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Sample records for experimental host-tumor relationships

  1. Research in radiobiology: Final report of work in progress in immunobiology of experimental host-tumor relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-15

    Our work on the immunobiology of tumors induced in normal mice by non-ionizing radiation and chemical carcinogens has previously demonstrated a correlation between MHC molecule expression and the immunogenicity of tumors in a transplanted syngeneic host. Such that immunogenic or regressive tumors were found to demonstrate higher constitutive or inducible levels of MHC expression, while most virulent, aggressive tumors exhibited a low level of MHC Class I expression. We attributed much of the control of MHC molecule expression by antigen-bearing tumors and normal cells to the immunological status of the host since the host must provide the appropriate stimulus to enhance MHC antigen expression by the invading tumor. Our results with UVR-induced tumors suggested that a significant role is played by the T-cell lymphokine, {gamma}-interferon ({gamma}IFN), in the modulation of MHC molecule expression in vivo. Virulent tumors, induced by boneseeking radionuclides, may be refractory to {gamma}IFN stimulation of MHC molecule expression. It is also possible that certain tumors might be fully responsive to the Class I modulatory influences by {gamma}IFN, but exhibit a reduced capacity to stimulate the synthesis of this lymphokine by host T cells. We present experiments designed to : Describe the virulence, latency period, and transplantation characteristics of {sup 238}PU, {sup 24l}Am, and {sup 228}Th tumors arising as osteogenic sarcomas and hepatic carcinomas, to determine the relationship between inducible expression of MHC Class I molecules by {gamma}IFN and in vivo immunogenicity of these radioisotype-induced tumors, and to elucidate any molecular mechanisms responsible for a lack of responsiveness to a {gamma}IFN failure by the host to induce host {gamma}IFN production.

  2. Research in radiobiology: Final report of work in progress in immunobiology of experimental host-tumor relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-15

    Our work on the immunobiology of tumors induced in normal mice by non-ionizing radiation and chemical carcinogens has previously demonstrated a correlation between MHC molecule expression and the immunogenicity of tumors in a transplanted syngeneic host. Such that immunogenic or regressive tumors were found to demonstrate higher constitutive or inducible levels of MHC expression, while most virulent, aggressive tumors exhibited a low level of MHC Class I expression. We attributed much of the control of MHC molecule expression by antigen-bearing tumors and normal cells to the immunological status of the host since the host must provide the appropriate stimulus to enhance MHC antigen expression by the invading tumor. Our results with UVR-induced tumors suggested that a significant role is played by the T-cell lymphokine, [gamma]-interferon ([gamma]IFN), in the modulation of MHC molecule expression in vivo. Virulent tumors, induced by boneseeking radionuclides, may be refractory to [gamma]IFN stimulation of MHC molecule expression. It is also possible that certain tumors might be fully responsive to the Class I modulatory influences by [gamma]IFN, but exhibit a reduced capacity to stimulate the synthesis of this lymphokine by host T cells. We present experiments designed to : Describe the virulence, latency period, and transplantation characteristics of [sup 238]PU, [sup 24l]Am, and [sup 228]Th tumors arising as osteogenic sarcomas and hepatic carcinomas, to determine the relationship between inducible expression of MHC Class I molecules by [gamma]IFN and in vivo immunogenicity of these radioisotype-induced tumors, and to elucidate any molecular mechanisms responsible for a lack of responsiveness to a [gamma]IFN failure by the host to induce host [gamma]IFN production.

  3. Cancer Biochemistry and Host-Tumor Interactions: A Decimal Classification, (Categories 51.6, 51.7, and 51.8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, John H.

    This is a hierarchical decimal classification of information related to cancer biochemistry, to host-tumor interactions (including cancer immunology), and to occurrence of cancer in special types of animals and plants. It is a working draft of categories taken from an extensive classification of many fields of biomedical information. Because the…

  4. The relationship between plasma free fatty acids and experimentally induced hepatic encephalopathy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J. J.; Bosman, D. K.; Jörning, G. G.; de Haan, J. G.; Maas, M. A.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Two experimental models of hepatic encephalopathy in the rat have been investigated in order to study the postulated relationship between plasma free fatty acids concentration (C6 - C22:0) and the degree of hepatic encephalopathy. As a model of chronic hepatic encephalopathy, porta caval shunted

  5. Relationships between the decoupled and coupled transfer functions: Theoretical studies and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zengwei; Zhu, Ping; Liu, Zhao

    2018-01-01

    A generalized method for predicting the decoupled transfer functions based on in-situ transfer functions is proposed. The method allows predicting the decoupled transfer functions using coupled transfer functions, without disassembling the system. Two ways to derive relationships between the decoupled and coupled transfer functions are presented. Issues related to immeasurability of coupled transfer functions are also discussed. The proposed method is validated by numerical and experimental case studies.

  6. Passionate love and relationship thinkers: experimental evidence for acute cortisol elevations in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loving, Timothy J; Crockett, Erin E; Paxson, Aubri A

    2009-07-01

    We assessed the impact of an individual difference variable, relationship-focused thinking, on women's acute salivary cortisol responses during and after a guided imagery task. Specifically, 29 healthy women, all of whom were experiencing high levels of passionate love, but varied on levels of relationship-focused thinking, were assigned to one of two experimental conditions: a partner reflection condition or a cross-sex friend reflection condition. Results indicated that women experiencing passionate love evidenced increased cortisol levels when asked to reflect on their romantic partner and relationship relative to women asked to reflect on a cross-sex friendship, but this difference was particularly pronounced and relatively long-lasting for those women characterized by a high amount of relationship-focused thinking. Our study significantly expands extant work on the passionate love-cortisol link by isolating the impact of a specific psychological variable, relationship-focused thinking, on the physiological experience of falling in love. We believe our work highlights the advances that can be made when established work in the close relationships and neuroendocrine fields are integrated.

  7. An experimental investigation into electromyography, constitutive relationship and morphology of crucian carp for biomechanical "digital fish"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meng; Yin, Xiezhen; Tong, Binggang

    2011-05-01

    Currently, the integrated biomechanical studies on fish locomotion come into focus, so it is urgent to provide reliable and systematic experimental results, and to establish a biomechanical "digital fish" database for some typical fish species. Accordingly, based on the control framework of "Neural Control — Active Contraction of Muscle — Passive Deformation", the electromyography (EMG) signals, the mechanical properties and the constitutive relationship of skin, muscle, and body trunk, as well as morphological parameters of crucian carp, are investigated with experiments, from which a simplified database of biomechanical "digital fish" is established. First, the EMG signals from three lateral superficial red muscles of crucian carp, which was evolving in the C-start movement, were acquired with a self-designing amplifier. The modes of muscle activity were also investigated. Secondly, the Young's modulus and the reduced relaxation function of crucian carp's skin and muscle were determined by failure tests and relaxation tests in uniaxial tensile ways, respectively. Viscoelastic models were adopted to deduce the constitutive relationship. The mechanical properties and the angular stiffness of different sites on the crucian carp's body trunk were obtained with dynamic bending experiments, where a self-designing dynamic bending test machine was employed. The conclusion was drawn regarding the body trunk of crucian carp under dynamic bending deformation as an approximate elastomer. According to the above experimental results, a possible benefit of body effective stiffness increasing with a little energy dissipation was discussed. Thirdly, the distribution of geometric parameters and weight parameters for a single experimental individual and multiple individuals of crucian carp was studied with experiments. Finally, considering all the above results, generic experimental data were obtained by normalization, and a preliminary biomechanical "digital fish" database for

  8. A relationship between proteinuria and acute tubulointerstitial disease in rats with experimental nephrotic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, A.A.; McCulloch, L.; Liu, E.; Adams, J. (Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada))

    1991-05-01

    The relationship between tubulointerstitial nephritis and proteinuria was characterized in experimental nephrosis in rats. In one group, proteinuria induced by aminonucleoside of puromycin (PAN) was reduced by using an 8% protein diet and adding the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril to the drinking water. Two control groups were injected with saline and PAN, respectively, and fed a 27% protein diet. The first group had significantly reduced albuminuria and a definite attenuation of tubular cell injury. There was a strong positive correlation between the number of interstitial macrophages and albuminuria. The beneficial effect was reproduced by dietary-protein restriction alone, whereas ACE inhibition alone had an insignificant effect on the degree of proteinuria. Depletion of circulating T lymphocytes in one group of nephrotic rats eliminated interstitial lymphocytes but did not affect interstitial macrophage influx. Inhibition of the in situ proliferation of resident interstitial macrophages by unilateral kidney irradiation failed to change the intensity of the macrophage infiltration. Treatment of rats with sodium maleate produced proximal tubular cell toxicity but interstitial inflammation did not develop, suggesting that the latter is not a nonspecific response to tubular injury. These studies demonstrate a strong relationship between tubulointerstitial nephritis and the severity of proteinuria in experimental nephrosis.

  9. Sex differences in how social networks and relationship quality influence experimental pain sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Jacob M; Rowell, Lauren N; Chouteau, Simone; Chavez, Alexandre; Jaramillo, Elisa; Neal, Michael; Waid, David

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study to examine how both structural and functional components of individuals' social networks may moderate the association between biological sex and experimental pain sensitivity. One hundred and fifty-two healthy adults (mean age = 22yrs., 53% males) were measured for cold pressor task (CPT) pain sensitivity (i.e., intensity ratings) and core aspects of social networks (e.g., proportion of friends vs. family, affection, affirmation, and aid). Results showed consistent sex differences in how social network structures and intimate relationship functioning modulated pain sensitivity. Females showed higher pain sensitivity when their social networks consisted of a higher proportion of intimate types of relationship partners (e.g., kin vs. non kin), when they had known their network partners for a longer period of time, and when they reported higher levels of logistical support from their significant other (e.g., romantic partner). Conversely, males showed distinct patterns in the opposite direction, including an association between higher levels of logistical support from one's significant other and lower CPT pain intensity. These findings show for the first time that the direction of sex differences in exogenous pain sensitivity is likely dependent on fundamental components of the individual's social environment. The utility of a social-signaling perspective of pain behaviors for examining, comparing, and interpreting individual and group differences in experimental and clinical pain reports is discussed.

  10. Experimental Comparisons of Entity-Relationship and Object Oriented Data Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peretz Shoval

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available The extended entity-relationship (EER model is being "threatened" by the object-oriented (OO approach, which penetrates into the areas of system analysis and data modeling. The issue of which of the two data models is better for data modeling is still an open question. We address the question by conducting experimental comparisons between the models. The results of our experiments reveal that: a schema comprehension: ternary relationships are significantly easier to comprehend in the EER model than in the OO model; b the EER model supasses the OO model for designing unary and ternary relationships; c time: it takes less time to design EER schemas; d preferences: the EER model is preferred by designers. We conclude that even if the objective is to implement an OO database schema, the following procedure is still recommended: 1 create an EER conceptual schema, 2 map it to an OO schema, and c augment the OO schema with behavioral constructs that are unique to the OO approach.

  11. The relationship with the professional knowledge of the high school physics teacher and the failure of implemantation of experimental activities

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Laburú; Marcelo Alves Barros; Bruno Gusmão Kanbach

    2007-01-01

    In this work we investigated particular reasons that take medium physics teachers to use or not experimental activities. Starting from the presupposition that experimental activities in physics are important for teaching, it is essentially looked for to understand the reasons of the “experimental failure”, in the sense of little given importance to that teaching practice, demonstrable by absence of practically widespread of empiric activities in physics schools. We associated the relationship...

  12. Actinides sorption onto hematite. Experimental data, surface complexation modeling and linear free energy relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanchuk, Anna Y.; Kalmykov, Stephan N. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-07-01

    The sorption of actinides in different valence states - Am(III), Th(IV), Np(V) and U(VI) onto hematite have been revisited with the special emphasis on the equilibrium constants of formation of surface species. The experimental sorption data have been treated using surface complexation modeling from which the set of new values of equilibrium constants were obtained. Formation of inner sphere monodentate surface species adequately describes the pH-sorption edges for actinide ions indicative the ionic electrostatic nature of bonding with small or no covalency contribution. The linear free energy relationship representing the correlation between the hydrolysis constants and surface complexation constants has been developed for various cations including K(I), Li(I), Na(I), Ag(I), Tl(I), Sr(II), Cu(II), Co(II), La(III), Eu(III), Ga(III), Am(III), Th(IV), Np(V), U(VI). (orig.)

  13. Experimental analysis of the relationship between depressed mood and compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrios, Michael; McQueen, Paul; Moulding, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Compulsive buying is a serious but understudied problem, where individuals are unable to resist or control their buying behaviour, leading to substantial social and financial problems. To date there has been a lack of experimental research into the disorder. The relationship between mood and compulsive buying was examined in compulsive buyers (N = 18) and non-clinical controls (N = 17), using experimental information-processing paradigms. In study 1, it was expected that, if buying behaviours function as a coping strategy for depressed mood, then an induction of depressed mood would lead to an enhanced memory for appealing consumer-objects in compulsive buyers, but not controls. In study 2, we examined the association between emotional and functional constructs and consumer items. It was expected that compulsive buyers would show stronger semantic relationships and thus better episodic memory for object-emotion pairs, relative to object-function pairs, for appealing items. Unexpectedly, in study 1 the memory-facilitating effect of depressed mood was evident among control participants and absent among compulsive buyers. In study 2, compulsive buyers showed a lesser association of undesirable objects with positive emotional concepts than did non-clinical controls, and compulsive buyers were found to more strongly associate all consumer items with emotional concepts than with concepts of function. Key limitations were low power and possible floor effects due to error frequency data. These findings provide insights into the processes underlying CB phenomena, in particular supporting the role of mood in compulsive buying. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental study on the relationship between average isotopic fractionation factor and evaporation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao WANG

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Isotopic fractionation is the foundation of tracing water cycle using hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. Isotopic fractionation factors in evaporation from free water body are mainly affected by temperature and relative humidity, and greatly vary with these atmospheric factors in a day. Evaporation rate can properly reveal the effects of atmospheric factors. Therefore, there should be a certain function relationship existing in isotopic fractionation factors and evaporation rate. An average isotopic fractionation factor was defined to describe isotopic differences between vapor and liquid phases in evaporation with time interval of hours or days. The relationship of average isotopic fractionation factor and evaporation based on isotopic mass balance was investigated through an evaporation pan experiment with no inflow. The experimental results showed that the isotopic compositions of residual water became more enrichment with time; the average isotopic fractionation factor was affected by air temperature, relative humidity and other atmospheric factors, and had a good functional relation with evaporation rate. The values of average isotopic fractionation factor could be easily calculated with the known of evaporation rate, the initial volume of water in pan and isotopic compositions of residual water.

  15. Experimental Investigation of the Matching Relationship between Asphalt Particle and Reservoir Pore in Profile Control Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengfeng Ren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modified sulfonated asphalt particles have a bright application prospect of the profile control of thick reservoirs due to the low cost, extensive sources, and good compatibility with reservoir. Nevertheless, the matching relationship between asphalt particles and reservoir pore has seldom been investigated till now. Oversized particles always block the near-wellbore area, which causes high injection pressures, while undersized particles cannot plug large pores. We designed a core for this experiment which has a high permeability zone in front of it and many pressure measuring points. We could quantitatively assess the matching relationship by measuring the on-way resistance coefficient, residual resistance factor, and relative change of permeability of man-made cores after injecting asphalt. Experimental results indicate that asphalt particles with sizes of 0.02 mm, 0.02–0.06 mm, and 0.08–0.1 mm match with reservoir permeability of 500 mD, 1000 mD, and 2000 mD, respectively. Undersized or oversized particles can reduce the conformance control effect, and the concentration of asphalt particles in the injectant can limit their migration ability. When the concentration of asphalt particles increases to 3000 mg/L, accumulations of asphalt particles can be caused in the formation, in which a scheme with asphalt particles alternative water injection is proposed to avoid the accumulation.

  16. Experimental study of relationship between average isotopic fractionation factor and evaporation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Isotopic fractionation is the basis of tracing the water cycle using hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. Isotopic fractionation factors in water evaporating from free water bodies are mainly affected by temperature and relative humidity, and vary significantly with these atmospheric factors over the course of a day. The evaporation rate (E can reveal the effects of atmospheric factors. Therefore, there should be a certain functional relationship between isotopic fractionation factors and E. An average isotopic fractionation factor (α* was defined to describe isotopic differences between vapor and liquid phases in evaporation with time intervals of days. The relationship between α* and E based on the isotopic mass balance was investigated through an evaporation pan experiment with no inflow. The experimental results showed that the isotopic compositions of residual water were more enriched with time; α* was affected by air temperature, relative humidity, and other atmospheric factors, and had a strong functional relation with E. The values of α* can be easily calculated with the known values of E, the initial volume of water in the pan, and isotopic compositions of residual water.

  17. Preoccupation in an early-romantic relationship predicts experimental pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilakantan, Aneesha; Younger, Jarred; Aron, Arthur; Mackey, Sean

    2014-06-01

    Individuals involved in the early stages of a passionate romantic relationship can be consumed by the experience and report emotional dependence and constant focus on their romantic partner. A few studies have shown that viewing pictures of a romantic partner can significantly reduce experimental pain. The strength of the effect, however, varies substantially between individuals. To study why some individuals experience significant pain reduction when looking at a picture of their partner, we examined partner preoccupation. We hypothesized that a greater degree of preoccupation in the early stages of a romantic relationship would be associated with greater analgesia during a pain induction task. Participants were shown pictures of their romantic partner or an equally attractive and familiar acquaintance while exposed to low, moderate, or high levels of thermal pain. Participants were also asked to rate how much time they spent thinking about their romantic partner during an average day. Degree of preoccupation was defined as the percentage of time participants spent thinking about their partner on an average day. In two separate experiments, viewing pictures of a romantic partner produced an analgesic effect. The degree of pain relief was positively correlated with partner preoccupation. The results suggest that preoccupation with a romantic partner during early stage romantic love is a predictor of pain relief when viewing pictures of the beloved. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Experimental Investigation and FE Analysis on Constitutive Relationship of High Strength Aluminum Alloy under Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments of 17 high strength aluminum alloy (7A04 specimens were conducted to investigate the constitutive relationship under cyclic loading. The monotonic behavior and hysteretic behavior were focused on and the fracture surface was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM to investigate the microfailure modes. Based on Ramberg-Osgood model, stress-strain skeleton curves under cyclic loading were fitted. Parameters of combined hardening model including isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening were calibrated from test data according to Chaboche model. The cyclic tests were simulated in finite element software ABAQUS. The test results show that 7A04 aluminum alloy has obvious nonlinearity and ultra-high strength which is over 600 MPa, however, with relatively poor ductility. In the cyclic loading tests, 7A04 aluminum alloy showed cyclic hardening behavior and when the compressive strain was larger than 1%, the stiffness degradation and strength degradation occurred. The simulated curves derived by FE model fitted well with experimental curves which indicates that the parameters of this combined model can be used in accurate calculation of 7A04 high strength aluminum structures under cyclic loading.

  19. Modelling goal adjustment in social relationships: Two experimental studies with children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Tamara; Kappes, Cathleen; Schwerdt, Laura; Sander, Johanna; Poller, Charlotte

    2017-06-01

    In two experiments, we investigated observational learning in social relationships as one possible pathway to the development of goal adjustment processes. In the first experiment, 56 children (M = 9.29 years) observed their parent as a model; in the second, 50 adults (M = 32.27 years) observed their romantic partner. Subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: goal engagement (GE), goal disengagement (GD), or control group (CO) and were asked to solve (unsolvable) puzzles. Before trying to solve the puzzles by themselves, subjects observed the instructed model, who was told to continue with the same puzzle (GE) or to switch to the next puzzle (GD). Results show that children in the GE group switched significantly less than in the GD or CO group. There was no difference between the GD group and CO group. Adults in the GE group switched significantly less than in the GD or CO group, whereas subjects in the GD group switched significantly more often than the CO group. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Previous research focused mainly on the functions of goal adjustment processes. It rarely considered processes and conditions that contribute to the development of goal engagement and goal disengagement. There are only two cross-sectional studies that directly investigate this topic. Previous research that claims observational learning as a pathway of learning emotion regulation or adjustment processes has (only) relied on correlational methods and, thus, do not allow any causal interpretations. Previous research, albeit claiming a life span focus, mostly investigated goal adjustment processes in one specific age group (mainly adults). There is no study that investigates the same processes in different age groups. What does this study add? In our two studies, we focus on the conditions of goal adjustment processes and sought to demonstrate one potential pathway of learning or changing the application of goal adjustment

  20. Experimental study of the mapping relationship based near-field acoustic holography with spherical fundamental solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haijun; Jiang, Weikang

    2017-04-01

    This paper is a consequent work of the previously proposed mapping relationship based near-field acoustic holography (MRS-based NAH), [H.J.Wu W.K. Jiang and H.B. Zhang, JSV, 373:66-88, 2016]. It is devoted to the performance study of its practical application with error analysis and experimental validation. Two types of errors, the truncation errors due to the limited number of participant modes, and the inevitable measurement errors caused by uncertainties in the experiment, are considered in the analysis. The influences of the errors on the performance of MRS-based NAH are systematically investigated. First of all, expression of the relative reconstruction error of the pressure energy is derived based on the two types of errors. An approach is developed to estimate the lower and upper bounds of the relative error. It gives a guide to predict the error for a reconstruction under the condition that the truncation error and the signal-to-noise ratio are given. Then, the condition number of the inverse operator is investigated to measure the sensitivity of the reconstruction to the input errors. Asymptotic expressions of the condition number for a special case, conformal spherical model and hologram, are obtained, which indicates the condition number has a geometric growth with the number of participant modes. Numerical examples with different kinds of errors are elaborately designed to validate the stability as well as the correctness of the error analysis. At last, the MRS-based NAH is further examined and verified by a physical experiment, a vibrating cubic model reconstructed from measurement on a spherical hologram. A satisfied agreement with the directly measured pressure on a validation surface is observed for both quantity and distribution of the reconstructed pressure.

  1. Sex differences in how social networks and relationship quality influence experimental pain sensitivity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vigil, Jacob M; Rowell, Lauren N; Chouteau, Simone; Chavez, Alexandre; Jaramillo, Elisa; Neal, Michael; Waid, David

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study to examine how both structural and functional components of individuals' social networks may moderate the association between biological sex and experimental pain sensitivity...

  2. Experimental Evaluation of Relationships among Populations Resulting from Intergradation among Cultivars of ZEA MAYS L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, W D; Moll, R H

    1973-05-01

    Populations were developed as intergradations among three maize cultivars, two adapted to North Carolina and one to Mexico, with the objective of testing whether diallel information could be used to identify the relationships among populations. The data substantiated theoretical observations that the technique would identify relationships among populations resulting from recent intergradations.

  3. Structure-Thermodynamics-Antioxidant Activity Relationships of Selected Natural Phenolic Acids and Derivatives: An Experimental and Theoretical Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Liang, Guizhao

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic acids and derivatives have potential biological functions, however, little is known about the structure-activity relationships and the underlying action mechanisms of these phenolic acids to date. Herein we investigate the structure-thermodynamics-antioxidant relationships of 20 natural phenolic acids and derivatives using DPPH• scavenging assay, density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) levels of theory, and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling. Three main working mechanisms (HAT, SETPT and SPLET) are explored in four micro-environments (gas-phase, benzene, water and ethanol). Computed thermodynamics parameters (BDE, IP, PDE, PA and ETE) are compared with the experimental radical scavenging activities against DPPH•. Available theoretical and experimental investigations have demonstrated that the extended delocalization and intra-molecular hydrogen bonds are the two main contributions to the stability of the radicals. The C = O or C = C in COOH, COOR, C = CCOOH and C = CCOOR groups, and orthodiphenolic functionalities are shown to favorably stabilize the specific radical species to enhance the radical scavenging activities, while the presence of the single OH in the ortho position of the COOH group disfavors the activities. HAT is the thermodynamically preferred mechanism in the gas phase and benzene, whereas SPLET in water and ethanol. Furthermore, our QSAR models robustly represent the structure-activity relationships of these explored compounds in polar media. PMID:25803685

  4. Structure-thermodynamics-antioxidant activity relationships of selected natural phenolic acids and derivatives: an experimental and theoretical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuzhen; Xiao, Huizhi; Zheng, Jie; Liang, Guizhao

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic acids and derivatives have potential biological functions, however, little is known about the structure-activity relationships and the underlying action mechanisms of these phenolic acids to date. Herein we investigate the structure-thermodynamics-antioxidant relationships of 20 natural phenolic acids and derivatives using DPPH• scavenging assay, density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) levels of theory, and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling. Three main working mechanisms (HAT, SETPT and SPLET) are explored in four micro-environments (gas-phase, benzene, water and ethanol). Computed thermodynamics parameters (BDE, IP, PDE, PA and ETE) are compared with the experimental radical scavenging activities against DPPH•. Available theoretical and experimental investigations have demonstrated that the extended delocalization and intra-molecular hydrogen bonds are the two main contributions to the stability of the radicals. The C = O or C = C in COOH, COOR, C = CCOOH and C = CCOOR groups, and orthodiphenolic functionalities are shown to favorably stabilize the specific radical species to enhance the radical scavenging activities, while the presence of the single OH in the ortho position of the COOH group disfavors the activities. HAT is the thermodynamically preferred mechanism in the gas phase and benzene, whereas SPLET in water and ethanol. Furthermore, our QSAR models robustly represent the structure-activity relationships of these explored compounds in polar media.

  5. The relationship with the professional knowledge of the high school physics teacher and the failure of implemantation of experimental activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Laburú

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated particular reasons that take medium physics teachers to use or not experimental activities. Starting from the presupposition that experimental activities in physics are important for teaching, it is essentially looked for to understand the reasons of the “experimental failure”, in the sense of little given importance to that teaching practice, demonstrable by absence of practically widespread of empiric activities in physics schools. We associated the relationship professional knowledge physics teacher's with that little instructional practice. Based in a reading of the ideas of Charlot, we directed an argument line that seeks to reinterpret the inadequacy of the explanation found in the lack or absence of something that is commonly disseminated in the literature in scientific education.

  6. Interracial roommate relationships: an experimental field test of the contact hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Natalie J; Fazio, Russell H

    2008-07-01

    This study investigated how automatically activated racial attitudes are affected by relatively long-term interracial relationships. A natural field experiment was conducted in a college dormitory system. Participants were White freshmen who had been randomly assigned to either a White or an African American roommate. Students participated in two sessions during the first 2 and last 2 weeks of their first quarter on campus. During these sessions, they answered questions about their satisfaction and involvement with their roommates and completed an inventory of intergroup anxiety and an implicit measure of racial attitudes. Participants in interracial rooms reported less satisfaction and less involvement with their roommates than did participants in same-race rooms. However, automatically activated racial attitudes and intergroup anxiety improved over time among students in interracial rooms, but not among students in same-race rooms. Thus, the results suggest that interracial roommate relationships, although generally less satisfying and involving than same-race roommate relationships, do produce benefits.

  7. Modelling concentration-analgesia relationships for morphine to evaluate experimental pain models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrisdóttir, Eva; Foster, David John Richard; Upton, Richard Neil

    2015-01-01

    -blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 39 healthy volunteers received an oral dose of 30 mg morphine hydrochloride or placebo. Non-linear mixed effects modelling was used to describe the plasma concentrations of morphine and metabolites, and the analgesic effect of morphine on experimental pain in skin......The aim of this study was to develop population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models for morphine in experimental pain induced by skin heat and muscle pressure, and to evaluate the experimental pain models with regard to assessment of morphine pharmacodynamics. In a randomized, double...... and muscle. Baseline pain metrics varied between individuals and occasions, and were described with interindividual and interoccasion variability. Placebo-response did not change with time. For both pain metrics, morphine effect was proportional to baseline pain and was described with a linear model...

  8. The Relationship of Context-Use Skills to Reading: A Case for an Alternative Experimental Logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Martin H.; Crouse, James

    1981-01-01

    The paper's primary purpose is to outline an experimental logic that (1) considers causally prior skills such as nonverbal IQ, vocabulary, and decoding, and (2) emphasizes the relative importance of component reading skills rather than simple differences between groups of good and poor readers. (Author/DB)

  9. Experimental Investigation and FE Analysis on Constitutive Relationship of High Strength Aluminum Alloy under Cyclic Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanqing Wang; Zhongxing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Experiments of 17 high strength aluminum alloy (7A04) specimens were conducted to investigate the constitutive relationship under cyclic loading. The monotonic behavior and hysteretic behavior were focused on and the fracture surface was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to investigate the microfailure modes. Based on Ramberg-Osgood model, stress-strain skeleton curves under cyclic loading were fitted. Parameters of combined hardening model including isotropic hardening and kinem...

  10. Fluctuating experimental pain sensitivities across the menstrual cycle are contingent on women's romantic relationship status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M Vigil

    Full Text Available We explored the social-signaling hypothesis that variability in exogenous pain sensitivities across the menstrual cycle is moderated by women's current romantic relationship status and hence the availability of a solicitous social partner for expressing pain behaviors in regular, isochronal ways. In two studies, we used the menstrual calendars of healthy women to provide a detailed approximation of the women's probability of conception based on their current cycle-day, along with relationship status, and cold pressor pain and ischemic pain sensitivities, respectively. In the first study (n = 135; 18-46 yrs., Mage = 23 yrs., 50% natural cycling, we found that naturally-cycling, pair-bonded women showed a positive correlation between the probability of conception and ischemic pain intensity (r = .45, associations not found for single women or hormonal contraceptive-users. A second study (n = 107; 19-29 yrs., Mage = 20 yrs., 56% natural cycling showed a similar association between greater conception risk and higher cold-pressor pain intensity in naturally-cycling, pair-bonded women only (r = .63. The findings show that variability in exogenous pain sensitivities across different fertility phases of the menstrual cycle is contingent on basic elements of women's social environment and inversely correspond to variability in naturally occurring, perimenstrual symptoms. These findings have wide-ranging implications for: a standardizing pain measurement protocols; b understanding basic biopsychosocial pain-related processes; c addressing clinical pain experiences in women; and d understanding how pain influences, and is influenced by, social relationships.

  11. Experimental study on relationship between processing parameters and stress wave propagation during automated fiber placement process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, H. Y.; Li, W. Q.; Sun, S. Z.; Han, Z. Y.

    2017-06-01

    Automated fiber placement (AFP) is an important manufacturing method of composites, which has been widely used in the field of aerospace. Unreasonable processing parameters could lead to some manufacturing defects including pores, bubbles and cracks. In this paper, the propagation characteristics of stress waves are believed to be closely related to the defects during AFP process. Experiments are conducted to collect stress wave signal under different processing parameters (pressure, velocity and temperature) during manufacturing process. And the relationship between the processing parameters and the characteristics of stress waves is explored by Control Variate Method (CVM). Finally, the effects of laying parameters on stress amplitude, response speed and duration are summarized.

  12. Structure-selectivity relationship in the cleavage of spirocyclopropyl oxindoles: An experimental and theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vázquez, J. Benjamín; Bañuelos-Hernández, Angel E.; Trujillo-Serrato, Joel J.; Suárez-Castillo, Oscar R.; Ariza-Castolo, Armando; Morales-Ríos, Martha S.

    2017-10-01

    Heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation of strained nitrile substituted spirocyclopropyl oxindoles in acetic anhydride, allowed to the regioselective formation of ring-opened 2-oxohomotryptamines accompanied by the ring-retained spirocyclopropyl acetamides as by products. The C3sbnd C9 bond fission would be induced by H atom attack via the plausible intermediacy of a stabilized benzolactam carbon-centered radical. The substituent effects on the stability of such radicals were analyzed in terms of the energy of SOMO orbitals, showing good agreement with σm Hammett constants. The theoretical results reflect experimental findings on the reactivity of the analyzed compounds.

  13. Entamoeba histolytica sequences and their relationship with experimental liver abscesses in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisóstomo-Vázquez, María Del Pilar; Jiménez-Cardoso, Enedina; Arroyave-Hernández, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to analyse the association between sequences of Entamoeba histolytica and their relationship with the development of hepatic abscesses in hamsters, using a complementary DNA library for E. histolytica. From the sequences obtained, we designed oligonucleotides for amplification by PCR. Trophozoites were isolated from faeces of 11 patients in whom cysts from E. histolytica were identified, and these trophozoites were then subjected to monoaxenic culture. Then 1 x 10(5) trophozoites were inoculated into hamster liver, with three hamsters used for every culture. Sequences were obtained for ubiquitin, lectin surface precursor, replication factor MCM3 and surface antigen. The associations between sequences and hepatic abscesses were: 11/11 for ubiquitin, 9/11 for lectin precursor, 4/11 for replication factor and 1/11 for surface antigen. These results suggest that ubiquitin could be an important protein involved in the mechanism of E. histolytica invasion.

  14. Air-water Henry's law constants for PCB congeners: Experimental determination and modeling of structure-property relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fu; Chu, Shaogang; Hong, Chia-Swee

    2006-08-01

    A modified gas-purging technique was used for the determination of Henry's law constants (HLCs) for four non-ortho- and eight mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The method involves measurement of a compound's concentration in only the water phase while that compound is being stripped isothermally from the solution at a known gas flow rate. HLCs were calculated from the slope of a plot of ln(Cn) versus (1/V)n, where (Sigma 1/V)n = 1/V0 + 1/V1 + ... + 1/V(n-1). The HLCs ranged from 5.6 to 21.8 Pa m3/mol, with an average precision of 13%, and they are comparable to values in the literature. Meta-analysis technique and principal component regression (PCR) were applied to model the relationship between experimentally determined HLC values of 94 PCB congeners and the congeners' structures. Cross-validation yields an optimal model with two principal components. Statistical analysis suggests that HLCs of PCBs are primarily affected by meta-chlorine substitution, a relationship which has never been discussed in the literature. The substitution of chlorines on the biphenyl rings generally leads to smaller HLCs. The predicted HLCs are in good agreement with the experimentally determined values.

  15. A combined experimental and theoretical approach to establish the relationship between shear force and clay platelet delamination in melt-processed polypropylene nanocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bandyopadhyay, J

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a combined experimental and theoretical approach has been proposed to establish a relationship between the required shear force and the degree of delamination of clay tactoids during the melt-processing of polymer nanocomposites...

  16. The Moderating Influence of Situational Motivation on the Relationship Between Preferred Exercise and Positive Affect: An Experimental Study With Active Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guérin, Eva; Fortier, Michelle S

    2013-01-01

    .... The primary aim of this experimental study was to examine the moderating influence of situational motivation from SDT on the relationship between an acute bout of preferred exercise, namely running (vs. control...

  17. Experimental examination of the relationships among chemico-osmotic, hydraulic, and diffusion parameters of Wakkanai mudstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, M.; Hiratsuka, T.; Manaka, M.; Finsterle, S.; Ito, K.

    2014-05-01

    Sequential permeability and chemical osmosis experiments on Wakkanai mudstones were performed to explore the relationships between the semipermeability of clayey rocks and the hydraulic and diffusion parameters as well as the pore structure characteristics. The wide ranges in osmotic efficiency (0.0004-0.046) and intrinsic permeability (8.92 × 10-20 to 1.24 × 10-17 m2) reflect the variation in the pore size distributions of the Wakkanai mudstones. A regression analysis between osmotic efficiency and permeability shows that the osmotic efficiency is proportional to the inverse of permeability, suggesting that the permeability is indeed indicative of the degree of semipermeability. Osmotic efficiency was determined invariant with the effective diffusion coefficient for the Wakkanai mudstones (3.59-8.36 × 10-11 m2/s) due to their small osmotic efficiencies (≤0.046). The wide variation in osmotic efficiencies and pore structure characteristics of Wakkanai mudstones indicates that the nanoscale pores enable semipermeability in Wakkanai mudstones. However, the pressure evolution caused by chemical osmosis is limited by the connected wide pores that are the main conduits for water, thus dissipating the osmotic pressure buildup induced by the semipermeability of nanoscale pores.

  18. Relationship between fibrosis and lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in the experimental hypertrophic heart of rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revis, N.W.; Cameron, A.J.V.

    1978-06-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in rabbits by injecting either thyroxine or isoprenaline or by surgically constricting the abdominal aorta. An increase in heart weight was associated with a change in the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme pattern and an increase in fibrosis (as measured by hydroxyproline concentrations). Isoprenaline treatment led to a moderate increase in heart weight, a marked decrease in the heart/skeletal muscle subunit ratio of lactate dehydrogenase, and a marked increase in hydroxyproline. Thyroxine treatment led to a small increase in both heart weight and hydroxyproline and a small decrease in the heart/skeletal muscle subunit ratio. Coarctation of the aorta, in contrast, caused a marked increase in heart weight, a moderate decrease in heart/skeletal muscle subunit ratio, and a moderate increase in hydroxyproline. These results suggest that the decrease in the heart/skeletal muscle subunit ratio of lactate dehydrogenase in the experimental hypertrophic heart reflects the extent of myocardial fibrosis, rather than changes within the hypertrophied myocardial cells.

  19. Neuroprotective Effect of Hydroxytyrosol in Experimental Diabetic Retinopathy: Relationship with Cardiovascular Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Correa, José Antonio; Rodríguez-Pérez, María Dolores; Márquez-Estrada, Lucía; López-Villodres, Juan Antonio; Reyes, José Julio; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Guillermo; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan; De La Cruz, José Pedro

    2018-01-24

    The aim of the study was to test the neuroprotective effect of hydroxytyrosol (HT) on experimental diabetic retinopathy. Animals were divided in four groups: (1) control nondiabetic rats, (2) streptozotocin-diabetic rats (DR), (3) DR treated with 1 mg/kg/day p.o. HT, and (4) DR treated with 5 mg/kg/day p.o. HT. Treatment with HT was started 7 days before inducing diabetes and was maintained for 2 months. In the DR group, total area occupied by extracellular matrix was increased, area occupied by retinal cells was decreased; both returned to near-control values in DR rats treated with HT. The number of retinal ganglion cells in DR was significantly lower (44%) than in the control group, and this decrease was smaller after HT treatment (34% and 9.1%). Linear regression analysis showed that prostacyclin, platelet aggregation, peroxynitrites, and the dose of 5 mg/kg/day HT significantly influenced retinal ganglion cell count. In conclusion, HT exerted a neuroprotective effect on diabetic retinopathy, and this effect correlated significantly with changes in some cardiovascular biomarkers.

  20. The Relationship between Selenoprotein P and Glucose Metabolism in Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyuan Mao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential trace element in the diet of mammals which is important for many physiological functions. However, a number of epidemiological studies have suggested that high selenium status is a possible risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, although they cannot distinguish between cause and effect. Selenoprotein P (Sepp1 is central to selenium homeostasis and widely expressed in the organism. Here we review the interaction between Sepp1 and glucose metabolism with an emphasis on experimental evidence. In models with or without gene modification, glucose and insulin can regulate Sepp1 expression in the pancreas and liver, and vice versa. Especially in the liver, Sepp1 is regulated virtually like a gluconeogenic enzyme. Combining these data suggests that there could be a feedback regulation between hepatic Sepp1 and pancreatic insulin and that increasing circulating Sepp1 might be the result rather than the cause of abnormal glucose metabolism. Future studies specifically designed to overexpress Sepp1 are needed in order to provide a more robust link between Sepp1 and type 2 diabetes.

  1. Development of a stress-mode sensitive viscoelastic constitutive relationship for asphalt concrete: experimental and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad M.; Tabatabaee, Nader; Jahanbakhsh, H.; Jahangiri, Behnam

    2017-08-01

    Asphalt binder is responsible for the thermo-viscoelastic mechanical behavior of asphalt concrete. Upon application of pure compressive stress to an asphalt concrete specimen, the stress is transferred by mechanisms such as aggregate interlock and the adhesion/cohesion properties of asphalt mastic. In the pure tensile stress mode, aggregate interlock plays a limited role in stress transfer, and the mastic phase plays the dominant role through its adhesive/cohesive and viscoelastic properties. Under actual combined loading patterns, any coordinate direction may experience different stress modes; therefore, the mechanical behavior is not the same in the different directions and the asphalt specimen behaves as an anisotropic material. The present study developed an anisotropic nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive relationship that is sensitive to the tension/compression stress mode by extending Schapery's nonlinear viscoelastic model. The proposed constitutive relationship was implemented in Abaqus using a user material (UMAT) subroutine in an implicit scheme. Uniaxial compression and indirect tension (IDT) testing were used to characterize the viscoelastic properties of the bituminous materials and to calibrate and validate the proposed constitutive relationship. Compressive and tensile creep compliances were calculated using uniaxial compression, as well as IDT test results, for different creep-recovery loading patterns at intermediate temperature. The results showed that both tensile creep compliance and its rate were greater than those of compression. The calculated deflections based on these IDT test simulations were compared with experimental measurements and were deemed acceptable. This suggests that the proposed viscoelastic constitutive relationship correctly demonstrates the viscoelastic response and is more accurate for analysis of asphalt concrete in the laboratory or in situ.

  2. Experimental evidence for the intention-behavior relationship in the physical activity domain: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Dickau, Leanne

    2012-11-01

    Most contemporary theories of physical activity include an intention construct as the proximal determinant of behavior. Support of this premise has been found through correlational research. The purpose of this paper was to appraise the experimental evidence for the intention-behavior relationship through meta-analysis. Studies were eligible if they included: (1) random assignment of participants to intervention/no intervention groups; (2) an intervention that produced a significant difference in intention between groups; and (3) a measure of behavior was taken after the intention measure. Literature searches were concluded in December 2010 among five key search engines. This search yielded a total of 1,033 potentially relevant records; of these, 11 passed the eligibility criteria. Random effects meta-analysis procedures with correction for sampling bias were employed in the analysis. The sample-weighted average effect size derived from these studies was d+ = .45 (95% CI .30 to .60) for intention, yet d+ = .15 (95% CI .06 to .23) for behavior. These results demonstrate a weak relationship between intention and behavior that may be below meaningful/practical value. We suggest that prior evidence was probably biased by the limits of correlation coefficients in passive designs. It is recommended that contemporary research apply models featuring intention-behavior mediators or action control variables in order to account for this intention-behavior gap.

  3. Relationship between clinical signs and postmortem test status in cattle experimentally infected with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stack Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various clinical protocols have been developed to aid in the clinical diagnosis of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, which is confirmed by postmortem examinations based on vacuolation and accumulation of disease-associated prion protein (PrPd in the brain. The present study investigated the occurrence and progression of sixty selected clinical signs and behaviour combinations in 513 experimentally exposed cattle subsequently categorised postmortem as confirmed or unconfirmed BSE cases. Appropriate undosed or saline inoculated controls were examined similarly and the data analysed to explore the possible occurrence of BSE-specific clinical expression in animals unconfirmed by postmortem examinations. Results Based on the display of selected behavioural, sensory and locomotor changes, 20 (67% orally dosed and 17 (77% intracerebrally inoculated pathologically confirmed BSE cases and 21 (13% orally dosed and 18 (6% intracerebrally inoculated but unconfirmed cases were considered clinical BSE suspects. None of 103 controls showed significant signs and were all negative on diagnostic postmortem examinations. Signs indicative of BSE suspects, particularly over-reactivity and ataxia, were more frequently displayed in confirmed cases with vacuolar changes in the brain. The display of several BSE-associated signs over time, including repeated startle responses and nervousness, was significantly more frequent in confirmed BSE cases compared to controls, but these two signs were also significantly more frequent in orally dosed cattle unconfirmed by postmortem examinations. Conclusions The findings confirm that in experimentally infected cattle clinical abnormalities indicative of BSE are accompanied by vacuolar changes and PrPd accumulation in the brainstem. The presence of more frequently expressed signs in cases with vacuolar changes is consistent with this pathology representing a more advanced stage of disease. That

  4. Source-receptor relationships for speciated atmospheric mercury at the remote Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cheng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Source-receptor relationships for speciated atmospheric mercury measured at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA, northwestern Ontario, Canada were investigated using various receptor-based approaches. The data used in this study include gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, mercury bound to fine airborne particles (<2.5 μm (PHg, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM, major inorganic ions, sulphur dioxide, nitric acid gas, ozone, and meteorological variables, all of which were measured between May 2005 and December 2006. The source origins identified were related to transport of industrial and combustion emissions (associated with elevated GEM, photochemical production of RGM (associated with elevated RGM, road-salt particles with absorption of gaseous Hg (associated with elevated PHg and RGM, crustal/soil emissions, and background pollution. Back trajectory modelling illustrated that a remote site, like ELA, is affected by distant Hg point sources in Canada and the United States. The sources identified from correlation analysis, principal components analysis and K-means cluster analysis were generally consistent. The discrepancies between the K-means and Hierarchical cluster analysis were the clusters related to transport of industrial/combustion emissions, photochemical production of RGM, and crustal/soil emissions. Although it was possible to assign the clusters to these source origins, the trajectory plots for the Hierarchical clusters were similar to some of the trajectories belonging to several K-means clusters. This likely occurred because the variables indicative of transport of industrial/combustion emissions were elevated in at least two or more of the clusters, which means this Hg source was well-represented in the data.

  5. Methodological and experimental study of the relationship between displacement rate of landslide and GNSS strategy for deformation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordan, Daniele; Piras, Marco; Allasia, Paolo; Dabove, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    , this work investigates a relationship between methodology and capability for displacement detection. Using a dedicated slide which allows to define a micrometric displacement, several tests have been carried out at Politecnico of Torino, where different receivers-antenna combinations (from geodetic to mass market) and displacement strategies have been considered. Furthermore, data processing has been realized by means of different software (commercial and FOS) and different kinds of solution. The results of this experimental activity evidenced that it is possible to define a correlation between the GNSS acquisition strategy and the velocity range of the monitored landslide, which could be now coupled with the landslide velocity scale proposed by Cruden & Varnes. In this way, it is possible to optimize costs for monitoring activities and to allow a "smart" use of GNSS technologies for monitoring.

  6. How politics becomes news and news becomes politics. A comparative experimental study of the politics-media relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helfer, L.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between the media and politics is close and often characterized by tensions. Politicians often are accused of being led by short-lived media cycles in their actions, thereby losing sight of broader societal interests. At the same time, the media are accused of primarily seeking out

  7. Linear free-energy relationships between a single gas-phase ab initio equilibrium bond length and experimental pKa values in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkorta, Ibon; Popelier, Paul L A

    2015-02-02

    Remarkably simple yet effective linear free energy relationships were discovered between a single ab initio computed bond length in the gas phase and experimental pKa values in aqueous solution. The formation of these relationships is driven by chemical features such as functional groups, meta/para substitution and tautomerism. The high structural content of the ab initio bond length makes a given data set essentially divide itself into high correlation subsets (HCSs). Surprisingly, all molecules in a given high correlation subset share the same conformation in the gas phase. Here we show that accurate pKa values can be predicted from such HCSs. This is achieved within an accuracy of 0.2 pKa units for 5 drug molecules. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. The relationship between the occurrence of intractable epilepsy with glial cells and myelin sheath - an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X; Wang, J-Y; Gu, R; Qu, H; Li, M; Chen, L; Liu, R; Yuan, P

    2016-11-01

    The occurrence of epilepsy is associated with myelin sheath injury; oligodendrocyte (OL) is the main cell of myelin sheath; In this study, we observed the changes of OL, demyelination, and myelin associated protein in different stages of intractable epilepsy (IE) at the epileptic foci of patients, and provide useful information for the pathophysiology of IE. IE patients who received epileptogenic focus resection were recruited as the experimental group, their medical records were collected and postoperative follow-up was performed. The brain tissues from10 cases with non-brain disorders were obtained as controls. Immunofluorescence double staining was used to observe OL expression. The demyelination in epileptic foci was observed by luxol fast blue (LFB) staining method. Real-time fluorescent quantitative (RT) PCR, Western blot methods were used to detect the expressions of myelin-related proteins. We observed increased OL precursor cells, former OL and decreased mature OL in experimental group when compared with controls (both p myelin basic protein (MBP), oligodendrocytes myelin glycoprotein (OMgp), myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) and other MAG associated proteins-Nogo receptors (NgRs) and GD1α (p myelin associated protein are related to the occurrence of IE.

  9. Experimental investigation on the relationship between sluice caisson shape of tidal power plant and the water discharge capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dal Soo; Oh, Sang-Ho; Yi, Jin-Hak; Park, Woo-Sun [Coastal Engineering and Ocean Energy Research Department, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Ansan 426-744 (Korea); Cho, Hyu-Sang; Kim, Duk-Gu; Ahn, Suk-Jin [Technology Research and Development Institute, Hyein E and C Co. Ltd., Seoul 157-861 (Korea); Eom, Hyun-Min [Global Environment System Research Laboratory, National Institute of Meteorological Research/KMA, Seoul 156-720 (Korea)

    2010-10-15

    The change of water discharge capability of the sluice caisson of tidal power plant according to the change of geometrical shape of the sluice caisson was investigated by performing laboratory experiments. The major design parameters that constitute general shape of the sluice caisson were deduced and a total of 32 different shapes of sluice caisson models were subjected to the hydraulic experiments. For every sluice caisson model, the water discharge capability was estimated with five different flow rates and three different water level conditions. The experiments were carried out in an open channel flume with a great care to measure flow rate and water level accurately, which are key physical quantities in estimating the water discharge capability of the sluice caisson models. By analyzing the experimental results, influence of the respective design parameters on the performance of the sluice caisson was examined and the general guidelines to enhance the water discharge capability were suggested. The discharge coefficient of the best sluice caisson model ranged from 2.3 to 3.1 depending on the experimental conditions, which is far higher than the values that were adopted in the past feasibility studies in Korea. (author)

  10. Experimental evaluation of the relationship between lethal or non-lethal virulence and transmission success in malaria parasite infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithiuthai S

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary theory suggests that the selection pressure on parasites to maximize their transmission determines their optimal host exploitation strategies and thus their virulence. Establishing the adaptive basis to parasite life history traits has important consequences for predicting parasite responses to public health interventions. In this study we examine the extent to which malaria parasites conform to the predicted adaptive trade-off between transmission and virulence, as defined by mortality. The majority of natural infections, however, result in sub-lethal virulent effects (e.g. anaemia and are often composed of many strains. Both sub-lethal effects and pathogen population structure have been theoretically shown to have important consequences for virulence evolution. Thus, we additionally examine the relationship between anaemia and transmission in single and mixed clone infections. Results Whereas there was a trade-off between transmission success and virulence as defined by host mortality, contradictory clone-specific patterns occurred when defining virulence by anaemia. A negative relationship between anaemia and transmission success was found for one of the parasite clones, whereas there was no relationship for the other. Notably the two parasite clones also differed in a transmission phenotype (gametocyte sex ratio that has previously been shown to respond adaptively to a changing blood environment. In addition, as predicted by evolutionary theory, mixed infections resulted in increased anaemia. The increased anaemia was, however, not correlated with any discernable parasite trait (e.g. parasite density or with increased transmission. Conclusions We found some evidence supporting the hypothesis that there is an adaptive basis correlating virulence (as defined by host mortality and transmission success in malaria parasites. This confirms the validity of applying evolutionary virulence theory to biomedical

  11. Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis of substituted arylazo pyridone dyes in photocatalytic system: Experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dostanić, J., E-mail: jasmina@nanosys.ihtm.bg.ac.rs [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Lončarević, D. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Zlatar, M. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Chemistry, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vlahović, F. [University of Belgrade, Innovation center of the Faculty of Chemistry, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Jovanović, D.M. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • Electronic effects of para substituted arylazo pyridone dyes. • Linear relationship between Hammett σ{sub p} constants and dyes photoreactivity. • The photocatalytic reactions facilitated by el.-acceptors and retarded by el.-donors. • Fukui functions to analyze the reactivity on concurrent sites within a molecule. • Hydroxyl radicals sustain attack from two reaction sites, depending on a substituent type. - Abstract: A series of arylazo pyridone dyes was synthesized by changing the type of the substituent group in the diazo moiety, ranging from strong electron-donating to strong electron-withdrawing groups. The structural and electronic properties of the investigated dyes was calculated at the M062X/6-31 + G(d,p) level of theory. The observed good linear correlations between atomic charges and Hammett σ{sub p} constants provided a basis to discuss the transmission of electronic substituent effects through a dye framework. The reactivity of synthesized dyes was tested through their decolorization efficiency in TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic system (Degussa P-25). Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis revealed a strong correlation between reactivity of investigated dyes and Hammett substituent constants. The reaction was facilitated by electron-withdrawing groups, and retarded by electron-donating ones. Quantum mechanical calculations was used in order to describe the mechanism of the photocatalytic oxidation reactions of investigated dyes and interpret their reactivities within the framework of the Density Functional Theory (DFT). According to DFT based reactivity descriptors, i.e. Fukui functions and local softness, the active site moves from azo nitrogen atom linked to benzene ring to pyridone carbon atom linked to azo bond, going from dyes with electron-donating groups to dyes with electron-withdrawing groups.

  12. [Development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in an experimental model in cirrhotic rats. Relationship with intestinal bacterial translocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, L; Sánchez, E; Casafont, F; Agüero, J; Ledesma, P; Nevado, N; Pons Romero, F

    1995-09-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is one of the most important complication in cirrhotic patients with ascites, but is pathogenesis is not well known. It is thought that the impaired host defences and the passage of enteric bacteria into the mesenteric lymph nodes, named bacterial translocation, may be two important mechanisms in the pathogenesis of SBP. We have studied this phenomenon in an experimental model with oral CC14 induced cirrhotic rats. SBP occurred in 36% of ascitic rats, all cases being produced by enteric Gram (-) bacteria. Bacterial translocation was observed in 100% of rats with SBP but in 53% of rats without SBP (p < 0.05). In all cases the same organism was isolated in ascitic fluid and in mesenteric lymph nodes. These results suggest that bacterial translocation could play an important role in the pathogenesis of SBP.

  13. The spatial sensitivity of the spectral diversity-biodiversity relationship: an experimental test in a prairie grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Gamon, John A; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Townsend, Philip A; Zygielbaum, Arthur I

    2017-12-21

    Remote sensing has been used to detect plant biodiversity in a range of ecosystems based on the varying spectral properties of different species or functional groups. However, the most appropriate spatial resolution necessary to detect diversity remains unclear. At coarse resolution, differences among spectral patterns may be too weak to detect. In contrast, at fine resolution, redundant information may be introduced. To explore the effect of spatial resolution, we studied the scale dependence of spectral diversity in a prairie ecosystem experiment at Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve, Minnesota, USA. Our study involved a scaling exercise comparing synthetic pixels resampled from high-resolution images within manipulated diversity treatments. Hyperspectral data were collected using several instruments on both ground and airborne platforms. We used the coefficient of variation (CV) of spectral reflectance in space as the indicator of spectral diversity and then compared CV at different scales ranging from 1 mm 2 to 1 m 2 to conventional biodiversity metrics, including species richness, Shannon's index, Simpson's index, phylogenetic species variation, and phylogenetic species evenness. In this study, higher species richness plots generally had higher CV. CV showed higher correlations with Shannon's index and Simpson's index than did species richness alone, indicating evenness contributed to the spectral diversity. Correlations with species richness and Simpson's index were generally higher than with phylogenetic species variation and evenness measured at comparable spatial scales, indicating weaker relationships between spectral diversity and phylogenetic diversity metrics than with species diversity metrics. High resolution imaging spectrometer data (1 mm 2 pixels) showed the highest sensitivity to diversity level. With decreasing spatial resolution, the difference in CV between diversity levels decreased and greatly reduced the optical detectability of

  14. Experimental estimates of peak skin dose and its relationship to the CT dose index using the CTDI head phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de las Heras, Hugo; Minniti, Ronaldo; Wilson, Sean; Mitchell, Chad; Skopec, Marlene; Brunner, Claudia C; Chakrabarti, Kish

    2013-12-01

    A straightforward method is presented to estimate peak skin doses (PSDs) delivered by computed tomography (CT) scanners. The measured PSD values are related to the well-known volume CT dose index (CTDI(vol)), displayed on the console of CT scanners. PSD measurement estimates were obtained, in four CT units, by placing radiochromic film on the surface of a CTDI head phantom. Six different X-ray tube currents including the maximum allowed value were used to irradiate the phantom. PSD and CTDI(vol) were independently measured and later related to the CTDI(vol) value displayed on the console. A scanner-specific relationship was found between the measured PSD and the associated CTDI(vol) displayed on the console. The measured PSD values varied between 27 and 136 mGy among all scanners when the routine head scan parameters were used. The results of this work allow relating the widely used CTDI(vol) to an actual radiation dose delivered to the skin of a patient.

  15. The relationship between the golden spiny mouse circadian system and its diurnal activity: an experimental field enclosures and laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Ofir; Dayan, Tamar; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2007-01-01

    Examples of animals that switch activity times between nocturnality and diurnality in nature are relatively infrequent. Furthermore, the mechanism for switching activity time is not clear: does a complete inversion of the circadian system occur in conjunction with activity pattern? Are there switching centers downstream from the internal clock that interpret the clock differently? Or does the switch reflect a masking effect? Answering these key questions may shed light on the mechanisms regulating activity patterns and their evolution. The golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus) can switch between nocturnal and diurnal activity. This study investigated the relationship between its internal circadian clock and its diurnal activity pattern observed in the field. The goal is to understand the mechanisms underlying species rhythm shifts in order to gain insight into the evolution of activity patterns. All golden spiny mice had opposite activity patterns in the field than those under controlled continuous dark conditions in the laboratory. Activity and body temperature patterns in the field were diurnal, while in the laboratory all individuals immediately showed a free-running rhythm starting with a nocturnal pattern. No phase transients were found toward the preferred nocturnal activity pattern, as would be expected in the case of true entrainment. Moreover, the fact that the free-running activity patterns began from the individuals' subjective night suggests that golden spiny mice are nocturnal and that their diurnality in their natural habitat in the field results from a change that is downstream to the internal clock or reflects a masking effect.

  16. Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis of substituted arylazo pyridone dyes in photocatalytic system: Experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostanić, J; Lončarević, D; Zlatar, M; Vlahović, F; Jovanović, D M

    2016-10-05

    A series of arylazo pyridone dyes was synthesized by changing the type of the substituent group in the diazo moiety, ranging from strong electron-donating to strong electron-withdrawing groups. The structural and electronic properties of the investigated dyes was calculated at the M062X/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. The observed good linear correlations between atomic charges and Hammett σp constants provided a basis to discuss the transmission of electronic substituent effects through a dye framework. The reactivity of synthesized dyes was tested through their decolorization efficiency in TiO2 photocatalytic system (Degussa P-25). Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis revealed a strong correlation between reactivity of investigated dyes and Hammett substituent constants. The reaction was facilitated by electron-withdrawing groups, and retarded by electron-donating ones. Quantum mechanical calculations was used in order to describe the mechanism of the photocatalytic oxidation reactions of investigated dyes and interpret their reactivities within the framework of the Density Functional Theory (DFT). According to DFT based reactivity descriptors, i.e. Fukui functions and local softness, the active site moves from azo nitrogen atom linked to benzene ring to pyridone carbon atom linked to azo bond, going from dyes with electron-donating groups to dyes with electron-withdrawing groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An Experimental Examination of the Relationship between Fluid Properties and Dynamic Capillary Effects During Drainage and Imbibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, L.; Chen, L.; Kibbey, T. C.

    2011-12-01

    Reported measurements have long observed an apparent flow-rate dependence of capillary pressure at a given saturation during dynamic drainage or imbibition. This phenomenon is often referred to as a dynamic capillary effect. While the existence of dynamic capillary effects may have significant implications for the movement of immiscible fluids in porous media across a wide range of practical problems, experiment-based quantitative information about the magnitude of dynamic capillary effects is sparse, and proposed dependencies on system properties reported to date have been contradictory. The purpose of the work conducted here was to study how the dynamic capillary coefficient, τ (a ratio of the difference between dynamic and static capillary pressures and the negative change of saturation with time), is influenced by changes in fluid properties in unconsolidated porous media. Experiments were conducted with a device designed specifically for the measurements. The device is based on an automated method previously developed by the authors for rapid measurement of capillary pressure-saturation (Pc-S) relationships, but adds custom-designed membrane-based fluid-selective pore pressure micro-sensors for direct measurement of pore pressures. The micro-sensors were developed to have extremely fast response times compared with traditional pore pressure tensiometers, reducing the potential for sensor-response artifacts which can mimic dynamic capillary effects. For this work, experiments were conducted to quantify τ and corresponding confidence intervals at hundreds of individual saturation values during both dynamic secondary drainage and imbibition. Experiments have been conducted with different fluids selected to vary surface tension and viscosity, both together and independently. Implications for multiphase and unsaturated flow in porous media will be discussed.

  18. The Relationship between Oxygen Saturation and Color Alteration of a Compromised Skin Flap: Experimental Study on the Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theddeus O. H. Prasetyono

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study was to collect important data on the time of oxygen saturation change in relation to skin flap color alteration using non-invasive pulse oximetry to evaluate its ability to provide continuous monitoring of skin flap perfusion.MethodsAn experimental study on the monitoring of blood perfusion of 20 tube-island groin flaps of 10 male New Zealand rabbits was performed using pulse oximetry. The animals were randomly assigned to one of two groups representing a blockage of either arterial or venous blood flow. The oxygen saturation change and clinical color alteration were monitored from the beginning of vessel clamping until the saturation became undetectable. The result was analyzed by the t-test using SSPS ver. 10.0.ResultsThe mean times from the vessel clamping until the saturation became undetectable were 20.19±2.13 seconds and 74.91±10.57 seconds for the artery and vein clamping groups, respectively. The mean time of the clinical alteration from the beginning of vein clamping was 34.5±11.72 minutes, while the alteration in flaps with artery clamping could not be detected until 2.5 hours after clamping.ConclusionsThe use of neonate-type reusable flex sensor-pulse oximetry is objective and effective in early detection of arterial and vein blockage. It provides real-time data on vessel occlusion, which in turn will allow for early salvaging. The detection periods of both arterial occlusion and venous congestion are much earlier than the color alteration one may encounter clinically.

  19. The Relationship between Oxygen Saturation and Color Alteration of a Compromised Skin Flap: Experimental Study on the Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theddeus O. H. Prasetyono

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to collect important data on the time of oxygensaturation change in relation to skin flap color alteration using non-invasive pulse oximetryto evaluate its ability to provide continuous monitoring of skin flap perfusion.Methods An experimental study on the monitoring of blood perfusion of 20 tube-islandgroin flaps of 10 male New Zealand rabbits was performed using pulse oximetry. The animalswere randomly assigned to one of two groups representing a blockage of either arterial orvenous blood flow. The oxygen saturation change and clinical color alteration were monitoredfrom the beginning of vessel clamping until the saturation became undetectable. The resultwas analyzed by the t-test using SSPS ver. 10.0.Results The mean times from the vessel clamping until the saturation became undetectablewere 20.19±2.13 seconds and 74.91±10.57 seconds for the artery and vein clamping groups,respectively. The mean time of the clinical alteration from the beginning of vein clampingwas 34.5±11.72 minutes, while the alteration in flaps with artery clamping could not bedetected until 2.5 hours after clamping.Conclusions The use of neonate-type reusable flex sensor-pulse oximetry is objective andeffective in early detection of arterial and vein blockage. It provides real-time data on vesselocclusion, which in turn will allow for early salvaging. The detection periods of both arterialocclusion and venous congestion are much earlier than the color alteration one may encounterclinically.

  20. Experimental investigation of the relationship between HF radar measurements of currents and the dynamical properties of the upper ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraunie, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Forget P., Barbin Y., Bellomo L., Doglioli, *Lecuyer E., Fraunié P., Malengros D., Marmain J., Molcard A., Petrenko A., Quentin C., *Sentchev A. Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography-MIO UM 110 UTLN - AMU - CNRS/INSU 7294 - IRD 235 BP 20132 F-83957 La Garde cedex *Laboratoire d'Océanologie et Géosciences CNRS UMR 8187 LOG Université du Littoral - Côte d'Opale 32 avenue Foch, 62930 Wimereux The increasing application of HF radio-oceanography for coastal circulation monitoring requires a validation of the radar derived current velocities using independent velocity estimates. Surface currents measured by radar, as they are relative to some finite patch of the sea (the radar cell), depend on the spatial distribution of the current within the radar cell, its time variability, its vertical structure near the surface and the presence of ocean waves. We present an experimental investigation conducted in the NW Mediterranean to measure radial surface currents by HF radar simultaneously to the dynamical properties of the surface ocean. These latter included high resolution current profiling by ADCP, microprofiling of temperature/salinity by SCAMP and Lagrangian velocities from surface drifting buoys. All the data were GPS geo-localized. The current profiling by towed ADCP was performed along the radar beam directions. The poster shows the first results of the experiment and presents samples of the 3D structure of the horizontal current (down to 15m and over some km2) and of the stratification. The spatial distribution of the surface currents is described from Lagrangian measurements. The radar derived surface currents are discussed on the basis of these in situ data. Acknowledgements : This research was supported by the LEFE IMAGO program of CNRS -INSU, project SUBCORAD.

  1. Experimental pain sensitivity in women with temporomandibular disorders and pain-free controls: the relationship to orofacial muscular contraction and cardiovascular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Christine; Vassend, Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2008-05-01

    Chronic pain may result both from a generalized hypersensitivity to acute pain, suggestive of central sensitization processes, and dysfunction of the endogenous pain regulatory system. One purpose of this study was to compare experimental pain sensitivity at several anatomic sites in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients and pain-free controls during baseline and after standardized mechanical load of the orofacial region. A second purpose was to compare the pain-modulating effects of cardiovascular responses in TMD patients and pain-free controls. Experimental pain was induced by electrocutaneous stimulation of the dorsal left hand and pressure algometry at the right masseter muscle and the sternum. The pain sensitivity of the orofacial region was manipulated by isometric contraction of the masseter muscles. Elevations of mean arterial pressure and heart rate were induced by a simulated job interview. At baseline, the TMD patients exhibited a significantly higher electrocutaneous pain threshold. Relative to the healthy controls, the TMD patients reported increased electrocutaneous and pressure pain sensitivity after isometric contraction of the orofacial region. In addition, there were correlations between mean arterial pressure and pain sensitivity in the TMD group only. Significant increases in generalized pain sensitivity occurred in the TMD group, but not in the control group, after isometric contraction of the orofacial muscles, suggestive of a central sensitization process in TMD. Moreover, only in the TMD group there were significant associations between cardiovascular responsesand pain sensitivity, challenging previous assumptions of this relationship occurring mainly in pain-free individuals.

  2. Experimental constraints on the relationship between clay abundance, clay fabric, and frictional behavior for the Central Deforming Zone of the San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojatschke, Jasmaria; Scuderi, Marco M.; Warr, Laurence N.; Carpenter, Brett M.; Saffer, Demian; Marone, Chris

    2016-10-01

    The presence of smectite (saponite) in fault gouge from the Central Deforming Zone of the San Andreas Fault at Parkfield, CA has been linked to low mechanical strength and aseismic slip. However, the precise relationship between clay mineral structure, fabric development, fault strength, and the stability of frictional sliding is not well understood. We address these questions through the integration of laboratory friction tests and FIB-SEM analysis of fault rock recovered from the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) borehole. Intact fault rock was compared with experimentally sheared fault gouge and different proportions of either quartz clasts or SAFOD clasts extracted from the sample. Nano-textural measurements show the development of localized clay particle alignment along shear folia developed within synthetic gouges; such slip planes have multiples of random distribution (MRD) values of 3.0-4.9. The MRD values measured are higher than previous estimates (MRD 1.5) that show lower degrees of shear localization and clay alignment averaged over larger volumes. The intact fault rock exhibits less well-developed nano-clay fabrics than the experimentally sheared materials, and MRD values decrease with smectite content. We show that the abundance, strength, and shape of clasts all influence fabric evolution via strain localization: quartz clasts yield more strongly developed clay fabrics than serpentine-dominated SAFOD clasts. Our results suggest that (1) both clay abundance and the development of nano-scale fabrics play a role in fault zone weakening and (2) aseismic creep is promoted by slip along clay shears with >20 wt % smectite content and MRD values ≥2.7.

  3. [Experimental Approach to Analysis of the Relationship between Food Environments and Lifestyle-Related Diseases, Including Cardiac Hypertrophy, Fatty Liver, and Fatigue Symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Masahisa; Nakakuma, Miwa; Arimura, Emi; Ushikai, Miharu; Yoshida, Goichiro

    2015-01-01

    The food habit is involved in the onset and development of lifestyle-related diseases. In this review I would like to describe a historical case of vitamin B1 deficiency, as well as our case study of fatty acid metabolism abnormality due to carnitine deficiency. In history, the army and navy personnel in Japan at the end of the 19th century received food rations based on a high-carbohydrate diet including white rice, resulting in the onset of beriberi. An epidemiological study by Kenkan Takaki revealed the relationship between the onset of beriberi and rice intake. Then, Takaki was successful in preventing the onset of beriberi by changing the diet. However, the primary cause had yet to be elucidated. Finally, Christian Eijkman established an animal model of beriberi (chickens) showing peripheral neuropathy, and he identified the existence of an anti-beriberi substance, vitamin B1. This is an example of the successful control of a disease by integrating the results of epidemiological and experimental studies. In our study using a murine model of fatty acid metabolism abnormality caused by carnitine deficiency, cardiac abnormality and fatty liver developed depending on the amount of dietary fat. In addition, the mice showed disturbance of orexin neuron activity related to the sleep-arousal system, which is involved in fatigue symptoms under fasting condition, one of the states showing enhanced fatty acid metabolism. These findings suggest that fatty acid toxicity is enhanced when the mice are more dependent on fatty acid metabolism. Almost simultaneously, a human epidemiological study showed that narcolepsy, which is caused by orexin system abnormality, is associated with the polymorphism of the gene coding for carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B, which is involved in carnitine metabolism. To understand the pathological mechanism of fatty acid toxicity, not only an experimental approach using animal models, but also an epidemiological approach is necessary. The

  4. Life cycle of Ornithodoros rostratus (Acari: Argasidae) under experimental conditions and comments on the host-parasite relationship in the Pantanal wetland region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carla Carolina Dias Uzedo; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Piranda, Eliane Mattos; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Leite, Romário Cerqueira

    2013-09-01

    The genus Ornithodoros is represented by 15 species in Brazil, on which no detailed life cycle studies have been published, except for O. talaje and O. mimon. The aim of the present study was to evaluate life cycle parameters of O. rostratus based on ticks collected in the Pantanal wetland region of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, using domestic rabbits as experimental hosts. The periods of pre-attachment and feeding of the larvae lasted an average of 39 min (range 15-76 min). Five or six nymphal instars were found. The emergence of adults started with N3 in the following sequence: N3-two males; N4-13 males; N5-three males and 16 females; and N6-two females. Mean weight of N4 that molted to males was 31.7 ± 13.6 mg, whereas mean weight of N5 that molted to females was 100.1 ± 36.2 mg. The overall sex ratio was 1:1. Oviposition lasted 14 days, with a sharp decline beginning with the 7th day. The overall duration of the life cycle of O. rostratus ranged from approximately 66 to 136 days. Comments on the tick-host relationship in the Pantanal region are offered.

  5. Importance of granulometry on phase evolution and phase-to-phase relationships of experimentally burned impure limestones intended for production of hydraulic lime and/or natural cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovcev, Petr; Přikryl, Richard; Přikrylová, Jiřina

    2015-04-01

    In contrast to modern ordinary Portland cement production from finely ground raw material blends, ancient burning of hydraulic lime was conducted by burning larger pieces of natural raw material. Due to natural variability of raw material composition, exploitation of different beds from even one formation can result the product with significantly different composition and/or properties. Prague basin (Neoproterozoic to pre-Variscan Palaeozoic of the central part of the Bohemian Massif - the so-called Barrandian area, Czech Republic) represents a classical example of the limestone-rich region with long-term history of limestone burning for quick lime and/or various types of hydraulic binders. Due to the fact that burning of natural hydraulic lime has been abandoned in this region at the turn of 19th/20th c., significant gap in knowledge on the behavior of various limestone types and on the influence of minor variance in composition on the quality of burned product is encountered. Moreover, the importance of employment of larger pieces of raw material for burning for the development of proper phase-to-phase relationships (i.e. development of hydraulic phases below sintering temperature at mutual contacts of minerals) has not been examined before. To fill this gap, a representative specimens of major limestone types from the Prague basin have been selected for experimental study: Upper Silurian limestone types (Přídolí and Kopanina Lms.), and Lower Devonian limestones (Radotín, Kotýs, Řeporyje, Dvorce-Prokop, and Zlíchov Lms.). Petrographic character of the experimental material was examined by polarizing microscopy, cathodoluminescence, scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) of insoluble residue. Based on the data from wet silicate analyses, modal composition of studied impure limestones was computed. Experimental raw material was burned in laboratory electric furnace at 1000 and 1200°C for 3

  6. Searching for a Relationship Between Forest Water Use and Increasing Atmospheric CO2 Concentration with Long-Term Hydrologic Data from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amthor, J.S.

    1998-11-01

    Increases in atmospheric C02 concentration from mid-1956 through mid-1997 were compared with hydrologic records from five forested, gaged watersheds in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in New Hampshire, U.S.A. The purpose of the comparison was to assess whether a relationship between increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and whole-ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET) could be determined. The HBEF is particularly well suited to this type of study because of the length of the hydrologic record and the physical properties of the watersheds. This analysis is based on HBEF water years (which begin 1 June and end the following 31 May) rather than calendar years. Hydrologic records from individual watersheds used in this analysis ranged from 28 to 41 water years. During the full 41-water-year period, it is estimated that water-year mean atmospheric CO2 concentration increased more than 15% (from about 314 to 363 ppm). In one south-facing watershed (i.e., HBEF watershed 3), there was a statistically significant negative relationship between atmospheric C02 concentration and ET. This translated into a nearly 77 rnndyear reduction in ET as a result of a 50 ppm increase in atmospheric C02 concentration, a result of practical significance. Evapotranspiration from the other watersheds was also negatively related to atmospheric CO2 concentration, but with smaller (and statistically insignificant) magnitudes. Evapotranspiration from the three south-facing (but not the two north-facing) watersheds included in the analysis was "abnormally" low during the most recent 2 years (i.e., water years beginning in 1995 and 1996), and this affected the trends in ET. This recent and abrupt, reduction in ET deserves further analysis, most importantly by an extension of the hydrologic record through continued long-term monitoring in the HBEF (which is ongoing). If ET remains relatively low during the coming years in south-facing watersheds, studies of the physical and/or biological

  7. Relationship between apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) and soil attributes at an experimental parcel under pasture in a region of Galicia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Mara de A.; Dafonte, Jorge D.; Armesto, Montserrat V.; Paz-González, Antonio; Raposo, Juan R.

    2013-04-01

    Spatial characterization of the variability of soil properties is a central point in site-specific agricultural management and precision agriculture. Geospatial measures of geophysical attributes are useful not only to rapidly characterize the spatial variability of soil properties but also for soil sampling optimization. This work reports partial results obtained at an experimental parcel under pasture located at Castro de Ribeira do Lea (Lugo/ Galicia/ Spain). An ECa automated survey was conducted in September 2011 employing an EM-38 DD (Geonics Ltd.) installed in a nonmetallic car, according to parallel lines spaced 10m one from each other and oriented at the east-west direction. The ECa values were recorded every second with a field computer and the locations were geo-referenced using a GPS. The entire survey was carried out in 1hour and 45 minutes and corrections due to differences in temperature were made. A total of 9.581 ECa registers were retained, configuring a sampling intensity of approximately 1 register per 1.5 m2. Employing the software ESAP 2.35 and the computational tool ESAP-RSSD, eighty positions were selected at the field to extract disturbed and undisturbed soil samples at two depths: 0.0-0.2m, 0.2-0.4m. Ten physical attributes (clay, silt, total sand, coarse sand and fine sand contents, soil bulk density, particle density, total porosity, soil water content, percentage of gravels) and 17 chemical attributes (soil organic matter-SOM, pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, Al, H+Al, Sum of bases-S, Cation exchange capacity-CEC, Base saturation-V%, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined. The relationship between the geophysical variables and the soil attributes was performed using statistical and spatial analysis. There were significant correlations (pmanagement zones in the area. Acknowledgements: This work was funded in part by Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN) in the frame of project CGL2009-13700-C02. Financial support from CAPES

  8. Examining the Relationship between Psychosocial and Behavioral Proxies for Future Consumption Behavior: Self-Reported Impact and Bidding Behavior in an Experimental Auction Study on Cigarette Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousu, Matthew C.; Thrasher, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental and observational research often involves asking consumers to self-report the impact of some proposed option. Because self-reported responses involve no consequence to the respondent for falsely revealing how he or she feels about an issue, self-reports may be subject to social desirability and other influences that bias responses in…

  9. Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Part 2. Patch test relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy, experimental provocation tests, amount of formaldehyde released, and assessment of risk to consumers allergic to formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Anton; White, Ian R; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2010-01-01

    This is the second part of an article on formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics. The patch test relationship between the releasers in cosmetics to formaldehyde contact allergy is reviewed and it is assessed whether products preserved with formaldehyde-releasers may contain enough free formaldehyde to pose a threat to individuals with contact allergy to formaldehyde. There is a clear relationship between positive patch test reactions to formaldehyde-releasers and formaldehyde contact allergy: 15% of all reactions to 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and 40-60% of the reactions to the other releasers are caused by a reaction to the formaldehyde in the test material. There is only fragmented data on the amount of free formaldehyde in cosmetics preserved with formaldehyde donors. However, all releasers (with the exception of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, for which adequate data are lacking) can, in the right circumstances of concentration and product composition, release >200 p.p.m. formaldehyde, which may result in allergic contact dermatitis. Whether this is actually the case in any particular product cannot be determined from the ingredient labelling. Therefore, we recommend advising patients allergic to formaldehyde to avoid leave-on cosmetics preserved with quaternium-15, diazolidinyl urea, DMDM hydantoin, or imidazolidinyl urea, acknowledging that many would tolerate some products.

  10. Experimental warming in a dryland community reduced plant photosynthesis and soil CO2 efflux although the relationship between the fluxes remained unchanged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertin, Timothy M.; Belnap, Jayne; Reed, Sasha C.

    2016-01-01

    1. Drylands represent our planet's largest terrestrial biome and, due to their extensive area, maintain large stocks of carbon (C). Accordingly, understanding how dryland C cycling will respond to climate change is imperative for accurately forecasting global C cycling and future climate. However, it remains difficult to predict how increased temperature will affect dryland C cycling, as substantial uncertainties surround the potential responses of the two main C fluxes: plant photosynthesis and soil CO2 efflux. In addition to a need for an improved understanding of climate effects on individual dryland C fluxes, there is also notable uncertainty regarding how climate change may influence the relationship between these fluxes.2. To address this important knowledge gap, we measured a growing season's in situphotosynthesis, plant biomass accumulation, and soil CO2 efflux of mature Achnatherum hymenoides (a common and ecologically important C3 bunchgrass growing throughout western North America) exposed to ambient or elevated temperature (+2°C above ambient, warmed via infrared lamps) for three years.3. The 2°C increase in temperature caused a significant reduction in photosynthesis, plant growth, and soil CO2 efflux. Of important note, photosynthesis and soil respiration appeared tightly coupled and the relationship between these fluxes was not altered by the elevated temperature treatment, suggesting C fixation's strong control of both above-ground and below-ground dryland C cycling. Leaf water use efficiency was substantially increased in the elevated temperature treatment compared to the control treatment.4. Taken together, our results suggest notable declines in photosynthesis with relatively subtle warming, reveal strong coupling between above- and below-ground C fluxes in this dryland, and highlight temperature's strong effect on fundamental components of dryland C and water cycles.

  11. Development of an experimental model to study the relationship between day-to-day variability in blood pressure and aortic stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille eBouissou-Schurtz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to develop an animal model of long-term blood pressure variability (BPV and to investigate its consequences on aortic damage. We hypothesized that day-to-day BPV produced by discontinuous treatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR by valsartan may increase arterial stiffness. For that purpose, rats were discontinuously treated, 2 days a week, or continuously treated by valsartan (30 mg/kg/d in chow or placebo. Telemetered BP was recorded during 2 minutes every 15 min, 3 days a week during 8 weeks to cover the full BP variations in response to the treatment schedule. Pulse wave velocity (PWV and aortic structure evaluated by immunohistochemistry were investigated in a second set of rats treated under the same conditions. Continuous treatment with valsartan reduced systolic BP (SBP and reversed the aortic structural alterations observed in placebo treated SHR (decrease of medial cross-sectional area. Discontinuous treatment with valsartan decreased SBP to a similar extent but increased the day-to-day blood pressure variability, short term BPV, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and PWV as compared with continuous treatment. Despite no modifications in the elastin/collagen ratio and aortic thickness, an increase in PWV was observed following discontinuous treatment and was associated with a specific accumulation of fibronectin and its av-integrin receptor compared with both groups of rats. Taken together the present results indicate that a discontinuous treatment with valsartan is able to induce a significant increase in day-to-day blood pressure variability coupled to an aortic phenotype close to that observed in hypertension. This experimental model should pave the way for future experimental and clinical studies aimed at assessing how long-term BPV increases aortic stiffness.

  12. Relationship of locus of control with plaque and gingival status before and after oral health education in a group of college students - an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdar, S; Lakshminarayan, N; Goud Reddy, S

    2015-02-01

    In health psychology, several models are being constructed to understand human behaviour. Multidimensional health locus of control (MHLC) is one among them. We sought to know the relationship of MHLC with dental plaque and gingival status before and after oral health education programme among 286 college students, aged 18-21 years in Davangere city. Multidimensional health locus of control questionnaire consisting of questions measuring internal health locus of control (IHLC), powerful others health locus of control (PHLC) and chance health locus of control (CHLC) was administered to students. Dental plaque and gingival health status were recorded using Plaque Index (PLI) and Gingival Index (GI), 1967. Oral health education was provided using power point presentation after the baseline oral examination. After 10 weeks of intervention, the students were given the same proforma followed by the assessment of plaque and gingival status. A negative correlation was observed between PHLC and IHLC with PLI and GI and positive correlation of CHLC with PLI and GI at a level of P health education was found to be effective and this could change the behaviour of individuals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Changes in leukocyte subsets of pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladinig, Andrea; Gerner, Wilhelm; Saalmüller, Armin; Lunney, Joan K; Ashley, Carolyn; Harding, John C S

    2014-12-14

    In spite of more than two decades of extensive research, the understanding of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) immunity is still incomplete. A PRRSv infection of the late term pregnant female can result in abortions, early farrowings, fetal death, and the birth of weak, congenitally infected piglets. The objectives of the present study were to investigate changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations in third trimester pregnant females infected with type 2 PRRSv (NVSL 97-7895) and to analyze potential relationships with viral load and fetal mortality rate. PRRSv infection caused a massive, acute drop in total leukocyte counts affecting all PBMC populations by two days post infection. Except for B cells, cell counts started to rebound by day six post infection. Our data also show a greater decrease of naïve B cells, T-helper cells and cytolytic T cells than their respective effector or memory counterparts. Absolute numbers of T cells and γδ T cells were negatively associated with PRRSv RNA concentration in gilt serum over time. Additionally, absolute numbers of T helper cells may be predictive of fetal mortality rate. The preceding three leukocyte populations may therefore be predictive of PRRSv-related pathological outcomes in pregnant gilts. Although many questions regarding the immune responses remain unanswered, these findings provide insight and clues that may help reduce the impact of PRRSv in pregnant gilts.

  14. The Relationship of K2O and Na­2O in the Generation of Alkaline Magmas: An Experimental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Conceição, Rommulo; Grings Cedeño, Daniel; de Souza, Márcio Roberto Wilbert

    2017-04-01

    The generation of alkaline magmas by mantle sources has been subject of intense debates in the last few decades. Several experimental studies have been developed to better understand the conditions to generate such magmas, but these works considered the influence of K2¬O and Na2O separately. We conducted a series of experiments under HPHT conditions on a hydraulic press with coupled toroidal chambers (at 4.0 GPa and temperatures between 1100oC and 1400oC) on the systems nepheline-leucite-diopside and kalsilite-leucite-diopside, at anhydrous conditions, to understand how the activity alkaline elements, with different silica concentrations, behave in mantle conditions. The experiments were analyzed ex situ with X-ray diffraction, SEM-EDS, and EPMA-WDS. Our results show that a thermal high separating ultrapotassic from potassic and sodic liquids exist in such conditions, and that this thermal high helps us to understand how alkaline rocks are formed through time and space, since that a specific relation exist between potassic and sodic rocks. This is also due to a positive relation between the concentration of silica in the system and the activity of K2O.

  15. Experimental facts supporting a red marrow uptake due to radiometal transchelation in {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC therapy and relationship to the decrease of platelet counts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walrand, Stephan; Barone, Raffaella; Pauwels, Stanislas; Jamar, Francois [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Centre de Medecine Nucleaire, Brussels (Belgium)

    2011-07-15

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate whether the red marrow (RM) takes up {sup 111}In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-D-Phe{sup 1}-octreotide and {sup 86}Y-DOTATOC and to assess the correlation between the RM absorbed doses and platelet count reduction as a biological dose estimate. Data from 12 patients who underwent at 24 h p.i. high statistics {sup 111}In single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and {sup 86}Y positron emission tomography (PET) acquisitions of the chest were analysed. Uptake was measured on >7 cm spine length and converted to total RM uptake using standard RM distribution in man. RM absorbed doses were calculated assuming specific RM uptake and using the plasma and remainder of the body models. RM doses were correlated with the platelet count reduction at 4 weeks. In vitro experiments explored the metabolism of {sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1}-octreotide and {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC in plasma. The correlation between the uptake of both tracers was excellent (R = 0.80), indicating that RM uptake of {sup 86}Y-DOTATOC reflects a real physiological process and not reconstruction artefacts. The kinetics of {sup 86}Y-DOTATOC RM activity was different than that in blood and tumours, with no activity at 4 h p.i. indicating that the uptake is not somatostatin receptor dependent. In vitro experiments showed a transchelation of both radiometals to free transferrin that could explain the RM uptake. In patients without chemotherapy and with a normal platelet count recovery, a good correlation (R = 0.96) was found between the RM doses and the platelet count reduction at the nadir. These experimental facts support the existence of a true RM uptake likely related to transchelation of the radiometal to transferrin. RM uptake correlates well with the observed acute RM toxicity. (orig.)

  16. Experimental models of porcine post-weaning colibacillosis and their relationship to post-weaning diarrhoea and digestive disorders as encountered in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madec, F; Bridoux, N; Bounaix, S; Cariolet, R; Duval-Iflah, Y; Hampson, D J; Jestin, A

    2000-03-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a reliable model system of porcine post-weaning colibacillosis, and in doing so to assess the primary relationship of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to post-weaning diarrhoea and digestive disorders as encountered in the field. Six sequential experiments were carried out using 168 SPF piglets weaned into an optimal controlled environment at 28 days of age. The piglets were allocated to 23 treatment groups, 17 of which were inoculated either orally or intragastrically with enterotoxigenic strains of E. coli (LT+, STI+, STII+) possessing adhesive factors including K88 (F4). The piglets were challenged either once (Day 4 post-weaning) or on several days post-weaning, with the challenge load for each inoculation varying from 10(8) to 10(12) CFU. Overall 14.5% of inoculated pigs developed severe illness and died: these had lesions in their digestive tracts typical of colibacillosis. Diarrhoea occurred on at least 1 day in 50% of inoculated pigs, but was transient (1.7 days on average), appeared very soon after challenge (sometimes within half a day), and was accompanied by signs of depression and low weight gain. Generally a prompt recovery then occurred. In the second 2 weeks post-inoculation daily weight gain reached the same level in most inoculated groups of pigs as in the uninoculated controls. Only a small number of pigs developed a chronic enteritis lasting several days, as is typically observed in field cases. Diarrhoea was more common in the piglets that were tested adhesive positive to the K88 fimbriae receptor, but the disorders were no more severe in these animals. The response of all pigs depended primarily on the inoculum used, and especially on the challenge load. Although enterotoxigenic E. coli are clearly important in the aetiology of post-weaning diarrhoea, other factors are also required for the production of the chronic post-weaning digestive disorders and ill-thrift that are commonly encountered in commercial

  17. Dynamics and evolution of tree populations and soil-vegetation relationships in Fogscapes: Observations over a period of 14 years at the experimental sites of Meija (Peru).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbitano, F.; Calamini, G.; Certini, G.; Ortega, A.; Pierguidi, A.; Villasante, L.; Caceres, R.; Coaguila, D.; Delgado, M.

    2010-07-01

    The Fogscapes, i.e. fog-dependent landscapes, and the sub mountain drylands of the Pacific Coast from Ecuador to Northern Chile are amongst the most fragile regions of the planet. The so-called "Lomas" (i.e. Hills) ecosystems are characterised by pre-desertic flora and vegetation where the plant phenological pattern coincides with the fog season from June to December every year. The occurance of ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) affects these ecosystems inducing, occasionally, a sudden change in the characteristics of the vegetation. Relics of low-density woodlands dominated by Caesalpinea spinosa and scattered trees of the same species (which during the fog season appear as savannah-like ecosystems) are still present but becoming increasingly rare due to past and present overgrazing In the experimental site of Las Cuchillas, located on the coastal hills close to Meija (Dept. Arequipa, South Peru) trees of native species (Caesalpinaea spinosa and Prosopis pallida) and exotic species (Acacia saligna, Casuarina equisetifolia, Parkinsonia aculeata) were planted in 1996, in order to look at the rehabilitation potential of the degraded "lomas" ecosystems. This paper deals with the results observed over a period of 14 years’ of tree growth patterns and the related results concerning the soil and habitat dynamics. Among indigenous species Caesalpinea spinosa shows the heighest rate of survival even if the height increment is low and the tree crowns tend to dry out at a height of approximately two metres, followed by the appearance of new shoots produced during the course of the seasons. The exotic Acacia saligna shows the maximum height, diameter and crown volume increments. The habitat conditions, both in term of diversity / frequency of plant and animal populations, and plant cover (LAI estimated by processing fish-eye lens images) have changed substantially over the years. A number of samples from the top mineral soil and random samples from the forest floor were

  18. Experimental investigation of relationship between trauma and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rats were randomly divided into three groups each containing 10 rats as follows: Group 1 (traumatic extraction group), Group 2 (atraumatic extraction group), and Group 3 (control group). All groups, zoledronic acid (ZA) (0.3 mg/kg/week)[1] was diluted with physiological saline and given subcutaneously for 2 months.

  19. Experimental investigation of relationship between trauma and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-23

    Apr 23, 2014 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Sep-Oct 2014 • Vol 17 • Issue 5. Abstract. Background: Bisphosphonate (BP)-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) disease is rare, but there are serious side-effects of BP therapy in patients. In some patients, surgery is needed and could not be cured. A standard ...

  20. Experimental investigation of relationship between trauma and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related osteonecrosis. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, ...

  1. Experimental Research in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Mauro Hernandez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the growing number of scientific studies published in the marketing field and the development of unique theories of the area (Hunt, 2010, using experimental designs seems increasingly appropriate to investigate marketing phenomena. This article aims to discuss the main elements in conducting experimental studies and also to stimulate researchers to adopt this research method. Several international journals (e.g., JCR, JCP, JMR, JR, JBR have been publishing articles based on experiments that not only demonstrate a relationship between two events, but also elucidate how they occur by means of mediation and moderation analyses. This article intents to be a roadmap for novice researchers on how to conduct experiments and to offer new perspectives in experimental research for experienced researchers.  

  2. Experimental philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobe, Joshua; Buckwalter, Wesley; Nichols, Shaun; Robbins, Philip; Sarkissian, Hagop; Sommers, Tamler

    2012-01-01

    Experimental philosophy is a new interdisciplinary field that uses methods normally associated with psychology to investigate questions normally associated with philosophy. The present review focuses on research in experimental philosophy on four central questions. First, why is it that people's moral judgments appear to influence their intuitions about seemingly nonmoral questions? Second, do people think that moral questions have objective answers, or do they see morality as fundamentally relative? Third, do people believe in free will, and do they see free will as compatible with determinism? Fourth, how do people determine whether an entity is conscious?

  3. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  4. Experimental macroevolution†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Graham

    2016-01-01

    The convergence of several disparate research programmes raises the possibility that the long-term evolutionary processes of innovation and radiation may become amenable to laboratory experimentation. Ancestors might be resurrected directly from naturally stored propagules or tissues, or indirectly from the expression of ancestral genes in contemporary genomes. New kinds of organisms might be evolved through artificial selection of major developmental genes. Adaptive radiation can be studied by mimicking major ecological transitions in the laboratory. All of these possibilities are subject to severe quantitative and qualitative limitations. In some cases, however, laboratory experiments may be capable of illuminating the processes responsible for the evolution of new kinds of organisms. PMID:26763705

  5. Epistemological Dizziness in the Psychology Laboratory: Lively Subjects, Anxious Experimenters, and Experimental Relations, 1950-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawski, Jill

    2015-09-01

    Since the demise of introspective techniques in the early twentieth century, experimental psychology has largely assumed an administrative arrangement between experimenters and subjects wherein subjects respond to experimenters' instructions and experimenters meticulously constrain that relationship through experimental controls. During the postwar era this standard arrangement came to be questioned, initiating reflections that resonated with Cold War anxieties about the nature of the subjects and the experimenters alike. Albeit relatively short lived, these interrogations of laboratory relationships gave rise to unconventional testimonies and critiques of experimental method and epistemology. Researchers voiced serious concerns about the honesty and normality of subjects, the politics of the laboratory, and their own experimental conduct. Their reflective commentaries record the intimacy of subject and experimenter relations and the plentiful cultural materials that constituted the experimental situation, revealing the permeable boundaries between laboratory and everyday life.

  6. Experimental macroevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Graham

    2016-01-13

    The convergence of several disparate research programmes raises the possibility that the long-term evolutionary processes of innovation and radiation may become amenable to laboratory experimentation. Ancestors might be resurrected directly from naturally stored propagules or tissues, or indirectly from the expression of ancestral genes in contemporary genomes. New kinds of organisms might be evolved through artificial selection of major developmental genes. Adaptive radiation can be studied by mimicking major ecological transitions in the laboratory. All of these possibilities are subject to severe quantitative and qualitative limitations. In some cases, however, laboratory experiments may be capable of illuminating the processes responsible for the evolution of new kinds of organisms. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. The philosophy of scientific experimentation: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Practicing and studying automated experimentation may benefit from philosophical reflection on experimental science in general. This paper reviews the relevant literature and discusses central issues in the philosophy of scientific experimentation. The first two sections present brief accounts of the rise of experimental science and of its philosophical study. The next sections discuss three central issues of scientific experimentation: the scientific and philosophical significance of intervention and production, the relationship between experimental science and technology, and the interactions between experimental and theoretical work. The concluding section identifies three issues for further research: the role of computing and, more specifically, automating, in experimental research, the nature of experimentation in the social and human sciences, and the significance of normative, including ethical, problems in experimental science. PMID:20098589

  8. Experimental music for experimental physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    Using the sonification technique, physicist and composer Domenico Vicinanza paid homage to CERN at its 60th anniversary ceremony. After months of hard work, he turned the CERN Convention and LHC data into music.   Click here to download the full score of the "LHChamber music". Every birthday deserves gifts and CERN’s 60th anniversary was no exception. Two gifts were very special, thanks to the hard work of Domenico Vicinanza, a physicist and composer. He created two experimental pieces by applying the sonification technique to the CERN Convention and to data recorded by the four LHC detectors during Run 1. “This technique allows us to ‘hear’ data using an algorithm that translates numbers or letters into notes. It keeps the same information enclosed in a graph or a document, but has a more aesthetic exposition,” explains Domenico Vicinanza. “The result is meant to be a metaphor for scientific cooperation, in which d...

  9. Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Activity in the Host-Tumor Microenvironment of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Holson EB, Khabele D, Hiebert SW. HDAC3 is essential for the maintenance of chromatin structure and genome stability. Cancer Cell 18: 436-47, 2010... aspirin (ASA) in COX-1 positive ovarian cancer cells through augmentation of p21. Cancer Biol. Ther. 9: 928-35, 2010. PMID: 20404564 11. Wilson AJ, Chueh...elucidate effects of disrupting activity of COX-1 in ovarian cancer cells and platelets via aspirin on progression of ovarian cancer. The ability of

  10. Messy Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    -giving as a continuous and negotiated process between actors whose actions and utterances have implications for the relationships between state, market and civil society. The paper first outlines a theoretical and methodological approach that connects ANT and microhistory with conceptual history and focuses on how...... the messy relationship between state, market and civil society. The overall aim of this paper is through an empirical analysis of philanthropic gift-giving to show how a combination of elements from microhistory, ANT and conceptual history contribute to the study of messiness....

  11. Kin Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Dykstra (Pearl)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractKin relationships are traditionally defined as ties based on blood and marriage. They include lineal generational bonds (children, parents, grandparents, and great-grandparents), collateral bonds (siblings, cousins, nieces and nephews, and aunts and uncles), and ties with in-laws. An

  12. Abusive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... advice. loveisrespect.org : 1-866-331-9474 National Domestic Violence Hotline : 1-800-799-SAFE (7233) National Sexual ... Rape National Latino Alliance for the Elimination of Domestic Violence If you’re concerned about abusive relationships, here’s ...

  13. Highly distorted uranyl ion coordination and one/two-dimensional structural relationship in the Ba2[UO2(TO4)2] (T = P, As) system: an experimental and computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shijun; Kowalski, Piotr M; Yu, Na; Malcherek, Thomas; Depmeier, Wulf; Bosbach, Dirk; Wang, Shuao; Suleimanov, Evgeny V; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E; Alekseev, Evgeny V

    2014-07-21

    Uranium compounds α-Ba2[UO2(PO4)2] (1), β-Ba2[UO2(PO4)2] (2), and Ba2[UO2(AsO4)2] (3) were synthesized by H3BO3/B2O3 flux reactions, though boron is not incorporated into the structures. Phases 1 and 2 are topologically identical, but 1 is heavily distorted with respect to 2. An unusual UO7 pentagonal bipyramid occurs in 1, exhibiting a highly distorted equatorial configuration and significant bending of the uranyl group, due to edge-sharing with one neighboring PO4(3-) tetrahedron. Compound 2 contains more normal square bipyramids that share corners with four neighboring PO4(3-) tetrahedra, but the uranyl cation UO2(2+) is tilted relative to the equatorial plane. Experimental evidence as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that 1 is more stable than 2. In theory, 1 and 2 can interconvert by forming/releasing the shared edge between the uranyl polyhedron and the phosphate tetrahedron. Similar fundamental building blocks in β-Ba2[UO2(PO4)2] and Ba2[UO2(AsO4)2] indicate a possible evolution of uranyl-based structures from chain to layer type and formation of an accretional series.

  14. Machiavellianism, Relationship Satisfaction, and Romantic Relationship Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Brewer, G; Abell, L

    2017-01-01

    Machiavellianism is characterised by a manipulative interpersonal style, willingness to exploit others, and a preference for emotionally detached relationships. The present studies investigate the extent to which Machiavellianism influences relationship satisfaction and romantic relationship quality. In study 1, 194 heterosexual partnered women completed Machiavellianism and Relationship Satisfaction measures. Women with higher levels of Machiavellianism reported lower levels of relationship ...

  15. Relationships matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyanja, Tabitha Alexandria Njeri; Tulinius, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    women experienced conflicts, violence, abandonment and rejection. The loss in negotiating power for the women was in relation to their intimate partners, but also in the patient–healthcare provider relationship. The role of the male partner as a barrier to contraceptive use cannot be understated......Efforts to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Tanzania are guided by a four-prong strategy advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO). Prong 2, prevention of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV, has, however, received the least attention and contraceptive use...... to prevent unintended pregnancies remains low. This study explored the perceived barriers to the use of modern methods of contraception, and factors influencing contraceptive choice among HIV-positive women in urban Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. A qualitative multi-site study was conducted, utilising in...

  16. Digital Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledborg Hansen, Richard

    -­‐Jones, 2011) for increases in effectiveness and efficiency we indiscriminately embrace digital communication and digitized information dissemination with enthusiasm – at the risk of ignoring the potentially dark side of technology. However, technology also holds a promise for better understanding precisely...... of residual deposits from technology in organizations and its effect on individuals ability to connect to one another. Based on the case study the paper describes indications and suggests potential implication hereof. Given the inherent enhancement possibilities of technology our expectation for entertainment......-­rich information and highly interesting communication are sky-­high and rising. With a continuous increase in digitized communication follows a decrease in face-­to-­face encounters and our ability to engage in inter-­personal relationships are suffering for it (Davis, 2013). The behavior described in this paper...

  17. TAX LEGAL RELATIONSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Narcis Eduard MITU; Alia Gabriela DUŢĂ

    2012-01-01

    The legal relationship is a patrimonial or non-patrimonial social relationship regulated by a rule of law. Any legal relationship is a social relationship, but not any social relationship is a legal relationship. The law maker has the power to select, of the multitude of human relationships, those who gives importance in terms of legal perspective, encoding them through legal regulations.

  18. Experimental Engineering: Articulating and Valuing Design Experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Grönvall, Erik; Fritsch, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we propose Experimental Engineering as a way to articulate open- ended technological experiments as a legitimate design research practice. Experimental Engineering introduces a move away from an outcome or result driven design process towards an interest in existing technologies...

  19. Experimental Standards in Sustainability Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara Anne

    of technological standards for sustainable building. Launching from a critical realist social ontology, I collected ethnographic data on the Active House Alliance, its cofounder VELUX, and three of their demonstration building projects in Austria, Germany, and Belgium over the course of three years from 2013......In this thesis I address how experimental standards are used in the new governance paradigm to further sustainability transitions. Focusing on the case of the Active House standard in the building sector, I investigate experimental standards in three research papers examining the following dynamics......: (1) the relationship between commensuration and legitimacy in the formulation and diffusion of a standard’s specifications; (2) the role of awareness in standardizing green default rules to establish sustainable consumption in buildings; and (3) the significance of focus on humans in the development...

  20. Design approaches to experimental mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirlott, Angela G; MacKinnon, David P

    2016-09-01

    Identifying causal mechanisms has become a cornerstone of experimental social psychology, and editors in top social psychology journals champion the use of mediation methods, particularly innovative ones when possible (e.g. Halberstadt, 2010, Smith, 2012). Commonly, studies in experimental social psychology randomly assign participants to levels of the independent variable and measure the mediating and dependent variables, and the mediator is assumed to causally affect the dependent variable. However, participants are not randomly assigned to levels of the mediating variable(s), i.e., the relationship between the mediating and dependent variables is correlational. Although researchers likely know that correlational studies pose a risk of confounding, this problem seems forgotten when thinking about experimental designs randomly assigning participants to levels of the independent variable and measuring the mediator (i.e., "measurement-of-mediation" designs). Experimentally manipulating the mediator provides an approach to solving these problems, yet these methods contain their own set of challenges (e.g., Bullock, Green, & Ha, 2010). We describe types of experimental manipulations targeting the mediator (manipulations demonstrating a causal effect of the mediator on the dependent variable and manipulations targeting the strength of the causal effect of the mediator) and types of experimental designs (double randomization, concurrent double randomization, and parallel), provide published examples of the designs, and discuss the strengths and challenges of each design. Therefore, the goals of this paper include providing a practical guide to manipulation-of-mediator designs in light of their challenges and encouraging researchers to use more rigorous approaches to mediation because manipulation-of-mediator designs strengthen the ability to infer causality of the mediating variable on the dependent variable.

  1. HIRENASD Experimental Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Experimental Data for HIRENASD configuration Zip files below contain the experimental data for the pressure coefficients, both the static and the forced oscillation...

  2. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  3. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-01-01

    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  4. Gratitude: prompting behaviours that build relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Monica Y; Condon, Paul; Cruz, Jourdan; Baumann, Jolie; Desteno, David

    2012-01-01

    The emotion gratitude is argued to play a pivotal role in building and maintaining social relationships. Evidence is accumulating that links gratitude to increases in relationship satisfaction. Yet, there is currently little evidence for how gratitude does this. The present paper provides experimental evidence of gratitude facilitating relationship-building behaviours. Study 1 provides evidence that gratitude promotes social affiliation, leading one to choose to spend time with a benefactor. Study 2 offers further evidence of gratitude's ability to strengthen relationships by showing that gratitude facilitates socially inclusive behaviours, preferentially towards one's benefactor, even when those actions come at a cost to oneself.

  5. Microexperiencia Educativa (Microeducational Experimentation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton Meis, Roberto

    1970-01-01

    Experimentation for educational reform in Argentina is limited to specifically designated schools which are to be in a permanent state of experimentation. This article presents the official statements designating the experimental schools and includes remarks covering administration, evaluation, and supervision. (VM)

  6. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhatt, J

    2012-01-01

    ... or in human volunteers. Thus, an experimental pharmacology using animal models continues to be the starting point for a new drug research. The book Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology by Dr. M. N. Ghosh has really been a cornerstone for postgraduate students and researchers engaged in animal experimentation. It has always been useful for pos...

  7. Experimental effects of exposure to pornography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Malamuth, Neil N

    2015-01-01

    supporting violence against women (ASV). We found that lower levels of agreeableness and higher levels of past pornography consumption significantly predicted ASV. In addition, experimental exposure to pornography increased ASV but only among men low in agreeableness. This relationship was found...... the hierarchical confluence model of sexual aggression and the media literature on affective engagement and priming effects....

  8. The Effects of a Premarital Relationship Enrichment Program on Relationship Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Tugba; Kalkan, Melek

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a premarital relationship enrichment program on relationship satisfaction among couples. The experimental and control groups were totally composed of 20 individuals. In order to test whether there are any significant differences between the scores of pre-test and post-test within the control…

  9. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  10. Transonic Experimental Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Transonic Experimental Research Facility evaluates aerodynamics and fluid dynamics of projectiles, smart munitions systems, and sub-munitions dispensing systems;...

  11. Does experimental research support psychoanalysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David

    2011-12-01

    The question of whether a psychodynamic view is compatible with experimental research is still a challenging issue-especially for child and adolescent psychopathology-despite the influence of psychoanalytic theory in this field until the 1980s. In this article, is explored the relationship between psychodynamic theory and experimental research using examples of evidence-based studies in the fields of (i) psychotherapeutic intervention assessment, (ii) placebo response in children and adolescents, (iii) unconscious lasting traumatic effects in children and adolescents, (iv) psychodynamic-oriented psychological testing. There are now a sufficient number of evidence-based studies to support the use of psychodynamic therapy in mental disorders, particularly in personality disorder and anxious/depressive disorder. In addition, placebo responses in children and adolescents with internalizing disorders are significantly higher in major depression compared to obsessive-compulsive disorder or other anxiety disorders, which highlights differential psychopathologies regarding the experience of loss. Also, using an experimental task, psychoanalysts are able to identify, without explicit knowledge and above the level of chance, healthy adults whose siblings had experienced cancer during childhood. This experiment suggests that implicit information regarding a participant's history is conveyed in interpersonal exchanges that can be intuitively perceived by judges experienced in listening to free associations from a psychodynamic perspective. Finally, psychodynamic-oriented psychological testing may predict the transition to schizophrenia in adolescents with a history of manic/mixed episodes. It can be concluded that there are no discrepancies between psychodynamic views and experimental data, whether one tests psychotherapeutic approaches, discusses data from other fields such as psychopharmacology, or designs experiments based on psychodynamic theory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  12. Patterns of shading tolerance determined from experimental light reduction studies of seagrasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extensive review of the experimental literature on seagrass shading evaluated the relationship between experimental light reductions, duration of experiment and seagrass response metrics to determine whether there were consistent statistical patterns. There were highly signif...

  13. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghosh, M

    2007-01-01

    ... to its unique approach in comparison to other books available on Experimental pharmacology. The main purpose of this book was to give a theoretical background followed by the appropriate experimental techniques. The late Prof. H. O. Schild, then Professor of Pharmacology, University College London in his brief introduction to the first editi...

  14. Theory-laden experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    The thesis of theory-ladenness of observations, in its various guises, is widely considered as either ill-conceived or harmless to the rationality of science. The latter view rests partly on the work of the proponents of New Experimentalism who have argued, among other things, that experimental p...

  15. Introduction: Experimental Green Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research.......Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research....

  16. Strength of Experimental Grouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

     The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....... The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....

  17. A Relationship Strategy Perspective on Relationship Portfolios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Andersen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The paper develops a three-dimensional portfolio model for business relationships which distinguishes among six different categories. Based on assessments of customer profitability, customer commitment, and growth potential, the positioning of a given customer relationship in the portfolio allows...... managers to determine appropriate customer relationship strategies and appropriate performance indicators. Results from applying the portfolio model are reported and managerial implications and future research are discussed....

  18. Puppet Masters in the Lab : Experimental Methods in Leadership Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietzschel, Eric; Wisse, Barbara; Rus, Diana; Schyns, Birgit; Hall, Rosalie; Neves, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The use of experimental research methods can be of great benefit to researchers who want to gain more insight into causal relationships in leadership processes. In this chapter, we first explain which experimental paradigms and methods are often used by leadership researchers (e.g., vignette

  19. Design Issues and Inference in Experimental L2 Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Thom; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Explicit attention to research design issues is essential in experimental second language (L2) research. Too often, however, such careful attention is not paid. This article examines some of the issues surrounding experimental L2 research and its relationships to causal inferences. It discusses the place of research questions and hypotheses,…

  20. Puppet Masters in the Lab : Experimental Methods in Leadership Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietzschel, Eric; Wisse, Barbara; Rus, Diana; Schyns, Birgit; Hall, Rosalie; Neves, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    The use of experimental research methods can be of great benefit to researchers who want to gain more insight into causal relationships in leadership processes. In this chapter, we first explain which experimental paradigms and methods are often used by leadership researchers (e.g., vignette

  1. Personality and Sibling Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Lanthier, Richard P.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the role personality variables play in sibling relationships. It proposed that the characteristics of sibling relationships are influenced by: family constellation variables such as birth order, gender, and age spacing; parent-child relationships including quality of relationship and parent management of siblings; and the…

  2. Development of Adolescent Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    de Goede, I.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation on “Development of Adolescent Relationships” addresses relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners in adolescence from a developmental perspective. By studying both parent-adolescent relationships and peer relationships at the same time, as well as interrelations between these types of relationships, this dissertation provides more information on the processes taking place in relationships during adolescence. Findings indicate that parent-adolescent relationsh...

  3. Experimental approaches and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Crasemann, Bernd

    1975-01-01

    Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, Volume II: Experimental Approaches and Applications focuses on the physics of atomic inner shells, with emphasis on experimental aspects including the use of radioactive atoms for studies of atomic transition probabilities. Surveys of modern techniques of electron and photon spectrometry are also presented, and selected practical applications of inner-shell processes are outlined. Comprised of six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general principles underlying the experimental techniques that make use of radioactive isotopes for inner-sh

  4. Experimental semiotics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galantucci, Bruno; Garrod, Simon

    2011-01-01

    In the last few years a new line of research has appeared in the literature. This line of research, which may be referred to as experimental semiotics (ES; Galantucci, 2009; Galantucci and Garrod, 2010), focuses on the experimental investigation of novel forms of human communication. In this review we will (a) situate ES in its conceptual context, (b) illustrate the main varieties of studies thus far conducted by experimental semioticians, (c) illustrate three main themes of investigation which have emerged within this line of research, and (d) consider implications of this work for cognitive neuroscience.

  5. Experimental economics in antitrust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Normann, H.T.; Müller, W.; Blair, R.D.; Sokol, D.D.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter assesses the scope and the specific contribution of laboratory experiments for antitrust. It reviews experiments that have addressed specific antitrust issues, problems, and institutions. The chapter mainly covers experimental studies on collusion (tacit and explicit, conscious

  6. Nuclear test experimental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Bucciarelli, G.; Carter, J.; Cherniak, J.; Donohue, M.L.; Kirvel, R.D.; MacGregor, P.; Reid, S. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory under the following topics: prompt diagnostics; experimental modeling, design, and analysis; detector development; streak-camera data systems; weapons supporting research.

  7. The Experimental Art School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the Experimental Art School from its early beginnings, its development from formal experiments to political action, the question of gender and politics, and the power of the self-organised......The article describes the Experimental Art School from its early beginnings, its development from formal experiments to political action, the question of gender and politics, and the power of the self-organised...

  8. Frozen waves: experimental generation

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, TA; Gesualdi, MRR; Zamboni-Rached, M

    2012-01-01

    Frozen waves (FWs) are very interesting particular cases of nondiffracting beams whose envelopes are static and whose longitudinal intensity patterns can be chosen a priori. We present here for the first time (that we know of) the experimental generation of FWs. The experimental realization of these FWs was obtained using a holographic setup for the optical reconstruction of computer generated holograms (CGH), based on a 4-f Fourier filtering system and a nematic liquid crystal spatial light ...

  9. Machiavellianism, Relationship Satisfaction, and Romantic Relationship Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Brewer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Machiavellianism is characterised by a manipulative interpersonal style, willingness to exploit others, and a preference for emotionally detached relationships. The present studies investigate the extent to which Machiavellianism influences relationship satisfaction and romantic relationship quality. In Study 1, 194 heterosexual partnered women completed Machiavellianism and Relationship Satisfaction measures. Women with higher levels of Machiavellianism reported lower levels of relationship satisfaction. In Study 2, 132 heterosexual partnered women completed Machiavellianism, Trust, Commitment, Control, and Emotional Abuse scales. Women with higher levels of Machiavellianism perceived their partners to be less dependable, reported less faith in their partners, and were less willing to persist with the relationship than those with low levels of Machiavellianism. With regards to negative behavior, Machiavellianism predicted each form of control and emotional abuse investigated, such that those with high levels of Machiavellianism were more likely to engage in controlling behavior and emotional abuse. Findings have important implications for the prediction of romantic relationship quality and in particular for negative behavior such as control and abuse.

  10. Machiavellianism, Relationship Satisfaction, and Romantic Relationship Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gayle; Abell, Loren

    2017-08-01

    Machiavellianism is characterised by a manipulative interpersonal style, willingness to exploit others, and a preference for emotionally detached relationships. The present studies investigate the extent to which Machiavellianism influences relationship satisfaction and romantic relationship quality. In Study 1, 194 heterosexual partnered women completed Machiavellianism and Relationship Satisfaction measures. Women with higher levels of Machiavellianism reported lower levels of relationship satisfaction. In Study 2, 132 heterosexual partnered women completed Machiavellianism, Trust, Commitment, Control, and Emotional Abuse scales. Women with higher levels of Machiavellianism perceived their partners to be less dependable, reported less faith in their partners, and were less willing to persist with the relationship than those with low levels of Machiavellianism. With regards to negative behavior, Machiavellianism predicted each form of control and emotional abuse investigated, such that those with high levels of Machiavellianism were more likely to engage in controlling behavior and emotional abuse. Findings have important implications for the prediction of romantic relationship quality and in particular for negative behavior such as control and abuse.

  11. Theory, Experimental Design, and Econometrics Are Complementary (And So Are Lab and Field Experiments)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten; Rutström, E. Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    This book confronts and debates the issues faced by the growing field of experimental economics. For example, as experimental work attempts to test theory, it raises questions about the proper relationship between theory and experiments. As experimental results are used to inform policy, the util......This book confronts and debates the issues faced by the growing field of experimental economics. For example, as experimental work attempts to test theory, it raises questions about the proper relationship between theory and experiments. As experimental results are used to inform policy...

  12. Essays on relationship banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on relationship banking. The first chapter introduces the whole thesis. The second chapter studies how professional connections between firm and bank influence their banking relationships. Particularly, by focusing on the directors’ past employment with

  13. Leaving an Abusive Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... restraining order Leaving an abusive relationship Effects of domestic violence on children Sexual assault and rape Sexual assault Rape Sexual ... restraining order Leaving an abusive relationship Effects of domestic violence on children Sexual assault and rape Other types of violence ...

  14. Managing intimate interracial relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Okitikpi, Oluwatoyin

    2002-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. It is evident that there is fairly widespread disapproval of intimate interracial relationships. This thesis explores the experiences of those involved in such relationships, how they manage their relationships, and the kind of pressures they confront. It considered the ways in which the reactions and attitudes of significant others and strangers impact upon such relationships and...

  15. Intimate Relationships and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A.; Baucom, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Relationship functioning and individual mental health and well-being are strongly associated with one another. In this article, we first review the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between relationship discord and various types of psychopathology, We then review findings suggesting that relationship discord is associated with poorer…

  16. Development of Adolescent Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, I.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation on “Development of Adolescent Relationships” addresses relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners in adolescence from a developmental perspective. By studying both parent-adolescent relationships and peer relationships at the same time, as well as interrelations

  17. Self-experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John K

    2003-01-01

    Except in certain cases of unusual risk, self-experimentation should not be encouraged. It is usually scientifically inadequate for lack of proper controls and sufficient subjects to generate meaningful results. It is also inadequate as an ethical test because even if lay persons are also enrolled, self-experimentation is neither necessary nor sufficient to establish that they may participate. It is not necessary to establish that lay persons may participate because institutional ethics review and informed consent are better ways to determine this. It is not sufficient because the investigator may be more risk accepting or not medically typical. Moreover, because scientific research is now done in teams, self-experimentation may involve undue influence when junior investigators participate as research subjects.

  18. Knockout reactions: experimental aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortina Gil, D. [Santiago de Compostela Univ. (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    The availability of radioactive beams has given rise to intense activity in the field of direct reactions. The removal of one(two)-nucleon (referred to as nucleon knockout in this text) from a fast exotic projectile has been extensively investigated. This lecture provides a general overview of the experimental results achieved using this technique. The sensitivity of the method to different experimental aspects is illustrated with a few examples. Special attention is given to the application of nucleon-knockout reactions as a general purpose spectroscopic tool. (author)

  19. Experimental headache in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    1995-01-01

    The need for valid human experimental models of headache is obvious. Several compounds have been proposed as headache-inducing agents, but only the nitroglycerin (NTG) model has been validated. In healthy subjects, intravenous infusions of the nitric oxide (NO) donor NTG induce a dose-dependent h......The need for valid human experimental models of headache is obvious. Several compounds have been proposed as headache-inducing agents, but only the nitroglycerin (NTG) model has been validated. In healthy subjects, intravenous infusions of the nitric oxide (NO) donor NTG induce a dose...

  20. Maintaining Relationship Based Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Davis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Alliance and relationship projects are increasingin number and represent a large pool of work. Tobe successful relationship style contracts dependon soft-dollar factors, particularly the participants'ability to work together within an agreedframework, generally they are not based on lowbid tendering. Participants should be prepared todo business in an open environment based ontrust and mutually agreed governance. Theresearch evaluates relationship maintenance inthe implementation phase of constructionalliances - a particular derivative of relationshipstyle contracts. To determine the factors thatcontribute to relationship maintenance forty-nineexperienced Australian alliance projectmanagers were interviewed. The main findingswere; the development of relationships early inthe project form building blocks of success fromwhich relationships are maintained and projectvalue added; quality facilitation plays animportant part in relationship maintenance and ahybrid organisation created as a result of alliancedevelopment overcomes destructiveorganisational boundaries. Relationshipmaintenance is integral to alliance project controland failure to formalise it and pay attention toprocess and past outcomes will undermine analliance project's potential for success.

  1. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  2. Outsourcing of experimental work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    With the development of new technologies for simultaneous analysis of many genes, transcripts, or proteins (the "omics" revolution), it has become common to outsource parts of the experimental work. In order to maintain the integrity of the research projects, it is important that the interphase...

  3. Aspects of Experimental Hepatocarcinogenesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-04-06

    Apr 6, 1974 ... The remaining articles in this series are: Part Il-Hyperplastic nodules; Part Ill-Iron overload and hepatocarcinogenesis; Part IV-Changes in the liver fol- lowing cessation of carcinogen administration; Part V-. The ultrastructural morphology of early hepatocellular carcinomas. EXPERIMENTAL METHOD.

  4. Experimental high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    De Paula, L

    2004-01-01

    A summary of the contributions on experimental high energy physics to the XXIV Brazilian National Meeting on Particle and Fields is presented. There were 5 invited talks and 32 submitted contributions. The active Brazilian groups are involved in several interesting projects but suffer from the lack of funding and interaction with Brazilian theorists.

  5. Experimental status of physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a short period of time, we will have a large amount of results from -factories including ones on CP violation. In this talk, we briefly review the current experimental status of -physics. After a quick description of -facilities, we divide this vast field into two categories: (1) weak interaction and QCD, (2) unitarity triangle and ...

  6. Experimental Search for Pentaquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Hicks, K

    2005-01-01

    The experimental evidence for pentaquarks, both old an new, is discussed. Constraints due to $K^+N$ scattering data from previous decades is first reviewed, followed by experiments with positive evidence and those with null results. Finally, the problem of the narrow width of the Theta+ pentaquark is discussed, along with theoretical implications.

  7. Dr Ahmed Experimental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ahmed

    possible to directly determine the infection rates from the flies caught off the experimental animals. This was estimated through the dissection of 180 flies trapped from several sites within the. LGA using Nitse trap (Omoogun 1994) and Biconical trap. (Challier & Larvessiere 1973). The trypanosoma species were identified by ...

  8. Trends in animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Rosangela; Brandau, Ricardo; Gomes, Walter J; Braile, Domingo M

    2009-01-01

    The search of the understanding of etiological factors, mechanisms and treatment of the diseases has been taking to the development of several animal models in the last decades. To discuss aspects related to animal models of experimentation, animal choice and current trends in this field in our country. In addition, this study evaluated the frequency of experimental articles in medical journals. Five Brazilian journals indexed by LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, and recently incorporate for Institute for Scientific Information Journal of Citation Reports were analyzed. All the papers published in those journals, between 2007 and 2008, that used animal models, were selected based on the abstracts. Of the total of 832 articles published in the period, 92 (11.1%) experimentation papers were selected. The number of experimental articles ranged from 5.2% to 17.9% of the global content of the journal. In the instructions to the authors, four (80%) journals presented explicit reference to the ethical principles in the conduction of studies with animals. The induced animal models represented 100% of the articles analyzed in this study. The rat was the most employed animal in the analyzed articles (78.3%). The present study can contribute, supplying subsidies for adoption of future editorials policies regarding the publication of animal research papers in Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery.

  9. Network Science Experimentation Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    capabilities and performance of a heterogeneous collection of interdependent networks . This report outlines and discusses an experimentation vision that...has been shown to depend upon the capabilities and performance of a heterogeneous collection of interdependent networks . Such a collection of networks ...well as tactical military networks . In particular, wireless tactical networks can be simulated with high fidelity, using off the shelf simulation

  10. Semiconductor Research Experimental Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Balkan, Naci

    2012-01-01

    The book describes the fundamentals, latest developments and use of key experimental techniques for semiconductor research. It explains the application potential of various analytical methods and discusses the opportunities to apply particular analytical techniques to study novel semiconductor compounds, such as dilute nitride alloys. The emphasis is on the technique rather than on the particular system studied.

  11. Experimental modal analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten

    This technical report concerns the basic theory and principles for experimental modal analysis. The sections within the report are: Output-only modal analysis software (section 1.1), general digital analysis (section 1.2), basics of structural dynamics and modal analysis (section 1.3) and system...

  12. Strategic Experimentation : A Revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, P.; Harris, C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper extends the classic two-armed bandit problem to a many-agent setting in which I players each face the same experi- mentation problem.The main change from the single-agent prob- lem is that an agent can now learn from the current experimentation of other agents.Information is therefore a

  13. Marihuana, Alcohol and Tobacco: Reassessment of a Presumed Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dull, R. Thomas; Williams, Franklin P., III

    1981-01-01

    Concludes little relationship exists between the three substances marihuana, alcohol and tobacco. Youthful subjects tend to overestimate the relationships between the three substances and cannot be generalized to other populations. Suggests an explanation of this youthful association focuses on simultaneous experimentation rather than causal…

  14. Beauty and the Beholder: A Sensitive Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Spehar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite a rich set of experimental findings suggesting that certain stimulus qualities, such as symmetry, proportion, or complexity, are related to aesthetic appeal, the exact functional relationship between aesthetic experience and any of these stimulus qualities remains unknown. Motivated by our previous findings that humans display a consistent preference for a certain range of fractal dimension across fractal images of various types we turn to scale-specific processing of visual information to understand this relationship. Our hypothesis is that the preference for certain spatial structures, including fractals, can be partially accounted for by the visual system's general sensitivity for spatial variations at the spatial scales that most closely approximate given spatial structures. Although we do not offer a comprehensive model of aesthetic experience, we demonstrate a strong relationship between visual preference for simple visual patterns and visual sensitivity. Our results support assertions that there is a close relationship between aesthetic experience and the coding of natural stimuli.

  15. TOP2017 Experimental summary

    CERN Document Server

    Giammanco, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Thanks to the unprecedentedly fast accumulation of high-energy data at the LHC during the ongoing Run~2, most of the traditional top-quark analyses are experiencing the luxury of having to worry about how to punch through the ``Systematics Wall'', and think about new ways to maximize the utility of their data. New processes involving top quarks are being studied for the first time, and the good old pair-production processes are being explored in unusual settings, such as collisions involving heavy ions, or ``reference data'' collected by the LHC at relatively low centre-of-mass energy. The TOP2017 conference featured 37 talks delivered by experimental physicists, including seven in the ``Young Scientists Forum'' where young colleagues were given the opportunity to elaborate more deeply than usual on their own work. As it is impossible to do justice to all the experimental resu...

  16. Experimental Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations...... of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology......, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current...

  17. Experimental Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It is an obvious obligation for investigators to consume millions of experimental animals every year to obtain scientific data. Because most of these experiments involve painful and distressing procedures, to obey the so-called 3Rs, reduction, refinement and replacement, is a prerequisite for those who would apply to ethics committees for a given research proposal. Of the 3Rs, refinement could be defined as “decrease in the incidence of severity of inhumane procedures applied to those animals, which have to be used”. In this context, animal welfare and well-being have been referred to the concept of refinement. In the present review, general principles relating to experimental animal welfare will be discussed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(1.000: -

  18. The CMS experimental cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    These images taken in early September 2005 show the cathedral-like cavern into which the CMS experiment will be installed. The 26X26X60 cubic metre hall is the largest underground cavern at CERN, located under the town of Cessy in France. Weighing 12 500 tonnes, the huge CMS detector will be assembled in a specially constructed hall above ground before being lowered into the experimental hall ready for the LHC start-up in 2008.

  19. The Massabesic Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. McConkey; Wendell E. Smith

    1958-01-01

    White pine and fire! These two - the tree and its destroyer, fire - are keys to the history and present make-up of the research program on the Massabesic Experimental Forest at Alfred, Maine. The Forest was established in the late 1930's to study the management of eastern white pine. During World War II, it was shut down, and reopened again in 1946. Then, in 1947...

  20. Ingratiation: Experimental Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Robin, Stéphane; Rusinowska, Agnieszka; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2014-01-01

    We investigate experimentally ingratiatory behavior expressed by opinion conformity. Both individuals' performance at a task and their opinions on various topics can be observed before unequal payoffs are assigned by a second mover. In some treatments, first movers can change their opinion after learning that held by the second mover. We find evidence of high ingratiation indices, as opinion conformity is rewarded. However, second movers reward conformity less when it is common knowledge that...

  1. Methods of experimental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Dudley

    1962-01-01

    Methods of Experimental Physics, Volume 3: Molecular Physics focuses on molecular theory, spectroscopy, resonance, molecular beams, and electric and thermodynamic properties. The manuscript first considers the origins of molecular theory, molecular physics, and molecular spectroscopy, as well as microwave spectroscopy, electronic spectra, and Raman effect. The text then ponders on diffraction methods of molecular structure determination and resonance studies. Topics include techniques of electron, neutron, and x-ray diffraction and nuclear magnetic, nuclear quadropole, and electron spin reson

  2. Governing IT outsourcing relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhlmann, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung The dynamics of the relationship between service recipient and service provider in IS outsourcing relationships recently gained increased attention as relationships are believed to have a considerable influence on IS outsourcing success. This study adds to this growing field of interest by developing an IS outsourcing relationship framework in the form of a process model. Three rather disjointed areas of research, namely contractual governance, relational norms, and control, have been set in a common context by interrelating them as the three main governance modes

  3. Experimental study on imaging spectrometer focusing formula in orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-tao; Jin, Hui

    2015-02-01

    Experimental verification for a focusing mechanism of imaging spectrometer is studied. The mechanism uses stepper motor driven precision harmonic drive. Wave generator is composed of elliptical cam and a flexible bearing. The output end is connected with the ball screw rotary motion into linear motion, which drives the focusing lens linear guide reciprocating motion. In view of the practical application of the mechanism in the imaging spectrometer, the thermal optical experimental imaging spectrometer has been focusing the formula. Data show that the focus formula ensures linear relationship between the focal plane position and temperature. The linear relationship shows that the imaging spectrometer onboard the variation with temperature and automatic focusing is very important.

  4. Revisiting the Okun relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, R. (Robert); Lim, G.C.; J.C. van Ours (Jan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractOur article revisits the Okun relationship between observed unemployment rates and output gaps. We include in the relationship the effect of labour market institutions as well as age and gender effects. Our empirical analysis is based on 20 OECD countries over the period 1985–2013. We

  5. Revisiting Okun's Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, R.; Lim, G.C.; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Our paper revisits Okun's relationship between observed unemployment rates and output gaps. We include in the relationship the effect of labour market institutions as well as age and gender effects. Our empirical analysis is based on 20 OECD countries over the period 1985-2013. We find that the

  6. Jealousy and Relationship Closeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Attridge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study confirmed a hypothesis from the Emotion-in-Relationships conceptual model, which predicts that greater interdependence between relationship partners—or closeness—creates the potential for jealousy. The study also sought to better define the positive side of romantic jealousy in addition to its more negative attributes. College students in premarital relationships (N = 229 completed a questionnaire, including 27 different measures and the Multidimensional Jealousy Scale. Select data were obtained from 122 cases at 3-month follow-up. Each jealousy scale was tested for associations with demographic (age, sex, and race, person (life satisfaction, loneliness, romantic attachment styles, love styles, and romantic beliefs, and relationship (affective, closeness, and social exchange theory constructs. Results clearly distinguished emotional/reactive jealousy as mostly “good” and cognitive/suspicious jealousy as “bad.” Behavioral jealousy was associated with few measures. Implications are discussed for the interdependence model of relationships and the transactional model of jealousy.

  7. Coaching relationship - and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; O'Broin, Alanna; Løkken, Lillith Olesen

    2016-01-01

    In the coaching context of an ongoing search for evidence-based research, and increasing interest in the ‘active ingredients’ of coaching the impetus for ‘the coaching relationship – and beyond’ was the quest for deeper understanding of the coaching relationship as well as its influence on the ou......In the coaching context of an ongoing search for evidence-based research, and increasing interest in the ‘active ingredients’ of coaching the impetus for ‘the coaching relationship – and beyond’ was the quest for deeper understanding of the coaching relationship as well as its influence...... measures from the existing coachées’ satisfaction evaluation metrics; and finally (d) an overview of coaching relationship research in the context of prevailing assumptions and issues in coaching, offering implications for future coaching research and coaching practice....

  8. Models of experimental epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Ekici

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is the most common serious neurological conditionin the world, with an estimated prevalence of 1% ofthe population. A large number of experimental modelsof seizure and epilepsy have been developed. These experimentalmodels are elicited by chemical convulsants,electrical stimulation, genetic models, structural lesions,physical stimuli (cold, pressure, hyperthermia, electricalin animals. Well-characterized animal models may allowthe understanding of the basic mechanisms underlyingepileptogenesis (it refers to the alteration of a normalneuronal network into a hyperexcitable network in whichrecurrent, spontaneous seizures occur. Moreover, thesemodels might also prove useful in identifying novel therapeuticapproaches to treatment of epilepsy. J Clin ExpInvest 2011; 2(1: 118-123

  9. Experimental Axion Review

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Axions are a natural consequence of the Peccei-Quinn mechanism, the most compelling solution to the strong-CP problem. Similar axion-like particles (ALPs) also appear in a number of possible extensions of the Standard Model, notably in string theories. Both axions and ALPs are very well motivated candidates for the Dark Matter, and in addition would be copiously produced at the stellar cores. Some anomalous astrophysical observations could be hinting the existence of these particles. They are object of increasing interest by experimentalists. I will briefly review the motivation to search for axions and ALPs, as well as the current status and future prospects of the experimental landscape.

  10. Outsourcing of experimental work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    With the development of new technologies for simultaneous analysis of many genes, transcripts, or proteins (the "omics" revolution), it has become common to outsource parts of the experimental work. In order to maintain the integrity of the research projects, it is important that the interphase between the researcher and the service is further developed. This involves robust protocols for sample preparation, an informed choice of analytical tool, development of standards for individual technologies, and transparent data analysis. This chapter introduces some of the problems related to analysis of RNA samples in the "omics" context and gives a few hints and key references related to sample preparation for the non-specialist.

  11. Experimental Blade Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eder, Martin Alexander; Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter

    This report is a summary of the results obtained in the project: Experimental Blade Research – phase 2 (EBR2). The project was supported by the Danish Energy Authority through the 2010 Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Program (EUDP 2010-II) and has journal no. 64011-0006. The project...... has been running from spring 2011 to the end of 2014. Being a summary report, this report only contains a collection of the research topics and the major results. For more details, see the publications listed at the end of this report....

  12. Embryo manipulation and experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, M A

    1991-09-01

    I have argued that early human embryos are not human beings, and do not have normal rights. Like human sperm and ova, they are both alive and biologically human. However, they lack the physiological development necessary to sustain a capacity for sentience. If Ford is right, then they are not yet individual human organisms. But the more important point is that their lack of a capacity for sentience makes them inappropriate candidates for the ascription of moral rights. Thus, research on human embryos produced in vitro is not a wrong against them--at least so long as experimentally manipulated embryos are not returned to the womb, or artificially gestated to a stage at which they might become sentient. Some of the more difficult issues about embryo experimentation involve the rights of women as experimental subject and donors. The consent of both male and female gamete donors should normally be required for the production or experimental use of IVF embryos. (Possible exceptions might include cases in which one or both progenitors have died, and the survivor or other responsible family member wished to donate the (frozen) IVF embryos for research or other uses.) However, it is women's rights that are most apt to be endangered, for example, if the large scale therapeutic or commercial use of human embryos leads to a demand for large numbers of ova. Thus, it is vital that researchers and policy-makers heed feminist concerns about embryo research and the new biomedical technologies it may yield. Given adequate information and appropriate procedural protections, women are capable of making autonomous decisions about donating ova or embryos for biomedical research. But regulatory safeguards are needed to ensure against their being coerced, deceived, or manipulated into becoming ovum or embryo donors. As Daniel Callahan has detailed, biomedical technology has reached the point where we can no longer afford to provide everyone with all of the innovative therapies that might

  13. Experimental knee pain reduces muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Mortensen, Sara Rosager; Aaboe, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Pain is the principal symptom in knee pathologies and reduced muscle strength is a common observation among knee patients. However, the relationship between knee joint pain and muscle strength remains to be clarified. This study aimed at investigating the changes in knee muscle strength following...... experimental knee pain in healthy volunteers, and if these changes were associated with the pain intensities. In a crossover study, 18 healthy subjects were tested on 2 different days. Using an isokinetic dynamometer, maximal muscle strength in knee extension and flexion was measured at angular velocities 0....... Knee pain reduced the muscle strength by 5 to 15% compared to the control conditions (P knee extension and flexion at all angular velocities. The reduction in muscle strength was positively correlated to the pain intensity. Experimental knee pain significantly reduced knee extension...

  14. Challenges and Opportunities for Research on Same-Sex Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberson, Debra; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Kroeger, Rhiannon A; Lodge, Amy Caroline; Xu, Minle

    2015-02-01

    Research on same-sex relationships has informed policy debates and legal decisions that greatly affect American families, yet the data and methods available to scholars studying same-sex relationships have been limited. In this article the authors review current approaches to studying same-sex relationships and significant challenges for this research. After exploring how researchers have dealt with these challenges in prior studies, the authors discuss promising strategies and methods to advance future research on same-sex relationships, with particular attention given to gendered contexts and dyadic research designs, quasi-experimental designs, and a relationship biography approach. Innovation and advances in the study of same-sex relationships will further theoretical and empirical knowledge in family studies more broadly and increase understanding of different-sex as well as same-sex relationships.

  15. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  16. Whither Experimental Semantics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Devitt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the paper is to propose a methodology for the theory of reference in which experiments feature prominently. These experiments should primarily test linguistic usage rather than the folk’s referential intuitions. The proposed methodology urges the use of: (A philosophers’ referential intuitions, both informally and, occasionally, scientifically gathered; (B the corpus, both informally and scientifically gathered; (C elicited production; and, occasionally, (D folk’s referential intuitions. The most novel part of this is (C and that is where most of the experimental work should be. The secondary goal of the paper is to defend my earlier paper “Experimental Semantics” from the criticisms of Machery, Mallon, Nichols, and Stich in “If Folk Intuitions Vary, Then What?” They charge that I have seriously misunderstood their goal in “Semantics, Cross-Cultural Style” and that many of my arguments are “largely irrelevant”. I argue that these charges are baseless.

  17. Experimental insights into angiosperm origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Barry; Lee, Alex; Smilie, Ian; Knight, Charles; Upchurch, Garland

    2017-04-01

    The angiosperms occupy almost every habitat type on Earth and comprise nearly 90% of extant plant species. Yet this ascendency is a relatively recent (geological) phenomenon. Palaeobotanical evidence indicates a likely first occurrence in the Early Cretaceous followed by a relatively rapid increase in diversity with their rise to dominance marking the onset of modern world. Understanding this diversification event has been a key research question since Darwin commented on this "abominable mystery", and it remains one of the most significant unanswered questions in plant biology. Sequencing work shows that the diversification and radiation was accompanied by successive whole genome duplication (WGD) events. Furthermore proxy data and predictions from long-term carbon cycle models indicate that the angiosperm diversification was accompanied by a decline in atmospheric CO2. These observation raise the intriguing possibility that declining atmospheric CO2 concentration and capacity to undergo polyploidy could have given angiosperms a competitive advantage when compared to other plant groups. Using comparative ecophysiology we set out to test the effects of declining atmospheric CO2 by growing a six species (Ranunculus acris and Polypodium vulgare, chosen to represent Cretaceous understorey angiosperms and pteridophytes respectively. Liquidambar styraciflua and Laurus nobilis represented canopy angiosperms and Ginkgo biloba and Metasequoia glyptostroboides canopy gymnosperms) in controlled conditions across a CO2 gradient (2000, 1200, 800 and 400 ppm) to simulate Cretaceous CO2decline. To test for WGDs we use the relationship between guard cell size and genome size to reconstruct angiosperm genome size as they radiated. Analysis of our fossil dataset shows that earliest angiosperms had a small genome size. Our experimental work shows that angiosperms have a greater capacity for acclimation suggesting that declining CO2 could have acted as a trigger for the angiosperm

  18. Personalized Service Recommendation Based on Trust Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development and extensive application of Web services, various approaches for Web service recommendation have been proposed in the past. However, the traditional methods only utilize the information of the user-service rating matrix but ignore the trust relations between users, so their recommendation precision is often unsatisfactory, and, furthermore, most of these methods lack the ability to distinguish the credibility of recommendation. To address the problems, we proposed a personalized service recommendation based on trust relationship. In particular, our approach takes into account user experience, interest background, recommendation effect, and evaluation tendency in the formalization of trust relationship, and moreover it can filter out useless or suspected services by exploiting trust relationships between users. To verify the proposed approach, we conducted experiments by using a real-world Web services set. The experimental results show that our proposed approach leads to a substantial increase in the precision and the credibility of service recommendations.

  19. Environment and individual: a dialectic relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapini, F

    2001-01-01

    The role of development in current neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory is still underestimated. Only a few experimental and theoretical efforts have been made to bridge the gap, among which the theories of genetic assimilation, stabilising selection and autopoiesis. The relationship between the organism and its environment is a focal point for understanding development. The organism itself determines which environmental features are relevant to it, what represents a stimulus that would trigger its behaviour, and continuously affects the environment through its activities, in a dialectic relationship. Such a relationship is unique and diachronic, changing with time and defining the individual. Development in the broad sense and behavioural plasticity refer to the individual unlike evolution, which refers to populations.

  20. FRANCHISOR-FRANCHISEE RELATIONSHIP QUALITY: TIME OF RELATIONSHIP AND PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Varotto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Franchise literature disputes how the relationship between franchisors and franchisees develops over time. Traditional lifecycle theory views relationships following an ascendant curve, in which relationship quality and performance strengthen over time. Another perspective better reflects the peculiarities of the franchisor-franchisee relationship, indicating that relationship quality in franchise systems follows a U-shaped curve. There is also limited research on the moderating effect of time on the relationship between relational variables and outcomes. This study sheds light on the influence of relationship duration on relationship quality and financial performance in the franchisee-franchisor relationship. Using a self-report survey from a sample of 342 franchisees, mean and regression analyses are conducted to test relationships. Results confirm the time effect on franchisor-franchisee relationship quality and performance, but the hypothesized shape of relationship phases is only partially confirmed. Moreover, time has a positive moderating effect on the impact of relationship quality on financial performance.

  1. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  2. Experimental Multiport Bicone Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Pekka; Ylinen, Juhana

    2013-01-01

    A practical, easily manufactured multiport bicone antenna suitable for many receiving tasks such as direction finding systems can be made by using sharp-edged metal fins on the feeding coax center conductor to provide a tapered transition and connection path to coaxial probes. This construction resembles an arrow's tail. Already four mutually orthogonal fins can give full 360 degree azimuth coverage with suitable -3 dB port pattern overlap. Five experimental constructions working at Ku and Ka bands, each with fractional bandwidths of 23 to 31 per cent, are shown with full dimensional details. Suitable fin tapering is close to the full air gap in the coax and fin thickness should be less than 1/16th of the outer conductor diameter.

  3. Management an experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J C; Aspy, V H

    1978-06-01

    An experimental teaching procedure was devised and tested for integrating the nursing process, nursing care plans, the research process and management principals. The integration defined as the problem oriented process (POP) was tested with 16 students over two semesters. The results indicated that the POP was a successful integration that aided the student in "getting it all together." As one of the students put it: This experience will give future students, as it did me, a better understanding of how research is best utilized. The students can use almost all their past learning experiences, bringing it all together in one situation. He (the student) can use his communication skills to detect a problem, his research skills to design planned intervention and evaluation and his interpersonal skills to measure his effectiveness as a change agent. Finally, he can use his nursing skills and knowledge of pathophysiology in a setting most like what he will find upon graduation.

  4. Ancestral Relationships Using Metafounders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarra, Andres; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Vitezica, Zulma G

    2015-01-01

    and variance components between the classical and this new parameterization are shown. Segregation variance on crosses of populations is modeled. Efficient algorithms for computation of relationship matrices, their inverses, and inbreeding coefficients are presented. Use of metafounders leads to compatibility...

  5. A Relationship with Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author narrates his lifelong relationship with a major American poet, Walt Whitman. He describes how Whitman's "Song of Myself" and poetic idea influenced his life and way of thinking.

  6. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, Dainis

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between forests and people goes back to the early development of civilisation. However, parallel with technical innovations and an increasing urbanisation of the society, an alienation from nature has taken place...

  7. RELATIONSHIPS AND COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan VLADUTESCU

    2012-01-01

    The main feature of the present situation regarding communication is the impregnation of the social with technology. Computer-mediated communication systems has led to the crystallization of a strong specific interactions. This article describes how human relationships constitues the ontological pillar of society and social relations form the axis irradiance of sociology. Overall, as social agents in social space, people come in a variety of social relationships. Thus, a distinct note of the ...

  8. Romantic Relationships and Love

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Atak; Nuray Tastan

    2012-01-01

    Intimacy or love is completely defined as a personal relationship or sometimes a specific component of personal relationships or even a particular emotion that someone feels for another. Love is appearing as a psychological concept in the area of psychology in recent years. The definition of love depends on culture and people. Love comes with the concepts such as intimacy, attachment, respect and mature love. In this context, love is evaluated conceptually in this paper in order to fill the l...

  9. Romantic Relationships and Love

    OpenAIRE

    Atak, Hasan; Taştan, Nuray

    2014-01-01

    Intimacy or love is completely defined as a personal relationship or sometimes a specific component of personal relationships or even a particular emotion that someone feels for another. Love is appearing as a psychological concept in the area of psychology in recent years. The definition of love depends on culture and people. Love comes with the concepts such as intimacy, attachment, respect and mature love. In this context, love is evaluated conceptually in this paper in order to fill the l...

  10. Experimental investigation of air lift pump | Dare | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (PDN) were derived to capture all the flow parameters. Using the experimental results obtained a logarithmic plot of the dimensionless numbers was obtained to established a relationship between the dimensionless numbers. It was generally observed that air lift pumps with smaller riser pipe diameters yielded higher lifts.

  11. Sciara as an experimental model for studies on the evolutionary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sciara as an experimental model for studies on the evolutionary relationships between the zygotic, maternal and environmental primary signals for sexual development. Lucas Sánchez. Review Article Volume ... Lucas Sánchez1. Centro de Investigaciones Biol´ogicas (C. S. I. C.), Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid, Spain ...

  12. Hamlet on the Macintosh: An Experimental Seminar That Worked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, William C.

    1987-01-01

    Describes experimental college Shakespeare seminar that used Macintosh computers and software called ELIZA and ADVENTURE to develop character dialogs and adventure games based on Hamlet's characters and plots. Programming languages are examined, particularly their relationship to metaphor, and the use of computers in humanities is discussed. (LRW)

  13. Hydrological processes of reference watersheds in Experimental Forests, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra Amatya; John Campbell; Pete Wohlgemuth; Kelly Elder; Stephen Sebestyen; Sherri Johnson; Elizabeth Keppeler; Mary Beth Adams; Peter Caldwell; D. Misra

    2016-01-01

    Long-term research at small, gauged, forested watersheds within the USDA Forest Service, Experimental Forest and Range network (USDA-EFR) has contributed substantially to our current understanding of relationships between forests and streamflow (Vose et al., 2014). Many of these watershed studies were established in the early to mid-20th century and have been used to...

  14. Experimental Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfeld, Carl [Univ of South Carolina; Mishra, Sanjib R. [Univ of South Carolina; Petti, Roberto [Univ of South Carolina; Purohit, Milind V. [Univ of South Carolina

    2014-08-31

    The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina, under the leadership of Profs. S.R. Mishra, R. Petti, M.V. Purohit, J.R. Wilson (co-PI's), and C. Rosenfeld (PI), engaged in studies in "Experimental Particle Physics." The group collaborated with similar groups at other universities and at national laboratories to conduct experimental studies of elementary particle properties. We utilized the particle accelerators at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, and the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Mishra, Rosenfeld, and Petti worked predominantly on neutrino experiments. Experiments conducted in the last fifteen years that used cosmic rays and the core of the sun as a source of neutrinos showed conclusively that, contrary to the former conventional wisdom, the "flavor" of a neutrino is not immutable. A neutrino of flavor "e," "mu," or "tau," as determined from its provenance, may swap its identity with one of the other flavors -- in our jargon, they "oscillate." The oscillation phenomenon is extraordinarily difficult to study because neutrino interactions with our instruments are exceedingly rare -- they travel through the earth mostly unimpeded -- and because they must travel great distances before a substantial proportion have made the identity swap. Three of the experiments that we worked on, MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE utilize a beam of neutrinos from an accelerator at Fermilab to determine the parameters governing the oscillation. Two other experiments that we worked on, NOMAD and MIPP, provide measurements supportive of the oscillation experiments. Good measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters may constitute a "low energy window" on related phenomena that are otherwise unobservable because they would occur only at energies way above the reach of conceivable accelerators. Purohit and Wilson participated in the Ba

  15. Experimental Neutrino Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, Richard Jeffrey [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-11-15

    The University of Washington (UW) HEP neutrino group performed experimental research on the physics of neutrinos, using the capabilities offered by the T2K Experiment and the Super-Kamiokande Neutrino Observatory. The UW group included senior investigator R. J. Wilkes, two PhD students, four MS degree students, and a research engineer, all of whom are members of the international scientific collaborations for T2K and Super-Kamiokande. During the period of support, within T2K we pursued new precision studies sensitive to new physics, going beyond the limits of current measurements of the fundamental neutrino oscillation parameters (mass differences and mixing angles). We began efforts to measure (or significantly determine the absence of) 1 the CP-violating phase parameter δCP and determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. Using the Super-Kamiokande (SK) detector we pursued newly increased precision in measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters with atmospheric neutrinos, and extended the current reach in searches for proton decay, in addition to running the most sensitive supernova watch instrument [Scholberg 2012], performing other astrophysical neutrino studies, and analyzing beam-induced events from T2K. Overall, the research addressed central questions in the field of particle physics. It included the training of graduate students (both PhD and professional MS degree students), and postdoctoral researchers. Undergraduate students also participated as laboratory assistants.

  16. Experimental microdosimetry; Experimentele microdosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahmand, M.; Bos, A.J.J.; Zoetelief, J.; Van Eijk, C.W.E. [Afdeling Stralingstechnologie, Interfacultair Reactor Instituut IRI, Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    In the exchange between ionizing radiation and matter radiation energy is emitted in discrete portions. The discipline that studies the statistical distribution of energy deposition on a microscopic level is microdosimetry. The aim of microdosimetry is to find the correlation between the distribution of energy depositions (microdosimetry spectra) and the biological damage caused by radiation. In experimental microdosimetry use is made of a Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC), the subject of this article. [Dutch] Bij wisselwerking van ioniserende straling met materie wordt de stralingsenergie afgegeven in discrete porties. Het vakgebied dat de statistische distributie van die energiedeposities op microscopisch niveau onderzoekt wordt aangeduid met microdosimetrie. Het uiteindelijke doel daarbij is om een samenhang te vinden tussen de distributie van energiedeposities (de microdosimetrische spectra) en de schade die optreedt als biologisch materiaal wordt blootgesteld aan straling. In de experimentele microdosimetrie wordt meestal gebruik gemaakt van een Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC). Van microdosimetrische spectra gemeten met een TEPC blijkt dat deze gerelateerd zijn aan het effect van straling in biologisch materiaal. Ze kunnen daarom worden gebruikt voor het experimenteel bepalen van de kwaliteitsfactor van de straling.

  17. Experimental quantum data locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Zhu; Wu, Cheng; Fukuda, Daiji; You, Lixing; Zhong, Jiaqiang; Numata, Takayuki; Chen, Sijing; Zhang, Weijun; Shi, Sheng-Cai; Lu, Chao-Yang; Wang, Zhen; Ma, Xiongfeng; Fan, Jingyun; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Classical correlation can be locked via quantum means: quantum data locking. With a short secret key, one can lock an exponentially large amount of information in order to make it inaccessible to unauthorized users without the key. Quantum data locking presents a resource-efficient alternative to one-time pad encryption which requires a key no shorter than the message. We report experimental demonstrations of a quantum data locking scheme originally proposed by D. P. DiVincenzo et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 067902 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.067902] and a loss-tolerant scheme developed by O. Fawzi et al. [J. ACM 60, 44 (2013), 10.1145/2518131]. We observe that the unlocked amount of information is larger than the key size in both experiments, exhibiting strong violation of the incremental proportionality property of classical information theory. As an application example, we show the successful transmission of a photo over a lossy channel with quantum data (un)locking and error correction.

  18. Conflict resolution in adolescent relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, M.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834343

    2008-01-01

    Conflict is an inevitable feature of social relationships. When people interact, disagreements may arise. Especially in close relationships, people sometimes disagree. Although conflict might jeopardize relationships, conflict is not necessarily detrimental. The way conflicts are handled is

  19. Antecedents of Customer Relationship Termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    relationships as a managerial task. This paper contributes by (1) developing a conceptualization of relationship termination competence and (2) analyzing its antecedents. The empirical results identify termination acceptance, definition non-customers, organizational relationship termination routines...

  20. Experimental thermodynamics experimental thermodynamics of non-reacting fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Neindre, B Le

    2013-01-01

    Experimental Thermodynamics, Volume II: Experimental Thermodynamics of Non-reacting Fluids focuses on experimental methods and procedures in the study of thermophysical properties of fluids. The selection first offers information on methods used in measuring thermodynamic properties and tests, including physical quantities and symbols for physical quantities, thermodynamic definitions, and definition of activities and related quantities. The text also describes reference materials for thermometric fixed points, temperature measurement under pressures, and pressure measurements. The publicatio

  1. Acupuncture on experimental epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R C; Huang, Y H

    1984-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of acupuncture on epilepsies was evaluated in 4 experimental models. 24 acupuncture points were tried. In electroconvulsive threshold model, square wave electrical stimulus of 0.2 msec and 6 Hz was applied through a pair of cotton electrodes at the cornea of mice for 3 sec. The stimulus intensity to induce stun reaction of the mouse was compared. In 86 control animals, the stimulus threshold was 0.70 +/- 0.22 mA. In the acupuncture treated group (N = 80), the threshold was 0.75 +/- 0.14 mA. In maximal electroshock model, the stimulus parameters were 60 Hz, 0.4 sec and 75 mA. The tonic extensor response of the hindlimbs of the mice was observed. 75.7% of the 115 control mice and 77.5% of the 80 acupuncture treated mice were observed to have tonic extensor response. In the focal cortical penicillin model, penicillin was applied at the subpial space over the exposed cortex of 24 cats. After the appearance of repeated spikes in ECoG, acupuncture was performed. In 175 trials the interictal spikes were decreased in 16 times, increased in 82 times. In 99 trials during seizures, the ictal activity was decreased in 4 times, increased in 79 times. In the intravenous penicillin model, high dose penicillin (1,000,000-1,500,000 U/kg) was given to 20 cats. It induced repetitive spikes and frequently even seizure discharges in EEG. Acupuncture was then tried. In 192 instances, acupuncture reduced the spikes in 13, increased the spikes in 103 times. In 74 trials during seizures, the ictal activity was suppressed in 4 times and aggravated in 66 times.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Cross border relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Sriram, Sujata

    2010-01-01

    in which they were born. These movements also imply human relationships across the borders in different contexts with various cultural, psychological consequences. Relationships of members of migrant groups with each other, and also with the host community have important implications on the health and well......-being of not just the migrant population, but also the host communities. These relationships represent the microcosm of societal and cultural integration and cohesion at the broader levels. Studies of how and how well migrants, especially youth handle migration indicate transformations in paradigms as both...... the borders in the context of modernity such as will also be discussed. In the backdrop of polarisation of populations into us and them, still there are increasing trends towards intermarriage, which challenge the idea of who belongs together and earlier taboos against such mixing. The symposia will explore...

  3. Internet mediated adolescent relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício de Souza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute towards the comprehension of the adhesion of adolescent to digital technologies and their usage in the search for or consolidation of relationships with their peers. The objective was to analyze the role of blogs in the maintenance and establishment of relationships among adolescents from the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Three boys’ blogs and three girls’ blogs were selected, and five pages of each blog were selected, in a total of 30 pages. Categories were elaborated from reading the posts left at the 30 pages and subsequently used to classify and quantify the posts. Messages and comments left at the blogs had a positive affective connotation, in search for approximation and contact with the blog owner. Messages were also noted for gender differences. It was concluded that some determined patterns of offline interaction guided the establishment of online relationships.

  4. The rights of man and animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J

    1990-01-01

    Since emotions give contradictory signals about animal experimentation in medical science, man's relationship to animals must be based upon reason. Thomas Aquinas argues that man is essentially different from animals because man's intellectual processes show evidence of an abstract mechanism not possessed by animals. Man's rights arise in association with this essential difference. The consequence is that only man possesses true rights by Aquinas's definition; animals have them only by analogy. However, cruelty to animals is illicit and they should be protected, principally not because they have rights, but because he who is cruel to animals is more likely to be cruel to his fellowman. If there is a need for animal experimentation in science for the good of man, this approach gives philosophical justification for experimentation, since man's well-being must come before that of animals because of his unique possession of rights. However, those experiments should be carried out in the kindest way possible, to promote kindness towards man. To see man as solely part of a biological continuum in competition for rights with those beings close to him biologically, detracts from man's dignity. PMID:2135948

  5. Love attitudes and relationship experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammock, Georgina; Richardson, Deborah South

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the association of love attitudes with the initiation, maintenance, and dissolution of relationships. Respondents completed the Love Attitudes Scale and a questionnaire designed to measure experiences at each stage of relationship development. Ludus was relevant to all stages of relationship development; ludic attitudes were associated with absence of concern for partner loyalty, short and uncommitted relationships, and positive feelings about relationship dissolution. Pragma was associated primarily with relationship initiation (i.e., selection of an appropriate partner). Agape and Mania were most apparent during maintenance, as evidenced by relationships with indicators of involvement and loyalty. Agape, Mania, and Eros related to negative emotions at the point of relationship dissolution.

  6. SLDR: a computational technique to identify novel genetic regulatory relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Yue, Zongliang; Wan, Ping; Huang, Hui; Xie, Zhan; Chen, Jake Y

    2014-01-01

    We developed a new computational technique called Step-Level Differential Response (SLDR) to identify genetic regulatory relationships. Our technique takes advantages of functional genomics data for the same species under different perturbation conditions, therefore complementary to current popular computational techniques. It can particularly identify "rare" activation/inhibition relationship events that can be difficult to find in experimental results. In SLDR, we model each candidate targe...

  7. Experimental Object-Oriented Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    and discuss techniques for handling and representing uncertainty when modelling in experimental system development. These techniques are centred on patterns and styles for handling uncertainty in object-oriented software architectures. Tools We present the Knight tool designed for collaborative modelling......This thesis examines object-oriented modelling in experimental system development. Object-oriented modelling aims at representing concepts and phenomena of a problem domain in terms of classes and objects. Experimental system development seeks active experimentation in a system development project...... through, e.g., technical prototyping and active user involvement. We introduce and examine “experimental object-oriented modelling” as the intersection of these practices. The contributions of this thesis are expected to be within three perspectives on models and modelling in experimental system...

  8. Relationship-specific identification and spontaneous relationship maintenance processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardatos, Lisa; Lydon, John E

    2011-10-01

    Attractive alternative partners pose a relational threat to people in romantic relationships. Given that people are often limited in their time and energy, having the capacity to effortlessly respond to such relational threats is extremely useful. In 4 studies, we explored how people's identity in terms of their romantic relationship--their relationship-specific identity--affects their relationship-protective behaviors. We predicted that once a relationship becomes a part of one's sense of self, relationship maintenance responses are exhibited in a relatively fluid, spontaneous manner. In Study 1, we assessed the convergent and divergent validity of relationship-specific identification, demonstrating how it is associated with other relationship constructs. In Study 2, we found that less identified participants mentioned their relationship less than those high in relationship-specific identification, but only when interacting with an attractive member of their preferred sex. In Study 3, using a dot-probe visual cuing task, we found that when primed with an attractive member of their preferred sex, those low in relationship-specific identification gazed longer at attractive preferred-sex others compared to those high in relationship-specific identification. In Study 4, we found that relationship-specific identification was associated with relationship survival 1-3 years after the initial assessment. The present results demonstrate that relationship-specific identification predicts relatively spontaneous, pro-relationship responses in the face of relational threat. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Customer Relationship Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayerman, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Presents an approach increasingly employed by businesses to track and respond to their customers to provide better and faster services: customer relationship management. Discusses its applicability to the operations of higher education and institutional research and the role it plays in the knowledge management framework. (EV)

  10. Dentist-Patient Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Raftu

    2016-01-01

    In the dentist-patient relationship confidence comes from the assurance that personal information(belonging to the patient will remain confidential; this is in the interest of the patient and the patient'sautonomy is recognized. There were presented several behavioral types which can lead to a physicianpatientrelationship, based on trust.

  11. Investigating Interdimensional Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Keri Duncan

    2017-01-01

    The phrase "interdimensional relationships" may conjure images of UFOs, alien beings, wormholes, and even mystical powers. These notions of interdimensionality were not out of bounds in the middle school learners' experiences described in this article. However, these notions do not entirely capture the mathematical relationships…

  12. Cluster - Smart Specialization Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Popa

    2016-01-01

    The paper refers to the relationship that is created in the regional economic space, between thecluster phenomenon and that of the strategy of smart specialization; in the process oftransformation of the regional economy, the smart specialization strategies take over clusters’policies and clusters integrate activities specific to areas of technological knowledge.

  13. Snooping in Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Kelly; Knox, David; Easterling, Beth

    2012-01-01

    A 42 item Internet questionnaire was completed by 268 undergraduates at a large southeastern university to assess the frequency, motivations, and outcome of snooping in romantic relationships. Almost two thirds (66%) reported that they had engaged in snooping behavior, most often when the partner was taking a shower. Primary motives were…

  14. Relationship between Emotional Intelligence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    : relationship of demographic variables with OCB and EI Scores. Age groups. One ـway. ANOVA / p- value. Education. One ـway. ANOVA / p- value. Work. Experience. One ـway. ANOVA / p- value. Organizational unit. One ـway.

  15. Chemical relationship between Pinaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemann, G.J.; Genderen, H.H. van

    1980-01-01

    Fingerprints of phenolic compounds of leaf extracts of eleven pine species have been made by paper chromatography and HPLC. The results suggest a chemical relationship which agrees fairly well with those based on immunological and morphological characters but not always with the classification

  16. Mentoring: An Evolving Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Michelle; Florczak, Kristine L

    2017-04-01

    The column concerns itself with mentoring as an evolving relationship between mentor and mentee. The collegiate mentoring model, the transformational transcendence model, and the humanbecoming mentoring model are considered in light of a dialogue with mentors at a Midwest university and conclusions are drawn.

  17. Organizational Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2011-01-01

    that a firm's percentage of unwanted customers decreases significantly as acceptance of termination increases, if the firm's definition of unwanted customers is well understood, and if a firm has clear termination routines. In addition, general focus on profitability and external constraints on relationship...

  18. MANAGEMENT INTERLOCAL RELATIONSHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Mazzali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents evidence to broaden the debate on the management of inter-relationships among local governments. It is an exploratory study, seated on extensive research literature. Te main conclusion is the defense of the adaptative nature of interlocal governance; evolving decisions regarding cooperation with other governments and ways of implement it.

  19. North Korean Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    religion , nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion” (1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of...Sunshine Policy, enacted in 1998 under then president Kim Dae- jung , separated the political and economic relationships between North and South Korea. It

  20. Relationship quality, commitment, and stability in long-distance relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmer, Gretchen; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott; Markman, Howard J

    2013-06-01

    Using a nationally representative sample (N = 870), the present study compared long-distance romantic relationships to close-proximity romantic relationships in terms of relationship quality, commitment, and stability. Individuals in long-distance relationships generally reported higher levels of relationship quality on a number of relationship quality variables, as well as higher levels of dedication to their relationships and lower levels of feeling trapped (i.e., felt constraint), but were similar to individuals in close-proximity relationships in terms of perceived and material constraints. Although individuals in long-distance relationships perceived a lower likelihood of breaking up with their partner at the initial time point, they were as likely as the individuals in close-proximity relationships to have broken up by the follow-up assessment. © FPI, Inc.

  1. Experimental Design and Some Threats to Experimental Validity: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Experimental designs are distinguished as the best method to respond to questions involving causality. The purpose of the present paper is to explicate the logic of experimental design and why it is so vital to questions that demand causal conclusions. In addition, types of internal and external validity threats are discussed. To emphasize the…

  2. Relationship between STS approach, scientific literacy, and achievement in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbajiorgu, N. M.; Ali, A.

    2003-01-01

    This study set out to investigate the relationship between STS approach, scientific literacy (SL), and achievement in biology. A quasi-experimental design of the nonequivalent group was employed. Four secondary schools, eight teachers, and 246 students from Nigeria were involved in the study. Two classes were randomly selected from each school and assigned to either the experimental or control group. Two instruments were used to collect data: an Achievement Test on Reproduction and Family Planning and a SL Scale. Results showed that there is no relationship between SL and achievement in biology. The split-wise posttest regression showed a weak positive relationship between SL and achievement in biology for the experimental group and a no relationship for the control group. However, STS approach mediated between SL and achievement to effect a slightly stronger significant positive relationship. The slope of SL was greater when we controlled for instruction showing that the relationship between SL and achievement is not spurious when instruction is taken into account. We therefore conclude that STS approach might be affecting other variables in the science classroom that in turn affect achievement in the sciences.

  3. Open source in Experimental Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmaijer, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Talk on using open-source software in experimental psychology. Presented on 3 March 2015, at the Attention, Brain and Cognitive Development group (http://www.psy.ox.ac.uk/research/attention-brain-and-cognitive-development-group) at the University of Oxford's Department of Experimental Psychology.

  4. Experimental Mathematics and Computational Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2009-04-30

    The field of statistics has long been noted for techniques to detect patterns and regularities in numerical data. In this article we explore connections between statistics and the emerging field of 'experimental mathematics'. These includes both applications of experimental mathematics in statistics, as well as statistical methods applied to computational mathematics.

  5. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology is the official journal of the Cameroon Forum for Biological Sciences (CAFOBIOS). It is an interdisciplinary journal for the publication of original research papers, short communications and review articles in all fields of experimental biology including biochemistry, physiology, ...

  6. A standard experimental 'chemical burn'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Weibel, T J; Carter, E J; Calobrace, M B; Foldi, J F; Zawacki, B E

    1994-06-01

    To establish a standard method for producing experimental cutaneous injuries caused by contact with corrosive liquids, we modified an apparatus and method recommended by Walker and Mason in 1967 to produce experimental thermal burns. The resulting procedure proved to be safe, reproducible, humane and efficient and can be used with a wide variety of corrosive liquids.

  7. Aterosclerose experimental em coelhos Experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleska C. Dornas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerosas pesquisas têm sido realizadas utilizando modelos experimentais para estudar o desenvolvimento da aterosclerose com dieta induzindo hiperlipidemia. Devido ao fato de que coelhos são muito sensíveis a dietas ricas em colesterol e acumulam grandes quantidades no plasma, a utilização destes animais como modelo experimental para avaliar o desenvolvimento de aterosclerose é de grande relevância, trazendo informação sobre fatores que contribuem para progressão e regressão aplicadas a situações humanas. Sendo assim, nessa revisão a função aterogênica do colesterol é mostrada em trabalhos que incluem o coelho como modelo experimental, uma vez que este animal tornou-se o mais popular modelo experimental de aterosclerose.Many researches have been conducted in experimental models in order to study the development of atherosclerosis from hyperlipidemia-inducing diets. Since rabbits are very sensitive to cholesterol-rich diets and accumulate large amounts of cholesterol in their plasma, their use as experimental models to evaluate the development of atherosclerosis is highly relevant and brings information on factors that contribute to the progression and regression of this condition that can be applied to humans. As such, this review includes studies on the atherogenic function of cholesterol based on rabbits as the experimental model, since they have become the most largely used experimental model of atherosclerosis.

  8. Relationship characteristics of women in interracial same-sex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Y; Horne, Sharon G

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship characteristics of women in interracial same-sex relationships with respect to their current level of stress, internalized homophobia, perceived relationship equality, relationship satisfaction, and social support. Four groups were compared according to their current type of race relationship (ethnic minority women with White partners, White partners only, both ethnic minority partners, and White women with ethnic minority partners). No significant differences were found in terms of children and income; however, ethnic minority women with ethnic minority partners reported lower education attainment than the other groups. Relationally, there were no significant differences by race relationship for social support, relationship equality, relationship satisfaction, or stress. Internalized homophobia was lowest for interracial partnerships (ethnic minority paired with White partner). These findings are discussed in relationship to minority stress.

  9. Experimental Evolution with Caenorhabditis Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teotónio, Henrique; Estes, Suzanne; Phillips, Patrick C.; Baer, Charles F.

    2017-01-01

    The hermaphroditic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been one of the primary model systems in biology since the 1970s, but only within the last two decades has this nematode also become a useful model for experimental evolution. Here, we outline the goals and major foci of experimental evolution with C. elegans and related species, such as C. briggsae and C. remanei, by discussing the principles of experimental design, and highlighting the strengths and limitations of Caenorhabditis as model systems. We then review three exemplars of Caenorhabditis experimental evolution studies, underlining representative evolution experiments that have addressed the: (1) maintenance of genetic variation; (2) role of natural selection during transitions from outcrossing to selfing, as well as the maintenance of mixed breeding modes during evolution; and (3) evolution of phenotypic plasticity and its role in adaptation to variable environments, including host–pathogen coevolution. We conclude by suggesting some future directions for which experimental evolution with Caenorhabditis would be particularly informative. PMID:28592504

  10. Long-term Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hémous, David; Olsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    suppliers and start cooperation immediately with new suppliers. We first consider broad innovations: every period, one supplier has the opportunity to create a higher quality input that can be used by all producers. Since relationships are harder to break in the cooperative equilibrium the market size...... create dynamic inefficiencies and reduce broad innovations. In particular, we consider the repeated interaction between final good producers and intermediate input suppliers, where the provision of the intermediate input is noncontractible. We build a cooperative equilibrium where producers can switch...... for potential innovators is smaller and the rate of innovation might be lower than in the noncooperative equilibrium. We contrast this with a setting with relationship-specific innovations that we show are encouraged by the establishment of relational contracts. We illustrate the predictions of the model using...

  11. Exploring Entrepreneurial Network Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    of the new biotechnologies and these techniques predominately coming from the university sector make the new biotechnology organizations an interesting object for studying these relationships both on a regional and a national level.From the perspective of the small biotechnology firms (SBFs) the paper......In the recent years the successful collaborative arrangements and relationships between university, industry and public institutions have become a mantra in transforming new scientific knowledge into new innovations and business ventures. The fit between these very different actor groups has been...... treated as a contingent factor. However only little attention have been giving to a specific focus on the strategies that new business ventures have obtained to establish the fit between small firms, university research, and public policies such as regulatory policies and R&D policies. The emergence...

  12. Customer relationships marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Bojan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Market economy terms impose on modern companies the need to change their business relationships to customers. In this way has the term "customer relationship marketing", known as CRM, come into use. Customers are the most valuable asset of a company, and the wisdom and essence of CRM can be presented in two words - profitable and long-term. Modern customer is an individual. They are smart, informed, have great expectations and want only the best, and they can change their supplier by one click of the mouse. Every one of them is characterized by specific needs, and, in that sense the company must strive to satisfy them with the right offer at the right time and through the right channel. The aim of the company is to have loyal customers who will help the company make maximized profit and competitive advantage on the market.

  13. PENGEMBANGAN CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Richard Kodong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available CRM (Customer Relationship Management is a computer-based management system or an integrated information system that handles the relationship between the company and its customers with the aim of increasing corporate value in the eyes of its customers. Various research has been done, shows that retaining existing customers is more profitable than attracting new customers. CRM covers all aspects relating to prospects and customers today. CRM is part of an Enterprise Information System. This paper will explain the concept of Information System at the Company, CRM and e-CRM technology based on web. One application of the above technology is the application of CRM in enterprise applications for the property.

  14. Law and Intergenerational Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Israel; Lowenstein, Ariela; Biggs, Simon

    2017-03-01

    In any aging society, the sociolegal construction of intergenerational relationships is of great importance. This study conducts an international comparison of a specific judicial issue: whether active labor unions have the legal right to strike for the purpose of improving the benefits given to nonactive workers (specifically, pensioners). A comparative case law methodology was used. The texts of three different Supreme Court cases-in the United States, Canada, and Israel-were analyzed and compared. Despite the different legal outcomes, all three court rulings reflect a disregard of known and relevant social gerontology theories of intergenerational relationships. Social gerontological theories can play an important role in both understanding and shaping judicial policies and assisting the courts in choosing their sociojudicial narratives.

  15. Statistical Power in Experimental Audit Studies: Cautions and Calculations for Matched Tests With Nominal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuolo, Mike; Uggen, Christopher; Lageson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Given their capacity to identify causal relationships, experimental audit studies have grown increasingly popular in the social sciences. Typically, investigators send fictitious auditors who differ by a key factor (e.g., race) to particular experimental units (e.g., employers) and then compare treatment and control groups on a dichotomous outcome…

  16. Experimental studies of dead-wood biodiversity - A review identifying global gaps in knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Seibold; Claus Bässler; Roland Brandl; Martin M. Gossner; Simon Thorn; Michael D. Ulyshen; Jörg Müller

    2015-01-01

    The importance of dead wood for biodiversity is widely recognized but strategies for conservation exist only in some regions worldwide. Most strategies combine knowledge from observational and experimental studies but remain preliminary as many facets of the complex relationships are unstudied. In this first global review of 79 experimental studies addressing...

  17. Dynamo Scaling Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustson, Kyle; Mathis, Stéphane; Brun, Sacha; Toomre, Juri

    2017-11-01

    This paper provides a brief look at dynamo scaling relationships for the degree of equipartition between magnetic and kinetic energies. Two simple models are examined, where one that assumes magnetostrophy and another that includes the effects of inertia. These models are then compared to a suite of convective dynamo simulations of the convective core of a main-sequence B-type star and applied to its later evolutionary stages.

  18. Diasporic Relationships and Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    How does moving across the geographical borders affect the relationships of diaspora members both here – in the country of residence and there- in the country of origin? The article delineates some of the processes through gendered experiences of the young adults perceived as active actors based...... an empirical longitudinal study. The results indicate transformations in belongings and longings indicating reinterpretation of the self, others and home in context of exclusion processes at various levels....

  19. Vygotsky theories & meaningful relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Michelle Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    This Project contains two main topics: "The Vygotsky Theories" and "Meaningful Relationships". Both were selected to be taught to teachers, principals, managing officials and supervisors in Mexico's context, all of which will be done in workshops under my supervision and care. The first theme: "The Vygotsky's Theories" explains his Theories and Notions on "Early Childhood Education", "Social Development Theory"; "Learning and Development of Preschool Children" and "The Zone of Proximal Develo...

  20. Relationship Maintenance on Facebook: Development of a Measure, Relationship to General Maintenance, and Relationship Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainton, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Previous research indicates that the primary reason college students use Facebook is for relationship maintenance. The present study sought to determine the relationship between Facebook maintenance and general maintenance efforts in college student romantic relationships, as well as the impacts of such behaviors on the relationship. Survey data…

  1. Methods and experimental techniques in computer engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Schiaffonati, Viola

    2014-01-01

    Computing and science reveal a synergic relationship. On the one hand, it is widely evident that computing plays an important role in the scientific endeavor. On the other hand, the role of scientific method in computing is getting increasingly important, especially in providing ways to experimentally evaluate the properties of complex computing systems. This book critically presents these issues from a unitary conceptual and methodological perspective by addressing specific case studies at the intersection between computing and science. The book originates from, and collects the experience of, a course for PhD students in Information Engineering held at the Politecnico di Milano. Following the structure of the course, the book features contributions from some researchers who are working at the intersection between computing and science.

  2. Fuzzy forecasting based on fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shyi-Ming; Wang, Nai-Yi

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to predict the Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index (TAIEX) based on fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups (FTLRGs). The proposed method divides fuzzy logical relationships into FTLRGs based on the trend of adjacent fuzzy sets appearing in the antecedents of fuzzy logical relationships. First, we apply an automatic clustering algorithm to cluster the historical data into intervals of different lengths. Then, we define fuzzy sets based on these intervals of different lengths. Then, the historical data are fuzzified into fuzzy sets to derive fuzzy logical relationships. Then, we divide the fuzzy logical relationships into FTLRGs for forecasting the TAIEX. Moreover, we also apply the proposed method to forecast the enrollments and the inventory demand, respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed method gets higher average forecasting accuracy rates than the existing methods.

  3. Cross-brain neurofeedback: scientific concept and experimental platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Duan

    Full Text Available The present study described a new type of multi-person neurofeedback with the neural synchronization between two participants as the direct regulating target, termed as "cross-brain neurofeedback." As a first step to implement this concept, an experimental platform was built on the basis of functional near-infrared spectroscopy, and was validated with a two-person neurofeedback experiment. This novel concept as well as the experimental platform established a framework for investigation of the relationship between multiple participants' cross-brain neural synchronization and their social behaviors, which could provide new insight into the neural substrate of human social interactions.

  4. Cross-brain neurofeedback: scientific concept and experimental platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lian; Liu, Wei-Jie; Dai, Rui-Na; Li, Rui; Lu, Chun-Ming; Huang, Yu-Xia; Zhu, Chao-Zhe

    2013-01-01

    The present study described a new type of multi-person neurofeedback with the neural synchronization between two participants as the direct regulating target, termed as "cross-brain neurofeedback." As a first step to implement this concept, an experimental platform was built on the basis of functional near-infrared spectroscopy, and was validated with a two-person neurofeedback experiment. This novel concept as well as the experimental platform established a framework for investigation of the relationship between multiple participants' cross-brain neural synchronization and their social behaviors, which could provide new insight into the neural substrate of human social interactions.

  5. Effectiveness of an interpersonal relationship program on interpersonal relationships, self-esteem, and depression in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hee Sang; Kim, Gyung Hee; Kim, Jiyoung

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an interpersonal relationship program on interpersonal relationships, self-esteem, and depression in nursing students. This was a quasi-experiment with a nonequivalent control group pre-posttest design. Sixty-four nursing students participated in the study with 31 in the experimental group and 33 in the control group. They were from 3 different colleges of nursing located in Seoul. The interpersonal relationship program was held 10 times over 10 weeks, taking 90 minutes per session. The interpersonal relationship change scale developed by Schlein and Guemey, Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, and CED-S for depression were the instruments used in the study. The data collection period was from January 4 to March 8, 2011, and the collected data were analyzed with SPSS 14.0 using the Χ(2)-test, t-test, and paired t-test. The results showed a significant difference between the experimental group and the control group in terms of the degree of interpersonal relationships, self-esteem, and depression. The results indicate that interpersonal relationship programs have positive effects for improving interpersonal relationships and self-esteem, and decreasing depression in nursing students.

  6. Identifying local co-regulation relationships in gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yonggang; Gao, Qinghui; Li, Juntao; Zhao, Xiting

    2014-11-07

    Identifying interesting relationships between pairs of genes, presented over some of experimental conditions in gene expression data set, is useful for discovering novel functional gene interactions. In this paper, we introduce a new method for id entifying L ocal C o-regulation R elationships (IdLCR). These local relationships describe the behaviors of pairwise genes, which are either up- or down-regulated throughout the identified condition subset. IdLCR firstly detects the pairwise gene-gene relationships taking functional forms and the condition subsets by using a regression spline model. Then it measures the relationships using a penalized Pearson correlation and ranks the responding gene pairs by their scores. By this way, those relationships without clearly biological interpretations can be filtered out and the local co-regulation relationships can be obtained. In the simulation data sets, ten different functional relationships are embedded. Applying IdLCR to these data sets, the results show its ability to identify functional relationships and the condition subsets. For micro-array and RNA-seq gene expression data, IdLCR can identify novel biological relationships which are different from those uncovered by IFGR and MINE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Learning the Structure of Biomedical Relationships from Unstructured Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percha, Bethany; Altman, Russ B

    2015-07-01

    The published biomedical research literature encompasses most of our understanding of how drugs interact with gene products to produce physiological responses (phenotypes). Unfortunately, this information is distributed throughout the unstructured text of over 23 million articles. The creation of structured resources that catalog the relationships between drugs and genes would accelerate the translation of basic molecular knowledge into discoveries of genomic biomarkers for drug response and prediction of unexpected drug-drug interactions. Extracting these relationships from natural language sentences on such a large scale, however, requires text mining algorithms that can recognize when different-looking statements are expressing similar ideas. Here we describe a novel algorithm, Ensemble Biclustering for Classification (EBC), that learns the structure of biomedical relationships automatically from text, overcoming differences in word choice and sentence structure. We validate EBC's performance against manually-curated sets of (1) pharmacogenomic relationships from PharmGKB and (2) drug-target relationships from DrugBank, and use it to discover new drug-gene relationships for both knowledge bases. We then apply EBC to map the complete universe of drug-gene relationships based on their descriptions in Medline, revealing unexpected structure that challenges current notions about how these relationships are expressed in text. For instance, we learn that newer experimental findings are described in consistently different ways than established knowledge, and that seemingly pure classes of relationships can exhibit interesting chimeric structure. The EBC algorithm is flexible and adaptable to a wide range of problems in biomedical text mining.

  8. Tools to Understand Structural Property Relationships for Wood Cell Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Jakes; Daniel J. Yelle; Charles R. Frihart

    2011-01-01

    Understanding structure-property relationships for wood cell walls has been hindered by the complex polymeric structures comprising these cell walls and the difficulty in assessing meaningful mechanical property measurements of individual cell walls. To help overcome these hindrances, we have developed two experimental methods: 1) two-dimensional solution state nuclear...

  9. Inter-relationships between hydrogen and carbon contents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Empirical relationships between hydrogen and carbon contents and the calorific values of rice husks, cotton see-ds, jatropha seeds, palm kernel shells and cashew shells were investigated. The experimental data indicated higher correlation coefficient between calorific values and hydrogen content than between calorific ...

  10. Relationships between Emotional Intelligence, Leadership Style, and School Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segredo, Mirta R.; Cistone, Peter J.; Reio, Thomas G.

    2017-01-01

    Research regarding the association between emotional intelligence, leadership style and organizational culture has been inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to explore these relationships in elementary school settings. A non-experimental ex post facto research design was utilized to investigate four research hypotheses. Fifty-seven…

  11. Preclinical electrogastrography in experimental pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Květina, Jaroslav; Varayil, Jithinraj Edakkanambeth; Ali, Shahzad Marghoob; Kuneš, Martin; Bureš, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kopáčová, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    Surface electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive means of recording gastric myoelectric activity or slow waves from cutaneous leads placed over the stomach. This paper provides a comprehensive review of preclinical EGG. Our group recently set up and worked out the methods for EGG in experimental pigs. We gained our initial experience in the use of EGG in assessment of porcine gastric myoelectric activity after volume challenge and after intragastric administration of itopride and erythromycin. The mean dominant frequency in pigs is comparable with that found in humans. EGG in experimental pigs is feasible. Experimental EGG is an important basis for further preclinical projects in pharmacology and toxicology. PMID:21217873

  12. Experimentation on humans and nonhumans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluhar, Evelyn B

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I argue that it is wrong to conduct any experiment on a nonhuman which we would regard as immoral were it to be conducted on a human, because such experimentation violates the basic moral rights of sentient beings. After distinguishing the rights approach from the utilitarian approach, I delineate basic concepts. I then raise the classic "argument from marginal cases" against those who support experimentation on nonhumans but not on humans. After next replying to six important objections against that argument, I contend that moral agents are logically required to accord basic moral rights to every sentient being. I conclude by providing criteria for distinguishing ethical from unethical experimentation.

  13. Experimental design a chemometric approach

    CERN Document Server

    Deming, SN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in a paperback edition is a book which has been described as ``...an exceptionally lucid, easy-to-read presentation... would be an excellent addition to the collection of every analytical chemist. I recommend it with great enthusiasm.'' (Analytical Chemistry). Unlike most current textbooks, it approaches experimental design from the point of view of the experimenter, rather than that of the statistician. As the reviewer in `Analytical Chemistry' went on to say: ``Deming and Morgan should be given high praise for bringing the principles of experimental design to the level of the p

  14. Infidelity in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincham, Frank D; May, Ross W

    2017-02-01

    This article summarizes the current state of research on the prediction of infidelity and provides a foundation for advancing knowledge on this topic by offering specific recommendations for future research. The prevalence, terminological diversity, and impact of infidelity on numerous indicators of wellness is first discussed. This is followed by a discussion of the individual, relationship, and contextual factors that have received systematic attention in attempting to predict infidelity. Highlights include various demographics, the closing gender gap, cohabitation, religion, and the role of the internet in facilitating infidelity. The article concludes with 8 recommendations for more informative research to advance understanding of sexual infidelity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Library/vendor relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, Sam

    2014-01-01

    A view of the mutual dependence between libraries and vendorsAs technology advances, libraries are forced to reach beyond their own resources to find effective ways to maintain accuracy and superior service levels. Vendors provide databases and integrated library systems that perform those functions for profit. Library/Vendor Relationships examines the increasing cooperation in which libraries find they must participate in, and vice versa, with the vendors that provide system infrastructure and software. Expert contributors provide insights from all sides of this unique collaboration, offering

  16. Romantic Relationship Development: The Interplay between Age and Relationship Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantagne, Ann; Furman, Wyndol

    2017-01-01

    The present study explored how romantic relationship qualities develop with age and relationship length. Eight waves of data on romantic relationships were collected over 10.5 years during adolescence and early adulthood from a community-based sample in a Western U.S. city (100 males, 100 females; M age Wave 1 = 15.83). Measures of support,…

  17. Multi-Directional Experimental Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ATLSS Multi-directional Experimental Laboratory was constructed in 1987 under funding from the National Science Foundation to be a major facility for large-scale...

  18. HIRENASD Experimental Data - matlab format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This resource contains the experimental data that was included in tecplot input files but in matlab files. dba1_cp has all the results is dimensioned (7,2) first...

  19. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  20. Animal Experimentation in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansevin, Kystyna D.

    1970-01-01

    Recommends that teacher and student be provided with the broadest possible spectrum of meaningful and feasible experiments in which the comfort of the experimental animal is protected by the design of the experiment. (BR)

  1. An Experimental Text-Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Joan

    1976-01-01

    An experimental text-commentary of selected passages from Sophocles'"Antigone" is described. The commentary is intended for students seeking more than a conventional translation who do not know enough Greek to use a standard commentary. (RM)

  2. Persuasion in experimental ultimatum games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Galizzi, Matteo M.; Hoppe, Tim

    2010-01-01

    We study persuasion effects in experimental ultimatum games and find that Proposers' payoffs significantly increase if, along with offers, they can send messages which Responders read before deciding. Higher payoffs are driven by both lower offers and higher acceptance rates.......We study persuasion effects in experimental ultimatum games and find that Proposers' payoffs significantly increase if, along with offers, they can send messages which Responders read before deciding. Higher payoffs are driven by both lower offers and higher acceptance rates....

  3. General footage ISOLDE experimental hall

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Overview of the ISOLDE experimental hall. Equipment and experiments. Taken from the WITCH / EBIS platform: ISOLDE hall infrastructure, GHM line, LA1, LA2, LA0, central beamline, COLLAPS experiment, CRIS experiment, ISOLTRAP experiment, laser guidance from building 508 into the hall for laser spectroscopy COLLAPS and CRIS. Taken from the HIE ISOLDE shielding tunnel roof: ISOLDE hall infrastructure, WITCH experiment, VITO line, TAS experiment. General footage: High Tension room entrance and EBIS platform, staircases and passages in the experimental hall.

  4. [The ethics of animal experimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffi, Jean-Yves

    2013-01-01

    The paper starts with a short definition of animal experimentation, then three main approaches to the practice are considered: unconditional approval (as advocated by Claude Bernard), conditional and restricted approval (as advocated by Peter Singer) and strict prohibition (as advocated by Tom Regan and Gary Francione). It is argued that what is actually approved or condemned in animal experimentation is the value of the scientific enterprise.

  5. Experimental aspects of colour reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, M F

    1997-01-01

    This report summarises experimental aspects of the phenomena of colour reconnection in W+W- production, concentrating on charged multiplicity and event shapes, which were carried out as part of the Phenomenology Workshop on LEP2 Physics, Oxford, Physics Department and Keble College, 14-18 April, 1997. The work includes new estimates of the systematic uncertainty which may be attributed to colour reconnection effects in experimental measurements of Mw.

  6. Parasocial interaction and parasocial relationship: Conceptual clarification and a critical assessment of measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibble, J.L.; Hartmann, T.; Rosaen, S.F.

    2016-01-01

    Parasocial interaction and parasocial relationship are often conflated conceptually and methodologically, leaving researchers unclear as to which concept is being tapped. This research clarifies these concepts and experimentally compares the most common measure of parasocial interaction, the

  7. Relationship types and contraceptive use within young adult dating relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Jennifer; Welti, Kate; Wildsmith, Elizabeth; Barry, Megan

    2014-03-01

    Although expanding research has found that relationship characteristics can shape contraceptive use among young adults, limited research has examined how relationship characteristics intersect to form distinct types of relationships and how relationship types are linked to contraceptive use. Data from the 2002-2005 rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort were used to examine contraceptive use in 3,485 young adult dating relationships. Latent class analysis was employed to develop a typology of relationships using measures of relationship structure (duration) and quality (intimacy, commitment and conflict). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to estimate associations between relationship type and contraceptive use and method choice at last sex. Four types of relationships were identified, two shorter term and two longer term, differentiated by levels of intimacy, commitment and conflict. Young adults in longer term relationships with greater conflict and lower intimacy and commitment were less likely than those in other long-term relationships to use hormonal and dual methods versus no method (relative risk ratios, 0.6-0.7). Hormonal method use, versus no method use or condom use, was more prevalent in short-term relationships with greater intimacy and commitment and lower conflict than in other short-term relationships (1.7 and 1.9, respectively). Classifying short-term relationships as "casual" or long-term ones as "serious" may ignore heterogeneity within these categories that may have implications for contraceptive use. Future qualitative research could provide a better understanding of relationship types and couples' fertility intentions and access to and use of contraceptives. Copyright © 2014 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  8. Choreographing Urbanisms: Site, Spatiality and Experimental Dance in Philadelphia

    OpenAIRE

    Vriend, Laura Duncan

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the relationship between choreographic uses of space and social theories of space and urbanism in three site-specific choreographies in Philadelphia. Through in depth analysis of Headlong Dance Theater's Explanatorium, Nichole Canuso's Wandering Alice, and Kate Watson-Wallace's Car, I seek to understand how spaces and sites shape experimental dance in Philadelphia. By looking at how extant urban spatialities in Philadelphia shape choreography and how choreographies ...

  9. Early tetrapod relationships revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, Marcello; Coates, Michael I; Quicke, Donald L J

    2003-05-01

    In an attempt to investigate differences between the most widely discussed hypotheses of early tetrapod relationships, we assembled a new data matrix including 90 taxa coded for 319 cranial and postcranial characters. We have incorporated, where possible, original observations of numerous taxa spread throughout the major tetrapod clades. A stem-based (total-group) definition of Tetrapoda is preferred over apomorphy- and node-based (crown-group) definitions. This definition is operational, since it is based on a formal character analysis. A PAUP* search using a recently implemented version of the parsimony ratchet method yields 64 shortest trees. Differences between these trees concern: (1) the internal relationships of aïstopods, the three selected species of which form a trichotomy; (2) the internal relationships of embolomeres, with Archeria crassidisca and Pholiderpeton scut collapsed in a trichotomy with a clade formed by Anthracosaurus russelli and Pholiderpeton attheyi; (3) the internal relationships of derived dissorophoids, with four amphibamid species forming an unresolved node with a clade consisting of micromelerpetontids and branchiosaurids and a clade consisting of albanerpetontids plus basal crown-group lissamphibians; (4) the position of albenerpetontids and Eocaecilia micropoda, which form an unresolved node with a trichotomy subtending Karaurus sharovi, Valdotriton gracilis and Triadobatrachus massinoti; (5) the branching pattern of derived diplocaulid nectrideans, with Batrachiderpeton reticulatum and Diceratosaurus brevirostris collapsed in a trichotomy with a clade formed by Diplocaulus magnicornis and Diploceraspis burkei. The results of the original parsimony run--as well as those retrieved from several other treatments of the data set (e.g. exclusion of postcranial and lower jaw data; character reweighting; reverse weighting)--indicate a deep split of early tetrapods between lissamphibian- and amniote-related taxa. Colosteids, Crassigyrinus

  10. Experimental study of the spin structure of the neutron ({sup 3}He) with low Q{sup 2}: a relationship between the Bjorken and Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rules; Etude experimentale de la structure en spin du neutron ({sup 3}He) a bas Q{sup 2}: une connexion entre les regles de somme de Bjorken et Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deur, A

    2000-10-01

    This thesis presents an experimental study of the neutron (and {sup 3}He) spin structure with a particular emphasis in the resonance domain (experiment E94010 that took place in 1997 at Jefferson Lab (TJNAF or formerly CEBAF) in Virginia). A polarized {sup 3}He target was built in order to achieve this study since polarized {sup 3}He nuclei can be seen as polarized neutrons. This target allowed the measurement of the polarized absolute cross sections {sigma}{sub 1/2}(Q{sup 2}, {nu}) and {sigma}{sub 3/2}(Q{sup 2}, {nu}) from the inclusive reaction {sup {sup {yields}}{sup 3}He}({sup {yields}}e, e')X for incident beam energies ranging from 0.86 GeV to 5.07 GeV at a scattering angle of 15.5 deg. The Q{sup 2} evolution of the generalized Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) integral on {sup 3}He and on neutron was measured from 0.1 GeV{sup 2} to 1.0 GeV{sup 2} in order to understand the transition between perturbative QCD and non-perturbative QCD. The integration domain in {nu} (the energy loss of the scattered electron) is from the pion threshold to about 2.5 GeV which covers both the resonance region and the Deep Inelastic Scattering. The high precision of our data constrains the models giving the Q{sup 2} evolution of the generalized GDH integral. The polarized quasi-elastic scattering was also measured. The cross section {sigma}{sup TT}(Q{sup 2}, {nu}) on {sup 3}He and the spin structure functions g{sub 1}{sup {sup 3}He}(Q{sup 2}, {nu}) and g{sub 2}{sup {sup 3}He}(Q{sup 2}, {nu}) are presented. These data are an indication that the higher-twists are small in our kinematics domain and that the Bloom-Gilman duality seems to hold for the polarized spin structure functions. (author)

  11. Early-Life Nutritional Programming of Type 2 Diabetes: Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Vaiserman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Consistent evidence from both experimental and human studies suggest that inadequate nutrition in early life can contribute to risk of developing metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes (T2D in adult life. In human populations, most findings supporting a causative relationship between early-life malnutrition and subsequent risk of T2D were obtained from quasi-experimental studies (‘natural experiments’. Prenatal and/or early postnatal exposures to famine were demonstrated to be associated with higher risk of T2D in many cohorts around the world. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of epigenetic regulation of gene expression as a possible major contributor to the link between the early-life famine exposure and T2D in adulthood. Findings from these studies suggest that prenatal exposure to the famine may result in induction of persistent epigenetic changes that have adaptive significance in postnatal development but can predispose to metabolic disorders including T2D at the late stages of life. In this review, quasi-experimental data on the developmental programming of T2D are summarized and recent research findings on changes in DNA methylation that mediate these effects are discussed.

  12. Development of Humane Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleptsova, Elena Yuryevna; Balabanov, Anton Anatolyevich

    2016-01-01

    The article reflects some theoretical aspects of humanization of interpersonal relationships in the sphere of education. The notion "humanization of interpersonal relationships" is being analyzed. The authors offer a characterization of some parameters of relationships: orientation, modality, valence, intensity, awareness,…

  13. Relationship Groups in SNOMED CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornet, Ronald; Schulz, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Relationship groups are a construct which is particular for the representation of concepts in SNOMED CT. In this paper, the July 2008 version of SNOMED CT is analyzed to determine the usage of relationship groups. Relationship groups are used with 36 out of 65 relations, playing a role in 28% of all

  14. Sexual Intercourse and Relationship Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cate, Rodney M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined connection between having sexual intercourse with premarital partner for first time and effect on subsequent relationship. Surveyed 447 college students concerning personal factors and characteristics of relationships with premarital partners. Results indicated that several factors were related to effect on relationship. Quality of…

  15. EXPERIMENTAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    CHEMICAL AND ANTICONVULSANT SCREENING OF CRINUM JAGUS. M.O. Edema* and F.E. Okieimen. Chemistry Department, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. E-mail: marydema@uniben.edu. ABSTRACT. INTRODUCTION ... pharmacological evaluation of some plant material that are frequently used locally as.

  16. Porphyromonas gingivalis peptidylarginine deiminase, a key contributor in the pathogenesis of experimental periodontal disease and experimental arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gully, Neville; Bright, Richard; Marino, Victor; Marchant, Ceilidh; Cantley, Melissa; Haynes, David; Butler, Catherine; Dashper, Stuart; Reynolds, Eric; Bartold, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the suggested role of Porphyromonas gingivalis peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) in the relationship between the aetiology of periodontal disease and experimentally induced arthritis and the possible association between these two conditions. A genetically modified PAD-deficient strain of P. gingivalis W50 was produced. The effect of this strain, compared to the wild type, in an established murine model for experimental periodontitis and experimental arthritis was assessed. Experimental periodontitis was induced following oral inoculation with the PAD-deficient and wild type strains of P. gingivalis. Experimental arthritis was induced via the collagen antibody induction process and was monitored by assessment of paw swelling and micro-CT analysis of the radio-carpal joints. Experimental periodontitis was monitored by micro CT scans of the mandible and histological assessment of the periodontal tissues around the mandibular molars. Serum levels of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) and P. gingivalis were assessed by ELISA. The development of experimental periodontitis was significantly reduced in the presence of the PAD-deficient P. gingivalis strain. When experimental arthritis was induced in the presence of the PAD-deficient strain there was less paw swelling, less erosive bone damage to the joints and reduced serum ACPA levels when compared to the wild type P. gingivalis inoculated group. This study has demonstrated that a PAD-deficient strain of P. gingivalis was associated with significantly reduced periodontal inflammation. In addition the extent of experimental arthritis was significantly reduced in animals exposed to prior induction of periodontal disease through oral inoculation of the PAD-deficient strain versus the wild type. This adds further evidence to the potential role for P. gingivalis and its PAD in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and exacerbation of arthritis. Further studies are now needed to elucidate the mechanisms

  17. An ambiguous relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Larsen, Lene; Hedegaard Larsen, Birte; Birkelund, Regner

    2013-01-01

    to qualitative data analysis. Results:  The qualitative meta-synthesis resulted in the heading An Ambiguous Relationship under which three core categories illustrate the hospitalized patients’ different interaction roles. The core categories were as follows: (i) the fellow patient experienced as an enforced......Aim:  The aim of this study was to provide a clear view of the existing knowledge regarding patients’ significance to fellow patients during hospitalization. Method:  Sandelowski and Barroso’s approach to qualitative meta-synthesis was selected and systematically used for collecting and assessing...... companion, (ii) the fellow patient experienced as an expert on illness and hospital life and (iii) the fellow patient experienced as a care provider. Each core category was elaborated through several subcategories. Social interaction among hospitalized patients embedded elements of both enforced...

  18. Meaning in couples relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues T.F.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on psycholinguistics and L. Vygotsky’s (2007 theories on sign, meaning and sense categories, as later discussed by A. Leontiev (2004, 2009, we present a case study that focuses on the intricacies of a love relationship for a woman who remained in a painful marriage. Interview material is presented in a Relational-Historical Psychology theoretical framework to provide central categories of meaning and sense. This is understood as a privileged method for apprehending the uniqueness of a human being. To segment the qualitative material, we used the “Analysis of the Nuclei of Meanings for the Apprehension of the Constitution of Sense,” by Aguiar and Ozella (2006, 2013. This approach seeks to discriminate the meanings and senses that constitute the content of a speech sample.

  19. Experimental evidence of the Frenkel line in supercritical neon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescher, C.; Fomin, Yu. D.; Prakapenka, V. B.; Stefanski, J.; Trachenko, K.; Brazhkin, V. V.

    2017-04-01

    Recent research suggests that the supercritical state consists of liquidlike and gaslike states where particle dynamics and key system properties are qualitatively different. We report experimental evidence of the structural crossover in supercritical neon at pressure and temperature conditions significantly exceeding the critical point values: 250 Pc and 6.6 Tc . The experimental results show a crossover of the medium-range order structure evidenced by the change of the structure factor with pressure. We also observe the crossover of the short-range order structure indicated by changes in the coordination number. The relative width of the crossover is fairly narrow and is smaller than 10-12% in pressure and temperature. By comparing our experimental results with molecular dynamics simulations, we suggest that the observed crossover can be attributed to the Frenkel line and discuss the relationship between the structural crossover and qualitative changes of dynamical and thermodynamic properties of supercritical matter.

  20. Investigation of Consensually Nonmonogamous Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Terri; Matsick, Jessica; Moors, Amy Catherine; Ziegler, Ali

    2017-03-01

    We proposed that the premise that monogamy is the exemplary form of romantic partnership underlies much theory and research on relationship quality, and we addressed how this bias has prompted methodological issues that make it difficult to effectively address the quality of nonmonogamous relationships. Because the idea that consensually nonmonogamous (CNM) relationships are functional (i.e., satisfying and of high quality) is controversial, we included a basic study to assess, in a variety of ways, the quality of these relationships. In that study, we found few differences in relationship functioning between individuals engaged in monogamy and those in CNM relationships. We then considered how existing theories could help researchers to understand CNM relationships and how CNM relationships could shed light on relationship processes, and we proposed a model of how CNM and monogamous relationships differ. Finally, in a second study, we determined that even researchers who present data about CNM are affected by the stigma surrounding such relationships. That is, researchers presenting findings favoring polyamory were perceived as more biased than researchers presenting findings favoring monogamy.

  1. Pengaruh Relationship Benefits Pada Relationship Continuity Melalui Relationship Value Terhadap Pelanggan PT. Xyz

    OpenAIRE

    Halim, Raymond Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of Relationship Benefits to Relationship Continuity through Relationship Value towards the PT. XYZ's customers . This study will be conducted by distributing questionnaires to 30 respondents who have ever made a purchase from PT. XYZ more than 1 time. Analysis technique used is quantitative analysis technique.

  2. Experimental search for quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This book summarizes recent developments in the research area of quantum gravity phenomenology. A series of short and nontechnical essays lays out the prospects of various experimental possibilities and their current status. Finding observational evidence for the quantization of space-time was long thought impossible. In the last decade however, new experimental design and technological advances have changed the research landscape and opened new perspectives on quantum gravity. Formerly dominated by purely theoretical constructions, quantum gravity now has a lively phenomenology to offer. From high precision measurements using macroscopic quantum oscillators to new analysis methods of the cosmic microwave background, no stone is being left unturned in the experimental search for quantum gravity. This book sheds new light on the connection of astroparticle physics with the quantum gravity problem. Gravitational waves and their detection are covered. It illustrates findings from the interconnection between gene...

  3. Views of Intimate Partner Violence in Same- and Opposite-Sex Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Susan B.; Thomas, Kristie A.

    2009-01-01

    Attitudes toward same-sex intimate relationships and intimate partner violence (IPV) are changing. Little research, however, has examined norms about IPV in same-sex relationships. Using a fractional factorial (experimental vignette) design, we conducted random-digit-dialed interviews in four languages with 3,679 community-residing adults.…

  4. Revisiting the Relationship between Exercise Heart Rate and Music Tempo Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorghis, Costas I.; Jones, Leighton; Priest, David-Lee; Akers, Rose I.; Clarke, Adam; Perry, Jennifer M.; Reddick, Benjamin T.; Bishop, Daniel T.; Lim, Harry B. T.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated a hypothesized quartic relationship (meaning three inflection points) between exercise heart rate (HR) and preferred music tempo. Initial theoretical predictions suggested a positive linear relationship (Iwanaga, 1995a, 1995b); however, recent experimental work has shown that as exercise HR increases, step…

  5. Experimental application of QCD antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobrovskyi, Sergei

    2010-02-15

    A serious problem in searches for new physics at the LHC is the rejection of QCD induced multijet events. In this thesis the formalism of QCD antenna variables based on the SPHEL approximation of QCD matrix elements is applied for the rst time on experimentally reconstructed jets in order to discriminate QCD from supersymmetric processes. The new observables provide additional information with respect to traditional event shape variables. Albeit correlated with experimentally measured missing transverse energy, the variables can be used to improve the signal to background ratio. (orig.)

  6. Experimentation and Bricolage on Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartel, Melodie; Boxenbaum, Eva; Aggeri, Franck

    This paper examines how innovative institutional arrangements are generated during processes of institutional bricolage. The aim of the paper is to highlight how an arrangement is selected among the others when many alternatives exist or are imaginable. To address this question, we present...... a qualitative study of institutional bricolage in the context of the making of the European carbon market. We suggest that, during episodes of experimental bricolage, alternative arrangements may be tested and evaluated inside experimental spaces named platforms. We identify three selection mechanisms...

  7. Qualitative tools and experimental philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andow, James

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Experimental philosophy brings empirical methods to philosophy. These methods are used to probe how people think about philosophically interesting things such as knowledge, morality, and freedom. This paper explores the contribution that qualitative methods have to make in this enterprise. I argue that qualitative methods have the potential to make a much greater contribution than they have so far. Along the way, I acknowledge a few types of resistance that proponents of qualitative methods in experimental philosophy might encounter, and provide reasons to think they are ill-founded. PMID:28392629

  8. Potential Pitfalls of Experimental Design

    OpenAIRE

    Phillip Watkins

    2017-01-01

    Good experimental design begins with the end in mind. An early conversation with a statistician will both increase the chances of an experimental study contributing to the literature and minimize the risks to participating human subjects.  Sir R.A. Fisher felt that “to consult the statistician after an experiment is finished is often merely to ask him to conduct a post mortem examination: he can perhaps say what the experiment died of.” To this end, some questions from a statistician are pres...

  9. Music and Mathematics: Modest Support for the Oft-Claimed Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Kathryn

    2000-01-01

    Explores three meta-analyses investigating the relationship between music and mathematics on: (1) correlational studies (n=20); (2) experimental training studies (n=6) instructing students in music performance, then testing them on mathematics skills; and (3) experimental studies (n=15) investigating whether listening to background music during a…

  10. EXPERIMENTAL LIPOSOMAL VIRAL VACCINE SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova OA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. With the transport links development there is rather important issue respiratory viral infections spread, especially influenza. The only method controlling influenza is vaccination. Search and development effective and safe vaccines is important. Material and methods. In base SO "Mechnikov Institute Microbiology and Immunology National Ukrainian Academy Medical Sciences" in the scientific theme "Developing new approaches to creating viral vaccines and study specific activity depending of type and degree component`s modification" was created several experimental influenza vaccine with subsequent component`s modification for selecting the most optimal pattern of safety and immunogenicity. In assessing the influenza vaccine safety is using a few criteria, including, reactivity, as measured by the frequency of local and systemic adverse (negative effects, which due to its introduction, and for lipid content drugs, ability to influence oxidation processes. At present study phase was determined: a systemic reaction and local reaction of delayed-type hypersensitivity (foot pad swelling assay;b lipids and proteins peroxidation processes after administration officinal and experimental vaccines (content protein’s carbonyl groups, lipid’s hydroperoxides, activity of glutathione-peroxidase.Study objects were trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine, "Vaxigrip" (Sanofi Pasteur, S.A., France, "Inflexal V" (Biotech Ltd. Berne, Switzerland and experimental vaccine samples. Highest immunogenicity vaccines had undergone improvements and modifications using adjuvant systems and acylation influenza proteins. Liposomes 2 – the experimental influenza vaccine with a liposome negative charge and antigenic composition like split vaccines "Vaksihryp". Liposomes 2.1 - the adjuvantexperimental influenza vaccine with modifications liposomal components (etoniy and chlorophyllipt molecules embedded in liposomal membrane. Liposomes 2.2 - the adjuvant

  11. The relationship between cognitive distortions and forgiveness in romantic relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Gökçen Aydın; Nasibe Kandemir Özdinç; Meral Aksu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to find out the relationship between cognitive distortions and forgiveness in romantic relationships of college students. The sample of the study was 340 college students who have a romantic relationship at a state university in Turkey. The purposeful sampling method was carried out in this correlational study. In order to collect data, three instruments were utilized: Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale (ICDS), Heartland Forgiveness Scale and Demogr...

  12. Geometric relationships for homogenization in single-phase binary alloy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnam, J.; Tenney, D. R.; Stein, B. A.

    1978-01-01

    A semiempirical relationship is presented which describes the extent of interaction between constituents in single-phase binary alloy systems having planar, cylindrical, or spherical interfaces. This relationship makes possible a quick estimate of the extent of interaction without lengthy numerical calculations. It includes two parameters which are functions of mean concentration and interface geometry. Experimental data for the copper-nickel system are included to demonstrate the usefulness of this relationship.

  13. Inequality and riots: experimental evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, K.; Masclet, D.; Mirza, D.

    2009-01-01

    We study the relationship between inequality and inter-groups conflicts (riots), focussing on social inequality. Disadvantaged societal groups experience discrimination and thus have limited access to some social and labour resources like education or employment. The aim of our paper is twofold.

  14. Desert Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    Entries qualify for inclusion if they were conducted in whole or part at the Desert Experimental Range (DER, also known as the Desert Range Experiment Station) or were based on DER research in whole or part. They do not qualify merely by the author having worked at the DER when the research was performed or prepared. Entries were drawn from the original abstracts or...

  15. Exchange asymmetry in experimental settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Mark D. Morrison; Jacob A. Benfield; Gretchen Nurse Rainbolt; Paul A. Bell

    2015-01-01

    We review past trading experiments and present 11 new experiments designed to show how the trading rate responds to alterations of the experimental procedure. In agreement with earlier studies, results show that if the trade decision is converted to one resembling a choice between goods the exchange asymmetry disappears, but otherwise the asymmetry is...

  16. Persuasion in Experimental Ultimatum Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Galizzi, Matteo; Hoppe, Tim

    2008-01-01

     This paper experimentally studies persuasion effects in ultimatum games and finds that Proposers' payoffs significantly increase if, along with offers, they can send messages which Responders read before their acceptance decision. Higher payoffs are due to higher acceptance rates as well as more...

  17. Experimental medicine 1000 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Halim, Rabie E

    2011-05-01

    Little is known about the state of experimentation in the field of medicine during the Medieval Islamic era. With few exceptions, most of the contemporary sources on history of medicine propagate the idea that the roots of experimental medicine in its modern form, including clinical trials and drug-potency studies, first started during the European Renaissance in the 16(th) to the 18(th) centuries. This study is part of an ongoing multidisciplinary primary-source investigation of the original Arabic works of 11 Islamic medical scholars who lived and practiced between the 9(th) and the 13(th) centuries. The study critically evaluated and documented their contributions to the development of the scientific method and experimental medicine during that medieval Islamic era in several areas including critical appraisal of previous knowledge, clinical observations and case reports, clinical therapeutic trials, drug potency trials, experimentation on animals, dissection and dissection experiments as well as postmortem examinations. In each of the above-mentioned areas, significant contributions were made during the Medieval Islamic era from as early as the ninth century AD.

  18. Experimental Modeling of Dynamic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten Haack

    2006-01-01

    An engineering course, Simulation and Experimental Modeling, has been developed that is based on a method for direct estimation of physical parameters in dynamic systems. Compared with classical system identification, the method appears to be easier to understand, apply, and combine with physical...

  19. Sudoku Squares as Experimental Designs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Sudoku is a popular combinatorial puzzle. We give a brief overview of some mathematical fea- tures of a Sudoku square. Then we focus on in- terpreting Sudoku squares as experimental de- signs in order to meet a practical need. 1. Sudoku Squares and Sudoku Puzzles. The (standard) Sudoku square of order 9 entails a ...

  20. EXPERIMENTAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF WIRELESS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EXPERIMENTAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF WIRELESS LINKS .... less reliable predictors of link quality. They recognised that the accuracy of the results of their work was, however, affected by delay im- posed by measurement window and the period of the ... a digital computer and analysing the results. Although.

  1. Digging the CMS experimental cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    The huge CMS experimental cavern is located 100 m underground and has two access shafts through which the experiment's components will be lowered. Initially assembled on the surface, each part of the 12 500 tonne machine must be lowered individually with very little clearance.

  2. Experimentally accessible geometrical separability criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badziag, Piotr [Alba Nova Fysikum, University of Stockholm, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Brukner, Caslav; Paterek, Tomasz [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Laskowski, Wieslaw; Zukowski, Marek [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Gdansk, ul.Wita Stwosza 57, PL-80-952 Gdansk (Poland)], E-mail: wieslaw.laskowski@univ.gda.pl

    2009-07-15

    We present an intuitive geometrical approach to entanglement detection. It allows one to formulate simple and experimentally feasible sufficient conditions for entanglement. Within the approach we derive the necessary and sufficient condition for separability and discuss its relation with entanglement witnesses and positive maps.

  3. [Ethical issue in animal experimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, André-Laurent

    2009-11-01

    In the 1970s, under pressure from certain sections of society and thanks to initiatives by several scientific research teams, committees charged with improving the conditions of laboratory animals started to be created, first in the United States and subsequently in Europe. This led to the development of an ethical approach to animal experimentation, taking into account new scientific advances. In addition to the legislation designed to provide a legal framework for animal experimentation and to avoid abuses, this ethical approach, based on the concept that animals are sentient beings, encourages greater respect of laboratory animals and the implementation of measures designed to reduce their suffering. Now, all animal experiments must first receive ethical approval--from in-house committees in the private sector and from regional committees for public institutions. Very recently, under the impetus of the French ministries of research and agriculture, the National committee for ethical animal experimentation published a national ethical charter on animal experimentation, setting the basis for responsible use of animals for scientific research and providing guidelines for the composition and functioning of ethics committees. Inspired by the scientific community itself this ethical standardization should help to assuage--but not eliminate--the reticence and hostility expressed by several sections of society.

  4. Installation of LHC experimental areas

    CERN Document Server

    Butin, F; Lacarrère, D; Osborne, J; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2005-01-01

    Following handover by the civil engineering contractors, the new LHC experimental areas are being fitted-out with appropriate infrastructure and technical services. In parallel, and in order to make up for the short time available, the installation of the detectors has already started in the experimental caverns. In addition, the LHC machine installation now has a non-negligible impact on the experimental area activities. Four Experimental Area Teams have been set up in order to coordinate all this work, organize the logistic resources and ensure the proper safety of personnel and material. This paper will focus on the status of installation in all areas and define the technical challenges coming in the next months. Illustrations from the new areas at Point 1 and Point 5 will be presented and compared to those from existing areas at Point 2 and Point 8, custom built for and inherited from LEP. The successes and difficulties encountered so far will be reviewed and the conclusions that have been drawn from this...

  5. Experimental Research On Asset Pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noussair, C.N.; Tucker, S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This paper selectively surveys some of the more prominent laboratory experimental studies on asset market behavior. The strands of literature considered are market microstructure, pari-mutuel betting markets, characteristics of participants, the effect of information release, and studies of

  6. NATO IST 124 Experimentation Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-10

    company (24 nodes) from the NATO-IST-124 experimentation scenario in the Dynamically Allocated Virtual Clustering management system hosted in the US...Army Research Laboratory’s Network Science Research Laboratory. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Dynamically Allocated Virtual Clustering, DAVC, network emulation...9 Fig. 18 Host file with experiment scenario hosts .............................................10 Fig

  7. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN NATURAL CONVECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    climatic conditions are favorable for the development of solar chimneys for the production of electrical energy or the drying of agro-food products. 1.1 Experimental models. The first prototype tower was built in Manzanares in. 1981, thanks to the team of Professor Schlaich, Haaf et al., (1983); Haaf et al., (1984), in Spain.

  8. Experimental analysis of armouring process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Alberto; Paris, Ennio

    Preliminary results from an experimental investigation on armouring processes are presented. Particularly, the process of development and formation of the armour layer under different steady flow conditions has been analyzed in terms of grain size variations and sediment transport rate associated to each size fraction.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SAND MINIMUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two approaches are generally recognised for development of solid minimum transport velocity models in pipelines, the analytical and empirical methods. Because ... The justification for experimental work was evident from the inconsistent and inaccurate results obtained using existing analytical models for MTV predictions.

  10. Experimental Neutrino Physics: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Charles E.; Maricic, Jelena

    2012-09-05

    Experimental studies of neutrino properties, with particular emphasis on neutrino oscillation, mass and mixing parameters. This research was pursued by means of underground detectors for reactor anti-neutrinos, measuring the flux and energy spectra of the neutrinos. More recent investigations have been aimed and developing detector technologies for a long-baseline neutrino experiment (LBNE) using a neutrino beam from Fermilab.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN NATURAL CONVECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    The study of thermal and ventilation parameters, obtained in a transient, laminar solar chimney of reduced dimensions, (1 < m <3) m with a square collector (side = 2m) is presented. Experimental measurements has been made to determine the temperature of the absorber and the fluid in the collector, it is shown that at the ...

  12. Experimental Summary Moriond QCD 2007

    CERN Document Server

    Rolandi, Gigi

    2007-01-01

    More than 90 speakers gave a presentation at this years Moriond QCD conference and more than 60 talks reported the experimental status and perspectives on Standard Model, especially QCD, search for new physics, quark spectroscopy and Heavy Ions physics. I summarize what I consider the highlights of these presentations.

  13. Sudoku Squares as Experimental Designs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 9. Sudoku Squares as Experimental Designs. Jyotirmoy Sarkar Bikas K Sinha. General Article ... Author Affiliations. Jyotirmoy Sarkar1 Bikas K Sinha2. Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis, USA; Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata ...

  14. Potential Pitfalls of Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Watkins

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Good experimental design begins with the end in mind. An early conversation with a statistician will both increase the chances of an experimental study contributing to the literature and minimize the risks to participating human subjects.  Sir R.A. Fisher felt that “to consult the statistician after an experiment is finished is often merely to ask him to conduct a post mortem examination: he can perhaps say what the experiment died of.” To this end, some questions from a statistician are presented along with the associated experimental study pitfalls to avoid during the study planning phase. Several concrete examples are provided to give some practical knowledge on how to improve an experimental study at the onset.  Hypothesis formulation, sample size determination, randomization, and double-blinding are all explained from the viewpoint of a statistician’s final analysis. Confounders, sampling, and missing data are also briefly covered through this hypothetical question and answer session.

  15. Social Relationships and Sleep Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert G; Uchino, Bert N; Cribbet, Matthew R; Bowen, Kimberly; Smith, Timothy W

    2015-12-01

    The quality of social relationships and social support appears to be associated with physical health outcomes and sleep quality. Almost all previous research in this area focuses on positive aspects of relationships. The present study thus intended to examine the links between supportive, aversive, ambivalent, and indifferent network ties and sleep quality. Relationship data, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)-assessed sleep quality, and depression were examined in 175 middle-aged and older adults. Consistent with hypotheses, supportive ties were positively related to sleep quality, while aversive ties predicted worse sleep quality, associations that were primarily seen for close relationships. Ambivalent and indifferent ties were not significant predictors of sleep quality. Importantly, depression was found to mediate the link between relationship quality and sleep quality. These data suggest the more specific types of social relationships that may be linked to poor sleep quality and that depression appears to underlie these associations.

  16. Relationship challenges and relationship maintenance activities following disclosure of transsexualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría, C Aramburu

    2010-12-01

    • Transsexual persons are increasing their visibility in society, and health care providers and others (such as social workers) will be called upon to help with issues that transsexual persons face. Challenges that face transsexual persons often include issues involving relationships. Psychiatric and mental health nurses and other caregivers can increase their therapeutic skills in working with couples that include transsexual persons by becoming aware of these challenges and subsequent activities that can help with them. • This research study looks at couple relationships in which one partner reveals male-to-female transsexual identity. These are relationships that were established as man-woman and now will transition into relationships that include a male-to-female person and a female partner. • Common challenges for these couples include issues related to: (1) sexual identity and relationship uncertainty; (2) male-to-female transition decision making; and (3) presenting in public. • Relationship maintenance activities that helped the couples in the study maintain and strengthen their relationships through these challenges include: (1) communication; (2) self-talk (for example, putting the situation in perspective); (3) social networks; (4) positive interactions; (5) impression management (for example, managing displays of affection in public); and (6) social activism. This qualitative study describes the relational dynamics that help sustain relationships of couples that include male-to-female transsexual persons (MTF) and their natal female partners (NF) following disclosure of transsexualism. Relationship challenges and relationship maintenance activities are identified. Each partner in 17 MTF-NF couples participated in individual surveys and interviews. The data were coded for themes related to relationship challenges and activities. MTF-NF couples experience challenges within the contexts of their relationships and of society. These challenges

  17. INFLAMMATORY REACTIONS IN EXPERIMENTAL MYOCARDIAL DAMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Khidirova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the role of hormonal and metabolic changes specific to myocardial infarction in the development of inflammatory reactions in the experimental non-coronarogenic myocardial damage. Material and methods. Wistar male rats weighing 180–220 g (n=80 were used in the study. Metabolic myocardial infarction in intact rats and rats with alloxan diabetes was induced by epinephrine injected subcutaneously as single dose or daily (7 days. Myocardial infarction was verified by ECG analysis, and by histological control. Nitroblue tetrazolium test (NBT-test both spontaneous and zymosan induced NBT-test was used to determine the oxygen-dependent functional activity of neutrophils and their biocidal reserve. Determination of cationic proteins in neutrophils of peripheral blood was performed using lysosomal-cationic test. Results. Increase in oxygen-dependent neutrophil biocidal activity was found as well as reduction in biocidal reserves. Indicators of zymosan induced NBT-test raised according to aggravation of hormonal changes much slower: alloxan increased them by 10% only , epinephrine single dose — by 35%, long-term epinephrine administration simultaneously with alloxan — by 54%. At the same time oxygen-independent neutrophil activity determined by intra-neutrophil cationic proteins level was significantly reduced. Blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines raised according to progression of the changes in myocardium: tumor necrosis factor-α (from 5.5±0.03 to 12.6±1.23 pg/ml and interleukin-1β (from 6.0±0.18 to 11.1±0.78 pg/ml. Conclusion. Experimental model of hormonal changes specific to myocardial infarction detected a relationship between inflammatory reactions accompanying myocardial damage and increased catecholamine production.

  18. INFLAMMATORY REACTIONS IN EXPERIMENTAL MYOCARDIAL DAMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Khidirova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the role of hormonal and metabolic changes specific to myocardial infarction in the development of inflammatory reactions in the experimental non-coronarogenic myocardial damage. Material and methods. Wistar male rats weighing 180–220 g (n=80 were used in the study. Metabolic myocardial infarction in intact rats and rats with alloxan diabetes was induced by epinephrine injected subcutaneously as single dose or daily (7 days. Myocardial infarction was verified by ECG analysis, and by histological control. Nitroblue tetrazolium test (NBT-test both spontaneous and zymosan induced NBT-test was used to determine the oxygen-dependent functional activity of neutrophils and their biocidal reserve. Determination of cationic proteins in neutrophils of peripheral blood was performed using lysosomal-cationic test. Results. Increase in oxygen-dependent neutrophil biocidal activity was found as well as reduction in biocidal reserves. Indicators of zymosan induced NBT-test raised according to aggravation of hormonal changes much slower: alloxan increased them by 10% only , epinephrine single dose — by 35%, long-term epinephrine administration simultaneously with alloxan — by 54%. At the same time oxygen-independent neutrophil activity determined by intra-neutrophil cationic proteins level was significantly reduced. Blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines raised according to progression of the changes in myocardium: tumor necrosis factor-α (from 5.5±0.03 to 12.6±1.23 pg/ml and interleukin-1β (from 6.0±0.18 to 11.1±0.78 pg/ml. Conclusion. Experimental model of hormonal changes specific to myocardial infarction detected a relationship between inflammatory reactions accompanying myocardial damage and increased catecholamine production.

  19. Experimental models for Murray’s law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, Dai; Kunita, Itsuki; Fricker, Mark D.; Kuroda, Shigeru; Sato, Katsuhiko; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Transport networks are ubiquitous in multicellular organisms and include leaf veins, fungal mycelia and blood vessels. While transport of materials and signals through the network plays a crucial role in maintaining the living system, the transport capacity of the network can best be understood in terms of hydrodynamics. We report here that plasmodium from the large, single-celled amoeboid Physarum was able to construct a hydrodynamically optimized vein-network when evacuating biomass from confined arenas of various shapes through a narrow exit. Increasingly thick veins developed towards the exit, and the network spanned the arena via repetitive bifurcations to give a branching tree. The Hausdorff distance from all parts of the plasmodium to the vein network was kept low, whilst the hydrodynamic conductivity from distal parts of the network to the exit was equivalent, irrespective of the arena shape. This combination of spatial patterning and differential vein thickening served to evacuate biomass at an equivalent rate across the entire arena. The scaling relationship at the vein branches was determined experimentally to be 2.53-3.29, consistent with predictions from Murray’s law. Furthermore, we show that mathematical models for self-organised, adaptive transport in Physarum simulate the experimental network organisation well if the scaling coefficient of the current-reinforcement rule is set to 3. In simulations, this resulted in rapid development of an optimal network that minimised the combined volume and frictional energy in comparison with other scaling coefficients. This would predict that the boundary shear forces within each vein are constant throughout the network, and would be consistent with a feedback mechanism based on a sensing a threshold shear at the vein wall.

  20. Close Relationships, Inflammation, and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.; Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Hantsoo, Liisa

    2009-01-01

    KIECOLT-GLASER, J.K., J-P. Gouin, and L. Hantsoo, Close Relationships, Inflammation, and Health. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XX(X) XXX-XXX, 2009.- Different aspects of personal relationships including social integration, social support, and social conflict have been related to inflammation. This article summarizes evidence linking the quality and quantity of relationships with gene expression, intracellular signaling mechanisms, and inflammatory biomarkers, and highlights the biological and psychol...

  1. Managing inter-organizational relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    2005-01-01

    Company performance is increasingly affected by a range of external factors embeddedin a complex network of action controlled by other companies' in its environment. A wellmanaged company, it's argued, is one that is aware of these external factors, and one whoin response seeks to implement tactics...... orweakened by partner- comfortability and dependability. Then we show how partnersperceived attraction towards an industrial company can be managed using a combinationof structural- and behavioral adjustments.Key words: Inter-organizational relationships; Relationship Management; Relationship...

  2. Experimental toxicology: Issues of statistics, experimental design, and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, Wayne; Kirwan, Jeral

    2017-01-01

    The difficulty of replicating experiments has drawn considerable attention. Issues with replication occur for a variety of reasons ranging from experimental design to laboratory errors to inappropriate statistical analysis. Here we review a variety of guidelines for statistical analysis, design, and execution of experiments in toxicology. In general, replication can be improved by using hypothesis driven experiments with adequate sample sizes, randomization, and blind data collection techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Visual exploratory search of relationship graphs on smartphones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianquan Ouyang

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel framework for Visual Exploratory Search of Relationship Graphs on Smartphones (VESRGS that is composed of three major components: inference and representation of semantic relationship graphs on the Web via meta-search, visual exploratory search of relationship graphs through both querying and browsing strategies, and human-computer interactions via the multi-touch interface and mobile Internet on smartphones. In comparison with traditional lookup search methodologies, the proposed VESRGS system is characterized with the following perceived advantages. 1 It infers rich semantic relationships between the querying keywords and other related concepts from large-scale meta-search results from Google, Yahoo! and Bing search engines, and represents semantic relationships via graphs; 2 the exploratory search approach empowers users to naturally and effectively explore, adventure and discover knowledge in a rich information world of interlinked relationship graphs in a personalized fashion; 3 it effectively takes the advantages of smartphones' user-friendly interfaces and ubiquitous Internet connection and portability. Our extensive experimental results have demonstrated that the VESRGS framework can significantly improve the users' capability of seeking the most relevant relationship information to their own specific needs. We envision that the VESRGS framework can be a starting point for future exploration of novel, effective search strategies in the mobile Internet era.

  4. Visual exploratory search of relationship graphs on smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jianquan; Zheng, Hao; Kong, Fanbin; Liu, Tianming

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel framework for Visual Exploratory Search of Relationship Graphs on Smartphones (VESRGS) that is composed of three major components: inference and representation of semantic relationship graphs on the Web via meta-search, visual exploratory search of relationship graphs through both querying and browsing strategies, and human-computer interactions via the multi-touch interface and mobile Internet on smartphones. In comparison with traditional lookup search methodologies, the proposed VESRGS system is characterized with the following perceived advantages. 1) It infers rich semantic relationships between the querying keywords and other related concepts from large-scale meta-search results from Google, Yahoo! and Bing search engines, and represents semantic relationships via graphs; 2) the exploratory search approach empowers users to naturally and effectively explore, adventure and discover knowledge in a rich information world of interlinked relationship graphs in a personalized fashion; 3) it effectively takes the advantages of smartphones' user-friendly interfaces and ubiquitous Internet connection and portability. Our extensive experimental results have demonstrated that the VESRGS framework can significantly improve the users' capability of seeking the most relevant relationship information to their own specific needs. We envision that the VESRGS framework can be a starting point for future exploration of novel, effective search strategies in the mobile Internet era.

  5. Personality-relationship transactions revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyer, Franz J; Mund, Marcus; Zimmermann, Julia; Wrzus, Cornelia

    2014-12-01

    The transactional paradigm states that people create, maintain, and change their environments according to their personalities. At the same time, the environment reacts back on personality. As social relationships are part of an individual's environment, this likewise implies that there are reciprocal transactions between personality and relationships. However, earlier studies have concluded that adult personality traits are so stable that they have a stronger effect on later relationships, but that relationship effects on personality are negligible. In this article, we contend that personality-relationship transactions should be revisited. We submit that the relative powers of personality versus relationship effects depend on the type of life transition during which the effects take place: Relationship effects on personality development are more likely to emerge in the context of rather normative and highly scripted life transitions, whereas personality effects on relationship development are more likely to occur in the context of rather non-normative life transitions that are less regulated by social expectations. We illustrate these assumptions with examples from our own work and other findings reported in the literature. Furthermore, we theorize that effects of personality-relationship transactions on health also vary with the normativeness of the eliciting life transition. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Supporting Scientific Experimentation and Reasoning in Young Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Keisha

    2014-06-01

    Researchers from multiple perspectives have shown that young students can engage in the scientific reasoning involved in science experimentation. However, there is little research on how well these young students learn in inquiry-based learning environments that focus on using scientific experimentation strategies to learn new scientific information. This work investigates young children's science concept learning via inquiry-based instruction on the thermodynamics system in a developmentally appropriate, technology-supported learning environment. First- and third-grade students participate in three sets of guided experimentation activities that involve using handheld computers to measure change in temperature given different types of insulation materials. Findings from pre- and post-comparisons show that students at both grade levels are able to learn about the thermodynamics system through engaging in the guided experiment activities. The instruction groups outperformed the control groups on multiple measures of thermodynamics knowledge, and the older children outperform the younger children. Knowledge gains are discussed in the context of mental models of the thermodynamics system that include the individual concepts mentioned above and the relationships between them. This work suggests that young students can benefit from science instruction centered on experimentation activities. It shows the benefits of presenting complex scientific information authentic contexts and the importance of providing the necessary scaffolding for meaningful scientific inquiry and experimentation.

  7. Creating Good Relationships: Responsiveness, Relationship Quality, and Interpersonal Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canevello, Amy; Crocker, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Perceived partner responsiveness is a core feature of close, satisfying relationships. But how does responsiveness originate? Can people create relationships characterized by high responsiveness, and consequently, higher quality relationships? We suggest that goals contribute to cycles of responsiveness between people, improving both people’s relationship quality. The present studies examine 1) how interpersonal goals initiate responsiveness processes in close relationships, 2) the self-perpetuating nature of these processes, and 3) how responsiveness evolves dynamically over time through both intrapersonal projection and reciprocal interpersonal relationship processes. In a semester-long study of 115 roommate dyads, actors’ compassionate and self-image goals predicted a cycle of responsiveness between roommates, occurring within weeks and across the semester. In a 3-week study of 65 roommate dyads, actors’ goals again predicted cycles of responsiveness between roommates, which then contributed to both actors’ and partners’ relationship quality. Results suggest that both projection and reciprocation of responsiveness associated with compassionate goals create upward spirals of responsiveness that ultimately enhance relationship quality for both people. PMID:20565187

  8. The Teacher-Student Relationship as an Interpersonal Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frymier, Ann Bainbridge; Houser, Marian L.

    2000-01-01

    Examines communication skills in the teacher-student relationship. Finds that students reported referential skill, ego support, and conflict management as being most important to effective teaching; and that referential skill, ego support, and immediacy have a strong relationship with student learning and motivation. Finds some sex differences.…

  9. On the relationship between epistasis and genetic variance heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Simon K G; Carlborg, Örjan

    2017-11-28

    Epistasis and genetic variance heterogeneity are two non-additive genetic inheritance patterns that are often, but not always, related. Here we use theoretical examples and empirical results from earlier analyses of experimental data to illustrate the connection between the two. This includes an introduction to the relationship between epistatic gene action, statistical epistasis, and genetic variance heterogeneity, and a brief discussion about how genetic processes other than epistasis can also give rise to genetic variance heterogeneity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Maximizing relationship possibilities: relational maximization in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelson, Alan C; Pauley, Perry M

    2013-01-01

    Using Rusbult's (1980) investment model and Schwartz's (2000) conceptualization of decision maximization, we sought to understand how an individual's propensity to maximize his or her decisions factored into investment, satisfaction, and awareness of alternatives in romantic relationships. In study one, 275 participants currently involved in romantic relationships completed measures of maximization, satisfaction, investment size, quality of alternatives, and commitment. In study two, 343 participants were surveyed as part of the creation of a scale of relational maximization. Results from both studies revealed that the tendency to maximize (in general and in relationships specifically) was negatively correlated with satisfaction, investment, and commitment, and positively correlated with quality of alternatives. Furthermore, we found that satisfaction and investments mediated the relationship between maximization and relationship commitment.

  11. Global cities and cultural experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Gaviria, Pilar; Emontspool, Julie

    2015-01-01

    to the important role of global cities for cultural experimentation. Such cities are not only an interesting market for culturally diverse products, but also learning hubs. Managers willing to address multicultural marketplaces might target these markets with dynamic cultural offers that ensure a balance between......Purpose: Studying the cultural dynamics of expatriate amateur theater in Brussels, this paper investigates multicultural marketplace development in contemporary global cities. Design/methodology/approach: The paper performs an interpretive analysis of the expatriate amateur scene in Brussels from...... an ethnographic perspective, combining observations of rehearsals and performances, in-depth interviews with actors, directors and audience, and secondary data. Findings: The fluidity of global cities allows their inhabitants to engage in collective creative processes of cultural experimentation, performing...

  12. Interpreting physicochemical experimental data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colclough, Nicola; Wenlock, Mark C

    2015-09-01

    With the wealth of experimental physicochemical data available to chemoinformaticians from the literature, commercial, and company databases an increasing challenge is the interpretation of such datasets. Subtle differences in experimental methodology used to generate these datasets can give rise to variations in physicochemical property values. Such methodology nuances will be apparent to an expert experimentalist but not necessarily to the data analyst and modeller. This paper describes the differences between common methodologies for measuring the four most important physicochemical properties namely aqueous solubility, octan-1-ol/water distribution coefficient, pK(a) and plasma protein binding highlighting key factors that can lead to systematic differences. Insight is given into how to identify datasets suitable for combining.

  13. PEMFC modeling and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, J.V.C. [Federal University of Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: jvargas@demec.ufpr.br; Ordonez, J.C.; Martins, L.S. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States). Center for Advanced Power Systems], Emails: ordonez@caps.fsu.edu, martins@caps.fsu.edu

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, a simplified and comprehensive PEMFC mathematical model introduced in previous studies is experimentally validated. Numerical results are obtained for an existing set of commercial unit PEM fuel cells. The model accounts for pressure drops in the gas channels, and for temperature gradients with respect to space in the flow direction, that are investigated by direct infrared imaging, showing that even at low current operation such gradients are present in fuel cell operation, and therefore should be considered by a PEMFC model, since large coolant flow rates are limited due to induced high pressure drops in the cooling channels. The computed polarization and power curves are directly compared to the experimentally measured ones with good qualitative and quantitative agreement. The combination of accuracy and low computational time allow for the future utilization of the model as a reliable tool for PEMFC simulation, control, design and optimization purposes. (author)

  14. Emotions & Relationships: Dealing with the Tough Stuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emotions & Relationships: Dealing with the Tough Stuff; emotional health; emotional health; emotional health article; emotional health articles; best way to deal with emotions; best ways to deal with relationships; how to build relationships; how to strengthen relationships

  15. A Digital Loudspeaker: Experimental Construction

    OpenAIRE

    P. Valoušek

    2006-01-01

    To verify the principal functionality of a digital loudspeaker the experimental construction of a digital loudspeaker was designed. This system consists of signal processing unit and transducer array. Both parts offer 8-bit precision and wide a spectrum of sampling frequencies. The signal processing unit is based on a programmable logic device which provides a flexible system for preparing a driving signal. The transducer array is formed by conventional dynamic transducers arranged in a circl...

  16. THE EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF OSTEONECROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Netylko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental investigation for the purpose of modeling of knee osteonecrosis were performed in 36 rats. The chronic renal insufficiency by means of left nephrectomy and electrocoagulation in 25% cortical substance of right kidney was induced before 6 months till experiment with subsequent introduction of 0,1% adrenalin solution and methylprednisolone in paraarticular structures. The results of experiment showed the polyetiologic feature of disease.

  17. Cromoblastomicosis Experimental en Bufo marinus

    OpenAIRE

    Trejos, A.

    2016-01-01

    Reviewing the observations of CARINI and the experimental work of ALMEIDA and AREA LEAO, MELLO & CURY on the pathogenicity of the etiologic agents of Chromoblastomycosis inyected intraperitonealy in Salientia species Leptodactylus ocellatus and L. pentadactylus, we decided to determine the pathogenicity of Fonsecaeae pedrosoi on Bufo marinus. Six specimens were innoculated with suspensions of cultures of this fungs obtained from six human cases, using one strain per animal.At autopsy, one obs...

  18. Experimental characteristics of vortex heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piralishvili, Sh. A.; Novikov, N. N.

    The performance of a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube is investigated experimentally for the case where the tube operates as a heater, with the mass of the heated gas remaining constant. The results obtained indicate that energy separation zones with sufficiently high (50 percent) relative heating effects can be achieved for a gas flow ratio of unity. A nomogram is presented for calculating the relative and absolute heating effects as a function of the tube geometry.

  19. Experimental Mathematics and Mathematical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Broadhurst, David; Zudilin, Wadim

    2009-06-26

    One of the most effective techniques of experimental mathematics is to compute mathematical entities such as integrals, series or limits to high precision, then attempt to recognize the resulting numerical values. Recently these techniques have been applied with great success to problems in mathematical physics. Notable among these applications are the identification of some key multi-dimensional integrals that arise in Ising theory, quantum field theory and in magnetic spin theory.

  20. Elements of Bayesian experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivia, D.S. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Oxon (United Kingdom)

    1997-09-01

    We consider some elements of the Bayesian approach that are important for optimal experimental design. While the underlying principles used are very general, and are explained in detail in a recent tutorial text, they are applied here to the specific case of characterising the inferential value of different resolution peakshapes. This particular issue was considered earlier by Silver, Sivia and Pynn (1989, 1990a, 1990b), and the following presentation confirms and extends the conclusions of their analysis.

  1. Ingratiation and Favoritism: Experimental Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Robin, Stéphane; Rusinowska, Agnieszka; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2012-01-01

    URL des Documents de travail : http://centredeconomiesorbonne.univ-paris1.fr/documents-de-travail-du-ces/; Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2012.32 - ISSN : 1955-611X; We provide experimental evidence of worker's ingratiation by opinion conformity and of managers' discrimination in favor of workers with whom they share similar opinions. In our Baseline, managers can observe both workers' performance at a task and opinions before assigning unequal payoffs. In the Ingrat...

  2. Experimental Research of Engine Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta-Elena Chiţan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries a compact presentation of experimental research of engine-foundations. The dynamic phenomena are so complex, that the vibrations cannot be estimated in the design stage. The design engineer of an engine foundation must foresee through a dynamic analysis of the vibrations, those measures that lead to the avoidance or limiting of the bad effects caused by the vibrations.

  3. Deep Learning for Experimental Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Sadowski, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Experimental physicists explore the fundamental nature of the universe by probing the properties of subatomic particles using specialized detectors. These detectors generate vast quantities of data that must undergo multiple stages of processing, such as dimensionality-reduction and feature extraction, before statistical analysis and interpretation. The processing steps are typically designed by physicists, using expert knowledge and intuition. However, this approach is human-limited and cos...

  4. Experimental Crystallization of Yamato 980459

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John H.; Galenas, M. G.; Danielson, L. R.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, only two martian meteorites QUE 94201 (QUE) and Yamato 980459 (Y98) have been experimentally shown to me true melt compositions. Most martian meteorites are instead, cumulates or partial cumulates. We have performed experiments on a Y98 composition to assess whether QUE could be related to Y98 by some fractionation process [1]. Y98 is a basaltic shergottite from the SNC (Shergotty, Nakhla, Chassigny) meteorite group. Y98 is composed of 26% olivine, 48% pyroxene, 25% mesostasis, and no plagioclase [2]. The large size of the olivine megacrysts and absence of plagioclase suggest that the parental melt which formed this meteorite had begun cooling slowly until some mechanism, such as magma ascent, caused rapid cooling [3]. Y98 s olivines have the highest Mg content of all the shergottites suggesting that it is the most primitive [4]. Y98 has been determined to be a melt composition by comparing the composition of experimental liquidus olivines with the composition of the cores of Y98 olivines [4]. The liquidus of Y98 is predicted by MELTS [5] and by experimentation [6] to be 1450 C. Analyses of Y98 show it to be very depleted in LREEs and it has similar depleted patterns as other shergottites such as QUE [7].

  5. Moriond QCD 2013 Experimental Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, Dmitri [Fermilab

    2013-06-28

    The article presents experimental highlights of Moriond 2013 QCD conference. This was fantastic conference and the first Moriond QCD since the discovery of the Higgs boson. Many new results about its properties have been presented at the conference with Higgs-like particle becoming a Higgs as it properties match expected for the Higgs boson pretty well. There were many new results presented in all experimental areas including QCD, elecroweak, studies of the top, bottom and charm quarks, searches for physics beyond Standard Model as well as studies of the heavy ion collisions. 56 experimental talks have been presented at the conference and it is impossible to cover each result in the summary, so highlights are limited to what I was able to present in my summary talk presented on March 16 2013. The proceedings of the conference cover in depth all talks presented and I urge you to get familiar with all of them. Theoretical Summary of the conference was given by Michelangelo Mangano, so theory talks are not covered in the article.

  6. Experimental methods in behavioral teratology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbinden, G.

    1981-09-01

    Efforts are made to develop toxicological techniques with which new behavioral teratogens can be recognized. The review describes the most important experimental methods which are presently explored, and which are based on a rich body of knowledge accumulated by experimental psychologists. Most of the tests were developed with small animals, mostly with rats. They range from the rather straightforward determination of various reflexes to complex behavioral situations involving mechanical devices, operant conditioning techniques and procedures evaluating social behavior. In applying these methods in routine toxicology, it is important to remember, that many behavioral effects determined in newborn and adult animals are subtle. Moreover, they are influenced by a large variety of environmental factors affecting the health and the behavior of the mothers and of the offspring in the early and later phases of development. Therefore, the experiments must be conducted under highly standardized conditions and must be controlled rigorously. It is concluded that the best experimental strategy for the evaluation of potential behavioral teratogens is not yet established. Therefore, it would be premature to decide on a fixed protocol to be included in routine animal safety experiments for drugs and other chemical substances.

  7. Experimental Chagas' disease in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de Lana

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of experimental Chagas' disease in 64 out-bred young dogs. Twenty-nine animals were inoculated with the Be-62 and 35 with Be-78 Trypanosoma cruzi strains. Twenty-six were infected with blood trypomastigotes by different inoculation routes and 38 with metacyclic trypomastigotes from the vector via the conjunctival route. Twenty of the 26 dogs infected with blood trypomastigotes were autopsied during the acute phase. Eleven died spontaneously and nine were sacrificed. Six remained alive until they died suddenly (two or were autopsied (four. Twelve of the 38 dogs infected with metacyclic trypomastigotes evolved naturally to the chronic phase and remained alive for 24-48 months. The parasitemia, clinical aspects and serology (IgM and IgG as well as electrocardiogram, hemogram and heart anatomo-histopathologic patterns of acute and chronic cardiac forms of Chagas' disease as seen in human infections, were reproduced. The most important finding is the reproductibility of diffuse fibrosing chronic chagasic cardiopathy in all dogs infected with Be-78 T. cruzi strain autopsied between the 90th and 864th days of infection. Thus, the dog can be considered as a suitable experimental model to study Chagas' disease according to the requisites of the World Health Organization (1984. Futhermore the animal is easily obtained and easy to handle and maintain in experimental laboratory conditions.

  8. Organizational Culture and Relationship Skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, S.; Koen, C.I.; Noorderhaven, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    While both the strategic management and the network literature recognize the importance of inter-firm relationships for explaining competitive advantage, the question why firms differ in their ability to benefit from these relationships is rarely addressed.This paper aims to begin to fill this gap

  9. Relationship marketing in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H C; Fleming, D; Mangold, W G; LaForge, R W

    1994-01-01

    Building relationships with patients is critical to the success of many health care organizations. The authors profile the relationship marketing program for a hospital's cardiac center and discuss the key strategic aspects that account for its success: a focus on a specific hospital service, an integrated marketing communication strategy, a specially designed database, and the continuous tracking of results.

  10. Relationships in the Flipped Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Brett M.; Fleming, Cassidy L.; Plotnikoff, Kara M.; Skagen, Darlene N.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of flipped classrooms in chemistry, and identifies relationships as a major factor impacting the success of flipped instruction methods. Examination of student interview data reveals factors that affect the development of peer-peer, peer-peer leader, and peer-expert relationships in firstyear general chemistry…

  11. Partners' relationship quality and childbearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, A.J.; Thomson, E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the influence of partner relationship quality on childbearing. We are innovative in using relationship quality reports from both partners, drawing on the first and second wave of the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study. Thus, we can identify potential effects of discordant

  12. Value Based International Relationship Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Ulrich Scholz

    2009-01-01

    The developement of a "general theory" of relationship marketing must be considered as distant vision rather than as imminent reality.We now use the existing stock of knowledge to identify some largely unexplored,yet relevant, aspects of relationship marketing and call for these issues to be

  13. Counseling for Work and Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Mary Sue

    2012-01-01

    Counseling for work and relationship is a social constructionist perspective, informed by feminist and social justice values, and responsive to radical changes in contemporary lives, that fosters a shift in vocational psychology from helping people develop careers to helping people construct lives through work and relationship. The first and major…

  14. The Baby Boomers' Intergenerational Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J. Jill

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. Design and Methods: The researchers describe three…

  15. Partner personality in distressed relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the personality characteristics of partners receiving marital therapy. On the basis of previous research, we expected partners in distressed relationships to be more neurotic and more introverted and to have lower self-esteem than partners in non-distressed relationships.

  16. Older Couple Relationships and Loneliness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong Gierveld, J.; Broese van Groenou, M.; Bookwala, Jamila

    2016-01-01

    The couple relationship is a major factor in alleviating loneliness. Midlife and older adults without a couple relationship, especially after widowhood or divorce, are at serious risk of loneliness. Outcomes of empirical research, both dating back to the former century (Lopata, 1980, 1996), as well

  17. Taking Chances in Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Lindsey; Knox, David

    2016-01-01

    A 64 item Internet questionnaire was completed by 381 undergraduates at a large southeastern university to assess taking chances in romantic relationships. Almost three fourths (72%) self-identified as being a "person willing to take chances in my love relationship." Engaging in unprotected sex, involvement in a "friends with…

  18. Oxytocin and vulnerable romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebe, Nicholas M; Kristoffersen, Andreas Aarseth; Grøntvedt, Trond Viggo; Emery Thompson, Melissa; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen; Gangestad, Steven W

    2017-04-01

    Oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in the formation and maintenance of various social relationships, including human romantic relationships. Competing models predict, alternatively, positive or negative associations between naturally-occurring OT levels and romantic relationship quality. Empirical tests of these models have been equivocal. We propose a novel hypothesis ('Identify and Invest') that frames OT as an allocator of psychological investment toward valued, vulnerable relationships, and test this proposal in two studies. In one sample of 75 couples, and a second sample of 148 romantically involved individuals, we assess facets of relationships predicting changes in OT across a thought-writing task regarding one's partner. In both studies, participants' OT change across the task corresponded positively with multiple dimensions of high relationship involvement. However, increases in participants' OT also corresponded to their partners reporting lower relationship involvement. OT increases, then, reflected discrepancies between assessments of self and partner relationship involvement. These findings are robust in a combined analysis of both studies, and do not significantly differ between samples. Collectively, our findings support the 'Identify and Invest' hypothesis in romantic couples, and we argue for its relevance across other types of social bonds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Implicit Theories of Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the role of children's implicit theories of peer relationships in their psychological, emotional, and behavioral adjustment. Participants included 206 children (110 girls; 96 boys; M age = 10.13 years, SD = 1.16) who reported on their implicit theories of peer relationships, social goal orientation, need for approval,…

  20. Experimental rhinovirus infection in COPD: implications for antiviral therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, Natasha; Finney, Lydia; Johnston, Sebastian L; Mallia, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health problem and will be one of the leading global causes of mortality over the coming decades. Much of the morbidity, mortality and health care costs of COPD are attributable to acute exacerbations, the commonest causes of which are respiratory infections. Respiratory viruses are frequently detected in COPD exacerbations but direct proof of a causative relationship has been lacking. We have developed a model of COPD exacerbation using experimental rhinovirus infection in COPD patients and this has established a causative relationship between virus infection and exacerbations. In addition it has determined some of the molecular mechanisms linking virus infections to COPD exacerbations and identified potential new therapeutic targets. This new data should stimulate research into the role of antiviral agents as potential treatments for COPD exacerbations. Testing of antiviral agents has been hampered by the lack of a small animal model for rhinovirus infection and experimental rhinovirus infection in healthy volunteers has been used to test treatments for the common cold. Experimental rhinovirus infection in COPD subjects offers the prospect of a model that can be used to evaluate the effects of new treatments for virus-induced COPD exacerbations, and provide essential data that can be used in making decisions regarding large scale clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship Development in Greenfield Expansions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drogendijk, Rian; Andersson, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates conceptually how new Greenfield subsidiaries develop relationships over time. We focus our analysis on the earliest start-up stage of new Greenfield subsidiaries, and on the dynamics of relationships development with five different groups of actors within the MNC...... and the local environment of the new Greenfield. We argue that relationship strength, or the intensity of interaction and resource exchange, depends on the new Greenfield''s degree of dependence or interdependence within these relationships and develop propositions based on institutional theory, resource...... dependency theory and network approaches. In the concluding sections we suggest directions for future work to enhance understanding of the dynamics of relationship management in new Greenfield expansions....

  2. Relationships Between Culture and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Majken

    2012-01-01

    This article suggests four different relationships between institutionalism and organizational culture seen as two different levels of analysis. The relationships represent a continuum from a significant influence of the institutional level on organizational culture to a significant cultural...... influence on the formation and construction of institutions. The four relationships are defined as 1) cultural filtering of institutional pressure from isomorphism, 2) organizational culture as a source of new institutional elements, 3) organizational culture as a source of positioning towards institutions......, 4) counterculture as redefining institutions. The article also discusses how the relationships can be seen in a temporal perspective stressing how the relationships between culture and institutions develop over time. A temporal perspective further questions which processes constitute...

  3. Brand Relationships 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringberg, Torsten; Bjerregaard, Stine

    Guided by a general curiosity towards consumers‟ responses to proactive relational branding, the study explores a fundamental paradox sofar disregarded in the brand relationship literature, namely the intersection between brands that facilitates deep and committed relationship with as well as bet...... that consumers remain critical toward the Nike+ initiative as an emotional partner as well as a social interaction builder. This consumer resistance endures in spite of Nike fulfills the criteria for relationship building set forth in the literature.......Guided by a general curiosity towards consumers‟ responses to proactive relational branding, the study explores a fundamental paradox sofar disregarded in the brand relationship literature, namely the intersection between brands that facilitates deep and committed relationship with as well...

  4. Sex differences in intimate relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Palchykov, Vasyl; Kertész, János; Barabási, Albert-László; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2012-01-01

    Social networks have turned out to be of fundamental importance both for our understanding human sociality and for the design of digital communication technology. However, social networks are themselves based on dyadic relationships and we have little understanding of the dynamics of close relationships and how these change over time. Evolutionary theory suggests that, even in monogamous mating systems, the pattern of investment in close relationships should vary across the lifespan when post-weaning investment plays an important role in maximising fitness. Mobile phone data sets provide us with a unique window into the structure of relationships and the way these change across the lifespan. We here use data from a large national mobile phone dataset to demonstrate striking sex differences in the pattern in the gender-bias of preferred relationships that reflect the way the reproductive investment strategies of the two sexes change across the lifespan: these differences mainly reflect women's shifting pattern...

  5. Empirical determinants of relationship lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Loukil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the determinants of the incidence of relationship lending. For our study, we combine established insights from the study of Elsas with empirical banking relationship lending literature. We relate loan contract and borrower characteristics to self-assessments of Tunisian banks with respect to the existence of close relationship. Using detailed loan contract information from Tunisian banks and a questionnaire addressed to loan officers, we report the first comprehensive evidence on the development of relationship lending. We find that access to information, the ability to influence the manager, and the solvency of the company are relevant factors. While the exclusivity and the duration of the relationship, classic measures of the existence of close ties with the bank, are not determining factors. So these proxy measures should be used with caution in future empirical works.

  6. Experimental Trichomonas infection: Morphological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Shumkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Growth tendency the asymptomatic forms of an urogenital trichomoniasis, frequency of complications from reproductive organs, uncertainty of many aspects of the violations of a spermatogenesis influencing reproductive function all this proves need of search of the urogenital trichomoniasis adequate experimental model. Lack of the corresponding experimental model is limited by our opportunities for carrying out the standardized, controlled researches on studying of transmission, pathogenesis, the immune answer, therapy and development of vaccines at a triсhomonas infection.Objective is studying action of Trichomonas vaginalis on a spermatogenny epithelium the mature of individuals of guinea pigs in the conditions of sharp and chronic experience.Materials and methods. Experiments are made on the “Reproductive System (Guinea Pigs + Trichomonas vaginalis” modeling the natural course of an infection. In experiment 2 groups of animals: 1st (n = 8 – experimental, 2nd (n = 8 – control were formed. Against the background of the reduction of the immune status (hydrocortisone 125 mg/kg intramuscularly 1 time in day during 2 days the animals of the 1st group were injected intraurethral suspension containing 1 × 106 Trichomonas on 0.5 ml of culture medium, the animals of the 2nd group – 0.5 ml of medium. Under the condition of the acute experiment the animals were sacrificed on day 9 (the middle of the cycle of spermatogenesis – I experienced group and on day 30 (full spermatogenic cycle – II experimental group. The control animals were slaughtered in the same period. The material for histological study was prepared by the traditional way.Results. In an experimental model of “Reproductive system (guinea pigs + T. vaginalis”, staging and degree of disturbance of spermatogenesis, depending on the duration of trichomonas infection were shown. So, in acute experience morphological changes correspond to changes in the

  7. A systems immunology approach to the host-tumor interaction: large-scale patterns of natural autoantibodies distinguish healthy and tumor-bearing mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifat Merbl

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, immunology has considered a meaningful antibody response to be marked by large amounts of high-affinity antibodies reactive with the specific inciting antigen; the detection of small amounts of low-affinity antibodies binding to seemingly unrelated antigens has been considered to be beneath the threshold of immunological meaning. A systems-biology approach to immunology, however, suggests that large-scale patterns in the antibody repertoire might also reflect the functional state of the immune system. To investigate such global patterns of antibodies, we have used an antigen-microarray device combined with informatic analysis. Here we asked whether antibody-repertoire patterns might reflect the state of an implanted tumor. We studied the serum antibodies of inbred C57BL/6 mice before and after implantation of syngeneic 3LL tumor cells of either metastatic or non-metastatic clones. We analyzed patterns of IgG and IgM autoantibodies binding to over 300 self-antigens arrayed on slides using support vector machines and genetic algorithm techniques. We now report that antibody patterns, but not single antibodies, were informative: 1 mice, even before tumor implantation, manifest both individual and common patterns of low-titer natural autoantibodies; 2 the patterns of these autoantibodies respond to the growth of the tumor cells, and can distinguish between metastatic and non-metastatic tumor clones; and 3 curative tumor resection induces dynamic changes in these low-titer autoantibody patterns. The informative patterns included autoantibodies binding to self-molecules not known to be tumor-associated antigens (including insulin, DNA, myosin, fibrinogen as well as to known tumor-associated antigens (including p53, cytokeratin, carbonic anhydrases, tyrosinase. Thus, low-titer autoantibodies that are not the direct products of tumor-specific immunization can still generate an immune biomarker of the body-tumor interaction. System-wide profiling of autoantibody repertoires can be informative.

  8. Comprehensive profiling of virus microRNAs of Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma: highlighting the interactions of ebv-Bart9 and host tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Yi; Liu, Yu Yin; Liu, Keng-Hao; Hsu, Jun-Te; Chen, Tse-Ching; Chiu, Cheng-Tang; Yeh, Ta-Sen

    2017-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is suggested to actively utilize its ebv-microRNAs (miRNAs) to manipulate viral and cellular functions during neoplasia transformation. A systemic profiling of ebv-miRNAs expressed in EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVa GC) helps understand its epigenetic regulation of carcinogenesis. A total of 1039 patients with gastric cancer were screened for EBVa GC using EBV-encoded RNAs in situ hybridization. A comprehensive profiling of ebv-miRNAs expressed in EBVa GC was constructed using stem-loop quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Functional assay of specific ebv-miRNA was conducted. Expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers among EBVa GC and non-EBVa GC was compared. The prevalence of EBVa GC was 5.0% (52 out of 1039) in our series. The most abundant ebv-miRNAs of EBVa GC were Bart4, followed by Bart11, Bart2, Bart6, Bart9, and Bart18, in the decreasing order. Of them, Bart9 exhibited the same seed sequence as to hsa miR-200a and miR-141. Expression of E-cadherin of EBV-positive SNU-719 was increased after BART9 knockdown. Depleting endogenous Bart9 of SNU-719 induced a surged expression of miR-200a and miR-141, accompanied by decreased proliferative and invasive ability. Expression of mesenchymal markers in EBVa GC was increased compared with those of non-EBVa GC, albeit the two cohorts exhibited a comparable long-term survival. We constructed a comprehensive profiling of ebv-miRNAs in EBVa GC. BART9 plays an important role during carcinogenesis through EMT. Inherent mesenchymal phenotype of EBVa GC represents a unique virus-induced morphology and microenvironment rather than being able to predict the prognosis. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Experimental Study on Relationship of Applied Power And Feeding Rate on Production of Polyurethane Nanofibre

    OpenAIRE

    Oteyaka, Mustafa; Ozel, E; YILDIRIM, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a polymer of polyurethane (PU) was electrospun for 1 hour to create a scaffold under different conditions. A 3x3 general full factorial in a completely randomised design using three levels of two factors: power (W= 20, 22 and 25 Watts) and feeding rate (V=1.00, 1.25 and 1.50 ml/h) was used to assess the response pattern and to determine the combined effect of independent variables. The main effects for power (W) and feeding rate (V) and the power (W)*feeding rate (V) interaction...

  10. Experimental Study on Relationship of Applied Power And Feeding Rate on Production of Polyurethane Nanofibre

    OpenAIRE

    Oteyaka, Mustafa; Ozel, E; Yildirim, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a polymer of polyurethane (PU) was electrospun for 1 hour to create a scaffold under different conditions. A 3x3 general full factorial in a completely randomised design using three levels of two factors: power (W= 20, 22 and 25 Watts) and feeding rate (V=1.00, 1.25 and 1.50 ml/h) was used to assess the response pattern and to determine the combined effect of independent variables. The main effects for power (W) and feeding rate (V) and the power (W)*feeding rate (V) interaction...

  11. Experimental analysis of the relationship between charge movement components in skeletal muscle of Rana temporaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, R H; Huang, C L

    1984-08-01

    Experiments were performed to ascertain whether the monotonic (q beta) and delayed (q gamma) components of non-linear charge in skeletal muscle membranes form a sequential system, or are the result of separate, independent processes. The non-linear capacitance studied in a large number of fibres increased with fibre diameter. This dependence was attributable to tetracaine-sensitive (q gamma) but not to tetracaine-resistant (q beta and q alpha) charge. The kinetics and total quantity of q gamma charge moving in response to voltage steps from varying pre-pulse potentials to a fixed probe potential remained constant despite variations in the size of the early q beta decay. The kinetics of the delayed (q gamma) charging current obtained from a single 20 mV depolarizing step were compared with the sum of the responses to two 10 mV steps adding to the same voltage excursion. The respective transients superimposed only if one of the 10 mV steps did not reach the voltage at which q gamma first appears. In the two preceding experiments, total charge was conserved. These results are consistent with separate and functionally independent q beta and q gamma systems of potential-dependent charge, with q gamma residing in the transverse tubules and q beta on surface membrane. The findings can be discussed in terms of a contractile 'activator' with a steep sensitivity to voltage that begins only with depolarization beyond a level close to the actual mechanical threshold.

  12. Kinetics of 2-Pentadecylaniline Polymerizations in Monolayers: Relationships Between Experimental Data and a New Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-12

    Termodinamica S D Faculdad de Fisica Universidad de Valencia ._-’- 46100 Burjasot, Spain and Howard Reiss WE Department of Chemistry University of...Gainesville, FL 32611-2046 or (b) Departamento de Termodinamica , Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjasot, Spain. id 0 (c

  13. Relationship between trust, cooperation and social networks. Experimental evidence in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Berlien Araos, Karin; Maino Vergara, María

    2015-01-01

    Las redes sociales y el comportamiento cooperativo han sido identificados como factores claves para explicar la aparición de “Capital Social”. A partir de la literatura, podemos decir que las condiciones para observar el desarrollo de una estrategia cooperativa son: la relación con el otro, y la repetición en el tiempo de esta. Este trabajo busca estudiar la relación entre el comportamiento cooperativo, la generación de confianza y la relevancia de las redes sociales para su desarrollo median...

  14. An experimental test of the relationship between voice intonation and persuasion in the domain of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Sarah P; Dijkstra, Arie

    2014-01-01

    In the process of behaviour change, intonation of speech is an important aspect that may influence persuasion when auditory messages are used. In two experiments, we tested to what extent different levels of intonation are related to persuasion and whether for some recipients the threat posed by the message information might become too strong to face. In Study 1, 130 respondents listened to a health message with either a low, moderate or high level of intonation. In Study 2 (N = 143), the same manipulations of intonation were applied but half of the respondents were affirmed before they listened to the persuasive message. Intention to increase fruit and vegetable intake was used as a dependent variable. Both studies showed that high intonation led to a significant drop in intention among respondents who perceived their own health as good. After self-affirmation, persuasion was increased. A high level of intonation seems to induce self-regulatory defences in people who do not see the necessity to change their health behaviour, whereas people with poor perceived health might perceive potential to change. The use of a normal level of intonation in auditory health messages is recommended.

  15. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LIPID AND IMMUNE DISORDERS AT VARIOUS STAGES OF DEVELOPING EXPERIMENTAL DYSLIPIDEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Lobanova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. It was found that development of lipid disorders in rats is accompanied by increased levels  of  tumor  necrosis  factor  alpha  (TNFα  in  blood  and  liver,  decreased  cytokine  regulation  index,  thus  suggesting  arising  inflammatory  reaction  at  the  organ  and  systemic  levels,  exhaustion  of  functional  reserve  and  diminished  response of immunocompetent cells. Intensity of TNFα secretion depends on the duration of emerging  alimentary  dyslipidemia  in  rats,  i.e.,  maximal  amounts  of  TNFα  in  blood  and  liver  were  detected  at  day  30  of  evolving  dyslipidemia.  At  90th  and  180th  day  after  starting  the  alimentary  load,  a  gradual  inhibition  of  cytokineproducing  ability  by  immune  cells  is  observed.  In  the  course  of  evolving  alimentary  dyslipidemia,  the  patterns  of intra-and intersystemic interactions are altered towards increased correlations between lipid transport   and  immune  markers,  as  well  as  higher  intercorrelations  between  the  parameters  of  blood  lipid  metabolism  and  proinflammatory  cytokine  levels  in  the  liver.  (Med.  Immunol.,  2011,  vol.  13,  N  1,  pp  61-66 

  16. Interspecific neighbor interactions promote the positive diversity-productivity relationship in experimental grassland communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Zhang

    Full Text Available Because the frequency of heterospecific interactions inevitably increases with species richness in a community, biodiversity effects must be expressed by such interactions. However, little is understood how heterospecific interactions affect ecosystem productivity because rarely are biodiversity ecosystem functioning experiments spatially explicitly manipulated. To test the effect of heterospecific interactions on productivity, direct evidence of heterospecific neighborhood interaction is needed. In this study we conducted experiments with a detailed spatial design to investigate whether and how heterospecific neighborhood interactions promote primary productivity in a grassland community. The results showed that increasing the heterospecific: conspecific contact ratio significantly increased productivity. We found there was a significant difference in the variation in plant height between monoculture and mixture communities, suggesting that height-asymmetric competition for light plays a central role in promoting productivity. Heterospecific interactions make tall plants grow taller and short plants become smaller in mixtures compared to monocultures, thereby increasing the efficiency of light interception and utilization. Overyielding in the mixture communities arises from the fact that the loss in the growth of short plants is compensated by the increased growth of tall plants. The positive correlation between species richness and primary production was strengthened by increasing the frequency of heterospecific interactions. We conclude that species richness significantly promotes primary ecosystem production through heterospecific neighborhood interactions.

  17. Experimental Study of Structure/Behavior Relationship for a Metallized Explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukovsky, Eric; Reeves, Robert; Gash, Alexander; Glumac, Nick

    2017-06-01

    Metal powders are commonly added to explosive formulations to modify the blast behavior. Although detonation velocity is typically reduced compared to the neat explosive, the metal provides other benefits. Aluminum is a common additive to increase the overall energy output and high-density metals can be useful for enhancing momentum transfer to a target. Typically, metal powder is homogeneously distributed throughout the material; in this study, controlled distributions of metal powder in explosive formulations were investigated. The powder structures were printed using powder bed printing and the porous structures were filled with explosives to create bulk explosive composites. In all cases, the overall ratio between metal and explosive was maintained, but the powder distribution was varied. Samples utilizing uniform distributions to represent typical materials, discrete pockets of metal powder, and controlled, graded powder distributions were created. Detonation experiments were performed to evaluate the influence of metal powder design on the output pressure/time and the overall impulse. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Theoretical and experimental estimation of geometric relationship of non-parallel conjugate normal faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fusheng; Koyi, Hemin

    2017-04-01

    Intersecting and crossing conjugate normal faults develop at different scales. Equations of geometric parameters of non-parallel conjugate normal faults can be deduced from their trigonometric relations. Physical models can also be used to verify the theoretical calculations and compared with natural examples. In this study, we have used a theoretical approach to outline some key geometric parameters of conjugate normal faults (intersection angles, plunge of intersection line, and vertical and horizontal distances of the intersection point, etc.) and compared them to equivalent geometric values in scaled analogue models. The comparison shows that theoretical plots used for geometric estimation of conjugate normal faults constrain reasonably the geometric parameters in natural cases. Data from the Lufeng Sag of Pearl River Mouth Basin in the northern part of South China Sea, where conjugate non-parallel basement faults propagate and intersect in cover units are compatible with the theoretical geometric estimation.

  19. The force-length relationship of a muscle-tendon complex : experimental results and model calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, Maarten F.; Ettema, Gertjan C.; Huijing, Peter A.

    1990-01-01

    Models are useful when studying how architectural and physiological properties of muscle-tendon complexes are related to function, because they allow for the simulation of the behaviour of such complexes during natural movements. In the construction of these models, evaluation of their accuracy is

  20. STEER: Exploring the dynamic relationship between social information and networked media through experimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, S.S; Niamut, O.A; Efthymiopoulos, N.; Denazis, S.; Race, N.; Mu, M.; Taal, J.

    2015-01-01

    With the growing popularity of social networks, online video services and smart phones, the traditional content consumers are becoming the editors and broadcasters of their own stories. Within the EU FP7 project STEER, project partners have developed a novel system of new algorithms and tool sets

  1. An experimental test of the relationship between voice intonation and persuasion in the domain of health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah P.; Dijkstra, Arie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In the process of behaviour change, intonation of speech is an important aspect that may influence persuasion when auditory messages are used. In two experiments, we tested to what extent different levels of intonation are related to persuasion and whether for some recipients the threat

  2. An experimental study on the causal relationships between (ecto-)parasites, testosterone and sexual signalling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Wendt; Heylen, Dieter; Eens, Marcel; Rivera-Gutierrez, Hector Fabio; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2013-01-01

    Bird song is considered to have evolved via sexual selection and should as such honestly signal aspects of the quality of its bearer. To ensure honesty, the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis proposed a dual role of testosterone, having positive effects on sexual signalling but suppressive effects

  3. Experimental research on the relationship between fit accuracy and fracture resistance of zirconia abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xinxin; Wei, Huasha; Wang, Dashan; Han, Yan; Deng, Jing; Wang, Yongliang; Wang, Junjun; Yang, Jianjun

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the correlation between fit accuracy and fracture resistance of zirconia abutments, as well as its feasibility for clinical applications. Twenty self-made zirconia abutments were tested with 30 Osstem GSII implants. First, 10 Osstem GSII implants were cut into two parts along the long axis and assembled with the zirconia abutments. The microgaps between the implants and the zirconia abutments were measured under a scanning electron microscope. Second, the zirconia abutments were assembled with 20 un-cut implants and photographed before and after being fixed with a central screw of 30-Ncm torque. The dental films were measured by Digora for Windows 2.6 software. Then the fracture resistance of zirconia abutments was measured using the universal testing machine at 90°. All results were analyzed using SPSS13.0 software. The average internal-hexagon microgaps between the implants and zirconia abutments were 19.38±1.34μm. The average Morse taper microgap in the implant-abutment interface was 17.55±1.68μm. The dental film showed that the Morse taper gap in the implant-abutment interface disappeared after being fixed with a central screw of 30-Ncm torque, and the average moving distance of the zirconia abutments to the implants was 0.19±0.02mm. The average fracture resistance of zirconia abutments was 282.93±17.28N. The internal-hexagon microgap between the implants and zirconia abutments was negatively related to the fracture resistance of the abutments (r1=-0.97, pzirconia abutments. The fracture resistance of zirconia abutments can satisfy the clinical application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The educational relationship as a place of integration and prevention: First results of an experimental path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Teresa Pedata

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The path and the pilot study presented here come from a synergy between a pharmaceutical, universities and institutions in the area. The intervention evaluation wants to establish itself as a means of "re-thinking" youth intervention benefited: the assumption that the integration of knowledge can constitute an enrichment of the whole person, we believe that such enrichment is more likely to occur in group in comparison with others and the development of social skills and human resources.

  5. Relationship between neutrophil-mediated oxidative injury during acute experimental pyelonephritis and chronic renal scarring.

    OpenAIRE

    Meylan, P R; Markert, M; Bille, J; Glauser, M P

    1989-01-01

    Previous experiments with rats have suggested that pyelonephritic scarring after acute ascending Escherichia coli pyelonephritis partly results from excessive polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) infiltration and activation in the kidney parenchyma. We have studied the role of PMN oxidative metabolism in generating tissue injury during acute pyelonephritis. Rats with acute pyelonephritis were treated with dapsone (25 mg/kg twice daily for 3 days), a compound known to prevent PMN oxidant damage. ...

  6. Experimental Study on Relationship between NOx Emission and Fuel Consumption of a Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ping; Liu, Chunjiang; Feng, Zhiqiang; Xia, Yijiang

    2018-01-01

    For YC6112 diesel engine assembled Delphl model single fuel pump electric controlled, in the premise of not changing its overall unit structure parameters of other systems, three different types of camshaft for single pumps, two kinds of fuel injectors, two types of superchargers and some phase shifting angle of different camshafts were chosen to match with the engine precisely, the experiments under thirteen kinds of working conditions for the engine with different matching were carried out, the change regulation between NOX emission and fuel consumption for the engine with different kinds of configurations was analyzed. The experiment results show the NOX emission and fuel consumption can be reduced greatly by configuring proper camshaft, fuel injectors and superchargers with YC6112 diesel engine.

  7. Experimental analysis of the relationship between optical thickness and sky radiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Kauffman, Y. J.; Fraser, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    Data are reported from simultaneous measurements of sky radiance and aerosol optical thickness using a transmissometer tuned to seven bands between 441-872 nm. The measurements were made near Washington, DC in February and November 1985 in generally cloud-free conditions. The data indicated that satellite radiance measurements in one band would be highly correlated with AEC values in other bands, suggesting that transmission and reflection of sunlight in nonabsorbing gaseous bands is highly correlated with path radiance.

  8. Food web complexity and allometric scaling relationships in stream mesocosms: implications for experimentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee E. Brown; Francois K. Edwards; Alexander M. Milner; Guy Woodward; Mark E. Ledge

    2011-01-01

    .... Previous investigations of stream mesocosm utility have explored community composition, but here for the first time, we extend the approach to consider the replicability and realism of food webs...

  9. Experimental Investigation of the Relationship between Breakdown Strength and Tracking Characteristics of Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Find; Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    The following paper shows possible correlations between results obtained by tracking tests and breakdown field strengths for non coated Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymers (GFRP) with either a polyester or an epoxy based resin. 15 specimens have been tested according to IEC Publication 60587 [4...

  10. Invertebrates of The H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Western Cascades, Oregon: III. The Orthoptera (Grasshoppers and Crickets).

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Lightfoot

    1986-01-01

    An inventory of Orthoptera (grasshoppers and crickets) at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, near Blue River, Oregon, was conducted to determine the species present and ecological relationships. A key for identification and an annotated list are presented. From qualitative assessments of successional habitat relationships, generalized species associations of forest...

  11. Steel Fibers Reinforced Concrete Pipes - Experimental Tests and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doru, Zdrenghea

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents in the first part a state of the art review of reinforced concrete pipes used in micro tunnelling realised through pipes jacking method and design methods for steel fibres reinforced concrete. In part two experimental tests are presented on inner pipes with diameters of 1410mm and 2200mm, and specimens (100x100x500mm) of reinforced concrete with metal fibres (35 kg / m3). In part two experimental tests are presented on pipes with inner diameters of 1410mm and 2200mm, and specimens (100x100x500mm) of reinforced concrete with steel fibres (35 kg / m3). The results obtained are analysed and are calculated residual flexural tensile strengths which characterise the post-cracking behaviour of steel fibres reinforced concrete. In the third part are presented numerical simulations of the tests of pipes and specimens. The model adopted for the pipes test was a three-dimensional model and loads considered were those obtained in experimental tests at reaching breaking forces. Tensile stresses determined were compared with mean flexural tensile strength. To validate tensile parameters of steel fibres reinforced concrete, experimental tests of the specimens were modelled with MIDAS program to reproduce the flexural breaking behaviour. To simulate post - cracking behaviour was used the method σ — ε based on the relationship stress - strain, according to RILEM TC 162-TDF. For the specimens tested were plotted F — δ diagrams, which have been superimposed for comparison with the similar diagrams of experimental tests. The comparison of experimental results with those obtained from numerical simulation leads to the following conclusions: - the maximum forces obtained by numerical calculation have higher values than the experimental values for the same tensile stresses; - forces corresponding of residual strengths have very similar values between the experimental and numerical calculations; - generally the numerical model estimates a breaking force greater

  12. Relationship between the complex susceptibility and the plasma dispersion function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez D, H.; Cabral P, A

    1991-04-15

    It is shown that when magnetization processes in a spin system and resonant excitation of spin n states occur in the presence of internal and or external random line-broadening mechanisms, the complex magnetic susceptibility of the plasma dispersion function. letter could be useful spin in system is proportional to the relationship found in this spectroscopies such as EPR and NMR, for example, as its fitting to experimental absorption and dispersion profiles produces their Lorentzian and Gaussian contents. (Author)

  13. Ultrastructural Mapping of the Zebrafish Gastrointestinal System as a Basis for Experimental Drug Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Delfine Cheng; Shami, Gerald J.; Marco Morsch; Chung, Roger S.; Filip Braet

    2016-01-01

    Research in the field of gastroenterology is increasingly focused on the use of alternative nonrodent model organisms to provide new experimental tools to study chronic diseases. The zebrafish is a particularly valuable experimental platform to explore organ and cell structure-function relationships under relevant biological and pathobiological settings. This is due to its optical transparency and its close-to-human genetic makeup. To-date, the structure-function properties of the GIS of the ...

  14. The relationship between egalitarianism, dominance, and violence in intimate relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Karakurt, Gunnur; Cumbie, Tamra

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between egalitarianism, dominance, and intimate partner violence within the context of couples’ dynamics. In particular, it was hypothesized that dominance and sexist attitudes would have both self and partner effects on relationship aggression. To test this hypothesis, gender role egalitarianism, dominance/control, sexism, power dynamics, and aggression were assessed using several measures. Questionnaires for these measures were comple...

  15. A Digital Loudspeaker: Experimental Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Valoušek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To verify the principal functionality of a digital loudspeaker the experimental construction of a digital loudspeaker was designed. This system consists of signal processing unit and transducer array. Both parts offer 8-bit precision and wide a spectrum of sampling frequencies. The signal processing unit is based on a programmable logic device which provides a flexible system for preparing a driving signal. The transducer array is formed by conventional dynamic transducers arranged in a circle. The initial measurements and listening tests provide acceptable results that are valuable for further digital loudspeaker developments. 

  16. The updated experimental proteinoid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S. W.; Nakashima, T.; Przybylski, A.; Syren, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental proteinoid model includes new results indicating that polymers sufficiently rich in basic amino acid catalyze the synthesis of peptides from ATP and amino acids and of oligonucleotides from ATP. The need for simulation syntheses of amino acids yielding significant proportions of basic amino acids is now in focus. The modeled simultaneous protocellular synthesis of peptides and polynucleotides is part of a more comprehensive proposal for the origin of the coded genetic mechanism. The finding of membrane and action potentials in proteinoid microspheres, with or without added lecithin, is reported. The crucial nature of a nonrandom matrix for protocells is developed.

  17. Experimental study of vortex diffusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakerin, S.; Miller, P.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This report documents experimental research performed on vortex diffusers used in ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The main objectives of the research were (1) to study the flow characteristics of isothermal jets issuing from vortex diffusers, (2) to compare the vortex diffuser`s performance with that of a conventional diffuser, and (3) to prepare a report that disseminates the results to the designers of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The researchers considered three diffusers: a conventional round ceiling diffuser and two different styles of vortex diffusers. Overall, the vortex diffusers create slightly more induction of ambient air in comparison to the conventional diffuser.

  18. Experimental tests of vacuum energy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    While the current vacuum energy of the Universe is very small, in our standard cosmological picture it has been much larger at earlier epochs. We try to address the question of what are possible ways to try to experimentally verify this. One direction is to look for systems where vacuum energy constitutes a non-negligible fraction of the total energy, and study the properties of those. Another possibility is to focus on the epochs around cosmic phase transitions, when the vacuum energy is of the same order as the total energy. Along these lines we investigate properties of neutron stars and the imprint of phase transitions on primordial gravitational waves.

  19. Experimental plasma research project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    This report contans descriptions of the activities supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of APP. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators and include objectives and milestones for each project. The projects are arranged in six research categories: Plasma Properties; Plasma Heating; Plasma Measurements and Instrumentation; Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics; Advanced Superconducting Materials; and the Fusion Plasma Research Facility (FPRF). Each category is introduced with a statement of objectives and recent progress and followed by descriptions of individual projects. An overall budget summary is provided at the beginning of the report.

  20. Experimental Plasma Research project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of APP. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators and include objectives and milestones for each project. The projects are arranged in six research categories: Plasma Properties; Plasma Heating; Plasma Diagnostics; Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics; Advanced Superconducting Materials; and the Fusion Plasma Research Facility (FPRF). Each category is introduced with a statement of objectives and recent progress and followed by descriptions of individual projects. An overall budget summary is provided at the beginning of the report.

  1. Experimental Aspects of Quantum Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Henry O

    2005-01-01

    Practical quantum computing still seems more than a decade away, and researchers have not even identified what the best physical implementation of a quantum bit will be. There is a real need in the scientific literature for a dialog on the topic of lessons learned and looming roadblocks. These papers, which appeared in the journal of "Quantum Information Processing" are dedicated to the experimental aspects of quantum computing These papers highlight the lessons learned over the last ten years, outline the challenges over the next ten years, and discuss the most promising physical implementations of quantum computing.

  2. User Experimentation with Terminological Ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pram Nielsen, Louise

    This paper outlines work-in-progress research suggesting that domain-specific knowledge in terminological resources can be transferred efficiently to end-users across different levels of expertise and by means of different information modes including articles (written mode) and concept diagrams...... (graph mode). An experimental approach is applied in an eye-tracking laboratory, where a natural user situation is replicated for Danish professional potential end-users of a ter-minology and knowledge bank in a chosen pilot domain (taxation)....

  3. Experimental Blade Research - phase 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eder, Martin Alexander; Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter

    This report is a summary of the results obtained in the project: Experimental Blade Research – phase 2 (EBR2). The project was supported by the Danish Energy Authority through the 2010 Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Program (EUDP 2010-II) and has journal no. 64011-0006. The project...... has been running from spring 2011 to the end of 2014. Being a summary report, this report only contains a collection of the research topics and the major results. For more details, see the publications listed at the end of this report....

  4. Flexible experimental FPGA based platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karsten Holm; Nymand, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental flexible Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based platform for testing and verifying digital controlled dc-dc converters. The platform supports different types of control strategies, dc-dc converter topologies and switching frequencies. The controller platform...... interface supporting configuration and reading of setup parameters, controller status and the acquisition memory in a simple way. The FPGA based platform, provides an easy way within education or research to use different digital control strategies and different converter topologies controlled by an FPGA...

  5. Human parallels to experimental myopia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Goldschmidt, Ernst; Haargaard, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    of the present PubMed literature-based review is to evaluate apparent similarities between experience from disturbed imaging in experimental laboratory science and varieties within the spectrum of childhood human myopia. So far, the main impression is that macroscopical optical deprivation appears absent...... in the prevalent types of human myopia, nor is myopia a regular sequel where early eye pathology has led to poor imaging and optical deprivation. Optical aberrations of a higher order are a relatively new issue in myopia research, and microstructural deprivation is only marginally dealt within the survey. Links...

  6. Biobetters From an Integrated Computational/Experimental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Kuyucak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biobetters are new drugs designed from existing peptide or protein-based therapeutics by improving their properties such as affinity and selectivity for the target epitope, and stability against degradation. Computational methods can play a key role in such design problems—by predicting the changes that are most likely to succeed, they can drastically reduce the number of experiments to be performed. Here we discuss the computational and experimental methods commonly used in drug design problems, focusing on the inverse relationship between the two, namely, the more accurate the computational predictions means the less experimental effort is needed for testing. Examples discussed include efforts to design selective analogs from toxin peptides targeting ion channels for treatment of autoimmune diseases and monoclonal antibodies which are the fastest growing class of therapeutic agents particularly for cancers and autoimmune diseases.

  7. Thermal conductivity of microporous layers: Analytical modeling and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andisheh-Tadbir, Mehdi; Kjeang, Erik; Bahrami, Majid

    2015-11-01

    A new compact relationship is developed for the thermal conductivity of the microporous layer (MPL) used in polymer electrolyte fuel cells as a function of pore size distribution, porosity, and compression pressure. The proposed model is successfully validated against experimental data obtained from a transient plane source thermal constants analyzer. The thermal conductivities of carbon paper samples with and without MPL were measured as a function of load (1-6 bars) and the MPL thermal conductivity was found between 0.13 and 0.17 W m-1 K-1. The proposed analytical model predicts the experimental thermal conductivities within 5%. A correlation generated from the analytical model was used in a multi objective genetic algorithm to predict the pore size distribution and porosity for an MPL with optimized thermal conductivity and mass diffusivity. The results suggest that an optimized MPL, in terms of heat and mass transfer coefficients, has an average pore size of 122 nm and 63% porosity.

  8. Heat Transfer Simulation for Reciprocating Compressor with Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruixin; Guo, Bei; Chen, Xiaole; Tuo, Jinliang; Wu, Rui; Fagotti, Fabian; Zhao, Yali; Yang, Song; Xu, Bo

    2017-08-01

    The efficiency of reciprocating compressor can be influenced by heat transfer and the reliability can be also affected by the temperature distribution in compressor. In consideration of the complex relationship of heat transfer, the compressor is divided into six control volumes including the suction muffler, the cylinder, the discharge chamber, the discharge muffler, the discharge line and the compressor shell. The steady state energy balance equations of the open system for each control volume are built up after the crankshaft rotates one cycle. The heat flux of the cylinder is calculated by the existing correlation. The heat transfer coefficient correlations in energy equations are chosen in references and revised by experimental results. Three same type reciprocating compressors used in R290 system installed with themocouples are tested under some planed conditions in order to ensure accuracy. The simulation results are compared with the experimental results. It shows that the simplified method presented in this paper is effective.

  9. CFD analysis and experimental comparison of novel roof tile shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Bottarelli

    2017-06-01

    Using an experimental rig, the air pressure difference and the volumetric flow rate between tiles have been measured for an existing Portoghese tile design over a range of pressures. Then, in order to understand the air flows under different conditions, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD model has been implemented to recreate the full geometry of the rig. The model was calibrated against the aforementioned experimental results, and run with boundary conditions simulating different wind directions. Even in the low velocities typical of average local wind patterns, the fluid dynamic problem remains complex because of the geometry of the gaps between the tiles. However, it has been possible to assess the coefficient of local head loss and then apply it in an analytical relationship between pressure drop and flow rate, taking into account the open area. The results have shown how the wind direction affects the air permeability and, therefore, important insights have been gathered for the design of novel tiles.

  10. Impact of Supported Housing on Social Relationships Among Homeless Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Maria J; Kasprow, Wesley J; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2017-02-01

    This study examined social network structure and function among a sample of 460 homeless veterans who participated in an experimental trial of the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supported Housing (HUD-VASH) program. Participants were randomly assigned to HUD-VASH (housing subsidies and case management), case management only, or standard care. Mixed-model longitudinal analysis was used to compare treatment groups on social network outcomes over 18 months. Veterans in HUD-VASH reported significantly greater increases in social support than veterans in the two other groups, as well as greater frequency of contacts, availability of tangible and emotional support, and satisfaction with nonkin relationships over time. These gains largely involved relationships with providers and other veterans encountered in treatment. Supported housing may play a pivotal role in fostering constructive new relationships with persons associated with service programs but may have a more limited impact on natural support networks.

  11. Improved Recommendations Based on Trust Relationships in Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to alleviate the pressure of information overload and enhance consumer satisfaction, personalization recommendation has become increasingly popular in recent years. As a result, various approaches for recommendation have been proposed in the past few years. However, traditional recommendation methods are still troubled with typical issues such as cold start, sparsity, and low accuracy. To address these problems, this paper proposed an improved recommendation method based on trust relationships in social networks to improve the performance of recommendations. In particular, we define trust relationship afresh and consider several representative factors in the formalization of trust relationships. To verify the proposed approach comprehensively, this paper conducted experiments in three ways. The experimental results show that our proposed approach leads to a substantial increase in prediction accuracy and is very helpful in dealing with cold start and sparsity.

  12. Expectations for future relationship satisfaction: Unique sources and critical implications for commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Levi R; McNulty, James K; VanderDrift, Laura E

    2017-05-01

    Contemporary perspectives on relationship commitment posit that intimates decide whether or not to maintain a relationship based on their commitment to that relationship, and that they base such commitment partially on their current satisfaction with that relationship. Nevertheless, given that ending a relationship requires knowing about both the current state of the relationship and the likely future state of the relationship, we propose that people base their commitment to a relationship more on their expected future satisfaction with the relationship than on their current satisfaction with that relationship. Six studies provided evidence for these ideas. Study 1 demonstrated that expected satisfaction is shaped by not only current satisfaction but also several unique indicators of the likelihood of future satisfaction, including anticipated life events, plans to improve the relationship, and individual differences. Then, using a combination of cross-sectional, experimental, and longitudinal methods, Studies 2 through 6 demonstrated that (a) expected satisfaction was a stronger predictor of relationship commitment, maintenance behaviors, and/or divorce than was current satisfaction and (b) expected satisfaction mediated the association between current satisfaction and these outcomes. These findings highlight not only the need to incorporate expected satisfaction into extent perspectives on commitment, but also the importance of expectations for decision-making processes more broadly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Project experimental house in Caceres; Proyecto vivienda experimental en Caceres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamero, E.; Mendez, L.

    2008-07-01

    The project envisages to develop and efficient methodology for the design and building of social housing in the region of Extremadura, with the aim to obtaining sustainable buildings, with a better energy behaviour, and the use of renewable energy sources, in addition to ensuring a substantial increase of the quality of construction. the project is based on the construction of two isolated houses which will have the same geographical orientation and equal structural system, so they both will be subject to the same climate conditions. One of the houses (pattern house) will be built following exactly the construction being used for the Special Housing Plan, whilst the second on (Experimental house) will serve as a laboratory where to test and demonstrate different sustainability measures and renewable energy sources. (Author)

  14. Skill development in experimental courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Bagán

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental courses offer a good opportunity to work with competences, promoting the incorporation of strategies oriented towards motivating students to actively involve in the learning process, promoting reflexive learning and developing generic skills. This study presents different ways of developing and evaluating some important general skills, settle on four specific objectives: 1. To increase student motivation using samples of potential interest to students and explaining real-live application of their samples analyses; 2. To assist students’ self-regulation and learning autonomy by using the portfolio; 3. To promote group work through experiments in pairs and small-group discussions; 4. To develop communication skills through small-group discussions and oral presentations. Results show that the type of sample used and real-life application has important influence on motivation. The portfolio is a good tool to promote reflection and to evaluate both specific and generic skills in experimental courses, the dynamics of a laboratory course permit students to develop their group-work and communicative skills, and peer evaluations both improve students’ communication skills and promote metacognitive reflection. Finally, the project demonstrates that it is possible to train students in general skills using the specific course content and that the incorporation of participatory methodologies encourages students to become actively involved in the teaching-learning process.

  15. Investigating Meaning in Experimental Semiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Gareth

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental semiotics is a new discipline developed over the last decade to study human communication. Studies within this discipline typically involve people creating novel signs by associating signals with meanings. Here we suggest ways this discipline can be used to shed light on how people create and communicate meaning. First we present observations drawn from studies in which participants not only construct novel signals, but also have considerable freedom over what these signals refer to. These studies offer intriguing insight on non-saussurian signs (where a single unit of meaning is associated with different signals, communicative egocentricity, private and public meaning, and the distinction between meaningful and meaningless units in linguistic structure, that is between morphemes and phonemes (or analogous entities. We then present a novel quantitative approach to determining the extent to which a signal unit is meaningful, and illustrate its use with data from a study in which participants construct signals to refer to predetermined meanings. Aside from these specific contributions, we show more generally how challenging investigating meaning in Experimental Semiotics is, but we argue that this reflects the difficulties we must face when studying meaning, outside the lab as well as in it.

  16. Experimental evolution in biofilm populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenackers, Hans P.; Parijs, Ilse; Foster, Kevin R.; Vanderleyden, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are a major form of microbial life in which cells form dense surface associated communities that can persist for many generations. The long-life of biofilm communities means that they can be strongly shaped by evolutionary processes. Here, we review the experimental study of evolution in biofilm communities. We first provide an overview of the different experimental models used to study biofilm evolution and their associated advantages and disadvantages. We then illustrate the vast amount of diversification observed during biofilm evolution, and we discuss (i) potential ecological and evolutionary processes behind the observed diversification, (ii) recent insights into the genetics of adaptive diversification, (iii) the striking degree of parallelism between evolution experiments and real-life biofilms and (iv) potential consequences of diversification. In the second part, we discuss the insights provided by evolution experiments in how biofilm growth and structure can promote cooperative phenotypes. Overall, our analysis points to an important role of biofilm diversification and cooperation in bacterial survival and productivity. Deeper understanding of both processes is of key importance to design improved antimicrobial strategies and diagnostic techniques. PMID:26895713

  17. Obesity stigma in sexual relationships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Eunice Y; Brown, Molly

    2005-01-01

    Obese children are stigmatized in same-sex relationships. This study examines whether, in adulthood, obesity stigma exists in adults when they are asked to rank order preferences for a sexual partner...

  18. Social thermoregulation in close relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Wagemans, Fieke

    2014-01-01

    This poster presents data from Wagemans, F. M. A. & IJzerman, H. (2014, February). Social thermoregulation in close relationships. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Austin, USA. 

  19. Ombuds’ corner: Relationship to authority

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.   Among the cases brought to the Ombuds, many of them have to do with difficulties between supervisees and supervisors. In fact, they form the majority of the cases. For both parties, the source of the conflict boils down to the relationship that people entertain with what can be called "the authority". The relationship with the authority is somewhat different within the various Sectors of CERN, as are the relationships between personnel and supervisors. Generally one considers that natural authority can either come from a respected technical knowledge, or from charisma along with a good understanding of human relationships. Of course together these qualities ge...

  20. Child health and parental relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal national-level representative data from Denmark, this study considers the link between child disability or chronic illness and parental relationship termination as measured by the point in time at which one parent, following the breakup of the relationship, no longer resides...... in the household. By means of event-history techniques, I examine whether a Danish family's experience of having a child diagnosed with a disability or chronic illness affects the chances of parental relationship termination. My findings suggest that families with a child with disabilities or chronic illness do...... have a higher risk of parental relationship termination, when compared to families where no diagnosis of child disability or chronic illness is reported....

  1. INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN RELATIONSHIP QUALITY DIMENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pepur

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Tourism-dependent economy, unfavourable structure of accommodation and hotel capacity, seasonality of business and liquidity problems indicate importance of the relationships between hotels and banks in Croatia. Since the capital investments in new and modern capacities are necessity, the quality of their relationship would determine the future of Croatian economy as a whole in the long run. Regarding the capital investments, it is crucially important that cooperation between the employees in both business entities is based on the satisfaction, trust and commitment. In this way, every potential uncertainty as a consequence of the entity’s actions could be minimized. In this paper, 356 tourist objects are hierarchically clustered according to the relationship quality dimensions for the purpose of testing the characteristics according to which the clusters significantly differentiate. Consequently, the interdependence between the observed relationship quality dimensions is examined.

  2. MOLECULAR REASSESSMENT OF RELATIONSHIPS WITHIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dimensional structure ofcanavalin from jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). Plant. Physiology 101:729-44. Kupicha, F. K. 1977. The delimitation ofthe tribe. Vicieae (Leguminosae) and the relationships of Cicer L. Botanical Journal of Linnean.

  3. Relationships and project marketing success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne; Tikkanen, Henrikki; Lindblom, Jarno

    2002-01-01

    -Chinese turnkey project case at the level of the individual project and a Danish-German professional service project case at the level of multiple projects. It is concluded that project managers and marketers should focus their attention on the management of project relationships before, during, and after......Project operations are a dominating mode of international business. Managing relationships and networks is crucial to project marketing success both at the level of the individual project and at the level of multiple projects. This article first defines key characteristics of project business......, identifies potentially relevant actors in the project marketing milieu, and emphasizes the importance of constantly nurturing project business relationships, also in "sleeping relationship" periods where concrete projects are not expected. Thereafter the points made are illustrated with a Finnish...

  4. The Automation of the Transonic Experimental Facility (TEF) and the Aerodynamic Experimental Facility (AEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Aerodynamic Experimental Facility (AEF) by Charith R Ranawake Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...Laboratory The Automation of the Transonic Experimental Facility (TEF) and the Aerodynamic Experimental Facility (AEF) by Charith R Ranawake Weapons...To) 05/2015–08/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Automation of the Transonic Experimental Facility (TEF) and the Aerodynamic Experimental Facility

  5. The quality of caring relationships.

    OpenAIRE

    Abma, T.A.; Oeseburg, B.; Widdershoven, G.A.M.; Verkerk, M.

    2009-01-01

    Tineke A Abma, Barth Oeseburg, Guy AM Widdershoven, Marian VerkerkMedical Humanities/EMGO Institute, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsAbstract: In health care, relationships between patients or disabled persons and professionals are at least co-constitutive for the quality of care. Many patients complain about the contacts and communication with caregivers and other professionals. From a care-ethical perspective a good patient-professional relationship requires a process of negoti...

  6. Exploring Antecedents of Relationship Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Shuxia Ren; Mingli Zhang

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces data mining technology into the framework of the antecedents of relationship benefits based self-service environment which is broadly used in relational marketing research. The findings show that the relationship benefits dimensions are confidence and special treatment benefits and their antecedents dimensions are perceived control, efficiency and convenience through the use of web self-service technology, namely web self-service attributes. The results not only provide ...

  7. The Coaching Relationship - and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Michael Spaten

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the coaching context of an ongoing search for evidence-based research, and increasing interest in the ‘active ingredients’ of coaching the impetus for ‘the coaching relationship – and beyond’ was the quest for deeper understanding of the coaching relationship as well as its infuence on the outcomes of coaching. It is a presentation, on factors specifically related to engagement of the coachee and building effective coaching relationships: (a a study examining the power relations between employee coachee and coach from the middle manager coach perspective, highlighting coaching relationship quality as a necessity for moments of symmetry and equality in fruitful coaching; (b a study on the diversity factor of coach age, finding that age was not significant in executive coachées coach selection, however age signified credibility and experience, with possible implications for young executive coaches in organisations. Broader topics include (c discussion of a Systematic Review study investigating those coaching psychologists’ attributes effective in productive coaching relationships, and how to facilitate desired coaching outcomes, suggesting desirability of expansion of concrete outcome measures from the existing coachées’ satisfaction evaluation metrics; and finally (d an overview of coaching relationship research in the context of prevailing assumptions and issues in coaching, offering implications for future coaching research and coaching practice.

  8. Relationship quality and student engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Jennifer

    The purpose of this study was to examine the qualities of support, relatedness, and negative interaction within parent-child and teacher-student relationships and their association with cognitive, psychological, and behavioral engagement. Additionally, this study explored the contributions of cognitive and psychological engagement on behavioral engagement. The role of gender, grade, and ethnicity on relationship quality and engagement was also considered. Participants (n=311) were students in grades three through five from a suburban school district in southeastern Michigan. Perceptions of teacher-student relationship quality varied by grade level. In general, younger students reported greater teacher support and relatedness in comparison to older students. Conversely, older students perceived greater conflict within the teacher-student relationship. Student engagement also varied by grade level, with younger students reporting greater engagement than older students. Ethnicity also contributed to variance in student engagement, with African American students reporting significantly more engagement than Caucasian or Multiracial students. Teacher-student relationship quality was a significant predictor of student engagement, even after controlling for student characteristics and parent-child relationship variables. Results of path analysis revealed that cognitive and psychological engagement contributed significantly to behavioral engagement.

  9. The relationship between egalitarianism, dominance, and violence in intimate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakurt, Gunnur; Cumbie, Tamra

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between egalitarianism, dominance, and intimate partner violence within the context of couples' dynamics. In particular, it was hypothesized that dominance and sexist attitudes would have both self and partner effects on relationship aggression. To test this hypothesis, gender role egalitarianism, dominance/control, sexism, power dynamics, and aggression were assessed using several measures. Questionnaires for these measures were completed by 87 heterosexual dyads. The relationship between female and male scores on the dominance, egalitarianism, sexism, and intimate partner violence scales were examined using Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). Findings indicated that the APIM model provided a satisfactory fit to the data(). For both sexes, dominance had more explanatory power than sexism and egalitarianism when all else was controlled in the model. Furthermore, contrary to our expectation, male egalitarian attitude had no significant actor or partner effect on relationship aggression, while female egalitarian attitude had significant actor and partner effects on relationship aggression. Dyadic analysis indicated that cultural pointers of patriarchy, such as egalitarianism among young college students, were not associated with male-to-female violence. The sample size might also have an effect on this result in that a larger sample with older participants might yield different results.

  10. The relationship between egalitarianism, dominance, and violence in intimate relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakurt, Gunnur; Cumbie, Tamra

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between egalitarianism, dominance, and intimate partner violence within the context of couples’ dynamics. In particular, it was hypothesized that dominance and sexist attitudes would have both self and partner effects on relationship aggression. To test this hypothesis, gender role egalitarianism, dominance/control, sexism, power dynamics, and aggression were assessed using several measures. Questionnaires for these measures were completed by 87 heterosexual dyads. The relationship between female and male scores on the dominance, egalitarianism, sexism, and intimate partner violence scales were examined using Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). Findings indicated that the APIM model provided a satisfactory fit to the data*. For both sexes, dominance had more explanatory power than sexism and egalitarianism when all else was controlled in the model. Furthermore, contrary to our expectation, male egalitarian attitude had no significant actor or partner effect on relationship aggression, while female egalitarian attitude had significant actor and partner effects on relationship aggression. Dyadic analysis indicated that cultural pointers of patriarchy, such as egalitarianism among young college students, were not associated with male-to-female violence. The sample size might also have an effect on this result in that a larger sample with older participants might yield different results. PMID:23123589

  11. Experimental quantum computing without entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, B P; Barbieri, M; Almeida, M P; White, A G

    2008-11-14

    Deterministic quantum computation with one pure qubit (DQC1) is an efficient model of computation that uses highly mixed states. Unlike pure-state models, its power is not derived from the generation of a large amount of entanglement. Instead it has been proposed that other nonclassical correlations are responsible for the computational speedup, and that these can be captured by the quantum discord. In this Letter we implement DQC1 in an all-optical architecture, and experimentally observe the generated correlations. We find no entanglement, but large amounts of quantum discord-except in three cases where an efficient classical simulation is always possible. Our results show that even fully separable, highly mixed, states can contain intrinsically quantum mechanical correlations and that these could offer a valuable resource for quantum information technologies.

  12. Experimental study of snow friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Caroline; Canale, Luca; Siria, Alessandro; Quere, David; Bocquet, Lyderic; Clanet, Christophe

    2017-11-01

    Snow friction results from the interplay of different physical processes: solid friction of granular material, phase change and lubrication, heat transport, capillarity, elasticity and plasticity. The multiple conditions of temperature, humidity and density of the snow result in different regimes of friction. In particular, there is an optimal amount of melted water to lubricate the contact between the ski sole and the snow grains. The thickness of the water layer depends on temperature, speed... A huge variety of waxes have been empirically developed to adapt the amount of water to the conditions of skiing, but remain mysterious. In these study, we investigate experimentally the mechanisms of snow friction at different scales: first, the friction of a ski on snow is measured on a test bench, depending on the snow characteristics and for different waxes. Then microscopic experiments are led in order to understand the friction at the ice crystals scale.

  13. An Experimental Introduction to Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Andy Nicholas; Magruder, Robert H.

    2017-11-01

    Learning and understanding physics requires more than studying physics texts. It requires doing physics. Doing research is a key opportunity for students to connect physical principles with their everyday experience. A powerful way to introduce students to research and technique is through subjects in which they might find interest. Presented is an experiment that serves to introduce an advanced undergraduate or high school student to conducting research in acoustics via an experiment involving a standard dreadnought acoustic guitar, recording industry-related equipment, and relevant industrial analysis software. This experimental process is applicable to a wide range of acoustical topics including both acoustic and electric instruments. Also, the student has a hands-on experience with relevant audio engineering technology to study physical principles.

  14. An experimental superconducting helical undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspi, S.; Taylor, C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Improvements in the technology of superconducting magnets for high energy physics and recent advancements in SC materials with the artificial pinning centers (APC){sup 2}, have made a bifilar helical SC device an attractive candidate for a single-pass free electron laser (FEL){sup 3}. Initial studies have suggested that a 6.5 mm inner diameter helical device, with a 27 mm period, can generate a central field of 2-2.5 Tesla. Additional studies have also suggested that with a stored energy of 300 J/m, such a device can be made self-protecting in the event of a quench. However, since the most critical area associated with high current density SC magnets is connected with quenching and training, a short experimental device will have to be built and tested. In this paper we discuss technical issues relevant to the construction of such a device, including a conceptual design, fields, and forces.

  15. Experimental aspects of cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Sommers, P

    2006-01-01

    High-energy cosmic rays are detected as extensive air showers, and properties of the primary cosmic rays are deduced from measurements of those air showers. The physics of air showers is reviewed here in order to explain how the measurement techniques work. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory (near this school in Malargue) is used to illustrate the experimental methods. The Auger Observatory combines a surface array of water Cherenkov detectors with atmospheric uorescence detectors. This `hybrid' measurement technique provides high resolution and measurement cross-checks. In conjunction with a complementary site in the northern hemisphere, the Auger Observatory expects to map the arrival directions over the full sky as well as measuring the cosmic-ray energy spectrum and statistical properties of the mass distribution.

  16. Experimental computation with oscillatory integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2009-06-26

    A previous study by one of the present authors, together with D. Borwein and I. Leonard [8], studied the asymptotic behavior of the p-norm of the sinc function: sinc(x) = (sin x)/x and along the way looked at closed forms for integer values of p. In this study we address these integrals with the tools of experimental mathematics, namely by computing their numerical values to high precision, both as a challenge in itself, and also in an attempt to recognize the numerical values as closed-form constants. With this approach, we are able to reproduce several of the results of [8] and to find new results, both numeric and analytic, that go beyond the previous study.

  17. Interactive robots in experimental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jens; Winfield, Alan F T; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2011-07-01

    Interactive robots have the potential to revolutionise the study of social behaviour because they provide several methodological advances. In interactions with live animals, the behaviour of robots can be standardised, morphology and behaviour can be decoupled (so that different morphologies and behavioural strategies can be combined), behaviour can be manipulated in complex interaction sequences and models of behaviour can be embodied by the robot and thereby be tested. Furthermore, robots can be used as demonstrators in experiments on social learning. As we discuss here, the opportunities that robots create for new experimental approaches have far-reaching consequences for research in fields such as mate choice, cooperation, social learning, personality studies and collective behaviour. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental contextuality in classical light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Zeng, Qiang; Song, Xinbing; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2017-03-14

    The Klyachko, Can, Binicioglu, and Shumovsky (KCBS) inequality is an important contextuality inequality in three-level system, which has been demonstrated experimentally by using quantum states. Using the path and polarization degrees of freedom of classical optics fields, we have constructed the classical trit (cetrit), tested the KCBS inequality and its geometrical form (Wright's inequality) in this work. The projection measurement has been implemented, the clear violations of the KCBS inequality and its geometrical form have been observed. This means that the contextuality inequality, which is commonly used in test of the conflict between quantum theory and noncontextual realism, may be used as a quantitative tool in classical optical coherence to describe correlation characteristics of the classical fields.

  19. Experimental investigation of cavity flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeland, Tore

    1998-12-31

    This thesis uses LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry), PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and Laser Sheet flow Visualisation to study flow inside three different cavity configurations. For sloping cavities, the vortex structure inside the cavities is found to depend upon the flow direction past the cavity. The shape of the downstream corner is a key factor in destroying the boundary layer flow entering the cavity. The experimental results agree well with numerical simulations of the same geometrical configurations. The results of the investigations are used to find the influence of the cavity flow on the accuracy of the ultrasonic flowmeter. A method to compensate for the cavity velocities is suggested. It is found that the relative deviation caused by the cavity velocities depend linearly on the pipe flow. It appears that the flow inside the cavities should not be neglected as done in the draft for the ISO technical report on ultrasonic flowmeters. 58 refs., 147 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Confessions of an experimental hydrologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, J. J..

    2009-04-01

    Progress in modeling streamflow generation processes is hampered by our inadequate conceptualization of the age, origin and pathway of storm runoff. In recent years, the dialog between experimentalist and modeler has improved. As a result, better model structures are being developed—ones that attempt to capture the dominant processes at a site. Similarly, better and stricter evaluation criteria are being used to evaluate and reject model structures. While these are promising developments, less attention has been paid to uncertainties in data and uncertainty in how we assemble mental constructs of disparate field information. This talk attempts to confess uncertainties in what we think we know, admit the things we don't know and point the way forward to things we really need to know, from the perspective of an experimental hydrologist.

  1. [Experimental gastric cancer (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, T; Kawachi, T

    1976-01-01

    Methods have been established to produce gastric cancer in rats and dogs by administration of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine or of the ethyl derivate. The agent is administered in drinking water or by a pellet diet soaked in the carcinogen. Histologically well differentiated and poorly differentiated types of adenocarcinoma and signet-ring cell tumors are induced in several months with greath reliability. Metastases were observed in both rats and dogs with gastric carcinoma. The carcinogenic effect could be enhanced by surface active agents, sodium chloride, iodoacetamide, insertion of plastic beads into the stomach and gastroenteroanastomosis. Follow-up studies by radiologic, endoscopic and bioptic examinations are possible in the dog. There are similarities in these experimental tumors to those in man and thus they provide means for the investigation of histogenesis, prevention, and chemotherapy of gastric cancer. An adenocarcinoma of the glandular stomach of a Wistar rat was successively transplanted to new born rats of the same strain.

  2. [Vitamins in rat experimental diets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A

    2012-01-01

    A comparison of full semisynthetic diets used in different laboratories has shown that its vitamin content covers physiological requirements of rats in these micronutrients. The significant fluctuations in group B vitamin concentrations may take place when one uses brewer's yeast as a source of these vitamins. A preliminary assessment of vitamin content in brewer's yeasts is required in this case. An essential contribution of basic components in diet vitamin content must be taken in consideration when one creates a vitamin-deficient diet. Casein contains substantial amounts of group B vitamins and vitamin D. Therefore decontamination of casein from water and / or fat-soluble vitamins or the use of commercial purified casein is required. Vegetable oils are usually used as a fatty component of a diet and they simultaneously serve as an additional source of vitamin E. A choice of naturally containing vitamin E oil as a fat component of a diet is crucial for the creating an alimentary deficiency of vitamin E. The content of fat-soluble vitamins in the diet of control group (group of comparison) and vitamin level in the diet of experimental group of animals must be equivalent in investigations with modified (quality and quantitative) fat diet component. Caloric restriction by simple reducing of food without increasing the amount of vitamins to an adequate level is incorrect. With these considerations in mind proper attention to the equivalence of vitamin content in the diet of animals in experimental and control groups should be paid during experiments scheduling. Otherwise, the studies carried out under deficient or excessive intake of vitamins can lead to incorrect interpretation of the results and difficulties in their comparison with the data obtained under different conditions.

  3. Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Experimental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, E; Burdette, JE; Kenny, HA; Matei, D; Pilrose, J; Haluska, P.; Nephew, KP; Hales, DB; Stack, MS

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (OvCa) is associated with high mortality and, as the majority (>75%) of women with OvCa have metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, rates of survival have not changed appreciably over 30 years. A mechanistic understanding of OvCa initiation and progression is hindered by the complexity of genetic and/or environmental initiating events and lack of clarity regarding the cell(s) or tissue(s) of origin. Metastasis of OvCa involves direct extension or exfoliation of cells and cellular aggregates into the peritoneal cavity, survival of matrix-detached cells in a complex ascites fluid phase, and subsequent adhesion to the mesothelium lining covering abdominal organs to establish secondary lesions containing host stromal and inflammatory components. Development of experimental models to recapitulate this unique mechanism of metastasis presents a remarkable scientific challenge and many approaches used to study other solid tumors (lung, colon, and breast, for example) are not transferable to OvCa research given the distinct metastasis pattern and unique tumor microenvironment. This review will discuss recent progress in the development and refinement of experimental models to study OvCa. Novel cellular, three-dimensional organotypic, and ex vivo models are considered and the current in vivo models summarized. The review critically evaluates currently available genetic mouse models of OvCa, the emergence of xenopatients, and the utility of the hen model to study OvCa prevention, tumorigenesis, metastasis, and chemoresistance. As these new approaches more accurately recapitulate the complex tumor microenvironment, it is predicted that new opportunities for enhanced understanding of disease progression, metastasis and therapeutic response will emerge. PMID:23934194

  4. Pharmacology of human experimental anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Graeff

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the effect of drugs affecting anxiety using four psychological procedures for inducing experimental anxiety applied to healthy volunteers and patients with anxiety disorders. The first is aversive conditioning of the skin conductance responses to tones. The second is simulated public speaking, which consists of speaking in front of a video camera, with anxiety being measured with psychometric scales. The third is the Stroop Color-Word test, in which words naming colors are painted in the same or in a different shade, the incongruence generating a cognitive conflict. The last test is a human version of a thoroughly studied animal model of anxiety, fear-potentiated startle, in which the eye-blink reflex to a loud noise is recorded. The evidence reviewed led to the conclusion that the aversive conditioning and potentiated startle tests are based on classical conditioning of anticipatory anxiety. Their sensitivity to benzodiazepine anxiolytics suggests that these models generate an emotional state related to generalized anxiety disorder. On the other hand, the increase in anxiety determined by simulated public speaking is resistant to benzodiazepines and sensitive to drugs affecting serotonergic neurotransmission. This pharmacological profile, together with epidemiological evidence indicating its widespread prevalence, suggests that the emotional state generated by public speaking represents a species-specific response that may be related to social phobia and panic disorder. Because of scant pharmacological data, the status of the Stroop Color-Word test remains uncertain. In spite of ethical and economic constraints, human experimental anxiety constitutes a valuable tool for the study of the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders.

  5. Experimental Toxoplasmosis in White Turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan ATASEVER

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, forming of experimental toxoplasmosis in white turkeys; clinical, pathological and serological determination of tissue lesions, aimed to compare them and determine pathogenesis. For these purposes, a total of 120 two months old white turkeys were divided into groups as oral and parenteral infections and also their controls. The oral group was infected with 0.5 mL of Toxoplasma gondii RH strain inoculum suspension contains 106 tachyzoites while its control group was given 0.5 mL of saline. The parenteral group were divided into four groups as intraperitoneal (IP, intramuscular (IM, intravenous (IV and cloacal (C. Each parenteral route was divided into two groups and one control group for inoculums given 105 and 104 tachyzoites in 0.5 mL. These two control groups were also given 0.5 mL saline as indicated above. Due to acute toxoplasmosis, death occurred in three white turkeys given tachyzoites IP 105 showed neurological clinical symptoms as torticollis, ataxia, and tremor. In the histopahologic examination of these three turkeys, T. gondii tissue cysts were detected in the brain. Also, one of given 105 tachyzoites IP group in the brain and one given 104 tachyzoites IV group in the liver were observed tissue cysts associated with toxoplasmosis. The turkeys in all infection groups were found seropositive in both Sabin-Feldman Dye Test (SFDT and Indirect Hemagglutination Test (IHA. The statistical difference between SFDT and IHA was insignificantly for the both parenteral infection groups (P>0.05 while the difference was found significantly for the orally infected group (P<0.05. In conclusion in the present study, the tissue cysts of T. gondii were microscopically seen in brain and liver of the experimental infected white turkeys.

  6. Relationship satisfaction among Turkish and British adults

    OpenAIRE

    Celenk, O.; Van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Goodwin, R.

    2011-01-01

    We tested three theories (adult attachment, autonomy/relatedness, and gender roles) to understand relationship satisfaction among 150 British and 170 Turkish adults, all involved in romantic relationships. Avoidance, relatedness, autonomy–relatedness, and masculinity mediated the relationship between culture and romantic relationship satisfaction. Additionally, as anticipated, Turkish participants scored lower on relationship satisfaction and autonomy whereas British participants scored lower...

  7. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Instructions to Authors The Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology (Cameroon J. Exp. Biol.) welcomes contributions in all fields of experimental biology including biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, toxicology, pathology, environmental biology, microbiology, parasitology, phytochemistry, food ...

  8. Conceptualising primary labour relationship quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas I. Ehlers

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A typology of desirable social conditions in supervisory relationships suggested that such conditions may also be desirable in other forms of labour relationships. A literature review confirmed that trust, compliance, fairness and good faith can be confidently regarded as universally desirable social conditions in all forms of individual or collective labour relationships between employers and employees. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine if primary labour relationship quality (PLQ can be confidently conceptualised as a social construct that strongly relates to the perceived levels of compliance, fairness and good faith in supervisory or primary labour relationships. Setting: A combination of random and convenience sampling approaches was implemented to collect PLQ related data from 454 voluntary respondents, who were subordinate employees in the Tshwane region. Methods: A quantitative research methodology was adopted. This included conceptual definition of the PLQ construct, objective measurement of PLQ levels of voluntary respondents in an adequately sized sample, factor analysis and testing for relationships and differences in means between variables. Results: Data analysis results confirmed that it can be confidently concluded that the conceptual definition of PLQ was valid, and that positive PLQ perceptions of subordinate employees were significantly related to at least two other forms of desirable organisational outcomes. Conclusion: PLQ perceptions can be confidently defined as a distinct subjective quality estimate that is assimilated from unique expectations and perceptions of the levels of compliance, fairness, good faith and trust that a supervisor displays in a labour relationship with an immediate subordinate.

  9. H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Art McKee; Pamela. Druliner

    1998-01-01

    The H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest is a world renowned center for research and education about the ecology and management of forests and streams. Located about 50 miles (80 km) east of Eugene, Oregon, the Andrews Experimental Forest lies in the Blue River Ranger District of the Willamette National Forest. Established in 1948, the Experimental Forest is administered...

  10. The '3Is' of animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    Animal experimentation in scientific research is a good thing: important, increasing and often irreplaceable. Careful experimental design and reporting are at least as important as attention to welfare in ensuring that the knowledge we gain justifies using live animals as experimental tools.

  11. escherichia coli serotypes confirmed in experimental mammary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    SEROTYPES CONFIRMED IN EXPERIMENTAL MAMMARY GLAND. INFECTIONS. P. A. AKPAN AND ... 037, 02a and 109) in mammary glands of experimental cows (cow 105, 107 and 102 respectively). Pathogenicity of the E. coli which ..... Akpan, P. A and Ikpeme, E. U., 2005. pathology of. Experimental Escherichia Coli ...

  12. Brand relationships: A study of five relationship constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergkvist, Lars; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    This study investigates the relationships between the five brand relationship constructs sense of community, brand identification, brand love, brand loyalty, and active engagement. Structural equation modelling with partial least squares showed provided support for six relational hypotheses....... An important finding was that sense of community, a construct that applies to at general consumer context and not only brand communities, is an important antecedent of brand loyalty and brand love. The study also shows that brand love can be more narrowly defined and operationalzed than it has been in previous...

  13. Modelling Mechanical Wave Propagation: Guidelines and Experimentation of a Teaching-Learning Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Claudio; Guastella, Ivan; Sperandeo-Mineo, Rosa Maria; Tarantino, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reports the design process and the experimentation of a teaching-learning sequence about the concept of mechanical wave propagation and the role played by media where waves are propagating. The sequence focuses on the central issue of the relationships between observable phenomena, like macroscopic behaviours of waves, and their…

  14. An Experimental Approach to the Joint Effects of Relations with Partner, Friends and Parents on Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuns, P.; Verresen, N.; Mairesse, O.; Goossens, R.; Michiels, L.; Peeters, E.; Wastiau, M.

    2010-01-01

    Personal relations constitute an important life domain and satisfaction therein affects happiness in people. In an experimental approach with a 3x3x3 vignettes study in which 103 first year psychology students participated, the contribution of the quality of relationships with parents, friends, and a partner are studied. It is found that the…

  15. Theoretical and Experimental Determination of the Crack Width in Reinforced Concrete at Very Low Temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.d. Veen, G.

    1990-01-01

    The compressive strength, the tensile splitting strength, the stress strain relationship and the thermal deformation of concrete are determined experimentally as a function of temperature. Theoretical formulae are derived based on the classical bond stress-slip theory to predict crack width and

  16. Costs and benefits of autonomy when learning a task: An experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielenga-Meijer, E.G.A.; Taris, T.W.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous findings suggested that the positive relationship between autonomy and learning outcomes (such as improved task performance) only holds up until a certain optimum level of autonomy has been reached. This assumption was investigated in an experimental study where 95 participants had to learn

  17. A Musical Approach to Reading Fluency: An Experimental Study in First-Grade Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguizamon, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to investigate the relationship between Kodaly-based music instruction and reading fluency in first-grade classrooms. Reading fluency and overall reading achievement were measured for 109 participants at mid-point in the academic year pre- and post treatment. Tests were carried out to…

  18. Experimental evidence of a symbiosis between red-cockaded woodpeckers and fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle A. Jusino; Daniel L. Lindner; Mark T. Banik; Kevin R. Rose; Jeffrey R. Walters

    2016-01-01

    Primary cavity excavators, such as woodpeckers, are ecosystem engineers in many systems. Associations between cavity excavators and fungi have long been hypothesized to facilitate cavity excavation, but these relationships have not been experimentally verified. Fungi may help excavators by softening wood, while excavators may facilitate fungal dispersal. Here we...

  19. Trauma, attachment, and intimate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L; Gobin, Robyn L; Kaehler, Laura A

    2012-01-01

    Intimate relationships can both affect and be affected by trauma and its sequelae. This special issue highlights research on trauma, attachment, and intimate relationships. Several themes emerged. One theme is the exploration of the associations between a history of trauma and relational variables, with an emphasis on models using these variables as mediators. Given the significance of secure attachment for healthy relationships, it is not surprising that attachment emerges as another theme of this issue. Moreover, a key component of relationships is trust, and so a further theme of this issue is betrayal trauma (J. J. Freyd, 1996 ). As the work included in this special issue makes clear, intimate relationships of all types are important for the psychological health of those exposed to traumatic events. In order to best help trauma survivors and those close to them, it is imperative that research exploring these issues be presented to research communities, clinical practitioners, and the public in general. This special issue serves as one step toward that objective.

  20. Facebook or Memory: Which Is the Real Threat to Your Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Michelle; Miller, Daniel A; Dibble, Jayson L

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the role of Facebook friends lists in identifying potential sexual and committed relationship alternatives and the effects this had on relationship investment in a sample of 371 young adult undergraduates. A Facebook versus memory experimental protocol was developed to test whether Facebook friends lists act as primers for recognition of potential sexual and committed relationship partners and whether identifying these potential partners (either from Facebook or from memory) caused lower relationship investment. Facebook friends lists did act as memory primers for potential partners, but only for sexual partners, and the effect was stronger for men than it was for women. However, identifying potential partners through Facebook actually lowered a person's perceptions of the quality of their alternatives. In contrast, merely thinking about potential alternatives from one's social sphere lowered relationship satisfaction and commitment with one's current committed partner. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to current work on the negative effects of Facebook use on relationship outcomes.

  1. The existential function of close relationships: introducing death into the science of love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulincer, Mario; Florian, Victor; Hirschberger, Gilad

    2003-01-01

    Originally, terror management theory proposed two psychological mechanisms in dealing with the terror of death awareness-cultural worldview validation and self-esteem enhancement. In this article, we would like to promote the idea of close relationships as an additional death-anxiety buffering mechanism and review a growing body of empirical data that support this contention. Based on a comprehensive analysis of the sociocultural and personal functions of close relationships, we formulate two basic hypotheses that have received empirical support in a series of experimental studies. First, death reminders heighten the motivation to form and maintain close relationships. Second, the maintenance of close relationships provides a symbolic shield against the terror of death, whereas the breaking of close relationships results in an upsurge of death awareness. In addition, we present empirical evidence supporting the possibility that close relationships function as a related yet separate mechanism from the self-esteem and cultural worldview defenses.

  2. Ethical aspects of relationships between humans and research animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Harold

    2002-01-01

    People who work in biomedical and behavioral research settings sometimes form strong relationships with individual laboratory animals. Ethnographic studies indicate that it is common for these individuals to transform some animals from experimental subject to pet. Although theories of ethics that emphasize impartiality and justice have little to say about the moral implications of human-research animal bonds, caring-based ethical systems acknowledge the moral consequences and resulting psychological burdens of these relationships. Typically, albeit not always, animal care staff are more likely than researchers to experience the moral ambivalence associated with human-laboratory animal bonds. These bonds can result in conflict between technicians and investigators. Several ways that research institutions can help individuals cope with the ethical consequences of relationships with research animals include supporting the development of human-animal relationships in laboratories, giving animal care personnel an ethical voice through involvement in the institutional animal care and use committee decision process, publicly acknowledging the emotional and moral costs of human-laboratory animal relationships, and educating animal care staff about the purpose and possible benefits of research projects.

  3. Relationships among various parameters for decision tree optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Shahid

    2014-01-14

    In this chapter, we study, in detail, the relationships between various pairs of cost functions and between uncertainty measure and cost functions, for decision tree optimization. We provide new tools (algorithms) to compute relationship functions, as well as provide experimental results on decision tables acquired from UCI ML Repository. The algorithms presented in this paper have already been implemented and are now a part of Dagger, which is a software system for construction/optimization of decision trees and decision rules. The main results presented in this chapter deal with two types of algorithms for computing relationships; first, we discuss the case where we construct approximate decision trees and are interested in relationships between certain cost function, such as depth or number of nodes of a decision trees, and an uncertainty measure, such as misclassification error (accuracy) of decision tree. Secondly, relationships between two different cost functions are discussed, for example, the number of misclassification of a decision tree versus number of nodes in a decision trees. The results of experiments, presented in the chapter, provide further insight. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

  4. Geometrical Modeling of Woven Fabrics Weavability-Limit New Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The weavability limit and tightness for 2D and 3D woven fabrics is an important factor and depends on many geometric parameters. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature on textile fabric construction and property, and related research on fabric geometry, a study of the weavability limit and tightness relationships of 2D and 3D woven fabrics was undertaken. Experiments were conducted on a representative number of polyester and cotton woven fabrics which have been woven in our workshop, using three machines endowed with different insertion systems (rapier, projectiles and air jet. Afterwards, these woven fabrics have been analyzed in the laboratory to determine their physical and mechanical characteristics using air permeability-meter and KES-F KAWABATA Evaluation System for Fabrics. In this study, the current Booten’s weavability limit and tightness relationships based on Ashenhurst’s, Peirce’s, Love’s, Russell’s, Galuszynskl’s theory and maximum-weavability is reviewed and modified as new relationships to expand their use to general cases (2D and 3D woven fabrics, all fiber materiel, all yarns etc…. The theoretical relationships were examined and found to agree with experimental results. It was concluded that the weavability limit and tightness relationships are useful tools for weavers in predicting whether a proposed fabric construction was weavable and also in predicting and explaining their physical and mechanical properties.

  5. Positive interspecific relationship between temporal occurrence and abundance in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrosati, Ricardo A; Patten, Ruth D; Lauff, Randolph F

    2011-04-20

    One of the most studied macroecological patterns is the interspecific abundance-occupancy relationship, which relates species distribution and abundance across space. Interspecific relationships between temporal distribution and abundance, however, remain largely unexplored. Using data for a natural assemblage of tabanid flies measured daily during spring and summer in Nova Scotia, we found that temporal occurrence (proportion of sampling dates in which a species occurred in an experimental trap) was positively related to temporal mean abundance (number of individuals collected for a species during the study period divided by the total number of sampling dates). Moreover, two models that often describe spatial abundance-occupancy relationships well, the He-Gaston and negative binomial models, explained a high amount of the variation in our temporal data. As for the spatial abundance-occupancy relationship, the (temporal) aggregation parameter, k, emerged as an important component of the hereby named interspecific temporal abundance-occurrence relationship. This may be another case in which a macroecological pattern shows similarities across space and time, and it deserves further research because it may improve our ability to forecast colonization dynamics and biological impacts.

  6. Risk-return relationship in a complex adaptive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kunyu; An, Kenan; Yang, Guang; Huang, Jiping

    2012-01-01

    For survival and development, autonomous agents in complex adaptive systems involving the human society must compete against or collaborate with others for sharing limited resources or wealth, by using different methods. One method is to invest, in order to obtain payoffs with risk. It is a common belief that investments with a positive risk-return relationship (namely, high risk high return and vice versa) are dominant over those with a negative risk-return relationship (i.e., high risk low return and vice versa) in the human society; the belief has a notable impact on daily investing activities of investors. Here we investigate the risk-return relationship in a model complex adaptive system, in order to study the effect of both market efficiency and closeness that exist in the human society and play an important role in helping to establish traditional finance/economics theories. We conduct a series of computer-aided human experiments, and also perform agent-based simulations and theoretical analysis to confirm the experimental observations and reveal the underlying mechanism. We report that investments with a negative risk-return relationship have dominance over those with a positive risk-return relationship instead in such a complex adaptive systems. We formulate the dynamical process for the system's evolution, which helps to discover the different role of identical and heterogeneous preferences. This work might be valuable not only to complexity science, but also to finance and economics, to management and social science, and to physics.

  7. A Constitutive Relationship for Gravelly Soil Considering Fine Particle Suffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuning Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Suffusion erosion may occur in sandy gravel dam foundations that use suspended cutoff walls. This erosion causes a loss of fine particles, degrades the soil strength and deformation moduli, and adversely impacts the cutoff walls of the dam foundation, as well as the overlying dam body. A comprehensive evaluation of these effects requires models that quantitatively describe the effects of fine particle losses on the stress-strain relationships of sandy gravels. In this work, we propose an experimental scheme for studying these types of models, and then perform triaxial and confined compression tests to determine the effects of particle losses on the stress-strain relationships. Considering the Duncan-Chang E-B model, quantitative expressions describing the relationship between the parameters of the model and the particle losses were derived. The results show that particle losses did not alter the qualitative stress-strain characteristics of the soils; however, the soil strength and deformation moduli were degraded. By establishing the relationship between the parameters of the model and the losses, the same model can then be used to describe the relationship between sandy gravels and erosion levels that vary in both time and space.

  8. Risk-return relationship in a complex adaptive system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunyu Song

    Full Text Available For survival and development, autonomous agents in complex adaptive systems involving the human society must compete against or collaborate with others for sharing limited resources or wealth, by using different methods. One method is to invest, in order to obtain payoffs with risk. It is a common belief that investments with a positive risk-return relationship (namely, high risk high return and vice versa are dominant over those with a negative risk-return relationship (i.e., high risk low return and vice versa in the human society; the belief has a notable impact on daily investing activities of investors. Here we investigate the risk-return relationship in a model complex adaptive system, in order to study the effect of both market efficiency and closeness that exist in the human society and play an important role in helping to establish traditional finance/economics theories. We conduct a series of computer-aided human experiments, and also perform agent-based simulations and theoretical analysis to confirm the experimental observations and reveal the underlying mechanism. We report that investments with a negative risk-return relationship have dominance over those with a positive risk-return relationship instead in such a complex adaptive systems. We formulate the dynamical process for the system's evolution, which helps to discover the different role of identical and heterogeneous preferences. This work might be valuable not only to complexity science, but also to finance and economics, to management and social science, and to physics.

  9. INTEGRATING PHYLOGENY AND EXPERIMENTAL ETHOLOGY: FROM PATTERN TO PROCEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Deborah A

    1991-12-01

    Phylogenetic systematics offers ethologists a method for uncovering macroevolutionary patterns of behavioral diversity, which can be used to generate predictions for experimental investigation of microevolutionary processes. I used phylogenetic methods to disentangle the contributions of various selection pressures in the evolution of sexually dimorphic nuptial coloration in gasterosteid fishes in general, and Gasterosteus aculeatus in particular. Based upon the phylogenetic relationships between breeding colors and breeding behaviors in the gasterosteids, three predictions relevant to a discussion of nuptial coloration in G. aculeatus were proposed. The origin and elaboration of nuptial coloration was (1) weakly associated with male/male interactions (intrasexual selection), (2) moderately associated with parental care (natural selection) and (3) strongly associated with male/female interactions (intersexual selection). I tested the hypothesized macroevolutionary relationships between male breeding color and behavior in two sets of experiments studying changes in male nuptial coloration across the breeding cycle and female choice based on intensity of male color. The results of these experiments at the microevolutionary level of analysis corroborated the macroevolutionary predictions and confirmed the original intuition of previous researchers: male body color intensity is an important component of female mate choice in G. aculeatus. This study demonstrates that a phylogenetic hypothesis can generate predictions that are experimentally testable and falsifiable. © 1991 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. [Hydroxyapatite for experimental laryngotracheal reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Y; Yu, M; Han, D

    2001-08-01

    The porous hydroxyapatite (HA) tubiform prosthesis was employed for reconstruction of large circumferential defect of the larynx and cervical trachea. The biocompatibility, bioactivity and biofunctionality of the HA prosthesis were evaluated, and the feasibility for laryngotracheal reconstruction was discussed. Twelve healthy canines were used to establish the experimental models, a large portion of cricoid cartilage and upper ten-ring segment of cervical trachea were resected and substituted with a corresponding 5 cm HA prosthesis by end-to-end anastomosis. Six months later, the eight survival canines were sacrificed and the HA prostheses with surrounding tissues were removed. They were observed in decalcified sections by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Two canines died in the immediate postoperative period with unknown reason and another two deaths were attributed to obstruction caused by the complete dislocation of the HA prostheses owing to rupture of the sutures within three weeks after operation. Eight canines survived up to six months. The implanted HA prostheses were tolerated in all cases without any rejection and dislocation or shift. An excellent airway was obtained and no signs of dyspnea and suffocation were found though there were hypergranulation and scar formation occurred at the site of anastomosis. Morphologic examination revealed that collagen fibers, new vessels and plenty of cells penetrated deeply into the pores of HA, and occupying the outer two third of HA wall. HA prostheses were surrounded by connective tissues and anchored firmly to the neighboring tissues, including the ends of the cricoid and tracheal cartilage by ingrowths of cartilaginous tissue into the macropores of the HA. However, the luminal surface of HA prosthesis was not covered at all section levels by respiratory mucosa. The implantation of the porous HA tubiform prosthesis can maintain the normal respiratory function of the experimental canines, but the

  11. QUEST FOR TEACHING EXPERIMENTAL SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Samrajya LAKSHMI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Andhra Pradesh, India, chemical experimenting in under graduate college labs by students is neglected because most of the intermediate (10+1 and 10+2 students concentrate on writing competitive exams like EAMCET (Engineering and Medical Common Entrance Test, IIT JEE (Indian Institute of Technology Joint Entrance Test, AIEEE (All India Engineering Entrance Examination, AFMS (Armed Forces Medical Services, AIMS (All India Institute of Medical Science. The students spend most of their time in preparing for competitive exams, practicing bits, and writing many model exams. Even Parents, staff, and management are also motivated and allow the students towards preparation for competitive exams because of the increase in number of engineering seats and demand of medical seats. Ultimately, the quality and quantity of students who join the B.Sc. (Bachelor of Science has been decreasing day by day. Even after joining the B.Sc., the students are motivated towards immediate white collared job oriented courses like M.C.A (Master of Computer Applications and M.B.A (Master Business Administration and spending their time for preparing for competitive exams for those courses. Only a few students are interested to join Post graduation in chemistry and try to learn experimental skills in chemistry laboratory. However, the motivated students towards undergraduate chemistry will be demotivated towards it due to lack of fundamentals in chemistry (in 10+2 level, which are essential for better job market. Ultimately, the students are in confusion and neglect learning the skills in doing experiments in chemistry lab. The present paper focuses on the thorough quest of one such teacher who strives for his own professional development. He has developed his own method of guiding the students for their improvement of skills in doing experiments in lab. The teacher explored solutions to his problems or problems of students by sorting out the critical incidents from his own

  12. Endometriose: modelo experimental em ratas Endometriosis: experimental model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Schor

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: divulgar a metodologia da indução de endometriose experimental em animais de laboratório. Método: utilizamos ratas albinas, virgens, adultas de aproximadamente três meses de idade, que foram inicialmente anestesiadas pelo éter etílico. Aberta a cavidade abdominal, identificamos os cornos uterinos e retiramos um fragmento de aproximadamente 4 cm do corno uterino direito. Esse fragmento foi mergulhado em solução fisiológica e sob lupa estereoscópica foi separado o endométrio do miométrio e feitos retângulos de aproximadamente 4 por 5 mm. Esses foram fixados por meio de fio de sutura, sobre vasos sangüíneos visíveis a olho nu, na parede lateral do abdômen, tomando-se sempre o cuidado de manter a porção do endométrio livre voltada para a luz da cavidade abdominal. Após 21 dias os animais foram novamente operados para verificarmos o tamanho dos implantes e para retirada do endométrio ectópico para análise histológica. Resultados: macroscopicamente observamos crescimento significativo dos implantes endometriais. Ao exame microscópico pudemos observar a presença de epitélio glandular e estroma semelhantes ao do endométrio tópico. Conclusões: o modelo utilizado reproduz a doença, em ratas, sendo método auxiliar de valia para estudar esta afecção, principalmente a ação de medicamentos sobre esses implantes.Purpose: to demonstrate the experimental endometriosis induction in animals. Method: we used adult female Wistar rats weighing 200 - 250 g anesthetized with ethyl ether to open the abdominal cavity. After identifying the uterine horns, we removed an approximately 4 cm fragment from the right uterine horn. This fragment was placed in physiological saline and, with the aid of a stereoscopic magnifying glass, the endometrium was separated from the myometrium and cut into rectangles of approximately 4 x 5 mm. These rectangles were fastened to the lateral abdominal wall near great blood vessels, taking care

  13. Experimental study of potential neutron moderator materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocko, M.; Daemen, L. L.; Hartl, M. A.; Huegle, Th.; Muhrer, G.

    2010-12-01

    We present an experimental investigation of thermal neutron energy spectra produced by lead and bismuth hydroxides (Pb(OH) 2, and Bi(OH) 3). The experimental energy spectra are compared with a thermal neutron energy spectrum produced by water measured in the same geometry. We developed an MCNPX geometry model designed to help with the interpretation of the experimental data. We demonstrate a very good reproduction of the experimental thermal neutron energy spectrum produced by the water moderator in our tightly coupled geometry. We study our experimental results for Pb(OH) 2 and Bi(OH) 3 using thermal neutron scattering kernels for hydrogen, bismuth, and lead.

  14. Tendencias en la psicologia experimental colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Ardila

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental psychology has been taught in Colombia since 1948, with the first training center for psychologísts. However, the first experimental research was carríed out in 1970. Today experimentation is the method of choice for the larger majority of Colombian psychologists. Laboratories exist practically in all the FacuIties and Departments of Psychology. The main ateas of research are experimental analysís of behavior, experimental social psychology, and early leaming. Some systematic research project are in progress with the support of the Colombían goverment.

  15. Social relationships in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadsey, J; Beyer, S

    2001-01-01

    As more workers with disabilities are competitively employed, there are numerous opportunities to form social relationships with their co-workers. Close social relationships are associated with a number of positive outcomes (e.g., happiness, less stress) and should be actively pursued for those individuals desiring them. In this paper, we describe the types of social interactions displayed in work settings employing workers with and without disabilities. We also discuss some of the social problems experienced by some workers with disabilities. Finally, we describe two general categories of intervention strategies that have been used to impact social relationships: (a) strategies that involve changing the social behaviors of workers with disabilities, and (b) natural support strategies. The results from these strategies are discussed, and future areas of research are described. MRDD Research Reviews 7:128-133, 2001. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Memory, neurodynamics, and human relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, Jim; Stevens, David

    2002-01-01

    In this article we discuss the implications of the functional organization and dynamics of the brain for understanding human relationships. In particular, we focus on the brain's multiple memory systems and the various roles they play in organizing the interactions of people as they come to know one another. The distinction between the relatively independent declarative, procedural, and emotional learning systems is especially significant in this regard, as the former mediates what we know about one another, the second mediates what we do with one another, and the third affects behavior by altering our emotional state. Knowledge of the functioning of these dissociable memory systems provides a novel perspective on relationships--both ordinary social relationships and those that develop in psychotherapy--and further illuminates psychotherapeutic transference and countertransference phenomena. We begin with a review of the neural basis of these processes, then turn our attention to the interpersonal level of analysis.

  17. Male Stereotypes in a Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel García Toca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to know the attitude that men have towards stereotypes in couples relationships established by society. The rating scale used consists of 51 items divided in five families: macho thoughts, power, demonstrating feelings, expectations in couple’s relationships and how a couple is seen in society. The instrument used Likert scale, and valued by three types of discrimination, reliability and the validation to content. The instrument was applied to men in a not random way. The results indicate that now a day’s men are still concerned in following stereotypes established in couple’s relationships. However this conduct has decreased slowly and insignificantly.

  18. Some Bullies Are More Equal than Others: Peer Relationships Modulate Altruistic Punishment of Bullies after Observing Ostracism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güroglu, Berna; Will, Geert-Jan; Klapwijk, Eduard T.

    2013-01-01

    The current study presents a novel experimental design to examine how "real-life" peer relationships modulate altruistic punishment of bullies and compensation of victims after "observed" ostracism. Twenty-four participants (age 20) were invited to an experimental session in groups of three classmates and two unfamiliar peers,…

  19. Hydrogen engine development: Experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Blarigan, P. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In the continuing development of a hydrogen fueled IC engine optimized for application to a generator set or hybrid vehicle, experiments were performed at Sandia National Laboratories on two engine configurations. The intent is to maximize thermal efficiency while complying with strict emissions standards. The initial investigation was conducted utilizing a spark ignited 0.491 liter single cylinder Onan engine and has progressed to a spark ignited 0.850 liter modified for single cylinder operation Perkins engine. Both combustion chamber geometries were {open_quotes}pancake{close_quotes} shaped and achieved a compression ratio of 14:1. The engines were operated under premixed conditions. The results demonstrate that both engines can comply with the California Air Resources Board`s proposed Equivalent Zero Emission Vehicle standards for NO{sub x} during operation at an equivalence ratio of 0.4. The Onan engine achieved an indicated thermal efficiency of 43% at 1800 RPM, as determined by integration of the pressure-volume relationships. Initial experiments with the larger displacement Perkins engine have realized a gain, relative to the Onan engine, in indicated thermal efficiency of 2% at 1800 RPM, and 15% at 1200 RPM.

  20. Apendicite aguda: modelo experimental em coelhos Acute appendicitis: model experimental in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João EBRAM-NETO

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de estudar experimentalmente as diversas fases evolutivas da apendicite aguda, foram utilizados 60 coelhos (Oryctogalus cuniculus, fêmeas, da linhagem Nova Zelândia, com peso variando de 2510 a 3040 gramas. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos denominados controle e experimento, e estes subdivididos em três subgrupos com períodos de observação de 12, 24 e 48 horas. No grupo experimento foi realizada a oclusão do lume apendicular por meio de sutura seromuscular circular a 8 cm da extremidade distal do apêndice cecal, com fio de polipropileno 4-0. No controle foi feita somente a simulação da cirurgia. Os aspectos macroscópicos (aumento do tamanho, necrose, perfuração, aderência e secreção na cavidade abdominal bem como os microscópicos do grupo experimento, evidenciaram uma progressão das alterações anatomopatológicas mostrando haver uma relação entre a intensidade dos achados histopatológicos e o tempo de observação. Conclui-se que o método utilizado causa apendicite aguda com alterações anatomopatológicas distintas, de acordo com a fase evolutiva da doença.The evolving phases of acute appendicitis were studied experimentally. Sixty female rabbits (Oryctogalus cuniculus of New Zealand lineage weighing about 2510 to 3040 g were divided in two groups: a control group and experimental group. The experimental group was divided into three subgroups for observation after 12, 24 and 48 hours of the operation, that consisted on a 4-0 polypropylene circular suture at 8 cm from the distal part of the cecal appendix. The control group was sham operated. The macroscopic exam (increase of the appendix volume, necrosis, perfuration, adherence and secretion in the abdominal cavity and the microscopic finding showed a progression in the anatomopathological alterations. There was a close relationship between the histopathological findings and time after the appendiceal obstruction. We conclude that the method

  1. Fuzzy forecasting based on two-factors second-order fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups and the probabilities of trends of fuzzy logical relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shyi-Ming; Chen, Shen-Wen

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present a new method for fuzzy forecasting based on two-factors second-order fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups and the probabilities of trends of fuzzy-trend logical relationships. Firstly, the proposed method fuzzifies the historical training data of the main factor and the secondary factor into fuzzy sets, respectively, to form two-factors second-order fuzzy logical relationships. Then, it groups the obtained two-factors second-order fuzzy logical relationships into two-factors second-order fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups. Then, it calculates the probability of the "down-trend," the probability of the "equal-trend" and the probability of the "up-trend" of the two-factors second-order fuzzy-trend logical relationships in each two-factors second-order fuzzy-trend logical relationship group, respectively. Finally, it performs the forecasting based on the probabilities of the down-trend, the equal-trend, and the up-trend of the two-factors second-order fuzzy-trend logical relationships in each two-factors second-order fuzzy-trend logical relationship group. We also apply the proposed method to forecast the Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index (TAIEX) and the NTD/USD exchange rates. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the existing methods.

  2. Molecular approaches in experimental neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavitian, B. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2009-07-01

    We quantified and compared six parameters (resolution, depth, sensitivity, portability, quantification and cost) of four molecular imaging techniques (MRI, optics, ultrasound and TEP), with the three types of electromagnetic radiation used in vivo (Frequencies (10{sup 6} to 10{sup 22} Hz), Photonic Energy (10{sup -4} to 10{sup 9} eV) and Wavelengths (10{sup -2} to 10{sup -15} m)). This form of molecular imaging demands the most sensitive technique available (Pl. 26-2 to 26-4). Four examples of experimental in vivo approaches on small animals are shown: molecular passage through the blood-brain barrier (endothelial cells, astrocytes and occludin, pharmacokinetics, studied with PET) (Pl. 2-5 to 2-11); imaging of receptors and ligands, especially peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) by PET and MRI in the rat (Pl. 2-12 to Pl. 2-15); neuro-pathology of neuro-degenerative and inflammatory diseases and stroke by PET and MRI in the rat (Pl. 2-16 to 2-17); and the study of responses to stimulation explored with in vivo imaging of calcium signals and their variations by photonic analysis, as on the scale of mitochondrial calcium (Pl.2-18 to Pl.2-22). (author)

  3. Experimental animal models of osteonecrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Meng; Peng, Jiang; Qin, Ling; Lu, Shibi

    2011-08-01

    Osteonecrosis (ON) or avascular necrosis (AVN) is a common bone metabolic disorder, mostly affecting femoral head. Although many biological, biophysical, and surgical methods have been tested to preserve the femoral head with ON, none has been proven fully satisfactory. It lacks consensus on an optimal approach for treatment. This is due, at least in part, to the lack of ability to systematically compare treatment efficacy using an ideal animal model that mimics full-range osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH) in humans with high incidence of joint collapse accompanied by reparative reaction adjacent to the necrotic bone in a reproducible and accessible way. A number of preclinical animal ON models have been established for testing potential efficacy of various modalities developed for prevention and treatment of ON before introduction into clinics for potential applications. This paper describes a number of different methods for creating animal experimental ON models. Advantages and disadvantages of such models are also discussed as reference for future research in battle against this important medical condition.

  4. Ten Problems in Experimental Mathematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Kapoor, Vishaal; Weisstein, Eric

    2004-09-30

    This article was stimulated by the recent SIAM ''100 DigitChallenge'' of Nick Trefethen, beautifully described in a recent book. Indeed, these ten numeric challenge problems are also listed in a recent book by two of present authors, where they are followed by the ten symbolic/numeric challenge problems that are discussed in this article. Our intent was to present ten problems that are characteristic of the sorts of problems that commonly arise in ''experimental mathematics''. The challenge in each case is to obtain a high precision numeric evaluation of the quantity, and then, if possible, to obtain a symbolic answer, ideally one with proof. Our goal in this article is to provide solutions to these ten problems, and in the process present a concise account of how one combines symbolic and numeric computation, which may be termed ''hybrid computation'', in the process of mathematical discovery.

  5. Experimental investigation of plasmofluidic waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, Bonwoo; Kwon, Min-Suk, E-mail: mskwon@unist.ac.kr [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, UNIST, 50 UNIST-gil, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jin-Soo [Department of Electrical Engineering, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-16

    Plasmofluidic waveguides are based on guiding light which is strongly confined in fluid with the assistance of a surface plasmon polariton. To realize plasmofluidic waveguides, metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal (MISIM) waveguides, which are hybrid plasmonic waveguides fabricated using standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, are employed. The insulator of the MISIM waveguide is removed to form 30-nm-wide channels, and they are filled with fluid. The plasmofluidic waveguide has a subwavelength-scale mode area since its mode is strongly confined in the fluid. The waveguides are experimentally characterized for different fluids. When the refractive index of the fluid is 1.440, the plasmofluidic waveguide with 190-nm-wide silicon has propagation loss of 0.46 dB/μm; the coupling loss between it and an ordinary silicon photonic waveguide is 1.79 dB. The propagation and coupling losses may be reduced if a few fabrication-induced imperfections are removed. The plasmofluidic waveguide may pave the way to a dynamically phase-tunable ultracompact device.

  6. Experimental Research on Brake Squeal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Daniel; Bernsteiner, Stefan

    Since many years experimental researches have been performed in order to get an insight into the issue of brake squeal. This work presents an innovative test setup for analyzing friction-excited vibrations and squeal triggering mechanisms. The investigated brake system showed brake squeal issues at certain operating points. The purpose was to analyse the brake system in detail on a test rig. Because the well-known methods of investigation such as laser vibrometer were not possible, the aim was to develop and generate new measuring points, which are close to the contact area of disc and pad. Therefore the brake calliper has been modified; hence the guide are replaced by modified ones. At these pins the friction force can be measured. Because of an optimized shape it is possible to measure the vibration of the friction force. The measured signal correlates with a parallel measured microphone signal. Next the brake disc will be assembled with triaxial accelerometers. Thus it is possible to determine the operating deflection shape of the disc. With the results of this work a new contact algorithm should be developed which can be used e.g. in Finite Element calculations.

  7. Compendium of Experimental Cetane Numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanowitz, J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; McCormick, R. L.; Taylor, J. D.; Murphy, M. J.

    2014-08-01

    This report is an updated version of the 2004 Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data and presents a compilation of measured cetane numbers for pure chemical compounds. It includes all available single compound cetane number data found in the scientific literature up until March 2014 as well as a number of unpublished values, most measured over the past decade at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This Compendium contains cetane values for 389 pure compounds, including 189 hydrocarbons and 201 oxygenates. More than 250 individual measurements are new to this version of the Compendium. For many compounds, numerous measurements are included, often collected by different researchers using different methods. Cetane number is a relative ranking of a fuel's autoignition characteristics for use in compression ignition engines; it is based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition, also known as ignition delay. The cetane number is typically measured either in a single-cylinder engine or a constant volume combustion chamber. Values in the previous Compendium derived from octane numbers have been removed, and replaced with a brief analysis of the correlation between cetane numbers and octane numbers. The discussion on the accuracy and precision of the most commonly used methods for measuring cetane has been expanded and the data has been annotated extensively to provide additional information that will help the reader judge the relative reliability of individual results.

  8. Improving the doctor-manager relationship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nash, David B; Malcolm, Laurence; Wright, Lyn; Barnett, Pauline; Hendry, Chris; Crosson, Francis J; Atun, Rifat A; Thomas, Hilary

    2003-01-01

    The problem with doctor-manager relationships is well studied. The potential for these relationships to harm the working environment and affect organisational performance is acknowledged and understood...

  9. Actor bonds after relationship dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2000-01-01

    Most of the presented papers at the 1st NoRD Workshop can be classified as belonging to the business marketing approach to relationship dissolution. Two papers were conceptual, and the remaining six were empirical studies. The first conceptual study by Skaates (2000) focuses on the nature...... of the actor bonds that remain after a business relationship has ended. The study suggests that an interdisciplinary approach would provide a richer understanding of the phenomenon; this could be achieved by using e.g. Bourdieu's sociological concepts in dissolution research....

  10. Perspectives on contemporary lesbian relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Sarah R

    2017-01-02

    This article introduces the special issue on contemporary lesbian relationships. The beginning notes some of the prominent changes that have occurred in the past 15 years in the visibility and positive representation of lesbian couples in our popular U.S. culture. The remainder focuses on identifying and summarizing the primary themes of the special issue, including the implications of changes in marriage rights, the acknowledgment and exploration of the effects of sexual minority stress, and a shift in the framing of research to better reflect the diversity of lesbian relationship experiences.

  11. Structure-function relationships of human meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danso, Elvis K; Oinas, Joonas M T; Saarakkala, Simo; Mikkonen, Santtu; Töyräs, Juha; Korhonen, Rami K

    2017-03-01

    Biomechanical properties of human meniscus have been shown to be site-specific. However, it is not known which meniscus constituents at different depths and locations contribute to biomechanical properties obtained from indentation testing. Therefore, we investigated the composition and structure of human meniscus in a site- and depth-dependent manner and their relationships with tissue site-specific biomechanical properties. Elastic and poroelastic properties were analyzed from experimental stress-relaxation and sinusoidal indentation measurements with fibril reinforced poroelastic finite element modeling. Proteoglycan (PG) and collagen contents, as well as the collagen orientation angle, were determined as a function of tissue depth using microscopic and spectroscopic methods, and they were compared with biomechanical properties. For all the measurement sites (anterior, middle and posterior) of lateral and medial menisci (n=26), PG content and collagen orientation angle increased as a function of tissue depth while the collagen content had an initial sharp increase followed by a decrease across tissue depth. The highest values (pbiomechanical parameters (strain-dependent fibril network modulus and permeability) were observed in the anterior horn of the medial meniscus. This location had also higher (pmeniscus, higher (pmedial meniscus) significantly higher (pmeniscus modulus and/or nonlinear permeability. This study suggests that nonlinear biomechanical properties of meniscus, caused by the collagen network and fluid, may be strongly influenced by tissue osmotic swelling from the deep meniscus caused by the increased PG content, leading to increased collagen fibril tension. These nonlinear biomechanical properties are suggested to be further amplified by higher collagen content at all tissue depths and superficial collagen fibril orientation. However, these structure-function relationships are suggested to be highly site-specific. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  12. Fear of predation drives stable and differentiated social relationships in guppies

    OpenAIRE

    Heathcote, Robert J. P.; Darden, Safi K.; Franks, Daniel Wayne; Indar W. Ramnarine; Darren P Croft

    2017-01-01

    Social relationships can have important consequences for fitness in animals. Whilst numerous studies have shown that individuals often join larger groups in response to perceived predation risk (i.e. fear of predation), the importance of predation risk in driving the formation and stability of social relationships within groups has been relatively ignored. We experimentally tested how predation threat influenced fine-scale social network structure using Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulat...

  13. Relationship Analysis Between Leaf-Stomata Characteristics with Cocoa Resistance to Vascular-Streak Dieback

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyu Soesilo, Agung; Arisandy, Poppy; Sari, Indah Anita; Harimurti, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of leaf-stomata indicate having relationship with the resistance of cocoa to vascular-streak dieback (VSD) caused by Ceratobasidum theobromae. This research has objective to identify the relationship between leaf-stomata haracteristicsto VSD resistance in order to develop criteria for selection. Trial was establised in randomized-complete block design with three blocks as replications in Kaliwining Experimental Station of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa R...

  14. Experimental toxoplasmosis in pregnant rabbits/ Toxoplasmose experimental em coelhas gestantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvimar José da Costa

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The clinical, hematological, obstetrical, immunological and pathological aspects of the experimental toxoplasmosis were investigated in pregnant rabbits orally inoculated with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. Pregnant rabbits showed to be highly sensible to the toxoplasmic infection. Abortion and death occurred in 100% of the inoculated rabbits. Fever peak was observed between 4o and 9o day pos-infection. Blood parameter showed alterations. Because the hyperacute character presented by the toxoplasmic infection, the humoral immune response was weak. The microscopic and macroscopic exams demonstrated, mainly, alterations in liver, kidney and lungs. These results suggested that pregnant rabbits, orally infected with oocysts of T. gondii are extremely susceptible to this parasite, showing severe alterations in several organs, as well as premature abortion and death.Neste ensaio foram comparados aspectos clínicos, obstétricos, imunológicos e patológicos entre coelhas gestantes inoculadas com oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii e coelhas gestantes não inoculadas. Os resultados obtidos demonstram ser a coelha gestante altamente sensível à infecção toxoplásmica. Aborto e óbito foram observados em 100% das coelhas infectadas, antes do término da gestação. Os aumentos máximos de temperatura corporal foram observados entre o quarto e o nono dia pós-inoculação (DPI. Alterações hematológicas também foram observadas. Devido ao caráter hiperagudo decorrente da infecção toxoplásmica, detectou-se resposta imune humoral nas coelhas infectadas somente no 7o DPI. Os exames anátomo-histopatológicos demonstraram, principalmente, alterações hepáticas, renais e pulmonares. Com base nos dados obtidos no estudo, comprovou-se que coelhas gestantes são extremamente sensíveis a oocistos de T. gondii, apresentando severas alterações em diversos órgãos, assim como aborto e óbito prematuro.

  15. Experimental Studies of Phase Equilibria of Meteorites and Planetary Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, Edward M.

    2005-01-01

    The primary theme of this project was the application of experimental petrology and geochemistry to a variety of problems in meteoritics and planetary geology. The studies were designed to help develop constraints on the histories of primitive meteorites and their components, the environments in which they formed and evolved, and to understand quantitatively the processes involved in the evolution of igneous rocks on the earth and other planetary bodies. We undertook several projects relating to the origin of CAIs and chondrules. Systematics in the thermodynamic properties of CAI-like liquids were investigated and used to elucidate speciation of multi-valent cations and sulfide capacity of silicate melts and to constrain redox conditions and the vapor pressures of volatile species over molten chondrules. We experimentally determined vanadium speciation in meteoritic pyroxenes and in pyroxenes crystallized from CAI-like melts under very reducing conditions. We also found that bulk oxygen isotope compositions of chondrules in the moderately unequilibrated LL chondrites are related to the relative timing of plagioclase crystallization. We completed an experimental study on the vaporization of beta-SiC and SiO2 (glass or cristobalite) in reducing gases and established the conditions under which these presolar grains could have survived in the solar nebula. We expanded our technique for determining the thermodynamic properties of minerals and liquids to iron-bearing systems. We determined activity-composition relationships in Pt-Fe, Pt-Cr and Pt-Fe-Cr alloys. Results were used to determine the thermodynamic properties of chromite-picrochromite spinels including the free energy of formation of end-member FeCr2O4. We also established a new approach for evaluating Pt-Fe saturation experiments. We calculated the T-fO2 relationships in equilibrated ordinary chondrites and thereby constrained the conditions of metamorphism in their parent bodies.

  16. Experimental Infrasound Studies in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, E. T.; Negraru, P. T.; Golden, P.; Williams, A.

    2009-12-01

    An experimental propagation study was carried out in Nevada in June 2009 on Julian days 173-177. During this field experiment we deployed 16 single channel digital infrasound recorders to monitor the munitions disposal activities near Hawthorne, NV. The sensors were deployed in a single line and placed approximately 12 km apart at distances ranging from 2 to 177 km. A four element semi-permanent infrasound array named FNIAR was installed approximately 154 km north of the detonation site in line with the individual temporary recorders. Tropospheric arrivals were observed during all days of the experiment, but during day 176 the observed arrivals had very large amplitudes. A large signal was observed at 58 km from the detonation site with amplitude as large as 4 Pascals, while at 94 km no signal was observed. At FNIAR the amplitude of the tropospheric arrival was 1 Pascal. During this day meteorological data acquired in the propagation path showed a strong jet stream to the north. On day 177 we were not able to identify tropospheric arrivals beyond 34 km, but at stations beyond 152 km we observed stratospheric arrivals. Continuous monitoring of these signals at FNIAR shows that stratospheric arrivals are the most numerous. In a two month period, from 06/15/2009 to 08/15/2009 there were 35 operational days at the Hawthorne disposal facility resulting in 212 explosions with known origin times. Based on the celerity values there were 115 explosions that have only stratospheric arrivals (celerities of 300-275 m/s), 72 explosions with both tropospheric (celerities above 330 m/s) and stratospheric arrivals, 20 explosions that were not detected and five explosions that have only tropospheric arrivals.

  17. Compendium of Experimental Cetane Numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanowitz, Janet [Ecoengineering, Sharonville, OH (United States); Ratcliff, Matthew A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Taylor, J. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Murphy, M. J. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-02-22

    This report is an updated version of the 2014 Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data and presents a compilation of measured cetane numbers for pure chemical compounds. It includes all available single-compound cetane number data found in the scientific literature up until December 2016 as well as a number of previously unpublished values, most measured over the past decade at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This version of the compendium contains cetane values for 496 pure compounds, including 204 hydrocarbons and 292 oxygenates. 176 individual measurements are new to this version of the compendium, all of them collected using ASTM Method D6890, which utilizes an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) a type of constant-volume combustion chamber. For many compounds, numerous measurements are included, often collected by different researchers using different methods. The text of this document is unchanged from the 2014 version, except for the numbers of compounds in Section 3.1, the Appendices, Table 1. Primary Cetane Number Data Sources and Table 2. Number of Measurements Included in Compendium. Cetane number is a relative ranking of a fuel's autoignition characteristics for use in compression ignition engines. It is based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition, also known as ignition delay. The cetane number is typically measured either in a single-cylinder engine or a constant-volume combustion chamber. Values in the previous compendium derived from octane numbers have been removed and replaced with a brief analysis of the correlation between cetane numbers and octane numbers. The discussion on the accuracy and precision of the most commonly used methods for measuring cetane number has been expanded, and the data have been annotated extensively to provide additional information that will help the reader judge the relative reliability of individual results.

  18. Experimental simulation of simultaneous vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gracia, Pablo; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Sánchez-González, Álvaro; Sawides, Lucie; Marcos, Susana

    2013-01-17

    To present and validate a prototype of an optical instrument that allows experimental simulation of pure bifocal vision. To evaluate the influence of different power additions on image contrast and visual acuity. The instrument provides the eye with two superimposed images, aligned and with the same magnification, but with different defocus states. Subjects looking through the instrument are able to experience pure simultaneous vision, with adjustable refractive correction and addition power. The instrument is used to investigate the impact of the amount of addition of an ideal bifocal simultaneous vision correction, both on image contrast and on visual performance. the instrument is validated through computer simulations of the letter contrast and by equivalent optical experiments with an artificial eye (camera). Visual acuity (VA) was measured in four subjects (AGE: 34.3 ± 3.4 years; spherical error: -2.1 ± 2.7 diopters [D]) for low and high contrast letters and different amounts of addition. The largest degradation in contrast and visual acuity (∼25%) occurred for additions around ±2 D, while additions of ±4 D produced lower degradation (14%). Low additions (1-2 D) result in lower VA than high additions (3-4 D). A simultaneous vision instrument is an excellent tool to simulate bifocal vision and to gain understanding of multifocal solutions for presbyopia. Simultaneous vision induces a pattern of visual performance degradation, which is well predicted by the degradation found in image quality. Neural effects, claimed to be crucial in the patients' tolerance of simultaneous vision, can be therefore compared with pure optical effects.

  19. [Regeneration of planarians: experimental object].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheĭman, I M; Kreshchenko, I D

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the expediency of using invertebrates, such as flatworms and planarians, as experimental objects. Free-living planarian flatworms (phylum Platyhelminthes, class Turbellaria) are invertebrate animals in which a bilateral symmetry appears for the first time in evolution and organs and tissues form. As the highest ecological link of the food chain--predators--these animals are characterized by a set of behavioral reactions controlled by a differentiated central nervous system. Planarians have unsurpassed ability to regenerate lost or damaged body parts. Owing to the ease of their breeding and their convenience for manipulations, these animals are used to study the influence of chemical and physical factors on the processes of life, growth, and reproduction. Currently, planarians are recognized as a model for biological research in the field of regeneration, stem cell biology, study of their proliferation and differentiation, as well as the regulatory mechanisms of morphogenetic processes. The genome of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea was fully sequenced, which opened up the opportunity to work with this object at the molecular biological level. Furthermore, planarians are used in neurobiological and toxicological studies, in studying the evolutionary aspects of centralization of the nervous system, mechanisms of muscle contraction, and in the development of new antiparasitic drugs. This review aims to demonstrate the relevance and diversity of research conducted on simple biological objects--planarians--to awider audience to show the historical continuity of these studies and their wide geographical distribution and to focus on the studies carried out in Russia, which, as a rule, are not included in the foreign reviews on planarian regeneration.

  20. The Predator-Prey Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    Many children develop a mistaken attitude about the predator-prey relationship in the ecosystem. Fairy tales portray the predator as evil or worthless. This article attempts to clarify the role of the predator by giving numerous examples of the value of predators. (MA)