WorldWideScience

Sample records for experimental modeling footprint

  1. Modelling the carbon footprint of reflux control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatenby, Piers A C

    2011-01-01

    The NHS is responsible for approximately 30% of all public sector carbon emissions. The Climate Change Act 2008 introduced legally binding targets to cut emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) by at least 80% of the 1990 baseline by 2050. This paper seeks to examine two different strategies for the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and their modelled costs and carbon emissions. This study uses data from the costs of care of patients in the REFLUX study and NHS England Carbon Emissions Carbon Footprinting Report to model the carbon emissions associated with medical and surgical treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. The main outcome measures are modelled financial costs and carbon emissions for medical and surgical treatment pathways. There is a high initial cost (financially and carbon emissions) for surgery, however subsequent year-on-year financial spend and carbon emissions are lower in patients who have had surgical treatment such that the total modelled financial cost of surgery is lower in the 14th year and carbon emissions are lower in the 9th year. The model is sensitive to changes in the efficiency of pharmaceutical procurement and surgical failure rate. The model has demonstrated that in cases of equivalent clinical benefit one pathway may be preferred on the basis of other factors including carbon emissions. Copyright © 2010 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Carbon footprint calculation model for the Mexican food equivalent system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Ruiz Cerrillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the impact environment trough the anthropogenic action has been contributed to the fast production of greenhouse gases effect (GHG, a way to estimate the quantity of these substances is the carbon footprint (CF, nowadays it does not exist enough models for the calculation of food carbon footprint. Objective: the aim of this study was to design a calculation model for the measurement of the carbon footprint on the Mexican food equivalent system. Methods: it was about a retrospective study, a bibliographic review was made with original and review articles in different specialized researchers, there were included publications in English and Spanish, also published from 2000 to 2016. Results: a reference table was proposed for the food carbon footprint calculation on the Mexican food equivalent system trough the carbon intensity indicator, which is determined by the grams of emissions equivalents of carbon dioxide (CO2 in relation with the energetic contribution of each food equivalent. Conclusion: in a conclusion manner, estimating food carbon footprint is still a challenge, mean while the calculation models proposal is important to estimate the production of GHG trough a more sustainable food system.

  3. A carbon footprint simulation model for the cork oak sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demertzi, Martha, E-mail: marthademertzi@ua.pt [Center for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Paulo, Joana Amaral, E-mail: joanaap@isa.ulisboa.pt [Center of Forest Studies (CEF), Superior Institute of Agronomy (ISA), Tapada da Ajuda, University of Lisbon, 1349-017 Lisbon (Portugal); Arroja, Luís, E-mail: arroja@ua.pt [Center for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Dias, Ana Cláudia, E-mail: acdias@ua.pt [Center for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, a simulation model for the calculation of the carbon footprint of the cork oak sector (CCFM) is developed for the first time. A life cycle approach is adopted including the forest management, manufacturing, use and end-of-life stages. CCFM allows the user to insert the cork type used as raw material and its respective quantity and the distances in-between the various stages. The user can choose among different end-of-life destination options for the used cork products. The option of inserting different inputs, allows the use of the present simulation model for different cork oak systems, in different countries and with different conditions. CCFM allows the identification of the stages and products with the greatest carbon footprint and thus, a better management of the sector from an environmental perspective. The Portuguese cork oak sector is used as an application example of the model. The results obtained showed that the agglomeration industry is the hotspot for the carbon footprint of the cork sector mainly due to the production of the resins that are mixed with the cork granules for the production of agglomerated cork products. The consideration of the biogenic carbon emissions and sequestration of carbon at the forest in the carbon footprint, resulted to a great decrease of the sector's carbon footprint. Future actions for improvement are suggested in order to decrease the carbon footprint of the entire cork sector. It was found that by decreasing by 10% the emission factor of the agglomeration and transformation industries, substituting the transport trucks by more recent ones and by decreasing by 10% the cork products reaching the landfilling end-of-life destinations (while increasing the quantities reaching incineration and recycling), a decrease of the total CF (excluding the biogenic emissions and sequestration) of the entire cork industry by 10% can be achieved. - Highlights: • A carbon footprint simulation model (CCFM) for

  4. A carbon footprint simulation model for the cork oak sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demertzi, Martha; Paulo, Joana Amaral; Arroja, Luís; Dias, Ana Cláudia

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, a simulation model for the calculation of the carbon footprint of the cork oak sector (CCFM) is developed for the first time. A life cycle approach is adopted including the forest management, manufacturing, use and end-of-life stages. CCFM allows the user to insert the cork type used as raw material and its respective quantity and the distances in-between the various stages. The user can choose among different end-of-life destination options for the used cork products. The option of inserting different inputs, allows the use of the present simulation model for different cork oak systems, in different countries and with different conditions. CCFM allows the identification of the stages and products with the greatest carbon footprint and thus, a better management of the sector from an environmental perspective. The Portuguese cork oak sector is used as an application example of the model. The results obtained showed that the agglomeration industry is the hotspot for the carbon footprint of the cork sector mainly due to the production of the resins that are mixed with the cork granules for the production of agglomerated cork products. The consideration of the biogenic carbon emissions and sequestration of carbon at the forest in the carbon footprint, resulted to a great decrease of the sector's carbon footprint. Future actions for improvement are suggested in order to decrease the carbon footprint of the entire cork sector. It was found that by decreasing by 10% the emission factor of the agglomeration and transformation industries, substituting the transport trucks by more recent ones and by decreasing by 10% the cork products reaching the landfilling end-of-life destinations (while increasing the quantities reaching incineration and recycling), a decrease of the total CF (excluding the biogenic emissions and sequestration) of the entire cork industry by 10% can be achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. FINAL REPORT: EDDY-COVARIANCE FLUX TOWER AND TRACER TECHNOLOGY SUPPORT FOR THE UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA PROPOSAL: FROM TOWER TO PIXEL: INTEGRATION OF PATCH-SIZE NEE USING EXPERIMENTAL MODELING FOOTPRINT ANALYSIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LEWIN,K.F.; NAGY, J.; WATSON, T.B.

    2007-09-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has been funded since October of 2000 to provide assistance to the University of Georgia in conducting footprint analyses of individual towers based on meteorology and trace gas measurements. Brookhaven researchers conducted air flow measurements using perfluorocarbon tracers and meteorological instrumentation for three experimental campaigns at an AmeriFlux research site maintained by Dr. Monique Leclerc near Gainesville, FL. In addition, BNL provided assistance with remote data collection and distribution from remote field sites operated by Dr. John Hom of the US Forest Service in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey and at FACE research sites in North Carolina and Wisconsin.

  6. A Point-Set-Based Footprint Model and Spatial Ranking Method for Geographic Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Gao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the recent big data era, massive spatial related data are continuously generated and scrambled from various sources. Acquiring accurate geographic information is also urgently demanded. How to accurately retrieve desired geographic information has become the prominent issue, needing to be resolved in high priority. The key technologies in geographic information retrieval are modeling document footprints and ranking documents based on their similarity evaluation. The traditional spatial similarity evaluation methods are mainly performed using a MBR (Minimum Bounding Rectangle footprint model. However, due to its nature of simplification and roughness, the results of traditional methods tend to be isotropic and space-redundant. In this paper, a new model that constructs the footprints in the form of point-sets is presented. The point-set-based footprint coincides the nature of place names in web pages, so it is redundancy-free, consistent, accurate, and anisotropic to describe the spatial extents of documents, and can handle multi-scale geographic information. The corresponding spatial ranking method is also presented based on the point-set-based model. The new similarity evaluation algorithm of this method firstly measures multiple distances for the spatial proximity across different scales, and then combines the frequency of place names to improve the accuracy and precision. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the traditional methods with higher accuracies under different searching scenarios.

  7. Building footprint extraction from digital surface models using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydova, Ksenia; Cui, Shiyong; Reinartz, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Two-dimensional building footprints are a basis for many applications: from cartography to three-dimensional building models generation. Although, many methodologies have been proposed for building footprint extraction, this topic remains an open research area. Neural networks are able to model the complex relationships between the multivariate input vector and the target vector. Based on these abilities we propose a methodology using neural networks and Markov Random Fields (MRF) for automatic building footprint extraction from normalized Digital Surface Model (nDSM) and satellite images within urban areas. The proposed approach has mainly two steps. In the first step, the unary terms are learned for the MRF energy function by a four-layer neural network. The neural network is learned on a large set of patches consisting of both nDSM and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Then prediction is performed to calculate the unary terms that are used in the MRF. In the second step, the energy function is minimized using a maxflow algorithm, which leads to a binary building mask. The building extraction results are compared with available ground truth. The comparison illustrates the efficiency of the proposed algorithm which can extract approximately 80% of buildings from nDSM with high accuracy.

  8. Hurricane Footprints in Global Climate Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Tapiador

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the identification of hurricanes in low-resolution global climate models (GCM. As hurricanes are not fully resolvable at the coarse resolution of the GCMs (typically 2.5 × 2.5 deg, indirect methods such as analyzing the environmental conditions favoring hurricane formation have to be sought. Nonetheless, the dynamical cores of the models have limitations in simulating hurricane formation, which is a far from fully understood process. Here, it is shown that variations in the specific entropy rather than in dynamical variables can be used as a proxy of the hurricane intensity as estimated by the Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE. The main application of this research is to ascertain the changes in the hurricane frequency and intensity in future climates.

  9. [Evolvement of ecological footprint model representing ecological carrying capacity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shu-yan; Xie, Gao-di

    2007-06-01

    Ecological footprint (EF) is an important index of ecological carrying capacity. The original EF model is excellent in simplicity, aggregation, comparability, and lifelikeness in presenting results, but short in predictability, configuration, and applicability. To overcome these shortcomings, many researches were conducted to modify and promote the EF model, and developed it from static with single time scale to diversified ones, which included: 1) time series EF model, 2) input-output analysis based EF model, 3) integrated assessment incorporated EF model, 4) land disturbance degree based EF model, and 5) life cycle analysis based EF model, or component EF model. The function of EF as a measurement of ecological carrying capacity was significantly improved, but its accuracy and integrality still need to be advanced.

  10. Ecological footprint model using the support vector machine technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haibo; Chang, Wenjuan; Cui, Guangbai

    2012-01-01

    The per capita ecological footprint (EF) is one of the most widely recognized measures of environmental sustainability. It aims to quantify the Earth's biological resources required to support human activity. In this paper, we summarize relevant previous literature, and present five factors that influence per capita EF. These factors are: National gross domestic product (GDP), urbanization (independent of economic development), distribution of income (measured by the Gini coefficient), export dependence (measured by the percentage of exports to total GDP), and service intensity (measured by the percentage of service to total GDP). A new ecological footprint model based on a support vector machine (SVM), which is a machine-learning method based on the structural risk minimization principle from statistical learning theory was conducted to calculate the per capita EF of 24 nations using data from 123 nations. The calculation accuracy was measured by average absolute error and average relative error. They were 0.004883 and 0.351078% respectively. Our results demonstrate that the EF model based on SVM has good calculation performance.

  11. Combining phylogenetic footprinting with motif models incorporating intra-motif dependencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettling, Martin; Treutler, Hendrik; Cerquides, Jesus; Grosse, Ivo

    2017-03-01

    Transcriptional gene regulation is a fundamental process in nature, and the experimental and computational investigation of DNA binding motifs and their binding sites is a prerequisite for elucidating this process. Approaches for de-novo motif discovery can be subdivided in phylogenetic footprinting that takes into account phylogenetic dependencies in aligned sequences of more than one species and non-phylogenetic approaches based on sequences from only one species that typically take into account intra-motif dependencies. It has been shown that modeling (i) phylogenetic dependencies as well as (ii) intra-motif dependencies separately improves de-novo motif discovery, but there is no approach capable of modeling both (i) and (ii) simultaneously. Here, we present an approach for de-novo motif discovery that combines phylogenetic footprinting with motif models capable of taking into account intra-motif dependencies. We study the degree of intra-motif dependencies inferred by this approach from ChIP-seq data of 35 transcription factors. We find that significant intra-motif dependencies of orders 1 and 2 are present in all 35 datasets and that intra-motif dependencies of order 2 are typically stronger than those of order 1. We also find that the presented approach improves the classification performance of phylogenetic footprinting in all 35 datasets and that incorporating intra-motif dependencies of order 2 yields a higher classification performance than incorporating such dependencies of only order 1. Combining phylogenetic footprinting with motif models incorporating intra-motif dependencies leads to an improved performance in the classification of transcription factor binding sites. This may advance our understanding of transcriptional gene regulation and its evolution.

  12. Optimal energy planning models with carbon footprint constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekala, Lukasz M.; Jezowski, Jacek M. [Rzeszow University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, ul. W. Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszow (Poland); Tan, Raymond R. [Center for Engineering and Sustainable Development Research De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Avenue, 1004 Manila (Philippines); Foo, Dominic C.Y. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Broga Road, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-06-15

    This paper describes a general modeling approach for optimal planning of energy systems subject to carbon and land footprint constraints. The methodology makes use of the source-sink framework derived from the analogies with resource conservation networks used in process integration. Two variants of the modeling approach are developed for some of the important technologies for carbon emissions abatement: liquid biofuels in transportation, and carbon dioxide capture and storage in power generation. Despite the positive impact on environment, widespread use of these technologies has certain disadvantages. In case of biofuels, their production may strain agricultural resources, that are needed also for satisfying food demands. At the same time, carbon capture and storage is rather expensive technology and its practical implementation in power facilities must be carefully considered and planned. Optimum utilization of both technologies is identified with flexible and expandable mathematical modeling framework. Case studies are used to illustrate the variants of the methodology. (author)

  13. Estimation of stature from the width of static footprints-insight into an Indian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Krishan, Kewal; Geriani, Disha; Khan, Iman Sajid

    2013-12-01

    Footprints give an estimate of the height of an individual using gender-dependent models derived for different population and ethnic groups. However, estimation of ethnicity, age and gender from a footprint may not always be possible in forensic case work. The present study is done to develop models for stature (height) estimation from the width of footprints in the Indian population that are independent of the age and gender of individuals. The present research was conducted on 100 young adults from different regions of India. Footprints were obtained from both feet using standard techniques. Stature, and metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ) Width (distance across the widest part of the forefoot) and calcaneal (Calc) Width (distance across the widest section of the heel) were measured on 200 footprints. Regression models were derived for estimation of stature. A positive correlation is observed between footprint measurements and stature. Regression models derived from the forefoot region give a more accurate estimate of stature than the heel region of the footprint. Multiple linear regression models gave more accurate estimates of stature than the single linear regression models. Regression models derived in the study for Indian population may be valuable in establishing the stature of a footprint in practical scenario when the age and gender are unknown. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of a plot-scale methane emission model using eddy covariance observations and footprint modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Budishchev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Most plot-scale methane emission models – of which many have been developed in the recent past – are validated using data collected with the closed-chamber technique. This method, however, suffers from a low spatial representativeness and a poor temporal resolution. Also, during a chamber-flux measurement the air within a chamber is separated from the ambient atmosphere, which negates the influence of wind on emissions. Additionally, some methane models are validated by upscaling fluxes based on the area-weighted averages of modelled fluxes, and by comparing those to the eddy covariance (EC flux. This technique is rather inaccurate, as the area of upscaling might be different from the EC tower footprint, therefore introducing significant mismatch. In this study, we present an approach to validate plot-scale methane models with EC observations using the footprint-weighted average method. Our results show that the fluxes obtained by the footprint-weighted average method are of the same magnitude as the EC flux. More importantly, the temporal dynamics of the EC flux on a daily timescale are also captured (r2 = 0.7. In contrast, using the area-weighted average method yielded a low (r2 = 0.14 correlation with the EC measurements. This shows that the footprint-weighted average method is preferable when validating methane emission models with EC fluxes for areas with a heterogeneous and irregular vegetation pattern.

  15. FOOTPRINT: A Screening Model for Estimating the Area of a Plume Produced From Gasoline Containing Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOOTPRINT is a screening model used to estimate the length and surface area of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) plumes in groundwater, produced from a gasoline spill that contains ethanol.

  16. Rice production model based on the concept of ecological footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, S. A.; Wicaksono, A. D.; Dinanti, D.

    2017-06-01

    Pursuant to what had been stated in Region Spatial Planning (RTRW) of Malang Regency for period 2010-2030, Malang Regency was considered as the center of agricultural development, including districts bordered with Malang City. To protect the region functioning as the provider of rice production, then the policy of sustainable food farming-land (LP2B) was made which its implementation aims to protect rice-land. In the existing condition, LP2B system was not maximally executed, and it caused a limited extend of rice-land to deliver rice production output. One cause related with the development of settlements and industries due to the effect of Malang City that converted land-function. Location of research focused on 30 villages with direct border with Malang City. Review was conducted to develop a model of relation between farming production output and ecological footprint variables. These variables include rice-land area (X1), built land percentage (X2), and number of farmers (X3). Analysis technique was regression. Result of regression indicated that the model of rice production output Y=-207,983 + 10.246X1. Rice-land area (X1) was the most influential independent variable. It was concluded that of villages directly bordered with Malang City, there were 11 villages with higher production potential because their rice production yield was more than 1,000 tons/year, while 12 villages were threatened with low production output because its rice production yield only attained 500 tons/year. Based on the model and the spatial direction of RTRW, it can be said that the direction for the farming development policy must be redesigned to maintain rice-land area on the regions on which agricultural activity was still dominant. Because rice-land area was the most influential factor to farming production. Therefore, the wider the rice-land is, the higher rice production output is on each village.

  17. Association of footprint measurements with plantar kinetics: a linear regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fascione, Jeanna M; Crews, Ryan T; Wrobel, James S

    2014-03-01

    The use of foot measurements to classify morphology and interpret foot function remains one of the focal concepts of lower-extremity biomechanics. However, only 27% to 55% of midfoot variance in foot pressures has been determined in the most comprehensive models. We investigated whether dynamic walking footprint measurements are associated with inter-individual foot loading variability. Thirty individuals (15 men and 15 women; mean ± SD age, 27.17 ± 2.21 years) walked at a self-selected speed over an electronic pedography platform using the midgait technique. Kinetic variables (contact time, peak pressure, pressure-time integral, and force-time integral) were collected for six masked regions. Footprints were digitized for area and linear boundaries using digital photo planimetry software. Six footprint measurements were determined: contact area, footprint index, arch index, truncated arch index, Chippaux-Smirak index, and Staheli index. Linear regression analysis with a Bonferroni adjustment was performed to determine the association between the footprint measurements and each of the kinetic variables. The findings demonstrate that a relationship exists between increased midfoot contact and increased kinetic values in respective locations. Many of these variables produced large effect sizes while describing 38% to 71% of the common variance of select plantar kinetic variables in the medial midfoot region. In addition, larger footprints were associated with larger kinetic values at the medial heel region and both masked forefoot regions. Dynamic footprint measurements are associated with dynamic plantar loading kinetics, with emphasis on the midfoot region.

  18. A Footprint Family extended MRIO model to support Europe's transition to a One Planet Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Alessandro; Weinzettel, Jan; Cranston, Gemma; Ercin, Ertug

    2013-09-01

    Currently, the European economy is using nearly three times the ecological assets that are locally available. This situation cannot be sustained indefinitely. Tools are needed that can help reverse the unsustainable trend. In 2010, an EC funded One Planet Economy Network: Europe (OPEN:EU) project was launched to develop the evidence and innovative practical tools that will allow policy-makers and civil society to identify policy interventions to transform Europe into a One Planet Economy, by 2050. Building on the premise that no indicator alone is able to comprehensively monitor (progress towards) sustainability, the project has drawn on the Ecological, Carbon and Water Footprints to define a Footprint Family suite of indicators, to track human pressure on the planet. An environmentally-extended multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model has then been developed to group the Footprint Family under a common framework and combine the indicators in the family with national economic accounts and trade statistics. Although unable to monitor the full spectrum of human pressures, once grouped within the MRIO model, the Footprint Family is able to assess the appropriation of ecological assets, GHG emissions as well as freshwater consumption and pollution associated with consumption of specific products and services within a specified country. Using MRIO models within the context of Footprint analyses also enables the Footprint Family to take into account full production chains with technologies specific to country of origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling carbon footprint of the Chilean apple production

    OpenAIRE

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Villalobos, Pablo; Yañez, Pablo; Huenchuleo, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Purpose: The main objective of this study is to evaluate, using a life–cycle approach, the carbon footprint of the intensive apple orchard system in Chile. Additional objective is to identify the factors that contributed significantly to the greenhouse gas emissions of this agricultural system. Methods: The method used in this study is according to the ISO 14040 framework and the main recommendations in the Publicly Available Specification (PAS) 2050. The system bounda...

  20. From complex spatial dynamics to simple Markov chain models: do predators and prey leave footprints?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nachman, Gøsta Støger; Borregaard, Michael Krabbe

    2010-01-01

    to another, are then depicted in a state transition diagram, constituting the "footprints" of the underlying population dynamics. We investigate to what extent changes in the population processes modeled in the complex simulation (i.e. the predator's functional response and the dispersal rates of both...... species) are reflected by different footprints The transition probabilities can be used to forecast the expected fate of a system given its current state. However, the transition probabilities in the modeled system depend on the number of patches in each state. We develop a model for the dependence...

  1. Human-like external function of the foot, and fully upright gait, confirmed in the 3.66 million year old Laetoli hominin footprints by topographic statistics, experimental footprint-formation and computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Robin H; Pataky, Todd C; Savage, Russell; D'Août, Kristiaan; Bennett, Matthew R; Day, Michael H; Bates, Karl; Morse, Sarita; Sellers, William I

    2012-04-07

    It is commonly held that the major functional features of the human foot (e.g. a functional longitudinal medial arch, lateral to medial force transfer and hallucal (big-toe) push-off) appear only in the last 2 Myr, but functional interpretations of footbones and footprints of early human ancestors (hominins) prior to 2 million years ago (Mya) remain contradictory. Pixel-wise topographical statistical analysis of Laetoli footprint morphology, compared with results from experimental studies of footprint formation; foot-pressure measurements in bipedalism of humans and non-human great apes; and computer simulation techniques, indicate that most of these functional features were already present, albeit less strongly expressed than in ourselves, in the maker of the Laetoli G-1 footprint trail, 3.66 Mya. This finding provides strong support to those previous studies which have interpreted the G-1 prints as generally modern in aspect.

  2. Anatomical masking of pressure footprints based on the Oxford Foot Model: validation and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomozzi, Claudia; Stebbins, Julie A

    2017-03-01

    Plantar pressure analysis is widely used in the assessment of foot function. In order to assess regional loading, a mask is applied to the footprint to sub-divide it into regions of interest (ROIs). The most common masking method is based on geometric features of the footprint (GM). Footprint masking based on anatomical landmarks of the foot has been implemented more recently, and involves the integration of a 3D motion capture system, plantar pressure measurement device, and a multi-segment foot model. However, thorough validation of anatomical masking (AM) using pathological footprints has not yet been presented. In the present study, an AM method based on the Oxford Foot Model (OFM) was compared to an equivalent GM. Pressure footprints from 20 young healthy subjects (HG) and 20 patients with clubfoot (CF) were anatomically divided into 5 ROIs using a subset of the OFM markers. The same foot regions were also identified by using a standard GM method. Comparisons of intra-subject coefficient of variation (CV) showed that the OFM-based AM was at least as reliable as the GM for all investigated pressure parameters in all foot regions. Clinical relevance of AM was investigated by comparing footprints from HG and CF groups. Contact time, maximum force, force-time integral and contact area proved to be sensitive parameters that were able to distinguish HG and CF groups, using both AM and GM methods However, the AM method revealed statistically significant differences between groups in 75% of measured variables, compared to 62% using a standard GM method, indicating that the AM method is more sensitive for revealing differences between groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Optimization of ecological footprint model based on environmental pollution accounts: a case study in Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yu; Zeng, Hui; Wei, Jian-bing; Zhang, Wen-juan; Zhao, Hong-wei

    2008-08-01

    To solve the problem of ignoring the calculation of environment pollution in traditional ecological footprint model accounts, this paper put forward an optimized ecological footprint (EF) model, taking the pollution footprint into account. In the meantime, the environmental capacity's calculation was also added into the system of ecological capacity, and further used to do ecological assessment of Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration in 2005. The results showed a perfect inosculation between the ecological footprint and the development characteristics and spatial pattern, and illustrated that the optimized EF model could make a better orientation for the environmental pollution in the system, and also, could roundly explain the environmental effects of human activity. The optimization of ecological footprint model had better integrality and objectivity than traditional models.

  4. Fine-resolution Modeling of Urban-Energy Systems' Water Footprint in River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamay, R.; Surendran Nair, S.; Morton, A.; DeRolph, C.; Stewart, R.

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing the interplay between urbanization, energy production, and water resources is essential for ensuring sustainable population growth. In order to balance limited water supplies, competing users must account for their realized and virtual water footprint, i.e. the total direct and indirect amount of water used, respectively. Unfortunately, publicly reported US water use estimates are spatially coarse, temporally static, and completely ignore returns of water to rivers after use. These estimates are insufficient to account for the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of water budgets in urbanizing systems. Likewise, urbanizing areas are supported by competing sources of energy production, which also have heterogeneous water footprints. Hence, a fundamental challenge of planning for sustainable urban growth and decision-making across disparate policy sectors lies in characterizing inter-dependencies among urban systems, energy producers, and water resources. A modeling framework is presented that provides a novel approach to integrate urban-energy infrastructure into a spatial accounting network that accurately measures water footprints as changes in the quantity and quality of river flows. River networks (RNs), i.e. networks of branching tributaries nested within larger rivers, provide a spatial structure to measure water budgets by modeling hydrology and accounting for use and returns from urbanizing areas and energy producers. We quantify urban-energy water footprints for Atlanta, GA and Knoxville, TN (USA) based on changes in hydrology in RNs. Although water intakes providing supply to metropolitan areas were proximate to metropolitan areas, power plants contributing to energy demand in Knoxville and Atlanta, occurred 30 and 90km outside the metropolitan boundary, respectively. Direct water footprints from urban landcover primarily comprised smaller streams whereas indirect footprints from water supply reservoirs and energy producers included

  5. Estimating the footprint of pollution on coral reefs with models of species turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher J; Hamilton, Richard

    2018-01-15

    Ecological communities typically change along gradients of human impact, though it is difficult to estimate the footprint of impacts for diffuse threats like pollution. Here we develop a joint model of benthic habitats on lagoonal coral reefs and use it to infer change in benthic composition along a gradient of distance from logging operations. The model estimates both changes in abundances of benthic groups and their compositional turn-over, a type of beta-diversity. We detect compositional turnover across the gradient and use the model to predict the footprint of turbidity impacts from logging. We then apply the model to predict impacts of recent logging activities, finding recent impacts to be small, because recent logging has occurred far from lagoonal reefs. Our model can be used more generally to estimate the footprint of human impacts on ecosystems and evaluate the benefits of conservation actions for ecosystems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. The relationship between plantar pressure and footprint shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Kevin G; Dingwall, Heather L; Wunderlich, Roshna E; Richmond, Brian G

    2013-07-01

    Fossil footprints preserve the only direct evidence of the external foot morphologies and gaits of extinct hominin taxa. However, their interpretation requires an understanding of the complex interaction among foot anatomy, foot function, and soft sediment mechanics. We applied an experimental approach aimed at understanding how one measure of foot function, the distribution of plantar pressure, influences footprint topography. Thirty-eight habitually unshod and minimally shod Daasanach individuals (19 male, 19 female) walked across a pressure pad and produced footprints in sediment directly excavated from the geological layer that preserves 1.5 Ma fossil footprints at Ileret, Kenya. Calibrated pressure data were collected and three-dimensional models of all footprints were produced using photogrammetry. We found significant correlations (Spearman's rank, p footprint depths at ten anatomical regions across the foot. Furthermore, plantar pressure distributions followed a pattern similar to footprint topography, with areas of higher pressure tending to leave deeper impressions. This differs from the results of experimental studies performed in different types of sediment, supporting the hypothesis that sediment type influences the relationship between plantar pressure and footprint topography. Our results also lend support to previous interpretations that the shapes of the Ileret footprints preserve evidence of a medial transfer of plantar pressure during late stance phase, as seen in modern humans. However, the weakness of the correlations indicates that much of the variation in relative depths within footprints is not explained by pressure distributions under the foot when walking on firm ground, using the methods applied here. This warrants caution when interpreting the unique foot anatomies and foot functions of extinct hominins evidenced by their footprint structures. Further research is necessary to clarify how anatomical, functional, and sedimentary

  7. A pig growth model for assessment of environmental footprint from swine operations: Effect of dietary energy and lysine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Danfær, Allan Christian; Jørgensen, Henry

    2011-01-01

    In swine operations, greenhouse gas emissions are mostly from stored manure. Accurate prediction of manure composition is required to estimate environmental footprint from swine operations. Pig growth models are often used to optimize profitability of swine production facilities; however, their a......In swine operations, greenhouse gas emissions are mostly from stored manure. Accurate prediction of manure composition is required to estimate environmental footprint from swine operations. Pig growth models are often used to optimize profitability of swine production facilities; however...

  8. Urban Optimum Population Size and Development Pattern Based on Ecological Footprint Model: Case of Zhoushan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan LU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The agglomeration of population in the city can reflect the prosperity in the economy, society and culture. However, it has also brought a series of problems like environmental pollution, traffic congestion, housing shortage and jobs crisis. The results can be shown as the failure of urban comprehensive function, the decline of city benefits, and the contradiction between socioeconomic circumstance and ecosystem. Therefore, a reasonable population capacity, which is influenced by ecological resources, urban environment, geographical elements, social and economic factors, etc., is objectively needed. How to deal with the relationship between the utilization of natural capital and development of the city is extremely essential. This paper takes Zhoushan Island as an example, which is the fourth largest island off the coast of China. Firstly, the interactively influencing factors of urban optimal population are illustrated. And method is chosen to study the optimal population size. Secondly, based on the model of ecological footprint (EP, the paper calculates and analyzes the ecological footprint and ecological capacity of the Zhoushan Island, in order to explore the optimal population size of the city. Thirdly, analysis and evaluation of the resources and urban environment carrying capacity is made. Finally, the solution of the existing population problems and the suggestion for the future development pattern of the city are proposed in the urban eco-planning of Zhoushan Island. The main strategies can be summarized in two aspects: one is to reduce the ecological footprint, the other is to increase the ecological supply. The conclusion is that the current population of Zhoushan Island is far beyond the optimum population size calculated by the ecological footprint model. Therefore, sustainable development should be the guidance for urban planning in Zhoushan Island, and a low-carbon development pattern for the city is advocated.

  9. Modeling impacts of human footprint and soil variability on the potential distribution of invasive plant species in different biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ji-Zhong; Wang, Chun-Jing; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2017-11-01

    Human footprint and soil variability may be important in shaping the spread of invasive plant species (IPS). However, until now, there is little knowledge on how human footprint and soil variability affect the potential distribution of IPS in different biomes. We used Maxent modeling to project the potential distribution of 29 IPS with wide distributions and long introduction histories in China based on various combinations of climatic correlates, soil characteristics and human footprint. Then, we evaluated the relative importance of each type of environmental variables (climate, soil and human footprint) as well as the difference in range and similarity of the potential distribution of IPS between different biomes. Human footprint and soil variables contributed to the prediction of the potential distribution of IPS, and different types of biomes had varying responses and degrees of impacts from the tested variables. Human footprint and soil variability had the highest tendency to increase the potential distribution of IPS in Montane Grasslands and Shrublands. We propose to integrate the assessment in impacts of human footprint and soil variability on the potential distribution of IPS in different biomes into the prevention and control of plant invasion.

  10. Interpreting locomotor biomechanics from the morphology of human footprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Kevin G; Wunderlich, Roshna E; Dingwall, Heather L; Richmond, Brian G

    2016-01-01

    Fossil hominin footprints offer unique direct windows to the locomotor behaviors of our ancestors. These data could allow a clearer understanding of the evolution of human locomotion by circumventing issues associated with indirect interpretations of habitual locomotor patterns from fossil skeletal material. However, before we can use fossil hominin footprints to understand better the evolution of human locomotion, we must first develop an understanding of how locomotor biomechanics are preserved in, and can be inferred from, footprint morphologies. In this experimental study, 41 habitually barefoot modern humans created footprints under controlled conditions in which variables related to locomotor biomechanics could be quantified. Measurements of regional topography (depth) were taken from 3D models of those footprints, and principal components analysis was used to identify orthogonal axes that described the largest proportions of topographic variance within the human experimental sample. Linear mixed effects models were used to quantify the influences of biomechanical variables on the first five principal axes of footprint topographic variation, thus providing new information on the biomechanical variables most evidently expressed in the morphology of human footprints. The footprint's overall depth was considered as a confounding variable, since biomechanics may be linked to the extent to which a substrate deforms. Three of five axes showed statistically significant relationships with variables related to both locomotor biomechanics and substrate displacement; one axis was influenced only by biomechanics and another only by the overall depth of the footprint. Principal axes of footprint morphological variation were significantly related to gait type (walking or running), kinematics of the hip and ankle joints and the distribution of pressure beneath the foot. These results provide the first quantitative framework for developing hypotheses regarding the

  11. [Calculation model of urban water resources ecological footprint and its application: a case study in Shenyang City of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Chao-Xing; Yu, Ying-Tan; Li, Fa-Yun; Ma, Fang

    2012-08-01

    Water resources ecological footprint can directly reflect the pressure of human social and economic activities to water resources, and provide important reference for the rational utilization of water resources. Based on the existing ecological footprint models and giving full consideration of the water resources need of urban ecological system, this paper established a new calculation model of urban water resources ecological footprint, including domestic water account, process water account, public service water account, and ecological water requirement account. According to the actual situation of Shenyang City, the key parameters of the model were determined, and the water resources ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity of the City were calculated and analyzed. From 2000 to 2009, the water resources ecological footprint per capita of the City presented an overall decreasing trend, but still had an annual ecological deficit. As compared to that in 2000, the water resources ecological footprint per capita was decreased to 0.31 hm2 in 2005, increased slightly in 2006 and 2007, and remained stable in 2008 and 2009, which suggested that the sustainable utilization of water resources in Shenyang City had definite improvement, but was still in an unsustainable development situation.

  12. Numerical framework for the computation of urban flux footprints employing large-eddy simulation and Lagrangian stochastic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinen, Mikko; Järvi, Leena; Hellsten, Antti; Rannik, Üllar; Vesala, Timo

    2017-11-01

    Conventional footprint models cannot account for the heterogeneity of the urban landscape imposing a pronounced uncertainty on the spatial interpretation of eddy-covariance (EC) flux measurements in urban studies. This work introduces a computational methodology that enables the generation of detailed footprints in arbitrarily complex urban flux measurements sites. The methodology is based on conducting high-resolution large-eddy simulation (LES) and Lagrangian stochastic (LS) particle analysis on a model that features a detailed topographic description of a real urban environment. The approach utilizes an arbitrarily sized target volume set around the sensor in the LES domain, to collect a dataset of LS particles which are seeded from the potential source area of the measurement and captured at the sensor site. The urban footprint is generated from this dataset through a piecewise postprocessing procedure, which divides the footprint evaluation into multiple independent processes that each yield an intermediate result. These results are ultimately selectively combined to produce the final footprint. The strategy reduces the computational cost of the LES-LS simulation and incorporates techniques to account for the complications that arise when the EC sensor is mounted on a building instead of a conventional flux tower. The presented computational framework also introduces a result assessment strategy which utilizes the obtained urban footprint together with a detailed land cover type dataset to estimate the potential error that may arise if analytically derived footprint models were employed instead. The methodology is demonstrated with a case study that concentrates on generating the footprint for a building-mounted EC measurement station in downtown Helsinki, Finland, under the neutrally stratified atmospheric boundary layer.

  13. [Analysis on sustainable development of marine economy in Jiangsu Province based on marine ecological footprint correction model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shan; Wang, Yu-ting

    2011-03-01

    Based on the theories and methods of ecological footprint, the concept of marine ecological footprint was proposed. According to the characteristics of marine environment in Jiangsu Province, five sub-models of marine ecological footprints, including fishery, transporation, marine engineering construction, marine energy, and tidal flat, were constructed. The equilibrium factors of the five marine types were determined by using improved entropy method, and the marine footprints and capacities in Jiangsu Province from 2000 to 2008 were calculated and analyzed. In 2000-2008, the marine ecology footprint per capita in Jiangsu Province increased nearly seven times, from 36.90 hm2 to 252.94 hm2, and the ecological capacity per capita grew steadily, from 105.01 hm2 to 185.49 hm2. In 2000, the marine environment in the Province was in a state of ecological surplus, and the marine economy was in a weak sustainable development state. Since 2004, the marine ecological environment deteriorated sharply, with ecological deficit up to 109660.5 hm2, and the sustainability of marine economy declined. The high ecological footprint of fishery was the main reason for the ecological deficit. Tidal flat was the important reserve resource for the sustainable development of marine economy in Jiangsu Province.

  14. Generic model for calculating carbon footprint of milk using four different LCA modelling approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Randi; Schmidt, Jannick Højrup; Flysjö, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to develop a tool, which can be used for calculation of carbon footprint (using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach) of milk both at a farm level and at a national level. The functional unit is ‘1 kg energy corrected milk (ECM) at farm gate’ and the applied methodology...... methodology for the dairy sector. The key elements of consequential LCA and the IDF guide are presented and explained by examples. The national carbon footprints (CF) for milk produced in Denmark and Sweden in 2005 are presented....

  15. Field-based experimental water footprint study of sunflower growth in a semi-arid region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lijie; Jin, Yinghua; Duan, Peili; He, Hongshi

    2016-07-01

    Field-scale changes in the water footprint during crop growth play an important role in formulating sustainable water utilisation strategies. This study aimed to explore field-scale variation in the water footprint of growing sunflowers in the western Jilin Province, China, during a 3-year field experiment. The goals of this study were to (1) determine the components of the 'blue' and 'green' water footprints for sunflowers sown with water, and (2) analyse variations in water footprints and soil water balance under different combinations of temperature and precipitation. Specific actions could be adopted to maintain sustainable agricultural water utilisation in the semi-arid region based on this study. The green, blue, and grey water footprints accounted for 93.7-94.7%, 0.4-0.5%, and 4.9-5.8%, respectively, of the water footprint of growing sunflowers. The green water footprint for effective precipitation during the growing season accounted for 58.8% in a normal drought year but 48.2% in an extreme drought year. When the effective precipitation during the growing season could not meet the green water use, a moisture deficit arose. This increase in the moisture deficit can have a significant impact on soil water balance. Green water was the primary water source for sunflower growth in the study area, where a scarcity of irrigation water during sunflower growth damaged the soil water balance, particularly in years with continuous drought. The combination of temperature and precipitation effected the growing environment, leading to differences in yield and water footprint. The field experiments in this area may benefit from further water footprint studies at the global, national and regional scale. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of

  16. CARVE: L4 Gridded Footprints from WRF-STILT model, 2012-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) Footprint data products for particle receptors...

  17. Models of experimental epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Ekici

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is the most common serious neurological conditionin the world, with an estimated prevalence of 1% ofthe population. A large number of experimental modelsof seizure and epilepsy have been developed. These experimentalmodels are elicited by chemical convulsants,electrical stimulation, genetic models, structural lesions,physical stimuli (cold, pressure, hyperthermia, electricalin animals. Well-characterized animal models may allowthe understanding of the basic mechanisms underlyingepileptogenesis (it refers to the alteration of a normalneuronal network into a hyperexcitable network in whichrecurrent, spontaneous seizures occur. Moreover, thesemodels might also prove useful in identifying novel therapeuticapproaches to treatment of epilepsy. J Clin ExpInvest 2011; 2(1: 118-123

  18. Assessing Uncertainties of Water Footprints Using an Ensemble of Crop Growth Models on Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Christian Kersebaum

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop productivity and water consumption form the basis to calculate the water footprint (WF of a specific crop. Under current climate conditions, calculated evapotranspiration is related to observed crop yields to calculate WF. The assessment of WF under future climate conditions requires the simulation of crop yields adding further uncertainty. To assess the uncertainty of model based assessments of WF, an ensemble of crop models was applied to data from five field experiments across Europe. Only limited data were provided for a rough calibration, which corresponds to a typical situation for regional assessments, where data availability is limited. Up to eight models were applied for wheat. The coefficient of variation for the simulated actual evapotranspiration between models was in the range of 13%–19%, which was higher than the inter-annual variability. Simulated yields showed a higher variability between models in the range of 17%–39%. Models responded differently to elevated CO2 in a FACE (Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment experiment, especially regarding the reduction of water consumption. The variability of calculated WF between models was in the range of 15%–49%. Yield predictions contributed more to this variance than the estimation of water consumption. Transpiration accounts on average for 51%–68% of the total actual evapotranspiration.

  19. [Dynamic analysis of ecological footprint of Dongying City based on a modified model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai-Bo; Wang, Zong-Min; Zhao, Hong-Ling; Li, Ji-Ren

    2009-07-01

    Taking the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of water-heat condition into consideration, the traditional ecological footprint (EF) model was modified with net primary productivity (NPP). In the meanwhile, water resource EF was calculated to complement the deficiency of water EF account which only included water's fishing function. The EF dynamics of Dongying City from 1996 to 2003 was analyzed by using the modified model. Based on traditional model, the EF of Dongying City in 1996-2003 increased from 1.766 hm2 to 2.644 hm2, and the ecological capacity (EC) decreased from 0.889 hm2 to 0.813 hm2; while based on the modified model, the EF increased from 2.819 hm2 to 3.776 hm2, and the EC decreased from 1.935 hm2 to 1.865 hm2. Comparing with that from traditional model, the ecological pressure calculated by the modified model was lesser, which suggested that to increase the utilization of water resource would alleviate the ecological pressure on the region. The modified EF model was more precise to reflect the natural resource utilization of Dongying City.

  20. Genomic footprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierstra, Jeff; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A

    2016-03-01

    The advent of DNA footprinting with DNase I more than 35 years ago enabled the systematic analysis of protein-DNA interactions, and the technique has been instrumental in the decoding of cis-regulatory elements and the identification and characterization of transcription factors and other DNA-binding proteins. The ability to analyze millions of individual genomic cleavage events via massively parallel sequencing has enabled in vivo DNase I footprinting on a genomic scale, offering the potential for global analysis of transcription factor occupancy in a single experiment. Genomic footprinting has opened unique vistas on the organization, function and evolution of regulatory DNA; however, the technology is still nascent. Here we discuss both prospects and challenges of genomic footprinting, as well as considerations for its application to complex genomes.

  1. Analysis on spatial transfer model of energy development layout and the ecological footprint affection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jinfang

    2017-01-01

    Consider the global energy interconnection, the global is concentrating on carrying out clean energy alternative, which is mainly focusing on using the clean energy to take place of fossil energy, and change the global energy layout and ecological atmosphere condition. This research gives the energy spatial transfer model of energy development layout to analyse the global energy development layout condition and ecological affection. And it is a fast and direct method to analyse its energy usage process and environmental affection. The paper also gives out a system dynamics model of energy spatial transfer shows, which electric power transmission is better than original energy usage and transportation. It also gives the comparison of different parameters. The energy spatial transfer can affect the environment directly. Consider its three environmental factors, including energy saving, climate changing and conventional pollutant emission reduction, synthetic combine with the spatial transfer model, it can get the environmental change parameters, which showed that with the clean energy wide usage, the ecological footprint affection will be affected significantly.

  2. An overview of the recent approaches to terroir functional modelling, footprinting and zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, E.; Costantini, E.; Jones, G. V.; Mocali, S.

    2015-03-01

    Notions of terroir and their conceptualization through agro-environmental sciences have become popular in many parts of world. Originally developed for wine, terroir now encompasses many other crops including fruits, vegetables, cheese, olive oil, coffee, cacao and other crops, linking the uniqueness and quality of both beverages and foods to the environment where they are produced, giving the consumer a sense of place. Climate, geology, geomorphology and soil are the main environmental factors which make up the terroir effect on different scales. Often considered immutable culturally, the natural components of terroir are actually a set of processes, which together create a delicate equilibrium and regulation of its effect on products in both space and time. Due to both a greater need to better understand regional-to-site variations in crop production and the growth in spatial analytic technologies, the study of terroir has shifted from a largely descriptive regional science to a more applied, technical research field. Furthermore, the explosion of spatial data availability and sensing technologies has made the within-field scale of study more valuable to the individual grower. The result has been greater adoption of these technologies but also issues associated with both the spatial and temporal scales required for practical applications, as well as the relevant approaches for data synthesis. Moreover, as soil microbial communities are known to be of vital importance for terrestrial processes by driving the major soil geochemical cycles and supporting healthy plant growth, an intensive investigation of the microbial organization and their function is also required. Our objective is to present an overview of existing data and modelling approaches for terroir functional modelling, footprinting and zoning on local and regional scales. This review will focus on two main areas of recent terroir research: (1) using new tools to unravel the biogeochemical cycles of both

  3. Design and modeling of sustainable bioethanol supply chain by minimizing the total ecological footprint in life cycle perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Manzardo, Alessandro; Toniolo, Sara; Scipioni, Antonio; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun; Gao, Suzhao

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a model for designing the most sustainable bioethanol supply chain. Taking into consideration of the possibility of multiple-feedstock, multiple transportation modes, multiple alternative technologies, multiple transport patterns and multiple waste disposal manners in bioethanol systems, this study developed a model for designing the most sustainable bioethanol supply chain by minimizing the total ecological footprint under some prerequisite constraints including satisfying the goal of the stakeholders', the limitation of resources and energy, the capacity of warehouses, the market demand and some technological constraints. And an illustrative case of multiple-feedstock bioethanol system has been studied by the proposed method, and a global best solution by which the total ecological footprint is the minimal has been obtained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Variability of tsunami inundation footprints considering stochastic scenarios based on a single rupture model: Application to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    KAUST Repository

    Goda, Katsuichiro

    2015-06-30

    The sensitivity and variability of spatial tsunami inundation footprints in coastal cities and towns due to a megathrust subduction earthquake in the Tohoku region of Japan are investigated by considering different fault geometry and slip distributions. Stochastic tsunami scenarios are generated based on the spectral analysis and synthesis method with regards to an inverted source model. To assess spatial inundation processes accurately, tsunami modeling is conducted using bathymetry and elevation data with 50 m grid resolutions. Using the developed methodology for assessing variability of tsunami hazard estimates, stochastic inundation depth maps can be generated for local coastal communities. These maps are important for improving disaster preparedness by understanding the consequences of different situations/conditions, and by communicating uncertainty associated with hazard predictions. The analysis indicates that the sensitivity of inundation areas to the geometrical parameters (i.e., top-edge depth, strike, and dip) depends on the tsunami source characteristics and the site location, and is therefore complex and highly nonlinear. The variability assessment of inundation footprints indicates significant influence of slip distributions. In particular, topographical features of the region, such as ria coast and near-shore plain, have major influence on the tsunami inundation footprints.

  5. Experimental Object-Oriented Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    and discuss techniques for handling and representing uncertainty when modelling in experimental system development. These techniques are centred on patterns and styles for handling uncertainty in object-oriented software architectures. Tools We present the Knight tool designed for collaborative modelling......This thesis examines object-oriented modelling in experimental system development. Object-oriented modelling aims at representing concepts and phenomena of a problem domain in terms of classes and objects. Experimental system development seeks active experimentation in a system development project...... through, e.g., technical prototyping and active user involvement. We introduce and examine “experimental object-oriented modelling” as the intersection of these practices. The contributions of this thesis are expected to be within three perspectives on models and modelling in experimental system...

  6. Domain Independent Vocabulary Generation and Its Use in Category-based Small Footprint Language Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIM, K.-H.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The work in this paper pertains to domain independent vocabulary generation and its use in category-based small footprint Language Model (LM. Two major constraints of the conventional LMs in the embedded environment are memory capacity limitation and data sparsity for the domain-specific application. This data sparsity adversely affects vocabulary coverage and LM performance. To overcome these constraints, we define a set of domain independent categories using a Part-Of-Speech (POS tagged corpus. Also, we generate a domain independent vocabulary based on this set using the corpus and knowledge base. Then, we propose a mathematical framework for a category-based LM using this set. In this LM, one word can be assigned assign multiple categories. In order to reduce its memory requirements, we propose a tree-based data structure. In addition, we determine the history length of a category n-gram, and the independent assumption applying to a category history generation. The proposed vocabulary generation method illustrates at least 13.68% relative improvement in coverage for a SMS text corpus, where data are sparse due to the difficulties in data collection. The proposed category-based LM requires only 215KB which is 55% and 13% compared to the conventional category-based LM and the word-based LM, respectively. It successively improves the performance, achieving 54.9% and 60.6% perplexity reduction compared to the conventional category-based LM and the word-based LM in terms of normalized perplexity.

  7. Assessing uncertainties of water footprints using an ensemble of crop growth models on winter wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersebaum, Kurt Christian; Kroes, Joop; Gobin, Anne; Takáč, Jozef; Hlavinka, Petr; Trnka, Miroslav; Ventrella, Domenico; Giglio, Luisa; Ferrise, Roberto; Moriondo, Marco; Marta, Anna Dalla; Luo, Qunying; Eitzinger, Josef; Mirschel, Wilfried; Weigel, Hans Joachim; Manderscheid, Remy; Hoffmann, Munir; Nejedlik, Pavol; Iqbal, Muhammad Anjum; Hösch, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Crop productivity and water consumption form the basis to calculate the water footprint (WF) of a specific crop. Under current climate conditions, calculated evapotranspiration is related to observed crop yields to calculate WF. The assessment of WF under future climate conditions requires the

  8. Modeling the Footprint and Equivalent Radiance Transfer Path Length for Tower-Based Hemispherical Observations of Chlorophyll Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjie Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF is a new tool for estimating gross primary production (GPP. Continuous tower-based spectral observations together with flux measurements are an efficient way of linking the SIF to the GPP. Compared to conical observations, hemispherical observations made with cosine-corrected foreoptic have a much larger field of view and can better match the footprint of the tower-based flux measurements. However, estimating the equivalent radiation transfer path length (ERTPL for hemispherical observations is more complex than for conical observations and this is a key problem that needs to be addressed before accurate retrieval of SIF can be made. In this paper, we first modeled the footprint of hemispherical spectral measurements and found that, under convective conditions with light winds, 90% of the total radiation came from an FOV of width 72°, which in turn covered 75.68% of the source area of the flux measurements. In contrast, conical spectral observations covered only 1.93% of the flux footprint. Secondly, using theoretical considerations, we modeled the ERTPL of the hemispherical spectral observations made with cosine-corrected foreoptic and found that the ERTPL was approximately equal to twice the sensor height above the canopy. Finally, the modeled ERTPL was evaluated using a simulated dataset. The ERTPL calculated using the simulated data was about 1.89 times the sensor’s height above the target surface, which was quite close to the results for the modeled ERTPL. Furthermore, the SIF retrieved from atmospherically corrected spectra using the modeled ERTPL fitted well with the reference values, giving a relative root mean square error of 18.22%. These results show that the modeled ERTPL was reasonable and that this method is applicable to tower-based hemispherical observations of SIF.

  9. Design and Modelling of Sustainable Bioethanol Supply Chain by Minimizing the Total Ecological Footprint in Life Cycle Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Manzardo, Alessandro; Toniolo, Sara

    2013-01-01

    manners in bioethanol systems, this study developed a model for designing the most sustainable bioethanol supply chain by minimizing the total ecological footprint under some prerequisite constraints including satisfying the goal of the stakeholders', the limitation of resources and energy, the capacity......The purpose of this paper is to develop a model for designing the most sustainable bioethanol supply chain. Taking into consideration of the possibility of multiple-feedstock, multiple transportation modes, multiple alternative technologies, multiple transport patterns and multiple waste disposal...

  10. An overview of the recent approaches for terroir functional modelling, footprinting and zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, E.; Costantini, E.; Jones, G. V.; Mocali, S.

    2014-11-01

    Notions of terroir and their conceptualization through agri-environmental sciences have become popular in many parts of world. Originally developed for wine, terroir now encompasses many other crops including fruits, vegetables, cheese, olive oil, coffee, cacao and other crops, linking the uniqueness and quality of both beverages and foods to the environment where they are produced, giving the consumer a sense of place. Climate, geology, geomorphology, and soil are the main environmental factors which compose the terroir effect at different scales. Often considered immutable at the cultural scale, the natural components of terroir are actually a set of processes, which together create a delicate equilibrium and regulation of its effect on products in both space and time. Due to both a greater need to better understand regional to site variations in crop production and the growth in spatial analytic technologies, the study of terroir has shifted from a largely descriptive regional science to a more applied, technical research field. Furthermore, the explosion of spatial data availability and sensing technologies has made the within-field scale of study more valuable to the individual grower. The result has been greater adoption but also issues associated with both the spatial and temporal scales required for practical applications, as well as the relevant approaches for data synthesis. Moreover, as soil microbial communities are known to be of vital importance for terrestrial processes by driving the major soil geochemical cycles and supporting healthy plant growth, an intensive investigation of the microbial organization and their function is also required. Our objective is to present an overview of existing data and modelling approaches for terroir functional modelling, footprinting and zoning at local and regional scales. This review will focus on three main areas of recent terroir research: (1) quantifying the influences of terroir components on plant growth

  11. Evaluating Spatiotemporal Differences in Methane Fluxes on the North Slope of Alaska via Eddy Covariance Footprint Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss-Schmidt, K.; Zona, D.

    2016-12-01

    Arctic permafrost soils store 1300-1370 Pg of organic carbon, twice the current atmospheric stock. This region is warming at approximately 1°C per decade, and permafrost soils could lose 381-616 Pg C by 2300, with a large portion potentially being released as the potent greenhouse gas methane (CH4). Despite intensive investigation, uncertainty estimates of CH4 emissions have significantly increased since the first estimates in 1974. Two main difficulties in creating a baseline flux estimate is the region's remote nature and the high spatiotemporal variability in methane fluxes. This project examines fluxes from three eddy covariance sites in Barrow, Alaska by applying the Kormann and Meixner (2001) footprint model to investigate the spatio-temporal variability in fluxes across the arctic polygonal tundra throughout the year. A LiDAR digital elevation model collected by NGEE Artic at a very fine resolution (0.25m) and WorldView2 data have been used to give quantitative metrics for vegetation and microtopographic differences over these three sites. Preliminary results show significant differences (p-value footprints that could bias flux estimates by 20%. Furthermore, the pattern of footprint variability shows divergent spatial patterns between summer and winter fluxes. The largest mean summer fluxes were observed in a low lying sedge-dominated drained lake basin (7.74 mg CH4 m-2 day-1) with the less degraded, more polygonal area having an average flux of (5.82 mg CH4 m-2 day-1). In the winter "zero curtain" period, the pattern reversed with higher fluxes coming from the polygonal area (3.58 mg CH4 m-2 day-1) and slightly lower fluxes (3.35 mg CH4 m-2 day-1) observed from the lake basin. This highlights that flux drivers differ by season and that these dynamics should be considered for estimating annual and regional fluxes.

  12. Cytogenetics and experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toretsky, J A; Helman, L J

    1997-07-01

    The use of cytogenetics has led to significant improvement in the diagnoses and classification of sarcomas. Many of the major sarcomas have been to have characteristic tumor-specific chromosomal translocations that are currently used in the diagnosis of these tumors. In the past year, a subset of Ewing's family of tumors and myxoid liposarcomas, which lack one of the characteristic translocations, were found to carry related translocations. New technologies such as a spectral karyotyping will likely increase out ability to identify additional tumor-specific translocations. The emergence of genetic alterations as prognostic factors, as illustrated by Ewing's family of tumors, osteosarcoma, and p53 expression in soft tissue sarcomas in general, is discussed. The review concludes with laboratory applications derived from either tumor cytogenetic or gene function abnormalities that are related to tumor-specific translocations. It is anticipated that advances in diagnosis, prognosis, and modeling will translate into future therapeutic advances.

  13. [Measuring water ecological carrying capacity with the ecosystem-service-based ecological footprint (ESEF) method: Theory, models and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Wen-jun; Min, Qing-wen; Li, Wen-hua; Fuller, Anthony M

    2015-04-01

    Integrated watershed management based on aquatic ecosystems has been increasingly acknowledged. Such a change in the philosophy of water environment management requires recognizing the carrying capacity of aquatic ecosystems for human society from a more general perspective. The concept of the water ecological carrying capacity is therefore put forward, which considers both water resources and water environment, connects socio-economic development to aquatic ecosystems and provides strong support for integrated watershed management. In this paper, the authors proposed an ESEF-based measure of water ecological carrying capacity and constructed ESEF-based models of water ecological footprint and capacity, aiming to evaluate water ecological carrying capacity with footprint methods. A regional model of Taihu Lake Basin was constructed and applied to evaluate the water ecological carrying capacity in Changzhou City which located in the upper reaches of the basin. Results showed that human demand for water ecosystem services in this city had exceeded the supply capacity of local aquatic ecosystems and the significant gap between demand and supply had jeopardized the sustainability of local aquatic ecosystems. Considering aqua-product provision, water supply and pollutant absorption in an integrated way, the scale of population and economy aquatic ecosystems in Changzhou could bear only 54% of the current status.

  14. Encouraging Ecological Behaviors among Students by Using the Ecological Footprint as an Educational Tool: A Quasi-Experimental Design in a Public High School in the City of Haifa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Dan; Vigoda-Gadot, Eran; Haim, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to explore whether the ecological footprint is an appropriate tool for encouraging ecological behaviors in students. In the quasi-experimental research that we conducted, four classes from one of the public high schools in the city of Haifa ("N"?=?130) participated in an environmental education (EE)…

  15. Analysis of Influencing Factors of Water Footprint Based on the STIRPAT Model: Evidence from the Beijing Agricultural Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Beijing suffers from a severe water shortage. To find the key factors that impact the agricultural water footprint (WF within Beijing to relieve the pressure on water resources, this study quantifies the agricultural WF within Beijing from 1980 to 2012 and examines the factors of population, urbanization level, GDP per capita, Engel coefficient, and total rural power using an extended stochastic impact by regression on population, affluence and technology (STIRPAT model. Ridge regression is employed to fit the extended STIRPAT model. The empirical results reveal that the Engel coefficient, which is defined as the total amount of food expenses accounted for the proportion of total personal consumption expenditures, has the largest positive impact on the increase in the agricultural WF, followed by urbanization. In contrast, total rural power, population, and GDP per capita can decrease the agricultural WF. Finally, policy recommendations from technological development, agriculture plantation structure adjustment, and virtual water imports are provided to cope with water shortages.

  16. PEMFC modeling and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, J.V.C. [Federal University of Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: jvargas@demec.ufpr.br; Ordonez, J.C.; Martins, L.S. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States). Center for Advanced Power Systems], Emails: ordonez@caps.fsu.edu, martins@caps.fsu.edu

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, a simplified and comprehensive PEMFC mathematical model introduced in previous studies is experimentally validated. Numerical results are obtained for an existing set of commercial unit PEM fuel cells. The model accounts for pressure drops in the gas channels, and for temperature gradients with respect to space in the flow direction, that are investigated by direct infrared imaging, showing that even at low current operation such gradients are present in fuel cell operation, and therefore should be considered by a PEMFC model, since large coolant flow rates are limited due to induced high pressure drops in the cooling channels. The computed polarization and power curves are directly compared to the experimentally measured ones with good qualitative and quantitative agreement. The combination of accuracy and low computational time allow for the future utilization of the model as a reliable tool for PEMFC simulation, control, design and optimization purposes. (author)

  17. Experimental Modeling of Dynamic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten Haack

    2006-01-01

    An engineering course, Simulation and Experimental Modeling, has been developed that is based on a method for direct estimation of physical parameters in dynamic systems. Compared with classical system identification, the method appears to be easier to understand, apply, and combine with physical...

  18. THE EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF OSTEONECROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Netylko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental investigation for the purpose of modeling of knee osteonecrosis were performed in 36 rats. The chronic renal insufficiency by means of left nephrectomy and electrocoagulation in 25% cortical substance of right kidney was induced before 6 months till experiment with subsequent introduction of 0,1% adrenalin solution and methylprednisolone in paraarticular structures. The results of experiment showed the polyetiologic feature of disease.

  19. Scaling Surface Fluxes from Tower Footprint to Global Model Pixel Scale Using Multi-Satellite Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M. C.; Hain, C.; Gao, F.; Semmens, K. A.; Yang, Y.; Schull, M. A.; Ring, T.; Kustas, W. P.; Alfieri, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    There is a fundamental challenge in evaluating performance of global land-surface and climate modeling systems, given that few in-situ observation sets adequately sample surface conditions representative at the global model pixel scale (10-100km). For example, a typical micrometeorological flux tower samples a relatively small footprint ranging from 100m to 1km, depending on tower height and environmental conditions. There is a clear need for diagnostic tools that can effectively bridge this gap in scale, and serve as a means of benchmarking global prognostic modeling systems under current conditions. This paper discusses a multi-scale energy balance modeling system (the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse model and disaggregation utility: ALEXI/DisALEXI) that fuses flux maps generated with thermal infrared (TIR) imagery collected by multiple satellite platforms to estimate daily surface fluxes from field to global scales. These diagnostic assessments, with land-surface temperature (LST) as the primary indicator of surface moisture status, operate under fundamentally different constraints than prognostic land-surface models based on precipitation and water balance, and therefore can serve as a semi-independent benchmark. Furthermore, LST can be retrieved from TIR imagery over a broad range of spatiotemporal resolutions: from several meters (airborne systems; periodically) to ~100m (Landsat; bi-weekly) to 1km (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - MODIS; daily) to 3-10km (geostationary; hourly). Applications of ALEXI/DisALEXI to flux sites within the US and internationally are described, evaluating daily evapotranspiration retrievals generated at 30m resolution. Annual timeseries of maps at this scale can be useful for better understanding local heterogeneity in the tower vicinity and dependences of observed fluxes on wind direction. If reasonable multi-year performance is demonstrated at the tower footprint scale for flux networks such as the National

  20. The updated experimental proteinoid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S. W.; Nakashima, T.; Przybylski, A.; Syren, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental proteinoid model includes new results indicating that polymers sufficiently rich in basic amino acid catalyze the synthesis of peptides from ATP and amino acids and of oligonucleotides from ATP. The need for simulation syntheses of amino acids yielding significant proportions of basic amino acids is now in focus. The modeled simultaneous protocellular synthesis of peptides and polynucleotides is part of a more comprehensive proposal for the origin of the coded genetic mechanism. The finding of membrane and action potentials in proteinoid microspheres, with or without added lecithin, is reported. The crucial nature of a nonrandom matrix for protocells is developed.

  1. DNase I footprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardew, Antonia S; Fox, Keith R

    2010-01-01

    Footprinting is a method for determining the sequence selectivity of DNA-binding compounds in which ligands protect DNA from cleavage at their binding sites. Footprinting templates are typically 50-200 base pairs long, and DNase I is the most commonly used nuclease for these experiments. This chapter describes the preparation and labelling of suitable DNA footprinting substrates, the footprinting experiment itself, and the way in which these data can be used to estimate the dissociation constant of the interaction.

  2. Hydroxyl-radical footprinting combined with molecular modeling identifies unique features of DNA conformation and nucleosome positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaytan, Alexey K; Xiao, Hua; Armeev, Grigoriy A; Wu, Carl; Landsman, David; Panchenko, Anna R

    2017-09-19

    Nucleosomes are the most abundant protein-DNA complexes in eukaryotes that provide compaction of genomic DNA and are implicated in regulation of transcription, DNA replication and repair. The details of DNA positioning on the nucleosome and the DNA conformation can provide key regulatory signals. Hydroxyl-radical footprinting (HRF) of protein-DNA complexes is a chemical technique that probes nucleosome organization in solution with a high precision unattainable by other methods. In this work we propose an integrative modeling method for constructing high-resolution atomistic models of nucleosomes based on HRF experiments. Our method precisely identifies DNA positioning on nucleosome by combining HRF data for both DNA strands with the pseudo-symmetry constraints. We performed high-resolution HRF for Saccharomyces cerevisiae centromeric nucleosome of unknown structure and characterized it using our integrative modeling approach. Our model provides the basis for further understanding the cooperative engagement and interplay between Cse4p protein and the A-tracts important for centromere function. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2017.

  3. Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Experimental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, E; Burdette, JE; Kenny, HA; Matei, D; Pilrose, J; Haluska, P.; Nephew, KP; Hales, DB; Stack, MS

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (OvCa) is associated with high mortality and, as the majority (>75%) of women with OvCa have metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, rates of survival have not changed appreciably over 30 years. A mechanistic understanding of OvCa initiation and progression is hindered by the complexity of genetic and/or environmental initiating events and lack of clarity regarding the cell(s) or tissue(s) of origin. Metastasis of OvCa involves direct extension or exfoliation of cells and cellular aggregates into the peritoneal cavity, survival of matrix-detached cells in a complex ascites fluid phase, and subsequent adhesion to the mesothelium lining covering abdominal organs to establish secondary lesions containing host stromal and inflammatory components. Development of experimental models to recapitulate this unique mechanism of metastasis presents a remarkable scientific challenge and many approaches used to study other solid tumors (lung, colon, and breast, for example) are not transferable to OvCa research given the distinct metastasis pattern and unique tumor microenvironment. This review will discuss recent progress in the development and refinement of experimental models to study OvCa. Novel cellular, three-dimensional organotypic, and ex vivo models are considered and the current in vivo models summarized. The review critically evaluates currently available genetic mouse models of OvCa, the emergence of xenopatients, and the utility of the hen model to study OvCa prevention, tumorigenesis, metastasis, and chemoresistance. As these new approaches more accurately recapitulate the complex tumor microenvironment, it is predicted that new opportunities for enhanced understanding of disease progression, metastasis and therapeutic response will emerge. PMID:23934194

  4. Evidence and modeling of 3D divertor footprint induced by lower hybrid waves on EAST with tungsten divertor operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, W.; Wang, L.; Rack, M.; Liang, Y.; Guo, H. Y.; Xu, G. S.; Xu, J. C.; Liu, J. B.; Sun, Y. W.; Jia, M. N.; Yang, Q. Q.; Zhang, B.; Zou, X. L.; Liu, H.; Zhang, T.; Ding, F.; Chen, J. B.; Duan, Y. M.; Zheng, X. W.; Dai, S. Y.; Deng, G. Z.; Chen, R.; Hu, G. H.; Yan, N.; Si, H.; Liu, S. C.; Xu, S.; Wang, M.; Li, M. H.; Ding, B. J.; Wingen, A.; Huang, J.; Gao, X.; Luo, G. N.; Gong, X. Z.; Garofalo, A. M.; Li, J.; Wan, B. N.; the EAST team

    2017-12-01

    Three dimensional (3D) divertor particle flux footprints induced by the lower hybrid wave (LHW) have been systematically investigated in the EAST superconducting tokamak during the recent experimental campaign. We find that the striated particle flux (SPF) peaks away from the strike point (SP) closely fit the pitch of the edge magnetic field line for different safety factors q 95, as predicted by a field line tracing code taking into account the helical current filaments (HCFs) in the scrape-off-layer (SOL). As LHW power increases, it requires the fuelling to be increased e.g. by super molecular beam injection (SMBI), to maintain a similar plasma density, which may be attributed to the pump-out effect due to LHW, and may thus be beneficial for EAST steady state operations. The 3D SPF structure is observed with a LHW power threshold (P LHW ~ 0.9 MW). The ratio of the particle fluxes between SPF and outer strike point (OSP), i.e. {{Γ }ion,SPF}/{{Γ }ion,OSP} , increases with the LHW power. Upon transition to divertor detachment, the particle flux at the main OSP decreases, as expected, however, the particle flux at SPF continues increasing, in contrast to the RMP-induced striations that vanish with increasing divertor density. In addition, we also find that the in–out asymmetry of the 3D particle flux footprint pattern exhibits a clear dependence on the toroidal field direction (B  ×    ∇   B  ↓  and B  ×    ∇   B↑). Experiments using neon impurity seeding show a promising capability in 3D particle and heat flux control on EAST. LHW-induced particle and heat flux striations are also present in the H-mode plasmas, reducing the peak heat flux and erosion at the main strike point, thus facilitating long-pulse operation with a new steady-state H-mode over 60 s being recently achieved in EAST.

  5. Vestige: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic footprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Peter

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic footprinting is the identification of functional regions of DNA by their evolutionary conservation. This is achieved by comparing orthologous regions from multiple species and identifying the DNA regions that have diverged less than neutral DNA. Vestige is a phylogenetic footprinting package built on the PyEvolve toolkit that uses probabilistic molecular evolutionary modelling to represent aspects of sequence evolution, including the conventional divergence measure employed by other footprinting approaches. In addition to measuring the divergence, Vestige allows the expansion of the definition of a phylogenetic footprint to include variation in the distribution of any molecular evolutionary processes. This is achieved by displaying the distribution of model parameters that represent partitions of molecular evolutionary substitutions. Examination of the spatial incidence of these effects across regions of the genome can identify DNA segments that differ in the nature of the evolutionary process. Results Vestige was applied to a reference dataset of the SCL locus from four species and provided clear identification of the known conserved regions in this dataset. To demonstrate the flexibility to use diverse models of molecular evolution and dissect the nature of the evolutionary process Vestige was used to footprint the Ka/Ks ratio in primate BRCA1 with a codon model of evolution. Two regions of putative adaptive evolution were identified illustrating the ability of Vestige to represent the spatial distribution of distinct molecular evolutionary processes. Conclusion Vestige provides a flexible, open platform for phylogenetic footprinting. Underpinned by the PyEvolve toolkit, Vestige provides a framework for visualising the signatures of evolutionary processes across the genome of numerous organisms simultaneously. By exploiting the maximum-likelihood statistical framework, the complex interplay between mutational

  6. Vestige: maximum likelihood phylogenetic footprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Matthew J; Maxwell, Peter; Huttley, Gavin A

    2005-05-29

    Phylogenetic footprinting is the identification of functional regions of DNA by their evolutionary conservation. This is achieved by comparing orthologous regions from multiple species and identifying the DNA regions that have diverged less than neutral DNA. Vestige is a phylogenetic footprinting package built on the PyEvolve toolkit that uses probabilistic molecular evolutionary modelling to represent aspects of sequence evolution, including the conventional divergence measure employed by other footprinting approaches. In addition to measuring the divergence, Vestige allows the expansion of the definition of a phylogenetic footprint to include variation in the distribution of any molecular evolutionary processes. This is achieved by displaying the distribution of model parameters that represent partitions of molecular evolutionary substitutions. Examination of the spatial incidence of these effects across regions of the genome can identify DNA segments that differ in the nature of the evolutionary process. Vestige was applied to a reference dataset of the SCL locus from four species and provided clear identification of the known conserved regions in this dataset. To demonstrate the flexibility to use diverse models of molecular evolution and dissect the nature of the evolutionary process Vestige was used to footprint the Ka/Ks ratio in primate BRCA1 with a codon model of evolution. Two regions of putative adaptive evolution were identified illustrating the ability of Vestige to represent the spatial distribution of distinct molecular evolutionary processes. Vestige provides a flexible, open platform for phylogenetic footprinting. Underpinned by the PyEvolve toolkit, Vestige provides a framework for visualising the signatures of evolutionary processes across the genome of numerous organisms simultaneously. By exploiting the maximum-likelihood statistical framework, the complex interplay between mutational processes, DNA repair and selection can be evaluated both

  7. 77 FR 57186 - Technical Report on Fatality Risk, Mass, and Footprint of Model Year 2000-2007 Passenger Cars and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... (size) constant is a potential strategy for meeting footprint-based CAFE and GHG standards. An important.... NHTSA- 2010-0152, report available at http://www.nhtsa.gov/staticfiles/rulemaking/pdf/cafe/CAFE_2012...

  8. Experimental animal models of osteonecrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Meng; Peng, Jiang; Qin, Ling; Lu, Shibi

    2011-08-01

    Osteonecrosis (ON) or avascular necrosis (AVN) is a common bone metabolic disorder, mostly affecting femoral head. Although many biological, biophysical, and surgical methods have been tested to preserve the femoral head with ON, none has been proven fully satisfactory. It lacks consensus on an optimal approach for treatment. This is due, at least in part, to the lack of ability to systematically compare treatment efficacy using an ideal animal model that mimics full-range osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH) in humans with high incidence of joint collapse accompanied by reparative reaction adjacent to the necrotic bone in a reproducible and accessible way. A number of preclinical animal ON models have been established for testing potential efficacy of various modalities developed for prevention and treatment of ON before introduction into clinics for potential applications. This paper describes a number of different methods for creating animal experimental ON models. Advantages and disadvantages of such models are also discussed as reference for future research in battle against this important medical condition.

  9. Monitoring the aeration efficiency and carbon footprint of a medium-sized WWTP: experimental results on oxidation tank and aerobic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caivano, Marianna; Bellandi, Giacomo; Mancini, Ignazio M; Masi, Salvatore; Brienza, Rosanna; Panariello, Simona; Gori, Riccardo; Caniani, Donatella

    2017-03-01

    The efficiency of aeration systems should be monitored to guarantee suitable biological processes. Among the available tools for evaluating the aeration efficiency, the off-gas method is one of the most useful. Increasing interest towards reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from biological processes has resulted in researchers using this method to quantify N2O and CO2 concentrations in the off-gas. Experimental measurements of direct GHG emissions from aerobic digesters (AeDs) are not available in literature yet. In this study, the floating hood technique was used for the first time to monitor AeDs. The floating hood technique was used to evaluate oxygen transfer rates in an activated sludge (AS) tank of a medium-sized municipal wastewater treatment plant located in Italy. Very low values of oxygen transfer efficiency were found, confirming that small-to-medium-sized plants are often scarcely monitored and wrongly managed. Average CO2 and N2O emissions from the AS tank were 0.14 kgCO2/kgbCOD and 0.007 kgCO2,eq/kgbCOD, respectively. For an AeD, 3 × 10-10 kgCO2/kgbCOD direct CO2 emissions were measured, while CO2,eq emissions from N2O were 4 × 10-9 kgCO2,eq/kgbCOD. The results for the AS tank and the AeD were used to estimate the net carbon and energy footprint of the entire plant.

  10. Modeling future water footprint of barley production in Alberta, Canada: Implications for water use and yields to 2064.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, Mohammad Badrul; McAllister, Tim; Cordeiro, Marcos R C; Faramarzi, Monireh

    2018-03-01

    Despite the perception of being one of the most agriculturally productive regions globally, crop production in Alberta, a western province of Canada, is strongly dependent on highly variable climate and water resources. We developed agro-hydrological models to assess the water footprint (WF) of barley by simulating future crop yield (Y) and consumptive water use (CWU) within the agricultural region of Alberta. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to develop rainfed and irrigated barley Y simulation models adapted to sixty-seven and eleven counties, respectively through extensive calibration, validation, sensitivity, and uncertainty analysis. Eighteen downscaled climate projections from nine General Circulation Models (GCMs) under the Representative Concentration Pathways 2.6 and 8.5 for the 2040-2064 period were incorporated into the calibrated SWAT model. Based on the ensemble of GCMs, rainfed barley yield is projected to increase while irrigated barley is projected to remain unchanged in Alberta. Results revealed a considerable decrease (maximum 60%) in WF to 2064 relative to the simulated baseline 1985-2009 WF. Less water will also be required to produce barley in northern Alberta (rainfed barley) than southern Alberta (irrigated barley) due to reduced water consumption. The modeled WF data adjusted for water stress conditions and found a remarkable change (increase/decrease) in the irrigated counties. Overall, the research framework and the locally adapted regional model results will facilitate the development of future water policies in support of better climate adaptation strategies by providing improved WF projections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  12. Spatial Welfare Economics versus Ecological Footprint: Modeling Agglomeration, Externalities and Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grazi, F.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Rietveld, P.

    2007-01-01

    A welfare framework for the analysis of the spatial dimensions of sustainability is developed. It covers agglomeration effects, interregional trade, negative environmental externalities, and various land use categories. The model is used to compare rankings of spatial configurations according to

  13. Applying footprint models to investigate MO-dissimilarity over heterogeneous areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, van de A.; Graf, A.; Moene, A.F.; Schüttemeyer, D.

    2012-01-01

    Monin Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) is one of the cornerstones of surface layer meteorology and as such it is widely applied in models and for data analysis. One major disadvantage of using MOST for describing land-atmosphere interactions is that all turbulence properties are described as a

  14. Toward a nitrogen footprint calculator for Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Mary Olivia; Leach, Allison M.; Leip, Adrian; Galloway, James N.; Bekunda, Mateete; Sullivan, Clare; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    2017-03-01

    We present the first nitrogen footprint model for a developing country: Tanzania. Nitrogen (N) is a crucial element for agriculture and human nutrition, but in excess it can cause serious environmental damage. The Sub-Saharan African nation of Tanzania faces a two-sided nitrogen problem: while there is not enough soil nitrogen to produce adequate food, excess nitrogen that escapes into the environment causes a cascade of ecological and human health problems. To identify, quantify, and contribute to solving these problems, this paper presents a nitrogen footprint tool for Tanzania. This nitrogen footprint tool is a concept originally designed for the United States of America (USA) and other developed countries. It uses personal resource consumption data to calculate a per-capita nitrogen footprint. The Tanzania N footprint tool is a version adapted to reflect the low-input, integrated agricultural system of Tanzania. This is reflected by calculating two sets of virtual N factors to describe N losses during food production: one for fertilized farms and one for unfertilized farms. Soil mining factors are also calculated for the first time to address the amount of N removed from the soil to produce food. The average per-capita nitrogen footprint of Tanzania is 10 kg N yr-1. 88% of this footprint is due to food consumption and production, while only 12% of the footprint is due to energy use. Although 91% of farms in Tanzania are unfertilized, the large contribution of fertilized farms to N losses causes unfertilized farms to make up just 83% of the food production N footprint. In a developing country like Tanzania, the main audiences for the N footprint tool are community leaders, planners, and developers who can impact decision-making and use the calculator to plan positive changes for nitrogen sustainability in the developing world.

  15. 76 FR 73008 - Technical Report on Fatality Risk, Mass, and Footprint of Model Year 2000-2007 Passenger Cars and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ...: Mass reduction while holding a vehicle's footprint (size) constant is a potential strategy for meeting... interested in learning of any additional data that may be useful in the evaluations. NHTSA will submit to the... do I prepare and submit comments? Your comments must be written and in English. To ensure that your...

  16. HLA Footprints for Multipurpose Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, G.; Lubow, S.; Donaldson, T.; Gillies, K.; Budavari, T.; Szalay, A.

    2010-12-01

    Footprints from the science observations of the Hubble Space Telescope are defined by a set of hierarchical geometric regions of instrument coverage; exposures, combined observations, high level science products, and mosaics. In the growing global community of networked applications, the science end-user has several use cases for visualizing and accessing footprint data including scientific proposal preparation, research and analysis of generated science products, and interoperability between archives for correlation of coverage. The Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) at Space Telescope Science Institute, in coordination with ESO-ECF and CADC, has developed a web based science user interface built on a VO service oriented architecture system to enable varying levels of astronomical community access to science products derived from the HST archive. In this ADASS poster paper we describe new features and technologies for the HLA footprint component web browser visualization tool and the underlying footprint services utilized by the HST Astronomers Proposal Tool (APT) in compliance with an IVOA standard data access protocol. The service infrastructure is based on a high performance spherical geometric model developed by Johns Hopkins University (JHU) and database search algorithms co-developed by STScI and JHU.

  17. Humanity's unsustainable environmental footprint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Wiedmann, Thomas O.

    2014-01-01

    Within the context of Earth’s limited natural resources and assimilation capacity, the current environmental footprint of humankind is not sustainable. Assessing land, water, energy, material, and other footprints along supply chains is paramount in understanding the sustainability, efficiency, and

  18. Water footprints of nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. Closely

  19. Study of the footprints of short-term variation in XCO2 observed by TCCON sites using NIES and FLEXPART atmospheric transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belikov, Dmitry A.; Maksyutov, Shamil; Ganshin, Alexander; Zhuravlev, Ruslan; Deutscher, Nicholas M.; Wunch, Debra; Feist, Dietrich G.; Morino, Isamu; Parker, Robert J.; Strong, Kimberly; Yoshida, Yukio; Bril, Andrey; Oshchepkov, Sergey; Boesch, Hartmut; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Griffith, David; Hewson, Will; Kivi, Rigel; Mendonca, Joseph; Notholt, Justus; Schneider, Matthias; Sussmann, Ralf; Velazco, Voltaire A.; Aoki, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) is a network of ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs) that record near-infrared (NIR) spectra of the sun. From these spectra, accurate and precise observations of CO2 column-averaged dry-air mole fractions (denoted XCO2) are retrieved. TCCON FTS observations have previously been used to validate satellite estimations of XCO2; however, our knowledge of the short-term spatial and temporal variations in XCO2 surrounding the TCCON sites is limited. In this work, we use the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) Eulerian three-dimensional transport model and the FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model) Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) to determine the footprints of short-term variations in XCO2 observed by operational, past, future and possible TCCON sites. We propose a footprint-based method for the collocation of satellite and TCCON XCO2 observations and estimate the performance of the method using the NIES model and five GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite) XCO2 product data sets. Comparison of the proposed approach with a standard geographic method shows a higher number of collocation points and an average bias reduction up to 0.15 ppm for a subset of 16 stations for the period from January 2010 to January 2014. Case studies of the Darwin and Reunion Island sites reveal that when the footprint area is rather curved, non-uniform and significantly different from a geographical rectangular area, the differences between these approaches are more noticeable. This emphasises that the collocation is sensitive to local meteorological conditions and flux distributions.

  20. Associations between aboveground forest biomass and waveform LiDAR metrics: implications for modeling footprint-level biomass using Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, J. R.; Blair, J. B.; Duncanson, L.; Hancock, S.; Hofton, M. A.; Hughes, M.; Marselis, S.; Armston, J.; Sudderth, E. B.; Tang, H.; Weiner, L.; Dubayah, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) is a NASA mission to place a multi-beam waveform LiDAR on the International Space Station. GEDI will produce billions of measurements of forest canopy height to quantify aboveground carbon stocks. A critical element is the development of models that predict aboveground forest biomass at the scale of individual GEDI footprints (25 m), or clusters of individual footprints. Model development and training is ongoing using field measurements from ground-based forest inventories and discrete-return airborne LiDAR processed by the GEDI waveform simulator. These inventories contain trees whose stem locations have been mapped relative to a local coordinate system. Traditionally, biomass is associated with waveforms by identifying the subset of trees within the 25 m footprint, and then assigning all of the mass associated with those trees to the waveform (the point-mass assumption). Here we quantified associations between simulated waveform metrics and aboveground forest biomass, and the dependence of these relationships on the point-mass assumption. We then tested the ability of models to produce precise and accurate estimates of aboveground biomass. We show clearly-defined relationships between aboveground biomass and waveform LiDAR metrics at landscape scales. However, spatially clustered samples within single inventory plots represent non-random subsets of this space. This results in effective high-dimensionality of the relationship between aboveground biomass and waveform metrics. Identical waveforms are associated with distributions, rather than single values, of aboveground biomass. We show that these associations are not a consequence of location errors in field data, and that they persist after relaxing the point-mass assumption. We demonstrate models developed from the perspective of Bayesian nonparametrics to exploit the high-dimensional structure in waveform-biomass relationships using machine learning.

  1. Rotorwash Operational Footprint Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    discussed on the quantitative numbers associated with this downwash in V-22 Case Study #2. V-22 Case Study #2— Clove Lakes Park Preserve, Staten...Island, NY - May 31, 2010 During Memorial Day “Fleet Week” demonstrations on May 31, 2010, a V-22 made a landing in the Clove Lakes Park Preserve

  2. Quantitative modeling of the Water Footprint and Energy Content of Crop and Animal Products Consumption in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    felichesmi Selestine lyakurwa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of the link between water footprint and energy content of crop and animal products is vitally important for the sound management of water resources. In this study, we developed a mathematical relationship between water content, and energy content of many crops and animal products by using an improved LCA approach (water footprint. The standard values of the water and energy contents of crops and animal products were obtained from the databases of Agricultural Research Service, UNESCO Institute for water education and Food, and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The water footprint approach was applied to analyze the relationship between water requirement and energy of content of crop and animal products, in which the uncertainty and sensitivity was evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation technique that is contained in the Oracle Crystal Ball Fusion Edition v11.1.1.3.00. The results revealed significant water saving due to changes in food consumption pattern i.e. from consumption of more meat to vegetables. The production of 1kcal of crop and animal products requires about 98% of green, 4.8% blue water and 0.4% of gray water. In which changes in consumption pattern gave annual blue water saving of about 1605 Mm3 that is equivalent to 41.30m3/capita, extremely greater than the standard drinking water requirement for the whole population. Moreover, the projected results indicated, triple increase of dietary water requirement from 30.9 Mm3 in 2005 to 108 Mm3 by 2050. It was also inferred that, Tanzania has a positive virtual water balance of crop and animal products consumption with net virtual water import of 9.1 Mm3 that is the contribution margin to the water scarcity alleviation strategy. Therefore, developed relationship of water footprint and energy content of crops and animal products can be used by water resource experts for sustainable freshwater and food supply.

  3. Water footprint of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrah, E. R.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; van der Zaag, P.

    2009-04-01

    Water is used in almost all human endeavour. Unlike oil, water does not have a substitute. There are many factors that affect the water consumption pattern of people. These include climatic condition, income level and agricultural practices among others. The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to its consumption by people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008). Due to the bulky nature of water, it is not in its raw state a tradable commodity though it could be traded through the exchange of goods and services from one point to the other. Closely linked to the water footprint concept is the virtual water concept. Virtual water can be defined as the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008 and Allan, 1999). The international trade of these commodities implies flows of virtual water over large distances. The water footprint of a nation can therefore be assessed by quantifying the use of domestic water resources, taking out the virtual water flow that leaves the country and adding the virtual water flow that enters the country to it. This research focuses on the assessment and analysis of the water footprints of Ghana considering only the consumptive component of the water footprint. In addition to livestock, 13 crops were considered, 4 of which were cash crops. Data was analysed for the year 2001 to 2005 The most recent framework for the analysis of water footprint is offered by Chapagain and Hoekstra. This was adopted for the study. The water footprint calculations show that the water footprint of Ghana is about 20011 Gm³/yr. Base on this the average water footprint of a Ghanaian is 823 m³/cap/yr. Not only agricultural crops but also other products require water for their manufacture, aluminium being a

  4. FLORIDA TOWER FOOTPRINT EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WATSON,T.B.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; HENDREY, G.; LEWIN, K.; NAGY, J.; LECLERC, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions at midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.

  5. Hydropower's Biogenic Carbon Footprint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    .... Little is known about the severity of their emissions at the global scale. Here we show that the carbon footprint of hydropower is far higher than previously assumed, with a global average of 173 kg CO2...

  6. Measuring your Garden Footprint

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Gareth; Schmutz, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    The work reports on a Garden Organic (working name of Henry Doubleday Research Association, Coventry UK) members experiment in 2007. Garden Organic members were surveyed with a detailed paper questionnaire to calculate an average gardening footprint of committed (self-selected) organic gardeners in the UK. This was used to develop a garden footprinting methodology and to create a benchmark of committed organic gardening in the UK. This was then compared to commerical orangic growing and to ot...

  7. New model systems for experimental evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sinéad

    2013-07-01

    Microbial experimental evolution uses a few well-characterized model systems to answer fundamental questions about how evolution works. This special section highlights novel model systems for experimental evolution, with a focus on marine model systems that can be used to understand evolutionary responses to global change in the oceans. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Developing Phenomena Models from Experimental Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Rode; Madsen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2003-01-01

    unknown functionality behind various phenomena in first engineering principles models using experimental data. The proposed modelling approach has significant application potential, e.g. for determining unknown reaction kinetics in both chemical and biological processes. To illustrate the performance......A systematic approach for developing phenomena models from experimental data is presented. The approach is based on integrated application of stochastic differential equation (SDE) modelling and multivariate nonparametric regression, and it is shown how these techniques can be used to uncover...... of the approach, a case study is presented, which shows how an appropriate phenomena model for the growth rate of biomass in a fed-batch bioreactor can be inferred from data....

  9. Developing Phenomena Models from Experimental Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    unknown functionality behind various phenomena in first engineering principles models using experimental data. The proposed modelling approach has significant application potential, e.g. for determining unknown reaction kinetics in both chemical and biological processes. To illustrate the performance......A systematic approach for developing phenomena models from experimental data is presented. The approach is based on integrated application of stochastic differential equation (SDE) modelling and multivariate nonparametric regression, and it is shown how these techniques can be used to uncover...... of the approach, a case study is presented, which shows how an appropriate phenomena model for the growth rate of biomass in a fed-batch bioreactor can be inferred from data....

  10. Exceptional preservation of children's footprints from a Holocene footprint site in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Matthew R.; Morse, Sarita A.; Liutkus-Pierce, Cynthia; McClymont, Juliet; Evans, Mary; Crompton, Robin H.; Francis Thackeray, J.

    2014-09-01

    Here we report on a Holocene inter-dune site close to Walvis Bay (Namibia) which contains exceptionally well-preserved children's footprints. The footprint surface is dated using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) methods to approximately 1.5 ka. These dates are compared to those obtained at nearby footprint sites and used to verify a model of diachronous footprint surfaces and also add to the archaeological data available for the communities that occupied these near-coastal areas during the Holocene. This model of diachronous footprint surfaces has implications for other soft-sediment footprint sites such as the 1.5 Ma old footprints at Ileret (Kenya). The distribution of both human and animal tracks, is consistent with the passage of small flock of small ungulates (probably sheep/goats) followed by a group of approximately 9 ± 2 individuals (children or young adults). Age estimates from the tracks suggest that some of the individuals may have been as young as five years old. Variation in track topology across this sedimentologically uniform surface is explained in terms of variations in gait and weight/stature of the individual print makers and is used to corroborate a model of footprint morphology developed at a nearby site. The significance of the site within the literature on human footprints lies in the quality of the track preservation, their topological variability despite a potentially uniform substrate, and the small size of the tracks, and therefore the inferred young age of the track-makers. The site provides an emotive insight into the life of the track-makers.

  11. Model refinement for offshore platforms: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Zongli; Wu, Yanjian

    2017-08-01

    Offshore jacket platforms are widely used in offshore oil and gas exploitation. Finite element models of such structures need to have many degrees of freedom (DOFs) to represent the geometrical detail of complex structures, thereby leading to incompatibility in the number of DOFs of experimental models. To bring them both to the same order while ensuring that the essential eigen- properties of the refined model match those of experimental models, an extended model refinement procedure is presented in this paper. Vibration testing of an offshore jacket platform model is performed to validate the applicability of the proposed approach. A full-order finite element model of the platform is established and then tuned to meet the measured modal properties identified from the acceleration signals. Both model reduction and modal expansion methods are investigated, as well as various scenarios of sensor arrangements. Upon completion of the refinement, the updated jacket platform model matches the natural frequencies of the measured model well.

  12. Unrealistic phylogenetic trees may improve phylogenetic footprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettling, Martin; Treutler, Hendrik; Cerquides, Jesus; Grosse, Ivo

    2017-06-01

    The computational investigation of DNA binding motifs from binding sites is one of the classic tasks in bioinformatics and a prerequisite for understanding gene regulation as a whole. Due to the development of sequencing technologies and the increasing number of available genomes, approaches based on phylogenetic footprinting become increasingly attractive. Phylogenetic footprinting requires phylogenetic trees with attached substitution probabilities for quantifying the evolution of binding sites, but these trees and substitution probabilities are typically not known and cannot be estimated easily. Here, we investigate the influence of phylogenetic trees with different substitution probabilities on the classification performance of phylogenetic footprinting using synthetic and real data. For synthetic data we find that the classification performance is highest when the substitution probability used for phylogenetic footprinting is similar to that used for data generation. For real data, however, we typically find that the classification performance of phylogenetic footprinting surprisingly increases with increasing substitution probabilities and is often highest for unrealistically high substitution probabilities close to one. This finding suggests that choosing realistic model assumptions might not always yield optimal predictions in general and that choosing unrealistically high substitution probabilities close to one might actually improve the classification performance of phylogenetic footprinting. The proposed PF is implemented in JAVA and can be downloaded from https://github.com/mgledi/PhyFoo. : martin.nettling@informatik.uni-halle.de. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  13. Experimental models of demyelination and remyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre-Fuentes, L; Moreno-Jiménez, L; Pytel, V; Matías-Guiu, J A; Gómez-Pinedo, U; Matías-Guiu, J

    2017-08-29

    Experimental animal models constitute a useful tool to deepen our knowledge of central nervous system disorders. In the case of multiple sclerosis, however, there is no such specific model able to provide an overview of the disease; multiple models covering the different pathophysiological features of the disease are therefore necessary. We reviewed the different in vitro and in vivo experimental models used in multiple sclerosis research. Concerning in vitro models, we analysed cell cultures and slice models. As for in vivo models, we examined such models of autoimmunity and inflammation as experimental allergic encephalitis in different animals and virus-induced demyelinating diseases. Furthermore, we analysed models of demyelination and remyelination, including chemical lesions caused by cuprizone, lysolecithin, and ethidium bromide; zebrafish; and transgenic models. Experimental models provide a deeper understanding of the different pathogenic mechanisms involved in multiple sclerosis. Choosing one model or another depends on the specific aims of the study. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE: EXPERIMENTAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Francesco Corno

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION.Surgically induced, combined volume and pressure overload has been used in rabbits to create a simplified and reproducible model of acute left ventricular (LV failure.MATERIALS AND METHODS.New Zealand white male rabbits (n=24, mean weight 3.1±0.2kg were randomly assigned to either the Control group (n=10 or to the Heart Failure group (HF, n=14. Animals in the Control group underwent sham procedures. Animals in the HF group underwent procedures to induce LV volume overload by inducing severe aortic valve regurgitation with aortic cusp disruption and pressure overload using an occlusive silver clip positioned around the pre-renal abdominal aorta.RESULTS.Following Procedure-1 (volume overload echocardiography confirmed severe aortic regurgitation in all animals in the HF group, with increased mean pulse pressure difference from 18±3mmHg to 38±3mmHg (P

  15. Footprints of Emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Trevor Williams

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is ironic that the management of education has become more closed while learning has become more open, particularly over the past 10-20 years. The curriculum has become more instrumental, predictive, standardized, and micro-managed in the belief that this supports employability as well as the management of educational processes, resources, and value. Meanwhile, people have embraced interactive, participatory, collaborative, and innovative networks for living and learning. To respond to these challenges, we need to develop practical tools to help us describe these new forms of learning which are multivariate, self-organised, complex, adaptive, and unpredictable. We draw on complexity theory and our experience as researchers, designers, and participants in open and interactive learning to go beyond conventional approaches. We develop a 3D model of landscapes of learning for exploring the relationship between prescribed and emergent learning in any given curriculum. We do this by repeatedly testing our descriptive landscapes (or footprints against theory, research, and practice across a range of case studies. By doing this, we have not only come up with a practical tool which can be used by curriculum designers, but also realised that the curriculum itself can usefully be treated as emergent, depending on the dynamics between prescribed and emergent learning and how the learning landscape is curated.

  16. Assessment of NHTSA’s Report “Relationships Between Fatality Risk, Mass, and Footprint in Model Year 2003-2010 Passenger Cars and LTVs”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    NHTSA recently completed a logistic regression analysis updating its 2003, 2010, and 2012 studies of the relationship between vehicle mass and US fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT; Kahane 2010, Kahane 2012, Puckett 2016). The new study updates the 2012 analysis using FARS data from 2005 to 2011 for model year 2003 to 2010. Using the updated databases, NHTSA estimates that reducing vehicle mass by 100 pounds while holding footprint fixed would increase fatality risk per VMT by 1.49% for lighter-than-average cars and by 0.50% for heavierthan- average cars, but reduce risk by 0.10% for lighter-than-average light-duty trucks, by 0.71% for heavier-than-average light-duty trucks, and by 0.99% for CUVs/minivans. Using a jack knife method to estimate the statistical uncertainty of these point estimates, NHTSA finds that none of these estimates are statistically significant at the 95% confidence level; however, the 1.49% increase in risk associated with mass reduction in lighter-than-average cars, and the 0.71% and 0.99% decreases in risk associated with mass reduction in heavier-than-average light trucks and CUVs/minivans, are statistically significant at the 90% confidence interval. The effect of mass reduction on risk that NHTSA estimated in 2016 is more beneficial than in its 2012 study, particularly for light trucks and CUVs/minivans. The 2016 NHTSA analysis estimates that reducing vehicle footprint by one square foot while holding mass constant would increase fatality risk per VMT by 0.28% in cars, by 0.38% in light trucks, and by 1.18% in CUVs and minivans.This report replicates the 2016 NHTSA analysis, and reproduces their main results. This report uses the confidence intervals output by the logistic regression models, which are smaller than the intervals NHTSA estimated using a jack-knife technique that accounts for the sampling error in the FARS fatality and state crash data. In addition to reproducing the NHTSA results, this report also examines the

  17. Analysis of computational footprinting methods for DNase sequencing experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmao, Eduardo G; Allhoff, Manuel; Zenke, Martin; Costa, Ivan G

    2016-04-01

    DNase-seq allows nucleotide-level identification of transcription factor binding sites on the basis of a computational search of footprint-like DNase I cleavage patterns on the DNA. Frequently in high-throughput methods, experimental artifacts such as DNase I cleavage bias affect the computational analysis of DNase-seq experiments. Here we performed a comprehensive and systematic study on the performance of computational footprinting methods. We evaluated ten footprinting methods in a panel of DNase-seq experiments for their ability to recover cell-specific transcription factor binding sites. We show that three methods--HINT, DNase2TF and PIQ--consistently outperformed the other evaluated methods and that correcting the DNase-seq signal for experimental artifacts significantly improved the accuracy of computational footprints. We also propose a score that can be used to detect footprints arising from transcription factors with potentially short residence times.

  18. Footprints of Buildings at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (footprints)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/INFO coverage consisting of 10 polygons representing the buildings' footprints at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah. The footprints were collected...

  19. Improving the physiological realism of experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnakota, Kalyan C; Cha, Chae Y; Rorsman, Patrik; Balaban, Robert S; La Gerche, Andre; Wade-Martins, Richard; Beard, Daniel A; Jeneson, Jeroen A L

    2016-04-06

    The Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) project aims to develop integrative, explanatory and predictive computational models (C-Models) as numerical investigational tools to study disease, identify and design effective therapies and provide an in silico platform for drug screening. Ultimately, these models rely on the analysis and integration of experimental data. As such, the success of VPH depends on the availability of physiologically realistic experimental models (E-Models) of human organ function that can be parametrized to test the numerical models. Here, the current state of suitable E-models, ranging from in vitro non-human cell organelles to in vivo human organ systems, is discussed. Specifically, challenges and recent progress in improving the physiological realism of E-models that may benefit the VPH project are highlighted and discussed using examples from the field of research on cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disorders, diabetes and Parkinson's disease.

  20. Variation in modelled healthy diets based on three different food patterns identified from the Danish national diet – and the impact on carbon footprint Nordic Nutrition Conference, Gothenburg 2016 (poster)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    with the recommended values and depending on food preferences and habits, and 2) further optimizing the diet composition with regard to carbon footprint (CF). Methods: We used a simple modelling of the ‘Traditional’, ‘Health conscious’ and ‘Fast food’ patterns identified from national dietary data (1)Knudsen et al....... 2014) into isocaloric healthy diets that fulfil and the Danish FBDGs and NNR2012 with respect to both micro- and macronutrients. Furthermore we updated the list of estimated carbon footprint (CF) of food items included in the diets and further optimized the diet composition with regard to CF. Extension...... of modelling was used to optimise the diets with regard to their estimated carbon footprint (CF). Results: Around 365 food items are included in the three food patterns. Based on literature CF of these foods is updated, including the contribution from waste, transportation and cooking at home. Despite...

  1. Carbon Footprint and Order Quantity in Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Even without economic factors and government regulations, the pressure and motivation of corporation to reduce emission are still increasing. This is because the key factors for corporation to reduce emissions have become corporate social responsibility and identification of low-carbon value by consumer and society from economic trade-off and government regulations. So, the purpose of this paper is to provide quantity methods for the logistics organizations with wish of voluntary reduction and social responsibility.Design/methodology/approach: Being difference from the traditional research that takes economic value as object, this paper takes carbon footprint as object directly, order quantity as decision variable. By referring to the traditional economic order quantity model, the paper creates logistics carbon footprint model which takes transport and inventory into account. Then it solves the model by calculating the values of order quantity, carbon footprint and revenue using the method of optimization.Findings and Originality/value: By solving and comparing the two models of economic order quantity model and carbon footprint model, it gets some results, such as carbon optimization order quantity, the effects order quantity deviating from economic order quantity or carbon order quantity having on economic or carbon footprint values, which can give some meaningful insight for corporation to search out reduction opportunities by operations adjustment.Originality/value: The study takes carbon footprint as object directly and creates the corresponding quantity model. By comparing with the traditional economic order quantity model, the paper provides quantity methods and obtains some meaningful insights for the logistics organizations with wish of voluntary reduction and social responsibility to reduce emissions by operations adjustment.

  2. Understanding Leadership: An Experimental-Experiential Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hole, George T.

    2014-01-01

    Books about leadership are dangerous to readers who fantasize about being leaders or apply leadership ideas as if they were proven formulas. As an antidote, I offer an experimental framework in which any leadership-management model can be tested to gain experiential understanding of the model. As a result one can gain reality-based insights about…

  3. Our Ecological Footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackernagel, Mathis; Rees, William

    1996-01-01

    Defines an ecological footprint as the land that would be required on this planet to support a certain group's current lifestyle forever. Shows that the United States and southern Canada consume far more energy, materials, foods, and services per capita than the rest of the world population. Suggests numerous activities to raise awareness of the…

  4. Making A-FOOTPRINT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Munajjed, Amir; Rasmussen, John

    available with an intended use to develop implants or orthotics for the foot to treat diseases like the flatfoot and metatarsalgia syndrome. This work is part of the A-FOOTPRINT project, funded by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme (Grant Agreement NMP2-SE-2009-228893). 1. MacWilliams, B.A...

  5. Nitrogen footprint in China: food, energy, and nonfood goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Baojing; Leach, Allison M; Ma, Lin; Galloway, James N; Chang, Scott X; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2013-08-20

    The nitrogen (N) footprint is a novel approach to quantify losses to the environment of reactive N (Nr; all species of N except N2) derived from human activities. However, current N footprint models are difficult to apply to new countries due to the large data requirement, and sources of Nr included in calculating the N footprint are often incomplete. In this study, we comprehensively quantified the N footprint in China with an N mass balance approach. Results show that the per capita N footprint in China increased 68% between 1980 and 2008, from 19 to 32 kg N yr(-1). The Nr loss from the production and consumption of food was the largest component of the N footprint (70%) while energy and nonfood products made up the remainder in approximately equal portion in 2008. In contrast, in 1980, the food-related N footprint accounted for 86% of the overall N footprint, followed by nonfood products (8%) and energy (6%). The findings and methods of this study are generally comparable to that of the consumer-based analysis of the N-Calculator. This work provides policy makers quantitative information about the sources of China's N footprint and demonstrates the significant challenges in reducing Nr loss to the environment.

  6. Modeling of Experimental Adsorption Isotherm Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunjun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption is considered to be one of the most effective technologies widely used in global environmental protection areas. Modeling of experimental adsorption isotherm data is an essential way for predicting the mechanisms of adsorption, which will lead to an improvement in the area of adsorption science. In this paper, we employed three isotherm models, namely: Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich to correlate four sets of experimental adsorption isotherm data, which were obtained by batch tests in lab. The linearized and non-linearized isotherm models were compared and discussed. In order to determine the best fit isotherm model, the correlation coefficient (r2 and standard errors (S.E. for each parameter were used to evaluate the data. The modeling results showed that non-linear Langmuir model could fit the data better than others, with relatively higher r2 values and smaller S.E. The linear Langmuir model had the highest value of r2, however, the maximum adsorption capacities estimated from linear Langmuir model were deviated from the experimental data.

  7. Experimental Concepts for Testing Seismic Hazard Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzocchi, W.; Jordan, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic hazard analysis is the primary interface through which useful information about earthquake rupture and wave propagation is delivered to society. To account for the randomness (aleatory variability) and limited knowledge (epistemic uncertainty) of these natural processes, seismologists must formulate and test hazard models using the concepts of probability. In this presentation, we will address the scientific objections that have been raised over the years against probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). Owing to the paucity of observations, we must rely on expert opinion to quantify the epistemic uncertainties of PSHA models (e.g., in the weighting of individual models from logic-tree ensembles of plausible models). The main theoretical issue is a frequentist critique: subjectivity is immeasurable; ergo, PSHA models cannot be objectively tested against data; ergo, they are fundamentally unscientific. We have argued (PNAS, 111, 11973-11978) that the Bayesian subjectivity required for casting epistemic uncertainties can be bridged with the frequentist objectivity needed for pure significance testing through "experimental concepts." An experimental concept specifies collections of data, observed and not yet observed, that are judged to be exchangeable (i.e., with a joint distribution independent of the data ordering) when conditioned on a set of explanatory variables. We illustrate, through concrete examples, experimental concepts useful in the testing of PSHA models for ontological errors in the presence of aleatory variability and epistemic uncertainty. In particular, we describe experimental concepts that lead to exchangeable binary sequences that are statistically independent but not identically distributed, showing how the Bayesian concept of exchangeability generalizes the frequentist concept of experimental repeatability. We also address the issue of testing PSHA models using spatially correlated data.

  8. Nitrogen Footprint in China: Food, Energy, and Nonfood Goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, B.J.; Leach, A.M.; Ma, L.; Galloway, J.N.; Chang, S.X.; Ge, Y.; Chang, J.

    2013-01-01

    The nitrogen (N) footprint is a novel approach to quantify losses to the environment of reactive N (Nr; all species of N except N-2) derived from human activities. However, current N footprint models are difficult to apply to new countries due to the large data requirement, and sources of Nr

  9. Experimental deep brain stimulation in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sonny Kh; Vlamings, Rinske; Lim, Leewei; Sesia, Thibault; Janssen, Marcus Lf; Steinbusch, Harry Wm; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Temel, Yasin

    2010-10-01

    DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION (DBS) as a therapy in neurological and psychiatric disorders is widely applied in the field of functional and stereotactic neurosurgery. In this respect, experimental DBS in animal models is performed to evaluate new indications and new technology. In this article, we review our experience with the concept of experimental DBS, including its development and validation. An electrode construction was developed using clinical principles to perform DBS unilaterally or bilaterally in freely moving rats. The stimulation parameters were adjusted for the rat using current density calculations. We performed validation studies in 2 animal models: a rat model of Parkinson's disease (bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine infusion in the striatum) and a rat model of Huntington's disease (transgenic rats). The effects of DBS were evaluated in different behavioral tasks measuring motor and cognitive functions. The electrode construction developed allows experimental DBS to be performed in freely moving rats. With the current setup, electrodes are placed in the target in 70% to 95% of the cases. Using a rat model, we showed that bilateral DBS of the subthalamic nucleus improves parkinsonian motor disability, but can induce behavioral side effects, similar to the clinical situation. In addition, we showed that DBS of the globus pallidus can improve motor and cognitive symptoms in a rat model of Huntington's disease. Nevertheless, during the process of the development and validation of experimental DBS, we encountered specific problems. These are discussed in detail. Experimental DBS in freely moving animals is an adequate tool to explore new indications for DBS and to refine DBS technology.

  10. Prospects of experimentally reachable beyond Standard Model ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-06

    Jan 6, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 86; Issue 2. Prospects of experimentally reachable beyond Standard Model physics in inverse see-saw motivated SO(10) GUT. Ram Lal Awasthi. Special: Supersymmetric Unified Theories and Higgs Physics Volume 86 Issue 2 February 2016 pp 223- ...

  11. Prospects of experimentally reachable beyond Standard Model ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-06

    Jan 6, 2016 ... also fit perfectly in the model framework. Despite the fact that SM has unravelled the gauge origin of fundamental forces and the structure of Universe while successfully confronting numerous experimental tests, it has various limitations. For a good summary on its excellencies and compulsions see [1], and.

  12. Electrochemical desalination of bricks - Experimental and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Gry; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2015-01-01

    Chlorides, nitrates and sulfates play an important role in the salt-decay of porous materials in buildings and monuments. Electrochemical desalination is a technology able to remove salts from such porous materials in order to stop or prevent the decay. In this paper, experimental and numerical......-contaminated bricks with respect to the monovalent ions is discussed. Comparison between the experimental and the simulation results showed that the proposed numerical model is able to predict electrochemical desalination treatments with remarkable accuracy, and it can be used as a predictive tool...

  13. Pyrite footprinting of RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlatterer, Joerg C., E-mail: joerg.schlatterer@einstein.yu.edu [Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Wieder, Matthew S. [Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Jones, Christopher D.; Pollack, Lois [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Brenowitz, Michael [Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RNA structure is mapped by pyrite mediated {sup {center_dot}}OH footprinting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Repetitive experiments can be done in a powdered pyrite filled cartridge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High {sup {center_dot}}OH reactivity of nucleotides imply dynamic role in Diels-Alderase catalysis. -- Abstract: In RNA, function follows form. Mapping the surface of RNA molecules with chemical and enzymatic probes has revealed invaluable information about structure and folding. Hydroxyl radicals ({sup {center_dot}}OH) map the surface of nucleic acids by cutting the backbone where it is accessible to solvent. Recent studies showed that a microfluidic chip containing pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) can produce sufficient {sup {center_dot}}OH to footprint DNA. The 49-nt Diels-Alder RNA enzyme catalyzes the C-C bond formation between a diene and a dienophile. A crystal structure, molecular dynamics simulation and atomic mutagenesis studies suggest that nucleotides of an asymmetric bulge participate in the dynamic architecture of the ribozyme's active center. Of note is that residue U42 directly interacts with the product in the crystallized RNA/product complex. Here, we use powdered pyrite held in a commercially available cartridge to footprint the Diels-Alderase ribozyme with single nucleotide resolution. Residues C39 to U42 are more reactive to {sup {center_dot}}OH than predicted by the solvent accessibility calculated from the crystal structure suggesting that this loop is dynamic in solution. The loop's flexibility may contribute to substrate recruitment and product release. Our implementation of pyrite-mediated {sup {center_dot}}OH footprinting is a readily accessible approach to gleaning information about the architecture of small RNA molecules.

  14. Categorization of Scope 3 emissions for streamlined enterprise carbon footprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y Anny; Weber, Christopher L; Matthews, H Scott

    2009-11-15

    Many organizations look to carbon footprint protocols for guidance on measuring their greenhouse gas emissions, or carbon footprint. Existing protocols generally require estimation of direct emissions (Scope 1) and emissions from direct purchases of energy (Scope 2), but focus less on indirect emissions upstream and downstream of the supply chain (optional Scope 3). Because on average more than 75% of an industry sector's carbon footprint is attributed to Scope 3 sources, better knowledge of Scope 3 footprints can help organizations pursue emissions mitigation projects not just within their own plants but also across their supply chain. In this work, Scope 3 footprints of U.S. economic sectors are categorized using an Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) model to identify upstream emission sources that are likely to contribute significantly to different sectors' footprints. The portions of the upstream footprint captured by the sector's top-10 upstream suppliers are estimated at 3 different levels of specificity: general economy-wide, industry specific, and sector specific. The results show that enterprises can capture a large portion of their total upstream carbon footprint by collecting full emissions information from only a handful of direct suppliers, and Scope 3 footprint capture rates can be improved considerably by sector-specific categorization. Employee commuting and air transportation may be more important (7%-30%) for the services industries, but should not be a focus of detailed Scope 3 footprint estimates for the manufacturing industries (<1% of the total analyzed footprint). Protocol organizations should actively make more specific Scope 3 guidelines available for their constituents by developing sector-specific categorizations for as many sectors as they feasibly can and create broader industry-specific protocols for others.

  15. Toward a nitrogen footprint calculator for Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutton, Mary Olivia; Leach, A.M.; Leip, Adrian; Galloway, J.N.; Bekunda, M.; Sullivan, C.; Lesschen, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first nitrogen footprint model for a developing country: Tanzania. Nitrogen (N) is a crucial element for agriculture and human nutrition, but in excess it can cause serious environmental damage. The Sub-Saharan African nation of Tanzania faces a two-sided nitrogen problem: while there

  16. Experimental Animal Models in Periodontology: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struillou, Xavier; Boutigny, Hervé; Soueidan, Assem; Layrolle, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    In periodontal research, animal studies are complementary to in vitro experiments prior to testing new treatments. Animal models should make possible the validation of hypotheses and prove the safety and efficacy of new regenerating approaches using biomaterials, growth factors or stem cells. A review of the literature was carried out by using electronic databases (PubMed, ISI Web of Science). Numerous animal models in different species such as rats, hamsters, rabbits, ferrets, canines and primates have been used for modeling human periodontal diseases and treatments. However, both the anatomy and physiopathology of animals are different from those of humans, making difficult the evaluation of new therapies. Experimental models have been developed in order to reproduce major periodontal diseases (gingivitis, periodontitis), their pathogenesis and to investigate new surgical techniques. The aim of this review is to define the most pertinent animal models for periodontal research depending on the hypothesis and expected results. PMID:20556202

  17. Experimental superficial candidiasis on tissue models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilake, J A M S; Samaranayake, L P

    2010-07-01

    Candida species are common pathogens causing superficial mycoses primarily affecting the mucosa and the skin in humans. Crucial steps during pathogenesis of superficial candidiasis comprise fungal adhesion, colonisation and subsequent penetration of the respective tissues. Exploring these pathological events and perhaps fungal and tissue responses towards drug treatment is imperative in the management of this infection. Unfortunately, pathological biopsies of superficial candidiasis do not exhibit the early changes in the host-pathogen interaction as the tissues are already invaded by the fungi. In vivo experimental assessments of pathological processes of superficial candidiasis are also limited because of the difficulties in providing reproducible and comparable conditions in the host environment. Conversely, in vitro models have helped studying fungal-host interactions under more defined and controlled conditions. Some common in vitro models used to simulate superficial candidiasis are chick chorioallantoic membrane, mucosal explants and single layer or multiple layer cell cultures. Interestingly, these experimental approaches share advantages as well as disadvantages when compared with in vivo conditions. Hence, this review intends to discuss about the experimental superficial candidiasis produced in various tissue models and their advantages as well as disadvantages with a particular reference to further improvement of validity and reliability of such experiments.

  18. Seclazone Reactor Modeling And Experimental Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osinga, T. [ETH-Zuerich (Switzerland); Olalde, G. [CNRS Odeillo (France); Steinfeld, A. [PSI and ETHZ (Switzerland)

    2005-03-01

    A numerical model is formulated for the SOLZINC solar chemical reactor for the production of Zn by carbothermal reduction of ZnO. The model involves solving, by the finite-volume technique, a 1D unsteady state energy equation that couples heat transfer to the chemical kinetics for a shrinking packed bed exposed to thermal radiation. Validation is accomplished by comparison with experimentally measured temperature profiles and Zn production rates as a function of time, obtained for a 5-kW solar reactor tested at PSI's solar furnace. (author)

  19. Beyond the standard model, experimental summary

    CERN Document Server

    McPherson, R A

    2003-01-01

    An overview of experimental results in searches for physics beyond the Standard Model is presented. It is impossible to cover all topics in this field, so a set of examples is used to highlight the scope and breadth of the results. Selected topics include searches for compositeness, flavour changing neutral currents, SUSY, exotic Higgs particles, low scale gravity in extra dimensions, and non commutative geometry. Current results are presented from the LEP, Tevatron Run I, and HERA I experiments. No convincing evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model has been observed. Prospects for ongoing and upcoming experiments are discussed. (40 refs).

  20. Experimental in Vivo Models of Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Segal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis is a multifaceted fungal disease including mucosal-cutaneous, visceral, and disseminated infections caused by yeast species of the genus Candida. Candida infections are among the most common human mycoses. Candida species are the third to fourth most common isolates from bloodstream infections in neutropenic or immunocompromised hospitalized patients. The mucosal-cutaneous forms—particularly vaginal infections—have a high prevalence. Vaginitis caused by Candida species is the second most common vaginal infection. Hence, candidiasis is a major subject for research, including experimental in vivo models to study pathogenesis, prevention, or therapy of the disease. The following review article will focus on various experimental in vivo models in different laboratory animals, such as mammals (mice, rats, rabbits, the fruit fly–Drosophila melanogaster, the larvae of the moth Galleria mellonella, or the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The review will describe the induction of the different clinical forms of candidiasis in the various models and the validity of such models in mimicking the human clinical situations. The use of such models for the assessment of antifungal drugs, evaluation of potential vaccines to protect before candidiasis, exploration of Candida virulence factors, and comparison of pathogenicity of different Candida species will be included in the review. All of the above will be reported as based on published studies of numerous investigators as well as on the research of the author and his group.

  1. A low-cost FMCW radar for footprint detection from a mobile platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutte, David; Taylor, Paul; Hunt, Allan

    2015-05-01

    Footprint and human trail detection in rugged all-weather environments is an important and challenging problem for perimeter security, passive surveillance and reconnaissance. To address this challenge a low-cost, wideband, frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar operating at 33.4GHz - 35.5GHz is being developed through a Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate Phase I SBIR and has been experimentally demonstrated to be capable of detecting footprints and footprint trails on unimproved roads in an experimental setting. It uses a low-cost digital signal processor (DSP) that makes important operating parameters reconfigurable and allows for frequency sweep linearization, a key technique developed to increase footprint signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This paper discusses the design, DSP implementation and experimental results of a low-cost FMCW radar for mobile footprint detection. A technique for wideband sweep linearization is detailed along with system performance metrics and experimental results showing receive-SNR from footprint trails in sand and on unimproved dirt roads. Results from a second stepped frequency CW (SFCW) Ka-band system are also shown, verifying the ability of both systems to detect footprints and footprint trails in an experimental setting. The results show that there is sufficient receive-SNR to detect even shallow footprints (~1cm) using a radar based detection system in Ka-band. Field experimental results focus on system proof of concept from a static position with mobile results also presented highlighting necessary improvements to both systems.

  2. Endometriose: modelo experimental em ratas Endometriosis: experimental model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Schor

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: divulgar a metodologia da indução de endometriose experimental em animais de laboratório. Método: utilizamos ratas albinas, virgens, adultas de aproximadamente três meses de idade, que foram inicialmente anestesiadas pelo éter etílico. Aberta a cavidade abdominal, identificamos os cornos uterinos e retiramos um fragmento de aproximadamente 4 cm do corno uterino direito. Esse fragmento foi mergulhado em solução fisiológica e sob lupa estereoscópica foi separado o endométrio do miométrio e feitos retângulos de aproximadamente 4 por 5 mm. Esses foram fixados por meio de fio de sutura, sobre vasos sangüíneos visíveis a olho nu, na parede lateral do abdômen, tomando-se sempre o cuidado de manter a porção do endométrio livre voltada para a luz da cavidade abdominal. Após 21 dias os animais foram novamente operados para verificarmos o tamanho dos implantes e para retirada do endométrio ectópico para análise histológica. Resultados: macroscopicamente observamos crescimento significativo dos implantes endometriais. Ao exame microscópico pudemos observar a presença de epitélio glandular e estroma semelhantes ao do endométrio tópico. Conclusões: o modelo utilizado reproduz a doença, em ratas, sendo método auxiliar de valia para estudar esta afecção, principalmente a ação de medicamentos sobre esses implantes.Purpose: to demonstrate the experimental endometriosis induction in animals. Method: we used adult female Wistar rats weighing 200 - 250 g anesthetized with ethyl ether to open the abdominal cavity. After identifying the uterine horns, we removed an approximately 4 cm fragment from the right uterine horn. This fragment was placed in physiological saline and, with the aid of a stereoscopic magnifying glass, the endometrium was separated from the myometrium and cut into rectangles of approximately 4 x 5 mm. These rectangles were fastened to the lateral abdominal wall near great blood vessels, taking care

  3. Ecological footprint of Shandong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yu-jing; Luc, Hens; Zhu, Yong-guan; Zhao, Jing-zhu

    2004-01-01

    Ecological footprint has been given much attention and widely praised as an effective heuristic and pedagogic device for presenting current total human resource use in a way that communicates easily to almost everyone since 1996 when Wackernagel and Rees proposed it as a sustainable development indicator. Ecological footprint has been improving on its calculation and still can be a benchmark to measure sustainable development although there are still ongoing debates about specific methods for calculating the ecological footprint. This paper calculates the ecological footprint of Shandong Province, China with the methodology developed by Wackernagel and analyzes the current situation of sustainable development in Shandong.

  4. Experimental animal modelling for TB vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere-Joan Cardona

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Research for a novel vaccine to prevent tuberculosis is an urgent medical need. The current vaccine, BCG, has demonstrated a non-homogenous efficacy in humans, but still is the gold standard to be improved upon. In general, the main indicator for testing the potency of new candidates in animal models is the reduction of the bacillary load in the lungs at the acute phase of the infection. Usually, this reduction is similar to that induced by BCG, although in some cases a weak but significant improvement can be detected, but none of candidates are able to prevent establishment of infection. The main characteristics of several laboratory animals are reviewed, reflecting that none are able to simulate the whole characteristics of human tuberculosis. As, so far, no surrogate of protection has been found, it is important to test new candidates in several models in order to generate convincing evidence of efficacy that might be better than that of BCG in humans. It is also important to investigate the use of “in silico” and “ex vivo” models to better understand experimental data and also to try to replace, or at least reduce and refine experimental models in animals.

  5. Nonlinear hierarchical modeling of experimental infection data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Michael D; Breheny, Patrick J

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a nonlinear hierarchical model (NLHM) for analyzing longitudinal experimental infection (EI) data. The NLHM offers several improvements over commonly used alternatives such as repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) and the linear mixed model (LMM). It enables comparison of relevant biological properties of the course of infection including peak intensity, duration and time to peak, rather than simply comparing mean responses at each observation time. We illustrate the practical benefits of this model and the insights it yields using data from experimental infection studies on equine arteritis virus. Finally, we demonstrate via simulation studies that the NLHM substantially reduces bias and improves the power to detect differences in relevant features of the infection response between two populations. For example, to detect a 20% difference in response duration between two groups (n=15) in which the peak time and peak intensity were identical, the RM-ANOVA test had a power of just 11%, and LMM a power of just 12%. By comparison, the nonlinear model we propose had a power of 58% in the same scenario, while controlling the Type I error rate better than the other two methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Models for Experimental High Density Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradecki, Tomasz; Swoboda, Julia; Nowak, Katarzyna; Dziechciarz, Klaudia

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the effects of research on models of high density housing. The authors present urban projects for experimental high density housing estates. The design was based on research performed on 38 examples of similar housing in Poland that have been built after 2003. Some of the case studies show extreme density and that inspired the researchers to test individual virtual solutions that would answer the question: How far can we push the limits? The experimental housing projects show strengths and weaknesses of design driven only by such indexes as FAR (floor attenuation ratio - housing density) and DPH (dwellings per hectare). Although such projects are implemented, the authors believe that there are reasons for limits since high index values may be in contradiction to the optimum character of housing environment. Virtual models on virtual plots presented by the authors were oriented toward maximising the DPH index and DAI (dwellings area index) which is very often the main driver for developers. The authors also raise the question of sustainability of such solutions. The research was carried out in the URBAN model research group (Gliwice, Poland) that consists of academic researchers and architecture students. The models reflect architectural and urban regulations that are valid in Poland. Conclusions might be helpful for urban planners, urban designers, developers, architects and architecture students.

  7. Footprints of alien technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P. C. W.

    2012-04-01

    If alien civilizations do, or did, exist, their technology will impact their environment. Some consideration has been given to the detection of large-scale astro-engineering, such as Dyson spheres. However, a very advanced technology might leave more subtle footprints requiring sophisticated scientific methods to uncover. We must not overlook the possibility that alien technology has impacted our immediate astronomical environment, even Earth itself, but probably a very long time ago. This raises the question of what traces, if anything, might remain today. I shall consider the possibilities of biological, geological and physical traces, and suggest ways that we might search for them.

  8. Single-footprint retrievals for AIRS using a fast TwoSlab cloud-representation model and the SARTA all-sky infrared radiative transfer algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DeSouza-Machado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional variational retrievals of temperature and moisture fields from hyperspectral infrared (IR satellite sounders use cloud-cleared radiances (CCRs as their observation. These derived observations allow the use of clear-sky-only radiative transfer in the inversion for geophysical variables but at reduced spatial resolution compared to the native sounder observations. Cloud clearing can introduce various errors, although scenes with large errors can be identified and ignored. Information content studies show that, when using multilayer cloud liquid and ice profiles in infrared hyperspectral radiative transfer codes, there are typically only 2–4 degrees of freedom (DOFs of cloud signal. This implies a simplified cloud representation is sufficient for some applications which need accurate radiative transfer. Here we describe a single-footprint retrieval approach for clear and cloudy conditions, which uses the thermodynamic and cloud fields from numerical weather prediction (NWP models as a first guess, together with a simple cloud-representation model coupled to a fast scattering radiative transfer algorithm (RTA. The NWP model thermodynamic and cloud profiles are first co-located to the observations, after which the N-level cloud profiles are converted to two slab clouds (TwoSlab; typically one for ice and one for water clouds. From these, one run of our fast cloud-representation model allows an improvement of the a priori cloud state by comparing the observed and model-simulated radiances in the thermal window channels. The retrieval yield is over 90 %, while the degrees of freedom correlate with the observed window channel brightness temperature (BT which itself depends on the cloud optical depth. The cloud-representation and scattering package is benchmarked against radiances computed using a maximum random overlap (RMO cloud scheme. All-sky infrared radiances measured by NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS and NWP

  9. Modeling of Experimental Atherosclerotic Plaque Delamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xiaochang; Chen, Xin; Deng, Xiaomin; Sutton, Michael A; Lessner, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    A cohesive zone model (CZM) approach is applied to simulate atherosclerotic plaque delamination experiments in mouse abdominal aorta specimens. A three-dimensional finite element model is developed for the experiments. The aortic wall is treated as a fiber-reinforced, highly deformable, incompressible material, and the Holzapfel-Gasser-Ogden (HGO) model is adopted for the aortic bulk material behavior. Cohesive elements are placed along the plaque-media interface along which delamination occurs. The 3D specimen geometry is created based on images from the experiments and certain simplifying approximations. A set of HGO and CZM parameter values is determined based on values suggested in the literature and through matching simulation predictions of the load vs. load-point displacement curve with experimental measurements for one loading-delamination-unloading cycle. Using this set of parameter values, simulation predictions for four other loading-delamination-unloading cycles are obtained, which show good agreement with experimental measurements. The findings of the current study demonstrate the applicability of the CZM approach in arterial tissue failure simulations.

  10. Superficial tension: experimental model with simple materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintori Ferreira, María Alejandra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work appears a didactic offer based on an experimental activity using materials of very low cost, orientated to achieving that the student understand and interpret the phenomenon of superficial tension together with the importance of the modeling in sciences. It has as principal aim of education bring the student over to the mechanics of the static fluids and the intermolecular forces, combining scientific contents with questions near to the student what provides an additional motivation to the reflection of the scientific investigation.

  11. Hydropower's Biogenic Carbon Footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is accelerating and the world urgently needs a shift to clean and renewable energy. Hydropower is currently the largest renewable source of electricity, but its contribution to climate change mitigation is not yet fully understood. Hydroelectric reservoirs are a source of biogenic greenhouse gases and in individual cases can reach the same emission rates as thermal power plants. Little is known about the severity of their emissions at the global scale. Here we show that the carbon footprint of hydropower is far higher than previously assumed, with a global average of 173 kg CO2 and 2.95 kg CH4 emitted per MWh of electricity produced. This results in a combined average carbon footprint of 273 kg CO2e/MWh when using the global warming potential over a time horizon of 100 years (GWP100). Nonetheless, this is still below that of fossil energy sources without the use of carbon capture and sequestration technologies. We identified the dams most promising for capturing methane for use as alternative energy source. The spread among the ~1500 hydropower plants analysed in this study is large and highlights the importance of case-by-case examinations.

  12. Hydropower's Biogenic Carbon Footprint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scherer

    Full Text Available Global warming is accelerating and the world urgently needs a shift to clean and renewable energy. Hydropower is currently the largest renewable source of electricity, but its contribution to climate change mitigation is not yet fully understood. Hydroelectric reservoirs are a source of biogenic greenhouse gases and in individual cases can reach the same emission rates as thermal power plants. Little is known about the severity of their emissions at the global scale. Here we show that the carbon footprint of hydropower is far higher than previously assumed, with a global average of 173 kg CO2 and 2.95 kg CH4 emitted per MWh of electricity produced. This results in a combined average carbon footprint of 273 kg CO2e/MWh when using the global warming potential over a time horizon of 100 years (GWP100. Nonetheless, this is still below that of fossil energy sources without the use of carbon capture and sequestration technologies. We identified the dams most promising for capturing methane for use as alternative energy source. The spread among the ~1500 hydropower plants analysed in this study is large and highlights the importance of case-by-case examinations.

  13. Using a semi-automated filtering process to improve large footprint lidar sub-canopy elevation models and forest structure metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, G. A.; Saatchi, S.; Meyer, V.; Gillespie, T.; Sheng, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Quantification of sub-canopy topography and forest structure is important for developing a better understanding of how forest ecosystems function. This study focuses on a three-step method to adapt discrete return lidar (DRL) filtering techniques to Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) large-footprint lidar (LFL) waveforms to improve the accuracy of both sub-canopy digital elevation models (DEMs), as well as forest structure measurements. The results of the experiment demonstrate that LFL ground surfaces can be effectively filtered using methods adapted from DRL point filtering methods, and the resulting data will produce more accurate digital elevation models, as well as improved estimates of forest structure. The first step quantifies the slope present at the center of each LFL pulse, and the average error expected at each particular degree of slope is modeled. Areas of high terrain slope show consistently more error in LFL ground detection, and empirical relationships between terrain angle and expected LVIS ground detection error are established. These relationships are then used to create an algorithm for LFL ground elevation correction. The second step uses an iterative, expanding window filter to identify outlier points which are not part of the ground surface, as well as manual editing to identify laser pulses which are not at ground level. The semi-automated methods improved the LVIS DEM accuracy significantly by identifying significant outliers in the LVIS point cloud. The final step develops an approach which utilizes both the filtered LFL DEMs, and the modeled error introduced by terrain slope to improve both sub-canopy elevation models, and above ground LFL waveform metrics. DRL and LVIS data from Barro Colorado Island, Panama, and La Selva, Costa Rica were used to develop and test the algorithm. Acknowledgements: Special thanks to Dr. Jim Dilling for providing the DRL lidar data for Barro Colorado Island.

  14. Measuring Your School's Ecological Footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk Julie; Cameron Tim

    2000-01-01

    Explaining ecological footprint analyses, this activity consists of a survey as a preliminary activity. Presents the survey questions and a chart of required calculations for ecological footprint activity. Lists the chart in five categories: waste management, energy, water, transportation, green space, and food. Provides information for follow-up…

  15. Muscle injury: review of experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Jaqueline de; Gottfried, Carmem

    2013-12-01

    Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the human body. Its main characteristic is the capacity to regenerate after injury independent of the cause of injury through a process called inflammatory response. Mechanical injuries are the most common type of the skeletal muscle injuries and are classified into one of three areas strain, contusion, and laceration. First, this review aims to describe and compare the main experimental methods that replicate the mechanical muscle injuries. There are several ways to replicate each kind of mechanical injury; there are, however, specific characteristics that must be taken into account when choosing the most appropriate model for the experiment. Finally, this review discusses the context of mechanical injury considering types, variability of methods, and the ability to reproduce injury models. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Organ models in wound ballistics: experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Mustafa Tahir; Oğünç, Gökhan; Eryilmaz, Mehmet; Yiğit, Taner; Menteş, Mustafa Oner; Dakak, Mehmet; Uzar, Ali Ihsan; Oner, Köksal

    2007-01-01

    Effects of various types and diameters of guns and related treatment principles are different. Our study was performed to experimentally demonstrate the effects of different gunshots in body tissues. 9x19 mm hand-gun and 7.62x51 mm G-3 infantry rifle were used in the study. Injury models were created through hand-gun and rifle shootings at isolated soft tissue, lower extremity, liver and intestine tissue simulants made of ballistic candle. High-speed cameras were used to capture 1000 frames per second. Images were examined and wound mechanisms were evaluated. It was observed that the colon content distributed more within the surrounding tissues by the rifle shootings comparing with hand-gun shootings and could be an infection source due to the large size of the cavity in the colon. Especially when the bullets hitting the bone were investigated, it was seen that much more tissue injury occurs with high speed bullets due to bullet deformation and fragmentation. However, no significant difference was found between the effect of hand-gun and rifle bullets passing through the extremity without hitting the bone. To know the type of the gun that caused the injury and its characteristics will allow to estimate severity and size of the injury before the treatment and to focus on different alternatives of treatment. Therefore, use of appropriate models is required in experimental studies.

  17. Progress and Prospects for Tourism Footprint Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shuxin Wang; Yiyuan Hu; Hong He; Genxu Wang

    2017-01-01

    ...) and the tourism water footprint (TWF). The tourism footprint represents an important tool for quantitatively assessing the impact of tourism activities on the ecosystem of a tourist destination...

  18. Experimental Basis for IED Particle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng-Johansson, J.

    2009-05-01

    The internally electrodynamic (IED) particle model is built on three experimental facts: a) electric charges present in all matter particles, b) an accelerated charge generates electromagnetic (EM) waves by Maxwell's equations and Planck energy equation, and c) source motion gives Doppler effect. A set of well-kwon basic particle equations have been predicted based on first-principles solutions for IED particle (e.g. arxiv:0812.3951, J Phys CS128, 012019, 2008); the equations are long experimentally validated. A critical review of the key experiments suggests that the IED process underlies these equations not just sufficiently but also necessarily. E.g.: 1) A free IED electron solution is a plane wave ψ= Ce^i(kdX-φT) requisite for producing the diffraction fringe in a Davisson-Germer experiment, and of also all basic point-like attributes facilitated by a linear momentum kd and the model structure. It needs not further be a wave packet which produces not a diffraction fringe. 2)The radial partial EM waves, hence the total ψ, of an IED electron will, on both EM theory and experiment basis -not by assumption, enter two slits at the same time, as is requisite for an electron to interfere with itself as shown in double slit experiments. 3) On annihilation, an electron converts (from mass m) to a radiation energy φ without an acceleration which is externally observable and yet requisite by EM theory. So a charge oscillation of frequency φ and its EM waves must regularly present internal of a normal electron, whence the IED model.

  19. Coupling life-cycle assessment and the RothC model to estimate the carbon footprint of green manure-based wheat production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Dabin; Yao, Pengwei; Zhao, Na; Liu, Na; Zhai, Bingnian; Zhang, Suiqi; Li, Yangyang; Huang, Donglin; Cao, Weidong; Gao, Yajun

    2017-12-31

    Reducing the carbon footprint (CF) of crop production is an efficient way to mitigate climate change. Growing legume green manure (LGM) instead of summer fallow may achieve this goal by lowering synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer needs and replenishing the depleted soil carbon (C) pool. The Rothamsted Carbon (RothC) model was incorporated into the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the present and projected CFs of green manure-based wheat production systems in dryland agriculture on the Loess Plateau of China. The field study included four main treatments (Huai bean, soybean and mung bean grown as green manure in summer and fallow as control) and four synthetic N rates (0, 108, 135 and 162kgNha(-1)) applied at wheat sowing. Soybean as LGM increased averaged wheat yield over 4 synthetic N rates by 8% compared with fallow (P<0.05), and synthetic N requirement was reduced by 33% without compromising the wheat yield for all the main treatments. Although LGM treatments had higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural inputs, the greater amount of C inputs elevated the corresponding SOC stocks (SOCS) by 14-24% after 8years, thus significantly reducing the CF by 25-51% compared with fallow. The modelled SOCS equilibrium indicates that the CF for cropping systems with LGM will be 53-62% lower than fallow and 23-37% lower compared with their current level. In conclusion, introducing legume green manure instead of summer fallow is a highly efficient measure for persistent CF reduction, and coupling the RothC model and LCA is an alternative method to predict the long-term impact of different cropping systems on GHG emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Review of water footprint components of grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Wan Amiza Amneera Wan; Meriam Nik Sulaiman, Nik; Zalina Mahmood, Noor

    2017-06-01

    Burgeoning global population, economic development, agriculture and prevailing climate pattern are among aspects contributed to water scarcity. In low and middle income countries, agriculture takes the highest share among water user sector. Demand for grain is widespread all over the globe. Hence, this study review published papers regarding quantification of water footprint of grain. Review shows there are various methods in quantifying water footprint. In ascertaining water footprint, three (green, blue, grey) or two (green, blue) components of water footprint involved. However, there was a study introduced new term in evaluating water footprint, white water footprint. The vulnerability of varying methods is difficulty in conducting comparative among water footprint. Salient source in contributing high water footprint also varies. In some studies, green water footprint play major role. Conversely, few studies found out blue water footprint most contributing component in water footprint. This fluctuate pattern influenced by various aspects, namely, regional climatic characteristics, crop yield and crop types.

  1. Footprint Location Prediction Method of ZY3-02 Altimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Xinming

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available On-orbit geometric calibration is an essential way to improve plane and elevation accuracy of laser altimeter data, and the laser footprint location prediction is a prerequisite for calibration based on land infrared detector. This paper builds a laser footprint location prediction model for China's first space-borne laser altimeter carried by ZY3-02, which refers to the satellite optical camera rigorous geometry imaging model. The model takes full account of the law of platform movement, and correlates laser emission center with ground footprint point. We get the precise predicted laser pointing by Pyramid terrain matching, ephemerisby acceleration prediction, and attitude by frequency analysis. The laser footprint location can be predicted. This laser footprint location prediction model were successfully applied in the calibration test of the laser altimeter on ZY3-02 satellite, and the maximum error between the predicted location and real footprint location obtained by triggered detectors is less than 150 m, which proves the validity of the proposed model. The proposed method provides the precise point-to-point prediction from satellite to ground for Chinese remote sensing satellite, and offers a technological support for the space-borne laser altimeter calibration in future.

  2. Experimental models of autoimmune inflammatory ocular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Gasparin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ocular inflammation is one of the leading causes of blindness and loss of vision. Human uveitis is a complex and heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by inflammation of intraocular tissues. The eye may be the only organ involved, or uveitis may be part of a systemic disease. A significant number of cases are of unknown etiology and are labeled idiopathic. Animal models have been developed to the study of the physiopathogenesis of autoimmune uveitis due to the difficulty in obtaining human eye inflamed tissues for experiments. Most of those models are induced by injection of specific photoreceptors proteins (e.g., S-antigen, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, rhodopsin, recoverin, phosducin. Non-retinal antigens, including melanin-associated proteins and myelin basic protein, are also good inducers of uveitis in animals. Understanding the basic mechanisms and pathogenesis of autoimmune ocular diseases are essential for the development of new treatment approaches and therapeutic agents. The present review describes the main experimental models of autoimmune ocular inflammatory diseases.

  3. A human experimental model of episodic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrini, Laura; Hennings, Kristian; Li, Xi

    2014-01-01

    were subjected to 45 min of intense painful cutaneous electrical stimulation (episodic pain session), using a stimulus paradigm that in animals has been shown to induce long-term potentiation. These electrical stimulations produced a verbal pain rating of approximately 85 on a 0-100 verbal rating scale......An experimental model of daily episodic pain was developed to investigate peripheral sensitization and cortical reorganization in healthy individuals. Two experiments (A and B) were conducted. Experiments A and B consisted of one and five consecutive days, respectively, in which the participants...... (VRS). Physiological (blood flow and axon flare reflex), psychophysical (perception threshold and verbal pain ratings) and electrophysiological (128 channels recorded somatosensory evoked potential (SEP)) measurements were recorded. The stimulation evoked a visible axon flare reflex and caused...

  4. Water footprint assessment of oil palm in Malaysia: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad-Muaz, A.; Marlia, M. H.

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluates the water footprint of growing oil palm in Malaysia based on the water footprint method. The crop water use was determined using the CROPWAT 8.0 model developed by the Land and Water Development Division of FAO. The total water footprint for growing oil palm is 243 m3/ton. The result of this study showed that the green water footprint is 1.5 orders of magnitude larger compared to the blue water footprint. Besides providing updated status of total water used from the oil palm plantation, our result also shows that this baseline information helps in identifying which areas need to be conserved and what type of recommendation that should be drawn. As the results of the water footprint can differ between locations, the inclusion of local water stress index should be considered in the calculation of water footprint.

  5. Experimental validation of model Hortel Whillier; Validacion experimental del model de Hottel-Whillier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Munoz, F.; Cejudo Lopez, J. M.; Carrillo andres, A.

    2010-07-01

    Comparing the results of testing of a commercial flat-plate solar collector with a detailed implementation model of Hottel Whillier fin and tube. The validation procedure is based on comparing experimental and theoretical curves and more likely uncertainty bands. the model correctly predicts the end of profits and underestimates the 5% of losses, although a sensitivity analysis shows that this result is not attributable to the model itself but to the inputs with which it was implemented. The model has difficulty differentiating between the terms of linear and quadratic losses that appear in the quadratic fit curve. (Author) 1 refs.

  6. The uncertain climate footprint of wetlands under human pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Ana Maria Roxana; Lohila, Annalea; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Roulet, Nigel T.; Vesala, Timo; Dolman, Albertus Johannes; Oechel, Walter C.; Marcolla, Barbara; Friborg, Thomas; Rinne, Janne; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala; Merbold, Lutz; Meijide, Ana; Kiely, Gerard; Sottocornola, Matteo; Sachs, Torsten; Zona, Donatella; Varlagin, Andrej; Lai, Derrick Y. F.; Veenendaal, Elmar; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.; Skiba, Ute; Lund, Magnus; Hensen, Arjan; van Huissteden, Jacobus; Flanagan, Lawrence B.; Shurpali, Narasinha J.; Grünwald, Thomas; Humphreys, Elyn R.; Jackowicz-Korczyński, Marcin; Aurela, Mika A.; Laurila, Tuomas; Grüning, Carsten; Corradi, Chiara A. R.; Schrier-Uijl, Arina P.; Christensen, Torben R.; Tamstorf, Mikkel P.; Mastepanov, Mikhail; Martikainen, Pertti J.; Verma, Shashi B.; Bernhofer, Christian; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Significant climate risks are associated with a positive carbon–temperature feedback in northern latitude carbon-rich ecosystems, making an accurate analysis of human impacts on the net greenhouse gas balance of wetlands a priority. Here, we provide a coherent assessment of the climate footprint of a network of wetland sites based on simultaneous and quasi-continuous ecosystem observations of CO2 and CH4 fluxes. Experimental areas are located both in natural and in managed wetlands and cover a wide range of climatic regions, ecosystem types, and management practices. Based on direct observations we predict that sustained CH4 emissions in natural ecosystems are in the long term (i.e., several centuries) typically offset by CO2 uptake, although with large spatiotemporal variability. Using a space-for-time analogy across ecological and climatic gradients, we represent the chronosequence from natural to managed conditions to quantify the “cost” of CH4 emissions for the benefit of net carbon sequestration. With a sustained pulse–response radiative forcing model, we found a significant increase in atmospheric forcing due to land management, in particular for wetland converted to cropland. Our results quantify the role of human activities on the climate footprint of northern wetlands and call for development of active mitigation strategies for managed wetlands and new guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) accounting for both sustained CH4 emissions and cumulative CO2 exchange. PMID:25831506

  7. The uncertain climate footprint of wetlands under human pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Ana Maria Roxana; Lohila, Annalea; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Baldocchi, Dennis D; Desai, Ankur R; Roulet, Nigel T; Vesala, Timo; Dolman, Albertus Johannes; Oechel, Walter C; Marcolla, Barbara; Friborg, Thomas; Rinne, Janne; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala; Merbold, Lutz; Meijide, Ana; Kiely, Gerard; Sottocornola, Matteo; Sachs, Torsten; Zona, Donatella; Varlagin, Andrej; Lai, Derrick Y F; Veenendaal, Elmar; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W; Skiba, Ute; Lund, Magnus; Hensen, Arjan; van Huissteden, Jacobus; Flanagan, Lawrence B; Shurpali, Narasinha J; Grünwald, Thomas; Humphreys, Elyn R; Jackowicz-Korczyński, Marcin; Aurela, Mika A; Laurila, Tuomas; Grüning, Carsten; Corradi, Chiara A R; Schrier-Uijl, Arina P; Christensen, Torben R; Tamstorf, Mikkel P; Mastepanov, Mikhail; Martikainen, Pertti J; Verma, Shashi B; Bernhofer, Christian; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2015-04-14

    Significant climate risks are associated with a positive carbon-temperature feedback in northern latitude carbon-rich ecosystems, making an accurate analysis of human impacts on the net greenhouse gas balance of wetlands a priority. Here, we provide a coherent assessment of the climate footprint of a network of wetland sites based on simultaneous and quasi-continuous ecosystem observations of CO2 and CH4 fluxes. Experimental areas are located both in natural and in managed wetlands and cover a wide range of climatic regions, ecosystem types, and management practices. Based on direct observations we predict that sustained CH4 emissions in natural ecosystems are in the long term (i.e., several centuries) typically offset by CO2 uptake, although with large spatiotemporal variability. Using a space-for-time analogy across ecological and climatic gradients, we represent the chronosequence from natural to managed conditions to quantify the "cost" of CH4 emissions for the benefit of net carbon sequestration. With a sustained pulse-response radiative forcing model, we found a significant increase in atmospheric forcing due to land management, in particular for wetland converted to cropland. Our results quantify the role of human activities on the climate footprint of northern wetlands and call for development of active mitigation strategies for managed wetlands and new guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) accounting for both sustained CH4 emissions and cumulative CO2 exchange.

  8. Minimizing the Carbon Footprint for the Time-Dependent Heterogeneous-Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with Alternative Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Yu Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Torespondto the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, this paper investigates the minimal-carbon-footprint time-dependent heterogeneous-fleet vehicle routing problem with alternative paths (MTHVRPP. This finds a route with the smallestcarbon footprint, instead of the shortestroute distance, which is the conventional approach, to serve a number of customers with a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles in cases wherethere may not be only one path between each pair of customers, and the vehicle speed differs at different times of the day. Inheriting from the NP-hardness of the vehicle routing problem, the MTHVRPP is also NP-hard. This paper further proposes a genetic algorithm (GA to solve this problem. The solution representedbyour GA determines the customer serving ordering of each vehicle type. Then, the capacity check is used to classify multiple routes of each vehicle type, and the path selection determines the detailed paths of each route. Additionally, this paper improves the energy consumption model used for calculating the carbon footprint amount more precisely. Compared with the results without alternative paths, our experimental results show that the alternative path in this experimenthas a significant impact on the experimental results in terms of carbon footprint.

  9. Effects of Anethole in Nociception Experimental Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mileni Versuti Ritter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the antinociceptive activity of anethole (anethole 1-methoxy-4-benzene (1-propenyl, major compound of the essential oil of star anise (Illicium verum, in different experimental models of nociception. The animals were pretreated with anethole (62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg one hour before the experiments. To eliminate a possible sedative effect of anethole, the open field test was conducted. Anethole (62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg showed an antinociceptive effect in the writhing model induced by acetic acid, in the second phase of the formalin test (125 and 250 mg/kg in the test of glutamate (62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg, and expresses pain induced by ACF (250 mg/kg. In contrast, anethole was not able to increase the latency time on the hot plate and decrease the number of flinches during the initial phase of the formalin test in any of the doses tested. It was also demonstrated that anethole has no association with sedative effects. Therefore, these data showed that anethole, at all used doses, has no sedative effect and has an antinociceptive effect. This effect may be due to a decrease in the production/release of inflammatory mediators.

  10. Tendon healing in vivo. An experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsson, S O; Lundborg, G; Lohmander, L S

    1989-01-01

    Flexor tendon segments were incubated in a diffusion chamber in the subcutis of rabbits. Tendons incubated up to 6 weeks in the diffusion chamber showed proliferating and migrating cells from the epitenon cell layer as well as viable endotenon cells. Explants frozen in liquid nitrogen prior to incubation showed no signs of extrinsic cell contamination and remained non-viable indicating that no cell penetration occurred through the Millipore filter and that cell division seen in non-frozen and incubated tendons was an expression of intrinsic cellular proliferative capacity of the tendon. In tendon segments incubated in chambers for three weeks, collagen synthesis was reduced by 50% and the rate of cell proliferation measured as 3H-thymidine incorporation, was 15 times that of native tendons. Frozen and incubated tendons showed only traces of remaining matrix synthesis or cell proliferation. With this experimental model we have histologically and biochemically shown that tendons may survive and heal while the nutrition exclusively could be based on diffusion and the tendons have an intrinsic capacity of healing. The described model enables further studies on tendon healing and its regulation.

  11. Toward a nitrogen footprint calculator for Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, Mary Olivia; Leach, A.M.; Leip, Adrian; J. N. Galloway; Bekunda, M.; Sullivan, C.; Lesschen, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first nitrogen footprint model for a developing country: Tanzania. Nitrogen (N) is a crucial element for agriculture and human nutrition, but in excess it can cause serious environmental damage. The Sub-Saharan African nation of Tanzania faces a two-sided nitrogen problem: while there is not enough soil nitrogen to produce adequate food, excess nitrogen that escapes into the environment causes a cascade of ecological and human health problems. To identify, quantify, and contrib...

  12. Experimental models for Murray’s law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, Dai; Kunita, Itsuki; Fricker, Mark D.; Kuroda, Shigeru; Sato, Katsuhiko; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Transport networks are ubiquitous in multicellular organisms and include leaf veins, fungal mycelia and blood vessels. While transport of materials and signals through the network plays a crucial role in maintaining the living system, the transport capacity of the network can best be understood in terms of hydrodynamics. We report here that plasmodium from the large, single-celled amoeboid Physarum was able to construct a hydrodynamically optimized vein-network when evacuating biomass from confined arenas of various shapes through a narrow exit. Increasingly thick veins developed towards the exit, and the network spanned the arena via repetitive bifurcations to give a branching tree. The Hausdorff distance from all parts of the plasmodium to the vein network was kept low, whilst the hydrodynamic conductivity from distal parts of the network to the exit was equivalent, irrespective of the arena shape. This combination of spatial patterning and differential vein thickening served to evacuate biomass at an equivalent rate across the entire arena. The scaling relationship at the vein branches was determined experimentally to be 2.53-3.29, consistent with predictions from Murray’s law. Furthermore, we show that mathematical models for self-organised, adaptive transport in Physarum simulate the experimental network organisation well if the scaling coefficient of the current-reinforcement rule is set to 3. In simulations, this resulted in rapid development of an optimal network that minimised the combined volume and frictional energy in comparison with other scaling coefficients. This would predict that the boundary shear forces within each vein are constant throughout the network, and would be consistent with a feedback mechanism based on a sensing a threshold shear at the vein wall.

  13. A Greenhouse Gas and Soil Carbon Model for Estimating the Carbon Footprint of Livestock Production in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. McConkey

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To assess tradeoffs between environmental sustainability and changes in food production on agricultural land in Canada the Unified Livestock Industry and Crop Emissions Estimation System (ULICEES was developed. It incorporates four livestock specific GHG assessments in a single model. To demonstrate the application of ULICEES, 10% of beef cattle protein production was assumed to be displaced with an equivalent amount of pork protein. Without accounting for the loss of soil carbon, this 10% shift reduced GHG emissions by 2.5 TgCO2e y−1. The payback period was defined as the number of years required for a GHG reduction to equal soil carbon lost from the associated land use shift. A payback period that is shorter than 40 years represents a net long term decrease in GHG emissions. Displacing beef cattle with hogs resulted in a surplus area of forage. When this residual land was left in ungrazed perennial forage, the payback periods were less than 4 years and when it was reseeded to annual crops, they were equal to or less than 40 years. They were generally greater than 40 years when this land was used to raise cattle. Agricultural GHG mitigation policies will inevitably involve a trade-off between production, land use and GHG emission reduction. ULICEES is a model that can objectively assess these trade-offs for Canadian agriculture.

  14. A Greenhouse Gas and Soil Carbon Model for Estimating the Carbon Footprint of Livestock Production in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergé, Xavier P C; Dyer, James A; Worth, Devon E; Smith, Ward N; Desjardins, Raymond L; McConkey, Brian G

    2012-09-04

    To assess tradeoffs between environmental sustainability and changes in food production on agricultural land in Canada the Unified Livestock Industry and Crop Emissions Estimation System (ULICEES) was developed. It incorporates four livestock specific GHG assessments in a single model. To demonstrate the application of ULICEES, 10% of beef cattle protein production was assumed to be displaced with an equivalent amount of pork protein. Without accounting for the loss of soil carbon, this 10% shift reduced GHG emissions by 2.5 TgCO₂e y(-1). The payback period was defined as the number of years required for a GHG reduction to equal soil carbon lost from the associated land use shift. A payback period that is shorter than 40 years represents a net long term decrease in GHG emissions. Displacing beef cattle with hogs resulted in a surplus area of forage. When this residual land was left in ungrazed perennial forage, the payback periods were less than 4 years and when it was reseeded to annual crops, they were equal to or less than 40 years. They were generally greater than 40 years when this land was used to raise cattle. Agricultural GHG mitigation policies will inevitably involve a trade-off between production, land use and GHG emission reduction. ULICEES is a model that can objectively assess these trade-offs for Canadian agriculture.

  15. Footprint-free human fetal foreskin derived iPSCs: A tool for modeling hepatogenesis associated gene regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Peggy; Wruck, Wasco; Fauler, Beatrix; Herebian, Diran; Mielke, Thorsten; Adjaye, James

    2017-07-24

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are similar to embryonic stem cells and can be generated from somatic cells. We have generated episomal plasmid-based and integration-free iPSCs (E-iPSCs) from human fetal foreskin fibroblast cells (HFF1). We used an E-iPSC-line to model hepatogenesis in vitro. The HLCs were characterized biochemically, i.e. glycogen storage, ICG uptake and release, UREA and bile acid production, as well as CYP3A4 activity. Ultra-structure analysis by electron microscopy revealed the presence of lipid and glycogen storage, tight junctions and bile canaliculi- all typical features of hepatocytes. Furthermore, the transcriptome of undifferentiated E-iPSC, DE, HE and HLCs were compared to that of fetal liver and primary human hepatocytes (PHH). K-means clustering identified 100 clusters which include developmental stage-specific groups of genes, e.g. OCT4 expression at the undifferentiated stage, SOX17 marking the DE stage, DLK and HNF6 the HE stage, HNF4α and Albumin is specific to HLCs, fetal liver and adult liver (PHH) stage. We use E-iPSCs for modeling gene regulatory networks associated with human hepatogenesis and gastrulation in general.

  16. A better carbon footprint label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Nielsen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    Based on insights from behavioral economics, it is suggested to extend carbon footprint labeling with information about relative performance, using the well-known “traffic light” color scheme to communicate relative performance. To test this proposition, the impact of a carbon footprint label......, participants saw the original Carbon Trust label and in the other condition they saw the same label, but with traffic light colors added to communicate the product’s relative performance in terms of carbon footprint. All included attributes were found to have a significant impact on consumer choices....... As expected, price and carbon footprint were negatively related to choice. Further, participants preferred organic to non-organic coffee and certification by a public authority. The effect of the carbon label is significantly stronger the more environmentally concerned the consumer is. Using colors...

  17. Cooperative water network system to reduce carbon footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Park, Jong Moon

    2008-08-15

    Much effort has been made in reducing the carbon footprint to mitigate climate change. However, water network synthesis has been focused on reducing the consumption and cost of freshwater within each industrial plant. The objective of this study is to illustrate the necessity of the cooperation of industrial plants to reduce the total carbon footprint of their water supply systems. A mathematical optimization model to minimize global warming potentials is developed to synthesize (1) a cooperative water network system (WNS) integrated over two plants and (2) an individual WNS consisting of two WNSs separated for each plant. The cooperative WNS is compared to the individual WNS. The cooperation reduces their carbon footprint and is economically feasible and profitable. A strategy for implementing the cooperation is suggested for the fair distribution of costs and benefits. As a consequence, industrial plants should cooperate with their neighbor plants to further reduce the carbon footprint.

  18. Holocene footprints in Namibia: the influence of substrate on footprint variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Sarita A; Bennett, Matthew R; Liutkus-Pierce, Cynthia; Thackeray, Francis; McClymont, Juliet; Savage, Russell; Crompton, Robin H

    2013-06-01

    We report a Holocene human and animal footprint site from the Namib Sand Sea, south of Walvis Bay, Namibia. Using these data, we explore intratrail footprint variability associated with small variations in substrate properties using a "whole foot" analytical technique developed for the studies in human ichnology. We demonstrate high levels of intratrail variability as a result of variations in grain size, depositional moisture content, and the degree of sediment disturbance, all of which determine the bearing capacity of the substrate. The two principal trails were examined, which had consistent stride and step lengths, and as such variations in print typology were primarily controlled by substrate rather than locomotor mechanics. Footprint typology varies with bearing capacity such that firm substrates show limited impressions associated with areas of peak plantar pressure, whereas softer substrates are associated with deep prints with narrow heels and reduced medial longitudinal arches. Substrates of medium bearing capacity give displacement rims and proximal movement of sediment, which obscures the true form of the medial longitudinal arch. A simple conceptual model is offered which summarizes these conclusions and is presented as a basis for further investigation into the control of substrate on footprint typology. The method, model, and results presented here are essential in the interpretation of any sites of greater paleoanthropological significance, such as recently reported from Ileret (1.5 Ma, Kenya; Bennett et al.: Science 323 (2009) 1197-1201). Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Which Genetics Variants in DNase-Seq Footprints Are More Likely to Alter Binding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Moyerbrailean

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Large experimental efforts are characterizing the regulatory genome, yet we are still missing a systematic definition of functional and silent genetic variants in non-coding regions. Here, we integrated DNaseI footprinting data with sequence-based transcription factor (TF motif models to predict the impact of a genetic variant on TF binding across 153 tissues and 1,372 TF motifs. Each annotation we derived is specific for a cell-type condition or assay and is locally motif-driven. We found 5.8 million genetic variants in footprints, 66% of which are predicted by our model to affect TF binding. Comprehensive examination using allele-specific hypersensitivity (ASH reveals that only the latter group consistently shows evidence for ASH (3,217 SNPs at 20% FDR, suggesting that most (97% genetic variants in footprinted regulatory regions are indeed silent. Combining this information with GWAS data reveals that our annotation helps in computationally fine-mapping 86 SNPs in GWAS hit regions with at least a 2-fold increase in the posterior odds of picking the causal SNP. The rich meta information provided by the tissue-specificity and the identity of the putative TF binding site being affected also helps in identifying the underlying mechanism supporting the association. As an example, the enrichment for LDL level-associated SNPs is 9.1-fold higher among SNPs predicted to affect HNF4 binding sites than in a background model already including tissue-specific annotation.

  20. Progress and Prospects for Tourism Footprint Research

    OpenAIRE

    Shuxin Wang; Yiyuan Hu; Hong He; Genxu Wang

    2017-01-01

    The tourism footprint family comprises the tourism ecological footprint (TEF), the tourism carbon footprint (TCF) and the tourism water footprint (TWF). The tourism footprint represents an important tool for quantitatively assessing the impact of tourism activities on the ecosystem of a tourist destination. This paper systematically reviews the relevant literature on TEF, TCF and TWF, analyses and summarizes the main progress and failures in the analytical frameworks, research methods, measur...

  1. AcquisitionFootprintAttenuationDrivenbySeismicAttributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuellar-Urbano Mayra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition footprint, one of the major problems that PEMEX faces in seismic imaging, is noise highly correlated to the geometric array of sources and receivers used for onshore and offshore seismic acquisitions. It prevails in spite of measures taken during acquisition and data processing. This pattern, throughout the image, is easily confused with geological features and misguides seismic attribute computation. In this work, we use seismic data from PEMEX Exploración y Producción to show the conditioning process for removing random and coherent noise using linear filters. Geometric attributes used in a workflow were computed for obtaining an acquisition footprint noise model and adaptively subtract it from the seismic data.

  2. Decomposition of small-footprint full waveform LiDAR data based on generalized Gaussian model and grouping LM optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongchao; Zhou, Weiwei; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Suyuan

    2017-04-01

    Full waveform airborne Light Detection And Ranging(LiDAR) data contains abundant information which may overcome some deficiencies of discrete LiDAR point cloud data provided by conventional LiDAR systems. Processing full waveform data to extract more information than coordinate values alone is of great significance for potential applications. The Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm is a traditional method used to estimate parameters of a Gaussian model when Gaussian decomposition of full waveform LiDAR data is performed. This paper employs the generalized Gaussian mixture function to fit a waveform, and proposes using the grouping LM algorithm to optimize the parameters of the function. It is shown that the grouping LM algorithm overcomes the common drawbacks which arise from the conventional LM for parameter optimization, such as the final results being influenced by the initial parameters, possible algorithm interruption caused by non-numerical elements that occurred in the Jacobian matrix, etc. The precision of the point cloud generated by the grouping LM is evaluated by comparing it with those provided by the LiDAR system and those generated by the conventional LM. Results from both simulation and real data show that the proposed algorithm can generate a higher-quality point cloud, in terms of point density and precision, and can extract other information, such as echo location, pulse width, etc., more precisely as well.

  3. City Carbon Footprint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwu Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.

  4. Spatially Explicit Analysis of Water Footprints in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Barrett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Water Footprint, as an indicator of water consumption has become increasingly popular for analyzing environmental issues associated with the use of water resources in the global supply chain of consumer goods. This is particularly relevant for countries like the UK, which increasingly rely on products produced elsewhere in the world and thus impose pressures on foreign water resources. Existing studies calculating water footprints are mostly based on process analysis, and results are mainly available at the national level. The current paper assesses the domestic and foreign water requirements for UK final consumption by applying an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model in combination with geo-demographic consumer segmentation data. This approach allows us to calculate water footprints (both direct and indirect for different products as well as different geographies within the UK. We distinguished between production and consumption footprints where the former is the total water consumed from the UK domestic water resources by the production activities in the UK and the latter is the total water consumed from both domestic and global water resources to satisfy the UK domestic final consumption. The results show that the production water footprint is 439 m3/cap/year, 85% of which is for the final consumption in the UK itself. The average consumption water footprint of the UK is more than three times bigger than the UK production water footprint in 2006. About half of the UK consumption water footprints were associated with imports from Non-OECD countries (many of which are water-scarce, while around 19% were from EU-OECD countries, and only 3% from Non-EU-OECD countries. We find that the water footprint differs considerably across sub-national geographies in the UK, and the differences are as big as 273 m3/cap/year for the internal water footprint and 802 m3/cap/year for the external water footprint. Our results suggest

  5. Injury Based on Its Study in Experimental Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mendes-Braz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review focuses on the numerous experimental models used to study the complexity of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. Although experimental models of hepatic I/R injury represent a compromise between the clinical reality and experimental simplification, the clinical transfer of experimental results is problematic because of anatomical and physiological differences and the inevitable simplification of experimental work. In this review, the strengths and limitations of the various models of hepatic I/R are discussed. Several strategies to protect the liver from I/R injury have been developed in animal models and, some of these, might find their way into clinical practice. We also attempt to highlight the fact that the mechanisms responsible for hepatic I/R injury depend on the experimental model used, and therefore the therapeutic strategies also differ according to the model used. Thus, the choice of model must therefore be adapted to the clinical question being answered.

  6. Biomass thermochemical gasification: Experimental studies and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay

    The overall goals of this research were to study the biomass thermochemical gasification using experimental and modeling techniques, and to evaluate the cost of industrial gas production and combined heat and power generation. This dissertation includes an extensive review of progresses in biomass thermochemical gasification. Product gases from biomass gasification can be converted to biopower, biofuels and chemicals. However, for its viable commercial applications, the study summarizes the technical challenges in the gasification and downstream processing of product gas. Corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a non-fermentable byproduct of ethanol production, were used as the biomass feedstocks. One of the objectives was to determine selected physical and chemical properties of corn stover related to thermochemical conversion. The parameters of the reaction kinetics for weight loss were obtained. The next objective was to investigate the effects of temperature, steam to biomass ratio and equivalence ratio on gas composition and efficiencies. DDGS gasification was performed on a lab-scale fluidized-bed gasifier with steam and air as fluidizing and oxidizing agents. Increasing the temperature resulted in increases in hydrogen and methane contents and efficiencies. A model was developed to simulate the performance of a lab-scale gasifier using Aspen Plus(TM) software. Mass balance, energy balance and minimization of Gibbs free energy were applied for the gasification to determine the product gas composition. The final objective was to optimize the process by maximizing the net energy efficiency, and to estimate the cost of industrial gas, and combined heat and power (CHP) at a biomass feedrate of 2000 kg/h. The selling price of gas was estimated to be 11.49/GJ for corn stover, and 13.08/GJ for DDGS. For CHP generation, the electrical and net efficiencies were 37 and 86%, respectively for corn stover, and 34 and 78%, respectively for DDGS. For

  7. PMWS: Experimental model and co-infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allan, G. M.; McNeilly, F.; Ellis, J

    2004-01-01

    and pneumonia and typical histological lesions include lymphocytic depletion and multinucleated giant cell formation in lymph nodes, degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes, and multifocal lymphohistocytic interstitial pneumonia. This communication will review the results of experimental infections...

  8. Progress and Prospects for Tourism Footprint Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxin Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The tourism footprint family comprises the tourism ecological footprint (TEF, the tourism carbon footprint (TCF and the tourism water footprint (TWF. The tourism footprint represents an important tool for quantitatively assessing the impact of tourism activities on the ecosystem of a tourist destination. This paper systematically reviews the relevant literature on TEF, TCF and TWF, analyses and summarizes the main progress and failures in the analytical frameworks, research methods, measurement results, environmental impacts and reductions in the tourism footprint. This paper also proposes areas for further developing the tourism footprint research, including unifying the analytical frameworks and boundaries of the tourism footprint, distinguishing the geographical scope of the tourism footprint effectively, improving the process of analyzing the environmental impact of the tourism footprint, measuring the tourism footprint scientifically and roundly, performing space-time calculations of the tourism footprint, and expanding the tourism footprint family by introducing new members. Accordingly, this paper is devoted to the continued study of the tourism footprint.

  9. Human Decisions: Nitrogen Footprints and Environmental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, A. M.; Bleeker, A.; Galloway, J. N.; Erisman, J.

    2012-12-01

    Human consumption choices are responsible for growing losses of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to the environment. Once in the environment, Nr can cause a cascade of negative impacts such as smog, acid rain, coastal eutrophication, climate change, and biodiversity loss. Although all humans must consume nitrogen as protein, the food production process releases substantial Nr to the environment. This dilemma presents a challenge: how do we feed a growing population while reducing Nr? Although top-down strategies to reduce Nr losses (e.g., emissions controls) are necessary, the bottom-up strategies focusing on personal consumption patterns will be imperative to solve the nitrogen challenge. Understanding the effects of different personal choices on Nr losses and the environment is an important first step for this strategy. This paper will utilize information and results from the N-Calculator, a per capita nitrogen footprint model (www.N-Print.org), to analyze the impact of different food consumption patterns on a personal food nitrogen footprint and the environment. Scenarios will analyze the impact of the following dietary patterns on the average United States (28 kg Nr/cap/yr) food nitrogen footprint: 1) Consuming only the recommended protein as defined by the WHO and the USDA; 2) Reducing food waste by 50%; 3) Consuming a vegetarian diet; 4) Consuming a vegan diet; 5) Consuming a demitarian diet (replacing half of animal protein consumption with vegetable protein); 6) Substituting chicken (a more efficient animal protein) with beef (a less efficient animal protein); 7) Consuming sustainably-produced food; and 8) Using advanced wastewater treatment. Preliminary results suggest that widespread advanced wastewater treatment with nutrient removal technology and halving food waste would each reduce the US personal food nitrogen footprint by 13%. In addition, reducing protein consumption to the recommended levels would reduce the footprint by about 42%. Combining these measures

  10. Metaheuristics for a tectonic development of hospital design footprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Malene Kirstine; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2014-01-01

    The present paper presents a model for footprint generation of hospital design based on functionalities. The model takes point of departure in layout generation for hospitals by use of a metaheuristic approach. The hospital functionalities with respective constraints lead a decomposition of the h......The present paper presents a model for footprint generation of hospital design based on functionalities. The model takes point of departure in layout generation for hospitals by use of a metaheuristic approach. The hospital functionalities with respective constraints lead a decomposition...

  11. Dynamic vehicle model for handling performance using experimental data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SangDo Na

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An analytical vehicle model is essential for the development of vehicle design and performance. Various vehicle models have different complexities, assumptions and limitations depending on the type of vehicle analysis. An accurate full vehicle model is essential in representing the behaviour of the vehicle in order to estimate vehicle dynamic system performance such as ride comfort and handling. An experimental vehicle model is developed in this article, which employs experimental kinematic and compliance data measured between the wheel and chassis. From these data, a vehicle model, which includes dynamic effects due to vehicle geometry changes, has been developed. The experimental vehicle model was validated using an instrumented experimental vehicle and data such as a step change steering input. This article shows a process to develop and validate an experimental vehicle model to enhance the accuracy of handling performance, which comes from precise suspension model measured by experimental data of a vehicle. The experimental force data obtained from a suspension parameter measuring device are employed for a precise modelling of the steering and handling response. The steering system is modelled by a lumped model, with stiffness coefficients defined and identified by comparing steering stiffness obtained by the measured data. The outputs, specifically the yaw rate and lateral acceleration of the vehicle, are verified by experimental results.

  12. Mathematical Footprints Discovering Mathematics Everywhere

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, Theoni

    1999-01-01

    MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS takes a creative look at the role mathematics has played since prehistoric times, and will play in the future, and uncovers mathematics where you least expect to find it from its many uses in medicine, the sciences, and its appearance in art to its patterns in nature and its central role in the development of computers. Pappas presents mathematical ideas in a readable non-threatening manner. MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS is another gem by the creator of THE MATHEMATICS CALENDAR and author of THE JOY OF MATHEMATICS. "Pappas's books have been gold mines of mathematical ent

  13. Experimental comparison of models for ultrafast impact ionization is silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarekegne, Abebe Tilahun; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2016-01-01

    We compare experimentally the exponential and quadratic (Keldysh formula) impact ionization models using THz induced impact ionization in silicon. We demonstrate that the exponential model offers the best description of impact ionization process for ultrashort electric filed pulses....

  14. AgSat Imagery Collection Footprints

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The AgSat Imagery Collection Footprints map shows the imagery footprints which have been collected under the USDA satellite blanket purchase agreement. Click on a...

  15. Studies on experimental models used for nutritional and biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anatomical location for a successful implantation in order to reduce complications to the hearest minimum has been suggested . The maintenance of the implanted cannulae for the purpose of keeping the modified experimental model in perfect health is discussed. Key Words: Experimental Models, Nutritional Biological ...

  16. Human appropriation of natural capital: a comparison of ecological footprint and water footprint analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    The water footprint concept introduced in 2002 is an analogue of the ecological footprint concept originating from the 1990s. Whereas the ecological footprint (EF) denotes the bioproductive area (hectares) needed to sustain a population, the water footprint (WF) represents the freshwater volume

  17. Human appropriation of natural capital: Comparing ecological footprint and water footprint analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2007-01-01

    The water footprint concept introduced in 2002 is an analogue of the ecological footprint concept originating from the 1990s. Whereas the ecological footprint (EF) denotes the bioproductive area (hectares) needed to sustain a population, the water footprint (WF) represents the freshwater volume

  18. Improving the physiological realism of experimental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinnakota, Kalyan C.; Cha, Chae Y.; Rorsman, Patrik; Balaban, Robert S.; La Gerche, Andre; Wade-Martins, Richard; Beard, Daniel A.; Jeneson, Jeroen A. L.

    The Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) project aims to develop integrative, explanatory and predictive computational models (C-Models) as numerical investigational tools to study disease, identify and design effective therapies and provide an in silico platform for drug screening. Ultimately, these

  19. Urban ecological footprints in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.

    2008-01-01

    Africa's rate of urbanization is the highest in the world. This is relevant to ecologists working in Africa because urban growth is strongly associated with habitat destruction, and also creates new fields of study. The ecological footprint concept is used to illustrate how urban settlements in

  20. What Is My Carbon Footprint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; McGivney-Burelle, Jean; Wagstrom, Rikki B.

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are having a profound impact on the environment. The opportunity to investigate this timely issue during one or two class periods gives algebra and precalculus students insight into a sustainability topic of great international concern--carbon footprints. Students use mathematical thinking in matters that are pertinent to their…

  1. Advancing water footprint assessment research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Chapagain, Ashok K.; Oel, van Pieter R.

    2017-01-01

    This special issue is a collection of recent papers in the field of Water Footprint Assessment (WFA), an emerging area of research focused on the analysis of freshwater use, scarcity, and pollution in relation to consumption, production, and trade. As increasing freshwater scarcity forms a major

  2. Experimental Diabetes Mellitus in Different Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Al-awar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have historically played a critical role in the exploration and characterization of disease pathophysiology and target identification and in the evaluation of novel therapeutic agents and treatments in vivo. Diabetes mellitus disease, commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood glucose levels for a prolonged time. To avoid late complications of diabetes and related costs, primary prevention and early treatment are therefore necessary. Due to its chronic symptoms, new treatment strategies need to be developed, because of the limited effectiveness of the current therapies. We overviewed the pathophysiological features of diabetes in relation to its complications in type 1 and type 2 mice along with rat models, including Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF rats, BB rats, LEW 1AR1/-iddm rats, Goto-Kakizaki rats, chemically induced diabetic models, and Nonobese Diabetic mouse, and Akita mice model. The advantages and disadvantages that these models comprise were also addressed in this review. This paper briefly reviews the wide pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, particularly focusing on the challenges associated with the evaluation and predictive validation of these models as ideal animal models for preclinical assessments and discovering new drugs and therapeutic agents for translational application in humans.

  3. Experimental model to induce obesity in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vinicius Von Diemen; Eduardo Neubarth Trindade; Manoel Roberto Maciel Trindade

    2006-01-01

    .... Obesity can be induced in animals by neuroendocrine, dietary or genetic changes. The most widely used models to induce obesity in rats are a lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH...

  4. Optimization of experimental human leukemia models (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Pankov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actual problem of assessing immunotherapy prospects including antigenpecific cell therapy using animal models was covered in this review.Describe the various groups of currently existing animal models and methods of their creating – from different immunodeficient mice to severalvariants of tumor cells engraftment in them. The review addresses the possibility of tumor stem cells studying using mouse models for the leukemia treatment with adoptive cell therapy including WT1. Also issues of human leukemia cells migration and proliferation in a mice withdifferent immunodeficiency degree are discussed. To assess the potential immunotherapy efficacy comparison of immunodeficient mouse model with clinical situation in oncology patients after chemotherapy is proposed.

  5. Estimation of foot pressure from human footprint depths using 3D scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Dwi Basuki; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Priambodo, Agus

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of normal and pathological variation in human foot morphology is central to several biomedical disciplines, including orthopedics, orthotic design, sports sciences, and physical anthropology, and it is also important for efficient footwear design. A classic and frequently used approach to study foot morphology is analysis of the footprint shape and footprint depth. Footprints are relatively easy to produce and to measure, and they can be preserved naturally in different soils. In this study, we need to correlate footprint depth with corresponding foot pressure of individual using 3D scanner. Several approaches are used for modeling and estimating footprint depths and foot pressures. The deepest footprint point is calculated from z max coordinate-z min coordinate and the average of foot pressure is calculated from GRF divided to foot area contact and identical with the average of footprint depth. Evaluation of footprint depth was found from importing 3D scanner file (dxf) in AutoCAD, the z-coordinates than sorted from the highest to the lowest value using Microsoft Excel to make footprinting depth in difference color. This research is only qualitatif study because doesn't use foot pressure device as comparator, and resulting the maximum pressure on calceneus is 3.02 N/cm2, lateral arch is 3.66 N/cm2, and metatarsal and hallux is 3.68 N/cm2.

  6. Income-carbon footprint relationships for urban and rural households of Iskandar Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, M. R.; Moeinzadeh, S. N.; Tifwa, H. Y.

    2014-02-01

    Iskandar Malaysia has a vision to achieve sustainable development and a low carbon society status by decreasing the amount of CO2 emission as much as 60% by 2025. As the case is in other parts of the world, households are suspected to be a major source of carbon emission in Iskandar Malaysia. At the global level, 72% of greenhouse gas emission is a consequence of household activities, which is influenced by lifestyle. Income is the most important indicator of lifestyle and consequently may influence the amount of households' carbon footprint. The main objective of this paper is to illustrate the carbon-income relationships in Iskandar Malaysia's urban and rural areas. Data were gathered through a questionnaire survey of 420 households. The households were classified into six categories based on their residential area status. Both direct and indirect carbon footprints of respondents were calculated using a carbon footprint model. Direct carbon footprint includes domestic energy use, personal travel, flight and public transportation while indirect carbon footprint is the total secondary carbon emission measurement such as housing operations, transportation operations, food, clothes, education, cultural and recreational services. Analysis of the results shows a wide range of carbon footprint values and a significance correlation between income and carbon footprint. The carbon footprints vary in urban and rural areas, and also across different urban areas. These identified carbon footprint values can help the authority target its carbon reduction programs.

  7. Beam Footprint Detection and Tracking for Non-cooperative Bistatic SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In non-cooperative bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR, the position of transmitter’s beam footprint should be detected and tracked in real-time to perform beam synchronization. Theoretical analysis shows that signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the reflected echoes from the observational scene is too low to apply the conventional detection and tracking method. According to the cross correlation and Doppler frequency information of the backscattering echo, a beam footprint detection and tracking method is proposed in this paper. This method can realize accumulation of signal energy, therefore enormously improve the performance of beam footprint detection and tracking. Meanwhile, vehicle-based bistatic SAR experiment and airborne bistatic SAR experiment are performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed beam footprint detection and tracking method. Experimental results show that the proposed method performs well for real-time transmitter beam footprint detection and tracking.

  8. Experimental model of arteriovenous malformation in vitro using biological grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandu Aurelia Mihaela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs represent a serious health problem all around the world. Experimental models help to better understand the pathophysiology of these lesions. Experiment: We performed an experimental model of AVM using biological grafts, arteries and veins harvested from chicken wings at the elbow joint. We used 14 vessels and we performed 20 end-to-end anastomoses to create a nidus with a single feeding artery and a single draining vein. The system was irrigated with colored solution. The experiment was done according with law in force regarding experimental research activity. Conclusions: Experimental models allow us to understand the hemodynamics and predict the outcome of brain AVMs in humans. This experimental model is a useful tool in understanding the hemodynamic properties of brain AVMs. It is very useful in vascular anastomosis training

  9. An experimental comparison of modelling techniques for speaker ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Most of the existing modelling techniques for the speaker recognition task make an implicit assumption of sufficient data for speaker modelling and hence may lead to poor modelling under limited data condition. The present work gives an experimental evaluation of the modelling techniques like Crisp Vector Quantization ...

  10. Hysteretic behavior of a belt tensioner: modeling and experimental investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Michon, Guilhem; Manin, Lionel; Dufour, Regis

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe the modeling of the hysteretic behavior of belt tensioners. An initial experimental device is composed only of the tensioner by using forcing frequencies, preloads and deflection amplitudes. It permits the identification of the parameters of the restoring force model used. Comparison of the measured and predicted force deflection loops of the tensioner subjected to large deflections permits preliminary validation of the model.The second experimental device consists o...

  11. Preservation and analysis of footprint evidence within the archaeological record: examples from Valsequillo and Cuatrocienegas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, M.; Huddart, D.; Gonzalez, S.

    2008-05-01

    Human footprints provide a direct record of human occupation and can be used to make a range of biometric inferences about the individuals which left them. In this paper we describe the application of three-dimensional optical laser scanning in the preservation and analysis both human and animal footprints. Optical laser scanning provides a digital elevation model of a print or surface with a vertical accuracy typically less than + 0.01 mm. Not only does this provide a procedure for recording fragile footprint evidence but allows digital measurements to be made. It is also possible to use the techniques developed for rapid proto-typing to recreate the print as solid models for visualisation. The role of optical laser scanning in the preservation of footprint evidence is explored with specific reference to the controversial footprints of the Valsequillo Basin in Central Mexico which may provide some of the earliest evidence of human colonization of the Americas. More importantly, digital footprint scans provide a basis for the numerical analysis of footprints allowing the tools of geometric morphometrics to be applied. These tools have been widely developed in the fields of biology and physical anthropology and used to explore the anatomical significance of shape. One key question that can be addressed using this approach is to develop a statistical approach to the objective recognition of a human footprint thereby helping to verify their interpretation and archaeological significance. Using footprint data from sites across the World a statistical model for the recognition of human footprints is presented and used to evaluate the controversial footprint site of Valsequillo, (Puebla State) preserved in volcanic ash and those in the Cuatrocienegas Basin, (Coahuila State) preserved in travertine.

  12. Experimental Measurement, Analysis and Modelling of Dependency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We propose a direct method of measurement of the total emissivity of opaque samples on a range of temperature around the ambient one. The method rests on the modulation of the temperature of the sample and the infra-red signal processing resulting from the surface of the sample we model the total emissivity obtained ...

  13. Can dendrochronology procedures estimate historical Tree Water Footprint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Tarcísio J. G.; Del Campo, Antonio D.; Molina, Antonio J.

    2013-04-01

    transformed into tree transpiration using sapwood area, obtaining 6,768 and 5,844 litres per tree, respectively. BAI-i and vs were significantly related. The Pearson correlation was higher and positive when the growth from the rings formed during the span of sap flow measurement was considered, i.e., the 2009 and 2010 rings. An empirical model was fitted for the BAI-i and vs allowing a preliminary reconstruction of the stand's transpiration history. Linear regressions between vs and BAI-i were significant (R2 ≈ 0.65). Applying the linear equation in each BAI-i along the time (1960-2010) it was possible to reconstruct water use per tree, sometimes defined as the "green" water footprint. In conclusion dendrochronology methods can be used to estimate the Tree-Water-Footprint, and more experimental data should be used for better accuracy.

  14. [Ecological footprint in building green university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiao-Wei; Li, Guang-Jun; Wang, Qing; Liu, Jian-Xing; Ding, Yi; Liu, Jing-Zhi

    2005-07-01

    Ecological footprint is one of the best indexes to evaluate the level of green university. The approaches of ecological footprint are made up of compound approach and component approach. This paper introduces the basic principle and algorithm of the componential approach of ecological footprint, taking Northeastern University as an example and using this approach in the research of campus. Result show that the ecological footprint of Northeastern University 2003 was 24 787hm2, needing the productive land of ecology about 25 000hm2 support all kinds of consumption of the school and absorb the offal. The ecological efficiency of the school was 0.94cap/hm2. In the ecological footprints, the energy's footprints is the largest, it accounted for more than 2/3 of the total footprints, the next are food consumption and solid rubbish.

  15. New experimental model for training in videosurgery Novo modelo experimental para treinamento em videocirurgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Malta Batista

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop a new experimental model of lower cost for training in videosurgery. METHODS: This project was performed at the Nucleus of Experimental Surgery of the Bahiana School of Medicine and Public Health, based on previous models described in the literature and under the supervision of the full professor of Operative Technique and Experimental Surgery II. It was made a model cube-shaped, made of wood, with holes distributed in various locations, rubber stoppers for the holes and lined externally with carpet, and internally with laminate. RESULTS: The new experimental model is of low cost and reproduces quite faithfully several videosurgical procedures. CONCLUSION: Medical schools interested in the subject may adopt the new model for training in videosurgery without the need of high costs for making and using these models.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um novo modelo experimental de baixo custo para treinamento em videocirurgia MÉTODOS: Este projeto foi conduzido no Núcleo de Cirurgia Experimental da Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, baseado em modelos prévios descritos na literatura e sob a supervisão do professor titular de Técnica Operatória e Cirurgia Experimental II. Foi feito um modelo em formato de cubo, de madeira, com furos distribuídos em vários locais, tampas de borracha para os orifícios e forrado externamente com carpete e internamente com laminado. RESULTADOS: O novo modelo experimental desenvolvido é de baixo custo e reproduz de forma bastante fiel diversos procedimentos videocirúrgicos. CONCLUSÃO: Faculdades médicas interessadas no tema poderão adotar o novo modelo para o treinamento em videocirurgia sem que sejam necessários gastos elevados para a confecção e o uso desses modelos.

  16. Different experimental approaches in modelling cataractogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyselova, Zuzana

    2010-01-01

    Cataract, the opacification of eye lens, is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. At present, the only remedy is surgical removal of the cataractous lens and substitution with a lens made of synthetic polymers. However, besides significant costs of operation and possible complications, an artificial lens just does not have the overall optical qualities of a normal one. Hence it remains a significant public health problem, and biochemical solutions or pharmacological interventions that will maintain the transparency of the lens are highly required. Naturally, there is a persistent demand for suitable biological models. The ocular lens would appear to be an ideal organ for maintaining culture conditions because of lacking blood vessels and nerves. The lens in vivo obtains its nutrients and eliminates waste products via diffusion with the surrounding fluids. Lens opacification observed in vivo can be mimicked in vitro by addition of the cataractogenic agent sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) to the culture medium. Moreover, since an overdose of sodium selenite induces also cataract in young rats, it became an extremely rapid and convenient model of nuclear cataract in vivo. The main focus of this review will be on selenium (Se) and its salt sodium selenite, their toxicological characteristics and safety data in relevance of modelling cataractogenesis, either under in vivo or in vitro conditions. The studies revealing the mechanisms of lens opacification induced by selenite are highlighted, the representatives from screening for potential anti-cataract agents are listed. PMID:21217865

  17. The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2011-05-01

    This study quantifies the green, blue and grey water footprint of global crop production in a spatially-explicit way for the period 1996-2005. The assessment improves upon earlier research by taking a high-resolution approach, estimating the water footprint of 126 crops at a 5 by 5 arc minute grid. We have used a grid-based dynamic water balance model to calculate crop water use over time, with a time step of one day. The model takes into account the daily soil water balance and climatic conditions for each grid cell. In addition, the water pollution associated with the use of nitrogen fertilizer in crop production is estimated for each grid cell. The crop evapotranspiration of additional 20 minor crops is calculated with the CROPWAT model. In addition, we have calculated the water footprint of more than two hundred derived crop products, including various flours, beverages, fibres and biofuels. We have used the water footprint assessment framework as in the guideline of the Water Footprint Network. Considering the water footprints of primary crops, we see that the global average water footprint per ton of crop increases from sugar crops (roughly 200 m3 ton-1), vegetables (300 m3 ton-1), roots and tubers (400 m3 ton-1), fruits (1000 m3 ton-1), cereals (1600 m3 ton-1), oil crops (2400 m3 ton-1) to pulses (4000 m3 ton-1). The water footprint varies, however, across different crops per crop category and per production region as well. Besides, if one considers the water footprint per kcal, the picture changes as well. When considered per ton of product, commodities with relatively large water footprints are: coffee, tea, cocoa, tobacco, spices, nuts, rubber and fibres. The analysis of water footprints of different biofuels shows that bio-ethanol has a lower water footprint (in m3 GJ-1) than biodiesel, which supports earlier analyses. The crop used matters significantly as well: the global average water footprint of bio-ethanol based on sugar beet amounts to 51 m3 GJ-1

  18. Experimentally testing the standard cosmological model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA) Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The standard model of cosmology, the big bang, is now being tested and confirmed to remarkable accuracy. Recent high precision measurements relate to the microwave background; and big bang nucleosynthesis. This paper focuses on the latter since that relates more directly to high energy experiments. In particular, the recent LEP (and SLC) results on the number of neutrinos are discussed as a positive laboratory test of the standard cosmology scenario. Discussion is presented on the improved light element observational data as well as the improved neutron lifetime data. alternate nucleosynthesis scenarios of decaying matter or of quark-hadron induced inhomogeneities are discussed. It is shown that when these scenarios are made to fit the observed abundances accurately, the resulting conclusions on the baryonic density relative to the critical density, {Omega}{sub b}, remain approximately the same as in the standard homogeneous case, thus, adding to the robustness of the standard model conclusion that {Omega}{sub b} {approximately} 0.06. This latter point is the deriving force behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter (assuming {Omega}{sub total} = 1) and the need for dark baryonic matter, since {Omega}{sub visible} < {Omega}{sub b}. Recent accelerator constraints on non-baryonic matter are discussed, showing that any massive cold dark matter candidate must now have a mass M{sub x} {approx gt} 20 GeV and an interaction weaker than the Z{sup 0} coupling to a neutrino. It is also noted that recent hints regarding the solar neutrino experiments coupled with the see-saw model for {nu}-masses may imply that the {nu}{sub {tau}} is a good hot dark matter candidate. 73 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Tesla coil theoretical model and experimental verification

    OpenAIRE

    Voitkans, Janis; Voitkans, Arnis

    2014-01-01

    Abstract – In this paper a theoretical model of a Tesla coil operation is proposed. Tesla coil is described as a long line with distributed parameters in a single-wired format, where the line voltage is measured against electrically neutral space. It is shown that equivalent two-wired scheme can be found for a single-wired scheme and already known long line theory can be applied to a Tesla coil. Formulas for calculation of voltage in a Tesla coil by coordinate and calculation of resonance fre...

  20. Baseline ecological footprint of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coplen, Amy K.; Mizner, Jack Harry,; Ubechel, Norion M.

    2009-01-01

    The Ecological Footprint Model is a mechanism for measuring the environmental effects of operations at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). This analysis quantifies environmental impact associated with energy use, transportation, waste, land use, and water consumption at SNL/NM for fiscal year 2005 (FY05). Since SNL/NMs total ecological footprint (96,434 gha) is greater than the waste absorption capacity of its landholdings (338 gha), it created an ecological deficit of 96,096 gha. This deficit is equal to 886,470lha, or about 3,423 square miles of Pinyon-Juniper woodlands and desert grassland. 89% of the ecological footprint can be attributed to energy use, indicating that in order to mitigate environmental impact, efforts should be focused on energy efficiency, energy reduction, and the incorporation of additional renewable energy alternatives at SNL/NM.

  1. Mathematical Models and the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, James E.

    2006-01-01

    The use of mathematical models in the experimental analysis of behavior has increased over the years, and they offer several advantages. Mathematical models require theorists to be precise and unambiguous, often allowing comparisons of competing theories that sound similar when stated in words. Sometimes different mathematical models may make…

  2. The effect of Cordia platythyrsa on various experimental models of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Cordia platythyrsa on various experimental models of pain and carrageenan induced inflammation. Benedicta N Nkeh-Chungag, Eugene J Ndebia, Joseph T Mbafor, Lonwabo A Dotwana, OO Oyedeji, Jehu E Iputo ...

  3. Microplasticity of MMC. Experimental results and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maire, E. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France)); Lormand, G. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France)); Gobin, P.F. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France)); Fougeres, R. (Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, INSA, 69 Villeurbanne (France))

    1993-11-01

    The microplastic behavior of several MMC is investigated by means of tension and compression tests. This behavior is assymetric : the proportional limit is higher in tension than in compression but the work hardening rate is higher in compression. These differences are analysed in terms of maxium of the Tresca's shear stress at the interface (proportional limit) and of the emission of dislocation loops during the cooling (work hardening rate). On another hand, a model is proposed to calculate the value of the yield stress, describing the composite as a material composed of three phases : inclusion, unaffected matrix and matrix surrounding the inclusion having a gradient in the density of the thermally induced dilocations. (orig.).

  4. Experimental investigation of a flapping wing model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Tropea, Cameron [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Fachgebiet Stroemungslehre und Aerodynamik, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    The main objective of this research study was to investigate the aerodynamic forces of an avian flapping wing model system. The model size and the flow conditions were chosen to approximate the flight of a goose. Direct force measurements, using a three-component balance, and PIV flow field measurements parallel and perpendicular to the oncoming flow, were performed in a wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers between 28,000 and 141,000 (3-15 m/s), throughout a range of reduced frequencies between 0.04 and 0.20. The appropriateness of quasi-steady assumptions used to compare 2D, time-averaged particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in the wake with direct force measurements was evaluated. The vertical force coefficient for flapping wings was typically significantly higher than the maximum coefficient of the fixed wing, implying the influence of unsteady effects, such as delayed stall, even at low reduced frequencies. This puts the validity of the quasi-steady assumption into question. The (local) change in circulation over the wing beat cycle and the circulation distribution along the wingspan were obtained from the measurements in the tip and transverse vortex planes. Flow separation could be observed in the distribution of the circulation, and while the circulation derived from the wake measurements failed to agree exactly with the absolute value of the circulation, the change in circulation over the wing beat cycle was in excellent agreement for low and moderate reduced frequencies. The comparison between the PIV measurements in the two perpendicular planes and the direct force balance measurements, show that within certain limitations the wake visualization is a powerful tool to gain insight into force generation and the flow behavior on flapping wings over the wing beat cycle. (orig.)

  5. Variation in modelled healthy diets based on three different food patterns identified from the Danish national diet – and the impact on carbon footprint Nordic Nutrition Conference, Gothenburg 2016 (poster)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    Background and aims: A healthy diet complies with the national food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) and Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR2012). In this study we aim at 1) developing new healthy diet compositions by a simple diet modelling technique that ensures a nutrient content in accordance....... 2014) into isocaloric healthy diets that fulfil and the Danish FBDGs and NNR2012 with respect to both micro- and macronutrients. Furthermore we updated the list of estimated carbon footprint (CF) of food items included in the diets and further optimized the diet composition with regard to CF. Extension...... variation in the amounts of contribution of foods in each food group and in the composition of foods within each food group, the estimated CFs of the modelled healthy dietary patterns are similar to original Danish patterns. CFs of the CF-optimized dietary patterns similar to each other, and CF of CF...

  6. ZY3-02 Laser Altimeter Footprint Geolocation Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Junfeng; Tang, Xinming; Mo, Fan; Li, Guoyuan; Zhu, Guangbin; Wang, Zhenming; Fu, Xingke; Gao, Xiaoming; Dou, Xianhui

    2017-09-21

    Successfully launched on 30 May 2016, ZY3-02 is the first Chinese surveying and mapping satellite equipped with a lightweight laser altimeter. Calibration is necessary before the laser altimeter becomes operational. Laser footprint location prediction is the first step in calibration that is based on ground infrared detectors, and it is difficult because the sample frequency of the ZY3-02 laser altimeter is 2 Hz, and the distance between two adjacent laser footprints is about 3.5 km. In this paper, we build an on-orbit rigorous geometric prediction model referenced to the rigorous geometric model of optical remote sensing satellites. The model includes three kinds of data that must be predicted: pointing angle, orbit parameters, and attitude angles. The proposed method is verified by a ZY3-02 laser altimeter on-orbit geometric calibration test. Five laser footprint prediction experiments are conducted based on the model, and the laser footprint prediction accuracy is better than 150 m on the ground. The effectiveness and accuracy of the on-orbit rigorous geometric prediction model are confirmed by the test results. The geolocation is predicted precisely by the proposed method, and this will give a reference to the geolocation prediction of future land laser detectors in other laser altimeter calibration test.

  7. ZY3-02 Laser Altimeter Footprint Geolocation Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Xie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Successfully launched on 30 May 2016, ZY3-02 is the first Chinese surveying and mapping satellite equipped with a lightweight laser altimeter. Calibration is necessary before the laser altimeter becomes operational. Laser footprint location prediction is the first step in calibration that is based on ground infrared detectors, and it is difficult because the sample frequency of the ZY3-02 laser altimeter is 2 Hz, and the distance between two adjacent laser footprints is about 3.5 km. In this paper, we build an on-orbit rigorous geometric prediction model referenced to the rigorous geometric model of optical remote sensing satellites. The model includes three kinds of data that must be predicted: pointing angle, orbit parameters, and attitude angles. The proposed method is verified by a ZY3-02 laser altimeter on-orbit geometric calibration test. Five laser footprint prediction experiments are conducted based on the model, and the laser footprint prediction accuracy is better than 150 m on the ground. The effectiveness and accuracy of the on-orbit rigorous geometric prediction model are confirmed by the test results. The geolocation is predicted precisely by the proposed method, and this will give a reference to the geolocation prediction of future land laser detectors in other laser altimeter calibration test.

  8. Statistical approach for uncertainty quantification of experimental modal model parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luczak, M.; Peeters, B.; Kahsin, M.

    2014-01-01

    . This paper aims at a systematic approach for uncertainty quantification of the parameters of the modal models estimated from experimentally obtained data. Statistical analysis of modal parameters is implemented to derive an assessment of the entire modal model uncertainty measure. Investigated structures...... estimates obtained from vibration experiments. Modal testing results are influenced by numerous factors introducing uncertainty to the measurement results. Different experimental techniques applied to the same test item or testing numerous nominally identical specimens yields different test results...

  9. Ecological Footprints in transnational media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    2013-01-01

    planning in administrative bodies to broadcast media reporting how countries are ranked in the newest index of corruption, wealth, or happiness. The question this paper rises is how sustainable development indicators, and more specifically the Ecological Footprint is represented and at work in public media....... An actor-network theoretical approach is applied, according to which indicators are viewed as non-material objects. Indicators are carriers of agency and through their appearance in media they connect to other fields of agency. The agency that emanates from the Ecological Footprint seems mainly to connect...... to the formation of public sentiments regarding planetary problems, consumer habits, and global equity, whereas its connections to policy making - through its media appearances - are rather weak....

  10. Footprints of "experiment" in early Arabic optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish, Elaheh

    2009-01-01

    This study traces the early developments of the concept of experiment with a view of extending the subject in both content and approach. It extends the content of the subject slightly backward, prior to the methodological breakthroughs of the Optics of Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen or Alhacen, d. ca. 1040), which are credited as a "significant landmark in the history of experimental science." And it extends the approach to the subject slightly forward, from the premise that early science was "largely carried out in books," to a close examination of the books through which the footprints of'experiment' may be traced. The point of departure is the Optics of Ahmad ibn 'Isă, a revealing text for the early developments of concepts such as 'demonstration' and 'experiment', and one through which some modern discussions are examined and extended with reference to this and other historical sources.

  11. High Resolution Spatial Mapping of Human Footprint across Antarctica and Its Implications for the Strategic Conservation of Avifauna

    OpenAIRE

    Pertierra, Luis R.; Hughes, Kevin A.; Vega, Greta C.; Olalla-T?rraga, Miguel ?.

    2017-01-01

    Human footprint models allow visualization of human spatial pressure across the globe. Up until now, Antarctica has been omitted from global footprint models, due possibly to the lack of a permanent human population and poor accessibility to necessary datasets. Yet Antarctic ecosystems face increasing cumulative impacts from the expanding tourism industry and national Antarctic operator activities, the management of which could be improved with footprint assessment tools. Moreover, Antarctic ...

  12. In silico simulations of experimental protocols for cardiac modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Jesus; Rodriguez, Jose Felix; Pueyo, Esther

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical model of the AP involves the sum of different transmembrane ionic currents and the balance of intracellular ionic concentrations. To each ionic current corresponds an equation involving several effects. There are a number of model parameters that must be identified using specific experimental protocols in which the effects are considered as independent. However, when the model complexity grows, the interaction between effects becomes increasingly important. Therefore, model parameters identified considering the different effects as independent might be misleading. In this work, a novel methodology consisting in performing in silico simulations of the experimental protocol and then comparing experimental and simulated outcomes is proposed for parameter model identification and validation. The potential of the methodology is demonstrated by validating voltage-dependent L-type calcium current (ICaL) inactivation in recently proposed human ventricular AP models with different formulations. Our results show large differences between ICaL inactivation as calculated from the model equation and ICaL inactivation from the in silico simulations due to the interaction between effects and/or to the experimental protocol. Our results suggest that, when proposing any new model formulation, consistency between such formulation and the corresponding experimental data that is aimed at being reproduced needs to be first verified considering all involved factors.

  13. A recommended workflow for DNase I footprinting using a capillary electrophoresis genetic analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapragasam, Smitha; Pande, Anuja; Grove, Anne

    2015-07-15

    Fragment analysis was developed to determine the sizes of DNA fragments relative to size standards of known lengths using a capillary electrophoresis genetic analyzer. This approach has since been adapted for use in DNA footprinting. However, DNA footprinting requires accurate determination of both fragment length and intensity, imposing specific demands on the experimental design. Here we delineate essential considerations involved in optimizing the fragment analysis workflow for use in DNase I footprinting to ensure that changes in DNase I cleavage patterns may be reliably identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Water footprint of growing vegetables in selected smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop water footprint (WF) is the volume of fresh water used to produce a certain crop in all the steps in the production line. The CROPWAT model was used to calculate crop evapotranspiration, differentiating green and blue water in Zanyokwe (ZIS), Thabina (TIS) and Tugela Ferry (TFIS) Irrigation Schemes. Green beans ...

  15. The use of Alloxan and Streptozotocin in Experimental Diabetes Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Kurçer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which leads to several acute and chronic complications, morbidity and mortality, and decreased lifespan and quality of life. Therefore, in research studies that aim to enlighten the pathogenesis of diabetes and investigate possible treatment strategies, experimental animal models of diabetes provide many advantages to the investigator. Models of diabetes obtained by chemical induction, diet, surgical manipulations or combination thereof and also new genetically modified animal models are some of the experimental models. Alloxan and streptozotocin (STZ, which are toxic glucose analogues that preferentially accumulate in pancreatic beta cells, are widely used toxic agents to induce experimental diabetes in animals. This review gives an overview on the use of alloxan and STZ to induce chemical diabetes models with reference to their mechanisms, utilizable doses, advantages and disadvantages in diabetes research. Turk Jem 2012; 16: 34-40

  16. [Research progress on ecological footprint analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongdong; Gao, Wangsheng; Chen, Yuanquan

    2006-10-01

    Ecological footprint (EF) model, as an indicator of sustainability, has received broad attention and wide use. With the development and refinement of the research work on EF theory and methodology, it appeared various methods which can be applied at different scales. Ecological footprint analysis has been combined with material flow analysis, life cycle assessment or input-output analysis, and especially, the newest progress in EF methods called allocating EF to final consumption categories with input-output analysis helps to develop a "standardized" EF. In this paper, the underlying causes of these methods were interpreted theoretically, and the research methods were classified into progress analysis and input-output analysis (IOA). In addition, the compound and component-based methods as well as IOA were introduced, with their respective features, application, and development progress discussed. A prospect on the development of EF in term of the tendency and application of EF methods in China and abroad was given, i. e. , the common framework should be built at the national and regional scales by using compound analysis, IOA and component-based analysis are expected to develop their application

  17. Teres major muscle - insertion footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancker, Malte; Lambert, Simon; Brenner, Erich

    2017-05-01

    Teres major muscle (TM) and latissimus dorsi muscle (LD) are frequently used in muscle transfers around the shoulder girdle. Some authors have suggested harvesting techniques in which the muscle is detached in continuity with a bone segment. Information on the bony attachment footprint of these muscles is lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the region of attachment of the TM to facilitate safe and complete harvesting with a bone segment where it is indicated, and to determine the relationship of the TM footprint with that of the LD. Twenty-eight upper extremities of 14 human cadavers (six female, eight male) were investigated during the students' dissection course in the winter term 2012. The attachment footprints were photographed and the images were processed with ImageJ Version 1.46r. The TM attachment footprint at the crest of the lesser tubercle had an average dimension of 187 ± 89 mm2 . It was 49.6 ± 7.9 mm long and 7.4 ± 2.5 mm wide. The bony attachment of the LD within the bicipital groove, just below the tendon of the long head of the biceps muscle, had an area of 94 ± 37 mm2 . It was 36.5 ± 8 mm long and 3.7 ± 1.2 mm wide. Both muscles were separated by 4.4 ± 1.7 mm and their attachments overlapped in the craniocaudal direction by 24.4 ± 12.4 mm. Earlier studies have investigated the dimensions of the muscles' tendons close to the attachment not the bony attachment itself. The dimension of the attachment of the TM was larger than that of the LD. The ratio between the footprint areas was approximately 2:1. This information should be considered by surgeons undertaking transfers, which include a bony segment of the muscle insertion. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Anatomical Society.

  18. DNase footprint signatures are dictated by factor dynamics and DNA sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Myong-Hee; Guertin, Michael J; Baek, Songjoon; Hager, Gordon L

    2014-10-23

    Genomic footprinting has emerged as an unbiased discovery method for transcription factor (TF) occupancy at cognate DNA in vivo. A basic premise of footprinting is that sequence-specific TF-DNA interactions are associated with localized resistance to nucleases, leaving observable signatures of cleavage within accessible chromatin. This phenomenon is interpreted to imply protection of the critical nucleotides by the stably bound protein factor. However, this model conflicts with previous reports of many TFs exchanging with specific binding sites in living cells on a timescale of seconds. We show that TFs with short DNA residence times have no footprints at bound motif elements. Moreover, the nuclease cleavage profile within a footprint originates from the DNA sequence in the factor-binding site, rather than from the protein occupying specific nucleotides. These findings suggest a revised understanding of TF footprinting and reveal limitations in comprehensive reconstruction of the TF regulatory network using this approach.

  19. Integration of water footprint accounting and costs for optimal pulp supply mix in paper industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Alessandro; Ren, Jingzheng; Piantella, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    studies have focused on these aspects, but there have been no previous reports on the integrated application of raw material water footprint accounting and costs in the definition of the optimal supply mix of chemical pulps from different countries. The current models that have been applied specifically...... that minimizes the water footprint accounting results and costs of chemical pulp, thereby facilitating the assessment of the water footprint by accounting for different chemical pulps purchased from various suppliers, with a focus on the efficiency of the production process. Water footprint accounting......Chemical pulp is one of the most important raw materials used in the paper industry. This material is known to make a significant contribution to the water footprint and cost of final paper products; therefore, chemical pulp is crucial in determining the competitiveness of final products'. Several...

  20. Design and Implementation of an Experimental Segway Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Wael; Abdelati, Mohammed

    2009-03-01

    The segway is the first transportation product to stand, balance, and move in the same way we do. It is a truly 21st-century idea. The aim of this research is to study the theory behind building segway vehicles based on the stabilization of an inverted pendulum. An experimental model has been designed and implemented through this study. The model has been tested for its balance by running a Proportional Derivative (PD) algorithm on a microprocessor chip. The model has been identified in order to serve as an educational experimental platform for segways.

  1. Experimental and modeling studies of mass transfer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gaining a better understanding of mass transfer problems in encapsulated cell systems and in tissue engineering requires both experimental investigations and mathematical modelling. Specific mass transfer studies are reviewed including oxygen transfer in immobilised animal cell culture systems, modelling of ...

  2. Redesigning Manufacturing Footprint from Dynamic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami; Johansen, John

    2009-01-01

    Facing all the difficulties and uncertainties brought by the recent financial crisis, redesigning the manufacturing footprint can be the biggest and most important transformation a manufacturer can undertake. This paper tries to focus on this question and answer how to redesign a manufacturing...... footprint to address the constantly emerging new challenges by giving a holistic approach from dynamic perspective. Three Danish companies are presented. The way they developed their international manufacturing networks is analysed historically, and their redesigning of manufacturing footprint is expressed...

  3. Analysis of footprint and its parts for stature estimation in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Krishan, Kewal; ShyamSundar, S; Aparna, K R; Jaiswal, Sankalp

    2012-09-01

    Most often, forensic podiatrists are called upon in crime scene investigations where pedal evidence is encountered at the crime scenes. The main aim of the forensic podiatrist is such case is to contribute towards the establishment of the identity of the suspects on the basis of the evidence. One form of the pedal evidence is footprints that are often recovered at the crime scenes. Estimation of stature from footprints forms a major parameter of personal identification in forensic examinations. The main aim of the present study is to make stature estimation standards based on detailed analysis of length measurements of footprints in Indian population using statistical considerations. A sample of 100 young adults (50 males and 50 females) was included in the study conducted at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, India. Footprints were obtained from both the feet of each subject. Besides stature, five length measurements i.e. T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 were measured on both the footprints of each subject using international standards. Bilateral asymmetry in the measurements on footprints was calculated and tested using paired t-test. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated between stature and various footprint length measurements and the stature was estimated using linear and multiple regression analysis. Our study observes a statistically significant sex difference (pstature in both the sexes. Males show relatively higher values of correlation coefficients than females. Bilateral differences (right-left differences) were also observed in some of the footprint length measurements among males and females. Linear and multiple regression models are derived for estimation of stature from various footprint length measurements in males, females and for the pooled sample. The footprints can provide a reliable estimate of stature in forensic investigations. Sex specific regression models give a more accurate estimate of stature

  4. Using an experimental model for the study of therapeutic touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Daniella Soares; Marta, Ilda Estéfani Ribeiro; Cárnio, Evelin Capellari; de Quadros, Andreza Urba; Cunha, Thiago Mattar; de Carvalho, Emilia Campos

    2013-02-01

    to verify whether the Paw Edema Model can be used in investigations about the effects of Therapeutic Touch on inflammation by measuring the variables pain, edema and neutrophil migration. this is a pilot and experimental study, involving ten male mice of the same genetic strain and divided into experimental and control group, submitted to the chemical induction of local inflammation in the right back paw. The experimental group received a daily administration of Therapeutic Touch for 15 minutes during three days. the data showed statistically significant differences in the nociceptive threshold and in the paw circumference of the animals from the experimental group on the second day of the experiment. the experiment model involving animals can contribute to study the effects of Therapeutic Touch on inflammation, and adjustments are suggested in the treatment duration, number of sessions and experiment duration.

  5. Linking Experimental Characterization and Computational Modeling in Microstructural Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, Melik Cumhar [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    It is known that by controlling microstructural development, desirable properties of materials can be achieved. The main objective of our research is to understand and control interface dominated material properties, and finally, to verify experimental results with computer simulations. In order to accomplish this objective, we studied the grain growth in detail with experimental techniques and computational simulations. We obtained 5170-grain data from an Aluminum-film (120μm thick) with a columnar grain structure from the Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) measurements. Experimentally obtained starting microstructure and grain boundary properties are input for the three-dimensional grain growth simulation. In the computational model, minimization of the interface energy is the driving force for the grain boundary motion. The computed evolved microstructure is compared with the final experimental microstructure, after annealing at 550 ºC. Two different measures were introduced as methods of comparing experimental and computed microstructures. Modeling with anisotropic mobility explains a significant amount of mismatch between experiment and isotropic modeling. We have shown that isotropic modeling has very little predictive value. Microstructural evolution in columnar Aluminum foils can be correctly modeled with anisotropic parameters. We observed a strong similarity between grain growth experiments and anisotropic three-dimensional simulations.

  6. Development of a fault test experimental facility model using Matlab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Iraci Martinez; Moraes, Davi Almeida, E-mail: martinez@ipen.br, E-mail: dmoraes@dk8.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The Fault Test Experimental Facility was developed to simulate a PWR nuclear power plant and is instrumented with temperature, level and pressure sensors. The Fault Test Experimental Facility can be operated to generate normal and fault data, and these failures can be added initially small, and their magnitude being increasing gradually. This work presents the Fault Test Experimental Facility model developed using the Matlab GUIDE (Graphical User Interface Development Environment) toolbox that consists of a set of functions designed to create interfaces in an easy and fast way. The system model is based on the mass and energy inventory balance equations. Physical as well as operational aspects are taken into consideration. The interface layout looks like a process flowchart and the user can set the input variables. Besides the normal operation conditions, there is the possibility to choose a faulty variable from a list. The program also allows the user to set the noise level for the input variables. Using the model, data were generated for different operational conditions, both under normal and fault conditions with different noise levels added to the input variables. Data generated by the model will be compared with Fault Test Experimental Facility data. The Fault Test Experimental Facility theoretical model results will be used for the development of a Monitoring and Fault Detection System. (author)

  7. Linking Experimental Characterization and Computational Modeling in Microstructural Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, Melik Cumhur [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    It is known that by controlling microstructural development, desirable properties of materials can be achieved. The main objective of our research is to understand and control interface dominated material properties, and finally, to verify experimental results with computer simulations. In order to accomplish this objective, we studied the grain growth in detail with experimental techniques and computational simulations. We obtained 5170-grain data from an Aluminum-film (120μm thick) with a columnar grain structure from the Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) measurements. Experimentally obtained starting microstructure and grain boundary properties are input for the three-dimensional grain growth simulation. In the computational model, minimization of the interface energy is the driving force for the grain boundary motion. The computed evolved microstructure is compared with the final experimental microstructure, after annealing at 550 ºC. Two different measures were introduced as methods of comparing experimental and computed microstructures. Modeling with anisotropic mobility explains a significant amount of mismatch between experiment and isotropic modeling. We have shown that isotropic modeling has very little predictive value. Microstructural evolution in columnar Aluminum foils can be correctly modeled with anisotropic parameters. We observed a strong similarity

  8. Human appropriation of natural capital: Comparing ecological footprint and water footprint analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2007-01-01

    The water footprint concept introduced in 2002 is an analogue of the ecological footprint concept originating from the 1990s. Whereas the ecological footprint (EF) denotes the bioproductive area (hectares) needed to sustain a population, the water footprint (WF) represents the freshwater volume (cubic metres per year) required. In elaborating the WF concept into a well-defined quantifiable indicator, a number of methodological issues have been addressed, with many similarities to the methodol...

  9. Carbon footprint: current methods of estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Divya; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Pandey, Jai Shanker

    2011-07-01

    Increasing greenhouse gaseous concentration in the atmosphere is perturbing the environment to cause grievous global warming and associated consequences. Following the rule that only measurable is manageable, mensuration of greenhouse gas intensiveness of different products, bodies, and processes is going on worldwide, expressed as their carbon footprints. The methodologies for carbon footprint calculations are still evolving and it is emerging as an important tool for greenhouse gas management. The concept of carbon footprinting has permeated and is being commercialized in all the areas of life and economy, but there is little coherence in definitions and calculations of carbon footprints among the studies. There are disagreements in the selection of gases, and the order of emissions to be covered in footprint calculations. Standards of greenhouse gas accounting are the common resources used in footprint calculations, although there is no mandatory provision of footprint verification. Carbon footprinting is intended to be a tool to guide the relevant emission cuts and verifications, its standardization at international level are therefore necessary. Present review describes the prevailing carbon footprinting methods and raises the related issues.

  10. Quantitative methods of analysis of footprinting diagrams for the complexes formed by a ligand with a DNA fragment of known sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechipurenko, Yurii D; Jovanovic, Bosko; Riabokon, Vadim F; Gursky, Georgii V

    2005-06-01

    The regulation of gene expression is based on the interaction of DNA with different ligands. A model of adsorption was considered that can be applied to the quantitative analysis of footprinting diagrams for the complexes formed by a ligand with a DNA fragment of known structure. This model allows the probabilities of ligand binding to DNA sites with a known sequence to be calculated and the variance of probabilities of ligand binding with a specified binding site to be estimated. The model was used for quantitative analysis of diagrams of DNAse footprinting for the complexes of the dimeric analogue of the antitumor antibiotic netropsin. Experimental and theoretically calculated profiles of distribution of netropsin bound on DNA are in good agreement with one another.

  11. The footprint family : Comparison and interaction of the ecological, energy, carbon and water footprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Kai; Heijungs, Reinout; De Snoo, Geert

    2013-01-01

    The year of 2012 marks the 20th anniversary since the concept of ecological footprint was introduced to the global community for the first time. Nowadays footprint studies have gained extensive debates as well as popularity. In this paper, we define the footprint family as an indicator system of

  12. Water Footprint Symposium: where next for water footprint and water assessment methodology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillotson, M.R.; Kiu, J.; Guan, D.; Wu, P.; Zhao, Xu; Zhang, Guoping; Pfister, S.; Pahlow, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the need for a comprehensive review of the tools and metrics for the quantification and assessment of water footprints, and allowing for the opportunity for open discussion on the challenges and future of water footprinting methodology, an international symposium on water footprint was

  13. Experimental-analytical method of technological processes modeling in education

    OpenAIRE

    Efremov German I.; Geller Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    The article considers general modeling techniques used in the study in education at different stages. The classification of different types of models and main stages of the simulation are considered. It is shown that in the course “Process of simulation” for technical areas of the Universities required the category of “Experimental-analytical simulation method”. For example, a new textbook for bachelors “Modeling of chemical-technological processes” shows that the section facilitates the comp...

  14. An Analysis of the Relationship between Casualty Risk Per Crash and Vehicle Mass and Footprint for Model Year 2003-2010 Light-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-01-05

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office funds research on development of technologies to improve the fuel economy of both light- and heavy-duty vehicles, including advanced combustion systems, improved batteries and electric drive systems, and new lightweight materials. Of these approaches to increase fuel economy and reduce fuel consumption, reducing vehicle mass through more extensive use of strong lightweight materials is perhaps the easiest and least expensive method; however, there is a concern that reducing vehicle mass may lead to more fatalities. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has conducted several analyses to better understand the relationship between vehicle mass, size and safety, in order to ameliorate concerns that down-weighting vehicles will inherently lead to more fatalities. These analyses include recreating the regression analyses conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) that estimate the relationship between mass reduction and U.S. societal fatality risk per vehicle mile of travel (VMT), while holding vehicle size (i.e. footprint, wheelbase times track width) constant; these analyses are referred to as LBNL Phase 1 analysis. In addition, LBNL has conducted additional analysis of the relationship between mass and the two components of risk per VMT, crash frequency (crashes per VMT) and risk once a crash has occurred (risk per crash); these analyses are referred to as LBNL Phase 2 analysis.

  15. Experimental Validation of a Dynamic Model for Lightweight Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Gasparetto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the main topics in robotics research is dynamic performance improvement by means of a lightening of the overall system structure. The effective motion and control of these lightweight robotic systems occurs with the use of suitable motion planning and control process. In order to do so, model-based approaches can be adopted by exploiting accurate dynamic models that take into account the inertial and elastic terms that are usually neglected in a heavy rigid link configuration. In this paper, an effective method for modelling spatial lightweight industrial robots based on an Equivalent Rigid Link System approach is considered from an experimental validation perspective. A dynamic simulator implementing the formulation is used and an experimental test-bench is set-up. Experimental tests are carried out with a benchmark L-shape mechanism.

  16. A systematic review of animal models for experimental neuroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toia, Francesca; Giesen, Thomas; Giovanoli, Pietro; Calcagni, Maurizio

    2015-10-01

    Peripheral neuromas can result in an unbearable neuropathic pain and functional impairment. Their treatment is still challenging, and their optimal management is to be defined. Experimental research still plays a major role, but - although numerous neuroma models have been proposed on different animals - there is still no single model recognised as being the reference. Several models show advantages over the others in specific aspects of neuroma physiopathology, prevention or treatment, making it unlikely that a single model could be of reference. A reproducible and standardised model of peripheral neuroma would allow better comparison of results from different studies. We present a systematic review of the literature on experimental in vivo models, analysing advantages and disadvantages, specific features and indications, with the goal of providing suggestions to help their standardisation. Published models greatly differ in the animal and the nerve employed, the mechanisms of nerve injury and the evaluation methods. Specific experimental models exist for terminal neuromas and neuromas in continuity (NIC). The rat is the most widely employed animal, the rabbit being the second most popular model. NIC models are more actively researched, but it is more difficult to generate such studies in a reproducible manner. Nerve transection is considered the best method to cause terminal neuromas, whereas partial transection is the best method to cause NIC. Traditional histomorphology is the historical gold-standard evaluation method, but immunolabelling, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and proteomics are gaining increasing popularity. Computerised gait analysis is the gold standard for motor-recovery evaluation, whereas mechanical testing of allodynia and hyperalgesia reproducibly assesses sensory recovery. This review summarises current knowledge on experimental neuroma models, and it provides a useful tool for defining experimental protocols

  17. Experimental modeling of injectivity loss; Modelagem experimental da perda de injetividade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonato, Adriano Jose do Amaral Mello; Silva, Pedro Glauto de Farias e; Gomes, Vanessa Limeira Azevedo; Santos, Adriano dos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Produced water reinjection, suspended particles are retained in the porous media causing formation damage and injectivity decline. In general the retention of the particles occurs near the side of injection, this fact occurs in most cases, due to the size exclusion. The modeling of filtration and the consequent formation damage is essential to the project management of water injection in oil reservoirs. Thus, mathematical models are studied to better predict the distribution of particles throughout the porous media and determine the parameters of adjustment to injectivity decline. Among these models, there is the classic model which consists in determining these parameters (coefficient of filtration and formation damage). The methodology used in modeling is given from the equations the mass conservation, kinetic particle retention, the modified Darcy equation and the function formation damage. This study aimed to improve experimental modeling, including development of software for acquisition and processing of experimental data, considering the variable number of pressure measurements along the sample. The software was developed using the Labview 2011 platform and allows the determination of relevant parameters to predict injectivity loss in water injection wells. Furthermore, based on the traditional model of filtration in porous media (including depth filtration and formation of the external plaster), the software was applied to predict injectivity loss in addition to the properties of the grout. Finally, the classical models for transporting suspensions and damage to the formation were observed. (author)

  18. Contact Modelling in Resistance Welding, Part II: Experimental Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Quanfeng; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Contact algorithms in resistance welding presented in the previous paper are experimentally validated in the present paper. In order to verify the mechanical contact algorithm, two types of experiments, i.e. sandwich upsetting of circular, cylindrical specimens and compression tests of discs...... with a solid ring projection towards a flat ring, are carried out at room temperature. The complete algorithm, involving not only the mechanical model but also the thermal and electrical models, is validated by projection welding experiments. The experimental results are in satisfactory agreement...... with the simulation prediction, showing the validity of the algorithm....

  19. Assessing Water and Carbon Footprints for Sustainable Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The key points of this presentation are: (1) Water footprint and carbon footprint as two sustainability attributes in adaptations to climate and socioeconomic changes, (2) Necessary to evaluate carbon and water footprints relative to constraints in resource capacity, (3) Critical...

  20. Team Modelling: Review of Experimental Scenarios and Computational Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    designed to be) Yes Yes No Yes (Model individuals, or sub-teams - groups of individuals.) 19 C3TRACE* (Command, Control, and Communicatio ...radar sensors, satellites, c2 structures, jammers, communicatio ns networks and devices, and fire support) Depends (EADSIM normally models at

  1. Sensitivity and uncertainty in crop water footprint accounting: a case study for the Yellow River Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhuo, L; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2014-01-01

    .... A grid-based daily water balance model at a 5 by 5 arcmin resolution was applied to compute green and blue water footprints of the four crops in the Yellow River basin in the period considered...

  2. How China’s nitrogen footprint of food has changed from 1961 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mengchu; Chen, Xiaohui; Bai, Zhaohai; Jiang, Rongfeng; Galloway, James N.; Leach, Allison M.; Cattaneo, Lia R.; Oenema, Oene; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Fusuo

    2017-10-01

    People have increased the amount of reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the environment as a result of food production methods and consumption choices. However, the connection between dietary choices and environmental impacts over time has not yet been studied in China. Here we combine a nitrogen footprint tool, the N-Calculator, with a food chain model, NUFER (NUtrient flows in Food chains, Environment and Resources use), to analyze the N footprint of food in China. We use the NUFER model to provide a detailed estimation of the amounts and forms of Nr released to the environment during food production, which is then used to calculate virtual nitrogen factors (VNFs, unit: kg N released/kg N in product) of major food items. The food N footprint consists of the food consumption N footprint and food production N footprint. The average per capita food N footprint increased from 4.7 kg N capita-1 yr-1 in the 1960s to 21 kg N capita-1 yr-1 in the 2000s, and the national food N footprint in China increased from 3.4 metric tons (MT) N yr-1 in the 1960s to 28 MT N yr-1 in the 2000s. The proportion of the food N footprint that is animal-derived increased from 37% to 54% during this period. The food production N footprint accounted for 84% of the national food N footprint in the 2000s, compared to 62% in the 1960s. More Nr has been added to the food production systems to produce enough food for a growing population that is increasing its per-capita food consumption. The increasing VNFs in China indicate that an increasing amount of Nr is being lost per unit of N embedded in food products consumed by humans in the past five decades. National N losses from food production increased from 6 MT N yr-1 in the 1960s to 23 MT N yr-1 in the 2000s. N was lost to the environment in four ways: ammonia (NH3) emissions and dinitrogen (N2) emissions through denitrification (each account for nearly 40%), N losses to water systems (20%), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (1%). The average per

  3. Instrumental and ethical aspects of experimental research with animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Watanabe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animal models offer possibilities of physiology knowledge, pathogenesis of disease and action of drugs that are directly related to quality nursing care. This integrative review describes the current state of the instrumental and ethical aspects of experimental research with animal models, including the main recommendations of ethics committees that focus on animal welfare and raises questions about the impact of their findings in nursing care. Data show that, in Brazil, the progress in ethics for the use of animals for scientific purposes was consolidated with Law No. 11.794/2008 establishing ethical procedures, attending health, genetic and experimental parameters. The application of ethics in handling of animals for scientific and educational purposes and obtaining consistent and quality data brings unquestionable contributions to the nurse, as they offer subsidies to relate pathophysiological mechanisms and the clinical aspect on the patient.

  4. promoting sustainability by curtailing ecological footprints of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to regulate land use and the exploitation of natural resources has led to the concept of sustainability, and by extension, ecological footprint (the total amount of land required by an individual to grow his/her needs). This paper examines ecological footprint savings in urban growth and housing development in ...

  5. The water footprint of modern consumer society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2013-01-01

    Water is not only used in the domestic context, but also in agriculture and industry in the production of commercial goods, from food to paper. The water footprint is an indicator of freshwater use that looks at both direct and indirect use of water by a consumer or producer. The water footprint of

  6. Assessing carbon footprints of dairy production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The farm-gate carbon footprint of milk quantifies the net greenhouse gas emissions of a dairy production system. Published values vary widely depending upon farm management practices and the calculation method used. Standard procedures for calculating the carbon footprint of milk are now established...

  7. Product carbon footprint developments and gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg Jensen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - Over the last decade, multiple initiatives have been undertaken to learn how to capture the carbon footprint of a supply chain at a product level. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the process of standardization to secure consistency of product carbon footprinting (PCF...

  8. Water footprinting of dairy farming in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, E.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Holden, N.M.; Shalloo, L.; Curran, T.P.; Upton, J.

    2017-01-01

    In the context of global water scarcity, water footprints have become an important sustainability indicator for food production systems. To improve the water footprint of the dairy sector, insight into freshwater consumption of individual farms is required. The objective of this study was to

  9. Double counting in supply chain carbon footprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Caro (Felipe); C.J. Corbett (Charles); T. Tan (Terence); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCarbon footprinting is a tool for firms to determine the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with their supply chain or with a unit of final product or service. Carbon footprinting typically aims to identify where best to invest in emission reduction efforts, and/or to

  10. Sustainable Colombia : A Comprehensive Colombian Footprint Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ewing, Brad

    2010-01-01

    During the past several months, the Ministry of Environment, Housing and Territorial Development of Colombia has been researching potential indicators that would be useful to assess and possibly adopt among which included the ecological footprint. This work was commissioned in order to provide the Ministry with a deeper understanding of the ecological footprint and to train a number of its...

  11. Modeling and experimentation of a positioning system of SMA wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, KinFong; Yam, Yeung

    2000-06-01

    This work reports two modeling and control attempts performed on a positioning system comprising of linking SMA wires and an overlooking video system for on-line measurements. The first attempt takes the model by Ikuta and identifies experimentally the parameters of the SMA wire. The identified single wire model is then extended to a system of two SMA wires joining together at their tips, based upon which open loop position control of the linkage is then conducted. The approach, however, becomes too complicated when more SMA wires are involved. The second attempt utilizes a neuro-fuzzy based approach for positioning control of a linkage point joining together four SMA wires. The second approach involves four ANFIS neuro-networks with hybrid learning algorithm trained to model the currents to the SMA wires as functions of present and target positions of the linkage point. Experimentation for both the two-wires and four-wires system yield quite satisfactory performance.

  12. Experimental bounds on collapse models from gravitational wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesso, Matteo; Bassi, Angelo; Falferi, Paolo; Vinante, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Wave function collapse models postulate a fundamental breakdown of the quantum superposition principle at the macroscale. Therefore, experimental tests of collapse models are also fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. Here, we compute the upper bounds on the collapse parameters, which can be inferred by the gravitational wave detectors LIGO, LISA Pathfinder, and AURIGA. We consider the most widely used collapse model, the continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) model. We show that these experiments exclude a huge portion of the CSL parameter space, the strongest bound being set by the recently launched space mission LISA Pathfinder. We also rule out a proposal for quantum-gravity-induced decoherence.

  13. Experimental model in rat for sentinel node biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Filho Renato Santos de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Although sentinel node procedure has been used world wide, there are many aspects to be defined and better standardized. This study address if the experimental model in rats is appropriate for sentinel node biopsy. In this model, the lymph nodes are showed by lymphoscintigraphy, they are dyed by patent blue and identified by intraoperative gamma probe detection. It isn?t necessary to use magnification for the procedure. The model demonstrated that sentinel node biopsy in rats is feasible. So, besides allowing researches in this field, the model is useful for training and diffusing this technique.

  14. Experimental Analysis and Model Validation of an Opaque Ventilated Facade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, F. Peci; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    Natural ventilation is a convenient way of reducing energy consumption in buildings. In this study an experimental module of an opaque ventilated façade (OVF) was built and tested for assessing its potential of supplying free ventilation and air preheating for the building. A numerical model was ...

  15. Experimental model of capsular contracture in silicone implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastos Érika Malheiros

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The breast implant procedure is one of the most performed into Plastic Surgery and the contracture that occurs the capsule formed around the breast implants one of most frequent complication. We describe here one experimental model of capsule contracture in rats.

  16. Sciara as an experimental model for studies on the evolutionary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sciara as an experimental model for studies on the evolutionary relationships between the zygotic, maternal and environmental primary signals for sexual development. Lucas Sánchez. Review Article Volume ... Lucas Sánchez1. Centro de Investigaciones Biol´ogicas (C. S. I. C.), Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid, Spain ...

  17. Novel sensors for food inspection modelling, fabrication and experimentation

    CERN Document Server

    Abdul Rahman, Mohd Syaifudin; Yu, Pak-Lam

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses presents recent developments of novel planar interdigital sensors for food inspection. It covers the fundamentals of sensors, their design, modelling and simulations, fabrications, characterizations, experimental investigations and analyses. This book will be useful for the engineers and researchers especially higher undergraduate, postgraduate students as well as practitioners working on the development of Electromagnetic Sensors.

  18. numerical and numerical and experimental modeling of the static

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    recommendation for subsequent experiments and analysis of these types of structural elements. In this paper a report of numerical and experimental modeling of the static response of thin-walled reinforced concrete box girder bridges is given. The work is executed to verify the validity of a software developed by the authors ...

  19. An Interactive Multimedia Based Instruction in Experimental Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten; Nielsen, J.N.; Østergaard, J.

    1997-01-01

    A CD-ROM based interactive multimedia instruction in experimental modelling for Danish Engineering School teachers is described. The content is based on a new sensitivity approach for direct estimation of physical parameters in linear and nonlinear dynamic systems. The presentation is inspired...

  20. Pruning Chinese trees : an experimental and modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Bo

    2001-01-01

    Pruning of trees, in which some branches are removed from the lower crown of a tree, has been extensively used in China in silvicultural management for many purposes. With an experimental and modelling approach, the effects of pruning on tree growth and on the harvest of plant material were studied.

  1. [Establishment and evaluation of experimental sepsis mouse model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Yan; Xu, Ruo-Nan; Han, Gen-Cheng; Wang, Ren-Xi; Chen, Guo-Jiang; Xiao, He; Hou, Chun-Mei; Shen, Bei-Fen; Li, Yan

    2010-06-01

    After treating with chemotherapy or immunosuppressant, malignant diseases of hematopoietic system such as leukemia, malignant lymphoma and aplastic anemia usually induced severe infection such as sepsis. Sepsis which is hard to be diagnosed causes high death rate. This study was purposed to establish an experimental sepsis mouse model so as to provide a basis for pathogenesis and intervention study. A classic caecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was used to establish experimental sepsis model. ELISA was used to detect levels of C5a, IL-6, TNFalpha, and IFN-gamma. Flow Cytometry was applied to measure apoptosis of lymphocytes in thymus and mesentery. The pathologic changes of thymus and spleen were confirmed by HE staining. The results showed that almost 70%-80% mice died at 72 hours after CLP. Only approximate 20% animal survived during finite time, mice in CLP group had significant weight lose. Meanwhile large release of different inflammatory mediators which are related with sepsis (C5a, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma) was observed after CLP. Apoptosis of lymphocytes in thymus and mesentery lymphonodus was enhanced markedly after CLP. Significantly pathologic injury was also observed in thymus and spleen. It is concluded that a mouse model of experimental sepsis was successfully established by caecal ligation and puncture which can well mimic the clinical symptom of sepsis. The experimental sepsis mouse model provides an excellent tool for exploring the pathogenesis and intervention ways for sepsis accompanied with complicated malignant hematological diseases in vivo.

  2. Systematic integration of experimental data and models in systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeonidis Evangelos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The behaviour of biological systems can be deduced from their mathematical models. However, multiple sources of data in diverse forms are required in the construction of a model in order to define its components and their biochemical reactions, and corresponding parameters. Automating the assembly and use of systems biology models is dependent upon data integration processes involving the interoperation of data and analytical resources. Results Taverna workflows have been developed for the automated assembly of quantitative parameterised metabolic networks in the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML. A SBML model is built in a systematic fashion by the workflows which starts with the construction of a qualitative network using data from a MIRIAM-compliant genome-scale model of yeast metabolism. This is followed by parameterisation of the SBML model with experimental data from two repositories, the SABIO-RK enzyme kinetics database and a database of quantitative experimental results. The models are then calibrated and simulated in workflows that call out to COPASIWS, the web service interface to the COPASI software application for analysing biochemical networks. These systems biology workflows were evaluated for their ability to construct a parameterised model of yeast glycolysis. Conclusions Distributed information about metabolic reactions that have been described to MIRIAM standards enables the automated assembly of quantitative systems biology models of metabolic networks based on user-defined criteria. Such data integration processes can be implemented as Taverna workflows to provide a rapid overview of the components and their relationships within a biochemical system.

  3. Water Footprint of crop productions: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovarelli, Daniela; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fiala, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Water Footprint is an indicator recently developed with the goal of quantifying the virtual content of water in products and/or services. It can also be used to identify the worldwide virtual water trade. Water Footprint is composed of three parts (green, blue and grey waters) that make the assessment complete in accordance with the Water Footprint Network and with the recent ISO14046. The importance of Water Footprint is linked to the need of taking consciousness about water content in products and services and of the achievable changes in productions, diets and market trades. In this study, a literature review has been completed on Water Footprint of agricultural productions. In particular, the focus was paid on crops for the production of food and bioenergy. From the review, the development of the Water Footprint concept emerged: in early studies the main goal was to assess products' water trade on a global scale, while in the subsequent years, the goal was the rigorous quantification of the three components for specific crops and in specific geographical areas. In the most recent assessments, similarities about the methodology and the employed tools emerged. For 96 scientific articles on Water Footprint indicator of agricultural productions, this literature review reports the main results and analyses weaknesses and strengths. Seventy-eight percent of studies aimed to quantify Water Footprint, while the remaining 22% analysed methodology, uncertainty, future trends and comparisons with other footprints. It emerged that most studies that quantified Water Footprint concerned cereals (33%), among which maize and wheat were the most investigated crops. In 46% of studies all the three components were assessed, while in 18% no indication about the subdivision was given; in the remaining 37%, only blue or green and blue components were quantified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Food Trade and Its Water Footprint Under Climate and Policy Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, M.; Hussein, Z.; Hanasaki, N.

    2014-12-01

    Trade has become increasingly important in the global redistribution of food, with important ramifications for food security, water resources, and transportation infrastructure, among others. Thus, it essential to understand how food trade and its water footprint may change in the future. To this end, we project international food trade, as well as its water footprint, under climate and policy scenarios for the year 2030. We use the H08 global hydrologic model to determine the impact of climatic changes to staple crop yields and evapotranspiration. Using the yield changes projected with the H08 model, we estimate the bilateral trade of staple crops using the Global Trade Analysis Project model. We combine these projections to obtain the water footprint of food trade, global network properties, and trade-based water savings across scenarios. Our findings indicate the relative importance of near-future climate and policy scenarios for food trade and its water footprint.

  5. Theories linguistiques, modeles informatiques, experimentation psycholinguistique (Linguistic Theories, Information-Processing Models, Psycholinguistic Experimentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Daniele

    1975-01-01

    Delineates and elaborates upon the underlying psychological postulates in linguistic and information-processing models, and shows the interdependence of psycholinguistics and linguistic analysis. (Text is in French.) (DB)

  6. Optimization of Regression Models of Experimental Data Using Confirmation Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.

    2010-01-01

    A new search metric is discussed that may be used to better assess the predictive capability of different math term combinations during the optimization of a regression model of experimental data. The new search metric can be determined for each tested math term combination if the given experimental data set is split into two subsets. The first subset consists of data points that are only used to determine the coefficients of the regression model. The second subset consists of confirmation points that are exclusively used to test the regression model. The new search metric value is assigned after comparing two values that describe the quality of the fit of each subset. The first value is the standard deviation of the PRESS residuals of the data points. The second value is the standard deviation of the response residuals of the confirmation points. The greater of the two values is used as the new search metric value. This choice guarantees that both standard deviations are always less or equal to the value that is used during the optimization. Experimental data from the calibration of a wind tunnel strain-gage balance is used to illustrate the application of the new search metric. The new search metric ultimately generates an optimized regression model that was already tested at regression model independent confirmation points before it is ever used to predict an unknown response from a set of regressors.

  7. Thermal conductivity of microporous layers: Analytical modeling and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andisheh-Tadbir, Mehdi; Kjeang, Erik; Bahrami, Majid

    2015-11-01

    A new compact relationship is developed for the thermal conductivity of the microporous layer (MPL) used in polymer electrolyte fuel cells as a function of pore size distribution, porosity, and compression pressure. The proposed model is successfully validated against experimental data obtained from a transient plane source thermal constants analyzer. The thermal conductivities of carbon paper samples with and without MPL were measured as a function of load (1-6 bars) and the MPL thermal conductivity was found between 0.13 and 0.17 W m-1 K-1. The proposed analytical model predicts the experimental thermal conductivities within 5%. A correlation generated from the analytical model was used in a multi objective genetic algorithm to predict the pore size distribution and porosity for an MPL with optimized thermal conductivity and mass diffusivity. The results suggest that an optimized MPL, in terms of heat and mass transfer coefficients, has an average pore size of 122 nm and 63% porosity.

  8. A systematic review of prion therapeutics in experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevitt, Clare R; Collinge, John

    2006-09-01

    Prion diseases are transmissible, invariably fatal, neurodegenerative diseases which include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie in animals. A large number of putative treatments have been studied in experimental models over the past 30 years, with at best modest disease-modifying effects. The arrival of variant CJD in the UK in the 1990s has intensified the search for effective therapeutic agents, using an increasing number of animal, cellular and in vitro models with some recent promising proof of principle studies. Here, for the first time, we present a comprehensive systematic, rather than selective, review of published data on experimental approaches to prion therapeutics to provide a scientific resource for informing future therapeutics research, both in laboratory models and in clinical studies.

  9. Experimental validation of the multiphase extended Leblond's model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz-Patrault, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Transformation induced plasticity is a crucial contribution of the simulation of several forming processes involving phase transitions under mechanical loads, resulting in large irreversible strain even though the applied stress is under the yield stress. One of the most elegant and widely used models is based on analytic homogenization procedures and has been proposed by Leblond et al. [1-4]. Very recently, a simple extension of the Leblond's model has been developed by Weisz-Patrault [8]. Several product phases are taken into account and several assumptions are relaxed in order to extend the applicability of the model. The present contribution compares experimental tests with numerical computations, in order to discuss the validity of the developed theory. Thus, experimental results extracted from the existing literature are analyzed. Results show a good agreement between measurements and theoretical computations.

  10. Regression Model Optimization for the Analysis of Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.

    2009-01-01

    A candidate math model search algorithm was developed at Ames Research Center that determines a recommended math model for the multivariate regression analysis of experimental data. The search algorithm is applicable to classical regression analysis problems as well as wind tunnel strain gage balance calibration analysis applications. The algorithm compares the predictive capability of different regression models using the standard deviation of the PRESS residuals of the responses as a search metric. This search metric is minimized during the search. Singular value decomposition is used during the search to reject math models that lead to a singular solution of the regression analysis problem. Two threshold dependent constraints are also applied. The first constraint rejects math models with insignificant terms. The second constraint rejects math models with near-linear dependencies between terms. The math term hierarchy rule may also be applied as an optional constraint during or after the candidate math model search. The final term selection of the recommended math model depends on the regressor and response values of the data set, the user s function class combination choice, the user s constraint selections, and the result of the search metric minimization. A frequently used regression analysis example from the literature is used to illustrate the application of the search algorithm to experimental data.

  11. Comparative footprinting of DNA-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Collado-Vides, Julio

    2006-07-15

    Comparative modelling is a computational method used to tackle a variety of problems in molecular biology and biotechnology. Traditionally it has been applied to model the structure of proteins on their own or bound to small ligands, although more recently it has also been used to model protein-protein interfaces. This work is the first to systematically analyze whether comparative models of protein-DNA complexes could be built and be useful for predicting DNA binding sites. First, we describe the structural and evolutionary conservation of protein-DNA interfaces, and the limits they impose on modelling accuracy. Second, we find that side-chains from contacting residues can be reasonably modeled and therefore used to identify contacting nucleotides. Third, the DNASITE protocol is implemented and different parameters are benchmarked on a set of 85 regulators from Escherichia coli. Results show that comparative footprinting can make useful predictions based solely on structural data, depending primarily on the interface identity with respect to the template used. DNASITE code available on request from the authors.

  12. Three-dimensional analysis of elbow soft tissue footprints and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capo, John T; Collins, Christopher; Beutel, Bryan G; Danna, Natalie R; Manigrasso, Michaele; Uko, Linda A; Chen, Linda Y

    2014-11-01

    Tendinous and ligamentous injuries commonly occur in the elbow. This study characterized the location, surface areas, and origin and insertional footprints of major elbow capsuloligamentous and tendinous structures in relation to bony landmarks with the use of a precision 3-dimensional modeling system. Nine unpaired cadaveric elbow specimens were dissected and mounted on a custom jig. Mapping of the medial collateral ligament (MCL), lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL), triceps, biceps, brachialis, and capsular reflections was then performed with 3-dimensional digitizing technology. The location, surface areas, and footprints of the soft tissues were calculated. The MCL had a mean origin (humeral) footprint of 216 mm(2), insertional footprint of 154 mm(2), and surface area of 421 mm(2). The LUCL had a mean origin footprint of 136 mm(2), an insertional footprint of 142 mm(2), and a surface area of 532 mm(2). Of the tendons, the triceps maintained the largest insertional footprint, followed by the brachialis and the biceps (P anatomy of key elbow capsuloligamentous and tendinous structures is crucial for effective reconstruction after bony or soft tissue trauma. This study provides the upper extremity surgeon with information that may aid in restoring elbow biomechanics and preserving range of motion in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamic Modeling of Wind Turbine Gearboxes and Experimental Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rune

    is presented. The model takes into account the effects of load and applied grinding corrections. The results are verified by comparing to simulated and experimental results reported in the existing literature. Using gear data loosely based on a 1 MW wind turbine gearbox, the gear mesh stiffness is expanded...... analysis in relation to gear dynamics. A multibody model of two complete 2.3MWwind turbine gearboxes mounted back-to-back in a test rig is built. The mean values of the proposed gear mesh stiffnesses are included. The model is validated by comparing with calculated and measured eigenfrequencies and mode...

  14. Experimental validation of a Bayesian model of visual acuity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dalimier, Eugénie

    2009-01-01

    Based on standard procedures used in optometry clinics, we compare measurements of visual acuity for 10 subjects (11 eyes tested) in the presence of natural ocular aberrations and different degrees of induced defocus, with the predictions given by a Bayesian model customized with aberrometric data of the eye. The absolute predictions of the model, without any adjustment, show good agreement with the experimental data, in terms of correlation and absolute error. The efficiency of the model is discussed in comparison with image quality metrics and other customized visual process models. An analysis of the importance and customization of each stage of the model is also given; it stresses the potential high predictive power from precise modeling of ocular and neural transfer functions.

  15. Endogenous opioid antagonism in physiological experimental pain models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U; Pereira, Manuel P; Andersen, Lars Peter H

    2015-01-01

    Opioid antagonists are pharmacological tools applied as an indirect measure to detect activation of the endogenous opioid system (EOS) in experimental pain models. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the effect of mu-opioid-receptor (MOR) antagonists in placebo-controlled, double...... hyperalgesia models (6 studies), 'pain' models (25 studies), summation models (2 studies), nociceptive reflex models (3 studies) and miscellaneous models (2 studies). A consistent reversal of analgesia by a MOR-antagonist was demonstrated in 10 of the 25 ITP-studies, including stress-induced analgesia and r......TMS. In the remaining 14 conditioning modulation studies either absence of effects or ambiguous effects by MOR-antagonists, were observed. In the STP-studies, no effect of the opioid-blockade could be demonstrated in 5 out of 6 secondary hyperalgesia studies. The direction of MOR-antagonist dependent effects upon pain...

  16. Experimental-analytical method of technological processes modeling in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremov German I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers general modeling techniques used in the study in education at different stages. The classification of different types of models and main stages of the simulation are considered. It is shown that in the course “Process of simulation” for technical areas of the Universities required the category of “Experimental-analytical simulation method”. For example, a new textbook for bachelors “Modeling of chemical-technological processes” shows that the section facilitates the compilation of process models in general; gives the possibility of studying the process at different levels; describes the nonlinear properties of the simulation objects, and to obtain refined adjustment of the model according to the experiment. The use of models of high accuracy can improve the quality of education.

  17. Experimental Evaluation of Equivalent-Fluid Models for Melamine Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Albert R.; Schiller, Noah H.

    2016-01-01

    Melamine foam is a soft porous material commonly used in noise control applications. Many models exist to represent porous materials at various levels of fidelity. This work focuses on rigid frame equivalent fluid models, which represent the foam as a fluid with a complex speed of sound and density. There are several empirical models available to determine these frequency dependent parameters based on an estimate of the material flow resistivity. Alternatively, these properties can be experimentally educed using an impedance tube setup. Since vibroacoustic models are generally sensitive to these properties, this paper assesses the accuracy of several empirical models relative to impedance tube measurements collected with melamine foam samples. Diffuse field sound absorption measurements collected using large test articles in a laboratory are also compared with absorption predictions determined using model-based and measured foam properties. Melamine foam slabs of various thicknesses are considered.

  18. Transvaginal ultrasound ovarian diathermy: sheep as an experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimentel Anita M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some techniques of transvaginal ovarian drilling have been previously described. Nevertheless a monopolar transvaginal ovarian cauterization, that use the expertise and safety of transvaginal puncture for oocyte captation seems to be an easier and feasible approach. The aim of this study was to develop a minimally invasive ovarian cauterization technique under transvaginal ultrasound control, and to evaluate the safety of the transvaginal ovarian monopolar cauterization, female sheep at reproductive age were used as an experimental model. Findings An experimental study was performed in a university research center. Seventeen female sheep (15 Corriedale e 2 Suffolk in reproductive age were submitted to transvaginal ovarian cauterization with a monopolar Valleylab Force 2 electrocautery. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions were assessed. Ovarian size were 1.31 cm2 ± 0,43 (Corriedale and 3.41 cm2 ± 0,64 (Suffolk. From 30 ovaries from Corriedale sheep punctured, only 3 were cauterized, presenting macroscopic and typical microscopic lesion. In the Suffolk sheep group, only one ovary was cauterized. No lesion could be found in the needle path. Conclusions This is the first experimental animal model described for ovarian cauterization needle guided by transvaginal ultrasound. The sheep does not seem to be the ideal animal model to study this technique. Another animal model, whose ovaries are better identified by transvaginal ultrasound should be sought for this technique, theoretically less invasive, before it could be offered safely to women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  19. The Water Footprint of Food Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Jackson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find that the total water footprint of food aid was 10 km3 in 2005, which represents approximately 0.5% of the water footprint of food trade and 2.0% of the water footprint of land grabbing (i.e., water appropriation associated with large agricultural land deals. The United States is by far the largest food aid donor and contributes 82% of the water footprint of food aid. The countries that receive the most water embodied in aid are Ethiopia, Sudan, North Korea, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. Notably, we find that there is significant overlap between countries that receive food aid and those that have their land grabbed. Multivariate regression results indicate that donor water footprints are driven by political and environmental variables, whereas recipient water footprints are driven by land grabbing and food indicators.

  20. The Water Footprint of Food Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, N. D.; Konar, M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find that the total water footprint of food aid was 10 km3 in 2005, which represents approximately 0.5% of the water footprint of food trade and 2.0% of the water footprint of land grabbing (i.e., water appropriation associated with large agricultural land deals). The United States is by far the largest food aid donor and contributes 82% of the water footprint of food aid. The countries that receive the most water embodied in aid are Ethiopia, Sudan, North Korea, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. Notably, we find that there is significant overlap between countries that receive food aid and those that have their land grabbed. Multivariate regression results indicate that donor water footprints are driven by political and environmental variables, whereas recipient water footprints are driven by land grabbing and food indicators.

  1. Area of Concern: A new paradigm in life cycle assessment for the development of footprint metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridoutt, Bradley G.; Pfister, Stephan; Manzardo, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    operating under the auspices of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative project on environmental life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) has been working to develop generic guidance for developers of footprint metrics. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a universal footprint definition and related......As a class of environmental metrics, footprints have been poorly defined, have shared an unclear relationship to life cycle assessment (LCA), and the variety of approaches to quantification have sometimes resulted in confusing and contradictory messages in the marketplace. In response, a task force...... terminology as well as to discuss modelling implications. The task force has worked from the perspective that footprints should be based on LCA methodology, underpinned by the same data systems and models as used in LCA. However, there are important differences in purpose and orientation relative to LCA...

  2. Numerical modeling of experimental human fibrous cap delamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xiaochang; Davis, Lindsey A; Deng, Xiaomin; Sutton, Michael A; Lessner, Susan M

    2016-06-01

    Fibrous cap delamination is a critical process during the rupture of atherosclerotic plaque, which often leads to severe life-threatening clinical consequences such as myocardial infarction or stroke. In this study a finite element modeling and simulation approach is presented that enables the study of fibrous cap delamination experiments for the purpose of understanding the fibrous cap delamination process. A cohesive zone model (CZM) approach is applied to simulate delamination of the fibrous cap from the underlying plaque tissue. A viscoelastic anisotropic (VA) model for the bulk arterial material behavior is extended from existing studies so that the hysteresis phenomenon observed in the fibrous cap delamination experiments can be captured. A finite element model is developed for the fibrous cap delamination experiments, in which arterial layers (including the fibrous cap and the underlying plaque tissue) are represented by solid elements based on the VA model and the fibrous cap-underlying plaque tissue interface is characterized by interfacial CZM elements. In the CZM, the delamination process is governed by an exponential traction-separation law which utilizes critical energy release rates obtained directly from the fibrous cap delamination experiments. A set of VA model parameter values and CZM parameter values is determined based on values suggested in the literature and through matching simulation predictions of the load vs. load-point displacement curve with one set of experimental measurements. Using this set of parameter values, simulation predictions for other sets of experimental measurements are obtained and good agreement between simulation predictions and experimental measurements is observed. Results of this study demonstrate the applicability of the viscoelastic anisotropic model and the CZM approach for the simulation of diseased arterial tissue failure processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Target Soil Impact Verification: Experimental Testing and Kayenta Constitutive Modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broome, Scott Thomas [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flint, Gregory Mark [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dewers, Thomas [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newell, Pania [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report details experimental testing and constitutive modeling of sandy soil deformation under quasi - static conditions. This is driven by the need to understand constitutive response of soil to target/component behavior upon impact . An experimental and constitutive modeling program was followed to determine elastic - plastic properties and a compressional failure envelope of dry soil . One hydrostatic, one unconfined compressive stress (UCS), nine axisymmetric compression (ACS) , and one uniaxial strain (US) test were conducted at room temperature . Elastic moduli, assuming isotropy, are determined from unload/reload loops and final unloading for all tests pre - failure and increase monotonically with mean stress. Very little modulus degradation was discernable from elastic results even when exposed to mean stresses above 200 MPa . The failure envelope and initial yield surface were determined from peak stresses and observed onset of plastic yielding from all test results. Soil elasto - plastic behavior is described using the Brannon et al. (2009) Kayenta constitutive model. As a validation exercise, the ACS - parameterized Kayenta model is used to predict response of the soil material under uniaxial strain loading. The resulting parameterized and validated Kayenta model is of high quality and suitable for modeling sandy soil deformation under a range of conditions, including that for impact prediction.

  4. Experimental Damage Identification of a Model Reticulated Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The damage identification of a reticulated shell is a challenging task, facing various difficulties, such as the large number of degrees of freedom (DOFs, the phenomenon of modal localization and transition, and low modeling accuracy. Based on structural vibration responses, the damage identification of a reticulated shell was studied. At first, the auto-regressive (AR time series model was established based on the acceleration responses of the reticulated shell. According to the changes in the coefficients of the AR model between the damaged conditions and the undamaged condition, the damage of the reticulated shell can be detected. In addition, the damage sensitive factors were determined based on the coefficients of the AR model. With the damage sensitive factors as the inputs and the damage positions as the outputs, back-propagation neural networks (BPNNs were then established and were trained using the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm (L–M algorithm. The locations of the damages can be predicted by the back-propagation neural networks. At last, according to the experimental scheme of single-point excitation and multi-point responses, the impact experiments on a K6 shell model with a scale of 1/10 were conducted. The experimental results verified the efficiency of the proposed damage identification method based on the AR time series model and back-propagation neural networks. The proposed damage identification method can ensure the safety of the practical engineering to some extent.

  5. Biomechanics of epithelial cell islands analyzed by modeling and experimentation

    CERN Document Server

    Coburn, Luke; Noppe, Adrian; Caldwell, Benjamin J; Moussa, Elliott; Yap, Chloe; Priya, Rashmi; Lobaskin, Vladimir; Roberts, Anthony P; Yap, Alpha S; Neufeld, Zoltan; Gomez, Guillermo A

    2016-01-01

    We generated a new computational approach to analyze the biomechanics of epithelial cell islands that combines both vertex and contact-inhibition-of-locomotion models to include both cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion. Examination of the distribution of cell protrusions (adhesion to the substrate) in the model predicted high order profiles of cell organization that agree with those previously seen experimentally. Cells acquired an asymmetric distribution of protrusions (and traction forces) that decreased when moving from the edge to the island center. Our in silico analysis also showed that tension on cell-cell junctions (and monolayer stress) is not homogeneous across the island. Instead it is higher at the island center and scales up with island size, which we confirmed experimentally using laser ablation assays and immunofluorescence. Moreover, our approach has the minimal elements necessary to reproduce mechanical crosstalk between both cell-cell and cell substrate adhesion systems. We found that an i...

  6. Corporate Ecological Footprint: New Conversion Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Coto-Millán

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first ecological footprint calculation version, applied to companies, appeared in 2003. The said tool provides the possibility of calculating the total impact of a company or organisation in hectares or in equivalent emissions of CO2. This paper updates carbon absorption rates and improves electricity consumption conversion factors, one of the major footprint generating consumptions in companies. The new rates prove that the footprint estimated to date will be notably increased as, among other aspects, the IPCC has downgraded the amount of carbon that forests are capable of absorbing. These data reveal that companies must make a great effort to adapt to the challenges triggered by climate change.

  7. Numerical modeling of nitrogen oxide emission and experimental verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szecowka Lech

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of nitrogen reduction in combustion process with application of primary method are presented in paper. The reduction of NOx emission, by the recirculation of combustion gasses, staging of fuel and of air was investigated, and than the reduction of NOx emission by simultaneous usage of the mentioned above primary method with pulsatory disturbances.The investigations contain numerical modeling of NOx reduction and experimental verification of obtained numerical calculation results.

  8. Epidural blood patch: A study on an experimental model

    OpenAIRE

    S K Sengupta

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Epidural blood patch has been used to treat spinal headache with varying success. An experimental model was designed to ascertain whether an epidural blood patch can be used to seal the needle puncture sites in dural repair. Materials and Methods: Bovine dura was secured to the lower end of an open-ended calibrated plastic cylinder. Multiple interrupted stitches were applied over a 02 cm length of the dura without any incision. The cylinder was filled with colored saline gradually with t...

  9. Laetoli footprints reveal bipedal gait biomechanics different from those of modern humans and chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demes, Brigitte; Richmond, Brian G.

    2016-01-01

    Bipedalism is a key adaptation that shaped human evolution, yet the timing and nature of its evolution remain unclear. Here we use new experimentally based approaches to investigate the locomotor mechanics preserved by the famous Pliocene hominin footprints from Laetoli, Tanzania. We conducted footprint formation experiments with habitually barefoot humans and with chimpanzees to quantitatively compare their footprints to those preserved at Laetoli. Our results show that the Laetoli footprints are morphologically distinct from those of both chimpanzees and habitually barefoot modern humans. By analysing biomechanical data that were collected during the human experiments we, for the first time, directly link differences between the Laetoli and modern human footprints to specific biomechanical variables. We find that the Laetoli hominin probably used a more flexed limb posture at foot strike than modern humans when walking bipedally. The Laetoli footprints provide a clear snapshot of an early hominin bipedal gait that probably involved a limb posture that was slightly but significantly different from our own, and these data support the hypothesis that important evolutionary changes to hominin bipedalism occurred within the past 3.66 Myr. PMID:27488647

  10. Experimental model of heterotopic ossification in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotz, T.G.G. [Escola Politécnica, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Tecnologia em Saúde, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Paula, J.B. de [Médico,Doutor em Engenharia Biomédica, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Moser, A.D.L. [Escola Politécnica, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Tecnologia em Saúde, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-04-05

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a metaplastic biological process in which there is newly formed bone in soft tissues adjacent to large joints, resulting in joint mobility deficit. In order to determine which treatment techniques are more appropriate for such condition, experimental models of induced heterotopic bone formation have been proposed using heterologous demineralized bone matrix implants and bone morphogenetic protein and other tissues. The objective of the present experimental study was to identify a reliable protocol to induce HO in Wistar rats, based on autologous bone marrow (BM) implantation, comparing 3 different BM volumes and based on literature evidence of this HO induction model in larger laboratory animals. Twelve male Wistar albino rats weighing 350/390 g were used. The animals were anesthetized for blood sampling before HO induction in order to quantify serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP). HO was induced by BM implantation in both quadriceps muscles of these animals, experimental group (EG). Thirty-five days after the induction, another blood sample was collected for ALP determination. The results showed a weight gain in the EG and no significant difference in ALP levels when comparing the periods before and after induction. Qualitative histological analysis confirmed the occurrence of heterotopic ossification in all 12 EG rats. In conclusion, the HO induction model was effective when 0.35 mL autologous BM was applied to the quadriceps of Wistar rats.

  11. Amplified energy harvester from footsteps: design, modeling, and experimental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Chen, Wusi; Guzman, Plinio; Zuo, Lei

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the design, modeling and experimental analysis of an amplified footstep energy harvester. With the unique design of amplified piezoelectric stack harvester the kinetic energy generated by footsteps can be effectively captured and converted into usable DC power that could potentially be used to power many electric devices, such as smart phones, sensors, monitoring cameras, etc. This doormat-like energy harvester can be used in crowded places such as train stations, malls, concerts, airport escalator/elevator/stairs entrances, or anywhere large group of people walk. The harvested energy provides an alternative renewable green power to replace power requirement from grids, which run on highly polluting and global-warming-inducing fossil fuels. In this paper, two modeling approaches are compared to calculate power output. The first method is derived from the single degree of freedom (SDOF) constitutive equations, and then a correction factor is applied onto the resulting electromechanically coupled equations of motion. The second approach is to derive the coupled equations of motion with Hamilton's principle and the constitutive equations, and then formulate it with the finite element method (FEM). Experimental testing results are presented to validate modeling approaches. Simulation results from both approaches agree very well with experimental results where percentage errors are 2.09% for FEM and 4.31% for SDOF.

  12. Experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meirelles, Rafael Panisi de Campos [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Hochman, Bernardo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Helene Junior, Americo; Fraga, Murillo Francisco Pires [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas da Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (FCMSCSP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Cirurgia. Divisao de Cirurgia Plastica; Lellis, Rute [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas da Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (FCMSCSP), SP (Brazil). Divisao de Patologia; Ferreira, Lydia Masako, E-mail: rpcmeirelles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: lydia.dcir@epm.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Mediciana. Divisao de Cirugia Plastica

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: to describe an experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits. Methods: on this study eight six-month-old New Zealand male rabbits, with an average weight of 2.5kg were used. They were distributed in four groups (n=2 per group). The control group did not receive radiotherapy and the others received one radiotherapy session of 2000, 3000 and 4500 cGy, respectively. Photographic analysis and histopathological evaluation of the irradiated areas were carried out. Results: after 30 days, the animals from the control group had all their hair grown. In spite of that, the animals from group 2000 cGy had a 60-day alopecia and from group 3000 cGy, a 90-day alopecia. After the 30th day, the 3000cGy group demonstrated 90-day cutaneous radiation injuries, graded 3 and 4. One of the animals from group 4500 cGy died on the 7th day with visceral necrosis. The other from the same group had total skin necrosis. A progressive reduction of glands and blood vessels count and an increase on collagen deposition was observed. Conclusion: The proposed experimental model is reproducible. This study suggests that the dosage 4500cGy is excessive and the 3000 cGy is the most effective for this experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits. (author)

  13. Ionospheric topside models compared with experimental electron density profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Radicella

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently an increasing number of topside electron density profiles has been made available to the scientific community on the Internet. These data are important for ionospheric modeling purposes, since the experimental information on the electron density above the ionosphere maximum of ionization is very scarce. The present work compares NeQuick and IRI models with the topside electron density profiles available in the databases of the ISIS2, IK19 and Cosmos 1809 satellites. Experimental electron content from the F2 peak up to satellite height and electron densities at fixed heights above the peak have been compared under a wide range of different conditions. The analysis performed points out the behavior of the models and the improvements needed to be assessed to have a better reproduction of the experimental results. NeQuick topside is a modified Epstein layer, with thickness parameter determined by an empirical relation. It appears that its performance is strongly affected by this parameter, indicating the need for improvements of its formulation. IRI topside is based on Booker's approach to consider two parts with constant height gradients. It appears that this formulation leads to an overestimation of the electron density in the upper part of the profiles, and overestimation of TEC.

  14. CFD modeling of pharmaceutical isolators with experimental verification of airflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayan, N; Akay, H U; Walsh, M R; Bell, W V; Troyer, G L; Dukes, R E; Mohan, P

    2007-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been developed to predict the airflow in a transfer isolator using a commercial CFD code. In order to assess the ability of the CFD approach in predicting the flow inside an isolator, hot wire anemometry measurements and a novel experimental flow visualization technique consisting of helium-filled glycerin bubbles were used. The results obtained have been shown to agree well with the experiments and show that CFD can be used to model barrier systems and isolators with practical fidelity. This indicates that CFD can and should be used to support the design, testing, and operation of barrier systems and isolators.

  15. Contact drying: a review of experimental and mechanistic modeling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Ekneet Kaur; Chaudhuri, Bodhisattwa

    2012-09-15

    Drying is one of the most complex unit operations with simultaneous heat and mass transfer. The contact drying process is also not well understood as several physical phenomena occur concurrently. This paper reviews current experimental and modeling approaches employed towards a better understanding of the contact drying operation. Additionally, an overview of some fundamental aspects relating to contact drying is provided. A brief discussion of some model extensions such as incorporation of noncontact forces, interstitial fluids and attrition rate is also presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing Water and Carbon Footprints for Green Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    This slide presentation will focus on the following points: (1) Water footprint and carbon footprint are two criteria evaluating the greenness in urban development, (2) Two cases are examined and presented: water footprints in energy productions and carbon footprints in water ...

  17. Pneumatic Adaptive Absorber: Mathematical Modelling with Experimental Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Mikułowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of mechanical energy absorbers utilized in engineering structures are hydraulic dampers, since they are simple and highly efficient and have favourable volume to load capacity ratio. However, there exist fields of applications where a threat of toxic contamination with the hydraulic fluid contents must be avoided, for example, food or pharmacy industries. A solution here can be a Pneumatic Adaptive Absorber (PAA, which is characterized by a high dissipation efficiency and an inactive medium. In order to properly analyse the characteristics of a PAA, an adequate mathematical model is required. This paper proposes a concept for mathematical modelling of a PAA with experimental verification. The PAA is considered as a piston-cylinder device with a controllable valve incorporated inside the piston. The objective of this paper is to describe a thermodynamic model of a double chamber cylinder with gas migration between the inner volumes of the device. The specific situation considered here is that the process cannot be defined as polytropic, characterized by constant in time thermodynamic coefficients. Instead, the coefficients of the proposed model are updated during the analysis. The results of the experimental research reveal that the proposed mathematical model is able to accurately reflect the physical behaviour of the fabricated demonstrator of the shock absorber.

  18. Molecular and structural considerations of TF-DNA binding for the generation of biologically meaningful and accurate phylogenetic footprinting analysis: the LysR-type transcriptional regulator family as a study model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Patricia; Peralta-Gil, Martín; Tabche, María-Luisa; Merino, Enrique

    2016-08-27

    The goal of most programs developed to find transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) is the identification of discrete sequence motifs that are significantly over-represented in a given set of sequences where a transcription factor (TF) is expected to bind. These programs assume that the nucleotide conservation of a specific motif is indicative of a selective pressure required for the recognition of a TF for its corresponding TFBS. Despite their extensive use, the accuracies reached with these programs remain low. In many cases, true TFBSs are excluded from the identification process, especially when they correspond to low-affinity but important binding sites of regulatory systems. We developed a computational protocol based on molecular and structural criteria to perform biologically meaningful and accurate phylogenetic footprinting analyses. Our protocol considers fundamental aspects of the TF-DNA binding process, such as: i) the active homodimeric conformations of TFs that impose symmetric structures on the TFBSs, ii) the cooperative binding of TFs, iii) the effects of the presence or absence of co-inducers, iv) the proximity between two TFBSs or one TFBS and a promoter that leads to very long spurious motifs, v) the presence of AT-rich sequences not recognized by the TF but that are required for DNA flexibility, and vi) the dynamic order in which the different binding events take place to determine a regulatory response (i.e., activation or repression). In our protocol, the abovementioned criteria were used to analyze a profile of consensus motifs generated from canonical Phylogenetic Footprinting Analyses using a set of analysis windows of incremental sizes. To evaluate the performance of our protocol, we analyzed six members of the LysR-type TF family in Gammaproteobacteria. The identification of TFBSs based exclusively on the significance of the over-representation of motifs in a set of sequences might lead to inaccurate results. The consideration of

  19. Experimental models in vaccine research: malaria and leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Teixeira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have a long history of being useful tools, not only to test and select vaccines, but also to help understand the elaborate details of the immune response that follows infection. Different models have been extensively used to investigate putative immunological correlates of protection against parasitic diseases that are important to reach a successful vaccine. The greatest challenge has been the improvement and adaptation of these models to reflect the reality of human disease and the screening of vaccine candidates capable of overcoming the challenge of natural transmission. This review will discuss the advantages and challenges of using experimental animal models for vaccine development and how the knowledge achieved can be extrapolated to human disease by looking into two important parasitic diseases: malaria and leishmaniasis.

  20. Experimental models in vaccine research: malaria and leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, C; Gomes, R

    2013-02-01

    Animal models have a long history of being useful tools, not only to test and select vaccines, but also to help understand the elaborate details of the immune response that follows infection. Different models have been extensively used to investigate putative immunological correlates of protection against parasitic diseases that are important to reach a successful vaccine. The greatest challenge has been the improvement and adaptation of these models to reflect the reality of human disease and the screening of vaccine candidates capable of overcoming the challenge of natural transmission. This review will discuss the advantages and challenges of using experimental animal models for vaccine development and how the knowledge achieved can be extrapolated to human disease by looking into two important parasitic diseases: malaria and leishmaniasis.

  1. Conformal polishing approach: Tool footprint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Dieste

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polishing process is one of the most critical manufacturing processes during a metal part production because it determines the final quality of the product. Free-form surface polishing is a handmade process with lots of rejected parts, scrap generation and time and energy consumption. Two different research lines are being developed: prediction models of the final surface quality parameters and an analysis of the amount of material removed depending on the polishing parameters to predict the tool footprint during the polishing task. This research lays the foundations for a future automatic conformal polishing system. It is based on rotational and translational tool with dry abrasive in the front mounted at the end of a robot. A tool to part concept is used, useful for large or heavy workpieces. Results are applied on different curved parts typically used in tooling industry, aeronautics or automotive. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the amount of material removed in function of polishing parameters. Model has been fitted for different abrasives and raw materials. Results have shown deviations under 20% that implies a reliable and controllable process. Smaller amount of material can be removed in controlled areas of a three-dimensional workpiece.

  2. Water footprint and carbon footprint of the energy consumption in sunflower agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mohammad; Khoramivafa, Mahmud; Damghani, Abdolmajid Mahdavi

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the energy requirements, carbon footprint, and water footprint of sunflower production in Kermanshah province, western Iran. Data were collected from 70 sunflower production agroecosystems which were selected based on random sampling method in summer 2012. Results indicated that total input and output energy in sunflower production were 26,973.87 and 64,833.92 MJha-1, respectively. The highest share of total input energy in sunflower agroecosystems was recorded for electricity power, N fertilizer, and diesel fuel with 35, 19, and 17%, respectively. Also, energy use efficiency, water footprint, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and carbon footprint were calculated as 2.40, 3.41 m3 kg-1, 2042.091 kg CO2eqha-1, and 0.875 kg CO2eqkg-1, respectively. 0.18 of sunflower water footprint was related to green water footprint and the remaining 82% was related to blue water footprint. Also, the highest share of carbon footprint was related to electricity power (nearby 80%). Due to the results of this study, reducing use of fossil fuel and non-renewable energy resource and application of sufficient irrigation systems by efficient use of water resource are essential in order to achieve low carbon footprint, environmental challenges, and also sustainability of agricultural production systems.

  3. Carbon Footprint Calculator | Climate Change | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-12

    An interactive calculator to estimate your household's carbon footprint. This tool will estimate carbon pollution emissions from your daily activities and show how to reduce your emissions and save money through simple steps.

  4. Experimental model of cultured keratinocytes Modelo experimental de cultura de queratinócitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gragnani

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The bioengineering research is essential in the development of ideal combination of biomaterials and cultured cells to produce the permanent wound coverage. The experimental model of cultured keratinocytes presents all steps of the culture, since the isolation of the keratinocytes, preparation of the human acellular dermis, preparation of the composite skin graft and their elevation to the air-liquid interface. The research in cultured keratinocytes model advances in two main ways: 1. optimization of the methods in vitro to the skin cells culture and proliferation and 2. developing biomaterials that present similar skin properties.A pesquisa em bioengenharia é primordial no desenvolvimento da combinação ideal de biomateriais e células cultivadas para produzir a cobertura definitiva das lesões. O modelo experimental da cultura de queratinócitos apresenta toda as etapas do cultivo, desde o isolamento dos queratinócitos, preparação da derme acelular humana, do enxerto composto e da sua elevação à interface ar-líquido. A pesquisa em modelo de cultura de queratinócitos desenvolve-se em duas vias principais: 1. otimização dos métodos in vitro para cultivo e proliferação de células da pele e 2. desenvolvimento de biomateriais que mimetizem as propriedades da pele.

  5. DMFC anode polarization: Experimental analysis and model validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalegno, A.; Marchesi, R. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2008-01-03

    Anode two-phase flow has an important influence on DMFC performance and methanol crossover. In order to elucidate two-phase flow influence on anode performance, in this work, anode polarization is investigated combining experimental and modelling approach. A systematic experimental analysis of operating conditions influence on anode polarization is presented. Hysteresis due to operating condition is observed; experimental results suggest that it arises from methanol accumulation and has to be considered in evaluating DMFC performances and measurements reproducibility. A model of DMFC anode polarization is presented and utilised as tool to investigate anode two-phase flow. The proposed analysis permits one to produce a confident interpretation of the main involved phenomena. In particular, it confirms that methanol electro-oxidation kinetics is weakly dependent on methanol concentration and that methanol transport in gas phase produces an important contribution in anode feeding. Moreover, it emphasises the possibility to optimise anode flow rate in order to improve DMFC performance and reduce methanol crossover. (author)

  6. Of mice and men: modelling post-stroke depression experimentally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, G; Gertz, K; Heinz, A; Endres, M

    2014-01-01

    At least one-third of stroke survivors suffer from depression. The development of comorbid depression after stroke is clinically highly significant because post-stroke depression is associated with increased mortality, slows recovery and leads to worse functional outcomes. Here, we review the evidence that post-stroke depression can be effectively modelled in experimental rodents via a variety of approaches. This opens an exciting new window onto the neurobiology of depression and permits probing potential underlying mechanisms such as disturbed cellular plasticity, neuroendocrine dysregulation, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in a novel context. From the point of view of translational stroke research, extending the scope of experimental investigations beyond the study of short-term end points and, in particular, acute lesion size, may help improve the relevance of preclinical results to human disease. Furthermore, accumulating evidence from both clinical and experimental studies offers the tantalizing prospect of 5-hydroxytryptaminergic antidepressants as the first pharmacological therapy for stroke that would be available during the subacute and chronic phases of recovery. Interdisciplinary neuropsychiatric research will be called on to dissect the mechanisms underpinning the beneficial effects of antidepressants on stroke recovery. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24838087

  7. Analytical modeling and experimental characterization of chemotaxis in Serratia marcescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiang; Wei, Guopeng; Wright Carlsen, Rika; Edwards, Matthew R.; Marculescu, Radu; Bogdan, Paul; Sitti, Metin

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a modeling and experimental framework to characterize the chemotaxis of Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) relying on two-dimensional and three-dimensional tracking of individual bacteria. Previous studies mainly characterized bacterial chemotaxis based on population density analysis. Instead, this study focuses on single-cell tracking and measuring the chemotactic drift velocity VC from the biased tumble rate of individual bacteria on exposure to a concentration gradient of l-aspartate. The chemotactic response of S. marcescens is quantified over a range of concentration gradients (10-3 to 5 mM/mm) and average concentrations (0.5×10-3 to 2.5 mM). Through the analysis of a large number of bacterial swimming trajectories, the tumble rate is found to have a significant bias with respect to the swimming direction. We also verify the relative gradient sensing mechanism in the chemotaxis of S. marcescens by measuring the change of VC with the average concentration and the gradient. The applied full pathway model with fitted parameters matches the experimental data. Finally, we show that our measurements based on individual bacteria lead to the determination of the motility coefficient μ (7.25×10-6 cm2/s) of a population. The experimental characterization and simulation results for the chemotaxis of this bacterial species contribute towards using S. marcescens in chemically controlled biohybrid systems.

  8. An experimental and modeling study of diethyl carbonate oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Nakamura, Hisashi

    2015-04-01

    Diethyl carbonate (DEC) is an attractive biofuel that can be used to displace petroleum-derived diesel fuel, thereby reducing CO2 and particulate emissions from diesel engines. A better understanding of DEC combustion characteristics is needed to facilitate its use in internal combustion engines. Toward this goal, ignition delay times for DEC were measured at conditions relevant to internal combustion engines using a rapid compression machine (RCM) and a shock tube. The experimental conditions investigated covered a wide range of temperatures (660-1300K), a pressure of 30bar, and equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 in air. To provide further understanding of the intermediates formed in DEC oxidation, species concentrations were measured in a jet-stirred reactor at 10atm over a temperature range of 500-1200K and at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. These experimental measurements were used to aid the development and validation of a chemical kinetic model for DEC.The experimental results for ignition in the RCM showed near negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior. Six-membered alkylperoxy radical (RO˙2) isomerizations are conventionally thought to initiate low-temperature branching reactions responsible for NTC behavior, but DEC has no such possible 6- and 7-membered ring isomerizations. However, its molecular structure allows for 5-, 8- and 9-membered ring RO˙2 isomerizations. To provide accurate rate constants for these ring structures, ab initio computations for RO˙2⇌Q˙OOH isomerization reactions were performed. These new RO˙2 isomerization rate constants have been implemented in a chemical kinetic model for DEC oxidation. The model simulations have been compared with ignition delay times measured in the RCM near the NTC region. Results of the simulation were also compared with experimental results for ignition in the high-temperature region and for species concentrations in the jet-stirred reactor. Chemical kinetic insights into the

  9. Spatially and temporally explicit water footprint accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Mekonnen, Mesfin

    2011-01-01

    The earth’s freshwater resources are subject to increasing pressure in the form of consumptive water use and pollution (Postel, 2000; WWAP, 2003, 2006, 2009). Quantitative assessment of the green, blue and grey water footprint of global production and consumption can be regarded as a key in understanding the pressure put on the global freshwater resources. The overall objective of this thesis is, therefore, to analyse the spatial and temporal pattern of the water footprint of humans from both...

  10. Augmenting a guitar with its digital footprint

    OpenAIRE

    Benford, Steve; Hazzard, Adrian; Chamberlain, Alan; Xu, Liming

    2015-01-01

    We explore how to digitally augment musical instruments by connecting them to their social histories. We describe the use of Internet of Things technologies to connect an acoustic guitar to its digital footprint – a record of how it was designed, built and played. We introduce the approach of crafting interactive decorative inlay into the body of an instrument that can then be scanned using mobile devices to reveal its digital footprint. We describe the design and construction of an augmented...

  11. Experimental validation of Swy-2 clay standard's PHREEQC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Hegyfalvi, Csaba; Freiler, Ágnes; Udvardi, Beatrix; Kónya, Péter; Székely, Edit; Falus, György

    2017-04-01

    One of the challenges of the present century is to limit the greenhouse gas emissions for the mitigation of climate change which is possible for example by a transitional technology, CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) and, among others, by the increase of nuclear proportion in the energy mix. Clay minerals are considered to be responsible for the low permeability and sealing capacity of caprocks sealing off stored CO2 and they are also the main constituents of bentonite in high level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The understanding of clay behaviour in these deep geological environments is possible through laboratory batch experiments of well-known standards and coupled geochemical models. Such experimentally validated models are scarce even though they allow deriving more precise long-term predictions of mineral reactions and rock and bentonite degradation underground and, therefore, ensuring the safety of the above technologies and increase their public acceptance. This ongoing work aims to create a kinetic geochemical model of Na-montmorillonite standard Swy-2 in the widely used PHREEQC code, supported by solution and mineral composition results from batch experiments. Several four days experiments have been carried out in 1:35 rock:water ratio at atmospheric conditions, and with inert and CO2 supercritical phase at 100 bar and 80 ⁰C relevant for the potential Hungarian CO2 reservoir complex. Solution samples have been taken during and after experiments and their compositions were measured by ICP-OES. The treated solid phase has been analysed by XRD and ATR-FTIR and compared to in-parallel measured references (dried Swy-2). Kinetic geochemical modelling of the experimental conditions has been performed by PHREEQC version 3 using equations and kinetic rate parameters from the USGS report of Palandri and Kharaka (2004). The visualization of experimental and numerous modelling results has been automatized by R. Experiments and models show very fast

  12. Ganymede and Europa and their Jovian polar footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejkora, N.; Rucker, H. O.; Panchenko, M.

    2017-09-01

    The interactions between the Galilean moons Europa and Ganymede and the Jovian magnetosphere are studied. The focus lies on the satellites' auroral footprints observable in the polar regions of Jupiter. The work encompasses case studies of UV observations, obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), showing auroral features potentially triggered by either Europa or Ganymede. For those situations the footprint lead angles are determined, using different magnetic field models. The aim is to estimate the relationship between satellite longitude and lead angle. The delay between the local interaction at the satellite and the resulting auroral emission, which is implied by the obtained lead angles, is compared to the travel time of an Alfvén wave along a magnetic field line from the satellite to the planet.

  13. Limitations of Carbon Footprint as Indicator of Environmental Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Olsen, Stig I.; Hauschild, Michael Z.

    2012-01-01

    show that some environmental impacts, notably those related to emissions of toxic substances, often do not covary with climate change impacts. In such situations, carbon footprint is a poor representative of the environmental burden of products, and environmental management focused exclusively on CFP......Greenhouse gas accountings, commonly referred to with the popular term carbon footprints (CFP), are a widely used metric of climate change impacts and the main focus of many sustainability policies among companies and authorities. However, environmental sustainability concerns not just climate...... change but also other environmental problems, like chemical pollution or depletion of natural resources, and the focus on CFP brings the risk of problem shifting when reductions in CFP are obtained at the expense of increase in other environmental impacts. But how real is this risk? Here, we model...

  14. Experimental validation of solid rocket motor damping models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riso, Cristina; Fransen, Sebastiaan; Mastroddi, Franco; Coppotelli, Giuliano; Trequattrini, Francesco; De Vivo, Alessio

    2017-12-01

    In design and certification of spacecraft, payload/launcher coupled load analyses are performed to simulate the satellite dynamic environment. To obtain accurate predictions, the system damping properties must be properly taken into account in the finite element model used for coupled load analysis. This is typically done using a structural damping characterization in the frequency domain, which is not applicable in the time domain. Therefore, the structural damping matrix of the system must be converted into an equivalent viscous damping matrix when a transient coupled load analysis is performed. This paper focuses on the validation of equivalent viscous damping methods for dynamically condensed finite element models via correlation with experimental data for a realistic structure representative of a slender launch vehicle with solid rocket motors. A second scope of the paper is to investigate how to conveniently choose a single combination of Young's modulus and structural damping coefficient—complex Young's modulus—to approximate the viscoelastic behavior of a solid propellant material in the frequency band of interest for coupled load analysis. A scaled-down test article inspired to the Z9-ignition Vega launcher configuration is designed, manufactured, and experimentally tested to obtain data for validation of the equivalent viscous damping methods. The Z9-like component of the test article is filled with a viscoelastic material representative of the Z9 solid propellant that is also preliminarily tested to investigate the dependency of the complex Young's modulus on the excitation frequency and provide data for the test article finite element model. Experimental results from seismic and shock tests performed on the test configuration are correlated with numerical results from frequency and time domain analyses carried out on its dynamically condensed finite element model to assess the applicability of different equivalent viscous damping methods to describe

  15. Study of Biometric Identification Method Based on Naked Footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Rafiu King

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The scale of deployment of biometric identity-verification systems has recently seen an enormous increase owing to the need for more secure and reliable way of identifying people. Footprint identification which can be defined as the measurement of footprint features for recognizing the identity of a user has surfaced recently. This study is based on a biometric personal identification method using static footprint features viz. friction ridge / texture and foot shape / silhouette. To begin with, naked footprints of users are captured; images then undergo pre processing followed by the extraction of two features; shape using Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) snake model and minutiae extraction respectively. Matching is then effected based on these two features followed by a fusion of these two results for either a reject or accept decision. Our shape matching feature is based on cosine similarity while the texture one is based on miniature score matching. The results from our research establish that the naked footprint is a credible biometric feature as two barefoot impressions of an individual match perfectly while that of two different persons shows a great deal of dissimilarity. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.29-35 How to cite this article: King

  16. Experimental limits from ATLAS on Standard Model Higgs production.

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Experimental limits from ATLAS on Standard Model Higgs production in the mass range 110-600 GeV. The solid curve reflects the observed experimental limits for the production of a Higgs of each possible mass value (horizontal axis). The region for which the solid curve dips below the horizontal line at the value of 1 is excluded with a 95% confidence level (CL). The dashed curve shows the expected limit in the absence of the Higgs boson, based on simulations. The green and yellow bands correspond (respectively) to 68%, and 95% confidence level regions from the expected limits. Higgs masses in the narrow range 123-130 GeV are the only masses not excluded at 95% CL

  17. Experimentally supported mathematical modeling of continuous baking processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette

    The scope of the PhD project was to increase knowledge on the process-to-product interactions in continuous tunnel ovens. The work has focused on five main objectives. These objectives cover development of new experimental equipment for pilot plant baking experiments, mathematical modeling of heat...... and mass transfer in a butter cookie product, and evaluation of quality assessment methods. The pilot plant oven is a special batch oven designed to emulate continuous convection tunnel oven baking. The design, construction, and validation of the oven has been part of the project and is described...... in this thesis. The oven was successfully validated against a 10 m tunnel oven. Besides the ability to emulate the baking conditions in a tunnel oven, the new batch oven is designed and constructed for experimental research work. In the design options to follow the product continuously (especially weight...

  18. Unequal household carbon footprints in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Zhu; Meng, Jing; Zhang, Ning; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Households' carbon footprints are unequally distributed among the rich and poor due to differences in the scale and patterns of consumption. We present distributional focused carbon footprints for Chinese households and use a carbon-footprint-Gini coefficient to quantify inequalities. We find that in 2012 the urban very rich, comprising 5% of population, induced 19% of the total carbon footprint from household consumption in China, with 6.4 tCO2/cap. The average Chinese household footprint remains comparatively low (1.7 tCO2/cap), while those of the rural population and urban poor, comprising 58% of population, are 0.5-1.6 tCO2/cap. Between 2007 and 2012 the total footprint from households increased by 19%, with 75% of the increase due to growing consumption of the urban middle class and the rich. This suggests that a transformation of Chinese lifestyles away from the current trajectory of carbon-intensive consumption patterns requires policy interventions to improve living standards and encourage sustainable consumption.

  19. Resource footprints and their ecosystem consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verones, Francesca; Moran, Daniel; Stadler, Konstantin; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Wood, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A meaningful environmental impact analysis should go beyond the accounting of pressures from resource use and actually assess how resource demand affects ecosystems. The various currently available footprints of nations report the environmental pressures e.g. water use or pollutant emissions, driven by consumption. However, there have been limited attempts to assess the environmental consequences of these pressures. Ultimately, consequences, not pressures, should guide environmental policymaking. The newly released LC-Impact method demonstrates progress on the path to providing this missing link. Here we present “ecosystem impact footprints” in terms of the consequences for biodiversity and assess the differences in impact footprint results from MRIO-based pressure footprints. The new perspective reveals major changes in the relative contribution of nations to global footprints. Wealthy countries have high pressure footprints in lower-income countries but their impact footprints often have their origin in higher-income countries. This shift in perspective provides a different insight on where to focus policy responses to preserve biodiversity.

  20. The human footprint in the west: a large-scale analysis of anthropogenic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Matthias; Hanser, Steven E; Knick, Steven T

    2008-07-01

    Anthropogenic features such as urbanization, roads, and power lines, are increasing in western United States landscapes in response to rapidly growing human populations. However, their spatial effects have not been evaluated. Our goal was to model the human footprint across the western United States. We first delineated the actual area occupied by anthropogenic features, the physical effect area. Next, we developed the human footprint model based on the ecological effect area, the zone influenced by features beyond their physical presence, by combining seven input models: three models quantified top-down anthropogenic influences of synanthropic predators (avian predators, domestic dog and cat presence risk), and four models quantified bottom-up anthropogenic influences on habitat (invasion of exotic plants, human-caused fires, energy extraction, and anthropogenic wildland fragmentation). Using independent bird population data, we found bird abundance of four synanthropic species to correlate positively with human footprint intensity and negatively for three of the six species influenced by habitat fragmentation. We then evaluated the extent of the human footprint in relation to terrestrial (ecoregions) and aquatic systems (major rivers and lakes), regional management and conservation status, physical environment, and temporal changes in human actions. The physical effect area of anthropogenic features covered 13% of the western United States with agricultural land (9.8%) being most dominant. High-intensity human footprint areas (class 8-10) overlapped highly productive low-elevation private landholdings and covered 7% of the western United States compared to 48% for low-intensity areas (class 1-3), which were confined to low-productivity high-elevation federal landholdings. Areas within 1 km of rivers were more affected by the human footprint compared to lakes. Percentage human population growth was higher in low-intensity human footprint areas. The disproportional

  1. In Vitro DNase I Footprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Benoît P; Moss, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The association of proteins with the DNA double helix can interfere with the accessibility of the latter to nucleases. This is particularly true when using bulky nucleases such as DNase I. The DNase I footprinting method was developed to take advantage of this fact in the study of DNA-protein interactions: it consists in comparing the pattern of fragments generated by the partial digestion of a DNA sequence in the absence of a protein to that produced by its partial digestion in the presence of said protein. Normally, when the two sets of fragments are separated side by side on a gel, the ladder of DNase I-generated fragments produced in the presence of the protein will feature blank regions (devoid of fragments, indicating protection) and/or enhanced cleavage sites (indicating increased availability to the nuclease). This technique can furthermore reveal if multiple sites for a DNA-binding protein are present on a same fragment and in such a case will also allow the comparison of their respective affinities.

  2. The water footprint of Milan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D; Bidoglio, G

    2014-01-01

    This study quantifies the water footprint of consumption (WFcons) and production (WFprod) of Milan. The current WFcons amounts to 6,139 l/cap/d (a volume of 2.93 km(3) annually), of which 52 l/cap/d (1%) is attributed to domestic water, 448 l/cap/d (7%) to the consumption of industrial products and 5,639 l/cap/d (92%) to the consumption of agricultural products. The WFprod is 52 l/cap/d. Milan is thus a net virtual water importer, predominantly through the import of agricultural products. These are produced outside city borders, both in Italy and abroad. This shows the dependency of city dwellers on water resources from other river basins. In addition, the WFcons for a healthy diet (based on Mediterranean Food-Based Dietary Guidelines) and a vegetarian diet are analysed. The current Milanese diet consists of too much sugar, crop oils, meat, animal fats, milk and milk products and not enough cereals, rice, potatoes, vegetables and fruit. The latter two diets result in substantial WFcons reductions: -29% (to 4,339 l/cap/d) for a healthy diet and -41% (to 3,631 l/cap/d) for a vegetarian diet. Indeed, a lot of water could be saved by Milan citizens through a change in their diet. A sustainable city should account for its impacts beyond its borders.

  3. The material footprint of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmann, Thomas O; Schandl, Heinz; Lenzen, Manfred; Moran, Daniel; Suh, Sangwon; West, James; Kanemoto, Keiichiro

    2015-05-19

    Metrics on resource productivity currently used by governments suggest that some developed countries have increased the use of natural resources at a slower rate than economic growth (relative decoupling) or have even managed to use fewer resources over time (absolute decoupling). Using the material footprint (MF), a consumption-based indicator of resource use, we find the contrary: Achievements in decoupling in advanced economies are smaller than reported or even nonexistent. We present a time series analysis of the MF of 186 countries and identify material flows associated with global production and consumption networks in unprecedented specificity. By calculating raw material equivalents of international trade, we demonstrate that countries' use of nondomestic resources is, on average, about threefold larger than the physical quantity of traded goods. As wealth grows, countries tend to reduce their domestic portion of materials extraction through international trade, whereas the overall mass of material consumption generally increases. With every 10% increase in gross domestic product, the average national MF increases by 6%. Our findings call into question the sole use of current resource productivity indicators in policy making and suggest the necessity of an additional focus on consumption-based accounting for natural resource use.

  4. Estimating Green Water Footprints in a Temperate Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hess

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The “green” water footprint (GWF of a product is often considered less important than the “blue” water footprint (BWF as “green” water generally has a low, or even negligible, opportunity cost. However, when considering food, fibre and tree products, is not only a useful indicator of the total appropriation of a natural resource, but from a methodological perspective, blue water footprints are frequently estimated as the residual after green water is subtracted from total crop water use. In most published studies, green water use (ETgreen has been estimated from the FAO CROPWAT model using the USDA method for effective rainfall. In this study, four methods for the estimation of the ETgreen of pasture were compared. Two were based on effective rainfall estimated from monthly rainfall and potential evapotranspiration, and two were based on a simulated water balance using long-term daily, or average monthly, weather data from 11 stations in England. The results show that the effective rainfall methods significantly underestimate the annual ETgreen in all cases, as they do not adequately account for the depletion of stored soil water during the summer. A simplified model, based on annual rainfall and reference evapotranspiration (ETo has been tested and used to map the average annual ETgreen of pasture in England.

  5. Continuum damage modeling through theoretical and experimental pressure limit formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Majid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we developed a mathematical modeling to represent the damage of thermoplastic pipes. On the one hand, we adapted the theories of the rupture pressure to fit the High Density Polyethylene (HDPE case. Indeed, the theories for calculating the rupture pressure are multiple, designed originally for steels and alloys. For polymer materials, we have found that these theories can be adapted using a coefficient related to the nature of the studied material. The HDPE is characterized by two important values of pressure, deduced from the ductile form of the internal pressures evolution until burst. For this reason, we have designed an alpha coefficient taking into account these two pressures and giving a good approximation of the evolution of the experimental burst pressures through the theoretically corrected ones, using Faupel㒒s pressure formula. Then, we can deduce the evolution of the theoretical damage using the calculated pressures. On the other hand, two other mathematical models were undertaken. The first one has given rise to an adaptive model referring to an expression of the pressure as a function of the life fraction, the characteristic pressures and the critical life fraction. The second model represents a continuum damage model incorporating the pressure equations as a function of the life fraction and based on the burst pressure�s static damage model. These models represent important tools for industrials to assess the failure of thermoplastic pipes and proceed quick checks

  6. Short note: the experimental geopotential model XGM2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pail, R.; Fecher, T.; Barnes, D.; Factor, J. F.; Holmes, S. A.; Gruber, T.; Zingerle, P.

    2017-10-01

    As a precursor study for the upcoming combined Earth Gravitational Model 2020 (EGM2020), the Experimental Gravity Field Model XGM2016, parameterized as a spherical harmonic series up to degree and order 719, is computed. XGM2016 shares the same combination methodology as its predecessor model GOCO05c (Fecher et al. in Surv Geophys 38(3): 571-590, 2017. doi: 10.1007/s10712-016-9406-y). The main difference between these models is that XGM2016 is supported by an improved terrestrial data set of 15^' × 15^' gravity anomaly area-means provided by the United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), resulting in significant upgrades compared to existing combined gravity field models, especially in continental areas such as South America, Africa, parts of Asia, and Antarctica. A combination strategy of relative regional weighting provides for improved performance in near-coastal ocean regions, including regions where the altimetric data are mostly unchanged from previous models. Comparing cumulative height anomalies, from both EGM2008 and XGM2016 at degree/order 719, yields differences of 26 cm in Africa and 40 cm in South America. These differences result from including additional information of satellite data, as well as from the improved ground data in these regions. XGM2016 also yields a smoother Mean Dynamic Topography with significantly reduced artifacts, which indicates an improved modeling of the ocean areas.

  7. Experimental validation of mathematical model for small air compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuhovčák Ján

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development process of reciprocating compressors can be simplified by using simulation tools. Modelling of a compressor requires a trade-off between computational effort and accuracy of desired results. This paper presents experimental validation of the simulation tool, which can be used to predict compressor behaviour under different working conditions. The mathematical model provides fast results with very good accuracy, however the model must be calibrated for a certain type of compressor. Small air compressor was used to validate an in-house simulation tool, which is based on mass and energy conservation in a control volume. The simulation tool calculates pressure and temperature history inside the cylinder, valve characteristics, mass flow and heat losses during the cycle of the compressor. A test bench for the compressor consisted of pressure sensors on both discharge and suction side, temperature sensor on discharge side and flow meter with calorimetric principle sensor.

  8. A two-Higgs-doublet model facing experimental hints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crivellin Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physics beyond the Standard Model has so far eluded our experimental probes. Nevertheless, a number of interesting anomalies have accumulated that can be taken as hints towards new physics: BaBar, Belle, and LHCb have found deviations of approximately 3:8σ in B → Dτν and B → D*τν; the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon differs by about 3σ from the theoretic prediction; the branching ratio for τ → μνν is about 2σ above the Standard Model expectation; and CMS and ATLAS found hints for a non-zero decay rate of h → μτ at 2.6σ. Here we consider these processes within a lepton-specific two-Higgs doublet model with additional non-standard Yukawa couplings and show how (and which of these excesses can be accommodated.

  9. Comparison of mixed layer models predictions with experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faggian, P.; Riva, G.M. [CISE Spa, Divisione Ambiente, Segrate (Italy); Brusasca, G. [ENEL Spa, CRAM, Milano (Italy)

    1997-10-01

    The temporal evolution of the PBL vertical structure for a North Italian rural site, situated within relatively large agricultural fields and almost flat terrain, has been investigated during the period 22-28 June 1993 by experimental and modellistic point of view. In particular, the results about a sunny day (June 22) and a cloudy day (June 25) are presented in this paper. Three schemes to estimate mixing layer depth have been compared, i.e. Holzworth (1967), Carson (1973) and Gryning-Batchvarova models (1990), which use standard meteorological observations. To estimate their degree of accuracy, model outputs were analyzed considering radio-sounding meteorological profiles and stability atmospheric classification criteria. Besides, the mixed layer depths prediction were compared with the estimated values obtained by a simple box model, whose input requires hourly measures of air concentrations and ground flux of {sup 222}Rn. (LN)

  10. The Footprint Database and Web Services of the Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, László; Varga-Verebélyi, Erika; Verdugo, Eva; Teyssier, David; Exter, Katrina; Valtchanov, Ivan; Budavári, Tamás; Kiss, Csaba

    2016-10-01

    Data from the Herschel Space Observatory is freely available to the public but no uniformly processed catalogue of the observations has been published so far. To date, the Herschel Science Archive does not contain the exact sky coverage (footprint) of individual observations and supports search for measurements based on bounding circles only. Drawing on previous experience in implementing footprint databases, we built the Herschel Footprint Database and Web Services for the Herschel Space Observatory to provide efficient search capabilities for typical astronomical queries. The database was designed with the following main goals in mind: (a) provide a unified data model for meta-data of all instruments and observational modes, (b) quickly find observations covering a selected object and its neighbourhood, (c) quickly find every observation in a larger area of the sky, (d) allow for finding solar system objects crossing observation fields. As a first step, we developed a unified data model of observations of all three Herschel instruments for all pointing and instrument modes. Then, using telescope pointing information and observational meta-data, we compiled a database of footprints. As opposed to methods using pixellation of the sphere, we represent sky coverage in an exact geometric form allowing for precise area calculations. For easier handling of Herschel observation footprints with rather complex shapes, two algorithms were implemented to reduce the outline. Furthermore, a new visualisation tool to plot footprints with various spherical projections was developed. Indexing of the footprints using Hierarchical Triangular Mesh makes it possible to quickly find observations based on sky coverage, time and meta-data. The database is accessible via a web site http://herschel.vo.elte.hu and also as a set of REST web service functions, which makes it readily usable from programming environments such as Python or IDL. The web service allows downloading footprint data

  11. Evaluation of Algebraic Reynolds Stress Model Assumptions Using Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, B.; Ewing, D.; Matovic, D.

    1996-11-01

    The accuracy of Rodi's ASM assumption is examined by evaluating the terms in Reynolds stress transport equation and their modelled counterparts. The basic model assumption: Dτ_ij/Dt + partial T_ijl/partial xl = (τ_ij/k )(Dk/Dt + partial Tl /partial xl ) (Rodi( Rodi W., ZAMM.), 56, pp. 219-221, 1976.), can also be broken into two stronger assumptions: Da_ij/Dt = 0 and (2) partial T_ijl/partial xl = (τ_ij/k )(partial Tl /partial xl ) (e.g. Taulbee( Taulbee D. B., Phys. of Fluids), 4(11), pp. 2555-2561, 1992.). Fu et al( Fu S., Huang P.G., Launder B.E. & Leschziner M.A., J. Fluid Eng.), 110(2), pp. 216-221., 1988 examined the accuracy of Rodi's assumption using the results of RSM calculation of axisymmetric jets. Since the RSM results did not accurately predict the experimental results either, it may be useful to examine the basic ASM model assumptions using experimental data. The database of Hussein, Capp and George( Hussein H., Capp S. & George W., J.F.M.), 258, pp.31-75., 1994. is sufficiently detailed to evaluate the terms of Reynolds stress transport equations individually, thus allowing both Rodi's and the stronger assumptions to be tested. For this flow assumption (1) is well satisfied for all the components (including \\overlineuv); however, assumption (2) does not seem as well satisfied.

  12. Neuroinflammatory targets and treatments for epilepsy validated in experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronica, Eleonora; Bauer, Sebastian; Bozzi, Yuri; Caleo, Matteo; Dingledine, Raymond; Gorter, Jan A; Henshall, David C; Kaufer, Daniela; Koh, Sookyong; Löscher, Wolfgang; Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Mishto, Michele; Norwood, Braxton A; Palma, Eleonora; Poulter, Michael O; Terrone, Gaetano; Vezzani, Annamaria; Kaminski, Rafal M

    2017-07-01

    A large body of evidence that has accumulated over the past decade strongly supports the role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of human epilepsy. Specific inflammatory molecules and pathways have been identified that influence various pathologic outcomes in different experimental models of epilepsy. Most importantly, the same inflammatory pathways have also been found in surgically resected brain tissue from patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy. New antiseizure therapies may be derived from these novel potential targets. An essential and crucial question is whether targeting these molecules and pathways may result in anti-ictogenesis, antiepileptogenesis, and/or disease-modification effects. Therefore, preclinical testing in models mimicking relevant aspects of epileptogenesis is needed to guide integrated experimental and clinical trial designs. We discuss the most recent preclinical proof-of-concept studies validating a number of therapeutic approaches against inflammatory mechanisms in animal models that could represent novel avenues for drug development in epilepsy. Finally, we suggest future directions to accelerate preclinical to clinical translation of these recent discoveries. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  13. Hepatoprotective activity of Musa paradisiaca on experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, M; Girija, K; Lakshman, K; Divya, T

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of stem of Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) in CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity models in rats. Hepatoprotective activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of stem of M. paradisiaca was demonstrated by using two experimentally induced hepatotoxicity models. Administration of hepatotoxins (CCl4 and paracetamol) showed significant biochemical and histological deteriorations in the liver of experimental animals. Pretreatment with alcoholic extract (500 mg/kg), more significantly and to a lesser extent the alcoholic extract (250 mg/kg) and aqueous extract (500 mg/kg), reduced the elevated levels of the serum enzymes like serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin levels and alcoholic and aqueous extracts reversed the hepatic damage towards the normal, which further evidenced the hepatoprotective activity of stem of M. paradisiaca. The alcoholic extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. and aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg, p.o. of stem of M. paradisiaca have significant effect on the liver of CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity animal models.

  14. A comprehensive experimental and modeling study of 2-methylbutanol combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Sungwoo

    2015-05-01

    2-Methylbutanol (2-methyl-1-butanol) is one of several next-generation biofuels that can be used as an alternative fuel or blending component for combustion engines. This paper presents new experimental data for 2-methylbutanol, including ignition delay times in a high-pressure shock tube and premixed laminar flame speeds in a constant volume combustion vessel. Shock tube ignition delay times were measured for 2-methylbutanol/air mixtures at three equivalence ratios, temperatures ranging from 750 to 1250. K, and at nominal pressures near 20 and 40. bar. Laminar flame speed data were obtained using the spherically propagating premixed flame configuration at pressures of 1, 2, and 5. bar. A detailed chemical kinetic model for 2-methylbutanol oxidation was developed including high- and low-temperature chemistry based on previous modeling studies on butanol and pentanol isomers. The proposed model was tested against new and existing experimental data at pressures of 1-40. atm, temperatures of 740-1636. K, equivalence ratios of 0.25-2.0. Reaction path and sensitivity analyses were conducted for identifying key reactions at various combustion conditions, and to obtain better understanding of the combustion characteristics of larger alcohols.

  15. Ribosome Footprint Profiling of Translation throughout the Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingolia, Nicholas T.

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome profiling has emerged as a technique for measuring translation comprehensively and quantitatively by deep sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments. By identifying the precise positions of ribosomes, footprinting experiments have unveiled key insights into the composition and regulation of the expressed proteome, including delineating potentially functional micropeptides, revealing pervasive translation on cytosolic RNAs, and identifying differences in elongation rates driven by codon usage or other factors. This Primer looks at important experimental and analytical concerns for executing ribosome profiling experiments and surveys recent examples where the approach was developed to explore protein biogenesis and homeostasis. PMID:27015305

  16. Using extant taxa to inform studies of fossil footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkingham, Peter; Gatesy, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Attempting to use the fossilized footprints of extinct animals to study their palaeobiology and palaeoecology is notoriously difficult. The inconvenient extinction of the trackmaker makes direct correlation between footprints and foot far from straightforward. However, footprints are the only direct evidence of vertebrate motion recorded in the fossil record, and are potentially a source of data on palaeobiology that cannot be obtained from osteological remains alone. Our interests lie in recovering information about the movements of dinosaurs from their tracks. In particular, the Hitchcock collection of early Jurassic tracks held at the Beneski Museum of Natural History, Amherst, provide a rare look into the 3D form of tracks at and below the surface the animal walked on. Breaking naturally along laminations into 'track books', the specimens present sediment deformation at multiple levels, and in doing so record more of the foot's motion than a single surface might. In order to utilize this rich information source to study the now extinct trackmakers, the process of track formation must be understood at a fundamental level; the interaction of the moving foot and compliant substrate. We used bi-planar X-ray techniques (X-ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology) to record the limb and foot motions of a Guineafowl traversing both granular and cohesive substrates. This data was supplemented with photogrammetric records of the resultant track surfaces, as well as the motion of metal beads within the sediment, to provide a full experimental dataset of foot and footprint formation. The physical experimental data was used to generate computer simulations of the process using high performance computing and the Discrete Element Method. The resultant simulations showed excellent congruence with reality, and enabled visualization within the sediment volume, and throughout the track-forming process. This physical and virtual experimental set-up has provided major insight into

  17. Model reduction for experimental thermal characterization of a holding furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loussouarn, Thomas; Maillet, Denis; Remy, Benjamin; Dan, Diane

    2017-09-01

    Vacuum holding induction furnaces are used for the manufacturing of turbine blades by loss wax foundry process. The control of solidification parameters is a key factor for the manufacturing of these parts. The definition of the structure of a reduced heat transfer model with experimental identification through an estimation of its parameters is required here. Internal sensors outputs, together with this model, can be used for assessing the thermal state of the furnace through an inverse approach, for a better control. Here, an axisymmetric furnace and its load have been numerically modelled using FlexPDE, a finite elements code. The internal induction heat source as well as the transient radiative transfer inside the furnace are calculated through this detailed model. A reduced lumped body model has been constructed to represent the numerical furnace. The model reduction and the estimation of the parameters of the lumped body have been made using a Levenberg-Marquardt least squares minimization algorithm, using two synthetic temperature signals with a further validation test.

  18. Experimental models of sepsis and septic shock: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido Alejandra G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in surgical patients and trauma victims, mainly due to sepsis-induced multiple organ dysfunction. In contrast to preclinical studies, most clinical trials of promising new treatment strategies for sepsis have fails to demonstrate efficacy. Although many reasons could account for this discrepancy, the misinterpretation of preclinical data obtained from experimental studies, and especially the use of animal models that do not adequately mimic human sepsis may have been contributing factors. In this review, the benefits and limitations of various animal models of sepsis are discussed to clarify the extend to which findings are relevant to human sepsis, particularly with respect to the subsequent design and execution of clinical trials. Such models include intravascular infusion of endotoxin or live bacteria, bacterial peritonitis, cecal ligation and perforation, soft tissue infection, pneumonia or meningitis models, using different animal species including rats, mice, rabbits, dogs, pigs, sheep and nonhuman primates. Despite several limitations, animal models remain essential in the development of all new therapies for sepsis and septic shock, because they provide fundamental information about the pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and mechanism of drug action that cannot be duplicated by other methods. New therapeutic agents should be studies in infection models, even after the initiation of the septic process. Furthermore, debility conditions need to be reproduced to avoid the exclusive use of healthy animals, which often do not represent the human septic patient.

  19. CFD Modeling and Experimental Validation of a Solar Still

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Tahir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth is the densest planet of the solar system with total area of 510.072 million square Km. Over 71.68% of this area is covered with water leaving a scant area of 28.32% for human to inhabit. The fresh water accounts for only 2.5% of the total volume and the rest is the brackish water. Presently, the world is facing chief problem of lack of potable water. This issue can be addressed by converting brackish water into potable through a solar distillation process and solar still is specially assigned for this purpose. Efficiency of a solar still explicitly depends on its design parameters, such as wall material, chamber depth, width and slope of the zcondensing surface. This study was aimed at investigating the solar still parameters using CFD modeling and experimental validation. The simulation data of ANSYS-FLUENT was compared with actual experimental data. A close agreement among the simulated and experimental results was seen in the presented work. It reveals that ANSYS-FLUENT is a potent tool to analyse the efficiency of the new designs of the solar distillation systems.

  20. Experimental model for creation of carotid artery aneurysms in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Yu, In Kyu; Lee, Sang Hyun; Chang, Kee Hyun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To describe the detailed technique for producing experimental carotid aneurysms in dogs and the success rate, cause of failure and remedy, based on our experience. Fourteen male dogs weighing 12-15kg were anesthetized with inhalation of 1-2% halothane and 50% nitrous oxide. Each surgical procedure was performed under sterile condition with the aid of an operating microscope. A paramidline incision 7-8cm in length was made parallel to and medial to the external jugular vein in the dog's neck. The external jugular vein was harvested as a 1cm vein pouch by ligation and division of the proximal and distal ends. The ipsilateral common carotid artery was exposed and clamped at both ends by a vascular clamp. A 5-mm long elliptical arteriotomy was made at the mid portion of the artery, and then end to side anastomosis between the artery and vein sac was performed by using interrupted 7-0 monofilament prolene sutures. Carotid arteriography or Doppler sonography was performed 1-6 weeks after aneurysm construction. Twenty experimental aneurysms were constructed, and 17 aneurysms were patent on follow up study, but one dog with two aneurysms died from hemorrhagic pneumonia 17 days after surgery. The overall patency rate was 75%. We demonstrated the feasibility of creating experimental aneurysm models in the dog and expect that the technique presented will help to avoid failure in the construction of aneurysms.

  1. Plasma transferred arc welding—modeling and experimental optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilden, J.; Bergmann, J. P.; Frank, H.

    2006-12-01

    Plasma transferred arc (PTA) welded coatings are used to improve surface properties of mechanical parts. Advantages are the high reliability of the process and the low dilution of substrate and coating material. Processing of surfaces by PTA welding is restricted at the time to flat horizontal position. Furthermore, industry is interested in the development of strategies for coating with PTA in constraint position as complex three-dimensional (3D) parts could be then easily processed as well. Under commercial aspects, the process design can be optimized to increase process efficiency and to reduce heat input during the welding process. Process optimization involves the determination of guidelines for PTA welding in constraint positions as well. Modeling the process gives an alternative to reduce the experimental effort to optimize the welding process. Results of simulation studies of the PTA welding process are given in the present work. It will be shown that coating conditions can be optimized by varying plasma gas flow, heat input and heat flow, process speed, or powder injection with regard to welding in constraint positions. The defined controlling of the PTA welding allows modification of process management with less experimental effort and to develop coating strategies for processing in different positions. In experimental investigations, the developed coating strategies are confirmed by producing PTA coatings in constraint position as well as complex 3D parts.

  2. Decoupling Water Consumption and Environmental Impact on Textile Industry by Using Water Footprint Method: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of China’s textile industry has led to consumption and pollution of large volumes of water. Therefore, the textile industry has been the focus of water conservation and waste reduction in China’s 13th Five-Year Plan (2016–2020. The premise of sustainable development is to achieve decoupling of economic growth from water consumption and wastewater discharge. In this work, changes in the blue water footprint, grey water footprint, and the total water footprint of the textile industry from 2001 to 2014 were calculated. The relationship between water footprint and economic growth was then examined using the Tapio decoupling model. Furthermore, factors influencing water footprint were determined through logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI method. Results show that the water footprint of China’s textile industry has strongly decoupled for five years (2003, 2006, 2008, 2011, and 2013 and weakly decoupled for four years (2005, 2007, 2009, and 2010. A decoupling trend occurred during 2001–2014, but a steady stage of decoupling had not been achieved yet. Based on the decomposition analysis, the total water footprint mainly increased along with the production scale. On the contrary, technical level is the most important factor in inhibiting the water footprint. In addition, the effect of industrial structure adjustment is relatively weak.

  3. An efficient approach to bioconversion kinetic model generation based on automated microscale experimentation integrated with model driven experimental design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, B. H.; Micheletti, M.; Baganz, F.

    2009-01-01

    design. It incorporates a model driven approach to the experimental design that minimises the number of experiments to be performed, while still generating accurate values of kinetic parameters. The approach has been illustrated with the transketolase mediated asymmetric synthesis of L......Reliable models of enzyme kinetics are required for the effective design of bioconversion processes. Kinetic expressions of the enzyme-catalysed reaction rate however, are frequently complex and establishing accurate values of kinetic parameters normally requires a large number of experiments....... These can be both time consuming and expensive when working with the types of non-natural chiral intermediates important in pharmaceutical syntheses. This paper presents ail automated microscale approach to the rapid and cost effective generation of reliable kinetic models useful for bioconversion process...

  4. National water footprint accounts: the green, blue and grey water footprint of production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    This study quantifies and maps the water footprints of nations from both a production and consumption perspective and estimates international virtual water flows and national and global water savings as a result of trade. The entire estimate includes a breakdown of water footprints, virtual water

  5. Decomposition of the Urban Water Footprint of Food Consumption: A Case Study of Xiamen City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefeng Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition of the urban water footprint can provide insight for water management. In this paper, a new decomposition method based on the log-mean Divisia index model (LMDI was developed to analyze the driving forces of water footprint changes, attributable to food consumption. Compared to previous studies, this new approach can distinguish between various factors relating to urban and rural residents. The water footprint of food consumption in Xiamen City, from 2001 to 2012, was calculated. Following this, the driving forces of water footprint change were broken down into considerations of the population, the structure of food consumption, the level of food consumption, water intensity, and the population rate. Research shows that between 2001 and 2012, the water footprint of food consumption in Xiamen increased by 675.53 Mm3, with a growth rate of 88.69%. Population effects were the leading contributors to this change, accounting for 87.97% of the total growth. The food consumption structure also had a considerable effect on this increase. Here, the urban area represented 94.96% of the water footprint increase, driven by the effect of the food consumption structure. Water intensity and the urban/rural population rate had a weak positive cumulative effect. The effects of the urban/rural population rate on the water footprint change in urban and rural areas, however, were individually significant. The level of food consumption was the only negative factor. In terms of food categories, meat and grain had the greatest effects during the study period. Controlling the urban population, promoting a healthy and less water-intensive diet, reducing food waste, and improving agriculture efficiency, are all elements of an effective approach for mitigating the growth of the water footprint.

  6. A DIDATIC EXPERIENCE IN BIOCHEMISTRY LABWORKS: THEORETICALVERSUS EXPERIMENTAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C Rossi-Rodrigues

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Biochemistry labworks are fundamental to both the instrumentation and  for  the  establishment of important concepts. The labworks of Basic  Biochemistry  (BB280 for Biology students at UNICAMP have gone through several  improvements. The labworks are  now  structured  from simple  activities to more complex ones, and aimed  to  the student’s  autonomy  development  in the experiments planning and execution  over  the teaching  semester. The first practical activity is on buffer systems, and   it is based  on  the confrontation of a theoretical model with the  lab experiments results.  First of all, the students  simulate  a Titration  in  a computational environment, where students lay a theoretical model from their knowledge. In the theoretical model the buffer parameters are set according to the teacher instructions, and the experiment conditions are also set and tested.  The simulation results are used for planning  the experiment and to compare with the experimental ones.  After having the simulations concluded and having the experiment planned the students  perform  the  in lab  Titration with the parameters established in the simulation. The results obtained by students are presented in a report. We analyzed the reports from 76 BB280’s students in 2007(night class and day class. The students identified as the main causes of the discrepancy between theoretical and experimental data: 1 experimental errors, related to the lack of technical skill 2 limitation of equipment used 3 unexpected behavior of the substances  used. In addition to the theoretical content related to  labwork, the confrontation between the  simulation and experimentation provided the students with ability  to identify the main aspects of which can influence the quality of the data obtained.

  7. Carbon footprint of aerobic biological treatment of winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, D; Bolzonella, D

    2009-01-01

    The carbon associated with wastewater and its treatment accounts for approximately 6% of the global carbon balance. Within the wastewater treatment industry, winery wastewater has a minor contribution, although it can have a major impact on wine-producing regions. Typically, winery wastewater is treated by biological processes, such as the activated sludge process. Biomass produced during treatment is usually disposed of directly, i.e. without digestion or other anaerobic processes. We applied our previously published model for carbon-footprint calculation to the areas worldwide producing yearly more than 10(6) m(3) of wine (i.e., France, Italy, Spain, California, Argentina, Australia, China, and South Africa). Datasets on wine production from the Food and Agriculture Organisation were processed and wastewater flow rates calculated with assumptions based on our previous experience. Results show that the wine production, hence the calculated wastewater flow, is reported as fairly constant in the period 2005-2007. Nevertheless, treatment process efficiency and energy-conservation may play a significant role on the overall carbon-footprint. We performed a sensitivity analysis on the efficiency of the aeration process (alphaSOTE per unit depth, or alphaSOTE/Z) in the biological treatment operations and showed significant margin for improvement. Our results show that the carbon-footprint reduction via aeration efficiency improvement is in the range of 8.1 to 12.3%.

  8. Astrocyte regulation of sleep circuits: experimental and modeling perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso eFellin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrated within neural circuits, astrocytes have recently been shown to modulate brain rhythms thought to mediate sleep function. Experimental evidence suggests that local impact of astrocytes on single synapses translates into global modulation of neuronal networks and behavior. We discuss these findings in the context of current conceptual models of sleep generation and function, each of which have historically focused on neural mechanisms. We highlight the implications and the challenges introduced by these results from a conceptual and computational perspective. We further provide modeling directions on how these data might extend our knowledge of astrocytic properties and sleep function. Given our evolving understanding of how local cellular activities during sleep lead to functional outcomes for the brain, further mechanistic and theoretical understanding of astrocytic contribution to these dynamics will undoubtedly be of great basic and translational benefit.

  9. An experimental and modeling study of n-octanol combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the first investigation on the combustion chemistry of n-octanol, a long chain alcohol. Ignition delay times were determined experimentally in a high-pressure shock tube, and stable species concentration profiles were obtained in a jet stirred reactor for a range of initial conditions. A detailed kinetic model was developed to describe the oxidation of n-octanol at both low and high temperatures, and the model shows good agreement with the present dataset. The fuel\\'s combustion characteristics are compared to those of n-alkanes and to short chain alcohols to illustrate the effects of the hydroxyl moiety and the carbon chain length on important combustion properties. Finally, the results are discussed in detail. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  10. Experimental studies and modeling on concentration polarization in forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian-Jun; Chen, Sijie; Oo, Maung Htun; Kekre, Kiran A; Cornelissen, Emile R; Ruiken, Chris J

    2010-01-01

    Concentration polarization (CP) is an important issue in forward osmosis (FO) processes and it is believed that the coupled effect of dilutive internal CP (DICP) and concentrative external CP (CECP) limits FO flux. The objective of this study was to distinguish individual contribution of different types of DICP and CECP via modeling and to validate it by pilot studies. The influence of DICP/CECP on FO flux has been investigated in this study. The CP model presented in this work was derived from a previous study and evaluated by bench-scale FO experiments. Experiments were conducted with drinking water as the feed and NaCl/MgSO(4) as draw solutions at different concentrations and velocities. Modeling results indicated that DICP contributed to a flux reduction by 99.9% for 0.5 M NaCl as a draw solution although the flow pattern of both feed and draw solutions was turbulent. DICP could be improved via selection of the draw solution. The modeling results were well fit with the experimental data. It was concluded that the model could be used for selection of the draw solution and prediction of water flux under similar situation. A draw solution with greater diffusion coefficient or a thinner substrate of an asymmetric FO membrane resulted in a higher flux.

  11. Immunology and Homeopathy. 3. Experimental Studies on Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bellavite

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A search of the literature and the experiments carried out by the authors of this review show that there are a number of animal models where the effect of homeopathic dilutions or the principles of homeopathic medicine have been tested. The results relate to the immunostimulation by ultralow doses of antigens, the immunological models of the ‘simile’, the regulation of acute or chronic inflammatory processes and the use of homeopathic medicines in farming. The models utilized by different research groups are extremely etherogeneous and differ as the test medicines, the dilutions and the outcomes are concerned. Some experimental lines, particularly those utilizing mice models of immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory effects of homeopathic complex formulations, give support to a real effect of homeopathic high dilutions in animals, but often these data are of preliminary nature and have not been independently replicated. The evidence emerging from animal models is supporting the traditional ‘simile’ rule, according to which ultralow doses of compounds, that in high doses are pathogenic, may have paradoxically a protective or curative effect. Despite a few encouraging observational studies, the effectiveness of the homeopathic prevention or therapy of infections in veterinary medicine is not sufficiently supported by randomized and controlled trials.

  12. Maternal hypothyroidism: An overview of current experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Mahboubeh; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2017-10-15

    Maternal hypothyroidism (MH) is the most common cause of transient congenital hypothyroidism. Different animal models are used for assessing developmental effects of MH in offspring. The severity and status of hypothyroidism in animal models must be a reflection of the actual conditions in humans. To obtain comparable results with different clinical conditions, which lead to MH in humans, several factors have been suggested for researchers to consider before designing the experimental models. Regarding development of fetal body systems during pregnancy, interference at different times provides different results and the appropriate time for induction of hypothyroidism should be selected based on accurate time of development of the system under assessment. Other factors that should be taken into consideration include, physiological and biochemical differences between humans and other species, thyroid hormone-independent effects of anti-thyroid drugs, circadian rhythms in TSH secretion, sex differences, physical and psychological stress. This review addresses essential guidelines for selecting and managing the optimal animal model for MH as well as discussing the pros and cons of currently used models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Antioxidant Capacity: Experimental Determination by EPR Spectroscopy and Mathematical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Justyna; Bartoszek, Mariola; Chorążewski, Mirosław

    2015-07-22

    A new method of determining antioxidant capacity based on a mathematical model is presented in this paper. The model was fitted to 1000 data points of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy measurements of various food product samples such as tea, wine, juice, and herbs with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values from 20 to 2000 μmol TE/100 mL. The proposed mathematical equation allows for a determination of TEAC of food products based on a single EPR spectroscopy measurement. The model was tested on the basis of 80 EPR spectroscopy measurements of herbs, tea, coffee, and juice samples. The proposed model works for both strong and weak antioxidants (TEAC values from 21 to 2347 μmol TE/100 mL). The determination coefficient between TEAC values obtained experimentally and TEAC values calculated with proposed mathematical equation was found to be R(2) = 0.98. Therefore, the proposed new method of TEAC determination based on a mathematical model is a good alternative to the standard EPR method due to its being fast, accurate, inexpensive, and simple to perform.

  14. An experimental methodology for a fuzzy set preference model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turksen, I. B.; Willson, Ian A.

    1992-01-01

    models and vague linguistic preferences has greatly limited the usefulness and predictive validity of existing preference models. A fuzzy set preference model that uses linguistic variables and a fully interactive implementation should be able to simultaneously address these issues and substantially improve the accuracy of demand estimates. The parallel implementation of crisp and fuzzy conjoint models using identical data not only validates the fuzzy set model but also provides an opportunity to assess the impact of fuzzy set definitions and individual attribute choices implemented in the interactive methodology developed in this research. The generalized experimental tools needed for conjoint models can also be applied to many other types of intelligent systems.

  15. Research on the influencing factors of reverse logistics carbon footprint under sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang

    2017-10-01

    With the concerns of ecological and circular economy along with sustainable development, reverse logistics has attracted the attention of enterprise. How to achieve sustainable development of reverse logistics has important practical significance of enhancing low carbon competitiveness. In this paper, the system boundary of reverse logistics carbon footprint is presented. Following the measurement of reverse logistics carbon footprint and reverse logistics carbon capacity is provided. The influencing factors of reverse logistics carbon footprint are classified into five parts such as intensity of reverse logistics, energy structure, energy efficiency, reverse logistics output, and product remanufacturing rate. The quantitative research methodology using ADF test, Johansen co-integration test, and impulse response is utilized to interpret the relationship between reverse logistics carbon footprint and the influencing factors more accurately. This research finds that energy efficiency, energy structure, and product remanufacturing rate are more capable of inhibiting reverse logistics carbon footprint. The statistical approaches will help practitioners in this field to structure their reverse logistics activities and also help academics in developing better decision models to reduce reverse logistics carbon footprint.

  16. A Fast Track approach to deal with the temporal dimension of crop water footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuninetti, Marta; Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2017-07-01

    Population growth, socio-economic development and climate changes are placing increasing pressure on water resources. Crop water footprint is a key indicator in the quantification of such pressure. It is determined by crop evapotranspiration and crop yield, which can be highly variable in space and time. While the spatial variability of crop water footprint has been the objective of several investigations, the temporal variability remains poorly studied. In particular, some studies approached this issue by associating the time variability of crop water footprint only to yield changes, while considering evapotranspiration patterns as marginal. Validation of this Fast Track approach has yet to be provided. In this Letter we demonstrate its feasibility through a comprehensive validation, an assessment of its uncertainty, and an example of application. Our results show that the water footprint changes are mainly driven by yield trends, while evapotranspiration plays a minor role. The error due to considering constant evapotranspiration is three times smaller than the uncertainty of the model used to compute the crop water footprint. These results confirm the suitability of the Fast Track approach and enable a simple, yet appropriate, evaluation of time-varying crop water footprint.

  17. Beef and coal are key drivers of Australia’s high nitrogen footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xia; Leach, Allison M.; Galloway, James N.; Gu, Baojing; Lam, Shu Kee; Chen, Deli

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic release of reactive nitrogen (Nr; all species of N except N2) to the global nitrogen (N) cycle is substantial and it negatively affects human and ecosystem health. A novel metric, the N footprint, provides a consumer-based perspective for Nr use efficiency and connects lifestyle choices with Nr losses. Here we report the first full-scale assessment of the anthropogenic Nr loss by Australians. Despite its ‘clean and green’ image, Australia has the largest N footprint (47 kg N cap-1 yr-1) both in food and energy sectors among all countries that have used the N-Calculator model. About 69% of the Australia’s N footprint is attributed to food consumption and the associated food production, with the rest from energy consumption. Beef consumption and production is the major contributor of the high food N footprint, while the heavy dependence on coal for electricity explains the large energy N footprint. Our study demonstrates opportunities for managing Nr loss and lifestyle choices to reduce the N footprint.

  18. Reducing Agricultural Water Footprints at the Farm Scale: A Case Study in the Beijing Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Beijing is one of the most water-stressed regions in the world. Reducing agricultural water use has long been the basis of local policy for sustainable water use. In this article, the potential to reduce the life cycle (cradle to gate water footprints of wheat and maize that contribute to 94% of the local cereal production was assessed. Following ISO 14046, consumptive and degradative water use for the wheat-maize rotation system was modeled under different irrigation and nitrogen (N application options. Reducing irrigation water volume by 33.3% compared to current practice did not cause a significant yield decline, but the water scarcity footprint and water eutrophication footprint were decreased by 27.5% and 23.9%, respectively. Similarly, reducing the N application rate by 33.3% from current practice did not cause a significant yield decline, but led to a 52.3% reduction in water eutrophication footprint while maintaining a similar water scarcity footprint. These results demonstrate that improving water and fertilizer management has great potential for reducing the crop water footprints at the farm scale. This situation in Beijing is likely to be representative of the challenge facing many of the water-stressed regions in China, where a sustainable means of agricultural production must be found.

  19. Contaminant plume configuration and movement: an experimental model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencoao, A.; Reis, A.; Pereira, M. G.; Liberato, M. L. R.; Caramelo, L.; Amraoui, M.; Amorim, V.

    2009-04-01

    The relevance of Science and Technology in our daily routines makes it compulsory to educate citizens who have both scientific literacy and scientific knowledge. These will allow them to be intervening citizens in a constantly changing society. Thus, physical and natural sciences are included in school curricula, both in primary and secondary education, with the fundamental aim of developing in the students the skills, attitudes and knowledge needed for the understanding of the planet Earth and its real problems. On the other hand, teaching in Geosciences is more and more based on practical methodologies which use didactic material, sustaining teachers' pedagogical practices and facilitating students' learning tasks suggested on the syllabus defined for each school level. Themes related to exploring the different components of the Hydrological Cycle and themes related to natural environment protection and preservation, namely water resources and soil contamination by industrial and urban sewage are examples of subject matters included on the Portuguese syllabus. These topics motivated the conception and construction of experimental models for the study of the propagation of pollutants on a porous medium. The experimental models allow inducing a horizontal flux of water though different kinds of permeable substances (e.g. sand, silt), with contamination spots on its surface. These experimental activities facilitate the student to understand the flow path of contaminating substances on the saturated zone and to observe the contaminant plume configuration and movement. The activities are explored in a teaching and learning process perspective where the student builds its own knowledge through real question- problem based learning which relate Science, Technology and Society. These activities have been developed in the framework of project ‘Water in the Environment' (CV/PVI/0854) of the POCTI Program (Programa Operacional "Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovação") financed

  20. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Agnès; Trejo, Armando; Cisneros, Humberto; García-Navarrete, Roberto; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Marisela; Villeda Hernández, Juana; Hernández, Beatriz; Rosas, Gabriela; Bobes, Raul J; de Aluja, Aline S; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2015-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000) were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres) to 5.4% (500 oncospheres). Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3%) and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments.

  1. Experimental Model of Intervertebral Disk Mediated Postoperative Epidural Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, Sergey N; Sorokovikov, V A; Erdyneyev, K C; Lepekhova, S A; Goldberg, O A

    2016-07-01

    Postoperative epidural fibrosis (EF) after lumbar discectomy is the most common and at the same time controversial issue. The etiology and pathogenesis creates a lot of discussion and selection of methods of treatment and prevention continues. LIV laminectomy with dura mater (DM) exposition was done in 24 rats, and then, 0.3 ml of elements of suspension of autologous intervertebral disk was implicated on DM. As autologous intervertebral disk, we used the intervertebral disk from amputated tail. In all the animals, incisions were closed with 3/0 Vicryl. EF was examined. Fibroblast cell density was calculated in each field at ×40 magnification: Grade 1 - fewer than 100 fibroblasts in each field; Grade 2 - 100-150 fibroblasts in each field; Grade 3 - more than 150 fibroblasts in each field. Based on histological results, we confirmed our model of experiment. On the 30th day of evaluation, there were significant histological evidences of postoperative epidural adhesions in experimental animals, which included the obliteration of epidural space, the presence of adhesions in the dura and nerve roots, the restructuring of the yellow ligament, bone sclerosis, excessive appearance of fibrous tissue around the autologous intervertebral disk tissue that applied on the DM. In our work, we describe a new experimental model, where the elements of autologous intervertebral disk play the role of inflammation trigger, which cause postoperative scar and EF.

  2. Experimental Investigation and Theoretical Modeling of Nanosilica Activity in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seung Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental investigations and theoretical modeling of the hydration reaction of nanosilica blended concrete with different water-to-binder ratios and different nanosilica replacement ratios. The developments of chemically bound water contents, calcium hydroxide contents, and compressive strength of Portland cement control specimens and nanosilica blended specimens were measured at different ages: 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days. Due to the pozzolanic reaction of nanosilica, the contents of calcium hydroxide in nanosilica blended pastes are considerably lower than those in the control specimens. Compared with the control specimens, the extent of compressive strength enhancement in the nanosilica blended specimens is much higher at early ages. Additionally, a blended cement hydration model that considers both the hydration reaction of cement and the pozzolanic reaction of nanosilica is proposed. The properties of nanosilica blended concrete during hardening were evaluated using the degree of hydration of cement and the reaction degree of nanosilica. The calculated chemically bound water contents, calcium hydroxide contents, and compressive strength were generally consistent with the experimental results.

  3. NADPH Oxidase-Related Pathophysiology in Experimental Models of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Several experimental studies have indicated that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidases (Nox exert detrimental effects on ischemic brain tissue; Nox-knockout mice generally exhibit resistance to damage due to experimental stroke following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO. Furthermore, our previous MCAO study indicated that infarct size and blood-brain barrier breakdown are enhanced in mice with pericyte-specific overexpression of Nox4, relative to levels observed in controls. However, it remains unclear whether Nox affects the stroke outcome directly by increasing oxidative stress at the site of ischemia, or indirectly by modifying physiological variables such as blood pressure or cerebral blood flow (CBF. Because of technical problems in the measurement of physiological variables and CBF, it is often difficult to address this issue in mouse models due to their small body size; in our previous study, we examined the effects of Nox activity on focal ischemic injury in a novel congenic rat strain: stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats with loss-of-function in Nox. In this review, we summarize the current literature regarding the role of Nox in focal ischemic injury and discuss critical issues that should be considered when investigating Nox-related pathophysiology in animal models of stroke.

  4. Experimental model of distraction osteogenesis in edentulous rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Montserrat Pujadas Bigi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis (DO is a surgical technique producing bone lengthening by distraction of the fracture callus. Although a large number of experimental studies on the events associated with DO of craniofacial skeleton have been reported, the few employing rat mandibular bone DO used complicated designs and produced a small volume of newly formed bone. Thus, this study aims to present an original experimental model of mandibular DO in edentulous rats that produces a sufficient quantity and quality of intramembranous bone. Eight male Wistar rats, weighing 75 g, underwent extraction of lower molars. With rats weighing 350 g, right mandibular osteotomy was performed and the distraction device was placed. The distraction device was custom made using micro-implants, expansion screws, and acrylic resin. Study protocol: latency: 6 days, distraction: ¼ turn (0.175 mm once a day during 6 d, consolidation: 28 d after distraction phase, sacrifice. DO-treated and contralateral hemimandibles were dissected and compared macroscopically and using radiographic studies. Histological sections were obtained and stained with H&E. A distraction gap filled with newly formed and mature bone tissue was obtained. This model of mandibular DO proved useful to obtain adequate quantity and quality of bone to study bone regeneration.

  5. Sparse linear models: Variational approximate inference and Bayesian experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, Matthias W [Saarland University and Max Planck Institute for Informatics, Campus E1.4, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2009-12-01

    A wide range of problems such as signal reconstruction, denoising, source separation, feature selection, and graphical model search are addressed today by posterior maximization for linear models with sparsity-favouring prior distributions. The Bayesian posterior contains useful information far beyond its mode, which can be used to drive methods for sampling optimization (active learning), feature relevance ranking, or hyperparameter estimation, if only this representation of uncertainty can be approximated in a tractable manner. In this paper, we review recent results for variational sparse inference, and show that they share underlying computational primitives. We discuss how sampling optimization can be implemented as sequential Bayesian experimental design. While there has been tremendous recent activity to develop sparse estimation, little attendance has been given to sparse approximate inference. In this paper, we argue that many problems in practice, such as compressive sensing for real-world image reconstruction, are served much better by proper uncertainty approximations than by ever more aggressive sparse estimation algorithms. Moreover, since some variational inference methods have been given strong convex optimization characterizations recently, theoretical analysis may become possible, promising new insights into nonlinear experimental design.

  6. Application of Iterative Robust Model-based Optimal Experimental Design for the Calibration of Biocatalytic Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Daele, Timothy; Gernaey, Krist V.; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer

    2017-01-01

    The aim of model calibration is to estimate unique parameter values from available experimental data, here applied to a biocatalytic process. The traditional approach of first gathering data followed by performing a model calibration is inefficient, since the information gathered during...... experimentation is not actively used to optimise the experimental design. By applying an iterative robust model-based optimal experimental design, the limited amount of data collected is used to design additional informative experiments. The algorithm is used here to calibrate the initial reaction rate of an ω......-transaminase catalysed reaction in a more accurate way. The parameter confidence region estimated from the Fisher Information Matrix is compared with the likelihood confidence region, which is a more accurate, but also a computationally more expensive method. As a result, an important deviation between both approaches...

  7. On carbon footprints and growing energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-06-01

    Could fractional reductions in the carbon footprint of a growing organization lead to a corresponding real reduction in atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions in the next ten years? Curtis M. Oldenburg, head of the Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program of LBNL’s Earth Sciences Division, considers his own organization's carbon footprint and answers this critical question? In addressing the problem of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change, it is essential that we understand which activities are producing GHGs and the scale of emission for each activity, so that reduction efforts can be efficiently targeted. The GHG emissions to the atmosphere of an individual or group are referred to as the ‘carbon footprint’. This terminology is entirely appropriate, because 85% of the global marketed energy supply comes from carbon-rich fossil fuel sources whose combustion produces CO{sub 2}, the main GHG causing global climate change. Furthermore, the direct relation between CO2 emissions and fossil fuels as they are used today makes energy consumption a useful proxy for carbon footprint. It would seem to be a simple matter to reduce energy consumption across the board, both individually and collectively, to help reduce our carbon footprints and therefore solve the energyclimate crisis. But just how much can we reduce carbon footprints when broader forces, such as growth in energy use, cause the total footprint to simultaneously expand? In this feature, I present a calculation of the carbon footprint of the Earth Sciences Division (ESD), the division in which I work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and discuss the potential for reducing this carbon footprint. It will be apparent that in terms of potential future carbon footprint reductions under projections of expected growth, ESD may be thought of as a microcosm of the situation of the world as a whole, in which alternatives to the business-as-usual use of fossil fuels are needed if

  8. Integral Reactor Containment Condensation Model and Experimental Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qiao [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Corradini, Michael [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-05-02

    This NEUP funded project, NEUP 12-3630, is for experimental, numerical and analytical studies on high-pressure steam condensation phenomena in a steel containment vessel connected to a water cooling tank, carried out at Oregon State University (OrSU) and the University of Wisconsin at Madison (UW-Madison). In the three years of investigation duration, following the original proposal, the planned tasks have been completed: (1) Performed a scaling study for the full pressure test facility applicable to the reference design for the condensation heat transfer process during design basis accidents (DBAs), modified the existing test facility to route the steady-state secondary steam flow into the high pressure containment for controllable condensation tests, and extended the operations at negative gage pressure conditions (OrSU). (2) Conducted a series of DBA and quasi-steady experiments using the full pressure test facility to provide a reliable high pressure condensation database (OrSU). (3) Analyzed experimental data and evaluated condensation model for the experimental conditions, and predicted the prototypic containment performance under accidental conditions (UW-Madison). A film flow model was developed for the scaling analysis, and the results suggest that the 1/3 scaled test facility covers large portion of laminar film flow, leading to a lower average heat transfer coefficient comparing to the prototypic value. Although it is conservative in reactor safety analysis, the significant reduction of heat transfer coefficient (50%) could under estimate the prototypic condensation heat transfer rate, resulting in inaccurate prediction of the decay heat removal capability. Further investigation is thus needed to quantify the scaling distortion for safety analysis code validation. Experimental investigations were performed in the existing MASLWR test facility at OrST with minor modifications. A total of 13 containment condensation tests were conducted for pressure

  9. Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Sandeep Vasant; Kumar, Hemant; Cho, Duk-Yeon; Yun, Yo-Sep; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2016-09-01

    Animal models for learning and memory have significantly contributed to novel strategies for drug development and hence are an imperative part in the assessment of therapeutics. Learning and memory involve different stages including acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval and each stage can be characterized using specific toxin. Recent studies have postulated the molecular basis of these processes and have also demonstrated many signaling molecules that are involved in several stages of memory. Most insights into learning and memory impairment and to develop a novel compound stems from the investigations performed in experimental models, especially those produced by neurotoxins models. Several toxins have been utilized based on their mechanism of action for learning and memory impairment such as scopolamine, streptozotocin, quinolinic acid, and domoic acid. Further, some toxins like 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA), 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and amyloid-β are known to cause specific learning and memory impairment which imitate the disease pathology of Parkinson's disease dementia and Alzheimer's disease dementia. Apart from these toxins, several other toxins come under a miscellaneous category like an environmental pollutant, snake venoms, botulinum, and lipopolysaccharide. This review will focus on the various classes of neurotoxin models for learning and memory impairment with their specific mechanism of action that could assist the process of drug discovery and development for dementia and cognitive disorders.

  10. Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Vasant More

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Animal models for learning and memory have significantly contributed to novel strategies for drug development and hence are an imperative part in the assessment of therapeutics. Learning and memory involve different stages including acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval and each stage can be characterized using specific toxin. Recent studies have postulated the molecular basis of these processes and have also demonstrated many signaling molecules that are involved in several stages of memory. Most insights into learning and memory impairment and to develop a novel compound stems from the investigations performed in experimental models, especially those produced by neurotoxins models. Several toxins have been utilized based on their mechanism of action for learning and memory impairment such as scopolamine, streptozotocin, quinolinic acid, and domoic acid. Further, some toxins like 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP and amyloid-β are known to cause specific learning and memory impairment which imitate the disease pathology of Parkinson’s disease dementia and Alzheimer’s disease dementia. Apart from these toxins, several other toxins come under a miscellaneous category like an environmental pollutant, snake venoms, botulinum, and lipopolysaccharide. This review will focus on the various classes of neurotoxin models for learning and memory impairment with their specific mechanism of action that could assist the process of drug discovery and development for dementia and cognitive disorders.

  11. Mapping the Carbon Footprint of Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Moran, Daniel; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2016-10-04

    Life cycle thinking asks companies and consumers to take responsibility for emissions along their entire supply chain. As the world economy becomes more complex it is increasingly difficult to connect consumers and other downstream users to the origins of their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Given the important role of subnational entities-cities, states, and companies-in GHG abatement efforts, it would be advantageous to better link downstream users to facilities and regulators who control primary emissions. We present a new spatially explicit carbon footprint method for establishing such connections. We find that for most developed countries the carbon footprint has diluted and spread: for example, since 1970 the U.S. carbon footprint has grown 23% territorially, and 38% in consumption-based terms, but nearly 200% in spatial extent (i.e., the minimum area needed to contain 90% of emissions). The rapidly growing carbon footprints of China and India, however, do not show such a spatial expansion of their consumption footprints in spite of their increasing participation in the world economy. In their case, urbanization concentrates domestic pollution and this offsets the increasing importance of imports.

  12. Carbon footprint of grain production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Shen, Jianbo; Zhang, Fusuo; Li, Yu'e; Zhang, Weifeng

    2017-06-29

    Due to the increasing environmental impact of food production, carbon footprint as an indicator can guide farmland management. This study established a method and estimated the carbon footprint of grain production in China based on life cycle analysis (LCA). The results showed that grain production has a high carbon footprint in 2013, i.e., 4052 kg ce/ha or 0.48 kg ce/kg for maize, 5455 kg ce/ha or 0.75 kg ce/kg for wheat and 11881 kg ce/ha or 1.60 kg ce/kg for rice. These footprints are higher than that of other countries, such as the United States, Canada and India. The most important factors governing carbon emissions were the application of nitrogen fertiliser (8-49%), straw burning (0-70%), energy consumption by machinery (6-40%), energy consumption for irrigation (0-44%) and CH4 emissions from rice paddies (15-73%). The most important carbon sequestration factors included returning of crop straw (41-90%), chemical nitrogen fertiliser application (10-59%) and no-till farming practices (0-10%). Different factors dominated in different crop systems in different regions. To identity site-specific key factors and take countermeasures could significantly lower carbon footprint, e.g., ban straw burning in northeast and south China, stopping continuous flooding irrigation in wheat and rice production system.

  13. Phylogenetic footprinting to find functional DNA elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Austen R D; Kobayashi, Takehiko

    2007-01-01

    Phylogenetic footprinting is powerful technique for finding functional elements from sequence data. Functional elements are thought to have greater sequence constraint than nonfunctional elements, and, thus, undergo a slower rate of sequence change through time. Phylogenetic footprinting uses comparisons of homologous sequences from closely related organisms to identify "phylogenetic footprints," regions with slower rates of sequence change than background. This does not require prior characterization of the sequence in question, therefore, it can be used in a wide range of applications. In particular, it is useful for the identification of functional elements in noncoding DNA, which are traditionally difficult to detect. Here, we describe in detail how to perform a simple yet powerful phylogenetic footprinting analysis. As an example, we use ribosomal DNA repeat sequences from various Saccharomyces yeasts to find functional noncoding DNA elements in the intergenic spacer, and explain critical considerations in performing phylogenetic footprinting analyses, including the number of species and species range, and some of the available software. Our methods are broadly applicable and should appeal to molecular biologists with little experience in bioinformatics.

  14. Carbon footprint of a music festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, K. V.

    2009-12-01

    In an effort to curb CO2 and by extension, greenhouse gas emissions various initiatives have been taken statewide, nationally and internationally. However, benchmarks and metrics are not clearly defined for CO2 and CO2 equivalent accounting. The objective of this study is to estimate the carbon footprint of the Lincoln Park Music Festival which occurs annually in Newark, NJ. This festival runs for three days each summer and consists of music, food vendors, merchandise and a green marketplace. In order to determine the carbon footprint generated by transportation, surveys of participants were analyzed. Of the approximately 40,000 participants in 2009, 3.3% were surveyed. About 30% of respondents commuted to the festival by car with an average of 10 miles traveling distance. Transportation emission amounted to an estimated CO2 emission of 188 metric tons for all three days combined. Trash at the music festival was weighed, components estimated, and potential CO2 emission calculated if incinerated. 63% of the trash was found to be carbon based, which is the equivalent of three metric tons of CO2 if incinerated. The majority of the trash (>60%) could have been recycled, thus significantly reducing the carbon footprint. In order to limit the carbon footprint of this festival, alternative transport options would be advisable as transport accounted for the largest proportion of the carbon footprint at this festival.

  15. Nitrogen footprints: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, James N.; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Leip, Adrian; Leach, Allison M.; Bleeker, Albert; Willem Erisman, Jan

    2014-11-01

    The human alteration of the nitrogen cycle has evolved from minimal in the mid-19th century to extensive in the present time. The consequences to human and environmental health are significant. While much attention has been given to the extent and impacts of the alteration, little attention has been given to those entities (i.e., consumers, institutions) that use the resources that result in extensive reactive nitrogen (Nr) creation. One strategy for assessment is the use of nitrogen footprint tools. A nitrogen footprint is generally defined as the total amount of Nr released to the environment as a result of an entity’s consumption patterns. This paper reviews a number of nitrogen footprint tools (N-Calculator, N-Institution, N-Label, N-Neutrality, N-Indicator) that are designed to provide that attention. It reviews N-footprint tools for consumers as a function of the country that they live in (N-Calculator, N-Indicator) and the products they buy (N-Label), for the institutions that people work in and are educated in (N-Institution), and for events and decision-making regarding offsets (N-Neutrality). N footprint tools provide a framework for people to make decisions about their resource use and show them how offsets can be coupled with behavior change to decrease consumer/institution contributions to N-related problems.

  16. Mass spectrometry analysis of hepcidin peptides in experimental mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjalsma, Harold; Laarakkers, Coby M M; van Swelm, Rachel P L; Theurl, Milan; Theurl, Igor; Kemna, Erwin H; van der Burgt, Yuri E M; Venselaar, Hanka; Dutilh, Bas E; Russel, Frans G M; Weiss, Günter; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Fleming, Robert E; Swinkels, Dorine W

    2011-03-08

    The mouse is a valuable model for unravelling the role of hepcidin in iron homeostasis, however, such studies still report hepcidin mRNA levels as a surrogate marker for bioactive hepcidin in its pivotal function to block ferroportin-mediated iron transport. Here, we aimed to assess bioactive mouse Hepcidin-1 (Hep-1) and its paralogue Hepcidin-2 (Hep-2) at the peptide level. To this purpose, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) and tandem-MS was used for hepcidin identification, after which a time-of-flight (TOF) MS-based methodology was exploited to routinely determine Hep-1 and -2 levels in mouse serum and urine. This method was biologically validated by hepcidin assessment in: i) 3 mouse strains (C57Bl/6; DBA/2 and BABL/c) upon stimulation with intravenous iron and LPS, ii) homozygous Hfe knock out, homozygous transferrin receptor 2 (Y245X) mutated mice and double affected mice, and iii) mice treated with a sublethal hepatotoxic dose of paracetamol. The results showed that detection of Hep-1 was restricted to serum, whereas Hep-2 and its presumed isoforms were predominantly present in urine. Elevations in serum Hep-1 and urine Hep-2 upon intravenous iron or LPS were only moderate and varied considerably between mouse strains. Serum Hep-1 was decreased in all three hemochromatosis models, being lowest in the double affected mice. Serum Hep-1 levels correlated with liver hepcidin-1 gene expression, while acute liver damage by paracetamol depleted Hep-1 from serum. Furthermore, serum Hep-1 appeared to be an excellent indicator of splenic iron accumulation. In conclusion, Hep-1 and Hep-2 peptide responses in experimental mouse agree with the known biology of hepcidin mRNA regulators, and their measurement can now be implemented in experimental mouse models to provide novel insights in post-transcriptional regulation, hepcidin function, and kinetics.

  17. Mass spectrometry analysis of hepcidin peptides in experimental mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Tjalsma

    Full Text Available The mouse is a valuable model for unravelling the role of hepcidin in iron homeostasis, however, such studies still report hepcidin mRNA levels as a surrogate marker for bioactive hepcidin in its pivotal function to block ferroportin-mediated iron transport. Here, we aimed to assess bioactive mouse Hepcidin-1 (Hep-1 and its paralogue Hepcidin-2 (Hep-2 at the peptide level. To this purpose, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR and tandem-MS was used for hepcidin identification, after which a time-of-flight (TOF MS-based methodology was exploited to routinely determine Hep-1 and -2 levels in mouse serum and urine. This method was biologically validated by hepcidin assessment in: i 3 mouse strains (C57Bl/6; DBA/2 and BABL/c upon stimulation with intravenous iron and LPS, ii homozygous Hfe knock out, homozygous transferrin receptor 2 (Y245X mutated mice and double affected mice, and iii mice treated with a sublethal hepatotoxic dose of paracetamol. The results showed that detection of Hep-1 was restricted to serum, whereas Hep-2 and its presumed isoforms were predominantly present in urine. Elevations in serum Hep-1 and urine Hep-2 upon intravenous iron or LPS were only moderate and varied considerably between mouse strains. Serum Hep-1 was decreased in all three hemochromatosis models, being lowest in the double affected mice. Serum Hep-1 levels correlated with liver hepcidin-1 gene expression, while acute liver damage by paracetamol depleted Hep-1 from serum. Furthermore, serum Hep-1 appeared to be an excellent indicator of splenic iron accumulation. In conclusion, Hep-1 and Hep-2 peptide responses in experimental mouse agree with the known biology of hepcidin mRNA regulators, and their measurement can now be implemented in experimental mouse models to provide novel insights in post-transcriptional regulation, hepcidin function, and kinetics.

  18. Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Hepcidin Peptides in Experimental Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Swelm, Rachel P. L.; Theurl, Milan; Theurl, Igor; Kemna, Erwin H.; van der Burgt, Yuri E. M.; Venselaar, Hanka; Dutilh, Bas E.; Russel, Frans G. M.; Weiss, Günter; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Fleming, Robert E.; Swinkels, Dorine W.

    2011-01-01

    The mouse is a valuable model for unravelling the role of hepcidin in iron homeostasis, however, such studies still report hepcidin mRNA levels as a surrogate marker for bioactive hepcidin in its pivotal function to block ferroportin-mediated iron transport. Here, we aimed to assess bioactive mouse Hepcidin-1 (Hep-1) and its paralogue Hepcidin-2 (Hep-2) at the peptide level. To this purpose, fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) and tandem-MS was used for hepcidin identification, after which a time-of-flight (TOF) MS-based methodology was exploited to routinely determine Hep-1 and -2 levels in mouse serum and urine. This method was biologically validated by hepcidin assessment in: i) 3 mouse strains (C57Bl/6; DBA/2 and BABL/c) upon stimulation with intravenous iron and LPS, ii) homozygous Hfe knock out, homozygous transferrin receptor 2 (Y245X) mutated mice and double affected mice, and iii) mice treated with a sublethal hepatotoxic dose of paracetamol. The results showed that detection of Hep-1 was restricted to serum, whereas Hep-2 and its presumed isoforms were predominantly present in urine. Elevations in serum Hep-1 and urine Hep-2 upon intravenous iron or LPS were only moderate and varied considerably between mouse strains. Serum Hep-1 was decreased in all three hemochromatosis models, being lowest in the double affected mice. Serum Hep-1 levels correlated with liver hepcidin-1 gene expression, while acute liver damage by paracetamol depleted Hep-1 from serum. Furthermore, serum Hep-1 appeared to be an excellent indicator of splenic iron accumulation. In conclusion, Hep-1 and Hep-2 peptide responses in experimental mouse agree with the known biology of hepcidin mRNA regulators, and their measurement can now be implemented in experimental mouse models to provide novel insights in post-transcriptional regulation, hepcidin function, and kinetics. PMID:21408141

  19. Sensitivity analysis of parameters affecting carbon footprint of fossil fuel power plants based on life cycle assessment scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dalir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study a pseudo comprehensive carbon footprint model for fossil fuel power plants is presented. Parameters which their effects are considered in this study include: plant type, fuel type, fuel transmission type, internal consumption of the plant, degradation, site ambient condition, transmission and distribution losses. Investigating internal consumption, degradation and site ambient condition effect on carbon footprint assessment of fossil fuel power plant is the specific feature of the proposed model. To evaluate the model, a sensitivity analysis is performed under different scenarios covering all possible choices for investigated parameters. The results show that carbon footprint of fossil fuel electrical energy that is produced, transmitted and distributed, varies from 321 g CO2 eq/kWh to 980 g CO2 equivalent /kWh. Carbon footprint of combined cycle with natural gas as main fuel is the minimum carbon footprint. Other factors can also cause indicative variation. Fuel type causes a variation of 28%. Ambient condition may change the result up to 13%. Transmission makes the carbon footprint larger by 4%. Internal consumption and degradation influence the result by 2 and 2.5%, respectively. Therefore, to minimize the carbon footprint of fossil fuel electricity, it is recommended to construct natural gas ignited combined cycles in low lands where the temperature is low and relative humidity is high. And the internal consumption is as least as possible and the maintenance and overhaul is as regular as possible.

  20. In silico footprinting of ligands binding to the minor groove of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Nahoum G; Huchet, Guillaume; Johnston, Blair F; Parkinson, John A; Suckling, Colin J; Waigh, Roger D; Mackay, Simon P

    2005-01-01

    The sequence selectivity of small molecules binding to the minor groove of DNA can be predicted by "in silico footprinting". Any potential ligand can be docked in the minor groove and then moved along it using simple simulation techniques. By applying a simple scoring function to the trajectory after energy minimization, the preferred binding site can be identified. We show application to all known noncovalent binding modes, namely 1:1 ligand:DNA binding (including hairpin ligands) and 2:1 side-by-side binding, with various DNA base pair sequences and show excellent agreement with experimental results from X-ray crystallography, NMR, and gel-based footprinting.

  1. Predicting subsurface uranium transport: Mechanistic modeling constrained by experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottman, Michael; Schenkeveld, Walter D. C.; Kraemer, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) munitions and their widespread use throughout conflict zones around the world pose a persistent health threat to the inhabitants of those areas long after the conclusion of active combat. However, little emphasis has been put on developing a comprehensive, quantitative tool for use in remediation and hazard avoidance planning in a wide range of environments. In this context, we report experimental data on U interaction with soils and sediments. Here, we strive to improve existing risk assessment modeling paradigms by incorporating a variety of experimental data into a mechanistic U transport model for subsurface environments. 20 different soils and sediments from a variety of environments were chosen to represent a range of geochemical parameters that are relevant to U transport. The parameters included pH, organic matter content, CaCO3, Fe content and speciation, and clay content. pH ranged from 3 to 10, organic matter content from 6 to 120 g kg-1, CaCO3 from 0 to 700 g kg-1, amorphous Fe content from 0.3 to 6 g kg-1 and clay content from 4 to 580 g kg-1. Sorption experiments were then performed, and linear isotherms were constructed. Sorption experiment results show that among separate sets of sediments and soils, there is an inverse correlation between both soil pH and CaCO¬3 concentration relative to U sorptive affinity. The geological materials with the highest and lowest sorptive affinities for U differed in CaCO3 and organic matter concentrations, as well as clay content and pH. In a further step, we are testing if transport behavior in saturated porous media can be predicted based on adsorption isotherms and generic geochemical parameters, and comparing these modeling predictions with the results from column experiments. The comparison of these two data sets will examine if U transport can be effectively predicted from reactive transport modeling that incorporates the generic geochemical parameters. This work will serve to show

  2. Estimating Biofuel Feedstock Water Footprints Using System Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inman, Daniel; Warner, Ethan; Stright, Dana; Macknick, Jordan; Peck, Corey

    2016-07-01

    Increased biofuel production has prompted concerns about the environmental tradeoffs of biofuels compared to petroleum-based fuels. Biofuel production in general, and feedstock production in particular, is under increased scrutiny. Water footprinting (measuring direct and indirect water use) has been proposed as one measure to evaluate water use in the context of concerns about depleting rural water supplies through activities such as irrigation for large-scale agriculture. Water footprinting literature has often been limited in one or more key aspects: complete assessment across multiple water stocks (e.g., vadose zone, surface, and ground water stocks), geographical resolution of data, consistent representation of many feedstocks, and flexibility to perform scenario analysis. We developed a model called BioSpatial H2O using a system dynamics modeling and database framework. BioSpatial H2O could be used to consistently evaluate the complete water footprints of multiple biomass feedstocks at high geospatial resolutions. BioSpatial H2O has the flexibility to perform simultaneous scenario analysis of current and potential future crops under alternative yield and climate conditions. In this proof-of-concept paper, we modeled corn grain (Zea mays L.) and soybeans (Glycine max) under current conditions as illustrative results. BioSpatial H2O links to a unique database that houses annual spatially explicit climate, soil, and plant physiological data. Parameters from the database are used as inputs to our system dynamics model for estimating annual crop water requirements using daily time steps. Based on our review of the literature, estimated green water footprints are comparable to other modeled results, suggesting that BioSpatial H2O is computationally sound for future scenario analysis. Our modeling framework builds on previous water use analyses to provide a platform for scenario-based assessment. BioSpatial H2O's system dynamics is a flexible and user

  3. Evaluation of two experimental models of hepatic encephalopathy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. García-Moreno

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The serious neuropsychological repercussions of hepatic encephalopathy have led to the creation of several experimental models in order to better understand the pathogenesis of the disease. In the present investigation, two possible causes of hepatic encephalopathy, cholestasis and portal hypertension, were chosen to study the behavioral impairments caused by the disease using an object recognition task. This working memory test is based on a paradigm of spontaneous delayed non-matching to sample and was performed 60 days after surgery. Male Wistar rats (225-250 g were divided into three groups: two experimental groups, microsurgical cholestasis (N = 20 and extrahepatic portal hypertension (N = 20, and a control group (N = 20. A mild alteration of the recognition memory occurred in rats with cholestasis compared to control rats and portal hypertensive rats. The latter group showed the poorest performance on the basis of the behavioral indexes tested. In particular, only the control group spent significantly more time exploring novel objects compared to familiar ones (P < 0.001. In addition, the portal hypertension group spent the shortest time exploring both the novel and familiar objects (P < 0.001. These results suggest that the existence of portosystemic collateral circulation per se may be responsible for subclinical encephalopathy.

  4. Tesla Coil Theoretical Model and its Experimental Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voitkans Janis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a theoretical model of Tesla coil operation is proposed. Tesla coil is described as a long line with distributed parameters in a single-wire form, where the line voltage is measured across electrically neutral space. By applying the principle of equivalence of single-wire and two-wire schemes an equivalent two-wire scheme can be found for a single-wire scheme and the already known long line theory can be applied to the Tesla coil. A new method of multiple reflections is developed to characterize a signal in a long line. Formulas for calculation of voltage in Tesla coil by coordinate and calculation of resonance frequencies are proposed. The theoretical calculations are verified experimentally. Resonance frequencies of Tesla coil are measured and voltage standing wave characteristics are obtained for different output capacities in the single-wire mode. Wave resistance and phase coefficient of Tesla coil is obtained. Experimental measurements show good compliance with the proposed theory. The formulas obtained in this paper are also usable for a regular two-wire long line with distributed parameters.

  5. Modelling concentration-analgesia relationships for morphine to evaluate experimental pain models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrisdóttir, Eva; Foster, David John Richard; Upton, Richard Neil

    2015-01-01

    -blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 39 healthy volunteers received an oral dose of 30 mg morphine hydrochloride or placebo. Non-linear mixed effects modelling was used to describe the plasma concentrations of morphine and metabolites, and the analgesic effect of morphine on experimental pain in skin......The aim of this study was to develop population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models for morphine in experimental pain induced by skin heat and muscle pressure, and to evaluate the experimental pain models with regard to assessment of morphine pharmacodynamics. In a randomized, double...... and muscle. Baseline pain metrics varied between individuals and occasions, and were described with interindividual and interoccasion variability. Placebo-response did not change with time. For both pain metrics, morphine effect was proportional to baseline pain and was described with a linear model...

  6. A molecular machine biosensor: construction, predictive models and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi-Monfared, Sahar; Krishnamurthy, Vikram; Cornell, Bruce

    2012-04-15

    This paper describes the construction, operation and predictive modeling of a molecular machine, functioning as a high sensitivity biosensor. Embedded gramicidin A (gA) ionchannels in a self-assembled tethered lipid bilayer act as biological switches in response to target molecules and provide a signal amplification mechanism that results in high sensitivity molecular detection. The biosensor can be used as a rapid and sensitive point of care diagnostic device in different media such as human serum, plasma and whole blood without the need for pre and post processing steps required in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The electrical reader of the device provides the added advantage of objective measurement. Novel ideas in the construction of the molecular machine, including fabrication of biochip arrays, and experimental studies of its ability to detect analyte molecules over a wide range of concentrations are presented. Remarkably, despite the complexity of the device, it is shown that the response can be predicted by modeling the analyte fluid flow and surface chemical reactions. The derived predictive models for the sensing dynamics also facilitate determining important variables in the design of a molecular machine such as the ion channel lifetime and diffusion dynamics within the bilayer lipid membrane as well as the bio-molecular interaction rate constants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermal infrared spectroscopy and modeling of experimentally shocked basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Staid, M.I.; Kraft, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    New measurements of thermal infrared emission spectra (250-1400 cm-1; ???7-40 ??m) of experimentally shocked basalt and basaltic andesite (17-56 GPa) exhibit changes in spectral features with increasing pressure consistent with changes in the structure of plagioclase feldspars. Major spectral absorptions in unshocked rocks between 350-700 cm-1 (due to Si-O-Si octahedral bending vibrations) and between 1000-1250 cm-1 (due to Si-O antisymmetric stretch motions of the silica tetrahedra) transform at pressures >20-25 GPa to two broad spectral features centered near 950-1050 and 400-450 cm-1. Linear deconvolution models using spectral libraries composed of common mineral and glass spectra replicate the spectra of shocked basalt relatively well up to shock pressures of 20-25 GPa, above which model errors increase substantially, coincident with the onset of diaplectic glass formation in plagioclase. Inclusion of shocked feldspar spectra in the libraries improves fits for more highly shocked basalt. However, deconvolution models of the basaltic andesite select shocked feldspar end-members even for unshocked samples, likely caused by the higher primary glass content in the basaltic andesite sample.

  8. Experimental Models of Autoimmune Demyelinating Diseases in Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimmer, Lev; Fovet, Claire-Maëlle; Serguera, Ché

    2017-01-01

    Human idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases (IIDD) are a heterogeneous group of autoimmune inflammatory and demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). These include multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common chronic IIDD, but also rarer disorders such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Great efforts have been made to understand the pathophysiology of MS, leading to the development of a few effective treatments. Nonetheless, IIDD still require a better understanding of the causes and underlying mechanisms to implement more effective therapies and diagnostic methods. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a commonly used animal model to study the pathophysiology of IIDD. EAE is principally induced through immunization with myelin antigens combined with immune-activating adjuvants. Nonhuman primates (NHP), the phylogenetically closest relatives of humans, challenged by similar microorganisms as other primates may recapitulate comparable immune responses to that of humans. In this review, the authors describe EAE models in 3 NHP species: rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta), cynomolgus macaques ( Macaca fascicularis), and common marmosets ( Callithrix jacchus), evaluating their respective contribution to the understanding of human IIDD. EAE in NHP is a heterogeneous disease, including acute monophasic and chronic polyphasic forms. This diversity makes it a versatile model to use in translational research. This clinical variability also creates an opportunity to explore multiple facets of immune-mediated mechanisms of neuro-inflammation and demyelination as well as intrinsic protective mechanisms. Here, the authors review current insights into the pathogenesis and immunopathological mechanisms implicated in the development of EAE in NHP.

  9. Experimental rat models of chronic allograft nephropathy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha B

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Badri Shrestha, John HaylorSheffield Kidney Institute, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Sheffield, UKAbstract: Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN is the leading cause of late allograft loss after renal transplantation (RT, which continues to remain an unresolved problem. A rat model of CAN was first described in 1969 by White et al. Although the rat model of RT can be technically challenging, it is attractive because the pathogenesis of CAN is similar to that following human RT and the pathological features of CAN develop within months as compared with years in human RT. The rat model of RT is considered as a useful investigational tool in the field of experimental transplantation research. We have reviewed the literature on studies of rat RT reporting the donor and recipient strain combinations that have investigated resultant survival and histological outcomes. Several different combinations of inbred and outbred rat combinations have been reported to investigate the multiple aspects of transplantation, including acute rejection, cellular and humoral rejection mechanisms and their treatments, CAN, and potential targets for its prevention.Keywords: interventions, therapy, late allograft loss, renal transplantation

  10. Standardised Models for Inducing Experimental Peritoneal Adhesions in Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Kraemer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models for adhesion induction are heterogeneous and often poorly described. We compare and discuss different models to induce peritoneal adhesions in a randomized, experimental in vivo animal study with 72 female Wistar rats. Six different standardized techniques for peritoneal trauma were used: brushing of peritoneal sidewall and uterine horns (group 1, brushing of parietal peritoneum only (group 2, sharp excision of parietal peritoneum closed with interrupted sutures (group 3, ischemic buttons by grasping the parietal peritoneum and ligating the base with Vicryl suture (group 4, bipolar electrocoagulation of the peritoneum (group 5, and traumatisation by electrocoagulation followed by closure of the resulting peritoneal defect using Vicryl sutures (group 6. Upon second look, there were significant differences in the adhesion incidence between the groups (P<0.01. Analysis of the fraction of adhesions showed that groups 2 (0% and 5 (4% were significantly less than the other groups (P<0.01. Furthermore, group 6 (69% was significantly higher than group 1 (48% (P<0.05 and group 4 (47% (P<0.05. There was no difference between group 3 (60% and group 6 (P=0.2. From a clinical viewpoint, comparison of different electrocoagulation modes and pharmaceutical adhesion barriers is possible with standardised models.

  11. Optimization of Experimental Model Parameter Identification for Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Morello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The smart grid approach is envisioned to take advantage of all available modern technologies in transforming the current power system to provide benefits to all stakeholders in the fields of efficient energy utilisation and of wide integration of renewable sources. Energy storage systems could help to solve some issues that stem from renewable energy usage in terms of stabilizing the intermittent energy production, power quality and power peak mitigation. With the integration of energy storage systems into the smart grids, their accurate modeling becomes a necessity, in order to gain robust real-time control on the network, in terms of stability and energy supply forecasting. In this framework, this paper proposes a procedure to identify the values of the battery model parameters in order to best fit experimental data and integrate it, along with models of energy sources and electrical loads, in a complete framework which represents a real time smart grid management system. The proposed method is based on a hybrid optimisation technique, which makes combined use of a stochastic and a deterministic algorithm, with low computational burden and can therefore be repeated over time in order to account for parameter variations due to the battery’s age and usage.

  12. Models of Investor Forecasting Behavior — Experimental Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Bonetto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Different forecasting behaviors affect investors’ trading decisions and lead to qualitatively different asset price trajectories. It has been shown in the literature that the weights that investors place on observed asset price changes when forecasting future price changes, and the nature of their confidence when price changes are forecast, determine whether price bubbles, price crashes, and unpredictable price cycles occur. In this paper, we report the results of behavioral experiments involving multiple investors who participated in a market for a virtual asset. Our goal is to study investors’ forecast formation. We conducted three experimental sessions with different participants in each session. We fit different models of forecast formation to the observed data. There is strong evidence that the investors forecast future prices by extrapolating past price changes, even when they know the fundamental value of the asset exactly and the extrapolated forecasts differ significantly from the fundamental value. The rational expectations hypothesis seems inconsistent with the observed forecasts. The forecasting models of all participants that best fit the observed forecasting data were of the type that cause price bubbles and cycles in dynamical systems models, and price bubbles and cycles ended up occurring in all three sessions.

  13. Footprint Geometry and Sessile Drop Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Ti; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul H.

    2016-11-01

    How does a sessile drop resonate if its footprint is square (square drop)? In this talk, we discuss the two distinct families of observed modes in our experiments. One family (spherical modes) is identified with the natural modes of capillary spherical caps, and the other (grid modes) with Faraday waves on a square bath (square Faraday waves). A square drop exhibits grid or spherical modes depending on its volume, and the two families of modes arise depending on how wavenumber selection of footprint geometry and capillarity compete. For square drops, a dominant effect of footprint constraint leads to grid modes which are constrained response; otherwise the drops exhibit spherical modes, the characteristic of sessile drops on flat plates. Chun-Ti Chang takes his new position at National Taiwan University on Aug. 15th, 2016. Until then, Chun-Ti Chang is affiliated with Technical University Dortmund, Germany.

  14. Silk industry and carbon footprint mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomin, A. M.; Garcia, J. B., Jr.; Zonatti, W. F.; Silva-Santos, M. C.; Laktim, M. C.; Baruque-Ramos, J.

    2017-10-01

    Currently there is a concern with issues related to sustainability and more conscious consumption habits. The carbon footprint measures the total amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced directly and indirectly by human activities and is usually expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents. The present study takes into account data collected in scientific literature regarding the carbon footprint, garments produced with silk fiber and the role of mulberry as a CO2 mitigation tool. There is an indication of a positive correlation between silk garments and carbon footprint mitigation when computed the cultivation of mulberry trees in this calculation. A field of them mitigates CO2 equivalents in a proportion of 735 times the weight of the produced silk fiber by the mulberry cultivated area. At the same time, additional researches are needed in order to identify and evaluate methods to advertise this positive correlation in order to contribute to a more sustainable fashion industry.

  15. Experimental and numerical investigation of a simplified exhaust model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Vehovszky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A simplified experimental equipment was built to investigate heat radiation and free convection around hot exhaust pipe. Temperatures were measured on the surface of the pipe as like as on heat insulating and -reflecting aluminum shield. Special care was taken to the temperature measuring method: result proved that inappropriate fixing of measuring thermocouples lead to an error of up to 30 % in the temperature-increase values. A detailed 1D numerical model was set up and parametrized so as to the calculation results can be fitted to measured temperature values. In this way thermal properties of the surfaces – as emissivities, absorption coefficients and convective heat transfer coefficients – were determined for temperature sweeps and stationary state cases. The used methods are to be further improved for real automotive parts and higher temperatures.

  16. Modeling the constitutive response of tantalum across experimental platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Nathan; Austin, Ryan; Brown, Justin; Marinak, Marty; Park, Hye-Sook; Prisbrey, Shon

    2017-06-01

    Given the complexities of the mechanics related to strength and the wide range of conditions of interest, it is useful to make comparisons across experimental platforms and across computational methods where possible. Modeling results will be presented from one such cross-platform study; including results from plate impact, ramp compression, and Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth experiments. Observables from strength experiments at more extreme conditions are influenced by a variety of material response characteristics, not just by the material's resistance to plastic deformation. Results include sensitivities to some of these other aspects, such as equation of state and shear modulus formulations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL-ABS-724459).

  17. Experimental human pneumococcal carriage models for vaccine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Daniela M; Jambo, Kondwani C; Gordon, Stephen B

    2011-09-01

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have had unprecedented success in controlling vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease. As serotype replacement and the complexity of designing vaccines to multiple capsular polysaccharides ultimately pose a threat to these vaccines, the development of alternative protein vaccines is important. Protein vaccines offer the promise of extended serotype coverage, reduced cost, and improved protection against otitis media and pneumococcal pneumonia. As placebo-controlled trials are not currently ethically justifiable, human pneumococcal challenge models using prevention of carriage as a test endpoint offer an attractive link between preclinical studies and clinical efficacy trials. Experimental human pneumococcal carriage studies offer a means of describing mechanisms of protection against carriage and a clinical tool to choose between vaccine candidates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Practical application of stereological kidney methods in experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Fernández García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The kidneys are vital organs responsible for excretion, fluid and electrolyte balance and hormone production. The nephrons are the kidney's functional and structural units. The number, size and distribution of the nephron components contain relevant information on renal function. Stereology is a branch of morphometry that applies mathematical principles to obtain three-dimensional information from serial, parallel and equidistant two-dimensional microscopic sections. Because of the complexity of stereological studies and the lack of scientific literature on the subject, the aim of this paper is to clearly explain, through animal models, the basic concepts of stereology and how to calculate the main kidney stereological parameters that can be applied in future experimental studies.

  19. Dietary whey supplementation in experimental models of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velioglu Ogünç, A; Manukyan, M; Cingi, A; Eksioglu-Demiralp, E; Ozdemir Aktan, A; Süha Yalçin, A

    2008-03-01

    Whey is a dairy product containing milk serum proteins with diverse biological effects. In this study, the effect of dietary whey supplementation on wound healing was investigated. Rats were fed a standard or whey-supplemented diet for three weeks. Wound healing parameters, glutathione, and lipid peroxide levels were determined three days after the application of two different models of wound healing, i.e. laparotomy and colonic anastomosis. Dietary whey supplementation significantly increased glutathione levels and suppressed lipid peroxidation after experimental laparotomy and colonic anastomosis. Bursting pressures, hydroxyproline, and cytokine levels were not changed. Our results show that dietary whey supplementation increases glutathione synthesis and cellular antioxidant defense. Long-term effects of whey feeding on wound healing remains to be investigated.

  20. Calcium Intervention Ameliorates Experimental Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Haghmorad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS is the most common inflammatory disease of the CNS. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is a widely used model for MS. In the present research, our aim was to test the therapeutic efficacy of Calcium (Ca in an experimental model of MS. Methods: In this study the experiment was done on C57BL/6 mice. EAE was induced using 200 μg of the MOG35-55 peptide emulsified in CFA and injected subcutaneously on day 0 over two flank areas. In addition, 250 ng of pertussis toxin was injected on days 0 and 2. In the treatment group, 30 mg/kg Ca was administered intraperitoneally four times at regular 48 hour intervals. The mice were sacrificed 21 days after EAE induction and blood samples were taken from their hearts. The brains of mice were removed for histological analysis and their isolated splenocytes were cultured. Results: Our results showed that treatment with Ca caused a significant reduction in the severity of the EAE. Histological analysis indicated that there was no plaque in brain sections of Ca treated group of mice whereas 4 ± 1 plaques were detected in brain sections of controls. The density of mononuclear infiltration in the CNS of Ca treated mice was lower than in controls. The serum level of Nitric Oxide in the treatment group was lower than in the control group but was not significant. Moreover, the levels of IFN-γ in cell culture supernatant of splenocytes in treated mice were significantly lower than in the control group. Conclusion: The data indicates that Ca intervention can effectively attenuate EAE progression.

  1. The carbon footprint of cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, D S; Wright, T; Somner, J E A; Connor, A

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is predicted to be one of the largest global health threats of the 21st century. Health care itself is a large contributor to carbon emissions. Determining the carbon footprint of specific health care activities such as cataract surgery allows the assessment of associated emissions and identifies opportunities for reduction. To assess the carbon footprint of a cataract pathway in a British teaching hospital. This was a component analysis study for one patient having first eye cataract surgery in the University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff. Activity data was collected from three sectors, building and energy use, travel and procurement. Published emissions factors were applied to this data to provide figures in carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2eq). The carbon footprint for one cataract operation was 181.8 kg CO2eq. On the basis that 2230 patients were treated for cataracts during 2011 in Cardiff, this has an associated carbon footprint of 405.4 tonnes CO2eq. Building and energy use was estimated to account for 36.1% of overall emissions, travel 10.1% and procurement 53.8%, with medical equipment accounting for the most emissions at 32.6%. This is the first published carbon footprint of cataract surgery and acts as a benchmark for other studies as well as identifying areas for emissions reduction. Within the procurement sector, dialogue with industry is important to reduce the overall carbon footprint. Sustainability should be considered when cataract pathways are designed as there is potential for reduction in all sectors with the possible side effects of saving costs and improving patient care.

  2. Experimental and modelling evidence of shortening heat in cardiac muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kenneth; Han, June-Chiew; Crampin, Edmund John; Taberner, Andrew James; Loiselle, Denis Scott

    2017-10-01

    Heat associated with muscle shortening has been repeatedly demonstrated in skeletal muscle, but its existence in cardiac muscle remains contentious after five decades of study. By iterating between experiments and computational modelling, we show compelling evidence for the existence of shortening heat in cardiac muscle and reveal, mechanistically, the source of this excess heat. Our results clarify a long-standing uncertainty in the field of cardiac muscle energetics. We provide a revised partitioning of cardiac muscle energy expenditure to include this newly revealed thermal component. When a muscle shortens against an afterload, the heat that it liberates is greater than that produced by the same muscle contracting isometrically at the same level of force. This excess heat is defined as 'shortening heat', and has been repeatedly demonstrated in skeletal muscle but not in cardiac muscle. Given the micro-structural similarities between these two muscle types, and since we imagine that shortening heat is the thermal accompaniment of cross-bridge cycling, we have re-examined this issue. Using our flow-through microcalorimeter, we measured force and heat generated by isolated rat trabeculae undergoing isometric contractions at different muscle lengths and work-loop (shortening) contractions at different afterloads. We simulated these experimental protocols using a thermodynamically constrained model of cross-bridge cycling and probed the mechanisms underpinning shortening heat. Predictions generated by the model were subsequently validated by a further set of experiments. Both our experimental and modelling results show convincing evidence for the existence of shortening heat in cardiac muscle. Its magnitude is inversely related to the afterload or, equivalently, directly related to the extent of shortening. Computational simulations reveal that the heat of shortening arises from the cycling of cross-bridges, and that the rate of ATP hydrolysis is more sensitive to

  3. Experimental model of severe acute pancreatitis in rabbits Modelo experimental de pancreatite aguda grave em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Goldenberg

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop an experimental model of severe acute pancreatitis in rabbits through a pancreatic ductal injection of sodium taurocholate. METHODS: Twenty-four albino rabbits of the New Zealand lineage were distributed into four groups of six animals (A, B, C and S. The rabbits of three experimental groups (A, B and C were submitted to a laparatomy and received a pancreatic ductal injection of 1ml/kg sodium taurocholate 5%. Also, they were submitted to further laparatomies after 4h, 8h and 12h, respectively. The control group (S was subdivided into two groups of three animals: in subgroup S1 only the pancreatic duct catheterization was performed whereas in subgroup S2 the pancreatic duct catheterization as well as an injection of 1ml/kg physiologic solution 0.9% were carried out. After 12 hours, the rabbits were evaluated. In the re-intervention, blood was collected to determine the amylasemia and a pancreatectomy was carried out to investigate interstitial infiltration, steatonecrosis and necrosis of the organ, using an optical microscope. RESULTS: There was an elevation of amylase in all groups thus proving the existence of acute pancreatitis. The size of the interlobular septum increased progressively with a greater variation between group S1 (0.13 and group C (0. 53 (p=0.035. While all the animals in group A exhibited focal cellular necrosis, it was more intense in the rabbits of group B and culminated with a high proportion of severe pancreatic necrosis in group C animals. The difference in the intensity of cellular necrosis showed statistic significance (p=0.001. CONCLUSION: The proposed experimental model demonstrated its reproducibility and effectiveness in producing severe acute pancreatitis in rabbits.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver modelo experimental de pancreatite aguda grave em coelhos por meio da injeção de taurocolato de sódio no ducto pancreático. MÉTODOS: Vinte e quatro coelhos albinos da linhagem Nova Zelândia foram distribu

  4. The conundrum of calculating carbon footprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strobel, Bjarne W.; Erichsen, Anders Christian; Gausset, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    A pre-condition for reducing global warming is to minimise the emission of greenhouse gasses (GHGs). A common approach to informing people about the link between behaviour and climate change rests on developing GHG calculators that quantify the ‘carbon footprint’ of a product, a sector or an actor....... There is, however, an abundance of GHG calculators that rely on very different premises and give very different estimates of carbon footprints. In this chapter, we compare and analyse the main principles of calculating carbon footprints, and discuss how calculators can inform (or misinform) people who wish...

  5. Carbon Footprint - Application in Graphic Art Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bolanca Mirkovic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for more sustainable products and processes has triggered the development of a large number of environmental assessment tools. These tools measure environmental performance and identify improvement potentials from the environmental point of view. The life cycle assessment (lca methods take into account all effects on the environment, direct and indirect resource inputs and/or emissions during the whole life cycle of products.  The carbon footprint is a sub-set of data covered by life cycle assessment.The aim of this paper is to describe the potential environmental impacts (greenhouse gases, carbon footprint of printed paper and new media.

  6. The ecological footprint of Lions Gate Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, S

    The first-ever Ecological Footprint of a hospital was carried out in the summer of 2001 in North Vancouver, British Columbia. Although there has been growing concern that the healthcare system in Canada might be adversely affecting the environment, there have been few analyses of its environmental impact. Lions Gate Hospital bravely agreed to participate in this study and have its footprint calculated. This displays real leadership, reflecting very positively on the hospital's commitment to becoming more environmentally responsible and its willingness to open up to scrutiny.

  7. Experimental model for Porphyromonas gingivalis infection in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, P I; Rotimi, V O; Laughon, B E

    1996-03-01

    A virulence model suitable for studying the dynamics of Porphyromonas gingivalis infection, including the pathogenicity of P. gingivalis in experimentally induced infections of multiple organs was developed using mouse and hamster. Virulence of P. gingivalis strains was expressed contrastingly in subcutaneous (sc) infection in the Murine abscess model (MAM) and the Hamsters abscess model (HAM). Subcutaneous infection in the MAM was characterized by a gravity abscess, spreading from the primary site of inoculation downwards, frequently erupting as a secondary lesion. In contract, s.c. P. gingivalis infection in HAM was characterized as a palpable localized abscess at the primary site of inoculation. When the Semi-Solid Agar (SSA) was added to the mono-culture of P. gingivalis, reproducibility of infection in both models was enhanced. P. gingivalis culture supplemented with haemin, or combined with oral Actinomyces viscosus had its virulence overtly enhanced and often fatal in the MAM. Menadione, Eh reducing agents and mixture with the Streptococcus or A. neaslundii did not potentiate virulence in either mode. Transtracheal challenge of the lungs of hamster with P. gingivalis initiated an early pneumonitis and later sequelae of necrosis and abscess formation. Also, abscess was induced by direct inoculation of P. gingivalis in the muscles, liver and testes, but did not induce intra-abdominal abscesses. In conclusion, the HAM applied with the SSA procedure caused a localized P. gingivalis tissue infection with practical advantages for quantitative and qualitative studies of P. gingivalis infections. This study also demonstrates the pathogenic potential of P. gingivalis by reproducing similar infections in multiple anatomical sites.

  8. Microbial dormancy improves development and experimental validation of ecosystem model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gangsheng; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Mayes, Melanie A; Schadt, Christopher W; Steinweg, J Megan; Gu, Lianhong; Post, Wilfred M

    2015-01-01

    Climate feedbacks from soils can result from environmental change followed by response of plant and microbial communities, and/or associated changes in nutrient cycling. Explicit consideration of microbial life-history traits and functions may be necessary to predict climate feedbacks owing to changes in the physiology and community composition of microbes and their associated effect on carbon cycling. Here we developed the microbial enzyme-mediated decomposition (MEND) model by incorporating microbial dormancy and the ability to track multiple isotopes of carbon. We tested two versions of MEND, that is, MEND with dormancy (MEND) and MEND without dormancy (MEND_wod), against long-term (270 days) carbon decomposition data from laboratory incubations of four soils with isotopically labeled substrates. MEND_wod adequately fitted multiple observations (total C-CO2 and (14)C-CO2 respiration, and dissolved organic carbon), but at the cost of significantly underestimating the total microbial biomass. MEND improved estimates of microbial biomass by 20-71% over MEND_wod. We also quantified uncertainties in parameters and model simulations using the Critical Objective Function Index method, which is based on a global stochastic optimization algorithm, as well as model complexity and observational data availability. Together our model extrapolations of the incubation study show that long-term soil incubations with experimental data for multiple carbon pools are conducive to estimate both decomposition and microbial parameters. These efforts should provide essential support to future field- and global-scale simulations, and enable more confident predictions of feedbacks between environmental change and carbon cycling.

  9. An experimental model of vitreous motion induced by eye rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfiglio, Andrea; Lagazzo, Alberto; Repetto, Rodolfo; Stocchino, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    During eye rotations the vitreous humour moves with respect to the eye globe. This relative motion has been suggested to possibly have an important role in inducing degradation of the gel structure, which might lead to vitreous liquefaction and/or posterior vitreous detachment. Aim of the present work is to study the characteristics of vitreous motion induced by eye rotations. We use an experimental setup, consisting of a Perspex model of the vitreous chamber that, for simplicity, is taken to have a spherical shape. The model is filled with an artificial vitreous humour, prepared as a solution of agar powder and hyaluronic acid sodium salt in deionised water, which has viscoelastic mechanical properties similar to those of the real vitreous. The model rotates about an axis passing through the centre of the sphere and velocity measurements are taken on the equatorial plane orthogonal to the axis of rotation, using an optical technique. The results show that fluid viscoelasticity has a strong influence on flow characteristics. In particular, at certain frequencies of oscillation of the eye model, fluid motion can be resonantly excited. This means that fluid velocity within the domain can be significantly larger than that of the wall. The frequencies for which resonant excitation occurs are within the range of possible eye rotations frequencies. Therefore, the present results suggest that resonant excitation of vitreous motion is likely to occur in practice. This, in turn, implies that eye rotations produce large stresses on the retina and within the vitreous that may contribute to the disruption of the vitreous gel structure. The present results also have implications for the choice of the ideal properties for vitreous substitute fluids.

  10. Quantifying carbon footprint reduction opportunities for U.S. households and communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher M; Kammen, Daniel M

    2011-05-01

    Carbon management is of increasing interest to individuals, households, and communities. In order to effectively assess and manage their climate impacts, individuals need information on the financial and greenhouse gas benefits of effective mitigation opportunities. We use consumption-based life cycle accounting techniques to quantify the carbon footprints of typical U.S. households in 28 cities for 6 household sizes and 12 income brackets. The model includes emissions embodied in transportation, energy, water, waste, food, goods, and services. We further quantify greenhouse gas and financial savings from 13 potential mitigation actions across all household types. The model suggests that the size and composition of carbon footprints vary dramatically between geographic regions and within regions based on basic demographic characteristics. Despite these differences, large cash-positive carbon footprint reductions are evident across all household types and locations; however, realizing this potential may require tailoring policies and programs to different population segments with very different carbon footprint profiles. The results of this model have been incorporated into an open access online carbon footprint management tool designed to enable behavior change at the household level through personalized feedback.

  11. Human footprint variation while performing load bearing tasks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wall-Scheffler, Cara M; Wagnild, Janelle; Wagler, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Human footprint fossils have provided essential evidence about the evolution of human bipedalism as well as the social dynamics of the footprint makers, including estimates of speed, sex and group composition...

  12. Resource Footprints are Good Proxies of Environmental Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinmann, Z.J.N.; Schipper, A.M.; Hauck, M.; Giljum, S.; Wernet, G.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental footprints are increasingly used to quantify and compare environmental impacts of for example products, technologies, households, or nations. This has resulted in a multitude of footprint indicators, ranging from relatively simple measures of resource use (water, energy, materials) to

  13. A simulation-based approach for evaluating and comparing the environmental footprints of beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Isenberg, B J; Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Pollak, E J

    2013-11-01

    A methodology was developed and used to determine environmental footprints of beef cattle produced at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) in Clay Center, NE, with the goal of quantifying improvements achieved over the past 40 yr. Information for MARC operations was gathered and used to establish parameters representing their production system with the Integrated Farm System Model. The MARC farm, cow-calf, and feedlot operations were each simulated over recent historical weather to evaluate performance, environmental impact, and economics. The current farm operation included 841 ha of alfalfa and 1,160 ha of corn to produce feed predominately for the beef herd of 5,500 cows, 1,180 replacement cattle, and 3,724 cattle finished per year. Spring and fall cow-calf herds were fed on 9,713 ha of pastureland supplemented through the winter with hay and silage produced by the farm operation. Feedlot cattle were backgrounded for 3 mo on hay and silage with some grain and finished over 7 mo on a diet high in corn and wet distillers grain. For weather year 2011, simulated feed production and use, energy use, and production costs were within 1% of actual records. A 25-yr simulation of their current production system gave an average annual carbon footprint of 10.9±0.6 kg of CO2 equivalent units per kg BW sold, and the energy required to produce that beef (energy footprint) was 26.5±4.5 MJ/kg BW. The annual water required (water footprint) was 21,300±5,600 L/kg BW sold, and the water footprint excluding precipitation was 2,790±910 L/kg BW. The simulated annual cost of producing their beef was US$2.11±0.05/kg BW. Simulation of the production practices of 2005 indicated that the inclusion of distillers grain in animal diets has had a relatively small effect on environmental footprints except that reactive nitrogen loss has increased 10%. Compared to 1970, the carbon footprint of the beef produced has decreased 6% with no change in the energy footprint, a 3% reduction

  14. Reduction of Carbon Footprint and Energy Efficiency Improvement in Aluminum Production by Use of Novel Wireless Instrumentation Integrated with Mathematical Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Evans

    2012-04-11

    The work addressed the greenhouse gas emission and electrical energy consumption of the aluminum industry. The objective was to provide a means for reducing both through the application of wireless instrumentation, coupled to mathematical modeling. Worldwide the aluminum industry consumes more electrical energy than all activities in many major countries (e.g. the UK) and emits more greenhouse gasses (e.g. than France). Most of these excesses are in the 'primary production' of aluminum; that is the conversion of aluminum oxide to metal in large electrolytic cells operating at hundreds of thousands of amps. An industry-specific GHG emission has been the focus of the work. The electrolytic cells periodically, but at irregular intervals, experience an upset condition known as an 'anode effect'. During such anode effects the cells emit fluorinated hydrocarbons (PFCs, which have a high global warming potential) at a rate far greater than in normal operation. Therefore curbing anode effects will reduce GHG emissions. Prior work had indicated that the distribution of electrical current within the cell experiences significant shifts in the minutes before an anode effect. The thrust of the present work was to develop technology that could detect and report this early warning of an anode effect so that the control computer could minimize GHG emissions. A system was developed to achieve this goal and, in collaboration with Alcoa, was tested on two cells at an Alcoa plant in Malaga, Washington. The project has also pointed to the possibility of additional improvements that could result from the work. Notable among these is an improvement in efficiency that could result in an increase in cell output at little extra operating cost. Prospects for commercialization have emerged in the form of purchase orders for further installations. The work has demonstrated that a system for monitoring the current of individual anodes in an aluminum cell is practical

  15. Experimental Investigation and Modeling of Copper Smelting Slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodub, Konstantin; Kuminova, Yaroslava; Dinsdale, Alan; Cheverikin, Vladimir; Filichkina, Vera; Saynazarov, Abdukahhar; Khvan, Alexandra; Kondratiev, Alex

    2016-10-01

    Effective extraction of copper from sulfide ores requires careful operation of a copper smelter, which in turn depends very much on chemistry of the feed and resulted slag and matte. For example, chemical composition of copper smelting slags has to be in a certain range to ensure that their properties are within specific limits. Disobeying these rules may lead to complications in smelting operation, poor quality of the copper products, and premature shutdown of the copper smelter. In the present paper the microstructure and phase composition of slags from the Almalyk copper flash smelter were investigated experimentally and then modeled thermodynamically to evaluate potential ways of improvement and optimization of the copper smelting process and its products. The slag samples were taken at different stages of the copper smelting process: on slag tapping, after slag transportation to a deposition site, and at the site. Experimental investigation included the XRD, XRF, and SEM techniques, which were also confirmed by the traditional wet chemistry analysis. Thermodynamic modeling was carried out using thermochemical software package MTDATA, which enables thermodynamic and physical properties of the matte, slag, and gas phases to be calculated in a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and chemical compositions. In addition, slag viscosities and corresponding matte settling rates were estimated using the modified Urbain and Utigard-Warczok models, and the Hadamard-Rybczynski equation, respectively. It was found that the copper content in the slags may vary significantly depending on the location of slag sampling. Cu was found to be present as sulfide particles, almost no Cu was found to be dissolved in the slag. Analysis of microstructure and phase composition showed that major phase found in the samples is fayalite, while other phases are complex spinels (based on magnetite), different sulfides, and a glass-like phase. Thermodynamic calculations demonstrated the

  16. Experimental osteonecrosis: development of a model in rodents administered alendronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Nicolau; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos; Andrade, Cleverton Roberto de; Esteves, Jônatas Caldeira; Marcantonio, Elcio

    2016-08-22

    The main objective of this study was to cause bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws to develop in a rodent model. Adult male Holtzman rats were assigned to one of two experimental groups to receive alendronate (AL; 1 mg/kg/week; n = 6) or saline solution (CTL; n = 6). After 60 days of drug therapy, all animals were subjected to first lower molar extraction, and 28 days later, animals were euthanized. All rats treated with alendronate developed osteonecrosis, presenting as ulcers and necrotic bone, associated with a significant infection process, especially at the inter-alveolar septum area and crestal regions. The degree of vascularization, the levels of C-telopeptide cross-linked collagen type I and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, as well as the bone volume were significantly reduced in these animals. Furthermore, on radiographic analysis, animals treated with alendronate presented evident sclerosis of the lamina dura of the lower first molar alveolar socket associated with decreased radiographic density in this area. These findings indicate that the protocol developed in the present study opens new perspectives and could be a good starting model for future property design.

  17. Experimental osteonecrosis: development of a model in rodents administered alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolau CONTE NETO

    Full Text Available Abstract The main objective of this study was to cause bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws to develop in a rodent model. Adult male Holtzman rats were assigned to one of two experimental groups to receive alendronate (AL; 1 mg/kg/week; n = 6 or saline solution (CTL; n = 6. After 60 days of drug therapy, all animals were subjected to first lower molar extraction, and 28 days later, animals were euthanized. All rats treated with alendronate developed osteonecrosis, presenting as ulcers and necrotic bone, associated with a significant infection process, especially at the inter-alveolar septum area and crestal regions. The degree of vascularization, the levels of C-telopeptide cross-linked collagen type I and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, as well as the bone volume were significantly reduced in these animals. Furthermore, on radiographic analysis, animals treated with alendronate presented evident sclerosis of the lamina dura of the lower first molar alveolar socket associated with decreased radiographic density in this area. These findings indicate that the protocol developed in the present study opens new perspectives and could be a good starting model for future property design.

  18. [Coronary microvascular disease: from experimental models to clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecoli, Cecilia; Caselli, Chiara; Caruso, Raffaele; Morales, Maria Aurora

    2012-01-01

    Coronary vascular microcirculation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of left ventricular dysfunction as well as in the development of heart failure. Coronary microcirculation includes all the vessels which contribute to provide resistance to coronary flow. It represents the district where coronary circulation blood flow is regulated to ensure that each structural and functional cardiac component receives the proper amount of oxygen and metabolic substrates through the capillary network. Coronary microcirculation is fundamental for myocardial function which largely depends on the ratio between energetic metabolites received from coronary circulation and their utilization by the myocytes. Alterations in coronary microvascular circulation which limit myocardial perfusion can cause repetitive ischemic events leading to left ventricular dysfunction in several ischemic and non ischemic cardiomyopathies as the idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. To date, mechanisms underlying microvascular dysfunction are not completely understood and experimental animal models are employed to study alterations which may cause microcirculation impairment. These animals models are unique tools to identify new therapeutic targets, to test new drug therapies for the treatment of left ventricular dysfunction as well as its progression towards overt heart failure.

  19. Experimental studies on power transformer model winding provided with MOVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Kusumadevi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Surge voltage distribution across a HV transformer winding due to appearance of very fast rise time (rise time of order 1 μs transient voltages is highly non-uniform along the length of the winding for initial time instant of occurrence of surge. In order to achieve nearly uniform initial time instant voltage distribution along the length of the HV winding, investigations have been carried out on transformer model winding. By connecting similar type of metal oxide varistors across sections of HV transformer model winding, it is possible to improve initial time instant surge voltage distribution across length of the HV transformer winding. Transformer windings with α values 5.3, 9.5 and 19 have been analyzed. The experimental studies have been carried out using high speed oscilloscope of good accuracy. The initial time instant voltage distribution across sections of winding with MOV remains nearly uniform along length of the winding. Also results of fault diagnostics carried out with and without connection of MOVs across sections of winding are reported.

  20. Development of Experimental Tissue Models for Blast Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Benjamin; Bo, Chiara; Williams, Alun; Jardine, Andy; Brown, Katherine

    2013-06-01

    There is a pressing need to better understand the relationship between the intensity of a blast wave and the clinical consequences for victims of an explosion. In order to quantitatively study how these factors correlate with one another, blast injury tissue models are being developed. Sections of larynx, trachea and pulmonary tissue were excised from a recently sacrificed pig and maintained on ice prior to testing. The samples were subjected to strain rates of between 0.001 s-1 and 1000 s-1 in the laboratory by using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar and quasi-static testing apparatus. During high strain rate testing, samples were housed in a polycarbonate chamber which permitted experimentation on tissue held in fluid. Data were analysed using 1, 2 and 3 wave analysis software in Matlab to yield information about the material properties of both undamaged and damaged tissues. In addition, macroscopic changes in tissue organization were also visualized using histopathological techniques. This work is being extended to cellular and animal models to derive more detailed information about the underlying molecular changes relating to blast-induced damage and repair. The Royal British Legion Centre for Blast Injury Studies.

  1. Effectiveness and safety of iodopovidone in an experimental pleurodesis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete R. Teixeira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Chemical pleurodesis is an important therapeutic tool to control recurrent malignant pleural effusion. Among the various sclerosing agents, iodopovidone is considered effective and safe. However, in a recent study, ocular changes were described after iodopovidone was used in recurrent pneumothorax. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and morbidity of iodopovidone pleurodesis in an experimental model. METHODS: New Zealand rabbits were submitted to intrapleural injection of iodopovidone at concentrations of 2%, 4% and 10%. Biochemical (lactic dehydrogenase, proteins, triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, urea and creatinine and immunological (Interleukin-8 [IL-8], VEGF and TGFβ parameters were measured in the pleural fluid and blood. After 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days, groups of animals were euthanized, and macro- (pleura and microscopic (pleura and retina analyses were performed. RESULTS: An early pleural inflammatory response with low systemic repercussion was observed without corresponding changes in thyroid or renal function. The higher concentrations (4% and 10% correlated with greater initial exudation, and maximum pleural thickening was observed after 28 days. No changes were observed in the retinal pigment epithelium of the rabbits. CONCLUSION: Iodopovidone is considered to be an effective and safe sclerosing agent in this animal model. However, its efficacy, tolerance and safety in humans should be further evaluated.

  2. The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Mekonnen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study quantifies the green, blue and grey water footprint of global crop production in a spatially-explicit way for the period 1996–2005. The assessment improves upon earlier research by taking a high-resolution approach, estimating the water footprint of 126 crops at a 5 by 5 arc minute grid. We have used a grid-based dynamic water balance model to calculate crop water use over time, with a time step of one day. The model takes into account the daily soil water balance and climatic conditions for each grid cell. In addition, the water pollution associated with the use of nitrogen fertilizer in crop production is estimated for each grid cell. The crop evapotranspiration of additional 20 minor crops is calculated with the CROPWAT model. In addition, we have calculated the water footprint of more than two hundred derived crop products, including various flours, beverages, fibres and biofuels. We have used the water footprint assessment framework as in the guideline of the Water Footprint Network.

    Considering the water footprints of primary crops, we see that the global average water footprint per ton of crop increases from sugar crops (roughly 200 m3 ton−1, vegetables (300 m3 ton−1, roots and tubers (400 m3 ton−1, fruits (1000 m3 ton−1, cereals (1600 m3 ton−1, oil crops (2400 m3 ton−1 to pulses (4000 m3 ton−1. The water footprint varies, however, across different crops per crop category and per production region as well. Besides, if one considers the water footprint per kcal, the picture changes as well. When considered per ton of product, commodities with relatively large water footprints are: coffee, tea, cocoa, tobacco, spices, nuts, rubber and fibres. The analysis of water footprints of different biofuels shows that bio-ethanol has a lower water footprint (in m

  3. Human Footprint Variation while Performing Load Bearing Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Wall-Scheffler, Cara M.; Wagnild, Janelle; Wagler, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Human footprint fossils have provided essential evidence about the evolution of human bipedalism as well as the social dynamics of the footprint makers, including estimates of speed, sex and group composition. Generally such estimates are made by comparing footprint evidence with modern controls; however, previous studies have not accounted for the variation in footprint dimensions coming from load bearing activities. It is likely that a portion of the hominins who created these fossil footpr...

  4. An experimental model of hemolysis-induced acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saruc M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature indicates that acute pancreatitis is a complication of massive hemolysis with a prevalence of about 20%. We describe an experimental model of hemolysis-induced acute pancreatitis. Hemolytic anemia was induced in rats by a single ip injection of 60 mg/kg of 20 mg/ml acetylphenylhydrazine (APH in 20% (v/v ethanol on the first experimental day (day 0. One hundred and fifty Wistar albino rats weighing 180-200 g were divided into three groups of 50 animals each: groups 1, 2 and 3 were injected ip with APH, 20% ethanol, and physiological saline, respectively. Ten rats from each group were sacrificed on study days 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Serum amylase, lipase levels and pancreatic tissue tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha and platelet-activating factor (PAF contents were determined and a histological examination of the pancreas was performed. No hemolysis or pancreatitis was observed in any of the rats in groups 2 and 3. In group 1, massive hemolysis was observed in 35 (70% of 50 rats, moderate hemolysis in seven (14%, and no hemolysis in eight (16%. Thirty-three of 35 (94.2% rats with massive hemolysis had hyperamylasemia, and 29 of these rats (82.8% had histologically proven pancreatitis. The most severe pancreatitis occurred on day 3, as demonstrated by histology. Tissue TNF-alpha and PAF levels were statistically higher in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3. Acute massive hemolysis induced acute pancreatitis, as indicated by histology, in almost 80% of cases. Hemolysis may induce acute pancreatitis by triggering the release of proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines.

  5. Epidural blood patch: A study on an experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Sengupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Epidural blood patch has been used to treat spinal headache with varying success. An experimental model was designed to ascertain whether an epidural blood patch can be used to seal the needle puncture sites in dural repair. Materials and Methods: Bovine dura was secured to the lower end of an open-ended calibrated plastic cylinder. Multiple interrupted stitches were applied over a 02 cm length of the dura without any incision. The cylinder was filled with colored saline gradually with the dura placed in a dependent position. Height of the water column at which sutured dura leaked was recorded. A layer of fresh blood was laid over the dura and allowed to clot. The test was repeated and the hydrostatic pressure at which leak took place was noted again. The test was repeated three times. Similar studies were done with two specimens with 02-cm dural incisions repaired with interrupted stitches of 4-0 silk in one specimen and 4-0 prolene in another, and three specimens with 3-mm unsutured dural rent in one and dural punctures made with 23-G and 26-G spinal needles in the other two. Results: All the dural preparations leaked, at a very low hydrostatic pressure (<30 mm of H 2 O. By covering the needle puncture sites with clotted blood, a watertight closure could be achieved, that can withstand a much higher hydrostatic pressure (mean of 180 mm of H 2 O. Conclusion : The experimental findings indicate that an epidural blood patch does enhance the ability of a dural closure to prevent a leak; however, its utility in clinical setting is questionable.

  6. Early differentiation of the Moon: Experimental and modeling studies and experimental and modeling studies of massif anorthosites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, John

    1994-01-01

    NASA grant NAG9-329 was in effect from 3/1/89 to 8/31/94, the last 18 months being a no-cost extension. While the grant was in effect, the P.I., coworkers, and students gave 22 talks and poster sessions at professional meetings, published 12 articles in referred journals (one more is in press, and another is in review), and edited 2 workshop reports relevant to this project. Copies of all the publications are appended to this report. The major accomplishments during the grant period have derived from three quarters: 1) the application of quantitative models of fractional crystallization and partial melting to various problems in planetary science, such as the petrogenesis of picritic glasses and mare basalts and the implications of the SNC meteorites for martian evolution; 2) an experimental study of silicate liquid immiscibility relevant to early lunar differentiation and the petrogenesis of evolved highlands rocks; and 3) experimental studies of massif anorthosites and related rocks that provide terrestrial analogs for the proposed origin of lunar anorthosites by multistage processes. The low-pressure aspects of the quantitative models were developed by the P.I. in the 1980s with NASA support and culminated with a paper comparing the crystallization of terrestrial and lunar lavas. The basis for the high-pressure modifications to the quantitative models is a data set gleaned from high pressure melting experiments done at Lamont and is supplemented by published data from other labs that constrain the baric and compositional dependences of various liquidus phase boundaries such as olivine/orthopyroxene, relevant to the melting of the mantles of the terrestrial planets. With these models it is possible to predict not only the thermal and compositional evolution of magmatic liquids ranging in composition from lumar mare basalt to terrestrial calc-alkaline basalts, but also the small increments of fractional melting that are produced when mantle rises adiabatically

  7. Thermal infrared spectroscopy and modeling of experimentally shocked plagioclase feldspars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Horz, F.; Staid, M.I.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal infrared emission and reflectance spectra (250-1400 cm-1; ???7???40 ??m) of experimentally shocked albite- and anorthite-rich rocks (17-56 GPa) demonstrate that plagioclase feldspars exhibit characteristic degradations in spectral features with increasing pressure. New measurements of albite (Ab98) presented here display major spectral absorptions between 1000-1250 cm-1 (8-10 ??m) (due to Si-O antisymmetric stretch motions of the silica tetrahedra) and weaker absorptions between 350-700 cm-1 (14-29 ??m) (due to Si-O-Si octahedral bending vibrations). Many of these features persist to higher pressures compared to similar features in measurements of shocked anorthite, consistent with previous thermal infrared absorption studies of shocked feldspars. A transparency feature at 855 cm-1 (11.7 ??m) observed in powdered albite spectra also degrades with increasing pressure, similar to the 830 cm-1 (12.0 ??m) transparency feature in spectra of powders of shocked anorthite. Linear deconvolution models demonstrate that combinations of common mineral and glass spectra can replicate the spectra of shocked anorthite relatively well until shock pressures of 20-25 GPa, above which model errors increase substantially, coincident with the onset of diaplectic glass formation. Albite deconvolutions exhibit higher errors overall but do not change significantly with pressure, likely because certain clay minerals selected by the model exhibit absorption features similar to those in highly shocked albite. The implication for deconvolution of thermal infrared spectra of planetary surfaces (or laboratory spectra of samples) is that the use of highly shocked anorthite spectra in end-member libraries could be helpful in identifying highly shocked calcic plagioclase feldspars.

  8. The carbon footprint of exported Brazilian yellow melon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito de Figueirêdo, M.C.; Kroeze, C.; Potting, J.; Silva Barros, da V.; Sousa de Aragão, A.; Sonsol Gondim, R.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The carbon footprint of food has become important for producers worldwide as consumers and retail companies increasingly base their purchase decisions on carbon footprint labels. In this context, our objectives is to assess the carbon footprint (CF) of Brazilian yellow melon exported from the Low

  9. Investigating the inventory and characterization aspects of footprinting methods. Lessons for the classification and integration of footprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, K.; Heijungs, R.

    2015-01-01

    Inventory and characterization schemes play different roles in shaping a variety of footprint indicators. This paper performs a systematic and critical investigation of the hidden inventory aspect and characterization aspect of selected footprints with implications for classification and integration

  10. Forest Products Footprint, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-17

    Manufacturing energy and carbon footprints map energy consumption and losses, as well as greenhouse gas emissions from fuel consumption, for fifteen individual U.S. manufacturing sectors (representing 94% of all manufacturing energy use) and for the entire manufacturing sector. By providing energy consumption and emissions figures broken down by end use, the footprints allow for comparisons of energy use and emissions sources both within and across sectors. The footprints portray a large amount of information for each sector, including: * Comparison of the energy generated offsite and transferred to facilities versus that generated onsite * Nature and amount of energy consumed by end use within facilities * Magnitude of the energy lost both outside and inside facility boundaries * Magnitude of the greenhouse gas emissions released as a result of manufacturing energy use. Energy losses indicate opportunities to improve efficiency by implementing energy management best practices, upgrading energy systems, and developing new technologies. Footprints are available below for each sector. Data is presented in two levels of detail. The first page provides a high- level snapshot of the offsite and onsite energy flow, and the second page shows the detail for onsite generation and end use of energy. The principle energy use data source is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), for consumption in the year 2006, when the survey was last completed.

  11. ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT ANALYSIS OF CANNED SWEET CORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phairat Usubharatana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been a notable increase in both consumer knowledge and awareness regarding the ecological benefits of green products and services. Manufacturers now pay more attention to green, environmentally friendly production processes. Two significant tools that can facilitate such a goal are life cycle assessment (LCA and ecological footprint (EF. This study aimed to analyse and determine the damage to the environment, focusing on the canned fruit and vegetable processing. Canned sweet corn (340 g was selected for the case study. All inputs and outputs associated with the product system boundary were collected through field surveys. The acquired inventory was then analysed and evaluated using both LCA and EF methodology. The results were converted into an area of biologically productive land and presented as global hectares (gha. The ecological footprint of one can of sweet corn was calculated as 6.51E-04 gha. The three factors with the highest impact on ecological footprint value were the corn kernels used in the process, the packaging and steam, equivalent to 2.93E-04 gha, 1.19E-04 gha and 1.17E-04 gha respectively. To promote the sustainable development, the company should develop new technology or utilize better management techniques to reduce the ecological footprint of canned food production.

  12. The auroral footprint of Enceladus on Saturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Wayne R; Rymer, Abigail M; Mitchell, Donald G; Hill, Thomas W; Young, David T; Saur, Joachim; Jones, Geraint H; Jacobsen, Sven; Cowley, Stan W H; Mauk, Barry H; Coates, Andrew J; Gustin, Jacques; Grodent, Denis; Gérard, Jean-Claude; Lamy, Laurent; Nichols, Jonathan D; Krimigis, Stamatios M; Esposito, Larry W; Dougherty, Michele K; Jouchoux, Alain J; Stewart, A Ian F; McClintock, William E; Holsclaw, Gregory M; Ajello, Joseph M; Colwell, Joshua E; Hendrix, Amanda R; Crary, Frank J; Clarke, John T; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2011-04-21

    Although there are substantial differences between the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, it has been suggested that cryovolcanic activity at Enceladus could lead to electrodynamic coupling between Enceladus and Saturn like that which links Jupiter with Io, Europa and Ganymede. Powerful field-aligned electron beams associated with the Io-Jupiter coupling, for example, create an auroral footprint in Jupiter's ionosphere. Auroral ultraviolet emission associated with Enceladus-Saturn coupling is anticipated to be just a few tenths of a kilorayleigh (ref. 12), about an order of magnitude dimmer than Io's footprint and below the observable threshold, consistent with its non-detection. Here we report the detection of magnetic-field-aligned ion and electron beams (offset several moon radii downstream from Enceladus) with sufficient power to stimulate detectable aurora, and the subsequent discovery of Enceladus-associated aurora in a few per cent of the scans of the moon's footprint. The footprint varies in emission magnitude more than can plausibly be explained by changes in magnetospheric parameters--and as such is probably indicative of variable plume activity.

  13. The water footprint of tourism in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazcarro, I.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Sánchez Chóliz, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study complements the water footprint (WF) estimations for Spain, incorporating insights of the process analysis and input–output (IO) analysis. We evaluate the virtual (both blue and green consumed) water trade of agricultural and industrial products, but also of services, especially through

  14. The importance of carbon footprint estimation boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, H Scott; Hendrickson, Chris T; Weber, Christopher L

    2008-08-15

    Because of increasing concern about global climate change and carbon emissions as a causal factor, many companies and organizations are pursuing "carbon footprint" projects to estimate their own contributions to global climate change. Protocol definitions from carbon registries help organizations analyze their footprints. The scope of these protocols varies but generally suggests estimating only direct emissions and emissions from purchased energy, with less focus on supply chain emissions. In contrast approaches based on comprehensive environmental life-cycle assessment methods are available to track total emissions across the entire supply chain, and experience suggests that following narrowly defined estimation protocols will generally lead to large underestimates of carbon emissions for providing products and services. Direct emissions from an industry are, on average, only 14% of the total supply chain carbon emissions (often called Tier 1 emissions), and direct emissions plus industry energy inputs are, on average, only 26% of the total supply chain emissions (often called Tier 1 and 2 emissions). Without a full knowledge of their footprints, firms will be unable to pursue the most cost-effective carbon mitigation strategies. We suggest that firms use the screening-level analysis described here to set the bounds of their footprinting strategy to ensure that they do not ignore large sources of environmental effects across their supply chains. Such information can help firms pursue carbon and environmental emission mitigation projects not only within their own plants but also across their supply chain.

  15. Our Footprints on the Sands of Time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 1. Our Footprints on the Sands of Time. Partha P Majumder D Balasubramanian. General Article Volume 11 Issue 1 January 2006 pp 32-50. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. The water footprint of food aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, Nicole; Konar, Megan; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find

  17. Spatially and temporally explicit water footprint accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin

    2011-01-01

    The earth’s freshwater resources are subject to increasing pressure in the form of consumptive water use and pollution (Postel, 2000; WWAP, 2003, 2006, 2009). Quantitative assessment of the green, blue and grey water footprint of global production and consumption can be regarded as a key in

  18. How to Calculate Your Institution's Nitrogen Footprint ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nitrogen Footprint Tool (NFT) allows institutions to estimate and manage their nitrogen footprint, and EPA’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities program is supporting an effort to test and expand this approach at multiple colleges, universities and institutions across the US. The growing awareness of sustainability has prompted many institutions of higher education to assess and manage their environmental impact. Many universities have programs to decrease their carbon footprint, but carbon represents just one facet of an institution’s environmental impact. Nitrogen is also important because a university’s nitrogen loss to the environment contributes to smog, soil acidification, eutrophication, biodiversity loss, the enhanced greenhouse effect, stratospheric ozone depletion, and more. The attached data template and user’s manual was based on the first NFT created for a university (University of Virginia), and tested in 6 additional institutions (including University of New Hampshire, Brown University, Eastern Mennonite University, Colorado State University). The footprint includes nitrogen released to the environment due to: 1) food consumption; 2) food production, reported by specific food categories (vegetable products, seafood, dairy and eggs, meat); 3) research animals; 4) transportation, including fleet vehicles and commuter vehicles; 5) fertilizer application; and 6) utilities, separated into electricity and heating. The data template and

  19. Water neutral: reducing and ofsetting water footprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2008-01-01

    During the past few years the concept of the ‘water footprint’ has started to receive recognition within governments, non-governmental organizations, businesses and media as a useful indicator of water use. The increased interest in the water-footprint concept has prompted the question about what

  20. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  1. The Effect of Land Use on Availability of Japanese Freshwater Resources and Its Significance for Water Footprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Motoshita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All relevant effects on water must be assessed in water footprinting for identifying hotspots and managing the impacts of products, processes, and services throughout the life cycle. Although several studies have focused on physical water scarcity and degradation of water quality, the relevance of land use in water footprinting has not been widely addressed. Here, we aimed to verify the extent of land-use effect in the context of water footprinting. Intensity factors of land use regarding the loss of freshwater availability are modeled by calculating water balance at grid scale in Japan. A water footprint inventory and impacts related to land use are assessed by applying the developed intensity factors and comparing them with those related to water consumption and degradation. Artificial land use such as urban area results in the loss of many parts of available freshwater input by precipitation. When considering water footprint inventory, the dominance of land use is less than that of water consumption. However, the effect of land use is relevant to the assessment of water footprint impact by differentiating stress on water resources. The exclusion of land use effect underestimates the water footprint of goods produced in Japan by an average of around 37%.

  2. Footprint Representation of Planetary Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, S. H. G.; Gasselt, S. V.; Michael, G.; Neukum, G.

    The geometric outline of remote sensing image data, the so called footprint, can be represented as a number of coordinate tuples. These polygons are associated with according attribute information such as orbit name, ground- and image resolution, solar longitude and illumination conditions to generate a powerful base for classification of planetary experiment data. Speed, handling and extended capabilites are the reasons for using geodatabases to store and access these data types. Techniques for such a spatial database of footprint data are demonstrated using the Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) PostgreSQL, spatially enabled by the PostGIS extension. Exemplary, footprints of the HRSC and OMEGA instruments, both onboard ESA's Mars Express Orbiter, are generated and connected to attribute information. The aim is to provide high-resolution footprints of the OMEGA instrument to the science community for the first time and make them available for web-based mapping applications like the "Planetary Interactive GIS-on-the-Web Analyzable Database" (PIG- WAD), produced by the USGS. Map overlays with HRSC or other instruments like MOC and THEMIS (footprint maps are already available for these instruments and can be integrated into the database) allow on-the-fly intersection and comparison as well as extended statistics of the data. Footprint polygons are generated one by one using standard software provided by the instrument teams. Attribute data is calculated and stored together with the geometric information. In the case of HRSC, the coordinates of the footprints are already available in the VICAR label of each image file. Using the VICAR RTL and PostgreSQL's libpq C library they are loaded into the database using the Well-Known Text (WKT) notation by the Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc. (OGC). For the OMEGA instrument, image data is read using IDL routines developed and distributed by the OMEGA team. Image outlines are exported together with relevant attribute

  3. Neovascular growth in an experimental alkali corneal burn model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Ortiz, L C; Martín Rodríguez, O; García-Ben, A; García-Campos, J

    2014-08-01

    To analyse the length and area of corneal surface occupied by vessels, and their location in an experimental model of alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization. An injury to the central cornea of the right eye in 91 Sprague-Dawley rats was induced using a silver nitrate pencil. The rats were divided in 7 groups that were sacrificed 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 days post-injury, and then perfused with a mixture of Chinese ink in PBS -phosphate buffer saline-. Corneas were flat-mounted processed and divided in 4 quadrants. Corneal neovascular growth parameters (length and area) and the location of these vessels were performed blind. The results were statistically analysed. Neovascular growth was observed from day 2, reaching its maximum peak in length and area on the 12th day post-injury. A slight reduction in corneal neovascularization was observed after this day. The vessels were initially located in the middle third of the stroma and tended to be observed in the anterior third during the course of the experiment. Neovascularisation was observed on day 2 post-injury in all sectors of corneal surface. Neovascular growth was uniform during the experiment. Neovessels were located in the middle and anterior third of the cornea. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling experimental plasma diagnostics in the FLASH code: proton radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocke, Norbert; Weide, Klaus; Feister, Scott; Tzeferacos, Petros; Lamb, Donald

    2017-10-01

    Proton radiography is an important diagnostic tool for laser plasma experiments and for studying magnetized plasmas. We describe a new synthetic proton radiography diagnostic recently implemented into the FLASH code. FLASH is an open source, finite-volume Eulerian, spatially adaptive radiation hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics code that incorporates capabilities for a broad range of physical processes. Proton radiography is modeled through the use of the (relativistic) Lorentz force equation governing the motion of protons through 3D domains. Both instantaneous (one time step) and time-resolved (over many time steps) proton radiography can be simulated. The code module is also equipped with several different setup options (beam structure and detector screen placements) to reproduce a large variety of experimental proton radiography designs. FLASH's proton radiography diagnostic unit can be used either during runtime or in post-processing of simulation results. FLASH is publicly available at flash.uchicago.edu. U.S. DOE NNSA, U.S. DOE NNSA ASC, U.S. DOE Office of Science and NSF.

  5. Atomistic modeling at experimental strain rates and timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xin; Cao, Penghui; Tao, Weiwei; Sharma, Pradeep; Park, Harold S.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling physical phenomena with atomistic fidelity and at laboratory timescales is one of the holy grails of computational materials science. Conventional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations enable the elucidation of an astonishing array of phenomena inherent in the mechanical and chemical behavior of materials. However, conventional MD, with our current computational modalities, is incapable of resolving timescales longer than microseconds (at best). In this short review article, we briefly review a recently proposed approach—the so-called autonomous basin climbing (ABC) method—that in certain instances can provide valuable information on slow timescale processes. We provide a general summary of the principles underlying the ABC approach, with emphasis on recent methodological developments enabling the study of mechanically-driven processes at slow (experimental) strain rates and timescales. Specifically, we show that by combining a strong physical understanding of the underlying phenomena, kinetic Monte Carlo, transition state theory and minimum energy pathway methods, the ABC method has been found to be useful in a variety of mechanically-driven problems ranging from the prediction of creep-behavior in metals, constitutive laws for grain boundary sliding, void nucleation rates, diffusion in amorphous materials to protein unfolding. Aside from reviewing the basic ideas underlying this approach, we emphasize some of the key challenges encountered in our own personal research work and suggest future research avenues for exploration.

  6. An Experimental Model for Resistance Exercise in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Nicastro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an equipment and system of resistance exercise (RE, based on squat-type exercise for rodents, with control of training variables. We developed an operant conditioning system composed of sound, light and feeding devices that allowed optimized RE performance by the animal. With this system, it is not necessary to impose fasting or electric shock for the animal to perform the task proposed (muscle contraction. Furthermore, it is possible to perform muscle function tests in vivo within the context of the exercise proposed and control variables such as intensity, volume (sets and repetitions, and exercise session length, rest interval between sets and repetitions, and concentric strength. Based on the experiments conducted, we demonstrated that the model proposed is able to perform more specific control of other RE variables, especially rest interval between sets and repetitions, and encourages the animal to exercise through short-term energy restriction and “disturbing” stimulus that do not promote alterations in body weight. Therefore, despite experimental limitations, we believe that this RE apparatus is closer to the physiological context observed in humans.

  7. Experimental model of a wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasar, C.; Rat, C. L.; Prostean, O.

    2018-01-01

    The renewable energy domain represents an important issue for the sustainable development of the mankind in the actual context of increasing demand for energy along with the increasing pollution that affect the environment. A significant quota of the clean energy is represented by the wind energy. As a consequence, the developing of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) in order to achieve high energetic performances (efficiency, stability, availability, competitive cost etc) represents a topic of permanent actuality. Testing and developing of an optimized control strategy for a WECS direct implemented on a real energetic site is quite difficult and not cost efficient. Thus a more convenient solution consists in a flexible laboratory setup which requires an experimental model of a WECS. Such approach would allow the simulation of various real conditions very similar with existing energetic sites. This paper presents a grid-connected wind turbine emulator. The wind turbine is implemented through a real-time Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) emulator, which will be analyzed extensively in the paper. The HIL system uses software implemented in the LabVIEW programming environment to control an ABB ACS800 electric drive. ACS800 has the task of driving an induction machine coupled to a permanent magnet synchronous generator. The power obtained from the synchronous generator is rectified, filtered and sent to the main grid through a controlled inverter. The control strategy is implemented on a NI CompactRIO (cRIO) platform.

  8. Helicopter noise in hover: Computational modelling and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopiev, V. F.; Zaytsev, M. Yu.; Vorontsov, V. I.; Karabasov, S. A.; Anikin, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    The aeroacoustic characteristics of a helicopter rotor are calculated by a new method, to assess its applicability in assessing rotor performance in hovering. Direct solution of the Euler equations in a noninertial coordinate system is used to calculate the near-field flow around the spinning rotor. The far-field noise field is calculated by the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) method using permeable control surfaces that include the blade. For a multiblade rotor, the signal obtained is duplicated and shifted in phase for each successive blade. By that means, the spectral characteristics of the far-field noise may be obtained. To determine the integral aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor, software is written to calculate the thrust and torque characteristics from the near-field flow solution. The results of numerical simulation are compared with experimental acoustic and aerodynamic data for a large-scale model of a helicopter main rotor in an open test facility. Two- and four-blade configurations of the rotor are considered, in different hover conditions. The proposed method satisfactorily predicts the aerodynamic characteristics of the blades in such conditions and gives good estimates for the first harmonics of the noise. That permits the practical use of the proposed method, not only for hovering but also for forward flight.

  9. Total laparoscopic gastrocystoplasty: experimental technique in a porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico R. Romero

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Describe a unique simplified experimental technique for total laparoscopic gastrocystoplasty in a porcine model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed laparoscopic gastrocystoplasty on 10 animals. The gastroepiploic arch was identified and carefully mobilized from its origin at the pylorus to the beginning of the previously demarcated gastric wedge. The gastric segment was resected with sharp dissection. Both gastric suturing and gastrovesical anastomosis were performed with absorbable running sutures. The complete procedure and stages of gastric dissection, gastric closure, and gastrovesical anastomosis were separately timed for each laparoscopic gastrocystoplasty. The end-result of the gastric suturing and the bladder augmentation were evaluated by fluoroscopy or endoscopy. RESULTS: Mean total operative time was 5.2 (range 3.5 - 8 hours: 84.5 (range 62 - 110 minutes for the gastric dissection, 56 (range 28 - 80 minutes for the gastric suturing, and 170.6 (range 70 to 200 minutes for the gastrovesical anastomosis. A cystogram showed a small leakage from the vesical anastomosis in the first two cases. No extravasation from gastric closure was observed in the postoperative gastrogram. CONCLUSIONS: Total laparoscopic gastrocystoplasty is a feasible but complex procedure that currently has limited clinical application. With the increasing use of laparoscopy in reconstructive surgery of the lower urinary tract, gastrocystoplasty may become an attractive option because of its potential advantages over techniques using small and large bowel segments.

  10. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Lam; Dimitri Gidaspow

    2000-09-01

    The objective if this study was to develop a predictive experimentally verified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for gas-liquid-solid flow. A three dimensional transient computer code for the coupled Navier-Stokes equations for each phase was developed. The principal input into the model is the viscosity of the particulate phase which was determined from a measurement of the random kinetic energy of the 800 micron glass beads and a Brookfield viscometer. The computed time averaged particle velocities and concentrations agree with PIV measurements of velocities and concentrations, obtained using a combination of gamma-ray and X-ray densitometers, in a slurry bubble column, operated in the bubbly-coalesced fluidization regime with continuous flow of water. Both the experiment and the simulation show a down-flow of particles in the center of the column and up-flow near the walls and nearly uniform particle concentration. Normal and shear Reynolds stresses were constructed from the computed instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced similar nearly flat horizontal profiles of turbulent kinetic energy of particles. This phase of the work was presented at the Chemical Reaction Engineering VIII: Computational Fluid Dynamics, August 6-11, 2000 in Quebec City, Canada. To understand turbulence in risers, measurements were done in the IIT riser with 530 micron glass beads using a PIV technique. The results together with simulations will be presented at the annual meeting of AIChE in November 2000.

  11. Application of iterative robust model-based optimal experimental design for the calibration of biocatalytic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Daele, Timothy; Gernaey, Krist V; Ringborg, Rolf H; Börner, Tim; Heintz, Søren; Van Hauwermeiren, Daan; Grey, Carl; Krühne, Ulrich; Adlercreutz, Patrick; Nopens, Ingmar

    2017-09-01

    The aim of model calibration is to estimate unique parameter values from available experimental data, here applied to a biocatalytic process. The traditional approach of first gathering data followed by performing a model calibration is inefficient, since the information gathered during experimentation is not actively used to optimize the experimental design. By applying an iterative robust model-based optimal experimental design, the limited amount of data collected is used to design additional informative experiments. The algorithm is used here to calibrate the initial reaction rate of an ω-transaminase catalyzed reaction in a more accurate way. The parameter confidence region estimated from the Fisher Information Matrix is compared with the likelihood confidence region, which is not only more accurate but also a computationally more expensive method. As a result, an important deviation between both approaches is found, confirming that linearization methods should be applied with care for nonlinear models. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1278-1293, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  12. Comparison of Laboratory Experimental Data to XBeach Numerical Model Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Ebru; Baykal, Cuneyt; Guler, Isikhan; Sogut, Erdinc

    2016-04-01

    generating data sets for testing and validation of sediment transport relationships for sand transport in the presence of waves and currents. In these series, there is no structure in the basin. The second and third series of experiments were designed to generate data sets for development of tombolos in the lee of detached 4m-long rubble mound breakwater that is 4 m from the initial shoreline. The fourth series of experiments are conducted to investigate tombolo development in the lee of a 4m-long T-head groin with the head section in the same location of the second and the third tests. The fifth series of experiments are used to investigate tombolo development in the lee of a 3-m-long rubble-mound breakwater positioned 1.5 m offshore of the initial shoreline. In this study, the data collected from the above mentioned five experiments are used to compare the results of the experimental data with XBeach numerical model results, both for the "no-structure" and "with-structure" cases regarding to sediment transport relationships in the presence of only waves and currents as well as the shoreline changes together with the detached breakwater and the T-groin. The main purpose is to investigate the similarities and differences between the laboratory experimental data behavior with XBeach numerical model outputs for these five cases. References: Baykal, C., Sogut, E., Ergin, A., Guler, I., Ozyurt, G.T., Guler, G., and Dogan, G.G. (2015). Modelling Long Term Morphological Changes with XBeach: Case Study of Kızılırmak River Mouth, Turkey, European Geosciences Union, General Assembly 2015, Vienna, Austria, 12-17 April 2015. Gravens, M.B. and Wang, P. (2007). "Data report: Laboratory testing of longshore sand transport by waves and currents; morphology change behind headland structures." Technical Report, ERDC/CHL TR-07-8, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS. Roelvink, D., Reniers, A., van Dongeren, A., van Thiel de

  13. Desorption of plutonium from montmorillonite: An experimental and modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, James D.; Zavarin, Mavrik; Kersting, Annie B.

    2017-01-01

    Desorption of plutonium (Pu) will likely control the extent to which it is transported by mineral colloids. We evaluated the adsorption/desorption behavior of Pu on SWy-1 montmorillonite colloids at pH 4, pH 6, and pH 8 using batch adsorption and flow cell desorption experiments. After 21 days adsorption, Pu(IV) affinity for montmorillonite displayed a pH dependency, with Kd values highest at pH 4 and lowest at pH 8. The pH 8 experiment was further allowed to equilibrate for 6 months and showed an increase in Kd, indicating that true sorption equilibrium was not achieved within the first 21 days. For the desorption experiments, aliquots of the sorption suspensions were placed in a flow cell, and Pu-free solutions were then pumped through the cell for a period of 12 days. Changes in influent solution flow rate were used to investigate the kinetics of Pu desorption and demonstrated that it was rate-limited over the experimental timescales. At the end of the 12-day flow cell experiments, the extent of desorption was again pH dependent, with pH 8 > pH 6 > pH 4. Further, at pH 8, less Pu was desorbed after an adsorption contact time of 6 months than after a contact time of 21 days, consistent with an aging of Pu on the clay surface. A conceptual model for Pu adsorption/desorption that incorporated known surface-mediated Pu redox reactions was used to fit the experimental data. The resulting rate constants indicated processes occurring on timescales of months and even years which may, in part, explain observations of clay colloid-facilitated Pu transport on decadal timescales. Importantly, however, our results also imply that migration of Pu adsorbed to montmorillonite colloids at long (50-100 year) timescales under oxic conditions may not be possible without considering additional phenomena, such as co-precipitation.

  14. A comprehensive experimental and modeling study of isobutene oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Chong-Wen

    2016-03-17

    Isobutene is an important intermediate in the pyrolysis and oxidation of higher-order branched alkanes, and it is also a component of commercial gasolines. To better understand its combustion characteristics, a series of ignition delay time (IDT) and laminar flame speed (LFS) measurements have been performed. In addition, flow reactor speciation data recorded for the pyrolysis and oxidation of isobutene is also reported. Predictions of an updated kinetic model described herein are compared with each of these data sets, as well as with existing jet-stirred reactor (JSR) species measurements. IDTs of isobutene oxidation were measured in four different shock tubes and in two rapid compression machines (RCMs) under conditions of relevance to practical combustors. The combination of shock tube and RCM data greatly expands the range of available validation data for isobutene oxidation models to pressures of 50 atm and temperatures in the range 666–1715 K. Isobutene flame speeds were measured experimentally at 1 atm and at unburned gas temperatures of 298–398 K over a wide range of equivalence ratios. For the flame speed results, there was good agreement between different facilities and the current model in the fuel-rich region. Ab initio chemical kinetics calculations were carried out to calculate rate constants for important reactions such as H-atom abstraction by hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals and the decomposition of 2-methylallyl radicals. A comprehensive chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed to describe the combustion of isobutene and is validated by comparison to the presently considered experimental measurements. Important reactions, highlighted via flux and sensitivity analyses, include: (a) hydrogen atom abstraction from isobutene by hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals, and molecular oxygen; (b) radical–radical recombination reactions, including 2-methylallyl radical self-recombination, the recombination of 2-methylallyl radicals with

  15. A case study of the carbon footprint of milk from high-performing confinement and grass-based dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, D; Capper, J L; Garnsworthy, P C; Grainger, C; Shalloo, L

    2014-03-01

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is the preferred methodology to assess carbon footprint per unit of milk. The objective of this case study was to apply an LCA method to compare carbon footprints of high-performance confinement and grass-based dairy farms. Physical performance data from research herds were used to quantify carbon footprints of a high-performance Irish grass-based dairy system and a top-performing United Kingdom (UK) confinement dairy system. For the US confinement dairy system, data from the top 5% of herds of a national database were used. Life-cycle assessment was applied using the same dairy farm greenhouse gas (GHG) model for all dairy systems. The model estimated all on- and off-farm GHG sources associated with dairy production until milk is sold from the farm in kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-eq) and allocated emissions between milk and meat. The carbon footprint of milk was calculated by expressing GHG emissions attributed to milk per tonne of energy-corrected milk (ECM). The comparison showed that when GHG emissions were only attributed to milk, the carbon footprint of milk from the Irish grass-based system (837 kg of CO2-eq/t of ECM) was 5% lower than the UK confinement system (884 kg of CO2-eq/t of ECM) and 7% lower than the US confinement system (898 kg of CO2-eq/t of ECM). However, without grassland carbon sequestration, the grass-based and confinement dairy systems had similar carbon footprints per tonne of ECM. Emission algorithms and allocation of GHG emissions between milk and meat also affected the relative difference and order of dairy system carbon footprints. For instance, depending on the method chosen to allocate emissions between milk and meat, the relative difference between the carbon footprints of grass-based and confinement dairy systems varied by 3 to 22%. This indicates that further harmonization of several aspects of the LCA methodology is required to compare carbon footprints of contrasting dairy systems. In

  16. Solar-Powered Desalination: A Modelling and Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Jimmy; Andrews, John

    2007-10-01

    materials were investigated: copper-nickel and a commercially available plastic. The modelling and design of a three effects MEE system is also discussed. The effects of the important design and operating parameters (recovery ratio, thermal energy, parasitic electrical energy, distillate production and solar collection area) controlling the cost of fresh water determined both from the computer simulation and experimental results are presented and analysed in this paper. Future work in the overall research program is also outlined.

  17. Energy transfer in photosynthesis: experimental insights and quantitative models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grondelle, R.; Novoderezhkin, V.

    2006-01-01

    We overview experimental and theoretical studies of energy transfer in the photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes LH1, LH2, and LHCII performed during the past decade since the discovery of high-resolution structure of these complexes. Experimental findings obtained with various spectroscopic

  18. Numerical Modeling and Experimental Testing of a Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Kramer, Morten; Ferri, Francesco

    numerical values for comparison with the experimental test results which were carried out in the same time. It is for this reason why Chapter 4 does consist exclusively of numerical values. Experimental values and measured time series of wave elevations have been used throughout the report in order to a...

  19. Factors that affect the ecological footprint depending on the different income levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Tung Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ecological footprint provides a method for measuring how much lands can support the consumption of the natural resources. Development and biocapacity debates revolve mainly around the factors that affect the ecological footprint and the approaches to improve the environmental quality. Therefore, we conducted the panel analysis of data for 99 countries from 1981 to 2006 to determine what factors affect the ecological footprint. The empirical results show that the effect of GDP per capita on the ecological footprint varies for different income levels. The effect of urbanization is significantly positive across income levels, which means that the higher the rate of urbanization in high or low income country, the higher the ecological footprint. As developing countries pursue economic development, there will be an impact on the environment. The developed countries may seek to develop their economies through activities that are more detrimental to the environment. Additionally, the export of goods and services divided by GDP is significant, which means that the higher the volume of exports, the greater the burden on the environment. However, this effect is not significant across different income level models. The income effect may explain the diverse effects of export on the environment. Therefore, panel data analysis and income classification are necessary to discuss the effect of export on the environment.

  20. Distal Insertional Footprint of the Brachialis Muscle: 3D Morphometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinath Kamineni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study is to describe the three-dimensional morphometry of the brachialis muscle at its distal attachment to the ulna. Methods. Fifty cadaveric elbows were dissected and the brachialis distal insertion was isolated on the ulna bone and probed with a three-dimensional digitizer, to create a three-dimensional model of the footprint. Measurements and analysis of each footprint shape were recorded and compared based on gender and size. Results. There was significant gender difference in the surface length (P= 0.002 and projected length (P= 0.001 of the brachialis footprint. The shapes of the footprint also differed among the specimens. Conclusion. The shape of the brachialis muscle insertion differed among all the specimens without significant variation in gender or sides. There was also a significant difference in muscle length between males and females with little difference in the width and surface area. Significance. The information obtained from this study is important for kinematic understanding and surgical procedures around the elbow joint as well as the understanding of the natural age related anatomy of the brachialis footprint morphology.

  1. Correlation between Io’s lead angle and the satellite’s magnetic footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukollapun, Chaiyaporn; Wannawichian, Suwicha

    2017-09-01

    This research studies the nature of auroral feature on Jupiter, especially which connects to one of its satellite, Io. Jupiter has a large magnetosphere, as a result of strong magnetic field strength. This magnetosphere corotates with Jupiter and extends over all of Galilean satellites. The interaction between Jupiter’s rotating magnetic field and Io causes plasma particles to flow along the magnetic field lines in directions toward both north and south hemispheres. Some particles will penetrate into Jupiter’s ionosphere and collide with atmosphere particles, leading to aurora emission, at the position of Io’s auroral footprint. Io is surrounded along its path, by a cloud of plasma particles with high density, which is called Io torus. This torus enhances the effect of bending magnetic field lines when they pass Io and result in inaccuracy of the prediction of longitudinal position of Io footprint. This shift of longitudinal prediction can be mapped to the shifted position of Io, which is called lead angle. Our objective is finding the relation between all three parameters, which are magnetic field strength, Io’s footprint brightness and lead angle at the same footprint position or the same Io’s longitude. We use VIPAL magnetic field model to trace along the magnetic field line and to find magnetic field strength at any given position. This tool is vital for determination of the relation between magnetic field strength, Io footprint brightness and lead angle.

  2. Age, Sex and Stature Estimation from Footprint Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paurbhi Singh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was carried out to evaluate the utility and reliability of footprint dimensions in age, sex and stature determination in the North Indian population. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out using a sample of 400 people (146 female and 254 male aged 10-65 years in Uttar Pradesh, North Western state of India. Footprints of both feet were taken bilaterally, and thus a total of 800 prints were obtained. A cluster of 7 measurements were taken carefully with the help of a scientific scale ruler. Five measurements were length dimensions from the most anterior part of the toe (T1–T5 to the mid rear heel point and two were breadth dimensions from both left and right footprints: breadth at ball (BBAL, breadth at heel (BHEL and 2 indexes: heel-ball Index (HBI and footprint index (FPI. All data were analyzed statistically using Student’s t-test, regression coefficient and Pearson’s correlation for the estimation of sex on the basis of footprint dimensions. Results: The T1 in left footprints was greater than right footprints in males, while T1 and BBAL were both found to be greater in left footprints than right footprints in females. All the seven foot dimensions were higher in males than females. Conclusion: There were statistically significant differences observed in all footprint dimensions between the male and female footprints except LFPI, LHBI, and RHBI.

  3. Formation of Large-Amplitude Wave Groups in an Experimental Model Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bassler, Christopher C; Lang, Gerritt E; Lee, Sang S; Carneal, Jason B; Park, Joel T; Dipper, Jr., Martin J

    2008-01-01

    .... Proving the feasibility of generating asymmetric large-amplitude wave groups in an experimental basin is the first step in the development of an experimental test technique that ensures a model...

  4. Experimental Verification of a Systematic Method for Identifying Contact-Dynamics Model Parameters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, Ou; Kim, Jong; Martinez, Lucas

    2007-01-01

    This project is aimed at conducting an experimental test of a new and systematic method for identifying the key parameters of a general multiple-point contact dynamics model using a robotics-based experimental testbed...

  5. Elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema: insights from experimental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A. Antunes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Several distinct stimuli can be used to reproduce histological and functional features of human emphysema, a leading cause of disability and death. Since cigarette smoke is the main cause of emphysema in humans, experimental researches have attempted to reproduce this situation. However, this is an expensive and cumbersome method of emphysema induction, and simpler, more efficacious alternatives have been sought. Among these approaches, elastolytic enzymes have been widely used to reproduce some characteristics of human cigarette smoke-induced disease, such as: augmentation of airspaces, inflammatory cell influx into the lungs, and systemic inflammation. Nevertheless, the use of elastase-induced emphysema models is still controversial, since the disease pathways involved in elastase induction may differ from those occurring in smoke-induced emphysema. This indicates that the choice of an emphysema model may impact the results of new therapies or drugs being tested. The aim of this review is to compare the mechanisms of disease induction in smoke and elastase emphysema models, to describe the differences among various elastase models, and to establish the advantages and disadvantages of elastase-induced emphysema models. More studies are required to shed light on the mechanisms of elastase-induced emphysema.Diversos estímulos podem ser utilizados para reproduzir características histológicas e funcionais do enfisema humano, uma das principais causas de incapacidade e morte. Uma vez que a fumaça de cigarro é a principal causa de enfisema em humanos, estudos experimentais têm tentado reproduzir esta situação. No entanto, esse é um método dispendioso e complicado para a indução do enfisema e, alternativas mais simples e eficazes, têm sido pesquisadas. Entre essas abordagens, enzimas elastolíticas vêm sendo amplamente utilizadas para reproduzir algumas das características do enfisema humano, tais como: aumento dos espaços a

  6. Immunorestorative effect of thymostimulin on surgery immunodepression: experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lechuz, J M; Navarro, M; Morandeira, M J; Soria, J; Román, A; Güemes, A; Salinas, J C; Lozano, R

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to ascertain the immunorestorative effect of two different drugs on immunodepression induced by small bowel surgical resection in an experimental model. The potential immunorestorative effect has been measured by the ability of the drug to avoid the delay of skin allograft rejection induced by surgery and the inhibition of CD4/CD8 index changes induced by surgery in spleen tissue. 120 Wistar-Furth rats (age 12-16 weeks) anesthetized with a single intramuscular dose of ketamine (25 mg), diazepine (4 mg) and atropine (0.1 mg) were allotted to two main groups. One group received a skin graft (SG) from Fisher 344 rats and was treated with placebo, Inmunoferón (AM-3 polypeptidic drug) or TP-1 (thymostimulin) before the experiment (groups I, II, III) or treated with placebo, Inmunoferón or TP-1 before the experiment and underwent enterectomy and anastomosis (groups IV, V, VI). On the 2nd, 5th and 8th postoperative days, biopsies of the SG were taken and the signs of rejection were microscopically studied and evaluated by a pathologist as zero, incipient, moderate or massive. The other group was treated similarly, but the animals did not receive a SG and were splenectomized 5 days later. CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte subpopulations were identified by means of immunoperoxidase technique and monoclonal antibodies. Thymostimulin is able to stimulate the presence of SG rejection signs on the 2nd postoperative day in nonenterectomized animals and on the 8th postoperative day in nonenterectomized animals and on the 8th postoperative day in enterectomized rats and is able to avoid the decrease of the CD4/CD8 index in spleen tissue after surgical immunodepression.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Taiwan’s Ecological Footprint (1994–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Jaan Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the 2011 edition of the National Footprint Accounts (NFA published by the Global Footprint Network (GFN, humankind consumed the resources and services of 1.5 planets in 2008; the corresponding number in 1961 was 0.7 planets. North Americans have an ecological footprint of 8.7 global hectares per person whereas Africans have a footprint of only 1.4 global hectares per person. The global mean biological capacity is only 1.8 global hectares per person so human beings are overshooting ecological resources. The ecological footprint measures the resources that are consumed by humans from the biosphere, and serves as an index of the sustainability of development. The NFA includes the ecological footprints of over 200 countries and regions, but not Taiwan. Hence, Taiwan must establish and update its own ecological footprint databases. Ecological footprint is one indicator of the sustainability of development, and can be compared across nations. This study extends previous studies by analyzing Taiwan’s ecological footprint from 2008–2011. With reference to the ecological footprint accounts of the Global Footprint Network and the Taiwan’s ecological footprint analysis for 1997–2007, this study presents Taiwan’s ecological footprint from 2008–2011. Most of the data that are used herein are taken from the Food and Agriculture Organization, the International Energy Agency, Taiwan’s Council of Agriculture and Taiwan’s National Development Council. The results thus obtained reveal that Taiwan’s ecological footprint from 2008–2011 exceeded that from 1997–2007. To respond to this trend toward un-sustainable development and to help Taiwan move toward sustainability, carbon reduction and energy saving policies should be implemented to effectively manage Taiwan’s ecological resources.

  8. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul C.K. Lam; Isaac K. Gamwo; Dimitri Gidaspow

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a predictive experimentally verified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for gas-liquid-solid flow. A three dimensional transient computer code for the coupled Navier-Stokes equations for each phase was developed and is appended in this report. The principal input into the model is the viscosity of the particulate phase which was determined from a measurement of the random kinetic energy of the 800 micron glass beads and a Brookfield viscometer. The details are presented in the attached paper titled ''CFD Simulation of Flow and Turbulence in a Slurry Bubble Column''. This phase of the work is in press in a referred journal (AIChE Journal, 2002) and was presented at the Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2001) in New Orleans, May 27-June 1, 2001 (Paper No. 909). The computed time averaged particle velocities and concentrations agree with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of velocities and concentrations, obtained using a combination of gamma-ray and X-ray densitometers, in a slurry bubble column, operated in the bubbly-coalesced fluidization regime with continuous flow of water. Both the experiment and the simulation show a down-flow of particles in the center of the column and up-flow near the walls and nearly uniform particle concentration. Normal and shear Reynolds stresses were constructed from the computed instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced similar nearly flat horizontal profiles of turbulent kinetic energy of particles. To better understand turbulence we studied fluidization in a liquid-solid bed. This work was also presented at the Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2001, Paper No. 910). To understand turbulence in risers, measurements were done in the IIT riser with 530 micron glass beads using a PIV

  9. Environmental footprints of Mediterranean versus Western dietary patterns: beyond the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Almendros, Sara; Obrador, Biel; Bach-Faig, Anna; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2013-12-30

    Dietary patterns can substantially vary the resource consumption and environmental impact of a given population. Dietary changes such as the increased consumption of vegetables and reduced consumption of animal products reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. The adherence of a given population to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDP) through the consumption of the food proportions and composition defined in the new Mediterranean Diet pyramid can thus not only influence human health but also the environment. The aim of the study was to analyze the sustainability of the MDP in the context of the Spanish population in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural land use, energy consumption and water consumption. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the current Spanish diet with the Mediterranean Diet and in comparison with the western dietary pattern, exemplified by the U.S.A. food pattern, in terms of their corresponding environmental footprints. The environmental footprints of the dietary patterns studied were calculated from the dietary make-up of each dietary pattern, and specific environmental footprints of each food group. The dietary compositions were obtained from different sources, including food balance sheets and household consumption surveys. The specific environmental footprints of food groups were obtained from different available life-cycle assessments. The adherence of the Spanish population to the MDP has a marked impact on all the environmental footprints studied. Increasing adherence to the MDP pattern in Spain will reduce greenhouse gas emissions (72%), land use (58%) and energy consumption (52%), and to a lower extent water consumption (33%). On the other hand, the adherence to a western dietary pattern implies an increase in all these descriptors of between 12% and 72%. The MDP is presented as not only a cultural model but also as a healthy and environmentally-friendly model, adherence to which, in Spain would

  10. Carbon Footprint - Application in Graphic Art Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bolanča Mirković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for more sustainable products and processes has triggered the develop-ment of a large number of environmental assessment tools. These tools measure environmental performance and identify improvement potentials from the envi-ronmental point of view. The life cycle assessment (lca methods take into ac-count all effects on the environment, direct and indirect resource inputs and/or emissions during the whole life cycle of products. The carbon footprint is a sub-set of data covered by life cycle assessment.The aim of this paper is to describe the potential environmental impacts (green-house gases, carbon footprint of printed paper and new media.

  11. High Resolution Spatial Mapping of Human Footprint across Antarctica and Its Implications for the Strategic Conservation of Avifauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertierra, Luis R; Hughes, Kevin A; Vega, Greta C; Olalla-Tárraga, Miguel Á

    2017-01-01

    Human footprint models allow visualization of human spatial pressure across the globe. Up until now, Antarctica has been omitted from global footprint models, due possibly to the lack of a permanent human population and poor accessibility to necessary datasets. Yet Antarctic ecosystems face increasing cumulative impacts from the expanding tourism industry and national Antarctic operator activities, the management of which could be improved with footprint assessment tools. Moreover, Antarctic ecosystem dynamics could be modelled to incorporate human drivers. Here we present the first model of estimated human footprint across predominantly ice-free areas of Antarctica. To facilitate integration into global models, the Antarctic model was created using methodologies applied elsewhere with land use, density and accessibility features incorporated. Results showed that human pressure is clustered predominantly in the Antarctic Peninsula, southern Victoria Land and several areas of East Antarctica. To demonstrate the practical application of the footprint model, it was used to investigate the potential threat to Antarctica's avifauna by local human activities. Relative footprint values were recorded for all 204 of Antarctica's Important Bird Areas (IBAs) identified by BirdLife International and the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR). Results indicated that formal protection of avifauna under the Antarctic Treaty System has been unsystematic and is lacking for penguin and flying bird species in some of the IBAs most vulnerable to human activity and impact. More generally, it is hoped that use of this human footprint model may help Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting policy makers in their decision making concerning avifauna protection and other issues including cumulative impacts, environmental monitoring, non-native species and terrestrial area protection.

  12. The rabbit as an animal model for experimental surgery O coelho como modelo animal para cirurgia experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Diuana Calasans-Maia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The white New Zealand rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus is frequently used as a model for in vivo studies. However, information on precautions when using this animal as an experimental model is limited. This review of the literature covers the gamut from the selection of the animal model all the way to its death, and describes procedures for transporting, raising, breeding, housing, administering anesthesia and handling so as to rationalize the utilization of this species while exploiting its unique characteristics. Based upon the literature and our own experience with white New Zealand rabbits, we conclude that the rabbit is an adequate model for experimental surgery.O coelho branco da Nova Zelândia (Oryctolagus cuniculus é freqüentemente utilizado como modelo em estudos in vivo. Contudo, as informações referentes aos cuidados no emprego deste animal como modelo experimental são limitadas. Esta revisão da literatura pretende rever a literatura desde a seleção do modelo animal até a sua morte, enfatizando, os procedimentos para transporte, criação, reprodução, comportamento, acomodação, anestesia e manejo dos animais, de forma a racionalizar a utilização desses animais reconhecendo as características próprias dessa espécie. Conclui-se que o coelho constitui um modelo adequado e viável para cirurgia experimental.

  13. Mapping the carbon footprint of EU regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Diana; Vita, Gibran; Steen-Olsen, Kjartan; Stadler, Konstantin; Melo, Patricia C.; Wood, Richard; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2017-05-01

    While the EU Commission has encouraged Member States to combine national and international climate change mitigation measures with subnational environmental policies, there has been little harmonized effort towards the quantification of embodied greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from household consumption across European regions. This study develops an inventory of carbon footprints associated with household consumption for 177 regions in 27 EU countries, thus, making a key contribution for the incorporation of consumption-based accounting into local decision-making. Footprint calculations are based on consumer expenditure surveys and environmental and trade detail from the EXIOBASE 2.3 multiregional input-output database describing the world economy in 2007 at the detail of 43 countries, 5 rest-of-the-world regions and 200 product sectors. Our analysis highlights the spatial heterogeneity of embodied GHG emissions within multiregional countries with subnational ranges varying widely between 0.6 and 6.5 tCO2e/cap. The significant differences in regional contribution in terms of total and per capita emissions suggest notable differences with regards to climate change responsibility. The study further provides a breakdown of regional emissions by consumption categories (e.g. housing, mobility, food). In addition, our region-level study evaluates driving forces of carbon footprints through a set of socio-economic, geographic and technical factors. Income is singled out as the most important driver for a region’s carbon footprint, although its explanatory power varies significantly across consumption domains. Additional factors that stand out as important on the regional level include household size, urban-rural typology, level of education, expenditure patterns, temperature, resource availability and carbon intensity of the electricity mix. The lack of cross-national region-level studies has so far prevented analysts from drawing broader policy conclusions that hold

  14. Mechanisms of Osteoarthritic Pain. Studies in Humans and Experimental Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Eitner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pain due to osteoarthritis (OA is one of the most frequent causes of chronic pain. However, the mechanisms of OA pain are poorly understood. This review addresses the mechanisms which are thought to be involved in OA pain, derived from studies on pain mechanisms in humans and in experimental models of OA. Three areas will be considered, namely local processes in the joint associated with OA pain, neuronal mechanisms involved in OA pain, and general factors which influence OA pain. Except the cartilage all structures of the joints are innervated by nociceptors. Although the hallmark of OA is the degradation of the cartilage, OA joints show multiple structural alterations of cartilage, bone and synovial tissue. In particular synovitis and bone marrow lesions have been proposed to determine OA pain whereas the contribution of the other pathologies to pain generation has been studied less. Concerning the peripheral neuronal mechanisms of OA pain, peripheral nociceptive sensitization was shown, and neuropathic mechanisms may be involved at some stages. Structural changes of joint innervation such as local loss and/or sprouting of nerve fibers were shown. In addition, central sensitization, reduction of descending inhibition, descending excitation and cortical atrophies were observed in OA. The combination of different neuronal mechanisms may define the particular pain phenotype in an OA patient. Among mediators involved in OA pain, nerve growth factor (NGF is in the focus because antibodies against NGF significantly reduce OA pain. Several studies show that neutralization of interleukin-1β and TNF may reduce OA pain. Many patients with OA exhibit comorbidities such as obesity, low grade systemic inflammation and diabetes mellitus. These comorbidities can significantly influence the course of OA, and pain research just began to study the significance of such factors in pain generation. In addition, psychologic and socioeconomic factors may aggravate

  15. The industrial water footprint of zippers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Wu, Xiong Ying; Wang, Lai Li; Ding, Xue Mei

    2014-01-01

    Industrial production of apparel consumes large quantity of freshwater and discharges effluents that intensify the problem of freshwater shortage and water pollution. The industrial water footprint (IWF) of a piece of apparel includes the water footprint (WF) of the fabric, apparel accessories (e.g. zipper, fastener, sewing thread) and industrial production processes. The objective of this paper is to carry out a pilot study on IWF accounting for three kinds of typical zipper (i.e. metal zipper, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) zipper and polyoxymethylene copolymer (Co-POM) zipper) that are commonly used for apparel production. The results reveal that product output exerts a remarkable influence on zipper's average IWF. Metal zipper has the largest IWF and followed by Co-POM zipper and PET zipper. Painting, dyeing and primary processing are the top three water-consuming processes and contribute about 90% of the zipper's IWF. Painting consumes the largest amount of freshwater among all processes and occupies more than 50% of the zipper's IWF. In addition, the grey water footprint (WFgrey) provides the greatest contribution, more than 80%, to the zipper's IWF. Based on these results, this paper also provides several strategies aimed at water economization and pollution reduction during industrial production of zipper.

  16. Footprinting with an automated capillary DNA sequencer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yindeeyoungyeon, W; Schell, M A

    2000-11-01

    Footprinting is a valuable tool for studying DNA-protein contacts. However, it usually involves expensive, tedious and hazardous steps such as radioactive labeling and analyses on polyacrylamide sequencing gels. We have developed an easy four-step footprinting method involving (i) the generation and purification of a PCR fragment that is fluorescently labeled at one end with 6-carboxyfluorescein; (ii) brief exposure of the fragment to a DNA-binding protein and then DNase I; (iii) spin-column purification; and (iv) analysis of partial digestion products on the ABI Prism 310 capillary DNA sequencer/genetic analyzer. Very detailed and sensitive footprints of large (> 400 bp) DNA fragments can be easily obtained, as illustrated by our use of this method to characterize binding of PhcA, a LysR-type activator, to two sites greater than 100 bp apart in the 5' untranslated region of xpsR, one of its regulated target genes. The advantages of this new method are that it (i) uses long-lived, safe and easy-to-make fluorescently labeled target fragments; (ii) uses sensitive, robust and highly reproducible fragment analysis using an automated DNA sequencer, instead of gel electrophoresis and autoradiography; and (iii) is cost effective.

  17. Water Footprints and Sustainable Water Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen Y. Hoekstra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water Footprint Assessment (WFA is a quickly growing research field. This Special Issue contains a selection of papers advancing the field or showing innovative applications. The first seven papers are geographic WFA studies, from an urban to a continental scale; the next five papers have a global scope; the final five papers focus on water sustainability from the business point of view. The collection of papers shows that the historical picture of a town relying on its hinterland for its supply of water and food is no longer true: the water footprint of urban consumers is global. It has become clear that wise water governance is no longer the exclusive domain of government, even though water is and will remain a public resource with government in a primary role. With most water being used for producing our food and other consumer goods, and with product supply chains becoming increasingly complex and global, there is a growing awareness that consumers, companies and investors also have a key role. The interest in sustainable water use grows quickly, in both civil society and business communities, but the poor state of transparency of companies regarding their direct and indirect water use implies that there is still a long way to go before we can expect that companies effectively contribute to making water footprints more sustainable at a relevant scale.

  18. Human footprint variation while performing load bearing tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara M Wall-Scheffler

    Full Text Available Human footprint fossils have provided essential evidence about the evolution of human bipedalism as well as the social dynamics of the footprint makers, including estimates of speed, sex and group composition. Generally such estimates are made by comparing footprint evidence with modern controls; however, previous studies have not accounted for the variation in footprint dimensions coming from load bearing activities. It is likely that a portion of the hominins who created these fossil footprints were carrying a significant load, such as offspring or foraging loads, which caused variation in the footprint which could extend to variation in any estimations concerning the footprint's maker. To identify significant variation in footprints due to load-bearing tasks, we had participants (N = 30, 15 males and 15 females walk at a series of speeds carrying a 20kg pack on their back, side and front. Paint was applied to the bare feet of each participant to create footprints that were compared in terms of foot length, foot width and foot area. Female foot length and width increased during multiple loaded conditions. An appreciation of footprint variability associated with carrying loads adds an additional layer to our understanding of the behavior and morphology of extinct hominin populations.

  19. Human footprint variation while performing load bearing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Scheffler, Cara M; Wagnild, Janelle; Wagler, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Human footprint fossils have provided essential evidence about the evolution of human bipedalism as well as the social dynamics of the footprint makers, including estimates of speed, sex and group composition. Generally such estimates are made by comparing footprint evidence with modern controls; however, previous studies have not accounted for the variation in footprint dimensions coming from load bearing activities. It is likely that a portion of the hominins who created these fossil footprints were carrying a significant load, such as offspring or foraging loads, which caused variation in the footprint which could extend to variation in any estimations concerning the footprint's maker. To identify significant variation in footprints due to load-bearing tasks, we had participants (N = 30, 15 males and 15 females) walk at a series of speeds carrying a 20kg pack on their back, side and front. Paint was applied to the bare feet of each participant to create footprints that were compared in terms of foot length, foot width and foot area. Female foot length and width increased during multiple loaded conditions. An appreciation of footprint variability associated with carrying loads adds an additional layer to our understanding of the behavior and morphology of extinct hominin populations.

  20. The blue, green and grey water footprint of rice from both a production and consumption perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this report is to make a global assessment of the green, blue and grey water footprint of rice, using a higher spatial resolution than earlier studies and applying local data on actual irrigation. Evapotranspiration from rice fields is calculated with the CROPWAT model; the distinction

  1. Adaptive environmental management of tourism in the province of Siena, Italy using the ecological footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trista M. Patterson; Valentina Niccolucci; Nadia. Marchettini

    2007-01-01

    Adaptive management as applied to tourism policy treats management policies as experiments that probe the responses of the system as human behavior changes. We present a conceptual systems model that incorporates the gap between observed and desired levels of the ecological footprint with respect to biocapacity. Addressing this gap (or "overshoot") can inform...

  2. Variability in the water footprint of arable crop production across European regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gobin, Anne; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian; Eitzinger, Josef; Trnka, Miroslav; Hlavinka, Petr; Takáč, Jozef; Kroes, Joop; Ventrella, Domenico; Marta, Dalla Anna; Deelstra, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Crop growth and yield are affected by water use during the season: the green water footprint (WF) accounts for rain water, the blue WF for irrigation and the grey WF for diluting agri-chemicals. We calibrated crop yield for FAO's water balance model "Aquacrop" at field level. We collected

  3. Profile construction in experimental choice designs for mixed logit models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandor, Z; Wedel, M

    2002-01-01

    A computationally attractive model for the analysis of conjoint choice experiments is the mixed multinomial logit model, a multinomial logit model in which it is assumed that the coefficients follow a (normal) distribution across subjects. This model offers the advantage over the standard

  4. Model-robust experimental designs for the fractional polynomial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fractional polynomial response surface models are polynomial models whose powers are restricted to a small predefined set of rational numbers. Very often these models can give a good a fit to the data and much more plausible behavior between design points than the polynomial models. In this paper, we propose a ...

  5. Limitations of carbon footprint as indicator of environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Alexis; Olsen, Stig I; Hauschild, Michael Z

    2012-04-03

    Greenhouse gas accountings, commonly referred to with the popular term carbon footprints (CFP), are a widely used metric of climate change impacts and the main focus of many sustainability policies among companies and authorities. However, environmental sustainability concerns not just climate change but also other environmental problems, like chemical pollution or depletion of natural resources, and the focus on CFP brings the risk of problem shifting when reductions in CFP are obtained at the expense of increase in other environmental impacts. But how real is this risk? Here, we model and analyze the life cycle impacts from about 4000 different products, technologies, and services taken from several sectors, including energy generation, transportation, material production, infrastructure, and waste management. By investigating the correlations between the CFP and 13 other impact scores, we show that some environmental impacts, notably those related to emissions of toxic substances, often do not covary with climate change impacts. In such situations, carbon footprint is a poor representative of the environmental burden of products, and environmental management focused exclusively on CFP runs the risk of inadvertently shifting the problem to other environmental impacts when products are optimized to become more "green". These findings call for the use of more broadly encompassing tools to assess and manage environmental sustainability.

  6. Footprint traversal by adenosine-triphosphate-dependent chromatin remodeler motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Ashok; Mani, Jesrael; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2012-04-01

    Adenosine-triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes (CREs) are biomolecular motors in eukaryotic cells. These are driven by a chemical fuel, namely, ATP. CREs actively participate in many cellular processes that require accessibility of specific segments of DNA which are packaged as chromatin. The basic unit of chromatin is a nucleosome where 146 bp ˜ 50 nm of a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) is wrapped around a spool formed by histone proteins. The helical path of histone-DNA contact on a nucleosome is also called “footprint.” We investigate the mechanism of footprint traversal by a CRE that translocates along the dsDNA. Our two-state model of a CRE captures effectively two distinct chemical (or conformational) states in the mechanochemical cycle of each ATP-dependent CRE. We calculate the mean time of traversal. Our predictions on the ATP dependence of the mean traversal time can be tested by carrying out in vitro experiments on mononucleosomes.

  7. Development of a methodology to assess the footprint of wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herva, Marta; Hernando, Ramón; Carrasco, Eugenio F; Roca, Enrique

    2010-08-15

    The ecological footprint (EF) is a widely used indicator to assess the sustainability of people, regions or business activities. Although this metric has grown in interest and popularity over the years, it has also been the subject of criticism and controversy. The advantages of an aggregated indicator are often overshadowed by the shortcomings of its corresponding methodology. One weakness of the EF is that it does not account for toxic or hazardous pollutants and wastes, which cannot be part of a closed biological cycle. The methodology developed in the present work estimates the EF of toxic and hazardous wastes considering a closed cycle modeled through a plasma process; a phenomenon that naturally occurs in stars and volcanoes. Wastes from industry can be treated in a thermal plasma gasification process, and, by developing a methodology to describe this process, the EF of hazardous wastes was calculated. A value of 56.5 gha was obtained, a figure on the same order of magnitude as that obtained in a previous study where a conventional ecological footprint methodology was applied to the same production process. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. How Much Leakage Renders the Greenhouse Gas Footprint of Natural Gas Equivalent to Coal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, N., II; Mays, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    Under ideal circumstances, generating electricity from natural gas releases approximately half the carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions of coal. However, because the primary component of natural gas (i.e., methane) is a potent greenhouse gas, accounting for leakage is crucial when considering natural gas as a bridge fuel. This presentation answers the question: How much leakage renders the greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of natural gas equivalent to coal? To answer this question, we present a simple model that assumes the GHG footprint for each fuel is the sum of emissions from (1) electricity generation and (2) natural gas leakage. Emissions resulting from electricity generation are taken from published life-cycle assessments (LCAs). Emissions from natural gas leakage are estimated assuming that natural gas is 80% methane, which is converted to carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC's) global warming potential (GWP). One complication in using the GWP is its dependence on time horizon, where shorter time horizons penalize methane emissions more, and longer time horizons less. Specifically, the IPCC considers time horizons of 20, 100 and 500 years for comparison between the differing greenhouse gases. To explicitly account for the effect of time horizon, the results presented here are shown on a straightforward plot of GHG footprint versus time horizon for natural gas leakage rates of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8%. This plot shows that natural gas leakage of 2.0% or 4.8% eliminates half of natural gas's GHG footprint advantage over coal at 20- or 100-year time horizons, respectively. Leakage of 3.9% or 9.1% completely eliminates the GHG footprint advantage over coal at 20- and 100-year time horizons, respectively. Results indicate that leakage control is essential for the electricity generated from the combustion of natural gas to create a smaller GHG footprint than the electricity generated from the combustion of coal.

  9. Neural network model to control an experimental chaotic pendulum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R; Schouten, JC; Takens, F; vandenBleek, CM

    1996-01-01

    A feedforward neural network was trained to predict the motion of an experimental, driven, and damped pendulum operating in a chaotic regime. The network learned the behavior of the pendulum from a time series of the pendulum's angle, the single measured variable. The validity of the neural

  10. Melt pool modelling, simulation and experimental validation for SLM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel

    2017-01-01

    SLM parts are built by successively melting layers of powder in a powder bed. Process parameters are often optimized experimentally by laser scanning a number of single tracks and subsequently determining which settings lead to a good compromise between quality and build speed. However,

  11. Apendicite aguda: modelo experimental em coelhos Acute appendicitis: model experimental in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João EBRAM-NETO

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de estudar experimentalmente as diversas fases evolutivas da apendicite aguda, foram utilizados 60 coelhos (Oryctogalus cuniculus, fêmeas, da linhagem Nova Zelândia, com peso variando de 2510 a 3040 gramas. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos denominados controle e experimento, e estes subdivididos em três subgrupos com períodos de observação de 12, 24 e 48 horas. No grupo experimento foi realizada a oclusão do lume apendicular por meio de sutura seromuscular circular a 8 cm da extremidade distal do apêndice cecal, com fio de polipropileno 4-0. No controle foi feita somente a simulação da cirurgia. Os aspectos macroscópicos (aumento do tamanho, necrose, perfuração, aderência e secreção na cavidade abdominal bem como os microscópicos do grupo experimento, evidenciaram uma progressão das alterações anatomopatológicas mostrando haver uma relação entre a intensidade dos achados histopatológicos e o tempo de observação. Conclui-se que o método utilizado causa apendicite aguda com alterações anatomopatológicas distintas, de acordo com a fase evolutiva da doença.The evolving phases of acute appendicitis were studied experimentally. Sixty female rabbits (Oryctogalus cuniculus of New Zealand lineage weighing about 2510 to 3040 g were divided in two groups: a control group and experimental group. The experimental group was divided into three subgroups for observation after 12, 24 and 48 hours of the operation, that consisted on a 4-0 polypropylene circular suture at 8 cm from the distal part of the cecal appendix. The control group was sham operated. The macroscopic exam (increase of the appendix volume, necrosis, perfuration, adherence and secretion in the abdominal cavity and the microscopic finding showed a progression in the anatomopathological alterations. There was a close relationship between the histopathological findings and time after the appendiceal obstruction. We conclude that the method

  12. Adaptive environmental management of tourism in the Province of Siena, Italy using the ecological footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Trista M; Niccolucci, Valentina; Marchettini, Nadia

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive management as applied to tourism policy treats management policies as experiments that probe the responses of the system as human behavior changes. We present a conceptual systems model that incorporates the gap between observed and desired levels of the ecological footprint with respect to biocapacity. Addressing this gap (or 'overshoot') can inform strategies to increase or decrease visitation or its associated consumption in the coming years. The feedback mechanism in this conceptual model incorporates a gap between observed and desired ecological footprint levels of tourists and residents. The work is based on longer-term and ongoing study of tourism impacts and ecological footprint assessments from the SPIN-Eco Project. We present historical tourism and environmental data from the province of Siena, Italy and discuss the use of discrete, static environmental indicators as part of an iterative feedback process to manage tourism within biophysical limits. We discuss a necessary shift of emphasis from certain and static numbers to a process-based management model that can reflect slow changes to biophysical resources. As underscored by ecological footprint analysis, the energy and material use associated with tourism and local activity can erode natural capital foundations if that use exceeds the area's biological capacity to support it. The dynamic, and iterative process of using such indicators as management feedback allows us to view sustainability more accurately as a transition and journey, rather than a static destination to which management must arrive.

  13. Inactivation and destruction by KMnO4 of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase open transcription complex: recommendations for footprinting experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loziński, Tomasz; Wierzchowski, Kazimierz L

    2003-09-15

    Potassium permanganate oxidation of pyrimidine residues in single-stranded DNA is commonly used in footprinting studies on formation of open transcription complex (RPo) by RNA polymerases (RNAP) at cognate promoters. Our own experience and literature search led us to conclude that KMnO4 doses often used in such studies might cause multiple-hit oxidation of promoter DNA and oxidative damage to RNAP in RPo and lead to false interpretation of footprints. We have therefore studied as a function of KMnO4 dose (i) transcription activity of RPo formed by Escherichia coli RNAP at a model cognate promoter Pa and (ii) RPo's structural integrity, by gel electrophoresis and footprinting assays. Kinetics of formation of this complex and melting of DNA in the transcription bubble region were thoroughly characterized by us previously. Here we show that (i) RPo becomes completely inactivated at oxidant doses much lower than those needed to cause a detectable footprint of the melted DNA region, (ii) footprinting patterns of the melted promoter region remain practically unaffected by RNAP oxidation within a range of low oxidant doses causing single-hit oxidation of DNA, and (iii) at higher oxidant doses, corresponding to multiple-hit DNA oxidation, the gross structure of RPo changes progressively until its complete collapse and dissociation into constituent components, so that only approximate interpretation of the footprinting data for the melted DNA region is possible. A protocol for accurate RPo footprinting with low single-hit KMnO4 doses and interpretation of the footprinting data in terms of kinetics of oxidation of pyrimidine residues in promoter DNA is recommended.

  14. A Site-sPecific Agricultural water Requirement and footprint Estimator (SPARE:WATER 1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Multsch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural water footprint addresses the quantification of water consumption in agriculture, whereby three types of water to grow crops are considered, namely green water (consumed rainfall, blue water (irrigation from surface or groundwater and grey water (water needed to dilute pollutants. By considering site-specific properties when calculating the crop water footprint, this methodology can be used to support decision making in the agricultural sector on local to regional scale. We therefore developed the spatial decision support system SPARE:WATER that allows us to quantify green, blue and grey water footprints on regional scale. SPARE:WATER is programmed in VB.NET, with geographic information system functionality implemented by the MapWinGIS library. Water requirements and water footprints are assessed on a grid basis and can then be aggregated for spatial entities such as political boundaries, catchments or irrigation districts. We assume inefficient irrigation methods rather than optimal conditions to account for irrigation methods with efficiencies other than 100%. Furthermore, grey water is defined as the water needed to leach out salt from the rooting zone in order to maintain soil quality, an important management task in irrigation agriculture. Apart from a thorough representation of the modelling concept, we provide a proof of concept where we assess the agricultural water footprint of Saudi Arabia. The entire water footprint is 17.0 km3 yr−1 for 2008, with a blue water dominance of 86%. Using SPARE:WATER we are able to delineate regional hot spots as well as crop types with large water footprints, e.g. sesame or dates. Results differ from previous studies of national-scale resolution, underlining the need for regional estimation of crop water footprints.

  15. Models, simulation, and experimental issues in structural mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Maceri, Franco; Vairo, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The reader aware in Structural Mechanics will find in this book a source of fruitful knowledge and effective tools useful for imagining, creating, and promoting novel and challenging developments. It addresses a wide range of topics, such as mechanics and geotechnics, vibration and damping, damage and friction, experimental methods, and advanced structural materials. It also discusses analytical, experimental and numerical findings, focusing on theoretical and practical issues, and leading to innovations in the field. Collecting some of the latest results from the Lagrange Laboratory, a European scientific research group, mainly consisting of Italian and French engineers, mechanicians and mathematicians, the book presents the most recent example of the long-term scientific cooperation between well-established French and Italian Mechanics, Mathematics and Engineering Schools. .

  16. Experimental determination and modelling of restricted water effects on bulkcarriers

    OpenAIRE

    Laforce, E.; Vantorre, M.

    2006-01-01

    Systematic captive motion tests on scale models of Panamax bulkcaniers of three different sizes were performed for open shallow water al 10% under keel clearance, in a trapezoidal standard cross section of a canal with 27 % blockage and in a scale model of a canal with varying width. Forces were measured and modelled. A technique of validation of the models by multi-harmonic test runs was developed. The models were used for an evaluation of the influence of ship length by fast-time simulation.

  17. [A modified method of ecological footprint and its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Yu; Bian, Xin-Min

    2007-09-01

    The Wackernagel's method of ecological footprint assumes that arable lands are cropped only once a year in a country or a region, which does not accord with the conception of ecological footprint referring to the area of productive land. In this paper, the method of cropland footprint was modified by regulating with multi-cropping index, and the ecological footprint calculated with the new method was for the area of cropland but not that of multi-cropping. The ecological economic systems in Binhai and Funing counties of Jiangsu Province from 1995 to 2003 were analyzed by the modified method, and the results showed that when calculated with conventional Wackernagel's method, the ecological footprints of Binhai and Funing were from 1.79 hm2 to 2.22 hm2 and from 1.38 hm2 to 2.81 hm2, and the percentages of cropland ecological footprint in total ecological footprints decreased from 42.65% to 38.81% and from 45.73% to 38.85%, respectively, while calculated with the modified method, the ecological footprints and the percentage of cropland ecological footprint in total ecological footprints were from 1.43 hm2 to 1.88 hm2 and from 1.12 hm2 to 2.43 hm2, and decreased from 28.45% to 22.89% and from 32.94% to 29.42%, respectively. It was indicated that the ecological footprint calculated with the new method was for the area of cropland, which more accorded with the eco-capacity and changed the size and composition of ecological footprints, being able to reflect the use of natural resources more precisely.

  18. Congenital Transmission of Experimental Leishmaniasis in a Hamster Model

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio, Yaneth; Rodriguez, Luz D.; Diana L Bonilla; Peniche, Alex G.; Henao, Hector; Saldarriaga, Omar; Bruno L. Travi

    2012-01-01

    Little information is available on transplacental transmission of Leishmania spp. We determined the frequency and impact of congenital infection caused by Leishmania panamensis or L. donovani in experimentally infected hamsters. A polymerase chain reaction showed that congenital transmission occurred in 25.8% (24 of 93) of offspring born to L. panamensis-infected hamsters and 14.6% (11 of 75) offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters. Mortality during lactation was higher in offspring b...

  19. Model-Based Optimal Experimental Design for Complex Physical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-03

    optimality aspect of sOED, another major difficulty remains: to numer - ically represent non-Gaussian, continuous random variable posteriors (i.e...construct, as they involve solving a convex optimization problem that can be easily separated into independent sub-problems for each dimension, and requires...OM Knio. “Bayesian Guided Optimal Experimental Design for Reactive Multilayers.” In preparation, 2015. 6. X Huan, “ Numerical Approaches for Sequential

  20. Fantastic animals as an experimental model to teach animal adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Veronesi Paola; Pini Lorenza; Calzolai Caterina; Baraldi Laura; Guidetti Roberto; Pederzoli Aurora

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Science curricula and teachers should emphasize evolution in a manner commensurate with its importance as a unifying concept in science. The concept of adaptation represents a first step to understand the results of natural selection. We settled an experimental project of alternative didactic to improve knowledge of organism adaptation. Students were involved and stimulated in learning processes by creative activities. To set adaptation in a historic frame, fossil records ...