolates, both overall and in its dependence on assay media, but this variability was not associated with habitat of isolation. In contrast, total growth (change in absorbance over the experiment) differed overall among habitats of isolation, and there were media-specific differences in mean total growth among habitats of isolation, and in among-habitat variability in the media-specific response. This was driven primarily by greater total growth of estuary isolates when compared with those from other habitats of origin, and greater media-specific variability among household isolates than those from other habitats of origin. Taken together, these results suggest that for growth rate P. aeruginosa bacteria appear to be broad generalists without regard to current or recent habitat, whereas for total growth a signature of recent ecological history can be detected.
Diaz, Kelly E.; Remold, Susanna K.; Onyiri, Ogochukwu; Bozeman, Maura; Raymond, Peter A.; Turner, Paul E.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen of particular concern to immune-compromised people, such as cystic fibrosis patients and burn victims. These bacteria grow in built environments including hospitals and households, and in natural environments such as rivers and estuaries. However, there is conflicting evidence whether recent environments like the human lung and open ocean affect P. aeruginosa growth performance in alternate environments. We hypothesized that bacteria recently isolated from dissimilar habitats should grow differently in media containing artificial versus natural resources. To test this idea, we examined growth of P. aeruginosa isolates from three environments (estuary, household, and clinic) in three media types: minimal-glucose lab medium, and media prepared from sugar maple leaves or big bluestem grass. We used automated spectrophotometry to measure high-resolution growth curves for all isolate by media combinations, and studied two fitness parameters: growth rate and maximum population density. Results showed high variability in growth rate among isolates, both overall and in its dependence on assay media, but this variability was not associated with habitat of isolation. In contrast, total growth (change in absorbance over the experiment) differed overall among habitats of isolation, and there were media-specific differences in mean total growth among habitats of isolation, and in among-habitat variability in the media-specific response. This was driven primarily by greater total growth of estuary isolates when compared with those from other habitats of origin, and greater media-specific variability among household isolates than those from other habitats of origin. Taken together, these results suggest that for growth rate P. aeruginosa bacteria appear to be broad generalists without regard to current or recent habitat, whereas for total growth a signature of recent ecological history can be detected. PMID:29599754
Kelly E. Diaz
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen of particular concern to immune-compromised people, such as cystic fibrosis patients and burn victims. These bacteria grow in built environments including hospitals and households, and in natural environments such as rivers and estuaries. However, there is conflicting evidence whether recent environments like the human lung and open ocean affect P. aeruginosa growth performance in alternate environments. We hypothesized that bacteria recently isolated from dissimilar habitats should grow differently in media containing artificial versus natural resources. To test this idea, we examined growth of P. aeruginosa isolates from three environments (estuary, household, and clinic in three media types: minimal-glucose lab medium, and media prepared from sugar maple leaves or big bluestem grass. We used automated spectrophotometry to measure high-resolution growth curves for all isolate by media combinations, and studied two fitness parameters: growth rate and maximum population density. Results showed high variability in growth rate among isolates, both overall and in its dependence on assay media, but this variability was not associated with habitat of isolation. In contrast, total growth (change in absorbance over the experiment differed overall among habitats of isolation, and there were media-specific differences in mean total growth among habitats of isolation, and in among-habitat variability in the media-specific response. This was driven primarily by greater total growth of estuary isolates when compared with those from other habitats of origin, and greater media-specific variability among household isolates than those from other habitats of origin. Taken together, these results suggest that for growth rate P. aeruginosa bacteria appear to be broad generalists without regard to current or recent habitat, whereas for total growth a signature of recent ecological history can be detected.
Zoghlami, Ayoub; Kanzari, Lamia; Boukadida, Jalel; Messadi, Amen Allah; Ghanem, Abdelraouef
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a known opportunistic pathogen frequently causing serious infections in burned patients. To analyze the epidemiological profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated in a Tunisian burn unit. During a 3-year period (from 01 July 2008 to 30 June 2011), 544 non repetitive strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated from burn patients. Susceptibility to antibiotics was assessed according to CA-SFM guidelines. Serotypes were identified by slide agglutination test using P.aeruginosa O antisera (Biorad). Producing carbapenemase was analyzed for 202 imipenem resistant isolates by EDTA test. Susceptibility testing data were stored in a laboratory data base using whonet 5.3 software. The most frequent sites of isolation were cutaneous infections and blood cultures (83.4%). The percentages of resistant isolates were as follows: ceftazidime: 34%; imipenem: 37.1%, ciprofloxacin: 27.1% and amikacin: 29.6%. The most prevalent serotypes were: 011(51%), 06(17%), 03 (8%), 04(12%), 012(5%). Among the 202 imipenem resistant strains, 58% expressed a metallocarbapenemase. All theses strains were resistant to all tested antibiotics except colistin and belonged to the serotype O11. The dissemination of carbapenemases strains must be contained by implementation of timely identification, strict isolation methods and better hygienic procedures.