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Sample records for experimental penetrating ballistic-like

  1. Microglial Inflammasome Activation in Penetrating Ballistic-Like Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephanie W; Gajavelli, Shyam; Spurlock, Markus S; Andreoni, Cody; de Rivero Vaccari, Juan Pablo; Bullock, M Ross; Keane, Robert W; Dietrich, W Dalton

    2018-04-02

    Penetrating traumatic brain injury (PTBI) is a significant cause of death and disability in the United States. Inflammasomes are one of the key regulators of the interleukin (IL)-1β mediated inflammatory responses after traumatic brain injury. However, the contribution of inflammasome signaling after PTBI has not been determined. In this study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sham procedures or penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) and sacrificed at various time-points. Tissues were assessed by immunoblot analysis for expression of IL-1β, IL-18, and components of the inflammasome: apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-activation and recruitment domain (ASC), caspase-1, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), and gasdermin-D (GSDMD). Specific cell types expressing inflammasome proteins also were evaluated immunohistochemically and assessed quantitatively. After PBBI, expression of IL-1β, IL-18, caspase-1, ASC, XIAP, and NLRP3 peaked around 48 h. Brain protein lysates from PTBI animals showed pyroptosome formation evidenced by ASC laddering, and also contained increased expression of GSDMD at 48 h after injury. ASC-positive immunoreactive neurons within the perilesional cortex were observed at 24 h. At 48 h, ASC expression was concentrated in morphologically activated cortical microglia. This expression of ASC in activated microglia persisted until 12 weeks following PBBI. This is the first report of inflammasome activation after PBBI. Our results demonstrate cell-specific patterns of inflammasome activation and pyroptosis predominantly in microglia, suggesting a sustained pro-inflammatory state following PBBI, thus offering a therapeutic target for this type of brain injury.

  2. NNZ-2566 treatment inhibits neuroinflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression induced by experimental penetrating ballistic-like brain injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tortella Frank C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory cytokines play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI, exerting either deleterious effects on the progression of tissue damage or beneficial roles during recovery and repair. NNZ-2566, a synthetic analogue of the neuroprotective tripeptide Glypromate®, has been shown to be neuroprotective in animal models of brain injury. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of NNZ-2566 on inflammatory cytokine expression and neuroinflammation induced by penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI in rats. Methods NNZ-2566 or vehicle (saline was administered intravenously as a bolus injection (10 mg/kg at 30 min post-injury, immediately followed by a continuous infusion of NNZ-2566 (3 mg/kg/h, or equal volume of vehicle, for various durations. Inflammatory cytokine gene expression from the brain tissue of rats exposed to PBBI was evaluated using microarray, quantitative real time PCR (QRT-PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA array. Histopathology of the injured brains was examined using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and immunocytochemistry of inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. Results NNZ-2566 treatment significantly reduced injury-mediated up-regulation of IL-1β, TNF-α, E-selectin and IL-6 mRNA during the acute injury phase. ELISA cytokine array showed that NZ-2566 treatment significantly reduced levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ in the injured brain, but did not affect anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 levels. Conclusion Collectively, these results suggest that the neuroprotective effects of NNZ-2566 may, in part, be functionally attributed to the compound's ability to modulate expression of multiple neuroinflammatory mediators in the injured brain.

  3. Glucose and oxygen metabolism after penetrating ballistic-like brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajavelli, Shyam; Kentaro, Shimoda; Diaz, Julio; Yokobori, Shoji; Spurlock, Markus; Diaz, Daniel; Jackson, Clayton; Wick, Alexandra; Zhao, Weizhao; Leung, Lai Y; Shear, Deborah; Tortella, Frank; Bullock, M Ross

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability in all age groups. Among TBI, penetrating traumatic brain injuries (PTBI) have the worst prognosis and represent the leading cause of TBI-related morbidity and death. However, there are no specific drugs/interventions due to unclear pathophysiology. To gain insights we looked at cerebral metabolism in a PTBI rat model: penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI). Early after injury, regional cerebral oxygen tension and consumption significantly decreased in the ipsilateral cortex in the PBBI group compared with the control group. At the same time point, glucose uptake was significantly reduced globally in the PBBI group compared with the control group. Examination of Fluorojade B-stained brain sections at 24 hours after PBBI revealed an incomplete overlap of metabolic impairment and neurodegeneration. As expected, the injury core had the most severe metabolic impairment and highest neurodegeneration. However, in the peri-lesional area, despite similar metabolic impairment, there was lesser neurodegeneration. Given our findings, the data suggest the presence of two distinct zones of primary injury, of which only one recovers. We anticipate the peri-lesional area encompassing the PBBI ischemic penumbra, could be salvaged by acute therapies. PMID:25669903

  4. Comprehensive Evaluation of Neuroprotection Achieved by Extended Selective Brain Cooling Therapy in a Rat Model of Penetrating Ballistic-Like Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shear, Deborah A.; Deng-Bryant, Ying; Leung, Lai Yee; Wei, Guo; Chen, Zhiyong; Tortella, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Brain hypothermia has been considered as a promising alternative to whole-body hypothermia in treating acute neurological disease, for example, traumatic brain injury. Previously, we demonstrated that 2-hours selective brain cooling (SBC) effectively mitigated acute (≤24 hours postinjury) neurophysiological dysfunction induced by a penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) in rats. This study evaluated neuroprotective effects of extended SBC (4 or 8 hours in duration) on sub-acute secondary injuries between 3 and 21 days postinjury (DPI). SBC (34°C) was achieved via extraluminal cooling of rats' bilateral common carotid arteries (CCA). Depending on the experimental design, SBC was introduced either immediately or with a 2- or 4-hour delay after PBBI and maintained for 4 or 8 hours. Neuroprotective effects of SBC were evaluated by measuring brain lesion volume, axonal injury, neuroinflammation, motor and cognitive functions, and post-traumatic seizures. Compared to untreated PBBI animals, 4 or 8 hours SBC treatment initiated immediately following PBBI produced comparable neuroprotective benefits against PBBI-induced early histopathology at 3 DPI as evidenced by significant reductions in brain lesion volume, axonal pathology (beta-amyloid precursor protein staining), neuroinflammation (glial fibrillary acetic protein stained-activated astrocytes and rat major histocompatibility complex class I stained activated microglial cell), and post-traumatic nonconvulsive seizures. In the later phase of the injury (7–21 DPI), significant improvement on motor function (rotarod test) was observed under most SBC protocols, including the 2-hour delay in SBC initiation. However, SBC treatment failed to improve cognitive performance (Morris water maze test) measured 13–17 DPI. The protective effects of SBC on delayed axonal injury (silver staining) were evident out to 14 DPI. In conclusion, the CCA cooling method of SBC produced neuroprotection measured across multiple

  5. Dual Therapeutic Effects of C-10068, a Dextromethorphan Derivative, Against Post-Traumatic Nonconvulsive Seizures and Neuroinflammation in a Rat Model of Penetrating Ballistic-Like Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shear, Deborah A.; Graham, Philip B.; Bridson, Gary W.; Uttamsingh, Vinita; Chen, Zhiyong; Leung, Lai Yee; Tortella, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Post-traumatic seizures can exacerbate injurious outcomes of severe brain trauma, yet effective treatments are limited owing to the complexity of the pathology underlying the concomitant occurrence of both events. In this study, we tested C‐10068, a novel deuterium-containing analog of (+)-N-methyl-3-ethoxymorphinan, in a rat model of penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) and evaluated the effects of C-10068 on PBBI-induced nonconvulsive seizures (NCS), acute neuroinflammation, and neurofunctional outcomes. NCS were detected by electroencephalographic monitoring. Neuroinflammation was evaluated by immunohistochemical markers, for example, glial fibrillary acidic protein and major histocompatibility complex class I, for activation of astrocytes and microglia, respectively. Neurofunction was tested using rotarod and Morris water maze tasks. Three infusion doses of C-10068 (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg/h×72 h) were tested in the antiseizure study. Neuroinflammation and neurofunction were evaluated in animals treated with 5.0 mg/kg/h×72 h C-10068. Compared to vehicle treatment, C-10068 dose dependently reduced PBBI-induced NCS incidence (40–50%), frequency (20–70%), and duration (30–82%). The most effective antiseizure dose of C-10068 (5.0 mg/kg/h×72 h) also significantly attenuated hippocampal astrocyte activation and perilesional microglial reactivity post-PBBI. Within C-10068-treated animals, a positive correlation was observed in reduction in NCS frequency and reduction in hippocampal astrocyte activation. Further, C-10068 treatment significantly attenuated astrocyte activation in seizure-free animals. However, C-10068 failed to improve PBBI-induced motor and cognitive functions with the dosing regimen used in this study. Overall, the results indicating that C-10068 exerts both potent antiseizure and antiinflammatory effects are promising and warrant further investigation. PMID:25794265

  6. Dual Therapeutic Effects of C-10068, a Dextromethorphan Derivative, Against Post-Traumatic Nonconvulsive Seizures and Neuroinflammation in a Rat Model of Penetrating Ballistic-Like Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xi-Chun May; Shear, Deborah A; Graham, Philip B; Bridson, Gary W; Uttamsingh, Vinita; Chen, Zhiyong; Leung, Lai Yee; Tortella, Frank C

    2015-10-15

    Post-traumatic seizures can exacerbate injurious outcomes of severe brain trauma, yet effective treatments are limited owing to the complexity of the pathology underlying the concomitant occurrence of both events. In this study, we tested C-10068, a novel deuterium-containing analog of (+)-N-methyl-3-ethoxymorphinan, in a rat model of penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) and evaluated the effects of C-10068 on PBBI-induced nonconvulsive seizures (NCS), acute neuroinflammation, and neurofunctional outcomes. NCS were detected by electroencephalographic monitoring. Neuroinflammation was evaluated by immunohistochemical markers, for example, glial fibrillary acidic protein and major histocompatibility complex class I, for activation of astrocytes and microglia, respectively. Neurofunction was tested using rotarod and Morris water maze tasks. Three infusion doses of C-10068 (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg/h × 72 h) were tested in the antiseizure study. Neuroinflammation and neurofunction were evaluated in animals treated with 5.0 mg/kg/h × 72 h C-10068. Compared to vehicle treatment, C-10068 dose dependently reduced PBBI-induced NCS incidence (40-50%), frequency (20-70%), and duration (30-82%). The most effective antiseizure dose of C-10068 (5.0 mg/kg/h × 72 h) also significantly attenuated hippocampal astrocyte activation and perilesional microglial reactivity post-PBBI. Within C-10068-treated animals, a positive correlation was observed in reduction in NCS frequency and reduction in hippocampal astrocyte activation. Further, C-10068 treatment significantly attenuated astrocyte activation in seizure-free animals. However, C-10068 failed to improve PBBI-induced motor and cognitive functions with the dosing regimen used in this study. Overall, the results indicating that C-10068 exerts both potent antiseizure and antiinflammatory effects are promising and warrant further investigation.

  7. An Experimental Model for Market Penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caren, William L.

    1987-01-01

    A plan for college market penetration that has been successful in increasing the applicant pool for one institution is outlined and discussed. It includes development of performance objectives, a schedule, a promotional plan, market survey, and promotional activities including alumni, media, and other community resources. (MSE)

  8. Experimental measurement of proton penetration in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaing, C.; Baruch, P.; Picard, C.

    1974-01-01

    After proton implantation in silicon at high fluence, hydrogen precipitation in bubbles is induced by annealing. The stresses are so high that blister formation and peeling occur, leaving flat bottomed pits, with a depth equal to the projected proton range R(p). In this way R(p) was measured between 200 and 600keV, and compared with already published values, and with values computed through LSS (Lindhard, Scharff, and Schiott) theory, using a correct electronic stopping power. A table of ranges and standard deviations, computed in this way is given. The agreement with experimental results is excellent [fr

  9. An Experimental Investigation on APR1400 Penetration Weld Failure by Metallic Melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Sang Mo; Ha, Kwang Soon; Kim, Hwan Yeol

    2014-01-01

    The penetrations are considered as the most vulnerable parts with respect to the reactor vessel failure when a core melt severe accident occurs and the corium reaches the lower head. Penetration tube failure modes can be divided into two categories; tube ejection out of the vessel lower head and rupture of the penetration tube outside the vessel. Tube ejection begins with degrading the penetration tube weld strength to zero as the weld is exposed to temperatures as high as the weld melting temperature, which is called weld failure, and then overcoming any binding force in the hole in the vessel wall that results from differential thermal expansion of the tube and vessel wall. Tube rupture assumes that the debris bed has melted the instrument tube inside the reactor and melt migrates down into the tube to a location outside the vessel wall where a pressure rupture can occur, thus breaching the pressure boundary. In the present paper, we have a focus on the tube ejection failure mode, specifically on the APR1400 weld failure by direct contact with a metallic melt. The objective is to investigate experimentally the ablation kinetics of an APR1400 penetration weld during the interactions with a metallic melt and to suggest the modification of the existing weld failure model. This paper involves the interaction experiments of two different metallic melts (metallic corium and stainless steel melts) with a weld specimen, and rough estimation of weld failure time. The interaction experiments between the metallic melts and an APR1400 penetration weld were performed to investigate the ablation kinetics of the penetration weld. Metallic corium and stainless steel melts were generated using an induction heating technique and interacted with a penetration weld specimen. The ablation rate of the weld specimen showed a range from 0.109 to 0..244 mm/s and thus the APR1400 penetration weld was estimated to be failed at hundreds of times after the interaction with the melt

  10. An experimental study of aerosol penetration through horizontal tubes and strom-type loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, F.S.; McFarland, A.R.; Anand, N.K.

    1996-01-01

    Because some designers of aerosol transport systems use the assumption that aerosol penetration through a system is maximized of the flow Reynolds number is 2,800, we have conducted tests to determine if such an assumption is appropriate. Although we do not believe that optimal performance of an aerosol sample transport system can be presented solely in terms of the Reynolds number, we have presented our results in terms of that parameter to compare our work with the results of an earlier study. Two types of experiments were performed. First, the penetration of liquid aerosol particles through horizontal tubes was experimentally investigated for a range of design and operational conditions. For a particle size of 10 μm aerodynamic diameter, the maximum penetration through a 6.7 mm diameter tube was associated with a Reynolds number of approximately 2,000; the maximum penetration through a tube of 15.9 mm occurred at a Reynolds number of about 3,000; and the maximum penetration through a 26.7 mm diameter tube occurred at about 4,000. It was also experimentally demonstrated that for a fixed flow rate through a horizontal tube, there is an optimum tube diameter for which the aerosol penetration is a maximum. An early study dealing with aerosol particle penetration through a 16.8 mm inside diameter loop of tubing (two vertical tubes, two horizontal tubes and three 90 degrees bends) suggested there was a fixed Reynolds number for optimal aerosol penetration independent of particle size. Those experiments were repeated here and the agreement with those tests is excellent. 16 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Experimental and numerical studies on penetration of shaped charge into concrete and pebble layered targets

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    C Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on penetrating into concrete and pebble layered targets were performed by shaped charge with different cone angles, liner wall thicknesses, length to diameter ratios and charge diameters at different standoffs. Based on the experimental data, the influence of shaped charge’s structural parameters on crater diameter, hole diameter, crater depth and penetration depth was analyzed in detail. Meanwhile, formation and penetration processes of all shaped charges were simulated by AUTODYN software for investigating the more intrinsic mechanisms, in which the numerical models are the same as those set up in the experiments. The results obtained in this paper indicate that there are obvious differences between jetting projectile charge (JPC and explosively formed projectile (EFP in penetrating into multi-layer targets. For the same charge diameter, the values of hole diameter formed by EFP were much larger than JPC. However, for the same standoff, the penetration depth caused by JCP were larger than EFP. The interfacial effect exists in the penetration progress of JPC.

  12. Assessing the Penetrating Abilities of Experimental Preparation with Dental Infiltrant Features Using Optical Microscope: Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skucha-Nowak, Małgorzata; Machorowska-Pieniążek, Agnieszka; Tanasiewicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the infiltration technique is to penetrate demineralized enamel with a low viscosity resin. Icon® (DMG) is the first ever and so far the only dental infiltrant. Bacteriostaticity is one of the properties that should be inherent in dental infiltrants, but Icon lacks this feature. The aim of the preliminary study was to properly choose a dye which would allow us to assess the penetrating abilities of our own, experimental preparation with features of a dental infiltrant with bacteriostatic properties and to compare using an optical microscope the depth of infiltration of the designed experimental preparation with the infiltrant available on the market. The preparation is supposed to infiltrate decalcified human enamel and be assessed with an optical microscope. Eosin, neutral fuchsine and methylene blue were added to experimental preparation with dental infiltrant features and to Icon® (DMG) in order to assess the depth of penetration of the experimental solution into the decalcified layers of enamel. The experimental solution mixes well with eosin, neutral fuchsine, and methylene blue. During the preliminary study, the authors concluded that the experimental solution mixes well with methylene blue, neutral fuchsine, and eosin. An addition of eosin to a preparation which infiltrates inner, demineralized enamel layers, facilitates the assessment of such a preparation with an optical microscope. A designed experimental solution with the main ingredients, i.e., 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) with a ratio of 75% to 25% penetrates the demineralized (decalcified) inner parts of the enamel and polymerizes when exposed to light. In order to assess the infiltration of the experimental solution into the demineralized enamel layers, it is required to improve the measurement techniques that utilize optical microscopy.

  13. Temperature dependence of the experimental penetration depth of superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, H.J.; Gruenfeld, V.; Pastawski, H.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental magnetic field penetration depths delta(t,d,H) of the stable and superheated Meissner state were calculated as a function of temperature for various applied magnetic fields and various film thicknesses for two cases: (1) lambda(t)/d<< kappa→infinity and (2) kappa< or approx. =2lambda(t)/d (lambda is the Ginzburg-Landau penetration depth, d is the film thickness, kappa is the GL parameter). The results of the first case should be a useful tool for obtaining lambda(0) of amorphous superconducting thin films

  14. Some results of experimental investigation of super-deep penetration into the metal's targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andilevko, S.K.; Roman, O.V.; Usherenko, S.M.; Shilkin, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of Super-Deep Penetration (SDP) is briefly presented. Various experimental techniques, including that based on neutron-activated autoradiography (NAAR), for experimentally investigating this phenomenon are described. Results from a number of investigations in which the effect on SDP of initial target temperature, the dependence of the concentration on depth for different powder particles and the use of bimetallic targets, are reviewed. The complicated nature of the SDP process and the need for a wider range of experimental data if it is to be fully understood are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of the effects of intravitreal bevacizumab and dexamethasone in experimental posterior penetrating eye injury

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    Ayse Oner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the effects of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and dexamethasone in an experimental rabbit model of posterior penetrating ocular injury. METHODS: Thirty white New Zealand rabbits were included in the study. A posterior penetrating ocular injury was performed at the superotemporal quadrant. They were randomly divided into three groups. The rabbits in group 1 received intravitreal dexamethasone, in group 2 they received intravitreal bevacizumab and those in group 3 received intravitreal physiological saline solution in both eyes. All eyes were examined ophthalmologically on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th and 28th days following the injury and the clinical findings were scored. On the day 28, the eyes were enucleated, evaluated and scored macroscopically, histopathologically and scanning electron microscopically. RESULTS: The median clinical score on the 14th and 28th days and the median macroscopic score of the dexamethasone group was significantly better than that of control (P=0.004, 0.018. Dexamethasone group was also better than that of bevacizumab group but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Retinal detachment rate was 8.3%, 16.6% and 12.5% in the dexamethasone group, bevacizumab group and control group, respectively (P=0.476. More extensive fibrocelluler proliferations were observed in controls compared with dexamethasone and bevacizumab groups. But these differences did not reach the statistical significance (P=0.538. In scanning electron microscopy all groups showed fibreous stalk and dense collagen fibrils in vitreous. CONCLUSION: This study shows that intravitreal injection of both dexamethasone and bevacizumab may reduce the intraocular fibrous proliferation after an experimental posterior penetrating ocular injury in rabbits.

  16. Detectability of underground electrical cables junction with a ground penetrating radar: electromagnetic simulation and experimental measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; serhir, mohammed; kameni, abelin; lambert, marc; pichon, lionel

    2016-04-01

    For a company like Electricity De France (EDF), being able to detect accurately using non-destructive methods the position of the buried junction between two underground cables is a crucial issue. The junction is the linking part where most maintenance operations are carried out. The challenge of this work is to conduct a feasibility study to confirm or deny the relevance of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to detect these buried junctions in their actual environment against clutter. Indeed, the cables are buried in inhomogeneous medium at around 80cm deep. To do this, the study is conducted in a numerical environment. We use the 3D simulation software CST MWS to model a GPR scenario. In this simulation, we place the already optimized bowtie antennas operating in the frequency band [0.5 GHz - 3 GHz] in front of wet soil (dispersive) and dry soil where the underground cable is placed at 80cm deep. We collect the amplitude and phase of the reflected waves in order to detect the contrast provoked by the geometric dimensions variation of the cable [1] (diameter of the cable is 48mm and the diameter of the junction 74mm). The use of an ultra-wideband antenna is necessary to reconcile resolution and penetration of electromagnetic waves in the medium to be characterized. We focus on the performance of the GPR method according to the characteristics of the surrounding medium in which the electric cables are buried, the polarization of the Tx and Rx antennas. The experimental measurement collected in the EDF site will be presented. The measured data are processed using the clutter reduction method based on digital filtering [2]. We aim at showing that using the developed bowtie antennas that the GPR technique is well adapted for the cable junction localization even in cluttered environment. References [1] D. J. Daniels, "Surface-Penetrating Radar", London, IEE 1996. [2] Potin, D.; Duflos, E.; Vanheeghe, P., "Landmines Ground-Penetrating Radar Signal Enhancement by Digital

  17. Penetration Evaluation of Explosively Formed Projectiles Through Air and Water Using Insensitive Munition: Simulative and Experimental Studies

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    M. Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of formation, flying, penetration of explosively-formed projectiles (EFP and the effect of water on performance of the charge for underwater applications is simulated by Ansysis Autodyn 2D-Hydro code. The main objective of an explosively formed projectile designed for underwater applications is to disintegrate the target at longer standoff distances. In this paper we have simulated the explosively formed projectile from OFHC-Copper liner for 1200 conical angle. The Affect of water on the penetration of EFP is determined by simulations from Ansysis Autodyn 2-D Hydrocode and by varying depth of water from 1CD-5CD. The depth of penetration against steel target is measured experimentally. Flash X-Ray Radiography (FXR is used to capture EFP jet formation and its penetration against target is measured by depth of penetration experiments. Simulation results are compared with experimental results. The difference in simulated and experimental results for depth of penetration is about 7 mm, which lies within favorable range of error. The jet formation captured from FXR is quite clear and jet velocity determined from Flash X-ray radiography is the same as the ones obtained by using other high explosives. Therefore, it is indicated that Insensitive Munition (8701 can be utilized instead of Polymer Bonded Explosives (PBX for air and underwater environments with great reliability and without any hazard.

  18. Experimental observation of silver and gold penetration into dental ceramic by means of a radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya, F.; Payan, J.; Bernardini, J.; Moya, E.G.

    1987-01-01

    A radiotracer technique was used to study silver and gold diffusion into dental porcelain under experimental conditions close to the real conditions in prosthetic laboratories for porcelain bakes. It was clearly shown that these non-oxidizable elements were able to diffuse into the ceramic as well as oxidizable ones. The penetration depth varied widely according to the element. The ratio DAg/DAu was about 10(3) around 850 degrees C. In contrast to gold, the silver diffusion rate was high enough to allow silver, from the metallic alloy, to be present at the external ceramic surface after diffusion into the ceramic. Hence, the greening of dental porcelains baked on silver-rich alloys could be explained mainly by a solid-state diffusion mechanism

  19. Experimental investigation of heating phenomena in linac mechanical interfaces due to RF field penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, M.V.; Reid, D.W.; Potter, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    In a high duty-factor, high-current, drift-tube linear accelerator, a critical interface exists between the drift-tube stem and the tank wall. This interface must provide vacuum integrity and RF continuity, while simultaneously allowing alignment flexibility. Because of past difficulties with RF heating of vacuum bellows and RF joints encountered by others, a paucity of available information, and the high reliability requirement for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) accelerator, a program was initiated to study the problem. Because RF heating is the common failure mode, an attempt was made to find a correlation between the drift-tube-stem/linac-tank interface geometry and RF field penetration from the tank into the interface region. Experiments were performed at 80 MHz on an RF structure designed to simulate the conditions to which a drift-tube stem and vacuum bellows are exposed in a drift-tube linac. Additional testing was performed on a 367-MHz model of the FMIT prototype drift-tube linac. Experimental results, and a method to predict excessive RF heating, is presented. An experimentally tested solution to the problem is discussed

  20. A statistical experimental design approach to evaluate the influence of various penetration enhancers on transdermal drug delivery of buprenorphine

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    S.Mojtaba Taghizadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of drug-in-adhesive transdermal drug delivery systems (patch with different chemical penetration enhancers were designed to deliver drug through the skin as a site of application. The objective of our effort was to study the influence of various chemical penetration enhancers on skin permeation rate and adhesion properties of a transdermal drug delivery system using Box–Behnken experimental design. The response surface methodology based on a three-level, three-variable Box–Behnken design was used to evaluate the interactive effects on dependent variables including, the rate of skin permeation and adhesion properties, namely peel strength and tack value. Levulinic acid, lauryl alcohol, and Tween 80 were used as penetration enhancers (patch formulations, containing 0–8% of each chemical penetration enhancer. Buprenorphine was used as a model penetrant drug. The results showed that incorporation of 20% chemical penetration enhancer into the mixture led to maximum skin permeation flux of buprenorphine from abdominal rat skin while the adhesion properties decreased. Also that skin flux in presence of levulinic acid (1.594 μg/cm2 h was higher than Tween 80 (1.473 μg/cm2 h and lauryl alcohol (0.843 μg/cm2 h, and in mixing these enhancers together, an additional effect was observed. Moreover, it was found that each enhancer increased the tack value, while levulinic acid and lauryl alcohol improved the peel strength but Tween 80 reduced it. These findings indicated that the best chemical skin penetration enhancer for buprenorphine patch was levulinic acid. Among the designed formulations, the one which contained 12% (wt/wt enhancers exhibited the highest efficiency.

  1. A statistical experimental design approach to evaluate the influence of various penetration enhancers on transdermal drug delivery of buprenorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, S Mojtaba; Moghimi-Ardakani, Ali; Mohamadnia, Fatemeh

    2015-03-01

    A series of drug-in-adhesive transdermal drug delivery systems (patch) with different chemical penetration enhancers were designed to deliver drug through the skin as a site of application. The objective of our effort was to study the influence of various chemical penetration enhancers on skin permeation rate and adhesion properties of a transdermal drug delivery system using Box-Behnken experimental design. The response surface methodology based on a three-level, three-variable Box-Behnken design was used to evaluate the interactive effects on dependent variables including, the rate of skin permeation and adhesion properties, namely peel strength and tack value. Levulinic acid, lauryl alcohol, and Tween 80 were used as penetration enhancers (patch formulations, containing 0-8% of each chemical penetration enhancer). Buprenorphine was used as a model penetrant drug. The results showed that incorporation of 20% chemical penetration enhancer into the mixture led to maximum skin permeation flux of buprenorphine from abdominal rat skin while the adhesion properties decreased. Also that skin flux in presence of levulinic acid (1.594 μg/cm(2) h) was higher than Tween 80 (1.473 μg/cm(2) h) and lauryl alcohol (0.843 μg/cm(2) h), and in mixing these enhancers together, an additional effect was observed. Moreover, it was found that each enhancer increased the tack value, while levulinic acid and lauryl alcohol improved the peel strength but Tween 80 reduced it. These findings indicated that the best chemical skin penetration enhancer for buprenorphine patch was levulinic acid. Among the designed formulations, the one which contained 12% (wt/wt) enhancers exhibited the highest efficiency.

  2. Numerical and Experimental Study on the Formation and Dispersion Patterns of Multiple Explosively Formed Penetrators

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    Jian Feng Liu

    Full Text Available Abstract Three-dimensional numerical simulations and experiments were performed to examine the formation and spatial dispersion patterns of integral multiple explosively formed penetrators (MEFP warhead with seven hemispherical liners. Numerical results had successfully described the formation process and distribution pattern of MEFP. A group of penetrators consisting of a central penetrator surrounded by 6 penetrators is formed during the formation process of MEFP and moves in the direction of aiming position. The maximum divergence angle of the surrounding penetrator group was 7.8°, and the damage area could reach 0.16 m2 at 1.2 m. The laws of perforation dispersion patterns of MEFP were also obtained through a nonlinear fitting of the perforation information on the target at different standoffs. The terminal effects of the MEFP warhead were performed on three #45 steel targets with a dimension of 160cm ( 160cm ( 1.5cm at various standoffs (60, 80, and 120 cm. The simulation results were validated through penetration experiments at different standoffs. It has shown excellent agreement between simulation and experiment results.

  3. Experimental Study of Bacterial Penetration into Chalk Rock: Mechanisms and Effect on Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Shapiro, Alexander; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial selective plugging is one of the mechanisms through which microorganisms can be applied for enhanced oil recovery, as bacteria can plug the water-swept zones of a reservoir, thus altering the flow paths and improving sweep efficiency. However, complete understanding of the penetration...... behavior of bacteria is lacking, especially in chalk formations where characteristic pore throat sizes are comparable with the sizes of bacterial cells. In this study, two bacterial strains, Bacillus licheniformis 421 (spore-forming) and Pseudomonas putida K12 (non-spore forming) were used to investigate...... the penetration of bacteria into chalk and its effect on permeability reduction. The core plugs were produced from Stevns Klint outcrop with low permeability (2–4 mD) and with pore sizes comparable to bacterial sizes. Both types of bacteria were able to penetrate and to be transported through the cores to some...

  4. Experimental study on the penetration effect of ceramics composite projectile on ceramic / A3 steel compound targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di-qi Hu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the penetration of projectiles into ceramic composite armors, the nose of 30 mm standard projectile was replaced by a toughened ceramic nose, and the performance of ceramic-nose projectiles penetrating into ceramic/A3 steel composite targets has been experimentally researched. According to impact dynamics theory,, the performances of 30 mm ceramic-nose projectile and 30 mm standard projectile penetrating into the ceramic/A3 steel composite targets were analyzed and compared using DOP method, especially focusing on the effects made by different nose structures and materials. The aperture and depth of perforation of projectile into the armor plates as well as the residual mass of bullet core under the same conditions were comparatively analyzed. A numerical simulation was built and computed by ANSYS/LS-DYNA. Based on the simulated results, the penetration performance was further analyzed in terms of the residual mass of bullet core. The results show that the ceramic nose has a great effect on the protection of bullet core.

  5. Aerosol penetration through capillaries and leaks: experimental studies on the influence of pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, D.A.V.; Mitchell, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    It is important to understand the movement of aerosols through ultrafine leak-paths with dimensions of similar order to the gas-borne particles when assessing the validity of leak-testing procedures for transport containers for radioactive materials. Experiments have been undertaken to investigate the penetration of micron-sized airborne particles using glass micro-capillaries as model leak-paths. Previous studies demonstrated a simple relationship between air leakage and total particle penetration rates at a constant driving pressure (100 kPa). The present work has demonstrated the importance of pressure in regulating the rate at which the leak-path is plugged by deposited particles. Much of this deposition appears to take place at the entrances of the capillaries where the air-flow converges. (author)

  6. Analytical and experimental studies on the strain rate effects in penetration of 10wt % ballistic gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L; Jia, Z; Ma, X L; Fan, Y R

    2013-01-01

    This work concentrates on modeling the super-elastic behavior of 10wt% ballistic gelatin at 4°C and the mechanical responses at quasi-static and high-speed penetrations. Uniaxial compression and simple shearing experiments were carried out to determine the moduli in Mooney-Rivlin model describing the elastic behavior of gelatin at low strain rates. The failure mode is determined to be elastic fracture as the tensile stretch ratio exceeds a critical value. For high compression strain rates, the available results from the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments for 10wt% gelatin were carefully examined and assessed. Linear relationship between the moduli and the strain rate is established. Based on these material parameters, an analytic solution of stress for the quasi-static and quasi-dynamic expansion of spherical cavity in gelatin is derived. As a consequence, the work needed to open unit volume of cavity, P s , which is the key parameter in studying penetration problems, is linearly increasing with the characteristic strain rate. The application of P s to our quasi-static and high-speed penetration experiments is discussed and assessed

  7. Experimental study of the penetrating of plates by projectile at low initial speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, M. Yu; Orlova, Yu N.; Smakotin, Ig L.; Glazyrin, V. P.; Orlov, Yu N.

    2017-11-01

    The research of the penetration process of lightweight plates by a projectile in the range of initial velocities up to 325 m/s was attempted. The projectile was a shell bullet and the barriers were of ice, MDF-panels and plexiglas barriers. The response of barriers to impact loading is studied. High-speed shooting of each experiment is obtained, including photos of the front and rear sides of the barriers. An attempt was made to reproduce the scenario of the destruction of barriers. The results of experiments can be interpreted only as qualitative tests. Projectile was not destroyed.

  8. Simulation of deep penetration welding of stainless steel using geometric constraints based on experimental information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milewski, J.O.; Lambrakos, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents a general overview of a method of numerically modelling deep penetration welding processes using geometric constraints based on boundary information obtained from experiment. General issues are considered concerning accurate numerical calculation of temperature and velocity fields in regions of the meltpool where the flow of fluid is characterized by quasi-stationary Stokes flow. It is this region of the meltpool which is closest to the heat-affected-zone (HAZ) and which represents a significant fraction of the fusion zone (FZ)

  9. Experimental determination of the temperature-dependent penetration depth in V3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, D.K.; Kerchner, H.R.; Sekula, S.T.; Chang, Y.K.

    1984-03-01

    Small angle neutron diffraction from the flux-line lattice (FLL) in a high quality, single crystal of superconducting V 3 Si has been used to deduce the low-field penetration depth lambda (T). An absolute determination is possible because the FLL form factor F/sub hk/ is essentially single-valued in the scattering vector magnitude absolute value of K/sub hk/, as well as nearly London-like at low field. We obtain lambda (0) = 102 +- 1 nm, 20% to 30% larger than previous determinations of the London penetration depth lambda/sub L/ (0). The temperature dependence of lambda (T) is found to deviate from that of the BCS theory. An assessment of the data indicates the most prominent source of the discrepancy is due to strong electron-phonon coupling, and we find 2Δ(0)/k/sub B/T/sub c/ = 3.88 +- 0.07, in reasonable agreement with values found in the literature

  10. Experimental investigation of the penetration of ultrasound nanobubbles in a gastric cancer xenograft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaozhou; Wang, Luofu; Guo, Yanli; Tong, Haipeng; Li, Lang; Ding, Jun; Huang, Haiyun

    2013-08-01

    Nanobubbles as a type of ultrasound contrast agent have attracted much interest in recent years due to their many advantages, such as strong penetrating power and high stability. However, there is still insufficient morphological evidence concerning gas-filled nanobubbles in tumor tissue spaces and tumor angiogenesis. We used a gastric cancer xenograft as an example to study this question. Nanobubbles with a particle size of 435.2 ± 60.53 nm were prepared and compared with SonoVue® microbubbles in vitro and in vivo, and they exhibited a superior contrast imaging effect. After excluding the impact of the nanobubbles in blood vessels through saline flush, we used an ultrasound burst and frozen sectioning to investigate the distribution of nanobubbles in the gastric cancer xenografts and confirmed this by transmission electron microscopy. Preliminary results showed that the nanobubbles were able to pass through the gaps between the endothelial cells in the tumor vascular system to enter the tissue space. These findings could provide morphological evidence for extravascular ultrasound imaging of tumors and serve as a foundation for the application of nanobubbles in extravascular tumor-targeted ultrasonic diagnostics and therapy.

  11. Experimental investigation of the penetration of ultrasound nanobubbles in a gastric cancer xenograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xiaozhou; Guo Yanli; Tong Haipeng; Li Lang; Ding Jun; Huang Haiyun; Wang Luofu

    2013-01-01

    Nanobubbles as a type of ultrasound contrast agent have attracted much interest in recent years due to their many advantages, such as strong penetrating power and high stability. However, there is still insufficient morphological evidence concerning gas-filled nanobubbles in tumor tissue spaces and tumor angiogenesis. We used a gastric cancer xenograft as an example to study this question. Nanobubbles with a particle size of 435.2 ± 60.53 nm were prepared and compared with SonoVue ® microbubbles in vitro and in vivo, and they exhibited a superior contrast imaging effect. After excluding the impact of the nanobubbles in blood vessels through saline flush, we used an ultrasound burst and frozen sectioning to investigate the distribution of nanobubbles in the gastric cancer xenografts and confirmed this by transmission electron microscopy. Preliminary results showed that the nanobubbles were able to pass through the gaps between the endothelial cells in the tumor vascular system to enter the tissue space. These findings could provide morphological evidence for extravascular ultrasound imaging of tumors and serve as a foundation for the application of nanobubbles in extravascular tumor-targeted ultrasonic diagnostics and therapy. (paper)

  12. Experimental research on the dynamic behaviors of the keyhole and molten pool in laser deep-penetration welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Lin, Qida; Yin, Xuni; Li, Simeng; Deng, Jiquan

    2018-04-01

    Both the morphology and temperature are two important characteristics of the keyhole and the molten pool in laser deep-penetration welding. The modified ‘sandwich’ method was adopted to overcome the difficulty in obtaining inner information about the keyhole and the molten pool. Based on this method, experimental platforms were built for observing the variations in the surface morphology, the longitudinal keyhole profile and the internal temperature. The experimental results of three dynamic behaviors exbibit as follows. The key factor, which makes the pool width go into a quasi-steady state, lies in the balance between the vortex and the sideways flows around the keyhole. Experimental observation shows that the keyhole goes through three stages in laser welding: the rapid drilling stage, the slow drilling stage and the quasi-steady state. The time for achieving a relative fixed keyhole depth is close to the formation time of the maximum pool width. The internal temperatures inside the keyhole and the molten pool first experience a rapid increase, then a decrease and finally go into a quasi-steady state. Compared to that in the unstable stage, the liquid–metal uphill formed in the stable stage of laser welding has less influence on the internal temperature.

  13. Experimental study of collisionless interaction between superalfven mutually penetrating plasma flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, V.M.; Bashurin, V.P.; Golubev, A.I.; Zhmajlo, V.A.; Zakharov, Yu.P.; Orishich, A.M.; Ponomarenko, A.G.; Posukh, V.G.; Snytnikov, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    To develop new methods of magnetic-gaseous protection of the first wall of thermonuclear reactor with inertial confainment, the processes of collisionless interaction of laser plasma expanding cloud with magnetized background at high Mach-Alfven numbers (Msub(A)>=5) are investigated. Experimental results on laboratory simulation of interaction processes of superalfvenic plasma flow with the number of particles N 1 approximately equal to 10 18 in the background plasma n approximately equal to 3x10 13 cm sup(-3) are presented. In the presence of magnetic field, when Larmour's ionic radii of the cloud and background are compared with the scale R=(3N 1 z 1 /4πn)1/3, intensive pulsetransfer from the cloud to the background in the absence of collisions was recorded. The possibility of superalfvenic flow interactions (Msub(A)> or approximately 6) at the expense of the independent from Msub(A) magnetic laminar mechanism of ion acceleration by vortex electric field is proved experimentally

  14. Evaluation of pharmacological activities and assessment of intraocular penetration of an ayurvedic polyherbal eye drop (Itone™ in experimental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velpandian Thirumurthy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polyherbal eye drop (Itone™ is a mixture of aqueous distillates of nineteen traditionally used ingredients that sum up to impart potency to the formulation and make it a useful adjunct in various ocular pathologies. However, as there have been no controlled experimental studies accounting to the above claim, therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the polyherbal formulation (PHF for antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, anticataract, antioxidant and cytotoxicity in addition to the evaluation of intraocular penetration of PHF in rabbit eyes using LC-MS/MS. Materials and methods Antiangiogenic activity of the PHF was evaluated using in ovo chick chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM assay and in vivo cautery induced corneal neovascularization assay in rats. Anticataract potential was evaluated using steroid induced cataract in developing chick embryos, sodium selenite induced cataract in rat pups and galactose induced cataract in rats. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using di-phenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in vitro using inhibition of LTB4 formation in human WBCs and in vivo using carrageenan induced paw edema assay in rats. The cytotoxicity was evaluated against HeLa cancer cell lines using (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Furthermore evaluation of the intraocular penetration of the PHF was carried out in rabbit eyes via aqueous humor paracentesis and further analysis using LC-MS/MS. Results PHF significantly inhibited VEGF induced proliferation of new blood vessels in CAM assay and inhibited the cautery induced corneal neovascularization in rats. Additionally, PHF showed noticeable delay in the progression of cataract in the selenite and galactose induced cataract models whereby the PHF treated lenses were graded for stages II and III respectively. However, the PHF did not show any anticataract activity in

  15. Design of Fire/Gas Penetration Seals and fire exposure tests for Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor experimental areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalluzzo, S.

    1983-01-01

    A Fire/Gas Penetration Seal is required in every penetration through the walls and ceilings into the Test Cell housing the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), as well as other adjacent areas to protect the TFTR from fire damage. The penetrations are used for field coil lead stems, diagnostics systems, utilities, cables, trays, mechanical devices, electrical conduits, vacuum liner, air conditioning ducts, water pipes, and gas pipes. The function of the Fire/Gas Penetration Seals is to prevent the passage of fire and products of combustion through penetrations for a period of time up to three hours and remain structurally intact during fire exposure. The Penetration Seal must withstand, without rupture, a fire hose water stream directed at the hot surface. There are over 3000 penetrations ranging in size from several square inches to 100 square feet, and classified into 90 different types. The material used to construct the Fire/Gas Penetration Seals consist of a single and a two-component room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) silicone rubber compound. Miscellaneous materials such as alumina silica refractory fibers in board, blanket and fiber forms are also used in the construction and assembly of the Seals. This paper describes some of the penetration seals and the test procedures used to perform the three-hour fire exposure tests to demonstrate the adequacy of the seals

  16. Early results from an experimental program to determine the behavior of containment piping penetration bellows subjected to severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Containment piping penetration bellows are an integral part of the pressure boundary in steel containments in the United States (US). Their purpose is to minimize loading on the containment shell caused by differential movement between the piping and the containment. This differential movement is typically caused by thermal gradients generated during startup and shutdown of the reactor, but can be caused by earthquake, a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), or ''severe'' accidents. In the event of a severe accident, the bellows would be subjected to pressure, temperature, and deflection well beyond the design basis. Most bellows are installed such that they would be subjected to elevated internal pressure, elevated temperature, axial compression, and lateral deflection during a severe accident. A few bellows would be subjected to external pressure and axial elongation, as well as elevated temperature and lateral deflection. The purpose of this experimental program is to examine the potential for leakage of containment bellows during a severe accident. The test series subjects bellows to various levels and combinations of internal pressure, elevated temperature, axial compression or elongation, and lateral deformation. The experiments are being conducted in two parts. For Part 1, all bellows specimens are tested in ''like-new'' condition, without regard for the possible degrading effect of corrosion that has been observed in some containment piping bellows in the US Part I testing, which included 13 bellows tests, has been completed. The second part of the experimental program, in which bellows are subjected to simulated corrosive environments prior to testing, has just just begun. The Part I experiments have shown that bellows in ''like-new'' condition can withstand elevated temperatures and pressures along with large deformations before leaking. In most cases, the like-new bellows were fully compressed without developing any leakage

  17. Experimental and Numerical Study on the Dispersion Patterns and Penetration Properties of MEFP with Seven Arc-Cone Liners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JianFeng Liu

    Full Text Available Abstract A new MEFP warhead with seven arc-cone liners which can form 7, 13 or 19 penetrators at different standoffs is designed. Dispersion patterns and penetration properties of MEFP are performed on five #45 steel targets of dimension 160cm x 160cm x 1.5cm at various standoffs (45cm, 60cm, 80cm, 120cm, 170cm. It reaches the conclusion that every surrounding liner is broken into three penetrators during the formation process of MEFP and a group of aimable penetrators consisting a central projectile surrounded by 18 penetrators is finally formed. Maximum divergence angle of surrounding penetrator is 9.8° and the damage area reaches 0.37m2 at 1.7m. A nonlinear surface fitting about perforations information on the targets at different standoffs provides a method of predicting the dispersion patterns of MEFP. Once initiated, damage probability for defeating light armor of MEFP warhead with seven arc-cone liners is significantly improved and the results provide important reference to the design and optimization of MEFP warhead in engineering.

  18. Experimental and numerical study on penetration of micro/nano diamond particle into metal by underwater shock wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tanaka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop composite materials, new attempting was conducted. When an explosive is exploded in water, underwater shock wave is generated. Metal plate is accelerated by the underwater shock wave and collided with diamond particles at high velocity. In this paper, pure aluminum and magnesium alloy plates are used as matrix. Micro and nano sized diamond particles were used as reinforcement. Micro diamond particles were closely coated on metal surface. Some of micro diamond particles were penetrated into aluminum. Improvement of base metal property (wearing resistance was verified by wear test for recovering metal plate. In order to confirm the deformation of the aluminum plate during the collision with diamond particles, simplified numerical simulation was conducted by using LS-DYNA software. From the result of numerical simulation, large deformation of aluminum and process of particle penetration were verified.

  19. Experimental Study of Leaching and Penetration of Nitrite ions in Nitrite-type Repair Materials on the Surface of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumi Inoue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the leaching properties of nitrite ions in nitrite-type repair materials exposed to rainfall. Repaired concrete specimens were prepared for leaching tests using a lithium nitrite solution, and the amounts of leaching and penetration of nitrite ions were measured under simulated rainfall. The results demonstrated that the amount of leaching could be controlled by using polymer cement paste and mortar surface coatings containing lithium nitrite solution, and by using polymer cement mortar surface coatings following direct lithium nitrite solution coatings. Furthermore, the amount of nitrite ion leaching in all cases was lower than the discharge standard value established by the water pollution control law.

  20. Using an Electron Scanning Microscope to Assess the Penetrating Abilities of an Experimental Preparation with Features of a Dental Infiltrant: Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skucha-Nowak, Małgorzata; Mertas, Anna; Tanasiewicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The resin infiltration technique is one of the micro-invasive methods whose aim is the penetration of demineralized enamel with a low viscosity resin. This technique allows the dentist to avoid the application of mechanical means of treatment. The objective of this preliminary study was to attempt to determine the possibilities of using an electron microscope to assess the penetrating abilities of an experimental preparation with features of a dental infiltrant and to compare the depth of infiltration of the designed experimental preparation with an infiltrant available on the market. A bioactive methacrylate monomer based on PMMAn with built-in metronidazole was synthesized. The commercially available Icon solution (with contrast agent YbF3) and the experimental solution were applied to the relevant parts of teeth. The dissected sections along the long tooth axis and polished surfaces were then examined with use of an electron scanning microscope. The backscattered electron technique gives much better results than the secondary electron method as it makes it possible to localize even very small YbF3 particles. The authors concluded that the backscattered electron technique gives much better results than the secondary electron method as it makes it possible to localize even very small particles of the contrast agent. In order to prevent blockage of decalcified enamel tissue by ytterbium trifluoride (YbF3) grains, a nanoparticle form of that compound should be used (that is, particles with sizes in the range of 10-9 m).

  1. Experimental simulation of low rate primary coolant leaks. For the case of vessel head penetrations affected by through wall cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, D.; Feron, D.; Turluer, G.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental simulation of primary coolant leaks was carried out to determine how the composition of the leaking liquid would change. The experiment used the EVA experimental setup, specially designed for quantitatively investigating concentration phenomena driven by evaporation. The test showed that the final composition, obtained from a solution representative of the primary coolant at the beginning of the cycle, is highly concentrated and slightly acid. The experimental results are compared with those obtained using the MULTEQ software. (authors)

  2. Experimental Evaluation of Several Key Factors Affecting Root Biomass Estimation by 1500 MHz Ground-Penetrating Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Bain

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate quantification of coarse roots without disturbance represents a gap in our understanding of belowground ecology. Ground penetrating radar (GPR has shown significant promise for coarse root detection and measurement, however root orientation relative to scanning transect direction, the difficulty identifying dead root mass, and the effects of root shadowing are all key factors affecting biomass estimation that require additional research. Specifically, many aspects of GPR applicability for coarse root measurement have not been tested with a full range of antenna frequencies. We tested the effects of multiple scanning directions, root crossover, and root versus soil moisture content in a sand-hill mixed oak community using a 1500 MHz antenna, which provides higher resolution than the oft used 900 MHz antenna. Combining four scanning directions produced a significant relationship between GPR signal reflectance and coarse root biomass (R2 = 0.75 (p < 0.01 and reduced variability encountered when fewer scanning directions were used. Additionally, significantly fewer roots were correctly identified when their moisture content was allowed to equalize with the surrounding soil (p < 0.01, providing evidence to support assertions that GPR cannot reliably identify dead root mass. The 1500 MHz antenna was able to identify roots in close proximity of each other as well as roots shadowed beneath shallower roots, providing higher precision than a 900 MHz antenna. As expected, using a 1500 MHz antenna eliminates some of the deficiency in precision observed in studies that utilized lower frequency antennas.

  3. Experimental Investigation of InSight HP3 Mole Interaction with Martian Regolith Simulant. Quasi-Static and Dynamic Penetration Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jason P.; Hudson, Troy L.; Andrade, José E.

    2017-10-01

    The InSight mission launches in 2018 to characterize several geophysical quantities on Mars, including the heat flow from the planetary interior. This quantity will be calculated by utilizing measurements of the thermal conductivity and the thermal gradient down to 5 meters below the Martian surface. One of the components of InSight is the Mole, which hammers into the Martian regolith to facilitate these thermal property measurements. In this paper, we experimentally investigated the effect of the Mole's penetrating action on regolith compaction and mechanical properties. Quasi-static and dynamic experiments were run with a 2D model of the 3D cylindrical mole. Force resistance data was captured with load cells. Deformation information was captured in images and analyzed using Digitial Image Correlation (DIC). Additionally, we used existing approximations of Martian regolith thermal conductivity to estimate the change in the surrounding granular material's thermal conductivity due to the Mole's penetration. We found that the Mole has the potential to cause a high degree of densification, especially if the initial granular material is relatively loose. The effect on the thermal conductivity from this densification was found to be relatively small in first-order calculations though more complete thermal models incorporating this densification should be a subject of further investigation. The results obtained provide an initial estimate of the Mole's impact on Martian regolith thermal properties.

  4. Computational modeling of river flow using bathymetry collected with an experimental, water-penetrating, green LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, P. J.; Legleiter, C. J.; Nelson, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Airborne bathymetric Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems designed for coastal and marine surveys are increasingly being deployed in fluvial environments. While the adaptation of this technology to rivers and streams would appear to be straightforward, currently technical challenges remain with regard to achieving high levels of vertical accuracy and precision when mapping bathymetry in shallow fluvial settings. Collectively these mapping errors have a direct bearing on hydraulic model predictions made using these data. We compared channel surveys conducted along the Platte River, Nebraska, and the Trinity River, California, using conventional ground-based methods with those made with the hybrid topographic/bathymetric Experimental Advanced Airborne Research LiDAR (EAARL). In the turbid and braided Platte River, a bathymetric-waveform processing algorithm was shown to enhance the definition of thalweg channels over a more simplified, first-surface waveform processing algorithm. Consequently flow simulations using data processed with the shallow bathymetric algorithm resulted in improved prediction of wetted area relative to the first-surface algorithm, when compared to the wetted area in concurrent aerial imagery. However, when compared to using conventionally collected data for flow modeling, the inundation extent was over predicted with the EAARL topography due to higher bed elevations measured by the LiDAR. In the relatively clear, meandering Trinity River, bathymetric processing algorithms were capable of defining a 3 meter deep pool. However, a similar bias in depth measurement was observed, with the LiDAR measuring the elevation of the river bottom above its actual position, resulting in a predicted water surface higher than that measured by field data. This contribution addresses the challenge of making bathymetric measurements with the EAARL in different environmental conditions encountered in fluvial settings, explores technical issues related to

  5. Antibody tumor penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. PMID:18541331

  6. Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Molecular Weight on Mixing and Penetration in Supersonic Dissimilar Gaseous Injection into a Supersonic Cross-Flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giese, Troy

    1997-01-01

    In pursuit of a more efficient and effective fuel-air mixing for a SCRAMjet combustor, this study investigated relative near field effects of molecular weight on mixing and penetration of different...

  7. Deep ocean model penetrator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, T.J.; Burdett, J.R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary trials of experimental model penetrators in the deep ocean have been conducted as an international collaborative exercise by participating members (national bodies and the CEC) of the Engineering Studies Task Group of the Nuclear Energy Agency's Seabed Working Group. This report describes and gives the results of these experiments, which were conducted at two deep ocean study areas in the Atlantic: Great Meteor East and the Nares Abyssal Plain. Velocity profiles of penetrators of differing dimensions and weights have been determined as they free-fell through the water column and impacted the sediment. These velocity profiles are used to determine the final embedment depth of the penetrators and the resistance to penetration offered by the sediment. The results are compared with predictions of embedment depth derived from elementary models of a penetrator impacting with a sediment. It is tentatively concluded that once the resistance to penetration offered by a sediment at a particular site has been determined, this quantity can be used to sucessfully predict the embedment that penetrators of differing sizes and weights would achieve at the same site

  8. Effect of lavage and brush preparation on cement penetration and primary stability in tibial unicompartmental total knee arthroplasty: An experimental cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheele, Christian; Pietschmann, Matthias F; Schröder, Christian; Grupp, Thomas; Holderied, Melanie; Jansson, Volmar; Müller, Peter E

    2017-03-01

    Unicompartmental total knee arthroplasty (UKA) is a well-established treatment option for unicondylar osteoarthritis, and generally leads to better functional results than tricompartimental total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, revision rates of UKAs are reported as being higher; a major reason for this is aseptic loosening of the tibial component due to implant-cement-bone interface fatigue. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of trabecular bone preparation, prior to implantation of tibial UKAs, on morphological and biomechanical outcomes in a cadaver study. Cemented UKAs were performed in 18 human cadaver knees after the bone bed was cleaned using pulsed lavage (Group A), conventional brush (Group B) or no cleaning at all (Group C, control). Morphologic cement penetration and primary stability were measured. The area proportion under the tibial component without visible cement penetration was significantly higher in Group C (21.9%, SD 11.9) than in both Group A (7.1%, SD 5.8), and Group B (6.5%, SD 4.2) (P=0.007). The overall cement penetration depth did not differ between groups. However, in the posterior part, cement penetration depth was significantly higher in Group B (1.9mm, SD 0.3) than in both Group A (1.3mm, SD 0.3) and Group C (1.4mm, SD 0.3) (P=0.015). The mode of preparation did not show a substantial effect on primary stability tested under dynamic compression-shear test conditions (P=0.910). Bone preparation significantly enhances cement interdigitation. The application of a brush shows similar results compared with the application of pulsed lavage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Initial response of a rock penetrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longcope, D.B.; Grady, D.E.

    1977-12-01

    An analysis based on elastic rod theory is given for the early-time axisymmetric response of pointed penetrators. Results of measurements by laser interferometry of the back surface particle velocity of laboratory scale penetrators impacted by sandstone targets are presented. Values of the initial pressure on the penetrator tip are determined which give good agreement between the analytical and experimental results. These initial tip pressures are found to be approximated by the stress-particle velocity Hugoniot for the target material

  10. Intracranial Pressure Response to Non-Penetrating Ballistic Impact: An Experimental Study Using a Pig Physical Head Model and Live Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai; Kang, Jianyi; Chen, Jing; Li, Guanhua; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Jianmin

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the intracranial pressure response to non-penetrating ballistic impact using a "scalp-skull-brain" pig physical head model and live pigs. Forty-eight ballistic tests targeting the physical head model and anesthetized pigs protected by aramid plates were conducted with standard 9 mm bullets at low (279-297 m/s), moderate (350-372 m/s), and high (409-436 m/s) velocities. Intracranial pressure responses were recorded with pressure sensors embedded in similar brain locations in the physical head model and the anesthetized pigs. Three parameters of intracranial pressure were determined from the measured data: intracranial maximum pressure (Pmax), intracranial maximum pressure impulse (PImax), and the duration of the first positive phase (PPD). The intracranial pressure waves exhibited blast-like characteristics for both the physical model and l live pigs. Of all three parameters, Pmax is most sensitive to impact velocity, with means of 126 kPa (219 kPa), 178 kPa (474 kPa), and 241 kPa (751 kPa) for the physical model (live pigs) for low, moderate, and high impact velocities, respectively. The mean PPD becomes increasingly short as the impact velocity increases, whereas PImax shows the opposite trend. Although the pressure parameters of the physical model were much lower than those of the live pigs, good correlations between the physical model and the live pigs for the three pressure parameters, especially Pmax, were found using linear regression. This investigation suggests that Pmax is a preferred parameter for predicting the severity of the brain injury resulting from behind armor blunt trauma (BABT). PMID:23055817

  11. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2012-08-07

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  12. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  13. Penetration of 45Ca in rabbit cornea following the introduction of air in the anterior chamber and its paracenthesis and following experimental intraocular hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Votockova, J.; Obenberger, J.; Babicky, A.

    1977-01-01

    In one group of Chinchilla rabbits the aqueous humor was withdrawn and the anterior chamber was refilled with air; in a second group only simple paracenthesis and withdrawal were performed; in a third group of animals experimental intraocular hypertension was produced by means of a subconjunctival injection of hypertonic sodium chloride. Immediately after these operations, a solution of 45 CaCl 2 was intravenously injected, and the rabbits were sacrificed after an interval of 30 min or 120 min. The corneas were excised and the radioactivity in central parts (trephined discs of 8 mm in diameter) and in remaining peripheral parts was determined. In all groups the corneal radioactivity in operated eyes exceeded the values found in the contralateral corneas of not operated eyes, radioactivity in these eyes being equal to the radioactivity found in the corneas of not operated rabbits in the control group. Various possible explanations of the increase of corneal radioactivity in operated eyes are briefly discussed. (author)

  14. Metasploit penetration testing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a Cookbook style with recipes explaining the steps for penetration testing with WLAN, VOIP, and even cloud computing. There is plenty of code and commands used to make your learning curve easy and quick.This book targets both professional penetration testers as well as new users of Metasploit, who wish to gain expertise over the framework and learn an additional skill of penetration testing, not limited to a particular OS. The book requires basic knowledge of scanning, exploitation, and the Ruby language.

  15. Penetration testing with Perl

    CERN Document Server

    Berdeaux, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    If you are an expert Perl programmer interested in penetration testing or information security, this guide is designed for you. However, it will also be helpful for you even if you have little or no Linux shell experience.

  16. penetrating abdominal trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gender, mechanism of injury, injury severity scores (ISS), penetrating ... ileus, reduced pulmonary function and loss of muscle mass and function, all of .... pathophysiology and rehabilitation. ... quality of life after surgery for colorectal cancer.

  17. Barrier penetration database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainberg, A.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1978-11-01

    This document is intended to supply the NRC and nuclear power plant licensees with basic data on the times required to penetrate forcibly the types of barriers commonly found in nuclear plants. These times are necessary for design and evaluation of the physical protection system required under 10CFR73.55. Each barrier listed is described in detail. Minor variations in basic barrier construction that result in the same penetration time, are also described

  18. An experimental study on inhibiting graft rejection following high-risk penetrating keratoplasty by CD25 siRNA nanocarrier in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-jie SHI

    2015-06-01

    RNA in the experimental group was significantly lower at every single time points. Conclusions CD25siRNA gene transfer could successfully down-regulate CD25 expression, inhibit graft rejection and prolong the survival time of allogeneic corneal graft. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.04.09

  19. Control of penetration zone GMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Петрович Iванов

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of the base metal, shielding medium and the nature of the electrode metal transfer to a great extent determine the penetration area formation in gas-arc welding. It is not always possible to take into account the influence of these factors on penetration front forming within the existing models. The aim of the work was to research the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding. The research of the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding of CrNi austenitic steels was made. The parameters of the regime as well as the kind of the gaseous medium influence on the formation of the penetration zone were studied. The article shows a linear proportional relationship between the electrode feed rate and the size of the base metal plate. The penetration area formation mode for welding in argon and carbon dioxide have been worked out. Diameter, feed rate and the speed of the electrode movement have been chosen as the main input parameters. Multiple regression analysis method was used to make up the modes. The relations of the third order that make it possible to take into account the electrode metal transfer and thermal properties change of the materials to be welded were used. These relationships show quite good agreement with the experimental measurements in the calculation of the fusion zone shape with consumable electrode in argon and carbon dioxide. It was determined that the shape of the melting front curve can be shown as a generalized function in which the front motion parameters depend on feed rate and the diameter of the electrode. Penetration zone growth time is determined by the welding speed and is calculated as a discrete function of the distance from the electrode with the spacing along the movement coordinate. The influence of the mode parameters on the formation of the fusion zone has been investigated and the ways to manage and stabilize the weld pool formation have been identified. The modes can be used to develop

  20. The penetration of aerosols through fine orifices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, I.A.; Latham, L.J.; Ball, M.H.E.; Mitchell, J.P.

    1991-07-01

    A novel experimental technique has been extended to study the migration of gas-borne glass microspheres in the size range from about 1 to 15 μm volume equivalent diameter through orifices with bores and thicknesses in the range from 2 to 100 μm and 12.7 to 509 μm respectively. The penetration of these particles was significant with all orifices greater than 10 μm bore at a constant driving pressure of 100 kPa. However, few particles penetrated the 5 μm bore orifice, while virtually no particles penetrated the 2 μm bore orifice. Particle size distributions determined after penetration through the orifices were very similar to that of the upstream aerosol except when significant attenuation occurred. (author)

  1. The penetration of aerosols through fine capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.P.; Edwards, R.T.; Ball, M.H.E.

    1989-10-01

    A novel experimental technique has been developed to study the penetration of aerosol particles ranging from about 1 to 15 μm aerodynamic diameter through capillaries varying from 20 to 80 μm bore and from 10 to 50 mm in length. When the driving pressure was 100 kPa, the penetration of the airborne particles was considerably smaller than expected from a simple comparison of particle diameter with the bore of the capillary. Particle size distributions determined after penetration through the capillaries were in almost all cases similar to the particle size distribution of the aerosol at the capillary entrance. This lack of size-selectivity can be explained in terms of the capillary behaving as a conventional suction-based sampler from a near still (calm) air environment. The resulting particle penetration data are important in assessing the potential for the leakage of aerosols through seals in containers used to transport radioactive materials. (author)

  2. Study on Penetration Characteristics of Tungsten Cylindrical Penetrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Hyun; Lee, Young Shin; Kim, Jae Hoon [Chungnam Nat' l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yong Woon [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    The design of missile require extremely small warheads that must be highly efficient and lethal. The penetration characteristics of each penetrator and the total number of penetrators on the warhead are obvious key factors that influence warhead lethality. The design of the penetrator shape and size are directly related to the space and weight of the warhead. The design of the penetrator L/D was directly related to the space and weight of the warhead. L and D are the length and the diameter of the projectile, respectively. The AUTODYN-3a code was used to study the effect of penetrator penetration. The objective of numerical analysis was to determine the penetration characteristics of penetrator produced by hypervelocity impacts under different initial conditions such as initial velocity, obliquity angle and L/D of penetrator. The residual velocity and residual mass were decreased with increasing initial impact velocity under L/D{<=}4.

  3. Penetration portion shielding structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Katsumi; Narita, Hitoshi; Handa, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Jun; Tozuka, Fumio.

    1994-01-01

    Openings of a plurality of shieldings for penetration members are aligned to each other, and penetration members are inserted from the openings. Then, the openings of the plurality of shielding members are slightly displaced with each other to make the penetration portions into a helical configuration, so that leakage of radiation is reduced. Upon removal of the members, reverse operation is conducted. When a flowable shielding material is used, the penetration portions are constituted with two plates having previously formed openings and pipes for connecting the openings with each other and a vessel covering the entire of them. After passing the penetration members such as a cable, the relative position of the two plates is changed by twisting, to form a helical configuration which reduces radiation leakage. Since they are bent into the helical configuration, shielding performance is extremely improved compared with a case that radiation leakage is caused from an opening of a straight pipe. In addition, since they can be returned to straight pipes, attachment, detachment and maintenance can be conducted easily. (N.H.)

  4. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  5. Skull penetrating wound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Orlandi, Yvei; Junco Martin, Reinel; Rojas Manresa, Jorge; Duboy Limonta, Victor; Matos Herrera, Omar; Saez Corvo, Yunet

    2011-01-01

    The cranioencephalic trauma is common in the emergence centers to care for patients with multiple traumata and it becames in a health problem in many countries. Skull penetrating trauma is located in a special place due to its low frequency. In present paper a case of male patient aged 52 severely skull-injured with penetrating wound caused by a cold steel that remained introduced into the left frontotemporal region. After an imaging study the emergence surgical treatment was applied and patient evolves adequately after 25 days of hospitalization. Nowadays, she is under rehabilitation treatment due to a residual right hemiparesis.(author)

  6. Mechanical behaviour of pressure vessel head penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faidy, C.; Ternon, F.; Vagner, J.; Vaindirlis, M.

    1994-01-01

    After leaks on Bugey 3 penetrations EdF and Framatome have started a study on the stress corrosion phenomenon of Inconel 600. In this paper, limited to the mechanical aspect, we present an estimation of in service stresses, the experimental program on mockup for visualize the surface stress and the noxiousness of potential cracks. 5 figs., 6 tabs., 5 refs

  7. Tumor penetrating peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambet eTeesalu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC, contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular zip code of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is

  8. Python penetration testing essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Mohit

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Python programmer or a security researcher who has basic knowledge of Python programming and want to learn about penetration testing with the help of Python, this book is ideal for you. Even if you are new to the field of ethical hacking, this book can help you find the vulnerabilities in your system so that you are ready to tackle any kind of attack or intrusion.

  9. Penetrating ureteral trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo P. Fraga

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this series is to report our experience in managing ureteral trauma, focusing on the importance of early diagnosis, correct treatment, and the impact of associated injuries on the management and morbid-mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 1994 to December 2002, 1487 laparotomies for abdominal trauma were performed and 20 patients with ureteral lesions were identified, all of them secondary to penetrating injury. Medical charts were analyzed as well as information about trauma mechanisms, diagnostic routine, treatment and outcome. RESULTS: All patients were men. Mean age was 27 years. The mechanisms of injury were gunshot wounds in 18 cases (90% and stab wounds in two (10%. All penetrating abdominal injuries had primary indication of laparotomy, and neither excretory urography nor computed tomography were used in any case before surgery. The diagnosis of ureteric injury was made intra-operatively in 17 cases (85%. Two ureteral injuries (10% were initially missed. All patients had associated injuries. The treatment was dictated by the location, extension and time necessary to identify the injury. The overall incidence of complications was 55%. The presence of shock on admission, delayed diagnosis, Abdominal Trauma Index > 25, Injury Severity Score > 25 and colon injuries were associated to a high complication rate, however, there was no statistically significant difference. There were no mortalities in this group. CONCLUSIONS: A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis of ureteral injuries. A thorough exploration of all retroperitoneal hematoma after penetrating trauma should be an accurate method of diagnosis; even though it failed in 10% of our cases.

  10. Market penetration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth R.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Cornforth, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting ethanol for gasoline. This endeavor examines three issues. First, the benefits of ethanol/gasoline blends are examined, and then the technical problems of large-scale implementation of ethanol. Second, ethanol production possibilities are examined in detail from a variety of feedstocks and technologies. The feedstocks are the starch/sugar crops and crop residues, while the technologies are corn wet mill, dry grind, and lignocellulosic fermentation. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows the researchers to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and GHG emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG, is updated which predicts the market penetration of ethanol given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and GHG prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, gasoline prices have a small expansionary impact on the U.S. ethanol industry. Both agricultural producers' income and cost both increase with higher energy prices. If wholesale gasoline is $4 per gallon, the predicted ethanol market penetration attains 53% of U.S. gasoline consumption in 2030. Second, the corn wet mill remains an important industry for ethanol production, because this industry also produces corn oil, which could be converted to biodiesel. Third, GHG prices expand the ethanol industry. However, the GHG price expands the corn wet mill, but has an ambiguous impact on lignocellulosic ethanol. Feedstocks for lignocellulosic fermentation can also be burned with coal to generate electricity. Both industries are quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on ethanol production, but may only increase market penetration by an additional 1% in 2030, which is approximately 6 billion gallons. (author)

  11. Study of Penetration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    srecimens fabricated at the AFATL, AISI-01 oil quenched bar stock was used. Three of the projectiles used in the Eglin penetration experiments are shown...in the Mathema- tical Laboratory at Eglin AFB, is essencially a fourth order Runge-Kutta numerical method for solving simultaneous differential...C9G. VEL. X-COMPo (M4/5): d!10. I oil 140. 107. 82. RmCC~kr’ED TIME OF MAXIftjM/MINIM94U COIL VOLTAGE tSI MAX 0040 A 55 *.03J04A 0 0 05ji6 .000634 MIN

  12. Deep penetration calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.L.; Deutsch, O.L.; Booth, T.E.

    1980-04-01

    Several Monte Carlo techniques are compared in the transport of neutrons of different source energies through two different deep-penetration problems each with two parts. The first problem involves transmission through a 200-cm concrete slab. The second problem is a 90 0 bent pipe jacketed by concrete. In one case the pipe is void, and in the other it is filled with liquid sodium. Calculations are made with two different Los Alamos Monte Carlo codes: the continuous-energy code MCNP and the multigroup code MCMG

  13. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  14. Penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biocina, B; Sutlić, Z; Husedzinović, I; Rudez, I; Ugljen, R; Letica, D; Slobodnjak, Z; Karadza, J; Brida, V; Vladović-Relja, T; Jelić, I

    1997-03-01

    Penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds are very common among war casualties. Those injuries require prompt and specific treatment in an aim to decrease mortality and late morbidity. There are a few controversies about the best modality of treatment for such injuries, and there are not many large series of such patients in recent literature. We analysed a group of 259 patients with penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds admitted to our institutions between May 1991 and October 1992. There were 235 (90.7%) patients with thoracic wounds, 14 (5.4%) patients with cardiac, wounds and in 10 (3.7%) patients both heart and lungs were injured. The cause of injury was shrapnel in 174 patients (67%), bullets in 25 patients (9.7%), cluster bomb particles in 45 patients (17.3%) and other (blast etc.) in 15 patients (6%). Patients, 69, had concomitant injuries of various organs. The initial treatment in 164 operated patients was chest drainage in 76 (46.3%) patients, thoracotomy and suture of the lung in 71 (43.2%) patients, lobectomy in 12 (7.3%) patients and pneumonectomy in 5 (3%) patients. Complications include pleural empyema and/or lung abscess in 20 patients (8.4%), incomplete reexpansion of the lung in 10 patients (4.2%), osteomyelitis of the rib in 5 patients (2.1%) and bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient (0.4%). Secondary procedures were decortication in 12 patients, rib resection in 5 patients, lobectomy in 2 patients, pneumonectomy in 4 patients, reconstruction of the chest wall in 2 patients and closure of the bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient. The cardiac chamber involved was right ventricle in 12 patients, left ventricular in 6 patients, right atrium in 7 patients, left atrium in 3 patients, ascending aorta in 2 patients and 1 patient which involved descending aorta, right ventricle and coronary artery (left anterior descending) and inferior vena cava, respectively. The primary procedure was suture in 17 patients (in 10 patients with the additional suture of the

  15. Penetration Tester's Open Source Toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Great commercial penetration testing tools can be very expensive and sometimes hard to use or of questionable accuracy. This book helps solve both of these problems. The open source, no-cost penetration testing tools presented do a great job and can be modified by the user for each situation. Many tools, even ones that cost thousands of dollars, do not come with any type of instruction on how and in which situations the penetration tester can best use them. Penetration Tester's Open Source Toolkit, Third Edition, expands upon existing instructions so that a professional can get the most accura

  16. Percutaneous Penetration - Methodological Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgaard, Rikke; Benfeldt, Eva; Nielsen, Jesper B

    2014-01-01

    developed to replace methods involving experimental animals. The results obtained from these methods are decided not only by the chemical or product tested, but to a significant degree also by the experimental set-up and decisions made by the investigator during the planning phase. The present Mini...

  17. Physical Penetration Testing: A Whole New Story in Penetration Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; Pieters, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    Physical penetration testing plays an important role in assuring a company that the security policies are properly enforced and that the security awareness of the employees is on the appropriate level. In physical penetration tests the tester physically enters restricted locations and directly

  18. A medium energy neutron deep penetration experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amian, W.; Cloth, P.; Druecke, V.; Filges, D.; Paul, N.; Schaal, H.

    1986-11-01

    A deep penetration experiment conducted at the Los Alamos WNR facility's Spallation Neutron Target is compared with calculations using intra-nuclear-cascade and S N -transport codes installed at KFA-IRE. In the experiment medium energy reactions induced by neutrons between 15 MeV and about 150 MeV inside a quasi infinite slab of iron have been measured using copper foil monitors. Details of the experimental procedure and the theoretical methods are described. A comparison of absolute reaction rates for both experimentally and theoretically derived reactions is given. The present knowledge of the corresponding monitor reaction cross sections is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Penetration analysis of projectile with inclined concrete target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim S.B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents numerical analysis result of projectile penetration with concrete target. We applied dynamic material properties of 4340 steels, aluminium and explosive for projectile body. Dynamic material properties were measured with static tensile testing machine and Hopkinson pressure bar tests. Moreover, we used three concrete damage models included in LS-DYNA 3D, such as SOIL_CONCRETE, CSCM (cap model with smooth interaction and CONCRETE_DAMAGE (K&C concrete models. Strain rate effect for concrete material is important to predict the fracture deformation and shape of concrete, and penetration depth for projectiles. CONCRETE_DAMAGE model with strain rate effect also applied to penetration analysis. Analysis result with CSCM model shows good agreement with penetration experimental data. The projectile trace and fracture shapes of concrete target were compared with experimental data.

  20. Penetration analysis of projectile with inclined concrete target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. B.; Kim, H. W.; Yoo, Y. H.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents numerical analysis result of projectile penetration with concrete target. We applied dynamic material properties of 4340 steels, aluminium and explosive for projectile body. Dynamic material properties were measured with static tensile testing machine and Hopkinson pressure bar tests. Moreover, we used three concrete damage models included in LS-DYNA 3D, such as SOIL_CONCRETE, CSCM (cap model with smooth interaction) and CONCRETE_DAMAGE (K&C concrete) models. Strain rate effect for concrete material is important to predict the fracture deformation and shape of concrete, and penetration depth for projectiles. CONCRETE_DAMAGE model with strain rate effect also applied to penetration analysis. Analysis result with CSCM model shows good agreement with penetration experimental data. The projectile trace and fracture shapes of concrete target were compared with experimental data.

  1. Penetration of Photovoltaics in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Giannini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an interesting experiment was completed in Greece concerning photovoltaic penetration into the electricity production sector. Based on the relevant laws and in accordance to the related European directives, an explosive penetration process was completed in less than three years, resulting in a 7% share of photovoltaics in electricity production instead of the previous negligible share. The legislation was based on licensing simplification and generous feed-in-tariffs. This approach transformed photovoltaic technology from a prohibitively expensive to a competitive one. This work aims to summarize the relevant legislation and illustrate its effect on the resulting penetration. A sigmoid-shape penetration was observed which was explained by a pulse-type driving force. The return on investment indicator was proposed as an appropriate driving force, which incorporates feed-in-tariffs and turnkey-cost. Furthermore, the resulting surcharge on the electricity price due to photovoltaic penetration was also analyzed.

  2. Large scale wind power penetration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    he Danish electricity generating system prepared to adopt nuclear power in the 1970s, yet has become the world's front runner in wind power with a national plan for 50% wind power penetration by 2020. This paper deploys a sociotechnical perspective to explain the historical transformation...... of "networks of power" via the interactions of politics, the techno-physics of electrons, and the market setting. The Danish case is about how an assemblage of new agencies has reorganized and reshaped society by building a new sociotechnical network. This has rendered developments highly unpredictable...... and highly experimental. The transformation process can be followed through the way successive technical engineering reports have represented the challenges associated with the penetration of wind power. The iteration shows how novel technical phenomena emerge and are assimilated, and how new engineering...

  3. Experimental stress analysis of the attachment region of hemispherical shells with attached nozzles. Part 2b. Radial nozzle 7.875 in. O.D.--7.500 in. I.D. 10.00 in. penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, R.L.; Holland, R.W.; Stengl, G.R.

    1970-06-01

    The report presents the results of investigations conducted on a hemisphere with a radial nozzle of 7.875'' O.D. and 7.500'' I.D. and 10'' penetration into the hemisphere. Stress values were determined for the following five types of loadings: (1) internal pressure applied to the hemisphere and nozzle assembly, (2) an axial load applied collinear with nozzle, (3) a pure bending moment, or axial couple, applied to the nozzle, (4) a transverse or shear load applied normal to the nozzle, and (5) a pure torque applied in the radial plane of the nozzle

  4. A state of the art on penetration failure estimation under external vessel cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. T.; Park, R. J.; Kang, K. H.; Cho, Y. R.; Kim, J. W.; Kim, S. B.; Park, S. Y.; Lee, K. Y.

    2000-04-01

    A state of the art on penetration failure was reviewed and analyzed to establish the direction of the experimental program in the KNGR and to decide the test section design. The interaction between the corium and the reactor vessel and the corium behavior in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel were analyzed to investigate the penetration effect on severe accident progression, and the TMI-2 accident was investigated in the point of penetration failure. Theoretical model and experiment results on penetration failure under the severe accident were investigated and reviewed to establish the direction of the experimental program on the estimation of the penetration failure in the KNGR. These results were compared with the TMI-2 results. The existing test facilities on penetration failure were investigated and reviewed to decide the test section design. It can be said from the state of the art review that penetration in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel is a week point in the reactor vessel failure under the severe accident, but the reactor vessel may not be failed by penetration failure in condition with the coolant supply to the penetration. Since the penetration is different with reactor types and there is no study on estimation of the penetration welding, it is necessary to investigate failure or not of the penetration in condition with external vessel cooling to maintain the reactor vessel integrity in KNGR. In the present experimental program on the integrity estimation of the KNGR penetration, the aluminum oxide melt by thermite reaction and the test section with one penetration of the real size and real material were selected. The melt mass, the pressure of the system, and the vessel geometry were selected as an experimental parameter. (author)

  5. Europa Kinetic Ice Penetrator (EKIP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the proposed work is to validate an initial design for a Europa penetrator that can withstand the high g load associated with the expected hypervelocity...

  6. Penetration of Photovoltaics in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenia Giannini; Antonia Moropoulou; Zacharias Maroulis; Glykeria Siouti

    2015-01-01

    Recently, an interesting experiment was completed in Greece concerning photovoltaic penetration into the electricity production sector. Based on the relevant laws and in accordance to the related European directives, an explosive penetration process was completed in less than three years, resulting in a 7% share of photovoltaics in electricity production instead of the previous negligible share. The legislation was based on licensing simplification and generous feed-in-tariffs. This approach ...

  7. Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material

    KAUST Repository

    Kouraytem, Nadia; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Marston, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between delta = 0.5D(0) and delta = 7D(0), which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H = h + delta, as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [d(s) similar to O(30) mu m] were added to the larger particles [d(l) similar to O(200 - 500) mu m], with a size ratio, epsilon = d(l)/d(s), larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.

  8. Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material

    KAUST Repository

    Kouraytem, N.

    2016-11-07

    We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between delta = 0.5D(0) and delta = 7D(0), which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H = h + delta, as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [d(s) similar to O(30) mu m] were added to the larger particles [d(l) similar to O(200 - 500) mu m], with a size ratio, epsilon = d(l)/d(s), larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.

  9. Projectile penetration into ballistic gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, M V; Kieser, D C; Shah, S; Kieser, J A

    2014-01-01

    Ballistic gelatin is frequently used as a model for soft biological tissues that experience projectile impact. In this paper we investigate the response of a number of gelatin materials to the penetration of spherical steel projectiles (7 to 11mm diameter) with a range of lower impacting velocities (projectile velocity are found to be linear for all systems above a certain threshold velocity required for initiating penetration. The data for a specific material impacted with different diameter spheres were able to be condensed to a single curve when the penetration depth was normalised by the projectile diameter. When the results are compared with a number of predictive relationships available in the literature, it is found that over the range of projectiles and compositions used, the results fit a simple relationship that takes into account the projectile diameter, the threshold velocity for penetration into the gelatin and a value of the shear modulus of the gelatin estimated from the threshold velocity for penetration. The normalised depth is found to fit the elastic Froude number when this is modified to allow for a threshold impact velocity. The normalised penetration data are found to best fit this modified elastic Froude number with a slope of 1/2 instead of 1/3 as suggested by Akers and Belmonte (2006). Possible explanations for this difference are discussed. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Neutron streaming studies along JET shielding penetrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatelatos, Ion E.; Vasilopoulou, Theodora; Batistoni, Paola; Obryk, Barbara; Popovichev, Sergey; Naish, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Neutronic benchmark experiments are carried out at JET aiming to assess the neutronic codes and data used in ITER analysis. Among other activities, experiments are performed in order to validate neutron streaming simulations along long penetrations in the JET shielding configuration. In this work, neutron streaming calculations along the JET personnel entrance maze are presented. Simulations were performed using the MCNP code for Deuterium-Deuterium and Deuterium- Tritium plasma sources. The results of the simulations were compared against experimental data obtained using thermoluminescence detectors and activation foils.

  11. Conditions for plasmoid penetration across abrupt magnetic barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenning, Nils; Hurtig, Tomas; Raadu, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    The penetration of plasma clouds, or plasmoids, across abrupt magnetic barriers (of the scale less than a few ion gyro radii, using the plasmoid directed velocity) is studied. The insight gained earlier, from detailed experimental and computer simulation investigations of a case study, is generalized into other parameter regimes. It is concluded for what parameters a plasmoid should be expected to penetrate the magnetic barrier through self-polarization, penetrate through magnetic expulsion, or be rejected from the barrier. The scaling parameters are n e , v 0 , B perpendicular , m i , T i , and the width w of the plasmoid. The scaling is based on a model for strongly driven, nonlinear magnetic field diffusion into a plasma which is a generalization of the earlier laboratory findings. The results are applied to experiments earlier reported in the literature, and also to the proposed application of impulsive penetration of plasmoids from the solar wind into the Earth's magnetosphere

  12. Long-rod penetration: the transition zone between rigid and hydrodynamic penetration modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-feng Lou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-rod penetration in a wide range of velocity means that the initial impact velocity varies in a range from tens of meters per second to several kilometers per second. The long rods maintain rigid state when the impact velocity is low, the nose of rod deforms and even is blunted when the velocity gets higher, and the nose erodes and fails to lead to the consumption of long projectile when the velocity is very high due to instantaneous high pressure. That is, from low velocity to high velocity, the projectile undergoes rigid rods, deforming non-erosive rods, and erosive rods. Because of the complicated changes of the projectile, no well-established theoretical model and numerical simulation have been used to study the transition zone. Based on the analysis of penetration behavior in the transition zone, a phenomenological model to describe target resistance and a formula to calculate penetration depth in transition zone are proposed, and a method to obtain the boundary velocity of transition zone is determined. A combined theoretical analysis model for three response regions is built by analyzing the characteristics in these regions. The penetration depth predicted by this combined model is in good agreement with experimental result.

  13. Plutonium in depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, J.P.; Leon-Vintro, L.; Smith, K.; Mitchell, P.I.; Zunic, Z.S.

    2002-01-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) penetrators used in the recent Balkan conflicts have been found to be contaminated with trace amounts of transuranic materials such as plutonium. This contamination is usually a consequence of DU fabrication being carried out in facilities also using uranium recycled from spent military and civilian nuclear reactor fuel. Specific activities of 239+240 Plutonium generally in the range 1 to 12 Bq/kg have been found to be present in DU penetrators recovered from the attack sites of the 1999 NATO bombardment of Kosovo. A DU penetrator recovered from a May 1999 attack site at Bratoselce in southern Serbia and analysed by University College Dublin was found to contain 43.7 +/- 1.9 Bq/kg of 239+240 Plutonium. This analysis is described. An account is also given of the general population radiation dose implications arising from both the DU itself and from the presence of plutonium in the penetrators. According to current dosimetric models, in all scenarios considered likely ,the dose from the plutonium is estimated to be much smaller than that due to the uranium isotopes present in the penetrators. (author)

  14. Penetration shielding applications of CYLSEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dexheimer, D.T.; Hathaway, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation of penetration and discontinuity shielding is necessary to meet 10CFR20 regulations for ensuring personnel exposures are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Historically, those shielding evaluations have been done to some degree on all projects. However, many early plants used conservative methods due to lack of an economical computer code, resulting in costly penetration shielding programs. With the increased industry interest in cost effectively reducing personnel exposures to meet ALARA regulations and with the development of the CYLSEC gamma transport computer code at Bechtel, a comprehensive effort was initiated to reduce penetration and discontinuity shielding but still provide a prudent degree of protection for plant personnel from radiation streaming. This effort was more comprehensive than previous programs due to advances in shielding analysis technology and increased interest in controlling project costs while maintaining personnel exposures ALARA. Methodology and resulting cost savings are discussed

  15. Numerical simulations of semi-armor-piercing warhead penetrating aircraft carrier target

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Sangqaing; Cai Xinghui; Wang Guoliang; Gao Yunliang; Lu Jiangren

    2015-01-01

    FEM models of semi-armor-piercing warhead penetrating aircraft carrier deck are established, which are validated by related experimental data. Base on the models, the process of semi-armor-piercing warhead penetrating aircraft carrier deck with different incidence angles and attack angles are carried out. The results show that incidence angles have no remarkable influence on penetration capability of the projectile under the circumstance of zero attack angle. Ductility reaming damage mode and...

  16. Application of Uintah-MPM to shaped charge jet penetration of aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burghardt, J; Leavy, B; Brannon, R; Guilkey, J; Xue, Z

    2010-01-01

    The capability of the generalized interpolation material point (GIMP) method in simulation of penetration events is investigated. A series of experiments was performed wherein a shaped charge jet penetrates into a stack of aluminum plates. Electronic switches were used to measure the penetration time history. Flash x-ray techniques were used to measure the density, length, radius and velocity of the shaped charge jet. Simulations of the penetration event were performed using the Uintah MPM/GIMP code with several different models of the shaped charge jet being used. The predicted penetration time history for each jet model is compared with the experimentally observed penetration history. It was found that the characteristics of the predicted penetration were dependent on the way that the jet data are translated to a discrete description. The discrete jet descriptions were modified such that the predicted penetration histories fell very close to the range of the experimental data. In comparing the various discrete jet descriptions it was found that the cumulative kinetic energy flux curve represents an important way of characterizing the penetration characteristics of the jet. The GIMP method was found to be well suited for simulation of high rate penetration events.

  17. Prediction of electric vehicle penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The object of this report is to present the current market status of plug-in-electric : vehicles (PEVs) and to predict their future penetration within the world and U.S. : markets. The sales values for 2016 show a strong year of PEV sales both in the...

  18. FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Laboratory Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WINDES,CONNOR L.; MOORE,DAVID G.

    2000-08-02

    The Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center currently assesses the capability of various non-destructive inspection (NDI) methods used for analyzing aircraft components. The focus of one such exercise is to evaluate the sensitivity of fluorescent liquid penetrant inspection. A baseline procedure using the water-washable fluorescent penetrant method defines a foundation for comparing the brightness of low cycle fatigue cracks in titanium test panels. The analysis of deviations in the baseline procedure will determine an acceptable range of operation for the steps in the inspection process. The data also gives insight into the depth of each crack and which step(s) of the inspection process most affect penetrant sensitivities. A set of six low cycle fatigue cracks produced in 6.35-mm thick Ti-6Al-4V specimens was used to conduct the experiments to produce sensitivity data. The results will document the consistency of the crack readings and compare previous experiments to find the best parameters for water-washable penetrant.

  19. Industrial Penetration and Internet Intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); Y-C. Wu (Yu-Chieh)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the effect of industrial penetration and internet intensity for Taiwan manufacturing firms, and analyses whether the relationships are substitutes or complements. The sample observations are based on 153,081 manufacturing plants, and covers 26 two-digit industry

  20. Import market penetration in services

    OpenAIRE

    Langhammer, Rolf J.

    1991-01-01

    The EC-1992 programme foresees the complete liberalization of trade in services among member countries. To what extent has import market penetration in the Community already begun in selected service industries? Which EC member countries have been the forerunners to date? The following paper uses a new data base released recently by EUROSTAT in an attempt to answer these and other related questions.

  1. Characteristics of rain penetration through a gravity ventilator used for natural ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehyeung; Lee, Dong Ho; Ahn, Kwangseog; Ha, Hyunchul; Park, Heechang; Piao, Cheng Xu; Li, Xiaoyu; Seo, Jeoungyoon

    2008-01-01

    Gravity ventilators rely simply on air buoyancy to extract air and are widely used to exhaust air contaminants and heat from workplaces using minimal energy. They are designed to maximize the exhaust flow rate, but the rain penetration sometimes causes malfunctioning. In this study, the characteristics of rain penetration through a ventilator were examined as a preliminary study to develop a ventilator with the maximum exhaust capacity while minimizing rain penetration. A model ventilator was built and exposed to artificial rain and wind. The paths, intensities and amounts of penetration through the ventilator were observed and measured in qualitative and quantitative fashions. In the first phase, the pathways and intensities of rain penetration were visually observed. In the second phase, the amounts of rain penetration were quantitatively measured under the different configurations of ventilator components that were installed based on the information obtained in the first-phase experiment. The effects of wind speed, grill direction, rain drainage width, outer wall height, neck height and leaning angle of the outer wall from the vertical position were analyzed. Wind speed significantly affected rain penetration. Under the low crosswind conditions, the rain penetration intensities were under the limit of detection. Under the high crosswind conditions, grill direction and neck height were the most significant factors in reducing rain penetration. The installation of rain drainage was also important in reducing rain penetration. The experimental results suggest that, with proper configurations of its components, a gravity ventilator can be used for natural ventilation without significant rain penetration problems.

  2. [Professor WU Zhongchao's experience of penetration needling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Wang, Bing; Zhou, Yu

    2016-08-12

    Professor WU Zhongchao has unique application of penetration needling in clinical treatment. Professor WU applies penetration needling along meridians, and the methods of penetration needling include self-meridian penetration, exterior-interior meridian penetration, identical-name meridian penetration, different meridian penetration. The meridian differentiation is performed according to different TCM syndromes, locations and natures of diseases and acupoint nature, so as to make a comprehensive assessment. The qi movement during acupuncture is focused. In addition, attention is paid on anatomy and long-needle penetration; the sequence and direction of acupuncture is essential, and the reinforcing and reducing methods have great originality, presented with holding, waiting, pressing and vibrating. Based on classical acupoint, the acupoint of penetration needling is flexible, forming unique combination of acupoints.

  3. Akon - A Penetrator for Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Geraint

    2016-04-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa is one of the most intriguing objects in our Solar System. This 2000km-wide body has a geologically young solid water ice crust that is believed to cover a global ocean of liquid water. The presence of this ocean, together with a source of heating through tidal forces, make Europa a conceivable location for extraterrestrial life. The science case for exploring all aspects of this icy world is compelling. NASA has selected the Europa Mission (formerly Europa Clipper) to study Europa in detail in the 2020s through multiple flybys, and ESA's JUICE mission will perform two flybys of the body in the 2030s. The US agency has extended to the European Space Agency an invitation to provide a contribution to their mission. European scientists interested in Europa science and exploration are currently organizing themselves, in the framework of a coordinated Europa M5 Inititative to study concurrently the main options for this ESA contribution, from a simple addition of individual instruments to the NASA spacecraft, to a lander to investigate Europa's surface in situ. A high speed lander - a penetrator - is by far the most promising technology to achieve this latter option within the anticipated mass constraints, and studies of such a hard lander, many funded by ESA, are now at an advanced level. An international team to formally propose an Europa penetrator to ESA in response to the anticipated ESA M5 call is growing. The working title of this proposal is Akon (Άκων), named after the highly accurate javelin gifted to Europa by Zeus in ancient Greek mythology. We present plans for the Akon penetrator, which would impact Europa's surface at several hundred metres per second, and travel up to several metres into the moon's subsurface. To achieve this, the penetrator would be delivered to the surface by a dedicated descent module, to be destroyed on impact following release of the penetrator above the surface. It is planned that the instruments to be

  4. Penetration of magnetic fields into plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtson, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    A pulsed plasma experiment was constructed to study the penetration of a fast-rising magnetic pulse into an initially unmagnetized, weakly ionized plasma of density 10 11 to 10 13 cm -3 . Magnetic probe data was analyzed using a magnetohydrodynamic approach to obtain detailed information about the dynamics of the penetration mechanism. In particular it is possible to obtain the local resistivity and thus the collision frequency from this data. These collision frequencies compare favorably with theoretical estimates of turbulent collision frequencies. The data indicates that sufficient energy is absorbed to heat the bulk of the plasma to temeratures in excess of 1 keV. A differential rotation of a collisionless theta-pinch column during implosion has been observed and explained by a model in which the driving mechanism is the off-diagonal element p/sub r theta/ of the pressure tensor. Rotational motion was detected by directional probes and spectroscopic techniques. Experimental data were modeled by a one-dimensional hybrid code which included ionization and charge exchange of protons with neutral H atoms

  5. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers...... expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project...... with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h....

  6. Mobile Termination and Mobile Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak; Jeon, Doh-Shin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two oppos- ing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that fi...

  7. Mobile termination and mobile penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two opposing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that firm...

  8. Fluorescent penetration crack testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, A.

    1979-01-01

    The same cleaning, penetration, washing, development and evaluation agents are used in this method as for known methods. In order to accelerate or shorten the testing, the drying process is performed only to optical dryness of the material surface by blowing on it with pressurized air, the development by simple pressing into or dusting of the material with the developer and the temperature of the washing water is selected within room temperature range. (RW) [de

  9. Oblique penetration modeling and correlation with field tests into a soil target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longcope, D.B. Jr. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural Dynamics Dept.

    1996-09-01

    An oblique penetration modeling procedure is evaluated by correlation with onboard acceleration data from a series of six penetration tests into Antelope Dry Lake soil at Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. The modeling represents both the loading which is coupled to the penetrator bending and the penetrator structure including connections between the major subsections. Model results show reasonable agreement with the data which validates the modeling procedure within a modest uncertainty related to accelerometer clipping and rattling of the telemetry package. The experimental and analytical results provide design guidance for the location and lateral restraint of components to reduce their shock environment.

  10. Problems for the Purported Cognitive Penetration of Perceptual Color Experience and Macpherson’s Proposed Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Gross

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fiona Macpherson (2012 argues that various experimental results provide strong evidence in favor of the cognitive penetration of perceptual color experience. Moreover, she proposes a mechanism for how such cognitive penetration occurs. We argue, first, that the results on which Macpherson relies do not provide strong grounds for her claim of cognitive penetrability; and, second, that, if the results do reflect cognitive penetrability, then time-course considerations raise worries for her proposed mechanism. We base our arguments in part on several of our own experiments, reported herein.

  11. HMO penetration and physicians' earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, J; Mitchell, J M

    1999-11-01

    The goal of this study is to estimate whether cross-sectional variations in enrollment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) affected physicians' earnings and hourly income in 1990. Using data from a nationally representative sample of 4,577 younger physicians (penetration is endogenous and used the instrumental variables approach to obtain unbiased estimates. HMO penetration had a negative and statistically significant impact on physicians earnings in 1990. A doubling of the average level of HMO penetration in the market is estimated to reduce annual earnings by 7% to 10.7%, and hourly earnings by approximately 6% to 9%. It appears that HMOs were successful in reducing physicians' annual and per hour earnings in 1990, presumably through a combination of fewer visits and lower payment rates for people covered by HMOs. Although these results cannot be generalized to all physicians, the experience of a younger cohort of physicians may still be a good indicator of the future effects of HMOs because younger physicians may be more susceptible to market forces than older and more established physicians. Moreover, these results may be somewhat conservative because they reflect market behavior in 1990, several years before the rapid growth and more aggressive market behavior of HMOs in recent years.

  12. Penetrating eye injury in war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L

    1999-11-01

    The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons.

  13. Real-Time Penetrating Particle Analyzer (PAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Ambrosi, G.; Bertucci, B.

    2018-02-01

    The PAN can measure penetrating particles with great precision to study energetic particles, solar activities, and the origin and propagation of cosmic rays. The real-time monitoring of penetrating particles is crucial for deep space human travel.

  14. Air pollutant penetration through airflow leaks into buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, De-Ling [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The penetration of ambient air pollutants into the indoor environment is of concern owing to several factors: (1) epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between ambient fine particulate pollution and elevated risk of human mortality; (2) people spend most of their time in indoor environments; and (3) most information about air pollutant concentration is only available from ambient routine monitoring networks. A good understanding of ambient air pollutant transport from source to receptor requires knowledge about pollutant penetration across building envelopes. Therefore, it is essential to gain insight into particle penetration in infiltrating air and the factors that affect it in order to assess human exposure more accurately, and to further prevent adverse human health effects from ambient particulate pollution. In this dissertation, the understanding of air pollutant infiltration across leaks in the building envelope was advanced by performing modeling predictions as well as experimental investigations. The modeling analyses quantified the extent of airborne particle and reactive gas (e.g., ozone) penetration through building cracks and wall cavities using engineering analysis that incorporates existing information on building leakage characteristics, knowledge of pollutant transport processes, as well as pollutant-surface interactions. Particle penetration is primarily governed by particle diameter and by the smallest dimension of the building cracks. Particles of 0.1-1 μm are predicted to have the highest penetration efficiency, nearly unity for crack heights of 0.25 mm or higher, assuming a pressure differential of 4 Pa or greater and a flow path length of 3 cm or less. Supermicron and ultrafine particles (less than 0.1 μm) are readily deposited on crack surfaces by means of gravitational settling and Brownian diffusion, respectively. The fraction of ozone penetration through building leaks could vary widely, depending significantly on its

  15. Experimental stress analysis of the attachment region of hemispherical shells with attached nozzles. Part 5c. Nonradial nozzle at 22-1/2 degrees 2.625 in. O.D.--2.5000 in. I.D., zero penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, R.L.; Holland, R.W.

    1975-06-01

    A continuing series of investigations has been conducted to determine experimentally the stress patterns for the junction region of spherical shells with radially and non-radially attached nozzles when subjected to internal pressure and various types of loadings on the nozzles. Results of the investigations conducted on a nonradially attached nozzle of 2.625 in.-OD, 2.500 in. ID, and finished flush with the inner surface of the hemisphere are reported. The nozzle was inclined at 22 1 / 2 0 from a radial axis. Stress values for the following types of loadings are tabulated: internal pressure applied to the hemisphere and nozzle assembly; an axial load applied collinear with nozzle; a pure torque applied in the radial plane of the nozzle; and a pure bending moment or axial couple applied in various axial planes of the nozzle. Various stress vs. profile curves are presented. These curves present the tabulated stress data in graphical format. (U.S.)

  16. Network Penetration Testing and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brandon F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will focus the on research and testing done on penetrating a network for security purposes. This research will provide the IT security office new methods of attacks across and against a company's network as well as introduce them to new platforms and software that can be used to better assist with protecting against such attacks. Throughout this paper testing and research has been done on two different Linux based operating systems, for attacking and compromising a Windows based host computer. Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu (Linux based penetration testing operating systems) are two different "attacker'' computers that will attempt to plant viruses and or NASA USRP - Internship Final Report exploits on a host Windows 7 operating system, as well as try to retrieve information from the host. On each Linux OS (Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu) there is penetration testing software which provides the necessary tools to create exploits that can compromise a windows system as well as other operating systems. This paper will focus on two main methods of deploying exploits 1 onto a host computer in order to retrieve information from a compromised system. One method of deployment for an exploit that was tested is known as a "social engineering" exploit. This type of method requires interaction from unsuspecting user. With this user interaction, a deployed exploit may allow a malicious user to gain access to the unsuspecting user's computer as well as the network that such computer is connected to. Due to more advance security setting and antivirus protection and detection, this method is easily identified and defended against. The second method of exploit deployment is the method mainly focused upon within this paper. This method required extensive research on the best way to compromise a security enabled protected network. Once a network has been compromised, then any and all devices connected to such network has the potential to be compromised as well. With a compromised

  17. Ethical Dilemmas and Dimensions in Penetration Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Faily, Shamal; McAlaney, John; Iacob, C.

    2015-01-01

    Penetration testers are required to attack systems to evaluate their security, but without engaging in unethical behaviour while doing so. Despite work on hacker values and studies into security practice, there is little literature devoted to the ethical pressures associated with penetration testing. This paper presents several ethical dilemmas and dimensions associated with penetration testing;\\ud these shed light on the ethical positions taken by Penetration testers, and help identify poten...

  18. Ink Penetration of Uncoated Inkjet Paper and Impact on Printing Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren'ai Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated ink penetration through imaging technology, first by gray and contour mapping and then calculating the ink penetration depth by programing. Next, a series of further analyses were carried out, including average ink permeability, ink distributions, and printability of different uncoated inkjet paper with different parameters. The impact on ink penetration of the microstructure and hydrophilicity of the uncoated paper was also studied. The experimental results indicated that paper specimens with sizing agent were resistant to the ink, resulting in a slow and shallow ink penetration. Paper containing filler had a more hydrophilic surface and porous structure, leading to a faster and deeper ink penetration. However, the calendering operation could make the paper structure more compact and reduce the porosity and penetration depth. When an appropriate combination of sizing agent, filler content, and the calendering process was utilized, a more stable hue could be produced with improvements in optical density, saturation, and color.

  19. Capillaric penetration of etchant solution into swift heavy ion-irradiated silicone rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, D.; Mueller, M.

    2000-01-01

    There is growing evidence that etchants penetrate into latent ion tracks in polymers from the very beginning, i.e., even during the so-called 'incubation time' when no visible etchant attack is observed. The model of capillaric penetration of viscous liquids into sponge-like matter agrees with experimental values both in their parametric dependence as in the absolute values. Our experiments are based on LiOH etching of both pristine and swift heavy ion-irradiated silicone rubber foils. About five times more etchant penetrates into irradiated than into pristine silicone rubber. The overall etchant penetration is highest in tracks parallel to the surface normal, and decreases with increasing ion track tilt angle towards the surface normal. The etchant penetration into the tracks proceeds relatively slowly with an effective viscosity comparable to that of heavy machine oil. When swelling starts to predominate, the maximum etchant penetration depth comes to saturation, with the total etchant uptake even decreasing

  20. Integrated computation model of lithium-ion battery subject to nail penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Binghe; Yin, Sha; Xu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A coupling model to predict battery penetration process is established. • Penetration test is designed and validates the computational model. • Governing factors of the penetration induced short-circuit is discussed. • Critical safety battery design guidance is suggested. - Abstract: The nail penetration of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has become a standard battery safety evaluation method to mimic the potential penetration of a foreign object into LIB, which can lead to internal short circuit with catastrophic consequences, such as thermal runaway, fire, and explosion. To provide a safe, time-efficient, and cost-effective method for studying the nail penetration problem, an integrated computational method that considers the mechanical, electrochemical, and thermal behaviors of the jellyroll was developed using a coupled 3D mechanical model, a 1D battery model, and a short circuit model. The integrated model, along with the sub-models, was validated to agree reasonably well with experimental test data. In addition, a comprehensive quantitative analysis of governing factors, e.g., shapes, sizes, and displacements of nails, states of charge, and penetration speeds, was conducted. The proposed computational framework for LIB nail penetration was first introduced. This framework can provide an accurate prediction of the time history profile of battery voltage, temperature, and mechanical behavior. The factors that affected the behavior of the jellyroll under nail penetration were discussed systematically. Results provide a solid foundation for future in-depth studies on LIB nail penetration mechanisms and safety design.

  1. Study into penetration speed during laser cutting of brain tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, Z; Sami, M; Patiroglu, T

    1998-01-01

    The applications of CO2 continuous-wave lasers in neurosurgery have become important in recent years. Theoretical considerations of laser applicability in medicine are subsequently confirmed experimentally. To obtain precision operation in the laser cutting process, further theoretical developments and experimental studies need to be conducted. Consequently, in the present study, the heat transfer mechanism taking place during laser-tissue interaction is introduced using Fourier theory. The results obtained from the theoretical model are compared with the experimental results. In connection with this, an experiment is designed to measure the penetration speed during the laser cutting process. The measurement is carried out using an optical method. It is found that both results for the penetration speed obtained from the theory and experiment are in a good agreement.

  2. Kali Linux wireless penetration testing essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Alamanni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This book is targeted at information security professionals, penetration testers and network/system administrators who want to get started with wireless penetration testing. No prior experience with Kali Linux and wireless penetration testing is required, but familiarity with Linux and basic networking concepts is recommended.

  3. Effect of compressibility on the hypervelocity penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W. J.; Chen, X. W.; Chen, P.

    2018-02-01

    We further consider the effect of rod strength by employing the compressible penetration model to study the effect of compressibility on hypervelocity penetration. Meanwhile, we define different instances of penetration efficiency in various modified models and compare these penetration efficiencies to identify the effects of different factors in the compressible model. To systematically discuss the effect of compressibility in different metallic rod-target combinations, we construct three cases, i.e., the penetrations by the more compressible rod into the less compressible target, rod into the analogously compressible target, and the less compressible rod into the more compressible target. The effects of volumetric strain, internal energy, and strength on the penetration efficiency are analyzed simultaneously. It indicates that the compressibility of the rod and target increases the pressure at the rod/target interface. The more compressible rod/target has larger volumetric strain and higher internal energy. Both the larger volumetric strain and higher strength enhance the penetration or anti-penetration ability. On the other hand, the higher internal energy weakens the penetration or anti-penetration ability. The two trends conflict, but the volumetric strain dominates in the variation of the penetration efficiency, which would not approach the hydrodynamic limit if the rod and target are not analogously compressible. However, if the compressibility of the rod and target is analogous, it has little effect on the penetration efficiency.

  4. Development of penetrant materials from used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Azhar Azmi

    2014-01-01

    This paper described the results of experiment to produce penetrant for nondestructive testing using used engine oil. The used engine oil was obtained from motor vehicle. It was mixed with kerosene at several mix proportion. The penetrability of these mixing were measured and compared with the penetrant available on the market. The results of measurement were explained and discussed. (author)

  5. FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Activities - An Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.G.

    1998-10-20

    The Federal Aviation Administration's Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) is currently characterizing low cycle fatigue specimens that will support the needs of penetrant manufacturers, commercial airline industry and the Federal Aviation Administration. The main focus of this characterization is to maintain and enhance the evaluation of penetrant inspection materials and apply resources to support the aircraft community needs. This paper discusses efforts to-date to document the Wright Laboratory penetrant evaluation process and characterize penetrant brightness readings in the initial set of sample calibration panels using Type 1 penetrant.

  6. Web penetration testing with Kali Linux

    CERN Document Server

    Muniz, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Web Penetration Testing with Kali Linux contains various penetration testing methods using BackTrack that will be used by the reader. It contains clear step-by-step instructions with lot of screenshots. It is written in an easy to understand language which will further simplify the understanding for the user.""Web Penetration Testing with Kali Linux"" is ideal for anyone who is interested in learning how to become a penetration tester. It will also help the users who are new to Kali Linux and want to learn the features and differences in Kali versus Backtrack, and seasoned penetration testers

  7. A study of the penetration of projectiles into marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisson, J.Y.

    1985-01-01

    The work described in this document consists of three main parts: - Application, after having reviewed calculation methods and known codes, of a dynamic plasticity model based on the upper bound-method (with dissipated energy calculations by plastic deformations). The soil model used for this calculation is the Cambridge Clay Model. - Carrying out a programme of tests with instrumented small scale penetrators in centrifuge on a consolidated clay-target. The trials are done under 50 g, with projectiles, fired with an airgun at high impact velocity (50 m/s). The penetrators' instrumentation consists of either measuring acceleration, or tip force with strain gauges. - The mounting of a small instrumented penetrator for shallow water depth experimentations, with an accelerometer, and a local cell for tip resistance. A rapid electronic data acquisition system has been developed for these experimentations. The preliminary tests are done in a large tank filled with clay. The geotechnical characteristics of the clay are perfectly controlled. The tests performed under these conditions have shown the following observations: the rapid electronic data acquisition system works perfectly and could be used as a basic component for a deep water instrumentated penetrator; the results, obtained in these particular test conditions, are in a perfect agreement with the predictions of the model developed in the frame of this contract

  8. Penetration through the Skin Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Benfeldt, Eva; Holmgaard, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    The skin is a strong and flexible organ with barrier properties essential for maintaining homeostasis and thereby human life. Characterizing this barrier is the ability to prevent some chemicals from crossing the barrier while allowing others, including medicinal products, to pass at varying rates......-through diffusion cells) as well as in vivo methods (microdialysis and microperfusion). Then follows a discussion with examples of how different characteristics of the skin (age, site and integrity) and of the penetrants (size, solubility, ionization, logPow and vehicles) affect the kinetics of percutaneous...

  9. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Muhammad U; Zacharias, Nikolaos; Velmahos, George C

    2009-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries. PMID:19374761

  10. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmahos George C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries.

  11. Penetration testing with Raspberry Pi

    CERN Document Server

    Muniz, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    If you are looking for a low budget, small form-factor remotely accessible hacking tool, then the concepts in this book are ideal for you. If you are a penetration tester who wants to save on travel costs by placing a low-cost node on a target network, you will save thousands by using the methods covered in this book. You do not have to be a skilled hacker or programmer to use this book. It will be beneficial to have some networking experience; however, it is not required to follow the concepts covered in this book.

  12. Correlation Between Cone Penetration Rate And Measured Cone Penetration Parameters In Silty Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows, how a change in cone penetration rate affects the cone penetration measurements, hence the cone resistance, pore pressure, and sleeve friction in silty soil. The standard rate of penetration is 20 mm/s, and it is generally accepted that undrained penetration occurs in clay while...... drained penetration occurs in sand. When lowering the penetration rate, the soil pore water starts to dissipate and a change in the drainage condition is seen. In intermediate soils such as silty soils, the standard cone penetration rate may result in a drainage condition that could be undrained......, partially or fully drained. However, lowering the penetration rate in silty soils has a great significance because of the soil permeability, and only a small change in penetration rate will result in changed cone penetration measurements. In this paper, analyses will be done on data from 15 field cone...

  13. Linguistic Intuitions and Cognitive Penetrability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Devitt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Metalinguistic intuitions play a very large evidential role in both linguistics and philosophy. Linguists think that these intuitions are products of underlying linguistic competence. I call this view “the voice of competence” (“VoC”. Although many philosophers seem to think that metalinguistic intuitions are a priori many may implicitly hold the more scientifically respectable VoC. According to VoC, I argue, these intuitions can be cognitively penetrated by the central processor. But, I have argued elsewhere, VoC is false. Instead, we should hold “the modest explanation” (“ME” according to which these intuitions are fairly unreflective empirical theory-laden central-processor responses to phenomena. On ME, no question of cognitive penetration arises. ME has great methodological significance for the study of language. Insofar as we rely on intuitions as evidence we should prefer those of linguists and philosophers because they are more expert. But, more importantly, we should be seeking other evidence in linguistic usage.

  14. Consistent constitutive modeling of metallic target penetration using empirical, analytical, and numerical penetration models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John (Jack P. Riegel III

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Historically, there has been little correlation between the material properties used in (1 empirical formulae, (2 analytical formulations, and (3 numerical models. The various regressions and models may each provide excellent agreement for the depth of penetration into semi-infinite targets. But the input parameters for the empirically based procedures may have little in common with either the analytical model or the numerical model. This paper builds on previous work by Riegel and Anderson (2014 to show how the Effective Flow Stress (EFS strength model, based on empirical data, can be used as the average flow stress in the analytical Walker–Anderson Penetration model (WAPEN (Anderson and Walker, 1991 and how the same value may be utilized as an effective von Mises yield strength in numerical hydrocode simulations to predict the depth of penetration for eroding projectiles at impact velocities in the mechanical response regime of the materials. The method has the benefit of allowing the three techniques (empirical, analytical, and numerical to work in tandem. The empirical method can be used for many shot line calculations, but more advanced analytical or numerical models can be employed when necessary to address specific geometries such as edge effects or layering that are not treated by the simpler methods. Developing complete constitutive relationships for a material can be costly. If the only concern is depth of penetration, such a level of detail may not be required. The effective flow stress can be determined from a small set of depth of penetration experiments in many cases, especially for long penetrators such as the L/D = 10 ones considered here, making it a very practical approach. In the process of performing this effort, the authors considered numerical simulations by other researchers based on the same set of experimental data that the authors used for their empirical and analytical assessment. The goals were to establish a

  15. Heat Loads Due To Small Penetrations In Multilayer Insulation Blankets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Heckle, K. W.; E Fesmire, J.

    2017-12-01

    The main penetrations (supports and piping) through multilayer insulation systems for cryogenic tanks have been previously addressed by heat flow measurements. Smaller penetrations due to fasteners and attachments are now experimentally investigated. The use of small pins or plastic garment tag fasteners to ease the handling and construction of multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets goes back many years. While it has long been understood that penetrations and other discontinuities degrade the performance of the MLI blanket, quantification of this degradation has generally been lumped into gross performance multipliers (often called degradation factors or scale factors). Small penetrations contribute both solid conduction and radiation heat transfer paths through the blanket. The conduction is down the stem of the structural element itself while the radiation is through the hole formed during installation of the pin or fastener. Analytical models were developed in conjunction with MLI perforation theory and Fourier’s Law. Results of the analytical models are compared to experimental testing performed on a 10 layer MLI blanket with approximately 50 small plastic pins penetrating the test specimen. The pins were installed at ∼76-mm spacing inches in both directions to minimize the compounding of thermal effects due to localized compression or lateral heat transfer. The testing was performed using a liquid nitrogen boil-off calorimeter (Cryostat-100) with the standard boundary temperatures of 293 K and 78 K. Results show that the added radiation through the holes is much more significant than the conduction down the fastener. The results are shown to be in agreement with radiation theory for perforated films.

  16. Cable Braid Electromagnetic Penetration Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry K. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langston, William L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Basilio, Lorena I. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, W. A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The model for penetration of a wire braid is rigorously formulated. Integral formulas are developed from energy principles and reciprocity for both self and transfer immittances in terms of potentials for the fields. The detailed boundary value problem for the wire braid is also setup in a very efficient manner; the braid wires act as sources for the potentials in the form of a sequence of line multipoles with unknown coefficients that are determined by means of conditions arising from the wire surface boundary conditions. Approximations are introduced to relate the local properties of the braid wires to a simplified infinite periodic planar geometry. This is used in a simplified application of reciprocity to be able to treat nonuniform coaxial geometries including eccentric interior coaxial arrangements and an exterior ground plane.

  17. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  18. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fantoni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fantoni & Gerbino (2014 showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP, they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015 would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions, in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top

  19. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project settings are close to ideal, including a very capable national utility company, Electra, a conventional power supply system based on imported heavy fuel and gas oil, and favourable wind conditions with an estimated annual average of 9.3 m/s at the hub height of the wind turbines. With the applied case study assumptions, simulations with WINSYS over the lifetime of the assessed wind power investment show that investments up to 4.2 MW are economically viable. The economic optimum is found at 2.4 MW reaching an internal rate of return of almost 8% p.a. This 2.4 MW of wind power would, together with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h. (Author)

  20. Varieties of cognitive penetration in visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Petra; Newen, Albert

    2014-07-01

    Is our perceptual experience a veridical representation of the world or is it a product of our beliefs and past experiences? Cognitive penetration describes the influence of higher level cognitive factors on perceptual experience and has been a debated topic in philosophy of mind and cognitive science. Here, we focus on visual perception, particularly early vision, and how it is affected by contextual expectations and memorized cognitive contents. We argue for cognitive penetration based on recent empirical evidence demonstrating contextual and top-down influences on early visual processes. On the basis of a perceptual model, we propose different types of cognitive penetration depending on the processing level on which the penetration happens and depending on where the penetrating influence comes from. Our proposal has two consequences: (1) the traditional controversy on whether cognitive penetration occurs or not is ill posed, and (2) a clear-cut perception-cognition boundary cannot be maintained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Percutaneous penetration studies for risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartorelli, Vittorio; Andersen, Helle Raun; Angerer, Jürgen

    2000-01-01

    . In order to predict the systemic risk of dermally absorbed chemicals and to enable agencies to set safety standards, data is needed on the rates of percutaneous penetration of important chemicals. Standardization of in vitro tests and comparison of their results with the in vivo data could produce...... internationally accepted penetration rates and/or absorption percentages very useful for regulatory toxicology. The work of the Percutaneous Penetration Subgroup of EC Dermal Exposure Network has been focussed on the standardization and validation of in vitro experiments, necessary to obtain internationally...... accepted penetration rates for regulatory purposes. The members of the Subgroup analyzed the guidelines on percutaneous penetration in vitro studies presented by various organizations and suggested a standardization of in vitro models for percutaneous penetration taking into account their individual...

  2. Ethical hacking and penetration testing guide

    CERN Document Server

    Baloch, Rafay

    2014-01-01

    Requiring no prior hacking experience, Ethical Hacking and Penetration Testing Guide supplies a complete introduction to the steps required to complete a penetration test, or ethical hack, from beginning to end. You will learn how to properly utilize and interpret the results of modern-day hacking tools, which are required to complete a penetration test. The book covers a wide range of tools, including Backtrack Linux, Google reconnaissance, MetaGooFil, dig, Nmap, Nessus, Metasploit, Fast Track Autopwn, Netcat, and Hacker Defender rootkit. Supplying a simple and clean explanation of how to effectively utilize these tools, it details a four-step methodology for conducting an effective penetration test or hack.Providing an accessible introduction to penetration testing and hacking, the book supplies you with a fundamental understanding of offensive security. After completing the book you will be prepared to take on in-depth and advanced topics in hacking and penetration testing. The book walks you through each ...

  3. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Elliott, J.; Bettencourt, B.; Slawski, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in- place penetration test is practical

  4. Market penetration rates of new energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The market penetration rates of 11 different new energy technologies were studied covering energy production and end-use technologies. The penetration rates were determined by fitting observed market data to an epidemical diffusion model. The analyses show that the exponential penetration rates of new energy technologies may vary from 4 up to over 40%/yr. The corresponding take-over times from a 1% to 50% share of the estimated market potential may vary from less than 10 to 70 years. The lower rate is often associated with larger energy impacts. Short take-over times less than 25 years seem to be mainly associated with end-use technologies. Public policies and subsides have an important effect on the penetration. Some technologies penetrate fast without major support explained by technology maturity and competitive prices, e.g. compact fluorescent lamps show a 24.2%/yr growth rate globally. The penetration rates determined exhibit some uncertainty as penetration has not always proceeded close to saturation. The study indicates a decreasing penetration rate with increasing time or market share. If the market history is short, a temporally decreasing functional form for the penetration rate coefficient could be used to anticipate the probable behavior

  5. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Elliott, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in-place penetration test is practical. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Electrical detection of cellular penetration during microinjection with carbon nanopipettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sean E.; Bau, Haim H.

    2014-06-01

    The carbon nanopipette (CNP) is comprised of a pulled-glass pipette terminating with a nanoscale (tens to hundreds of nm) diameter carbon pipe. The entire inner glass surface of the CNP is coated with a carbon film, providing an electrically conductive path from the carbon tip to the distal, macroscopic end of the pipette. The CNP can double as a nanoelectrode, enabling electrical measurements through its carbon lining, and as a nanoinjector, facilitating reagent injection through its hollow bore. With the aid of a lock-in amplifier, we measured, in real time and with millisecond resolution, variations in impedance and interfacial capacitance as the CNP penetrated into the cytoplasm and nucleus of adherent human osteosarcoma (U20S) cells during microinjection. The capacitance change associated with nucleus penetration was, on average, 1.5 times greater than the one associated with cell membrane penetration. The experimental data was compared and favorably agreed with theoretical predictions based on a simple electrical network model. As a proof of concept, the cytoplasm and nucleus were transfected with fluorescent tRNA, enabling real-time monitoring of tRNA trafficking across the nuclear membrane. The CNP provides a robust and reliable means to detect cell and nucleus penetration, and trigger injection, thereby enabling the automation of cell injection.

  7. Electrical detection of cellular penetration during microinjection with carbon nanopipettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Sean E; Bau, Haim H

    2014-01-01

    The carbon nanopipette (CNP) is comprised of a pulled-glass pipette terminating with a nanoscale (tens to hundreds of nm) diameter carbon pipe. The entire inner glass surface of the CNP is coated with a carbon film, providing an electrically conductive path from the carbon tip to the distal, macroscopic end of the pipette. The CNP can double as a nanoelectrode, enabling electrical measurements through its carbon lining, and as a nanoinjector, facilitating reagent injection through its hollow bore. With the aid of a lock-in amplifier, we measured, in real time and with millisecond resolution, variations in impedance and interfacial capacitance as the CNP penetrated into the cytoplasm and nucleus of adherent human osteosarcoma (U20S) cells during microinjection. The capacitance change associated with nucleus penetration was, on average, 1.5 times greater than the one associated with cell membrane penetration. The experimental data was compared and favorably agreed with theoretical predictions based on a simple electrical network model. As a proof of concept, the cytoplasm and nucleus were transfected with fluorescent tRNA, enabling real-time monitoring of tRNA trafficking across the nuclear membrane. The CNP provides a robust and reliable means to detect cell and nucleus penetration, and trigger injection, thereby enabling the automation of cell injection. (papers)

  8. Cognitive penetrability and emotion recognition in human facial expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eMarchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Do our background beliefs, desires, and mental images influence our perceptual experience of the emotions of others? In this paper, we will address the possibility of cognitive penetration of perceptual experience in the domain of social cognition. In particular, we focus on emotion recognition based on the visual experience of facial expressions. After introducing the current debate on cognitive penetration, we review examples of perceptual adaptation for facial expressions of emotion. This evidence supports the idea that facial expressions are perceptually processed as wholes. That is, the perceptual system integrates lower-level facial features, such as eyebrow orientation, mouth angle etc., into facial compounds. We then present additional experimental evidence showing that in some cases, emotion recognition on the basis of facial expression is sensitive to and modified by the background knowledge of the subject. We argue that such sensitivity is best explained as a difference in the visual experience of the facial expression, not just as a modification of the judgment based on this experience. The difference in experience is characterized as the result of the interference of background knowledge with the perceptual integration process for faces. Thus, according to the best explanation, we have to accept cognitive penetration in some cases of emotion recognition. Finally, we highlight a recent model of social vision in order to propose a mechanism for cognitive penetration used in the face-based recognition of emotion.

  9. Neutron imaging of water penetration into cracked steel reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, P.; Wittmann, F.H.; Zhao, T.; Lehmann, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    Service life and durability of reinforced concrete structures have become a crucial issue because of the economical and ecological implications. Service life of reinforced concrete structures is often limited by penetration of water and chemical compounds dissolved in water into the porous cement-based material. By now it is well-known that cracks in reinforced concrete are preferential paths for ingress of aggressive substances. Neutron radiography was successfully applied to study the process of water penetration into cracked steel reinforced concrete. In addition, the effectiveness of integral water repellent concrete to prevent ingress of water and salt solutions was investigated. Results are described in detail in this contribution. It will be shown that neutron radiography is a powerful method to visualize the process of water penetration into cracked and uncracked cement-based materials. On the basis of the obtained experimental data, it is possible to quantify the time-dependent water distributions in concrete with high accuracy and spatial resolution. It is of particular interest that penetration of water and salt solutions into damaged interfaces between concrete and steel can be visualized by means of neutron radiography. Deteriorating processes in cracked reinforced concrete structures can be studied in a completely new way. This advanced technology will help and find adequate ways to improve durability and service life of reinforced concrete structures. This will mean at the same time an essential contribution to improved sustainability.

  10. Influence of jet thrust on penetrator penetration when studying the structure of space object blanket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Fedorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the calculation-and-theory-based research results to examine the possibility for using the jet thrust impulse to increase a penetration depth of high-velocity penetrator modules. Such devices can be used for studies of Earth surface layer composition, and in the nearest future for other Solar system bodies too. Research equipment (sensors and different instruments is housed inside a metal body of the penetrator with a sharpened nose that decreases drag force in soil. It was assumed, that this penetrator is additionally equipped with the pulse jet engine, which is fired at a certain stage of penetrator motion into target.The penetrator is considered as a rigid body of variable mass, which is subjected to drag force and reactive force applied at the moment the engine fires. A drag force was represented with a binomial empirical law, and penetrator nose part was considered to be conical. The jet thrust force was supposed to be constant during its application time. It was in accordance with assumption that mass flow and flow rate of solid propellant combustion products were constant. The amount of propellant in the penetrator was characterized by Tsiolkovsky number Z, which specifies the ratio between the fuel mass and the penetrator structure mass with no fuel.The system of equations to describe the penetrator dynamics was given in dimensionless form using the values aligned with penetration of an equivalent inert penetrator as the time and penetration depth scales. Penetration dynamics of penetrator represented in this form allowed to eliminate the influence of penetrator initial mass and its cross-section diameter on the solution results. The lack of such dependency is convenient for comparing the calculation results since they hold for penetrators of various initial masses and cross-sections.To calculate the penetration a lunar regolith was taken as a soil material. Calculations were carried out for initial velocities of

  11. A review of penetration mechanisms and dynamic properties of tungsten and depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, S.P.; Caligiuri, R.D.; Eiselstein, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Kinetic energy penetrators must posses the best possible combination of hardness, stiffness, strength, and fracture toughness characteristics to be effective against modern armor systems. Over the last decade, depleted uranium (DU) and tungsten alloys have been the materials of choice for kinetic energy penetrators. Du and tungsten perform abut the same against semi-infinite targets, and DU outperforms tungsten penetrators in oblique, spaced array targets, but because of environmental and subsequent cost concerns, effort has focused on improving the performance of tungsten penetrators over the last few years. However, despite recent improvements in material properties, the penetration performance of tungsten still lags behind that of DU. One possible reason is the difference in deformation mechanisms at the leading edge of the penetrator during the penetration process-DU alloys tend to shear band and sharpen as they penetrate the target material, whereas tungsten penetrators tend to mushroom and blunt. As a first step to determine whether shear banding is truly the reason for superior DU performance, a review of the fabrication, high strain-rate properties, and penetration phenomena of penetrators manufactured from both tungsten and DU alloys. Specifically, the effects of composition, processing, and heat treatment on material properties and penetration mechanisms of these alloys are discussed

  12. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, W.; Arnold, F.; Stoelinga, M.I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Therefore, penetration testing has thus far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management,

  13. Generic penetration in the retail antidepressant market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventimiglia, Jeffrey; Kalali, Amir H

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we explore the accelerated penetration of generic antidepressants in the United States market following the availability of generic citalopram and sertraline. Analysis suggests that overall, generic penetration into the antidepressant market has grown from approximately 41 percent in January 2004 to over 73 percent in January 2010. Similar trends are uncovered when branded and generic prescriptions are analyzed by specialty.

  14. Quantitative Penetration Testing with Item Response Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    2014-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including

  15. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle

    2013-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including

  16. Chemical Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Drug Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for transdermal administration. The permeation of drug through skin can be enhanced by both chemical penetration enhancement and physical methods. In this review, we have discussed the chemical penetration enhancement technology for transdermal drug delivery as well as the probable mechanisms of action.

  17. MDCT diagnosis of penetrating diaphragm injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodanapally, Uttam K.; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Mirvis, Stuart E.; Sliker, Clint W.; Fleiter, Thorsten R.; Sarada, Kamal; Miller, Lisa A. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Stein, Deborah M. [University of Maryland, Department of Surgery, Shock Trauma Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Alexander, Melvin [National Study Center for Trauma and Emergency Medical Systems, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of multidetector CT (MDCT) in detection of diaphragmatic injury following penetrating trauma. Chest and abdominal CT examinations performed preoperatively in 136 patients after penetrating trauma to the torso with injury trajectory in close proximity to the diaphragm were reviewed by radiologists unaware of surgical findings. Signs associated with diaphragmatic injuries in penetrating trauma were noted. These signs were correlated with surgical diagnoses, and their sensitivity and specificity in assisting the diagnosis were calculated. CT confirmed diaphragmatic injury in 41 of 47 injuries (sensitivity, 87.2%), and an intact diaphragm in 71 of 98 patients (specificity, 72.4%). The overall accuracy of MDCT was 77%. The most accurate sign helping the diagnosis was contiguous injury on either side of the diaphragm in single-entry penetrating trauma (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 82%). Thus MDCT has high sensitivity and good specificity in detecting penetrating diaphragmatic injuries. (orig.)

  18. MDCT diagnosis of penetrating diaphragm injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodanapally, Uttam K.; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Mirvis, Stuart E.; Sliker, Clint W.; Fleiter, Thorsten R.; Sarada, Kamal; Miller, Lisa A.; Stein, Deborah M.; Alexander, Melvin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of multidetector CT (MDCT) in detection of diaphragmatic injury following penetrating trauma. Chest and abdominal CT examinations performed preoperatively in 136 patients after penetrating trauma to the torso with injury trajectory in close proximity to the diaphragm were reviewed by radiologists unaware of surgical findings. Signs associated with diaphragmatic injuries in penetrating trauma were noted. These signs were correlated with surgical diagnoses, and their sensitivity and specificity in assisting the diagnosis were calculated. CT confirmed diaphragmatic injury in 41 of 47 injuries (sensitivity, 87.2%), and an intact diaphragm in 71 of 98 patients (specificity, 72.4%). The overall accuracy of MDCT was 77%. The most accurate sign helping the diagnosis was contiguous injury on either side of the diaphragm in single-entry penetrating trauma (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 82%). Thus MDCT has high sensitivity and good specificity in detecting penetrating diaphragmatic injuries. (orig.)

  19. A study of the effects of penetration framing on steel containment buckling capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.E.; Butler, T.A.

    1987-05-01

    Polycarbonate cylinders modeling steel containment structures were tested to study the effects of different framing designs around large penetrations on the static buckling capacity of containments. Two of the four models had equipment hatch penetrations and two had personnel airlock penetrations. Both types of models were tested with axial and shear loads as framing was incrementally added. Results indicate that, for the models constructed of polycarbonate, buckling is influenced minimally with added framing. Numerical results support the experimental results. Extrapolation of the results to containment constructed under field conditions with prototypic steel materials is discussed and further testing is recommended

  20. Measurement of D-T neutron penetration probability spectra for iron ball shell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Shaojie

    1998-06-01

    The D-T neutron penetration probability spectra are measured for iron ball shell systems of the series of samples used in the experiments, and the penetration curves are presented. As the detector is near to samples, the measured results being approximately corrected are compared with those in the literature, and it is shown that the former is compatible with the latter in the range of the experimental error

  1. Molecular dynamics simulations of the penetration lengths: application within the fluctuation theory for diffusion coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galliero, Guillaume; Medvedev, Oleg; Shapiro, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    A 322 (2004) 151). In the current study, a fast molecular dynamics scheme has been developed to determine the values of the penetration lengths in Lennard-Jones binary systems. Results deduced from computations provide a new insight into the concept of penetration lengths. It is shown for four different...... fluctuation theory and molecular dynamics scheme exhibit consistent trends and average deviations from experimental data around 10-20%. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  2. Transconjunctival penetration of mitomycin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velpandian T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The study was performed to estimate transconjunctival penetration of mitomycin C (MMC to Tenon′s tissue following application over the intact conjunctiva before routine trabeculectomy. Settings and Design: Institution-based case series. Materials and Methods: In 41 eyes of 41 patients, MMC (0.4 mg/ml for 3 min was applied over the intact conjunctiva before beginning trabeculectomy. Tenon′s capsule directly beneath the site of application was excised during trabeculectomy and was homogenized, centrifuged and MMC concentrations were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using stata0 8.0 version software (STATA Corporation, Houston, TX, USA. In this study, P -values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: The average weight of the sample of Tenon′s tissue excised was 5.51 ± 4.42 mg (range: 0.9-17.1 and the average estimated MMC concentration found to be present in Tenon′s tissue using HPLC was 18.67 ± 32.36 x 10−6 moles/kg of the tissue (range: 0.38-197.05 x 10−6 . In 36 of the 41 patients (87.80%, the MMC concentration reached above 2 x 10−6 moles/kg of the tissue concentration required to inhibit human conjunctival fibroblasts. Conclusions: Mitomycin C does permeate into the subconjunctival tissue after supraconjunctival application for 3 min. Application of MMC over the conjunctiva may be a useful alternative to subconjunctival or subscleral application during routine trabeculectomy and as an adjunct for failing blebs.

  3. Penetration of sub-micron aerosol droplets in composite cylindrical filtration elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geurts, Bernard J.; Pratte, Pascal; Stolz, Steffen; Stabbert, Regina; Poux, Valerie; Nordlund, Markus; Winkelmann, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Advection-diffusion transport of aerosol droplets in composite cylindrical filtration elements is analyzed and compared to experimental data. The penetration, characterizing the fraction of droplets that passes through the pores of a filtration element, is quantified for a range of flow rates. The advection-diffusion transport in a laminar Poiseuille flow is treated numerically for slender pores using a finite difference approach in cylindrical coordinates. The algebraic dependence of the penetration on the Peclet number as predicted theoretically, is confirmed by experimental findings at a variety of aspect ratios of the cylindrical pores. The effective penetration associated with a composite filtration element consisting of a set of parallel cylindrical pores is derived. The overall penetration of heterogeneous composite filtration elements shows an algebraic dependence to the fourth power on the radii of the individual pores that are contained. This gives rise to strong variations in the overall penetration in cases with uneven distributions of pore sizes, highly favoring filtration by the larger pores. The overall penetration is computed for a number of basic geometries, providing a point of reference for filtration design and experimental verification.

  4. Miniature Ground Penetrating Radar, CRUX GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon Sam; Carnes, Steven R.; Haldemann, Albert F.; Ulmer, Christopher T.; Ng, Eddie; Arcone, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA instrument development programs (PIDDP 2000-2002, MIPD 2003-2005, ESR and T, 2005) we have been developing miniature ground penetrating radars (GPR) for use in mapping subsurface stratigraphy from planetary rovers for Mars and lunar applications. The Mars GPR is for deeper penetration (up to 50 m depth) into the Martian subsurface at moderate resolution (0.5 m) for a geological characterization. As a part of the CRUX (Construction and Resource Utilization Explorer) instrument suite, the CRUX GPR is optimized for a lunar prospecting application. It will have shallower penetration (5 m depth) with higher resolution (10 cm) for construction operations including ISRU (in-situ resource utilization).

  5. Development of coring, consolidating, subterrene penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, H.D.; Neudecker, J.W.; Cort, G.E.; Turner, W.C.; McFarland, R.D.; Griggs, J.E.

    1976-02-01

    Coring penetrators offer two advantages over full face-melting penetrators, i.e., formation of larger boreholes with no increase in power and the production of glass-lined, structurally undisturbed cores which can be recovered with conventional core-retrieval systems. These cores are of significant value in geological exploratory drilling programs. The initial design details and fabrication features of a 114-mm-diam coring penetrator are discussed; significant factors for design optimization are also presented. Results of laboratory testing are reported and compared with performance predictions, and an initial field trial is described

  6. A Mass Loss Penetration Model to Investigate the Dynamic Response of a Projectile Penetrating Concrete considering Mass Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NianSong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the dynamic response of a projectile penetrating concrete is conducted. The evolutional process of projectile mass loss and the effect of mass loss on penetration resistance are investigated using theoretical methods. A projectile penetration model considering projectile mass loss is established in three stages, namely, cratering phase, mass loss penetration phase, and remainder rigid projectile penetration phase.

  7. Prediction of Weld Penetration in FCAW of HSLA steel using Artificial Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asl, Y. Dadgar; Mostafa, N. B.; Panahizadeh, V. R.; Seyedkashi, S. M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) is a semiautomatic or automatic arc welding process that requires a continuously-fed consumable tubular electrode containing a flux. The main FCAW process parameters affecting the depth of penetration are welding current, arc voltage, nozzle-to-work distance, torch angle and welding speed. Shallow depth of penetration may contribute to failure of a welded structure since penetration determines the stress-carrying capacity of a welded joint. To avoid such occurrences; the welding process parameters influencing the weld penetration must be properly selected to obtain an acceptable weld penetration and hence a high quality joint. Artificial neural networks (ANN), also called neural networks (NN), are computational models used to express complex non-linear relationships between input and output data. In this paper, artificial neural network (ANN) method is used to predict the effects of welding current, arc voltage, nozzle-to-work distance, torch angle and welding speed on weld penetration depth in gas shielded FCAW of a grade of high strength low alloy steel. 32 experimental runs were carried out using the bead-on-plate welding technique. Weld penetrations were measured and on the basis of these 32 sets of experimental data, a feed-forward back-propagation neural network was created. 28 sets of the experiments were used as the training data and the remaining 4 sets were used for the testing phase of the network. The ANN has one hidden layer with eight neurons and is trained after 840 iterations. The comparison between the experimental results and ANN results showed that the trained network could predict the effects of the FCAW process parameters on weld penetration adequately.

  8. Temporary fire sealing of penetrations on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondorp, H.L.

    1981-02-01

    The radiation shielding provided for TFTR for D-D and D-T operation will be penetrated by numerous electrical and mechanical services. Eventually, these penetrations will have to be sealed to provide the required fire resistance, tritium sealability, pressure integrity and radiation attenuation. For the initial hydrogen operation, however, fire sealing of the penetrations in the walls and floor is the primary concern. This report provides a discussion of the required and desirable properties of a temporary seal which can be used to seal these penetrations for the hydrogen operation and then subsequently be removed and replaced as required for the D-D and D-T operations. Several candidate designs are discussed and evaluated and recommendations are made for specific applications

  9. Identifying structural damage with ground penetrating radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistance tomography (ERT) surveys were conducted in an urban environment in an attempt to identify the cause of severe structural damage to a historically significant residential property...

  10. Thyroid Emphysema Following Penetrating Neck Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Karadağ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although traumatic thyroid gland rupture or hemorrhage is usually seen in goitrous glands, injuries of the normal thyroid gland after neck trauma have rarely been described in the literature. We describe a 44-year-old man who presented with thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema (SCE that occurred after penetrating neck trauma. CT images showed complete resolution of thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema at follow-up examination. Neck injuries can be life threatening. After penetrating neck traumas, physicians should consider subtle esophageal or tracheal laceration. Thyroid emphysema can occur as the result of penetrating neck trauma. The mechanism of emphysema of the thyroid parenchyma can be explained by the thyroid gland’s presence in a single visceral compartment that encompasses the larynx, trachea and thyroid gland. We describe an unusual case of thyroid emphysema of a normal thyroid gland following a penetrating neck injury.

  11. Kali Linux wireless penetration testing beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Ramachandran, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    If you are a security professional, pentester, or anyone interested in getting to grips with wireless penetration testing, this is the book for you. Some familiarity with Kali Linux and wireless concepts is beneficial.

  12. Penetration testing protecting networks and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    This book is a preparation guide for the CPTE examination, yet is also a general reference for experienced penetration testers, ethical hackers, auditors, security personnel and anyone else involved in the security of an organization's computer systems.

  13. Effect of moisture content and dry unit weight on the resilient modulus of subgrade soils predicted by cone penetration test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of moisture content and dry unit weight on the resilient characteristics of subgrade soil predicted by the cone penetration test. An experimental program was conducted in which cone penetratio...

  14. Low Force Penetration of Icy Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, J. G.; Galloway, G. M.; Zacny, K.

    2016-01-01

    A percussive cone penetrometer measures the strength of granular material by using percussion to deliver mechanical energy into the material. A percussive cone penetrometer was used in this study to penetrate a regolith ice mixture by breaking up ice and decompacting the regolith. As compared to a static cone penetrometer, percussion allows low reaction forces to push a penetrometer probe tip more easily into dry regolith in a low gravity environment from a planetary surface rover or a landed spacecraft. A percussive cone penetrates icy regolith at ice concentrations that a static cone cannot penetrate. In this study, the percussive penetrator was able to penetrate material under 65 N of down-force which could not be penetrated using a static cone under full body weight. This paper discusses using a percussive cone penetrometer to discern changes in the concentration of water-ice in a mixture of lunar regolith simulant and ice to a depth of one meter. The rate of penetration was found to be a function of the ice content and was not significantly affected by the down-force. The test results demonstrate that this method may be ideal for a small platform in a reduced gravity environment. However, there are some cases where the system may not be able to penetrate the icy regolith, and there is some risk of the probe tip becoming stuck so that it cannot be retracted. It is also shown that a percussive cone penetrometer could be used to prospect for water ice in regolith at concentrations as high as 8 by weight.

  15. Severe accident testing of electrical penetration assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.

    1989-11-01

    This report describes the results of tests conducted on three different designs of full-size electrical penetration assemblies (EPAs) that are used in the containment buildings of nuclear power plants. The objective of the tests was to evaluate the behavior of the EPAs under simulated severe accident conditions using steam at elevated temperature and pressure. Leakage, temperature, and cable insulation resistance were monitored throughout the tests. Nuclear-qualified EPAs were produced from D. G. O'Brien, Westinghouse, and Conax. Severe-accident-sequence analysis was used to generate the severe accident conditions (SAC) for a large dry pressurized-water reactor (PWR), a boiling-water reactor (BWR) Mark I drywell, and a BWR Mark III wetwell. Based on a survey conducted by Sandia, each EPA was matched with the severe accident conditions for a specific reactor type. This included the type of containment that a particular EPA design was used in most frequently. Thus, the D. G. O'Brien EPA was chosen for the PWR SAC test, the Westinghouse was chosen for the Mark III test, and the Conax was chosen for the Mark I test. The EPAs were radiation and thermal aged to simulate the effects of a 40-year service life and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) before the SAC tests were conducted. The design, test preparations, conduct of the severe accident test, experimental results, posttest observations, and conclusions about the integrity and electrical performance of each EPA tested in this program are described in this report. In general, the leak integrity of the EPAs tested in this program was not compromised by severe accident loads. However, there was significant degradation in the insulation resistance of the cables, which could affect the electrical performance of equipment and devices inside containment at some point during the progression of a severe accident. 10 refs., 165 figs., 16 tabs

  16. Two Dimensional Heat Transfer around Penetrations in Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wesley L.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Jumper, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this task was to quantify thermal losses involving integrating MLI into real life situations. Testing specifically focused on the effects of penetrations (including structural attachments, electrical conduit/feedthroughs, and fluid lines) through MLI. While there have been attempts at quantifying these losses both analytically and experimentally, none have included a thorough investigation of the methods and materials that could be used in such applications. To attempt to quantify the excess heat load coming into the system due to the integration losses, a calorimeter was designed to study two dimensional heat transfer through penetrated MLI. The test matrix was designed to take as many variables into account as was possible with the limited test duration and system size. The parameters varied were the attachment mechanism, the buffer material (for buffer attachment mechanisms only), the thickness of the buffer, and the penetration material. The work done under this task is an attempt to measure the parasitic heat loads and affected insulation areas produced by system integration, to model the parasitic loads, and from the model produce engineering equations to allow for the determination of parasitic heat loads in future applications. The methods of integration investigated were no integration, using a buffer to thermally isolate the strut from the MLI, and temperature matching the MLI on the strut. Several materials were investigated as a buffer material including aerogel blankets, aerogel bead packages, cryolite, and even an evacuated vacuum space (in essence a no buffer condition).

  17. Analysis of Reactor Vessel Lower Head Penetration Tube Failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stempniewicz, Marek

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents results of two studies, performed to investigate the behavior of the reactor vessel penetration tubes in case of relocation of molten material into the tubes. The first study is on the CORVIS drain line experiment 03/1. Results of pre-test calculations are presented, and compared to the later obtained experimental data. The timing of the drain line melting and the velocity of the debris flowing inside the drain line were predicted correctly, but the penetration depth was clearly underestimated. If the calculations are done using different correlation for the melt-to-wall convective heat transfer, the results are closer to the experiment. It cannot however be concluded that the alternative correlation is more appropriate until other uncertainties are clarified. The second study presents calculations performed for GKN Dodewaard CRD, instrument tubes and drain line. Calculations were performed to estimate whether the tubes have a chance to withstand the first attack of the melt and thus postpone vessel failure until the water in the lower plenum evaporates. Calculations were performed assuming that the melt can move into the tubes without any resistance, e.g. presence of water in the tubes was not taken into account. The results indicate that the critical penetration of the GKN vessel, which is most likely to fail, is the drain line. Results also indicate that external flooding should prevent early tube failure, at least in case of low vessel pressure. (author)

  18. Influence of the mole penetrator on measurements of heat flow in lunar subsurface layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzaszek, Roman; Drogosz, Michal; Seweryn, Karol; Banaszkiewicz, Marek; Grygorczuk, Jerzy

    Measuring the thermal gradient in subsurface layers is a basic method of determination the heat flux from the interior of a planetary body to its surface. In case of the Moon, such measurements complemented with the results of theoretical analysis and modeling can significantly improve our understanding of the thermal and geological evolution of the Moon. In practice, temperature gradient measurements are performed by at least two sensors located at different depths under the surface. These sensors will be attached to a penetrator [1] or to a cable pulled behind the penetrator. In both cases the object that carries the sensors, e.g. penetrator, perturb temperature measurements. In our study we analyze a case of two thermal sensors attached to the ends of 350mm long penetrator made of a composite material. In agreement with the studies of other authors we have found that the penetrator should be placed at the depth of 2-3 meters, where periodic changes of the temperature due to variation of solar flux at the surface are significantly smaller than the error of temperature measurement. The most important result of our analysis is to show how to deconvolve the real gradient of the temperature from the measurements perturbed by the penetrator body. In this way it will be possible to more accurately determine heat flux in the lunar regolith. [1] Grygorczuk J., Seweryn K., Wawrzaszek R., Banaszkiewicz M., Insertion of a Mole Pene-trator -Experimental Results, /39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference /League City, Texas 2008

  19. Drop spreading and penetration into pre-wetted powders

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy

    2013-05-01

    We present results from an experimental study of the impact of liquid drops onto powder beds which are pre-wetted with the impacting liquid. Using high-speed video imaging, we study both the dynamics of the initial spreading regime and drainage times once the drop has reached its maximum spread on the surface. During the initial spreading stage, we compare our experimental data to a previously developed model which incorporates imbibition into the spreading dynamics and observe reasonable agreement. We find that the maximum spread is a strong function of the moisture content in the powder bed and that the total time from impact to complete drainage is always shorter than that for dry powder. Our results indicate that there is an optimum moisture content (or saturation) which leads to the fastest penetration. We use simple scaling arguments which also identify an optimum moisture content for fastest penetration, which agrees very well with the experimental result. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  20. In vitro penetration of bleaching agents into the pulp chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Valera, M C; Mancini, M N G

    2004-01-01

    To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures.......To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures....

  1. Thermal-Hydraulic Integral Effect Test with the ATLS for Investigation on CEDM Penetration Nozzle Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyoungho; Seokcho; Park, Hyunsik; Choi, Namhyun; Park, Yusun; Kim, Jongrok; Bae, Byounguhn; Kim, Yeonsik; Choi, Kiyong; Song, Chulhwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In this study, thermal-hydraulic integral effect test with the ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-Hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation) was performed for simulating a failure of CEDM penetration nozzle. The main objectives of the present test were not only to provide physical insight into the system response during a failure of CEDM penetration nozzle but also to establish an integral effect test database for the validation of the safety analysis codes. Furthermore, present experimental data were utilized to resolve the safety issue raised by the PWSCC at the CEDM penetration nozzle of the YGN-3. Thermal-hydraulic integral effect test with the ATLAS was performed for simulating a failure of CEDM penetration nozzle. Failure of two penetration nozzles of the CEDM in the APR1400 was simulated. Initial and boundary conditions were determined with respect to the reference conditions of the APR1400. However, with an aim of corresponding to the YGN-3 situation, the safety injection water was supplied via CLI mode. Compared to the cold leg break SBLOCA, the consequences of the event were milder in terms of a loop seal clearance, break flow rate, collapsed water level, and PCT. This could be mainly attributed to the small break flow rate in case of the failure in the RPV upper head. Present experimental data were utilized to resolve the safety issue raised by the PWSCC at the CEDM penetration nozzle of the YGN-3.

  2. Lipid peroxidation and water penetration in lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elena; Megli, Francesco Maria; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    to the hydroperoxide groups to interact with the nitroxide at the methyl-terminal, confirming that the H-bonds experimentally observed are due to increased water penetration in the bilayer. The EPR and MD data on model membranes demonstrate that cell membrane damage by oxidative stress cause alteration of water......(zz) parameters revealed that OHPLPC, but mostly HpPLPC, induced a measurable increase in polarity and H-bonding propensity in the central region of the bilayer. Molecular dynamics simulation performed on 16-DSA in the PLPC-HpPLPC bilayer revealed that water molecules are statistically favored with respect...

  3. Advanced Signal Analysis for Forensic Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Koppenjan; Matthew Streeton; Hua Lee; Michael Lee; Sashi Ono

    2004-06-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems have traditionally been used to image subsurface objects. The main focus of this paper is to evaluate an advanced signal analysis technique. Instead of compiling spatial data for the analysis, this technique conducts object recognition procedures based on spectral statistics. The identification feature of an object type is formed from the training vectors by a singular-value decomposition procedure. To illustrate its capability, this procedure is applied to experimental data and compared to the performance of the neural-network approach.

  4. A review of penetration mechanisms and dynamic properties of tungsten and depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, S.P.; Caligiuri, R.D.; Eiselstein, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Over the last decade, depleted uranium (DU) and tungsten alloys have been the materials of choice for kinetic energy penetrators. However, despite improvements in mechanical properties in recent years, the penetration performance of tungsten still lags behind that of DU. One possible reason is the difference in deformation mechanisms- DU alloys tend to shear band as they penetrate the target material, whereas tungsten penetrators tend to mushroom. As a first step to determining whether shear banding is truly the reason for superior DU performance, a review and summary of the available information was performed. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of the formulation, high strain- rate properties, and penetration phenomena of penetrators manufactured from both tungsten and DU alloys. Specifically, the effects of composition, processing, and heat treatment on mechanical properties and penetration mechanisms of these alloys are discussed. Penetration data and models for penetration mechanisms (in particular shear banding) are also presented, as well as the applicability of these models and their salient features

  5. Rapid penetration into granular media visualizing the fundamental physics of rapid earth penetration

    CERN Document Server

    Iskander, Magued

    2015-01-01

    Rapid Penetration into Granular Media: Visualizing the Fundamental Physics of Rapid Earth Penetration introduces readers to the variety of methods and techniques used to visualize, observe, and model the rapid penetration of natural and man-made projectiles into earth materials. It provides seasoned practitioners with a standard reference that showcases the topic's most recent developments in research and application. The text compiles the findings of new research developments on the subject, outlines the fundamental physics of rapid penetration into granular media, and assembles a com

  6. Aft-body loading function for penetrators based on the spherical cavity-expansion approximation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longcope, Donald B., Jr.; Warren, Thomas Lynn; Duong, Henry

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we develop an aft-body loading function for penetration simulations that is based on the spherical cavity-expansion approximation. This loading function assumes that there is a preexisting cavity of radius a{sub o} before the expansion occurs. This causes the radial stress on the cavity surface to be less than what is obtained if the cavity is opened from a zero initial radius. This in turn causes less resistance on the aft body as it penetrates the target which allows for greater rotation of the penetrator. Results from simulations are compared with experimental results for oblique penetration into a concrete target with an unconfined compressive strength of 23 MPa.

  7. Analytical model for cratering of semi-infinite metallic targets by long rod penetrators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Analytical model is presented herein to predict the diameter of crater in semi-infinite metallic targets struck by a long rod penetrator. Based on the observation that two mechanisms such as mushrooming and cavitation are involved in cavity expansion by a long rod penetrator, the model is constructed by using the laws of conservation of mass, momentum, energy, together with the u-v relationship of the newly suggested 1D theory of long rod penetration (see Lan and Wen, Sci China Tech Sci, 2010, 53(5): 1364–1373). It is demonstrated that the model predictions are in good agreement with available experimental data and numerical simulations obtained for the combinations of penetrator and target made of different materials.

  8. Penetration Characteristics of Air, Carbon Dioxide and Helium Transverse Sonic Jets in Mach 5 Cross Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erinc Erdem

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation of sonic air, CO2 and Helium transverse jets in Mach 5 cross flow was carried out over a flat plate. The jet to freestream momentum flux ratio, J, was kept the same for all gases. The unsteady flow topology was examined using high speed schlieren visualisation and PIV. Schlieren visualisation provided information regarding oscillating jet shear layer structures and bow shock, Mach disc and barrel shocks. Two-component PIV measurements at the centreline, provided information regarding jet penetration trajectories. Barrel shocks and Mach disc forming the jet boundary were visualised/quantified also jet penetration boundaries were determined. Even though J is kept the same for all gases, the penetration patterns were found to be remarkably different both at the nearfield and the farfield. Air and CO2 jet resulted similar nearfield and farfield penetration pattern whereas Helium jet spread minimal in the nearfield.

  9. Enclosed Small and Medium Caliber Firing Experimental Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility conducts completely instrumented terminal ballistics experimental tests with small and medium-caliber tungsten alloy penetrators against advanced armor...

  10. Two simple methods for calculating the penetration time of a longitudinal magnetic field through the wall of a metallic tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez D, H.; Colunga S, S.; Lopez C, R.; Melendez L, L.; Ramos S, J.; Cabral P, A.; Gonzalez T, L.; Chavez A, E.; Valencia A, R.

    1991-06-01

    Two simple and fast methods to calculate the penetration time of a longitudinal magnetic field through the wall of a long metallic tube of circular cross section are presented. The first method is based upon the proposition of an 'effective penetration thickness' given by the polar angle average of all possible straight-line transverse penetration paths of field lines through the tube wall. This method provides a quick calculation that yields a remarkably good approximation to experimental and reported values of the penetration time. In the second method the tube is considered as a RL circuit. Thus the penetration time is given by the ratio L T /R T where L T is the inductance of the tube considered as a one turn coil, and R T is the tube resistance. This method is faster to apply than the previous one but the values obtained provide only a rough approximation to the penetration time. Applications of the two methods are given for the tokamak chambers of the Japanese 'HYBTOK', the Brazilian 'TBR' and the Mexican 'Novillo'. The resulting values of the penetration time approximate very well to the reported ones in the first two cases and to the experimental one in the last. The methods are also applied to calculate the penetration time in two long tubes, one of aluminum and other of copper. Calculated values approximate very well to measured values. (Author)

  11. Thermal Behavior of the Reactor Vessel Penetration Under External Vessel Cooling During a Severe Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyoung-Ho; Park, Rae-Joon; Kim, Jong-Tae; Min, Byung-Tae; Lee, Ki-Young; Kim, Sang-Baik

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies on the thermal behavior of reactor vessel penetration have been performed under external vessel cooling during a severe accident in the Korean next-generation reactor APR1400. Two types of tests, SUS-EXT and SUS-DRY with and without external vessel cooling, respectively, have been performed using sustained heating by an induction heater. Three tests have been carried out varying the cooling conditions at the vessel outer surface in the SUS-EXT tests. The experimental results have been thermally estimated using the LILAC computer code. The experimental results indicate that the inner surface of the vessel was ablated by the 45-mm thickness in the SUS-DRY test. Despite the total ablation of the welding material, the penetration was not ejected outside the vessel, which could be attributed to the thermal expansion of the penetration. Unlike the SUS-DRY test, the thickness of the ablation was ∼15 to 20 mm at most, so the welding was preserved in the SUS-EXT tests. It is concluded from the experimental results that the external vessel cooling highly affected the ablation configuration and the thermal behaviors of the vessel and the penetration. An increase in coolant mass flow rate from 0.047 to 0.152 kg/s had effects on the thermal behavior of the lower head vessel and penetration in the SUS-EXT tests. The LILAC analytical results on temperature distribution and ablation depth in the lower head vessel and penetration were very similar to the experimental results

  12. Deformation analysis of shallow penetration in clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagaseta, C.; Whittle, A. J.; Santagata, M.

    1997-10-01

    A new method of analysis is described for estimating the deformations and strains caused by shallow undrained penetration of piles and caissons in clay. The formulation combines previous analyses for steady, deep penetration, with methods used to compute soil deformations due to near-surface ground loss, and is referred to as the Shallow Strain Path Method (SSPM). Complete analytical solutions for the velocity and strain rates are given for a planar wall, an axisymmetric, closed-ended pile and unplugged, open-ended pile geometries. In these examples, the analyses consider a single source penetrating through the soil at a constant rate, generating a family of penetrometers with rounded tips, referred to as simple wall, pile and tube geometries. Soil deformations and strains are obtained by integrating the velocity and strain rates along the particle paths.The transition from shallow to deep penetration is analysed in detail. Shallow penetration causes heave at the ground surface, while settlements occur only in a thin veneer of material adjacent to the shaft and in a bulb-shaped region around the tip. The size of this region increases with the embedment depth. Deformations inside an open-ended pile/caisson are affected significantly by details of the simple tube wall geometry.

  13. Two methodologies for physical penetration testing using social engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; van Cleeff, A.; Pieters, Wolter; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2010-01-01

    Penetration tests on IT systems are sometimes coupled with physical penetration tests and social engineering. In physical penetration tests where social engineering is allowed, the penetration tester directly interacts with the employees. These interactions are usually based on deception and if not

  14. Opportunities for high wind energy penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, J.O.; Hansen, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Wind power is today a mature technology, which at windy locations, is economically competitive to conventional power generation technologies. This and growing global environmental concerns have led governments to encourage and plan for wind energy development, a typical aim being 10% of electricity...... consumption. The successful operation of the three major power systems of Cape Verde, with a total wind energy penetration of about 15% since December 1994, demonstrates that power systems can be operated with high penetration of wind energy by adding simple control and monitoring systems only. Thorough...... analyses conclude that expanding to even above 15% wind energy penetration in the Cape Verde power systems is economical. Worldwide, numerous locations with favorable wind conditions and power systems similar to the Capeverdean provide good opportunities for installing wind farms and achieving high wind...

  15. WAPTT - Web Application Penetration Testing Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURIC, Z.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Web applications vulnerabilities allow attackers to perform malicious actions that range from gaining unauthorized account access to obtaining sensitive data. The number of reported web application vulnerabilities in last decade is increasing dramatically. The most of vulnerabilities result from improper input validation and sanitization. The most important of these vulnerabilities based on improper input validation and sanitization are: SQL injection (SQLI, Cross-Site Scripting (XSS and Buffer Overflow (BOF. In order to address these vulnerabilities we designed and developed the WAPTT (Web Application Penetration Testing Tool tool - web application penetration testing tool. Unlike other web application penetration testing tools, this tool is modular, and can be easily extended by end-user. In order to improve efficiency of SQLI vulnerability detection, WAPTT uses an efficient algorithm for page similarity detection. The proposed tool showed promising results as compared to six well-known web application scanners in detecting various web application vulnerabilities.

  16. Penetrating power of resonant electromagnetic induction imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Guilizzoni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of revealing the presence and identifying the nature of conductive targets is of central interest in many fields, including security, medicine, industry, archaeology and geophysics. In many applications, these targets are shielded by external materials and thus cannot be directly accessed. Hence, interrogation techniques are required that allow penetration through the shielding materials, in order for the target to be identified. Electromagnetic interrogation techniques represent a powerful solution to this challenge, as they enable penetration through conductive shields. In this work, we demonstrate the power of resonant electromagnetic induction imaging to penetrate through metallic shields (1.5-mm-thick and image targets (having conductivities σ ranging from 0.54 to 59.77 MSm−1 concealed behind them.

  17. Wireless Network Penetration Testing and Security Auditing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shao-Long

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IEEE802.11 wireless wireless networks have security issues that are vulnerable to a variety of attacks. Due to using radio to transport data, attackers can bypass firewalls, sniff sensitive information, intercept packets and send malicious packets. Security auditing and penetration testing is expected to ensure wireless networks security. The contributions of this work are analyzed the vulnerability and types of attacks pertaining to IEEE 802.11 WLAN, performed well known attacks in a laboratory environment to conduct penetration tests to confirm whether our wireless network is hackable or not. WAIDPS is configured as auditing tool to view wireless attacks, such as WEP/WPA/WPA2 cracking, rouge access points, denial of service attack. WAIDPS is designed to detect wireless intrusion with additional features. Penetration testing and auditing will mitigate the risk and threatening to protect WALN.

  18. Penetrating chest injury: A miraculous life salvage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh B Dalavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An unusual penetrating chest injury was caused by high velocity road traffic accident. An 18-year-old had a four wheeler accident and was brought in emergency department with a ′bamboo′ stick on the left side chest exiting through back. After the stabilization of vital parameters, an inter-costal tube drainage was done on the left side. Except the minor brochopleural fistula which healed by 10 th day, his recovery was uneventful. The outcome was consistent with current aggressive management of penetrating chest injuries. Management of penetrating chest injury involving pulmonary trauma is based on three principles. One is stabilization of hemodynamics of patient with proper clinical evaluation. Second, a mere intercostal tube drainage sufficient for majority of the cases. Third, post-operative active as well as passive physiotherapy is necessary for speedy recovery.

  19. The Current Status of the Japanese Penetrator Mission: LUNAR-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S.; Shiraishi, H.; Fujimura, A.; Hayakawa, H.

    The scientific objective of the LUNAR-A, Japanese Penetrator Mission, is to explore the lunar interior by seismic and heat-flow experiments. Two penetrators containing two seismometers (horizontal and vertical components) and heat-flow probes will be deployed from a spacecraft onto the lunar surface, one on the nearside and the other on the farside of the moon. The final impact velocity of the penetrator will be about 300m/sec; it will encounter a shock of about 8000 G at impact on the lunar surface. According to numerous experimental impact tests using model penetrators and a lunar regolith analog target, each penetrator is predicted to penetrate to a depth of 1 to 3 m. The data obtained by the penetrators will be transmitted to the earth station via the LUNAR-A mother spacecraft orbiting at an altitude of about 200 km. The penetrator is a missile-shaped instrument carrier, which is about 14cm in diameter, 75cm in length, and about 14kg in weight without attitude control system. It contains a two-component seismometer and heat flow probes together with other supporting instruments such as a tilt meter and an accelerometer. The seismic observations are expected to provide key data on the size of the lunar core, as well as data on deep lunar mantle structure. The heat flow measurements at two penetrator deployment sites will also provide important data on the thermal structure and bulk concentrations of heat-generating elements in the Moon. These data will provide much stronger geophysical constraints on the origin and evolution of the Moon than has been obtained so far. The LUNAR-A spacecraft was supposed to be launched in the summer of 2004, but it was postponed due to the necessity of a replacement of the valves used in the RCS propulsion system of the spacecraft, following a recall issued by the manufacturer who found a malfunction of similar valves. Then, the technological review boards by ISAS and JAXA recommended that both the more robustness of the

  20. Development Of The Nuclear Optical Penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K.; Koike, K.; Imada, Y.

    1984-10-01

    We have developed the nuclear optical penetration to be incorporated in the wall penetration of the shell to introduce a data transmission system using optical fibers into a nuclear power plant with a pressurized water reactor. Radiation-induced coloration in optical glass seriously affects transmission characteristics of optical fibers, whereas it has been revealed that the pure-silica core optical fiber without any dopant in the core has wide applicability in radiation fields thanks to its very low radiation-induced attenuation. The wall penetration of the shell should have airtightness and resistivity to heat, vibration, and pressure, let alone radiation, excellent enough to be invariable in data transmission efficiency even when subjected to severe environmental tests. The sealing modules of this newly developed nuclear optical penetration are hermetically sealed. The gap between the optical fiber rod (100 pm in core diameter and 5 mm in rod diameter) and stainless steel tube is sealed with lamingted glass layer. As the result of He gas leakage test, high airtightness of less than 10 cc/sec was achieved. No thermal deformation of the core was caused by sealing with laminated glass layer, nor was observed transmission loss. Then the sealiing modules were subjected to the irradiation test using 60 Co gamma ray exposure of 2 x 10 rads. Though silica glass layer supporting the fiber rod and sealing glass portion turned blackish purple, transparency of the fiber was not affected. Only less than 0.5 dB of connecting loss was observed at the connecting point with the optical fiber cable. The sealing modules were also found to have resistivity to vibration and pressure as excellent as that of existing nuclear electric penetrations. We expect the nuclear optical fiber penetration will be much effective in improving reliability of data transmission systems using optical fibers in radiation fields.

  1. Advanced ground-penetrating, imaging radar for bridge inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warhus, J.P.; Nelson, S.D.; Mast, J.E.; Johansson, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    During FY-93, the authors continued with development and experimental evaluation of components and system concepts aimed at improving ground-penetrating imaging radar (GPIR) for nondestructive evaluation of bridge decks and other high-value concrete structures. They developed and implemented a laboratory test bed, including features to facilitate component testing antenna system configuration evaluation, and collection of experimental data from realistic test objects. In addition, they developed pulse generators and antennas for evaluation and use in antenna configuration studies. This project was part of a cooperative effort with the Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics and Remote Imaging and Signal Engineering Thrust Areas, which contributed signal- and image-processing algorithm and software development and modeling support

  2. HMO penetration: has it hurt public hospitals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J P; Grazier, K L

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration within the public hospitals' market area affects the financial performance and viability of these institutions, relative to private hospitals. Hospital- and market-specific measures are examined in a fully interacted model of over 2,300 hospitals in 321 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in 1995. Although hospitals located in markets with higher HMO penetration have lower financial performance as reflected in revenues, expenses and operating margin, public hospitals are not more disadvantaged than other hospitals by managed care.

  3. Operational experience of extreme wind penetrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estanqueiro, Ana [INETI/LNEG - National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisbon (Portugal); Mateus, Carlos B. [Instituto de Meteorologia, Lisboa (Portugal); Pestana, Rui [Redes Energeticas Nacionais (REN), Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports the operational experience from the Portuguese Power System during the 2009/2010 winter months when record wind penerations were observed: the instantaneous wind power penetration peaked at 70% of consumption during no-load periods and the wind energy accounted for more than 50% of the energy consumed for a large period. The regulation measures taken by the TSO are presented in the paper, together with the additional reserves operated for added system security. Information on the overall power system behavior under such extreme long-term wind power penetrations will also be addressed. (org.)

  4. Hybrid treatment of penetrating aortic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, Juan Antonio Herrero; Martins-Romeo, Daniela de Araujo; Escudero, Carlos Caparros; Falcon, Maria del Carmen Prieto; Batista, Vinicius Bianchi; Vazquez, Rosa Maria Lepe

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating atherosclerotic aortic ulcer is a rare entity with poor prognosis in the setting of acute aortic syndrome. In the literature, cases like the present one, located in the aortic arch, starting with chest pain and evolving with dysphonia, are even rarer. The present report emphasizes the role played by computed tomography in the diagnosis of penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer as well as in the differentiation of this condition from other acute aortic syndromes. Additionally, the authors describe a new therapeutic approach represented by a hybrid endovascular surgical procedure for treatment of the disease. (author)

  5. Hybrid treatment of penetrating aortic ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Juan Antonio Herrero; Martins-Romeo, Daniela de Araujo; Escudero, Carlos Caparros; Falcon, Maria del Carmen Prieto; Batista, Vinicius Bianchi, E-mail: jaherrero5@hotmail.com [Unidade de Gestao Clinica (UGC) de Diagnostico por Imagem - Hosppital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Sevilha (Spain); Vazquez, Rosa Maria Lepe [Unit of Radiodiagnosis - Hospital Nuestra Senora de la Merced, Osuna, Sevilha (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    Penetrating atherosclerotic aortic ulcer is a rare entity with poor prognosis in the setting of acute aortic syndrome. In the literature, cases like the present one, located in the aortic arch, starting with chest pain and evolving with dysphonia, are even rarer. The present report emphasizes the role played by computed tomography in the diagnosis of penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer as well as in the differentiation of this condition from other acute aortic syndromes. Additionally, the authors describe a new therapeutic approach represented by a hybrid endovascular surgical procedure for treatment of the disease. (author)

  6. Roentgenologic image of penetrating duodenal bulb ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strunin, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    When studying a series of aimed roentgenograms in patients with peptic ulcer a gas bubble of irregular spherical configuration or two-layer niche were determined near the bulb medial contour. Gas bubble was from 0.5-0.7 to 3.5 cm in diameter. In such cases penetrating ulcers were determined in operations. Along with other signs gas bubble symptom, sometimes two-layer signs may be used for timely and exact roentgenological diagnosis of penetrating duodenal bulb ulcer in peptic ulcer disease

  7. Fractal measures in a deep penetration problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, K.P.N.; Indira, R.; John, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    In the Monte Carlo simulation of a deep penetration problem the parameter, say b in the importance function must be assigned a value b' such that variance is minimum. If b b' the sample mean is still not reliable; but the sample fluctuations would be small and misleading, though the actual fluctuations are quite large. This is because the distribution of transmission has a tail which becomes prominent when b > b'. Considering a model deep penetration problem, and employing exact enumeration techniques, it is shown that in the limit of large biasing the long tailed distribution to the transmission is multifractal. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs

  8. Generic Penetration of the SSRI Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascade, Elisa F; Kalali, Amir H

    2008-04-01

    In this article, we investigate the penetration of generic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the US market and the implications for patient out-of-pocket expense. The data suggest that generic penetration into the SSRI market has grown from approximately nine percent in 2000, the year that the patent for Prozac((R)) expired, to 72 percent in 2007. For December, 2007, the difference in patient out-of-pocket expense for branded vs. generic agents was, on average, $55.42 for patients paying by cash (i.e., they had no prescription drug insurance) and $22.39 for patients with insurance coverage.

  9. Penetrating ocular trauma from trampoline spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokes, David; Siddiqui, Salina; Vize, Colin

    2010-02-01

    The case is presented of a 12-year old boy who sustained severe penetrating ocular trauma while playing on a domestic trampoline. A main spring broke under tension and the hook had struck the eye at high velocity and penetrated the sclera. Primary repair was undertaken but on review it became apparent the eye could not be salvaged. Evisceration was carried out and an orbital implant was placed. Post-operative cosmesis is acceptable. This type of injury has not been reported before. Adult supervision of children on trampolines is recommended to minimise the chance of serious injury.

  10. Experimental test of magnetic photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakes, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    A 'magnetic' photon hypothesis associated with magnetic monopoles is tested experimentally. These photons are predicted to easily penetrate metal. Experimentally the optical transmittance T of a metal foil was less than 2x10-17. The hypothesis is not supported since it predicts T=2x10-12

  11. Terminal ballistics of a reduced-mass penetrator. Final report, January 1990--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silsby, G.F.

    1996-07-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental program to examine the performance of a reduced-mass concept penetrator impacting semi-infinite rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) at normal incidence. The reduced-mass penetrator used in this program is a solid tungsten alloy rod with eight holes drilled parallel to its axis, equally spaced on a circle, with axes parallel to the rod axis. Its performance was contrasted with baseline data for length-to- diameter ratios (L/D) 4 and 5 solid tungsten alloy penetrators. Striking velocity was nominally 1.6 km/s. A determined effort to reduce the scatter in the data by analysis of collateral data from the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and literature sources suggested only a rather weak influence of L/D on penetration even at L/Ds approaching 1 and provided a tentative relationship to remove the influence of target lateral edge effects. It tightened up the holed-out rod data enough to be able to conclude with a moderate degree of certainty that there was no improvement in penetration as suggested by a simplistic density law model. A companion work by Kimsey of ARL examines the performance of this novel penetrator concept computationally, using the Eulerian code CTH. His work explains the possible causes of reduced performance suggested by analysis by Zook and Frank of ARL, though with some relative improvement in performance at higher velocities.

  12. Mechanism of long-range penetration of low-energy ions in botanic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Feng; Wang Yugang; Xue Jianming; Wang Sixue; Du Guanghua; Yan Sha; Zhao Weijiang

    2002-01-01

    The authors present experimental evidence to reveal the mechanism of long-range penetration of low-energy ions in botanic samples. In the 100 keV Ar + ion transmission measurement, the result confirmed that low-energy ions could penetrate at least 60 μm thick kidney bean slices with the probability of about 1.0 x 10 -5 . The energy spectrum of 1 MeV He + ions penetrating botanic samples has shown that there is a peak of the count of ions with little energy loss. The probability of the low-energy ions penetrating the botanic sample is almost the same as that of the high-energy ions penetrating the same samples with little energy loss. The results indicate that there are some micro-regions with mass thickness less than the projectile range of low-energy ions in the botanic samples and they result in the long-range penetration of low-energy ions in botanic samples

  13. High-velocity Penetration of Concrete Targets with Three Types of Projectiles: Experiments and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhang

    Full Text Available Abstract This study conducted high-velocity penetration experiments using conventional ogive-nose, double-ogive-nose, and grooved-tapered projectiles of approximately 2.5 kg and initial velocities between 1000 and 1360 m/s to penetrate or perforate concrete targets with unconfined compressive strengths of nominally 40MPa. The penetration performance data of these three types of projectiles with two different types of materials (i.e., AerMet100 and DT300 were obtained. The crater depth model considering both the projectile mass and the initial velocity was proposed based on the test results and a theoretical analysis. The penetration ability and the trajectory stability of these three projectile types were compared and analyzed accordingly. The results showed that, under these experimental conditions, the effects of these two different kinds of projectile materials on the penetration depth and mass erosion rate of projectile were not obvious. The existing models could not reflect the crater depths for projectiles of greater weights or higher velocities, whereas the new model established in this study was reliable. The double-ogive-nose has a certain effect of drag reduction. Thus, the double-ogive-nose projectile has a higher penetration ability than the conventional ogive-nose projectile. Meanwhile, the grooved-tapered projectile has a better trajectory stability, because the convex parts of tapered shank generated the restoring moment to stabilize the trajectory.

  14. An efficient soil penetration strategy for explorative robots inspired by plant root circumnutation movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Dottore, Emanuela; Mondini, Alessio; Sadeghi, Ali; Mattoli, Virgilio; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2017-11-10

    This paper presents a comparative analysis in terms of energy required by an artificial probe to penetrate soil implementing two different strategies: a straight penetration movement; and a circumnutation, which is a peculiar root movement in plants. The role of circumnutations in plant roots is still reason of debate. We hypothesized that circumnutation movements can help roots in penetrating soil and we validated our assumption testing the probe at three distinct soil densities and using various combinations of circumnutation amplitude and period for each soil. The comparison was based on the total work done by the system while circumnutating at its tip level respect that showed by the same system in straight penetration. The total energy evaluation confirmed an improvement obtained by circumnutations up to 33%. We also proposed a fitting model for our experimental data that was used to estimate energy needed by the probe to penetrate soil at different dimensions and circumnutation amplitudes. Results show the existence of a trade-off among penetration velocity, circumnutation period and amplitude towards an energy consumption optimization, expressed by the lead angle of the helical path that should stay in the range between 46° and 65°. Moreover, circumnutations with appropriate amplitude (~10°) and period (~80 s) values are more efficient than straight penetration also at different probe tip dimensions up to a threshold diameter (from 2 mm to 55 mm). Based on the obtained results, we speculated that circumnutations can represent a strategy used by plant roots to reduce pressure and energy needed to penetrate soil. In perspective, the translation of this biological feature in robotic systems will allow improving their energetic efficiency in digging capabilities and thus opening new scenarios of use in search and rescue, environmental monitoring and soil exploration. Creative Commons Attribution license.

  15. Tree root mapping with ground penetrating radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of ground penetrating radar (GPR) for the mapping of near surface tree roots is demonstrated. GPR enables tree roots to be mapped in a non-destructive and cost-effective manner and is therefore a useful prospecting...

  16. Penetration and haptenation of p-phenylenediamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, Laura M.; Scheitza, Simone M.; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Bloemeke, Brunhilde; Blomeke, B.

    Although p-phenylenediamine (PPD) has been recognized as an extreme sensitizer for many years, the exact mechanism of sensitization has not been elucidated yet. Penetration and the ability to bind to proteins are the first two hurdles that an allergen has to overcome to be able to sensitize. This

  17. Standard Penetration Test and Relative Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-02-01

    Se OPSeS Debido a que el agua subterranea granclemente influve la resistencia a suelo, se establecio una relacion empirica entre el nurmero de golpes...de laboratorio ejecutados con un penetr6metro est’tico pequeno. INTRODUCTION One of the main problems encountered in subsoil e’xploration is in situ

  18. Penetration of electronic beams in ionizing media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martiarena, M.L.; Zanete, D.H.; Garibotti, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    It is studied the penetration of an electron beam in an ionizable medium by means of a generalized kinetic equation. This equation is related to elastic collisions, processes of creation and destruction of particles. By integrating numerically the transport equation, it can be evaluated the relative effects of all the processes involved in the evolution of the system. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  19. Penetration of amalgam constituents into dentine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtanus, Johannes D.; Ozcan, Mutlu; Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte D. N. J. M.

    Objectives: Amalgam restorations are replaced by adhesively placed composite resin restorations at an increasing rate. After the removal of amalgam dentine often shows marked dark discoloration that is attributed to the penetration of corrosion products from overlying amalgams. it is questioned

  20. Penetration of amalgam constituents into dentine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtanus, J.D.; Ozcan, M.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Amalgam restorations are replaced by adhesively placed composite resin restorations at an increasing rate. After the removal of amalgam dentine often shows marked dark discoloration that is attributed to the penetration of corrosion products from overlying amalgams. It is questioned

  1. Computed tomographic findings in penetrating peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrazo, B.L.; Halpert, R.D.; Sandler, M.A.; Pearlberg, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Four cases of peptic ulcer penetrating the head of the pancreas were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT). Findings common to 3 cases included (a) an ulcer crater, (b) a sinus tract, and (c) enlargement of the head of the pancreas. Unlike other modalities, the inherent spatial resolution of CT allows a convenient diagnosis of this important complication of peptic ulcer disease

  2. Reduced penetrance in human inherited disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... tant role in cellular senescence, tumorigenesis and in several diseases including type ... between epigenetic DNA modifications and human life span has also been shown .... penetrance mutation that is age dependent especially when compared with the ..... on healthy aging and longevity. Immunity Aging ...

  3. STYLET PENETRATION BEHAVIOURS OF FOUR Cicadulina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Feeding from phloem cells, overall probing and probe mean (the average time per probe) were higher ... Key Words: Cicadulina spp., electrical penetration graph, MSV, Zea mays .... wire and alligator clip clamped to the stem of the .... á All measures are in minutes except for frequency of probing; - Main effect not significant.

  4. Percutaneous penetration studies for risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartorelli, Vittorio; Andersen, Helle Raun; Angerer, Jürgen

    2000-01-01

    experiences, literature data and guidelines already in existence. During the meetings of Percutaneous Penetration Subgroup they presented a number of short papers of up to date information on the key issues. The objective was to focus the existing knowledge and the gaps in the knowledge in the field...

  5. Penetration of albendazole sulphoxide into hydatid cysts.

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, D L; Chinnery, J B; Georgiou, G; Stamatakis, G; Golematis, B

    1987-01-01

    The penetration of albendazole sulphoxide, the principal metabolite of albendazole into hydatid cysts (E granulosus) was measured by means of in vitro animal and clinical studies. The drug freely diffuses across the parasitic membranes. Cyst/serum concentrations of 22% were achieved in patients, longer pre-operative therapy produced higher concentrations.

  6. Contribution to the penetration of radionuclides across the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.; Harangozo, M.; Kassai, Z.

    2000-01-01

    The human skin as well as the skin of animal species represent a strong barrier against the permeation of ionic forms of substances into an organism. Radionuclides of cesium, cobalt and actinides belong to frequent potential contaminants of human body at an accidental radioactive contamination. Regarding the actual composition of contaminating mixture of radionuclides the damage of an organism after internal contamination is proportional to the extent of penetrated amounts of radionuclides across the skin. In this paper: the time dependence of permeation of 137 Cs + , 60 Co 2+ , and 147 Pm 3+ from aqueous solution through animal skin model was studied, the biologic structure mostly responsible for the barrier effect was selected and proved, the relative importance of the main diffusion pathways for 137 Cs + , 60 Co 2+ and 147 Pm 3+ , the diffusion across the intact skin and the diffusion through the hair channels was assessed, the effect of isotopic carrier on the penetration process was studied, and the retarding capacities of different substances were researched. In all experiments the radioactive tracers were used. The experimental arrangement consisted of Franz-type vertical permeation cells. The well standardized animal skin models were chosen: fresh skin from abdominal region of 5 day old rats (5DR) of Wistar strain (Breeding Farm Dobra Voda, SK) and 9 day old rats (9DR), resp.. The skins of 5DR are still hairless, and 9DR are just short haired. The 5DR skin was used intact, and also with decreasing thickness of horny layer after it had been stripped with Scotch type (3M) 5-20 times respectively, or the skin had been splitted in 60degC hot water, whereby the whole epidermis was removed. Ions penetrated in vitro through the skin from donor solution (vehicle water) to receptor solution (phosphate buffered saline), were determined in aliquots sampled in 1,3,5,7 a 24 hours. The penetrated amounts of ions were found proportional to the time at least in the first 7

  7. Analysis of electrical penetration graph data: what to do with artificially terminated events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Observing the durations of hemipteran feeding behaviors via Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) results in situations where the duration of the last behavior is not ended by the insect under observation, but by the experimenter. These are artificially terminated events. In data analysis, one must ch...

  8. PENETRATION OF CONICAL INDENTER INTO FOUNDATION MATERIAL AT COMBINED PERCUSSION AND SUBSEQUENT ULTRASONIC IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Kiselev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is theoretical and experimental studys of a percussion and subsequent ultrasonic impacts on the indenter depth penetration into material of rigid-plastic foundation.The obtained results allow us to estimate an influence of percussion (low-frequency and ultrasound (high-frequency component parameters on a charging process.

  9. A theoretical study of cold nuclear fusion using barrier penetration approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Gupta, R.K.

    1989-06-01

    The cold nuclear fusion process is investigated in terms of barrier penetration calculations by considering both the deuteron-molecule and colliding deuteron-deuteron atoms. Atomic collisions with strongly screened interatomic potential and the resonant state formation can bring agreement with present experimental results. Analysis of the data in terms of the reaction rates is also discussed. (author). 13 refs, 1 tab

  10. Measurements of the effect of humidity on radio-aerosol penetration through ultrafine capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, C.

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of humidity on radio-aerosol penetration through ultrafine capillaries. A number of tests were conducted at relative humidities of 20%, 50%, and 80%, with sampling times of 20, 40, and 60 min. The radio-aerosol consisted of polystyrene particles with a diameter of 0.1 microm. The ultrafine capillaries had a diameter of 250 microm. The data from these tests varied significantly. These results made the identification of radio-aerosol penetration trends inconclusive. The standard deviation for all penetration data ranged from 3% to 30%. The results of this study suggest that a better control of the experimental parameters was needed to obtain more accurate data from experiments associated with radio-aerosol penetration in the presence of moisture. The experimental parameters that may have contributed to the wide variance of data, include aerosol flow, radio-aerosol generation, capillary characteristics, humidity control, and radiation measurements. It was the uncertainty of these parameters that contributed to the poor data which made conclusive deductions about radio-aerosol penetration dependence on humidity difficult. The application of this study is to ultrafine leaks resulting from stress fractures in high-level nuclear waste transportation casks under accident scenarios

  11. The Basics of Hacking and Penetration Testing Ethical Hacking and Penetration Testing Made Easy

    CERN Document Server

    Engebretson, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The Basics of Hacking and Penetration Testing serves as an introduction to the steps required to complete a penetration test or perform an ethical hack. You learn how to properly utilize and interpret the results of modern day hacking tools; which are required to complete a penetration test. Tool coverage will include, Backtrack Linux, Google, Whois, Nmap, Nessus, Metasploit, Netcat, Netbus, and more. A simple and clean explanation of how to utilize these tools will allow you  to gain a solid understanding of each of the four phases and prepare them to take on more in-depth texts and topi

  12. Modeling of light dynamic cone penetration test - Panda 3 ® in granular material by using 3D Discrete element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Quoc Anh; Chevalier, Bastien; Benz, Miguel; Breul, Pierre; Gourvès, Roland

    2017-06-01

    The recent technological developments made on the light dynamic penetration test Panda 3 ® provide a dynamic load-penetration curve σp - sp for each impact. This curve is influenced by the mechanical and physical properties of the investigated granular media. In order to analyze and exploit the load-penetration curve, a numerical model of penetration test using 3D Discrete Element Method is proposed for reproducing tests in dynamic conditions in granular media. All parameters of impact used in this model have at first been calibrated by respecting mechanical and geometrical properties of the hammer and the rod. There is a good agreement between experimental results and the ones obtained from simulations in 2D or 3D. After creating a sample, we will simulate the Panda 3 ®. It is possible to measure directly the dynamic load-penetration curve occurring at the tip for each impact. Using the force and acceleration measured in the top part of the rod, it is possible to separate the incident and reflected waves and then calculate the tip's load-penetration curve. The load-penetration curve obtained is qualitatively similar with that obtained by experimental tests. In addition, the frequency analysis of the measured signals present also a good compliance with that measured in reality when the tip resistance is qualitatively similar.

  13. Radon penetration of concrete slab cracks, joints, pipe penetrations, and sealants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielson, KK; Rogers, VC; Holt, RB; Pugh, TD; Grondzik, WA; deMeijer, RJ

    1997-01-01

    Radon movement through 12 test slabs with different cracks, pipe penetrations, cold joints, masonry blocks, sealants, and tensile stresses characterized the importance of these anomalous structural domains, Diffusive and advective radon transport were measured with steady-state air pressure

  14. The penetrating depth analysis of Lunar Penetrating Radar onboard Chang’e-3 rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shu-Guo; Su, Yan; Feng, Jian-Qing; Dai, Shun; Xiao, Yuan; Ding, Chun-Yu; Li, Chun-Lai

    2017-04-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) has successfully been used to acquire a large amount of scientific data during its in-situ detection. The analysis of penetrating depth can help to determine whether the target is within the effective detection range and contribute to distinguishing useful echoes from noise. First, this study introduces two traditional methods, both based on a radar transmission equation, to calculate the penetrating depth. The only difference between the two methods is that the first method adopts system calibration parameters given in the calibration report and the second one uses high-voltage-off radar data. However, some prior knowledge and assumptions are needed in the radar equation and the accuracy of assumptions will directly influence the final results. Therefore, a new method termed the Correlation Coefficient Method (CCM) is provided in this study, which is only based on radar data without any a priori assumptions. The CCM can obtain the penetrating depth according to the different correlation between reflected echoes and noise. To be exact, there is a strong correlation in the useful reflected echoes and a random correlation in the noise between adjacent data traces. In addition, this method can acquire a variable penetrating depth along the profile of the rover, but only one single depth value can be obtained from traditional methods. Through a simulation, the CCM has been verified as an effective method to obtain penetration depth. The comparisons and analysis of the calculation results of these three methods are also implemented in this study. Finally, results show that the ultimate penetrating depth of Channel 1 and the estimated penetrating depth of Channel 2 range from 136.9 m to 165.5 m ({\\varepsilon }r=6.6) and from 13.0 m to 17.5 m ({\\varepsilon }r=2.3), respectively.

  15. Benchmark experiments on neutron streaming through JET Torus Hall penetrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistoni, P.; Conroy, S.; Lilley, S.; Naish, J.; Obryk, B.; Popovichev, S.; Stamatelatos, I.; Syme, B.; Vasilopoulou, T.; contributors, JET

    2015-05-01

    Neutronics experiments are performed at JET for validating in a real fusion environment the neutronics codes and nuclear data applied in ITER nuclear analyses. In particular, the neutron fluence through the penetrations of the JET torus hall is measured and compared with calculations to assess the capability of state-of-art numerical tools to correctly predict the radiation streaming in the ITER biological shield penetrations up to large distances from the neutron source, in large and complex geometries. Neutron streaming experiments started in 2012 when several hundreds of very sensitive thermo-luminescence detectors (TLDs), enriched to different levels in 6LiF/7LiF, were used to measure the neutron and gamma dose separately. Lessons learnt from this first experiment led to significant improvements in the experimental arrangements to reduce the effects due to directional neutron source and self-shielding of TLDs. Here we report the results of measurements performed during the 2013-2014 JET campaign. Data from new positions, at further locations in the South West labyrinth and down to the Torus Hall basement through the air duct chimney, were obtained up to about a 40 m distance from the plasma neutron source. In order to avoid interference between TLDs due to self-shielding effects, only TLDs containing natural Lithium and 99.97% 7Li were used. All TLDs were located in the centre of large polyethylene (PE) moderators, with natLi and 7Li crystals evenly arranged within two PE containers, one in horizontal and the other in vertical orientation, to investigate the shadowing effect in the directional neutron field. All TLDs were calibrated in the quantities of air kerma and neutron fluence. This improved experimental arrangement led to reduced statistical spread in the experimental data. The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code was used to calculate the air kerma due to neutrons and the neutron fluence at detector positions, using a JET model validated up to the

  16. Prophylactic antibiotics for penetrating abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Martin; Grieve, Andrew

    2013-11-18

    Penetrating abdominal trauma occurs when the peritoneal cavity is breached. Routine laparotomy for penetrating abdominal injuries began in the 1800s, with antibiotics first being used in World War II to combat septic complications associated with these injuries. This practice was marked with a reduction in sepsis-related mortality and morbidity. Whether prophylactic antibiotics are required in the prevention of infective complications following penetrating abdominal trauma is controversial, however, as no randomised placebo controlled trials have been published to date. There has also been debate about the timing of antibiotic prophylaxis. In 1972 Fullen noted a 7% to 11% post-surgical infection rate with pre-operative antibiotics, a 33% to 57% infection rate with intra-operative antibiotic administration and 30% to 70% infection rate with only post-operative antibiotic administration. Current guidelines state there is sufficient class I evidence to support the use of a single pre-operative broad spectrum antibiotic dose, with aerobic and anaerobic cover, and continuation (up to 24 hours) only in the event of a hollow viscus perforation found at exploratory laparotomy. To assess the benefits and harms of prophylactic antibiotics administered for penetrating abdominal injuries for the reduction of the incidence of septic complications, such as septicaemia, intra-abdominal abscesses and wound infections. Searches were not restricted by date, language or publication status. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2013, issue 12 of 12), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (CPCI-S) and PubMed. Searches were last conducted in January 2013. All randomised controlled trials of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma versus no

  17. The contemporary management of penetrating splenic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Regan J; Inaba, Kenji; Okoye, Obi; Pasley, Jason; Teixeira, Pedro G; Esparza, Michael; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2014-09-01

    Selective non-operative management (NOM) is standard of care for clinically stable patients with blunt splenic trauma and expectant management approaches are increasingly utilised in penetrating abdominal trauma, including in the setting of solid organ injury. Despite this evolution of clinical practice, little is known about the safety and efficacy of NOM in penetrating splenic injury. Trauma registry and medical record review identified all consecutive patients presenting to LAC+USC Medical Center with penetrating splenic injury between January 2001 and December 2011. Associated injuries, incidence and nature of operative intervention, local and systemic complications and mortality were determined. During the study period, 225 patients experienced penetrating splenic trauma. The majority (187/225, 83%) underwent emergent laparotomy. Thirty-eight clinically stable patients underwent a deliberate trial of NOM and 24/38 (63%) were ultimately managed without laparotomy. Amongst patients failing NOM, 3/14 (21%) underwent splenectomy while an additional 6/14 (42%) had splenorrhaphy. Hollow viscus injury (HVI) occurred in 21% of all patients failing NOM. Forty percent of all NOM patients had diaphragmatic injury (DI). All patients undergoing delayed laparotomy for HVI or a splenic procedure presented symptomatically within 24h of the initial injury. No deaths occurred in patients undergoing NOM. Although the vast majority of penetrating splenic trauma requires urgent operative management, a group of patients does present without haemodynamic instability, peritonitis or radiologic evidence of hollow viscus injury. Management of these patients is complicated as over half may remain clinically stable and can avoid laparotomy, making them potential candidates for a trial of NOM. HVI is responsible for NOM failure in up to a fifth of these cases and typically presents within 24h of injury. Delayed laparotomy, within this limited time period, did not appear to increase

  18. Ballistic Phonon Penetration Depth in Amorphous Silicon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Zhiguang; Gerboth, Matthew; Zhao, Yang; Xu, Terry T; Walker, D Greg; Li, Deyu

    2017-12-13

    Thermal transport in amorphous silicon dioxide (a-SiO 2 ) is traditionally treated as random walks of vibrations owing to its greatly disordered structure, which results in a mean free path (MFP) approximately the same as the interatomic distance. However, this picture has been debated constantly and in view of the ubiquitous existence of thin a-SiO 2 layers in nanoelectronic devices, it is imperative to better understand this issue for precise thermal management of electronic devices. Different from the commonly used cross-plane measurement approaches, here we report on a study that explores the in-plane thermal conductivity of double silicon nanoribbons with a layer of a-SiO 2 sandwiched in-between. Through comparing the thermal conductivity of the double ribbon samples with that of corresponding single ribbons, we show that thermal phonons can ballistically penetrate through a-SiO 2 of up to 5 nm thick even at room temperature. Comprehensive examination of double ribbon samples with various oxide layer thicknesses and van der Waals bonding strengths allows for extraction of the average ballistic phonon penetration depth in a-SiO 2 . With solid experimental data demonstrating ballistic phonon transport through a-SiO 2 , this work should provide important insight into thermal management of electronic devices.

  19. Structural evolution of a granular medium during simultaneous penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gutiérrez, Jorge; Carreón, Yojana J. P.; Moctezuma, R. E.

    2018-01-01

    Typically, fluidized beds are granular systems composed of solid particles through which a fluid flows. They are relevant to a wide variety of disciplines such as physics, chemistry, engineering, among others. Generally, the fluidized beds are characterized by different flow regimes such as particulate, bubbling, slugging, turbulent, fast fluidization, and pneumatic conveying. Here, we report the experimental study of the structural evolution of a granular system due to simultaneous penetration of intruders in the presence of an upward airflow. We found that the granular medium evolves from the static state to the turbulent regime showing the coexistence of three regions in different flow regimes. Interestingly, the cooperative dynamic of intruders correlate with the formation of such regions. As a non-invasive method, we use lacunarity and fractal dimension to quantitatively describe the patterns arising within the system during the different stages of the penetration process. Finally, we found that our results would allow us to relate the evolution of the visual patterns appearing in the process with different physical properties of the system.

  20. Penetration effect in internal conversion and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Listengarten, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    The conditions for the appearance of the anomalous internal conversion coefficients (ICC) are considered, when the contribution of the penetration matrix element (PME) is of the order of or larger than the main part of the conversion matrix element. The experimental magnitudes of the nuclear PME agree well with those calculated in the framework of simple nuclear models, provided the magnitude of PME is not decreased due to the model -dependent selection rules. The magnitude of the anomaly ( lanbda parameter ) is compared with the exclusion factor of γ-transition relative to the Weisskopf estimation. The better is the model of the nucleus the weaker is the dependence of the lambda magnitude on the exclusion factor. ICC coefficients might be anomalous for those γ-transitions for which the exclusion factor calculated in the framework of more rigorous model are of the order of unity. In the ''ideal'' model of nucleus completely adequate to the true nuclear structure the dependence of the lambda penetration parameter on the exclusion factor vanishes

  1. Spherical cavity-expansion forcing function in PRONTO 3D for application to penetration problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, T.L.; Tabbara, M.R.

    1997-05-01

    In certain penetration events the primary mode of deformation of the target can be approximated by known analytical expressions. In the context of an analysis code, this approximation eliminates the need for modeling the target as well as the need for a contact algorithm. This technique substantially reduces execution time. In this spirit, a forcing function which is derived from a spherical-cavity expansion analysis has been implemented in PRONTO 3D. This implementation is capable of computing the structural and component responses of a projectile due to three dimensional penetration events. Sample problems demonstrate good agreement with experimental and analytical results.

  2. Temperature dependence of the optical conductivity and penetration depth in superconductor MgB2 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moarrefi, M.; Yavari, H.; Elahi, M.

    2010-01-01

    By using Green's function method the temperature dependence of the optical conductivity and penetration depth of high-quality MgB 2 film are calculated in the framework of the two-band model. We compare our results with experimental data and we argue that the single gap model is insufficient to describe the optical and penetration depth behavior, but the two-band model with different symmetries describes the data rather well. In the two gap model we consider that the both components of optical conductivity are a weighted sum of the contribution from σ and π bonds and hybridization between them is negligible.

  3. Containment penetration design criteria and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.F.; Rigamonti, G.; Dainora, J.

    1975-01-01

    A rational design criteria is presented which serves as a basis for the design and analysis of containment piping penetrations. The criteria includes the effect of temperature as well as mechanical loads for the full range of plant conditions. With this criteria various penetration flued head designs have been compared and optimization achieved. Sleeve wall dimensions and containment loads have been determined without reference to piping configuration. An interaction theory which allows the implementation of the criteria for the determination of design loads and minimum sleeve wall thickness. The interaction theory developed applies to elastic-perfectly plastic cylinders (pipes and sleeves) and accounts for the simultaneous load resultants of transverse shear force, bending moment, torsional moment, and axial force in addition to internal pipe pressure. Application of the theory developed to the determination of sleeve thickness and containment design loads is presented in detail. (Auth.)

  4. Ureteric transection secondary to penetrating handlebar injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Debbink

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ureteric trauma is rare, occurring in <1% of all traumas. We present a unique case of a 13 year old female who sustained a penetrating abdominal injury from a bicycle handlebar. Upon initial examination there was herniation of bowel through the abdominal wound, so exploratory laparotomy was performed. A serosal injury of the colon and bleeding mesenteric veins were encountered; the retroperitoneum was not explored at that time. Postoperative course was remarkable for a doubling of the serum creatinine, increasing abdominal distention and pain. Computed tomography on postoperative day five demonstrated a large amount of intra-abdominal fluid. The patient was taken for re-exploration. The left ureter was found to be completely transected. It was repaired over a double-J stent. This case demonstrates the need for a high index of suspicion in the diagnosis of ureteric injury. Keywords: Ureter, Bicycle, Handlebar, Penetrating

  5. Corrosion and protection of uranium alloy penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weirick, L.J.; Johnson, H.R.; Dini, J.W.

    1975-06-01

    Penetrators made from either a U--3/4 percent Ti alloy or a U--3/4 percent Mo--3/4 percent Zr--3/4 percent Nb--1/2 percent Ti alloy (''Quad'') corrode mildly in moist air, significantly in moist nitrogen, and severely in salt fog. Adequate protection was provided in moist air and nitrogen by coating with electroplated nickel, electroplated nickel and zinc with a chromate finish, and galvanized zinc with a chromate finish. In salt fog, electroplated nickel offered only temporary protection whereas galvanized zinc and electroplated nickel-zinc provided long-lasting protection. The resistance of uncoated penetrators was affected variously by dissimilar metal couplings. Aluminum protected the Quad alloy and adversely affected the U--3/4 percent Ti alloy, whereas steel enhanced localized corrosion in both. (U.S.)

  6. Eddy current testing with high penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, R.; Kroening, M.

    1999-01-01

    The low-frequency eddy current testing method is used when penetration into very deep layers is required. The achievable penetration depth is determined among other parameters by the lowest testing frequency that can be realised together with the eddy current sensor. When using inductive sensors, the measuring effect declines proportional to the lowering frequency (induction effect). Further reduction of testing frequency requires other types of sensors, as e.g. the GMR (Giant Magnetic Resistance), which achieves a constant measuring sensitivity down to the steady field. The multi-frequency eddy current testing method MFEC 3 of IZFP described here can be operated using three different scanning frequencies at a time. Two variants of eddy current probes are used in this case. Both have an inductive winding at their emitters, of the type of a measuring probe. The receiver end is either also an inductive winding, or a magnetic field-responsive resistance (GMR). (orig./CB) [de

  7. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Manzar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma, al-though there are various reports of blast or gunshot inju-ries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails. In our case, a 30-year-old man presented to neurosur-gery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weak-ness after suicide bomb attack. The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail. Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surround-ing normal brain tissue. At 6 months’ follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity. Key words: Head injury, penetrating; Bombs; Nails

  8. Standardization of penetrating radiation testing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, P.A.; Aronson, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Standardization is provided to control system gain of a penetrating radiation testing system by periodically inspecting a reference object in the same manner as the product samples so as to generate a stabilization signal which is compared to a reference signal. The difference, if any, between the stabilization signal and the reference signal is integrated and the integrated signal is used to correct the gain of the system

  9. Market penetration of new energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packey, D.J.

    1993-02-01

    This report examines the characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and, for some, the mathematical formulas of forecasting methods that can be used to forecast the market penetration of renewable energy technologies. Among the methods studied are subjective estimation, market surveys, historical analogy models, cost models, diffusion models, time-series models, and econometric models. Some of these forecasting methods are more effective than others at different developmental stages of new technologies.

  10. Intrauterine Devices Penetrated and Migrated: CT Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia Restrepo, Jorge; Lopez, Juan Esteban; Aldana Sepulveda, Natalia; Ruiz Zabaleta, Tania; Mazzaro Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine devices have been used for over 40 years, and they constitute the most widely accepted method of contraception among women because of the low rates of complications and low cost. Although uncommon, with the growing use of multidetector CT penetrated and migrated intrauterine devices have become a more common incidental finding. In some cases, intrauterine devices migrate to adjacent viscera, in particular the bladder and bowel and may give rise to symptoms. Consequently tomographic localization and characterization are essential for treatment planning.

  11. Models of fast-electron penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, D.J.; Raisis, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    We introduce multiple scattering models of charged-particle penetration which are based on the previous analyses of Yang and Perry. Our development removes the main limitations of the Fermi-Eyges approach while retaining its considerable potential as a theory which is useful for applied work. We illustrate key predictions with sample calculations that are of particular interest in therapeutic applications, 5-20 MeV electrons incident on water. 8 refs., 5 figs

  12. Thyroid Emphysema Following Penetrating Neck Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Karadağ, Demet; Doner, Egemen; Adapınar, Baki

    2014-01-01

    Although traumatic thyroid gland rupture or hemorrhage is usually seen in goitrous glands, injuries of the normal thyroid gland after neck trauma have rarely been described in the literature. We describe a 44-year-old man who presented with thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema (SCE) that occurred after penetrating neck trauma. CT images showed complete resolution of thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema at follow-up examination. Neck injuries can be life threatening. After pene...

  13. Penetrating spinal injuries and their management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Penetrating spinal trauma due to missile/gunshot injuries has been well reported in the literature and has remained the domain of military warfare more often. Civic society′s recent upsurge in gunshot injuries has created a dilemma for the treating neurosurgeon in many ways as their management has always involved certain debatable and controversial issues. Both conservative and surgical management of penetrating spinal injuries (PSI have been practiced widely. The chief neurosurgical concern in these types of firearm injuries is the degree of damage sustained during the bullet traversing through the neural tissue and the after-effects of the same in long term. We had an interesting case of a penetrating bullet injury to cervical spine at C2 vertebral level. He was operated and the bullets were removed from posterior midline approach. Usually, the management of such cases differs from region to region depending on the preference of the surgeon but still certain common principles are followed world over. Thus, we realized the need to review the literature regarding spinal injuries with special emphasis on PSI and to study the recent guidelines for their treatment in light of our case.

  14. Spanish RPV head penetrations. Regulatory status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueras, J.M.; Colino, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents the actual status of inspection results on the Spanish PWR RPV CRD head penetrations (CRDH's), after two years of a whole program of inspections in all affected plants. Actual situation of penetrations pertaining to ALMARAZ 1 and 2, ASCO 1 and 2 and VANDELLOS 2 NPP's show any damage in those CRDH's inspected in 1993 and 1994 (roughly 20 out of 65 CRDH's at each unit). The paper presents a summary of CRDH characteristics, inspection methods and results obtained in each plant. TRILLO NPP has a different CRDH design (KWU-SIEMENS type) and for that reason is not considered an affected plant nor has conducted any inspection up to now. JOSE CABRERA (ZORITA) NPP has shown extensive damage, both in the lower side (weldment to the vessel) and in the upper free span area, near bimetallic weldment to SS 304, in active and nonactive penetrations and also in the vent nozzle. The paper comments extensively on the CRDH materials general data, root-cause analysis and structural analysis of degraded zones, inspection results, repair actions and other additional actions applied up to now. Finally, the paper deals with the regulatory actions taken by CSN on this topic, both for those NPP's actually non affected by the IGSCC phenomenon in the RPV CRDH's and for the specific safety case of ZORITA NPP. (author)

  15. Cutaneous mucormycosis secondary to penetrative trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Bilal; Kent, Stephen; Wall, Daryl

    2016-07-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare but serious sequelae of penetrating trauma [1-5]. In spite of aggressive management, mortality remains high due to dissemination of infection. We completed a review of literature to determine the most optimal treatment of cutaneous mucormycosis which occurs secondary to penetrating trauma. We completed a review regarding the management of mucormycosis in trauma patients. We selected a total of 36 reports, of which 18 were case-based, for review. Surgical debridement is a primary predictor of improved outcomes in the treatment of mucormycosis [3,6,7]. Anti-fungal therapy, especially lipid soluble formulation of Amphotericin B, is helpful as an adjunct or when surgical debridement has been maximally achieved. Further research is needed to fully evaluate the impact of topical dressings; negative pressure wound therapy is helpful. An aggressive and early surgical approach, even at the expense of disfigurement, is necessary to reduce mortality in the setting of cutaneous mucormycosis that results from penetrating trauma [4,8,9]. Anti-fungal therapy and negative pressure wound therapy are formidable adjuncts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Deep penetration of light into biotissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Edward D.; Wilson, James D.; Zharov, Vladimir P.; Lowery, Curtis L.

    2001-07-01

    The results of a study of deep (several centimeters) light penetration into biological tissue are presented in order to estimate its significance to potentially photosensitive structures and processes including the fetal eyes. In order to accomplish this goal, samples of various tissues (fat, muscle, and uterus) from surgical patients and autopsies were examined with a double integrating sphere arrangement to determine their optical properties. The results were implemented in a Monte Carlo modeling program. Next, optical fiber probes were inserted into the uterus and abdominal wall of patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures. The fibers were couples to a photomultiplier tube with intervening filters allowing measurements of light penetration at various wavelengths. To determine the feasibility of stimulation in utero, a xenon lamp and waveguide were used to transilluminate the abdomen of several labor patients. Light in the range of 630 to 670 nm where the eye sensitivity and penetration depth are well matched, will likely provide the best chance of visual stimulation. Fetal heart rate, fetal movement, and fetal magnetoencephalography (SQUID) and electroencephalography (EEG) were observed in different studies to determine if stimulation has occurred. Since internal organs and the fetus are completely dark adapted, the amount of light required to simulate in our opinion could be on the order of 10(superscript -8 Watts.

  17. Penetrating chest wound of the foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Wandaogo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumas of the foetus caused by stabbings are rare but actually life-threatening for both the foetus and the mother. We report a case of penetrating chest wound on a baby taken from the obstetrics unit to the paediatric surgical department. His mother was assaulted by his father, a mentally sick person with no appropriate follow-up. The foetus did not show any sign of vital distress. Surgical exploration of the wound has revealed a section of the 10 th rib, a laceration of the pleura and a tearing of the diaphragm. A phrenorraphy and a pleural drainage were performed. The new-born and its mother were released from hospital after 5 days and the clinical control and X-ray checks 6 months later showed nothing abnormal. We insisted a medical, psychiatric follow-up be initiated for the father. As regards pregnant women with penetrating wounds, the mortality rate of the foetus is 80%. The odds are good for our newborn due to the mild injuries and good professional collaboration of the medical staff. Penetrating transuterine wounds of the foetus can be very serious. The health care needed should include many fields due to the mother and the foetus′ lesions extreme polymorphism. In our case, it could have prevented by a good psychiatric followed up of the offender.

  18. CNS penetration of ART in HIV-infected children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hof, Malon; Blokhuis, Charlotte; Cohen, Sophie; Scherpbier, Henriette J.; Wit, Ferdinand W. N. M.; Pistorius, M. C. M.; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Teunissen, Charlotte E.; Mathot, Ron A. A.; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2018-01-01

    Background: Paediatric data on CNS penetration of antiretroviral drugs are scarce. Objectives: To evaluate CNS penetration of antiretroviral drugs in HIV-infected children and explore associations with neurocognitive function. Patients and methods: Antiretroviral drug levels were measured in paired

  19. An energy approach study of the penetration of concrete by rigid missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guirgis, Sameh; Guirguis, Ehab

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an energy approach for investigating the penetration of concrete by rigid missiles and the associated phenomena. However, the principal assumptions made here must be validated experimentally before giving the proposed subject further considerations. In the following, a new measure for concrete resistance to penetration by hard missiles is presented. The suggested term for this measure is 'the Volumetric Crushing Energy Density' of concrete which can be described as the energy required for converting a unit volume of concrete to separate particles under compressive loading so that the particles of the crushed volume meet certain gradation criteria. Using this quantity, an explanation of the scale effect is postulated. Moreover, a dimensionless semi-analytical formula for the penetration depth of a rigid missile in a concrete target is proposed which includes a large number of the variables of the problem. The formula assumes that the penetration incident may include several successive phases where the set of variables that governs the impact is different during each phase, and the variables that characterize the impact during each phase correlate in a different manner as well. Furthermore, many of the penetration depth formulae available in the literature are rewritten according to the formula proposed here where the concrete penetration resistance of any incident is estimated by modifying the resistance of 'reference impact incidents.' The rewritten formulae show the wide variation of the values of concrete resistance which are implicitly included in the original formulae. Finally, the proposed formula is applied using data of penetration experiments presented by Forrestal et al. [Forrestal, M.J., Altman, B.S., Cargile, J.D., Hanchak, S.J., 1994. An empirical equation for penetration depth of ogive-nose projectiles into concrete targets. Int. J. Impact Eng. 15(4), 395-405; Forrestal, M.J., Frew, D.J., Hickerson, J.P., Rohwer, T.A., 2003

  20. Influence of Antenna Characteristics on Elevation Dependence of Building Penetration Loss for High Elevation Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kvicera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Building penetration loss models presented in our previous paper [1] were valid for various scenarios, propagation conditions, frequency bands and hemispherical receiving antenna pointing towards zenith. These models had a significantly rising trend of penetration loss with increasing elevation angle of the link in common. In this paper we show that when working with non-isotropic terminal antennas, this trend relates primarily to the elevation trend of the corresponding reference level dependent on the receiving antenna radiation pattern. This is demonstrated by the results of single-input multiple-output (SIMO measurement trials performed at L-band in an office building and a brick building in the city of Prague. Further, based on the detailed analysis, a method to modify the elevation trend of a particular penetration loss model for different receiving antenna radiation patterns is derived and experimentally validated.

  1. Particle size for greatest penetration of HEPA filters - and their true efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    da Roza, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The particle size that most greatly penetrates a filter is a function of filter media construction, aerosol density, and air velocity. In this paper the published results of several experiments are compared with a modern filtration theory that predicts single-fiber efficiency and the particle size of maximum penetration. For high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters used under design conditions this size is calculated to be 0.21 μm diam. This is in good agreement with the experimental data. The penetration at 0.21 μm is calculated to be seven times greater than at the 0.3 μm used for testing HEPA filters. Several mechanisms by which filters may have a lower efficiency in use than when tested are discussed

  2. The penetration of fibrous media by aerosols as a function of particle size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyment, J.

    1963-11-15

    This paper is concerned with the accurate experimental determination of the penetration of fibrous filter media by aerosols as a function of particle size, a topic about which previous papers give partial and conflicting data. in the present work, a heterogeneous sodium chloride aerosol was sampled before and after passing through the glass fiber filter medium by means of an electrostatic precipitator and the samples were examined under the electron microscope; the relation between particle size and penetration was derives at different gas velocities by comparison of the size distribution of the filtered and unfiltered clouds. As an extension of this work, size analyses have been made of plutonium aerosols occurring in glove boxes and enclosures during typical working operations. This information is considered in relation to the penetration of plutonium and other high density aerosol materials through filters. (auth)

  3. Radiation and penetration matrix elements for magnetic quadrupole transitions between Nilsson states in odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feresin, A.P.; Guseva, I.S.

    1984-01-01

    Single-particle matrix elements for magnetic quadrupole gamma radiation in odd deformed nuclei, calculated with the aid of Nilsson-potential wave functions, are presented. Also given are the internal conversion penetration matrix elements, calculated in the same manner. The penetration matrix elements are needed to estimate the nuclear penetration parameter, which determines the deviation of experimental internal conversion coefficients from their standard values given in tables. Matrix elements are given for transitions between all pairs of Nilsson single-particle states with ΔN = 1 and ΔK = 0, 1, and 2 for the nuclear shells with 4< or =N< or =7 and for the two deformation values epsilon = 0.2 and 0.3

  4. Penetration Testing Curriculum Development in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengcheng Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As both the frequency and the severity of network breaches have increased in recent years, it is essential that cybersecurity is incorporated into the core of business operations. Evidence from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2012 indicates that there is, and will continue to be, a severe shortage of cybersecurity professionals nationwide throughout the next decade. To fill this job shortage we need a workforce with strong hands-on experience in the latest technologies and software tools to catch up with the rapid evolution of network technologies. It is vital that the IT professionals possess up-to-date technical skills and think and act one step ahead of the cyber criminals who are constantly probing and exploring system vulnerabilities. There is no perfect security mechanism that can defeat all the cyber-attacks; the traditional defensive security mechanism will eventually fail to the pervasive zero-day attacks. However, there are steps to follow to reduce an organization’s vulnerability to cyber-attacks and to mitigate damages. Active security tests of the network from a cyber-criminal’s perspective can identify system vulnerabilities that may lead to future breaches. “If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. But if you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of hundred battles” (Sun, 2013. Penetration testing is a discipline within cybersecurity that focuses on identifying and exploiting the vulnerabilities of a network, eventually obtaining access to the critical business information. The pentesters, the security professionals who perform penetration testing, or ethical hackers, break the triad of information security - Confidentiality, Integrity, and Accountability (CIA - as if they were a cyber-criminal. The purpose of ethical hacking or penetration testing is to know what the “enemy” can do and then generate a

  5. A Flexure-Guided Piezo Drill for Penetrating the Zona Pellucida of Mammalian Oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wesley; Dai, Changsheng; Liu, Jun; Wang, Xian; Luu, Devin K; Zhang, Zhuoran; Ru, Changhai; Zhou, Chao; Tan, Min; Pu, Huayan; Xie, Shaorong; Peng, Yan; Luo, Jun; Sun, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Mammalian oocytes such as mouse oocytes have a highly elastic outer membrane, zona pellucida (ZP) that cannot be penetrated without significantly deforming the oocyte, even with a sharp micropipette. Piezo drill devices leverage lateral and axial vibration of the micropipette to accomplish ZP penetration with greatly reduced oocyte deformation. However, existing piezo drills all rely on a large lateral micropipette vibration amplitude ( 20 ) and a small axial vibration amplitude (0.1 ). The very large lateral vibration amplitude has been deemed to be necessary for ZP penetration although it also induces larger oocyte deformation and more oocyte damage. This paper reports on a new piezo drill device that uses a flexure guidance mechanism and a systematically designed pulse train with an appropriate base frequency. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate that a small lateral vibration amplitude (e.g., 2 ) and an axial vibration amplitude as large as 1.2 were achieved. Besides achieving 100% effectiveness in the penetration of mouse oocytes (n = 45), the new piezo device during ZP penetration induced a small oocyte deformation of 3.4 versus larger than 10 using existing piezo drill devices.

  6. 40 CFR 1065.365 - Nonmethane cutter penetration fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fractions. 1065.365 Section 1065.365 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Measurements § 1065.365 Nonmethane cutter penetration fractions. (a) Scope and frequency. If you use a FID... penetration fractions of methane, PFCH4, and ethane, PF C2H6. As detailed in this section, these penetration...

  7. Diffusion of radioactively tagged penetrants through rubbery polymers. II. Dependence on molecular length of penetrant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, C.K.; Ferry, J.D.; Fetters, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    The diffusion of radioactively tagged n-hexadecane, n-dotriacontane, and a polybutadiene oligomer with molecular weight 1600 has been studied in 12 rubbery polymers. Diffusion coefficients were obtained from the theory for the thin smear method: for n-hexadecane and for n-dotriacontane (with one exception), in the form appropriate for a completely miscible polymer-penetrant pair, and for the oligomer in the form appropriate for slow entry of the pentrant across the penetrant-polymer interface. For the four flexible linear penetrants, n-dodecane, n-hexadecane, n-dotriacontane, and oligomer, the ratios of diffusion coefficients (or translational friction coefficients) are nearly the same in every polymer. It is concluded that these penetrants travel with similar segmentwise motions, although that is not the case with bulkier, more rigid penetrants. For the three normal paraffins, the friction coefficient is approximately proportional to molecular weight, but that for the oligomer is smaller than would be predicted on this basis

  8. Penetration Testing Professional Ethics: a conceptual model and taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Pierce

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In an environment where commercial software is continually patched to correct security flaws, penetration testing can provide organisations with a realistic assessment of their security posture. Penetration testing uses the same principles as criminal hackers to penetrate corporate networks and thereby verify the presence of software vulnerabilities. Network administrators can use the results of a penetration test to correct flaws and improve overall security. The use of hacking techniques, however, raises several ethical questions that centre on the integrity of the tester to maintain professional distance and uphold the profession. This paper discusses the ethics of penetration testing and presents our conceptual model and revised taxonomy.

  9. Assessing the credibility of diverting through containment penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, J.N.; Swindle, D.W. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A viable approach has been developed for identifying those containment penetrations in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant which are credible diversion routes. The approach is based upon systematic engineering and design analyses and is applied to each type of penetration to determine which penetrations could be utilized to divert nuclear material from a reprocessing facility. The approach is described and the results of an application are discussed. In addition, the concept of credibility is developed and discussed. For a typical reprocessing plant design, the number of penetrations determined to be credible without process or piping modifications was approx. 16% of the penetrations originally identified

  10. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  11. Thickness evaluation using a new relationship between film density and penetrated thickness in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Sik; Kim, Young H.

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracies in the thickness evaluation using radiography, a new relationship between film density and penetrated thickness has been proposed, and experimental verification of the proposed relationship was carried out by using the X- and γ-ray radiographs of two carbon steel step wedges. A new parameter, the logarithmic gradient of film density, was defined in order to express the characteristics of the radiographic film for wider range of film density. A new relationship between the film density and the penetrated thickness were formulated using the logarithmic gradient of the film density. In experiment, the logarithmic gradient of the film density was independent on both the exposure and the film density and measured for the radiographic film used in the present work from the slope of the fitting lines for the same penetrated thickness. Experimental results verifies the accuracy of the proposed relationship between film density and the penetrated thickness for the range of film density from 1.0 to 3.5. The thickness can be more accurately determined by using the proposed relationship and the parameters determined by experiment. It is also found that the γ-ray having simple energy spectrum is more appropriate radiation source for the evaluation of the thickness from the film density of the radiograph

  12. Simulating barrier penetration during combat. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Laquil, P. III.

    1980-04-01

    A computer program, BARS, simulates combat between an adversary group attempting to hijack special nuclear material and escort personnel attempting to protect it. BARS is designed to investigate how various combat strategies and levels of performance affect the time required to penetrate barriers (armor, deterrent systems, etc.) against forcible entry. A Monte Carlo code, BARS uses a game theoretic approach to allocate the attacking and defending forces. Combat suppression is simulated using a stochastic state-transition model for the behavior of individuals under combat stress. The BARS program was developed as part of the overall combat modelling effort of the transportation safeguards program

  13. Income Inequality and Transnational Corporate Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Beer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether the positive association between national income inequality and transnational corporate penetration found previously by Bornschier and Chase-Dunn (1985 and others circa the late 1960s still holds for the mid-l980s. Both methodological and theoretical problems of earlier studies are discussed and solutions are offered. Economic development, political-institutional and regional variables are also included inthe analyses. While further research is warranted, the results provide support for a World-System/Dependency perspective in understanding income inequality cross-nationally.

  14. Premium Efficiency Motors And Market Penetration Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhaddadi, Mohamed; Olivier, Guy

    2010-09-15

    This paper illustrates the induced enormous energy saving potential, permitted by using high-efficiency motors. Furthermore, the most important barriers to larger high-efficiency motors utilization are identified, and some incentives recommendations are given to overcome identified impediments. The authors consider that there is a strong case to enhance incentives policies for larger market penetration. The US Energy Policy Act and the Canadian Energy Efficient Act have lead to North American leadership on motor efficiency implementation. North America is not on the leading edge for energy saving and conservation. Motor efficiency is an exception that should be at least maintained.

  15. Hacking with Kali practical penetration testing techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Broad, James

    2013-01-01

    Hacking with Kali introduces you the most current distribution of the de facto standard tool for Linux pen testing. Starting with use of the Kali live CD and progressing through installation on hard drives, thumb drives and SD cards, author James Broad walks you through creating a custom version of the Kali live distribution. You'll learn how to configure networking components, storage devices and system services such as DHCP and web services. Once you're familiar with the basic components of the software, you'll learn how to use Kali through the phases of the penetration testing lifecycle

  16. Penetration of relativistic heavy ions through matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidenberger, C.; Geissel, H.

    1997-07-01

    New heavy-ion accelerators covering the relativistic and ultra-relativistic energy regime allow to study atomic collisions with bare and few-electron projectiles. High-resolution magnetic spectrometers are used for precise stopping-power and energy-loss straggling measurements. Refined theories beyond the Born approximation have been developed and are confirmed by experiments. This paper summarizes the large progress in the understanding of relativistic heavy-ion penetration through matter, which has been achieved in the last few years. (orig.)

  17. Penetrating the markets: biomass and commercial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidl, J.

    1999-01-01

    Although biomass accounts for a significant proportion of renewable energy in Europe, its market penetration could be increased if certain barriers can be surmounted. Some of those barriers are identified and suggestions made as to how they may be overcome through improved 'distribution' in various sectors. To integrate biomass into the electricity distribution system, the commercial distribution of liquid biofuels, and in the commercial distribution of biomass in the heat sector, certain rewards and penalties could be introduced and these are discussed. The low temperature heat market is seen as very important for the further development of bioenergy in Europe. (UK)

  18. Mastering Kali Linux for advanced penetration testing

    CERN Document Server

    Beggs, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the kill chain approach to penetration testing, and then focuses on using Kali Linux to provide examples of how this methodology is applied in the real world. After describing the underlying concepts, step-by-step examples are provided that use selected tools to demonstrate the techniques. If you are an IT professional or a security consultant who wants to maximize the success of your network testing using some of the advanced features of Kali Linux, then this book is for you. This book will teach you how to become an expert in the pre-engagement, management,

  19. Market penetration of natural gas in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, R.; Wirl, F.

    1992-01-01

    The strategy of restricting natural gas to noble uses (directive of EEC and endorsed by the IEA) impeded gas expansion despite substantial upward revisions in the assessment of available resources. However, increasing environmental concern slowly but gradually undermines this strategy because natural gas serves as a substitute for costly abatement. This article discusses the prospect of future natural gas consumption considering economic and ecological facts as well as strategic and political considerations. In fact, we argue that inconsistent political interventions first seriously lowered gas penetration but now favor its use

  20. Kali Linux assuring security by penetration testing

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Shakeel; Allen, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Written as an interactive tutorial, this book covers the core of Kali Linux with real-world examples and step-by-step instructions to provide professional guidelines and recommendations for you. The book is designed in a simple and intuitive manner that allows you to explore the whole Kali Linux testing process or study parts of it individually.If you are an IT security professional who has a basic knowledge of Unix/Linux operating systems, including an awareness of information security factors, and want to use Kali Linux for penetration testing, then this book is for you.

  1. Experimental stress analysis of the attachment region of hemispherical shells with attached nozzles. Part 4c. Nonradial nozzle at 22-1/2 degrees 2.265 in. O.D. - 2.500 in. I.D. 4.00 in. penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, R.L.; Holland, R.W.

    1974-03-01

    The report presents the results of investigations conducted on a nonradially attached nozzle of 2.625'' O.D., 2.500'' I.D., and 4.00'' nominal penetration into the hemisphere. The nozzle is inclined at 22 1/2 0 from a radial axis. Stress values for the following types of loadings are tabulated: (1) internal pressure applied to the hemisphere and nozzle assembly, (2) an axial load applied collinear with nozzle, (3) a pure torque applied in the radial plane of the nozzle, and (4) a pure bending moment or axial couple applied in various axial planes of the nozzle. The report presents various stress vs. profile curves

  2. Ultraviolet and visible light penetration of epidermis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggset, G.; Kavli, G.; Volden, G.; Krokan, H.

    1984-01-01

    Light penetration in untanned skin and skin tanned with UVB (middlewave ultraviolet light) or PUVA (Psoralen photochemotherapy) was compared. Transmission at different wavelengths was measured through sheets of intact epidermis isolated by a suction blister technique. Thick epidermis was collected from a newly formed palmar friction bulla. For these studies a monochromator was used and the range of wavelengths examined was 280-700 nm. The transmission was considerably lower in tanned skin and the difference was most pronounced in the UV range. In the UVB range (290-320 nm), transmission was 13-43% for untanned epidermis, 8-12% for UVB tanned and slightly lower for PUVA tanned epidermis. At wavelengths below 325 nm only a few per cent of light penetrate through thick palmar epidermis. Both UVB and PUVA induce increased melanin content and thickening of the epidermis. Our results indicate that melanin is the most efficient protection against UVA while thickening of epidermis may be as important as the increased melanin content for the protection of living basal cells against the harmful UVB rays. (Auth)

  3. Penetrating eye injuries from writing instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly SP

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Simon P Kelly, Graham MB ReevesThe Royal Bolton Hospital, Bolton, UKPurpose: To consider the potential for ocular injury from writing implements by presenting four such cases, and to consider the incidence of such eye injuries from analysis of a national trauma database.Methods: The Home and Leisure Accident Surveillance System was searched for records of eye injuries from writing instruments to provide UK estimates of such injuries. Four patients with ocular penetrating injury from pens or pencils (especially when caused by children, and examined by the authors, are described which illustrate mechanisms of injury.Results: It is estimated that around 748 ocular pen injuries and 892 ocular pencil injuries of undetermined severity occurred annually in the UK during the database surveillance period 2000–2002. No eye injuries from swords, including toy swords and fencing foils, were reported.Conclusion: Ocular perforation sometimes occur from writing instruments that are thrown in the community, especially by children. Implications for policy and prevention are discussed. Non-specialists should have a low threshold for referring patients with eye injuries if suspicious of ocular penetration, even where caused by everyday objects, such as writing instruments.Keywords: eye injury, eye, children, mechanism, writing instruments, prevention

  4. High-Penetration Photovoltaic Planning Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, David Wenzhong [Alternative Power Innovations, LLC, Broomfield, CO (United States); Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-24

    The main objective of this report is to provide an overview of select U.S. utility methodologies for performing high-penetration photovoltaic (HPPV) system planning and impact studies. This report covers the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's orders related to photovoltaic (PV) power system interconnection, particularly the interconnection processes for the Large Generation Interconnection Procedures and Small Generation Interconnection Procedures. In addition, it includes U.S. state interconnection standards and procedures. The procedures used by these regulatory bodies consider the impacts of HPPV power plants on the networks. Technical interconnection requirements for HPPV voltage regulation include aspects of power monitoring, grounding, synchronization, connection to the overall distribution system, back-feeds, disconnecting means, abnormal operating conditions, and power quality. This report provides a summary of mitigation strategies to minimize the impact of HPPV. Recommendations and revisions to the standards may take place as the penetration level of renewables on the grid increases and new technologies develop in future years.

  5. Coulomb explosion of large penetrating molecular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, H.E.; Thieberger, P.

    1981-01-01

    The main purpose of these Coulomb explosion measurements is to determine what kind of structure these and other complex molecules may have and also to determine what other special phenomena may come into play as these complex molecules pass through matter. Although the first preliminary measurements involving the Coulomb explosion of these molecules was reported at this workshop last year, the results are briefly summarized before going on to the more recent measurements obtained with a completely new kind of detector system. This new image intensifier detector system, coupled with a microcomputer, has proven to be a valuable tool in the study of the Coulomb explosion of complex molecules that penetrate matter. In the future, with some additional improvements in the system, and much better statistics for most of the molecules studied to date, it is expected that much new information will be gained about the structure of many kinds of complex molecular ions including the special effects that may be encountered when these fast molecular ions penetrate matter

  6. Mass transfer from penetrations in waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Sastre, C.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that localized corrosion of a relatively small area of a waste container may impair the containment function to such an extent that larger releases may be possible than from the bare waste form. This would take place when a large number of holes coexist on the container while their concentration fields do not interact significantly with each other. After performing a steady state analysis of the release from a hole, it is shown that much fewer independent holes can coexist on a container surface than previously estimated. The calculated radionuclide release from multiple independent holes must be changed accordingly. Previous analyses did not proceed to a correct application of the linear superposition principle. This resulted in unacceptable physical conclusions and undue strain on the performance assessment necessary for a container licensing procedure. The paper also analyzes the steady state release from penetrations of finite length and whose concentration fields interact with one another. The predicted release from these penetrations is lower than the previously calculated release from holes of zero thickness. It is concluded here that the steady-state release from multiple holes on a waste container can not exceed the release from the bare waste form and that multiple perforations need not be a serious liability to container performance. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  7. Penetration of Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus sanguinis into dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneist, Susanne; Nietzsche, Sandor; Küpper, Harald; Raser, Gerhard; Willershausen, Brita; Callaway, Angelika

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess the difference in virulence of acidogenic and aciduric oral streptococci in an in vitro caries model using their penetration depths into dental enamel. 30 caries-free extracted molars from 11- to 16-year-olds were cleaned ultrasonically for 1 min with de-ionized water and, after air-drying, embedded in epoxy resin. After 8-h of setting at room temperature, the specimens were ground on the buccal side with SiC-paper 1200 (particle size 13-16 μm). Enamel was removed in circular areas sized 3 mm in diameter; the mean depth of removed enamel was 230 ± 60 μm. 15 specimens each were incubated anaerobically under standardized conditions with 24 h-cultures of Streptococcus sanguinis 9S or Streptococcus sobrinus OMZ 176 in Balmelli broth at 37 ± 2 °C; the pH-values of the broths were measured at the beginning and end of each incubation cycle. After 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks 3 teeth each were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde in cacodylate buffer for 24 h, washed 3× and dehydrated 30-60min by sequential washes through a series of 30-100% graded ethanol. The teeth were cut in half longitudinally; afterward, two slits were made to obtain fracture surfaces in the infected area. After critical-point-drying the fragments were gold-sputtered and viewed in a scanning electron microscope at magnifications of ×20-20,000. After 10 weeks of incubation, penetration of S. sanguinis of 11.13 ± 24.04 μm below the break edges into the enamel was observed. The invasion of S. sobrinus reached depths of 87.53 ± 76.34 μm. The difference was statistically significant (paired t test: p = 0.033). The experimental penetration depths emphasize the importance of S. sanguinis versus S. sobrinus in the context of the extended ecological plaque hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Stylet penetration of Cacopsylla pyri; an electrical penetration graph (EPG) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Civolani, S.; Leis, M.; Grandi, G.; Garzo, E.; Pasqualini, E.; Musacchi, S.; Chicca, M.; Castaldelli, G.; Rossie, M.; Tjallingii, W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed information on plant penetration activities by pear psylla Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera Psyllidae) is essential to study phytoplasma transmission of “Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri” responsible of pear decline disease (PD) and to trace and evaluate resistant traits in new pear tree selections

  9. A Comparison of Different Corneal Iontophoresis Protocols for Promoting Transepithelial Riboflavin Penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Daniel M; O'Brart, David P; French, Paul; Dunsby, Chris; Allan, Bruce D

    2015-12-01

    To measure corneal riboflavin penetration using different transepithelial iontophoresis protocols. Freshly enucleated rabbit eyes were divided into nine treatment groups of 4 eyes. One group, in which 0.1% wt/vol riboflavin was applied for 30 minutes without iontophoresis after corneal epithelial debridement, acted as a control. The remaining groups were treated with an intact epithelium using different riboflavin formulations and varying iontophoresis current, soak, and rinse times. After riboflavin application, eyes were snap frozen in liquid nitrogen. Corneal cross sections 35 μm thick were then imaged immediately by two-photon fluorescence microscopy, using image processing software to quantify stromal riboflavin concentration at different corneal depths. In the epithelium-on iontophoresis treatment groups, greater stromal riboflavin penetration was achieved with higher-concentration riboflavin solutions, greater iontophoresis dosage, and longer solution contact times. A protocol utilizing 0.25% wt/vol riboflavin with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) 0.01% and two cycles of applied current and subsequent soaking (1 mA 5 minutes, soak 5 minutes; 0.5 mA 5 minutes, soak 5 minutes) achieved similar stromal riboflavin penetration to epithelium-off controls. The best-performing non-BAC-containing protocol produced stromal riboflavin penetration approximately 60% that of epithelium-off controls. Riboflavin solutions containing saline resulted in minimal stromal penetration. Riboflavin loading within the epithelium was equivalent to or higher than that in the subjacent stroma, despite rinsing the ocular surface with balanced salt solution. Modified iontophoresis protocols can significantly improve transepithelial riboflavin penetration in experimental corneal collagen cross-linking.

  10. Corium Configuration and Penetration Tube Failure for Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Sang Mo; Lee, Jae Bong; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Song, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    For the LWRs (light water reactors), the penetration tubes at the reactor vessel lower head are regarded as the most vulnerable structures along with a global vessel failure during a severe accident because they can be seriously damaged by a corium melt or debris relocated into the lower plenum of the vessel. The research on the penetration tube failure is of higher importance in the BWRs, as it could lead to melt discharge into the containment and subsequent release of radioactive materials to the environment due to the containment failure. There are more than one hundred of penetration tubes in the Fukushima Daiichi NPPs (nuclear power plants), such as ICM-GTs (in-core monitoring guide tubes), CRGTs (control rod guide tubes) and drain tubes. The ICM-GTs include SRMs (source range monitors), IRMs (intermediate range monitors), LPRMs (local power range monitors) and TIPs (traversing in-core probes), which are much thinner than other tubes. The experimental researches to investigate the corium configuration and the penetration tube failure for the Fukushima Daiichi NPPs were introduced and some meaningful results were summarized. It was shown that the corium ingot was separated into two layers, of which the upper layer was metal-rich while the lower one was oxide-rich. It seemed that B 4 C would contribute to reducing the density of the metallic melt. The two-layered configuration will provide useful information to understand the core melt progression and post-recovery actions for the Fukushima Daiichi NPPs. In addition, we performed a large scale penetration tube failure experiment for the SRM/IRM guide tube, and showed high possibilities of large amount of corium discharge out of the reactor vessel lower head, which followed by the tube melting in a very short time. We are planning to perform the penetration tube failure experiments for another dry tube of ICM-GT (LPRM guide tube), and later for the wet tube (CRGT)

  11. Corium Configuration and Penetration Tube Failure for Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Sang Mo; Lee, Jae Bong; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Song, Jin Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    For the LWRs (light water reactors), the penetration tubes at the reactor vessel lower head are regarded as the most vulnerable structures along with a global vessel failure during a severe accident because they can be seriously damaged by a corium melt or debris relocated into the lower plenum of the vessel. The research on the penetration tube failure is of higher importance in the BWRs, as it could lead to melt discharge into the containment and subsequent release of radioactive materials to the environment due to the containment failure. There are more than one hundred of penetration tubes in the Fukushima Daiichi NPPs (nuclear power plants), such as ICM-GTs (in-core monitoring guide tubes), CRGTs (control rod guide tubes) and drain tubes. The ICM-GTs include SRMs (source range monitors), IRMs (intermediate range monitors), LPRMs (local power range monitors) and TIPs (traversing in-core probes), which are much thinner than other tubes. The experimental researches to investigate the corium configuration and the penetration tube failure for the Fukushima Daiichi NPPs were introduced and some meaningful results were summarized. It was shown that the corium ingot was separated into two layers, of which the upper layer was metal-rich while the lower one was oxide-rich. It seemed that B{sub 4}C would contribute to reducing the density of the metallic melt. The two-layered configuration will provide useful information to understand the core melt progression and post-recovery actions for the Fukushima Daiichi NPPs. In addition, we performed a large scale penetration tube failure experiment for the SRM/IRM guide tube, and showed high possibilities of large amount of corium discharge out of the reactor vessel lower head, which followed by the tube melting in a very short time. We are planning to perform the penetration tube failure experiments for another dry tube of ICM-GT (LPRM guide tube), and later for the wet tube (CRGT)

  12. Root hairs aid soil penetration by anchoring the root surface to pore walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengough, A Glyn; Loades, Kenneth; McKenzie, Blair M

    2016-02-01

    The physical role of root hairs in anchoring the root tip during soil penetration was examined. Experiments using a hairless maize mutant (Zea mays: rth3-3) and its wild-type counterpart measured the anchorage force between the primary root of maize and the soil to determine whether root hairs enabled seedling roots in artificial biopores to penetrate sandy loam soil (dry bulk density 1.0-1.5g cm(-3)). Time-lapse imaging was used to analyse root and seedling displacements in soil adjacent to a transparent Perspex interface. Peak anchorage forces were up to five times greater (2.5N cf. 0.5N) for wild-type roots than for hairless mutants in 1.2g cm(-3) soil. Root hair anchorage enabled better soil penetration for 1.0 or 1.2g cm(-3) soil, but there was no significant advantage of root hairs in the densest soil (1.5g cm(-3)). The anchorage force was insufficient to allow root penetration of the denser soil, probably because of less root hair penetration into pore walls and, consequently, poorer adhesion between the root hairs and the pore walls. Hairless seedlings took 33h to anchor themselves compared with 16h for wild-type roots in 1.2g cm(-3) soil. Caryopses were often pushed several millimetres out of the soil before the roots became anchored and hairless roots often never became anchored securely.The physical role of root hairs in anchoring the root tip may be important in loose seed beds above more compact soil layers and may also assist root tips to emerge from biopores and penetrate the bulk soil. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. Measuring penetration depth of electron beam welds. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.W.; Collins, M.C.; Mentesana, C.P.; Watterson, C.E.

    1975-07-01

    The feasibility of evaluating electron beam welds using state-of-the-art techniques in the fields of holographic interferometry, micro-resistance measurements, and heat transfer was studied. The holographic study was aimed at evaluating weld defects by monitoring variations in weld strength under mechanical stress. The study, along with successful work at another facility, proved the feasibility of this approach for evaluating welds, but it did not assign any limitations to the technique. The micro-resistance study was aimed at evaluating weld defects by measuring the electrical resistance across the weld junction as a function of distance along the circumference. Experimentation showed this method, although sensitive, is limited by the same factors affecting other conventional nondestructive tests. Nevertheless, it was successful at distinguishing between various depths of penetration. It was also shown to be a sensitive thickness gage for thin-walled parts. The infrared study was aimed at evaluating weld defects by monitoring heat transfer through the weld under transient thermal conditions. Experimentation showed that this theoretically sound technique is not workable with the infrared equipment currently available at Bendix Kansas City. (U.S.)

  14. Medicaid HMO penetration and its mix: did increased penetration affect physician participation in urban markets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, E Kathleen; Herring, Bradley

    2008-02-01

    To use changes in Medicaid health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration across markets over time to test for effects on the extent of Medicaid participation among physicians and to test for differences in the effects of increased use of commercial versus Medicaid-dominant plans within the market. The nationally representative Community Tracking Study's Physician Survey for three periods (1996-1997, 1998-1999, and 2000-2001) on 29,866 physicians combined with Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and InterStudy data. Market-level estimates of Medicaid HMO penetration are used to test for (1) any participation in Medicaid and (2) the degree to which physicians have an "open" (i.e., nonlimited) practice accepting new Medicaid patients. Models account for physician, firm, and local characteristics, Medicaid relative payment levels adjusted for geographic variation in practice costs, and market-level fixed effects. There is a positive effect of increases in commercial Medicaid HMO penetration on the odds of accepting new Medicaid patients among all physicians, and in particular, among office-based physicians. In contrast, there is no effect, positive or negative, from expanding the penetration of Medicaid-dominant HMO plans within the market. Increases in cost-adjusted Medicaid fees, relative to Medicare levels, were associated with increases in the odds of participation and of physicians having an "open" Medicaid practice. Provider characteristics that consistently lower participation among all physicians include being older, board certified, a U.S. graduate and a solo practitioner. The effects of Medicaid HMO penetration on physician participation vary by the type of plan. If states are able to attract and retain commercial plans, participation by office-based physicians is likely to increase in a way that opens existing practices to more new Medicaid patients. Other policy variables that affect participation include the presence of a federally

  15. Improving Outcomes Following Penetrating Colon Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Preston R.; Fabian, Timothy C.; Croce, Martin A.; Magnotti, Louis J.; Elizabeth Pritchard, F.; Minard, Gayle; Stewart, Ronald M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction During World War II, failure to treat penetrating colon injuries with diversion could result in court martial. Based on this wartime experience, colostomy for civilian colon wounds became the standard of care for the next 4 decades. Previous work from our institution demonstrated that primary repair was the optimal management for nondestructive colon wounds. Optimal management of destructive wounds requiring resection remains controversial. To address this issue, we performed a study that demonstrated risk factors (pre or intraoperative transfusion requirement of more than 6 units of packed red blood cells, significant comorbid diseases) that were associated with a suture line failure rate of 14%, and of whom 33% died. Based on these outcomes, a clinical pathway for management of destructive colon wounds was developed. The results of the implementation of this pathway are the focus of this report. Methods Patients with penetrating colon injury were identified from the registry of a level I trauma center over a 5-year period. Records were reviewed for demographics, injury characteristics, and outcome. Patients with nondestructive injuries underwent primary repair. Patients with destructive wounds but no comorbidities or large transfusion requirement underwent resection and anastomosis, while patients with destructive wounds and significant medical illness or transfusion requirements of more than 6 units/blood received end colostomy. The current patients (CP) were compared to the previous study (PS) to determine the impact of the clinical pathway. Outcomes examined included colon related mortality and morbidity (suture line leak and abscess). Results Over a 5.5-year period, 231 patients had penetrating colon wounds. 209 survived more 24 hours and comprise the study population. Primary repair was performed on 153 (73%) patients, and 56 patients had destructive injuries (27%). Of these, 40 (71%) had resection and anastomosis and 16 (29%) had diversion

  16. Antibody tumor penetration: transport opposed by systemic and antigen-mediated clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Greg M; Schmidt, Michael M; Wittrup, K Dane

    2008-09-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue.

  17. Effect of differential pressure on the magnitude of the destructive force in tooth penetration into rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesnikov, N.A.; Shestakov, V.N.

    1981-08-01

    Analytical relations are established describing the final stage of the breakup of rocks in the course of penetration of the tooth of a drilling bit into the rock in the presence of a pressure drop. A good convergence between the calculated and experimental data is shown. A formula is presented permitting calculation of contact pressures necessary for the volumetric breakup of rocks in the presence of a pressure drop.

  18. Modeling and Simulation of Ballistic Penetration of Ceramic-Polymer-Metal Layered Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    experimental study of penetration resistance of ceramic armour subjected to projectile impact,” International Journal of Impact Engineering, vol. 32...composite armour defeat,” International Journal of Impact Engineering, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 455–474, 1990. [7] I. S. Chocron Benloulo and V. Sánchez-Gálvez...composite armour ,” International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, vol. 44, no. 2-3, pp. 307–316, 2004. [9] M. L. Wilkins, “Mechanics of

  19. Ground-penetrating radar observations for estimating the vertical displacement of rotational landslides

    OpenAIRE

    C. Lissak; O. Maquaire; J.-P. Malet; F. Lavigne; C. Virmoux; C. Gomez; R. Davidson

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the applicability of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for monitoring the displacement of slow-moving landslides. GPR data is used to estimate the vertical movement of rotational slides in combination with other surveying techniques. The experimental site is located along the Normandy coast (North East France) here several rotational landslides are continuously affected by a seasonal kinematic pattern (low displacem...

  20. Civil engineering applications of ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Pajewski, Lara

    2015-01-01

    This book, based on Transport and Urban Development COST Action TU1208, presents the most advanced applications of ground penetrating radar (GPR) in a civil engineering context, with documentation of instrumentation, methods, and results. It explains clearly how GPR can be employed for the surveying of critical transport infrastructure, such as roads, pavements, bridges, and tunnels, and for the sensing and mapping of underground utilities and voids. Detailed attention is also devoted to use of GPR in the inspection of geological structures and of construction materials and structures, including reinforced concrete, steel reinforcing bars, and pre/post-tensioned stressing ducts. Advanced methods for solution of electromagnetic scattering problems and new data processing techniques are also presented. Readers will come to appreciate that GPR is a safe, advanced, nondestructive, and noninvasive imaging technique that can be effectively used for the inspection of composite structures and the performance of diagn...

  1. Cephalic Tetanus from Penetrating Orbital Wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloïse Guyennet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus is a neurologic disorder caused by tetanospasmin, a protein toxin elaborated by Clostridium tetani. Cephalic tetanus is a localized form of the disease causing trismus and dysfunction of cranial nerves. We report the case of a man who presented with facial trauma, complete ophthalmoplegia, exophthalmos, areactive mydriasis, and periorbital hematoma. An orbital CT revealed air bubbles in the right orbital apex. The patient was given a tetanus toxoid booster and antibiotherapy. After extraction of a wooden foreign body, the patient developed right facial nerve palsy, disorders of swallowing, contralateral III cranial nerve palsy, and trismus. Only one case of cephalic tetanus from penetrating orbital wound has been reported in literature 20 years ago. When a patient presents with an orbital wound with ophthalmoplegia and signs of anaerobic infection, cephalic tetanus should be ruled out.

  2. Penetration enhancer: monoethylether of diethylene glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.; Kassai, Z.; Bohacik, L.; Bezek, S.; Hadcrafft, J.; Falson-Rieg, F.

    1999-01-01

    The monoethylether of diethylene glycol (Transcutol), an excellent solubilising agent, has been suggested as a penetration enhancer compatible with trans-dermal drug delivery systems. Using the abdominal skin of 5 day old rats and Franz-type diffusion cells the following topics were studied in this contribution: (1) Flux of Transcutol, labelled with [Ethyl- 14 C]-ether, across an intact skin model, (2) Changes in properties of the skin barrier after stripping with adhesive tape, and (3) Changes in flux of Transcutol when mixed with different co-solvents. The flux from pure solvent in donor compartment reached around 50 μg cm -2 hr -1 across the intact skin horny layer, whilst after 12 strips the flux increased about 200 times. In the presence of propylene glycol dipelargonate, the flux over 2 mg cm -2 hr -1 across non stripped skin was achieved. (authors)

  3. Penetrating Stab Wound of the Right Ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onursal Buğra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 18 years old male patient was admitted to our emergency unit with a penetrating stab wound to the right ventricle. A stab wound to the right ventricle was found to be 3 cm in diameter. The bleeding was controlled by insertion of a Foley catheter and inflation of the balloon. The stab wound had transected distal acute marginal side ofthe right coronary artery. A successful repair was performed with the use of a foley catheter and application of the Medtronic Octopus Tissue Stabilization System. The wound was closed with pledgeted mattress sutures. The distal acute marginal side of the right coronary artery was ligated. In this presentation, the surgical intervention method was reported and followed by a discussion of emergency surgical procedures of the heart.

  4. Automatic control of oscillatory penetration apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucon, Peter A

    2015-01-06

    A system and method for controlling an oscillatory penetration apparatus. An embodiment is a system and method for controlling a sonic drill having a displacement and an operating range and operating at a phase difference, said sonic drill comprising a push-pull piston and eccentrics, said method comprising: operating the push-pull piston at an initial push-pull force while the eccentrics are operated at a plurality of different operating frequencies within the operating range of the sonic drill and measuring the displacement at each operating frequency; determining an efficient operating frequency for the material being drilled and operating the eccentrics at said efficient operating frequency; determining the phase difference at which the sonic drill is operating; and if the phase difference is not substantially equal to minus ninety degrees, operating the push-pull piston at another push-pull force.

  5. Fluorescent Penetrant INSPECTION—CLEANING Study Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, D.; Brasche, L.

    2009-03-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) is widely used in the aviation industry and other industries for surface-breaking crack detection. As with all inspection methods, adherence to the process parameters is critical to the successful detection of defects. There is variety of lubricants and surface coatings used in the aviation industry which must be removed prior to FPI. Before the FPI process begins, components are cleaned using a variety of cleaning methods which are selected based on the alloy and the soil types which must be removed. It is also important that the cleaning process not adversely affect the FPI process. From the first three phases of this project it has been found that a hot water rinse can aid in the detection process when using this nondestructive method.

  6. Market penetration of energy supply technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condap, R. J.

    1980-03-01

    Techniques to incorporate the concepts of profit-induced growth and risk aversion into policy-oriented optimization models of the domestic energy sector are examined. After reviewing the pertinent market penetration literature, simple mathematical programs in which the introduction of new energy technologies is constrained primarily by the reinvestment of profits are formulated. The main results involve the convergence behavior of technology production levels under various assumptions about the form of the energy demand function. Next, profitability growth constraints are embedded in a full-scale model of U.S. energy-economy interactions. A rapidly convergent algorithm is developed to utilize optimal shadow prices in the computation of profitability for individual technologies. Allowance is made for additional policy variables such as government funding and taxation. The result is an optimal deployment schedule for current and future energy technologies which is consistent with the sector's ability to finance capacity expansion.

  7. Convective penetration in a young sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Jane; Baraffe, Isabelle; Goffrey, Tom; MUSIC developers group

    2018-01-01

    To interpret the high-quality data produced from recent space-missions it is necessary to study convection under realistic stellar conditions. We describe the multi-dimensional, time implicit, fully compressible, hydrodynamic, implicit large eddy simulation code MUSIC. We use MUSIC to study convection during an early stage in the evolution of our sun where the convection zone covers approximately half of the solar radius. This model of the young sun possesses a realistic stratification in density, temperature, and luminosity. We approach convection in a stellar context using extreme value theory and derive a new model for convective penetration, targeted for one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations. This model provides a scenario that can explain the observed lithium abundance in the sun and in solar-like stars at a range of ages.

  8. Modeling of Oblique Penetration into Geologic Targets Using Cavity Expansion Penetrator Loading with Target free-Surface Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joe; Longcope, Donald B.; Tabbara, Mazen R.

    1999-05-03

    A procedure has been developed to represent the loading on a penetrator and its motion during oblique penetration into geologic media. The penetrator is modeled with the explicit dynamics, finite element computer program PRONTO 3D and the coupled pressure on the penetrator is given in a new loading option based on a separate cavity expansion (CE) solution that accounts for the pressure-reduction from a nearby target free surface. The free-surface influ- ence distance is selected in a predictive manner by considering the pressure to expand a spherical cavity in a finite radius sphere of the target material. The CE/PRONTO 3D procedure allows a detailed description of the penetrator for predicting shock environments or structural failure dur- ing the entire penetration event and is sufficiently rapid to be used in design optimization. It has been evaluated by comparing its results with data from two field tests of a full-scale penetrator into frozen soil at an impact angles of 49.6 and 52.5 degrees from the horizontal. The measured penetrator rotations were 24 and 22 degrees, respectively. In the simulation, the rotation was21 degrees and predominately resulted from the pressure reduction of the free surface. Good agree- ment was also found for the penetration depth and axial and lateral acceleration at two locations in the penetrator.

  9. Forestry applications of ground-penetrating radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, H.; Perez-Gracia, V.; Novo, A.; Armesto, J.

    2010-07-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical and close-range remote sensing technique based on the use of radar pulses to obtain cross-section images of underground features. This method is characterized by the transmission of an electromagnetic short length pulse (1-2 ns), presenting a centre frequency ranging from 10 MHz to 2.5 GHz. The principles of GPR operation are based on the ability of low frequency radar waves to penetrate into a non-conductive medium, usually subsoil, but also walls, concrete or wood. Those waves are detected after suffering a reflection in electromagnetic discontinuities of the propagation medium. Therefore, this is a suitable method to study changes in those physical properties, and also to characterize different mediums and the reflective targets providing information about their physical properties. The aim of this work is to describe and demonstrate different applications of GPR in forestry, showing the obtained results together with their interpretation. Firstly, in this paper, it is illustrated how GPR is able to map shallow bedrock, subsoil stratigraphy and also to estimate shallow water table depth. Secondly, different tree trunks as well as dry timber are analyzed, evaluating the different radar data obtained in each particular case, and observing differences in their electromagnetic properties related to the GPR response. Finally, several measurements were taken in order to analyze the use of GPR to detect tree root systems using polarimetric techniques, being possible to detect medium and big size roots, together with groups of small roots. (Author) 39 refs.

  10. Neurosurgical Management of Nonmissile Penetrating Cranial Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Holanda, Luciano Ferreira; Pereira, Benedito Jamilson A; Holanda, Rafael Rodrigues; Neto, José Targino; de Holanda, Carlos Vanderlei M; Giudicissi Filho, Miguel; de Oliveira, Nathalia Ribeiro Cunha; de Oliveira, Jean G

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to present a case series of nonmissile penetrating (NMP) injuries and to establish a workflow for an uncommon mechanism of traumatic head injury through the analysis of each case, classification of the type of lesion, management, and outcome score at follow-up. From January 1991 to December 2008, 36,000 patients presenting with traumatic brain injury (TBI) were admitted in the Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital Antônio Targino, Campina Grande-PB, Brazil. From these patients, 11 presenting with lesions caused by NMP objects were selected. Among the 11 patients, 9 were men and 2 were women. Their ages ranged from 7 to 74 years old (mean age ± SD, 29.1 ± 22.99 years). All patients underwent neuroradiologic evaluation. The entry point was classified as natural (orbit) or artificial (skull transfixation), and we also divided the patients presenting with secondary parenchymal or vascular damage from those presenting with only lesions caused by the primary penetration into the cranium and meninges. All patients were neurosurgically treated with removal of the foreign body through craniotomy, except the patient whose object (pen) was removed without craniotomy with local anesthesia. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on admission was a statistically significant factor on prognosis, and any patient who presented with a GCS score of 15 evolved satisfactorily, and there were no deaths in this group of patients (P = 0.04). TBIs caused by NMP objects are unusual and caused by aggression, self-inflicted harm (in the case of psychiatric patients), and accident. The foreign body may enter into the skull through a natural hole (orbit, nose, mouth, or ear) or crosses the skull, causing a fracture and creating an artificial hole. Preoperative neuroradiologic assessment is paramount for the correct neurosurgical approach. The main prognostic factor for these patients is the GCS score at admission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Topological properties of the limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minggang; Vilela, André L. M.; Du, Ruijin; Zhao, Longfeng; Dong, Gaogao; Tian, Lixin; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-05-01

    The limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph algorithm was recently introduced to map time series in complex networks. In this work, we extend this algorithm to create a directed-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph and an image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph. We define two algorithms and provide theoretical results on the topological properties of these graphs associated with different types of real-value series. We perform several numerical simulations to check the accuracy of our theoretical results. Finally, we present an application of the directed-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph to measure real-value time series irreversibility and an application of the image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph that discriminates noise from chaos. We also propose a method to measure the systematic risk using the image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph, and the empirical results show the effectiveness of our proposed algorithms.

  12. Crack growth rates in vessel head penetration materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Briceno, D.; Lapena, J.; Blazquez, F.

    1994-01-01

    The cracks detected in reactor vessel head penetrations in certain European plants have been attributed to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC). The penetrations in question are made from Inconel 600. The susceptibility of this alloy to PWSCC has been widely studied in relation to use of this material for steam generator tubes. When the first reactor vessel head penetration cracks were detected, most of the available data on crack propagation rates were from test specimens made from steam generator tubes and tested under conditions that questioned the validity of these data for assessment of the evolution of cracks in penetrations. For this reason, the scope of the Spanish Research Project on the Inspection and Repair of PWR reactor vessel head penetrations included the acquisition of data on crack propagation rates in Inconel 600, representative of the materials used for vessel head penetrations. (authors). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  13. The study of heat penetration of kimchi soup on stationary and rotary retorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Won-Il; Park, Eun-Ji; Cheon, Hee Soon; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the heat-penetration characteristics using stationary and rotary retorts to manufacture Kimchi soup. Both heat-penetration tests and computer simulation based on mathematical modeling were performed. The sterility was measured at five different positions in the pouch. The results revealed only a small deviation of F 0 among the different positions, and the rate of heat transfer was increased by rotation of the retort. The thermal processing of retort-pouched Kimchi soup was analyzed mathematically using a finite-element model, and optimum models for predicting the time course of the temperature and F 0 were developed. The mathematical models could accurately predict the actual heat penetration of retort-pouched Kimchi soup. The average deviation of the temperature between the experimental and mathematical predicted model was 2.46% (R(2)=0.975). The changes in nodal temperature and F 0 caused by microbial inactivation in the finite-element model predicted using the NISA program were very similar to that of the experimental data of for the retorted Kimchi soup during sterilization with rotary retorts. The correlation coefficient between the simulation using the NISA program and the experimental data was very high, at 99%.

  14. MARS14 deep-penetration calculation for the ISIS target station shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Noriaki; Nunomiya, Tomoya; Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    The calculation of neutron penetration through a thick shield was performed with a three-dimensional multi-layer technique using the MARS14(02) Monte Carlo code to compare with the experimental shielding data in 1998 at the ISIS spallation neutron source facility of Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. In this calculation, secondary particles from a tantalum target bombarded by 800-MeV protons were transmitted through a bulk shield of approximately 3-m-thick iron and 1-m-thick concrete. To accomplish this deep-penetration calculation, a three-dimensional multi-layer technique and energy cut-off method were used considering a spatial statistical balance. Finally, the energy spectra of neutrons behind the very thick shield could be calculated down to the thermal energy with good statistics, and the calculated results typically agree well within a factor of two with the experimental data over a broad energy range. The 12 C(n,2n) 11 C reaction rates behind the bulk shield were also calculated, which agree with the experimental data typically within 60%. These results are quite impressive in calculation accuracy for deep-penetration problem

  15. Vehicle effects on human stratum corneum absorption and skin penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Alissa; Jung, Eui-Chang; Zhu, Hanjiang; Zou, Ying; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of three vehicles-ethanol (EtOH), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and isopropyl myristate (IPM)-on stratum corneum (SC) absorption and diffusion of the [ 14 C]-model compounds benzoic acid and butenafine hydrochloride to better understand the transport pathways of chemicals passing through and resident in SC. Following application of topical formulations to human dermatomed skin for 30 min, penetration flux was observed for 24 h post dosing, using an in vitro flow-through skin diffusion system. Skin absorption and penetration was compared to the chemical-SC (intact, delipidized, or SC lipid film) binding levels. A significant vehicle effect was observed for chemical skin penetration and SC absorption. IPA resulted in the greatest levels of intact SC/SC lipid absorption, skin penetration, and total skin absorption/penetration of benzoic acid, followed by IPM and EtOH, respectively. For intact SC absorption and total skin absorption/penetration of butenafine, the vehicle that demonstrated the highest level of sorption/penetration was EtOH, followed by IPA and IPM, respectively. The percent doses of butenafine that were absorbed in SC lipid film and penetrated through skin in 24 h were greatest for IPA, followed by EtOH and IPM, respectively. The vehicle effect was consistent between intact SC absorption and total chemical skin absorption and penetration, as well as SC lipid absorption and chemical penetration through skin, suggesting intercellular transport as a main pathway of skin penetration for model chemicals. These results suggest the potential to predict vehicle effects on skin permeability with simple SC absorption assays. As decontamination was applied 30 min after chemical exposure, significant vehicle effects on chemical SC partitioning and percutaneous penetration also suggest that skin decontamination efficiency is vehicle dependent, and an effective decontamination method should act on chemical solutes in the lipid domain.

  16. Effects of magnetic shear on current penetration in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pengyun; Wang Long

    2001-01-01

    The penetrations of the parallel and perpendicular components of plasma currents are interrelated to each other due to the existence of magnetic shear in a tokamak configuration. Effects of the shear on the penetration of Fourier components of toroidal plasma current are analysed in a cylindrical column model. The current penetration is obviously strengthened by the shear for a bell-bike conductivity profile and low safety factor and low aspect ratio

  17. Microstructural observations on the terminal penetration of long rod projectile

    OpenAIRE

    Krushna Kumbhar; P. Ponguru Senthil; A.K. Gogia

    2017-01-01

    Present study focuses on the terminal penetration of tungsten heavy alloy (WHA) long rod penetrator impacted against armour steel at an impact velocity of 1600 m/s. The residual penetrator and armour steel target recovered after the ballistic test have been characterized using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). Metallurgical changes in target steel and WHA remnant have been analysed. Large shear stresses and shear localization have...

  18. Penetration Testing dan Analisis Kemanan Web Paud Dikmas

    OpenAIRE

    Giffari, Abizar

    2018-01-01

    Sebuah instansi atau perusahaan tentunya mempunyai data penting yang tersimpan dalam sebuah sistem database yang kuat dan aman untuk menghindari ancaman pencurian data dari pihak luar. Untuk mengukur sejauh mana tingkat keamanan yang dibuat, diperlukan sebuah metode pengetesan yang disebut Penetration Testing. Penetration Testing memungkinkan kita untuk dapat menentukan sejauh mana tingkat keamanan sistem yang di test. Penetration Testing juga memungkinkan kita menyerang sistem layaknya attac...

  19. Geometry, penetration force, and cutting profile of different 23-gauge trocars systems for pars plana vitrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carsten H; Kaymak, Hakan; Liu, Zengping; Saxena, Sandeep; Rodrigues, Eduardo B

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the geometry, penetration force, and cutting profile of 23-gauge trocar systems for pars plana vitrectomy based on their grinding methods in a standardized laboratory setting. In this experimental study, Eleven different commercially available 23-gauge sclerotomy trocar systems were divided into 4 groups according to their needle grinding and deburring: "back" bevel, "spear" bevel, "lancet" bevel, and "spatula" bevel. The normative geometrical data of the trocar systems were systematically analyzed according to nomenclature ISO 7864 and ISO 9626. Force to penetrate a 0.4-mm thick polyurethane foil was measured by a Penetrometer, when the trocar needle was piercing, cutting, and sliding through the foil at different defined loading phases and plotted as a load-displacement diagram. Magnified images of the consecutive cut were taken under a microscope after the entire penetration through the foil. Three physicians used all trocar systems in a masked fashion on human sclera to evaluate the manual penetration force in 30° and 90°. The mean outer diameter of the trocar systems was 0.630 ± 0.009 mm, and the mean outer diameter of the trocars was 0.750 ± 0.013 mm. The mean point length was 3.11 ± 0.49 mm, and the mean length of the bevel was 1.46 ± 0.23 mm. The primary bevel angle was 10.75 ± 0.41°, and the secondary bevel angle was 65.9 ± 42.56°. The piercing forces of the back bevel and spear-pointed trocars/needles were at the same level (0.087 ± 0.028 N). The lancet-pointed needle had remarkable low piercing and cutting forces with 0.41 N (range, 0.35-0.47 N). The spatula bevel tip showed the highest penetration piercing force with 1.6 N (range, 1.59-1.73 N). The back bevel systems induced frequently triangular-shaped incisions, with two nearly rectangular cuts of short length. The spear bevels produced a regular characteristic linear cut. Especially, the lancet blade created straight cut with a linear wound apposition. Spatula trocar systems

  20. Building virtual pentesting labs for advanced penetration testing

    CERN Document Server

    Cardwell, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Written in an easy-to-follow approach using hands-on examples, this book helps you create virtual environments for advanced penetration testing, enabling you to build a multi-layered architecture to include firewalls, IDS/IPS, web application firewalls, and endpoint protection, which is essential in the penetration testing world. If you are a penetration tester, security consultant, security test engineer, or analyst who wants to practice and perfect penetration testing skills by building virtual pen testing labs in varying industry scenarios, this is the book for you. This book is ideal if yo

  1. The market penetration of energy-efficiency programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, L.

    1990-04-01

    The focus of this report is on one source of resource planning uncertainty: the expected market penetration of DSM (Demand Site Management) programs. Its purpose is to help refine planning assumptions and reduce uncertainty about the market penetration of utility DSM programs by: (1) investigating concepts and definitions of market penetration, (2) reviewing data that characterize patterns of variation (including ranges, averages and maximum levels) in program participation rates, (3) identifying the factors that affect participation, and (4) reviewing the structure and data requirements of models that forecast market penetration. 84 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.

  2. Hacking and penetration testing with low power devices

    CERN Document Server

    Polstra, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Hacking and Penetration Testing with Low Power Devices shows you how to perform penetration tests using small, low-powered devices that are easily hidden and may be battery-powered. It shows how to use an army of devices, costing less than you might spend on a laptop, from distances of a mile or more. Hacking and Penetration Testing with Low Power Devices shows how to use devices running a version of The Deck, a full-featured penetration testing and forensics Linux distribution, and can run for days or weeks on batteries due to their low power consumption. Author Philip Polstra shows how to

  3. Characterization of nuclear reactor containment penetrations. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bump, T.R.; Seidensticker, R.W.; Shackelford, M.A.; Gambhir, V.K.; McLennan, G.L.

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes the survey work conducted by Argonne National Laboratory on the design and details of major penetrations in 22 nuclear power plants. The survey includes all containment types and materials in current use. It also includes details of all types of penetrations (except for electrical penetration assemblies and valves) and the seals and gaskets used in them. The report provides a test matrix for testing major penetrations and for testing seals and gaskets in order to evaluate their leakage potential under severe accident conditions

  4. Prevention of serious impurity penetration into water-steam circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgmann, F.; Bursik, A.; Flunkert, F.; Nieder, R.

    1977-01-01

    In consequence of reports from several power Plants concerning heavy damages due to penetrations of impurities into the water-steam circuit, the VGB Sub-Committee 'Water Chemistry in Thermal Power Plants' has established a working group to check-up how serious impurity penetration can be avoided. The lecture describes possible danger points. Suitable technical arrangements for the avoidance of penetrations, and possibilities for monitoring will be discussed. Penetration of impurities cannot be avoided with absolute reliability, even when the recommended arrangements and usual monitoring are realized. Additional measures for the protection of water steam circuits will be suggested. (orig.) [de

  5. Quasi-relativistic effects in barrier-penetration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anchishkin, D.V.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of a particle tunneling through the potential barrier is solved within quasi-relativistic Schroedinger equation. It is shown that the subbarrier relativistic effects give a significant addition to penetration coefficient when some relations between parameters of the barrier and mass of a tunneling particle are satisfied. For instance an account of these effects for penetration of low energy π + -mesons through Coulomb barrier of the 298 U nuclei would give the increasing of penetration coefficient to 30 percent as compared to the nonrelativistic one. Also we give the criteria under which the contribution of the ''under barrier relativism'' to penetration coefficient becomes essential. 3 refs.; 6 figs. (author)

  6. Da Vinci Xi Robot-Assisted Penetrating Keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammas, Jimmy; Sauer, Arnaud; Pizzuto, Joëlle; Pouthier, Fabienne; Gaucher, David; Marescaux, Jacques; Mutter, Didier; Bourcier, Tristan

    2017-06-01

    This study aims (1) to investigate the feasibility of robot-assisted penetrating keratoplasty (PK) using the new Da Vinci Xi Surgical System and (2) to report what we believe to be the first use of this system in experimental eye surgery. Robot-assisted PK procedures were performed on human corneal transplants using the Da Vinci Xi Surgical System. After an 8-mm corneal trephination, four interrupted sutures and one 10.0 monofilament running suture were made. For each procedure, duration and successful completion of the surgery as well as any unexpected events were assessed. The depth of the corneal sutures was checked postoperatively using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Robot-assisted PK was successfully performed on 12 corneas. The Da Vinci Xi Surgical System provided the necessary dexterity to perform the different steps of surgery. The mean duration of the procedures was 43.4 ± 8.9 minutes (range: 28.5-61.1 minutes). There were no unexpected intraoperative events. SD-OCT confirmed that the sutures were placed at the appropriate depth. We confirm the feasibility of robot-assisted PK with the new Da Vinci Surgical System and report the first use of the Xi model in experimental eye surgery. Operative time of robot-assisted PK surgery is now close to that of conventional manual surgery due to both improvement of the optical system and the presence of microsurgical instruments. Experimentations will allow the advantages of robot-assisted microsurgery to be identified while underlining the improvements and innovations necessary for clinical use.

  7. Da Vinci Xi Robot–Assisted Penetrating Keratoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammas, Jimmy; Sauer, Arnaud; Pizzuto, Joëlle; Pouthier, Fabienne; Gaucher, David; Marescaux, Jacques; Mutter, Didier; Bourcier, Tristan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study aims (1) to investigate the feasibility of robot-assisted penetrating keratoplasty (PK) using the new Da Vinci Xi Surgical System and (2) to report what we believe to be the first use of this system in experimental eye surgery. Methods Robot-assisted PK procedures were performed on human corneal transplants using the Da Vinci Xi Surgical System. After an 8-mm corneal trephination, four interrupted sutures and one 10.0 monofilament running suture were made. For each procedure, duration and successful completion of the surgery as well as any unexpected events were assessed. The depth of the corneal sutures was checked postoperatively using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Results Robot-assisted PK was successfully performed on 12 corneas. The Da Vinci Xi Surgical System provided the necessary dexterity to perform the different steps of surgery. The mean duration of the procedures was 43.4 ± 8.9 minutes (range: 28.5–61.1 minutes). There were no unexpected intraoperative events. SD-OCT confirmed that the sutures were placed at the appropriate depth. Conclusions We confirm the feasibility of robot-assisted PK with the new Da Vinci Surgical System and report the first use of the Xi model in experimental eye surgery. Operative time of robot-assisted PK surgery is now close to that of conventional manual surgery due to both improvement of the optical system and the presence of microsurgical instruments. Translational Relevance Experimentations will allow the advantages of robot-assisted microsurgery to be identified while underlining the improvements and innovations necessary for clinical use. PMID:28660096

  8. The effect of longitudinal conductance variations on the ionospheric prompt penetration electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazykin, S.; Wolf, R.; Spiro, R.; Fejer, B.

    Ionospheric prompt penetration electric fields of magnetospheric origin, together with the atmospheric disturbance dynamo, represent the most important parameters controlling the storm-time dynamics of the low and mid-latitude ionosphere. These prompt penetration fields result from the disruption of region-2 field-aligned shielding currents during geomagnetically disturbed conditions. Penetration electric fields con- trol, to a large extent, the generation and development of equatorial spread-F plasma instabilities as well as other dynamic space weather phenomena in the ionosphere equatorward of the auroral zone. While modeling studies typically agree with average patterns of prompt penetration fields, experimental results suggest that longitudinal variations of the ionospheric con- ductivities play a non-negligible role in controlling spread-F phenomena, an effect that has not previously been modeled. We present first results of modeling prompt pene- tration electric fields using a version of the Rice Convection Model (RCM) that allows for longitudinal variations in the ionospheric conductance tensor. The RCM is a first- principles numerical ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling model that solves for the electric fields, field-aligned currents, and particle distributions in the ionosphere and inner/middle magnetosphere. We compare these new theoretical results with electric field observations.

  9. Friction force regimes and the conditions for endless penetration of an intruder into a granular medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rodríguez, L A; Pacheco-Vázquez, F

    2017-09-01

    An intruder penetrating into a granular column experiences a depth-dependent friction force F(z). Different regimes of F(z) have been measured depending on the experimental design: a nearly linear dependence for shallow penetrations, total saturation at large depths, and an exponential increase when the intruder approaches the bottom of the granular bed. We report here an experiment that allows us to measure the different regimes in a single run during the quasistatic descent of a sphere in a light granular medium. From the analysis of the resistance in the saturation zone, it was found that F(z) follows a cube-power-law dependence on the intruder diameter and an exponential increase with the packing fraction of the bed. Moreover, we determine the critical mass m_{c} required to observe infinite penetration and its dependence on the above parameters. Finally, we use our results to estimate the final penetration depth reached by intruders of masses m

  10. Nonlinear error-field penetration in low density ohmically heated tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, R

    2012-01-01

    A theory is developed to predict the error-field penetration threshold in low density, ohmically heated, tokamak plasmas. The novel feature of the theory is that the response of the plasma in the vicinity of the resonant surface to the applied error-field is calculated from nonlinear drift-MHD (magnetohydrodynamical) magnetic island theory, rather than linear layer theory. Error-field penetration, and subsequent locked mode formation, is triggered once the destabilizing effect of the resonant harmonic of the error-field overcomes the stabilizing effect of the ion polarization current (caused by the propagation of the error-field-induced island chain in the local ion fluid frame). The predicted scaling of the error-field penetration threshold with engineering parameters is (b r /B T ) crit ∼n e B T -1.8 R 0 -0.25 , where b r is the resonant harmonic of the vacuum radial error-field at the resonant surface, B T the toroidal magnetic field-strength, n e the electron number density at the resonant surface and R 0 the major radius of the plasma. This scaling—in particular, the linear dependence of the threshold with density—is consistent with experimental observations. When the scaling is used to extrapolate from JET to ITER, the predicted ITER error-field penetration threshold is (b r /B T ) crit ∼ 5 × 10 −5 , which just lies within the expected capabilities of the ITER error-field correction system. (paper)

  11. Estimation of the upper limit of aerosol nanoparticles penetration through inhomogeneous fibrous filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podgorski, Albert

    2009-01-01

    The fully segregated flow model (FSFM) was formulated to describe filtration of aerosol nanoparticles in polydisperse fibrous filters made of fibers with different diameters. The model is capable of predicting significantly higher penetration of nanoparticles through polydisperse filters than it may be expected from the classical theory applied to a mean fiber diameter. The model was solved numerically in the case of the log-normal fiber size distribution, and a simple correlation between the actual penetration through a polydisperse filter and the one calculated for the geometric mean fiber diameter was proposed. Equivalent fiber diameter for deposition due to Brownian diffusion was determined and it was found to be dependent on particle size and filter's polydispersity degree, being significantly greater than any mean fiber diameter. It was noted that it is impossible to select any one universal mean fiber diameter to describe penetration of nanoparticles with different sizes. It was also shown that in the case of a polydisperse fibrous filter the apparent exponent of the Peclet number based on the mean fiber diameter is greater than the expected value of -2/3 for diffusional deposition in a monodisperse filter. This prediction is in agreement with the available experimental data. The FSFM is expected to give the estimation of the upper limit of nanoparticles penetration in polydisperse fibrous filters.

  12. Transenamel and transdentinal penetration of hydrogen peroxide applied to cracked or microabrasioned enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briso, A L F; Lima, A P B; Gonçalves, R S; Gallinari, M O; dos Santos, P H

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated transenamel and transdentinal penetration of hydrogen peroxide during tooth whitening recognized in altered enamel by the presence of cracks or microabrasion. We used 72 experimental units (n=20) obtained from bovine incisors: GI-sound enamel; GII-teeth showing visible enamel cracks (4 mm to 5.7 mm in length); and GIII-microabrasioned enamel. The 12 remaining specimens were used to analyze the enamel surface morphology using scanning electron microscopy. The specimens were cylindrical and 5.7 mm in diameter and 3.5 mm thick. A product based on 35% hydrogen peroxide was used for bleaching, following the manufacturer's recommendations for use. To quantify the H2O2 penetration, the specimens were placed in artificial pulp chambers containing an acetate buffer solution. After bleaching, the solution was collected and adequately proportioned with leucocrystal violet, peroxidase enzyme, and deionized water. The resulting solution was evaluated using ultraviolet visible reflectance spectrophotometer equipment. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's PLSD at a significance level of 0.05, and significant differences in the penetration of peroxide in different substrate conditions were observed (penamel was microabraded showed intermediate values when compared to the control group. Microabrasion and the presence of cracks in the enamel make this substrate more susceptible to penetration of hydrogen peroxide during in-office whitening.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE MONITORING SYSTEM FOR CHLORIDE PENETRATION INTO REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Antoni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete structures in marine environment are subjected to chloride penetration, which significantly degrades the structural performance due to the occurrence of corrosion in the steel reinforcement. The performance degradation of the structures would reduce the intended service life and caused higher maintenance and repair cost. Therefore, system to monitor chloride penetration into reinforced concrete before the starting corrosion of reinforcement is indispensable. An embedded probe system to detect chloride penetration into concrete was developed in Japan. This probe consists of a cementitious material body and some number of wires as sensors, which are set in the shallow ditches around the probe body. The system detect the chloride penetration by monitoring the initiation time of wire corrosion, it also has the advantages of continuous monitoring and early warning on the onset of corrosion in the reinforcement. However, the probe had not yet had high sensitivity for detecting critical chloride content in concrete. Therefore to increase its sensitivity, four types of improvements, namely partial coating of the wires, waterproofing on the probe body, filling the ditches with porous material and supplying small current on the wires were evaluated in this study. From the experimental result, it was observed that supplying small current and partial coating of the wires could improve the sensitivity of the probe significantly, while waterproofing treatment on the probe body and filling the ditches did not have significant contribution.

  14. Preparation and characterization of enamel coating on pure titanium as a hydrogen penetration barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Jie, E-mail: taojie@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China); Guo, Xunzhong [College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China); Huang, Zhendong [Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, oshida-Nihonmatsu-Cho, Sakyo-Ku, Kyoto shi 606-8501 (Japan); Liu, Hongbing [Shanghai Aircraft Manufacturing Co,. Ltd, Shanghai 200436 (China); Wang, Tao [College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► The enamel coating was prepared by spin-coating and enameling method. ► The dense enamel coatings were chemically bonded with TA1 substrate. ► The coatings possessed better thermal shock resistance property. ► The coatings had excellent ball-dropping impact properties. ► The enamel coating exhibited a good barrier effect to hydrogen isotope penetration. -- Abstract: The enamel coating with a thickness of 90–110 × 10{sup −6} m was prepared on TA1 substrate by spin-coating and enameling to solve the problems of hydrogen isotope penetration for commercial pure titanium TA1. The microstructure and the interfacial morphology of the samples were characterized respectively by X-ray diffraction, optical and scanning electron microscopy. The profiles of main elements at the interface were analyzed by EDS line-scanning. The experimental results indicated that the dense enamel coatings were chemically bonded with TA1 substrate, and possessed better thermal shock resistance and ball-dropping impact properties. It was concluded from the results of hydrogen charging test with Vickers microhardness measurement and deuterium penetration experiments that the as-prepared dense enamel coating exhibited a good barrier effect to hydrogen isotope penetration.

  15. PELE侵彻10 mm厚均质装甲钢的极限穿透速度和后效研究%Critical Penetration Velocity and Aftereffect of PELE Penetrating RHA With 10 mm Thickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何俊; 程春; 郑绍君; 王复利; 王韦霞; 蒋洪章

    2017-01-01

    为了研究小口径集束钨丝壳体PELE对10 mm厚均值装甲钢的极限穿透速度和穿靶后的后效情况,应用PELE垂直侵彻薄靶的理论模型对直径23 mm集束钨丝PELE侵彻10 mm厚均质装甲钢进行了理论计算,利用23 mm口径弹道炮进行了侵彻试验研究.研究结果表明:弹丸侵彻10 mm厚均质装甲钢的极限穿透速度为623.7 m/s;当着靶速度为685.2 m/s以上时,该弹丸侵彻10 mm厚均质装甲后可产生良好的横向效应,试验结果和理论计算结果基本吻合.%In order to study the critical penetration velocity and aftereffect of small-caliber cluster tungsten-fiber penetrator with enhanced lateral efficiency ( PELE ) penetrating rolled homogeneous armor ( RHA) with 10 mm thickness, the theoretical calculation of cluster tungsten-fiber PELE of 23 mm diameter penetrating RHA with 10 mm thickness was carried out by using the theoretical model of PELE vertically penetrating thin metallic plate. The penetration experiment by using ballistic gun with 23 mm caliber was conducted. The results show that the critical penetration velocity is 623. 7 m/s,and the PELE can produce good aftereffect after penetrating RHA with 10 mm thickness while the impact velocity is more than 685. 2 m/s. The experimental result accords with the theoretical calculation result.

  16. Operating methods to remove the excess of penetrant in surface. Preponderant and characteristic part of water for water washable penetrants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubosc, P.

    1985-01-01

    Penetrant use for quality control, although very well known (nuclear, space industries, offshore platforms) is often poorly practiced. This is largely due to a lack of understanding by the users the way that the different components of the system (penetrants, solvents, emulsifiers, and developers) function. In this talk, we shall explain a particular characteristic that the manufacturers of reputable penetrant seek to build into their water washable penetrants. It is a viscosity curve which has the function of keeping water in a well defined form. We show why the form of the curve is crucial, which reaction between water and penetrant it corresponds to, and we deduce the practical consequences of bringing into play procedures for removing excess penetrant with or without water [fr

  17. Double ionization chamber survey meter for the separate measurement of penetrating and non-penetrating dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The full capabilities of an advanced 8-bit microprocessor have been utilized in construction of a wide range, multiplexing survey meter based on dual electrometers and ionization chambers. The ionization chambers are constructed of modular conducting and non-conducting parts in such a way that the angular dependence for measurement of beta radiation is controlled by design. Display functions for the high range instrument include logarithmic or linear analog display, digital display of rate or dose, SI or English units, optionally for either total, penetrating, or non-penetrating dose. The instrument is presently configured to operate in the range 0.1 R/hr to 50,000 R/hr in support of the requirements of Regulatory Guide 19.7

  18. Penetration, Post-penetration Development, and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Cucumis melo var. texanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faske, T R

    2013-03-01

    Cucumis melo var. texanus, a wild melon commonly found in the southern United States and two accessions, Burleson Co. and MX 1230, expressed resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in preliminary experiments. To characterize the mechanism of resistance, we evaluated root penetration, post-penetration development, reproduction, and emigration of M. incognita on these two accessions of C. melo var. texanus. Additionally, we evaluated 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus for their reaction against M. incognita in a greenhouse experiment. Fewer (P ≤ 0.05) J2 penetrated the root system of C. melo var. texanus accessions (Burleson Co. and MX 1230) and C. metuliferus (PI 482452) (resistant control), 7 days after inoculation (DAI) than in C. melo 'Hales Best Jumbo' (susceptible control). A delayed (P ≤ 0.05) rate of nematode development was observed at 7, 14, and 21 DAI that contributed to lower (P ≤ 0.05) egg production on both accessions and C. metuliferus compared with C. melo. Though J2 emigration was observed on all Cucumis genotypes a higher (P ≤ 0.05) rate of J2 emigration was observed from 3 to 6 DAI on accession Burleson Co. and C. metuliferus than on C. melo. The 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus varied relative to their reaction to M. incognita with eight supporting similar levels of nematode reproduction to that of C. metuliferus. Cucumis melo var. texanus may be a useful source of resistance against root-knot nematode in melon.

  19. Ground Penetrating Radar Technologies in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochanin, Gennadiy P.; Masalov, Sergey A.

    2014-05-01

    Transient electromagnetic fields are of great interest in Ukraine. The following topics are studied by research teams, with high-level achievements all over the world: (i) Ultra-Wide Band/Short-pulse radar techniques (IRE and LLC "Transient Technologies", for more information please visit http://applied.ire.kharkov.ua/radar%20systems_their%20components%20and%20relevant%20technologies_e.html and http://viy.ua); (ii) Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) with stepped frequency sounding signals (IRE); (iii) Continuous-Wave (CW) radar with phase-shift keying signals (IRE); and (iv) Radio-wave interference investigation (Scientific and Technical Centre of The Subsurface Investigation, http://geophysics.ua). GPR applications are mainly in search works, for example GPR is often used to search for treasures. It is also used to identify leaks and diffusion of petroleum in soil, in storage areas, as well as for fault location of pipelines. Furthermore, GPR is used for the localization of underground utilities and for diagnostics of the technical state of hydro dams. Deeper GPR probing was performed to identify landslides in Crimea. Rescue radar with CW signal was designed in IRE to search for living people trapped under the rubble of collapsed buildings. The fourth version of this radar has been recently created, showing higher stability and noise immunity. Radio-wave interference investigation allows studying the soil down to tens of meters. It is possible to identify areas with increased conductivity (moisture) of the soil. LLC "Transient Technologies" is currently working with Shevchenko Kyiv University on a cooperation program in which the construction of a test site is one of the planned tasks. In the framework of this program, a GPR with a 300 MHz antenna was handed to the geological Faculty of the University. Employees of "Transient Technologies" held introductory lectures with a practical demonstration for students majoring in geophysics. The authors participated to GPR

  20. Modeling of Oblique Penetration into Geologic Targets Using Cavity Expansion Penetrator Loading with Target free-Surface Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joe; Longcope, Donald B.; Tabbara, Mazen R.

    1999-06-01

    A procedure has been developed to represent the loading on a penetrator and its motion during oblique penetration into geologic media. The penetrator is modeled with the explicit dynamics, finite element computer program PRONTO 3D and the coupled pressure on the penetrator is given in a new loading option based on a separate cavity expansion (CE) solution that accounts for the pressure reduction from a nearby target free surface. The free-surface influence distance is selected in a predictive manner by considering the pressure to expand a spherical cavity in a finite radius sphere of the target material. The CE/PRONTO 3D procedure allows a detailed description of the penetrator for predicting shock environments or structural failure during the entire penetra- tion event and is sufficiently rapid to be used in design optimization. It has been evaluated by comparing its results with data from two field tests of a full-scale penetrator into frozen soil at an impact angles of 49.6 and 52.5 degrees from the horizontal. The measured penetrator rotations were 24 and 22 degrees, respectively. In the simulation, the rotation was 21 degrees and predom- inately resulted from the pressure reduction of the free surface. Good agreement was also found for the penetration depth and axial and lateral acceleration at two locations in the penetrator.

  1. Application of a Microstructure-Based ISV Plasticity Damage Model to Study Penetration Mechanics of Metals and Validation through Penetration Study of Aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangqing Dou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A developed microstructure-based internal state variable (ISV plasticity damage model is for the first time used for simulating penetration mechanics of aluminum to find out its penetration properties. The ISV damage model tries to explain the interplay between physics at different length scales that governs the failure and damage mechanisms of materials by linking the macroscopic failure and damage behavior of the materials with their micromechanical performance, such as void nucleation, growth, and coalescence. Within the continuum modeling framework, microstructural features of materials are represented using a set of ISVs, and rate equations are employed to depict damage history and evolution of the materials. For experimental calibration of this damage model, compression, tension, and torsion straining conditions are considered to distinguish damage evolutions under different stress states. To demonstrate the reliability of the presented ISV model, that model is applied for studying penetration mechanics of aluminum and the numerical results are validated by comparing with simulation results yielded from the Johnson-Cook model as well as analytical results calculated from an existing theoretical model.

  2. Natural oils affect the human skin integrity and the percutaneous penetration of benzoic acid dose-dependently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2006-01-01

    three natural oils (eucalyptus oil, tea tree oil, peppermint oil) would affect the skin integrity and the percutaneous penetration of benzoic acid when applied topically in relevant concentrations. An experimental in vitro model using static diffusion cells mounted with human breast or abdominal skin...

  3. Non-Covalent Interactions and Impact of Charge Penetration Effects in Linear Oligoacene Dimers and Single Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Ryno, Sean; Risko, Chad; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    of charge penetration, which is shown to account for up to 50% of the total interaction energy in dimers extracted from the experimental single crystals; in the case of the most stable co-facial model dimers, this contribution is even larger than the total

  4. Skin Penetration Enhancement by Natural Oils for Dihydroquercetin Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čižinauskas, Vytis; Elie, Nicolas; Brunelle, Alain; Briedis, Vitalis

    2017-09-12

    Natural oils are commonly used in topical pharmaceutical formulations as emulsifiers, stabilizers or solubility enhancers. They are presented as safe and inert components, mainly used for formulation purposes. It is confirmed that natural oils can affect the skin penetration of various substances. Fatty acids are mainly responsible for this effect. Current understanding lacks reliable scientific data on penetration of natural oils into the skin and their skin penetration enhancement potential. In the current study, fatty acid content analysis was used to determine the principal fatty acids in soybean, olive, avocado, sea-buckthorn pulp, raspberry seed and coconut oils. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry bioimaging was used to determine the distribution of these fatty acids in human skin ex vivo after application of the oils. Skin penetration enhancement ratios were determined for a perspective antioxidant compound dihydroquercetin. The results demonstrated skin penetration of fatty acids from all oils tested. Only soybean and olive oils significantly increased the skin distribution of dihydroquercetin and can be used as skin penetration enhancers. However, no correlation can be determined between the fatty acids' composition and skin penetration enhancement using currently available methodological approaches. This indicates that potential chemical penetration enhancement should be evaluated during formulation of topically applied products containing natural oils.

  5. Penetration of varnishes into demineralized root dentine in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, J; Duschner, H; Ruben, JL

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the penetration of three different varnishes employed in caries prevention (Duraphat(R), Fluor Protector(R) and Cervitec(R)) into demineralized dentine is quantified using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results show that the varnish penetration into lesions about 85 mu m in

  6. HMO penetration and the geographic mobility of practicing physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsky, D; Kletke, P R; Wozniak, G D; Escarce, J J

    2000-09-01

    In this study, we assessed the influence of changes in health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration on the probability that established patient care physicians relocated their practices or left patient care altogether. For physicians who relocated their practices, we also assessed the impact of HMO penetration on their destination choices. We found that larger increases in HMO penetration decreased the probability that medical/surgical specialists in early career stayed in patient care in the same market, but had no impact on generalists, hospital-based specialists, or mid career medical/surgical specialists. We also found that physicians who relocated their practices were much more likely to choose destination markets with the same level of HMO penetration or lower HMO penetration compared with their origin markets than they were to choose destination markets with higher HMO penetration. The largely negligible impact of changes in HMO penetration on established physicians' decisions to relocate their practices or leave patient care is consistent with high relocation and switching costs. Relocating physicians' attraction to destination markets with the same level of HMO penetration as their origin markets suggests that, while physicians' styles of medical practice may adapt to changes in market conditions, learning new practice styles is costly.

  7. 46 CFR 174.225 - Hull penetrations and shell connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull penetrations and shell connections. 174.225 Section 174.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... § 174.225 Hull penetrations and shell connections. Each overboard discharge and shell connection except...

  8. Experience With The Management Of unusual Penetrating Chest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presentation shows how a victim of fall from height in the bush can sustain a penetrating chest injury on a dry stick of a shrub. Applications on the principles of management of penetrating chest injury is needed despite the grotesque clinical appearance. [Jnl College of Medicine Vol.7(1) 2002: 40-42] ...

  9. Two methodologies for physical penetration testing using social engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; Pieters, Wolter; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2009-01-01

    During a penetration test on the physical security of an organization, if social engineering is used, the penetration tester directly interacts with the employees. These interactions are usually based on deception and if not done properly can upset the employees, violate their privacy or damage

  10. Gastroscopic treatment of gastric band penetrating the gastric wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Per; Fonnest, G

    1999-01-01

    Gastric wall penetration of a gastric band after operation for morbid obesity is a well known late complication. The treatment is usually reoperation. In this case report we show that a band penetrating the gastric wall can be successfully treated by gastroscopic operation. This technique is more...

  11. A Study on Factors Affecting Airborne LiDAR Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses data from different periods, areas and parameters of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging surveys to understand the factors that influence airborne LiDAR penetration rate. A discussion is presented on the relationships between these factors and LiDAR penetration rate. The results show that the flight height above ground level (AGL does not have any relationship with the penetration rate. There are some factors that should have larger influence. For example, the laser is affected by a wet ground surface by reducing the number of return echoes. The field of view (FOV has a slightly negative correlation with the penetration rate, which indicates that the laser incidence angle close to zero should achieve the best penetration. The vegetation cover rate also shows a negative correlation with the penetration rate, thus bare ground and reduced vegetation in the aftermath of a typhoon also cause high penetration rate. More return echoes could be extracted from the full-waveform system, thereby effectively improving the penetration rate. This study shows that full-waveform LiDAR is an effective method for increasing the number of surface reflected echoes. This study suggests avoiding LiDAR survey employment directly following precipitation to prevent laser echo reduction.

  12. Replica scale modelling of long rod tank penetrators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diederen, A.M.; Hoeneveld, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments and simulations have been conducted using scale size tungsten alloy penetrators at ordnance velocity against an oblique plate array consisting of an inert sandwich and a base armour. The penetrators are made from 2 types of tungsten alloy with different tensile strength. Two scale sizes

  13. Penetrating abdominal injuries in adults seen at two teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the pattern and management outcome of penetrating abdominal injuries (PAI) in the two main teaching hospitals in Ghana. Study Design: A prospective ... Conclusion: Stab wounds are the main penetrating abdominal injuries seen mostly among young male adults in Ghana. Management was by a ...

  14. The Impact of IPv6 on Penetration Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottow, Christiaan; van Vliet, Frank; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Pras, Aiko

    In this paper we discuss the impact the use of IPv6 has on remote penetration testing of servers and web applications. Several modifications to the penetration testing process are proposed to accommodate IPv6. Among these modifications are ways of performing fragmentation attacks, host discovery and

  15. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory (extended version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Therefore, penetration testing has thus far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management,

  16. An explosive acoustic telemetry system for seabed penetrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, G.C.; Hickerson, J.

    1988-04-01

    This report discusses the design and past applications of an explosive acoustic telemetry system (EATS) for gathering and transmitting data from seabed penetrators. The system was first fielded in 1982 and has since been used to measure penetrator performance on three other occasions. Descriptions are given of the mechanical hardware, system electronics, and software.

  17. Impact of adult atopic dermatitis on topical drug penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Ortiz, Patricia; Hansen, Steen H; Shah, Vinod P

    2009-01-01

    Appropriate methodologies for the determination of drug penetration in diseased skin have not yet been established. The aim of this study was to determine the cutaneous penetration of a metronidazole cream formulation in atopic dermatitis, employing dermal microdialysis and tape strip sampling...

  18. Penetrating abdominal injury cases admitted in University of Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of penetrating abdominal injuries especially through gunshot injuries is on the increase and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in our community. Control measures and ways of reducing morbidity and mortality are suggested. Keywords: penetrating abdominal injuries, gun shot injuries. Annals of ...

  19. Penetration of asbestos fibers in respirator filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yung-Sung; Pearson, S.D.; Rohrbacher, K.D.; Yeh, Hsu-Chi.

    1994-01-01

    Currently, the health risks associated with asbestos have restricted its use and created a growing asbestos abatement industry with a need for respirator filters that are effective for worker protection. The main purpose of this project is to determine the influence of fiber size, electrostatic charge, and flow rate on the penetration of asbestos fibers in respirator filter cartridges. The study includes four types of filters each tested at two flow rates: the AO-R57A, a dual cartridge HEPA filter tested at 16 and 42.5 L/min; the MSA-S, a dust and mist filter tested at 16 and 42.5 L/min; the MSA-A power filter tested at 32 and 85 L/min; and the 3M-8710, a low-efficiency disposable face mask filter tested at 32 and 85 L/min. The three types of asbestos fibers used (amosite, crocidolite, and chrysotile) ranged in length from 0.04-0.5 μm and in aspect ratio (ratio of length to diameter) from 3 to 60. The fibers were used in both charged and neutralized forms. The results from amosite fibers are reported here

  20. Investigating hydrocarbon contamination using ground penetrating radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roest, P.B. van der; Brasser, D.J.S.; Wagebaert, A.P.J.; Stam, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    The increasing costs of remediating contaminated sites has stimulated research for cost reducing techniques in soil investigation and clean-up techniques. Under the traditional approach soil borings and groundwater wells are used to investigate contaminated soil. These are useful tools to determine the amount and characteristics of the contamination, but they are inefficient and costly in providing information on the location and extent of contamination as they only give information on one point. This often leads to uncertainty in estimating clean-up costs or, even worse, to unsuccessful clean-ups. MAP Environmental Research has developed a technology using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) in combination with in-house developed software to locate and define the extent of hydrocarbon contamination. With this technology, the quality of site investigation is increased while costs are reduced. Since 1994 MAP has been improving its technology and has applied it to over 100 projects, which all have been checked afterwards by conventional drilling. This paper gives some general characteristics of the method and presents a case study. The emphasis of this paper lies on the practical application of GPR to hydrocarbon contamination detection

  1. Penetrative convection at high Rayleigh numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppaladoddi, Srikanth; Wettlaufer, John S.

    2018-04-01

    We study penetrative convection of a fluid confined between two horizontal plates, the temperatures of which are such that a temperature of maximum density lies between them. The range of Rayleigh numbers studied is Ra=[0.01 ,4 ]106,108 and the Prandtl numbers are Pr=1 and 11.6. An evolution equation for the growth of the convecting region is obtained through an integral energy balance. We identify a new nondimensional parameter, Λ , which is the ratio of temperature difference between the stable and unstable regions of the flow; larger values of Λ denote increased stability of the upper stable layer. We study the effects of Λ on the flow field using well-resolved lattice Boltzmann simulations and show that the characteristics of the flow depend sensitively upon it. For the range Λ = , we find that for a fixed Ra the Nusselt number, Nu, increases with decreasing Λ . We also investigate the effects of Λ on the vertical variation of convective heat flux and the Brunt-Väisälä frequency. Our results clearly indicate that in the limit Λ →0 the problem reduces to that of the classical Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

  2. Spontaneous wound dehiscence after penetrating keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Foroutan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous wound separation may be developed even months after suture removal especially in the context of long-term corticosteroid therapy. A 68-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our cornea clinic with spontaneous wound dehiscence after her third penetrating keratoplasty (PKP which was performed three years ago. An Ahmed glaucoma valve (New World Medical, Ranchos Cucamonga, CA was inserted ten months after the third PKP, which successfully controlled intraocular pressure (IOP. At the examination, the last sutures were removed eight months ago and she was using flourometholone 0.1 % (Sina Darou, Tehran, Iran with a dose of once a day. There was one quadrant of wound dehiscence from 8 to 11 o`clock associated with anterior wound gape and severe corneal edema. Resuturing was performed for the patient. At the one month examination, the corneal edema was resolved and best corrected visual acuity was 20/200 mainly due to previous glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Caution about the prolonged use of corticosteroids is necessary. Topical immunosuppressives could be a promising choice in this field.

  3. Adsorption of polymer chains at penetrable interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimchuk, I. V.; Sommer, J.-U.; Gerasimchuk, V. S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the problem of adsorption (localization) of polymer chains in the system of two penetrable interfaces within the mean-field approximation. The saturation of the polymer system in the limit case of zero bulk concentration is studied. We find the exact solution of this mean-field polymer adsorption problem that opens the possibility to treat various localization problems for polymer chains in such environments using appropriate boundary conditions. The exact solution is controlled by a single scaling variable that describes the coupling between the interfaces due to the polymer chains. We obtain a nonmonotonic behavior of the amount of adsorbed polymers as a function of the distance between the interfaces. This leads to a high-energy and a low-energy phase for the double layer with respect to the amount of polymers localized. At the saturation point, we find the total energy of the system and determine the force acting between the interfaces to be strictly attractive and to monotonically decay to zero when the interface distance increases.

  4. Interpretation of the lime column penetration test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liyanapathirana, D S; Kelly, R B

    2010-01-01

    Dry soil mix (DSM) columns are used to reduce the settlement and to improve the stability of embankments constructed on soft clays. During construction the shear strength of the columns needs to be confirmed for compliance with technical assumptions. A specialized blade shaped penetrometer known as the lime column probe, has been developed for testing DSM columns. This test can be carried out as a pull out resistance test (PORT) or a push in resistance test (PIRT). The test is considered to be more representative of average column shear strength than methods that test only a limited area of the column. Both PORT and PIRT tests require empirical correlations of measured resistance to an absolute measure of shear strength, in a similar manner to the cone penetration test. In this paper, finite element method is used to assess the probe factor, N, for the PORT test. Due to the large soil deformations around the probe, an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) based finite element formulation has been used. Variation of N with rigidity index and the friction at the probe-soil interface are investigated to establish a range for the probe factor.

  5. Penetration of tritium into the Tropical Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine, R.A.; Peterson, W.H.; Ostlund, H.G.

    1987-01-01

    The persistence of subsurface tritium maxima coincident with the Equatorial Currents is used to show that advection along isopycnals by the mean wind-driven circulation is the dominant process in the at most 14-year time scale for the penetration of high northern latitude water to the equator (above 26.2 sigma-theta). Ventilation of the equatorial Pacific thermocline from the north contrasts sharply with the equatorial Atlantic thermocline which is ventilated from the south. The most striking manifestation of the North Pacific circulation is evidenced by a tritium maximum and salinity minimum at the equator between 145 0 and 125 0 W located above 25.6 sigma-theta. It shows that regardless of time of sampling the easter/central equator has received the highest latitude water, probably as a consequence of recirculation by the Equatorial Currents. Between the same meridians there is a tritium maximum on and north of the equator at the surface, which is interpreted as an expression of upwelling. Its coincidence with the cool tongue (Wyrtki) provides direct evidence that the upwelling process plays a dominant role in its maintenance on a decadal time scale

  6. Manual and automatic flight control during severe turbulence penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, D. E.; Klein, R. H.; Hoh, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation of possible contributing factors in jet aircraft turbulence upsets was conducted. Major contributing factors identified included autopilot and display deficiencies, the large aircraft inertia and associated long response time, and excessive pilot workload. An integrated flight and thrust energy management director system was synthesized. The system was incorporated in a moving-base simulation and evaluated using highly experienced airline pilots. The evaluation included comparison of pilot workload and flight performance during severe turbulence penetration utilizing four control/display concepts: manual control with conventional full panel display, conventional autopilot (A/P-A) with conventional full panel display, improved autopilot (A/P-B) with conventional full panel display plus thrust director display, and longitudinal flight director with conventional full panel display plus thrust director display. Simulation results show improved performance, reduced pilot workload, and a pilot preference for the autopilot system controlling to the flight director command and manual control of thrust following the trim thrust director.

  7. Soil Penetration Rates by Earthworms and Plant Roots- Mechanical and Energetic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Siul; Schymanski, Stan; Or, Dani

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the implications of different soil burrowing rates by earthworms and growing plant roots using mechanical models that consider soil rheological properties. We estimate the energetic requirements for soil elasto-viscoplastic displacement at different rates for similar burrows and water contents. In the core of the mechanical model is a transient cavity expansion into viscoplastic wet soil that mimic an earthworm or root tip cone-like penetration and subsequent cavity expansion due to pressurized earthworm hydrostatic skeleton or root radial growth. Soil matrix viscoplatic considerations enable separation of the respective energetic requirements for earthworms penetrating at 2 μm/s relative to plant roots growing at 0.2 μm/s . Typical mechanical and viscous parameters are obtained inversely for soils under different fixed water contents utilizing custom miniaturized cone penetrometers at different fixed penetration rates (1 to 1000 μm/s). Experimental results determine critical water contents where soil exhibits pronounced viscoplatic behavior (close to saturation), bellow which the soil strength limits earthworms activity and fracture propagation by expanding plant roots becomes the favorable mechanical mode. The soil mechanical parameters in conjunction with earthworm and plant root physiological pressure limitations (200 kPa and 2000 kPa respectively) enable delineation of the role of soil saturation in regulating biotic penetration rates for different soil types under different moisture contents. Furthermore, this study provides a quantitative framework for estimating rates of energy expenditure for soil penetration, which allowed us to determine maximum earthworm population densities considering soil mechanical properties and the energy stored in soil organic matter.

  8. The study of penetration of energetic ions in botanic samples with transmission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.G.; Chen, Q.Z.; Xue, J.M.; Du, G.H.; Qin, H.L; Zhang, W.M.; Yan, S.; Zhao, W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Botanic samples (onion endocuticles, kidney bean slices) were exposed to energetic ions. By recording transmission spectra, we studied the energy loss in such samples. Individual protrusion-like damage produced in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrate allowed us to analyze the mass density of the samples by scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The experimental results showed that the botanic sample is inhomogeneous in mass density, some incident ions lose only a small part of their energy after being stopped by a layer of botanic sample. Additionally, about 10 -7 of the incident ions with energy of tens of keV can penetrate through the botanic slice with a thickness of 50 μm. The dynamic change of the transmission spectrum of MeV heavy ions through a layer of botanic slice showed that the penetration ability of the incident ions increases with increasing ion fluence. These experimental results indicate that the inhomogeneousity of mass density of botanic samples and irradiation damage are the main reasons of the ultra-depth penetration of low-energy ions in such kind of botanic samples

  9. Screening Effect of Plasma Flow on RMP Penetration in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, Lorenzo; Olofsson, Erik; Brunsell, Per; Menmuir, Sheena; Drake, James

    2011-10-01

    The penetration of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP) can be screened by plasma flow and the understanding of this phenomenon is important for ELM mitigation techniques. This work studies the screening effect in EXTRAP T2R. EXTRAP T2R is equipped with a feedback system able to suppress all error fields and to produce one or more external perturbations in a controlled fashion. The EXTRAP T2R feedback system is used to generate a RMP that interacts with the dynamics of its corresponding tearing mode (TM). The level of RMP penetration is quantified by analyzing the RMP effect on the TM amplitude and velocity. To study the screening effect, the flow is changed by applying a second perturbation that is non resonant (non-RMP). This produces the flow reduction without perturbing significantly the other parameters. By modifying the amplitude of the non-RMP, an experimental study of the flow effect on the RMP penetration is performed. Experimental results are compared with the model described in [Fitzpatrick R et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 4489 (2001)].

  10. Standard practice for liquid penetrant examination for general industry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for penetrant examination of materials. Penetrant testing is a nondestructive testing method for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, shrinkage, laminations, through leaks, or lack of fusion and is applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance testing. It can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, ferrous and nonferrous metals, and of nonmetallic materials such as nonporous glazed or fully densified ceramics, as well as certain nonporous plastics, and glass. 1.2 This practice also provides a reference: 1.2.1 By which a liquid penetrant examination process recommended or required by individual organizations can be reviewed to ascertain its applicability and completeness. 1.2.2 For use in the preparation of process specifications and procedures dealing with the liquid penetrant testing of parts and materials. Agreement by the customer requesting penetrant inspection is strongly rec...

  11. Evaporation and skin penetration characteristics of mosquito repellent formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifenrath, W.G.; Hawkins, G.S.; Kurtz, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Formulations of the mosquito repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) in combination with a variety of additives were developed to control repellent evaporation and percutaneous penetration. Deet was also formulated with the repellent dimethyl phthalate to study the interaction of the two compounds on the skin. The evaporation and penetration processes were evaluated on whole and split-thickness pig skin using radiolabeled repellents with an in vitro apparatus. Under essentially still air and air flow conditions, one of the deet formulations resulted in significantly reduced total evaporation and percutaneous penetration of deet as compared to unformulated repellent. When deet and dimethyl phthalate were combined, neither repellent affected the total amount of evaporation and penetration of the other compound. However, initial percutaneous penetration and evaporation rates were slightly less and decayed less rapidly than when both chemicals were tested separately at the same dose. These results indicated a degree of competition of the two compounds for the same avenues of loss

  12. The usual suspects-influence of physicochemical properties on lag time, skin deposition, and percutaneous penetration of nine model compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo Nielsen, Jesper; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Nielsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    The influence of physicochemical properties of nine model compounds on lag time, skin deposition, and percutaneous penetration was evaluated. Static diffusion cells mounted with human skin were used as the experimental model, and experiments were carried out in accordance with Organization for Ec...... agencies using experimental data for assessing systemic toxicity following dermal exposures as for development of structure activity relationships for dermal absorption of chemicals....

  13. Design data for calculating neutral beam penetration into Z/sub eff/ > 1 plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.; Berkner, K.H.; Graham, W.G.; Pyle, R.V.; Schlachter, A.S.; Stearns, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    Impurities such as C, N, O, Fe, and Mo in a confined plasma reduce the penetration of the energetic neutral deuterium or hydrogen beam injected for heating or fueling the plasma, thus affecting the energy- and fuel-deposition profiles. New calculations, confirmed by recent experimental results, show that previous estimates of the reduction of neutral beam penetration due to impurities in the plasma were overly pessimistic. Until recently, the cross sections used to calculate beam attenuation had been assumed to be q 2 times the cross section for H + + H obtained from the Born approximation, where q is the charge state of the ion. This led to very large cross sections for large values of q, and thus to very stringent requirements on the acceptable level of impurity ions in the plasma

  14. Analysis of penetration of steel and Al2O3 targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlefield, D.L.; Anderson, C.E. Jr.; Skaggs, S.R.

    1994-01-01

    A series of penetration experiments was conducted to investigate the ballistic performance of steel and 99.5% pure Al 2 O 3 targets using a L/D=10 tungsten alloy projectile. The impact velocity for the experiments was nominally 1.6 km/s. Flash radiographs were used to record the positions of the nose and tail of the projectile at discrete times. The experiments have been analyzed using an analytic penetration model. The steel data were matched quite well using reasonable values for the flow stress of the steel and tungsten alloy. Agreement with the ceramic data was not satisfactory, so the model was modified to account for constitutive behavior more relatistic in ceramic materials. Experimental data for the ceramic target were replicated reasonably well using the modified model when the slope of the yield strength/pressure curve was 0.75. copyright American Institute of Physics

  15. Experimental Investigation of Creep Behavior of Reactor Vessel Lower Head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.Y.; Pilch, M.; Bentz, J.H.; Behbahani, A.

    1999-01-01

    The authors report a study which aimed at experimentally and numerically investigating and characterizing the failure of a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower head due to thermal and pressure loads generated by a severe accident. They present the experimental apparatus which is based on a scaled version of the lower part of a TMI-like reactor pressure vessel without vessel skirt. They report and comment the results obtained during the first five experiments: uniform heating and non penetrations, centre-peaked heat flux and no penetrations, edge-peaked heat flux and no penetrations, uniform heating with penetrations, edge-peaked heat flux with penetrations. They compare the third and fifth experience (those with edge-peaked heat flux)

  16. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    This dissertation examines the influence that economic and technological factors have on the penetration of biodiesel and ethanol into the transportation fuels market. This dissertation focuses on four aspects. The first involves the influence of fossil fuel prices, because biofuels are substitutes and have to compete in price. The second involves biofuel manufacturing technology, principally the feedstock-to-biofuel conversion rates, and the biofuel manufacturing costs. The third involves prices for greenhouse gas offsets. The fourth involves the agricultural commodity markets for feedstocks, and biofuel byproducts. This dissertation uses the Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model-Greenhouse Gas (FASOM-GHG) to quantitatively examine these issues and calculates equilibrium prices and quantities, given market interactions, fossil fuel prices, carbon dioxide equivalent prices, government biofuel subsidies, technological improvement, and crop yield gains. The results indicate that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production is highly responsive to gasoline prices and increases over time. (Diesel fuel price is proportional to the gasoline price). Carbon dioxide equivalent prices expand the biodiesel industry, but have no impact on ethanol aggregate production when gasoline prices are high again because of refinery capacity expansion. Improvement of crop yields shows a similar pattern, expanding ethanol production when the gasoline price is low and expanding biodiesel. Technological improvement, where biorefinery production costs decrease over time, had minimal impact on aggregate ethanol and biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government subsidies have a large expansionary impact on aggregate biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government

  17. MÉTODOS DE PROSPECCIÓN GEOFÍSICA EN ARQUEOLOGÍA. EXPERIMENTACIÓN CON RADAR DE PENETRACIÓN TERRESTRE (GPR EN CONCHEROS ARTIFICIALES (Geophysical methods in archaeology. Experimentation with ground penetrating radar (GPR in artificial shell mounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Santiago

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La prospección con georadar en sitios arqueológicos de la costa atlántica de Tierra del Fuego presenta dificultades, en cuanto a la calidad de los registros y su funcionalidad en relación a la detección de objetos arqueológicos presentes en el subsuelo. Para dilucidar las causas, se diseñó un experimento en laboratorio reproduciendo el entorno natural y cultural. Se replicó un conchero en una caja de frente transparente, incorporando materiales óseos y líticos y usando sedimento estéril del sitio La Arcillosa 2. Se efectuó un análisis granulométrico y separación magnética del sedimento estéril, y se sondeó con una antena de 1,5 GHz. El conchero, incluido en un depósito de arena con contenido de humedad entre 2,1 y 4,5%, fue visible en los registros. Los restos óseos generaron anomalías nítidas, debido al contraste de sus propiedades dieléctricas con las arenas portadoras. Con humedad mayor a 8,5% o con cobertura de suelos y gramíneas, los registros resultaron difusos. Los minerales paramagnéticos, ferromagnéticos (24,5% y altamente magnéticos (3,6% del depósito provocaron atenuación de las ondas electromagnéticas. Los resultados de la aplicación de esta técnica para los concheros del norte de Tierra del Fuego, en relación al tiempo de trabajo en campo y en laboratorio, resultan pocos satisfactorios. ENGLISH: Archaeological sites on the northern Atlantic coast of Tierra del Fuego show a poor response to geophysical exploration, using ground penetrating radar. In order to elucidate its causes, a laboratory experiment was designed, creating the natural environmental conditions. Materials and sterile sediment from the site of La Arcillosa 2 (Chico River Basin, northeast of Tierra del Fuego were utilized to replicate an artificial shell midden in a transparent box. Particle size analysis and magnetic separation of the sterile soil were performed, and various surveys were conducted with a 1.5 GHz antenna. The shell

  18. Percutaneous penetration through slightly damaged skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper B

    2005-01-01

    with human skin. A slight damage to the barrier integrity was induced by pre-treatment of the skin with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) before pesticide exposure. The experimental model with 3 h pre-treatment with SLS (0.1% or 0.3%) assured a significant but controlled damage to the barrier integrity, a damage...

  19. Containment penetration design and analysis by finite element methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.F.; Rigamonti, G.; Dainora, J.

    1975-01-01

    Containment penetration designs which provide complete support to process piping containing high pressure and high temperature fluids and which do not employ cooling coils, require special provisions to sustain loadings associated with normal/abnormal conditions and to limit maximum temperature transmitted to the containment concrete wall. In order to accomodate piping loads and fluid temperatures within code and regulatory limitations, the containment penetration designs require careful analysis of two critical regions: 1) the portion of the penetration sleeve which is exposed to containment ambient conditions and 2) the portion of the penetration which connects the sleeve to process piping (flued head). Analytical models using finite element representation of process piping, penetration flued head, and exposed sleeve were employed to investigate the penetration assembly design. By application of flexible multi-step analyses, different penetration configurations were evaluated to determine the effects of key design parameters. Among the parameters studied were flued head angles with the process piping, sleeve length and wall thickness. Special designs employing fins welded to the sleeve to further lower the temperature at the concrete wall interface were also investigated and fin geometry effects reported. (Auth.)

  20. Analysis of 178 penetrating stomach and small bowel injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Ali; Teixeira, Pedro G R; Inaba, Kenji; Brown, Carlos; Browder, Timothy; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2008-03-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs), such as wound infection, fascial dehiscence, and intraabdominal abscess, commonly occur following penetrating abdominal trauma. However, most of the literature involves penetrating colon injuries. There are few reports describing complications following penetrating stomach and small bowel injuries. Based on the hypothesis that SSIs are commonly found following penetrating stomach and small bowel trauma, a prospective observational study was performed at an academic Level I trauma center from March 1, 2004 until August 31, 2006. The subjects were patients who had sustained a penetrating injury to the stomach or small bowel. Patients were followed for the development of an SSI, defined as wound infection, fascial dehiscence, or intraabdominal abscess. A total of 178 patients were admitted with penetrating stomach or small bowel injuries over the 29-month period. There were 121 (68%) gunshot injuries and 57 (32%) stab wounds. Associated intraabdominal injuries occurred in 74% of patients. Overall, SSIs occurred in 20% of cases. Risk factors for SSI included associated duodenal or colon injury, whereas time to operating room, blood loss, and type and duration of antibiotic use were not. When associated colon injuries were excluded, SSIs occurred in 16% of patients with gastric injuries and 13% of those with small bowel injuries. SSIs commonly follow penetrating stomach and small bowel trauma. Risk factors for SSI include associated duodenal or colon injury. Delay to operating room, blood loss, and type and length of antibiotic prophylaxis were not associated with an increased risk of SSI.

  1. Evaporation Limited Radial Capillary Penetration in Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingchao; Wu, Jian; Gan, Yixiang; Hanaor, Dorian A H; Chen, C Q

    2016-09-27

    The capillary penetration of fluids in thin porous layers is of fundamental interest in nature and various industrial applications. When capillary flows occur in porous media, the extent of penetration is known to increase with the square root of time following the Lucas-Washburn law. In practice, volatile liquid evaporates at the surface of porous media, which restricts penetration to a limited region. In this work, on the basis of Darcy's law and mass conservation, a general theoretical model is developed for the evaporation-limited radial capillary penetration in porous media. The presented model predicts that evaporation decreases the rate of fluid penetration and limits it to a critical radius. Furthermore, we construct a unified phase diagram that describes the limited penetration in an annular porous medium, in which the boundaries of outward and inward liquid are predicted quantitatively. It is expected that the proposed theoretical model will advance the understanding of penetration dynamics in porous media and facilitate the design of engineered porous architectures.

  2. Water Penetration through a Superhydrophobic Mesh During a Drop Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seunggeol; Sen, Prosenjit; Nam, Youngsuk; Lee, Choongyeop

    2017-01-01

    When a water drop impacts a mesh having submillimeter pores, a part of the drop penetrates through the mesh if the impact velocity is sufficiently large. Here we show that different surface wettability, i.e., hydrophobicity and superhydrophobicity, leads to different water penetration dynamics on a mesh during drop impact. We show, despite the water repellence of a superhydrophobic surface, that water can penetrate a superhydrophobic mesh more easily (i.e., at a lower impact velocity) over a hydrophobic mesh via a penetration mechanism unique to a superhydrophobic mesh. On a superhydrophobic mesh, the water penetration can occur during the drop recoil stage, which appears at a lower impact velocity than the critical impact velocity for water penetration right upon impact. We propose that this unique water penetration on a superhydrophobic mesh can be attributed to the combination of the hydrodynamic focusing and the momentum transfer from the water drop when it is about to bounce off the surface, at which point the water drop retrieves most of its kinetic energy due to the negligible friction on superhydrophobic surfaces.

  3. Penetration-depth calculations in the ab and c directions in a layered S/N superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, W.A.; Carbotte, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of calculations of the penetration depths λ ab and λ c (the subscripts refer to the direction of the screening currents). Our model is a layered superconducting/normal metal (S/N) model, in which the two types of layers are stacked in alternating fashion. The S and N layers are coupled in a coherent fashion and the N layer is driven superconducting by a proximity effect. We calculate the penetration depths for both d-wave and s-wave order parameters for a range of interlayer coupling strengths, and we discuss the effect that the interlayer coupling has on the temperature dependence of the penetration depths. We finish by comparing our results with experimental observations of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7

  4. Performance evaluation of lunar penetrating radar onboard the rover of CE-3 probe based on results from ground experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Bo; Zheng, Lei; Su, Yan; Fang, Guang-You; Zhou, Bin; Feng, Jian-Qing; Xing, Shu-Guo; Dai, Shun; Li, Jun-Duo; Ji, Yi-Cai; Gao, Yun-Ze; Xiao, Yuan; Li, Chun-Lai

    2014-12-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) onboard the rover that is part of the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) mission was firstly utilized to obtain in situ measurements about geological structure on the lunar surface and the thickness of the lunar regolith, which are key elements for studying the evolutional history of lunar crust. Because penetration depth and resolution of LPR are related to the scientific objectives of this mission, a series of ground-based experiments using LPR was carried out, and results of the experimental data were obtained in a glacial area located in the northwest region of China. The results show that the penetration depth of the first channel antenna used for LPR is over 79 m with a resolution of 2.8 m, and that for the second channel antenna is over 50.8 m with a resolution of 17.1 cm.

  5. Performance evaluation of lunar penetrating radar onboard the rover of CE-3 probe based on results from ground experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong-Bo; Zheng Lei; Su Yan; Feng Jian-Qing; Xing Shu-Guo; Dai Shun; Li Jun-Duo; Xiao Yuan; Li Chun-Lai; Fang Guang-You; Zhou Bin; Ji Yi-Cai; Gao Yun-Ze

    2014-01-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) onboard the rover that is part of the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) mission was firstly utilized to obtain in situ measurements about geological structure on the lunar surface and the thickness of the lunar regolith, which are key elements for studying the evolutional history of lunar crust. Because penetration depth and resolution of LPR are related to the scientific objectives of this mission, a series of ground-based experiments using LPR was carried out, and results of the experimental data were obtained in a glacial area located in the northwest region of China. The results show that the penetration depth of the first channel antenna used for LPR is over 79 m with a resolution of 2.8 m, and that for the second channel antenna is over 50.8 m with a resolution of 17.1 cm

  6. Importance Of Penetration Testing For Legacy Operating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poorvi Bhatt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Penetration testing is very important technique to find vulnerabilities in commercial networks. There are various techniques for ethical hacking via penetration testing. This report explains a white hat hacker approach of penetration testing. I have performed this test on private network where three PCs are connected through LAN via switch and without firewall. This network is not connected with Internet. All the PCs have windows operating system. The attacker host has windows server 2003 with Service Pack1 second host has windows XP with Service Pack 2 and third host has windows 2000 with service pack 4.

  7. Conducting network penetration and espionage in a global environment

    CERN Document Server

    Middleton, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    When it's all said and done, penetration testing remains the most effective way to identify security vulnerabilities in computer networks. Conducting Network Penetration and Espionage in a Global Environment provides detailed guidance on how to perform effective penetration testing of computer networks-using free, open source, and commercially available tools, including Backtrack, Metasploit, Wireshark, Nmap, Netcat, and Nessus. It also considers exploits and other programs using Python, PERL, BASH, PHP, Ruby, and Windows PowerShell.The book taps into Bruce Middleton's decades of experience wi

  8. Magnetic field penetration into superconductors with sharp edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhilichev, Yuriy N.

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic field and surface currents induced within a superconductor are calculated assuming the field penetrates in it near sharp corners. Rounding the corners is used to keep the field less than a critical value. Analytical formulas for a corner radius are given for a wire of the rectangular cross-section and a cylinder in the external magnetic field. A boundary integral method is used to calculate the boundary of the Meissner domain when the external field penetrates deep into the superconductor. The effect of degree of penetration on the magnetic moment of superconducting cylinders and wires is discussed

  9. On the ability of PAMAM dendrimers and dendrimer/DNA aggregates to penetrate POPC model biomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainalem, Marie-Louise; Campbell, Richard A; Khalid, Syma; Gillams, Richard J; Rennie, Adrian R; Nylander, Tommy

    2010-06-03

    Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have previously been shown, as cationic condensing agents of DNA, to have high potential for nonviral gene delivery. This study addresses two key issues for gene delivery: the interaction of the biomembrane with (i) the condensing agent (the cationic PAMAM dendrimer) and (ii) the corresponding dendrimer/DNA aggregate. Using in situ null ellipsometry and neutron reflection, parallel experiments were carried out involving dendrimers of generations 2 (G2), 4 (G4), and 6 (G6). The study demonstrates that free dendrimers of all three generations were able to traverse supported palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayers deposited on silica surfaces. The model biomembranes were elevated from the solid surfaces upon dendrimer penetration, which offers a promising new way to generate more realistic model biomembranes where the contact with the supporting surface is reduced and where aqueous cavities are present beneath the bilayer. The largest dendrimer (G6) induced partial bilayer destruction directly upon penetration, whereas the smaller dendrimers (G2 and G4) leave the bilayer intact, so we propose that lower generation dendrimers have greater potential as transfection mediators. In addition to the experimental observations, coarse-grained simulations on the interaction between generation 3 (G3) dendrimers and POPC bilayers were performed in the absence and presence of a bilayer-supporting negatively charged surface that emulates the support. The simulations demonstrate that G3 is transported across free-standing POPC bilayers by direct penetration and not by endocytosis. The penetrability was, however, reduced in the presence of a surface, indicating that the membrane transport observed experimentally was not driven solely by the surface. The experimental reflection techniques were also applied to dendrimer/DNA aggregates of charge ratio = 0.5, and while G2/DNA and G4/DNA aggregates interact with POPC bilayers, G6/DNA

  10. Electromagnetic modelling of Ground Penetrating Radar responses to complex targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Giannopoulos, Antonis

    2014-05-01

    This work deals with the electromagnetic modelling of composite structures for Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) applications. It was developed within the Short-Term Scientific Mission ECOST-STSM-TU1208-211013-035660, funded by COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar". The Authors define a set of test concrete structures, hereinafter called cells. The size of each cell is 60 x 100 x 18 cm and the content varies with growing complexity, from a simple cell with few rebars of different diameters embedded in concrete at increasing depths, to a final cell with a quite complicated pattern, including a layer of tendons between two overlying meshes of rebars. Other cells, of intermediate complexity, contain pvc ducts (air filled or hosting rebars), steel objects commonly used in civil engineering (as a pipe, an angle bar, a box section and an u-channel), as well as void and honeycombing defects. One of the cells has a steel mesh embedded in it, overlying two rebars placed diagonally across the comers of the structure. Two cells include a couple of rebars bent into a right angle and placed on top of each other, with a square/round circle lying at the base of the concrete slab. Inspiration for some of these cells is taken from the very interesting experimental work presented in Ref. [1]. For each cell, a subset of models with growing complexity is defined, starting from a simple representation of the cell and ending with a more realistic one. In particular, the model's complexity increases from the geometrical point of view, as well as in terms of how the constitutive parameters of involved media and GPR antennas are described. Some cells can be simulated in both two and three dimensions; the concrete slab can be approximated as a finite-thickness layer having infinite extension on the transverse plane, thus neglecting how edges affect radargrams, or else its finite size can be fully taken into account. The permittivity of concrete can be

  11. Effect of internal short fibers, steel reinforcement, and surface layer on impact and penetration resistance of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abd_Elhakam Aliabdo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental program to investigate the impact and penetration resistance of concrete. The research work is divided into two approaches. These approaches are effect of concrete constituents and effect of surface layer. Effect of concrete aggregate type, w/c ratio, fiber type, fiber shape, fiber volume fraction, and steel reinforcement is considered in the first approach. The second approach includes using fiber reinforced concrete and glass fiber reinforced polymer as surface layers. The evaluating tests include standard impact test according to ASTM D 1557 and suggested simulated penetration test to measure the impact and penetration resistance of concrete. The test results of plain and fibrous concrete from ASTM D 1557 method indicated that steel fiber with different configurations and using basalt have a great positive effect on impact resistance of concrete. Moreover, the simulated penetration test indicates that steel fibers are more effective than propylene fibers, type of coarse aggregate has negligible effect, and steel fiber volume fraction has a more significant influence than fiber shape for reinforced concrete test panels. Finally, as expectable, surface properties of tested concrete panels have a significant effect on impact and penetration resistance.

  12. Safety considerations of laser related penetration in LCTR central power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botts, T.E.; Chan, C.K.; Ullman, A.Z.

    1976-01-01

    The following topics are briefly described: (1) requirements for optical penetration performance, (2) failure sequences in LCTR optical penetrations, (3) thermal stress in optical penetrations, and (4) nonlinear optical effects

  13. Analysis of the Noneroding Penetration of Tungsten Alloy Long Rods into Aluminum Targets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Segletes, Steven

    2003-01-01

    .... the eroding-penetration regimes. Conventional one-dimensional penetration analysis reveals that the noneroding datum is wholly consistent with the notion of treating the rod as if it penetrated in a rigid-body fashion, possessing...

  14. Long term pavement performance computed parameter : frost penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    As the pavement design process moves toward mechanistic-empirical techniques, knowledge of seasonal changes in pavement structural characteristics becomes critical. Specifically, frost penetration information is necessary for determining the effect o...

  15. Management of Penetrating Spinal Cord Injuries in a Non Spinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of Penetrating Spinal Cord Injuries in a Non Spinal Centre: Experience at Enugu, Nigeria. ... The thoracic spine{9(41%)}was most often involved. ... Five (23%) patients with injury at cervical level died from respiratory failure.

  16. colour-flow ultrasound in the detection of penetrating vascular

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VASCULAR INJURIES OF THE NECK. Peter Corr ... in patients with penetrating neck injuries. 5 IIfr Mal ... study of the aortic arch, carotid and vertebral artery was performed as .... that may require endovascular treatment, for example vertebral.

  17. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Soil Penetration Resistance of Recultivated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadorozhnaya Galina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines changes in the spatial distribution of soil penetration resistance in ordinary chernozem (Calcic Chernozem and in the recultivated soil in 2012 and 2014. The measurements were carried out in the field using an Eijkelkamp penetrometer on a regular grid. The depth of measurement was 50 cm, the interval was 5 cm. The indices of variation of soil penetration resistance in space and time have been determined. The degree of spatial dependence of soil penetration resistance has been determined layer by layer. The nature of temporal dynamics of soil penetration resistance of chernozem and technical soil has been described. A significant positive relationship of the structure of chernozem in the two years of the research has been shown. Significant correlations between the data of different years in the technical soil were found to be mostly negative.

  18. Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacogenetic, and Other Factors Influencing CNS Penetration of Antiretrovirals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Nwamaka Nwogu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological complications associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are a matter of great concern. While antiretroviral (ARV drugs are the cornerstone of HIV treatment and typically produce neurological benefit, some ARV drugs have limited CNS penetration while others have been associated with neurotoxicity. CNS penetration is a function of several factors including sieving role of blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers and activity of innate drug transporters. Other factors are related to pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of the specific ARV agent or mediated by drug interactions, local inflammation, and blood flow. In this review, we provide an overview of the various factors influencing CNS penetration of ARV drugs with an emphasis on those commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa. We also summarize some key associations between ARV drug penetration, CNS efficacy, and neurotoxicity.

  19. Ground penetrating radar evaluation of new pavement density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this project was to map pavement surface density variations using dielectric : measurements from ground penetrating radar (GPR). The work was carried out as part of an : Asphalt Intelligent Compaction demonstration project on SR 539 ...

  20. 119 Research Article Resistance to European Penetration into Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-22

    Jun 22, 2017 ... Many Africans resisted the imperialist penetration while some people welcomed them at the initial stage but ... slave trade was abolished and replaced by peaceful trade in the ... they started manifesting imperialist designs.

  1. Penetration of magnetic field in ferromagnetic transformer sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, R; Ziolkowski, M

    1981-01-12

    The paper deals with the penetration of magnetic field in a ferromagnetic transformer sheet. The flux-density distribution is computed using Galerkin's procedure. The different boundary conditions and the nonlinear B/H characteristic is taken into account.

  2. Lateral Tension-Induced Penetration of Particles into a Liposome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Shigyou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is important that we understand the mechanism of the penetration of particles into a living cell to achieve advances in bionanotechnology, such as for treatment, visualization within a cell, and genetic modification. Although there have been many studies on the application of functional particles to cells, the basic mechanism of penetration across a biological membrane is still poorly understood. Here we used a model membrane system to demonstrate that lateral membrane tension drives particle penetration across a lipid bilayer. After the application of osmotic pressure, fully wrapped particles on a liposome surface were found to enter the liposome. We discuss the mechanism of the tension-induced penetration in terms of narrow constriction of the membrane at the neck part. The present findings are expected to provide insight into the application of particles to biological systems.

  3. Review of Power System Stability with High Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Rui; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    analyzing methods and stability improvement approaches. With increasing wind power penetration, system balancing and the reduced inertia may cause a big threaten for stable operation of power systems. To mitigate or eliminate the wind impacts for high wind penetration systems, although the practical......This paper presents an overview of researches on power system stability with high wind power penetration including analyzing methods and improvement approaches. Power system stability issues can be classified diversely according to different considerations. Each classified issue has special...... and reliable choices currently are the strong outside connections or sufficient reserve capacity constructions, many novel theories and approaches are invented to investigate the stability issues, looking forward to an extra-high penetration or totally renewable resource based power systems. These analyzing...

  4. Penetration of stimuli of fish skin for Acanthostomum brauni cercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski de Nuñez, M; Haas, W

    1991-02-01

    The cercaria of Acanthostomum brauni penetrates the skin of its fish host in response to a combination of two chemical signals from the fish skin surface: free fatty acids and a macro-molecular mucus component. The latter seems to be a protein, as the penetration-stimulating activity of fish skin surface mucus is eliminated by digestion with proteinase, but not by digestion with glycosidases, nor by a removal of glycosaminoglycans. These penetration-stimulating host signals differ from the glycoproteins that stimulate the attachment of A. brauni cercariae to the host and also from the macromolecular fish host signals which have been found to stimulate the attachment and penetration by Opisthorchis viverrini cercariae.

  5. Simple Amides of Oleanolic Acid as Effective Penetration Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk-Cwynar, Barbara; Partyka, Danuta; Zaprutko, Lucjusz

    2015-01-01

    Transdermal transport is now becoming one of the most convenient and safe pathways for drug delivery. In some cases it is necessary to use skin penetration enhancers in order to allow for the transdermal transport of drugs that are otherwise insufficiently skin-permeable. A series of oleanolic acid amides as potential transdermal penetration enhancers was formed by multistep synthesis and the synthesis of all newly prepared compounds is presented. The synthetized amides of oleanolic acid were tested for their in vitro penetration promoter activity. The above activity was evaluated by means of using the Fürst method. The relationships between the chemical structure of the studied compounds and penetration activity are presented. PMID:26010090

  6. Medicaid Managed Care Penetration Rates and Expansion Enr...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicaid managed care penetration rates and expansion enrollment by state charts are composed annually by the Data and System Group (DSG) of the Centers for...

  7. Mastering wireless penetration testing for highly secured environments

    CERN Document Server

    Johns, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for security professionals who want to enhance their wireless penetration testing skills and knowledge. Since this book covers advanced techniques, you will need some previous experience in computer security and networking.

  8. Measurements of current penetration during PDX discharge start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhofer, D.D.; Goldston, R.J.; Kaita, R.; Cavallo, A.; Grek, B.; Johnson, D.; McCune, D.C.; McGuire, K.; White, R.B.

    1984-11-01

    The current penetration phase of PDX discharges is examined. The Fast Ion Diagnostic Experiment has been used to measure the temporal evolution of the central q (r/a < 0.4), and to show the effect of magnetic perturbations on fast ions. During plasma current penetration, a series of magnetic perturbations was observed in the plasma. If the current was rising rapidly, the perturbations were accompanied by increases in β/sub theta/ + l/sub i//2 and decreases in the loop voltage, suggesting a rapid penetration of the plasma current. When the plasma current was rising slowly, a series of minor disruptions occurred. These were accompanied by decreases in β/sub theta/ + l/sub i//2 and the loop voltage, and increases in the plasma current. During this phase, current penetration may be enhanced by the change in the resistivity profile which accompanies the disruption

  9. Microstructural observations on the terminal penetration of long rod projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krushna Kumbhar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Present study focuses on the terminal penetration of tungsten heavy alloy (WHA long rod penetrator impacted against armour steel at an impact velocity of 1600 m/s. The residual penetrator and armour steel target recovered after the ballistic test have been characterized using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA. Metallurgical changes in target steel and WHA remnant have been analysed. Large shear stresses and shear localization have resulted in local failure and formation of erosion products. Severe plastic deformation acts as precursor for formation of adiabatic shear band (ASB induced cracks in target steel. Recovered WHA penetrator remnant also exhibits severe plastic deformation forming localized shear bands, ASB induced cracks and shock induced cracks.

  10. Competition and mobile penetration in sub-Saharan Africa | Belayeh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saharan African (SSA) countries between 2000 and 2006. We examine both the impact of introducing competition and the role of intensity of competition on mobile penetration in these countries. Different specifications with different measures of ...

  11. Modelling skin penetration using the Laplace transform technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anissimov, Y G; Watkinson, A

    2013-01-01

    The Laplace transform is a convenient mathematical tool for solving ordinary and partial differential equations. The application of this technique to problems arising in drug penetration through the skin is reviewed in this paper. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Aerial electrostatic spray deposition and canopy penetration in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray deposition on abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces along with canopy penetration are essential for insect control and foliage defoliation in cotton production agriculture. Researchers have reported that electrostatically charged sprays have increased spray deposit onto these surfaces under widel...

  13. Simple amides of oleanolic acid as effective penetration enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk-Cwynar, Barbara; Partyka, Danuta; Zaprutko, Lucjusz

    2015-01-01

    Transdermal transport is now becoming one of the most convenient and safe pathways for drug delivery. In some cases it is necessary to use skin penetration enhancers in order to allow for the transdermal transport of drugs that are otherwise insufficiently skin-permeable. A series of oleanolic acid amides as potential transdermal penetration enhancers was formed by multistep synthesis and the synthesis of all newly prepared compounds is presented. The synthetized amides of oleanolic acid were tested for their in vitro penetration promoter activity. The above activity was evaluated by means of using the Fürst method. The relationships between the chemical structure of the studied compounds and penetration activity are presented.

  14. Age-related percutaneous penetration part 1: skin factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, S; Meier-Davis, S R; Cayme, B; Shudo, J; Maibach, H I

    2012-05-01

    Changes in the skin that occur in the elderly may put them at increased risk for altered percutaneous penetration from pharmacotherapy along with potential adverse effects. Skin factors that may have a role in age-related percutaneous penetration include blood flow, pH, skin thickness, hair and pore density, and the content and structure of proteins, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), water, and lipids. Each factor is examined as a function of increasing age along with its potential impact on percutaneous penetration. Additionally, topical drugs that successfully overcome the barrier function of the skin can still fall victim to cutaneous metabolism, thereby producing metabolites that may have increased or decreased activity. This overview discusses the current data and highlights the importance of further studies to evaluate the impact of skin factors in age-related percutaneous penetration.

  15. Endodontic sealers: Intratubular penetration and permeability to Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bortolini Maria Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : Evaluate in vitro the intratubular penetration and permeability of endodontic sealers in teeth contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods : Human canines were filled with AHPlus ® , Endo CPM-sealer ® or EndoRez ® sealers. To evaluate permeability, the coronary portion of each tooth was contaminated with E. faecalis, then the apical portion was immersed in brain heart infusion (BHI broth, and medium turbidity was observed for thirty days. Scanning electron microscope (SEM was used to evaluate the intratubular penetration of each sealer at the cervical, middle, and apical thirds of the tooth. Results : Only one tooth from the Endo CPM-sealer ® group presented broth contamination. EndoRez ® showed increased intratubular penetration compared to AHPlus ® and Endo CPM-sealer ® . Conclusions : Endo CPM-sealer ® showed greater permeability to E. faecalis and EndoRez ® showed increased intratubular penetration.

  16. Civilian Penetrating Gunshot Injury to the Neurocranium in Enugu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons ... Table 1: Clinicodemographic profile of civilian penetrating gunshot neurocranial injuries ... (*Armed robbery, cultists, terrorism). [Downloaded free from ...

  17. Containment penetration design and analysis by finite element methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.F.; Rigamonti, G.; Dainora, J.

    1975-01-01

    Containment penetration designs which provide complete support to process piping containing high pressure and high temperature fluids and which do not employ cooling coils, require special provisions to sustain loadings associated with normal/abnormal conditions and to limit maximum temperature transmitted to the containment concrete wall. In order to accommodate piping imposed loads and fluid temperatures within code and regulatory limitations, the containment penetration designs require careful analysis of two critical regions: the portion of the penetration sleeve which is exposed to containment ambient conditions and the portion of the penetration which connects the sleeve to process piping (flued head). The length and thickness of the sleeve must be designed to provide maximum heat dissipation to the atmosphere and minimum heat conduction through the sleeve to meet concrete temperature limitations. The sleeve must have the capability to transmit the postulated piping loads to concrete embedments in the containment shell. The penetration flued head design must be strong enough to transfer high mechanical loads and be flexible enough to accommodate the thermal stresses generated by the high temperature fluid. Analytical models using finite element representations of process piping, penetration flued head, and exposed sleeve were employed to investigate the penetration assembly design. By application of flexible multi-step analyses, different penetration configurations were evaluated to determine the effects of key design parameters. Among the parameters studied were flued head profiles, flued head angles with the process piping, sleeve length and wall thickness. Special designs employing fins welded to the sleeve to lower the temperature at the concrete wall interface were investigated and fin geometry effects reported

  18. Life insurance density and penetration: panel data analysis across countries

    OpenAIRE

    Urbanavičiūtė, Greta

    2016-01-01

    Life Insurance Density and Penetration: Panel Data Analysis Across Countries This bachelor thesis examines two key indicators in the life insurance market: density and penetration. The main purpose is to analyse which factors have the biggest impact on these two indicators in 39 countries around the world. Panel data models, which represent the collected data best, were created. This paper examines the latest public data available in 39 countries, including the Baltic States, and new signific...

  19. Pulsed lower-hybrid wave penetration in reactor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.; Bonoli, P.T.; Porkolab, M.; Rognlien, T.D.

    1989-01-01

    Providing lower-hybrid power in short, intense (GW) pulses allows enhanced wave penetration in reactor-grade plasmas. We examine nonlinear absorption, ray propagation, and parametric instability of the intense pulses. We find that simultaneously achieving good penetration while avoiding parametric instabilities is possible, but imposes restrictions on the peak power density, pulse duration, and/or r.f. spot shape. In particular, power launched in narrow strips, elongated along the field direction, is desired

  20. Modelling of spray evaporation and penetration for alternative fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Azami, M. H.; Savill, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this work is on the modelling of evaporation and spray penetration for alternative fuels. The extension model approach is presented and validated for alternative fuels, namely, Kerosene (KE), Ethanol (ETH), Methanol (MTH), Microalgae biofuel (MA), Jatropha biofuel (JA), and Camelina biofuel (CA). The results for atomization and spray penetration are shown in a time variant condition. Comparisons have been made to visualize the transient behaviour of these fuels. The vapour pressu...

  1. Chronic Disease Prevalence and Medicare Advantage Market Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Steven W. Howard; Stephanie Lazarus Bernell; Faizan M. Casim; Jennifer Wilmott; Lindsey Pearson; Caitlin M. Byler; Zidong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    By March 2015, 30% of all Medicare beneficiaries were enrolled in Medicare Advantage (MA) plans. Research to date has not explored the impacts of MA market penetration on individual or population health outcomes. The primary objective of this study is to examine the relationships between MA market penetration and the beneficiary?s portfolio of cardiometabolic diagnoses. This study uses 2004 to 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Household Component data to construct an aggregate inde...

  2. Generic penetration in the retail atypical antipsychotic market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenderts, Susan; Kalali, Amir H; Buckley, Peter

    2010-03-01

    In this article, we explore the penetration of generic atypical antipsychotics in the United States market before and after the availability of generic risperidone in July 2008. Analysis suggests that, overall, generic penetration into the atypical antipsychotic market has grown from approximately three percent in January 2008 to more than 25 percent in December 2009. Similar trends are uncovered when branded and generic prescriptions are analyzed by specialty.

  3. Solar energy market penetration models - Science or number mysticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, E. H., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The forecast market potential of a solar technology is an important factor determining its R&D funding. Since solar energy market penetration models are the method used to forecast market potential, they have a pivotal role in a solar technology's development. This paper critiques the applicability of the most common solar energy market penetration models. It is argued that the assumptions underlying the foundations of rigorously developed models, or the absence of a reasonable foundation for the remaining models, restrict their applicability.

  4. Penetration of charged particles through ordered isotropic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmund, P.

    1977-01-01

    A brief summary of some new results on fluctuation phenomena in particle penetration is presented. The results include collision statistics, positive and negative correlations and a framework for the treatment of cumulative effects in particle penetration. Incorporation of projectile and target states in the description and energy-loss straggling are discussed. Small-angle multiple scattering is considered and a comment made on ionic charge states. (B.R.H.)

  5. The impact of mobile phone penetration on African inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu Simplice

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to complement theoretical and qualitative literature with empirical evidence on the income-redistributive effect of mobile phone penetration in 52 African countries. Design/methodology/approach – Robust Ordinary Least Squares and Two Stage Least Squares empirical strategies are employed. Findings – The findings suggest that mobile penetration is pro-poor, as it has a positive income equality effect. Social implications – 'Mobile phone'-oriented poverty reduc...

  6. How has Mobile Phone Penetration Stimulated Financial Development in Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A, Asongu

    2012-01-01

    In the first macroeconomic empirical assessment of the relationship between mobile phones and finance, this paper examines the correlations between mobile phone penetration and financial development using two conflicting definitions of the financial system in the financial development literature. With the traditional IFS (2008) definition, mobile phone penetration has a negative correlation with traditional financial intermediary dynamics of depth, activity and size. However, when a previous...

  7. Radio frequency absorption and penetration depth limits in whole body MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roschmann, P.

    1986-01-01

    There is a continual debate over the ultimate limits to MR imaging at higher field strengths owing to the problems of increasing radio frequency (RF) power deposition and decreasing depth of B/sub 1/ field penetration in the patient. The authors present experimental results of RF absorption and penetration studies in humans for frequencies (f) of 30 to 220 MHz. Results were mostly derived from RF measurements of the effects of loading different types of head, body, and surface coils during imaging of volunteers and metal phantoms. Imaging at 2 T (85 MHz) does not exhibit significant RF problems; the local SAR amounts to 0.06 W/kg for a π-pulse of 1 msec and a TR of 1 sec. RF measurements of coil loading yield SAR -- f/sup 2.2/. The derived effective penetration depth drops from 17 cm at 85 MHz to 7 cm at 220 MHz. Head imaging appears possible up to 220 MHz (5 T). Body and surface coil imaging is subjected to increasing limitations in size or depth above 100 MHz

  8. Influence of the developer structure on the sensitivity to indication at the penetrant fluid test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, N.; Stelling, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    The sensitivity to indication of a penetrant fluid test system depends essentially on the properties of the testing agents used - matched for the object conditions - and on appropriate application. Apart from influences of preliminary cleaning the properties of the testing agent system result from the properties of the individual components, i.e. the penetrant fluid, the intermediate cleaner and the developer, and from the interaction between the individual components. Concerted matching of the individual testing agents is required. Subsequently it is shown by means of theoretical considerations and exemplary experimental results what fundamental interrelations between a penetrant fluid contained in the fault and the developer may be expected. In the theoretical statements findings from a subject field completely alien to nondestructive testing, namely pedology, were applied to the problem at hand. With respect to water economy of the ground model concepts and estimations of the main parameter of influence - e.g. the capillary forces - are available. It was made an attempt to transfer them in modified form to the mechanisms of the developing process. (orig.) [de

  9. Modeling Fragment Simulating Projectile Penetration into Steel Plates Using Finite Elements and Meshfree Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O’Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulating fragment penetration into steel involves complicated modeling of severe behavior of the materials through multiple phases of response. Penetration of a fragment-like projectile was simulated using finite element (FE and meshfree particle formulations. Extreme deformation and failure of the material during the penetration event were modeled with several approaches to evaluate each as to how well it represents the actual physics of the material and structural response. A steel Fragment Simulating Projectile (FSP – designed to simulate a fragment of metal from a weapon casing – was simulated for normal impact into a flat square plate. A range of impact velocities was used to examine levels of exit velocity ranging from relatively small to one on the same level as the impact velocity. The numerical code EPIC, used for all the simulations presented herein, contains the element and particle formulations, as well as the explicit methodology and constitutive models needed to perform these simulations. These simulations were compared against experimental data, evaluating the damage caused to the projectile and the target plates, as well as comparing the residual velocity when the projectile perforated the target.

  10. Projectile Nose Mass Abrasion of High-Speed Penetration into Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the dynamic spherical cavity expansion theory of concrete and the analysis of experimental data, a mass abrasion model of projectile considering the hardness of aggregates, the relative strength of target and projectile, and the initial impact velocity is constructed in this paper. Furthermore, the effect of mass abrasion on the penetration depth of projectile and the influence of hardness of aggregates and strength of projectile on penetration depth and mass loss are also analyzed. The results show that, for the ogive-nose projectile with the CRH of 3 and aspect ratio of 7 penetrating the concrete of 35 MPa, the “rigid-body penetration” model is available when the initial impact velocity is lower than 800 m/s. However, when the initial impact velocity is higher than 800 m/s, the “deforming/eroding body penetration” model should be adopted. Through theoretical analysis and numerical calculation, the results indicate that the initial impact velocity is the most important factor of mass abrasion. The hardness of aggregates and the strength of projectile are also significant factors. But relatively speaking, the sensitivity of strength of projectile to mass abrasion is higher, which indicates that the effect of projectile material on mass abrasion is more dramatic than the hardness of aggregates.

  11. Analyses on Cost Reduction and CO2 Mitigation by Penetration of Fuel Cells to Residential Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki, Hirohisa; Yamamoto, Shigeo; Kondoh, Junji; Murata, Akinobu; Ishii, Itaru; Maeda, Tetsuhiko

    This paper presents analyses on the penetration of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) into a group of 10 residential houses and its effects of CO2 emission mitigation and consumers’ cost reduction in next 30 years. The price is considered to be reduced as the penetration progress which is expected to begin in near future. An experimental curve is assumed to express the decrease of the price. Installation of energy interchange systems which involve electricity, gas and hydrogen between a house which has a FC and contiguous houses is assumed to utilize both electricity and heat more efficiently, and to avoid start-stop operation of fuel processor (reformer) as much as possible. A multi-objective model which considers CO2 mitigation and consumers’ cost reduction is constructed and provided a Pareto optimum solution. A solution which simultaneously realizes both CO2 mitigation and consumers’ cost reduction appeared in the Pareto optimum solution. Strategies to reduce CO2 emission and consumers’ cost are suggested from the results of the analyses. The analyses also revealed that the energy interchange systems are effective especially in the early stage of the penetration.

  12. Influence of the developer structure on the sensitivity to indication at the penetrant fluid test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riess, N; Stelling, H A

    1982-04-01

    The sensitivity to indication of a penetrant fluid test system depends essentially on the properties of the testing agents used - matched for the object conditions - and on appropriate application. Apart from influences of preliminary cleaning the properties of the testing agent system result from the properties of the individual components, i.e. the penetrant fluid, the intermediate cleaner and the developer, and from the interaction between the individual components. Concerted matching of the individual testing agents is required. Subsequently it is shown by means of theoretical considerations and exemplary experimental results what fundamental interrelations between a penetrant fluid contained in the fault and the developer may be expected. In the theoretical statements findings from a subject field completely alien to nondestructive testing, namely pedology, were applied to the problem at hand. With respect to water economy of the ground model concepts and estimations of the main parameter of influence - e.g. the capillary forces - are available. An attempt was made to transfer them in modified form to the mechanisms of the developing process.

  13. Express penetration of hydrogen on Mg(10͞13) along the close-packed-planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Liuzhang; Tang, Jiajun; Zhao, Yujun; Wang, Hui; Yao, Xiangdong; Liu, Jiangwen; Zou, Jin; Zhu, Min

    2015-06-01

    Metal atoms often locate in energetically favorite close-packed planes, leading to a relatively high penetration barrier for other atoms. Naturally, the penetration would be much easier through non-close-packed planes, i.e. high-index planes. Hydrogen penetration from surface to the bulk (or reversely) across the packed planes is the key step for hydrogen diffusion, thus influences significantly hydrogen sorption behaviors. In this paper, we report a successful synthesis of Mg films in preferential orientations with both close- and non-close-packed planes, i.e. (0001) and a mix of (0001) and (10͞13), by controlling the magnetron sputtering conditions. Experimental investigations confirmed a remarkable decrease in the hydrogen absorption temperature in the Mg (10͞13), down to 392 K from 592 K of the Mg film (0001), determined by the pressure-composition-isothermal (PCI) measurement. The ab initio calculations reveal that non-close-packed Mg(10͞13) slab is advantageous for hydrogen sorption, attributing to the tilted close-packed-planes in the Mg(10͞13) slab.

  14. Penetration length-dependent hot electrons in the field emission from ZnO nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yicong; Song, Xiaomeng; Li, Zhibing; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Chen, Jun

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of field emission, whether or not hot electrons can form in the semiconductor emitters under a surface penetration field is of great concern, which will provide not only a comprehensive physical picture of field emission from semiconductor but also guidance on how to improve device performance. However, apart from some theoretical work, its experimental evidence has not been reported yet. In this article, the field penetration length-dependent hot electrons were observed in the field emission of ZnO nanowires through the in-situ study of its electrical and field emission characteristic before and after NH3 plasma treatment in an ultrahigh vacuum system. After the treatment, most of the nanowires have an increased carrier density but reduced field emission current. The raised carrier density was caused by the increased content of oxygen vacancies, while the degraded field emission current was attributed to the lower kinetic energy of hot electrons caused by the shorter penetration length. All of these results suggest that the field emission properties of ZnO nanowires can be optimized by modifying their carrier density to balance both the kinetic energy of field induced hot electrons and the limitation of saturated current under a given field.

  15. Videofluoroscopic Predictors of Penetration-Aspiration in Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argolo, Natalie; Sampaio, Marília; Pinho, Patrícia; Melo, Ailton; Nóbrega, Ana Caline

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients show a high prevalence of swallowing disorders and tracheal aspiration of food. The videofluoroscopic study of swallowing (VFSS) allows clinicians to visualize the visuoperceptual and temporal parameters associated with swallowing disorders in an attempt to predict aspiration risk. However, this subject remains understudied in PD populations. Our aim was to identify the predictors of penetration-aspiration in PD patients using the VFSS. Consecutive patients were evaluated using VFSS with different consistencies and volumes of food. A speech-language pathologist measured the type of intra-oral bolus organization, loss of bolus control, bolus location at the initiation of the pharyngeal swallow, the presence of multiple swallows, piecemeal deglutition, bolus residue in the pharyngeal recesses and temporal measures. Scores ≥3 on the penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) indicated the occurrence of penetration-aspiration. Using logistic marginal regression, we found that residue in the vallecula, residue in the upper esophageal sphincter and piecemeal deglutition were associated with penetration-aspiration (odds ratio (OR) = 4.09, 2.87 and 3.83; P = 0.0040, 0.0071 and 0.0009, respectively). Penetration/aspiration occurred only with fluids (both of thin and thick consistency), and no significant differences were observed between fluid types or food volumes. The mechanisms underlying dysphagia and penetration/aspiration in PD patients and indications for further studies are discussed.

  16. Chronic Disease Prevalence and Medicare Advantage Market Penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernell, Stephanie Lazarus; Casim, Faizan M.; Wilmott, Jennifer; Pearson, Lindsey; Byler, Caitlin M.; Zhang, Zidong

    2015-01-01

    By March 2015, 30% of all Medicare beneficiaries were enrolled in Medicare Advantage (MA) plans. Research to date has not explored the impacts of MA market penetration on individual or population health outcomes. The primary objective of this study is to examine the relationships between MA market penetration and the beneficiary’s portfolio of cardiometabolic diagnoses. This study uses 2004 to 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Household Component data to construct an aggregate index that captures multiple diagnoses in one outcome measure (Chronic Disease Severity Index [CDSI]). The MEPS data for 8089 Medicare beneficiaries are merged with MA market penetration data from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Ordinary least squares regressions are run with SAS 9.3 to model the effects of MA market penetration on CDSI. The results suggest that each percentage increase in MA market penetration is associated with a greater than 2-point decline in CDSI (lower burden of cardiometabolic chronic disease). Spill-over effects may be driving improvements in the cardiometabolic health of beneficiary populations in counties with elevated levels of MA market penetration. PMID:28462266

  17. Chronic Disease Prevalence and Medicare Advantage Market Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W. Howard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available By March 2015, 30% of all Medicare beneficiaries were enrolled in Medicare Advantage (MA plans. Research to date has not explored the impacts of MA market penetration on individual or population health outcomes. The primary objective of this study is to examine the relationships between MA market penetration and the beneficiary’s portfolio of cardiometabolic diagnoses. This study uses 2004 to 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS Household Component data to construct an aggregate index that captures multiple diagnoses in one outcome measure (Chronic Disease Severity Index [CDSI]. The MEPS data for 8089 Medicare beneficiaries are merged with MA market penetration data from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS. Ordinary least squares regressions are run with SAS 9.3 to model the effects of MA market penetration on CDSI. The results suggest that each percentage increase in MA market penetration is associated with a greater than 2-point decline in CDSI (lower burden of cardiometabolic chronic disease. Spill-over effects may be driving improvements in the cardiometabolic health of beneficiary populations in counties with elevated levels of MA market penetration.

  18. Recursive Monte Carlo method for deep-penetration problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, M.; Greenspan, E.

    1980-01-01

    The Recursive Monte Carlo (RMC) method developed for estimating importance function distributions in deep-penetration problems is described. Unique features of the method, including the ability to infer the importance function distribution pertaining to many detectors from, essentially, a single M.C. run and the ability to use the history tape created for a representative region to calculate the importance function in identical regions, are illustrated. The RMC method is applied to the solution of two realistic deep-penetration problems - a concrete shield problem and a Tokamak major penetration problem. It is found that the RMC method can provide the importance function distributions, required for importance sampling, with accuracy that is suitable for an efficient solution of the deep-penetration problems considered. The use of the RMC method improved, by one to three orders of magnitude, the solution efficiency of the two deep-penetration problems considered: a concrete shield problem and a Tokamak major penetration problem. 8 figures, 4 tables

  19. Non-penetrating states of atomic oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, E.S.; Barowy, W.M.; Sakai, H.

    1988-01-01

    Atomic Rydberg transitions have been observed in the 1-5 μm emission spectrum of an oxygen discharge. Proper analysis of these lines requires reinterpretation of previous 3d-nf measurements by explicit inclusion of the theoretical F-level fine structure in the experimental line profiles. The revised triplet-quintet differences in the nF levels are now seen to vary smoothly with n, analogous to the polarization energy in an Edlen plot. The new levels, 5g, 6g, 7g, and 7h also form a straight line according to the polarization formula, thereby confirming the ionization limit to a higher accuracy. (orig.)

  20. Penetration of a Small Caliber Projectile into Single and Multi-layered Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad A.M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The normal penetration of armor-piercing projectiles into single and multi-layered steel plates has been investigated. An experimental program has been conducted to study the effect of spaced and in-contact layered targets on their ballistic resistance. Armor piercing projectiles with caliber of 7.62 mm were fired against a series of single and multi-layered steel targets. The projectile impact velocities were ranged from 300-600 m/s, whereas the total thicknesses of the tested single, spaced and in-contact layered steel targets were 3 mm. The penetration process of different tested target configurations has been simulated using Autodayn-2D hydrocode. The experimental measurements of the present work were used to discuss the effect of impact velocity, target configurations and number of layers of different spaced and in-contact layered steel targets on their ballistic resistance. In addition, the post-firing examination of the tested targets over the used impact velocity range showed that the single and each layer of spaced and in-contact laminated steel targets were failed by petalling. Finally, the obtained experimental measurements were compared with the corresponding numerical results of Autodyn-2D hydrocode, good agreement was generally obtained.

  1. Study of temperature increase and optic depth penetration in photo irradiated human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolik, Suren; Delgado, Jose A.; Perez, Arllene M.; Anasagasti, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    Optical radiation is widely applied in the treatment and diagnosis of different pathologies. If the power density of the incident light is sufficiently high to induce a significant temperature rise in the irradiated tissue, then it is also needed the knowledge of the thermal properties of the tissue for a complete understanding of the therapeutic effects. The thermal penetration depth of several human tissues has been measured applying the diffusion approximation of the radiative transfer equation for the distribution of optical radiation. The method, the experimental setup and the results are presented and discussed. (Author)

  2. Use of an electron penetration cathode ray tube in a colour display console

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickles, Pierre

    1972-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to study the possibility to obtain a colour image which can be used in cathode ray tube display console. The author describes a cathode ray tube, presents different methods to obtain a colour image (mask tube, electron penetration tube, and intensity change tube), discusses the choice of a cathode ray tube type, and describes its use in a display console. In the next part, the author addresses some theoretical aspects of corrections to be made for spot deflection, spot focussing, and spot brightness. A first version of a mock-up is presented, and experimental results are presented and discussed. A second version is then presented

  3. Local blood-brain barrier penetration following systemic contrast medium administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utz, R.; Ekholm, S.E.; Isaac, L.; Sands, M.; Fonte, D.

    1988-01-01

    The present study was initiated by a severe complication in a patient with renal dysfunction who developed cortical blindness and weakness of her left extremities 30 hours following renal and abdominal angiography. To evaluate the impact of prolonged high serum concentrations of contrast medium (CM) this clinical situation was simulated in a laboratory model using sheep with elevated serum levels of contrast medium maintained for 48 hours. The experimental data did not support the theory that the prolonged exposure to high circulating levels of contrast medium (4 ml/kg body weight of meglumine diatrizoate 60%) is sufficient alone to cause penetration of the blood-brain barrier. (orig.)

  4. Detection of discretized single-shell penetration in mesoscopic vortex matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolz, M I; Fasano, Y; Bolecek, N R Cejas; Pastoriza, H; Konczykowski, M; Beek, C J van der

    2014-01-01

    We investigated configurational changes in mesoscopic vortex matter with less than thousand vortices during flux penetration in freestanding 50 μm diameter disks of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ . High-resolution AC and DC local magnetometry data reveal oscillations in the transmittivity echoed in peaks in the third-harmonics magnetic signal fainting on increasing vortex density. By means of extra experimental evidence and a simple geometrical analysis we show that these features fingerprint the discretized entrance of single-shells of vortices having a shape that mimics the sample edge

  5. [Special penetration needling for refractory peripheral facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rongjuan; Qiu, Xiaohu; Xie, Xiaokun

    2018-03-12

    To observe the clinical effect difference between special penetration needling and conventional penetration needling for the refractory peripheral facial paralysis. A total of 97 patients with intractable facial paralysis were randomized into an observation group (49 cases and 2 dropping) and a control group (48 cases and 4 dropping). In the observation group, special penetration needling at an angle about 45° between the penetration needle and paralysis muscle bundle was used, Yangbai (GB 14) through Touwei (ST 8), Yangbai (GB 14) through Shangxing (GV 23), Sizhukong (TE 23) through Yuyao (EX-HN 4), Qianzhen (Extra) through Yingxiang (LI 20), mutual penetration between Yingxiang (LI 20) and Jiache (ST 6). Conventional penetration needling was applied in the control group, Yangbai (GB 14) through Yuyao (EX-HN 4), Cuanzhu (BL 2) through Yuyao (EX-HN 4), mutual penetration between Dicang (ST 4) and Jiache (ST 6), Qianzheng (Extra) through Dicang (ST 4), Sibai (ST 2) through Yingxiang (LI 20). Three groups of electroacupuncture (discontinuous wave, 1 Hz) with tolerance were connected respectively in the two groups, Yangbai (GB 14) and Sizhukong (TE 23), Yangbai (GB 14) and Qianzheng (Extra), Yingxiang (LI 20) and Jiache (ST 6) in the observation group, Yangbai (GB 14) and Cuanzhu (BL 2), Dicang (ST 4) and Jiache (ST 6), Qianzheng (Extra) and Sibai (ST 2) in the control group. TDP was applied in the two groups at the affected Yifeng (TE 17), Jiache (ST 6) and Qianzheng (Extra), which were around the ear. Perpendicular insertion was used at Yifeng (TE 17) at the affected side and Hegu (LI 4) at the healthy side and bilateral Zusanli (ST 36). The needles were retained for 30 min. The treatment was given for 3 courses, once a day and 10 days as a course, 5 days at the interval. House-Brackmann (H-B) facial nerve grading score was recorded before and after treatment. The clinical effects were compared. The H-B scores after treatment in the two groups were higher than

  6. Field Test Evaluation of Effect on Cone Resistance Caused by Change in Penetration Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    in the laboratory. A change in the measured cone resistance occurs by lowering the penetration rate. This is caused by the changes in drainage conditions. Compared to the normal penetration rate of 20 mm/s, this paper illustrates that lowering the penetration rate leads to an increase in the cone resistance from 1......This paper presents how a change in cone penetration rate affects the measured cone resistance during cone penetration testing in silty soils. Regardless of soil, type the standard rate of penetration is 20 mm/s and it is generally accepted that undrained penetration occurs in clay while drained...... penetration occurs in sand. In intermediate soils such as silty soils, the standard cone penetration rate may result in drainage conditions varying from undrained to partially or fully drained conditions. Field cone penetrations tests have been conducted with different penetration rates on a test site...

  7. Primary repair of penetrating colon injuries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Marc A; Nelson, Richard L

    2002-12-01

    Primary repair of penetrating colon injuries is an appealing management option; however, uncertainty about its safety persists. This study was conducted to compare the morbidity and mortality of primary repair with fecal diversion in the management of penetrating colon injuries by use of a meta-analysis of randomized, prospective trials. We searched for prospective, randomized trials in MEDLINE (1966 to November 2001), the Cochrane Library, and EMBase using the terms colon, penetrating, injury, colostomy, prospective, and randomized. Studies were included if they were randomized, controlled trials that compared the outcomes of primary repair with fecal diversion in the management of penetrating colon injuries. Five studies were included. Reviewers performed data extraction independently. Outcomes evaluated from each trial included mortality, total complications, infectious complications, intra-abdominal infections, wound complications, penetrating abdominal trauma index, and length of stay. Peto odds ratios for combined effect were calculated with a 95 percent confidence interval for each outcome. Heterogeneity was also assessed for each outcome. The penetrating abdominal trauma index of included subjects did not differ significantly between studies. Mortality was not significantly different between groups (odds ratio, 1.70; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.51-5.66). However, total complications (odds ratio, 0.28; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.18-0.42), total infectious complications (odds ratio, 0.41; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.27-0.63), abdominal infections including dehiscence (odds ratio, 0.59; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.38-0.94), abdominal infections excluding dehiscence (odds ratio, 0.52; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.31-0.86), wound complications including dehiscence (odds ratio, 0.55; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.34-0.89), and wound complications excluding dehiscence (odds ratio, 0.43; 95 percent confidence interval, 0

  8. Dynamic hole closure behind a deep ocean sediment penetrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzwilewski, P.T.; Karnes, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    A freefall or boosted penetrator is one concept being considered to dispose of nuclear waste in the deep ocean seabed. For this technique to be acceptable, the sediment must be an effective barrier to the migration of radioactive nuclides, which means that the hole behind the advancing penetrator must close. One mechanism which can cause the hole to close immediately behind the penetrator is the reduction in water pressure in the wake as water tries to follow the penetrator into the sediment. An approximate solution to this complex problem is presented which analyzes the deformation of the sediment with a nonlinear, large displacement and strain, Lagrangian finite-difference computer code (STEALTH). The water was treated by Bernoulli's Principle for flow in a pipe resulting in a pressure boundary condition applied to the sediment surface along the path after passage of the penetrator. Two one-dimensional and eight two-dimensional calculations were performed with various penetrator velocities (15, 30, and 60 m/s) and sediment shear strengths. In two of the calculations, the dynamic pressure reduction was neglected to see if geostatic stresses alone would close the hole. The results of this study showed that geostatic stresses alone would not close the hole but the dynamic pressure reduction would. The largest uncertainty in the analysis was the pressure conditions in the water behind the penetrator in which frictionless, steady-state flow, in a uniform diameter pipe was assumed. A more sophisticated and realistic pressure condition has been formulated and will be implemented in the computer code in the near future

  9. Effects of soap-water wash on human epidermal penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hanjiang; Jung, Eui-Chang; Phuong, Christina; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2016-08-01

    Skin decontamination is a primary interventional method used to decrease dermal absorption of hazardous contaminants, including chemical warfare agents, pesticides and industrial pollutants. Soap and water wash, the most common and readily available decontamination system, may enhance percutaneous absorption through the "wash-in effect." To understand better the effect of soap-water wash on percutaneous penetration, and provide insight to improving skin decontamination methods, in vitro human epidermal penetration rates of four C(14) -labeled model chemicals (hydroquinone, clonidine, benzoic acid and paraoxon) were assayed using flow-through diffusion cells. Stratum corneum (SC) absorption rates of these chemicals at various hydration levels (0-295% of the dry SC weights) were determined and compared with the results of the epidermal penetration study to clarify the effect of SC hydration on skin permeability. Results showed accelerated penetration curves of benzoic acid and paraoxon after surface wash at 30 min postdosing. Thirty minutes after washing (60 min postdosing), penetration rates of hydroquinone and benzoic acid decreased due to reduced amounts of chemical on the skin surface and in the SC. At the end of the experiment (90 min postdosing), a soap-water wash resulted in lower hydroquinone penetration, greater paraoxon penetration and similar levels of benzoic acid and clonidine penetration compared to penetration levels in the non-wash groups. The observed wash-in effect agrees with the enhancement effect of SC hydration on the SC chemical absorption rate. These results suggest SC hydration derived from surface wash to be one cause of the wash-in effect. Further, the occurrence of a wash-in effect is dependent on chemical identity and elapsed time between exposure and onset of decontamination. By reducing chemical residue quantity on skin surface and in the SC reservoir, the soap-water wash may decrease the total quantity of chemical absorbed in the

  10. Penetration of ASM 981 in canine skin: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, Meret E Ricklin; Reist, Martin; Persohn, Elke; Peel, John E; Roosje, Petra J

    2006-01-01

    ASM 981 has been developed for topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. It specifically inhibits the production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We measured the skin penetration of ASM 981 in canine skin and compared penetration in living and frozen skin. To make penetration of ASM 981 visible in dog skin, tritium labelled ASM 981 was applied to a living dog and to defrosted skin of the same dog. Using qualitative autoradiography the radioactive molecules were detected in the lumen of the hair follicles until the infundibulum, around the superficial parts of the hair follicles and into a depth of the dermis of 200 to 500 microm. Activity could not be found in deeper parts of the hair follicles, the dermis or in the sebaceous glands. Penetration of ASM 981 is low in canine skin and is only equally spread in the upper third of the dermis 24 hours after application. Penetration in frozen skin takes even longer than in living canine skin but shows the same distribution.

  11. Evaluation of nicotinamide microemulsion on the skin penetration enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonme, Prapaporn; Boonthongchuay, Chalida; Wongpoowarak, Wibul; Amnuaikit, Thanaporn

    2016-01-01

    This study purposed to evaluate a microemulsion containing nicotinamide for its characteristics, stability, and skin penetration and retention comparing with a solution of nicotinamide in 2:1 mixture of water and isopropyl alcohol (IPA). The microemulsion system was composed of 1:1 mixture of Span80 and Tween80 as a surfactant mixture, isopropyl palmitate (IPP) as an oil phase, and 2:1 mixture of water and IPA as an aqueous phase. Nicotinamide microemulsion was prepared by dissolving the active in the aqueous phase before simply mixing with the other components. It was determined for its characteristics and stability under various conditions. The skin penetration and retention studies of nicotinamide microemulsion and solution were performed by modified Franz diffusion cells, using newborn pig skin as the membrane. The results showed that nicotinamide microemulsion could be obtained as clear yellowish liquid, was water-in-oil (w/o) type, possessed Newtonian flow, and exhibited physicochemical stability when kept at 4 °C and room temperature (≈30 ± 2 °C) during 3 months. From the skin penetration data, the microemulsion could enhance the skin penetration of nicotinamide comparing with the solution. Additionally, nicotinamide microemulsion could provide much higher amount of skin retention than that of skin penetration, resulting in suitability for a cosmeceutical product.

  12. High-pressure-induced water penetration into 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagae, Takayuki; Kawamura, Takashi; Chavas, Leonard M. G.; Niwa, Ken; Hasegawa, Masashi; Kato, Chiaki; Watanabe, Nobuhisa

    2012-01-01

    Structures of 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase were determined at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 650 MPa. Comparison of these structures gives a detailed picture of the swelling of a cavity at the dimer interface and the generation of a new cleft on the molecular surface, which are accompanied by water penetration. Hydrostatic pressure induces structural changes in proteins, including denaturation, the mechanism of which has been attributed to water penetration into the protein interior. In this study, structures of 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (IPMDH) from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were determined at about 2 Å resolution under pressures ranging from 0.1 to 650 MPa using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Although most of the protein cavities are monotonically compressed as the pressure increases, the volume of one particular cavity at the dimer interface increases at pressures over 340 MPa. In parallel with this volume increase, water penetration into the cavity could be observed at pressures over 410 MPa. In addition, the generation of a new cleft on the molecular surface accompanied by water penetration could also be observed at pressures over 580 MPa. These water-penetration phenomena are considered to be initial steps in the pressure-denaturation process of IPMDH

  13. Penetrator strength effect in long-rod critical ricochet angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daneshjou, K.; Shahravi, M.

    2008-01-01

    3D numerical simulations were performed in order to further investigate the role of penetrator strength in the interaction of long-rods and oblique targets. Three distinctive regimes resulting from oblique impact depending on the obliquity, namely simple ricochet, critical ricochet and target perforation, were investigated in detail. Critical ricochet angles were calculated with a full 3D explicit finite element method for various impact velocities and strength of target plates and projectiles. Numerical predictions were compared with existing two-dimensional analytical models and test results. It was predicted that critical ricochet angle increases with decreasing impact velocity and that higher ricochet angles were expected if higher strength target materials are employed. But there are differences between analytical models and 3D numerical simulation results or test results. The causes for these discrepancies are established by numerical simulations which explore the validity of the penetrator strength parameter in the analytical model as a physical entity. As a matter of fact, in this paper we first investigate the role of penetrator dynamic strength using two-dimensional simulation which resulted in different penetrator strengths out of different impact velocities. Next, by applying these amounts for penetrator strength in Rosenberg analytical model the critical ricochet angle is calculated. Finally, a comparison between the present analytical method with the 3D simulation and test results shows that the new analytical approach leads to modified results with respect to Rosenberg ones

  14. A Study of Crystalline Mechanism of Penetration Sealer Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Li-Wei; Huang, Ran; Chen, Jie; Cheng, An; Hsu, Hui-Mi

    2014-01-14

    It is quite common to dispense a topping material like crystalline penetration sealer materials (CPSM) onto the surface of a plastic substance such as concrete to extend its service life span by surface protections from outside breakthrough. The CPSM can penetrate into the existing pores or possible cracks in such a way that it may form crystals to block the potential paths which provide breakthrough for any unknown materials. This study investigated the crystalline mechanism formed in the part of concrete penetrated by the CPSM. We analyzed the chemical composites, in order to identify the mechanism of CPSM and to evaluate the penetrated depth. As shown in the results, SEM observes the acicular-structured crystals filling capillary pores for mortar substrate of the internal microstructure beneath the concrete surface; meanwhile, XRD and FT-IR showed the main hydration products of CPSM to be C-S-H gel and CaCO₃. Besides, MIP also shows CPSM with the ability to clog capillary pores of mortar substrate; thus, it reduces porosity, and appears to benefit in sealing pores or cracks. The depth of CPSM penetration capability indicated by TGA shows 0-10 mm of sealer layer beneath the concrete surface.

  15. A Study of Crystalline Mechanism of Penetration Sealer Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wei Teng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is quite common to dispense a topping material like crystalline penetration sealer materials (CPSM onto the surface of a plastic substance such as concrete to extend its service life span by surface protections from outside breakthrough. The CPSM can penetrate into the existing pores or possible cracks in such a way that it may form crystals to block the potential paths which provide breakthrough for any unknown materials. This study investigated the crystalline mechanism formed in the part of concrete penetrated by the CPSM. We analyzed the chemical composites, in order to identify the mechanism of CPSM and to evaluate the penetrated depth. As shown in the results, SEM observes the acicular-structured crystals filling capillary pores for mortar substrate of the internal microstructure beneath the concrete surface; meanwhile, XRD and FT-IR showed the main hydration products of CPSM to be C-S-H gel and CaCO3. Besides, MIP also shows CPSM with the ability to clog capillary pores of mortar substrate; thus, it reduces porosity, and appears to benefit in sealing pores or cracks. The depth of CPSM penetration capability indicated by TGA shows 0–10 mm of sealer layer beneath the concrete surface.

  16. Penetration and fusion of phospholipid vesicles by lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Kim, H.

    1989-01-01

    The lysozyme-induced fusion of phosphatidylserine/phosphatidylethanolamine vesicles as studied at a wide range of pH is found to correlate well with the binding of this protein to the vesicles. An identical 6000 molecular weight segment of lysozyme at the N-terminal region is found to be protected from tryptic digestion when initially incubated with vesicles at several pH values. Only this segment is labeled by dansyl chloride, which is partitioned into the bilayer. These results suggest the penetration of one segment of lysozyme into the bilayer. Photoactivated labeling of the membrane-penetrating segment of lysozyme with 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-([ 125 I]iodophenyl)diazirine ([ 125 I]TID) and subsequent identification of the labeled residues by Edman degradation and gamma-ray counting indicate that four amino acids from the N-terminal are located outside the hydrophobic core of the bilayer. Although treatment of the membrane-embedded segment with aminopeptidase failed to cleave any amino acids from the N-terminal, it appears that a loop of lysozyme segment near the N-terminal penetrates into the bilayer at acidic pH. A helical wheel diagram shows that the labeling is done mainly on one surface of the alpha-helix. The penetration kinetics as studied by time-dependent [ 125 I]TID labeling coincide with the fusion kinetics, strongly suggesting that the penetration of the lysozyme segment into the vesicles is the cause of the fusion

  17. Penetration and fusion of phospholipid vesicles by lysozyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.; Kim, H. (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul)

    1989-10-01

    The lysozyme-induced fusion of phosphatidylserine/phosphatidylethanolamine vesicles as studied at a wide range of pH is found to correlate well with the binding of this protein to the vesicles. An identical 6000 molecular weight segment of lysozyme at the N-terminal region is found to be protected from tryptic digestion when initially incubated with vesicles at several pH values. Only this segment is labeled by dansyl chloride, which is partitioned into the bilayer. These results suggest the penetration of one segment of lysozyme into the bilayer. Photoactivated labeling of the membrane-penetrating segment of lysozyme with 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(({sup 125}I)iodophenyl)diazirine (({sup 125}I)TID) and subsequent identification of the labeled residues by Edman degradation and gamma-ray counting indicate that four amino acids from the N-terminal are located outside the hydrophobic core of the bilayer. Although treatment of the membrane-embedded segment with aminopeptidase failed to cleave any amino acids from the N-terminal, it appears that a loop of lysozyme segment near the N-terminal penetrates into the bilayer at acidic pH. A helical wheel diagram shows that the labeling is done mainly on one surface of the alpha-helix. The penetration kinetics as studied by time-dependent ({sup 125}I)TID labeling coincide with the fusion kinetics, strongly suggesting that the penetration of the lysozyme segment into the vesicles is the cause of the fusion.

  18. An integrated approach to fire penetration seal program management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rispoli, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the utilization of a P.C. based program to facilitate the management of Entergy Operations Arkansas Nuclear One (ANO) fire barrier penetration seal program. The computer program was developed as part of a streamlining process to consolidate all aspects of the ANO Penetration Seal Program under one system. The program tracks historical information related to each seal such as maintenance activities, design modifications and evaluations. The program is integrated with approved penetration seal design details which have been substantiated by full scale fire tests. This control feature is intended to prevent the inadvertent utilization of an unacceptable penetration detail in a field application which may exceed the parameters tested. The system is also capable of controlling the scope of the periodic surveillance of penetration seals by randomly selecting the inspection population and generating associated inspection forms. Inputs to the data base are required throughout the modification and maintenance process to ensure configuration control and maintain accurate data base information. These inputs are verified and procedurally controlled by Fire Protection Engineering (FPE) personnel. The implementation of this system has resulted in significant cost savings and has minimized the allocation of resources necessary to ensure long term program viability

  19. Follicular and percutaneous penetration pathways of topically applied minoxidil foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Massoudy, Lida; Patzelt, Alexa; Lademann, Jürgen; Dietz, Ekkehart; Rasulev, Utkur; Garcia Bartels, Natalie

    2010-11-01

    In the past, it was assumed that the intercellular route was the only relevant penetration pathway for topically applied substances. Recent results on follicular penetration emphasize that the hair follicles represent a highly relevant and efficient penetration pathway and reservoir for topically applied substances. This study investigates a selective closure technique of hair follicle orifices in vivo assessing interfollicular and follicular absorption rates of topical minoxidil foam in humans. In delimited skin area, single hair orifices or interfollicular skin were blocked with a microdrop of special varnish-wax-mixture in vivo. Minoxidil foam (5%) was topically applied, and transcutaneous absorption was measured by a new surface ionization mass spectrometry technique in serum. Different settings (open, closed or none of both) enabled to clearly distinguish between interfollicular and follicular penetration of the topically applied minoxidil foam. Five minutes after topical application, minoxidil was detected in blood samples when follicles remained open, whereas with closed follicles 30 min were needed. Highest levels were found first when both pathways were open, followed by open follicles and subsequently by closed follicles. These results demonstrate the high importance of the follicular penetration pathway. Hair follicles are surrounded by a dense network of blood capillaries and dendritic cells and have stem cells in their immediate vicinity, making them ideal targets for drug delivery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Penetrating Brain Injury after Suicide Attempt with Speargun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ross Williams

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Penetrating cranial injury by mechanisms other than are exceedingly rare, and so strategies and guidelines for the management of PBI are largely informed by data from higher-velocity penetrating injuries. Here we present a case of penetrating brain injury by the low velocity mechanism of a harpoon from an underwater fishing speargun in an attempted suicide by a 56-year-old Caucasian male. The case raised a number of interesting points in management of lower-velocity penetrating brain injury (LVPBI, including benefit in delaying foreign body removal to allow for tamponade; the importance of history taking in establishing the social/legal significance of the events surrounding the injury; the use of cerebral angiogram in all cases of PBI; advantages of using DECT to reduce artifact when available; and antibiotic prophylaxis in the context of idiosyncratic histories of usage of penetrating objects before coming in contact with the intracranial environment. We present here the management of the case in full along with an extended discussion and review of existing literature regarding key points in management of LVPBI vs. higher velocity forms of intracranial injury.

  1. Estimating residual life of alloy 600 RPV penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, E.S.; White, G.A.; Pathania, R.; Arey, M.L.; Whitaker, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 penetrations PWR in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) heads has become a significant economic concern worldwide. PWSCC of these penetrations has led to extended maintenance outages, expensive inspections and repairs, and in some cases, replacement of the entire vessel head. This paper describes methodology developed to predict the remaining life of Alloy 600 penetrations in reactor vessel heads. Predictions of remaining life are an important input to planning models used by utilities to select a strategy for responding to the PWSCC issue at the lowest life cycle cost with an acceptably low risk of leakage. The remaining life of RPV penetrations is determined using the results of inspections of penetrations and statistical methods to predict future degradation. The analysis takes into account the effects of material properties, welding residual stresses, and operating temperature on PWSCC initiation and growth. The probability of developing cracks of various depths is assessed using Monte Carlo methods which provide for uncertainties in the input assumptions. For plants which have not yet performed inspections, remaining life predictions are based on inspection results from similar plants which have performed inspections with corrections made for known differences in design details, material properties and operating conditions

  2. Interpretation of Cone Penetration Testing in Silty Soils Conducted under Partially Drained Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmsgaard, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The standard penetration rate used in cone penetration tests (CPTs) is 20 mm=s, regardless of soil type, which yields fully drained penetration in sand and fully undrained penetration in clay. However, for silty soils that represent an intermediate grain size composition and unique characteristic...

  3. On the penetration of etchant into tracks in polycarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, D.; Dwivedi, K.K.; Mueller, M.; Ghosh, S.; Hnatowicz, V.; Vacik, J.; Cervena, J.

    2000-01-01

    The time dependence of the uptake of NaOH/LiOH etchant in pristine polycarbonate (PC) and in PC irradiated with 3 GeV Pb ions has been examined. Different stages of etchant penetration can be distinguished. The overall surface-near etchant uptake along tracks is always higher than the the one of the nonirradiated pristine material. Furthermore, the directional dependence of the etchant penetration during the incubation time is studied. Though the shapes of the etchant distributions along the tracks are practically the same in all directions, they differ in their absolute magnitudes. This can be explained by the different cross-sectional track areas exposed at the surface, which enable different etchant penetration efficiencies. Therefore, tracks which run more or less parallel to the surface normal show less etchant uptake than those being strongly tilted

  4. Southern California Edison High Penetration Photovoltaic Project - Year 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Neal, R.; Katiraei, F.; Yazdani, A.; Aguero, J. R.; Hoff, T. E.; Norris, B. L.; Parkins, A.; Seguin, R.; Schauder, C.

    2011-06-01

    This report discusses research efforts from the first year of a project analyzing the impacts of high penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) resources interconnected onto Southern California Edison's (SCE's) distribution system. SCE will be interconnecting a total of 500 MW of commercial scale PV within their service territory by 2015. This Year 1 report describes the need for investigating high-penetration PV scenarios on the SCE distribution system; discusses the necessary PV system modeling and distribution system simulation advances; describes the available distribution circuit data for the two distribution circuits identified in the study; and discusses the additional inverter functionality that could be implemented in order to specifically mitigate some of the undesirable distribution system impacts caused by high-penetration PV installations.

  5. Study on penetration-induced initiation of energetic fragment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xiangxin; Xu, Heyang

    2017-09-01

    In order to investigate penetration-induced initiation of energetic fragment penetrating target, PTFE/Al (mass ratio 73.5/26.5) pressed and sintered into a Ф8mm × 8mm cylinder. To form energetic fragment, the cylinder was put into a closed container made by 35CrMnSiA. The container is 12mm long, 2mm thick. Energetic fragments were launched by a 14.5mm ballistic gun with a series of velocities and the penetrate process was simulated by AUTODYN-3D. The results show that the stress peak of energetic material exceed the initiation threshold, and energetic material will deflagrate, when energetic fragments impact velocity more than 800 m/s. The research results can provide reference for designs of energetic warhead.

  6. U.S. Industry Activities on Inspection of CRDM Penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alley, Tom; Kietzman, Kim; Ammirato, Frank

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in control rod drive mechanisms (CRDM) penetrations in U.S. and European plants prompted the U.S. nuclear industry to focus considerable effort on development and implementation of effective inspection methods. In particular, cracking was discovered in butt welds connecting reactor vessel nozzles to main coolant piping and in control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) head penetration base material and attachment welds. The EPRI Materials Reliability Program (EPRI-MRP) formed an Inspection Committee to address development of industry guidance for inspection of these components, development of effective non-destructive examination (NDE) methods, and demonstration of inspection processes. This paper discusses the MRP activities pertaining to inspection of CRDM penetrations. Results of demonstrations and field inspections conducted will also be summarized. (authors)

  7. Wind tunnel tests of a deep seabed penetrator model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visintini, L.; Murray, C.N.

    1991-01-01

    C.C.R. Euratom Ispra are currently involved in studies on the possibility of storing radioactive wastes in deep ocean sediment beds. The report summarizes the results of wind tunnel tests performed in March 1985 on a 1:2.5 scale model of a European Standard Penetrator in Aermacchi low speed wind tunnel. Tests covered the measurement of overall fluid dynamic forces at varying angle of attack and measurement of unsteady pressures acting on the instrumentation head protruding in the penetrator's wake. Overall force coefficients were found to be in good agreement with predictions. Unsteady pressures were found to be much smaller than expected so that no mechanical damage to instrumentation is to be foreseen even at the high dynamic pressures typical of the penetrator moving into water. The present work has been undertaken under contract 2450-84-08 ED ISP I of C.C.R. EURATOM ISPRA

  8. Economic viability of transmission capacity expansion at high wind penetrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    investments and analyses of the Nord Pool price variations. The analyses are done for varying degrees of wind power penetrations ranging from 20% of the West Danish electricity demand up to 100% of the demand. The analyses demonstrate, that while there is an economic potential for some expansion in some years......With growing wind power penetrations in many countries, grid and system integration becomes more and more important issues. This is particularly the case in countries or regions with good wind resources as well as substantial installed wind power capacity as found in e.g. Northern Europe. At 20......% penetration in Western Denmark, the issue is pertinent here in relation to future plans of further expansion which is planned in accordance with the Danish Government’s climate change mitigation initiatives. This paper analyses the potential economic benefit of selling excess electricity production...

  9. The Effect of Bacteria Penetration on Chalk Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Shapiro, Alexander; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie

    number of B. licheniformis was detected on the effluent compared with P. putida. However, in the experiment with B. licheniformis mainly spores were detected in the effluent. The core permeability decreased rapidly during injection of bacteria and a starvation period of 12 days did not allow......Bacteria selective plugging is one of the mechanisms through which microorganisms can be applied for enhanced oil recovery. Bacteria can plug the water-bearing zones of a reservoir, thus altering the flow paths and improving sweep efficiency. It is known that the bacteria can penetrate deeply...... into reservoirs, however, a complete understanding of the penetration behavior of bacteria is lacking, especially in chalk formations where the pore throat sizes are almost comparable with the sizes of bacteria vegetative cells. This study investigates the penetration of bacteria into chalk. Two bacteria types...

  10. Environmental qualification test of electrical penetration for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooziro, Tetsuya; Nakagawa, Akitoshi; Toyoda, Shigeru; Uno, Shunpei

    1979-01-01

    Environmental qualification test was conducted according to IEEE Std. 323-1974 in order to evaluate the safety and reliability of electrical penetration of PWR type nuclear power station. Electrical penetration is the assemblies of electric cables attached to the containment vessel and penetrate through the vessel. Since it is a part of the vessel, it is deemed to be one of the primary safety equipments that are important for the safety and reliability of nuclear power stations. Environmental tests were conducted continuously as to heat cycle, vibration and LOCA with the full size specimens of bushing type, pigtail type and triaxial cable type and at the same time thermal life and irradiation tests were conducted on the insulation materials used, in order to obtain the comprehensive evaluation of their electrical and mechanical characteristics. As the result, they all satisfied the requirements for the circuits for actual use during and after various environmental qualification tests according to IEEE Std. 323. (author)

  11. Cell-penetrating peptides for drug delivery across membrane barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne Moerck

    2008-01-01

    During the last decade, cell-penetrating peptides have been investigated for their ability to overcome the plasma membrane barrier of mammalian cells for the intracellular or transcellular delivery of cargoes as diverse as low molecular weight drugs, imaging agents, oligonucleotides, peptides......, proteins and colloidal carriers such as liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles. Their ability to cross biological membranes in a non-disruptive way without apparent toxicity is highly desired for increasing drug bioavailability. This review provides an overview of the application of cell......-penetrating peptides as transmembrane drug delivery agents, according to the recent literature, and discusses critical issues and future challenges in relation to fully understanding the fundamental principles of the cell-penetrating peptide-mediated membrane translocation of cargoes and the exploitation...

  12. A case of an intrahepatic fish bone penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboi, Kazuhiko; Nakajima, Yoshiro; Yamamoto, Shunji; Nagao, Masatoshi; Nishimura, Kazumasa.

    1981-01-01

    A 56-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of epigastric discomfort, appetite loss and body weight loss. A gallstone, signs of chronic inflammation and CEA-Z: 12.5 ng/ml were found. Abdominal CT scan revealed an intrahepatic low density nodule and an intra-and-extrahepatic high-dense, needle-like foreign body. By laparotomy a fish bone penetrating into the left lateral segment of the liver from the anterior wall of the prepyloric region of the stomach was found. Cholecystectomy was performed. The penetrating fish bone was withdrawn from the liver easily. The Postoperative course was smooth. The possibility of the definitive preoperative diagnosis of the intestinal fish bone penetration by abdominal CT scan was suggested. (author)

  13. UO2/magnetite concrete interaction and penetration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhadieh, R.; Purviance, R.; Carlson, N.

    1983-01-01

    The concrete structure represents a line of defense in safety assessment of containment integrity and possible minimization of radiological releases following a reactor accident. The penetration study of hot UO 2 particles into limestone concrete and basalt concrete highlighted some major differences between the two concretes. These included penetration rate, melting and dissolution phenomena, released gases, pressurization of the UO 2 chamber, and characteristics of post-test concrete. The present study focuses on the phenomena associated with core debris interaction with and penetration into magnetite type concrete. The real material experiment was carried out with UO 2 particles and magnetite concrete in a test apparatus similar to the one utilized in the UO 2 /limestone experiment

  14. A Miniature Probe for Ultrasonic Penetration of a Single Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfei Xiao

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Although ultrasound cavitation must be avoided for safe diagnostic applications, the ability of ultrasound to disrupt cell membranes has taken on increasing significance as a method to facilitate drug and gene delivery. A new ultrasonic resonance driving method is introduced to penetrate rigid wall plant cells or oocytes with springy cell membranes. When a reasonable design is created, ultrasound can gather energy and increase the amplitude factor. Ultrasonic penetration enables exogenous materials to enter cells without damaging them by utilizing instant acceleration. This paper seeks to develop a miniature ultrasonic probe experiment system for cell penetration. A miniature ultrasonic probe is designed and optimized using the Precise Four Terminal Network Method and Finite Element Method (FEM and an ultrasonic generator to drive the probe is designed. The system was able to successfully puncture a single fish cell.

  15. Instability in the magnetic field penetration in type II superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Isaías G. de

    2015-01-01

    Under the view of the time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau theory we have investigated the penetration of the magnetic field in the type II superconductors. We show that the single vortices, situated along the borderline, between the normal region channel and the superconducting region, can escape to regions still empty of vortices. We show that the origin of this process is the repulsive nature of vortex–vortex interaction, in addition to the non-homogeneous distribution of the vortices along the normal region channel. Using London theory we explain the extra gain of kinetic energy by the vortices situated along this borderline. - Highlights: • TDGL is used to study the magnetic field penetration in type II superconductors. • Instability process is found during the magnetic field penetration. • Vortices along the front of the normal region escape to superconducting region. • We explain the extra-gain of kinetic energy by vortices along the borderline

  16. Variance reduction methods applied to deep-penetration problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    All deep-penetration Monte Carlo calculations require variance reduction methods. Before beginning with a detailed approach to these methods, several general comments concerning deep-penetration calculations by Monte Carlo, the associated variance reduction, and the similarities and differences of these with regard to non-deep-penetration problems will be addressed. The experienced practitioner of Monte Carlo methods will easily find exceptions to any of these generalities, but it is felt that these comments will aid the novice in understanding some of the basic ideas and nomenclature. Also, from a practical point of view, the discussions and developments presented are oriented toward use of the computer codes which are presented in segments of this Monte Carlo course

  17. Selective mono-radioiodination and characterization of a cell-penetrating peptide. L-Tyr-maurocalcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Mitra; Bacot, Sandrine; Perret, Pascale; Riou, Laurent; Ghezzi, Catherine [Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); INSERM U1039, Grenoble (France). Radiopharmaceutiques Biocliniques; Poillot, Cathy; Cestele, Sandrine [INSERM U836, Grenoble (France). Grenoble Inst. of Neuroscience; Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Desruet, Marie-Dominique [INSERM U1039, Grenoble (France). Radiopharmaceutiques Biocliniques; Couvet, Morgane; Bourgoin, Sandrine; Seve, Michel [CRI-INSERM U823, Grenoble (France). Inst. of Albert Bonniot; Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Waard, Michel de [INSERM U836, Grenoble (France). Grenoble Inst. of Neuroscience; Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Smartox Biotechnologies, Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-01

    Mono-and poly-iodinated peptides form frequently during radioiodination procedures. However, the formation of a single species in its mono-iodinated form is essential for quantitative studies such as determination of tissue concentration or image quantification. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to define the optimal experimental conditions in order to exclusively obtain the mono-iodinated form of L-maurocalcine (L-MCa). L-MCa is an animal venom toxin which was shown to act as a cell-penetrating peptide. In order to apply the current direct radioiodination technique using oxidative agents including chloramine T, Iodo-Gen {sup registered} or lactoperoxidase, an analogue of this peptide containing a tyrosine residue (Tyr-L-MCa) was synthesized and was shown to fold/oxidize properly. The enzymatic approach using lactoperoxidase/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was found to be the best method for radioiodination of Tyr-L-MCa. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analyses were then used for identification of the chromatographic eluting components of the reaction mixtures. We observed that the production of different radioiodinated species depended upon the reaction conditions. Our results successfully described the experimental conditions of peptide radioiodination allowing the exclusive production of the mono-iodinated form with high radiochemical purity and without the need for a purification step. Mono-radioiodination of L-Tyr-MCa will be crucial for future quantitative studies, investigating the mechanism of cell penetration and in vivo biodistribution.

  18. Penetrating performance and “self-sharpening” behavior of fine-grained tungsten heavy alloy rod penetrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Rongmei, E-mail: luorm_1999@126.com [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu (China); College of Equipment Engineering, Shenyang Ligong University, Shenyang 110159, Liaoning (China); Huang, Dewu; Yang, Mingchuan; Tang, Enling; Wang, Meng; He, Liping [College of Equipment Engineering, Shenyang Ligong University, Shenyang 110159, Liaoning (China)

    2016-10-15

    Rod penetrators with 95W–3.75Ni–1.25Fe fine-grained tungsten heavy alloy (fine-grained 95W) and conventional tungsten heavy alloy rod penetrators with the same chemical composition (conventional 95W) were subjected to ballistic impact to compare their penetration performance. “Self-sharpening” behavior and an average 10.5% increase in penetration depth compared to conventional 95W penetrators. An acute head remained on the fine-grained 95W rod with SEM results revealing many micro-cracks and small debris on surface layer of the rod head. The stress-strain curves collected in the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) experiment showed that critical failure strain values of the fine-grained 95W were 0.12 and 0.39 at strain rate of 2×10{sup 3} s{sup −1} and 3.9×10{sup 3} s{sup −1}, respectively, approximately 40% and 10% lower than those of the conventional 95W. The dynamic strength values of fine-grained 95W were 2100 MPa and 2520 MPa, respectively, which were 500 MPa and 520 MPa higher than those of the conventional 95W. The relationship among microstructure, mechanical property and “self-sharpening” behavior of fine-grained 95W is discussed in this work.

  19. Barriers to renewable energy penetration. A framework for analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Painuly, Jyoti P.

    2001-01-01

    Renewable energy has the potential to play an important role in providing energy with sustainability to the vast populations in developing countries who as yet have no access to clean energy. Although economically viable fur several applications, renewable energy has not been able to realise its...... potential due to several barriers to its penetration. A framework has been developed in this paper to identify the barriers to renewable energy penetration acid to suggest measures to overcome them. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. Seismic transient analysis of a containment vessel with penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlke, H.J.; Weiner, E.O.

    1979-12-01

    A linear transient analysis of the FFTF containment vessel was conducted with STAGS to justify the load levels used for the seismic qualification testing of the heating and ventiliation valve operators. The modeling consists of a thin axisymmetric shell for the containment vessel with four penetrations characterized by linear and rotational inertias as well as attachment characteristics to the shell. Motions considered are horizontal, rocking and vertical input to the base, and the solution is carried out by direct integration. Results show that the test levels and the approximate analyses considered are conservative. Response spectra for some containment vessel penetrations applicable to the model are presented

  1. Hydrogen atom within spherical boxes with penetrable walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley-Koo, E.; Rubinstein, S.

    1979-01-01

    We study a model for the hydrogen atom confined within spherical boxes with penetrable walls. The potential consists of the Coulomb potential inside the box and a constant potential outside the box; the Schroedinger equation admits analytical solutions in both regions. The energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for the lowest states of the system are determined numerically for boxes of different sizes and penetrabilities. In addition, we also evaluate the hyperfine splitting, nuclear magnetic shielding, polarizability and pressure of the system and investigate the effect of the confinement on these atomic properties

  2. Impacts of Large Scale Wind Penetration on Energy Supply Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kabouris

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Large penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES impacts Energy Supply Industry (ESI in many aspects leading to a fundamental change in electric power systems. It raises a number of technical challenges to the Transmission System Operators (TSOs, Distribution System Operators (DSOs and Wind Turbine Generators (WTG constructors. This paper aims to present in a thorough and coherent way the redrawn picture for Energy Systems under these conditions. Topics related to emergent technical challenges, technical solutions required and finally the impact on ESI due to large wind power penetration, are analyzed. Finally, general conclusions are extracted about the ESI current and future state and general directions are recommended.

  3. Intergranular penetration of liquid gold into stainless steel

    OpenAIRE

    Favez, Denis; Deillon, Léa; Wagnière, Jean-Daniel; Rappaz, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Intergranular penetration of liquid 18 K gold into a superaustenitic stainless steel, which occurs during laser welding of these two materials, has been studied using a C-ring device which can be put under tensile stresses by a screw. It is shown that liquid gold at 1000 degrees C penetrates the immersed stainless steel C-ring at grain boundaries, but only when tensile stresses are applied. Based on the thickness of the peritectic phase that forms all along the liquid crack and on the transve...

  4. An adaptive sampling scheme for deep-penetration calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruihong; Ji, Zhicheng; Pei, Lucheng

    2013-01-01

    As we know, the deep-penetration problem has been one of the important and difficult problems in shielding calculation with Monte Carlo Method for several decades. In this paper, an adaptive Monte Carlo method under the emission point as a sampling station for shielding calculation is investigated. The numerical results show that the adaptive method may improve the efficiency of the calculation of shielding and might overcome the under-estimation problem easy to happen in deep-penetration calculation in some degree

  5. Thermo-chemical Ice Penetrator for Icy Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenberg, J. W.; Lee, G.; Harpole, G.; Zamel, J.; Sen, B.; Ross, F.; Retherford, K. D.

    2016-12-01

    The ability to place sensors or to take samples below the ice surface enables a wide variety of potential scientific investigations. Penetrating an ice cap can be accomplished via a mechanical drill, laser drill, kinetic impactor, or heated penetrator. This poster reports on the development of technology for the latter most option, namely a self-heated probe driven by an exothermic chemical reaction: a Thermo-chemical ice penetrator (TChIP). Our penetrator design employs a eutectic mix of alkali metals that produce an exothermic reaction upon contact with an icy surface. This reaction increases once the ice starts melting, so no external power is required. This technology is inspired by a classified Cold-War era program developed at Northrop Grumman for the US Navy. Terrestrial demonstration of this technology took place in the Arctic; however, this device cannot be considered high TRL for application at the icy moons of the solar system due to the environmental differences between Earth's Arctic and the icy moons. These differences demand a TChIP design specific to these cold, low mass, airless worlds. It is expected that this model of TChIP performance will be complex, incorporating all of the forces on the penetrator, gravity, the thermo-chemistry at the interface between penetrator and ice, and multi-phase heat and mass transport, and hydrodynamics. Our initial efforts are aimed at the development of a validated set of tools and simulations to predict the performance of the penetrator for both the environment found on these icy moons and for a terrestrial environment. The purpose of the inclusion of the terrestrial environment is to aid in model validation. Once developed and validated, our models will allow us to design penetrators for a specific scientific application on a specific body. This poster discusses the range of scientific investigations that are enabled by TChIP. We also introduce the development plan to advance TChIP to the point where it can be

  6. Biological effect of penetration controlled irradiation with ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Shimizu, Takashi; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Yamashita, Takao

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the effect of local irradiation with ion beams on biological systems, technique for penetration controlled irradiation has been established. The range in a target was controlled by changing the distance from beam window in the atmosphere, and could be controlled linearly up to about 31 {mu}m in biological material. In addition, the effects of the penetration controlled irradiations with 1.5 MeV/u C and He ions were examined using tobacco pollen. The increased frequency of leaky pollen produced by ion beams suggests that the efficient pollen envelope damages would be induced at the range-end of ion beams. (author)

  7. Use of ground-penetrating radar techniques in archaeological investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, James A.; Miller, W. Frank

    1991-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) techniques are increasingly being used to aid reconnaissance and pre-excavation surveys at many archaeological sites. As a 'remote sensing' tool, GPR provides a high resolution graphic profile of the subsurface. Radar profiles are used to detect, identify, and locate buried artifacts. Ground-penetrating radar provides a rapid, cost effective, and nondestructive method for identification and location analyses. The GPR can be used to facilitate excavation strategies, provide greater areal coverage per unit time and cost, minimize the number of unsuccessful exploratory excavations, and reduce unnecessary or unproductive expenditures of time and effort.

  8. Distribution Networks Management with High Penetration of Photovoltaic Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The photovoltaic solar panels penetration increases significantly in recent years in several European countries, mainly in the low voltage and medium voltage networks supported by governmental policies and incentives. Consequently, the acquisition and installation costs of PV panels decrease...... and the know–how increase significantly. Presently is important the use of new management methodologies in distribution networks to support the growing penetration of PV panels. In some countries, like in Germany and in Italy, the solar generation based in photovoltaic panels supply 40% of the demand in some...

  9. Fault Analysis and Detection in Microgrids with High PV Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Khatib, Mohamed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez Alvidrez, Javier [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ellis, Abraham [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    In this report we focus on analyzing current-controlled PV inverters behaviour under faults in order to develop fault detection schemes for microgrids with high PV penetration. Inverter model suitable for steady state fault studies is presented and the impact of PV inverters on two protection elements is analyzed. The studied protection elements are superimposed quantities based directional element and negative sequence directional element. Additionally, several non-overcurrent fault detection schemes are discussed in this report for microgrids with high PV penetration. A detailed time-domain simulation study is presented to assess the performance of the presented fault detection schemes under different microgrid modes of operation.

  10. Symptomatic caval penetration by a Celect inferior vena cava filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogue, Conor O.; John, Philip R.; Connolly, Bairbre L.; Rea, David J.; Amaral, Joao G.

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of penetration of the inferior vena cava (IVC) by all four primary struts of a Celect caval filter in a 17-year-old girl with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. The girl presented with acute lower abdominal and right leg pain 17 days after filter insertion. An abdominal radiograph demonstrated that the filter had moved caudally and that the primary struts had splayed considerably since insertion. Contrast-enhanced CT confirmed that all four primary struts had penetrated the IVC wall. There was a small amount of retroperitoneal hemorrhage. The surrounding vessels and viscera were intact. The filter was subsequently retrieved without complication. (orig.)

  11. Tungsten versus depleted uranium for armour-piercing penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    Tungsten alloys have been widely used in the production of armour-piercing (AP) penetrators for defense purposes for the past 40 years. In recent years, however, depleted uranium (DU) has also been utilised for this application. Both materials exhibit high density and strength, two properties necessary for kinetic-energy projectiles to penetrate armour on tanks and other vehicles. The facts, however, support the view that tungsten can and should be utilised as the primary material for most armour-defeating ordnance applications. (author)

  12. Flux penetration in a ferromagnetic/superconducting bilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamus, Z.; Cieplak, M.Z.; Abal' Oshev, A. [Polish Acad Sci, Inst Phys, PL-02668 Warsaw, (Poland); Konczykowski, M. [CEA/DSM/DRECAM, Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Konczykowski, M. [Ecole Polytech, CNRS - UMR 7642, F-91128 Palaiseau, (France); Cheng, X.M.; Zhu, L.Y.; Chien, C.L. [Johns Hopkins Univ, Dept Phys and Astron, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    An array of miniature Hall sensors is used to study the magnetic flux penetration in a ferromagnetic/superconducting bilayer consisting of Nb as a superconducting layer and Co/Pt multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy as a ferromagnetic layer, separated by an amorphous Si layer to avoid the proximity effect. It is found that the magnetic domains in the ferromagnetic layer create a large edge barrier in the superconducting layer which delays flux penetration. The smooth flux profiles observed in the absence of magnetic pinning change into terraced profiles in the presence of domains. (authors)

  13. Penetration of molten core materials into basaltic and limestone concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    In conjunction with the small-scale, melt-concrete interaction tests being conducted at Sandia Laboratories, an acoustic technique has been used to monitor the penetration of molten core materials into basaltic and limestone concrete. Real time plots of the position of the melt/concrete interface have been obtained, and they illustrate that the initial penetration rate of the melt may be of the order of 80 mm/min. Phenomena deduced by the technique include a non-wetted melt/concrete interface

  14. Enabling kinetic micro-penetrator technology for Solar System research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, R. A.

    2008-09-01

    Whilst the concept of high speed impacting penetrator probes is not new, recent highly successful ground test results have considerably improved the perception that these can be a viable and useful addition to the current toolbox of planetary probes. Previous developments only led to a single deployment (Deep Space-2 to Mars on the ill fated NASA Mars Polar Lander mission in 1999) where neither the soft lander nor penetrator was ever heard from, which is not a logical basis for dismissing penetrator technology. Other space penetrator programmes have included the Russian Mars'96 ~80m/s penetrators for which the whole mission was lost before the spacecraft left Earth orbit, and the Japanese Lunar-A program which was cancelled after a lengthy development program which however saw multiple successful ground trials. The Japanese penetrators were designed for ~300m/s impact. The current UK penetrator developments are actively working towards full space qualification for a Lunar penetrators (MoonLITE mission), which would also provide a significant technical demonstration towards the development of smaller, shorter lived penetrators for exploring other solar system objects. We are advocating delivered micro-penetrators in the mass range ~4-10Kg, (preceded by ~13Kg Lunar penetrator MoonLITE development program), impacting at around 100-500m/s and carrying a scientific payload of around 2Kg. Additional mass is required to deliver the probes from `orbit' to surface which is dependent upon the particular planetary body in question. The mass per descent module therefore involves and additional element which, for a descent through an atmosphere could be quite modest, while for a flyby deployment, can be substantial. For Europa we estimate a descent module mass of ~13 Kg, while for Enceladus the value is ~40Kg for Enceladus since a deceleration of ~3.8 kms-1 is needed from a Titan orbit. The delivery system could consist of a rocket deceleration motor and attitude control system

  15. Current Understanding of Physicochemical Mechanisms for Cell Membrane Penetration of Arginine-rich Cell Penetrating Peptides: Role of Glycosaminoglycan Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takechi-Haraya, Yuki; Saito, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    Arginine-rich cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are very promising drug carriers to deliver membrane-impermeable pharmaceuticals, such as siRNA, bioactive peptides and proteins. CPPs directly penetrate into cells across cell membranes via a spontaneous energy-independent process, in which CPPs appear to interact with acidic lipids in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane. However, acidic lipids represent only 10 to 20% of the total membrane lipid content and in mammalian cell membranes they are predominantly located in the inner leaflet. Alternatively, CPPs favorably bind in a charge density- dependent manner to negatively charged, sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, which are abundant on the cell surface and are involved in many biological functions. We have recently demonstrated that the interaction of CPPs with sulfated GAGs plays a critical role in their direct cell membrane penetration: the favorable enthalpy contribution drives the high-affinity binding of arginine-rich CPPs to sulfated GAGs, initiating an efficient cell membrane penetration. The favorable enthalpy gain is presumably mainly derived from a unique property of the guanidino group of arginine residues forming multidentate hydrogen bonding with sulfate and carboxylate groups in GAGs. Such interactions can be accompanied with charge neutralization of arginine-rich CPPs, promoting their partition into cell membranes. This review summarizes the current understanding of the physicochemical mechanism for lipid membrane penetration of CPPs, and discusses the role of the GAG interactions on the cell membrane penetration of CPPs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Comparison of pellet acceleration model results to experimentally observed penetration depths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szepesi, T., E-mail: szepesi.tamas@gmail.co [KFKI - Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, EURATOM Association, MTA KFKI-RMKI, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest-114 (Hungary); Kalvin, S.; Kocsis, G. [KFKI - Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, EURATOM Association, MTA KFKI-RMKI, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest-114 (Hungary); Lang, P.T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Senichenkov, I. [Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Polytehnicheskaya 29, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    Cryogenic hydrogen isotope fuelling pellets were observed to undergo strong radial acceleration in the confined plasma. The reason for pellet acceleration is believed to originate from drift effects: the ionised part of pellet cloud is affected by the grad-B drift, therefore, the cloud becomes polarised. The E x B drift then deforms the pellet cloud so that it can no longer follow the original flux bundle - this results in a less efficient shielding on the pellet's HFS region, where the subsequently enhanced ablation pushes the pellet towards LFS, like a rocket. In order to study this effect, a simple and a comprehensive ablation model was developed. Results from both models show quantitatively acceptable agreement with ASDEX-Upgrade experiments concerning trajectory curvature, corresponding to radial acceleration in the range of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 7} m/s{sup 2}.

  17. Experimental Evaluation of Ileal Patch in Delayed Primary Repair of Penetrating Colon Injuries: An Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Abbasi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary repair of traumatic colonic perforation is progressively gaining acceptance as the best method of management. However, when delayed, the risk of infection-related complications may increase. Here, we present a new method of repairing colon perforation in the presence of peritonitis. Acute colon injury was simulated in 22 German shepherd dogs. The dogs were randomly divided into two groups of 11 and after 24 hours they were operated on. The perforations were repaired by subserosal suture technique. In the first group (group A, ileal patch was used. In the other group (group B, the colon was closed by debridement and anastomosis. After 6 weeks, the repairs were assessed on the basis of survival, gross and histological assessments. Nine (82% dogs in group A and six (56% in group B survived. Ileal patch utilization significantly decreased the mortality rate (p < 0.05. The cause of death in two group A dogs and five group B dogs was peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess formation. None of the surviving dogs showed evidence of anastomotic leakage or breakdown. Small bowel patch used in primary repair of colon injury in the presence of peritonitis may decrease the risk of postoperative infection-related complications and the mortality rate.

  18. An Experimental Study for Quantitative Estimation of Rebar Corrosion in Concrete Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Istiaque Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion of steel rebar in reinforced concrete is one the most important durability issues in the service life of a structure. In this paper, an investigation is conducted to find out the relationship between the amount of reinforced concrete corrosion and GPR maximum positive amplitude. Accelerated corrosion was simulated in the lab by impressing direct current into steel rebar that was submerged in a 5% salt water solution. The amount of corrosion was varied in the rebars with different levels of mass loss ranging from 0% to 45%. The corroded rebars were then placed into three different oil emulsion tanks having different dielectric properties similar to concrete. The maximum amplitudes from the corroded bars were recorded. A linear relationship between the maximum positive amplitudes and the amount of corrosion in terms of percentage loss of area was observed. It was proposed that the relationship between the GPR maximum amplitude and the amount of corrosion can be used as a basis of a NDE technique of quantitative estimation of corrosion.

  19. Experimental site and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenette, C. C. [SINTEF Applied Cemistry, Trondheim (Norway)

    1999-08-01

    Design and site selection criteria for the Svalbard oil spill experiments are described. All three experimental sites have coarse and mixed sediment beaches of sand and pebble; within each site wave exposure is very similar; along-shore and across-shore sediment characteristics are also relatively homogeneous. Tidal range is in the order of 0.6 m at neaps, and 1.8 m at springs. All three sites are open to wave action and are ice-free during the experimental period of mid-July to mid-October. Study plots at each site were selected for different treatments from within the continuous stretch of oiled shoreline, with oiled buffer zones between plots and at either end of the oiled zone. Treatments included mixing (tilling), sediment relocation (surf washing) and bioremediation (nutrient enrichment). Measurements and observations were carried out during the summers of 1997 and 1998. The characteristics measured were: wave and wind conditions; beach topography and elevation; sediment grain size distribution; mineral fines size distribution and mineral composition; background hydrocarbons; concentration of oil within experimental plots and the rate of oil loss over time; depth of oil penetration and thickness of the oiled sediment layer; oil concentration and toxicity of near-shore benthic sediments; mineral composition of suspended particulate material captured in sub-tidal sediment traps; and oil-fines interaction in near-shore water samples. 1 fig.

  20. Experimental site and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenette, C. C. [SINTEF Applied Cemistry, Trondheim (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    Design and site selection criteria for the Svalbard oil spill experiments are described. All three experimental sites have coarse and mixed sediment beaches of sand and pebble; within each site waveexposure is very similar; along-shore and across-shore sediment characteristics are also relatively homogeneous. Tidal range is in the order of 0.6 m at neaps, and 1.8 m at springs. All three sites are open to wave action and are ice-free during the experimental period of mid-July to mid-October. Study plots at each site were selected for different treatments from within the continuous stretch of oiled shoreline, with oiled buffer zones between plots and at either end of the oiled zone. Treatments included mixing (tilling), sediment relocation (surf washing) and bioremediation (nutrient enrichment). Measurements and observations were carried out during the summers of 1997 and 1998. The characteristics measured were: wave and wind conditions; beach topography and elevation; sediment grain size distribution; mineral fines size distribution and mineral composition; background hydrocarbons; concentration of oil within experimental plots and the rate of oil loss over time; depth of oil penetration and thickness of the oiled sediment layer; oil concentration and toxicity of near-shore benthic sediments; mineral composition of suspended particulate material captured in sub-tidal sediment traps; and oil-fines interaction in near-shore water samples. 1 fig.