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Sample records for experimental endodontic sealer

  1. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of natural resin-based experimental endodontic sealers.

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    Silva, Gleyce O; Cavalcanti, Bruno N; Oliveira, Tatiana R; Bin, Claudia V; Camargo, Samira E A; Camargo, Carlos H R

    2016-05-01

    The development of endodontic sealers based on natural resins seems to be promising, given their improved biological properties. This study evaluated the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of two experimental root canal sealers, based on extracts from Copaifera multijuga and Ricinus communis (castor oil polymer), comparing them to synthetic resin-based sealers: a single methacrylate-based, a multi-methacrylate-based, and an epoxy resin-based sealers. Sealers were prepared, set, and exposed to cell culture medium for 24 h at 37 °C with CO2. V79 cells were exposed to serial dilutions of the extracts of each sealer for 24 h. Cell viability was measured by the MTT assay and genotoxicity was assessed by the formation of micronuclei. The single methacrylate-based sealer had the most cytotoxic effects, with significant reduction in cell viability in all dilutions of the extract. The castor oil polymer-based sealer was, on the other hand, the most biocompatible sealer, with no cytotoxic effects at any concentration. All tested sealers were not genotoxic, excepting the single methacrylate-based sealer. The tested natural resin-based sealers presented low cytotoxic and no genotoxic effects on cell cultures. These results may suggest a good alternative to develop new endodontic sealers, in order to achieve better biological response and healing, when compared to commercially available sealers.

  2. Effect of endodontic sealers on tooth color.

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    Meincke, Débora Könzgen; Prado, Maíra; Gomes, Brenda Paula Figueiredo; Bona, Alvaro Della; Sousa, Ezilmara Leonor Rolim

    2013-08-01

    One of the goals of endodontic treatment is the adequate filling of the root canal,which is often done using gutta-percha and sealer. It has been reported that sealer remnants in the coronary pulp chamber cause tooth color changes. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the effect of endodontic sealer remnants on tooth color, testing the hypothesis that sealers cause coronal color changes. Forty single-rooted human teeth were endodontically treated leaving excess sealer material in the coronary pulp chamber. The specimens were divided into four groups (n = 10) according to the endodontic sealer used (AH, AH Plus; EF, Endofill; EN,endome´ thasoneN; and S26, Sealer 26). Teeth were stored at 37 8C moist environment.Color coordinates (L*a*b*) were measured with a spectrophotometer before endodontic treatment(baseline-control), 24 h and 6 months after treatment. L*a*b* values were used to calculate color changes (DE). Data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney-U tests. Color changes were observed for all groups with S26 and EN producing the greatest mean DE values after 6 months. Endodontic sealer remnants affect tooth color confirming the experimental hypothesis. This study examined the effect of endodontic sealer remnants on tooth color, and observed that after 6 months, the sealers produced unacceptable color changes. 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytotoxicity Profile of Endodontic Sealers Provided by 3D Cell Culture Experimental Model.

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    Silva, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal; Carvalho, Nancy Kudsi de; Ronconi, Carina Taboada; De-Deus, Gustavo; Zuolo, Mario Luis; Zaia, Alexandre Augusto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of five endodontic sealers (AH Plus, Endomethasone N, EndoSequence BC, MTA Fillapex and Pulp Canal Sealer EWT) using a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture model. A conventional bi-dimensional (2D) cell culture model was used as reference technique for comparison. Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts were cultured in conventional bi-dimensional cell culture and in rat-tail collagen type I three-dimensional cell culture models. Then, both cell cultures were incubated with elutes of freshly mixed endodontic sealers for 24 h. Cell viability was measured by the methyl-thiazol-diphenyltetrazolium assay (MTT). Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and the Tukey test at a significance level of pculture model- and sealer-dependent. Sealers showed higher cytotoxicity in 2D than in 3D cell culture model (pculture model (p>0.05). Endomethasone N and Pulp Canal Sealer EWT showed lower cytotoxic effects than AH Plus in 2D cell culture model (p3D cell culture model. It may be concluded that cytotoxicity was higher in 2D cell culture compared to 3D cell culture. EndoSequence BC sealer exhibited the highest cytocompatibility and MTA Fillapex the lowest cytocompatibility.

  4. Discoloration Potential of Endodontic Sealers: A Brief Review.

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    Tour Savadkouhi, Sohrab; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2016-01-01

    Tooth discoloration induced by endodontic sealers, is a common finding that impairs aesthetic outcome of endodontic treatment. The aim of the present mini literature review, was to summarize the existing data on discoloration potential of different endodontic sealers. The research covered the article published in PubMed and Google Scholar from 2000 to 2015. The searched keywords included 'tooth discoloration AND endodontic', 'tooth discoloration AND sealer, 'tooth discoloration AND zinc-oxide eugenol sealer', 'tooth discoloration AND Calcium Hydroxide Sealer', 'tooth discoloration AND Glass Ionomer Sealer', 'tooth discoloration AND epoxy-resin Sealer', 'tooth discoloration AND Silicon Based Sealer', 'tooth discoloration AND Bioceramic Sealer' and 'Spectrophotometry'. A total number of 44 articles were gained which reduced to 11 after excluding the repetitive items. The available evidence for discoloration potential of endodontic sealers currently available on the market is scarce. However, it can be concluded that all endodontic sealers can potentially stain the tooth structure to different degrees.

  5. Influence of endodontic sealer composition and time of fiber post cementation on sealer adhesiveness to bovine root dentin.

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    Rosa, Ricardo Abreu da; Barreto, Mirela Sangoi; Moraes, Rafael do Amaral; Broch, Juliana; Bier, Carlos Alexandre Souza; Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the influence of the type of endodontic sealer (salicylate resin-based sealer vs. two endodontic sealers) and the time of fiber post cementation after root filling on the post adhesion to bovine root dentin. Sixty bovine roots were assigned to six groups (n=10), considering an experimental design with two factors (factorial 3x2): endodontic sealer factor in three levels [epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus), eugenol-based sealer (Endofill), and salicylate resin-based sealer plus mineral trioxide aggregate - MTA (MTA Fillapex)] and time for post cementation factor in two levels (immediate post cementation or 15 days after root canal filling). After post cementation, 2-mm-thick slices were produced and submitted to push-out test. The failure modes were analyzed under a 40× stereomicroscope and scored as: adhesive at cement/dentin interface; adhesive at cement/post interface; cement cohesive; post cohesive; dentin cohesive; or mixed. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests (α=0.05). When the fiber posts were cemented immediately after the root canal filling, the bond strengths were similar, independent of the endodontic sealer type. However, after 15 days, the epoxy resin-based sealer presented higher bond strength than the other sealers (ppost cementation has no influence on post/root dentin adhesion. On the contrary, the type of endodontic sealer can influence the adhesion between fiber posts and root dentin.

  6. The effectiveness of endodontic solvents to remove endodontic sealers.

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    Hwang, Jae I; Chuang, Augustine H; Sidow, Stephanie J; McNally, Kathleen; Goodin, Jeremy L; McPherson, James C

    2015-03-01

    Dental emergencies negatively affect troop readiness, especially during combat. Endodontic retreatment, when required, is especially challenging when the removal of endodontic sealer is required. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of synthetic endodontic solvents to remove endodontic sealers. Fifty capillary tubes (2.7 mm ID×22 mm L), each filled to 15 mm with either Roth 801, AH Plus, MetaSEAL, or gutta-percha, were stored at 75% humidity for 14 days at 37°C. Ten capillary tubes containing each sealer were treated with either chloroform, xylene, EndoSolv R, EndoSolv E, or no solvent, and then penetrated with D3 ProTaper Universal Retreatment file on the same day. The time for the file to penetrate the length of each sealer was recorded, and the data statistically analyzed. Roth 801 failed to set and was not tested. The file took 3.4±0.1, 4.8±0.3, 5.7±0.4, 4.5±0.2, and 10.6±1.0 seconds (mean±SD) to penetrate gutta-percha using chloroform, xylene, EndoSolv R, EndoSolv E, or no solvent, respectively, and was performed by one endodontic resident at one sitting. The time for penetration of gutta-percha with any solvent was significantly faster (p≤0.05) than for AH Plus or MetaSEAL.The time for AH Plus ranged from 23.1±1.0 to 81.5±4.5 seconds. The time for MetaSEAL ranged from 97.2±6.1 to >180 seconds. EndoSolv E was the most effective solvent for AH Plus. It took significantly more time to remove MetaSEAL than AH Plus, regardless of the solvent used. Our study indicated that the use of the proper endodontic solvent makes complete removal of a sealer much more effective during retreatment. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of three different endodontic sealers on the enterococcus faecalis and lactobacillus (in vitro

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    Maryam Ehsani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growth and proliferation of the remaining microorganisms within the root canals may destroy the surrounding tissue of the root and leads to periapical lesion. Consequently, the complete elimination of microorganisms from the root canal is an important goal of endodontic therapy. Endodontic sealers do not provide complete seal in root canal system, and micro spaces have always remained between the material and canal walls that lead to penetration of these spaces, so, an antibacterial activity is essential for sealers. The aim of the present study was the in vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the three endodontic sealers on two microorganisms. Methods: To study the effect of each sealer; AH26, MTA Fillapex and ADseal on Enterococcus Faecalis and Lactobacillus bacteria 10 samples were considered. In this experimental study, 60 plates were exposed to bacteria and 10 plates were considered for control group. Sealer antibacterial effect on bacterial growth was studied after 48 hours. Firstly, the freshly prepared sealers were poured inside the micro tube and diffused in the wall of the micro tube. Then solution of nutrient broth was poured into a micro tube and the determined volume of solution of bacterial suspension was added into a microtube and was kept 24 hours in the incubator to grow the bacteria. Then, it was poured in the plates of blood agar and cultured after 24 hours and then the colonies grown on the plates were counted in sufficient light. The data were analyzed with MANOVA statistical test and SPSS Version 18. Results: Most bacteria grew in the plates of ADseal sealer and MTA fillapex sealer with means of 5113.00CFU and 3077.00CFU respectively, while the lowest number of bacteria grew in the plates of AH26 sealer with a mean of 1345.15CFU. Conclusions: Most antibacterial activities of each enterococcus faecalis and lactobacillus bacteria sample was for AH26 sealer and MTA fillapex sealer. The lowest

  8. Cytotoxicity evaluation of a copaiba oil-based root canal sealer compared to three commonly used sealers in endodontics.

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    Garrido, Angela Delfina Bittencourt; de Cara, Sueli Patricia Harumi Miyagi; Marques, Marcia Martins; Sponchiado, Emílio Carlos; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; de Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2015-01-01

    The constant development of new root canal sealers has allowed the solution of a large number of clinical cases in endodontics, however, cytotoxicity of such sealers must be tested before their validation as filling materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of a new Copaiba oil-based root canal sealer (Biosealer [BS]) on osteoblast-like Osteo-1 cells. The experimental groups were formed according to the culture medium conditioned with the tested sealers, as follows: Control group (CG) (culture medium without conditioning); Sealer 26 (S26) - culture medium + S26; Endofill (EF) - culture medium + EF; AH Plus (AHP) - culture medium + AHP; and BS - culture medium + BS (Copaiba oil-based sealer). The conditioned culture medium was placed in contact with 2 × 10(4) cells cultivated on 60 mm diameter Petri dishes for 24 h. Then, hemocytometer count was performed to evaluate cellular viability, using Trypan Blue assay. The normal distribution of data was tested by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the values obtained for cellular viability were statistically analyzed (1-way ANOVA, Tukey's test - P 0.05). The Copaiba oil-based root canal sealer presented promising results in terms of cytotoxicity which indicated its usefulness as a root canal sealer.

  9. Cytotoxicity evaluation of a copaiba oil-based root canal sealer compared to three commonly used sealers in endodontics

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    Angela Delfina Bittencourt Garrido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The constant development of new root canal sealers has allowed the solution of a large number of clinical cases in endodontics, however, cytotoxicity of such sealers must be tested before their validation as filling materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of a new Copaiba oil-based root canal sealer (Biosealer [BS] on osteoblast-like Osteo-1 cells. Materials and Methods: The experimental groups were formed according to the culture medium conditioned with the tested sealers, as follows: Control group (CG (culture medium without conditioning; Sealer 26 (S26 - culture medium + S26; Endofill (EF - culture medium + EF; AH Plus (AHP - culture medium + AHP; and BS - culture medium + BS (Copaiba oil-based sealer. The conditioned culture medium was placed in contact with 2 × 10 4 cells cultivated on 60 mm diameter Petri dishes for 24 h. Then, hemocytometer count was performed to evaluate cellular viability, using Trypan Blue assay. The normal distribution of data was tested by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the values obtained for cellular viability were statistically analyzed (1-way ANOVA, Tukey′s test - P 0.05. Conclusion: The Copaiba oil-based root canal sealer presented promising results in terms of cytotoxicity which indicated its usefulness as a root canal sealer.

  10. Cytotoxicity evaluation of a copaiba oil-based root canal sealer compared to three commonly used sealers in endodontics

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    Garrido, Angela Delfina Bittencourt; de Cara, Sueli Patricia Harumi Miyagi; Marques, Marcia Martins; Sponchiado, Emílio Carlos; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; de Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2015-01-01

    Background: The constant development of new root canal sealers has allowed the solution of a large number of clinical cases in endodontics, however, cytotoxicity of such sealers must be tested before their validation as filling materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of a new Copaiba oil-based root canal sealer (Biosealer [BS]) on osteoblast-like Osteo-1 cells. Materials and Methods: The experimental groups were formed according to the culture medium conditioned with the tested sealers, as follows: Control group (CG) (culture medium without conditioning); Sealer 26 (S26) - culture medium + S26; Endofill (EF) - culture medium + EF; AH Plus (AHP) - culture medium + AHP; and BS - culture medium + BS (Copaiba oil-based sealer). The conditioned culture medium was placed in contact with 2 × 104 cells cultivated on 60 mm diameter Petri dishes for 24 h. Then, hemocytometer count was performed to evaluate cellular viability, using Trypan Blue assay. The normal distribution of data was tested by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the values obtained for cellular viability were statistically analyzed (1-way ANOVA, Tukey's test - P 0.05). Conclusion: The Copaiba oil-based root canal sealer presented promising results in terms of cytotoxicity which indicated its usefulness as a root canal sealer. PMID:25878676

  11. Endodontic sealers: Intratubular penetration and permeability to Enterococcus faecalis

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    Bortolini Maria Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : Evaluate in vitro the intratubular penetration and permeability of endodontic sealers in teeth contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods : Human canines were filled with AHPlus ® , Endo CPM-sealer ® or EndoRez ® sealers. To evaluate permeability, the coronary portion of each tooth was contaminated with E. faecalis, then the apical portion was immersed in brain heart infusion (BHI broth, and medium turbidity was observed for thirty days. Scanning electron microscope (SEM was used to evaluate the intratubular penetration of each sealer at the cervical, middle, and apical thirds of the tooth. Results : Only one tooth from the Endo CPM-sealer ® group presented broth contamination. EndoRez ® showed increased intratubular penetration compared to AHPlus ® and Endo CPM-sealer ® . Conclusions : Endo CPM-sealer ® showed greater permeability to E. faecalis and EndoRez ® showed increased intratubular penetration.

  12. Antimicrobial action of calcium hydroxide-based endodontic sealers after setting, against E. faecalis biofilm.

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    Rezende, Gabriely Cristinni; Massunari, Loiane; Queiroz, India Olinta de Azevedo; Gomes Filho, João Eduardo; Jacinto, Rogério Castilho; Lodi, Carolina Simonetti; Dezan Junior, Elói

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis are gram positive bacteria that can mostly resist endodontic therapy, inducing persistent infection in the root canal system. Endodontic sealers with antimicrobial activity may help eliminate residual microorganisms that survive endodontic treatment. The present study aimed at comparing the antimicrobial activity of Acroseal, Sealapex and AH Plus endodontic sealers in an in vitro biofilm model. Bovine dentin specimens (144) were prepared, and twelve blocks for each sealer and each experimental time point (2, 7 and 14 days) were placed and left in contact with plates containing inoculum of E. faecalis (ATCC 51299), to induce biofilm formation. After 14 days, the samples were transferred to another plate with test sealers and kept at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 2, 7 and 14 days. The specimens without sealers were used as a control for each period. The samples were agitated in a sonicator after each experiment. The suspensions were agitated in a vortex mixer, serially diluted in saline, and triple plated onto m-Enterococcus agar. Colonyforming units were counted, and the data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA, Shapiro-Wilk and Kruskal-Wallis one-way tests (p biofilm. Sealapex showed the highest antimicrobial activity in all the experimental periods. The antimicrobial activity of all the sealers analyzed increased over time.

  13. Rapid kill-novel endodontic sealer and Enterococcus faecalis.

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    Nurit Beyth

    Full Text Available With growing concern over bacterial resistance, the identification of new antimicrobial means is paramount. In the oral cavity microorganisms are essential to the development of periradicular diseases and are the major causative factors associated with endodontic treatment failure. As quaternary ammonium compounds have the ability to kill a wide array of bacteria through electrostatic interactions with multiple anionic targets on the bacterial surface, it is likely that they can overcome bacterial resistance. Melding these ideas, we investigated the potency of a novel endodontic sealer in limiting Enterococcus faecalis growth. We used a polyethyleneimine scaffold to synthesize nano-sized particles, optimized for incorporation into an epoxy-based endodontic sealer. The novel endodontic sealer was tested for its antimicrobial efficacy and evaluated for biocompatibility and physical eligibility. Our results show that the novel sealer foundation affixes the nanoparticles, achieving surface bactericidal properties, but at the same time impeding nanoparticle penetration into eukaryotic cells and thereby mitigating a possible toxic effect. Moreover, adequate physical properties are maintained. The nanosized quaternary amine particles interact within minutes with bacteria, triggering cell death across wide pH values. Throughout this study we demonstrate a new antibacterial perspective for endodontic sealers; a novel antibacterial, effective and safe antimicrobial means.

  14. Antimicrobial action of calcium hydroxide-based endodontic sealers after setting, against E. faecalis biofilm

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    Gabriely Cristinni REZENDE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enterococcus faecalis are gram positive bacteria that can mostly resist endodontic therapy, inducing persistent infection in the root canal system. Endodontic sealers with antimicrobial activity may help eliminate residual microorganisms that survive endodontic treatment. The present study aimed at comparing the antimicrobial activity of Acroseal, Sealapex and AH Plus endodontic sealers in an in vitro biofilm model. Bovine dentin specimens (144 were prepared, and twelve blocks for each sealer and each experimental time point (2, 7 and 14 days were placed and left in contact with plates containing inoculum of E. faecalis (ATCC 51299, to induce biofilm formation. After 14 days, the samples were transferred to another plate with test sealers and kept at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 2, 7 and 14 days. The specimens without sealers were used as a control for each period. The samples were agitated in a sonicator after each experiment. The suspensions were agitated in a vortex mixer, serially diluted in saline, and triple plated onto m-Enterococcus agar. Colonyforming units were counted, and the data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA, Shapiro-Wilk and Kruskal-Wallis one-way tests (p < 0.05 to determine antimicrobial potential. Sealapex showed significant differences at all the experimental time points, in comparison with all the other groups. AH Plus and Acroseal showed antimicrobial activity only on the 14th experimental day. Neither of the sealers tested were able to completely eliminate the biofilm. Sealapex showed the highest antimicrobial activity in all the experimental periods. The antimicrobial activity of all the sealers analyzed increased over time.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of different endodontic sealers: An in vitro evaluation

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    Saha S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbes are considered as the primary etiological agents in endodontic diseases. The ways of reducing these agents are root canal debridement, antimicrobial irrigants, and antibacterial filling materials. But the complexity of the pulp canal system presents a problem for chemomechanical preparation. One of the factors determining the success of endodontic treatment is the sealing material with a potent bactericidal effect. Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of endodontic sealers of different bases - in vitro. Materials and Method: The antimicrobial activity of three root canal sealers (endomethasone, AH 26, and apexit was evaluated against seven strains of bacteria at various time intervals using the agar diffusion test. The freshly mixed sealers were placed in prepared wells of agar plates inoculated with the test microorganisms. The plates were incubated for 24, 48, 72 hours, and 7 and 15 days. The mean zones of inhibition were measured. Statistical Analysis: All statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 13 statistical software version. The analysis of variance (ANOVA, post-hoc Bonferroni test, and paired t test were performed to reveal the statistical significance. Results: Statistically significant zones of bacterial growth inhibition were observed in descending order of antimicrobial activity: endomethasone, AH 26, and apexit. Conclusion: Zinc oxide eugenol based root canal sealer produced largest inhibitory zones followed in decreasing order by epoxy resin based sealer and least by calcium hydroxide based root canal sealer.

  16. In Vitro Biocompatibility of Endodontic Sealers Incorporating Antibacterial Nanoparticles

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    Itzhak Abramovitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main cause of endodontic disease is bacteria. Disinfection is presently achieved by cleaning the root canal system prior to obturation. Following setting, root canal filling is devoid of any antibacterial effect. Endodontic sealers with antimicrobial properties yet biocompatible may enhance root canal therapy. For this purpose, quaternized polyethylenimine nanoparticles which are antibacterial polymers, biocompatible, nonvolatile, and stable may be used. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of added QPEI on the cytotoxicity of AH Plus, Epiphany, and GuttaFlow endodontic sealers. The effect of these sealers on the proliferation of RAW 264.7 macrophage and L-929 fibroblast cell lines and on the production of TNFα from macrophages was examined. Cell vitality was evaluated using a colorimetric XTT assay. The presence of cytokines was determined by two-site ELISA. Results show that QPEI at 1% concentration does not impair the basic properties of the examined sealers in both macrophages and fibroblast cell lines. Incorporation of 1% QPEI into the sealers did not impair their biocompatibility. QPEI is a potential clinical candidate to improve antibacterial activity of sealers without increasing cytotoxicity.

  17. Dissolution of a mineral trioxide aggregate sealer in endodontic solvents compared to conventional sealers

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    Hanan ALZRAIKAT

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the solubility of a Mineral Trioxide Aggregate sealer (MTA-Fillapex compared with five other sealers, calcium hydroxide (Sealapex, resin (Realseal, zinc oxide-eugenol (Tubli-Seal, and two epoxy resins (AH-26 and AH-Plus, in chloroform and eucalyptoil in static and ultrasonic environments. Samples of each sealer were prepared (n = 180 and then divided into 12 groups that were immersed in solvents for 5 and 10 min in static and ultrasonic environments. The mean weight loss was determined, and the values were compared using Student’s t-test, One-way ANOVA, and Tukey’s HSD post-hoc test (p 0.05. In conclusion, MTA-Fillapex was not sufficiently dissolved in either solvent. Ultrasonic activation had limited effectiveness on MTA-Fillapex dissolution, whereas it significantly increased the efficiency of solvents in dissolving a number of endodontic sealers.

  18. In vitro cytotoxicity of calcium silicate-containing endodontic sealers.

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    Zhou, Hui-min; Du, Tian-feng; Shen, Ya; Wang, Zhe-jun; Zheng, Yu-feng; Haapasalo, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of 2 novel calcium silicate-containing endodontic sealers to human gingival fibroblasts was studied. EndoSequence BC (Brasseler, Savannah, GA), MTA Fillapex (Angelus Indústria de Produtos Odontológicos S/A, Londrina, PR, Brazil) and a control sealer (AH Plus; Dentsply DeTrey GmbH, Konstanz, Germany) were evaluated. Human gingival fibroblasts were incubated for 3 days both with the extracts from fresh and set materials in culture medium and cultured on the surface of the set materials in Dulbecco-modified Eagle medium. Fibroblasts cultured in Dulbecco-modified Eagle medium were used as a control group. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by flow cytometry, and the adhesion of the fibroblasts to the surface of the set materials was assessed using scanning electron microscopy. The data of cell cytotoxicity were analyzed statistically using a 1-way analysis of variance test at a significance level of P extracts from BC Sealer showed higher viabilities at all extract concentrations than cells incubated with extracts from freshly mixed AH Plus and fresh and set MTA Fillapex, esspecially for the high extract concentrations (1:2 and 1:8 dilutions). Extracts from set MTA Fillapex of 2 weeks and older were more cytotoxic than extracts from freshly mixed and 1-week-old cement. With extract concentrations of 1:32 and lower, MTA Fillapex was no longer cytotoxic. After setting, AH Plus was no longer cytotoxic, and the fibroblast cells grew on set AH Plus equally as well as on BC Sealer. BC Sealer and MTA Fillapex, the 2 calcium silicate-containing endodontic sealers, exhibited different cytotoxicity to human gingival fibroblasts. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel bioactive root canal sealer to inhibit endodontic multispecies biofilms with remineralizing calcium phosphate ions.

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    Wang, Lin; Xie, Xianju; Li, Chunyan; Liu, Huaibing; Zhang, Ke; Zhou, Yanmin; Chang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Hockin H K

    2017-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a bioactive endodontic sealer via dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM), 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) for the first time; and (2) evaluate inhibition of early-stage and mature multispecies endodontic biofilm, bond strength to root canal dentine, and calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) ion release. A series of bioactive endodontic sealers were formulated with DMAHDM, MPC, and NACP. Root dentine bond strength was measured via a push-out test. Three endodontic strains, Enterococcus faecalis, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Fusobacterium nucleatum, were grown on endodontic sealer disks to form multispecies biofilms. Biofilms were grown for 3 days (early) and 14 days (mature). Colony-forming units (CFU), live/dead assay, metabolic activity and polysaccharide were determined. Ca and P ion release from endodontic sealer was measured. Incorporating DMAHDM, MPC and NACP did not decrease the push-out bond strength (p>0.1). Adding DMAHDM and MPC reduced endodontic biofilm CFU by 3 log. DMAHDM or MPC each greatly decreased the biofilm CFU (pEndodontic sealer with DMAHDM+MPC had much greater killing efficacy than DMAHDM or MPC alone (pEndodontic sealer with DMAHDM+MPC had slightly lower, but not significantly lower, Ca and P ion release compared to that without DMAHDM+MPC (p>0.1). A novel bioactive endodontic sealer was developed with potent inhibition of multispecies endodontic biofilms, reducing biofilm CFU by 3 log, while containing NACP for remineralization and possessing good bond strength to root canal dentine walls. The new bioactive endodontic sealer is promising for endodontic applications to eradicate endodontic biofilms and strengthen root structures. The combination of DMAHDM, MPC and NACP may be applicable to other preventive and restoration resins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiopacity measurements of three endodontic sealers using digital x-rays

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    Chisnoiu, R.; Moldovan, M.; Pǎstrav, O.; Delean, A.; Prodan, D.; Boboia, S.; Prejmerean, V.; Chisnoiu, A.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to assess the radiopacity of three endodontic sealers: a self-curing epoxy resin - AH Plus, a dual cure urethane dimethacrylate resin - RealSeal and a new dual cure endodontic hydroxyapatite based filling material developed in collaboration with "Raluca Ripan" Institute for Research in Chemistry from Cluj-Napoca. Material and methods: Five specimens, 10 mm diameter and 1 mm thickness, were digital x-rayed simultaneously with an aluminum step-wedge, varying from 1 to 12 mm thickness, according to ISO 6876:2012 standards. The radiopacity was determined by digital processing of the images, using specially designed software. Four different areas were selected for each specimen, according to quadrants of the sealer disks. Statistical analysis using ANOVA test was performed. Results: AH Plus sealer showed the highest radiopacity, the differences being statistically significant comparing to the others two tested sealers (p0.05). Conclusions: All tested materials were above the minimum radiopacity level recommended by the ISO 6876:2012. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by: the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research, National Project PN-II-PT-PCCA-2011-3.2-1275, no: 165/2012.

  1. Antimicrobial activity and pH of a endodontic sealer containing MTA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maliza, Amanda GA; de Andrade, Flaviana Bombarda; Arias, Marcela C

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity, calcium release, and pH of a new mineral trioxide aggregate endodontic sealer when compared to endodontic sealers containing calcium hydroxide and/or epoxy resin. Method: Specimens were fabricated from MTA Fillapex, Sealer 26, Sealapex, and AH...... Plus immediately, 24 or 48 hours prior to the tests. The antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans was evaluated by the direct contact and the agar diffusion methods. Calcium release was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The pH from solutions containing...... in solution with an alkaline pH. Conclusion: The new mineral trioxide aggregate endodontic sealer presented higher antimicrobial activity when compared to the sealers containing calcium hydroxide and/or epoxy resin. As for pH and calcium release, the sealers containing calcium hydroxide resulted in presented...

  2. Physicochemical properties of endodontic sealers of different bases

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    Gabriela Alexandra Marín-Bauza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the setting time (ST, flow (FL, radiopacity (RD, solubility (SB and dimensional change following setting (DC of different sealers (AH Plus®, Polifil, Apexit Plus®, Sealapex®, Endométhasone® and Endofill® according to American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA Specification 57. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five samples of each material were used for each test. For ST, cast rings were filled with sealers and tested with a Gilmore needle. For FL, the sealer was placed on a glass plate. After 180 s, another plate with 20 g and a load of 100 g were applied on the material, and the diameters of the discs formed were measured. In RD, circular molds were filled with the sealers, radiographed and analyzed using Digora software. For SB, circular molds were filled with the sealers, a nylon thread was placed inside the material and another glass plate was positioned on the set, pressed and stored at 37°C. Samples were weighed, placed in water, dried and reweighed. The water used for SB was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. For DC, circular molds were filled with the sealers, covered by glass plates and stored at 37°C. Samples were measured and stored in water for 30 days. After this period, they were dryed and measured again. RESULTS: Regarding ST, AH Plus®, Apexit® and Endofil® sealers are in accordance with ANSI/ADA standards. Endométhasone's manufacturer did not mention the ST; Polifil is an experimental sealer and Sealapex® did not set. Considering RD, SB and DC, all sealers were in accordance with ANSI/ADA. The spectrometric analysis showed that a significant amount of K+ and Zn2+ ions was released from Apexit Plus® and Endofill®, respectively. CONCLUSION: Except for DC, all other physicochemical properties of the tested sealers conformed to ANSI/ADA requirements.

  3. Retreatability of two endodontic sealers, EndoSequence BC Sealer and AH Plus: a micro-computed tomographic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltra, Enrique; Cox, Timothy C; LaCourse, Matthew R; Johnson, James D; Paranjpe, Avina

    2017-02-01

    Recently, bioceramic sealers like EndoSequence BC Sealer (BC Sealer) have been introduced and are being used in endodontic practice. However, this sealer has limited research related to its retreatability. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the retreatability of two sealers, BC Sealer as compared with AH Plus using micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) analysis. Fifty-six extracted human maxillary incisors were instrumented and randomly divided into 4 groups of 14 teeth: 1A, gutta-percha, AH Plus retreated with chloroform; 1B, gutta-percha, AH Plus retreated without chloroform; 2A, gutta-percha, EndoSequence BC Sealer retreated with chloroform; 2B, gutta-percha, EndoSequence BC Sealer retreated without chloroform. Micro-CT scans were taken before and after obturation and retreatment and analyzed for the volume of residual material. The specimens were longitudinally sectioned and digitized images were taken with the dental operating microscope. Data was analyzed using an ANOVA and a post-hoc Tukey test. Fisher exact tests were performed to analyze the ability to regain patency. There was significantly less residual root canal filling material in the AH Plus groups retreated with chloroform as compared to the others. The BC Sealer samples retreated with chloroform had better results than those retreated without chloroform. Furthermore, patency could be re-established in only 14% of teeth in the BC Sealer without chloroform group. The results of this study demonstrate that the BC Sealer group had significantly more residual filling material than the AH Plus group regardless of whether or not both sealers were retreated with chloroform.

  4. Biocompatibility of three new calcium silicate-based endodontic sealers on human periodontal ligament stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-González, M; García-Bernal, D; Oñate-Sánchez, R E; Ortolani-Seltenerich, P S; Lozano, A; Forner, L; Llena, C; Rodríguez-Lozano, F J

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the biocompatibility of three calcium silicate-based endodontic sealers, Bioroot BC Sealer (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses, France), Endoseal MTA (EndoSeal, Maruchi, Seoul, Korea) and Nano-ceramic Sealer (B&L Biotech, Fairfax, VA, USA) (NCS), on human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs). Human periodontal ligament stem cells were cultured in the presence of various endodontic sealer eluates for 24 h. Cell viability was determined using the MTT assay. Cell death and changes in phenotype induced by the set endodontic sealer eluates were evaluated through flow cytometry. Also, an in vitro scratch wound-healing model was used to determine their effects in cell migration. Finally, to assess cell morphology and attachment to the different sealers, hPDLSCs were directly seeded onto the material surfaces and analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). One-way analysis of variance (anova) followed by a Bonferroni post-test was performed (P endodontic sealers for clinical application. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Crown discoloration induced by endodontic sealers: spectrophotometric measurement of Commission International de I'Eclairage's L*, a*, b* chromatic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, K; Beltes, P; Lambrianidis, T; Kapagiannidis, D; Karagiannis, V

    2013-01-01

    Despite the improvement of endodontic materials, crown discoloration induced by root canal sealers remains a concerning clinical issue. The aim of this study is the measurement of the alterations in CIE L*, a*, b* chromatic parameters of tooth crowns after placement of commonly used and new-generation endodontic sealers in pulp chambers. Eighty intact, fully developed third mandibular molars were randomly assigned in five groups. Crowns were cross-sectioned from the root complex 1 mm below the cement-enamel junction. The internal axial walls of the pulp chambers were debrided and coated with endodontic sealers (Roth-811, AH-26, Guttaflow, Epiphany SE). The apical access was sealed with glass-ionomer cement. The control group was only debrided. Crowns were stored in individually marked vials in standard conditions (100% humidity, 37°C). The spectral reflectance lines were recorded with a UV-Vis spectrophotometer in the visual spectrum. The CIE L*a*b* parameters were obtained by a linked computer software before sealer placement (baseline), after one week, one, three, and six months, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed with two-way mixed ANOVA models. The level of statistical significance was set at p<0.05. With the exception of the control group, experimental groups presented varying chromatic alterations. Among all experimental groups, Roth-811 sealer induced the most severe alterations in CIE L*, a*, b* chromatic parameters, during all observation periods. After root canal obturation, the clinician should be aware of the presence of remaining root canal filling materials. Thorough debridement of the pulp chamber is essential for the prevention of sealer-induced discoloration.

  6. Effect of different endodontic sealers on push-out bond strength of fiber posts

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanadan, Kiana; Ashnagar, Sajjad; Omrani, Ladan Ranjbar; Mirzaee, Mansooreh

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing demand for fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts, their bonding to root canals is still subject to debate. Endodontic sealers may affect the bond strength between fiber posts and root canal dentin. Aim: To compare the effects of different sealers on fiber post bond strength. Methods: Sixty teeth were divided into 4 groups according to obturation method: GI, gutta-percha without any sealers; GII, gutta-percha and AH26 resin-based sealer; GIII, RealSeal point and RealSea...

  7. Novel endodontic sealers induce cell cytotoxicity and apoptosis in a dose-dependent behavior and favorable response in mice subcutaneous tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L A B; Azevedo, L U; Consolaro, A; Barnett, F; Xu, Y; Battaglino, R A; Cañadas, P S; de Oliveira, Katharina Morant Holanda; Silva, R A B

    2017-12-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility of two novel endodontic sealers: RealSeal XT1 and Sealapex Xpress on the subcutaneous connective tissue of mice. The cytotoxicity was assessed by cell viability using the MTT assay (one-way ANOVA), trypan blue test (Mann-Whitney) and cell apoptosis by flow cytometer. For the subcutaneous study, polyethylene tubes filled with the sealers were implanted in 70 BALB/c mice: 6 experimental groups (n = 10/group) and 2 control groups with empty tubes (n = 5/group). At the end of experimental periods (7, 21, and 63 days), the tissue was removed and histotechnically processed. Angioblastic proliferation and edema (Fisher's exact test) were evaluated, besides thickness measurement (μm) of the reactionary granulomatous tissue and neutrophil counts (Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post test; Mann-Whitney) (α = 0.05). MTT assay, trypan blue, and analysis of apoptotic cells showed a dose-dependent direct effect: the more diluted the sealer, the less cytotoxic. Regarding the angioblastic proliferation and edema, difference between the sealers at 7 and 63 days occurred (p endodontic sealers initially promoted perimaterial tissue reaction as a foreign body granuloma and thus stimulated favorable tissue responses. Both sealers showed a dose-dependent effect and promoted satisfactory subcutaneous tissue response; the sealer Sealapex Xpress was less cytotoxic and more biocompatible than RealSeal XT. The step of root canal filling during endodontic treatment is highly important for the preservation of the periapical tissue integrity. Subcutaneous reaction to endodontic sealers enables scientific basis for clinical use.

  8. Comparison of bond strength of different endodontic sealers to root dentin: An in vitro push-out test

    OpenAIRE

    G Vijaya Madhuri; Sujana Varri; Nagesh Bolla; Pragna Mandava; Lakshmi Swathi Akkala; Jaheer Shaik

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the bond strength of four different endodontic sealers to root dentin through push-out test design. Materials and Methods: Forty single-rooted teeth with completely formed apices were selected. Teeth were decoronated, and working length was determined. Instrumentation and irrigation were performed. The teeth were divided into four groups based upon the sealer used. Group 1: Bioceramic sealer (Endosequence), Group 2: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) based sealer (MTA Fill apex)...

  9. In vitro Study on Apical Sealing Ability of Nano-Hydroxyapatite-Filled Epoxy Resin Based Endodontic Sealer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masudi, S. M.; Luddin, N.; Mohamad, D.; Alkashakhshir, J. J.; Adnan, R.; Ramli, R. A.

    2010-03-01

    The objectives of this in vitro study were to evaluate the apical sealing ability of experimental nano hydroxyapatite (HA)-filled epoxy resin based endodontic sealer and to compare it with the commercial AH26 sealant. A total of 76 extracted human anterior teeth were instrumented using NiTi files and randomly divided into two groups of 33 teeth each and two control groups of 5 teeth each. The first group was obturated using gutta-percha with AH26 sealer. The second group was obturated with the nano HA-filled epoxy resin based sealer. All teeth were coated with nail polish except 2 mm from foramen apical and then suspended in 2% methylene blue for 7 days. All teeth were sectioned longitudinally for measuring penetration of the dye using stereo-microscope (x36). The result showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in apical sealing ability between AH26 silver-free sealer and nano HA sealer.

  10. In vitro analysis of the cytotoxicity and the antimicrobial effect of four endodontic sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willershausen Ines

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the cytotoxicity and antibacterial properties of four different endodontic sealers using human periodontal ligament fibroblast cell proliferation and visual analysis of growth inhibition. Methods A silicone (GuttaFlow, silicate (EndoSequence BC, zinc oxide eugenol (Pulp Canal Sealer EWT and epoxy resin (AH Plus Jet based sealer were incubated with PDL fibroblasts (104 cells/ml, n = 6 up to 96 h. Cell proliferation (RFU was determined by means of the Alamar Blue assay. Cell growth and morphology was visualized by means of fluorescent dyes. Possible antibacterial properties of the different sealers were visualized by means of SEM (Enterococcus faecalis; Parvimonas micra. Results Fibroblast proliferation depended on sealer and cultivation time. After 72 and 96 h GuttaFlow and EndoSequence BC showed relatively non-cytotoxic reactions, while Pulp Canal Sealer EWT and AH Plus Jet caused a significant decrease of cell proliferation (p P. micra was found, whereas GuttaFlow showed a weak, Pulp Canal Sealer EWT and AH Plus Jet extensive growth inhibition. Also, no antibacterial effect of GuttaFlow, EndoSequence BC or AH Plus Jet to E. faecalis could be detected. Conclusions These in vitro findings reveal that GuttaFlow and EndoSequence BC can be considered as biocompatible sealing materials. However, prior to their clinical employment, studies regarding their sealing properties also need to be considered.

  11. A new in vitro method to evaluate radio-opacity of endodontic sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, V B; Hochscheidt, G L; Larentis, N L; Grecca, F S; Fontanella, V R C; Kopper, P M P

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate a new method for assessing the radio-opacity of endodontic sealers and to compare radio-opacity values with a well-established standard method. The sealers evaluated in this study were AH Plus(®) (Dentsply DeTrey GmbH, Konstanz, Germany), Endo CPM Sealer (EGEO SRL, Buenos Aires, Argentina) and MTA Fillapex(®) (Angelus Dental Products Industry S/A, Londrina, Parana, Brazil). Two methods were used to evaluate radio-opacity: (D) standard discs and (S) a tissue simulator. For (D), ten standard discs were prepared for each sealer and were radiographed using Digora(®) phosphor storage plates (Soredex; Orion Corporation, Helsinki, Finland), alongside an aluminium stepwedge. For (S), polyethylene tubes filled with sealer (n = 10 for each) were radiographed inside the simulator as described. The digital images were analysed using Adobe Photoshop(®) software v. 10.0 (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA). To compare the radio-opacity among the sealers, the data were analysed by ANOVA and Tukey's test, and to compare methods, they were analysed by the Mann-Whitney U test. To compare the data obtained from dentin and sealers in method (S), Student's paired t-test was used (=0.05). In both methods, the sealers showed significant differences, according to the following decreasing order: AH Plus, MTA Fillapex and Endo CPM. In (D), MTA Fillapex and Endo CPM showed less radio-opacity than aluminium. For all of the materials, the radio-opacity was higher in (S) than in (D). Compared with dentin, all of the materials were more radio-opaque. The comparison of the two assessment methods for sealer radio-opacity testing validated the use of a tissue simulator block.

  12. Effect of endodontic sealers on push-out bond strength of cemented fiber posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dwairi, Ziad Nawaf; Aleisa, Khalil; Lynch, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of eugenol-based and resin-based endodontic sealers on the push-out bond strengths of prefabricated fiber posts luted with different resin cements. Ninety prefabricated fiber posts were luted into extracted singlerooted teeth with one of three resin cements (Variolink II, ParaCore, or Rely X Unicem). Each group was subdivided into three groups with 10 teeth each. The first two groups were obturated with gutta percha and one of two eugenol-based endodontic sealers (Endofil or TubliSeal) each. The third group was obturated with gutta percha and (AH26) resin-based root canal sealer. Push-out tests were performed in a universal testing machine by applying a load speed at 0.5 mm/min by using a 1-mm-diameter metallic plunger which induced a load in an apical to coronal direction. The maximum value for post dislodgement (in Newtons) was recorded. Data were collected and statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison tests (α = .05). The highest mean bond strength values were recorded for the AH26 sealer group (non-eugenol sealer) luted with Rely X Unicem resin cement (mean ± SD = 326.1 ± 66.1 N), while the lowest mean bond strength values were observed with posts luted with Variolink II resin cement into canals obturated with gutta-percha and Endofil (eugenol-based) sealer (90.3 ± 25.2 N). There was no significant difference between the means of push-out strengths for the Endofil and TubliSeal groups (P = .745). Eugenol-based sealers (Endofil and TubliSeal) significantly reduced the push-out bond strength of prefabricated fiber posts luted with resin cement.

  13. In vitro evaluation of the effect of different endodontic sealers on retentive strength of fiber posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlEisa, K; Al-Dwairi, Z N; Lynch, E; Lynch, C D

    2013-01-01

    There is limited information in the literature regarding the effect of different endodontic sealers on the bond strength of fiber posts luted with core buildup materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different root canal sealers on the retentive strength of prefabricated fiber posts luted with a composite resin cement. Fifty-four extracted single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were prepared and randomly divided into three groups. The first two groups were obturated with gutta-percha and one of two eugenol-based root canal sealers (Endofil, Tubli-Seal). The third group (control) was obturated with gutta-percha and a resin-based root canal sealer (AH26). Prefabricated fiber posts were luted into the prepared post spaces with a composite resin cement (Multicore Flow). The pullout forces required for dislodgment of posts from their prepared post spaces were recorded. Data were collected and statistically analyzed. The AH26 group had significantly greater retentive strengths for the posts when compared with the Endofil and Tubli-Seal (eugenol-based sealers) groups (pfiber posts luted with a resin cement. Eugenol-based sealers significantly reduced the bond strength of prefabricated fiber posts luted with resin cement.

  14. Can the cure time of endodontic sealers affect bond strength to root dentin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Gabriela Campos; Veríssimo, Crisnicaw; Raposo, Luís Henrique Araújo; Santos-Filho, Paulo César Freitas; Mota, Adérito Soares da; Soares, Carlos José

    2013-01-01

    The cure time of endodontic sealers may influence the bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin. Forty teeth were selected and endodontically filled using calcium hydroxide cement and then divided into 2 groups according to the time elapsed between endodontic filling and post luting (n = 20): Immediately - glass fiber post luting immediately after endodontic filling; and Delayed - post luting performed 7 days after endodontic filling. The roots were also subdivided according to resin cement used for post luting (RelyX ARC and RelyX Unicem). The specimens were stored at 37°C for 24 h and sectioned in six 1-mm-thick slices from cervical, middle and apical thirds. The slice specimens were submitted to a push-out test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min, and the bond strength values obtained (MPa) were submitted to two-way ANOVA in a split-plot arrangement and Tukey's test (α=0.05). For both RelyX ARC and Unicem, the bond strength was significantly higher when the posts were cemented 7 days after the endodontic treatment. RelyX Unicem showed significantly higher bond strength values than RelyX ARC for both cementation periods. It was concluded that post luting should be made after the complete setting of the root canal sealer. Self-adhesive resin cement should be preferred for fiber post luting.

  15. Evaluation of efficacy of combinations of five endodontic sealers with five antibiotics against Enterococcus Faecalis - An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Grover, Rohit; Pinnameneni, Prasanth Sai; Dey, Subhra; Raju, P Ramakrishnam

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate and compare in vitro the antibacterial efficacy of five antibiotics when added individually to five endodontic sealers against Enterococcus faecalis (EF). This controlled trial with systematic allocation method was carried out to detect the combined antibacterial activity of five endodontic sealers (Kerr sealer EWT, Endomethasone, AH26, AH Plus, Roekoseal) with five antibiotics regularly used (Amoxicillin, metronidazole, azithromyacin, gatifloxacin, doxycycline) on EF. For each sealerantibiotic combinations, thirty BHI agar plates (15 aerobic and 15 anaerobic) were inoculated with EF, containing five sterile paper discs- three of various sealer- antibiotic combinations, one of sealer alone (positive control) & plain disc as negative control were incubated at 370C for 48 hrs and the zone of inhibition was measured. Data analysis was done by ANOVA and Tukey's post- hoc test using SPSS( version 17). The findings of this study revealed that sealer-antibiotic combination containing amoxicillin had the significant difference (pendodontic sealers enhances their antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis. How to cite the article: Sharma D, Grover R, Pinnameneni PS, Dey S, Raju PR. Evaluation of efficacy of combinations of five endodontic sealers with five antibiotics against Enterococcus Faecalis - An in-vitro study. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):90-5.

  16. Comparison of the Degree of Conversion of Resin Based Endodontic Sealers Using the DSC Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotti, Elisabetta; Scungio, Paola; Dettori, Claudia; Ennas, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the degree of conversion (DC) of three resin based endodontic sealers using the DSC technique. Methods: The sealers tested were: EndoREZ (ER) (Ultradent, South Jordan, UT); EndoREZ with Accelerator (ER+A) (Ultradent, South Jordan, UT); RealSeal (RS) (SybronEndo, Orange, CA). Two LED units were used to activate the sealers: UltraLume LED 5 (Ultradent, South Jordan, UT, USA); Mini LED Satelec (Satelec Acteon Group, Mérignac Cedex, France). Samples of 4.0 mg were analyzed with a DSC 7 calorimeter (Perkin Elmer Inc., Wellesley, MA, US). Each specimen was irradiated by each lamp four times for 20 seconds at an interval of 2 mins, while the DSC 7 recorded the heat flow developed during the treatment. The degree of conversion and the kinetic curves were calculated from the values of heat developed during each polymerization. The data were statistically analysed with a Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA multiple range and Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) tests at a P value of .05. Results: Statistically significant differences were found in the degree of conversion among the sealers: ER+A showed the highest values with both lamps. Conclusions: The higher polymerization rate in resin sealers is obtained with the addition of a catalyst. PMID:21494378

  17. Osteogenic and Angiogenic Response to Calcium Silicate-based Endodontic Sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fábio; Sousa Gomes, Pedro; Fernandes, Maria Helena

    2016-01-01

    Calcium silicate-based endodontic sealers are reported to favor the regeneration of periradicular tissues, a process requiring concerted osteogenic and angiogenic events. This study compared 4 calcium silicate-based sealers for the effects of their extracts on osteogenic and angiogenic cell behavior. Extracts from ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK), MTA Plus (Prevest Denpro Limited, Jammu City, India), MTA Fillapex (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brazil), and Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses, France) were prepared from freshly mixed sealers (0.1 g/cm(2)/mL extraction medium) and diluted (1:2-1:20). The sealers were compared for the dose- and time-dependent effects on the proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). An ex vivo osteogenic assay (regeneration of neonatal mice parietal bone defects) and an in vivo angiogenesis assay (chorioallantoic membrane assay) were performed. Diluted extracts from MTA ProRoot and MTA Plus had evident stimulatory effects on the proliferation of hMSCs, alkaline phosphatase activity, and ex vivo regeneration of bone defects. They also increased HUVEC growth; allowed normal tubularlike network organization; and, in vivo, did not affect angiogenesis. Comparatively, Biodentine also elicited a favorable response on hMSCs and HUVECs, but the overall osteogenic and angiogenic outcome was slightly lower. MTA Fillapex exhibited the highest toxicity in hMSCs and HUVECs and, unlike the other sealers, only allowed a partial regeneration of bone defects. The sealers caused dose- and time-dependent effects on the osteoblastic and endothelial response, eliciting similar cytocompatibility profiles. Results suggest that the induction of both osteogenic and angiogenic events may contribute to the sealers' regenerative outcome. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of Apical Micro-leakage of Different Endodontic Sealers in the Presence and Absence of Moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ehsani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. With availability of hydrophilic sealers, drying of the canals before endodontic obturation is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to compare the apical micro-leakage of AH26, Excite DSC, MTA Fillapex, and ZOE sealers in dry and moist root canals. Materials and methods. This experimental study was performed on 90 extracted maxillary central incisors. Rotary files were used for preparation of the canals. Root canals were filled with a single gutta percha cone, using one of the four seal-ers, under dry and moist root canal conditions (10 teeth in each group. Orifices were sealed with glue wax and all root sur-faces were covered with nail polish except the positive control group. After ten days in 100% humidity, teeth were placed in methylene blue, and then were cut in longitudinal axis. Blue color permeability was measured by stereomicroscope in mi-crometers. Data were analyzed by t-test, ANOVA and Scheffe post hoc test using SPSS V.18 software at P 0.05. Apical micro-leakage was significantly higher in the Excite DSC groups (P < 0.001. Conclusion. AH26 provided the least apical micro-leakage under dry conditions while ZOE had the highest micro-leakage under moist conditions. MTA Fillapex provided acceptable apical seal regardless of moisture.

  19. Push-out bond strength of a self-adhesive resin cement used as endodontic sealer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Diogo Gurgel-Filho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the bond strength of RelyX Unicem (3M to root canal dentin when used as an endodontic sealer. Materials and Methods Samples of 24 single-rooted teeth were prepared with Gates Glidden drills and K3 files. After that, the roots were randomly assigned to three experimental groups (n = 8 according to the filling material, (1 AH Plus (Dentsply De Trey GmbH/Gutta-Percha cone; (2 Epiphany SE (Pentron/Resilon cone; (3 RelyX Unicem/Gutta-Percha cone. All roots were filled using a single cone technique associated to vertical condensation. After the filling procedures, each tooth was prepared for a push-out bond strenght test by cutting 1 mm-thick root slices. Loading was performed on a universal testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey test for multiple comparisons were used to compare the results among the experimental groups. Results Epiphany SE/Resilon showed significantly lower push-out bond strength than both AH Plus/Gutta-Percha and RelyX Unicem/Gutta-Percha (p 0.05. Conclusions Under the present in vitro conditions, bond strength to root dentin promoted by RelyX Unicem was similar to AH Plus. Epiphany SE/Resilon resulted in lower bond strength values when compared to both materials.

  20. Push-out bond strength of a self-adhesive resin cement used as endodontic sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel-Filho, Eduardo Diogo; Lima, Felipe Coelho; Saboia, Vicente de Paula Aragão; Coutinho-Filho, Tauby de Souza; Neves, Aline de Almeida; da Silva, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the bond strength of RelyX Unicem (3M) to root canal dentin when used as an endodontic sealer. Samples of 24 single-rooted teeth were prepared with Gates Glidden drills and K3 files. After that, the roots were randomly assigned to three experimental groups (n = 8) according to the filling material, (1) AH Plus (Dentsply De Trey GmbH)/Gutta-Percha cone; (2) Epiphany SE (Pentron)/Resilon cone; (3) RelyX Unicem/Gutta-Percha cone. All roots were filled using a single cone technique associated to vertical condensation. After the filling procedures, each tooth was prepared for a push-out bond strenght test by cutting 1 mm-thick root slices. Loading was performed on a universal testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey test for multiple comparisons were used to compare the results among the experimental groups. Epiphany SE/Resilon showed significantly lower push-out bond strength than both AH Plus/Gutta-Percha and RelyX Unicem/Gutta-Percha (p 0.05). Under the present in vitro conditions, bond strength to root dentin promoted by RelyX Unicem was similar to AH Plus. Epiphany SE/Resilon resulted in lower bond strength values when compared to both materials.

  1. Comparison of bond strength of different endodontic sealers to root dentin: An in vitro push-out test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhuri, G Vijaya; Varri, Sujana; Bolla, Nagesh; Mandava, Pragna; Akkala, Lakshmi Swathi; Shaik, Jaheer

    2016-01-01

    To compare the bond strength of four different endodontic sealers to root dentin through push-out test design. Forty single-rooted teeth with completely formed apices were selected. Teeth were decoronated, and working length was determined. Instrumentation and irrigation were performed. The teeth were divided into four groups based upon the sealer used. Group 1: Bioceramic sealer (Endosequence), Group 2: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) based sealer (MTA Fill apex), Group 3: Epoxy resin based sealer (MM-Seal), and Group 4: Dual cure resin-based sealer (Hybrid Root Seal). Manipulation and application of the sealer was done as per the manufacturer instructions. All the teeth were obturated using 6% gutta-percha. After obturation, each tooth was prepared for push-out test with root slices of 2 mm thickness using universal testing machine. The highest bond strength was found in Group 1 (Endosequence) (P post hoc. The push-out bond strength of Bioceramic sealer was highest followed by resin-based sealer and lowest bond strength was observed in MTA-based sealer.

  2. Effect of different endodontic sealers and time of cementation on push-out bond strength of fiber posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas-Boas, Danielle Araújo; Grazziotin-Soares, Renata; Ardenghi, Diego Machado; Bauer, José; de Souza, Patrícia Oliveira; de Miranda Candeiro, George Táccio; Maia-Filho, Etevaldo Matos; Carvalho, Ceci Nunes

    2017-10-11

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of different endodontic sealers (epoxy resin, eugenol, and bioceramic/calcium silicate-based) and the time of cementation (immediately or 7 days after canal obturation) on the bond strength of a fiberglass post cemented with RelyX™ ARC. Eighty-four premolars were instrumented and divided into groups (n = 12) according to the sealer and the time of post cementation: Endofill (EN), Endosequence BC Sealer (BC), and AH Plus (AH) had immediately fiber post cementation; EN7, BC7, and AH7 had post cementation after 7 days; and control group (C) had fiber post cementation without endodontic sealer. Each post space of the root was cut into slices and submitted to push-out test. Failure mode was assessed. Two-way ANOVA, Tukey's, and Dunnett's tests were used for statistical analysis (α = 5%). The type of endodontic sealer (p post cementation (p = 0.038), and the interaction sealer time (p = 0.002) had negative influence on bond strength of fiberglass posts cemented with RelyX™ ARC. AH promoted the highest bond strength mean values (21.20 MPa immediately and 15.54 MPa at 7 days). EN (9.75 MPa immediately and 13.15 MPa at 7 days) and BC (10.43 MPa immediately and 5.73 MPa at 7 days) had lower bond strength than AH, regardless the time of cementation. AH was the best sealer to obturate the root canal when fiberglass cementation with resin-based cement is planned. The correct choice of an endodontic sealer and the adequate time of post cementation may avoid post dislocation caused by low bond strength to dentin.

  3. Zinc oxide nano-particles as sealer in endodontics and its sealing ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Maryam; Zarei, Mina; Naghavi, Neda; Mortazavi, Majed; Nejat, Amir Hosein

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of new experimental nano-ZOE-based sealer. Three types of nano-ZOE-based sealer (calcined at different temperatures of 500, 600 and 700°C) with two other commercially available sealers (AH26 and micro-sized zinc oxide eugenol sealer) were used. Zinc oxide nano-particles were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method. The structure and morphology of the prepared powders were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The instrumented canals of 60 single-rooted teeth were divided into five groups (n = 10), with the remaining ten used as controls. The canals were filled with gutta-percha using one of the materials mentioned above as sealer. After 3, 45 and 90 days, the samples were connected to a fluid filtration system. The data were analyzed using Student's t-test. The XRD patterns and TEM images revealed that all the synthesized powders had hexagonal wurtzite structures with an average particle size of about 30-60 nm at different calcination temperatures. Microleakage in AH26 groups was significantly more than that in three groups of ZnO nano-particles at all the three evaluation intervals. Apical microleakage of ZnO micro-powders was significantly more than that of all the materials, but the sealing ability of ZnO nano-powder sealers did not differ significantly. The results of this study showed that the synthesized ZnO nano-powder sealers are suitable for use as a nano-sealer in root canal therapy to prevent leakage; however, further studies should be carried out to verify their safety.

  4. Apical Microleakage in Root Canals Obturated With 2 Different Endodontic Sealer Systems in Canine Teeth of Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lothamer, Chad W; Anderson, Ashley; Hetzel, Scott J; Adrian, Alex I; Snyder, Christopher; Goldschmidt, Stephanie; Soukup, Jason W

    2017-06-01

    An apical dye leakage test was utilized to compare 2 endodontic sealer systems commonly used in veterinary endodontic treatment. Rotary instrumentation followed by injection of 2 different sealers (GuttaFlow 2 and AH Plus) and a single master cone obturation technique were compared. Following obturation and restoration, specimens were immersed in India ink for 48 hours. A tooth mineral clearing technique was utilized to render the tooth samples transparent. Subsequently, the apices were evaluated for prevalence and magnitude of apical dye penetration under magnification. Statistical analysis of the results revealed no significant differences in the prevalence or magnitude of apical dye penetration between groups.

  5. In vitro analysis of the cement film thickness of two endodontic sealers in the apical region

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    Garcia Lucas da Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The objective of the present study was to evaluate in vitro film thickness of two endodontic sealers containing epoxy-resin and zinc-oxide-eugenol, respectively in the apical region of the root canal system. Materials and Methods : A total of 20 palatine roots of the first maxillary molars were submitted to instrumentation up to a #40 file by the step-back technique and irrigated with 2 ml of NaOCl after each change of file. The roots were divided at random into two groups of 10 elements; one group was sealed with the Sealer 26® cement and the other one with the EndoFill® cement using the classical technique. The roots were abraded in the apical region until exposure of the filling and cut crosswise at 3 mm to obtain samples. The samples were analyzed by optic microscopy with 40X magnification. The images obtained were recorded using the Adobe Premiere 5.1® software and submitted to morphometric analysis using an integration grid that permitted the quantification of the area filled with the sealer or gutta-percha, and eventual empty spaces. Results : Statistical analysis of the data (Kruskal-Wallis test, P < 0.05 revealed no significant differences between the epoxy-resin-based cement Sealer 26® (47.85% and the zinc- oxide- eugenol-based cement EndoFill® (54.16%. Conclusion : We conclude that the two sealers tested showed a similar behavior regarding the cement film thickness in the apical region.

  6. [Analysis of different endodontic sealers and strategies of root canal irrigation on the bond strength of fiber posts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shujin; Liu, Cuiling; Zheng, Zheng; Yang, Liyuan; Gao, Xu

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the influence of eugenol-containing and resin-containing endodontic sealers on the bond strength of fiber posts using different strategies of root canal irrigation. Forty-eight mandibular premolars were endodontically treated. The specimens were randomly assigned into two groups according to different endodontic sealers. Group A used Endofil (eugenol-containing endodontic sealer), and group B used AH-plus (resin-containing endodontic sealer). After post space preparation, each group was randomly assigned into three subgroups according to the strategies of root canal irrigation (eight premolars in each subgroup). Group Al and B1: 0.9%NaCl irrigation; Group A2 and B2: 17% ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)+5.25%NaClO+0.9%NaCl irrigation; Group A3 and B3: ultrasonic agitation associated with 1 7%EDTA+5.25%NaClO+0.9%NaCl. One week after the cementation of fiber posts using RelyX™ Unicem, a push-out test was performed to measure the bond strength of the posts. The microstructure of the root canal surface was examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The bond strengths of the six groups were as follows: Al (7.96±2.23) MPa, A2 (9.95±2.89) MPa, A3 (18.88±3.69) MPa, B1 (11.41±3.71) MPa, B2 (14.00±4.04) MPa, and B3 (19.14±3.27) MPa. Statistical analysis revealed a significant interaction between the different endodontic sealers and the strategies of root canal irrigation (P0.05). SEM showed that the root canal in group A3 and B3 achieved the cleanest surface with nearly all dentine tubules opened. The eugenol-containing endodontic sealer can impair the bond strength of fiber posts compared with the resin-containing sealer when the root canal is irrigated by 0.9% NaCl or 17%EDTA+5.25%NaClO+0.9%NaC. No difference was observed between the two sealers when using 17%EDTA+5.25% NaCIO+0.9%NaCl combined with ultrasonic irrigation.

  7. Bond strength of different endodontic sealers to dentin: push-out test

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    João Vicente Baroni Barbizam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strength of different root canal sealers to dentin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty extracted single-rooted human teeth were examined and the coronal and middle thirds of the canals were prepared with a 1.50 mm post drill (FibreKor Post System, Pentron. The teeth were allocated in two experimental groups, irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl+17% EDTA or saline solution (control group and instrumented using Race rotary files (FKG to a size #40 at the working length. Then, the groups were divided into four subgroups and filled with Epiphany sealer (Group 1, EndoREZ (Group 2, AH26 (Group 3 and Grossman's Sealer (Group 4. After 2 weeks of storage in 100% humidity at 37ºC, all teeth were sectioned transversally into 2-mm-thick discs. Push-out tests were performed at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min using a universal testing machine. The maximum load at failure was recorded and expressed in MPa. RESULTS: Means (±SD in root canals irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA were: G1 (21.6±6.0, G2 (15.2±3.7, G3 (14.6±4.5 and G4 (11.7±4.1.Two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test showed the highest bond strength for the Epiphany's group (p< 0.01 when compared to the other tested sealers. Saline solution decreased the values of bond-strength (p<0.05 for all sealers. CONCLUSION: Epiphany sealer presented higher bond strength values to dentin in both irrigating protocols, and the use of 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA increased the bond strength values for all sealers.

  8. Bond strength of different endodontic sealers to dentin: push-out test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbizam, João Vicente Baroni; Trope, Martin; Tanomaru-Filho, Mario; Teixeira, Erica Cappelletto Nogueira; Teixeira, Fabricio Batista

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strength of different root canal sealers to dentin. Forty extracted single-rooted human teeth were examined and the coronal and middle thirds of the canals were prepared with a 1.50 mm post drill (FibreKor Post System, Pentron). The teeth were allocated in two experimental groups, irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl+17% EDTA or saline solution (control group) and instrumented using Race rotary files (FKG) to a size #40 at the working length. Then, the groups were divided into four subgroups and filled with Epiphany sealer (Group 1), EndoREZ (Group 2), AH26 (Group 3) and Grossman's Sealer (Group 4). After 2 weeks of storage in 100% humidity at 37ºC, all teeth were sectioned transversally into 2-mm-thick discs. Push-out tests were performed at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min using a universal testing machine. The maximum load at failure was recorded and expressed in MPa. Means (±SD) in root canals irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA were: G1 (21.6±6.0), G2 (15.2±3.7), G3 (14.6±4.5) and G4 (11.7±4.1).Two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test showed the highest bond strength for the Epiphany's group (p< 0.01) when compared to the other tested sealers. Saline solution decreased the values of bond-strength (p<0.05) for all sealers. Epiphany sealer presented higher bond strength values to dentin in both irrigating protocols, and the use of 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA increased the bond strength values for all sealers.

  9. Influence of endodontic sealer cement on fibreglass post bond strength to root dentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, M S; Queiroz, E C; Campos, R E; Martins, L R M; Soares, C J

    2008-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that the composition of endodontic sealer cements and the time elapsed between root filling and fibreglass post fixation interferes with adhesion to root canal dentine. Sixty bovine incisor roots were divided into five groups (n = 12): CI, unfilled; SI, filled with a calcium hydroxide-based cement-Sealer 26, and immediate post fixation; S7, Sealer 26 and post fixation after 7 days; EI, filled with a zinc oxide and eugenol-based cement-Endofill and immediate fixation; and E7 Endofill and post fixation after 7 days. The posts were cemented with adhesive system and dual resin cement. Ten roots were cross-sectioned to obtain two 1-mm-thick discs for each cervical (TC), middle (TM) and apical (TA) third of the prepared root portion. The posts were submitted to a micropush-out test. The other two teeth were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy to analyse the bond interface. Data were analysed using anova, Tukey and Dunnett tests (P length and in the TA when post fixation was delayed for 7 days. Bond strength decreased from crown to apex in all groups.

  10. Cytotoxicity of 5 endodontic sealers on L929 cell line and human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapınar-Kazandağ, M; Bayrak, O F; Yalvaç, M E; Ersev, H; Tanalp, J; Sahin, F; Bayırlı, G

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the cytotoxicity of five root canal sealers on L929 mouse fibroblasts and primary human dental pulp cells. Cylindrical specimens of AH Plus (Dentsply De Trey GmbH, Konstanz, Germany), RoekoSeal (Coltène Whaledent, Langenau, Germany), EndoREZ (Ultradent Products Inc., South Jordan, UT, USA), Epiphany (Pentron Clinical Technologies, LLCC, Wallingford, CT, USA) and Activ GP (Brasseller Inc., USA, Savannah, GA, USA) were kept at 37 °C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO(2) for thrice the length of the setting time given by the manufacturer. Extraction of specimens was performed after setting in cell growth medium for 1, 4 and 7 days. Undiluted, 50% and 25% diluted eluates were incubated with cultured cells for 24 and 72 h. Cytotoxicity was assessed using MTS colorimetric bioassay. Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc Dunn's multiple comparison test were used to compare the sealers and diluted/undiluted eluates in terms of cell viability (% of control). Friedman test and post hoc Dunn's multiple comparison test were performed to compare extraction periods. Wilcoxon test was utilized in comparing 24- and 72-h readings. Undiluted 1-day eluate of Activ GP was significantly more cytotoxic than all other sealers (P Endodontic Journal.

  11. Evaluation of the filling ability of artificial lateral canals using calcium silicate-based and epoxy resin-based endodontic sealers and two gutta-percha filling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, R; Restrepo, J S; Aristizábal, D C; Álvarez, L G

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the ability of a calcium silicate-based sealer (iRoot SP) and an epoxy resin-based sealer (Topseal) using two gutta-percha filling techniques to fill artificial lateral canals (ALCs). Seventy single-rooted human teeth were selected. Ten of these were used to obtain pilot data. Three ALCs were produced on mesial and distal surfaces of each root, one in each third, using size 10 engine reamers. The roots were randomly assigned to four experimental groups according to the filling technique and sealer used: 1, cold gutta-percha (single-point technique) with iRoot SP (SP-iR); 2, cold gutta-percha (single-point technique) with Topseal (SP-T); 3, continuous wave of condensation technique with iRoot SP (CWC-iR); and 4, continuous wave of condensation technique with Topseal (CWC-T). Digital periapical radiographs were taken. After the sealer had set, the roots were demineralized, cleared in methyl-salicylate and examined under a stereomicroscope. The depth of penetration of sealer and/or gutta-percha into the ALC was scored using a 5-point system, conducting an analysis on four surfaces. Filling scores of 0-1 were considered not acceptable, whilst scores of 2-4 were considered acceptable. Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare the experimental groups (P epoxy resin-based sealer with both filling techniques was effective in artificial filling lateral canals. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effect of endodontic chelating solutions on the bond strength of endodontic sealers

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    Behram TUNCEL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of various chelating solutions on the radicular push-out bond strength of calcium silicate-based and resin-based root canal sealers. Root canals of freshly-extracted single-rooted teeth (n = 80 were instrumented by using rotary instruments. The specimens were randomly divided into 4 groups according to the chelating solutions being tested: (1 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA; (2 9% etidronic acid; (3 1% peracetic acid (PAA; and (4 distilled water (control. In each group, the roots were further assigned into 2 subgroups according to the sealer used: (1 an epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus and (2 a calcium silicate-based sealer (iRoot SP. Four 1 mm-thick sections were obtained from the coronal aspect of each root (n = 40 slices/group. Push-out bond strength test was performed at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min., and the bond strength data were analyzed statistically with two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA with Bonferroni’s post hoc test (p 0.05. iRoot SP showed higher resistance to dislocation than AH Plus. Final irrigation with 17% EDTA, 9% Etidronic acid, and 1% PAA did not improve the bond strength of AH Plus and iRoot SP to radicular dentin.

  13. Effect of the type of endodontic sealer on the bond strength between fiber post and root wall dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosharraf, Ramin; Zare, Sepideh

    2014-07-01

    An important factor that interferes with the bonding between the root canal wall and resin cement is the root canal sealer remnant. There is controversy about the effect of eugenol-containing sealers on the bond strength between resin cements and fiber post. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the type of endodontic sealer on the bond strength of FRC posts cemented with resin cement to the root canal wall. In this in vitro study, 20 extracted mandibular first premolars were endodontically treated and divided into two groups according to the endodontic sealer used (n=10): G1: AH26 (Resin based); and G2: Endofill (Eugenol-based). After preparing post space, adhesive resin cement (Panavia F 2.0) was used for cementation of the fiber post to the root canal dentin. Three 3 mm thick slices were obtained from each root. The push-out test was performed with a cross-head speed of 1 mm/minute. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used for analyzing data (α=0.05). The two-way ANOVA showed that different root canal sealers (P=0.037) had significant effects on bond strength (BS), but root canal regions (P=0.811) and interaction between root canal sealers and root canal regions (P=0.258) had no significant effects on BS. Maximum and minimum mean values were observed in the AH26 group, the apical region and the Endofill group in the apical region, respectively. Post Hoc Tukey test revealed that there were no significant differences between different root canal regions in both cements (P>0.05). The region of root canal had no effect on the bond strength of cemented fiber posts to the root canal. Eugenol-based sealers (Endofill) significantly reduced the bond strength between fiber posts luted with resin cement to the root canal.

  14. Effect of the type of endodontic sealer on the bond strength between fiber post and root wall dentin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Mosharraf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An important factor that interferes with the bonding between the root canal wall and resin cement is the root canal sealer remnant. There is controversy about the effect of eugenol-containing sealers on the bond strength between resin cements and fiber post. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the type of endodontic sealer on the bond strength of FRC posts cemented with resin cement to the root canal wall.In this in vitro study, 20 extracted mandibular first premolars were endodontically treated and divided into two groups according to the endodontic sealer used (n=10: G1: AH26 (Resin based; and G2: Endofill (Eugenol-based. After preparing post space, adhesive resin cement (Panavia F 2.0 was used for cementation of the fiber post to the root canal dentin. Three 3 mm thick slices were obtained from each root. The push-out test was performed with a cross-head speed of 1 mm/minute. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used for analyzing data (α=0.05.The two-way ANOVA showed that different root canal sealers (P=0.037 had significant effects on bond strength (BS, but root canal regions (P=0.811 and interaction between root canal sealers and root canal regions (P=0.258 had no significant effects on BS. Maximum and minimum mean values were observed in the AH26 group, the apical region and the Endofill group in the apical region, respectively. Post Hoc Tukey test revealed that there were no significant differences between different root canal regions in both cements (P>0.05.The region of root canal had no effect on the bond strength of cemented fiber posts to the root canal. Eugenol-based sealers (Endofill significantly reduced the bond strength between fiber posts luted with resin cement to the root canal.

  15. Effect of endodontic sealer and resin luting strategies on pull-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Junior, Eduardo J; Bueno, Vanessa C P S; Dias, Carlos T S; Paulillo, Luís A M S

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of eugenol-containing endodontic sealers and luting strategy on the pull-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to dentin. Sixty-four bovine incisors were randomly assigned into two groups of 32 specimens each for obturation procedure with gutta-percha only, or with Pulp Canal Sealer EWT Subsequently, the roots were prepared for the fiber post Reforpost and all specimens of each endodontic sealing procedure were allocated to four groups (n = 8), according to the strategies for post cementation: A) Single Bond 2 and RelyX ARC; B) All Bond 2 and C&B cement; C) All Bond 2 and RelyX ARC; D) Single Bond 2 and C&B Cement. The posts were cemented immediately after the endodontic treatment. The pull-out test was performed at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min in a universal testing machine (EMIC). Data (Kgf) were submitted to a two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (p fiber posts regardless of the luting strategy. RelyX ARC showed higher bond strength than C&B Cement when used with Single Bond 2 adhesive system, when the eugenol-based sealer was present. All Bond 2, when associated to all cements studied, promoted similar bond strength, regardless of the eugenol-containing endodontic sealer In conclusion, eugenol-containing sealer did not influence the pull-out bond strength values of the resin luting systems for glass fiber post cementation. The bond system and resin cement association from the same manufacturer had similar bond strength values for dentin.

  16. Effect of Different Irrigating Solutions and Endodontic Sealers on Bond Strength of the Dentin - Post Interface with and without Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Felice R.; Pappalettere, Carmine; Di Comite, Mariasevera; Corsalini, Massimo; Mori, Giorgio; Ballini, Andrea; Crincoli, Vito; Pettini, Francesco; Rapone, Biagio; Boccaccio, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To investigate how the interfacial shear strength of the dentin - post interface with and without defects changes for different combinations irrigant/sealer. Methods. In forty human decoronated and instrumented teeth, fibreglass posts were inserted. The obtained root segments were randomly assigned to four different groups according to the irrigant adopted and the cement used to seal the root canal. The root segments were processed for metyl-methacrylate embedding. Serial sections were obtained and submitted to histomorphometric analyses in order to observe any defect of adhesion at the dentin - post interface and to measure the defects' dimension. The serial sections were also submitted to micro-push-out test. The measured shear strength values were subjected to statistical analysis by one-way ANOVA. The values of bond strength determined for the defective samples were correlated with the dimension of the defects. Finite element models were built to interpret and corroborate the experimental findings. Results. ANOVA showed that the generic combination irrigant/sealer does not affect the interfacial shear strength values. The bond strength of the samples without defects was averagely twice as large as that of the defective samples. The defects occupying more than 12 % of the total transverse section area of the endodontic cement layer led to a reduction of the bond strength of about 70 %. The predictions of the finite element models were in agreement with the experimental results. Conclusion. Defects occupying less than 2 % of the total transverse section area of the cement layer were shown to be acceptable as they have rather negligible effects on the shear strength values. Technologies/protocols should be developed to minimize the number and the size of the defects. PMID:23055816

  17. Evaluation of resistance of teeth subjected to fracture after endodontic treatment using different root canal sealers: An in vitro study

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    S S Bhat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the ex-vivo effects of different root canal sealers on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five freshly extracted human mandibular premolars were used for the study. The length was standardized to 14 mm and all the teeth were biomechanically prepared and divided into five different groups based on the type of root canal sealers used. Group I:- Roeko seal + gutta percha, Group II: AH plus ® root canal sealer + gutta percha, Group III: PULPDENT root canal sealer + gutta percha, Group IV: Zinc oxide-eugenol sealer + gutta percha, Group V: Control (unobturated teeth. The teeth were embedded in acrylic resin blocks and compressive strengths were measured using universal testing machine (Instron. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way ANOVA, unpaired t- test Results: Data obtained were statistically evaluated using one-way ANOVA and unpaired t-test. All groups showed a statistically significant result (P < 0.05. Teeth obturated with Group I and Group II showed higher resistance to fracture than teeth obturated with other three Groups. It was seen that the teeth obturated with group III showed a better fracture resistance than Group IV and there was no statistical significance found between Group and Group V. Conclusions: From this study, it has been concluded that both the resin based sealers that were used in this study were equally effective compared to that of the zinc oxide-based sealers and the control group. However, no significant results were obtained when the comparison was made between zinc oxide-eugenol and gutta-percha and the control group.

  18. Evaluation of crown discoloration induced by endodontic sealers and colour change ratio determination after bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürel, Mügem Aslı; Kivanç, Bağdagül Helvacioğlu; Ekici, Adil; Alaçam, Tayfun

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate tooth discoloration after the use of root canal sealers and the effect of internal bleaching on sealer discoloration. The crowns of 56 incisors were cut and randomly filled with four sealers (n = 14): Pulpispad, AH26, MTA Fillapex, EndoREZ. The colour measurement was taken with a spectrophotometer prior and after placement of sealers. Colour changes (ΔE) were recorded after 4 weeks then sealers were removed and an internal bleaching treatment was performed. After bleaching treatment colour changes (ΔE) were measured. Data were analysed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). All tested sealers induced varying chromatic alterations. Pulpispad showed statistically more discoloration than other sealers (P teeth induced by root canal sealers. © 2016 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  19. Physicochemical Properties and Volumetric Change of Silicone/Bioactive Glass and Calcium Silicate-based Endodontic Sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanomaru-Filho, Mario; Torres, Fernanda Ferrari Esteves; Chávez-Andrade, Gisselle Moraima; de Almeida, Madelise; Navarro, Luciana Guilherme; Steier, Liviu; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated setting time (ST), radiopacity, pH, flow, solubility, and volumetric change (VC) of a silicone, gutta-percha, and bioactive glass-based sealer, GuttaFlow Bioseal (GFB), and a calcium silicate-based sealer, TotalFill BC Sealer (TFBC), in comparison with AH Plus. ST and flow were evaluated in accordance with the ISO 6876 Standard. pH was evaluated after different time intervals (1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days). Radiopacity was evaluated by radiographic analysis in millimeters of aluminum. Solubility was evaluated by means of mass loss (%) after 7 and 30 days of immersion in distilled water. VC was evaluated by micro-computed tomography, by using cavities 3 mm deep and 1 mm in diameter in acrylic resin, filled with the materials. The materials were evaluated after setting and after 7 and 30 days of immersion in distilled water. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey statistical tests (P physicochemical properties. Micro-computed tomography complements the physicochemical analysis of endodontic sealers. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of cytocompatibility of calcium silicate-based endodontic sealers and their effects on the biological responses of mesenchymal dental stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lozano, F J; García-Bernal, D; Oñate-Sánchez, R E; Ortolani-Seltenerich, P S; Forner, L; Moraleda, J M

    2017-01-01

    To investigate in vitro the cytocompatibility of the calcium silicate-containing endodontic sealers MTA Fillapex and TotalFill BC Sealer on human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) by assaying their biological responses and compare them with that observed when using an epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus). Specimens from the three different endodontic sealers were eluated with culture medium for 24 h. The cytotoxicity of these eluates was evaluated using the MTT assay. In addition, an in vitro scratch wound healing model was used to determine their effects on cell migration. Cell adhesion to collagen type I after treatment with the different sealer eluates was also measured, whereas cytotoxicity was determined using the DNA-specific fluorochrome Hoechst 33342. Finally, to assess cell morphology and attachment to the different sealers, hPDLSCs were directly seeded onto the material surfaces and analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). One-way analysis of variance (anova) followed by a Bonferroni post-test were performed (P Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effect of red and infrared low-level laser therapy in endodontic sealer on subcutaneous tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivieri-Araujo, G.; Berbert, F. L. C. V.; Ramalho, L. T. O.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Crisci, F. S.; Bonetti-Filho, I.; Tanomaru-Filho, M.

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated the reactions of connective tissue after the implant of one endodontic sealer (Endofill) that was irradiated with low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Sixty mice were distributed into three Groups ( n = 20): GI—the tubes filled with Endofill were implanted in the animals and were not irradiated with LLLT; GII—the tubes containing Endofill were implanted in the animals and then irradiated with red LLLT (InGaAlP, λ = 685 nm, P = 35 mW, t = 58 s, D = 72 J/cm2, E = 2 J, Ø = 0.60 mm, continuous mode) and GIII—the tubes with Endofill were implanted and irradiated with infrared LLLT (AsGaAl, λ = 830 nm, P = 50 mW, t = 40 s, D = 70 J/cm2, E = 2 J, Ø = 0.60 mm, continuous wave) both are semiconductor diode laser device. The animals were killed after 7 and 30 days. Series sections of 6 μm thickness were obtained and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Masson Trichrome. The data of the histopathological evaluation were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests at 5% significance level. At the 7th day: GI showed the presence of inflammation; GII and GIII reduced inflammation. At 30th day: GI showed low inflammation; GII and GII the absence of inflammation. It was possible show that LLLT reduced the irritating effect promoted by the Endofill, in the period of 7 days ( p > 0.05). The tissue repair occurred in 30 days, regardless of the use of LLLT.

  2. An optical investigation of dentinal discoloration due to commonly endodontic sealers, using the transmitted light polarizing microscopy and spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Ioana; Ionescu, Ecaterina; Dimitriu, Bogdan Alexandru; Bartok, Ruxandra Ioana; Moldoveanu, Georgiana Florentina; Gheorghiu, Irina Maria; Suciu, Ileana; Ciocîrdel, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the degree of tooth crown staining by commonly used endodontic sealers. Crown discolorations by tooth canal sealers [AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey Gmbh, Konstanz, Germany); Endofill (Produits Dentaires SA, Vevey, Switzerland); Apexit (Dentsply DeTrey Gmbh, Konstanz, Germany); and MTA Fillapex (Angelus, Londrina, Brazil)] were tested on extracted human premolars. The samples were divided into five groups of five samples each, after root canal sealing. Five teeth were used as control groups. The spectrophotometric method was performed in order to quantify in terms of color change of the coronal part (it was also recorded a track on how the color changes over time). For the microscopic study of the extracted dental specimens subjected to this study, polarized transmitted light microscopy was used. This method involves the development of special microscopic preparations, called "thin sections". In our case, the thin section was performed on 20 prepared and obturated recently extracted teeth. The degree of discoloration was determined after one week and three months using spectrophotometry and polarized light microscopy. All sealers usually cause some degree of discoloration on the cervical aspect of the crowns that increases in time. AH Plus and Endofill caused the greatest discoloration, followed by Apexit and MTA Fillapex.

  3. Dissolution, dislocation and dimensional changes of endodontic sealers after a solubility challenge: a micro-CT approach.

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    Silva, E J; Perez, R; Valentim, R M; Belladonna, F G; De-Deus, G A; Lima, I C; Neves, A A

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate, using a novel micro-CT approach, the solubility and dimensional changes of an MTA-based sealer inside the root canal system after a solubility challenge. The MTA-based material (MTA Fillapex) was compared to a gold standard epoxy-based endodontic sealer (AH Plus). Ten human mandibular premolars with a single canal were divided randomly into two groups (n = 5) according to the sealer used. The canals were instrumented using the Reciproc System (VDW) with a R40 file and filled with R40 gutta-percha cones and one of the sealers. The filled canals were immediately scanned in a micro-CT, and after that, the teeth were immersed in 20 mL phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37 °C for 7 days, when they were removed and rescanned. Final image stacks were registered against the initial stacks and the numerical difference between the initial and final volume of the filling material was obtained. Calculations were performed to identify dimensional changes of the filling material. All image stacks were 3D rendered to disclose areas of dislocation of the filling material inside or outside the root canal. The Shapiro-Wilk's test revealed that data were normally distributed; thus, the Student's t-test was used to detect statistically significant changes, assuming a 5% α-error. No significant changes were seen for the percentage volume of material lost after the solubility challenge for both AH Plus and MTA Fillapex groups (1.44% and 1.16%, respectively). A significant difference was, however, found for the volume of filling material which revealed dimensional changes after the solubility test (6.68% for MTA Fillapex and 1.09% for AH Plus). In fact, observation of 3D models disclosed that MTA Fillapex was associated with material extrusion through the foramen in all but one sample. In AH Plus filled samples, no material extrusion was detected. Although the solubility of both sealers was similar using this novel micro-CT approach, MTA Fillapex was associated with

  4. Micro-CT and nano-CT analysis of filling quality of three different endodontic sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Celikten, Berkan; de Faria Vasconcelos, Karla; Ferreira Pinheiro Nicolielo, Laura; Lippiatt, Nicholas; Buyuksungur, Arda; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Orhan, Kaan

    2017-12-01

    To investigate voids in different root canal sealers using micro-CT and nano-CT, and to explore the feasibility of using nano-CT for quantitative analysis of sealer filling quality. 30 extracted mandibular central incisors were randomly assigned into three groups according to the applied root canal sealers (Total BC Sealer, Sure Seal Root, AH Plus) by the single cone technique. Subsequently, micro-CT and nano-CT were performed to analyse the incidence rate of voids, void fraction, void volume and their distribution in each sample. Micro-CT evaluation showed no significant difference among sealers for the incidence rate of voids or void fraction in the whole filling materials (p > 0.05), whereas a significant difference was found between AH Plus and the other two sealers using nano-CT (p nano-CT results displayed higher void volume in AH Plus among all the sealers and regions (p nano-CT analysis, when round root canals were treated by the single cone technique. The disparate results suggest that the higher resolution of nano-CT have a greater ability of distinguishing internal porosity, and therefore suggesting the potential use of nano-CT in quantitative analysis of filling quality of sealers.

  5. Antibacterial Properties Associated with Chitosan Nanoparticle Treatment on Root Dentin and 2 Types of Endodontic Sealers.

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    Del Carpio-Perochena, Aldo; Kishen, Anil; Shrestha, Annie; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) and chitosan nanoparticles (CNps) to inactivate bacteria and prevent biofilm formation at sealer-dentin interfaces. The study was divided into 3 stages: first stage, the experiment was conducted to analyze the antibacterial properties of CMCS in different formulations against biofilms; second stage, direct-contact and membrane-restricted methods were used to evaluate the antibacterial properties of an epoxy resin (ThermaSeal Plus; Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK) and calcium silicate (MTA Fillapex; Angelus SA, Londrina, PR, Brazil) based-sealers with or without CNps; and third stage, biofilm formation at the sealer dentin interfaces of root dentin treated with CMCS and filled with gutta-percha and CNp incorporated sealer were analyzed after 1- and 4-week aging periods. The samples were treated and filled as follows: (1) distilled water: unaltered sealer (control group), (2) CMCS: sealer+CNps (CMCS group), and (3) CMCS/rose bengal: sealer+CNps (CMCS/RB group). Enterococcus faecalis was used to infect all the samples. Microbiological and microscopic analyses were used to assess the antibacterial characteristics. CMCS-based treatments effectively killed bacteria adherent on root dentin (P dentin and inhibit bacterial adhesion. CNps in root canal sealers are capable of maintaining their antibacterial activity even after prolonged aging. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Different Endodontic Sealers on the Push-out Bond Strength of Fiber Posts.

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    Forough Reyhani, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Negin; Rahimi, Saeed; Milani, Amin Salem; Omrani, Elnaz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of MTA-based sealer (MTA Fillapex), eugenol-based sealer (Dorifill) and an epoxy resin sealer (AH Plus) on the bond strength of fiber posts cemented with a self-etch adhesive. The root canals of 72 maxillary incisors were prepared using the step-back technique after removing/cutting off the crowns. The samples were randomly divided to 4 groups (n=18). In group 1 (the controls) gutta-percha was used without sealer. In groups 2, 3 and 4, the canals were filled with gutta-percha using AH Plus, Dorifill and MTA Fillapex sealers, respectively, by cold lateral compaction technique. After post space preparation, the fiber posts were cemented in the root canals using self-etch adhesive. Then 1-mm-thick disks were prepared from the coronal thirds of all the root canals and subjected to a push-out test. Data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's tests. The maximum (4.45±0.09 MPa) and minimum (1.02±0.03 MPa) bond strength values were recorded in the control and Dorifill groups, respectively. The mean push-out bond strength values were similar for MTA Fillapex and AH Plus sealers (P>0.05). However these values were significantly higher than that of the Dorifill sealer (Pfiber posts and MTA Fillapex decreased the dislodgment resistant of the fiber post.

  7. CYTOTOXICITY OF ENDODONTIC SEALERS-A COMPARATIVE STUDY USING L-929 MOUSE SKIN FIBROBLAST CELL RESPONSE-AN EX-VIVO STUDY

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    Aruna Kanaparthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the present research was to evaluate and to compare the cytotoxicity of four commonly used endodontic sealers Apexit Plus, AH plus, Sankin, and Endofloss. The cytotoxicity was evaluated after setting of the sealers at different time intervals. Materials and Methods: Mouse skin fibroblasts L-929 was obtained from cell repository centre of national centre for cell science Pune, India. The cells were grown as monolayer cultures in Dulbeccos Modified eagle Medium (DMEM. Each of the test materials were mixed according to the manufactures instruction and was allowed to set. 0.1ml of each of the set sealers was placed in the petriplates in direct contact with the fibroblasts at 24 and 48 hrs intervals and evaluated for cytotoxicity. The percentage viability of the fibroblasts were calculated and evaluated statistically. Results: The statistical analysis revealed that Apexit Plus showed slight to moderate toxicity at 24 and 48 hrs, when compared with other sealers. Sankin showed maximum toxicity at all time intervals. Conclusion: All tested endodontic sealers demonstrated varying amount of cytotoxicity at different time intervals. Apexit Plus showed the least amount of cytotoxicity and Sankin showed the highest level of cytotoxicity.

  8. Effect of EndoActivator and Er,Cr:YSGG laser activation of Qmix, as final endodontic irrigant, on sealer penetration: A Confocal microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Sarika; Yadav, Sudha; Talwar, Sangeeta; Verma, Mahesh

    2017-02-01

    Through chemomechanical debridement of the root canal is a primary requisite for successful endodontic therapy. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of using QmiX alone, QmiX with EndoActivator and QmiX with Er,Cr:YSGG laser for final irrigation on sealer penetration into the dentinal tubules. 75 extracted human mandibular premolar teeth were treated with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigation. The samples were divided into 5 groups according to the final irrigation solution used: (1) 17% EDTA and 2.5% NaOCl, (2) QmiX (3) QmiX with Er,Cr:YSGG laser and (4) QmiX with EndoActivator (5) 2.5%NaOCl. All teeth were obturated using cold lateral condensation technique with gutta percha and AH 26 sealer (Dentsply; DeTrey,Konstanz, Germany) labeled with Rhodamine B dye. The teeth were sectioned at distances of 2 and 5 from root apex. Total percentage and maximum depth of sealer penetration were measured using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results of one way Anova analysis showed that there was a significant difference in the percentage and depth of sealer penetration among all groups at 3 and 5 mm level sections (P groups maximum sealer penetration was recorded for Er,Cr:YSGG laser activated group. Greater depth of sealer penetration was recorded at 5mm as compared to 3mm in all the groups. Activation of QMix using EndoActivator and Er,Cr:YSGG laser enhanced the sealer penetration at apical and middle third. Thus Er,Cr:YSGG laser and EndoActivator may act as an appropriate adjunct during chemomechanical preparation of the root canal. Key words:EndoActivator, Er,Cr:YSGG laser, Qmix, confocal microscopy, sealer penetration.

  9. [Endodontics in horses. An experimental study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, F; Sanromán, F; Llorens, M P

    1990-04-01

    A total of 44 experimental endodontic treatments were performed in incisors of eight horses of different ages. Four different endodontic pastes were used: Cloropercha, AH26 De Trey, Eugenol-Endometasone, and Universal N2. Gutta-percha points were also included in the last two treatments. Access to the pulp cavity of incisors was gained through their vestibular and occlusal faces. Holes drilled in vestibular faces were sealed with composite and those drilled in occlusal faces were sealed with Amalgama. Animals were observed during eighteen months at least after endodontics. Radiographic controls were done just after surgery and before slaughtering. Treated incisors and alveoli were studied histopathologically. During the experiment all animals were in good condition. They ate apparently without trouble, and neither clinical nor radiological signs were present.

  10. Applying liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to assess endodontic sealer microleakage

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    André Luiz da Costa MICHELOTTO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe a new method for the quantitative analysis of a microleakage of endodontic filling materials. Forty extracted single-rooted teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups. After root canal shaping, the experimental groups were filled using the lateral condensation technique with the Epiphany system (G1, with gutta-percha + Sealapex (G2, and with gutta-percha + AH Plus (G3. Each root was mounted on a modified leakage testing device, and caffeine solution was used as a tracer (2000 ng mL-1, pH 6.0, applied in the coronal direction towards the tooth apex, creating a hydrostatic pressure of 2.55 kPa. Presence of caffeine in the receiving solution was measured after 10, 30, and 60 days, using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS. None of the groups presented microleakage at 10 days. At 30 days, G2 and G3 showed similar infiltration patterns (means: 16.0 and 13.9 ng mL-1, respectively, whereas G1 showed significantly higher values (mean: 105.2 ng mL-1. At 60 days, leakage values were 182.6 ng mL-1for G1, 139.0 ng mL-1 for G2, and 53.5 ng mL-1 for G3. AH Plus showed the best sealing ability and HPLC-MS/MS showed high sensitivity and specificity for tracer quantification.

  11. Comparing Coronal Discoloration Between AH26 and ZOE Sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Jahromi, Maryam; Navabi, Amir Arsalan; Ekhtiari, Mahsa

    2011-01-01

    Intrinsic tooth discolorations after endodontic treatment are principally attributed to the composition of necrotic pulp tissue, hemorrhage within the pulp cavity, endodontic medicaments and/or filling materials. Residual sealer left in pulp chamber after obturation can cause discoloration. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate coronal discoloration created by AH26 and ZOE sealers after four months. Fifty intact human extracted maxillary central incisors were employed. Access cavities were prepared in all samples and root canals were instrumented; coronal orifices were then sealed using self-cure glass ionomer. The teeth were divided into two experimental groups (n=20) according to utilized sealer in pulp chambers including AH26 and Dorifill (ZOE). The remaining 10 teeth served as negative and positive controls (n=5). The access cavities were sealed with self-cure glass ionomer. Teeth were kept in incubator for four month. Preliminary digital images of the teeth were taken and then compared with those related to 4-month follow-up. The images were assessed using Photoshop software. Data was analyzed using paired t-test and independent samples t-test. The teeth which were filled with AH26 sealer showed significantly greater discoloration than those filled with ZOE sealer (Dorifill) (Pdiscoloration of the crown compared to ZOE sealer. Despite the other disadvantage of AH26 sealer, it seems that Dorifill is more esthetically considerate.

  12. Comparative evaluation of fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with epoxy resin-based sealers AH plus and mineral trioxide aggregate fillapex: An in vitro study

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    Anika Mittal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to evaluate and compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth obturated with gutta-percha using two sealers, AH Plus, and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA Fillapex. Materials and Methods: Twenty single-rooted mandibular premolars, decoronated at cementoenamel junction, were divided into two groups (n = 10 each. Cleaning and shaping of root canals were done using ProTaper rotary files and 3% sodium hypochlorite irrigation. Obturation was done using sealers, AH Plus (Dentsply, Germany in Group 1 and MTA Fillapex (Angeles, Brazil in Group 2 and gutta-percha. The teeth were subjected to vertical loading using a universal testing machine, and the readings were recorded at the point at which fracture of the roots occurred. The data were subjected to statistical analysis followed by pairwise comparison using Tukey's post hoc test. Results: According to the study, it was found that AH Plus showed better fracture resistance than MTA Fillapex. Statistically, no significant difference was found between the two groups. Conclusion: AH Plus and MTA Fillapex gave comparable results as root canal sealers.

  13. The effect of different final irrigant activation techniques on the bond strength of an epoxy resin-based endodontic sealer: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Tuncay, Öznur; Demirbuga, Sezer; Dinçer, Asiye Nur; Arslan, Hakan

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether or not different final irrigation activation techniques affect the bond strength of an epoxy resin-based endodontic sealer (AH Plus; Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany) to the root canal walls of different root thirds. Eighty single-rooted human mandibular premolars were prepared by using the ProTaper system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) to size F4, and a final irrigation regimen using 3% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA was performed. The specimens were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 20) according to the final irrigation activation technique used as follows: no activation (control), manual dynamic activation (MDA), CanalBrush (Coltene Whaledent, Altststten, Switzerland) activation, and ultrasonic activation. Five specimens from each group were prepared for scanning electron microscopic observation to assess the smear layer removal after the final irrigation procedures. All remaining roots were then obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. A push-out test was used to measure the bond strength between the root canal dentin and AH Plus sealer. The data obtained from the push-out test were analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests. The bond strength values mostly decreased in the coronoapical direction (P < .001). In the coronal and middle thirds, ultrasonic activiation showed a higher bond strength than other groups (P < .05). In the apical third, MDA displayed the highest bond strength to root dentin (P < .05). The majority of specimens exhibited cohesive failures. The bond strength of AH Plus sealer to root canal dentin may improve with ultrasonic activation in the coronal and middle thirds and MDA in the apical third. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A histological evaluation of bone tissue response to a sealer based on calcium hydroxide: An experimental study

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    Nikolić Marija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. The success of endodontic treatment depends on the effective removal of root content, the elimination of infection, and the hermetical sealing of the root system using a compatible material. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the tissue response to the implant of endodontic material based on calcium hydroxide into the bone in the artificially prepared defect in a rat mandible. Methods. The research was carried out on 40 Wistar rats. The artificial defect was made between the midline and the mental foramen on the left side of the mandible. The prepared defect was left to heal spontaneously in animals of the control group, while among the animals of the experimental group the sealer Apexit (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Lichtenstein was implanted into the experimental defect. The tissue samples consisting of the experimental field and the surrounding bone were microscopically analyzed with a light microscope. Results. During the initial phase, 15 days after the implantation, signs of chronic inflammation were noted and expansion of the Volkmann’s and Haversian canals. On the 30th day after the implantation, osteosynthetic activity and filling with newly-formed bone were noted. Changes were also noted in cement lines in the wider region of the experimental defect. Sixty days following the implantation, the bone was gradually remodeled. Ninety days after the implantation, a restitutio ad integrum was noted. Conclusion. Apexit does not lead to any disruptions in normal reparation processes nor in morphofunctional relations in bone tissue during the remodeling phase. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 175061: The antioxidant protection and potentials for differentiation and regeneration of mesenchymal stem cells from different tissues during the aging process

  15. Penetrability of AH plus and MTA fillapex after endodontic treatment and retreatment: a confocal laser scanning microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Daniela; Rosa, Ricardo Abreu da; Barreto, Mirela Sangoi; Busanello, Fernanda Hoffmann; Santini, Manuela Favarin; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the penetrability of two endodontic sealers (AH Plus and MTA Fillapex) into dentinal tubules, submitted to endodontic treatment and subsequently to endodontic retreatment. Thirty ex vivo incisors were prepared using ProTaper rotary system up to F3 instrument and divided in three groups according to the endodontic sealer used for root canal filling: AH Plus (AHP), MTA Fillapex (MTAF), and control group (CG) without using EDTA previously to the root canal filling. Rhodamine B dye (red) was incorporated to the sealers in order to provide the fluorescence which will enable confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) assessment. All specimens were filled with gutta-percha cones using the lateral compaction technique. The specimens were submitted to endodontic retreatment using ProTaper Retreatment system, re-prepared up to F5 instruments and filled with gutta-percha cones and the same sealer used during endodontic retreatment. Fluorescein dye (green) was incorporated to the sealer in order to distinguish from the first filling. The roots were sectioned 2 mm from the apex and assessed by CLSM. No difference was found between the two experimental groups (P > 0.05). On the other hand, in the control group the sealers were not capable to penetrate into dentinal tubules after endodontic treatment (P > 0.05). In retreatment cases, none of the sealers were able to penetrate into dentin tubules. It can be concluded that sealer penetrability is high during endodontic treatment. However, MTA Fillapex and AH Plus do not penetrate into dentinal tubules after endodontic retreatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The effect of different irrigating solutions on the push out bond strength of endodontic sealer to dentin and assessing the fracture modes: An In-vitro study

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    Vasundhara Shivanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of smear clear, 7% maleic acid, 10% citric acid, and 17% EDTA on the push-out bond strength of epoxy resin-based endodontic sealer to dentin. Materials and Methodos: Fifty extracted mandibular premolars were collected. After decoronation using a diamond disc and water spray to obtain approximately 14 mm long root segments, canal patency and working length were established by inserting K file #15 (Mani. The root canals were enlarged using Protaper nickel-titanium rotary instruments to size #F3 at the working length irrigating with 3 mL of 2.6% sodium hypochlorite between each file size. The roots were then randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 according to the final irrigation regimen Group1: Saline (control. Group 2: 17% EDTA, Group 3: 7% maleic acid, Group 4: 10% citric acid, Group 5: Smear clear. Obturation was done using gutta-percha with AH Plus sealer. Each root section was then subjected to a compressive load via a universal testing machine, to measure the push out bond strength followed by assessment of fracture pattern under stereomicroscope. Results: The data was collected and submitted to statistical analysis by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test. Group 3: NaOCl/maleic acid/distilled water showed greater bond strength (2.2+/-0.278 MPa as compared to other groups. Mixed type of bond failure was predominant. Conclusion: Removal of smear layer with maleic acid as a final rinse enhanced the adhesive ability of AH plus sealer, followed by EDTA and smear clear.

  17. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of endodontic sealers Avaliação in vitro da atividade antimicrobiana de cimentos endodônticos

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    Daniela Cristina Miyagak

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the endodontic sealers: N-Rickert, Sealapex, AH Plus, Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA and portland cement. The Agar diffusion method was used in plates previously inoculated with the following microorganisms: C. albicans, S. aureus, E. faecalis, E. coli. The diameters of microbial inhibition zones were measured after 24 hours of incubation in kiln at 37°C. According to the methodology used, it was possible to conclude that only the sealers AH Plus and N-Rickert presented antimicrobial activity against C. albicans, S. aureus, and E. coli; no antimicrobial activity in MTA, Sealapex and portland cement was observed. N-Rickert presented the largest inhibition zones varying from 8 to 18 mm, and the microorganism E. faecalis was resistant against all sealers tested.O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a capacidade antimicrobiana dos cimentos obturadores de canal: N-Rickert, Sealapex, AH Plus e também do Agregado Trióxido Mineral (MTA e Cimento de Portland. O método utilizado foi a difusão em Ágar, em placas previamente inoculadas com os seguintes microorganismos: C. albicans, S. aureus, E. faecalis, E. coli. A leitura do diâmetro do halo de inibição do crescimento microbiano foi realizada, após 24 horas de incubação, em estufa a 37°C. De acordo com a metodologia empregada, foi possível concluir que: somente os cimentos obturadores AH Plus e N-Rickert apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana contra C. albicans, S. aureus e E. coli; não foi observada atividade antimicrobiana no cimento de Portland, MTA e Sealapex. O cimento N-Rickert apresentou halos de inibição maiores variando de 8 a 18 mm. O microorganismo E. faecalis foi resistente contra todos os cimentos testados.

  18. Bond strength of a calcium silicate-based sealer tested in bulk or with different main core materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagas, Emre; Cehreli, Zafer; Uyanik, Mehmet Ozgur; Durmaz, Veli

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a calcium silicate-based sealer (iRoot SP), with or without a core material, on bond strength to radicular dentin, in comparison with various contemporary root filling systems. Root canals of freshly extracted single-rooted teeth (n = 60) were instrumented using rotary instruments. The roots were randomly assigned to one of the following experimental groups: (1) a calcium silicate-based sealer without a core material (bulk-fill); (2) a calcium silicate-based sealer + gutta-percha; (3) a calcium silicate-based sealer + Resilon; (4) a methacrylate resin-based sealer (RealSeal SE) + Resilon; (5) an epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus) + gutta-percha, and (6) a mineral trioxide aggregate-based endodontic sealer (MTA Fillapex) + gutta-percha. Four 1-mm-thick sections were obtained from the coronal aspect of each root (n = 40 slices/group). Push-out bond strength testing was performed at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min, and the bond strength data were analyzed statistically by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests (p core filling materials. When the calcium silicate-based sealer was placed in bulk, its dislocation resistance was similar to that of commonly used sealer + core root filling systems. Thus, the concept of using a calcium silicate-based sealer in bulk can be more easily advocated in clinical practice.

  19. Bacterial leakage in root canals filled with resin-based and mineral trioxide aggregate-based sealers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavian, Hamid; Barekatain, Behnaz; Shadmehr, Elham; Khatami, Mahdieh; Bagheri, Fahime; Heidari, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sealing ability is one of the most important features of endodontic sealers. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the sealing ability of a resin-based sealer with a mineral trioxide aggregate-based sealer. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 single-rooted extracted human teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups (n = 25) and two control groups (n = 5). After canal preparation and smear layer removal, both groups were obturated with gutta-percha and sealer. Resin-based AH26 sealer was used in the first group and Fillapex® sealer in the second group. Two layers of nail varnish were applied on tooth surfaces except for the apical 2 mm. In the negative control group, nail varnish was applied on the entire surface. The teeth were mounted according to Lima et al. study and then sterilized by ethylene oxide gas. The samples were evaluated for bacterial microleakage using Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) for 90 days. Data were analyzed by survival test (P < 0.05). Results: Control groups had either immediate leakage or no leakage. The Fillapex® showed significantly higher amounts of microleakage compared with AH26 sealer (P < 0.05) and both groups exhibited significant differences in comparison with control groups. Conclusion: Both sealers had bacterial leakage. Sealing ability of AH26 was significantly higher than that of Fillapex®. PMID:25426153

  20. Bacterial leakage in root canals filled with resin-based and mineral trioxide aggregate-based sealers

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    Hamid Razavian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sealing ability is one of the most important features of endodontic sealers. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the sealing ability of a resin-based sealer with a mineral trioxide aggregate-based sealer. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 single-rooted extracted human teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups (n = 25 and two control groups (n = 5. After canal preparation and smear layer removal, both groups were obturated with gutta-percha and sealer. Resin-based AH26 sealer was used in the first group and Fillapex ® sealer in the second group. Two layers of nail varnish were applied on tooth surfaces except for the apical 2 mm. In the negative control group, nail varnish was applied on the entire surface. The teeth were mounted according to Lima et al. study and then sterilized by ethylene oxide gas. The samples were evaluated for bacterial microleakage using Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212 for 90 days. Data were analyzed by survival test (P < 0.05. Results: Control groups had either immediate leakage or no leakage. The Fillapex ® showed significantly higher amounts of microleakage compared with AH26 sealer (P < 0.05 and both groups exhibited significant differences in comparison with control groups. Conclusion: Both sealers had bacterial leakage. Sealing ability of AH26 was significantly higher than that of Fillapex ® .

  1. Comparative study of sealing ability of three root canal sealers

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    Khedmat S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Complete obturation of the prepared root canal is an essential step in endodontic treatment. Combination of gutta-percha and a sealer is widely used in clinical practice for root canal obturation, thus microleakage studies on sealing properties of these materials constitute an important part of endodontic researches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of three root canal sealers: Apexit, AH26 and Dorifill by electrochemical method.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 55 extracted human maxillary and mandibular cuspids were used. The coronal part of teeth were removed and the root canals were prepared using the step-back technique. The specimens were randomly divided into 3 groups of 17 samples each. Teeth in each group were filled with one of the sealers and gutta-percha by lateral condensation technique. 4 specimens served as positive and negative controls. An electrochemical method was used for evaluation of apical leakage with the electrical source potential of 10 V. Measurements of current flow through the test system were recorded every 72 hours. Data were analyzed by Kruskall Wallis and Mann Whitney tests. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance.Results: All specimens of the three groups showed low initial leakage that increased during the test period. The mean leakage in Apexit group was higher than AH26 and Dorifill groups. The lowest mean leakage was related to Dorifill group. Although no statistically significant difference was observed between this sealer and AH26.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the best apical seal was obtained using Dorifill and AH26 sealers. The poorest result was observed in Apexit.

  2. Microleakage and antibacterial properties of ZnO and ZnO:Ag nanopowders prepared via a sol-gel method for endodontic sealer application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayani Rad, M.; Kompany, A.; Khorsand Zak, A.; Javidi, M.; Mortazavi, S. M.

    2013-09-01

    One of the most important problems in dentistry is the microleakage, whether apical or coronal, which may cause failure of root canal therapy. The aim of this study is to prepare suitable sealer to decrease the microleakage of the root canals as well as having good antibacterial property. Pure ZnO and ZnO:Ag nanopowders were synthesized via sol gel method using gelatin as polymerization agent calcined at different temperatures of 500, 600, and 700 °C for 8 h. The prepared samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction and transition electron microscopy. The microleakage and antibacterial properties of the prepared samples were investigated and compared with zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) and epoxy resin sealer (AH26), which are commonly used in dentistry as sealers. The results showed that the synthesized pure ZnO and ZnO:Ag nanopowders exhibit better microleakage and antibacterial properties in comparison with ZOE and AH26 sealers, and therefore are more suitable filling materials to be used as sealer in root canal treatment.

  3. Microleakage and antibacterial properties of ZnO and ZnO:Ag nanopowders prepared via a sol-gel method for endodontic sealer application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shayani Rad, M.; Kompany, A. [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Materials and Electroceramics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorsand Zak, A., E-mail: alikhorsandzak@gmail.com [Esfarayen University, Nanotechnology Laboratory (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Javidi, M.; Mortazavi, S. M. [Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Dental Material Research Centre, Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    One of the most important problems in dentistry is the microleakage, whether apical or coronal, which may cause failure of root canal therapy. The aim of this study is to prepare suitable sealer to decrease the microleakage of the root canals as well as having good antibacterial property. Pure ZnO and ZnO:Ag nanopowders were synthesized via sol gel method using gelatin as polymerization agent calcined at different temperatures of 500, 600, and 700 Degree-Sign C for 8 h. The prepared samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction and transition electron microscopy. The microleakage and antibacterial properties of the prepared samples were investigated and compared with zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) and epoxy resin sealer (AH26), which are commonly used in dentistry as sealers. The results showed that the synthesized pure ZnO and ZnO:Ag nanopowders exhibit better microleakage and antibacterial properties in comparison with ZOE and AH26 sealers, and therefore are more suitable filling materials to be used as sealer in root canal treatment.

  4. Novel methodology to evaluate the effect of residual moisture on epoxy resin sealer/dentine interface: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibby, S G; Wong, Y; Kulild, J C; Williams, K B; Yao, X; Walker, M P

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the sealer/dentine interface associated with an epoxy resin sealer using the combination of Goldner's trichrome stain (GTS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to verify the use of the experimental methodology. Extracted human maxillary incisors (6) were subjected to root canal treatment. Subsequent to pulp removal, canal instrumentation and smear layer removal using EDTA and NaOCl, teeth were randomly and equally assigned to a 'wet' or 'dry' group. The 'dry' group was desiccated (95% ethanol/suction/paper points/air-drying), whilst the 'wet' group was treated with a saline rinse/suction/single paper point. Canals were then filled with an epoxy-based resin sealer and warm vertical gutta-percha compaction. After 7-day storage at 37°C, roots from each group were sectioned into apical, middle and coronal horizontal subsections that were cut and split into paired halves and evaluated with GTS or SEM. With GTS sections, hybrid layer and sealer tubular penetration were measured (n=15 measurements/intracanal location/condition) and evaluated using a two-factor repeated measures analysis of variance. The SEM qualitative analysis of paired sections was included as a complementary confirmation of GTS analyses. In dry and wet groups, there was no conspicuous sealer/dentine interface hybrid layer, irrespective of canal location. However, dry specimens exhibited more uniform sealer distribution with deeper tubular penetration in the coronal and middle third (Presin sealer/dentine interface. The pilot data indicated that thorough drying of the root canal system may result in improved epoxy resin sealer distribution and deeper resin sealer tubular penetration, especially in the coronal and middle thirds of root canals. © 2010 International Endodontic Journal.

  5. Avaliação in vitro da infiltração via coronária em função de diferentes cimentos endodônticos resinosos =An in vitro evaluation of coronal leakage of different resin-based endodontic sealers

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    Martins, Alessandra de Souza et al.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a infiltração coronária permitida por diferentes cimentos endodônticos resinosos. Foram utilizados 44 pré-molares humanos extraídos. Após a eliminação das coroas dentárias, as raízes foram padronizadas em 15 mm. O preparo do canal foi realizado pela técnica escalonada regressiva, empregando-se como solução irrigadora o NaOCl 1% e ao final EDTA. Realizada a impermeabilização da superfície externa, com uma camada de cola Araudite® e duas de esmalte para unhas, os canais radiculares foram obturados pela técnica do cone único de guta-percha, empregando-se diferentes cimentos resinosos, de acordo com os grupos experimentais: G1 – AH Plus®; G2 – experimental MBP; G3 – EndoREZ® e G4 – AH 26®. Quatro dentes foram utilizados como controle (positivo e negativo. Em seguida, foram imersos em tinta nanquim por 15 dias a 37°C e 100% de umidade. Decorrido este período as raízes foram lavadas por 24 horas e submetidas ao processo de diafanização (descalcificação em ácido nítrico 5%, desidratação em bateria de álcool ascendente e transparência em salicilato de metila. A análise da infiltração coronária foi realizada por meio de escores numéricos, através de microscópio com aumento de 40×. O teste estatístico de Kruskal-Wallis mostrou que o cimento EndoREZ® apresentou o pior resultado e diferença estatística significante com relação aos demais grupos, que não apresentaram diferença estatística significante entre si (p The aim of this study was to evaluate the coronal leakage of four different endodontic sealers. Forty-four extracted human pre-molars constituted the sample. Theirs crowns were cut and the roots standardized in 15 mm. The canals were prepared by the step-back technique, using NaOCl 1% and EDTA for irrigation. The specimens were recovered with Araudit® and then with two layers of nail varnish. The canals were obturated by the single cone gutta

  6. Effect of several bleaching agents on teeth stained with a resin-based sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiz, A; Barekatain, B; Khalesi, S; Khalighinejad, N; Badrian, H; Swift, E J

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of peroxide-based bleaching agents on teeth stained with AH26 sealer (Dentsply De Trey, Konstanz, Germany), using digital images and computer analysis. Thirty-five maxillary central incisors were root filled, and the internal walls of the access cavity were coated with AH26 sealer. Internal bleaching commenced 4 months after the root fillings. In three experimental groups (n = 10), the teeth were bleached for 21 days using 45% carbamide peroxide (CP) gel, 45% sodium perborate + carbamide peroxide (SP + CP) or sodium perborate + distilled water (SP + W). No bleaching was undertaken in the control group. Digital images of each specimen were made before treatment, 4 months after endodontic treatment and 2 weeks after bleaching. Colour differences (∆E) were calculated by determining L*a*b* values using digital images and imaging software. Differences between the original colour and sealer-stained teeth, between sealer-stained and bleached teeth and between original colour and bleached teeth were calculated. Data were analysed using one-way anova and Duncan tests (α = 0.05). Colour differences between baseline and sealer staining were in the range of 8.1-9.9, but differences between the groups were not significant. After bleaching, the degree of lightening was essentially identical for the carbamide peroxide and sodium perborate + carbamide peroxide groups, but was significantly greater (P sodium perborate + water group. For bleaching AH26 sealer-stained teeth, carbamide peroxide gel and carbamide peroxide gel mixed with sodium perborate were equally effective and significantly better than sodium perborate mixed with water. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Biocompatibility of two experimental scaffolds for regenerative endodontics

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    Dephne Jack Xin Leong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The biocompatibility of two experimental scaffolds for potential use in revascularization or pulp regeneration was evaluated. Materials and Methods One resilient lyophilized collagen scaffold (COLL, releasing metronidazole and clindamycin, was compared to an experimental injectable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffold (PLGA, releasing clindamycin. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs were seeded at densities of 1.0 × 104, 2.5 × 104, and 5.0 × 104. The cells were investigated by light microscopy (cell morphology, MTT assay (cell proliferation and a cytokine (IL-8 ELISA test (biocompatibility. Results Under microscope, the morphology of cells coincubated for 7 days with the scaffolds appeared healthy with COLL. Cells in contact with PLGA showed signs of degeneration and apoptosis. MTT assay showed that at 5.0 × 104 hDPSCs, COLL demonstrated significantly higher cell proliferation rates than cells in media only (control, p < 0.01 or cells co-incubated with PLGA (p < 0.01. In ELISA test, no significant differences were observed between cells with media only and COLL at 1, 3, and 6 days. Cells incubated with PLGA expressed significantly higher IL-8 than the control at all time points (p < 0.01 and compared to COLL after 1 and 3 days (p < 0.01. Conclusions The COLL showed superior biocompatibility and thus may be suitable for endodontic regeneration purposes.

  8. Biocompatibility of two experimental scaffolds for regenerative endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setzer, Frank C.; Trope, Martin; Karabucak, Bekir

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The biocompatibility of two experimental scaffolds for potential use in revascularization or pulp regeneration was evaluated. Materials and Methods One resilient lyophilized collagen scaffold (COLL), releasing metronidazole and clindamycin, was compared to an experimental injectable poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid scaffold (PLGA), releasing clindamycin. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) were seeded at densities of 1.0 × 104, 2.5 × 104, and 5.0 × 104. The cells were investigated by light microscopy (cell morphology), MTT assay (cell proliferation) and a cytokine (IL-8) ELISA test (biocompatibility). Results Under microscope, the morphology of cells coincubated for 7 days with the scaffolds appeared healthy with COLL. Cells in contact with PLGA showed signs of degeneration and apoptosis. MTT assay showed that at 5.0 × 104 hDPSCs, COLL demonstrated significantly higher cell proliferation rates than cells in media only (control, p < 0.01) or cells co-incubated with PLGA (p < 0.01). In ELISA test, no significant differences were observed between cells with media only and COLL at 1, 3, and 6 days. Cells incubated with PLGA expressed significantly higher IL-8 than the control at all time points (p < 0.01) and compared to COLL after 1 and 3 days (p < 0.01). Conclusions The COLL showed superior biocompatibility and thus may be suitable for endodontic regeneration purposes. PMID:27200277

  9. Interfacial Characteristics and Cytocompatibility of Hydraulic Sealer Cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebudi Benezra, Mira; Schembri Wismayer, Pierre; Camilleri, Josette

    2018-02-02

    The stability and long-term success of root canal obturation depends on the choice of sealer because the sealer bonds to the dentin and stabilizes the solid cone. Furthermore, the sealer needs to be nontoxic because sealer toxicity will certainly lead to treatment failure. The aim of this study was to assess the sealer-dentin interface of 3 hydraulic root canal sealers and to evaluate their cytocompatibility compared with AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey GmbH, Konstanz, Germany). Four dental root canal sealers were assessed. AH Plus, MTA Fillapex (Angelus, Londrina, Brazil), BioRoot RCS (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France), and Endoseal (Maruchi, Wonju-si, Gangwon-do, South Korea) were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The sealer-tooth interface was assessed by confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and biocompatibility was measured by assessing the cell metabolic function using direct contact assays and alkaline phosphatase activity. The tricalcium silicate-based sealers presented a different microstructure and elemental composition despite their similar chemistry and classification. BioRoot RCS was free of aluminum, and all sealers presented different radiopacifying elements. The sealer penetration in the dentinal tubules and interfacial characteristics were different. The migration of silicon was evident from sealer to tooth for all sealers containing tricalcium silicate. MTA Fillapex and BioRoot RCS exhibited the best cytocompatibility in both the direct contact test and alkaline phosphatase activity. The use of hydraulic calcium silicate-based sealers has introduced a different material type to endodontics. These materials are different than other sealers mostly because of their hydraulic nature and their interaction with the environment. Although the sealers tested had a similar chemistry, their cytocompatibility and bonding mechanisms were diverse. Copyright © 2017 American Association of

  10. The effects of endodontic substances and naturally reducing agents on the bond strength of epoxy resin-based sealer to root dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchin, Doglas; Farina, Ana Paula; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine (CHX), and two naturally derived reducing agents on the bond strength of epoxy resin-based sealer to root dentin. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 single-rooted human teeth were prepared using ProTaper (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Johnson City, TN, USA) and an irrigation protocol including 5% NaOCl or 2% CHX gel, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), for smear layer removal. The following subgroups (n = 10) were also assessed according to the naturally derived reducing agent used: no agent (control group); grape seed extract (GSE); and green tea. Root canals were filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany). Bond strength was measured using the push-out test, and statistical analyses were performed using ANOVA; failure patterns (modes) were classified as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed. The types of failure modes were evaluated using the Chi-squared test at α =0.05. Results: The irrigation protocols demonstrated similar bond strength values (P > 0.05). However, the Chi-squared test revealed significant differences in failure mode among the groups (P sealer to dentin; however, improvement was evident in the adhesion quality of AH Plus to NaOCl-treated root dentin, due to the prevalence of cohesive failure. PMID:29386775

  11. Effect of Nd:YAG and Diode Lasers on Apical Seal of Root Canals Filled with AH Plus and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate-Based Sealers

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    Elham Khoshbin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Laser irradiation, as an adjunct to root canal preparation, may increase the success rate of endodontic treatments. This study aimed to assess the effect of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG and diode lasers on the apical seal of the root canals filled with AH Plus® and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA-based sealers.Materials and Methods: This in-vitro experimental study was conducted on 96 single-rooted, single-canal extracted human teeth with closed apices. The root canals were prepared by using ProTaper® rotary instruments and were randomly divided into six groups (n=16: 940-nm diode laser and AH Plus® sealer (group 1, Nd:YAG laser and AH Plus® sealer (group 2, AH Plus® sealer (group 3, 940-nm diode laser and MTA-based sealer (group 4, Nd:YAG laser and MTA-based sealer (group 5, MTA-based sealer (group 6, as well as positive and negative control groups. A bacterial leakage model was used for microleakage assessment. Qualitative assessment was done by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA at the significance level of 0.05.Results: There were statistically significant differences between the experimental and control groups (P=0.002. The laser-treated groups showed a lower apical microleakage compared to the non-laser-treated groups, although the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05. No significant differences were noted between the two lasers in terms of the apical microleakage, irrespective of the type of sealer (P>0.05.Conclusions: Laser irradiation, as an adjunct to root canal preparation, has no significant effect on the level of apical microleakage.

  12. Evaluation of Biocompatibility of Root Canal Sealers on L929 Fibroblasts with Multiscan EX Spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konjhodzic-Prcic, Alma; Jakupovic, Selma; Hasic-Brankovic, Lajla; Vukovic, Amra

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to estimate the biocompatibility of endodontic sealers with different bases on L929 mouse fibroblasts permanent cell line using Multiscan EX Spectrophotometer. Endodontics sealers used in this study were GuttaFlow (Roeko) silicone based sealer, AH plus (De Tray-DENTSPLY) epoxy resin based, Apexit (Vivadent) calcium hydroxide based and Endorez (Ultradent) methacrylate based sealer. Sealer were tested trough time, freshly mixed 24 h, 48h and 7 days after setting. Biocompatibility was determinate on permanent cell lines L929 mouse fibroblasts trough cytotoxicity using MTT assay. Level of absorption was measured with multi scan EX spectrophotometer on length 420-600 nm. Sealer based on calcium hydroxide Apexit Plus, GuttaFlow silicone based sealer and AH plus epoxy resin based sealer, have shown a low cytotoxicity through the all periods of time on culture of L292 mouse fibroblasts. Methacrylate based sealer, Endorez showed moderate cytotoxicity when freshly mixed and after 7 days. After 24 hours the visibility of the cells was 74,0% and after 48 hours 65,1%. which is slightly cytotoxic. According to results of this study there is a statistically significant difference among the groups p<0,05 for all the tested sealers. Apexit Plus, GuttaFlow and AH plus can be considered as biocompatibile. EndoREZ sealer which is based on methacrylate, after 7 days shows 50,1% of visible live cells which is considered as moderate cytotoxicity.

  13. ANÁLISE DA AÇÃO ANTIMICROBIANA DE CIMENTOS E PASTAS EMPREGADOS NA PRÁTICA ENDODÔNTICA ANALYSIS OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION OF SEALERS AND PASTES USED IN ENDODONTIC PRACTICE

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    Marco Antonio Hungaro DUARTE

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o poder antimicrobiano dos cimentos Endomethasone, AH26, Sealer 26, Sealer 26 acrescido de 5% de hexametilenotetramina, Sealer 26 acrescido de 10% de hexametilenotetramina, Sealapex e pasta aquosa de hidróxido de cálcio. Foram utilizados o método de difusão radial em placas ágar escavadas e cepas puras de microorganismos, sendo que as leituras foram efetuadas após 24 e 48 horas de incubação em aerobiose e microaerofilia. Os resultados mostraram que o Endomethasone apresentou os maiores halos de inibição do crescimento bacteriano e que o acréscimo de hexametilenotetramina acarretou um aumento nos halos proporcionados pelo Sealer 26. O cimento Sealapex e a pasta de hidróxido de cálcio não inibiram os microorganismos testadosAn evaluation of the antimicrobial action of the sealers Endomethasone, AH26, Sealapex, Sealer 26, Sealer 26 with 5% hexametilenotetramine, Sealer 26 with 10% hexametilenotetramine and aqueous calcium hydroxide paste was carried out. Microorganisms were spread over hollowed agar plates, by means of the radial diffusion method. Halo measurements were done after 24 and 48 hours of incubation under aerobic and microaerophilia conditions. The results showed bigger halos when Endomethasone was used, and the increment of hexametilenotetramine in the Sealer 26 increased the inhibition halos of this sealer. The Sealapex and the calcium hydroxide paste did not inhibit bacterial growth

  14. An in vitro comparison of the sealing ability of three endodontic sealers used in canals with iatrogenic enlargement of the apical constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandakis, Christos; Kaliva, Mary; Lambrianidis, Theodoros; Kosti, Eleni

    2005-03-01

    In cases of disrupted apical constriction effort is made to create an apical stop and subsequently instrument and obturate the canal up to this point. The aim of this study was to in vitro evaluate the sealing ability of three root canal sealers used with the lateral compaction technique in teeth with enlarged constriction. Thirty-six single rooted premolars with straight canals were instrumented up to the apical constriction using a step-back technique. The constriction was enlarged and root canal instrumentation 1.5 mm short of the original working length was performed, to create a new apical stop. Teeth were obturated using lateral compaction technique with either Topseal, Roth 811, or Apexit. Teeth were subjected to area-metric analysis of dye penetration in transverse root sections, up to the most coronal extend of the dye. Sections were studied under the stereomicroscope, digital images were processed and leakage area was estimated. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t test and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. No gutta-percha was extruded into the space between the apical constriction and the new iatrogenically created constriction. Topseal showed statistical significant less leakage. No significant difference was found between Apexit and Roth 811 (t = 0.99; p = 0.75).

  15. Characterization of experimental cements with endodontic goal; Caracterizacao de cimentos experimentais com finalidade endodontica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, A.M.X.; Sousa, W.J.B.; Oliveira, E.D.C.; Carrodeguas, R.G.; Fook, M.V. Lia, E-mail: alana.mxd@hotmail [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (CCT/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Universidade Estadual da Paraiba (UEPB), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to characterize experimental endodontic cements using as comparative parameter MTA cement. Two experimental endodontic cements were assessed: one based on 95% tri-strontium aluminate and 5% gypsum (CE1) and another based on 50% Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} and 50% non-structural white cement (CE2). Experimental cements were manipulated and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), coupled to EDS mode, X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. Data analysis demonstrated that the particles of the materials used presented varied shapes and sizes, with similar elements and crystalline behavior. However, CE1 presented increased mass loss. Experimental cements presents similarities to MTA, nevertheless, further studies are encourage to determinate comparative properties with the commercially material. (author)

  16. Evaluation of radiopacity, pH, release of calcium ions, and flow of a bioceramic root canal sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candeiro, George Táccio de Miranda; Correia, Fabrícia Campelo; Duarte, Marco Antônio Húngaro; Ribeiro-Siqueira, Danieli Colaço; Gavini, Giulio

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of a bioceramic root canal sealer, Endosequence BC Sealer. Radiopacity, pH, release of calcium ions (Ca(2+)), and flow were analyzed, and the results were compared with AH Plus cement. Radiopacity and flow were evaluated according to ISO 6876/2001 standards. For the radiopacity analysis, metallic rings with 10-mm diameter and 1-mm thickness were filled with cements. The radiopacity value was determined according to radiographic density (mm Al). The flow test was performed with 0.05 mL of cement placed on a glass plate. A 120-g weight was carefully placed over the cement. The largest and smallest diameters of the disks formed were measured by using a digital caliper. The release of Ca(2+) and pH were measured at periods of 3, 24, 72, 168, and 240 hours with spectrophotometer and pH meter, respectively. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey test (P bioceramic endodontic cement showed radiopacity (3.84 mm Al) significantly lower than that of AH Plus (6.90 mm Al). The pH analysis showed that Endosequence BC Sealer showed pH and release of Ca(2+) greater than those of AH Plus (P < .05) during the experimental periods. The flow test revealed that BC Sealer and AH Plus presented flow of 26.96 mm and 21.17 mm, respectively (P < .05). Endosequence BC Sealer showed radiopacity and flow according to ISO 6876/2001 recommendations. The other physicochemical properties analyzed demonstrated favorable values for a root canal sealer. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Enhance Physicochemical Characteristics of Grossman Sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versiani, Marco Aurélio; Abi Rached-Junior, Fuad Jacob; Kishen, Anil; Pécora, Jesus Djalma; Silva-Sousa, Yara Terezinha; de Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2016-12-01

    Metallic antibacterial nanoparticles have been shown to provide distinct antibacterial advantage and antibiofilm efficacy when applied in infected root canals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of incorporating zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-Np) on the physicochemical properties of Grossman sealer. Grossman sealer was prepared according to its original formula. Additionally, 4 experimental sealers were prepared by replacing the zinc oxide component of the powder with ZnO-Np (average size of 20 nm) in different amounts (25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%). Characterization of the setting time, flow, solubility, dimensional changes, and radiopacity were performed according to American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Dental Association (ADA) Specification 57. Scanning electron microscopic and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analyses were conducted to assess the ultrastructural and chemical characteristics of experimental sealers subjected to the solubility test. Statistical analyses were performed with analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey-Kramer tests with a significance level of 5%. A statistically significant difference in the setting time was observed among groups (P < .05), but only 25% ZnO-Np sealer complied with ANSI/ADA requirements. There was a significant difference in the flow characteristics between the control and 25% and 75% ZnO-Np experimental sealers (P < .05), but all sealers conformed to ANSI/ADA standardization; 25% ZnO-Np sealer showed significantly less solubility (1.81% ± 0.31%) and dimensional change (-0.34% ± 0.12%) than other sealers (P < .05). All sealers showed ultrastructural changes with increasing solubility. ZnO-Np decreased the setting time and dimensional changes characteristic of Grossman sealer; 25% ZnO-Np improved the physicochemical properties of Grossman sealer in accordance with ANSI/ADA requirements. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  18. Long-term cytotoxic effects of contemporary root canal sealers

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    Emmanuel Joao Nogueira Leal da SILVA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of root canal sealers on the cytotoxicity of 3T3 fibroblasts during a period of 5 weeks. Material and Methods Fibroblasts (3T3, 1×105 cells per well were incubated with elutes of fresh specimens from eight root canal sealers (AH Plus, Epiphany, Endomethasone N, EndoREZ, MTA Fillapex, Pulp Canal Sealer EWT, RoekoSeal and Sealapex and with elutes of the same specimens for 5 succeeding weeks after immersing in simulated body fluid. The cytotoxicity of all root canal sealers was determined using the MTT assay. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results RoekoSeal was the only sealer that did not show any cytotoxic effects (p<0.05. All the other tested sealers exhibited severe toxicity initially (week 0. MTA Fillapex remained moderately cytotoxic after the end of experimental period. Toxicity of the other tested sealers decreased gradually over time. The evaluated root canal sealers presented varying degrees of cytotoxicity, mainly in fresh mode. Conclusions RoekoSeal had no cytotoxic effect both freshly mixed and in the other tested time points. MTA Fillapex was associated with significantly less cell viability when compared to the other tested root canal sealers.

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Defects at the Dentin-Post Space in Endodontically Treated Teeth

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    Mariasevera Di Comite

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess frequency and extension of the defects affecting the dentin-post interface after using different combinations of irrigants and sealers. The experimental work was conducted on single-rooted teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons. The specimens were divided into different groups, according to irrigant and endodontic cement utilized, and endodontically instrumented. After fiberglass posts cementation, cross sections were obtained at apical, middle and coronal level of the root and submitted to quantitative analyses. Different types of defects were found: bubbles, bonding defects, polymerization defect, and cement residues. The percent extension of each defect and its frequency were related to the specific irrigant/sealer combination and to the root level. Detachments of the material from dentin were found only at apical and middle levels. Chlorhexidine digluconate seems to have more beneficial effects if compared to sodium hypochlorite: samples prepared with chlorhexidine digluconate showed a higher performance, with roots including null to few defects. In detail, samples treated with chlorhexidine digluconate and Pulp Canal Sealer showed the lowest frequency and the smallest dimension of defects.

  20. Evaluation of push-out bond strength of AH26 sealer using MTAD and combination of NaOCl and EDTA as final irrigation

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    Mohammad Ali Mozayeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: During endodontic procedures, the smear layer is formed as a result of mechanical instrumentation of the canal. Combination of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl is widely used for removal of the smear layer. Application of Mixture of tetracycline, acid, and detergent (MTAD as final irrigant subsequent to initial irrigation of 1.35% NaOCl has been proposed to increase clinical efficiency, biocompatibility and prolonged intra-canal antibacterial activity. Considering the importance of adhesion of endodontic sealers to the dentin walls of a prepared root canal, the present study evaluated push-out bond strength of AH26 sealer using final irrigation of MTAD and EDTA + NaOCl. Materials and Methods: Sixty five single-rooted teeth were prepared endodontically with the same chemomechanical technique and were randomly divided into three groups based on their final irrigation regimen: 17% EDTA + 5.25% NaOCl group (n = 30, MTAD group (n = 30 and control group (n = 5. Obturation of the canals was performed with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer. All teeth were sectioned in order that two specimens of 1 mm thickness were obtained from the coronal and the middle one third of each root resulting in 60 specimens for each experimental group and 10 specimens for control group. For push-out test, universal-testing machine was used to exert a constant compressive apico-coronal load at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. Minimum amount of compressive load caused dislodgement was measured and converted into megapascal (MPa scale. One-way analysis of variance and the post hoc Tukey test were used for statistical analysis of the data (α = 0.05. Results: In MTAD group, mean micro-push-out bond strength of AH26 sealer to dentin walls was obtained 2.23 MPa compared to 2.0 MPa for EDTA + NaOCl group. The mean bond strength of AH26 sealer to dentin walls was significantly greater using MTAD compared with combination of EDTA and NaOCl or saline

  1. Evaluation of push-out bond strength of AH26 sealer using MTAD and combination of NaOCl and EDTA as final irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozayeni, Mohammad Ali; Zadeh, Yashar Mohammad; Paymanpour, Payam; Ashraf, Hengameh; Mozayani, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: During endodontic procedures, the smear layer is formed as a result of mechanical instrumentation of the canal. Combination of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is widely used for removal of the smear layer. Application of Mixture of tetracycline, acid, and detergent (MTAD) as final irrigant subsequent to initial irrigation of 1.35% NaOCl has been proposed to increase clinical efficiency, biocompatibility and prolonged intra-canal antibacterial activity. Considering the importance of adhesion of endodontic sealers to the dentin walls of a prepared root canal, the present study evaluated push-out bond strength of AH26 sealer using final irrigation of MTAD and EDTA + NaOCl. Materials and Methods: Sixty five single-rooted teeth were prepared endodontically with the same chemomechanical technique and were randomly divided into three groups based on their final irrigation regimen: 17% EDTA + 5.25% NaOCl group (n =30), MTAD group (n =30) and control group (n =5). Obturation of the canals was performed with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer. All teeth were sectioned in order that two specimens of 1 mm thickness were obtained from the coronal and the middle one third of each root resulting in 60 specimens for each experimental group and 10 specimens for control group. For push-out test, universal-testing machine was used to exert a constant compressive apico-coronal load at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. Minimum amount of compressive load caused dislodgement was measured and converted into megapascal (MPa) scale. One-way analysis of variance and the post hoc Tukey test were used for statistical analysis of the data (α = 0.05). Results: In MTAD group, mean micro-push-out bond strength of AH26 sealer to dentin walls was obtained 2.23 MPa compared to 2.0 MPa for EDTA + NaOCl group. The mean bond strength of AH26 sealer to dentin walls was significantly greater using MTAD compared with combination of EDTA and NaOCl or saline. Conclusion

  2. The effect of four different irrigation systems in the removal of a root canal sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grischke, J; Müller-Heine, A; Hülsmann, M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of sonic, ultrasonic, and hydrodynamic devices in the removal of a root canal sealer from the surface and from simulated irregularities of root canals. Fifty-three root canals with two standardized grooves in the apical and coronal parts of longitudinally split roots were covered with AH Plus root canal sealer. Compared were the effects of (control) syringe irrigation, (1) CanalBrush, (2) passive ultrasonic irrigation, (3) EndoActivator, and (4) RinsEndo on the removal of the sealer. The specimens were divided into four groups (N = 12) and one control group (N = 5) via randomization. The amount of remaining sealer in the root canal irregularities was evaluated under a microscope using a 4-grade scoring system, whereas the remaining sealer on the root canal surface was evaluated with a 7-grade scoring system. Passive ultrasonic irrigation is more effective than the other tested irrigation systems or syringe irrigation in removing sealer from root canal walls (p irrigation shows a superior effect on sealer removal from the root canal surface during endodontic retreatment. Cleaning of lateral grooves seems not to be possible with one of the techniques investigated. Incomplete removal of root canal sealer during re-treatment may cause treatment failure. Passive Ultrasonic irrigation seems to be the most effective system to remove sealer from a root canal.

  3. Effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on Enterococcus faecalis biofilm in experimental primary and secondary endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennert, Christian; Feldmann, Katharina; Haamann, Edwina; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Follo, Marie; Wrbas, Karl-Thomas; Hellwig, Elmar; Altenburger, Markus J

    2014-11-04

    To determine the antibacterial effect of photodynamic Therapy on Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilms in experimentally infected human root canals in primary infections and endodontic retreatments. One hundred and sixty single-rooted extracted teeth with one root canal were prepared using ProTaper instruments. Seventy specimens were left without root canal filling and autoclaved. The root canals of another 70 specimens were filled with Thermafil and AH Plus and the root canal fillings were removed after 24 hours using ProTaper D files and plasma sterilized. The specimens were infected with a clinical isolate of E. faecalis for 72 hours. Samples were taken using sterile paper points to determine the presence of E. faecalis in the root canals. The specimens were randomly divided into groups according to their treatment with 20 teeth each and a control. In the PDT group the teeth were treated using PDT, consisting of the photosensitizer toluidine blue and the PDT light source at 635 nm. In the NaOCl (sodium hypochlorite) group the root canals were rinsed with 10 mL of 3% NaOCl. In the NaOCl-PDT group the root canals were rinsed with 10 mL of 3% of sodium hypochlorite and then treated with PDT. Samples were taken after treatments using sterile paper points. Additionally, remaining root canal filling material was recovered from the root canal walls. Survival fractions of the samples were calculated by counting colony-forming units. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to the data to assess the effect of different treatment techniques. Antimicrobial treatment of root canals caused a significant reduction of bacterial load in all groups. NaOCl irrigation eliminated E. faecalis most effectively. PDT alone was less effective compared to NaOCl irrigation and the combination of NaOCl irrigation and PDT. CFU levels recovered from the filling material after NaOCl irrigation of the root canals were 10fold higher compared to PDT and the combination of Na

  4. Physical properties of MTA Fillapex sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitti, Rafael Pino; Prati, Carlo; Silva, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Zanchi, Cesar Henrique; de Souza e Silva, Manuela Gonçalves; Ogliari, Fabrício Aulo; Piva, Evandro; Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare several physicochemical properties including working and setting times, flow, solubility, and water absorption of a recent calcium silicate-based sealer (MTA Fillapex; Angelus, Londrina, Brazil) and an epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus; Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany). The materials were handled following the manufacturer's instructions. The working time and flow were tested according to ISO 6876:2001 and the setting time according to American Society for Testing and Materials C266. For solubility and water absorption tests, the materials were placed into polyvinyl chloride molds (8 × 1.6 mm). The samples (n = 10 for each material and test) were placed in a cylindrical polystyrene-sealed container with 20 mL deionized water at 37°C. At 1, 7, 14, and 28 days, the samples were removed from the solutions and blotted dry for solubility and water absorption tests. The data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance with the Tukey test (P water absorption (P water absorption increased significantly over time for both materials in a 1- to 28-day period (P < .05). MTA Fillapex showed suitable physical properties to be used as an endodontic sealer. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antibacterial efficacy of AH Plus and AH26 sealers mixed with amoxicillin, triple antibiotic paste and nanosilver

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    Ali Kangarlou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Elimination of bacteria from the root canal system is one of the aims of endodontic treatment; hence the incorporation of antibiotics into sealers can increase their antimicrobial efficacy. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial effects of AH26 and AH Plus sealers mixed with amoxicillin, triple antibiotic paste and nanosilver on Enterococcus faecalis. Methods. In this experiment, amoxicillin, triple antibiotic paste and nanosilver powder were added at 10% of the total sealer weight to AH26 and AH Plus sealers and then cultured freshly or after 1, 3, and 7 days with suspension of E. faecalis for 24 hours. The zones of growth inhibition for E. faecalis were evaluated in each group. Results. Incorporation of nanosilver did not increase antibacterial effects of the sealers. Sealers combined with amoxicillin exhibited the highest antibacterial efficacy in fresh condition. In the set specimens, the results demonstrated that the mixture of sealers and triple antibiotic pastes exhibited the greatest antibacterial efficacy. Conclusion. Amoxicillin and triple antibiotic paste significantly improved the antibacterial properties of AH Plus and AH26 sealers. Such properties decreased with time, but the use of sealer-amoxicillin/triple paste combination was still superior to using sealers alone or in combination with nanosilver.

  6. The effect of irrigating solutions on the apical sealing ability of MTA Fillapex and Adseal root canal sealers

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    Richa Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Maximum sealing ability or adhesion of endodontic sealers can be achieved after effective removal of the smear layer. Endodontic irrigants assist in adequate removal of the smear layer, improving the retention mechanism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different root canal irrigation solutions (5.25% NaOCl followed by 17% EDTA and QMix on the apical sealing ability of two different root canal sealers (MTA Fillapex and Adseal. Methods. Forty-six single-canal teeth were divided into 4 experimental groups of 10 teeth each and a positive and negative group of 3 teeth each. The root canals were prepared using step-back technique. The teeth in groups 1 and 2 were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl followed by 17% EDTA and the teeth in groups 3 and 4 were irrigated with QMix. Finally all the teeth were flushed with sterile saline and dried using paper points. Obturation was accomplished by gutta-percha using lateral condensation technique. MTA Fillapex sealer was used in groups 1 and 3 whereas Adseal was used in groups 2 and 4. Dye penetration method was used to evaluate apical leakage. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests using SPSS 14. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. Group 3 showed maximum amount of apical leakage (3.7±0.3 mm whereas group 2 exhibited the least amount of apical leakage (2.1 ± 0.4 mm among all the experimental groups. Significant differences were found in the amount of apical leakage between all the groups (P = 0.00001. Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite followed by 17% EDTA and Adseal resulted in the best apical seal.

  7. An animal study - underutilized vista of research in dentistry with special reference to biocompatibility of root canal sealer

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    Varsha S Pandit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endodontic sealers are designed to be used only within the root canal but are frequently extruded through the apical constriction and often placed in intimate contact with periapical tissues for extended periods of time. Hence, assessment of biocompatibility of endodontic sealers is critical to the clinical success of endodontic therapy. Materials and Methods: Eighteen Wistar rats were divided into three groups of 6 each for observation after completion of 14, 30 and 90 days following implantation, respectively. Polyethylene tubes filled with new sealer, and tube without sealer [control] were implanted subcutaneously. The sample subcutaneous tissues from sacrificed rats were analyzed histologically for inflammatory response and were graded with FDI criteria as minimal, moderate and severe. Results were analyzed statistically with Student′s t-test and ANOVA tests. Results : Inflammatory reaction to the polyethylene tube was minimal at 14 and 90 days period and to the new sealer it was severe at 14 days and moderate at 30 and 90 days period. Conclusions: 1. Cytotoxicity of the individual ingredient of the new sealer should be investigated to find out its chemical reaction occurring at tissue interface resulting in persistence of inflammation. 2. This subcutaneous implantation method is a practical method for qualitative evaluation of endodontic material and can yield exact detailed information about tissue reaction of material on a cellular level. 3. Hence, animal study is positive, efficient and valuable method to carry out research successfully in dentistry.

  8. Crack sealer fill characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Laboratory testing was conducted to determine the extent of crack fill for crack sealers composed of methyl methacrylate, : epoxy, urethane, and high molecular weight methacrylate. The test specimens consisted of eight-inch long concrete : cylinders ...

  9. Spectrophotometric analysis of crown discoloration induced by two different sealers: An In vitro study

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    Rashmi Keshav Chahande

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Endodontic materials have been assessed with regards to their potential for dental staining. Aims: To evaluate the coronal discoloration effect of Apexit Plus and Resino Seal in mandibular premolars using spectrophotometer. Settings and Design: The study design was original research. Materials and Methods: Forty human single-rooted mandibular first premolar teeth were selected for the study. They were divided into four groups of ten specimens each. Group 1 - Apexit Plus sealer, Group 2 - Resino Seal sealer, Group 3 - positive control (Blood, and Group 4 - negative control (distilled water. Teeth were resected 3 mm below at cementoenamel junction. In all samples, access cavities were prepared, instrumented, and irrigated. Sealers were mixed and placed into the pulp chamber through cervical access and control groups were filled with blood and distilled water. Coronal orifices were sealed using self-cure glass ionomer cement. Samples were analyzed using spectrophotometer to determine the discoloration in each group at 10, 17, and 24 days interval. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis used Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: All sealers used in the present study caused a progressive coronal discoloration over a time period of 17–24 days. There was statistically significant difference between resino seal sealer and apexit plus sealer , with resino seal showing greater coronal discoloration. Conclusion: Resino seal sealer has greater potential to cause discoloration of crown as compared to apexit plus sealer over a period of time.

  10. Spectrophotometric analysis of crown discoloration induced by two different sealers: An In vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahande, Rashmi Keshav; Patil, Sanjay S; Gade, Vandana; Meshram, Rishikesh; Chandhok, Deepika J; Thakur, Deepa A

    2017-01-01

    Endodontic materials have been assessed with regards to their potential for dental staining. To evaluate the coronal discoloration effect of Apexit Plus and Resino Seal in mandibular premolars using spectrophotometer. The study design was original research. Forty human single-rooted mandibular first premolar teeth were selected for the study. They were divided into four groups of ten specimens each. Group 1 - Apexit Plus sealer, Group 2 - Resino Seal sealer, Group 3 - positive control (Blood), and Group 4 - negative control (distilled water). Teeth were resected 3 mm below at cementoenamel junction. In all samples, access cavities were prepared, instrumented, and irrigated. Sealers were mixed and placed into the pulp chamber through cervical access and control groups were filled with blood and distilled water. Coronal orifices were sealed using self-cure glass ionomer cement. Samples were analyzed using spectrophotometer to determine the discoloration in each group at 10, 17, and 24 days interval. Statistical analysis used Wilcoxon signed-rank test. All sealers used in the present study caused a progressive coronal discoloration over a time period of 17-24 days. There was statistically significant difference between resino seal sealer and apexit plus sealer , with resino seal showing greater coronal discoloration. Resino seal sealer has greater potential to cause discoloration of crown as compared to apexit plus sealer over a period of time.

  11. The Effect of Smear Layer on Apical Seal of Endodontically Treated Teeth

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    A Farhad

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of smear layer on apical seal of endodontically treated teeth. Methods: Sixty extracted single–rooted human teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups (n=25 and two control groups (n=5. The teeth were instrumented with K–type files to size 40 and then flared. Apical patency was ensured in all teeth. 5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid was used as irrigants to remove the smear layer in the second experimental group. The experimental groups were obturated by laterally condensed gutta – percha with Roth 801 sealer. The positive control group was obturated with gutta – percha without sealer. The root surfaces were then coated with nail polish and sticky wax except for the apex in the experimental groups and positive control group. The roots were completely covered in the negative control group. The samples were then immersed in India ink for 1 week at 37°C. Results: The statistical analysis of the results showed that the apical leakage was significantly increased in obturated canals with smear layer. Conclusion: The removal of smear layer might improve the long term apical seal and success of endodontically treated teeth. Keywords: Apical Seal, EDTA, Removal, Sodium Hypochlorite, Smear Layer.

  12. Effect of Different Agitation Techniques on the Penetration of Irrigant and Sealer into Dentinal Tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu; Perinpanayagam, Hiran; Kum, David J W; Yoo, Yeon-Jee; Jeong, Jin-Sun; Lim, Sang-Min; Chang, Seok-Woo; Baek, Seung-Ho; Zhu, Qiang; Kum, Kee-Yeon

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of five intracanal agitation techniques on the penetration of irrigant and sealer into dentinal tubules. Intracanal agitation techniques could promote chemomechanical debridement and the sealing of root canals during endodontic treatment. However, there is limited evidence for the agitation effect of Nd:YAP laser. Human maxillary premolars with single straight canals (N = 60) were prepared with ProTaper Next(®) NiTi rotary files (Dentsply Maillefer) up to X4 (ISO 40 size). Rhodamine B-labeled sodium hypochlorite was used for final irrigation together with the conventional syringe (control), sonic, ultrasonic, Nd:YAP laser, or V-Clean™ endodontic agitation system. All canals were obturated with gutta-percha and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled AH Plus sealer. Transverse sections were obtained at 2, 5, and 8 mm from the apex and observed under confocal laser scanning microscopy. Maximum penetration depth and penetration percentage of both irrigant and sealer were recorded. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were performed for multiple comparisons. The Spearman coefficient was calculated to confirm correlations between irrigant and sealer penetration. Laser agitation attained the most irrigant and sealer penetration depth and penetration percentage (p penetration percentage than the control group at 2 mm from the apex (p penetration correlated significantly for all agitation techniques (p penetration of irrigant and sealer at one or more sectioned levels from the apex.

  13. Comparative evaluation of the fracture resistance of teeth prepared with rotary system, filled with single cone gutta-percha and laterally condensed with zinc oxide eugenol and resin based (AH26) sealers to that of Resilon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, P Kashi; Muliyar, Sabir; Chavan, Prakash; Reddy, P Manoranjan; Reddy, T Praveen Kumar; Nilawar, Sanjay

    2012-11-01

    To compare the fracture resistance of teeth prepared with rotary system and filled with single cone guttapercha followed by lateral condensation with different sealers like zinc oxide eugenol and resin based (AH26) to that of resilon. A total number of 70 extracted intact human permanent maxillary incisors were selected. All prepared samples were divided into one control group (n = 10) and three experimental groups (n = 20 per group). Group 1 control. This group received no obturation; the root canal opening was sealed with a temporary filling material (Cavit, Premier Dental Products, Plymouth Meeting, PA) Group 2: Gutta-Percha and zinc oxide Eugenol sealer. Group 3: Gutta-Percha and AH26 sealer. (DiaDent, Korea) dipped in AH26 sealer. Group 4: Resilon cones and RealSeal Resin Sealer. Obturation was accomplished using a 0.06 taper size 40 gutta-percha master point. All the root samples were stored in 100% humidity at 37 °C for 2 weeks to allow the sealer to set completely. The root samples were then prepared for mechanical testing and the data was recorded and analyzed statistically. One-way ANOVA and Post hoc test (Duncan Multiple range test) were employed to determine possible statistical variation among the groups tested in this study. The force for group 2 was significantly greater than that for the control group 1 (no obturation).The force for group 3 was significantly greater than that for group 2. The force for group 4 was significantly greater than that for group 3. All other groupwise comparisons were not significant at 5% level. Group 4 seemed to have the greatest force among the three groups of interest in the study. Root canals filled with Resilon increased the in vitro resistance of single canal extracted teeth compared to other experimental groups. The mean fracture resistance value for the experimental groups in ascending order was as follows: Root canals instrumented but not filled, filled with gutta-percha and zinc oxide eugenol sealer, filled

  14. Influence of solvents on the bond strength of resin sealer to intraradicular dentin after retreatment

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    Marcelo PALHAIS

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the removal of filling material with ProTaper Universal Rotary Retreatment system (PTR combined with solvents and the influence of solvents on the bond strength (PBS of sealer to intraradicular dentin after canal reobturation. Roots were endodontically treated and distributed to five groups (n = 12. The control group was not retreated. In the four experimental groups, canals were retreated with PTR alone or in combination with xylol, orange oil, and eucalyptol. After filling material removal, two specimens of each group were analysed by SEM and µCT to verify the presence of filling remnants on root canal walls. The other roots were reobturated and sectioned in 1-mm-thick dentin slices that were subjected to the push-out test. Data were analysed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05. SEM and µCT analysis revealed that all retreatment techniques left filling remnants on canal walls. The control group (3.47 ± 1.21 presented significantly higher (p 0.05, and differed significantly from the group with eucalyptol (1.89 ± 0.63. The solvents reduced the PBS of the sealer to dentin and no retreatment technique promoted complete removal of filling material.

  15. Regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S; Smith, A J

    2014-03-01

    Significant advances in our understanding of the biological processes involved in tooth development and repair at the cellular and molecular levels have underpinned the newly emerging area of regenerative endodontics. Development of treatment protocols based on exploiting the natural wound healing properties of the dental pulp and applying tissue engineering principles has allowed reporting of case series showing preservation of tissue vitality and apexogenesis. To review current case series reporting regenerative endodontics. Current treatment approaches tend to stimulate more reparative than regenerative responses in respect of the new tissue generated, which often does not closely resemble the physiological structure of dentine-pulp. However, despite these biological limitations, such techniques appear to offer significant promise for improved treatment outcomes. Improved biological outcomes will likely emerge from the many experimental studies being reported and will further contribute to improvements in clinical treatment protocols.

  16. A novel GuttaFlow sealer supports cell survival and attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardo, Chelsea; Himel, Van T; Lallier, Thomas E

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the biocompatibility of a novel formulation of a silicone-based endodontic sealer GuttaFlow 2 (GF2; Coltène/Whaledent, Langenau, Germany) with the original (GFO) and fast-set (GFF) formulations of GuttaFlow and with an epoxy resin sealer, AHPlus Jet (AH+J; Dentsply, York, PA). Sealers were set into 3 × 5.5 mm discs. Cell culture media was used to extract leachable products at 24 hours and 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Primary human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were incubated with sealer elutes for 24 hours and evaluated using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and the calcein AM assay. Cell attachment was evaluated on set sealer that was either rinsed or unrinsed with cell media for 1 week. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student t test. Both calcein and 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays revealed that periodontal ligament cell viability was reduced on AH+J at 1, 2, and 4 weeks compared with all GuttaFlow sealers. There were no differences in cell viability between the GuttaFlow samples, and all displayed high rates of cell survival at all time periods. After 2 hours, cell attachment to the rinsed GFO and GFF samples exceeded the control, and at 24 hours cell attachment on all GuttaFlow samples exceeded the control. AH+J sealers supported significantly less cell attachment when compared with all GuttaFlow sealers. Cell attachment to set sealers showed better cell attachment when rinsed compared with unrinsed. GuttaFlow sealers were more biocompatible than AHJ in vitro. The novel GF2 displayed comparable biocompatibility with GFF and GFO. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of Three Different Sealer Placement Techniques: An In vitro Confocal Laser Microscopic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Avoy Kumar; Farista, Shanin; Dash, Abhilasha; Bendre, Ajinkya; Farista, Sana

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Three-dimensional obturation of the root canal system is the final objective of root canal therapy. Greater penetration of sealer in root dentine lesser will be the voids at the dentine–sealer interface. Hence, analysis of the dentin/sealer interface allows the determination of a filling technique which could obturate the root canals with least gaps and voids. Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare the depth and percentage of sealer penetration into root dentin using three different root canal sealer placement techniques under confocal laser scanning microscope. Materials and Methods: Thirty single-rooted teeth were selected and prepared. Adseal sealer (Meta Biomed, South Korea) was mixed with Rhodamine B dye and applied using lentulo spiral (Dentsply Maillefer, USA) as Group 1, bidirectional spiral (EZ-Fill– EDS, USA) as Group 2, and ultrasonic endodontic tip (Sonofile– Dentsply Tulsa, USA) as Group 3. Canals were then obturated with gutta-percha. The roots were sectioned at the 3 and 6-mm levels from the apical foramen and examined under confocal laser microscope. Results: Maximum mean depth and percentage of sealer penetration were observed for Group 1 and minimum for Group 3. Furthermore, statistical significant differences among Group 1 and Group 3 were found at 6-mm level and among Group 2 and Group 3 were found at 3-mm level (P ultrasonics. PMID:28839420

  18. In vitro evaluation of the sealing ability of three newly developed root canal sealers: A bacterial microleakage study

    OpenAIRE

    Jafari, Farnaz; Sobhani, Ehsan; Samadi-Kafil, Hossein; Pirzadeh, Ahmad; Jafari, Sanaz

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the sealing ability of MTA Fillapex, Apatite Root Canal Sealer and AH26 sealers. Material and Methods The present in vitro study was carried out on 142 extracted single-rooted human mature teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n=44) and two control groups (n=5). Three root canal sealers were MTA Fillapex, Apatite Root Canal Sealer and AH26. The teeth in the control groups were either filled with no sealer or ...

  19. Coronal and apical sealing ability of a new endodontic cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Morvarid; Iravani, Maryam; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Asgary, Saeed

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This in vitro study aims to evaluate the coronal and apical sealing ability of gutta-percha (GP) root filling used with either mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), new endodontic cement (NEC) or AH26 as filler/sealers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty eight single-rooted extracted teeth were selected, decoronated and then instrumented. Samples were randomly divided into three experimental (n=12) and two control groups (n=6). In group 1, root canals were filled using lateral condensation technique (L); while single cone technique (S) was used for groups 2 and 3. AH26, MTA and NEC were the root canal sealer/fillers in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Samples were immersed in 1% methylene-blue dye and then independently centrifuged apically and coronally. The roots were split longitudinally and linear extent of dye penetration was measured with a stereomicroscope from apical and coronal directions. Data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and T-test. RESULTS: No statistical differences in mean apical dye penetration between groups LGP/AH26, SGP/MTA and SGP/NEC were found; SGP/NEC group showed significantly less coronal dye penetration (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Considering the limitations of this in vitro study, it was concluded that the simple single cone technique with NEC can provide favorable coronal and apical seal. PMID:23864871

  20. Natural products in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almadi, Ebtissam M; Almohaimede, Amal A

    2018-02-01

    Herbal remedies are used throughout the world, either in earlier or in recent times. The number of studies on this alternative therapeutic system increased in the last decades. In this paper, the relevant literature on the use of natural products in root canal therapy is revised from a MEDLINE database search. The uses of medicinal plants in endodontics include cleaning and disinfection of root canals, intracanal medicaments between appointments, sealer cements, and for removal of obturation material. Other studies showed the effect of natural products in pulpal and dentin repair. Their use is anecdotal, and their effectiveness showed to be variable and is always compared to the chemical standards currently being used. Alkaloids, coumarins, saponins, and flavonoids are aromatic substances that are produced by plants and evaluated for their therapeutic potential. Further investigation into benefits of natural products is warranted.

  1. Comparison of sealer penetration using the EndoVac irrigation system and conventional needle root canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara Tuncer, Aysun; Unal, Bayram

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the EndoVac irrigation system (SybronEndo, Orange, CA) and conventional endodontic needle irrigation on sealer penetration into dentinal tubules. Forty single-rooted, recently extracted human maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into 2 groups according to the irrigation technique used: conventional endodontic needle irrigation and EndoVac irrigation. All teeth were instrumented using the ProFile rotary system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany) labeled with fluorescent dye. Transverse sections at 1, 3, and 5 mm from the root apex were examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The total percentage and maximum depth of sealer penetration were then measured. Mann-Whitney test results showed that EndoVac irrigation resulted in a significantly higher percentage of sealer penetration than conventional irrigation at both the 1- and 3-mm levels (P irrigation system significantly improved the sealer penetration at the 1- to 3-mm level over that of conventional endodontic needle irrigation. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Early gene expression analyzed by a genome microarray and real-time PCR in osteoblasts cultured with a 4-META/MMA-TBB adhesive resin sealer.

    OpenAIRE

    Syudo, Minoru; Yamada, Shizuka; Yanagiguchi, Kajiro; Matsunaga, Tsunenori; HAYASHI, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Adhesive resin sealer systems have been applied in endodontics to seal the root canal system. This study was designed to confirm the mechanism of intracellular molecular events in an in vitro cell culture system with a 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride/methylmethacrylate-tri-n-butyl borane (4-META/MMA-TBB) adhesive resin sealer. STUDY DESIGN: The gene expression patterns relating to cell growth and differentiation were examined using a human genome expression microarray a...

  3. Tissue reaction to Endométhasone sealer in root canal fillings short of or beyond the apical foramen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Suzuki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the response of periapical tissues to the endodontic sealer Endométhasone in root canal fillings short of or beyond the apical foramen. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty root canals of premolars and incisors of 2 mongrel dogs were used. After coronal access and pulp extirpation, the canals were instrumented up to a size 55 K-file and the apical cemental barrier was penetrated with a size 15 K-file to obtain a main apical foramen, which was widened to a size 25 K-file. The canals were irrigated with saline at each change of file. The root canals were obturated either short of or beyond the apical foramen by the lateral condensation of gutta-percha and Endométhasone, originating 2 experimental groups: G1: Endométhasone/short of the apical foramen; G2: Endométhasone/beyond the apical foramen. The animals were killed by anesthetic overdose 90 days after endodontic treatment. The individual roots were obtained and serial histological sections were prepared for histomorphological analysis (H&E and Brown & Brenn techniques under light microscopy. The following parameters were examined: closure of the apical foramen of the main root canal and apical opening of accessory canals, apical cementum resorption, intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate, presence of giant cells and thickness and organization of the apical periodontal ligament. Each parameter was scored 1 to 4, 1 being the best result and 4 the worst. Data were analyzed statistically by the Wilcoxon nonparametric tests (p=0.05. RESULTS: Comparing the 2 groups, the best result (p<0.05 was obtained with root canal filling with Endométhasone short of the apical foramen but a chronic inflammatory infiltrate was present in all specimens. CONCLUSIONS: Limiting the filling material to the root canal space apically is important to determine the best treatment outcome when Endométhasone is used as sealer.

  4. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and up-regulation of gelatinases in human fibroblast cells by four root canal sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E J N L; Accorsi-Mendonça, T; Almeida, J F A; Ferraz, C C R; Gomes, B P F A; Zaia, A A

    2012-01-01

      To investigate the effects of root canal sealers on the cytotoxicity and gelatinolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in human fibroblasts.   Human fibroblasts (MRC5, 3×10(5) cells per well) were incubated directly or indirectly with AH Plus, Endomethasone N, Pulp Canal Sealer EWT or Sealapex for 30 min, 1, 4 or 24 h (time-points). The cytotoxicity of all root canal sealers was determined by counting viable cells using the trypan blue exclusion assay. Supernatants of cell cultures incubated with root sealers directly or indirectly were collected after each time-point to determine the levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 gelatinolytic activity by gelatin zymography. Data were analysed using anova and the Tukey's tests.   Cells secreted MMP-2 after periods of 4 and 24 h; however, there were no significant differences between the sealers. Secretion of gelatinases was elevated by root canal sealers in direct contact with the cell monolayer when compared to indirect contact (P MRC5 fibroblasts. AH Plus had the highest cytotoxicity amongst the tested sealers, but all were associated with cytotoxic effects. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  5. Effect of Different Irrigation Systems on Sealer Penetration into Dentinal Tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generali, Luigi; Cavani, Francesco; Serena, Valentina; Pettenati, Corinne; Righi, Elena; Bertoldi, Carlo

    2017-04-01

    Different irrigation systems have been developed to improve the efficacy and distribution of the irrigants. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of conventional endodontic needle irrigation with other irrigant delivery and/or agitation systems on sealer penetration into dentinal tubules. Fifty single-rooted teeth with round-shaped root canals were distributed in 5 homogeneous groups characterized by the different cleansing system used: conventional endodontic needle irrigation, EndoActivator, Irrisafe, Self-Adjusting File, and EndoVac. After instrumentation, all teeth were filled by Thermafil obturators and rhodamine B dye labeled TopSeal sealer. Teeth were transversally sectioned at 2-, 5-, and 7-mm levels from the apex and observed under confocal laser scanning microscope. Maximum, mean, and percentage of sealer penetration inside tubules around the root canal were measured. Moreover, the integrity of the sealer layer perimeter was evaluated. No significant differences both in mean (p > .05) and in maximum penetration depth (p > .05) were observed among groups, whereas both parameters showed an increased trend within each group from the 2- to the 7-mm level from apex. Similarly, the percentage of penetration around the root canal wall did not differ among groups (p > .05) and showed an increasing trend within each group from the apical to the coronal portion of the canal. Sealer penetration into dentinal tubules is not affected by the irrigant delivery and/or agitation systems studied. Thermafil with TopSeal technique achieves complete sealer perimeter integrity in all groups. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of two heated gutta percha and sealer obturation techniques in canine teeth of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, K A; Manfra Marretta, S; Siegel, A M; Stapleton, B L; Wiggs, R B; Klippert, L S

    2000-06-01

    The overall endodontic fill and apical seal achieved using two different obturation methods were compared. Twenty-six adult dog canine teeth were instrumented and obturated using either a warm vertical or heated lateral technique. Zinc oxide-eugenol sealer was applied by paper point in the warm vertical technique and by syringe injection in the heated lateral technique. The cadaver jaws were warmed to 35-37 degrees C (95-98.6 degrees F) during obturation using a circulating warm water bath. Obturation times were recorded and ventrodorsal, lateral, and oblique dental radiographs were taken of all teeth for comparison. Twenty-two of the canine teeth were extracted and an apical dye study was performed using a clearing technique. Apical dye leakage was linearly measured to evaluate the furthest ink penetration into the root canal. Although radiographically the heated lateral method appeared to have a better endodontic fill, there was significantly greater apical dye leakage in teeth obturated with that combination of sealer and gutta percha. There was also extrusion of sealer and root fracture associated with the heated lateral technique. The method of sealer application was different for each technique; this variable should be taken into consideration when interpreting our results, which suggest that the warm vertical compaction technique may provide a better apical seal in canine teeth of dogs in a shorter period of time, with fewer obturation complications when compared to the heated lateral technique.

  7. Experimental and numerical analysis of penetration/removal response of endodontic instrument made of single crystal Cu-based SMA: comparison with NiTi SMA instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, M.; Xolin, P.; Gevrey, A.-M.; Thiebaud, F.; Engels-Deutsch, M.; Ben Zineb, T.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical study showing that single crystal shape memory alloy (SMA) Cu-based endodontic instruments can lead to equivalent mechanical performances compared to NiTi-based instruments besides their interesting biological properties. Following a previous finite element analysis (FEA) of single crystal CuAlBe endodontic instruments (Vincent et al 2015 J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 24 4128-39), prototypes with the determined geometrical parameters were machined and experimentally characterized in continuous rotation during a penetration/removal (P/R) protocol in artificial canals. The obtained mechanical responses were compared to responses of NiTi endodontic files in the same conditions. In addition, FEA was conducted and compared with the experimental results to validate the adopted modeling and to evaluate the local quantities inside the instrument as the stress state and the distribution of volume fraction of martensite. The obtained results highlight that single crystal CuAlBe SMA prototypes show equivalent mechanical responses to its NiTi homologous prototypes in the same P/R experimental conditions.

  8. Influence of the spatulation of two zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealers on the obturation of lateral canals

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    Pécora Jesus Djalma

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate, in vitro, the importance of the correct manipulation of endodontic sealers, correlating it with flow rate and with the consequent obturation of root canals. Twenty-four human canines were prepared, 1 mm from the apex, with K-files up to size 50, by means of the step-back technique. Six lateral canals were then drilled in each tooth, with size 10 file fixed to a low-speed handpiece. The teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups, and root canals were obturated either with the EndométhasoneÒ sealer or Grossman sealer, prepared at ideal or incorrect clinical consistency. After obturation by means of the lateral condensation technique, the teeth were radiographed and evaluated as to the number of sealed lateral canals. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (p < 0.001 between the tested sealers, and indicated the higher capacity of the well-manipulated Grossman sealer to fill lateral canals. It can be concluded that the flow rate of a sealer and its correct manipulation are very important for the satisfactory obturation of lateral canals.

  9. Comparison of neurotoxicity of root canal sealers on spontaneous bioelectrical activity in identified Helix neurones using an intracellular recording technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, S; Janahmadi, M; Khalilkhani, H

    2003-12-01

    To evaluate the neurotoxic effects of two endodontic sealers, AH-26 and Roth 801, on firing excitability and action potential configuration of F1 neural cells in the suboesophageal ganglia of Helix aspersa. A conventional intracellular current clamp technique was used to study the blocking effects of AH-26 and Roth 801 on ionic currents underlying the action potential of F1 nerve cells. The sealers were prepared according to the manufacturers' directions and were applied to the bathing media in two ways: invasive (0.05 mL of total mixture of each sealer was applied at a distance of 3 mm from the cell), or gradual (0.05 mL of the extract of each dissolved mixture of sealers in normal Ringers solution was perfused). When applied in an invasive mode, both sealers reduced the duration, the amplitude of action potentials and the amplitude of after-hyperpolarization potentials significantly and led to dramatic changes in action potential configuration. In the gradual mode of application, AH-26 showed a biphasic action; it first increased the excitability and then decreased the action potential parameters, while Roth 801 exhibited solely blocking effects. Both sealers had significant inhibitory effects on excitability of F1 neuronal cells.

  10. The effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on the push-out bond strength of RealSeal self-etch sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Sara; Bolhari, Behnam; Etemadi, Ardavan; Ghorbanzadeh, Abdollah; Sabet, Yazdan; Nosrat, Ali

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser on the push-out bond strength of RealSeal Self-Etch (SE) sealer. Various methods are used for smear layer removal in endodontics, such as the application of Er,Cr:YSGG lasers. This laser system may influence the bond strength of resin-based sealers. Sixty single-rooted extracted teeth were selected. After root canal preparation, samples were divided into two experimental groups and one positive control group (n=20 per group). In group 1, the smear layer was removed by irrigation with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). In group 2, the smear layer was removed using a 2.78 μm Er,Cr:YSGG laser with radial firing tips (RFT3) (parameters: 1.5 W, 140 μs, 20 Hz, and 15% water to 15% air ratio), moving at 2 mm/sec in an apico-coronal direction. Group 3 served as a positive control group. Five specimens from each group were selected for scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation. The remaining 45 roots were obturated with RealSeal SE/Resilon and subjected to push-out tests. Data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tamhane's test. The results showed no significant difference between push-out bond strength of root canal fillings in the EDTA+NaOCl group and the 1.5 W laser group (p>0.05). The positive control group showed the lowest push-out bond strength. The results of the present study indicate that the application of an Er,Cr:YSGG laser with radial firing tips did not adversely affect the push-out bond strength of RealSeal SE sealer to dentin.

  11. The use of bioceramics in endodontics - literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    JITARU, STEFAN; HODISAN, IOANA; TIMIS, LUCIA; LUCIAN, ANAMARIA; BUD, MARIUS

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim Bioceramics are ceramic compounds obtained both in situ and in vivo, by various chemical processes. Bioceramics exhibit excellent biocompatibility due to their similarity with biological materials, like hydroxyapatite. Bioceramics and multi-substituted hydroxyapatite or similar compounds have the ability to induce a regenerative response in the organism. The aim of this paper is to make a literature review on the main bioceramic materials currently used in endodontics and on their specific characteristics. Methods We conducted a search in the international databases (PubMed), to identify publications in the last 10 years, using the following key words: “bioceramics endodontics”, “bioceramic endodontic cement”, “bioceramic sealer” and “direct pulp capping bioceramic”. Results Commonly used endodontic sealers (e.g., containing zinc oxide, calcium hydroxide and a resin) have a long tradition in scientific research and clinical use in endodontics. For specific cases, like root resorptions, perforations, apexification, and retrograde fillings, new biocompatible materials were developed in order to improve the clinical outcome: ProRooT MTA (Dentsply Company, Germany); Biodentine (Septodont, France); Endosequence BC sealer (Brassler, SUA); Bioaggregate (IBC, Canada); Generex A (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, USA). Conclusion The studies are generally in favor of bioceramic materials even if there are not many products available on the market for endodontic use. As more products are launched and more research is performed regarding these materials, we will provide more reliable data on clinical outcome. PMID:27857514

  12. Evaluation of the endodontic apical seal after post insertion by synchrotron radiation microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contardo, L.; De Luca, M.; Biasotto, M.; Longo, R.; Olivo, A.; Pani, S.; Di Lenarda, R.

    2005-08-01

    The commonly used methods for evaluating the endodontic apical seal, such as longitudinal and transversal section and diaphanization, show some operative difficulties and intrinsic limitation. This study suggests and describes a new method of analysis using a synchrotron radiation microtomography to analyse the root apex after post insertion, creating a three-dimensional image and analysing sections of the specimen every 5 μm. The study was performed at SYRMEP beam line at the Electra Synchrotron in Trieste using monochromatic X-rays of 32 KeV. Eleven monoradicular teeth were prepared using NiTi GT Rotary files instruments to an apical size 20 with conicity .06 and divided in four groups: in G1 ( n=4) and G2 ( n=2), the specimens were endodontically filled with guttapercha and a zinc-oxide sealer, in G3 ( n=3) and G4 ( n=2) guttapercha and a silicon-based sealer were used. An endodontic post was inserted in specimens of groups 1 and 3 following the manufacturer's instructions. Specimens were analysed using monochromatic X-rays of 32 KeV. A CCD detector with pixel dimension pf 5×5 μm 2 was used for the acquisition process. Seven hundred and twenty projections were performed over 180° range using a high-resolution rotator. The projections were reconstructed using standard algorithms for tomographic reconstruction. The apical infiltration was evaluated by verifying if black spots were detectable on the images. The specimens of groups 3 and 4 showed a better apical seal than the ones of groups 1 and 2. Post insertion, when a ZOE-based sealer is used, increases the apical gap even if it does not seem to be clinically relevant and sufficient to be a cause of endodontic failure. The new method for analysis appeared to be effective to detect small defects in endodontic obturation, analysing guttapercha-sealer and sealer-dentin interfaces.

  13. Evaluation of the endodontic apical seal after post insertion by synchrotron radiation microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contardo, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Chirurgiche Specialistiche, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: olivo@ts.infn.it; De Luca, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Chirurgiche Specialistiche, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Biasotto, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Chirurgiche Specialistiche, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Longo, R. [Dipartment of Physics of the University of Trieste and INFN, Trieste (Italy); Olivo, A. [Dipartment of Physics of the University of Trieste and INFN, Trieste (Italy); Pani, S. [Dipartment of Physics of the University of Trieste and INFN, Trieste (Italy); Di Lenarda, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Chirurgiche Specialistiche, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2005-08-11

    The commonly used methods for evaluating the endodontic apical seal, such as longitudinal and transversal section and diaphanization, show some operative difficulties and intrinsic limitation. This study suggests and describes a new method of analysis using a synchrotron radiation microtomography to analyse the root apex after post insertion, creating a three-dimensional image and analysing sections of the specimen every 5{mu}m. The study was performed at SYRMEP beam line at the Electra Synchrotron in Trieste using monochromatic X-rays of 32KeV. Eleven monoradicular teeth were prepared using NiTi GT Rotary files instruments to an apical size 20 with conicity .06 and divided in four groups: in G1 (n=4) and G2 (n=2), the specimens were endodontically filled with guttapercha and a zinc-oxide sealer, in G3 (n=3) and G4 (n=2) guttapercha and a silicon-based sealer were used. An endodontic post was inserted in specimens of groups 1 and 3 following the manufacturer's instructions. Specimens were analysed using monochromatic X-rays of 32KeV. A CCD detector with pixel dimension pf 5x5{mu}m{sup 2} was used for the acquisition process. Seven hundred and twenty projections were performed over 180{sup o} range using a high-resolution rotator. The projections were reconstructed using standard algorithms for tomographic reconstruction. The apical infiltration was evaluated by verifying if black spots were detectable on the images. The specimens of groups 3 and 4 showed a better apical seal than the ones of groups 1 and 2. Post insertion, when a ZOE-based sealer is used, increases the apical gap even if it does not seem to be clinically relevant and sufficient to be a cause of endodontic failure. The new method for analysis appeared to be effective to detect small defects in endodontic obturation, analysing guttapercha-sealer and sealer-dentin interfaces.

  14. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated roots filled with resilon and guttapercha - A comparative in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh R Shetty

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare in vitro the fracture resistance of endodontically treated roots filled with Resilon and Gutta-percha. Methodology: Eighty extracted single canal teeth were selected and randomly assigned to five groups of sixteen teeth each. Teeth were sectioned using a diamond disc so as to obtain a root length of 14±1 mm. Roots were instrumented using .04 taper Profile rotary system to an apical size of 40 and obturated using .04 taper single cone (size 40 as follows: Group 1: Resilon .04 taper cone and Epiphany Self etching sealer, Group 2: .04 taper gutta-percha cone and AH Plus sealer ,Group 3: .04 taper gutta-percha cone and Roeko Seal Automix sealer, Group 4: .04 taper gutta-percha cone and Zinc oxide Eugenol sealer , Group 5: .04 taper gutta-percha cone without the use of a sealer. Following obturation, teeth were mounted in Poly Vinyl Chloride jigs using self cure acrylic resin such that 9mm of the root remained exposed. Fracture resistance testing was done using Instron testing machine using a vertical load applied perpendicular to the root surface. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA, Tukey HSD and Student′s ′t′ test. Results: Very highly significant difference was observed between the groups (P=.001. Resilon with Epiphany group demonstrated highest mean fracture resistance value and gutta-percha without sealer displayed the least, comparative results were highly significant. Resilon compared to gutta-percha with Roeko Seal Automix (P=.037 and Zinc Oxide Eugenolsealers (P=.029 showed statistically significant difference. AH plus group showed significantly higher value compared to gutta-percha without sealer. Conclusions: Filling the root canals with Resilon increased the in vitro fracture resistance of endodontically treated roots compared to standard gutta-percha techniques. Adhesive sealers are more beneficial in increasing the fracture resistance of

  15. Experimental Comparison of the Effect of Fiber Post Relined with Two Types Flowable Composites on Fracture Strength of Endodontically Treated Maxillary Incisors

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    Z. Khamverdi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Relining fiber posts with flowable composites is a procedure used for strengthening the weak walls of endodontically treated teeth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relining fiber posts with two types of flowable composites on the fracture resistance of the endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Methods: In this laboratory experimental study, 30 intact human maxillary incisors were selected. Root canal therapy was performed for all teeth, and the crown of each tooth was removed up to 2 mm above cementoenamel junction. The teeth were randomly divided into two equal groups of 15 cases. In Group 1, the endodontically treated teeth were restored with fiber post relined with low filler-loaded composite (Alite. On the other hand, in Group 2, the teeth were treated with high filler-loaded composite (Grandino. The relined fiber posts were cemented, and then restored by using cormax II. The fracture resistance of all samples was measured by means of a universal test machine at the crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min in Newton. The load was applied at an angle of 45˚C to the long axis of the tooth until specimen was fractured. The data were analyzed in SPSS, version 18 using Kolmogorove-Smirnov test and independent t-test at the significance level of 0.05. Results: The mean fracture strengths were 476.47±155.26 and 674.87±155.26 N for groups 1 and 2, respectively. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of the fracture strength (P<0.05. Conclusion: According to findings of this study, the application of high filler-loaded flowable composite (Grandino could significantly increase the fracture resistance of the endodontically treated teeth with weak root as compared to low filler-loaded flowable composite (Alite.

  16. In vivo evaluation of the sealing ability of two endodontic sealers in root canals exposed to the oral environment for 45 and 90 days Avaliação, in vivo, da capacidade de selamento de dois cimentos endodônticos em canais radiculares expostos ao meio bucal por 45 e 90 dias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Maria Poli Kopper

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This in vivo study evaluated the sealing ability of a resin-based sealer (AH Plus and a zinc oxide-eugenol sealer (Endofill in dogs' teeth, exposed to the oral environment for 45 and 90 days. Forty eight lower incisors from 8 dogs were endodonticaly treated. A stratified randomization determined the sealer use in each root canal. All canals were filled using the lateral condensation technique. The excess filling material at the cervical portion of the root canal was sectioned, leaving a 10-mm obturation length inside the canal. Teeth were provisionally sealed with glass ionomer cement for 24 h and the canals were exposed to the oral environment for either 45 or 90 days. Therefore, the experimental groups were as follows: A45- AH Plus for 45 days; A90- AH Plus for 90 days; E45- Endofill for 45 days; and E90- Endofill for 90 days (n=12. After the experimental period, the dogs were killed and the lower jaw was removed. The incisors were extracted and the roots were covered with two coats of nail varnish. The teeth were immersed in India ink for 96 h and submitted to diaphanization. Dye leakage (in mm was measured using stereomicroscopy (10x magnification. The results were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test for multiple comparisons (á = 0.05. Group E90 (2.03±0.94 showed significantly higher mean leakage value than all other groups (pEste estudo in vivo avaliou a capacidade de selamento de um cimento endodôntico resinoso (AH Plus e um a base de óxido de zinco eugenol (Endofill, em dentes de cães, expostos ao meio bucal, por 45 e 90 dias. Foi realizado o tratamento endodôntico de 48 incisivos inferiores de 8 cães. Uma randomização estratificada determinou o tipo de cimento a ser usado em cada canal que foram tratados pela técnica de condensação lateral. Após a obturação, o excesso de material obturador, na porção cervical do canal radicular foi seccionado, restando o comprimento de 10 mm no interior do canal

  17. A Comparison of Viscoelastic Properties of Three Root Canal Sealers

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    Malihe Pishvaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Handling of endodontic sealers is greatly dependent on their elasticity and flow ability. We compared the viscoelastic properties of three root canal sealers.Materials and Methods: AH Plus (Dentsply, De Trey, Konstanz, Germany, Endofill (Dentsply Hero, Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and AH26 (Dentsply, De Trey, Konstanz, Germany were mixed according to the manufacturers' instructions. The resulted pastes were placed on the plate of a rheometer (MCR 300, Anton-Paar, Graz, Austria. The experiments were performed at 25˚C and 37˚C. Viscoelastic properties of the sealers including loss modulus (G", storage modulus (G´ and complex viscosity (η* were studied using dynamic oscillatory shear tests. The shear module versus frequency (from 0.01 to 100 S-1 curves were gained using frequency deformation sweep test. Three samples of each material were examined at each temperature. The mean of these three measurements were recorded.Results: The storage modulus of AH plus was higher than its loss modulus at two temperatures. Endofill exhibited a crossover region in which the storage modulus crosses the loss modulus in both temperatures. At 25ºC the loss modulus of AH26 was higher than the storage modulus (G">G¢. In contrast, at 37ºC G¢was greater than G² (G¢>G². Both shear modules of AH Plus and Endofill decreased as the temperature raised from 25ºC to 37ºC. On the contrary, the loss modulus and storage modulus of AH26 increased at 37ºC.Conclusion: In both test temperatures, AH Plus behaved like viscoelastic solids and Endofill exhibited a gel-like viscoelastic behavior. AH26 at 25ºC behaved like liquids, while at 37ºC it was an elastic solid-like material

  18. Histological evaluation of bone response to pediatric endodontic pastes: an experimental study in guinea pig

    OpenAIRE

    Lacativa, Andréa Mara; Loyola, Adriano M.; Sousa,Cassio José Alves

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate by the intra-osseous implant technique the most commonly used materials for pulp therapy in pediatric dentistry: calcium hydroxide (CH), Guedes Pinto paste and CTZ paste, according to FDI (1980) and ANSI/ADA (1982) recommendations. Thirty guinea pigs, 10 for each material, divided into experimental periods of 4 and 12 weeks received one implant on each side of the lower jaw symphysis. The external lateral tube wall served as control for the technique. At the end o...

  19. Histological evaluation of bone response to pediatric endodontic pastes: an experimental study in guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacativa, Andréa Mara; Loyola, Adriano M; Sousa, Cassio José Alves

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate by the intra-osseous implant technique the most commonly used materials for pulp therapy in pediatric dentistry: calcium hydroxide (CH), Guedes Pinto paste and CTZ paste, according to FDI (1980) and ANSI/ADA (1982) recommendations. Thirty guinea pigs, 10 for each material, divided into experimental periods of 4 and 12 weeks received one implant on each side of the lower jaw symphysis. The external lateral tube wall served as control for the technique. At the end of the observation periods, the animals were euthanized and specimens were prepared for routine histological examination. It was observed that CH and CTZ paste induced severe inflammation, a large amount of necrotic tissue, lymphocytes, foreign body cells and bone resorption, while Guedes Pinto Paste induced little or no inflammation in the 4-week observation period. After 12 weeks, the reactions to CH and Guedes Pinto paste were also absent/mild, presenting a general pattern of replacement by recently formed bone tissue while a moderate to severe inflammatory response was observed with CTZ paste. Guedes Pinto paste presented acceptable biocompatibility levels in both analyzed periods; CH only showed acceptable biocompatibility in the 12-week period while CTZ paste showed no biocompatibility in both periods. Among the tested materials, only Guedes Pinto paste presented an acceptable biocompatibility.

  20. Comparison of Sealer Penetration by Using Different Irrigation Techniques - An In-vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Prabu Mahin Syed; Ahamed, Siddiq; Sabiha, P B; Sekhar, M Chandra; Moosani, Gopikrishna; Reddy, S Nagalakshmi; Reddy, N Upendranatha; Sumanthi, C H

    2016-12-01

    The main goal of root canal treatment is to eliminate the microorganisms particularly in the apical third area and to prevent re-infection. In order to achieve these goals the instrumentation must be combined with adequate irrigation. To compare sealer penetration by using different irrigation techniques i.e., apical negative pressure irrigation, Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation (PUI) and combination of apical negative pressure irrigation and PUI. A total of 48 single rooted maxillary central incisors were taken. Access cavity was prepared and biomechanical preparation was done. The samples were randomly assigned into three experimental groups based on the final irrigation technique used. Group I: Apical negative pressure (Endovac); Group II: PUI; Group III: Combination of apical negative pressure and PUI. All the samples were obturated using AH plus sealer and the sections were observed under confocal laser scanning microscope to evaluate the percentage and maximum depth of sealer penetration at 1mm, 3mm and 5mm levels. Statistical analysis was done by using two way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test to compare the percentage and maximum depth of sealer penetration. Combination group resulted in better sealer penetration at 1mm and 3mm from the working length than the Endovac and PUI group. However, the Endovac group showed significantly better sealer penetration at 1mm from the working length when compared with PUI. There was no significant difference in sealer penetration at 5mm level between PUI and combination group. Combination group was the only group to achieve better sealer penetration at 1mm and 3mm levels from the working length.

  1. Effect of the time-point of acid etching on the persistence of sealer residues after using different dental cleaning protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Cristina Fagundes JORDÃO-BASSO

    Full Text Available Abstract: Endodontic sealer residues remaining within the pulp chamber dentin after root canal obturation and cleaning with various solvents may compromise the appearance and the durability of dental restorations. Acid etching is routinely performed prior to application of dentine adhesive systems, but is effect on residual sealer material and the optimal time-point for performing etching, are unknown. Here, we evaluated the effect of acid etching on the dentin surface when performed either immediately or 7 days after removal of the endodontic sealer with two solvents, i.e., 95% ethanol or xylol. Forty crowns fragments from bovine incisors were impregnated with sealer and divided into 4 groups (n = 10 each, according to the dentin cleaning protocol and to the acid etching time-point: G1, 95.0% ethanol and immediate acid etching; G2, xylol and immediate acid etching; G3, 95.0% ethanol and acid etching after 7 days; and G4, xylol and acid etching after 7 days. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images (2000 × were obtained from each specimen and the number of open dentinal tubules counted and compared. Another 40 fragments were similarly prepared, and SEM images were obtained (500 × to score and compare the persistence of sealer residues on the dentin. G4 showed the most open dentinal tubules and the least epoxy resin-based sealer residues on the dentin surface (p < 0.05. The least epoxy resin-based sealer residues was obtained when acid etching, using 37% phosphoric acid, was performed after 7 days after cleaning the dentin with xylol.

  2. The effect of final irrigation on the penetrability of an epoxy resin-based sealer into dentinal tubules: a confocal microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Alexander Pompermayer; Rosa, Ricardo Abreu da; Santini, Manuela Favarin; Wagner, Márcia; Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Kopper, Patrícia Maria Poli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of QMix, BioPure MTAD, 17 % EDTA, and saline on the penetrability of a resin-based sealer into dentinal tubules using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and to describe the cleaning of root canal walls by SEM. Eighty distobuccal roots from upper molars were selected and randomly divided into four groups (n = 20) before root canal preparation according to the solution used in the final rinse protocol (FRP): QG (QMix), MG (BioPure MTAD), EG (17 % EDTA), and CG (control group: saline). Ten roots of each group were prepared for SEM, and images (×2000) from the canal walls were acquired. The remaining canals were filled with a single gutta-percha cone and AH Plus with 0.1 % Rhodamine B. The specimens were horizontally sectioned at 4 mm from the apex, and the slices were analyzed in CLSM (×10). Sealer penetration was analyzed with Adobe Photoshop software. QG and EG presented similar amounts of sealer penetration (P > .05). MG and CG presented the lowest penetrability values (P < .05). The best results for smear layer removal of the apical third of the root canal were achieved by the QG and EG groups when compared with MG and CG (P < .05). Seventeen percent EDTA and QMix promoted sealer penetration superior to that achieved by BioPure MTAD and saline. Despite studies have not confirmed the relationship between sealing ability of endodontic sealers and their penetration in dentinal tubules, sealer penetration assumes importance, since endodontic sealers, unlike gutta-percha, are able to penetrate in dentinal tubules, isthmus, and accessory canals, filling the root canal system.

  3. Regaining apical patency after obturation with gutta-percha and a sealer containing mineral trioxide aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Matthew T; Sidow, Stephanie J; Lindsey, Kimberly W; Chuang, Augustine; McPherson, James C

    2014-04-01

    MTA Fillapex (Angelus Solucoes Odontologicas, Londrina PR, Brazil) was introduced as a mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-based sealer used for endodontic obturation. There is a lack of research that evaluates the ability of different solvents to soften MTA-based sealers during retreatment. This study tested the ability of 4 commonly used endodontic solvents to soften gutta-percha and MTA Fillapex to allow for the re-establishment of apical patency. Eighty-six extracted maxillary anterior teeth were instrumented to the working length to a size 45 (.04 taper size). Teeth were divided into 2 groups (n = 43 for each group). MTA Fillapex was placed into all canals. Group 1 was obturated with gutta-percha to the working length, and group 2 was obturated 2 mm short of the working length to ensure the apical 2 mm was filled with sealer only. Both groups were divided into 4 subgroups (n = 10). The remaining teeth served as the control group. Each subgroup was exposed to 1 of the following solvents: chloroform, Endosolv R (Septodont, Saint-Maur, France), Endosolv E (Septodont), or eucalyptol. Patency was re-established in 100% of the teeth in groups 1 and 2 when tested with chloroform or Endosolv E, 80% of the teeth in group 1 and 90% in group 2 when tested with eucalyptol, and 10% of the teeth in group 1 and 50% in group 2 tested when with Endosolv R. The chi-square test indicated there was a statistical difference between Endosolv R and the other tested solvents for both groups. Chloroform, Endosolv E, and Eucalyptol soften GP and MTA Fillapex sufficiently to aid in re-establishing apical patency during endodontic retreatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Endodontic microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan L; Vaishnavi C

    2010-01-01

    Root canal therapy has been practiced ever since 1928 and the success rate has tremendously increased over the years owing to various advancements in the field. One main reason is the complete understanding of the microbiology involved in the endodontic pathology. This has helped us to modify the conventional treatment plans and effectively combat the microorganisms. Now, studies are aiming to explore the characteristics of the ?most? resistant organism and the methods to eliminate them. This...

  5. Summary of: Regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    Significant advances in our understanding of the biological processes involved in tooth development and repair at the cellular and molecular levels have underpinned the newly emerging area of regenerative endodontics. Development of treatment protocols based on exploiting the natural wound healing properties of the dental pulp and applying tissue engineering principles has allowed reporting of case series showing preservation of tissue vitality and apexogenesis. To review current case series reporting regenerative endodontics. Current treatment approaches tend to stimulate more reparative than regenerative responses in respect of the new tissue generated, which often does not closely resemble the physiological structure of dentine-pulp. However, despite these biological limitations, such techniques appear to offer significant promise for improved treatment outcomes. Improved biological outcomes will likely emerge from the many experimental studies being reported and will further contribute to improvements in clinical treatment protocols.

  6. Variability of physicochemical properties of an epoxy resin sealer taken from different parts of the same tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, J V; Bernardes, R A; Duarte, M A H; Ordinola-Zapata, R; Cavenago, B C; Moraes, J C S; de Moraes, I G

    2012-10-01

    To analyse several physicochemical properties of AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany), including setting time, flow, radiopacity and the degree of conversion (DC); and to correlate the results with the source of the material: from the beginning, middle or end of the tubes in which they were supplied. Three experimental groups were established for each property investigated. Group 1 corresponded to material taken from the beginning of tubes A and B; Group 2 corresponded to material taken from the middle of each tube; and group 3 corresponded to that from the end of each tube. The setting time, flow and radiopacity were studied according to American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA) Specification 57. DC was determined from infrared spectra, which were recorded at 1-h intervals for the first 6 h; then, at 2-h intervals for the next 14 h; then, at 24 and 30 h. Data were analysed statistically by analysis of variance (anova), Tukey-Kramer, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests, with a significance level of 5%. Group 1 had a significantly longer setting time (2303 ± 1058 min) (P 0.05). The results suggest that segregation occurs between the organic and inorganic components of AH Plus sealer, thereby changing the setting time, flow and radiopacity. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  7. Micro-surgical endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyas, S; Vere, J; Ali, Z; Harris, I

    2014-02-01

    Non-surgical endodontic retreatment is the treatment of choice for endodontically treated teeth with recurrent or residual disease in the majority of cases. In some cases, surgical endodontic treatment is indicated. Successful micro-surgical endodontic treatment depends on the accuracy of diagnosis, appropriate case selection, the quality of the surgical skills, and the application of the most appropriate haemostatic agents and biomaterials. This article describes the armamentarium and technical procedures involved in performing micro-surgical endodontics to a high standard.

  8. Apical and periapical repair of dogs' teeth with periapical lesions after endodontic treatment with different root canal sealers Reparação apical e periapical de dentes de cães com lesão periapical crônica após tratamento endodôntico utilizando diferentes materiais obturadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Roberto Leonardo

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical and periapical repair after root canal treatment of dogs' teeth with pulp necrosis and chronic periapical lesion using different root canal sealers. After periapical lesion induction, forty-four root canals of 3 dogs were submitted to biomechanical preparation using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite as an irrigating solution. A calcium hydroxide dressing (Calen PMCC was applied for 15 days and the root canals were filled using the lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha points and Sealapex, AH Plus or Sealer Plus for sealing. After 180 days, the animals were sacrificed by anesthetic overdose and the obtained histological sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for optical microscopic analysis of the apical and periapical repair. The groups filled with Sealapex and AH Plus had better histological repair (p O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a reparação apical e periapical pós-tratamento endodôntico de dentes de cães com necrose pulpar e reação periapical crônica, em que se utilizaram diferentes materiais obturadores. Foram utilizados 44 canais radiculares, nos quais, após indução das lesões periapicais, foi efetuado o preparo biomecânico empregando-se como solução irrigadora uma solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 5,25%. Após curativo de demora com pasta à base de hidróxido de cálcio (Calen PMCC, mantida no canal radicular durante 15 dias, os canais radiculares foram obturados pela técnica clássica complementada pela condensação lateral ativa, empregando-se os cimentos Sealapex, AH Plus ou Sealer Plus. Decorrido o período de 180 dias, os animais foram mortos e as peças submetidas ao processamento laboratorial. Os cortes histológicos obtidos foram corados com hematoxilina-eosina. A análise histopatológica demonstrou que nos canais radiculares obturados com os cimentos Sealapex e AH Plus ocorreu melhor reparação (p < 0,05 do que nos canais obturados com o

  9. MICROBIAL LEAKAGE AND APICAL INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE IN DOG’S TEETH AFTER ROOT CANAL FILLING WITH DIFFERENT SEALERS, POST SPACE PREPARATION AND EXPOSURE TO THE ORAL ENVIRONMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Maximiliano Schünke; Barletta, Fernando Branco; Bona, Alvaro Della; Vanni, José Roberto; Pereira, Charles da Cunha; de Figueiredo, José Antônio Poli

    2007-01-01

    Coronal leakage is an important factor affecting the outcome of endodontic therapy. This study evaluated the microbial leakage (ML) and the apical inflammatory response (AIR) in dog’s teeth after root canal filling with three endodontic sealers, post preparation and exposure to the oral environment, testing the hypothesis that there is a positive correlation between these two histological parameters (ML and AIR). Sixty-four root canals of 8 mongrel dogs were cleaned, shaped and randomly distributed into groups according to the sealer to be used: Sealer 26 (n=18); AH Plus (n=18); RoekoSeal (n=19); no sealer – control group (n=9). Root canals were filled by the lateral condensation technique. Post space preparation left 4 mm of filling material in the apical root third, and specimens were exposed to the oral environment for 90 days. The dogs were killed and jaw blocks were histologically processed using Brown & Brenn and HE staining techniques. ML and AIR were scored from 1 to 4. Results were analyzed statistically using ANOVA, Duncan’s post-hoc test and Spearman’s correlation. ML and AIR score means were: Sealer 26 - 2.44±0.98 and 2.50±0.70; AH Plus - 2.50±0.78 and 2.22±0.54; RoekoSeal - 1.84±0.95 and 2.63±0.83; Control - 2.56±1.23 and 3.11±0.60. Statistically significant differences in AIR scores were found between the AH Plus and control groups (p<0.05). Although RoekoSeal had the lowest ML means, and AH Plus, the lowest AIR means after 90-day exposure to the oral environment, no statistically significant differences were found between the three sealers under study, and no correlation was found between ML and AIR. PMID:19089174

  10. Solubility and apical sealing characteristics of a new calcium silicate-based root canal sealer in comparison to calcium hydroxide-, methacrylate resin- and epoxy resin-based sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersahan, Seyda; Aydin, Cumhur

    2013-01-01

    To assess and compare the water sorption, solubility and apical sealing ability of iRoot SP and three other widely used root canal sealers. Solubility was assessed by immersing standardized samples of calcium silicate- (iRoot SP), calcium hydroxide- (Sealapex), methacrylate resin- (EndoREZ) and epoxy resin- (AH Plus) based sealers in distilled water and measuring weight gain and weight loss at 6 h, 24 h and daily for 14 days. Roots of extracted mandibular premolars (n = 80) were prepared with 0.04-taper nickel-titanium rotary files to a final size 40. Roots were then randomly divided into four experimental groups (n = 18) and two control groups (n = 4), root canal sealers were applied and apical leakage was assessed using the fluid filtration method. Data was analyzed using Kruskal Wallis analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U-tests, with the level of significance set at p ≤ 0.05. EndoREZ exhibited the highest water sorption, followed by iRoot SP, Sealapex and AH Plus. Sealapex exhibited significantly higher solubility than the other sealers, whereas no significant differences in solubility levels were observed between the other three sealers tested. AH Plus exhibited significantly lower microleakage than Sealapex and EndoREZ, whereas no difference in microleakage was found between AH Plus and iRoot SP. In view of the study findings, all tested sealers except Sealapex met the ANSI/ADA's requirements for solubility and no difference was found between AH Plus and iRoot SP in terms of apical sealing ability.

  11. In vitro evaluation of the sealing ability of three newly developed root canal sealers: A bacterial microleakage study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Ehsan; Samadi-Kafil, Hossein; Pirzadeh, Ahmad; Jafari, Sanaz

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the sealing ability of MTA Fillapex, Apatite Root Canal Sealer and AH26 sealers. Material and Methods The present in vitro study was carried out on 142 extracted single-rooted human mature teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n=44) and two control groups (n=5). Three root canal sealers were MTA Fillapex, Apatite Root Canal Sealer and AH26. The teeth in the control groups were either filled with no sealer or made completely impermeable. The root canals were prepared and obturated with gutta-percha and one of the sealers. The teeth were sterilized with ethylene oxide gas prior to the bacterial leakage assessment using Enterococcus faecalis. Leakage was evaluated every 24 hours for 90 days. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods and chi-squared test. If the data were significant, a proper post hoc test was used. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results The positive control specimens exhibited total bacterial penetration whilst the negative control specimens showed no evidence of bacterial penetration. At the end of the study, the analysis of microleakage with chi-squared test showed no significant differences between the experimental groups (P<0.05). The results of chi-squared test analyzing the pair-wise differences between the groups considering the numerical values for leakage day indicated the lowest leakage with AH26 and the highest with Apatite root sealer. Conclusions According to the results of the present study, sealing ability of AH26 was significantly higher than that of MTA Fillapex and Apatite Root Canal Sealer. Key words:Mineral Trioxide aggregate, root canal obturation, dental seal. PMID:27957271

  12. A comparative prospective randomized clinical study of MTA and IRM as root-end filling materials in single-rooted teeth in endodontic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, Jerome A. H.; Frenken, Joost W. F. H.; Kroon, Frans H. M.; van den Akker, Hans P.

    2005-01-01

    Objective. Randomized clinical prospective study to evaluate the application of MTA and IRM as retrograde sealers in surgical endodontics. Study design. One hundred single-rooted teeth were surgically treated. After randomization, MTA or IRM was used as a retrosealer. Radiographs were taken I week,

  13. Early gene expression analyzed by a genome microarray and real-time PCR in osteoblasts cultured with a 4-META/MMA-TBB adhesive resin sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syudo, Minoru; Yamada, Shizuka; Yanagiguchi, Kajiro; Matsunaga, Tsunenori; Hayashi, Yoshihiko

    2009-03-01

    Adhesive resin sealer systems have been applied in endodontics to seal the root canal system. This study was designed to confirm the mechanism of intracellular molecular events in an in vitro cell culture system with a 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride/methylmethacrylate-tri-n-butyl borane (4-META/MMA-TBB) adhesive resin sealer. The gene expression patterns relating to cell growth and differentiation were examined using a human genome expression microarray and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses in hard tissue-forming osteoblasts cultured with and without a 4-META/MMA-TBB resin sealer. There was no significant difference in the cell number between the control and adhesive sealer groups. An increased expression of integrin beta, transforming growth factor beta-related protein, craniofacial development protein 1, and PI3K genes was demonstrated. The integrin beta and PI3K genes showed extremely high ratios. The signal transduction pathway, at least through the PI3K/Akt cascade for cell proliferation and differentiation, can be controlled by some components of this type of adhesive resin sealer.

  14. Effect of MTA-based sealer on the healing of periapical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Eduardo GOMES-FILHO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Some manufacturers have recently added specific components to improve the ease of handling and insertion material properties of MTA in order to create MTA-based sealers. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing of periapical lesions in canine teeth after a single session of endodontic treatment with MTA Fillapex® compared with Sealapex® or Endo-CPM-Sealer®. Material and Methods Sixty-two root canals were performed on two 1-year-old male dogs. After coronal access and pulp extirpation, the canals were exposed to the oral cavity for 6 months in order to induce periapical lesions. The root canals were prepared, irrigated with a solution of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and filled with gutta-percha and different sealers, according to the following groups: 1 Sealapex®; 2 Endo-CPM-Sealer®; and 3 MTA Fillapex®. Some teeth with periapical lesions were left untreated for use as positive controls. Healthy teeth were used as negative controls. After 6 months, the animals were sacrificed and serial sections from the roots were prepared for histomorphologic analysis and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and the Brown and Brenn technique. The lesions were scored according to pre-established histomorphologic parameters and the scores statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results All 3 materials produced similar patterns of healing (p>0.05; in particular, persistent inflammation and absence of complete periapical tissue healing were consistently noted. Conclusions Preparation of the infected root canals followed by filling with the materials studied was insufficient to provide complete healing of the periapical tissues.

  15. In vitro fracture resistance of roots obturated with epoxy resin-based, mineral trioxide aggregate-based, and bioceramic root canal sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Tuncay, Öznur; Karataş, Ertuğrul; Arslan, Hakan; Yeter, Kübra

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of teeth filled with 3 different endodontic sealers. Seventy-five single-rooted extracted mandibular premolars were decoronated to a length of 13 mm. The teeth were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 15 for each group). In group 1, the teeth were left unprepared and unfilled (negative control), and in group 2, the teeth were left unobturated (positive control). The rest of the roots were prepared by using the ProTaper System up to a master apical file size of F3: group 3, bioceramic sealer (Endosequence BC sealer) + gutta-percha; group 4, mineral trioxide aggregate-based sealer (Tech Biosealer Endo) + gutta-percha; and group 5, epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus Jet) + gutta-percha. All root specimens were stored for 2 weeks at 100% humidity to allow the complete setting of the sealers. Each specimen was then subjected to fracture testing by using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min(-1) until the root fractured. The force required to fracture each specimen was recorded, and the data were analyzed statistically. The fracture values of groups 3 and 5 were significantly higher than those of group 4 (P .05). In contrast to Tech Biosealer Endo, Endosequence BC and AH Plus Jet sealer increased the force to fracture in root-filled single-rooted premolar teeth. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Retention of three endodontic post systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, John; Zyman, Gad; Kogan, Enrique; Kuttler, Sergio; García-Godoy, Franklin

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the retention of three post systems using one adhesive and one cement. The hypothesis tested was that there was no significant difference among the posts. 90 freshly extracted single rooted lower bicuspids were evaluated for similar root morphology. The teeth were decoronated using an Isomet saw leaving a 15 mm-long sample. Preoperative digital radiographs were taken of all samples from the buccal and mesial direction. A glide path was established with #15K type file. Roots were then instrumented to working length to a size #40 .04 using Profile nickel titanium files. 1cc of distilled water was used as an irrigant after each file to remove dentinal debris. The teeth were then obturated with custom fit #40 0.04 taper gutta percha points and AH Plus as a sealer, using a warm vertical compaction technique. Residual gutta percha of 5 mm was left. The samples were divided into three experimental groups to receive posts. Group 1: Fiber White Para-Post No. 2 red; Group 2: No. 1 DT Light Post; Group 3: PeerlessPost No. 3. Post spaces were created in Groups 1 and 2 with the appropriate drills supplied by the manufacturer using a slow speed handpiece. The post spaces from Group 3 required no further preparation after endodontic treatment. All posts were cemented with Nexus 2 Universal Luting System. A layer of excess cement was left in the most coronal portion of the tooth for visual confirmation of tensile strength failure. Using an Instron the teeth were mounted in a custom-made jig to prevent crushing of the post and to ensure extension perpendicular to the long axis of the post. Samples were then subjected to tensile stresses until failure occurred. Failure was defined as the maximum load produced under tensile load that corresponded to visual separation of the post from the tooth. The maximum load at failure in kilograms was recorded. The average of each group was compared for significant difference. Data was analyzed using ANOVA at a significance level of P

  17. Contemporary endodontic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Richard; Torabinejad, Mahmoud

    2004-06-01

    During the past decade, endodontics has seen a dramatic shift in the application of periradicular surgery and the role it plays in endodontic treatment. With the introduction of enhanced magnification, periradicular ultrasonics and other associative technologies, teeth that might otherwise be extracted now have a chance for retention. This article describes the role of these advances in contemporary endodontic surgery.

  18. Antibacterial Nanoparticles in Endodontics: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Annie; Kishen, Anil

    2016-10-01

    A major challenge in root canal treatment is the inability of the current cleaning and shaping procedures to eliminate bacterial biofilms surviving within the anatomic complexities and uninstrumented portions of the root canal system. Nanoparticles with their enhanced and unique physicochemical properties, such as ultrasmall sizes, large surface area/mass ratio, and increased chemical reactivity, have led research toward new prospects of treating and preventing dental infections. This article presents a comprehensive review on the scientific knowledge that is available on the application of antibacterial nanoparticles in endodontics. The application of nanoparticles in the form of solutions for irrigation, medication, and as an additive within sealers/restorative materials has been evaluated to primarily improve the antibiofilm efficacy in root canal and restorative treatments. In addition, antibiotic or photosensitizer functionalized nanoparticles have been proposed recently to provide more potent antibacterial efficacy. The increasing interest in this field warrants sound research based on scientific and clinical collaborations to emphasize the near future potential of nanoparticles in clinical endodontics. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors associated with postoperative pain in endodontic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaf, Durre; Ahmad, Muhammad Zubair

    2014-12-01

    To assess postoperative pain in endodontic therapy and its association with clinical factors such as gender, age, tooth type, pulpal diagnosis, and preoperative pain, length of obturation and sealer extrusion. Cross-Sectional study. Dental section of the Aga khan university hospital, Karachi, Pakistan from January to December 2009. One hundred and forty patients (140) requiring endodontic therapy for molar and premolar teeth were included in this study. Local Anesthesia (2% Lidocain with 1:80,000 Epinephrine) was administered. The tooth was isolated with rubber dam. Access cavity was prepared with the help of round carbide No. 2 bur. Canal preparation was completed using crown-down technique. Access was sealed with sterile dry cotton pallet and restored temporarily with double layer of Glass ionomer cement and Cavit. After one week patients were recalled and access was re-opened, obturation was done using cold lateral condensation technique. Ca(OH)(2) based sealer was used. Postoperative radiographs were taken. Patients were recalled after 24 hours and postobturation pain was recorded using Visual analogue scale (VAS).Data was obtained on a structured Performa. χ(2) test was used for statistical analysis. Pain was present in 42.9% of patients. Females more frequently experienced pain (65%) than males (35%). Preoperative pain was found to be significantly associated with postoperative pain (p value < 0.001). Obturation length was not found to be significantly associated with postoperative pain (p value 1.0). Sealer extrusion was not found to be significantly associated with postoperative (P value 0.547).

  20. Effect of bioactive dental adhesive on periodontal and endodontic pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Xie, Xianju; Weir, Michael D; Fouad, Ashraf F; Zhao, Liang; Xu, Hockin H K

    2016-11-01

    sealer applications to combat endodontic biofilms.

  1. Chemical characterization and bioactivity of epoxy resin and Portland cement-based sealers with niobium and zirconium oxide radiopacifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viapiana, Raqueli; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Hungaro-Duarte, Marco Antonio; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Camilleri, Josette

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize and to evaluate the bioactivity potential of experimental root canal sealers (ES) based on Portland cement, epoxy resin with nano- and micro-particles of niobium or zirconium oxide used as radiopacifiers in comparison to AH Plus and MTA Fillapex. Specimens of the sealers (10 mm in diameter×1 mm thick) were prepared and the radiopacity was evaluated according to ISO 6876 (2012) specifications. Characterization of the sealers was performed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM) immediately after setting and after immersion for 28 days in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS). In addition X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were also performed. The pH and calcium ion release were measured after 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after completion of seating using a digital pH meter and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, respectively. The experimental sealers exhibited an average radiopacity of 2.5 mm thickness of aluminum, which was similar to MTA Fillapex (P>0.05) and inferior to AH Plus (Pepoxy resin and radiopacifier exhibited a degree of bioactivity although no evidence of cement hydration was demonstrated on material characterization. The radiopacifier particle size had limited effect on the sealer microstructure and chemical properties. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of eugenol-containing sealer and post diameter on the retention of fiber reinforced composite posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Alireza; Azarsina, Mohadese; Kasraei, Shahin

    2013-01-01

    Fiber reinforced composite (FRC) posts are cemented with resin cements. It is reported that using resin cements in canals sealed with eugenol-containing sealers reduces the post retention. However, there is controversy on the subject. The aim was to investigate the influence of eugenol-containing sealers and the amount of dentin removal from root canal with different post diameters on retention of FRC posts. It was an in vitro study The roots of sixty teeth were cut with 14 mm distance from the apex and were instrumented to the working-length of 13 mm. The teeth were randomly distributed into 2 groups (n = 30). Following storage in normal saline for 7 days, the samples in both the groups were further divided into 3 subgroups (n = 10). Canals in the experimental subgroups (I, II, III) were obturated by gutta-percha and eugenol-containing sealer; and in the control subgroups (IV, V, VI) without any sealer. After storage in normal saline for 7 days, the post space was prepared by #3, #2, and #1 drills of DT Light-Post system. Post was cemented with Panavia-F2.0 resin-cement. A composite core was built for each sample. All samples were thermo cycled for 1000 cycles. The samples were tested for post retention with a mechanical testing machine. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey-HSD test. There was not a significant difference in retention between FRC posts #1 and #2 (P > 0.05). Post #3 was more retentive than posts #1and #2 (P posts (P = 0.024), however, increasing post-space diameter significantly increased post retention in canals coated with ZOE sealer (P = 0.002). Eugenol-containing sealer reduced the retention of FRC posts cemented with resin cement. Removing more dentin from root-canals treated with eugenol-containing sealer for placing larger diameter posts caused an increase in post retention.

  3. Comparison of different retreatment techniques and root canal sealers: a scanning electron microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Simsek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two retreatment techniques, in terms of the operating time and scanning electron microscopy (SEM results, in removing three different root canal sealers from root canals that were previously filled with gutta-percha. Sixty extracted single-rooted human premolars were divided into three groups and filled with iRoot SP, MM Seal, and AH Plus sealers, along with gutta-percha, through a lateral compaction technique. Root canal fillings of the samples were removed by ESI ultrasonic tips or R-Endo files. The time to reach the working length was recorded. Longitudinally sectioned samples were examined under SEM magnification. Each picture was evaluated in terms of the residual debris. Data were statistically analyzed with the Kruskall-Wallis test. No statistically significant differences were found in terms of operating time (p>0.05. Significant differences in the number of debris-free dentinal tubules were found among the root canal thirds, but this finding was not influenced by the experimental group (p < 0.05. Resin sealer tags were observed inside the dentinal tubules in the MM Seal group. Under the conditions of this study, it may be established that there was no difference among the sealers and retreatment techniques.

  4. Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of a New Root Canal Sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertuan, Gislene Cristina; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes de; Piazza, Bruno; Vasconcelos, Bruno de Carvalho; Alcalde, Murilo Priori; Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci

    2017-12-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate some of the physicochemical properties of a new root canal sealer. The sealers tested were Sealer Plus compared with AH Plus. For the radiopacity, flow, solubility, and fabrication of test specimens relative to setting times, the American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association No. 57 (2000) and International Organization for Standardization 6876 (2012) specifications were followed. To measure the initial and final setting times, the ASTM C266/2008 standard was used. pH was evaluated in the time intervals of 3, 24, 72, and 168 hours. Statistical tests were applied to the results obtained at a level of significance of 5%. The results demonstrated that the Sealer Plus sealer showed a lower radiopacity value than AH Plus sealer (P  .05). Sealer Plus presented initial and final setting times of 138 minutes and 210 minutes, respectively, whereas the values for AH Plus were 437 minutes and 849 minutes, respectively (P  .05). None of the sealers showed a significant increase in pH (P > .05). Sealer Plus sealer presented physicochemical properties in accordance with American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association (2000) No. 57 and International Organization for Standardization 6876 (2012) specifications. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antibacterial activity of different root canal sealers against Enterococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovati, Federico; Ceci, Matteo; Colombo, Marco; Pietrocola, Giampiero

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to compare in vitro the antimicrobial activity of different root canal sealers against Enterococcus faecalis, prior and subsequent to setting. Material and Methods Agar diffusion test (ADT) was used for evaluating the antibacterial activity of non-set sealer while the direct contact test (DCT) was used for after setting. Results ADT: Except for TotalFill BC Sealer all the others sealers tested showed antibacterial activity. BioRoot™RCS, MTA Fillapex and Sealapex Root Canal Sealer showed the lowest antibacterial activity, a significant increase in antibacterial effect for both Pulp Canal Sealer™ and AH plus sealers were found. Significantly higher were the mean diameters of the bacterial inhibition zone by both EasySeal or N2 sealers. DCT: AH plus and Sealapex Root Canal Sealer doesn’t show any bactericidal effect after 6 min of contact. After 15 and 60 min of contact a significant increment for AH plus and for Sealapex Root Canal Sealer of the bactericidal effect was found. Significantly much higher was the antibacterial effect of Sealapex Root Canal Sealer compare to that observed for AH plus. BioRootTMRCS, MTA Fillapex, Pulp Canal Sealer™ and N2 showed at least means of the number of colonies formed in milliliter after 6 min of contact. Except for N2, a significant increase in bactericidal effect after 15 and 60 min for the other compared sealers (BioRootTMRCS, MTA Fillapex and Pulp Canal Sealer™). Conclusions For every contact times considered, both TotalFill BC Sealer and EasySeal were bactericidal against E. faecalis and killed all bacteria. Key words:Agar diffusion test, antibacterial activity, direct contact test, Enterococcus faecalis, root canal sealer. PMID:28638549

  6. Comparative evaluation of the fracture resistances of endodontically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-30

    Mar 30, 2014 ... Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the fracture resistances of teeth filled using different root canal sealers and rials. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty single rooted mandibular human incisor teeth with single canals were divided into 5 experimental groups of 20 teeth with 2 control ...

  7. Comparative evaluation of the fracture resistances of endodontically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the fracture resistances of teeth filled using different root canal sealers band rials. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty single rooted mandibular human incisor teeth with single canals were divided into 5 experimental groups of 20 teeth with 2 control groups of 10 teeth ...

  8. Influence of radiopaque fillers on physicochemical properties of a model epoxy resin-based root canal sealer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Mezzomo COLLARES

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the influence of radiopaque fillers on an epoxy resin-based sealer. Material and Methods: Experimental sealers were formulated by adding 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100% and 120% of calcium tungstate, ytterbium trifluoride or barium sulphate by weight to an epoxy-resin-base. Setting time, flow, film thickness, radiopacity, sorption, solubility, pH and push-out bond strength were evaluated. Results: The setting time ranged from 373 to 612.66 min, the flow varied from 13.81±0.49 to 22.49±0.37 mm, and the film thickness ranged from 16.67±5.77 to 33.33±11.54 µm. The lowest pH was 5.47±0.53, and the highest was 6.99±0.03. Radiopacity varied from 0.38±0.04 to 2.57±0.21 mmAl and increased with the amount of filler. Calcium tungstate sealers had a higher sorption and solubility than other sealers. There was no significant difference in the push-out bond strength among the fillers at the 120% concentration. CONCLUSION: The inorganic fillers evaluated and their concentrations affect the physicochemical properties of an epoxy resin-based root canal sealer.

  9. Influence of radiopaque fillers on physicochemical properties of a model epoxy resin-based root canal sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collares, Fabrício Mezzomo; Klein, Mariana; Santos, Paula Dapper; Portella, Fernando Freitas; Ogliari, Fabrício; Leitune, Vicente Castelo Branco; Samuel, Susana Maria Werner

    2013-01-01

    To verify the influence of radiopaque fillers on an epoxy resin-based sealer. Experimental sealers were formulated by adding 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100% and 120% of calcium tungstate, ytterbium trifluoride or barium sulphate by weight to an epoxy-resin-base. Setting time, flow, film thickness, radiopacity, sorption, solubility, pH and push-out bond strength were evaluated. The setting time ranged from 373 to 612.66 min, the flow varied from 13.81±0.49 to 22.49±0.37 mm, and the film thickness ranged from 16.67±5.77 to 33.33±11.54 µm. The lowest pH was 5.47±0.53, and the highest was 6.99±0.03. Radiopacity varied from 0.38±0.04 to 2.57±0.21 mmAl and increased with the amount of filler. Calcium tungstate sealers had a higher sorption and solubility than other sealers. There was no significant difference in the push-out bond strength among the fillers at the 120% concentration. The inorganic fillers evaluated and their concentrations affect the physicochemical properties of an epoxy resin-based root canal sealer.

  10. Residual Endodontic Filling Material after Post Space Preparation: A Confocal Microscopic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Yu-Yao; Walsh, Laurence J

    2017-11-21

    This laboratory study assessed removability of endodontic alkaline cements and resin sealers using coronal cross-sectional slices of roots with single canals. Materials were labelled with 0.1% (w/w) sodium fluorescein prior to mixing so that confocal microscopy could be used to quantify material remaining on the walls of post spaces, to assess cleanliness. Roots of extracted teeth were prepared using rotary NiTi instruments then obturated using lateral condensation with gutta percha and epoxy resin sealers (AH-Plus™ or Zirmix™), or were filled by injecting mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cement (GC Nex™ MTA or MTAmix™) or a hard-setting calcium hydroxide cement (Supercal™). Brown (#3) ParaPost™ drills were used at 600 rpm with a torque setting of 3 N cm-1 for 2 min to remove 5 mm of the root filling. Roots were embedded and coronal slices examined by confocal microscopy, with the perimeter of the drill channel divided into clean, unclean and non-accessible regions. The choice of material affects cleanliness, with MTA being the most difficult and calcium hydroxide cement the easiest to remove. With epoxy resin-based sealers, almost half of the accessible canal walls remained coated with remnants of sealer after post space preparation.

  11. Curricular Guidelines for Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Endodontics of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by educational institutions as curriculum development aids are provided. Endodontics is that branch of dentistry dealing with diagnosis and treatment of oral conditions that arise as a result of pathoses of dental pulp. (MLW)

  12. Assessment of magnetic fluid stability in non-homogeneous magnetic field of a single-tooth magnetic fluid sealer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefyev, I. M.; Demidenko, O. V.; Saikin, M. S.

    2017-06-01

    A special experimental stand has been developed and made to test magnetic fluid. It represents a single-tooth magnetic fluid sealer. The type of dependence of the pressure differential on magnetic fluid sealer operation time is used as a criterion to determine magnetic fluid stability and magnetic fluid sealer service life under such conditions. The siloxane-based magnetic fluid was used as the test sample. The colloidal stability as well as stability of the synthesized magnetic fluid in magnetic fields in static mode were determined. It has been found that the obtained magnetic fluid is stable in static mode and, consequently, can be used to conduct necessary tests on stand. Short-term and life tests on stand have shown that MF remains stable and efficient for at least 360 days of continuous utilization.

  13. APICAL SEAL BETWEEN ADHESIVE ROOT CANAL OBTURATION SYSTEM AND GUTTA-PERCHA/AH-PLUS SEALER: AN IN VITRO COMPARISON STUDY

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    Girish

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Three dimensional obturation of the root canal is important for success of root canal treatment. Microleakage is one of the reason for root canal failure. Numerous materials have been used for obturation of which Gutta-percha is the most successful with variety of sealers. One of the recent material to further improve root canal treatment success rate is use of Resilon with Epiphany root canal sealer to apply adhesive concepts in to endodontics. An adhesive bond forms between Epiphany sealer, Resilon and dentin, making it monolithic hence less microleakage if any significantly. METHODS 60 single rooted mandibular premolars were dissected at cement enamel junction with diamond disc. Root canals were explored and working length measured using K file. Root canals of all 60 samples were prepared with ProTaper and irrigated with 5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA solution. Teeth were divided in to group A and B, each having 30 samples. Group A teeth obturated with Resilon Epiphany obturation system and group B with Gutta-percha and AH-plus sealer. All specimens were stored in incubator for 30 days. Clearing process of samples done with Robertson’s technique to make them transparent. All the specimens were immersed in 2% methylene blue dye solution for 7 days. Specimens were then examined under stereomicroscope with 10x magnification to measure dye penetration in mm with image analysis software. The data collected were analysed statistically. RESULTS This study showed that Resilon Epiphany group has a mean leakage of 1.2307, while the Gutta-percha/AH-plus had a mean leakage of 3.6133. There was statistically significant differences between Resilon and Gutta-percha groups. CONCLUSIONS 1. Resilon Epiphany group showed less apical microleakage than Gutta-percha/AH-plus obturation. 2. Based on result obtained it is suggested that Resilon Epiphany can be recommended for root canal obturation.

  14. A survey of endodontic practices among dentists in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoye, Christopher I; Sede, Matthew A; Jafarzadeh, Hamid; Abbott, Paul V

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the pattern of routine endodontic practices among Nigerian dentists. This study was a questionnaire-based survey of samples of dentists in the Nigerian cities of Enugu and Benin. The self-administered questionnaire contained 25 close-ended questions with multiple choice options. The data collected included demographic details of respondents, root canal preparation techniques, irrigants and intracanal medicaments used, the number of appointments, method of working length determination, root filling techniques, cements used, and the scope of treatment performed. Most respondents used sodium hypochlorite as the irrigant, the step back technique for canal preparation, and lateral condensation with a zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealer for obturation. Most respondents did root canal treatment on all types of teeth and used radiographs to determine the working length 70% of the time. Most respondents followed up their patients for less than 12 months and most treated teeth with periapical areas larger than 10 mm by root canal therapy combined with apical surgery. Most Nigerian dentists use step back technique for canal preparation and lateral condensation for obturation. Endodontic practice by Nigerian dentists differs from some established practice quality guidelines in many other countries, particularly in nonperfusion of modern techniques into practice, popularity of antibiotic use for endodontic emergencies and a high rate of perforations.

  15. Effect of radiation on the response of dental pulp to operative and endodontic procedures: an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawzi, M.I.; Shklar, G.; Krakow, A.A.

    1985-04-01

    Thirty-six 56-day-old male Sprague-Dawley albino rats served as two groups of experimental animals. Group 1 was irradiated with 400 rads delivered as total-body radiation from a cesium source. Group 2 served as the control group and was not irradiated. Three weeks later, the dental microscope was used to facilitate various dental procedures in both groups of animals (cavity preparation filled with zinc oxide-eugenol, pulp exposure capped with zinc oxide-eugenol, and pulp exposure left open). Two animals for each procedure from Groups 1 and 2 were killed at time intervals of 2, 4, and 8 weeks. The results showed that (1) radiation at this dose resulted in a depression of the normal response of the dental pulp to the trauma and infection induced by pulpal exposure, (2) there were no pathologic changes in the untreated molars of the irradiated animals, and (3) the use of the dental microscope greatly facilitated cavity preparation in the molars of rats.

  16. An experimental study for rapid detection and quantification of endodontic microbiota following photo-activated disinfection via new multiplex real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhajibagher, Maryam; Raoofian, Reza; Ghorbanzadeh, Roghayeh; Bahador, Abbas

    2018-01-11

    The infected root canal system harbors one of the highest accumulations of polymicrobial infections. Since the eradication of endopathogenic microbiota is a major goal in endodontic infection therapy, photo-activated disinfection (PAD) can be used as an alternative therapeutic method in endodontic treatment. Compared to cultivation-based approaches, molecular techniques are more reliable for identifying microbial agents associated with endodontic infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of designed multiplex real-time PCR protocol for the rapid detection and quantification of six common microorganisms involved in endodontic infection before and after the PAD. Samples were taken from the root canals of 50 patients with primary and secondary/persistent endodontic infections using sterile paper points. PAD with toluidine blue O (TBO) plus diode laser was performed on root canals. Resampling was then performed, and the samples were transferred to transport medium. Then, six target microorganisms were detected using multiplex real-time PCR before and after the PAD. Veillonella parvula was found using multiplex real-time PCR to have the highest frequency among samples collected before the PAD (29.4%), followed by Porphyromonas. gingivalis (23.1%), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (13.6%), Actinomyces naeslundii (13.0%), Enterococcus faecalis (11.5%), and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (9.4%). After TBO-mediated PAD, P. gingivalis strains, the most resistance microorganisms, were recovered in 41.7% of the samples using molecular approach (P > 0.05). As the results shown, multiplex real-time PCR as an accurate detection approach with high-throughput and TBO-mediated PAD as an efficient antimicrobial strategy due to the significant reduction of the endopathogenic count can be used for detection and treatment of microbiota involved in infected root canals, respectively. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Combined Bacterial-Fungal Penetration After Obturation with AH 26 and AH Plus Root Canal Sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khedmat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the coronal microleakage between Streptococcus sanguis per se and a mixture suspension of E. faecalis and C. albicans in root canals filled with Gutta-percha and either AH 26 or AH Plus sealer.Materials and Methods: One-hundred and ten extracted human teeth were decoronated to a standardized root length of 14 mm and prepared using Mtwo nickel-titanium (Ni-Tiinstruments to a master apical file size 35, 0.04 taper and obturated with gutta-percha andeither AH 26 or AH Plus sealers by lateral condensation. After setting of the sealers, the teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups (n=50 and two control groups(n=5. The coronal chambers of half the teeth in each experimental group (n=25 were inoculated with 0.5 ml of Brain Heart Infusion agar containing approximately 3×108 of each microorganism in every ml of Candida albicans (ATCC10231 and Enterococcus faecalis(ATCC29212 using a sterile micropipette. The other half of the teeth of each experimental group were inoculated with Streptococcus sanguis (ATCC10556 with the same concentration.The days of microbial penetration were noted for evaluation. The data werestatistically analyzed using Kaplan Meier and log-rank tests.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the four experimental groups regarding the leakage rate (P=0.130.Conclusion: Under the conditions of this study, there was no difference in the microbial penetration of AH 26 and AH Plus sealers at 60 days.

  18. Adhesion of resin-based sealers to dentine: an atomic force microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, M; de Assis, D F; Gomes, B P F A; Simão, R A

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of several final irrigants on the adhesion force (Fad) between dentine and resin-based sealers by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Twelve distal roots of mandibular molars were used. The roots were smoothened and cut to obtain 36 specimens. During chemomechanical preparation of the root canals, 5.25% NaOCl was used as the irrigant. The specimens were then divided into six groups according to the final irrigant used: control group - immersed in distilled water (DW) for 1 min; chlorhexidine (CHX) group - in 2% CHX for 1 min; NaOCl group - in 5.25% NaOCl for 1 min; EDTA group - in 17% EDTA for 5 min, EDTA/CHX group - in EDTA, followed by intermediate flushing with DW and then immersed in CHX; EDTA/NaOCl group - in EDTA, followed by intermediate flushing with DW and then immersed in NaOCl. After the treatments, all groups were washed with DW to remove all traces of the irrigants. Afterwards, the samples were dried and attached to a glass base. AFM tips containing AH Plus and Real Seal SE sealers were used to obtain force-distance curves with regard to dentine-treated surfaces. Data were analysed statistically using nonparametric tests with the significance level set at P < 0.05. In the groups with smear layer, a final flush with CHX and NaOCl resulted in significantly higher Fad values than the control group for both sealers (P < 0.001). When smear layer was removed, the highest Fad values associated with AH Plus occurred with a final flush of NaOCl, whilst in Real Seal SE, the highest values were found with a final flush of CHX (all results significant at P < 0.001). Irrigants had a positive effect on the adhesion of the resin-based sealers, AH Plus and Real Seal SE, to dentine. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. 7 CFR 2902.42 - Wood and concrete sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wood and concrete sealers. 2902.42 Section 2902.42... Items § 2902.42 Wood and concrete sealers. (a) Definition. (1) Products that are penetrating liquids formulated to protect wood and/or concrete, including masonry and fiber cement siding, from damage caused by...

  20. Pulsed Nd-YAG laser in endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragot-Roy, Brigitte; Severin, Claude; Maquin, Michel

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish an operative method in endodontics. The effect of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser on root canal dentin has been examined with a scanning electron microscope. Our first experimentation was to observe the impacts carried out perpendicularly to root canal surface with a 200 micrometers fiber optic in the presence of dye. Secondarily, the optical fiber was used as an endodontic instrument with black dye. The irradiation was performed after root canal preparation (15/100 file or 40/100 file) or directly into the canal. Adverse effects are observed. The results show that laser irradiation on root canal dentin surfaces induces a nonhomogeneous modified dentin layer, melted and resolidified dentin closed partially dentinal tubules. The removal of debris is not efficient enough. The laser treatment seems to be indicated only for endodontic and periapical spaces sterilization after conventional root canal preparation.

  1. In vitro comparison of coronal microleakage of four temporary restorative materials used in endodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahi Sh.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: The use of proper temporary restorative materials between appointments is critical in successful root canal treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the coronal microleakage of four temporary restorative materials including Zonalin, Zamherir, Coltosol and IRM. "nMaterials and Methods: In this in vitro study, standard access cavities were prepared in 120 intact extracted maxillary and mandibular human first molars. Canal preparation was carried out by the step-back technique, and obturation was performed with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer using the lateral condensation technique. Teeth were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups of 25 teeth each and two positive and negative control groups, each containing 10 teeth. In each experimental group the access cavity was restored with one of the tested materials (Zamherir, Zonalin, IRM and Coltosol. In the negative control group the access cavity was filled entirely with sticky wax and in the positive control group no restorative material was applied. Dye penetration technique was used to evaluate microleakage which was measured under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed with one way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. "nResults: Dye penetration was observed in all groups. Zonalin and Coltosol had the highest and the lowest dye penetration respectively, with a statistically significant difference (p<0.001. There was no significant difference in dye penetration between IRM, and either Coltosol or Zamherir (p>0.05. "nConclusion: The results of this study showed that using Coltosol as a temporary restorative material can provide a better coronal seal in endodontic treatments

  2. Surface debris of canal walls after post space preparation in endodontically treated teeth: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafino, Cinzia; Gallina, Giuseppe; Cumbo, Enzo; Ferrari, Marco

    2004-03-01

    To evaluate surface cleanliness of root canal walls along post space after endodontic treatment using 2 different irrigant regimens, obturation techniques, and post space preparation for adhesive bonding. Forty teeth, divided into 4 groups, were instrumented, using Ni-Ti rotary files, irrigated with NaOCl or NaOCl+EDTA and obturated with cold lateral condensation (CLC) or warm vertical condensation (WVC) of gutta-percha. After post space preparation, etching, and washing procedure, canal walls were observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Amount of debris, smear layer, sealer/gutta-percha remnants, and visibility of open tubules were rated. Higher amounts of rough debris, large sealer/gutta-percha remnants, thick smear layer, and no visibility of tubule orifices were recorded in all the groups at apical level of post space. At middle and coronal levels areas of clean dentin, alternating with areas covered by thin smear layer, smaller debris, gutta-percha remnants, and orifices of tubules partially or totally occluded by plugs were frequently observed. After endodontic treatment, obturation, and post space preparation SEM analysis of canal walls along post space shows large areas (covered by smear layer, debris, and sealer/gutta-percha remnants) not available for adhesive bonding and resin cementation of fiber posts.

  3. Endodontic treatment of a tiger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, J.; Kortegaard, H.; Grøndahl, C.

    The 84th Annual Meeting of NoF 2001, veterinary dentistry, endodontics, dental materials, animal case report......The 84th Annual Meeting of NoF 2001, veterinary dentistry, endodontics, dental materials, animal case report...

  4. Spectrophotometric analysis of crown discoloration induced by MTA- and ZnOE-based sealers

    Science.gov (United States)

    IOANNIDIS, Konstantinos; MISTAKIDIS, Ilias; BELTES, Panagiotis; KARAGIANNIS, Vassilis

    2013-01-01

    Crown discoloration can be induced by root canal sealer remnants following root canal treatment. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate chromatic alterations in human tooth crowns induced by a Mineral Trioxide Aggregate-based sealer (MTA Fillapex® and a commonly used ZnOE-based sealer (Roth-811). The tested null hypothesis was that the application of the materials did not induce clinically perceptible crown discoloration (Ho: CIE color difference ΔEL*a*b* color system and the corresponding ΔE values were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way mixed ANOVA models, at p=0.05 level of significance. Results: A statistically significant increase in a* and b* chromatic parameters of the MTA Fillapex Group was measured. However, ΔE values did not exceed the human eye perceptibility threshold (set at ΔE<3.7) during the experimental period (ΔEt3=2.88). In Roth-811 Group, a statistically significant decrease in L* and a statistically significant increase in a* and b* chromatic parameters was measured, during all observation periods. Resultant ΔE values exceeded the human eye perceptibility threshold after 1 week (ΔEt1=5.65). Conclusions: Application of MTA Fillapex in tooth crowns resulted in minimal color alterations, while Roth 811 induced severe discoloration, in vitro. It could be suggested that, in terms of aesthetics, the use of MTA Fillapex appears to be favorable. PMID:23739854

  5. Effect of two contemporary root canal sealers on root canal dentin microhardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallaf, Maram E

    2017-01-01

    Successful root canal treatment depends on proper cleaning, disinfecting and shaping of the root canal space. Pulpless teeth have lower dentin microhardness value compared to that of vital teeth. A material which can cause change in dentin composition may affect the microhardness. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of two root canal sealers on dentin microhardness. Forty two single rooted teeth were selected and divided into 3 equal groups; Apexit, iRootSP and control groups (n=14) Each group was then divided into 2 subgroups according to the post evaluation period; 1 week and 2 months (n=7). Root canal procedure was done in the experimental groups and obturation was made using either; Apexit, iRootSP or left unprepared and unobturated in the control group. Roots were sectioned transversely into cervical, middle and apical segments. The three sections of each root were mounted in a plastic chuck with acrylic resin. The coronal dentin surfaces of the root segments werepolished. Microhardness of each section was measured at 500 µm and 1000 µm from the canal lumen. Four way-ANOVA revealed that different tested sealer materials, canal third, measuring distance from the pulp and time as independent variables had statistically non significant effect on mean microhardness values (VHN) at p≤0.001. Among iRootSP groups there was a statistically significant difference between iRoot SP at coronal root portion (87.79±17.83) and iRoot SP at apical root portion (76.26±9.33) groups where (p=0.01). IRoot SP at coronal canal third had higher statistically significant mean microhardness value (87.79±17.83) compared to Apexit at coronal third (73.61±13.47) where (p=0.01). Root canal sealers do not affect dentin microhardness. Key words:Root canal, dentin, sealers, microhardness, bioceramic.

  6. Technologic advances in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortman, Rory E

    2011-07-01

    This article addresses technologic advances in endodontics pertaining to new and emerging technology. Cone-beam computed tomography and optical occurrence tomography are 2 new imaging technologies that can assist the practitioner in the diagnosis of pulpal disease. The self-adjusting file and the Apexum device can be used for instrumentation and bulk debridement of an apical lesion, respectively. Neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser, erbium:chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser, EndoActivator, EndoVac, and light-activated disinfection may assist the practitioner in cleaning the root canal system. Computed tomography-guided surgery shows promise in making endodontic surgery easier, as does mineral trioxide aggregate cement for regenerative endodontic procedures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Spectrophotometric Analysis of Coronal Tooth Discoloration Induced by Various Bioceramic Cements and Other Endodontic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Meetu R; Yamaguchi, Maimi; Setzer, Frank C; Karabucak, Bekir

    2015-11-01

    Coronal tooth discoloration induced by various endodontic materials was evaluated in vitro. Eighty extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were accessed, instrumented, and sectioned to standardized root lengths of 10 mm below the cementoenamel junction. Pulp chambers were cleaned chemomechanically to ensure complete tissue removal. Specimens were filled with experimental materials in 8 random groups: RRM, EndoSequence RRM putty (Brasseler, Savannah, GA); RRMF, EndoSequence RRM fast set paste (Brasseler); BD, Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France); WMTA, white MTA (Dentsply, York, PA), GMTA, gray MTA (Dentsply); AH+, AH Plus sealer (Dentsply); TAP, triple antibiotic paste (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline); and NF, no filling (negative control group). After incubation in 100% humidity at 37°C, color changes were evaluated with a spectrophotometer (Ocean Optics, Dunedin, FL) on days 0, 7, 30, 60, and 180 after material placement (T0-T180). Data were transformed into Commission International de I'Eclairage's L*a*b color values, and corresponding ΔE values were calculated. Two-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni method were performed. Visual discoloration was observed in all specimens in the GMTA, WMTA, and TAP groups at T7, increasing with time. The ΔE value between the initial color at T0 and at T7, T30, T60, and T180 was significantly different for GMTA, WMTA, and TAP (P < .001). ΔE values for the BD, RRM, RRMF, AH+, and NF groups were not statistically significantly different between T0 and T7, T30, T60, and T180, respectively, except for 3 samples below the human perceptible threshold. Values of L* dropped significantly from T0 to T180 in the TAP, GMTA, and WMTA groups. Significant coronal tooth discoloration was caused by TAP, GMTA, and WMTA but not by BD, RRM, and RRMF. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of the responses of MHC class II molecule-expressing cells and macrophages to epoxy resin-based and 4-META-containing, methacrylate resin-based root canal sealers in rat subcutaneous tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Yusuke; Shigetani, Yoshimi; Yoshiba, Kunihiko; Kaneko, Tomoatsu; Yoshiba, Nagako; Okiji, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule-expressing cells and macrophages play a pivotal role in mediating the host tissue response to biomaterials. This study investigated the responses of these cells to epoxy resin-based and 4-META-containing, methacrylate resin-based endodontic sealers (AH Plus and MetaSEAL respectively) in rat connective tissue. Silicone tubes loaded with one of the sealers or solid silicone rods (control) were subcutaneously implanted in male Wistar rats for three time periods of 7, 14, or 28 days. Tissue specimens were immunoperoxidase-stained for MHC class II molecules and CD68 (a general macrophage marker). Results showed that AH Plus-implanted tissue displayed significantly more MHC class II-positive cells than the control at 14 and 28 days, whereas MetaSEAL-implanted tissue showed significantly more CD68-positive cells than both AH Plus-implanted tissue and the control at all time periods. It was concluded that the epoxy resin-based sealer induced the infiltration of MHC class II molecule-expressing cells, whereas 4-META-containing, methacrylate resin-based sealer elicited macrophage infiltration.

  9. Continuous chelation irrigation improves the adhesion of epoxy resin-based root canal sealer to root dentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, P; Varughese, A A; Sharma, S; Subbarao, C V; Zehnder, M; De-Deus, G

    2012-12-01

    To test the impact of continuous chelation by NaOCl+ etidronic acid (HEBP) during instrumentation, and a final rinse of EDTA or NaOCl + HEBP on the dentine bond strength of an epoxy resin sealer (AH Plus). Single-rooted teeth (n = 100) were divided into five groups (n = 20) based on the irrigation protocol and their root canals instrumented using a rotary Ni-Ti system: 2.5% NaOCl during instrumentation followed by bi-distilled water (G1) or 17% EDTA (G2) as final rinse; 1 : 1 mixture of 5% NaOCl and 18% HEBP during instrumentation, and the same mixture (G3), 17% EDTA (G4) or bi-distilled water (G5) as final rinse. Canals were filled with AH Plus. Roots were sectioned, and push-out tests were performed in coronal, middle and apical root thirds. Results were analysed using analysis of variance (anova) and Bonferroni test for multiple comparisons. The alpha-type error was set at 0.05 for all the analyses. Push-out bond strength was highest in coronal and lowest in apical root thirds (P epoxy resin sealer to dentine. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  10. Article title misstates the role of pavement sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Kirk

    2014-08-01

    The claim made in the title of Witter et al. (2014) "Coal-tar-based sealcoated pavement: A major PAH source to urban stream sediments" is not supported by the data presented. The author's use of Pearson correlation coefficients is insufficient to indicate causation. The application of spatial analysis and principle component analysis did not include sealer specific inputs, so provides no basis for the claim. To test the hypothesis that sealers are a source of PAHs in the stream studied, EPA's Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) source evaluation model was applied to Witter's sediment data. CMB found an excellent fit (R(2) > 0.999) between measured and modeled PAH concentrations when sealers were not included as a potential source. This finding does not support Witter et al. (2014) claim that sealers are a major source of PAHs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sifat fisik hidroksiapatit sintesis kalsit sebagai bahan pengisi pada sealer saluran akar resin epoxy (Physical properties of calcite synthesized hydroxyapatite as the filler of epoxy-resin-based root canal sealer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ema Mulyawati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The filler addition to resin based sealers will enhance the physical properties of the polymer. Because of its biological properties, the synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA has been proposed as filler for dental material such as composite resin. The calcite synthesized HA is the HA produced of calcite minerals that came from many Indonesian mining. Purpose: The aim of study was to determine the effect of different concentration of calcite synthesized HA as the filler of the epoxy-resin-based root canal sealer on the physical properties such as its contact angle, the film thickness and the microhardness. Methods: The crystal of the calcite synthesized hydroxyapatite with the size between 77.721-88.710 nm and the ratio of Ca/P 1.6886 were synthesized at Ceramic Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering, using wet method of hydrothermal microwave. The powders of the epoxy- resin were prepared by added the synthesized hydroxyapatite crystal in 5 different weight ratios (e.g.: HA-10%, HA-20%, HA-30%, HA-40% and HA-50%. Each of these was mixed with the paste of 3:1 ratio using spatula on a glass plate until homogen and then measuring the contact angle and the film thickness. Microhardness test was conducted after the mixture of experimental sealer was stored for 24 hrs at 37 oC to reach perfect polymerization. Results: All of contact angles were <90o and were not significantly different to each other (p= 0.510. All groups had a film thickness in accordance with ISO 6876 (<50 um and with no statistical difference (p= 0.858. In the HA of 10%, 20%, 30% seen that the microhardness were increased, while in the HA-50% was decreased and in the HA-40% has the same microhardness to the control groups (HA-0%. Conclusion: Calcite synthesized HA as the filler did not affect contact angle and film thickness of the sealer. Microhardness of the epoxy-resin based sealer could be increased using maximum 30% of the calcite synthesized HA as the filler.Latar belakang

  12. Impact of different file systems on the amount of apically extruded debris during endodontic retreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunoglu, Emel; Turker, Sevinc Aktemur

    2016-01-01

    The goal of present study was to determine the effect of different nickel-titanium file systems on the amount of apically extruded debris during endodontic retreatment: D-RaCe retreatment systems, EdgeFile XR retreatment rotary files, and Reciproc R40. Thirty-six single-rooted prepared mandibular premolar teeth were filled with Gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. The teeth were then randomly assigned into three groups (n = 12) for retreatment. The endodontic retreatment was performed as follows: D-RaCe, EdgeFile XR, Reciproc 40. Debris extruded apically during the retreatment was collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. An incubator was used to store tubes at 70(°) C for 5 days. The initial weight was subtracted from final weight of the Eppendorf tubes to calculate the weight of the dry extruded debris for each group. The data obtained were evaluated using Welch analysis of variance and Games-Howell post-hoc tests (P endodontic retreatment, number, and taper of files might have an influence on the amount of apically extruded debris during endodontic retreatment.

  13. Stereomicroscopic Dye Leakage Measurement of Six Different Root Canal Sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballullaya, Srinidhi V; Vinay, Vusurumarthi; Thumu, Jayaprakash; Devalla, Srihari; Bollu, Indira Priyadarshini; Balla, Sagarika

    2017-06-01

    Hermetic sealing of the root canal is the most desirable outcome of any root canal treatment, but almost always the filling of the root canal is defective, which is a multifactorial outcome. One such factor majorly influencing the obturation is the root canal sealer used. The present study was done for evaluating microleakage in different root canal sealers. Sixty extracted human single rooted teeeth were used in this in-vitro study. Sealers tested for microleakage in this study were zinc oxide eugenol based sealer, Sealapex, AH Plus, MTA Plus, EndoRez, Endosequence BC. All the specimens were examined under stereomicroscope for microleakage and the obtained data were statistically analysed using One-way ANOVA test and Tukey's multiple comparision tests using the software GraphPad Prism 7.02. The Endosequence BC group showed the least dye leakage and the highest leakage was seen in Zinc oxide Eugenol based sealer. Bio ceramic salers being hydrophilic show better sealing ability compared to resin based and eugenol based sealers.

  14. Evaluation of the Doxycycline Release from AH26 Sealer-Doxycycline Combination: An ex vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashofteh Yazdi, Kazem; Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Moazeni, Esmaeil; Mirzayi Rad, Sina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this ex vivo study was to determine the releasing characteristics and doxycycline dentinal diffusion of AH26 sealer-doxycycline combination from apical 3mm of tooth root and apical foramen. One-hundred and two recently extracted single-rooted human teeth were decoronated and prepared with #3 and #4 Gates-Glidden drills and rotary Mtwo files. Smear layer was removed; all surfaces except for apical 3mm of each root were sealed with two coats of nail polish. To quantify the release and diffusion of the doxycycline at different time intervals (30 min, 48 and 72 h) after root canal obturation, the samples were randomly divided into three groups (n=30; 0.5 h, 48 h, 72 h). To evaluate the release of doxycycline from AH26 sealer-doxycycline combination at six concentrations of antibiotic including 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 20%; each experimental group was divided into six equal subgroups (n=5). Root canals were filled with gutta-percha and AH26-doxycycline combinations and then were placed in vials containing 1.25mL of phosphate buffer saline solution (PBS). After 30 min, 48 and 72 h, the amount of doxycycline released from specimens into PBS were determined by measuring the absorbance values using UV spectrophotometry at λ(max)=350 nm. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. The findings of this study revealed that AH26 sealer-doxycycline combination released variable measures of antibiotic at each time interval and in the various concentrations. At 30 min, no statistically significant differences were obtained between the results of subgroups, but at 48 and 72 h these differences were significant (P<0.001). The results also showed that differences between 0.5 h, 48 h and 72 h were significant within subgroups (P<0.01). Under the conditions of this ex vivo study, doxycycline can be released from AH26 sealer-antibiotic combination through 3mm of apical root and apical foramen at 30 min, 48 and 72 h after mixing the sealer with doxycycline at concentrations

  15. An endodontic practice profile amongst general dental practitioners in Kathmandu: A questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Shrestha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the endodontic practice profile of general dental practitioners. To explore the materials and methods employed by them in Kathmandu valley. To compare these findings with well acknowledged international academic standards. Methods Questionnaires with 18 closed-ended questions were distributed among randomly chosen 120 general dental practitioners of Kathmandu, working in various government or private hospital or clinics.The data were collected and descriptive statistical analysis was done. Results Out of 120 questionnaires, only 110 that were completely filled were included in the study .Most general dental practitioners (97% regularly did multi-rooted root canal treatments and followed multivisit root canal treatment.. Radiograph with instrument in canal was used by 80% of general dental practitioners to determine the working length while only 36% used electronic apex locator which is considered to be more reliable. Half of them (57% used nickel-titanium files for cleaning and shaping but only 23% used crown down technique. Sodium hypochlorite and calcium hydroxide was the most popular irrigation solution and intra-canal medicament respectively. Majority of general dental practitioners (91% used lateral compaction technique for root canal obturation. Sixty three percent used zinc oxide eugenol as root canal sealer and 46% used endomethasone. They seem to overuse antibiotics in cases requiring endodontic therapy. Only 48% used autoclave for sterilization of endodontic files while 86% never used rubber dam. Eight three percent of them felt the need of further endodontic training and 42% of them preferred post-graduate dental program. Conclusion This study shows that the standard guidelines and new technologies for endodontic treatments are not implemented by many general dental practitioners of Kathmandu and require further endodontic trainings. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2013, Vol-9, No-4, 40-50 DOI

  16. Temporary Cementitious Sealers in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Butcher, T.; Brothers, L.; Bour, D.

    2011-12-31

    Unlike conventional hydrothennal geothermal technology that utilizes hot water as the energy conversion resources tapped from natural hydrothermal reservoir located at {approx}10 km below the ground surface, Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) must create a hydrothermal reservoir in a hot rock stratum at temperatures {ge}200 C, present in {approx}5 km deep underground by employing hydraulic fracturing. This is the process of initiating and propagating a fracture as well as opening pre-existing fractures in a rock layer. In this operation, a considerable attention is paid to the pre-existing fractures and pressure-generated ones made in the underground foundation during drilling and logging. These fractures in terms of lost circulation zones often cause the wastage of a substantial amount of the circulated water-based drilling fluid or mud. Thus, such lost circulation zones must be plugged by sealing materials, so that the drilling operation can resume and continue. Next, one important consideration is the fact that the sealers must be disintegrated by highly pressured water to reopen the plugged fractures and to promote the propagation of reopened fractures. In response to this need, the objective of this phase I project in FYs 2009-2011 was to develop temporary cementitious fracture sealing materials possessing self-degradable properties generating when {ge} 200 C-heated scalers came in contact with water. At BNL, we formulated two types of non-Portland cementitious systems using inexpensive industrial by-products with pozzolanic properties, such as granulated blast-furnace slag from the steel industries, and fly ashes from coal-combustion power plants. These byproducts were activated by sodium silicate to initiate their pozzolanic reactions, and to create a cemetitious structure. One developed system was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class C fly ash (AASC); the other was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class F fly ash (AASF) as the binder of temper

  17. Assessment of ASTM D 6690-12 type II and type IV joint sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    To address the issue of water infiltration and debris retention, bi : tuminous crack sealers and fillers have been : developed to help prevent premature pavement distress. If applied appropriately, crack sealers and fillers can : significantly extend...

  18. ENDODONTIC RETREATMENT (A CASE REPORT)

    OpenAIRE

    Estina Sisthaningsih; Endang Suprastiwi

    2006-01-01

    The failure of endodontic treatment is commonly caused by errors in preoperative, operative, and postoperative endodontic treatment. Inadequate final restoration of post-endodontic treatment would impact the success of the treatment. Loose restoration is an example of restoration failure caused by inadequate retention, which leads to penetration of saliva along the root canal. This could dissolve the luting cement and cause microleakage to constantly reach the periradicular areas. If neglecte...

  19. A comparative evaluation of cytotoxicity of root canal sealers: an in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhadpande, Manjusha Madhukar; Meshram, Ganesh Kothiramji; Bahadure, Rakesh Namdeoraoji; Tawani, Shubha Gopal; Tawani, Gopal; Badole, Shital Gautam

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxicity of four different root canal sealers i.e. Apexit Plus (Ivoclar Vivadent), Endomethasone N (Septodont), AH-26 (Dentsply) and Pulpdent Root Canal Sealer (Pulpdent), on a mouse fibroblast cell line (L929). Materials and Methods Thirty two discs for each sealer (5 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height) were fabricated in Teflon mould. The sealer extraction was made in cell culture medium (Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium, DMEM) using the ratio 1.25 cm2/mL between the surface of the sealer samples and the volume of medium in a shaker incubator. Extraction of each sealer was obtained at 24 hr, 7th day, 14th day, and one month of interval. These extracts were incubated with L929 cell line and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was done. Two-way ANOVA for interaction effects between sealer and time and Post-hoc multiple comparison using Tukey's test across all the 16 different groups were used for statistical analysis. Results Apexit Plus root canal sealer was significantly less toxic than other sealers (p Sealer showed severe to moderate toxicity. Conclusions Apexit Plus was relatively biocompatible sealer as compared to other three sealers which were cytotoxic at their initial stages, however, they became biocompatible with time. PMID:24303354

  20. Regenerative Endodontics for Adult Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling; Kim, Sahng G; Gong, Qimei; Zhong, Juan; Wang, Sainan; Zhou, Xuedong; Ye, Ling; Ling, Junqi; Mao, Jeremy J

    2017-09-01

    The goal of endodontics is to save teeth. Since inception, endodontic treatments are performed to obturate disinfected root canals with inert materials such as gutta-percha. Although teeth can be saved after successful endodontic treatments, they are devitalized and therefore susceptible to reinfections and fractures. The American Association of Endodontists (AAE) has made a tremendous effort to revitalize disinfected immature permanent teeth in children and adolescents with diagnoses including pulp necrosis or apical periodontitis. The American Dental Association (ADA) in 2011 issued several clinical codes for regenerative endodontic procedures or apical revascularization in necrotic immature permanent teeth in children and adolescents. These AAE and ADA initiatives have stimulated robust interest in devising a multitude of tissue engineering approaches for dental pulp and dentin regeneration. Can the concept of regenerative endodontics be extended to revitalize mature permanent teeth with diagnoses including irreversible pulpitis and/or pulp necrosis in adults? The present article was written not only to summarize emerging findings to revitalize mature permanent teeth in adult patients but also to identify challenges and strategies that focus on realizing the goal of regenerative endodontics in adults. We further present clinical cases and describe the biological basis of potential regenerative endodontic procedures in adults. This article explores the frequently asked question if regenerative endodontic therapies should be developed for dental pulp and/or dentin regeneration in adults, who consist of the great majority of endodontic patients. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Endoscopy in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshonov, Joshua; Nahlieli, Oded

    2011-01-01

    A successful outcome of endodontic treatment depends to a large extent on accurate intraoperative findings. Conventionally, micromirrors and microprobes have been used for this purpose. The dental operating microscope (DOM) has been implemented to enhance visibility during dental procedures. However, the microscope, a sizable tool, remains between operating field and the dental practitioner, making his ability to manipulate more complicated. Also, the interference of the hands and the handpiece with the visualization of the surgical field and inaccurate observation of the endodontic instruments during the procedure. Endoscopy reportedly provides the dentist with excellent vision and ease of use. It also provides a better intraoperative visualization in comparison with micromirrors. Further development of endoscopy made it possible to combine magnification, light, irrigation/suction and surgical microinstruments in one device. This combination could lead to an advanced root canal treatment technique.

  2. Effect of technique of sealer agitation on percentage and depth of MTA Fillapex sealer penetration: A comparative in-vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikhil, Vineeta; Bansal, Parul; Sawani, Shefali

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effect of three root canal sealer activation techniques on percentage and depth of sealer penetration of MTA Fillapex and AH Plus sealers. Materials and Methods: Sixty teeth prepared till F5 ProTaper size were divided into three equal groups on the basis of sealer activation technique (G1: Ultrasonics, G2: Lentulo spiral, and G3: Counter-clockwise rotary motion). Each group was further divided into two equal subgroups on the basis of type of sealer used: AH Plus (Denstply, Konstanz, Germany) or MTA Fillapex (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brazil) and obturated with gutta-percha. Horizontal sections at 3 and 6 mm from the apex were obtained and the percentage and depth of penetration of sealers into dentinal tubules were measured using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Statistical analysis was performed utilizing Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests with a significance level of 5%. Results: G1 showed significantly (P 0.05) between G2 and G3. Conclusion: Percentage and depth of sealer penetration are influenced by the type of sealer used sealer activation technique and by the root canal level. Ultrasonic method of sealer activation and MTA Fillapex showed the best results. PMID:25829689

  3. [Today's trends in endodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagnino, V A; Gatto, R

    2003-01-01

    Some new means and innovative operative techniques in the field of endodontics are presented that have been developed and perfected over time. Instruments such as the operative microscope, ultrasonography, miniaturised tools for surgery, new materials such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) should become part of the daily routine of the endodontist. For example, the operative microscope plays a role in diagnosing pulp damage after removal of deep caries; in orthograde endodontics in diagnosing perforations; alongside ultrasonography in the search for calcified canals, removal of pins (screw-type, fibre, etc.) and also in positioning MTA. In all these cases, the operative microscope is used discontinuously, alternating working and observation phases. In endodontic surgery, the operative microscope is on the contrary used continuously, enabling the surgeon to observe details of anatomy of the root apex at high magnification, and above all enabling positioning of canal obturation with perfect seal. It is clear that the operative microscope used in all surgical phases will enable complete management of the operation and facilitate the endodontist in observing the operative field, otherwise very difficult to control.

  4. Comparisons of the Retreatment Efficacy of Calcium Silicate and Epoxy Resin-based Sealers and Residual Sealer in Dentinal Tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsuk; Kim, Euiseong; Lee, Seung-Jong; Shin, Su-Jung

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the retreatment efficacy and amount of residual sealer in a single canal filled with either EndoSequence BC (Brasseler, Savannah, GA) or AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany). Canal obturation with gutta-percha and sealer was performed in 28 human teeth using the continuous wave technique. Group 1 (n = 13) used AH Plus sealer, and group 2 (n = 15) used EndoSequence BC sealer. After 7 days, the root fillings were removed using Gates Glidden drills and a nickel-titanium rotary system. Retreatment time was measured in seconds. Canal cleanliness was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The remaining debris in the canal space and penetration into dentinal tubules were evaluated by confocal microscopy. Retreatment time was compared using the Student t test, and differences in sealer penetration and remaining debris between the groups were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test (P < .05). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the amount of dentin penetration, amount of debris, or retreatment time. With respect to penetration depth, the AH Plus group showed a slightly higher percentage than the BC group, with a significant difference only in the portion 6 mm from the apex (P < .05). Scanning electron microscopic images showed significant debris remaining on canal walls in both groups, whereas canal patency in retreatment was achieved in every specimen. The present study shows that EndoSequence BC sealer and AH Plus sealer have similar efficacy in dentin penetration and retreatment efficacy. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of endodontic sealers on bond strength of restorative systems to primary tooth pulp chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülkü Şermet Elbay

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Composite materials seemed to bond to pulp chamber dentin in primary teeth with a higher strength than compomer and resin-modified glass ionomer. Metapex and zinc-oxide eugenol canal filling materials reduced the bond strength of all three restorative systems.

  6. Effect of endodontic sealers on the bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin

    OpenAIRE

    LUCAS MANUEL RUIZ

    2012-01-01

    O propósito deste estudo foi avaliar a influência dos cimentos endodônticos na resistência de união (RU) de pinos de fibra de vidro à dentina radicular, utilizando dois sistemas de cimentação, dois períodos de armazenamento e as diferentes regiões radiculares. Foram utilizados 56 dentes humanos, caninos hígidos, seccionados transversalmente imediatamente após a junção cemento-esmalte. Em seguida, as raízes foram divididas em dois grupos (n=28) de acordo com o cimento endodôntico (com ou...

  7. Penetração intratubular de cimentos endodônticos Intratubular penetration of root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo de Deus

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar a capacidade de penetração de diferentes cimentos endodônticos (Endo Fill, Sealapex, AH Plus e Pulp Canal Sealer nos túbulos dentinários em dentes devidamente modelados e obturados. Foram utilizados 72 incisivos centrais superiores, os quais foram instrumentados no sentido coroa-ápice pela técnica de forças balanceadas. O comprimento de trabalho foi estabelecido a 1 mm do ápice radicular. Durante a limpeza e modelagem, todos os dentes foram irrigados com 10 ml de hipoclorito de sódio a 5,25%. Os dentes foram divididos em 4 grupos, sendo 1 para cada tipo de cimento. Estes grupos foram então subdivididos em função do uso ou não de EDTA a 17% previamente à obturação dos canais radiculares, para a remoção da lama dentinária. Todos os dentes foram obturados pela técnica da onda de condensação com cone médio calibrado. Após obturação, as raízes foram seccionadas no sentido mésio-distal e foi escolhida a secção de melhor qualidade visual. Estas foram então analisadas em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, sendo o foco de observação sempre a interface dentina/material obturador. Após obtenção das imagens, mensurou-se os prolongamentos dos cimentos para o interior dos túbulos dentinários. O cimento de Rickert (Pulp Canal Sealer apresentou a maior capacidade de penetração nos túbulos dentinários, sendo os piores resultados apresentados pelo grupo em que se utilizou o Sealapex. Os resultados foram avaliados estatisticamente pelo teste de Spearman, o qual mostrou diferença estatisticamente significante (p The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of penetration of four endodontic sealers (Endo Fill, Sealapex, AH Plus and Pulp Canal Sealer into dentinal tubules. Seventy-two extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were utilized in this study. The teeth were cleaned and shaped by means of the balanced-forces technique. The work length was established at 1

  8. Magnification in modern endodontic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschieri, S; Del Fabbro, M; Weinstein, T; Rosen, E; Tsesis, I

    2010-07-01

    The use of magnification devices in endodontics is becoming more and more common, with the aim of improving the quality of treatment. The common magnification systems used in modern endodontics are the surgical operation microscope, fiber-optic endoscope, and surgical loupes. The benefits of using magnification devices for conventional endodontic treatment include the increased visualization of the treatment field, enhanced possibilities in locating canals, aid in the removal of separated instruments, diagnosis of root and tooth fractures, perforation repair, and case documentation. In endodontic surgery, the use of magnification improves the ability to locate, clean, and fill the root canal system, thus achieving a predictable outcome. Further evidence-based research might better clarify the advantages and limitations of using magnification in endodontic practice.

  9. Essentials of Endodontic Microsurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    when one examines the progression of the dental operating microscope (DOM) use in dentistry and, specifically, endodontics. Although Movies can be...peri- odontal ligament perimeter or ‘‘ dog -eared’’ projection of dentin? Are there extra roots/ canals present, evident by the staining or lack of it...root-end filling material. Int Endod J 2007;40(10):758–65. 49. Holland R, de Souza V, Nery J, et al. Reaction of dogs ’ teeth to root canal filling

  10. The evalution of the effects of different irrigating solutions and laser systems on adhesion of resin-based root canal sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrancı, L Benan; Köseoğlu, Mustafa

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different laser systems and different irrigating solutions on the adhesion of AH Plus and EndoREZ root canal sealers to human root canal dentin. Laser irradiation can be used to obtain morphological changes in dentin walls that could influence the adhesion values of endodontic sealers. One hundred canine root canals were cleaned and shaped. The specimens were assigned to four groups (n=24). In group I 5% NaOCl (control), in group II 15% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) followed by 5% NaOCl, in group III Er:YAG laser with 2940 nm wavelength, and in group IV Nd:YAG laser with 1064 nm were used as a final procedure in root canals. In each group, half of the specimens were filled with AH Plus sealer and half with EndoREZ with gutta-percha, using cold lateral compaction. Specimens were sectioned to obtain three slices from each third using a precission saw. The first slice of 1 mm thick dentin disks from each third was subjected to the pushout test (MPa). Results were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test (p<0.05). A statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was reported between dentin surface treatments (Er:YAG and control groups). Control (1.60±0.99), EDTA (2.05±1.35), Er:YAG (2.25±1.64), and Nd:YAG (2.13±1.38). AH Plus adhesion values were increased significantly (p<0.05) when the root canal was irradiated with the Er:YAG laser. Nd:YAG laser irradiation increased EndoREZ adhesion values significantly when compared with Er:YAG laser irradiation (p<0.05). In the apical and coronal thirds, AH Plus showed better adhesion than did EndoREZ sealer (p<0.005). In the middle third, there was no statistical difference between AH Plus and EndoREZ. The use of EDTA and different laser systems influenced the bond strength of resin-based root canal sealers.

  11. Biomimetic microenvironments for regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Sagar N; Kim, Bogeun; Walma, Alexander M Cruz; Choi, Sung Chul; Wu, Hui; Mao, Jeremy J; Jun, Ho-Wook; Cheon, Kyounga

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative endodontics has been proposed to replace damaged and underdeveloped tooth structures with normal pulp-dentin tissue by providing a natural extracellular matrix (ECM) mimicking environment; stem cells, signaling molecules, and scaffolds. In addition, clinical success of the regenerative endodontic treatments can be evidenced by absence of signs and symptoms; no bony pathology, a disinfected pulp, and the maturation of root dentin in length and thickness. In spite of the various approaches of regenerative endodontics, there are several major challenges that remain to be improved: a) the endodontic root canal is a strong harbor of the endodontic bacterial biofilm and the fundamental etiologic factors of recurrent endodontic diseases, (b) tooth discolorations are caused by antibiotics and filling materials, (c) cervical root fractures are caused by endodontic medicaments, (d) pulp tissue is not vascularized nor innervated, and (e) the dentin matrix is not developed with adequate root thickness and length. Generally, current clinical protocols and recent studies have shown a limited success of the pulp-dentin tissue regeneration. Throughout the various approaches, the construction of biomimetic microenvironments of pulp-dentin tissue is a key concept of the tissue engineering based regenerative endodontics. The biomimetic microenvironments are composed of a synthetic nano-scaled polymeric fiber structure that mimics native pulp ECM and functions as a scaffold of the pulp-dentin tissue complex. They will provide a framework of the pulp ECM, can deliver selective bioactive molecules, and may recruit pluripotent stem cells from the vicinity of the pulp apex. The polymeric nanofibers are produced by methods of self-assembly, electrospinning, and phase separation. In order to be applied to biomedical use, the polymeric nanofibers require biocompatibility, stability, and biodegradability. Therefore, this review focuses on the development and application of the

  12. Influence of resin-based composite restoration technique and endodontic access on cuspal deflection and cervical microleakage scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Helali, Ruaa; Dowling, Adam H; McGinley, Emma Louise; Duncan, Henry F; Fleming, Garry J P

    2013-03-01

    To assess cuspal deflection and cervical microleakage of mesio-occlusal-distal cavities in standardised premolar teeth restored incrementally with resin-based composite (RBC) placed horizontally or obliquely and with endodontic access cavities (with and without gutta percha and epoxy resin sealer obturation). Thirty-two teeth were allocated to four groups (n=8) and RBC restored in eight horizontal (Group A) or oblique increments (Groups B-D) using a quartz-tungsten-halogen light curing unit. The dependent variable for Groups B-D was endodontic access (none (Group B), obturated without (Group C) and with gutta percha and epoxy resin sealer (Group D)). Cuspal deflections were recorded post-irradiation using a twin channel deflection measuring gauge. Following restoration, the teeth were thermocycled, immersed in fuchsin dye, sectioned and examined for cervical microleakage. Tukey's post hoc tests identified a significant decrease in total cuspal deflection for the horizontal (p=0.015) compared with the oblique placement technique. No significant difference in total cuspal deflection was evident between Groups B and D restored teeth (p>0.318) or in cervical microleakage score between Groups A and D (p=0.575). Deformation is proportional to the cubed power of the length of a uniform cantilever beam and although a crude approximation of cuspal deformation, the reduction in the effective cusp length therefore significantly reduced the deflection in the MOD cavities when the horizontal rather than the oblique incremental restoration technique was employed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative assessment of the area of sealer voids in single cone obturation done with mineral trioxide aggregate, epoxy resin, and zinc-oxide eugenol based sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Voids in the sealer mass have the potential to allow leakage through obturation. They are more critical in single cone (SC obturation as the volume of sealer used in this obturation is larger when compared to other obturations. Aim: To compare the area of voids in mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA-based, resin-based, and zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealers when employed with SC obturation technique. Materials and Methods: Fifteen teeth were cleaned and shaped and divided into three groups for SC obturation using MTA Fillapex, AH26, and Pulpdent sealers, respectively. The obturated teeth were sectioned at apical, middle, and coronal third, and area of voids in the sealer was assessed using a stereomicroscope and digital images and image software. The results were statistically analyzed using SPSS software and Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: The three tested sealers showed voids in all the sections except MTA Fillapex, which was void free in apical and middle sections. There were significant differences between these sealers regarding their section wise area of voids (P < 0.05. Similarly, there were significant differences in their overall area of voids (P < 0.05 with MTA Fillapex showing significantly least area of voids followed by AH26. Conclusions: SC obturation with MTA Fillapex sealer, which showed void free apical and middle third sections, had significantly least area of voids in the sealer followed by the one with AH26 sealer, whereas SC obturation with Pulpdent sealer had significantly most area of voids.

  14. Endodontic-periodontal microsurgery for combined endodontic-periodontal lesions: An overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharma, Ritu; Hegde, Vivek; Siddharth, M; Hegde, Rashmi; Manchanda, Gunsha; Agarwal, Pratul

    2014-01-01

    .... Combined endodontic-periodontal lesions have been referred to as a true challenge, requiring not only endodontic microsurgical management but also concurrent bone grafting and membrane barriers techniques...

  15. Endodontic management of taurodontic teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash R

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Taurodontism is a morpho-anatomical change in the shape of the tooth in which the body of the tooth is enlarged and the roots are reduced in size. Although taurodontism is a dental rarity, this unusual radicular form should merit circumspect considerations in planning and treatment. Endodontic management in taurodont teeth has been described as complex and difficult. The present paper describes the successful completion of endodontic treatment in three taurodontic teeth with appropriate use of instruments and techniques and also emphasizes the need for post endodontic rehabilitation.

  16. Identify the endodontic treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Paul A; Schindler, William G; Krell, Keith V; Hicks, M Lamar; Davis, Stephen B

    2009-12-01

    This paper sought to determine the levels of evidence associated with treatment for specific diagnostic categories and the prognosis of treatment. A review of the literature was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Database. The Journal of Endodontics, International Journal of Endodontics, Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology, Endodontic Topics, and Dental Traumatology were also searched. The bibliographies of relevant articles were manually searched. The review found a low level of evidence to assess clinical treatment modalities. The development of higher levels of evidence to facilitate the selection of appropriate treatment modalities for each diagnostic category is recommended.

  17. The 'E' factor -- evolving endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, M J

    2013-03-01

    Endodontics is a constantly developing field, with new instruments, preparation techniques and sealants competing with trusted and traditional approaches to tooth restoration. Thus general dental practitioners must question and understand the significance of these developments before adopting new practices. In view of this, the aim of this article, and the associated presentation at the 2013 British Dental Conference & Exhibition, is to provide an overview of endodontic methods and constantly evolving best practice. The presentation will review current preparation techniques, comparing rotary versus reciprocation, and question current trends in restoration of the endodontically treated tooth.

  18. Endodontic and post-endodontic management of a fused molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of fused teeth needs special care and attention to the bizarre anatomy. This paper describes root canal treatment of a fused carious tooth presenting with apical periodontitis. It is a rare case of fusion of the mandibular second molar with a paramolar. There is no literature regarding placement of crown over endodontically treated fused teeth. In this case, the fused teeth were endodontically treated and restored by a porcelain fused to metal crown.

  19. New fluoride MI Varnish as root canal sealer: An in vitro analysis of bacterial leakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanu G Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the sealing ability of root canal obturation after the application of fluoride varnish (MI Varnish containing 5% sodium fluoride and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate, fluoride varnish, and AH Plus and AH-Plus as root canal sealer by bacterial penetration test. Materials and Methods: Root canals of 65 single-rooted and single-canalled teeth were prepared. They were divided into three experimental groups (n = 15 and two control groups (n = 10. The root canal walls in Group I were coated with AH Plus, Group II were coated with AH Plus and fluoride varnish, and Group III were coated with fluoride varnish. All the teeth were obturated with gutta-percha using the lateral condensation technique. Enterococcus faecalis were used as test bacteria to determine the leakage during 100 days. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results: Group III showed significantly less bacterial penetration as compared to Group I (P = 0.01 and Group II (P = 0.03. However, there was no statistical significance between Groups I and II (P = 0.672. Conclusions: It can be concluded from the present study that fluoride varnish can be used as a root canal sealer. However, further in vitro and in vivo studies are required.

  20. The effect of photodynamic therapy and polymer solution containing nano-particles of Ag /ZnO on push-out bond strength of the sealers AH-Plus and MTA Fillapex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, Hamidreza; Ghasemi, Negin; Divband, Baharak; Rezaei, Yashar; Jabbari, Golchin; Payahoo, Salar

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to examine and compare the effect of photodynamic therapy and solution containing nano particles Ag/ZnO on adhesion of endodontic sealers to dentinal walls of human root canal. Ninty single-rooted human teeth were selected and their clinical crown was cut from the cemento-enamel junction zone. Canals were prepared by RaCe rotary system and the smear layer was removed using 17% EDTA and 5.25% NaOCl. Samples were randomly divided into two groups of AH Plus and MTA Fillapex based on the sealer type and each group based on antimicrobial method was divided into two sub-groups of photodynamic therapy and polymer containing nano particles of Ag / ZnO and a control sub-group (N = 15). After obturation of canals with gutta-percha and sealers mentioned, the samples were incubated for a week at a humidity of 95% and 37°C and then 2mm thick discs were prepared from the middle region of roots for Push-out test. The maximum failure force was recorded in newton and converted to MPa. Then, 3 random specimens of each subgroup were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Statistical analysis was performed by Two way ANOVA and ( P Nano particles, Photodynamic therapy, Push-out.

  1. Biomimetic microenvironments for regenerative endodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushik, Sagar N.; Kim, Bogeun; Walma, Alexander M. Cruz; Choi, Sung Chul; Wu, Hui; Mao, Jeremy J.; Jun, Ho-Wook; Cheon, Kyounga

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative endodontics has been proposed to replace damaged and underdeveloped tooth structures with normal pulp-dentin tissue by providing a natural extracellular matrix (ECM) mimicking environment; stem cells, signaling molecules, and scaffolds. In addition, clinical success of the regenerative endodontic treatments can be evidenced by absence of signs and symptoms; no bony pathology, a disinfected pulp, and the maturation of root dentin in length and thickness. In spite of the various ap...

  2. Techniques and materials used by general dentists during endodontic treatment procedures: Findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleazer, Paul D; Gilbert, Gregg H; Funkhouser, Ellen; Reams, Gregg J; Law, Alan S; Benjamin, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about which materials and techniques general dentists (GDs) use during endodontic procedures. The objectives were to quantify GDs' use of specific endodontic tools, quantify inappropriate use, and ascertain whether inappropriate use is associated with GDs' practice characteristics. GDs in The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network reported in a questionnaire materials and techniques they use during endodontic procedures. Among eligible GDs, 1,490 (87%) participated. Most (93%; n = 1,383) used sodium hypochlorite to irrigate. The most commonly used sealers were zinc oxide eugenol (43%) and resin (40%), followed by calcium hydroxide (26%). Most (62%; n = 920) used a compaction obturation technique; 36% (n = 534) used a carrier-based method. Most (96%; n = 1,423) used gutta-percha as a filler; 5% used paste fillers. Few used irrigants (n = 46), techniques (n = 49), or fillers (n = 10) that investigators classified as inappropriate. GDs use a broad range of endodontic techniques and materials, often adapting to newer technologies as they become available. Few GDs use tools that the investigators classified as inappropriate. GDs use many types of endodontic techniques and materials, but only a small percentage of them are inappropriate. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lasers in endodontics: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentzen, Matthias; Braun, Andreas; Koort, Hans J.

    2002-06-01

    The interest in endodontic use of dental laser systems is increasing. Developing laser technology and a better understanding of laser effects widened the spectrum of possible endodontic indications. Various laser systems including excimer-, argon+-, diode-, Nd:YAG-, Er:YAG- and CO2-lasers are used in pulp diagnosis, treatment of hypersensitivity, pulp capping, sterilization of root canals, root canal shaping and obturation or apicoectomy. With the development of new delivery systems - thin and flexible fibers - for many different wavelengths laser applications in endodontics may increase. Since laser devices are still relatively costly, access to them is limited. Most of the clinical applications are laser assisted procedures such as the removing of pulp remnants and debris or disinfection of infected root canals. The essential question is whether a laser can provide improved treatment over conventional care. To perform laser therapy in endodontics today different laser types with adopted wavelengths and pulse widths are needed, each specific to a particular application. Looking into the future we will need endodontic laser equipment providing optimal laser parameters for different treatment modalities. Nevertheless, the quantity of research reports from the last decade promises a genuine future for lasers in endodontics.

  4. Influence of different final irrigation regimens and various endodontic filling materials on vertical root fracture resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungur, D D; Altundasar, E; Uzunoglu, E; Yilmaz, Z

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different endodontic materials and final irrigation regimens on vertical root fracture (VRF) resistance. Eighty human teeth were prepared then assigned into two groups (n = 40) according to the final irrigations. G1: 5 mL, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), G2: 5 mL, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX). Each group was assigned into four subgroups according to the obturation system used (n = 10): A: iRoot SP/single gutta-percha cone (SGP), B: Only iRoot SP, C: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-Fillapex/SGP, D: AH26/SGP. The specimens were embedded in acrylic molds and subjected to compressive loading at a rate of 1 mm min until VRF occurred. Data were analyzed via three-way ANOVA tests. The statistically significant difference was found among groups (P resistance of root canals filled with different obturation technique and root canal sealers.

  5. Effect of calcium hydroxide and double and triple antibiotic pastes on the bond strength of epoxy resin-based sealer to root canal dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, Merve; Arslan, Hakan; Topcuoglu, Hüseyin Sinan; Tuncay, Oznur

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of calcium hydroxide (CH) and triple (TAP) and double (DAP) antibiotic pastes on the bond strength of an epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus Jet; Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany) to the root canal dentin. Sixty-four single-rooted human mandibular premolars were decoronated and prepared using the rotary system to size 40. The specimens were randomly divided into a control group (without intracanal dressing) and 3 experimental groups that received an intracanal dressing with either CH, DAP, or TAP (n = 16). The intracanal dressing was removed by rinsing with 10 mL 17% EDTA followed by 10 mL 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. The root canals were then obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus Jet sealer. A push-out test was used to measure the bond strength between the root canal dentin and the sealer. The data were analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests to detect the effect of the independent variables (intracanal medicaments and root canal thirds) and their interactions on the push-out bond strength of the root canal filling material to the root dentin (P = .05). The push-out bond strength values were significantly affected by the intracanal medicaments (P .05). In the middle and apical third, the bond strength of the TAP group was higher than those of the CH and DAP groups (P epoxy resin-based sealer. Additionally, the TAP improved the bond strength of the epoxy resin-based sealer in the middle and apical thirds. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The wetting ability of root canal sealers after using various irrigants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjyot Mulay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate and compare the wettability of root canal sealers after using various irrigants. To determine wettability, we evaluated the contact angle, because lower the contact angle, better the wettability. Green tea has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties; therefore, it was used as an irrigant. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two freshly extracted, human, single-rooted teeth were used in the study. The roots were split into 144 dentin sections. The specimens were divided into the following four groups having 36 samples each: Group I—sodium hypochlorite 3%, Group II—chlorhexidine (CHX 2%, Group III—green tea extract, and Group IV (control—normal saline. The groups were further subdivided based on the sealer used. Results: There was highly significant difference among the mean contact angle values of zinc oxide eugenol sealer, AH Plus sealer, and MTA Fillapex sealer using 2% CHX (P < 0.01. The least contact angle was observed with green tea as root canal irrigant and MTA as root canal sealer (25.20 ± 4.00. Conclusion: The type of irrigant used had an influence on the contact angle of sealer. Among all the irrigants and sealers used in this study, the least contact angle was observed with green tea root canal irrigant and MTA Fillapex sealer.

  7. Comparison of Endodontic Medicaments on Bond Strength of Fiber Post to Root Dentin Using Resin Cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Jahromi, Maryam; Barekatain, Mehrdad; Ravanbod, Shirin; Ranjbarian, Parisa; Kousehlar, Sara

    2017-03-01

    Endodontic irrigants and medicaments may affect the bond strength of intracanal posts to root dentin. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX) on bond strength of fiber post cemented with resin cement to root dentin. This in vitro experimental study was conducted on 36 mandibular premolars. Canals were prepared using the step back technique. After root canal irrigation, the teeth were divided into three groups of 12. Ca(OH)2 paste and CHX gel were used as intracanal medicaments in the first and second groups respectively. No intracanal medicament was used in the third group (control group). Access cavities were then sealed and the teeth were incubated for one week. The root canals were then filled using gutta percha and AH26 sealer and the teeth were incubated for 72 hours. Tooth crowns were then cut at the level of the cementoenamel junction and intracanal posts were placed. The teeth were mounted in auto-polymerizing acrylic resin, and incubated for one week .They were then sectioned into 1.5mm thick slices from their coronal surface using a fully automated cutting machine, and subjected to push-out test until failure. The load at debonding was recorded and data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, post-hoc test and t-test. The coronal margin of the root was at the level of the surface of acrylic resin in the mold. The mean bond strength was 4.45 MPa in the Ca(OH)2, 2.45 MPa in the CHX and 2.48 MPa in the control group. The difference in this regard was statistically significant among groups (p= 0.04). The Ca(OH)2 group had significant differences with the CHX and control groups (p= 0.03 and p= 0.02, respectively). The difference between the CHX and control groups was not significant (p= 0.974). Based on the results, Ca(OH)2 increased the bond strength of fiber post to root dentin but 2% CHX had no effect on bond strength.

  8. Comparative evaluation of fracture resistance under static and fatigue loading of endodontically treated teeth restored with carbon fiber posts, glass fiber posts, and an experimental dentin post system: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambica, Khetarpal; Mahendran, Kavitha; Talwar, Sangeeta; Verma, Mahesh; Padmini, Govindaswamy; Periasamy, Ravishankar

    2013-01-01

    This investigation sought to compare the fracture resistance under static and fatigue loading of endodontically treated teeth restored with fiber-reinforced composite posts and experimental dentin posts milled from human root dentin by using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing. Seventy maxillary central incisors were obturated and divided into 4 groups: control group without any post (n = 10), carbon fiber post group (n = 20), glass fiber post group (n = 20), and dentin post group (n = 20). Control group teeth were prepared to a height of 5 mm. In all other teeth, post space was prepared; a post was cemented, and a core build-up was provided. Half the samples from each group were statistically loaded until failure, and the remaining half were subjected to cyclic loading, followed by monostatic load until fracture. One-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni multiple comparisons revealed a significant difference among test groups. The control group demonstrated highest fracture resistance (935.03 ± 33.53 N), followed by the dentin post group (793.12 ± 33.69 N), glass fiber post group (603.44 ± 46.67 N), and carbon fiber post group (497.19 ± 19.27 N) under static loading. These values reduced to 786.69 ± 29.64 N, 646.34 ± 26.56 N, 470 ± 36.34 N, and 379.71 ± 13.95 N, respectively, after cyclic loading. Results suggest that human dentin can serve as post material under static and fatigue loading. Although at an early stage in research, the use of dentin posts in root-filled teeth looks promising. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the sealing ability of resin cement used as a root canal sealer: An in vitro study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, R Vinod; Shruthi, Cs

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the apical seal of root canals obturated with resin cement as a root canal sealer and compare with that of the glass ionomer and zinc oxide eugenol sealers using...

  10. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualize...

  11. Magnification devices for endodontic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fabbro, Massimo; Taschieri, Silvio; Lodi, Giovanni; Banfi, Giuseppe; Weinstein, Roberto L

    2009-07-08

    After the introduction of microsurgical principles in endodontics, involving new techniques for root canal treatment, there has been a continuous search for enhancing the visualisation of the surgical field. It would be interesting to know if the technical advantages for the operator brought in by magnification devices like surgical microscope, endoscope and magnifying loupes, are also associated with advantages for the patient, in terms of improvement of clinical and radiographic outcomes. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate and compare the effects of endodontic treatment performed with the aid of magnification devices versus endodontic treatment without magnification devices. We also aimed at comparing among them the different magnification devices used in endodontics (microscope, endoscope, magnifying loupes). The Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched with appropriate search strategies. Handsearching included nine dental journals. The bibliographies of relevant clinical trials and relevant articles were checked for identifying studies outside the handsearched journals. Seven manufacturers of instruments in the field of endodontics and/or endodontic surgery, as well as the authors of the identified randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were contacted in order to identify unpublished or ongoing RCTs. There were no language restrictions. The last electronic search was conducted on 2nd April 2009, and the last handsearching was undertaken on 31st January 2009. All randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing endodontic therapy performed with or without using one or more types of magnification device, as well as randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing two or more magnification devices used as an adjunct to endodontic therapy were considered. Screening of studies and data extraction were conducted independently and in duplicate. The Cochrane Collaboration statistical guidelines were to be

  12. Microstructural effects on Ni-Ti endodontic instruments failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, G. [ENSCP, Paris (France). Lab. de Metallurgie Structurale; UFR d' Odontologie, Paris (France); Jordan, L. [ENSCP, Paris (France). Lab. de Metallurgie Structurale; UFR d' Odontologie, Paris (France); CECM, CNRS, Vitry-sur-Seine (France)

    2001-11-01

    Endodontic treatments consist to eliminate the vascular nervous system of the tooth. The objectives of this treatment are adequate cleaning and shaping the root canals of the tooth. The endodontic treatment is essential to the success of prosthetics therapy and the lifetime of the tooth. The difficulties of endodontic treatments lie in the abruptness of canal curvature. Ni-Ti endodontic instruments were introduced to facilitate instrumentation of curved canals. They are superelastic and flex far more than stainless-steel instruments. Despite the increased flexibility we can observe unexpected fractures of these Ni-Ti files. The purpose of this work is to understand the process history on fracture life. Our results are based on microstructural and mechanical investigations of Ni-Ti engine-driven rotary files: X-ray diffraction, SEM, DSC, microhardness and bending tests. Thus, and as we expected, endodontic files are very work-hardened: there is a high density of defects in the alloy, which will impede the phase transformation. DSC : the phase transformation A/R-Phase is predominant, the martensitic transformation is difficult to observe. The microvickers hardness confirms these observations (dislocations and precipitates). The X-rays show that the experimental peaks are broad, which is typical of a distorted lattice. Moreover, machining resulted in the work hardening of files. Some thermal treatments are involved in promoting some changes in the mechanical properties and transformation characteristics. Annealing around 400 C shows good results : the recovery allows a compromise between an adequate density of defects to see the R-Phase germination and a low density to limit the brittleness of these instruments. The surface state of the endodontic files is an important factor for failures and fractures initiation. In these applications, it is very critical to predict the service life based on the theoretical modeling. (orig.)

  13. Endodontic treatment in geriatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milly Armilya Andang

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increased number of geriatric population, it is predicted that the need for dental treatment also increases. The needs for esthetic factors and function of geriatric patient are maybe similar to young patient. The number of geriatric patients who refuse dental extraction is increasing if there are still other alternative. They can be more convinced when the clinician said that the dental disease experienced is a focal infection so that the loss of the tooth can be accepted as the best option. But if it is possible, they will prefer endodontic treatment, because they want to keep their teeth according to the treatment plan or based on patient's request, as a less traumatic alternative compared to extraction.Endodontic treatment consideration for geriatric patient is quite similar to younger patients. The technique is also the same, although the problem may be bigger. The problem or obstacle that may arise in endodontic treatment for geriatric patient relates to the visit duration, problems during x-ray, problems in defining root canal location, vertical root fracture, and in some cases, decreased pulp tissue recovery ability. Due to the fact that the challenge is quite big, the success of endodontic treatment in geriatric patients needs to be considered. This paper will explain the endodontic treatment prognosis for geriatric patients.

  14. Endodontics and the ageing patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, M; Parashos, P

    2015-03-01

    Patients are living longer and the rate of edentulism is decreasing. Endodontic treatment is an essential part of maintaining the health and well-being of the elderly. Retention of natural teeth improves the quality of life and the overall health and longevity of ageing patients. Also, teeth that might be otherwise extracted may be strategically valuable to retain a prosthesis, and elderly patients are more likely to have medical complications that may prevent dental extractions from being safely performed. The technical goals of endodontic treatment in the elderly are the same as those for younger patients. However, the pulpo-dentinal complex undergoes calcific changes over time, which may pose challenges for the clinician. The purposes of this review are to discuss age changes in the pulp and the challenges posed by diagnosing, treatment planning and treating the elderly endodontic patient. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  15. Evaluation of bone tissue response to a sealer containing mineral trioxide aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Eloísa; Böttcher, Daiana Elisabeth; Hoppe, Carolina Bender; Grecca, Fabiana Soares; Kopper, Patrícia Maria Poli

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed bone tissue reactions to MTA Fillapex (Ângelus Industria de Produtos Odontológicos Ltda, Londrina, Brazil) compared with an epoxy resin-based material in the femur of Wistar rats. Bone tissue reactions were evaluated in 15 animals after 7, 30, and 90 days (n = 5 per period). Three surgical cavities were prepared on the femur and filled with 0.2 mL MTA Fillapex, AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey GmbH, Konstanz, Germany), or no sealer (negative control). By the end of each experimental period, 5 animals were randomly euthanized. The samples were histologically processed and analyzed using a light microscope. The presence of inflammatory cells, fibers, and hard tissue barrier formation was evaluated. Differences among the groups and between the 3 experimental periods were evaluated by using 2-way analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test (P ≤ .05). MTA Fillapex scored significantly higher for neutrophils at 7 days than at 90. At 7 days, the same occurred when comparing MTA Fillapex with AH Plus. The presence of lymphocytes/plasmocytes significantly decreased over time in all groups. Macrophages, giant cells, eosinophils, and fiber condensation presented no differences among groups and periods. Within 90 days, all groups presented complete hard tissue barrier formation. The presence of mineral trioxide aggregate in MTA Fillapex composition did not improve the bone tissue repair. The presence of sealers provided the re-establishment of the original bone tissue structure and the inflammatory response decreased over time, so they can be considered biocompatible. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Human tooth germ stem cell response to calcium-silicate based endodontic cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Pamukcu Guven

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the cytotoxic effects of endodontic cements on human tooth germ stem cells (hTGSCs. MTA Fillapex, a mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA-based, salicylate resin containing root canal sealer, was compared with iRoot SP, a bioceramic sealer, and AH Plus Jet, an epoxy resin-based root canal sealer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To evaluate cytotoxicity, all materials were packed into Teflon rings (4 mmµ3 mm and co-cultured with hTGSCs with the aid of 24-well Transwell permeable supports, which had a pore size of 0.4 µm. Coverslips were coated with MTA Fillapex, iRoot SP and AH Plus Jet and each coverslip was placed onto the bottom of one well of a six-well plate for scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. Before the cytotoxicity and SEM analysis, all samples were stored at 37ºC and at 95% humidity and 5% CO2 for 24 hours to set. The cellular viability was analyzed using MTS test (3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxy-methoxy-phenyl-2-(4-sulfo-phenyl-2H-tetrazolium. The cytotoxic effects and SEM visualization of the tested materials were analyzed at 24-hour, 72-hour, one-week and two-week periods. RESULTS: On the 1st day, only MTA Fillapex caused cytotoxicity compared to negative control (NC group (p0.05. After 14 days of incubation with the test materials, MTA Fillapex exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity compared with iRoot SP, AH Plus Jet and the NC group (P<0.008. In the SEM analysis, the highest levels of cell attachment were observed for iRoot SP and the control group. After 24 hours, MTA Fillapex reduced the number of cells attached to the surface. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this study, sealers exerted different cytotoxic effects on hTGSCs. Although all materials have exerted cellular toxicity, iRoot SP and AH Plus Jet may promote better attachment to hTGSCs.

  17. Human tooth germ stem cell response to calcium-silicate based endodontic cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Esra Pamukçu; Yalvaç, Mehmet Emir; Kayahan, Mehmet Baybora; Sunay, Hakkı; Şahın, Fikrettin; Bayirli, Gündüz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cytotoxic effects of endodontic cements on human tooth germ stem cells (hTGSCs). MTA Fillapex, a mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-based, salicylate resin containing root canal sealer, was compared with iRoot SP, a bioceramic sealer, and AH Plus Jet, an epoxy resin-based root canal sealer. To evaluate cytotoxicity, all materials were packed into Teflon rings (4 mmµ3 mm) and co-cultured with hTGSCs with the aid of 24-well Transwell permeable supports, which had a pore size of 0.4 µm. Coverslips were coated with MTA Fillapex, iRoot SP and AH Plus Jet and each coverslip was placed onto the bottom of one well of a six-well plate for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Before the cytotoxicity and SEM analysis, all samples were stored at 37ºC and at 95% humidity and 5% CO2 for 24 hours to set. The cellular viability was analyzed using MTS test (3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxy-methoxy-phenyl)-2-(4-sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium). The cytotoxic effects and SEM visualization of the tested materials were analyzed at 24-hour, 72-hour, one-week and two-week periods. On the 1st day, only MTA Fillapex caused cytotoxicity compared to negative control (NC) group (p0.05). After 14 days of incubation with the test materials, MTA Fillapex exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity compared with iRoot SP, AH Plus Jet and the NC group (P<0.008). In the SEM analysis, the highest levels of cell attachment were observed for iRoot SP and the control group. After 24 hours, MTA Fillapex reduced the number of cells attached to the surface. Within the limitations of this study, sealers exerted different cytotoxic effects on hTGSCs. Although all materials have exerted cellular toxicity, iRoot SP and AH Plus Jet may promote better attachment to hTGSCs.

  18. Microbiology in endodontics: an online study guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will present the topical areas of microorganisms involved in primary infection; microorganisms involved with failing endodontics, culturing, bacteremia, and endodontics; leaving teeth open; antibiotics; actinomycosis; sterilization of instruments and sterilization of gutta-percha, microorganisms in periradicular lesions; biofilms; and fungi, viruses, and prions.

  19. Argon laser application to endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenau, Richard J.; Ludlow, Marvin; Anderson, David

    1993-07-01

    The application of laser technology to endodontics has been studied for some time. At the present time several major problems are being investigated: (1) removal of infected tissues, (2) sterilization of canals, (3) obturation of canals, and (4) preservation of the vitality of supporting tissues. This list is not intended to imply other problems do not exist or have been solved, but it is a starting point. This paper reviews some of the literature that relates to laser applications to endodontics and concludes with some of the findings from our investigation.

  20. Spectrophotometric analysis of crown discoloration induced by MTA- and ZnOE-based sealers

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    Konstantinos Ioannidis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Crown discoloration can be induced by root canal sealer remnants following root canal treatment. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate chromatic alterations in human tooth crowns induced by a Mineral Trioxide Aggregate-based sealer (MTA Fillapex® and a commonly used ZnOE-based sealer (Roth-811. The tested null hypothesis was that the application of the materials did not induce clinically perceptible crown discoloration (Ho: CIE color difference ΔE<3.7. Material and Methods: Forty five fully developed, intact, mandibular third molars were sectioned 1 mm below the cemento-enamel junction. The pulp chambers were chemomechanically debrided via the cervical access. The specimens were randomly assigned into three groups Group 1: MTA Fillapex, Group 2: Roth 811, Group 3: Negative control (unfilled and immersed in individually marked vials containing distilled water up to the cervix (37±1°C. The spectral reflectance lines were recorded by utilizing a UV-VIS spectrophotometer equipped with integration sphere in the visual spectrum at baseline, 1 week, 1 and 3 months after material placement. Data were transformed into values of the CIE L*a*b* color system and the corresponding ΔE values were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way mixed ANOVA models, at p=0.05 level of significance. Results: A statistically significant increase in a* and b* chromatic parameters of the MTA Fillapex Group was measured. However, ΔE values did not exceed the human eye perceptibility threshold (set at ΔE<3.7 during the experimental period (ΔEt3=2.88. In Roth-811 Group, a statistically significant decrease in L* and a statistically significant increase in a* and b* chromatic parameters was measured, during all observation periods. Resultant ΔE values exceeded the human eye perceptibility threshold after 1 week (ΔEt1=5.65. Conclusions: Application of MTA Fillapex in tooth crowns resulted in minimal color alterations, while Roth 811

  1. Modeling colorant leakage techniques: application to endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romieu, Olivier J; Zimányi, László; Warszyński, Piotr; Levallois, Bernard; Cuisinier, Frédéric J; de Périère, Dominique Deville; Jacquot, Bruno

    2010-09-01

    Our aim was to improve the comprehension of in vitro tracer leakage studies and to determine in which conditions such studies can be reliable. We aimed to develop different theoretical models to describe either an initially dry or a wet interface (slit) between sealer and dentin. Equations based on physical laws were derived to model theoretically in vitro tracer penetration. For the dry interfaces, atmospheric, hydrostatic, tracer gravimetric, capillary and internal air pressures were considered as the underlying forces that control tracer penetration. For wet interfaces, the laws of diffusion were used to model colorant penetration. In both cases penetration is influenced by the width of the interface and by the size of the colorant. Calculations for dry conditions have shown that penetration is quick, mainly driven by the capillary pressure, and the penetration increases as the width of the interface diminishes. Dentinal tubules and the extent of their interconnection modify the penetration depth. For wet conditions, tracer size is the main factor controlling the penetration length and speed (the bigger the tracer, the slower the penetration). Our model calculations demonstrate that tracer penetration studies have to be performed under strict experimental conditions. Dry and wet interfaces are two extreme cases with very different tracer penetration modes. In vitro colorant penetration tests should be performed in both of these conditions avoiding cases where the slit contains both air and water. Theses models can be adapted to other dental situations as well. Copyright 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Learning experience in endodontics: Brazilian students' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijo, Marilia O S; Ferreira, Efigênia F; Ribeiro Sobrinho, Antônio P; Paiva, Saul M; Martins, Renata C

    2013-05-01

    Including students' perceptions in the educational process is considered a key component in monitoring the quality of academic programs. This study aimed to evaluate the concept of one's learning experience in endodontic teaching from the perspective of a group of Brazilian students. A total of 126 self-administered, structured questionnaires were distributed to undergraduate dental students enrolled in endodontics courses during the second semester of the 2009 academic year. The questionnaires were administered during final examinations and focused on students' opinions concerning learning during endodontic treatments, time spent during endodontic treatments, difficulties found during endodontic treatments, quality of endodontic treatments performed, characteristics of the technique employed, and suggestions to improve endodontic teaching. Ninety-one percent of the questionnaires were returned for evaluation. The obtained answers were discussed and analyzed, thereby generating quantitative and qualitative data showing students' perceptions of their experiences in endodontics courses. The main points that can affect the teaching of endodontics, according to the undergraduate students, included patients' absences and delays, selection of patients, preclinical and clinical training, difficulties found, type of technique employed, and teachers' orientation during endodontic treatment. The students' perceptions provided valuable information about the development of the course and the teacher-student relationship, together with the added intention of enhancing the teaching of endodontics as well as other courses.

  3. Photodvnamic Therapy in Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Jafarzadeh, Hamid; Shalavi, Sousan; Kinoshita, Jun-Ichiro

    2017-06-01

    Commonly used irrigants do not always eradicate the entire microbial flora in infected root canals. Therefore, several other strategies, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been developed. Photoactivated disinfection is based on the interaction of a photosensitive antibacterial agent and a light source. It uses a nontoxic dye named photosensitizer (PS) and low-intensity visible light. In oxygen presentation, these combine to produce some cytotoxic species. The PS molecules attach to bacteria membrane. Irradiation with a specific wavelength of the light may lead to the production of singlet oxygen, resulting in rupture of the microbial cell wall. There are several applications for PDT in dentistry. A successful periodontal treatment is based on elimination of bacteria from the infected area. Phenothiazinium PSs have been shown to be highly effective and safe for this purpose. However, scaling/root planing should be performed before the PDT. While performing the PDT, PS should be first injected in the periodontal pocket and allowed to pigment. Then, the special fiber should be inserted 1 mm short of the pocket base and lased. Photodynamic therapy has also been used to disinfect caries dentin before restoration, disinfecting oral tissues before or during surgical procedures, treating denture stomatitis, and treating oral candidiasis in immunocompromised patients. Photodynamic therapy can be used in combination with mechanical instrumentation and chemical antimicrobial agents, such as sodium hypochlo-rite, too. The purpose of this study was to review historical perspective, mechanism of action, and applications of PDT in dentistry and especially in endodontics was reviewed. Furthermore, the effects of PDT on dentin bonding and endo-toxin are discussed. Photodynamic therapy has been advocated to increase the disinfection level of the root canal system.

  4. In vitro comparison of induction capacity and biomineralization ability of mineral trioxide aggregate and a bioceramic root canal sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, E P; Taşlı, P N; Yalvac, M E; Sofiev, N; Kayahan, M B; Sahin, F

    2013-12-01

    To compare the effect of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and iRoot SP, a bioceramic root canal sealer, on the cell viability, hard tissue deposition capacity and odontogenic differentiation of human tooth germ stem cells (hTGSCs). The dental materials MTA, iRoot SP and Dycal were packed into Teflon rings and placed on transwell inserts for toxicity evaluations by the MTS assay on days 3 and 7. Dycal was used as a positive control for the cell viability assay. Teflon rings were cocultured with hTGSCs, followed by the induction of odontogenic differentiation. The odontogenic differentiation of hTGSCs and biomineralization ability of the materials were evaluated by analysing the mRNA expression levels of dentine sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and collagen type 1A (COL1A) by real-time polymerase chain reaction expression analysis, measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and visualization of calcium deposits by von Kossa staining. MTA and iRoot SP exhibited no cytotoxicity, but Dycal caused cytotoxicity (P Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Current perspectives of bio-ceramic technology in endodontics: calcium enriched mixture cement - review of its composition, properties and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Utneja

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in bio-ceramic technology has revolutionised endodontic material science by enhancing the treatment outcome for patients. This class of dental materials conciliates excellent biocompatibility with high osseoconductivity that render them ideal for endodontic care. Few recently introduced bio-ceramic materials have shown considerable clinical success over their early generations in terms of good handling characteristics. Calcium enriched mixture (CEM cement, Endosequence sealer, and root repair materials, Biodentine and BioAggregate are the new classes of bio-ceramic materials. The aim of this literature review is to present investigations regarding properties and applications of CEM cement in endodontics. A review of the existing literature was performed by using electronic and hand searching methods for CEM cement from January 2006 to December 2013. CEM cement has a different chemical composition from that of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA but has similar clinical applications. It combines the biocompatibility of MTA with more efficient characteristics, such as significantly shorter setting time, good handling characteristics, no staining of tooth and effective seal against bacterial leakage.

  6. Current perspectives of bio-ceramic technology in endodontics: calcium enriched mixture cement - review of its composition, properties and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawal, Ruchika Roongta; Talwar, Sangeeta; Verma, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in bio-ceramic technology has revolutionised endodontic material science by enhancing the treatment outcome for patients. This class of dental materials conciliates excellent biocompatibility with high osseoconductivity that render them ideal for endodontic care. Few recently introduced bio-ceramic materials have shown considerable clinical success over their early generations in terms of good handling characteristics. Calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, Endosequence sealer, and root repair materials, Biodentine and BioAggregate are the new classes of bio-ceramic materials. The aim of this literature review is to present investigations regarding properties and applications of CEM cement in endodontics. A review of the existing literature was performed by using electronic and hand searching methods for CEM cement from January 2006 to December 2013. CEM cement has a different chemical composition from that of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) but has similar clinical applications. It combines the biocompatibility of MTA with more efficient characteristics, such as significantly shorter setting time, good handling characteristics, no staining of tooth and effective seal against bacterial leakage. PMID:25671207

  7. Comparative Resistance of AH26 and a New Sealer Prototype to a Bacterial Challenge

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    Derek Duggan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study compared the leakage resistance of a New Sealer Prototype (NSP with a traditional sealer (AH 26 in Resilon-filled roots subjected to a bacterial challenge. Study Design. 41 roots were instrumented to ISO size 50 apically. Group 1 (=20 contained Resilon and AH 26 sealer and roots in group 2 (=21 contained Resilon and NSP. Roots were embedded in a dual-chamber model with the upper chamber containing Streptococcus mutans inoculum. Evidence of bacterial penetration was observed for 1 month. Fisher's Test was used to analyze the data. Results. 8 of 20 roots (40% in the AH 26 group demonstrated leakage whereas 3 of 21 roots (14% in the NSP group leaked. The difference in leakage rates was not statistically significant (=0.053. Conclusion. The traditional sealer (AH 26 demonstrated increased leakage rates compared to the New Sealer Prototype (NSP, but the difference did not reach statistical significance in this study.

  8. Cellular Responses in Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Treated with Three Endodontic Materials

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    Alejandro Victoria-Escandell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs are of special relevance in future regenerative dental therapies. Characterizing cytotoxicity and genotoxicity produced by endodontic materials is required to evaluate the potential for regeneration of injured tissues in future strategies combining regenerative and root canal therapies. This study explores the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity mediated by oxidative stress of three endodontic materials that are widely used on HDPSCs: a mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA-Angelus white, an epoxy resin sealant (AH-Plus cement, and an MTA-based cement sealer (MTA-Fillapex. Cell viability and cell death rate were assessed by flow cytometry. Oxidative stress was measured by OxyBlot. Levels of antioxidant enzymes were evaluated by Western blot. Genotoxicity was studied by quantifying the expression levels of DNA damage sensors such as ATM and RAD53 genes and DNA damage repair sensors such as RAD51 and PARP-1. Results indicate that AH-Plus increased apoptosis, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity markers in HDPSCs. MTA-Fillapex was the most cytotoxic oxidative stress inductor and genotoxic material for HDPSCs at longer times in preincubated cell culture medium, and MTA-Angelus was less cytotoxic and genotoxic than AH-Plus and MTA-Fillapex at all times assayed.

  9. The effect of endodontic procedures on apical crack initiation and propagation ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, C G; Yoshioka, T; Jindan, P; Kobayashi, C; Suda, H

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the potential effects of endodontic procedures (instrumentation and filling) on crack initiation and propagation in apical dentine. Forty extracted single-rooted premolars with two canals were selected, 1.5 mm of the apex was ground perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth and the surface polished. The specimens were divided into 4 groups. The buccal canals of groups A, B and C were enlarged to size 40 with manual K-files. Group A was filled with gutta-percha using lateral condensation and vertical compaction without sealer. Group B was filled with the same method as group A except only lateral condensation was used. Group C was left unfilled, while group D was left unprepared and unfilled. Images of the resected surface were taken after resection (baseline), after canal preparation, after filling and after 4-week storage. The images were then inspected for cracks originating from the canal. A significant effect of preparation on crack initiation (P  0.05) or 4-week storage on crack initiation (P > 0.05) was found (logistic regression). Fisher's exact test revealed a significant effect of filling on crack propagation (P  0.05). Root canal procedures can potentially initiate and propagate cracks from within the root canal in the apical region. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Endodontic treatment of mandibular molar with root dilaceration using Reciproc single-file system

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    Daniely Amorin Meireles

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomechanical preparation of root canals with accentuated curvature is challenging. New rotatory systems, such as Reciproc, require a shorter period of time to prepare curved canals, and became a viable alternative for endodontic treatment of teeth with root dilaceration. Thus, this study aimed to report a clinical case of endodontic therapy of root with accentuated dilaceration using Reciproc single-file system. Mandibular right second molar was diagnosed as asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Pulp chamber access was performed, and glide path was created with #10 K-file (Dentsply Maillefer and PathFile #13, #16 and #19 (Dentsply Maillefer up to the temporary working length. The working length measured corresponded to 20 mm in the mesio-buccal and mesio-lingual canals, and 22 mm in the distal canal. The R25 file (VDW GmbH was used in all the canals for instrumentation and final preparation, followed by filling with Reciproc gutta-percha cones (VDW GmbH and AH Plus sealer (Dentsply Maillefer, using thermal compaction technique. The case has been receiving follow-up for 6 mon and no painful symptomatology or periapical lesions have been found. Despite the difficulties, the treatment could be performed in a shorter period of time than the conventional methods.

  11. ENDODONTIC MANAGEMENT OF AN UNCOMMON ANATOMIC VARIATION OF MANDIBULAR SECOND PREMOLARS: A CASE REPORT.

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    Tsvetelina Borisova-Papancheva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the literature we found that approximately 98% of the mandibular second teeth premolars are single-rooted. The incidence of two roots was 1.8%. Three roots were found in 0.2% of the teeth studied. Four roots were rare and were found in less than 0.1% of the teeth studied. Studies of the internal canal morphology revealed that a single canal was present in 75.8% of the teeth. Two or more canals were found in 24.2% of the evaluated teeth. A single apical foramen was found in 78.9% of the teeth, whereas 21.1% had two or more apical foramina. Major reason for failure of root canal treatment is miss canals. The premolars are difficult for endodontic treatment and have higher failure rate. This may be due to their anatomic variations of the root canal morphology. The bucal canal is easier to be founded while the lingual is more often missed when the tooth has two canals presented. The comlications may occur if the endodontist does not use the latest diagnostic equipment which decrease the chances of success. This article reports and discusses the successful treatment of a mandibular second premolar with two canals in a 43-year old Bulgarian male. Clinical examination showed a large carious lesion with pulp exposure. Radiographs showed no periapical changes. An endodontic treatment with TF-system was made and the canals were obturated with the method - cold lateral condensation and a sealer.

  12. Retreatability of three calcium silicate-containing sealers and one epoxy resin-based root canal sealer with four different root canal instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnermeyer, David; Bunne, Clarissa; Schäfer, Edgar; Dammaschke, Till

    2017-06-22

    The objective of the study was to compare the retreatability of three calcium silicate-containing sealers (BioRoot RCS, MTA Fillapex, Endo C.P.M.) and an epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus) with different root canal instruments (Hedström files, Reciproc R40, Mtwo retreatment file R 25/.05 + Mtwo 40/.06, and F6 SkyTaper) concerning sealer remnants and retreatment time. Root canals of 192 teeth were instrumented with Reciproc R40. All root canals were obturated using the single-cone technique with Reciproc R40 gutta-percha and one of the sealers (n = 48 per sealer). Two months later, retreatment was performed using one of the mentioned instruments (n = 12 per instrument and sealer). The roots were split longitudinally, and both halves were investigated using light microscopy. The percentage of sealer remnants covering the root canal wall was evaluated using the software ImageJ. The time required for retreatment was recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc test. Regarding the percentage of root canal filling remnants as well as retreatment time, two-way ANOVA indicated that the results were significantly affected by the sealer (p instrument used (p instruments allowed significantly faster retreatment than the other instruments (p instruments was superior compared to hand instrumentation. Engine-driven NiTi instruments are better suited to remove root canal fillings than stainless steel Hedström files.

  13. Magnification devices for endodontic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fabbro, Massimo; Taschieri, Silvio; Lodi, Giovanni; Banfi, Giuseppe; Weinstein, Roberto L

    2015-12-09

    After the introduction of microsurgical principles in endodontics involving new techniques for root canal treatment, there has been a drive to enhance the visualisation of the surgical field. It is important to know if the technical advantages for the operator brought in by magnification devices such as surgical microscopes, endoscopes and magnifying loupes, are also associated with advantages for the patient in terms of improvement of clinical and radiographic outcomes. This version updates the review published in 2009. To evaluate and compare the effects of endodontic treatment performed with the aid of magnification devices versus endodontic treatment without magnification devices. We also aimed to compare the different magnification devices used in endodontics with one another. The following electronic databases were searched: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 13 October 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2015, Issue 9), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 13 October 2015) and EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 13 October 2015). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We considered all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing endodontic therapy performed with versus without one or more magnification devices, as well as randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing two or more magnification devices used as an adjunct to endodontic therapy. We conducted screening of search results independently and in duplicate. We obtained full papers for potentially relevant trials. The Cochrane Collaboration statistical guidelines were to be followed for data synthesis. No trials met the inclusion criteria for this review. No article was identified in the

  14. Experimental and numerical determination of the mechanical response of teeth with reinforced posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Triantafillos; Papadogiannis, Dimitris; Mouzakis, Dionysios E; Giannadakis, Konstantinos; Papanicolaou, George

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical behavior of endodontically treated teeth restored with fiber reinforced composite posts versus titanium posts, by both experimental testing and numerical simulation (finite element analysis (FEA)). Forty maxillary central incisors were endodontically treated to a size 45 file and then obturated using gutta-percha points and sealer with the lateral condensation technique. The teeth were divided into four groups of ten teeth each. All the posts were of similar dimensions. The first group was restored using carbon fiber reinforced posts (CB), the second and third groups were restored using glass fiber reinforced posts (DP and FW, respectively), and the fourth group (control group) was restored using conventional titanium posts (PP). Half of the specimens of every group were submitted to hydrothermal cycling (2000 cycles, at 5 °C and 55 °C, respectively). All specimens were loaded until failure at a 45° angle with respect to the longitudinal axis at a cross head speed of 0.5 mm min(-1). A two-dimensional finite element model was designed in order to simulate the experimentally obtained results. Mechanical testing revealed that teeth restored with titanium posts exhibited the highest fracture strength. Debonding of the core was the main failure mode observed in glass fiber posts, whereas vertical root fractures were observed in the titanium posts. FEA revealed that the maximum stresses were developed at the interface between the post, dentin and the composite core critical regions in all three cases. Hydrothermal cycling had no significant effect on the fracture behavior of fiber reinforced composite posts.

  15. Improvement of Stand Jig Sealer and Its Increased Production Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebandrija, K. E. N.; Astuti, S. W. D.

    2014-03-01

    This paper has the objective to prove that improvement of Stand Jig Sealer can lead to the cycle time target as part of Improvement efforts and its Productivity. Prior researches through prior journals both classics journal such as Quesnay (1766) and Solow (1957) and updated journal such as Reikard (2011) researches, are mentioned and elaborated. Precisely, the research is narrowed down and specified into automotive industry and eventually the software related of SPSS and Structural Equation Modeling ( SEM ). The analysis and its method are conducted through the calculation working time. The mentioned calculation are reinforced with the hypothesis test using SPSS Version 19 and involve parameters of production efficiency, productivity calculation, and the calculation of financial investments. The results obtained are augmented achievement of cycle time target ≤ 80 seconds posterior to improvement stand jig sealer. The result from calculation of SPSS-19 version comprise the following aspects: the one-sided hypothesis test is rejection of Ho:μ≥80 seconds, the correlation rs=0.84, regression y = 0.159+0.642x, validity R table = 0.4438, reliability value of Cronbach's alpha = 0.885>0.70, independence (Chi Square) Asymp. Sig=0.0280, PI 2.04>1, IRR 45.56%>i=12.68%, PP=1.86). The Mentioned calculation results support the hypothesis and ultimately align with the objective of this paper to prove that improvement of Stand Jig Sealer and its relation toward the cycle time target. Precisely, the improvement of production capacity of PT. Astra Daihatsu Motor.

  16. Apical microleakage of epoxy resin and methacrylate resin-based sealer with continuous wave obturation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslinda Haslinda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the microleakage apical sealer based on epoxy resin and methacrylate resin with continuous wave obturation technique.Thirty  permanent  lateral incisors were selected at random and  divided into 3 groups (N=10, namely AH Plus obturator group (epoxy resin, EndoREZ group (methacrylate resin, and negative control. The samples were decoronated, root canal preparation, then kept in incubator of 37°C for 72 hours. Sample were coated with nail varnish then immersed in methylene blue for 48 hours. The samples were washed with distilled water, dried and nail varnish removed. The samples were clearing. Penetration was measured using microscope and given score 0-4. Measurements were analyzed statistically. By using Kruskal Wallis test and Mann Whitney test, there is no significant difference between the apical microleakage of the the epoxy resin root canal sealer with methacrylate root canal sealer based (p>0,05. It means that the apical microleakage of the epoxy resin root canal sealer based comparable with merhacrylate root canal sealer based. It was concluded that the apical microleakage of epoxy resin based sealer does not different to the methacrylate resin based sealer

  17. Confocal laser scanning microscopic investigation of ultrasonic, sonic, and rotary sealer placement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikhil, Vineeta; Singh, Renuka

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sealers are used to attain an impervious seal between the core material and root canal walls. Aim: To compare the depth and percentage of sealer penetration with three different placement techniques using confocal laser scanning microscopy as the evaluative tool. Materials and Methods: Root canals of 30 single-rooted teeth were prepared to a size of F3 and AH plus sealer with Rhodamine B was applied with Ultlrasonic file (Gr-1), lentulospiral (Gr-2), and Endoactivator (Gr-3). Canals were obturated with gutta-percha. The roots were sectioned at the 3 and 6-mm levels from the apical foramen and were examined on a confocal microscope. Results: A statistical significant differences among Gr-1, Gr-2, and Gr-3 were found at the 3 and 6-mm level (P < 0.05; ANOVA-Tukey tests) for the depth and percentage of sealer penetration except for Gr-1 and Gr-2 at 3-mm level. Gr-1 showed maximum mean depth of penetration (810 μm) and maximum mean percentage of sealer penetration (64.5) while Gr-3 showed minimum mean depth of penetration (112.7 μm) and minimum mean percentage of sealer penetration (26.7). Conclusion: Depth and percentage of penetration of sealer is influenced by the type of placement technique and by the root canal level with penetration decreasing apically. PMID:23956528

  18. Evaluation of the apical sealing ability of bioceramic sealer, AH plus & epiphany: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Suprit Sudhir; Pujar, Madhu Ajay; Makandar, Saleem Dadapeer

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This in vitro study evaluated and compared the microleakage of three sealers; Endosequence bioceramic (BC) sealer, AH Plus and Epiphany. Materials and Methods: Study was done on 75 extracted human single rooted permanent teeth, which were decoronated and the root canals were instrumented. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups (n = 25) and obturated by continuous wave condensation technique. Group A: using Endosequence BC, Group B: using AH Plus sealer, Group C: using Resilon Epiphany system. Microleakage was evaluated using dye penetration method. Teeth were split longitudinally and then horizontally markings were made at 2, 4 and 6 mm from the apex. Dye penetration evaluation was done under stereomicroscope (30X magnification). Results: The dye penetration in Group B was more than in Group A and C in both vertical and horizontal directions, suggesting that newly introduced BC sealer and Epiphany sealer sealed the root canal better compared to AH Plus Sealer. Conclusion: Newer root canal sealers seal the root canal better but cannot totally eliminate leakage. PMID:25506149

  19. Effect of root canal filling techniques on the bond strength of epoxy resin-based sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rached-Júnior, Fuad Jacob Abi; Souza, Angélica Moreira; Macedo, Luciana Martins Domingues; Raucci-Neto, Walter; Baratto-Filho, Flares; Silva, Bruno Marques; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different root canal filling techniques on the bond strength of epoxy resin-based sealers. Sixty single-rooted canines were prepared using ProTaper (F5) and divided into the following groups based on the root filling technique: Lateral Compaction (LC), Single Cone (SC), and Tagger Hybrid Technique (THT). The following subgroups (n = 10) were also created based on sealer material used: AH Plus and Sealer 26. Two-millimeter-thick slices were cut from all the root thirds and subjected to push-out test. Data (MPa) was analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The push-out values were significantly affected by the sealer, filling technique, and root third (p < 0.05). AH Plus (1.37 ± 1.04) exhibited higher values than Sealer 26 (0.92 ± 0.51), while LC (1.80 ± 0.98) showed greater bond strength than THT (1.16 ± 0.50) and SC (0.92 ± 0.25). The cervical (1.45 ± 1.14) third exhibited higher bond strength, followed by the middle (1.20 ± 0.72) and apical (0.78 ± 0.33) thirds. AH Plus/LC (2.26 ± 1.15) exhibited the highest bond strength values, followed by AH Plus/THT (1.32 ± 0.61), Sealer 26/LC (1.34 ± 0.42), and Sealer 26/THT (1.00 ± 0.27). The lowest values were obtained with AH Plus/SC and Sealer 26/SC. Thus, it can be concluded that the filling technique affects the bond strength of sealers. LC was associated with higher bond strength between the material and intra-radicular dentine than THT and SC techniques.

  20. Analyzing Endodontic Infections by Deep Coverage Pyrosequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Li, L.; Hsiao, W.W.L.; Nandakumar, R.; Barbuto, S.M.; Mongodin, E. F.; Paster, B J; Fraser-Liggett, C.M.; Fouad, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial diversity in endodontic infections has not been sufficiently studied. The use of modern pyrosequencing technology should allow for more comprehensive analysis than traditional Sanger sequencing. This study investigated bacterial diversity in endodontic infections through taxonomic classification based on 16S rRNA gene sequences generated by 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing and conventional Sanger capillary sequencing technologies. Sequencings were performed on 7 specimens from endodontic i...

  1. Ceramic onlay for endodontically treated mandibular molar

    OpenAIRE

    Roopadevi Garlapati; Bhuvan Shome Venigalla; Shekhar Kamishetty; Jayaprakash Thumu

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of endodontically treated teeth is important for the success of endodontic treatment. In full coverage restorations, maximum amount of tooth structure is compromised, so as to conserve the amount of tooth structure partial coverage restorations, can be preferred. This case report is on fabrication of a conservative tooth colored restoration for an endodontically treated posterior tooth. A 22-year-old male patient presented with pain in the mandibular left first molar. After endodo...

  2. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of endodontic intracanal medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    TONEA, ANDRADA; BADEA, MANDRA; OANA, LIVIU; SAVA, SORINA; VODNAR, DAN

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims The sterilization of the entire root canal system represents the main goal of every endodontist, given the fact that the control of the microbial flora is the key point of every root canal treatment. The diversity of microorganisms found inside the root canal and also the resistance of some bacterial species to intracanal medications led to a continuous development of new endodontic products. The present study focuses on the comparison of the antibacterial and antifungal properties of different endodontic products, two commercially available, one experimental plant based extract, and two control substances. Methods The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the antibacterial and antifungal properties of chlorhexidine, calcium hydroxide, a mix extract between Arctium lappa root powder and Aloe barbadensis Miller gel, Amoxicillin with clavulanic acid and Fluconazole (as control substances). Two of the most common microorganisms found in endodontic infections were chosen: Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Candida albicans ATCC(10231). Results All tested substances showed inhibition zones around the discs, for Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans, including the experimental mix extract of Arctium lappa root powder with Aloe vera gel. Conclusion The experimental mix extract of Arctium lappa root powder and Aloe vera gel is able to inhibit very resistant microorganisms, like Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. PMID:28781531

  3. Rheological Characterization as an Alternative Method to Indentation for Determining the Setting Time of Restorative and Endodontic Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William N. Ha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explored an alternative approach using rheology to assess setting time. The following cements were tested: ProRoot® MTA (Dentsply, Tulsa, OK, USA, Biodentine® (Septodont, Saint Maur des Fosses, France, Fuji VII®, FujiVII® EP, and Fuji IX® (from GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan, RealSeal SE™ Sealer (SybronEndo, Amersfoort, The Netherlands, AH 26® and AH Plus (both from Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany. Freshly mixed cements were placed into a strain-controlled rheometer (1 rad·s−1 with an applied strain of 0.01%. From measurements of elastic modulus over time, the time taken to reach 90% of the plateau elastic modulus (designated as the setting time was determined for each cement. In increasing order, the setting times were as follows: Fuji VII EP 3.3 min, Fuji VII 3.6 min, Fuji IX 3.7 min, ProRoot MTA 5.1 min, Biodentine 15.9 min, RealSeal 22.2 min, AH Plus 5933 min, and AH 26 5067 min. However, ProRoot MTA did not yield reliable results. The time to reach the 90% plateau elastic modulus correlates well with the setting time of glass ionomer cements and Biodentine. Using this approach gives much longer setting times for endodontic sealers than previously recognized.

  4. Coronal tissue loss in endodontically treated teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, A O; Shaba, O P; Dosumu, O O; Ajayi, D M

    2012-12-01

    To categorize the endodontically treated teeth according to the extent of coronal tissue loss in order to determine the appropriate restoration required. A two year descriptive study was done at the Conservative Clinic of the Department of Restorative Dentistry, Dental Centre, University College Hospital, Ibadan. Successful endodontically treated teeth were assessed and categorized according to the extent of tissue loss based on standard criteria proposed by Smith and Schuman. Two hundred and ninety endodontically treated teeth were assessed for success both clinically and radiographically. Eighty (27.6%) were anterior teeth, 78 (26.9%) were premolars while 132 (45.5%) were molars. Dental caries was found to be the most common (61.4%) indication for endodontic treatment and caused more coronal tissue damage (moderate and significant) when compared with other indications for endodontic treatment. Two hundred and twenty seven (78.3%) endodontically treated teeth had moderate coronal tissue loss, 41 (14.1%) had minimal damage while 22 (7.6%) had significant tissue damage. Dental caries was the most common indication for endodontic treatment of the posterior teeth while trauma was the most common indication for the anterior teeth. Majority of the endodontically treated teeth that were evaluated for tissue loss had moderate coronal tissue damage. It is therefore recommended that proper and prompt evaluation of the remaining coronal tooth tissue following successful endodontic treatment be carried out in order to determine the appropriate definitive restoration required that will be easy for the clinician and less expensive to the patients.

  5. Modern Endodontic Microsurgery Concepts: A Clinical Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floratos, Spyros; Kim, Syngcuk

    2017-01-01

    Increased use of the surgical operating microscope in endodontic surgery has elucidated many shortcomings of previous techniques and along with microsurgical instruments and new more biologically acceptable root-end filling materials has started the new microsurgical era in surgical endodontics. Endodontic microsurgery is a minimally invasive technique that results in less postoperative pain and edema and faster wound healing. It offers a significantly higher success rate than traditional apical surgery technique. The components, key concepts and procedural steps of endodontic microsurgery as well as the prognosis and predictability of modern root-end procedures are presented in this review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-decomposable Fibrous Bridging Additives for Temporary Cementitious Fracture Sealers in EGS Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.; Kisslinger, K.; Iverson, B.; Bour, D.

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluates compatibility of a self-degradable temporary fracture sealer with the drilling mud and plugging and self-degrading performance of different fibers to be used in combination with the sealer. The sodium silicate-activated slag/Class C fly ash (SSASC) cementitious sealer must plug fractures at 85oC to allow continuous well drilling and it must degrade and leave the fractures open for water at later times when exposed to temperatures above 200oC. The sealer showed good compatibility with the mud. Even the blend of 80/20 vol.% of sealer/mud reached a compressive strength of more than 2000 psi set as one of the material criteria, mostly due to the additional activation of the slag and Class C fly ash by the alkaline ingredient present in the drilling fluid. In contrast, the drilling fluid was detrimental to the compressive strength development in conventional Class G well cement, so that it failed to meet this criterion. Among several organic fibers tested both polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-and nylon-based fibers showed adequate plugging of the sealer in slot nozzles of 1-in. wide x 6-in. long x 0.08 in. and 0.24 in. high under pressures up to 700 psi. PVA fibers displayed better compressive toughness and self-degrading properties than nylon. The compressive toughness of sealers made by adding 1.0 wt% 6 mm-length PVA and 0.5 wt% 19 mm-length PVA was 9.5-fold higher than that of a non-bridged sealer. One factor governing the development of such high toughness was an excellent adherence of PVA to the SSASC cement. The alkali-catalyzed self-decomposition of PVA at 200°C led to the morphological transformation of the material from a fibrous structure to a microscale flake-like structure that helped the desirable conversion of the sealer into small fragments. In contrast, nylon’s decomposition provided a reticular network structure in the self-degraded sealer resulting in bigger fragments compared against the sealer with PVA. The PVA fiber has a high

  7. Factors Affecting the Effectiveness of Inorganic Silicate Sealer Material through Multi-Quality Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Si-Yu; Huang, Ran; Chi, Mao-Chieh; Hsu, Hui-Mi

    2013-03-22

    This study investigates the effectiveness of concrete protection with two inorganic silicate sealer materials (ISSMs). The Taguchi method and grey relational analysis (GRA) have been used to identify the key factors influencing concrete protection provided by the surface treatment. Seven control factors with two levels were selected. By using the orthogonal array L12 (2⁷), 12 experiments are chosen and four tests-the compressive strength test, resistivity test, absorption test and permeability test-were performed. Results have shown that the major factors affecting the protection effectiveness of ISSM are the water-binder ratio of mortar substrate, age of substrate for sealer application, addition of pozzolanic material and sealer type.

  8. PPARγ inhibits inflammation and RANKL expression in epoxy resin-based sealer-induced osteoblast precursor cells E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Gun; Lee, Young-Hee; Bhattari, Govinda; Lee, Nan-Hee; Lee, Kwang-Won; Yi, Ho-Keun; Yu, Mi-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    anti-osteoclastic character of PPARγ might be applicable for healing periapical lesions more rapidly or reducing the induction of cellular inflammation caused by some endodontic sealers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of herbs in endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Kumar Tewari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants and herbs have attracted a lot of attention since the past few years. The market for drugs extracted from these plants and made from herbal extracts has seen a significant rise. India is known for its rich stock of medicinal plants. Among many, some herbs are rich in phytochemical content. These phytochemicals are useful in generating phytomedicines which have effects on the human body. In the field of endodontics, phytomedicines are a boon. They have been popularly used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, sedatives, and antibiotics. They are most significantly used as endodontic irrigants. Phytotherapy has been a grand entrant in the drug market. The reason why herbal extracts have the potential to be highly popular is due to the side effects of synthetic medicines which alter microbiota.

  10. Endodontics and the irradiated patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, F.L.

    1976-11-01

    With increasingly larger numbers of irradiated patients in our population, it seems likely that all dentists will eventually be called upon to manage the difficult problems that these patients present. Of utmost concern should be the patient's home care program and the avoidance of osteroradionecrosis. Endodontics and periodontics are the primary areas for preventing or eliminating the infection that threatens osteoradionecrosis. Endodontic treatment must be accomplished with the utmost care and maximum regard for the fragility of the periapical tissues. Pulpally involved teeth should never be left open in an irradiated patient, and extreme care must be taken with the between-visits seal. If one is called upon for preradiation evaluation, routine removal of all molar as well as other compromised teeth should be considered. Attention should be directed to the literature for further advances in the management of irradiated patients.

  11. Advanced Diagnostic Aids in Endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay S Saxena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional radiographs used for the management of endodontic problems yield limited information because of the two-dimensional nature of images produced, geometric distortion and anatomical noise. This newer review paper seeks to clarify three-dimensional imaging techniques that have been suggested as adjuncts to conventional radiographs. These include tuned aperture computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, computed tomography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT.

  12. A Study of Crystalline Mechanism of Penetration Sealer Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Li-Wei; Huang, Ran; Chen, Jie; Cheng, An; Hsu, Hui-Mi

    2014-01-01

    It is quite common to dispense a topping material like crystalline penetration sealer materials (CPSM) onto the surface of a plastic substance such as concrete to extend its service life span by surface protections from outside breakthrough. The CPSM can penetrate into the existing pores or possible cracks in such a way that it may form crystals to block the potential paths which provide breakthrough for any unknown materials. This study investigated the crystalline mechanism formed in the part of concrete penetrated by the CPSM. We analyzed the chemical composites, in order to identify the mechanism of CPSM and to evaluate the penetrated depth. As shown in the results, SEM observes the acicular-structured crystals filling capillary pores for mortar substrate of the internal microstructure beneath the concrete surface; meanwhile, XRD and FT-IR showed the main hydration products of CPSM to be C-S-H gel and CaCO3. Besides, MIP also shows CPSM with the ability to clog capillary pores of mortar substrate; thus, it reduces porosity, and appears to benefit in sealing pores or cracks. The depth of CPSM penetration capability indicated by TGA shows 0–10 mm of sealer layer beneath the concrete surface. PMID:28788463

  13. A Study of Crystalline Mechanism of Penetration Sealer Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wei Teng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is quite common to dispense a topping material like crystalline penetration sealer materials (CPSM onto the surface of a plastic substance such as concrete to extend its service life span by surface protections from outside breakthrough. The CPSM can penetrate into the existing pores or possible cracks in such a way that it may form crystals to block the potential paths which provide breakthrough for any unknown materials. This study investigated the crystalline mechanism formed in the part of concrete penetrated by the CPSM. We analyzed the chemical composites, in order to identify the mechanism of CPSM and to evaluate the penetrated depth. As shown in the results, SEM observes the acicular-structured crystals filling capillary pores for mortar substrate of the internal microstructure beneath the concrete surface; meanwhile, XRD and FT-IR showed the main hydration products of CPSM to be C-S-H gel and CaCO3. Besides, MIP also shows CPSM with the ability to clog capillary pores of mortar substrate; thus, it reduces porosity, and appears to benefit in sealing pores or cracks. The depth of CPSM penetration capability indicated by TGA shows 0–10 mm of sealer layer beneath the concrete surface.

  14. The Effect of Time of Post Space Preparation on the Seal and Adaptation of Resilon-Epiphany Se & Gutta-percha-AH Plus Sealer- An Sem Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaded, Neha; Dhaded, Sunil; Patil, Chetan; Patil, Roopa; Roshan, Joan Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: The field of endodontics is dynamic & ever expanding. With the availability of a wide array of products in the dental market it’s an absolute necessity to evaluate their efficiency before including them into routine clinical practice.Hence, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of immediate & delayed post space preparation & sealing ability of new root canal filling material & sealers. Aim: The effect of time of post space preparation on the seal and adaptation of Resilon-Epiphany Se & Gutta-percha-AH Plus Sealer - An SEM study. Settings and design: Eighty extracted permanent maxillary central and lateral incisors selected for the study were decoronated. Roots canals were prepared and obturated. Materials and Methods: Samples were divided into four groups depending on the time of post, space, preparation and obturated material.GROUP I & II: Immediate and Delayed post space preparation respectively with Gutta-percha / AH Plus as obturating material. GROUP III & IV Immediate and Delayed post space preparation with Resilon / Epiphany as the obturating material. The samples were sectioned, then measured and studied by Scanning Electron Microscope. Results: There was a significant difference found between immediate and delayed post space preparation in resilon –epiphany group (p<0.001). Similarly significant difference was seen between immediate and delayed post space preparation in AH Plus-GP group (p<0.001). Difference in the adaptation of the two materials was seen in the delayed group (p = 0.030) but the immediate group showed no signifcant difference (p =0.971). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, immediate post space preparation shows less leakage in both the groups. Resilon–Epiphany shows better results when post space is delayed amongst the two whereas in immediate post space preparation there is no significant difference. PMID:24596779

  15. Investigation of concrete sealer products to extend concrete pavement life : phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Five surface applied concrete sealer treatments were evaluated in the laboratory for water vapor transmission, saltwater absorption, alkali resistance, depth of penetration, UV exposure and cyclic saltwater ponding, chloride content, and freeze-thaw ...

  16. Effect of Different Irrigating Solutions on Depth of Penetration of Sealer into Dentinal Tubules: A Confocal Microscopic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thota, Murali Mohan; Sudha, Kakollu; Malini, D L; Madhavi, Singiri Bindhu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different irrigating solutions used in final irrigation on depth of sealer penetration into dentinal tubules. Thirty recently extracted, human mandibular premolar teeth with single canals were randomly divided into two groups, and one of the two irrigants was used in each group - Group A (Chitosan) and Group B (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid). All the teeth were obturated with gutta-percha and AH 26(®) sealer labeled with fluorescent dye. The teeth were sectioned at distances 2, 5, and 8 mm from the root apex. Maximum depth of sealer penetration was measured using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Statistical analysis used One-way analysis of variance and t-test. At coronal third depth, the sealer penetration was greater in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) group; however, depth of sealer penetration was greater at apical third in chitosan group. Final irrigation with EDTA and chitosan after the use of sodium hypochlorite affected sealer penetration.

  17. Dental Lasers and Application Fields in Endodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Emrah Çetin; Hicran Dönmez Özkan; Senem Gökçen Yiğit Özer

    2017-01-01

    Since the first laser application in endodontics by Weichman in 1971, search for new laser devices is being proposed with the rapid development of laser technology. The purpose of this article is to update the information on laser application fields in endodontics and give information regarding the advantages and limitations of the laser devices.

  18. Dental Lasers and Application Fields in Endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Çetin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the first laser application in endodontics by Weichman in 1971, search for new laser devices is being proposed with the rapid development of laser technology. The purpose of this article is to update the information on laser application fields in endodontics and give information regarding the advantages and limitations of the laser devices.

  19. Restoration of Endodontically-Treated Anterior Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Andrew

    2017-02-28

    Detailed consideration of a case involving the restoration of an endodontically-treated maxillary canine tooth provides opportunity to review the many different considerations and treatment options in such situations. The restoration of endodontically-treated anterior teeth must be patient-centred, applying materials and techniques best suited to achieve a successful clinical outcome.

  20. Imaging Techniques in Endodontics: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, B. S.; Subash, T. S.; Narmatha, V. J.; Anamika, T.; Snehil, T. K.; Nandini, D. B.

    2012-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the relevance of imaging techniques such as, computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography, and ultrasound, to endodontic practice. Many limitations of the conventional radiographic techniques have been overcome by the newer methods. Advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques in endodontic practice are also discussed. PMID:22530184

  1. An in vitro comparison of penetration depth of two root canal sealers: An SEM study

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Vijay Singh; S Anitha Rao; Chandrashekar, V

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine in vitro penetration depth of two resin-based sealers (AH plus and Resino Seal) and Zinc Oxide Eugenol sealer into the dentinal tubules after removing smear layer by passive ultrasonic irrigation. Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted maxillary central incisors were used. The teeth were decoronated, working length established and prepared upto size 40 file. Each root was subjected to passive ultrasonic irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypoch...

  2. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna [Dept. of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai (India)

    2014-09-15

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome.

  3. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna

    2014-09-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome.

  4. Radiopacity evaluation of root canal sealers containing calcium hydroxide and MTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Maria Guerreiro- Tanomaru

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of root canal sealers containing calcium hydroxide and MTA (Acroseal, Sealer 26, Sealapex, Endo CPM Sealer, Epiphany and Intrafill. Five disc-shaped specimens (10 x 1 mm were fabricated from each material, according to the ISO 6876/2001 standard. After setting of the materials, radiographs were taken using occlusal film and a graduated aluminum stepwedge varying from 2 to 16 mm in thickness. The dental X-ray unit (GE1000 was set at 50 kVp, 10 mA, 18 pulses/s and distance of 33.5 cm. The radiographs were digitized and the radiopacity compared to that of the aluminum stepwedge using VIXWIN-2000 software (Gendex. The data (mmAl were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test at the 5% significance level. Epiphany and Intrafill presented the highest radiopacity values (8.3 mmAl and 7.5 mmAl respectively, p < 0.05 followed by Sealer 26 (6.3 mmAl, Sealapex (6.1 mmAl and Endo CPM Sealer (6 mmAl. Acroseal was the least radiopaque material (4 mmAl, p < 0.05. In conclusion, the calcium hydroxide- and MTA-containing root canal sealers had different radiopacities. However, all materials presented radiopacity values above the minimum recommended by the ISO standard.

  5. 21 CFR 872.3840 - Endodontic silver point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endodontic silver point. 872.3840 Section 872.3840...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3840 Endodontic silver point. (a) Identification. An endodontic silver point is a device made of silver intended for use during endodontic therapy to...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3830 - Endodontic paper point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endodontic paper point. 872.3830 Section 872.3830...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3830 Endodontic paper point. (a) Identification. An endodontic paper point is a device made of paper intended for use during endodontic therapy to dry...

  7. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. An endodontic dry heat sterilizer is a device intended to sterilize endodontic...

  8. Stem cells in endodontic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Rama Kumar M, Madhu Varma K, Kalyan Satish R, Manikya kumar Nanduri.R, Murali Krishnam Raju S, Mohan rao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body. Serving as a sort of repair system for the body, they can theoretically divide without limit to replenish other cells as long as the person or animal is still alive. However, progress in stem cell biology and tissue engineering may present new options for replacing heavily damaged or lost teeth, or even individual tooth structures. The goal of this review is to discuss the potential impact of dental pulp stem cells on regenerative endodontics.

  9. Endodontic Treatment of Maxillary Premolar with Three Root Canals Using Optical Microscope and NiTi Rotatory Files System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relvas, João Bosco Formiga; de Carvalho, Fredsom Marcio Acris; Marques, André Augusto Franco; Sponchiado, Emílio Carlos; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to report a clinical case of endodontic treatment of a maxillary first premolar with three root canals using an optical microscope and rotary instrumentation technique. The main complaint of the patient, a 16-year-old girl, was pain in tooth 14. After clinical and radiographic examination, irreversible pulpitis was diagnosed. An alteration in the middle third of the pulp chamber radiographically observed suggested the presence of three root canals. Pulp chamber access and initial catheterization using size number 10 K-files were performed. The optical microscope and radiographic examination were used to confirm the presence of three root canals. PathFiles #13, #16, and #19 were used to perform catheterization and ProTaper files S1 and S2 for cervical preparation. Apical preparation was performed using F1 file in the buccal canals and F2 in the palatal canal up to the working length. The root canals were filled with Endofill sealer by thermal compaction technique using McSpadden #50. The case has been receiving follow-up for 12 months and no painful symptomatology or periapical lesions have been found. The use of technological tools was able to assist the endodontic treatment of teeth with complex internal anatomy, such as three-canal premolars.

  10. Biomimetic endodontics: the final evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David J

    2007-07-01

    We are seeing a gradual evolution by a small but growing number of endodontists and general dentists toward delicate biomimetic, microscope-based shaping. This old-fashioned respect for periradicular dentin is paired with microscopes, ultrasonics, and an appreciation for root morphology. Although no 2 roots are the same, general anatomic patterns allow the microscope-equipped clinician to search for major pulpal regions that will yield a high probability of cleaning and shaping the clinically available pulpal zones. There are complex, anatomically improbable, and clinically impossible areas of pulp that are beyond the reach of even the most gifted hands. Regardless, the clinician has the responsibility to begin each procedure seeking perfection and joyfully finishing with excellence. The shapes that were introduced during the Schilder (crown-down) era have served as a transitional technique to allow the first real 3-dimensional compaction of gutta-percha. Nonetheless, endodontics is in the end a restoratively driven procedure. Large, arbitrary, round shapes create beautiful endodontics but can dramatically weaken the tooth. The shaping philosophy advanced in this treatise allows perfectly adequate shapes to achieve the hydraulics needed for modern obturation. It will require different skills and materials to shape, pack, and restore the exotic architecture of nature. (See Tables 1 to 3.).

  11. In situ assessment of the setting of tricalcium silicate-based sealers using a dentin pressure model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuereb, Maria; Vella, Paul; Damidot, Denis; Sammut, Charles V; Camilleri, Josette

    2015-01-01

    EndoSequence BC Sealer (Brasseler, Savannah, GA) is a premixed tricalcium silicate-based root canal sealer that requires moisture from the root dentin to hydrate. The aim of this study was to investigate the setting of EndoSequence BC Sealer and other sealers in contact with human dentin in a simulated clinical environment. EndoSequence BC Sealer, MTA Fillapex (Angelus, Londrina, Brazil), Septodont Sealer (Septodont, Saint Maur-des-Fosses, France), and Apexit Plus (Ivoclar, Schaan, Lichtenstein) were assessed. Caries-free lower premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes in patients aged 13-16 years were standardized to a 10-mm root length and were filled with test sealers and set up in a dentin pressure model for 14 days. In addition, set sealers immersed in physiologic solution for 14 days were also assessed. The set materials in solution and materials retrieved from the dentin pressure setup were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The setting time and radiopacity were assessed using ISO 6876:2002 specifications. Furthermore, mineral ion leaching was evaluated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. All the sealers tested exhibited formation of a calcium phosphate phase when in contact with physiologic solution. Septodont Sealer and Apexit Plus did not exhibit the formation of a calcium phosphate phase in the dentin pressure setup. The fluid in the system was enough to allow the setting of EndoSequence BC Sealer, which did not set in a dry environment. All materials leached calcium with the Septodont Sealer, exhibiting double the calcium ion leaching compared with EndoSequence BC Sealer. Using the dentinal fluid pressure system resulted in an adequate flow of dentinal fluid that allowed EndoSequence BC Sealer to set inside the root canal. Although the sealers tested were tricalcium silicate based, the hydration reaction and bioactivity in the presence of dentinal fluid were different to hydration in vitro. Thus

  12. Effect of intracanal irrigants on the bond strength of epoxy resin-based and methacrylate resin-based sealers to root canal walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, W V; Carvalho-Junior, J R; Alfredo, E; Sousa-Neto, M D; Silva-Sousa, Y T C

    2012-01-01

      To assess the bond strength of Epiphany and AH Plus sealers to root canal walls using a push-out test after use of several endodontic irrigants.   Roots of 100 maxillary canines were sectioned horizontally 5 mm below the cemento-enamel junction to provide 4-mm-thick dentine disks that were embedded in acrylic resin and had their root canals prepared with a tapered bur (larger diameter=2.70 mm; smaller diameter=2.30 mm; length = 4 mm). The specimens were randomly assigned to five groups (n=20) according to the dentine surface treatment: I - 1% NaOCl (30 min); II - 1% NaOCl (30 min) + 17% EDTA (5 min); III - 17% EDTA (30 min); IV - 24% EDTA gel (30 min); V - 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) gel (30 min). In each group, two specimens were prepared for scanning electron microscopy to examine the surface of root canal dentine after use of each irrigant. The other 18 specimens were filled with AH plus (n = 9) or Epiphany (n=9) and subjected to a push-out test in an Instron machine. Data (in MPa) were subjected to statistical analysis by two-way anova and post-hoc Tukey-Kramer test (P  0.05). One per cent NaOCl was associated with the lowest mean values (3.70 ± 0.86) (P Endodontic Journal.

  13. [Nonsurgical micro-endodontics and its outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jun-qi; Wei, Xi

    2006-02-01

    The introduction of dental operating microscope and microscopic instruments including ultrasonic tips has revealed the endodontic therapy. Dental operating microscope provides magnification and illumination for the operational area. Cases which should be treated by surgical approach in the past can be managed predictably by nonsurgical micro-endodontics. The use of dental operating microscope and ultrasonics in non-surgical endodontics includes location of missed canal, removal of intracanal post and separated instruments, negotiation of ledged canals, management of apical transportation and perforation repair.

  14. The effect of obturation technique on the push-out bond strength of calcium silicate sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, Christopher; He, Jianing; Woodmansey, Karl F

    2015-03-01

    Calcium silicate-based sealers are known to have excellent sealing ability and bioactivities. They are typically recommended to be used in a single-cone (SC) technique. No studies have evaluated the effects of the thermoplastic obturation technique on the dentin interface of these sealers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the push-out bond strengths of MTA Plus Sealer (Avalon Biomed Inc, Bradenton, FL) and EndoSequence BC Sealer (BC; Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA) when they were used in a thermoplastic technique. Fifty single-rooted human extracted teeth were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 10), instrumented, and obturated with the SC technique or continuous wave (CW) technique: group 1, BC-SC; group 2, BC-CW; group 3, MTA Plus-SC; group 4, MTA Plus-CW; and group 5, AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany)-CW. The roots were sectioned into 1.0-mm-thick slices, and bond strengths were measured using a standardized push-out test. The mode of failure was determined by visual inspection under magnification. The MTA Plus-CW had statistically significant lower bond strengths than all other groups. The BC-SC group had statistically higher bond strengths than the MTA Plus-SC and AH Plus-CW groups. No significant differences were seen among the other groups. Modes of failure were predominately cohesive or mixed except for group 4 (ie, MTA Plus-CW) in which nearly half the specimens had no visible sealer. BC and MTA Plus sealer showed favorable bond strengths when used in an SC technique. The CW obturation technique decreased the bond strengths of these sealers. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Innovative wavelengths in endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoop, Ulrich; Kluger, Wolf; Dervisbegovic, Selma; Goharkhay, Kawe; Wernisch, Johann; Georgopoulos, Apostolos; Sperr, Wolfgang; Moritz, Andreas

    2006-07-01

    The sanitation of the root canal system and the adjacent dentin has always been a key requirement for successful endodontics. In recent years, various laser systems have provided a major contribution to this aim, namely the Nd:YAG-, the 810 nm Diode-, the Er:YAG-, and the Er,Cr:YSGG laser. Numerous studies could prove their efficiency within the endodontic procedure. Recently, two new wavelengths have been introduced to the field of oral laser applications: The KTP laser emitting at 532 nm and the 980 nm diode laser. The present in vitro investigation was performed to evaluate the effects of these laser systems focusing on their antibacterial effect in deep layers of dentin and their impact on the root canal dentin. Two-hundred slices of root dentin with a thickness of 1 mm were obtained by longitudinal cuts of freshly extracted human premolars. The samples were steam sterilized and subsequently inoculated with a suspension of either Escherichia coli or Enterococcus faecalis. After the incubation, the samples were randomly assigned to the two different laser systems tested. Each laser group consisted of two different operational settings and a control. The dentinal samples underwent "indirect" laser irradiation through the dentin from the bacteria-free side and were then subjected to a classical quantitative microbiologic evaluation. To assess the temperature increase during the irradiation procedure, additional measurements were carried out using a thermocouple. To assess the impacts on the root canal walls, 20 additional samples underwent laser irradiation at two different settings and were subjected to scanning electron microscopy. Microbiology indicated that both laser systems were capable of significant reductions in both test strains. At an effective output power of 1 W, E. coli was reduced by at least 3 log steps in most of the samples by the tested wavelengths, with the best results for the KTP laser showing complete eradication of E. coli in 75% of the

  16. Volume of sealer in the apical region of teeth filled by different techniques: a micro-CT analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Vanessa Lessa; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Cruz Filho, Antonio Miranda da; Pecora, Jesus Djalma; Silva, Ricardo Gariba, E-mail: vanessalessa@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Escola de Odontologia. Departamento de Odontologia Restauradora

    2016-05-01

    The volume of sealer in the apical 1 mm of teeth filled using different techniques was evaluated by micro-commuted tomography (micro-CT). Sixty-four maxillary central incisors were prepared using NiTi rotary instruments. Teeth were randomly distributed into four groups according to root canal sealers (AH Plus, Endofill, Sealapex, and Sealer 26) and subdivided into two subgroups according to the filling techniques (active and passive lateral condensation; n = 8 each). Subsequently, teeth were examined using the 1174 SkyScan micro-CT device. Images were reconstructed using the NRecon software, and the sealer volume (mm{sup 3}) in the apical region was analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test (α = 0.05). The lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex (0.100 ± 0.009) and Endofill (0.103 ± 0.010). The highest volume was observed in teeth filled with AH Plus (0.112 ± 0.008) and Sealer 26 (0.109 ± 0.018) (p > 0.05). Regarding the filling technique, a lower sealer volume was observed using the active lateral condensation technique compared with that using the passive lateral condensation technique (0.100 ± 0.010 vs. 0.111 ± 0.012) (p < 0.05). Therefore, the lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex and Endofill using the active lateral condensation technique. (author)

  17. Ceramic onlay for endodontically treated mandibular molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopadevi Garlapati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of endodontically treated teeth is important for the success of endodontic treatment. In full coverage restorations, maximum amount of tooth structure is compromised, so as to conserve the amount of tooth structure partial coverage restorations, can be preferred. This case report is on fabrication of a conservative tooth colored restoration for an endodontically treated posterior tooth. A 22-year-old male patient presented with pain in the mandibular left first molar. After endodontic treatment, composite material was used as postendodontic restoration. The tooth was then prepared to receive a ceramic onlay and bonded with self-adhesive universal resin cement. Ceramic onlay restoration was periodically examined up to 2 years.

  18. Photodynamic therapy in endodontics: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Alessandra Cesar; De Figueiredo, José Antônio Poli; Steier, Liviu; Weber, João Batista Blessmann

    2015-03-01

    Recently, several in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated promising results about the use of photodynamic therapy during root canal system disinfection. However, there is no consensus on a standard protocol for its incorporation during root canal treatment. The purpose of this study was to summarize the results of research on photodynamic therapy in endodontics published in peer-reviewed journals. A review of pertinent literature was conducted using the PubMed database, and data obtained were categorized into sections in terms of relevant topics. Studies conducted in recent years highlighted the antimicrobial potential of photodynamic therapy in endodontics. However, most of these studies were not able to confirm a significant improvement in root canal disinfection for photodynamic therapy as a substitute for current disinfection methods. Its indication as an excellent adjunct to conventional endodontic therapy is well documented, however. Data suggest the need for protocol adjustments or new photosensitizer formulations to enhance photodynamic therapy predictability in endodontics.

  19. Pre-endodontic Post and Core Technique for Endodontic and Prosthodontic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Keita; Yamamoto, Takatsugu; Ikawa, Tomoko; Shigeta, Yuko; Shigemoto, Shuji; Ando, Eriko; Ogawa, Takumi; Ihara, Keisuke

    2018-01-01

    Displacement of provisional fixed prostheses may result in undesirable and embarrassing outcomes in dental treatments, especially in endodontic treatment. Development of certain counter measures has been necessary to avoid such discomforts. The aim of this report was to propose a pre-endodontic post and core technique to achieve smooth progress of the treatment. The patient was a 59-year-old male diagnosed with an infraocclusion caused by wear of his teeth. He received full mouth provisional fixed restorations for a complete oral rehabilitation. Displacement and fracture of the restorations frequently occurred during the observation period for the function of the restorations. Therefore, the pre-endodontic post and core technique was applied to the abutment teeth before their endodontic treatments were started. The technique consisted of three steps as follows: Step 1: Caries removal and dowel preparation were performed for the abutment teeth having apical periodontitis. Composite cores were indirectly fabricated, which had access holes for endodontic treatment. Step 2: The cores were bonded to the teeth. In endodontic treatment, rubber dam appliances were easily placed owing to the core, and proper tooth isolation was accomplished. Step 3: Fiberposts were bonded to the dowel holes through the access holes after the root canal filling. During endodontic treatment, displacement and/or fracture of the provisional restorations did not occur. The pre-endodontic post and core technique was effective in obtaining improved retention of provisional restoration, appropriate isolation for endodontic treatment, and sufficient retention of the post and core. The pre-endodontic post and core technique is useful for avoiding the discomforts in dental treatments, namely, a smooth transition from endodontic to prosthodontic treatment can be achieved.

  20. Post endodontic Aspergillosis in an immunocompetent individual

    OpenAIRE

    Urs, Aadithya-Basavaraj; Singh, Hanspal; Nunia, Kalpana; Mohanty, Sujata; Gupta, Shalini

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive aspergillosis in immunocompetent individuals subsequent to post endodontic treatment can involve the maxillary antrum. An early and accurate diagnosis will aid in prompt and effective treatment. A 35 year old female patient reported with a painful nasomaxillary swelling. Previous records revealed the failure of the endodontic treatment of maxillary left second premolar which was subsequently extracted. Root piece was accidently left behind which resulted in a painful nasomaxillar...

  1. Reconstruction of endodontically treated teeth: intraradicular retainers

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Bonatelli Bispo

    2008-01-01

    There are many ways of restoring endodontically treated teeth. The quantity and quality of the dental remainder after endodontic treatment is questionable in terms of clinical longevity, not because of the coronal opening and therapy in themselves, but because of the destruction inherent to teeth affected by fractures and invasive carious processes. There are many commercial brands of posts and marketing artifices with the goal of maximizing resistance to masticatory forces. However, the majo...

  2. Tooth discoloration induced by endodontic materials: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenherr, P; Allgayer, N; Weiger, R; Filippi, A; Attin, T; Krastl, G

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the discoloration potential of endodontic materials using a bovine tooth model. Two hundred and 10 dentine-enamel cuboid blocks (10 × 10 × 3.5 mm) were prepared out of the middle thirds of bovine tooth crowns. Standardized cavities were prepared in the walls of the pulp chamber leaving 2 mm of enamel and dentine on the labial wall of the crown. The specimens were randomly assigned to 14 groups (n = 15). Endodontic materials were placed into the cavities as follows: group A: empty, group B: blood, group C: calcium hydroxide, group D: ApexCal, group E: Ultracal XS, group F: Ledermix, group G: triple antibiotic paste (3Mix), group H: grey MTA(GMTA), group I: GMTA + blood, group J: white MTA (WMTA), group K: WMTA + blood, group L: Portland cement (PC), group M: PC + blood and group N: AH Plus. The cavities were sealed with composite and stored in water. Standardized colour measurement (VITA Easyshade compact) was performed at the following intervals: prior to (T0) and after placement of the filling (T1), 1 week (T2), 1 month (T3), 3 months (T4), 6 months (T5) and after 1 year (T6). Colour change (ΔE) values were calculated. A two-way analysis of variance was used to assess significant differences between the endodontic materials. The mean values of all groups were compared using the Tukey multiple comparison test (α = 0.05). Significant differences were detected amongst the experimental groups after 12 months (P discoloration was measured in groups G (3Mix, 66.2 ± 9.9) and F (Ledermix, 46.2 ± 11.6). PC showed the best colour stability amongst the Portland cement-based materials; however, when contaminated with blood (group M), a significantly higher ΔE value (13.6 ± 4.2) was detected (P = 0.032). Materials used in endodontics may stain teeth. Therefore, the choice of material should not rely solely on biological and functional criteria, but also take aesthetic considerations into account. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  3. Restoration of endodontically treated teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannocci, F; Cowie, J

    2014-03-01

    The restoration of endodontically treated teeth has undergone significant changes in the last 20 years. Most of these changes are associated with the preservation of tooth structure, this has been achieved first of all with the increasing use of operative microscopes, nickel titanium instruments and more recently cone beam computed tomography; these instruments have allowed the clinicians to reduce significantly the amount of coronal and radicular hard tooth tissue removed in the process of cutting access cavities. The use of composites has also allowed the clinicians to restore with adhesive techniques teeth that would otherwise require extensive and destructive mechanical retentions. The use of partial crowns is becoming increasingly popular and this also helps prevent tooth structure loss. This article will focus on the choices available to restore both anterior and posterior teeth and will focus more on these contemporary adhesive techniques.

  4. Chloroform in the endodontic operatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, M.N.; Vire, D.E. (U.S. Army Dental Corps, Fort Sill, OK (United States))

    1992-06-01

    This article reviews the role chloroform has played in dentistry and describes an occupational health clinical investigation into the possible hazards of chloroform use in the operatory. Due to a Food and Drug Administration ban on drugs and cosmetics containing chloroform, there has been some confusion as to whether the use of chloroform in the practice of dentistry is considered unsafe or has been prohibited. Utilizing common endodontic treatment methods employing chloroform, this study reports no negative health effects to the dentist or assistant and air vapor levels well below Occupational Health and Safety Administration mandated maximum levels. The report concludes that, with careful and controlled use, chloroform can be a useful adjunct in the practice of dentistry. The Food and Drug Administration has no jurisdiction over a dentist's use of chloroform in clinical practice and has not proven that chloroform is a human carcinogen.

  5. Introduction to magnification in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Donald E

    2003-01-01

    Dentistry has recently recognized the practicality and benefits of treating damaged and diseased oral tissues under high magnification levels. Initially, enhanced vision was more-or-less restricted to the use of prescription bifocals, awkward magnifying loops, and heavy cumbersome telephoto glasses; the microscope drew little interest and was quickly viewed as another useless and expensive dental gadget. However, owing to the very nature and demands of the therapy, endodontists were quick to accept and adopt this technology, and the manufacturers were quick to adapt and market their surgical microscopes to the endodontic office. Since acceptance leads to progression, we are currently witnessing manufacturers adapting the microscopic and other magnifying lenses to other areas of dentistry. However, choosing and purchasing a microscope involves a great number of issues, including the adequacy of one's present vision, the type of practice conducted, the demands one places on the quality of his or her dentistry, and the amount of time and expense one wishes to devote to becoming competent in using magnification. In addition, one must become familiar with what the different levels of magnification offer, what different depths and widths of field meet their normal practice needs, the amount of space required for the equipment, and whether the investment is cost effective. This article details all of the benefits as well as the difficulties encountered when embarking on a magnification journey. The art of dentistry is based on precision. The human naked eye is capable of distinguishing fine detail, but it is no match for what can be accomplished when an image is sharpened and enlarged. The microscope and other forms of magnification fill that need, especially for accomplishing endodontic procedures.

  6. Nanoparticle-based endodontic antimicrobial photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagonis, Tom C; Chen, Judy; Fontana, Carla Raquel; Devalapally, Harikrishna; Ruggiero, Karriann; Song, Xiaoqing; Foschi, Federico; Dunham, Joshua; Skobe, Ziedonis; Yamazaki, Hajime; Kent, Ralph; Tanner, Anne C R; Amiji, Mansoor M; Soukos, Nikolaos S

    2010-02-01

    To study the in vitro effects of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with the photosensitizer methylene blue (MB) and light against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212). The uptake and distribution of nanoparticles in E. faecalis in suspension was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after incubation with PLGA complexed with colloidal gold particles for 2.5, 5, and 10 minutes. E. faecalis species were sensitized in planktonic phase and in experimentally infected root canals of human extracted teeth with MB-loaded nanoparticles for 10 minutes followed by exposure to red light at 665 nm. The nanoparticles were found to be concentrated mainly on the cell walls of microorganisms at all three time points. The synergism of light and MB-loaded nanoparticles led to approximately 2 and 1 log10 reduction of colony-forming units (CFUs) in planktonic phase and root canals, respectively. In both cases, mean log10 CFU levels were significantly lower than controls and MB-loaded nanoparticles without light. The utilization of PLGA nanoparticles encapsulated with photoactive drugs may be a promising adjunct in antimicrobial endodontic treatment. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Endo-periodontal lesion--endodontic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivoinovici, R; Suciu, I; Dimitriu, B; Perlea, P; Bartok, R; Malita, M; Ionescu, C

    2014-01-01

    Endo-perio lesions might be interdependent because of the vascular and anatomic connections between the pulp and the periodontium. The aim of this study is to emphasise that primary endodontic lesion heals after a proper instrumentation, disinfection and sealing of the endodontic space. The primary endodontic lesion with a secondary periodontal involvement first requires an endodontic therapy and, in the second stage, a periodontal therapy. The prognosis is good, with an adequate root canal treatment; it depends on the severity of the periodontal disease, appropriate healing time and the response to the treatment. A correct diagnosis is sometimes difficult; an accurate identification of the etiologic factors is important for an adequate treatment. Primary perio-endo lesion may heal after a proper disinfection and sealing of the endodontic system, the one-year follow-up radiograph showing bonny repair. Invasive periodontal procedures should be avoided at that moment. The microorganisms and by-products from the infected root canal may cross accessory and furcal canals and determine sinus tract and loss of attachment. In both clinical cases presented in this article, successful healing was obtained after a proper disinfection and sealing of the endodontic system.

  8. Identifying murder victims with endodontic radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rhonan Ferreira; Franco, Ademir; Mendes, Solon Diego Santos Carvalho; Picoli, Fernando Fortes; Nunes, Fernando Gomes; Estrela, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Endodontics is a special branch of dentistry constantly guided by imaging examinations. From a forensic scope, endodontics plays a valuable role providing solid antemortem (AM) radiographic evidence for comparison with postmortem findings in human identifications. This study illustrates the interface between endodontics and forensic odontology describing three cases of human identification based on radiographic endodontic records. From 2009 to 2012, three unknown male victims of murder were examined in a local Brazilian medico-legal institute to retrieve identity and potential cause of death. Specifically, when asked for AM data, a relative of the three victims provided periapical radiographs of endodontic treatments. Based on that, forensic dentists reproduced the same imaging acquisition techniques obtaining similar periapical radiographs, enabling a comparative dental identification. All the victims were positively identified based on patterns of dental morphology and treatment intervention. This study draws the attention of general and forensic dentists highlight the importance of properly recording dental treatments and searching for evidence in AM endodontic data, respectively. PMID:28123272

  9. Comparative sem evaluation of three solvents used in endodontic retreatment: an ex vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam F. Zaccaro Scelza

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study compared, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the efficacy of three solvents on the removal of filling materials from dentinal tubules during endodontic retreatment. Forty human maxillary canines with straight canals were prepared according to a crown-down technique and enlarged to a#30 apical file size, before obturation with gutta-percha and a zinc-oxide-eugenol based sealer. The samples were stored for 3 months before being randomly assigned to four groups: chloroform (n=10, orange oil (n=10, eucalyptol (n=10 and control (n=10. Solvents were applied to a reservoir created on the coronal root third using Gates Glidden drills. The total time for retreatment using the solvents was 5 minutes per tooth. Following retreatment the roots were split longitudinally for SEM evaluation. SEM images were digitized, analyzed using Image ProPlus 4.5 software, and the number of dentinal tubules free of filling material from the middle and apical thirds was recorded. No significant difference was found among the solvent groups regarding the number of dentinal tubules free of root filling remnants in the middle and apical root thirds (p>0.05. However, the control group had fewer dentinal tubules free of filling material (p<0.05. Under the tested conditions, it may be concluded that there was no significant difference among the solvents used to obtain dentinal tubules free of filling material remnants.

  10. A survey of attitude and opinions of endodontic residents towards regenerative endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utneja, Shivani; Nawal, Ruchika Roongta; Ansari, Mohammed Irfan; Talwar, Sangeeta; Verma, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this survey was to study the level of awareness, current state of knowledge and opinions towards regenerative endodontic treatments amongst the endodontic residents of India. Settings and Design: Questionnaire based survey was designed. Materials and Methods: After approval from the organizing committee of 26th Federation of Operative Dentistry of India and 19th Indian Endodontic Society National conference 2011, 200 copies of the questionnaire were circulated amongst the endodontic residents in conservative dentistry and endodontics at various colleges across the country about regenerative endodontic procedures. The survey included profile of the respondents and consisted of 23 questions about their knowledge, attitude and opinions regarding use of these procedures as part of future dental treatment. Results: The survey showed that half the participants (50.6%) had received continued education in stem cells and/or regenerative dental treatments. The majority of participants were of the opinion (86.6%) that regenerative therapy should be incorporated into dentistry, and most of them (88%) were willing to acquire training in learning this new treatment strategy. The results indicated that half of the participants (52.6%) were already using some type of regenerative therapy in their clinical practice; however, with a majority of these limited to use of membranes, scaffolds or bioactive materials. Conclusions: These results reflect that endodontic residents are optimistic about the use of regenerative endodontic procedures; however, a need for more research and training was felt. PMID:23956532

  11. Regeneration of periapical lesions post-endodontic treatment and periapical surgeries in experimental animals utilizing thermo-responsive nano-β-tricalcium phosphate/chitosan hydrogel: a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Wafa I; El Ashry, Salma Hassan; Ali, Ghareib W; Hamid, Mohamed Aiad Abdel; El-Din, Amina Gamal; El-Ashry, Bassma

    2017-07-05

    Using phosphate nanoparticles/polymeric hydrogels presents an interesting approach, especially concerning the reduced particle migration and enhanced biocompatibility. The current work aims to achieve a proof of concept for the development of a thermo-sensitive nano β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)/chitosan (Cs)/glycerophosphate (Gl)/glyoxal (Gly) hydrogel to be applied in periapical surgeries post endodontic treatment. Physicochemical characterization using x-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, TEM and SEM was performed. Bone formation efficiency of the achieved β-TCP/Cs/Gl/Gly hydrogel was followed. The composite gels were tested in vivo in dogs in comparison with the commercially available and surgically applied Klipdent-PL® up to three months. Radiographic examinations were performed. Histological evaluations were achieved through histomorphological criteria being apical cementum surface, bone tissue resorption, apical PDL thickness, the intensity of inflammatory reaction and osseous repair. The cytotoxicity results proved the safety of the developed hydrogel. The thermo-sensitive hydrogel possessed comparable enhanced biocompatibility with anti-inflammatory activity. New bone formation was clearly enhanced in the infected teeth. Therefore, it can be directly applied in specific non-invasive dental surgeries.

  12. [Adhesion of sealer cements to dentin with and without smear layer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettleman, B H; Messer, H H; ElDeeb, M E

    1991-01-01

    The influence of a smear layer on the adhesion of sealer cements to dentin was assessed in recently extracted human anterior teeth. A total of 120 samples was tested, 40 per sealer; 20 each with and without the smear layer. The teeth were split longitudinally, and the internal surfaces were ground flat. One-half of each tooth was left with the smear layer intact, while the other half had the smear removed by washing for 3 min with 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% NaOCI. Evidence of the ability to remove the smear layer was verified by scanning electron microscopy. Using a specially designed jig, the sealer was placed into a 4-mm wide x 4 mm deep well which was then set onto the tooth.

  13. Factors Affecting the Effectiveness of Inorganic Silicate Sealer Material through Multi-Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Mi Hsu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effectiveness of concrete protection with two inorganic silicate sealer materials (ISSMs. The Taguchi method and grey relational analysis (GRA have been used to identify the key factors influencing concrete protection provided by the surface treatment. Seven control factors with two levels were selected. By using the orthogonal array L12 (27, 12 experiments are chosen and four tests—the compressive strength test, resistivity test, absorption test and permeability test—were performed. Results have shown that the major factors affecting the protection effectiveness of ISSM are the water-binder ratio of mortar substrate, age of substrate for sealer application, addition of pozzolanic material and sealer type.

  14. Path planning for machine vision assisted, teleoperated pavement crack sealer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.S.; Haas, C.T.; Greer, R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1998-03-01

    During the last few years, several teleoperated and machine-vision-assisted systems have been developed in construction and maintenance areas such as pavement crack sealing, sewer pipe rehabilitation, excavation, surface finishing, and materials handling. This paper presents a path-planning algorithm used for a machine-vision-assisted automatic pavement crack sealing system. In general, path planning is an important task for optimal motion of a robot whether its environment is structured or unstructured. Manual path planning is not always possible or desirable. A simple greedy path algorithm is utilized for optimal motion of the automated pavement crack sealer. Some unique and broadly applicable computational tools and data structures are required to implement the algorithm in a digital image domain. These components are described, then the performance of the algorithm is compared with the implicit manual path plans of system operators. The comparison is based on computational cost versus overall gains in crack-sealing-process efficiency. Applications of this work in teleoperation, graphical control, and other infrastructure maintenance areas are also suggested.

  15. Effects of root canal sealers on alkaline phosphatase in human osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fu-Mei; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2010-07-01

    Histologic investigations have demonstrated that root canal sealers can induce mild to severe bone resorption. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a membrane-bound glycoprotein, which is one of the osteogenic differentiation markers considered to indicate the formation of new bone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an epoxy resin-based sealer AH26, a zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealer Canals, and a paste sealer N2 on the expression of ALP in human osteoblastic cell line U2OS cells. Freshly mixed materials were filled in glass rings and eluted in 10 mL of culture medium for 1 day. Subsequently, various dilutions (final dilution: 1/2, 1/4, and 1/8) of these extraction media were prepared for this study. Cytotoxicity was measured by the almar blue dye assay. Gene expression of ALP was examined by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. ALP activity was further evaluated by using substrate assay. The results showed that AH26, Canals, and N2 were cytotoxic to U2OS cells in a concentration-dependent manner (P < .05). The exposure of U2OS cells to AH26 and N2 resulted in the down-regulation of ALP mRNA gene expression (P < .05). ALP activity was significantly suppressed by 3 root canal sealers (P < .05). The inhibition of ALP expression might play an important role in the pathogenesis of root canal sealer-induced periapical bone destruction. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. In Vitro Cytotoxicity of a New Nano Root Canal Sealer on Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Maryam; Dastmalchi, Parisa; Zarei, Mina; Shayani Rad, Maryam; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of a new nano zinc-oxide eugenol (NZOE) sealer on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) compared with Pulpdent (micro-sized ZOE sealer) and AH-26 (resin-based sealer). Methods and Materials: The Pulpdent, AH-26, and NZOE sealers were prepared and exposed to cell culture media immediately after setting, and 24 h and one week after setting. Then, the primary cultured HGFs were incubated for 24 h with different dilutions (1:1 to 1:32) of each sealer extract. Cell viability was evaluated by methyl thiazolyl diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results were compared using two-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: All sealer extracts, up to 32 times dilutions, showed cytotoxicity when exposed to HGF immediately after setting. The extracts obtained 24 h or one week after setting showed lower cytotoxicity than extracts obtained immediately after setting. At all setting times, NZOE showed lower cytotoxicity than Pulpdent and AH-26. While one-week extracts of NZOE had no significant effect on the viability of HGF at dilutions 1:4 to 1:32, both Pulpdent and AH-26 decreased the cell viability at dilutions of 1:4 and 1:8. Conclusion: NZOE exhibited lower cytotoxicity compared to Pulpdent and AH-26 on HGF and has the potential to be considered as a new root canal filling material. PMID:28512490

  17. Redesigning the continuous vacuum sealer packaging machine to improve the processing speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, J. B.; Widyanto, S. A.; Jamari, J.

    2017-01-01

    Vacuum sealer as a product packaging tool of food products to be able to vacuum air inside the plastic which is filled with food products and it causes the pressure lower. In this condition, the optimal heating temperature is reached in a shorter time, so that damage on plastic sealer of vacuumed food products could be prevented to be more effective and efficient. The purpose of this redesigning is to design a vacuum sealer packaging machine continuously through a conveyor mechanism on the packaging quality, time of processing speed of vacuuming food product in the plastic package. This designing process is conducted through several steps of designing and constructing tools until the products are ready to operate. Data analysis is done through quality test of vacuum and sealer to the plastic thickness of 75 µm, 80 µm, and 100 µm with temperature of 170°C, 180°C, 190°C and vacuum duration of 5 seconds, 8 seconds, and 60 seconds. Results of this designing process indicate that vacuum sealer works practically and more optimally with the time of vacuum processing speed of 0 to 1 minute/s; whereas, the pressure of vacuuming suction is until 1e-5 MPa. The results of tensile strength test are at a maximum of 32,796 (N/mm2) and a minimum of 20,155 (N/mm2) and the analysis of plastic composite with EDX. This result shows that the vacuum pressure and the quality of vacuum sealer are better and more efficient.

  18. Dynamic intratubular biomineralization following root canal obturation with pozzolan‐based mineral trioxide aggregate sealer cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yeon‐Jee; Baek, Seung‐Ho; Kum, Kee‐Yeon; Shon, Won‐Jun; Woo, Kyung‐Mi

    2015-01-01

    Summary The application of mineral trioxide aggregates (MTA) cement during the root canal obturation is gaining concern due to its bioactive characteristic to form an apatite in dentinal tubules. In this regard, this study was to assess the biomineralization of dentinal tubules following root canal obturation by using pozzolan‐based (Pz‐) MTA sealer cement (EndoSeal MTA, Maruchi). Sixty curved roots (mesiobuccal, distobuccal) from human maxillary molars were instrumented and prepared for root canal obturation. The canals were obturated with gutta‐percha (GP) and Pz‐MTA sealer by using continuous wave of condensation technique. Canals obturated solely with ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental) or Pz‐MTA sealer were used for comparison. In order to evaluate the biomineralization ability under different conditions, the PBS pretreatment before the root canal obturation was performed in each additional samples. At dentin‐material interfaces, the extension of intratubular biomineralization was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. When the root canal was obturated with GP and Pz‐MTA sealer, enhanced biomineralization of the dentinal tubules beyond the penetrated sealer tag was confirmed under the SEM observation (p Mineralized apatite structures (calcium/phosphorous ratio, 1.45–1.89) connecting its way through the dentinal tubules were detected at 350–400 μm from the tubule orifice, and the pre‐crystallization seeds were also observed along the intra‐ and/or inter‐tubular collagen fiber. Intratubular biomineralization depth was significantly enhanced in all PBS pretreated canals (p MTA cement can be used as a promising bioactive root canal sealer to enhance biomineralization of dentinal tubules under controlled environment. SCANNING 38:50–56, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Scanning Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26179659

  19. Dynamic intratubular biomineralization following root canal obturation with pozzolan-based mineral trioxide aggregate sealer cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yeon-Jee; Baek, Seung-Ho; Kum, Kee-Yeon; Shon, Won-Jun; Woo, Kyung-Mi; Lee, WooCheol

    2016-01-01

    The application of mineral trioxide aggregates (MTA) cement during the root canal obturation is gaining concern due to its bioactive characteristic to form an apatite in dentinal tubules. In this regard, this study was to assess the biomineralization of dentinal tubules following root canal obturation by using pozzolan-based (Pz-) MTA sealer cement (EndoSeal MTA, Maruchi). Sixty curved roots (mesiobuccal, distobuccal) from human maxillary molars were instrumented and prepared for root canal obturation. The canals were obturated with gutta-percha (GP) and Pz-MTA sealer by using continuous wave of condensation technique. Canals obturated solely with ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental) or Pz-MTA sealer were used for comparison. In order to evaluate the biomineralization ability under different conditions, the PBS pretreatment before the root canal obturation was performed in each additional samples. At dentin-material interfaces, the extension of intratubular biomineralization was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. When the root canal was obturated with GP and Pz-MTA sealer, enhanced biomineralization of the dentinal tubules beyond the penetrated sealer tag was confirmed under the SEM observation (p Mineralized apatite structures (calcium/phosphorous ratio, 1.45-1.89) connecting its way through the dentinal tubules were detected at 350-400 μm from the tubule orifice, and the pre-crystallization seeds were also observed along the intra- and/or inter-tubular collagen fiber. Intratubular biomineralization depth was significantly enhanced in all PBS pretreated canals (p MTA cement can be used as a promising bioactive root canal sealer to enhance biomineralization of dentinal tubules under controlled environment. © The Authors. Scanning Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Top-cited articles in endodontic journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardi, Anastasia; Kodonas, Konstantinos; Gogos, Christos; Economides, Nikolaos

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the 100 top-cited articles published in journals dedicated to endodontology and analyze their characteristics to describe the quality and evolution of research in the field of endodontology. The Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge Database and the Journal Citation Report Science Editions were used to retrieve the 100 most cited articles published in journals dedicated to endodontics. The top-cited articles were selected and analyzed with regard to journals, authors, institution, country of origin, publication title and year, number of citations, article type, study design, level of evidence, and field of study. The top 100 articles were cited between 87 and 554 times. These articles appeared in 4 different journals, with more than half in the Journal of Endodontics, followed by the journals Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology and Endodontology, the International Endodontic Journal, and Endodontics & Dental Traumatology. Forty-eight articles were published between 1990 and 1999. All articles were published in English and primarily originated from the United States (n = 52). The majority of articles were basic science articles (n = 55), followed by clinical research studies (n = 28) and nonsystematic reviews (n = 17). Uncontrolled case series with level IV of evidence and narrative reviews with level V of evidence were the most frequent types of study design. The main topics covered by the top-cited articles were microleakage and endodontic microbiology. This analysis of citation rates reveals useful and interesting information about scientific progress in the field of endodontics. Basic research and observational studies published in high-impact endodontic journals had the highest citation rates. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Discolouration potential of endodontic procedures and materials: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, H M A; Abbott, P V

    2012-10-01

    Advances in endodontic materials and techniques are at the forefront of endodontic research. Despite continuous improvements, tooth discolouration, especially in anterior teeth, is considered an undesirable consequence following endodontic treatment as it creates a range of aesthetic problems. This article aims to discuss the intrinsic and internalized tooth discolouration caused by endodontic procedures, and to address the discolouration potential of materials used during root canal treatment, including root canal irrigants, intra-canal medicaments, endodontic and post-endodontic filling materials. In addition, the discolouration patterns caused by combined endodontic and nonendodontic aetiological factors are discussed. The recommended guidelines that should be followed by dental practitioners to prevent and manage tooth discolouration are also outlined. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  2. Fatigue behavior of lubricated Ni-Ti endodontic rotary instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Brotzu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of Ni-Ti alloys in the practice of endodontic comes from their important properties such as shape memory and superelasticity phenomena, good corrosion resistance and high compatibility with biological tissues. In the last twenty years a great variety of nickel-titanium rotary instruments, with various sections and taper, have been developed and marketed. Although they have many advantages and despite their increasing popularity, a major concern with the use of Ni-Ti rotary instruments is the possibility of unexpected failure in use due to several reasons: novice operator handling, presence manufacturing defects, fatigue etc. Recently, the use of an aqueous gel during experimental tests showed a longer duration of the instruments. The aim of the present work is to contribute to the study of the fracture behavior of these endodontic rotary instruments particularly assessing whether the use of the aqueous lubricant gel can extend their operative life stating its reasons. A finite element model (FEM has been developed to support the experimental results. The results were rather contradictory, also because the Perspex (Poly-methyl methacrylate, PMMA cannot simulate completely the dentin mechanical behavior; however the results highlight some interesting points which are discussed in the paper.

  3. 21 CFR 872.3890 - Endodontic stabilizing splint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endodontic stabilizing splint. 872.3890 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3890 Endodontic stabilizing splint. (a) Identification. An endodontic stabilizing splint is a device made of a material, such as titanium, intended to be...

  4. Current overview on challenges in regenerative endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ramta; Jain, Aditya; Mittal, Sunandan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Regenerative endodontics provides hope of converting the non-vital tooth into vital once again. It focuses on substituting traumatized and pathological pulp with functional pulp tissue. Current regenerative procedures successfully produce root development but still fail to re-establish real pulp tissue and give unpredictable results. There are several drawbacks that need to be addressed to improve the quality and efficiency of the treatment. Aim: The aim of this review article is to discuss major priorities that ought to be dealt before applications of regenerative endodontics flourish the clinical practice. Materials and Methods: A web-based research on MEDLINE was done using filter terms Review, published in the last 10 years and Dental journals. Keywords used for research were “regenerative endodontics,” “dental stem cells,” “growth factor regeneration,” “scaffolds,” and “challenges in regeneration.” This review article screened about 150 articles and then the relevant information was compiled. Results: Inspite of the impressive growth in regenerative endodontic field, there are certain loopholes in the existing treatment protocols that might sometimes result in undesired and unpredictable outcomes. Conclusion: Considerable research and development efforts are required to improve and update existing regenerative endodontic strategies to make it an effective, safe, and biological mode to save teeth. PMID:25657518

  5. Regenerative endodontics--Creating new horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Harnoor; Kaushik, Mamta; Sharma, Roshni

    2016-05-01

    Trauma to the dental pulp, physical or microbiologic, can lead to inflammation of the pulp followed by necrosis. The current treatment modality for such cases is non-surgical root canal treatment. The damaged tissue is extirpated and the root canal system prepared. It is then obturated with an inert material such a gutta percha. In spite of advances in techniques and materials, 10%-15% of the cases may end in failure of treatment. Regenerative endodontics combines principles of endodontics, cell biology, and tissue engineering to provide an ideal treatment for inflamed and necrotic pulp. It utilizes mesenchymal stem cells, growth factors, and organ tissue culture to provide treatment. Potential treatment modalities include induction of blood clot for pulp revascularization, scaffold aided regeneration, and pulp implantation. Although in its infancy, successful treatment of damaged pulp tissue has been performed using principles of regenerative endodontics. This field is dynamic and exciting with the ability to shape the future of endodontics. This article highlights the fundamental concepts, protocol for treatment, and possible avenues for research in regenerative endodontics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [Theory and practice of minimally invasive endodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H W

    2016-08-01

    The primary goal of modern endodontic therapy is to achieve the long-term retention of a functional tooth by preventing or treating pulpitis or apical periodontitis is. The long-term retention of endodontically treated tooth is correlated with the remaining amount of tooth tissue and the quality of the restoration after root canal filling. In recent years, there has been rapid progress and development in the basic research of endodontic biology, instrument and applied materials, making treatment procedures safer, more accurate, and more efficient. Thus, minimally invasive endodontics(MIE)has received increasing attention at present. MIE aims to preserve the maximum of tooth structure during root canal therapy, and the concept covers the whole process of diagnosis and treatment of teeth. This review article focuses on describing the minimally invasive concepts and operating essentials in endodontics, from diagnosis and treatment planning to the access opening, pulp cavity finishing, root canal cleaning and shaping, 3-dimensional root canal filling and restoration after root canal treatment.

  7. Apical instrumentation in endodontic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniasri Darliana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Cleaning and shaping of the root canal as the foundation for successful endodontic therapy. Cleaning of the root canal as the removal of all the contents of the root canal systems before and during shaping. Mechanical cleaning as the most important part of the root canal therapy. Instrumentation of the apical region has long been considered to be an essential component in the cleaning and shaping process. The apical area as the critical zone for instrumentation. The apical portion of the root canal system can retain microorganisms that could potentially cause periradicular inflammation. The nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation system to facilitate the cleaning and shaping process. Larger instrumentation sizes not only allow proper irrigation but also significantly decrease remaining bacteria in the canal system. How the larger apical sizes preparation must be achieved to clinical success. This paper will describe the major factors impacting the selection of final apical size, the factors are the anatomy of the apical constriction, root canal diameter, apical instrumentation, and bacteria in dentin tubuli.

  8. High conversion self-curing sealer based on a novel injectable polyurethane system for root canal filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Bin [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zuo, Yi, E-mail: zoae@scu.edu.cn [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Li, Jidong; Wang, Li [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Tang, Kuangyun [The State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases and Orthognathic Surgery, Sichuan University West China College of Stomatology, Chengdu 610064 (China); Huang, Di; Du, Jingjing; Luo, Peipei; Li, Yubao [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2013-08-01

    Low monomer–polymer conversion is the key factor leading to cytotoxicity for resin-containing restorative materials. This paper provides a new root canal filling system based on self-curing injectable polyurethane which can achieve high conversion in a short time. Traced FTIR spectra show more than 90% NCO group participated in the curing reaction after 4 h, and only about 5% remained after 24 h. The calculated data also testified the curing process supports a third-order reaction, and this efficient and sufficient reaction is postulated to weaken the toxic stimulation. By culturing with L929 murine fibroblasts, the PU sealer is shown to be favorable for cell attachment and proliferation. Then physicochemical properties of the injectable PU-based sealer were evaluated according to the Standard [ISO 6876:2001 (E)] for clinical application. A series of physicochemical properties of PU sealer have been tested comparing with AH Plus and Apexit Plus. And the results present that the self-curing PU sealer could not only match the clinic requirements, but even has better properties than the other two commercial sealers. We expect the high conversion PU sealer has a tremendous potential in the field of root canal filling after further biological evaluation. - Highlights: • A new root canal sealer based on self-curing injectable polyurethane was provided. • More than 90% NCO group reacted after 4h, and only about 5% remained after 24 h. • By culturing with L929 murine fibroblasts, the PU sealer showed perfect cytocompatibility. • Volumetric dilatancy after curing will make the sealer achieve a tight seal.

  9. Comparative analysis of physicochemical properties of root perforation sealer materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Cristiane Gonçales Orçati Dorileo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study evaluated the solubility, dimensional alteration, pH, electrical conductivity, and radiopacity of root perforation sealer materials. Materials and Methods For the pH test, the samples were immersed in distilled water for different periods of time. Then, the samples were retained in plastic recipients, and the electrical conductivity of the solution was measured. The solubility, dimensional alteration, and radiopacity properties were evaluated according to Specification No. 57 of the American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA. Statistical analyses were carried out using analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey's test at a significance level of 5%. When the sample distribution was not normal, a nonparametric ANOVA was performed with a Kruskal-Wallis test (α = 0.05. Results The results showed that white structural Portland cement (PC had the highest solubility, while mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA-based cements, ProRoot MTA (Dentsply-Tulsa Dental and MTA BIO (Ângelus Ind. Prod., had the lowest values. MTA BIO showed the lowest dimensional alteration values and white PC presented the highest values. No differences among the tested materials were observed in the the pH and electrical conductivity analyses. Only the MTA-based cements met the ANSI/ADA recommendations regarding radiopacity, overcoming the three steps of the aluminum step wedge. Conclusions On the basis of these results, we concluded that the values of solubility and dimensional alteration of the materials were in accordance with the ANSI/ADA specifications. PCs did not fulfill the ANSI/ADA requirements regarding radiopacity. No differences were observed among the materials with respect to the pH and electrical conductivity analyses.

  10. Cone beam computed tomography in endodontic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durack, Conor; Patel, Shanon, E-mail: conordurack1@hotmail.com [Unit of Endodontology, Department of Conservative Dentistry, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a contemporary, radiological imaging system designed specifically for use on the maxillofacial skeleton. The system overcomes many of the limitations of conventional radiography by producing undistorted, three-dimensional images of the area under examination. These properties make this form of imaging particularly suitable for use in endodontic. The clinician can obtain an enhanced appreciation of the anatomy being assessed, leading to an improvement in the detection of endodontic disease and resulting in more effective treatment planning. In addition, CBCT operates with a significantly lower effective radiation dose when compared with conventional computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature relating to the limitations and potential applications of CBCT in endodontic practice. (author)

  11. Post endodontic Aspergillosis in an immunocompetent individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs, Aadithya B; Singh, Hanspal; Nunia, Kalpana; Mohanty, Sujata; Gupta, Shalini

    2015-10-01

    Non-invasive aspergillosis in immunocompetent individuals subsequent to post endodontic treatment can involve the maxillary antrum. An early and accurate diagnosis will aid in prompt and effective treatment. A 35 year old female patient reported with a painful nasomaxillary swelling. Previous records revealed the failure of the endodontic treatment of maxillary left second premolar which was subsequently extracted. Root piece was accidently left behind which resulted in a painful nasomaxillary swelling. The extraction socket was curetted and tissue was sent for histopathological examination, which revealed abundant septate fungal hyphae with numerous spores characteristic of Aspergillus. The patient showed marked improvement in the symptoms with systemic itraconazole at 3 months follow up and complete resolution occurred within 6 months. Inclusion of aspergilloma infections in the differential diagnosis is advocated when patients present with post-endodontic nasomaxillary swelling. Aspergillosis, fungal sinusitis, post root canal treatment.

  12. Proposal of a "Checklist" for endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Flores-García, Víctor; Perea-Pérez, Bernardo; Labajo-González, Elena; Santiago-Sáez, Andrés; Cisneros-Cabello, Rafael

    2014-04-01

    On the basis of the "Surgical Checklist" proposed by the WHO, we propose a new Checklist model adapted to the procedures of endodontic treatment. The proposed document contains 21 items which are broken down into two groups: those which must be verified before beginning the treatment, and those which must be verified after completing it, but before the patient leaves the dentist's office. The Checklist is an easy-to-use tool that requires little time but provides, order, logic and systematization by taking into account certain basic concepts to increase patient safety. We believe that the result is a Checklist that is easy to complete and which ensure the fulfillment of the key points on patient safety in the field of endodontics. Key words:Checklist, endodontics, patient safety, adverse event.

  13. Effect of a two-step placement procedure on the dislocation resistance of a methacrylate resin-based root canal sealer: a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinzadeh, Amir T; Mirmohammadi, Hesam; Veenema, Tjibbe; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J; Wesselink, Paul R; Wu, Min-Kai; Shemesh, Hagay

    2014-12-01

    To investigate whether the placement of a methacrylate root canal sealer or a conventional epoxy root canal sealer in two steps increases their dislocation resistance when compared to a one-step placement procedure. Eighty single-rooted teeth were randomly allocated to 4 groups (n=20). All canals were instrumented to size 40, 0.06 taper and irrigated according to a standardized protocol. Root canal filling was conducted as follows: group 1: methacrylate sealer placed in two steps; group 2: methacrylate sealer placed in one step; group 3: epoxy sealer placed in two steps; group 4: epoxy sealer placed in one step. After setting, thin slices at different root levels were obtained and submitted to push-out testing. RESULTS were analyzed with non-parametric tests to compare the two-step procedures to their one-step counterparts. Failure modes were determined by stereomicroscopy. Random untested methacrylate sealer specimens were also examined with scanning electron microscopy. At each root level, dislocation resistance was significantly higher for the two-step procedure than for the one-step procedure using the methacrylate sealer (p=0.003, p=0.005, ptwo-step group, while all other groups showed differences. A two-step placement procedure resulted in significantly higher dislocation resistance for the methacrylate sealer but not for the epoxy sealer.

  14. Apical Leakage of Epiphany Root Canal Sealer Combined with Different Master Cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocak, Mustafa Murat; Er, Ozgur; Saglam, Baran Can; Yaman, Sis

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the apical sealing ability of different core materials used with EpiphanyTM sealer and to evaluate the effect of Resilon/EpiphanyTM system on creating an apical mono-block seal. Methods Fifty-five extracted human teeth were used. Forty-five were selected and randomly divided into three groups and ten teeth were used as positive and negative control groups. In Group 1, roots were obturated using Resilon™ and Epiphany™, In Group 2, roots were obturated using tapered single-cone gutta-percha and Epiphany™ and in Group 3, roots were obturated using Thermafil obturators and Epiphany™ sealer. The apical leakage was measured using the dye penetration methodology. The teeth were cleared, and the linear extent of dye penetration was measured with a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by the one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests. Results The teeth filled with Thermafil obturators and Epiphany™ sealer displayed the most apical leakage. The least apical leakage was shown with Resilon™ and Epiphany™. Groups 1 and 2 had significantly leaked less than Group 3. Conclusions Based on the data of this study, although Resilon and Epiphany sealer showed the least apical leakage, statistical analysis showed no difference between gutta-percha and Epiphany™. PMID:19212517

  15. Comparison of apical leakage between immediate versus delayed post space preparation using two resin sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Kaushal Kalra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Post & Core Procedures have became an integral part of a dentist′s arsenal. This study was carried out in order to assess the microleakage when immediate and delayed post space preparations were done using resin sealers. Immediate post space preparations showed lesser apical leakage as opposed to delayed post space preparation.

  16. Efficacy of ProTaper Retreatment System in Root Canals Obturated with Gutta-Percha Using Two Different Sealers and GuttaFlow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Siotia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the efficacy of ProTaper retreatment files in removing three different obturating materials. Study Design. Forty-five human, single-rooted premolars were divided into three experimental groups. Group 1 was obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer, Group 2 was obturated with gutta-percha and zinc oxide eugenol sealer, and Group 3 was obturated with GuttaFlow. Retreatment was done using the ProTaper universal rotary retreatment files. Root halves were visualized using magnifying loops at 3X magnification and optical stereomicroscope at 10X magnification. Images were analyzed using AutoCAD 2004 software to calculate area of the remaining debris in the canal. For statistical analysis were used variance test and ANOVA. Results. Total debris/canal area ratio between the three groups showed a statistically significant difference (P<0.001. Conclusion. ProTaper retreatment system did not produce completely clean canals in any of the groups. However, it had the best efficacy towards removing silicon based obturating material GuttaFlow.

  17. The Sealing Ability of Different Thickness of Orthograde Apical Plug of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate in Comparison with Gutta-Percha and Sealer AH26

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mohamadi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of different thicknesses of orthograde MTA plugs in comparison with 5 mm gutta-percha.Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted single rooted human teeth were collected. After root canal preparation,the samples were randomly divided into 4 experimental (n=10 and two control groups (n=5. In group 1, the apical 5 mm of the canals were obturated using laterally condensed gutta-percha and sealer AH26. Groups 2, 3and 4 received 2, 3 and 4-mm thick orthograde MTA plug,respectively. Thereafter, the coronal portion of specimens was exposed to the microbial solution containing streptococcus sanguis and the root tips were placed in phenol red lactose broth. The color changes were observed within 60 days. The data were analyzed with Fisher exact test.Results: The leakage was found in all samples (100% in group 1 and 72.7%, 30.8% and 50% of the samples in groups 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Significant difference was found between 3 mm thickness of MTA plug and gutta percha and sealer (P=0.02.Conclusion: According to the findings, it seems that 3 mm thickness of orthograde MTA plug had better sealing ability than the other thicknesses of MTA plug as well as the 5 mm of gutta-percha.

  18. Natural Therapeutic Options in Endodontics - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Anand, Suresh; Abarajithan, Mohan; Sheriff, Sultan O; Jacob, Pulikkotil S; Sonia, Nath

    2016-01-01

    Complete eradication of microbial biofilms and elimination of the smear layer are the key factors during endodontic treatment. Various chemical irrigants have been proposed in the literature for the same. The major setback with these chemical irrigants is that they are not bio-friendly to the dental and peri-radicular tissues. In the recent years, research to use natural products for root canal disinfection has gained importance. The aim of this article is to compile various herbal products that have been used as an irrigants and intracanal medicaments in the field of Endodontics to eradicate the biofilm and remove smear layer.

  19. Periostitis ossificans managed with endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Sener, Yagmur; Tosun, Gül; Savas, Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    Periostitis ossificans (PO) is a specific type of chronic osteomyelitis. Radiographically, it is characterized by the presence of lamellae of newly formed periosteal bone outside the cortex, giving the characteristic appearance of "onion skin." The most common cause of PO is periapical infection of the mandibular permanent first molar, which occurs primarily in children and young adults. Treatment in these cases is directed toward eliminating the source of the infection, either by extraction of the offending tooth or endodontic therapy. The purpose of this paper is to present a case of PO involving a permanent mandibular first molar managed with endodontic treatment.

  20. [Post and core for endodontically treated teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labropoulou-Tzortzopoulou, E

    1990-01-01

    The literature is replete with the various techniques used in the restoration of pulpless teeth. Controversies surround the most clinically successful procedures and general dentist is confronted daily with the dilemma of choosing the best treatment modality. Endodontically treated posterior teeth present restorative problems. The remaining tooth tissue requires special treatment to prevent further destruction. This report presents an effective method for succeeding extension and protection for endodontically treated teeth. The advantages of the post-core system against other types of restoration, as well the indications are reviewed. In this paper the preparation of the tooth and the construction of a post-core by the direct and indirect method are described.

  1. Management of Hypertaurodontism: An Endodontic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saritha Vallabhaneni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Taurodontism is a morpho-anatomical developmental anomaly rarely seen in teeth and usually found in association with other anomalies or as a part of syndrome. It is characterised by lack of constriction at the level of cementoenamel junction with elongated pulp chambers and apical displacement of bifurcation or trifurcation of roots. This gives the tooth a rectangular or cylindrical appearance. Endodontic treatment of a taurodont tooth is challenging, because it requires special care in handling and identifying the number of root canals. A case of endodontic treatment of a maxillary first molar with hypertaurodontism not associated with any syndrome is presented.

  2. Natural Therapeutic Options in Endodontics - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Anand, Suresh; Abarajithan, Mohan; Sheriff, Sultan O.; Jacob, Pulikkotil S.; Sonia, Nath

    2016-01-01

    Complete eradication of microbial biofilms and elimination of the smear layer are the key factors during endodontic treatment. Various chemical irrigants have been proposed in the literature for the same. The major setback with these chemical irrigants is that they are not bio-friendly to the dental and peri-radicular tissues. In the recent years, research to use natural products for root canal disinfection has gained importance. The aim of this article is to compile various herbal products that have been used as an irrigants and intracanal medicaments in the field of Endodontics to eradicate the biofilm and remove smear layer. PMID:27386007

  3. Influence of Ultrasonic Irrigation and Chloroform on Cleanliness of Dentinal Tubules During Endodontic Retreatment-An Invitro SEM Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Anurag; Gurtu, Anuraag; Vinayak, Vineet

    2015-01-01

    Background Ultrasonic irrigation has been proved for its remarkable cleaning efficiency in the field of endodontics. But its role in endodontic re-treatment has been understated. There is not much data available to understand the effect of ultrasonic irrigation for the evaluation of cleanliness of dentinal tubules when it is used with or without chloroform, a gutta percha solvent during endodontic retreatment. Aim To compare the influence of ultrasonic irrigation with syringe irrigation on cleanliness of dentinal tubules after gutta perch removal for endodontic retreatment with or without the use of chloroform a gutta percha solvent using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods Freshly extracted 45 human mandibular premolar teeth for periodontal and orthodontic reasons were taken and were occlusally adjusted to a working length of 19 mm. The root canals of all teeth were prepared chemo mechanically to a master apical file size 40 and were divided in various groups. In Group 1 (n = 5; control group), the canals remained unfilled. In Groups 2 and 3 (n = 20 each), the canals were filled using lateral compaction with gutta-percha and AH plus sealer, removal of root fillings was undertaken after 2 weeks using Gates Glidden drills and H files without chloroform in Group 2 and with chloroform in group 3. The specimen of Group 2 and 3 were further divided into two subgroups I and II (n=10). In subgroup I, irrigation was done using side vented needles and sodium hypochlorite. In subgroup II irrigation was done using passive ultrasonic irrigation with sodium hypochlorite. Thereafter, the roots were split and the sections were observed under SEM. The number of occluded dentinal tubules /total number of dentinal tubules were calculated for the coronal, middle and apical third of each root half. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test using standardized technique. Result Results indicated that the cleanest dentinal

  4. The effect of moisture conditions on the constitution of two bioceramic-based root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf Y. Al-Haddad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/purpose: Intraradicular moisture is not standardized and alters the sealing properties and adhesion of root sealers. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of different moisture on the constitution of bioceramic sealers. Materials and methods: The sealers were evaluated before mixing, and after setting using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Energy Dispersive Analysis (EDX and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM techniques. Twenty four extracted teeth were prepared and assigned to four groups according to the moisture conditions: (1 dry: using ethanol as final irrigation, (2 normal: using paper points until the last one appeared dry, (3 moist: using a Luer adapter for 5 s followed by 1 paper point, and (4 wet: the canals remained totally flooded. The roots were filled with MTA Fillapex® and Endosequence® BC and kept in phosphate buffer solution at 37 °C for 10 days. Each root was sectioned transversally and longitudinally. The sealers harvested from longitudinal sections were analysed using XRD. Whilst the transverse sections were analysed using SEM/EDX. Results: The XRD analysis showed MTA Fillapex composed of Bismuth trioxide, calcium silicate and tricalcium aluminate. The intensity of peaks in the wet condition was reduced. Endosequence BC contained mainly calcium silicate, calcium silicate hydrate, zirconia and calcium hydroxide. The wet condition showed a small increase in hydrated calcium silicate. The EDX analysis showed changes in the elemental concentrations with different moisture conditions. The surface morphology differed with different moisture conditions. Conclusion: Tested sealers have different constitution that not affected by the degree of moisture. However, it changed their relative quantity. Keywords: bioceramic, constitution, Endosequence BC, moisture, MTA Fillapex

  5. Antimicrobial peptide-based treatment for endodontic infections--biotechnological innovation in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Stella Maris de Freitas; de Pádua, Gabriela Martins; Sousa, Maurício Gonçalves da Costa; Freire, Mirna de Souza; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Rezende, Taia Maria Berto

    2015-01-01

    The presence/persistence of microorganisms in the pulp and periapical area corresponds to the maintenance of an exacerbated immune response that leads to the start of periradicular bone resorption and its perpetuation. In endodontic treatment, the available intracanal medications do not have all the desirable properties in the context of endodontic infection and apical periodontitis; they need to include not only strong antimicrobial performance but also an immunomodulatory and reparative activity, without host damage. In addition, there are various levels of resistance to root canal medications. Thus, antimicrobial agents that effectively eliminate resistant species in root canals could potentially improve endodontic treatment. In the emergence of new therapies, an increasing number of studies on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been seen over the past few years. AMPs are defense biomolecules produced in response to infection, and they have a wide spectrum of action against many oral microorganisms. There are some studies that correlate peptides and oral infections, including oral peptides, neuropeptides, and bacterial, fish, bovine and synthetic peptides. So far, there are around 120 published studies correlating endodontic microbiota with AMPs but, according to our knowledge, there are no registered patents in the American patent database. There are a considerable number of AMPs that exhibit excellent antimicrobial activity against endodontic microbiota at a small inhibitory concentration and modulate an exacerbated immune response, down-regulating bone resorption. All these reasons indicate the antimicrobial peptide-based endodontic treatment as an emerging and promising option. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Endodontic-periodontal microsurgery for combined endodontic-periodontal lesions: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ritu; Hegde, Vivek; Siddharth, M; Hegde, Rashmi; Manchanda, Gunsha; Agarwal, Pratul

    2014-11-01

    Endodontic and periodontal microsurgery has surpassed the success rates for traditional endodontic and periodontal surgical procedures. Excellent healing results are being attributed to both the techniques, when employed, for isolated endodontic or periodontal defects. Combined endodontic-periodontal lesions have been referred to as a true challenge, requiring not only endodontic microsurgical management but also concurrent bone grafting and membrane barriers techniques. The prevention of epithelial downgrowth and regeneration of periodontal cementum, fiber, and bone seals the fate of these cases. Achieving primary closure with submergence of grafts has a positive effect on GTR outcome. New techniques of periodontal microsurgery, such as minimally invasive papilla preserving flaps with passive internal mattress suturing, have managed to obtain 90% primary flap closure over grafted sites. Root surface treatment and conditioning has also shown to be beneficial for GTR. Endodontic microsurgery for the combined lesion has not integrated these advances yet. These advances, along with a recently suggested treatment strategy, are ushering in the level next in management of the combined lesions. This article offers an overview of the combined lesion, the disease, its classification, treatment strategy, regenerative tools, microsurgical recommendations, and outcome studies.

  7. The effect of temporary restorative materials on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Amin Salem; Froughreyhani, Mohammad; Mohammadi, Hosein; Tabegh, Fatemeh Ghasemi; Pournaghiazar, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the fracture strength of endodontically treated teeth temporarily restored with some commonly used interim materials. Of 90 extracted maxillary premolars used in this study, 15 were left intact as the positive control. Endodontic treatment was performed on the remaining 75 teeth. The endodontically treated teeth were then randomly assigned to 5 groups (n = 15). One group was not restored and served as the negative control. In the remaining 4 experimental groups, the teeth were restored with a temporary cement: Zonalin, IRM, Coltosol, or Fuji II LC resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI). The fracture strengths of all teeth were measured with a universal testing machine. The fracture strength of teeth restored with RMGI was significantly greater than that of other groups (P materials was significantly lower than that of intact teeth (P resistance standpoint, RMGI may be the best choice for short-term temporary restoration of endodontically treated teeth. Other types of temporary restorative material had no reinforcing effect on tooth structure.

  8. Combinations of bacterial species in endodontic infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, LB; Wesselink, P.R.; van Winkelhoff, AJ

    Aim This study was undertaken to investigate combinations of bacteria found in root-canal infections of teeth with periapical bone destruction without clinical signs and symptoms. Methodology Endodontic samples from 58 root canals were cultured anaerobically and microorganisms were counted and

  9. Restoration of the endodontically treated posterior tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Polesel

    2014-06-01

    Results and conclusions: Direct adhesive restorations, indirect bonded restorations and traditional full crown are three therapeutic options for the single posterior endodontically treated teeth. The amount of remaining sound tooth structure is the most significant factor influencing the therapeutic approach. The clinician's operative skill is a determining aspect for long-term success of adhesive inlays.

  10. Endodontic treatment completion following emergency pulpectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, C D

    2010-06-01

    Emergency pulpectomy is frequently performed to relieve pain experienced by patients following acute episodes of endodontic pain, or to limit the risks of infection or possible root resorption following traumatic pulpal exposures. The aim of this study was to examine subsequent patient attendance for completion of root canal treatment following pulpectomy procedures in a dental emergency unit.

  11. Multiple taurodontism: the challenge of endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-da-Silva, Bruno; Baratto-Filho, Flares; Abuabara, Allan; Moura, Paula; Losso, Estela M; Moro, Alexandre

    2010-12-01

    This article describe a rare case of multiple taurodontism involving all molars in a 17-year-old male. Volumetric cone-beam computed tomography was used to investigate internal and external root morphology, including that of a maxillary first molar which required endodontic treatment and retreatment. Medical history was not contributory; however, Klinefelter syndrome was the diagnostic hypothesis in this case.

  12. Restoration of Endodontically-Treated Posterior Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Andrew

    2017-02-28

    A case study provides opportunity to discuss treatment planning and the selection of materials and techniques to provide a replacement restoration of an endodontically-treated molar tooth. The discussion highlights treatment options along with the strengths and weaknesses of the alternative approaches to achieving a successful clinical outcome.

  13. Endodontic treatment completion following emergency pulpectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, C D; Burke, F M; Ní Ríordáin, R; Hannigan, A

    2010-06-01

    Emergency pulpectomy is frequently performed to relieve pain experienced by patients following acute episodes of endodontic pain, or to limit the risks of infection or possible root resorption following traumatic pulpal exposures. The aim of this study was to examine subsequent patient attendance for completion of root canal treatment following pulpectomy procedures in a dental emergency unit. The treatment records of 574 patients who had each received an emergency pulpectomy at the Casualty Clinic of the University Dental School and Hospital, Cork, Ireland were reviewed. The influence of age, gender, etiology, tooth type, and month in which the pulpectomy was performed on subsequent completion of endodontic treatment was examined. Of 574 patients, 39% (n = 224) returned to have endodontic treatment completed, 11% (n = 63) returned to have the tooth extracted, and 50% (n = 287) did not return for completion of the endodontic treatment. Cases were monitored up to five years following pulpectomy. Using a multinomial regression model, tooth type, etiology, and month in which the treatment was performed were found to be statistically significant predictors (p pulpectomies to avoid inappropriate use of resources and manpower.

  14. Endodontic Treatment of Unusually Long Discolored Maxillary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Success in root canal treatment is achieved after thorough biomechanical preparation followed by complete obturation of the canal system together with prompt and adequate restoration. Therefore, the endodontic therapy requires specific and complete knowledge of the internal and external anatomy, and its ...

  15. Impact of Intracanal Calcium Hydroxide or Triple Antibiotic Paste on Bond Strength of Root Canal Sealers: An In Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gündoğar, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Objectives:Theaim of this study is to compare the effects of intracanal treatments withcalcium hydroxide (CH) or triple antibiotic paste (TAP) on bond strength of acalcium silicate-based sealer (MTA Fillapex) and an epoxy resin- based sealer(MM Seal). Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted maxillary central incisors were preparedwith a rotary system to size 40. The specimens were randomly divided into twogroups, which received either intracanal CH or TAP. After rinsing, the teeth ineach group...

  16. Three-dimensional Quantitative Porosity Characterization of Syringe- versus Hand-mixed Set Epoxy Resin Root Canal Sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Deus, Gustavo; Scelza, Miriam Z; Neelakantan, Prasanna; Sharma, Subash; Neves, Aline de Almeida; Silva, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the porosity characteristics of AH Plus Jet(tm) syringe-mix and the conventional hand-mixed AH Plus root canal sealers by three-dimensional quantitative high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Seven test specimens were prepared from each tested sealer by a single operator following the manufacturer's instructions and poured into pre-lubricated plastic split-ring moulds. Set sealer test specimens were scanned using a micro-CT device and the shadow images were reconstructed into cross-sectional slices. The evaluated parameters were (i) total pore count, (ii) total pore volume and mean pore volume, (iii) total porosity (% of pore volume in relation to total sealer volume) and (iv) mean pore distance to the sealer lateral external surface. In both groups, most pores were localized within the external sealer perimeter (0.05 mm from the external surface). Hand-mixed AH Plus specimens showed statistically significant higher mean total pore count, total pore volume and total porosity (p=0.001) than the syringe-mixed specimens. However, mean pore sizes in AH Plus syringe-mixed specimens were significantly higher (p=0.046) than the AH Plus hand-mixed counterparts. Hand-mixed AH Plus was associated with higher total mean pore count, volume and total porosity compared to syringe mixed AH Plus.

  17. Outcomes of endodontic therapy in general practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Susan D.; Horowitz, Allan J.; Man, Martin; Wu, Hongyu; Foran, Denise; Vena, Donald A.; Collie, Damon; Matthews, Abigail G.; Curro, Frederick A.; Thompson, Van P.; Craig, Ronald G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The authors undertook a study involving members of a dental practice-based research network to determine the outcome and factors associated with success and failure of endodontic therapy. Methods Members in participating practices (practitioner-investigators [P-Is]) invited the enrollment of all patients seeking treatment in the practice who had undergone primary endodontic therapy and restoration in a permanent tooth three to five years previously. If a patient had more than one tooth so treated, the P-I selected as the index tooth the tooth treated earliest during the three- to five-year period. The authors excluded from the study any teeth that served as abutments for removable partial dentures or overdentures, third molars and teeth undergoing active orthodontic endodontic therapy. The primary outcome was retention of the index tooth. Secondary outcomes, in addition to extraction, that defined failure included clinical or radiographic evidence (or both) of periapical pathosis, endodontic retreatment or pain on percussion. Results P-Is in 64 network practices enrolled 1,312 patients with a mean (standard deviation) time to follow-up of 3.9 (0.6) years. During that period, 3.3 percent of the index teeth were extracted, 2.2 percent underwent retreatment, 3.6 percent had pain on percussion and 10.6 percent had periapical radiolucencies for a combined failure rate of 19.1 percent. The presence of preoperative periapical radiolucency with a diagnosis of either irreversible pulpitis or necrotic pulp was associated with failure after multivariate analysis, as were multiple canals, male sex and Hispanic/Latino ethnicity. Conclusions These results suggest that failure rates for endodontic therapy are higher than previously reported in general practices, according to results of studies based on dental insurance claims data. Clinical Implications The results of this study can help guide the practitioner in deciding the most appropriate course of therapy for

  18. The influence of sodium hypochlorite and root canal sealers on post retention in different dentin regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Leonardo; Mathias, Paula

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of 5.25% NaOCl irrigant and root canal sealers on post retention in different dentin regions. Seventy-two human incisors were decoronated at the cemento-enamel junction and randomly divided into six groups (n=12) according to irrigant and sealer technique: G1-Distilled water (DW) without sealer; G2-DW + AH Plus (Dentsply/Maillefer); G3-DW + Endofill (Dentsply/Maillefer); G4-5.251%NaOCl without sealer; G5-5.25% NaOCl + AH Plus; G6-5.25% NaOCl + Endofill. Specimens were stored in a humid environment for 30 days at 37 degrees C and were prepared with FRC Postec's drills for post insertion. The posts were cemented with Excite DSC/Variolink II (Ivoclar/Vivadent). The specimens were sectioned through their long axis into three dental slices approximately 2.5 mm each, representing the cervical (C), middle (M) and apical (A) thirds of the root preparation. After calculating the adhered area of the specimens, they were submitted to the push-out test in a universal testing machine. The data were submitted to an analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a 5% significance level and to the Tukey test (p<0.05). The mean values (MPa) obtained for cervical, middle and apical areas of the root preparation, respectively, were: G1=8.6; 12.5 and 14.3, G2=13.5; 15.4 and 16.9; G3=6.9; 10.0 and 12.1; G4=13.0; 14.9 and 15.4; G5=11.3; 13.5 and 18.0; and G6=11.0; 11.8 and 11.5. Based on the results, the eugenol-based sealer (Endofill) resulted in significantly lower mean retention strength values compared with the resin-based sealer (AH Plus). The apical region showed the greatest retention. The lowest resistance to dislodgment was found in the cervical region, mainly in the groups that used distilled water for irrigating the root canal.

  19. XRD Study of NiTi Endodontic Files Using Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz Fernandes, Francisco Manuel; Oliveira, J. P.; Machado, A.; Schell, Norbert

    2014-07-01

    Two types of endodontic files (ProFile and Mtwo) were studied in order to analyze the effect of geometry on the stress-induced martensitic (SIM) transformation during bending. The use of a fine beam spot of synchrotron radiation allowed a detailed structural characterization with a fine spatial resolution. Experimental evidence of the effect of the cross-section geometry on the stress localization giving rise to different degrees of SIM transformation is presented for the first time in the published literature.

  20. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Min; Yi, Jin-Kyu; Choi, Sung-Baik; Park, Sang-Hyuk

    2015-02-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment.

  1. Ultrasonics in endodontics: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotino, Gianluca; Pameijer, Cornelis H; Grande, Nicola Maria; Somma, Francesco

    2007-02-01

    During the past few decades endodontic treatment has benefited from the development of new techniques and equipment, which have improved outcome and predictability. Important attributes such as the operating microscope and ultrasonics (US) have found indispensable applications in a number of dental procedures in periodontology, to a much lesser extent in restorative dentistry, while being very prominently used in endodontics. US in endodontics has enhanced the quality of treatment and represents an important adjunct in the treatment of difficult cases. Since its introduction, US has become increasingly more useful in applications such as gaining access to canal openings, cleaning and shaping, obturation of root canals, removal of intracanal materials and obstructions, and endodontic surgery. This comprehensive review of the literature aims at presenting the numerous uses of US in clinical endodontics and emphasizes the broad applications in a modern-day endodontic practice.

  2. Preferred Materials and Methods Employed for Endodontic Treatment by Iranian General Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoof, Maryam; Zeini, Negar; Haghani, Jahangir; Sadr, Saeedeh; Mohammadalizadeh, Sakineh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to gather information on the materials and methods employed in root canal treatment (RCT) by general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Iran. Methods and Materials: A questionnaire was distributed among 450 dentists who attended the 53th Iranian Dental Association congress. Participants were asked to consider demographic variables and answer the questions regarding the materials and methods commonly used in RCT. Descriptive statistics were given as absolute frequencies and valid percentages. The chi-square test was used to investigate the influence of gender and the years of professional activity for the employed materials and techniques. Results: The response rate was 84.88%. The results showed that 61.5% of the participants did not perform pulp sensitivity tests prior to RCT. Less than half of the general dental practitioners (47.4%) said that they would trace a sinus tract before starting the treatment. Nearly 16% of practitioners preferred the rubber dam isolation method. Over 36% of the practitioners reported using formocresol for pulpotomy. The combined approach of working length (WL) radiographs and electronic apex locators was used by 35.2% of the practitioners. Most of the respondents used K-file hand instruments for canal preparation and the technique of choice was step-back (43.5%), while 40.1% of respondents used NiTi rotary files, mostly ProTaper and RaCe. The most widely used irrigant was normal saline (61.8%). Calcium hydroxide was the most commonly used inter appointment medicament (84.6%). The most popular obturation technique was cold lateral condensation (81.7%) with 51% using zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealers. Conclusions: The majority of Iranian GDPs who participated in the present survey do not comply with quality guidelines of endodontic treatment. PMID:25834595

  3. Preferred materials and methods employed for endodontic treatment by Iranian general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoof, Maryam; Zeini, Negar; Haghani, Jahangir; Sadr, Saeedeh; Mohammadalizadeh, Sakineh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gather information on the materials and methods employed in root canal treatment (RCT) by general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Iran. A questionnaire was distributed among 450 dentists who attended the 53(th) Iranian Dental Association congress. Participants were asked to consider demographic variables and answer the questions regarding the materials and methods commonly used in RCT. Descriptive statistics were given as absolute frequencies and valid percentages. The chi-square test was used to investigate the influence of gender and the years of professional activity for the employed materials and techniques. The response rate was 84.88%. The results showed that 61.5% of the participants did not perform pulp sensitivity tests prior to RCT. Less than half of the general dental practitioners (47.4%) said that they would trace a sinus tract before starting the treatment. Nearly 16% of practitioners preferred the rubber dam isolation method. Over 36% of the practitioners reported using formocresol for pulpotomy. The combined approach of working length (WL) radiographs and electronic apex locators was used by 35.2% of the practitioners. Most of the respondents used K-file hand instruments for canal preparation and the technique of choice was step-back (43.5%), while 40.1% of respondents used NiTi rotary files, mostly ProTaper and RaCe. The most widely used irrigant was normal saline (61.8%). Calcium hydroxide was the most commonly used inter appointment medicament (84.6%). The most popular obturation technique was cold lateral condensation (81.7%) with 51% using zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealers. The majority of Iranian GDPs who participated in the present survey do not comply with quality guidelines of endodontic treatment.

  4. Endodontic filling removal procedure: an ex vivo comparative study between two rotary techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Sampaio do Vale

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we compared the ex vivo removal capacity of two endodontic rotary techniques and determined whether there was a significant quantitative difference in residual material when comparing root thirds. Forty extracted molars were used. The palatal roots were selected, and the canals were prepared using a step-back technique and filled using a lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha points and Endofill sealer. After two weeks of storage in a 0.9% saline solution at 37ºC in an oven, the specimens were divided into 2 groups of 20, with group 1 samples subjected to Gates-Glidden drills and group 2 samples subjected to the ProTaper retreatment System. Hedstroem files and eucalyptol solvent were used in both groups to complete the removal procedure. Then, the roots thirds were radiographed and the images were submitted to the NIH ImageJ program to measure the residual filling material in mm. Each root third was related to the total area of the root canals. The data were analyzed using Student's t test. There was a statistically significant difference between the two techniques as more filling material was removed by technique 2 (ProTaper than technique 1 (Gates-Glidden drills, p < 0.05. The apical third had a greater amount of residual filling material than the cervical and middle thirds, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05. None of the selected techniques removed all filling material, and the material was most difficult to remove from the apical third. The ProTaper files removed more material than the Gates-Glidden drills

  5. Survey of Endodontic Practice amongst Iranian Dentists Participating Restorative Dentistry Congress in Shiraz, November 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanshad, Shohreh; Sahraei, Saied; Khayat, Akbar

    2008-01-01

    General dental practitioners provide the majority of treatment in Iran. The aim of this study was to gather information on the methods, materials and attitudes employed in root canal treatment by dentists participated in 7(th) Congress of Iranian Academy of Restorative Dentistry in Shiraz /2007 in order to evaluate the quality of current practice. A questionnaire for this cross-sectional study was designed with the purpose of evaluating the routine endodontic treatment performed by Iranian dentists. The questionnaire made up of 24 questions with multiple-choice answers. Covering subjects are demographic and professional activity, root-canal preparation and instrumentation, choice of irrigants and disinfectants, and choice of obturation techniques. A total of 247 questionnaires (49.4%) were returned. Ninety-one percent of the respondents were general dental practitioners. The results indicate that there are discrepancies between daily practice and academic teaching, especially regarding the use of rubber dam (only 0.9 % report using it as a standard procedure). Most of practitioners used manual instruments manipulated with a filing technique and few used rotary for canal preparation. The majority of the respondents prepared root canals 0.5-1 mm short of the radiographic apex. The first-choice root-canal irrigant was normal saline (55%), followed by sodium hypochlorite. Approximately, 68% used intracanal medications. The most popular obturation technique was cold lateral condensation (90%) with zinc-oxide eugenol as sealer. Most practitioners performed treatment in two visits for teeth with two or more canals. Eighty-four percent of the dentists used radiograph for determining the working length, and only 2.7% used Apex-locator. The survey mentions the importance of continuing dental education for practitioners to update their knowledge.

  6. Antimicrobial Activity of Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontics: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Z; Shalavi, S; Yazdizadeh, M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of endodontic therapy is to preserve the patient's natural teeth without compromising the patient's local or systemic health. Calcium hydroxide has been included in several materials and antimicrobial formulations that are used in several treatment modalities in endodontics, such as inter-appointment intracanal medicaments. The purpose of this article was to review the antimicrobial properties of calcium hydroxide in endodontics. Calcium hydroxide has a high pH (approximately 12.5...

  7. Prevalence of referral reasons and clinical symptoms for endodontic referrals

    OpenAIRE

    Seonah Kim

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence of different primary reasons for endodontic referrals and the clinical symptoms of the referred cases. Materials and Methods Clinical data of total endodontic treatment cases (1,014 teeth) including endodontic referral cases (224 teeth) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012, at Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, were investigated retrospectively. The one major reason for referral, the clinical symptoms, and the resulting treatment proced...

  8. Pharmacological Strategies to Control Post-operative Endodontic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Farhad; Zahed Mohammadi

    2007-01-01

    Patients typically associate dental care with pain. Pain has both physiological and psychological components. Endodontic post-treatment pain continues to be a significant problem facing the dental profession. For those patients presenting with preoperative pain, it has been reported that up to 80% of this population will continue to report pain after endodontic treatment. Many studies have demonstrated that endodontic treatment is efficacious in reducing post-treatment pain. Despite the fact ...

  9. Prevalence of referral reasons and clinical symptoms for endodontic referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonah

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence of different primary reasons for endodontic referrals and the clinical symptoms of the referred cases. Clinical data of total endodontic treatment cases (1,014 teeth) including endodontic referral cases (224 teeth) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012, at Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, were investigated retrospectively. The one major reason for referral, the clinical symptoms, and the resulting treatment procedures of referral cases were recorded. The percentages of clinical symptoms of the endodontic referral cases and the total endodontic treatment cases were compared by χ(2) test for each symptom. Persistent pain was the most frequent reason for endodontic referral (29.5%), followed by presence of gingival swelling and sinus tract (24.1%), and apical radiolucency (12.9%). Referrals in cases involving endodontic difficulties such as canal calcification, broken instruments, post, perforation, and resorption were less than 5.0%, respectively. The percentages of four major clinical symptoms of pain, apical radiolucency, previous endodontic treatment, and gingival swelling and sinus tract were significantly higher in the endodontic referral cases than those in the total endodontic cases (p = 0.001). Among the included referral cases, 72.8% were treated with nonsurgical endodontic treatment only. Teeth other than the referred teeth were diagnosed as the origin of the problem in 5.8% of the referrals. The high prevalence of pain, apical radiolucency, previous treatment, and gingival swelling and sinus tract in endodontic referral cases suggest that these symptoms may be what general practitioners consider to be difficult and refer to endodontists.

  10. Advances in endodontics: Potential applications in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishen, Anil; Peters, Ove A; Zehnder, Matthias; Diogenes, Anibal R; Nair, Madhu K

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary endodontics has seen an unprecedented advance in technology and materials. This article aimed to review some of the challenges and advances in the following sections: (1) endodontic imaging, (2) root canal preparation, (3) root canal disinfection, (4) root canal filling, and (4) regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs). Jointly, these advances are aimed at improving the state of the art and science of root canal treatment.

  11. Restoration of badly broken, endodontically treated posterior teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Gogna, Rupika; Jagadish, S; Shashikala, K; Keshava Prasad, BS

    2009-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the successful treatment of a badly broken tooth with pulpal disease depends not only on good endodontic therapy, but also on good prosthetic reconstruction of the tooth after the endodontic therapy is complete. Often, we come across an endodontically treated tooth with little or no clinical crown in routine clinical cases. In such cases, additional retention and support of the restoration are difficult to achieve. Two case reports are discussed here where structur...

  12. Cone beam computed tomography in Endodontics - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S; Durack, C; Abella, F; Shemesh, H; Roig, M; Lemberg, K

    2015-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) produces undistorted three-dimensional information of the maxillofacial skeleton, including the teeth and their surrounding tissues with a lower effective radiation dose than computed tomography. The aim of this paper is to: (i) review the current literature on the applications and limitations of CBCT; (ii) make recommendations for the use of CBCT in Endodontics; (iii) highlight areas of further research of CBCT in Endodontics. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Advances in endodontics: Potential applications in clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishen, Anil; Peters, Ove A.; Zehnder, Matthias; Diogenes, Anibal R.; Nair, Madhu K.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary endodontics has seen an unprecedented advance in technology and materials. This article aimed to review some of the challenges and advances in the following sections: (1) endodontic imaging, (2) root canal preparation, (3) root canal disinfection, (4) root canal filling, and (4) regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs). Jointly, these advances are aimed at improving the state of the art and science of root canal treatment. PMID:27217630

  14. Orthograde endodontic retreatment of teeth with individual cast posts: report of two cases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramić, Bojana; Stojanac, Igor; Premović, Milica; Drobac, Milan; Petrović, Ljubomir

    2012-01-01

    The failure of primary endodontic treatment is manifested by various clinical symptoms following endodontic therapy or, more frequently, by the development of chronic inflammatory process in the apex...

  15. Bactericidal effect of hydroxyl radicals generated by the sonolysis and photolysis of hydrogen peroxide for endodontic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibi, Haruna; Hayashi, Makoto; Yoshino, Fumihiko; Tamura, Muneaki; Yoshida, Ayaka; Kobayashi, Yoshimi; Shimizu, Kohei; Lee, Masaichi-Chang-Il; Imai, Kenichi; Ogiso, Bunnai

    2017-02-01

    The aim of endodontic root canal treatment is the elimination of bacteria and their products from an infected tooth root canal. To effectively disinfect a root canal, an ultrasonic irrigation system, in which hydroxyl radicals (HO·) generated artificially by sonolysis of H2O2, was developed previously for endodontic applications and was demonstrated to have bactericidal efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis. To improve this system, we examined the in vitro bactericidal effects of HO· generated from H2O2, activated by simultaneous irradiation with ultrasound for sonolysis and dental LED light for photolysis with a peak wavelength of 405 nm. Regarding the LED irradiation, two methods were used: (i) 'ideal' experimental conditions (irradiation close to the glass tube), and (ii) simulated endodontic conditions (more distant irradiation of a masked glass tube). In these conditions, HO· generation from H2O2 was detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, and bactericidal efficacy against E. faecalis was assessed by measuring the colony forming units (CFU)/mL. The results indicated that HO· generation by ESR measurements and the bactericidal effect on E. faecalis by viable count using CFU/mL were enhanced significantly in a time-dependent manner in both conditions. In a comparison of these conditions, bactericidal activity under 'ideal' experimental conditions was similar to that under simulated endodontic conditions. Moreover, the irradiation time for effective killing of E. faecalis through the sonolysis and photolysis of H2O2 under simulated endodontic conditions was shorter than that with sonolysis alone. These results demonstrate that H2O2 activated by ultrasound and LED light may be a safe and effective disinfection technique for endodontic root canal treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Post-endodontic treatment periodontal surgery: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaripour, Adriano; Willershausen, Ines; Kämmerer, Philipp; Willershausen, Brita

    2013-02-01

    Two patients were diagnosed with combined endodontic-periodontal lesions. Endodontic treatment was performed, followed by surgery. In addition, the regeneration process was supported by the application of an enamel matrix derivate alone or in combination with guided bone regeneration techniques. At recall visits after 24 months, the teeth were asymptomatic and marked bone regeneration had occurred in both patients. The successful post-endodontic treatment of combined endodontic-periodontal lesions, using periodontal surgery and as adjunct guided tissue regenerative techniques, is presented. Further, the possibility of saving teeth, even with severely apparent pathology, should be highlighted.

  17. Restoration of badly broken, endodontically treated posterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogna, Rupika; Jagadish, S; Shashikala, K; Keshava Prasad, Bs

    2009-07-01

    It is generally agreed that the successful treatment of a badly broken tooth with pulpal disease depends not only on good endodontic therapy, but also on good prosthetic reconstruction of the tooth after the endodontic therapy is complete. Often, we come across an endodontically treated tooth with little or no clinical crown in routine clinical cases. In such cases, additional retention and support of the restoration are difficult to achieve. Two case reports are discussed here where structurally compromised, endodontically treated, posterior teeth were restored using the Richmond crown in the first case, and by the use of two nonparallel cast posts in the second case.

  18. Endodontic therapy using magnification devices: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fabbro, Massimo; Taschieri, Silvio

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate if the use of magnification devices in endodontics is associated with the improvement of clinical and radiographic outcomes. The treatment success as determined by clinical and radiographic evaluation after 1-year follow-up was the main outcome. The main search terms used alone or in combination were: endodontic treatment, endodontic therapy, endodontic surgery, apicoectomy, periapical surgery, microscope, endoscope, loupes, magnification devices. The authors searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Oral Health Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles published up to September 2009 plus hand-searching of relevant journals and reference list of pertinent reviews and included studies. Prospective clinical trials comparing endodontic therapy performed with or without using magnification devices, as well as trials comparing two or more magnification devices for endodontic therapy were considered. Three prospective studies were included, all dealing with endodontic surgery. No significant difference in outcomes was found among patients treated using magnifying loupes, surgical microscope or endoscope. Similarly, no difference was found with or without using the endoscope. No comparative study on magnification devices was found regarding orthograde endodontic treatment. The type of magnification device per se can only minimally affect the treatment outcome. Well-designed randomized trials should be performed to determine the true difference in treatment outcomes when using a magnification device in both orthograde and surgical endodontic treatment, if any exist. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Regenerative endodontics: barriers and strategies for clinical translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jeremy J; Kim, Sahng G; Zhou, Jian; Ye, Ling; Cho, Shoko; Suzuki, Takahiro; Fu, Susan Y; Yang, Rujing; Zhou, Xuedong

    2012-07-01

    Regenerative endodontics has encountered substantial challenges toward clinical translation. The adoption by the American Dental Association of evoked pulp bleeding in immature permanent teeth is an important step for regenerative endodontics. However, there is no regenerative therapy for most endodontic diseases. Simple recapitulation of cell therapy and tissue engineering strategies that are under development for other organ systems has not led to clinical translation in regeneration endodontics. Recent work using novel biomaterial scaffolds and growth factors that orchestrate the homing of host endogenous cells represents a departure from traditional cell transplantation approaches and may accelerate clinical translation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation and Demonstration of Non-Hexavalent Chromium Pretreatments and Sealers for Steel Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    public release; distribution unlimited. Common Steel Pretreatments • Zinc and Manganese - phosphate with chromate rinse • Sacrificial coatings (cad...Alternative Coatings Zinc Phosphate Sealers Gardolbond 24S Spray Gardolbond 24T Immersion Abrasive Blast PPG Cheminhib 420 MIL-P-15328 (Wash Primer... zinc , zinc alloys, Al) with chromate post treatment • Chromated wash primer DOD-P-15328 • Direct to metal (waiver process) – State of art/best practice

  1. Accidental Contamination with Oil during Endodontic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia, Hugo; Díaz, Mariana; Cholico, Patricia; del Real, Monserrat; Márquez-de Alba, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    The modern surgical endodontic treatment is a safe and predictable procedure with high success rate. However, several factors can retard or impede the proper healing process. Use of a high speed handpiece during hard tissues management (osteotomy and apical resection) can potentially be one of these factors. Formation of metallic debris from the surgical diamond burs, production of necrotic local tissue due to overheating and the direct liberation of air from conventional handpiece into the working area are potential irritants able to delay the tissue healing. The aim of the present article is to report the histopathological findings of the trans-operational accidental contamination with oil in the surgical area during an endodontic surgery. PMID:27790269

  2. Management pain and anxiety in endodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sumidarti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental pain is a common symptom that most often causes patient to seek dentist. A survey conducted by the American Association of Endodontics revealed that more than half patients who come to dentist have experienced pain, which originate from the teeth or of the surrounding tissue, can causes difficulties in handling, also the anxiety of the patient. Understanding the pain experienced by patient will help dentist to determine when to make an action. Most patient being fear with pain, so they delay to getting treatment from dentist, and led to the development of further infection and inflammation. Aim of this paper is to improve the understanding of pharmacology and procedures for pain and anxiety management in endodontic treatment. So, it was importance of determining accurate diagnosis, management and drug administration.

  3. Management pain and anxiety in endodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sumidarti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Dental pain is a common symptom that most often causes patient to seek dentist. A survey conducted by the American Association of Endodontics revealed that more than half patients who come to dentist have experienced pain, which originate from the teeth or of the surrounding tissue, can causes difficulties in handling, also the anxiety of the patient. Understanding the pain experienced by patient will help dentist to determine when to make an action. Most patient being fear with pain, so they delay to get treatment from dentist, and lead to the development of further infection and inflammation. The aim of this paper is to improve the understanding of pharmacology and procedures for pain and anxiety management in endodontic treatment. So, it is important to determine accurate diagnosis, management and drug administration.

  4. "Taurodontism" an endodontic challenge: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Ramesh; Chandra, Anil; Tikku, Aseem P; Wadhwani, Kulvindar K

    2009-09-01

    Taurodontism can be defined as a change in tooth shape caused by the failure of the Hertwig's epithelial sheath diaphragm to invaginate at the proper horizontal level. An enlarged pulp chamber, apical displacement of the pulpal floor, and no constriction at the level of the cementoenamel junction are the characteristic features. Permanent molars are most commonly affected. Endodontic treatment of a taurodont tooth is challenging and requires special handling because of the proximity and apical displacement of the roots. Here, we report a case in which endodontic treatment of the maxillary right first molar with taurodontism was performed. In this case, the maxillary right second molar and maxillary left first and second molars were also taurodont teeth.

  5. Rotary endodontics in primary teeth - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sageena; Anandaraj, S; Issac, Jyoti S; John, Sheen A; Harris, Anoop

    2016-01-01

    Endodontic treatment in primary teeth can be challenging and time consuming, especially during canal preparation, which is considered one of the most important steps in root canal therapy. The conventional instrumentation technique for primary teeth remains the "gold-standard" over hand instrumentation, which makes procedures much more time consuming and adversely affects both clinicians and patients. Recently nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) rotary files have been developed for use in pediatric endodontics. Using rotary instruments for primary tooth pulpectomies is cost effective and results in fills that are consistently uniform and predictable. This article reviews the use of nickel-titanium rotary files as root canal instrumentation in primary teeth. The pulpectomy technique is described here according to different authors and the advantages and disadvantages of using rotary files are discussed.

  6. Regenerative endodontics: A state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bansal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific advances in the creation of restorative biomaterials, in vitro cell culture technology, tissue grafting, tissue engineering, molecular biology and the human genome project provide the basis for the introduction of new technologies into dentistry. Non-vital infected teeth have long been treated with root canal therapy (for mature root apex and apexification (for immature root apex, or doomed to extraction. Although successful, current treatments fail to re-establish healthy pulp tissue in these teeth. But, what if the non-vital tooth could be made vital once again? That is the hope offered by regenerative endodontics, an emerging field focused on replacing traumatized and diseased pulp with functional pulp tissue. Restoration of vitality of non-vital tooth is based on tissue engineering and revascularization procedures. The purpose of this article is to review these biological procedures and the hurdles that must be overcome to develop regenerative endodontic procedures.

  7. Regenerative endodontics: a state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Rashmi; Bansal, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Scientific advances in the creation of restorative biomaterials, in vitro cell culture technology, tissue grafting, tissue engineering, molecular biology and the human genome project provide the basis for the introduction of new technologies into dentistry. Non-vital infected teeth have long been treated with root canal therapy (for mature root apex) and apexification (for immature root apex), or doomed to extraction. Although successful, current treatments fail to re-establish healthy pulp tissue in these teeth. But, what if the non-vital tooth could be made vital once again? That is the hope offered by regenerative endodontics, an emerging field focused on replacing traumatized and diseased pulp with functional pulp tissue. Restoration of vitality of non-vital tooth is based on tissue engineering and revascularization procedures. The purpose of this article is to review these biological procedures and the hurdles that must be overcome to develop regenerative endodontic procedures.

  8. Evaluation of the true self-etching potential of a fourth generation self-adhesive methacrylate resin-based sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Sui; Kim, Young Kyung; Hiraishi, Noriko; Ling, Junqi; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2009-06-01

    The limited diffusion of self-adhesive resin cements into crown dentin raises doubts on whether self-adhesive root canal sealers are capable of creating micromechanical retention in instrumented canal walls in the absence of adjunctive use of calcium chelating irrigants. This study evaluated the true self-etching potential of MetaSEAL, a self-adhesive sealer. Mixed MetaSEAL sealer was applied to (1) fractured radicular dentin that was devoid of smear layers, (2) instrumented canal wall radicular dentin that was irrigated with water as the final rinse to preserve the smear layer, and (3) instrumented canal wall radicular dentin that was irrigated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as the final rinse to remove the smear layer. Cryofractured tooth halves without sealer application were examined by scanning electron microscopy to identify the characteristics of the bonding substrates. The other tooth-halves were filled with sealer and processed for transmission electron microscopy. MetaSEAL did not demineralize fractured radicular dentin that was devoid of smear layer and smear plugs. The self-adhesive sealer was incapable of etching beyond the 1- to 2-mum-thick smear layer retained on water-irrigated instrumented dentin to demineralize the underlying radicular dentin. Smear layer and smear plugs were absent in EDTA-irrigated radicular dentin. The EDTA also partially demineralized the intact dentin, creating a thin bed of collagen for infiltration of the self-adhesive sealer. The limited self-etching potential of MetaSEAL is a clinically legitimate concern. Incomplete smear layer removal from instrumented canal wall regions that are not reached by calcium chelating agents might jeopardize its bonding and sealing performance.

  9. Effect of sealer coating on mechanical and physical properties of permanent soft lining materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayrell, Andreza; Takahashi, Jessica; Valverde, Guilherme; Consani, Rafael; Ambrosano, Glaucia; Mesquita, Marcelo

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects of sealer coating on tensile bond strength and surface roughness of soft liners. Failure of the bond between resilient liners and denture base significantly compromise the dentures' longevity. In addition, surface roughness contributes to bacterial adherence on prosthetic materials, increasing the risk of oral infections. Specimens were manufactured from four reliners [Mucopren Soft (MS), Dentuflex (DF); Soft Comfort Denso (SC) and Ufi Gel SC (USC)], distributed into 10 groups (n = 10), according to material and coating treatment. Tensile bond strength was performed after one year of ageing, while surface roughness was evaluated at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 ageing months. Bond strength data were submitted to two-way anova and Tukey-HSD tests, while roughness data were submitted to mixed model analysis for repeated measurements (p ≤ 0.05). MS and DF without sealer coating presented the highest tensile bond strength. After coating, DF and SC presented increased tensile bond strength. No surface roughness difference was observed in the non-coated groups over time, acrylic-based reliners presented higher roughness. Among coated groups, only SC presented increased surface roughness. Acrylic-based materials presented reduced roughness at three months. Surface coating was effective for acrylic reliners in maintaining their initial properties. However, sealer coating should be re-applied every 3 months. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. A comparison of Sealing Ability of Four Sealer Cements in Apically Perforated Root Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Main K Iqbal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical seal obtained with four root canal sealers in conjunction with lateral condensation technique in apically perforated root canals. A total of 38 single rooted teeth stored in saline were utilized. The teeth were instrumented to their anatomical apices to a size #45 MAF using the step-back technique. An apical stop was developed 1 mm short of the working length with the help of a size #50 K-file. Based upon the mesio-distal and bucco-lingual widths of the apical foramen the teeth were stratified and randomly divided into four groups of 9 teeth each. Each of the four groups was obturated with either Sealapex, Ketac-Endo, AH26, or Tubli-Seal in conjunction with lateral condensation technique. The remaining two roots were used as controls: positive with gutta-percha and no sealer and negative with the apex sealed with nail varnish. The root apices were immersed in 1% methylene blue for 7 days and then sectioned longitudinally. Dye penetration was measured using a travelling microscope. The best seal was obtained using Sealapex cement, which differed significantly from Ketac-Endo, AH26, and Tubli-Seal. There was significant difference between the latter. It is recommended that Sealapex should be the sealer cement of choice, in conjunction with lateral condensation technique, when obturating apically perforated root canals.

  11. Natural Therapeutic Options in Endodontics - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Anand, Suresh; Abarajithan, Mohan; Sheriff, Sultan O.; Jacob, Pulikkotil S.; Sonia, Nath

    2016-01-01

    Complete eradication of microbial biofilms and elimination of the smear layer are the key factors during endodontic treatment. Various chemical irrigants have been proposed in the literature for the same. The major setback with these chemical irrigants is that they are not bio-friendly to the dental and peri-radicular tissues. In the recent years, research to use natural products for root canal disinfection has gained importance. The aim of this article is to compile various herbal products t...

  12. The flexural properties of endodontic post materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewardson, Dominic A; Shortall, Adrian C; Marquis, Peter M; Lumley, Philip J

    2010-08-01

    To measure the flexural strengths and moduli of endodontic post materials and to assess the effect on the calculated flexural properties of varying the diameter/length (D/L) ratio of three-point bend test samples. Three-point bend testing of samples of 2mm diameter metal and fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) rods was carried out and the mechanical properties calculated at support widths of 16 mm, 32 mm and 64 mm. Weibull analysis was performed on the strength data. The flexural strengths of all the FRC post materials exceeded the yield strengths of the gold and stainless steel samples; the flexural strengths of two FRC materials were comparable with the yield strength of titanium. Stainless steel recorded the highest flexural modulus while the titanium and the two carbon fiber materials exhibited similar values just exceeding that of gold. The remaining glass fiber materials were of lower modulus within the range of 41-57 GPa. Weibull modulus values for the FRC materials ranged from 16.77 to 30.09. Decreasing the L/D ratio produced a marked decrease in flexural modulus for all materials. The flexural strengths of FRC endodontic post materials as new generally exceed the yield strengths of metals from which endodontic posts are made. The high Weibull modulus values suggest good clinical reliability of FRC posts. The flexural modulus values of the tested posts were from 2-6 times (FRC) to 4-10 times (metal) that of dentin. Valid measurement of flexural properties of endodontic post materials requires that test samples have appropriate L/D ratios. Copyright 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recent considerations in regenerative endodontic treatment approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Aksel

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Although the regenerative treatment approaches have good clinical outcomes in the majority of case reports, the outcomes are unpredictable. Since the current clinical protocols for regenerative endodontics do not fully fulfill the triad of tissue engineering ((growth factors, scaffold and stem cells, further translational studies are required to achieve more pulp- and dentin-like tissue in the root canal system to achieve pulp regeneration.

  14. Restoration of the endodontically treated posterior tooth

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Polesel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To analyse the key factors of the restoration in the posterior endodontically treated teeth, through a literature review and clinical cases presentation. To focus on the clinical advantages of the adhesive indirect restorations, describing the basic principles for long-term success. Materials and methods: The biomechanical changes due to the root canal therapy and the degree of healthy dental tissue lost because of pathology and iatrogenic factors are the critical points leadin...

  15. [The application of laser in endodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, W X; Liu, N N; Wang, X L; He, X Y

    2016-08-01

    Since laser was introduced in the field of medicine in 1970's, its application range has continuously expanded. The application of laser in endodontics also increased due to its safety and effectiveness in dental treatments. The majority of the laser application researches in dentistry focused on dentin hypersensitivity, removal of carious tissues, tooth preparations, pulp capping or pulpotomy, and root canal treatment. In this article, we reviewed literature on the effects of laser in the treatments of dental and pulp diseases.

  16. Fracture strength of bovine incisors after intra-radicular treatment with MTA in an experimental immature tooth model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoluzzi, E A; Souza, E M; Reis, J M S N; Esberard, R M; Tanomaru-Filho, M

    2007-09-01

    To evaluate, using an experimental immature tooth model, the fracture resistance of bovine incisors submitted to different reinforcement treatments with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). An immature tooth model was created by sectioning the coronal and apical portions of 40 bovine incisors 8 mm above and 12 mm below the cementoenamel junction. The root canals were irrigated with 1.0% sodium hypochlorite. They were enlarged both coronally and apically using number 703 carbide burs (ISO: 500-104-168-007-021) and their internal diameter was standardized to 2.1 mm. The specimens were assigned to four groups (n = 10): GI-control (without filling); GII-apical MTA plug + filling with gutta-percha and endodontic sealer; GIII-filling with MTA; GIV-apical MTA plug + filling with MTA + metallic post (Reforpost I). A polyether impression material was used to simulate the periodontal ligament. The specimens were submitted to a compressive load at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm min(-1) in a servo-hydraulic universal testing machine (MTS 810) applied at 45 degrees to the long axis of the tooth until failure. Data were submitted to statistical analysis by the Kruskal-Wallis test at 5% significance level. GIV presented the highest fracture resistance (32.7N) and differed significantly from the other groups (P 0.05). GIII had a significantly higher fracture resistance than GI (P < 0.05). The use of MTA + metallic post as an intra-radicular reinforcement treatment increased the resistance to fracture of weakened bovine teeth in an experimental immature tooth model.

  17. Activation of Alkaline Irrigation Fluids in Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Laurence J; George, Roy

    2017-10-23

    In conventional endodontic treatment, alkaline solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) are used in combination to disinfect the root canal system and to eliminate debris and smear layers. An important concept that has emerged over recent years is the use of active physical methods for agitating these fluids to improve their penetration within areas that are not reached by endodontic instruments and to accelerate the chemical actions of these alkaline fluids against planktonic microorganisms, biofilms, soft tissue remnants and smear layers. Ultrasonic agitation and more recently pulsed lasers have emerged as two promising methods for activating endodontic irrigation fluids. Ultrasonic agitation with piezoelectric devices employs a moving tip, while laser agitation uses a stationary tip. Both methods cause cavitation, followed by implosions and shear forces which assist with debridement. Fluid streaming further enhances the activity of the fluids. While agitation enhances performance of irrigants, extrusion of fluids from the root canal during activation is a hazard that must be controlled.

  18. Activation of Alkaline Irrigation Fluids in Endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J. Walsh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In conventional endodontic treatment, alkaline solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA are used in combination to disinfect the root canal system and to eliminate debris and smear layers. An important concept that has emerged over recent years is the use of active physical methods for agitating these fluids to improve their penetration within areas that are not reached by endodontic instruments and to accelerate the chemical actions of these alkaline fluids against planktonic microorganisms, biofilms, soft tissue remnants and smear layers. Ultrasonic agitation and more recently pulsed lasers have emerged as two promising methods for activating endodontic irrigation fluids. Ultrasonic agitation with piezoelectric devices employs a moving tip, while laser agitation uses a stationary tip. Both methods cause cavitation, followed by implosions and shear forces which assist with debridement. Fluid streaming further enhances the activity of the fluids. While agitation enhances performance of irrigants, extrusion of fluids from the root canal during activation is a hazard that must be controlled.

  19. The smear layer in endodontics - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violich, D R; Chandler, N P

    2010-01-01

    Root canal instrumentation produces a layer of organic and inorganic material called the smear layer that may also contain bacteria and their by-products. It can prevent the penetration of intracanal medicaments into dentinal tubules and influence the adaptation of filling materials to canal walls. This article provides an overview of the smear layer, focusing on its relevance to endodontics. The PubMed database was used initially; the reference list for smear layer featured 1277 articles, and for both smear layer dentine and smear layer root canal revealed 1455 publications. Smear layer endodontics disclosed 408 papers. A forward search was undertaken on selected articles and using some author names. Potentially relevant material was also sought in contemporary endodontic texts, whilst older books revealed historic information and primary research not found electronically, such that this paper does not represent a 'classical' review. Data obtained suggests that smear layer removal should enhance canal disinfection. Current methods of smear removal include chemical, ultrasonic and laser techniques - none of which are totally effective throughout the length of all canals or are universally accepted. If smear is to be removed, the method of choice seems to be the alternate use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and sodium hypochlorite solutions. Conflict remains regarding the removal of the smear layer before filling root canals, with investigations required to determine the role of the smear layer in the outcomes of root canal treatment.

  20. Higher powered magnification improved endodontic surgery outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, David

    2012-01-01

    Medline, Embase and PubMed databases were searched together with hand-searches of a range of journals (Journal of Endodontics, International Endodontic Journal, Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology and Endodontics, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery). Clinical studies in several languages (English, French, German, Italian and Spanish) with a minimum follow-up of six months evaluated using clinical and radiographic examination included. Assessment and data abstraction were carried out independently. Weighted pooled success rates and relative risk assessment between TRS and EMS were calculated and a meta-analysis was carried out using a random effects model. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Weighted pooled success rates calculated from extracted raw data showed an 88% positive outcome for CRS (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8455-0.9164) and 94% for EMS (95% CI, 0.8889-0.9816). This difference was statistically significant (P magnification rendered by the dental operating microscope or the endoscope.

  1. Reconstruction of endodontically treated teeth: intraradicular retainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Bonatelli Bispo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways of restoring endodontically treated teeth. The quantity and quality of the dental remainder after endodontic treatment is questionable in terms of clinical longevity, not because of the coronal opening and therapy in themselves, but because of the destruction inherent to teeth affected by fractures and invasive carious processes. There are many commercial brands of posts and marketing artifices with the goal of maximizing resistance to masticatory forces. However, the major complexity found with regard to the definitive restoration is the doubt whether to insert a prefabricated post, cast metal or porcelain core as filling core. However, nothing is feasible if the parameters said to be safe were not used and the minimum mechanical requirements were not demanded. Growing commercial demand leads to unrestrained confusion in professionals that end up forgetting about or ignoring the minimum criteria demandable for a favorable prognosis. Compliance with the biomechanical bases is the most important parameter for increasing the quality of the intraradicular retainer. The aim of this study is to present basic techniques for more reliable restorations, maximizing the quality of the dental remainder when making extensive restorations that use intraradicular retainers in endodontically treated teeth.

  2. An animal model to study regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabinejad, Mahmoud; Corr, Robert; Buhrley, Matthew; Wright, Kenneth; Shabahang, Shahrokh

    2011-02-01

    A growing body of evidence is demonstrating the possibility for regeneration of tissues within the pulp space and continued root development in teeth with necrotic pulps and open apices. There are areas of research related to regenerative endodontics that need to be investigated in an animal model. The purpose of this study was to investigate ferret cuspid teeth as a model to investigate factors involved in regenerative endodontics. Six young male ferrets between the ages of 36-133 days were used in this investigation. Each animal was anesthetized and perfused with 10% buffered formalin. Block sections including the mandibular and maxillary cuspid teeth and their surrounding periapical tissues were obtained, radiographed, decalcified, sectioned, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin to determine various stages of apical closure in these teeth. The permanent mandibular and maxillary cuspid teeth with open apices erupted approximately 50 days after birth. Initial signs of closure of the apical foramen in these teeth were observed between 90-110 days. Complete apical closure was observed in the cuspid teeth when the animals were 133 days old. Based on the experiment, ferret cuspid teeth can be used to investigate various factors involved in regenerative endodontics that cannot be tested in human subjects. The most appropriate time to conduct the experiments would be when the ferrets are between the ages of 50 and 90 days. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Influence of irrigation sequence on the adhesion of root canal sealers to dentin: a fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and push-out bond strength analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelakantan, P.; Sharma, S.; Shemesh, H.; Wesselink, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is a lack of evidence on the chemical interaction between sealers and dentin. The influence of irrigation on the chemical interaction between root canal sealers and dentin was analyzed by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) and measurement of dislocation

  4. Effect of a two-step placement procedure on the dislocation resistance of a methacrylate resin-based root canal sealer: a proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moinzadeh, A.T.; Mirmohammadi, H.; Veenema, T.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Wesselink, P.R.; Wu, M.K.; Shemesh, H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the placement of a methacrylate root canal sealer or a conventional epoxy root canal sealer in two steps increases their dislocation resistance when compared to a one-step placement procedure. Materials and Methods: Eighty single-rooted teeth were randomly allocated

  5. Influence of root canal sealer on the radiographic appearance of filling voids in maxillary single-rooted teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Bodanezi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study compared the influence of three epoxy resin-based sealers with distinct radiopacities on the observers' ability to detect root canal filling voids during radiographic analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The root canals of 48 extracted maxillary canines were prepared and divided into three groups. Each group was laterally condensed with one sealer (AH Plus®, Acroseal® or a non-radiopaque sealer, and a longitudinal void was simulated in half of the specimens from each group (n=8. Buccolingual radiographs were obtained and randomly interpreted for voids by a radiologist and an endodontist in a blinded fashion. Teeth were cut and inspected under a microscope to confirm the position of void. Differences in sensitivity and specificity between groups and examiners were compared using the Fisher's Exact and McNemar tests, respectively (α=0.05. RESULTS: Significantly lower sensitivity levels (p<0.05 were observed in the coronal portion of fillings performed with both radiopaque sealers. Specificity values for Acroseal® were significantly higher (p<0.05 in the coronal and apical portions of fillings. CONCLUSIONS: The type of root canal sealer can affect the observers' ability to detect root canal filling voids during radiographic analysis of upper single-rooted teeth.

  6. Influence of root canal sealer on the radiographic appearance of filling voids in maxillary single-rooted teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodanezi, Augusto; Munhoz, Etiene Andrade; Capelozza, Ana Lúcia Álvares; Bernardineli, Norberti; Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes de; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the influence of three epoxy resin-based sealers with distinct radiopacities on the observers' ability to detect root canal filling voids during radiographic analysis. The root canals of 48 extracted maxillary canines were prepared and divided into three groups. Each group was laterally condensed with one sealer (AH Plus®, Acroseal® or a non-radiopaque sealer), and a longitudinal void was simulated in half of the specimens from each group (n=8). Buccolingual radiographs were obtained and randomly interpreted for voids by a radiologist and an endodontist in a blinded fashion. Teeth were cut and inspected under a microscope to confirm the position of void. Differences in sensitivity and specificity between groups and examiners were compared using the Fisher's Exact and McNemar tests, respectively (α=0.05). Significantly lower sensitivity levels (p<0.05) were observed in the coronal portion of fillings performed with both radiopaque sealers. Specificity values for Acroseal® were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the coronal and apical portions of fillings. The type of root canal sealer can affect the observers' ability to detect root canal filling voids during radiographic analysis of upper single-rooted teeth.

  7. Bond strength of Epiphany™ Sealer combined with different adhesive systems photo-activated with LED and QTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minto, A. M. P.; Bandéca, M. C.; Borges, A. H.; Nadalin, M. R.; Thomé, L. H. C.

    2009-08-01

    The Epiphany™ Sealer is a new dual-curing resin-based sealer and has been introduced as an alternative to gutta-percha and traditional root canal sealers. The canal filling is claimed to create a seal with the dentinal tubules within the root canal system producing a ‘monoblock’ effect between the sealer and dentinal tubules. Therefore, considering the possibility to incorporate the others adhesive systems, it is important to study the bond strength of the resulting cement. Forty-eight root mandibular canines were sectioned 8-mm below CEJ. The dentine discs were prepared using a tapered diamond bur and irrigated with 1% NaOCl and 17% EDTA. Previous the application Epiphany™ Sealer, the Epiphany™ Primer, AdheSE, and One Up Bond F were applied to the root canal walls. The LED and QTH (Quartz Tungsten Halogen) were used to photo-activation during 45 s with power density of 400 and 720 mW/cm2, respectively. The specimens were performed on a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min until bond failure occurred. The force was recorded and the debonding values were used to calculate Push-out bond strength. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post-hoc tests showed significant statistical differences ( P type of light curing unit used including the power density, the polymerization characteristics of these resin-based filling materials, depending on the primer/adhesive used.

  8. A Comparative Chemical Study of Calcium Silicate-Containing and Epoxy Resin-Based Root Canal Sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Reszka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present study assessed the chemical elements in two novel calcium silicate-containing root canal sealers, BioRoot RCS and Well-Root ST, compared to a calcium silicate-containing root canal sealer that has been on the market for several years, MTA Fillapex, and epoxy resin-based sealer AHPlus. Material and Methods. The sealers were mixed and manipulated according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Twelve cylindrical molds (inner diameter 4 mm; height 3 mm were placed on a glass petri dish and packed with the materials. The dish was transferred to an incubator. After 72 h the molds were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Results. BioRoot RCS and Well-Root ST had high peaks of calcium, zirconium, oxygen, carbon, silicon, and chlorine. Well-Root ST also had sodium, magnesium, aluminum, and titanium peaks. MTA Fillapex and AHPlus had carbon, oxygen, calcium, titanium, and bismuth peaks. A silicon peak was also observed for MTA Fillapex, and zirconium and tungsten peaks for AHPlus. Conclusion. BioRoot RSC had the highest degree of purity. The clinical implication of metals contained in the other sealers needs to be investigated.

  9. A Comparative Chemical Study of Calcium Silicate-Containing and Epoxy Resin-Based Root Canal Sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reszka, Przemysław; Nowicka, Alicja; Lipski, Mariusz; Dura, Włodzimierz; Droździk, Agnieszka; Woźniak, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The present study assessed the chemical elements in two novel calcium silicate-containing root canal sealers, BioRoot RCS and Well-Root ST, compared to a calcium silicate-containing root canal sealer that has been on the market for several years, MTA Fillapex, and epoxy resin-based sealer AHPlus. Material and Methods. The sealers were mixed and manipulated according to the manufacturers' instructions. Twelve cylindrical molds (inner diameter 4 mm; height 3 mm) were placed on a glass petri dish and packed with the materials. The dish was transferred to an incubator. After 72 h the molds were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Results. BioRoot RCS and Well-Root ST had high peaks of calcium, zirconium, oxygen, carbon, silicon, and chlorine. Well-Root ST also had sodium, magnesium, aluminum, and titanium peaks. MTA Fillapex and AHPlus had carbon, oxygen, calcium, titanium, and bismuth peaks. A silicon peak was also observed for MTA Fillapex, and zirconium and tungsten peaks for AHPlus. Conclusion. BioRoot RSC had the highest degree of purity. The clinical implication of metals contained in the other sealers needs to be investigated.

  10. Risk assessment of transmission of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in endodontic practice in absence of adequate prion inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Bourvis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Experimental results evidenced the infectious potential of the dental pulp of animals infected with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE. This route of iatrogenic transmission of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD may exist in humans via reused endodontic instruments if inadequate prion decontamination procedures are used. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assess this risk, 10 critical parameters in the transmission process were identified, starting with contamination of an endodontic file during treatment of an infectious sCJD patient and ending with possible infection of a subsequent susceptible patient. It was assumed that a dose-risk response existed, with no-risk below threshold values. Plausible ranges of those parameters were obtained through literature search and expert opinions, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted. Without effective prion-deactivation procedures, the risk of being infected during endodontic treatment ranged between 3.4 and 13 per million procedures. The probability that more than one case was infected secondary to endodontic treatment of an infected sCJD patient ranged from 47% to 77% depending on the assumed quantity of infective material necessary for disease transmission. If current official recommendations on endodontic instrument decontamination were strictly followed, the risk of secondary infection would become quasi-null. CONCLUSION: The risk of sCJD transmission through endodontic procedure compares with other health care risks of current concern such as death after liver biopsy or during general anaesthesia. These results show that single instrument use or adequate prion-decontamination procedures like those recently implemented in dental practice must be rigorously enforced.

  11. Is endodontic treatment performed under general anaesthesia technically acceptable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaleh, Iyad; Cousson, Pierre-Yves; Nicolas, Emmanuel; Hennequin, Martine

    2012-12-01

    Undertaking endodontic treatment under general anaesthesia (GA) is often described as difficult and hazardous, but no study reports on safe and efficacious conditions for endodontic treatment under GA. This study aims to evaluate whether compromises made for the endodontic treatment of permanent teeth under GA are acceptable. It describes the quality of endodontic treatment undertaken in two series of consecutive patients treated either under GA or local anaesthesia (LA). Post-operative data sheets and periapical radiographs were collected for 255 permanent teeth treated under GA during a 4-year period (GA group, 125 patients with special needs) and for 246 permanent teeth treated under local anaesthesia over 7 months (LA group, 180 healthy patients). The radiographic criteria for quality of endodontic treatment (RCQET) were considered satisfactory when (1) the root filling was within 2 mm of the apex; (2) the filling displayed no voids or defects; and (3) all the visible canals had been obturated. The type of tooth, pulpal status and periapical status were considered independent variables for RCQET. The proportion of satisfactory RCQET reached 63% in both groups and differed by type of tooth, being significantly lower for molars than for other teeth. From a technical point of view, compromises made for the endodontic treatment of permanent teeth under GA are acceptable. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the long-term success of endodontic treatment performed under GA. This study supports the feasibility of endodontic treatment for patients treated under GA.

  12. The Force Required to Fracture Endodontically Roots Restored with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-12

    Mar 12, 2016 ... treated roots compared to the control groups, however Biodentine did. KEYWORDS: Biodentine, bulk‑fill, endodontically treated tooth, intra‑orifice barriers, mineral trioxide aggregate, short fiber‑reinforced composite. The Force Required to Fracture Endodontically Roots Restored with. Various Materials as ...

  13. Frequency of endodontic treatment in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the frequency of endodontic treatment in dental patients treated in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital. Method: A survey of 470 patients undergoing endodontic treatment at the conservative clinic of the department of restorative dentistry of Lagos University Teaching Hospital was conducted to determine ...

  14. Reason for Endodontic Treatment of Permanent Teeth of Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the reasons for endodontic treatment. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study of all patients aged 17years and above of both gender attending the conservative clinic for endodontic treatment during the 18 months study period. Reasons for pulp disease leading to teeth being indicated for root ...

  15. Characterization of a new sealer MTA/HAp; Caracterizacao de um novo cimento endodontico MTA/HAp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, C.M.B.; Oliveira, S.V.; Costa, A.C.F.M. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Dantas, D.C.R.E.; Fontes, L.B.C. [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba (UEPB), PB (Brazil); Viana, K.M.S., E-mail: kalineviana@ect.ufrn.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Filling materials (cement-based calcium hydroxide, amalgam, glass ionomer and IRM) are often used as sealers. However, none of them meets the desirable characteristics of a suitable sealing material. This study aims to characterize the new sealer, MTA/HAp from the incorporation of 5% by weight of synthetic hydroxyapatite to the MTA and to investigate the influence of the addition of HAp on the characteristic structural, chemical and consistency of the MTA. For this, we used MTA Angelus ® and HAp synthesized in the laboratory. We used the ratio by mass 95%MTA/5%HAp, where the hydroxyapatite added the characteristic of the MTA osteoconduction. The tests were performed: XRD, XRF and consistency. The results showed that both the new cement had the same crystalline phases as the same chemical composition of its precursors, yet having suitable consistency (plastic mass) of a sealer as well as the pure MTA. (author)

  16. Push-out bond strength and dentinal tubule penetration of different root canal sealers used with coated core materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz Sungur, Derya; Purali, Nuhan; Coşgun, Erdal; Calt, Semra

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the push-out bond strength and dentinal tubule penetration of root canal sealers used with coated core materials and conventional gutta-percha. A total of 72 single-rooted human mandibular incisors were instrumented with NiTi rotary files with irrigation of 2.5% NaOCl. The smear layer was removed with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Specimens were assigned into four groups according to the obturation system: Group 1, EndoRez (Ultradent Product Inc.); Group 2, Activ GP (Brasseler); Group 3, SmartSeal (DFRP Ltd. Villa Farm); Group 4, AH 26 (Dentsply de Trey)/gutta-percha (GP). For push-out bond strength measurement, two horizontal slices were obtained from each specimen (n = 20). To compare dentinal tubule penetration, remaining 32 roots assigned to 4 groups as above were obturated with 0.1% Rhodamine B labeled sealers. One horizontal slice was obtained from the middle third of each specimen (n = 8) and scanned under confocal laser scanning electron microscope. Tubule penetration area, depth, and percentage were measured. Kruskall-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. EndoRez showed significantly lower push-out bond strength than the others (p strength and sealer penetration of resin-and glass ionomer-based sealers used with coated core was not superior to resin-based sealer used with conventional GP. Dentinal tubule penetration has limited effect on bond strength. The use of conventional GP with sealer seems to be sufficient in terms of push-out bond strength.

  17. An innovative approach in microscopic endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Sharma, Jyotika; Mittal, Shifali

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of the dental operating microscope was a turning point in the history of dentistry. It triggered a rapid transition from the conventional world of macro-dentistry to the precise, detailed world of micro-dentistry. However, working at these higher-power magnifications brings the clinician into the realm where even slight hand movements are disruptive. Physiologic hand tremor is a problem resulting in difficulty in mouth mirror placement. Hence, in this paper, a new instrument was designed to overcome the drawback of hand tremors during microscopic endodontics. PMID:24944459

  18. Proposal of a "Checklist" for endodontic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Flores García, Victor; Perea Pérez, Bernardo; Labajo González, María Elena; Santiago Sáez, Andrés; Cisneros Cabello, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: On the basis of the “Surgical Checklist” proposed by the WHO, we propose a new Checklist model adapted to the procedures of endodontic treatment. Study Design: The proposed document contains 21 items which are broken down into two groups: those which must be verified before beginning the treatment, and those which must be verified after completing it, but before the patient leaves the dentist’s office. Results: The Checklist is an easy-to-use tool that requires little time but pro...

  19. Coronal microleakage of four temporary restorative materials in Class II-type endodontic access preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Mi Yun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of 4 temporary materials in teeth with Class II-type endodontic access preparations by using a glucose penetration model. Materials and Methods Glucose reaction test was performed to rule out the presence of any reaction between glucose and temporary material. Class II-type endodontic access preparations were made in extracted human premolars with a single root (n = 10. Each experimental group was restored with Caviton (GC, Spacer (Vericom, IRM (Dentsply-Caulk, or Fuji II(GC. Microleakage of four materials used as temporary restorative materials was evaluated by using a glucose penetration model. Data were analyzed by the one-way analysis of variance followed by a multiple-comparison Tukey test. The interface between materials and tooth were examined under a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results There was no significant reaction between glucose and temporary materials used in this study. Microleakage was significantly lower for Caviton and Spacer than for Fuji II and IRM. SEM observation showed more intimate adaptation of tooth-restoration interfaces in Caviton and Spacer than in IRM and Fuji II. Conclusions Compared to IRM and Fuji II, Caviton and Spacer can be considered better temporary sealing materials in Class II-type endodontic access cavities.

  20. Numerical Study on the Influence of Material Characteristics on Ni-Ti Endodontic Instrument Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Lorenza; Necchi, Silvia; Taschieri, Silvio; Migliavacca, Francesco

    2009-08-01

    Ni-Ti rotary endodontic instruments ( files) are used in dentistry during the endodontic treatment to shape the root canal of the tooth while removing the pulp when infected. Up to now, the studies for evaluating their performances and drawbacks were mainly limited to experimental tests on product flexural and torsional resistance. This work exploits computational analyses for investigating the effects of materials with different mechanical properties on the behavior of rotary endodontic instruments. The aim is to understand the appropriate material choice to reduce the criticality of the treatment in particular clinical conditions. In particular, the interaction between an accurately modeled rotating file and differently shaped root canals during the clinical procedure was studied performing finite element analyses. Strains induced by the treatment on a file made of a “standard” Ni-Ti alloy (characterized by average properties of the pseudoelastic behavior), a “long” Ni-Ti alloy (characterized by wide transformation region), a “super” Ni-Ti alloy (characterized by an extended Hookian behavior without transformation region), and stainless steel were compared. The results accurately show the advantages of the use of Ni-Ti alloy with respect to stainless steel and the better performance of the “long” alloy in all the tested case.

  1. Radiological Evaluation of Penetration of the Irrigant according to Three Endodontic Irrigation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Dhaimy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This experimental study is to compare radiographs based on the penetration depth of the irrigant following three final irrigation techniques. Material and Method. A sample of sixty teeth with single roots were prepared with stainless steel K files followed by mechanized Ni-Ti files iRace® under irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Radiopaque solution was utilized to measure the penetration depth of the irrigant. Three irrigation techniques were performed during this study: (i passive irrigation, (ii manually activated irrigation, and (iii passive irrigation with an endodontic needle CANAL CLEAN®. Radiographs were performed to measure the length of irrigant penetration in each technique. Results. In comparison, passive irrigation with a conventional syringe showed infiltration of the irrigant by an average of 0.682±0.105, whereas the manually activated irrigation technique indicated an average of 0.876±0.066 infiltration. Irrigation with an endodontic syringe showed an average infiltration of 0.910±0.043. The results revealed highly significant difference between the three irrigation techniques (α=5%. Conclusion. Adding manual activation to the irrigant improved the result by 20%. This study indicates that passive irrigation with an endodontic needle has proved to be the most effective irrigation technique of the canal system.

  2. Comparison of an adaptive local thresholding method on CBCT and µCT endodontic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michetti, Jérôme; Basarab, Adrian; Diemer, Franck; Kouame, Denis

    2018-01-01

    Root canal segmentation on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images is difficult because of the noise level, resolution limitations, beam hardening and dental morphological variations. An image processing framework, based on an adaptive local threshold method, was evaluated on CBCT images acquired on extracted teeth. A comparison with high quality segmented endodontic images on micro computed tomography (µCT) images acquired from the same teeth was carried out using a dedicated registration process. Each segmented tooth was evaluated according to volume and root canal sections through the area and the Feret’s diameter. The proposed method is shown to overcome the limitations of CBCT and to provide an automated and adaptive complete endodontic segmentation. Despite a slight underestimation (‑4, 08%), the local threshold segmentation method based on edge-detection was shown to be fast and accurate. Strong correlations between CBCT and µCT segmentations were found both for the root canal area and diameter (respectively 0.98 and 0.88). Our findings suggest that combining CBCT imaging with this image processing framework may benefit experimental endodontology, teaching and could represent a first development step towards the clinical use of endodontic CBCT segmentation during pulp cavity treatment.

  3. Association of endodontic signs and symptoms with root canal pathogens: A clinical comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    R V Vineet; Moksha Nayak; Subbannayya Kotigadde

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of the common root canal pathogens namely; Streptococcus mitis and Enterococcus faecalis with specific endodontic signs and symptoms. Materials and Methods: Sixty subjects scheduled for endodontic treatment were divided into two groups comprising of 30 subjects with primary endodontic infections and 30 subjects with failed endodontic treatment. The endodontic signs and symptoms of the subjects were assessed using clinical an...

  4. Comparison of Fracture Strength of Endodontically Treated Teeth Restored with Two Different Cast Metallic Post Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhan Haghighi Z

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Endodontically treated teeth are more prone to fracture. The post and core are often used to provide the necessary retention for prosthetic rehabilitation. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to: 1 compare the fracture strength of endodontically treated teeth restored either with Nickel-Chromium (Ni- Cr post or Non- Precious Gold-color alloy (NPG post compared to the control group and 2 evaluate the fracture site in each group. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, endodontic treatment was carried out for 45 extracted maxillary premolars. The specimens were divided into 3 groups (n=15. Group1: restored with NPG post and core, group2: restored with Ni-Cr post and core, and group 3, no post and core were used after endodontic treatment and the access cavity was filled with amalgam. Failure force was recorded in Newton when root or remaining coronal structure fracture was occurred. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Student t-test and Tukey HSD test to compare the three groups. Results: There was a statistically significant difference among all groups (P<0.05. Fracture resistance of the teeth restored by NPG posts was significantly higher than those restored by Ni- Cr (P<0.001. Results showed that the fracture mainly occurred in the root of the teeth restored with Ni- Cr and NPG post while fractures occurred in the core portion of the teeth restored with amalgam. Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicated that the fracture strength of the teeth without using cast post and core was significantly lower than the teeth restored with cast post and core. Also the teeth restored by NPG post had a significantly higher fracture resistance than Ni-Cr posts.

  5. Periodontal and endodontic pathology delays extraction socket healing in a canine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present exploratory study was to evaluate extraction socket healing at sites with a history of periodontal and endodontic pathology. Methods The mandibular 4th premolar teeth in 5 adult beagle dogs served as experimental units. Periodontal and endodontic lesions were induced in 1 premolar site in each animal using wire ligatures and pulpal exposure over 3 months (diseased sites). The contralateral premolar sites served as healthy controls. The mandibular 4th premolar teeth were then extracted with minimal trauma, followed by careful wound debridement. The animals were sacrificed at days 1, 7, 30, 60, and 90 post-extraction for analysis, and the healing patterns at the healthy and diseased extraction sites were compared using radiography, scanning electron microscopy, histology, and histometry. Results During the first 7 days of healing, a significant presence of inflammatory granulation tissue was noted at the diseased sites (day 1), along with a slightly accelerated rate of fibrin clot resolution on day 7. On day 30, the diseased extraction sites showed a greater percentage of persistent fibrous connective tissue, and an absence of bone marrow formation. In contrast, healthy sites showed initial signs of bone marrow formation on day 30, and subsequently a significantly greater proportion of mature bone marrow formation on both days 60 and 90. Radiographs exhibited sclerotic changes adjoining apical endodontic lesions, with scanning electron microscopy showing collapsed Volkmann canals protruding from these regions in the diseased sites. Furthermore, periodontal ligament fibers exhibited a parallel orientation to the alveolar walls of the diseased sites, in contrast to a perpendicular arrangement in the healthy sites. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, it appears that a history of periodontal and endodontic pathology may critically affect bone formation and maturation, leading to delayed and compromised extraction socket

  6. Periodontal and endodontic pathology delays extraction socket healing in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Koo, Ki-Tae; Capetillo, Joseph; Kim, Jung-Ju; Yoo, Jung-Min; Ben Amara, Heithem; Park, Jung-Chul; Schwarz, Frank; Wikesjö, Ulf M E

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present exploratory study was to evaluate extraction socket healing at sites with a history of periodontal and endodontic pathology. The mandibular 4th premolar teeth in 5 adult beagle dogs served as experimental units. Periodontal and endodontic lesions were induced in 1 premolar site in each animal using wire ligatures and pulpal exposure over 3 months (diseased sites). The contralateral premolar sites served as healthy controls. The mandibular 4th premolar teeth were then extracted with minimal trauma, followed by careful wound debridement. The animals were sacrificed at days 1, 7, 30, 60, and 90 post-extraction for analysis, and the healing patterns at the healthy and diseased extraction sites were compared using radiography, scanning electron microscopy, histology, and histometry. During the first 7 days of healing, a significant presence of inflammatory granulation tissue was noted at the diseased sites (day 1), along with a slightly accelerated rate of fibrin clot resolution on day 7. On day 30, the diseased extraction sites showed a greater percentage of persistent fibrous connective tissue, and an absence of bone marrow formation. In contrast, healthy sites showed initial signs of bone marrow formation on day 30, and subsequently a significantly greater proportion of mature bone marrow formation on both days 60 and 90. Radiographs exhibited sclerotic changes adjoining apical endodontic lesions, with scanning electron microscopy showing collapsed Volkmann canals protruding from these regions in the diseased sites. Furthermore, periodontal ligament fibers exhibited a parallel orientation to the alveolar walls of the diseased sites, in contrast to a perpendicular arrangement in the healthy sites. Within the limitations of this study, it appears that a history of periodontal and endodontic pathology may critically affect bone formation and maturation, leading to delayed and compromised extraction socket healing.

  7. Finite Element Analysis of a Copper Single Crystal Shape Memory Alloy-Based Endodontic Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Marin; Thiebaud, Frédéric; Bel Haj Khalifa, Saifeddine; Engels-Deutsch, Marc; Ben Zineb, Tarak

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present paper is the development of endodontic Cu-based single crystal Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) instruments in order to eliminate the antimicrobial and mechanical deficiencies observed with the conventional Nickel-Titane (NiTi) SMA files. A thermomechanical constitutive law, already developed and implemented in a finite element code by our research group, is adopted for the simulation of the single crystal SMA behavior. The corresponding material parameters were identified starting from experimental results for a tensile test at room temperature. A computer-aided design geometry has been achieved and considered for a finite element structural analysis of the endodontic Cu-based single crystal SMA files. They are meshed with tetrahedral continuum elements to improve the computation time and the accuracy of results. The geometric parameters tested in this study are the length of the active blade, the rod length, the pitch, the taper, the tip diameter, and the rod diameter. For each set of adopted parameters, a finite element model is built and tested in a combined bending-torsion loading in accordance with ISO 3630-1 norm. The numerical analysis based on finite element procedure allowed purposing an optimal geometry suitable for Cu-based single crystal SMA endodontic files. The same analysis was carried out for the classical NiTi SMA files and a comparison was made between the two kinds of files. It showed that Cu-based single crystal SMA files are less stiff than the NiTi files. The Cu-based endodontic files could be used to improve the root canal treatments. However, the finite element analysis brought out the need for further investigation based on experiments.

  8. The effect of irrigation solutions on the apical sealing ability in different root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Bodrumlu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of three root canal irrigation solutions on the apical sealing ability of three root canal obturation materials: gutta-percha/AH plus or MM-seal and Resilon/Epiphany SE. A total of 100 teeth with single straight root canals were randomly divided into three equal groups of 30 samples each, with the other 10 teeth (5 positive and 5 negative used as controls. Each irrigation group was divided into three groups according to the use of three different root canal obturation materials (n = 10: Gutta-percha with AH plus or MM-seal, Resilon with Epiphany SE. The crowns were removed at the cementoenamel junction with a diamond disc under water coolant. The root canals were prepared using step-back technique and irrigation with either sodium hypochlorite (2.5%, chlorhexidine (2%, or MTAD solutions. The roots were obturated with lateral condensation technique using one of the obturation materials. The root surfaces was coated with two layer nail varnish (except apex, placed in 2% methylene blue dye solution, and centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 5 minutes. Irrigation solutions affected the apical sealing ability of all the sealers. The chlorhexidine irrigation solution exhibited higher apical leakage values than did MTAD and NaOCl in all canal sealers, although the MTAD irrigation solution groups showed the least leakage values. The apical sealing ability of AH plus, Epiphany SE and MM-seal root canal sealers decreased when the chlorhexidine was used as an irrigation solution.

  9. Main Non-Clinical Factors Influencing Endodontic Referral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Joseph L

    2016-08-01

    Specialisation in endodontics allows for endodontic referrals by general dental practitioner (GDPs) and the study of factors influencing referral. These centre on a triad consisting of the referral process, non-clinical and clinical reasons for referral. Many non-clinical factors have been identified which may influence the referral process to the endodontist. A systematic review study was undertaken into the main non-clinical factors influencing endodontic referral by general dental practitioners to endodontists. Such awareness and appreciation of these factors benefits the commercial aspect of the referral practice, increases access by reducing barriers to care, and ultimately improves patient care. A literature search yielded three papers that met the eligibility criteria. All studies included were cross sectional survey studies completed by GDPs. The main non-clinical factors seen from the studies include: Availability. Personality, relationships and communication. Availability presented as a common thread throughout all the studies. In conclusion, endodontic referral is multifactorial and influenced by several factors, that are not related to the nature of the endodontic disease, and this is a dynamic process. Due to the lack of high level studies, and limitations of the available studies, further research is suggested into the relevant area of non-clinical endodontic factors for endodontic referral and thus allowing for further analysis.

  10. Radiographic study of the problems and failures of endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Iftikhar

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine radiographically the different reasons and problems of endodontic treatment failure. The periapical radiographs of 100 patients with one hundred teeth (130 root canals) were examined to identify the problems and failures of endodontic treatment. The various reasons of failure that is under filling, poor filling, over filling and presence of procedural errors were recorded for each root filled canal. Chi square test was used to determine statistical significance between different parameters. Under fillings were found in 46.9% of the root canals. The percentage of poor fillings and over fillings were 28.5% and 13% respectively. Separated instruments and strip perforations were present in 4% and 3% of the teeth, while the presence of furcal perforation and coronal leakage was observed in one case each (1%).Endodontic problems and failures were most commonly observed in molars compare to anterior and premolar teeth. Mesiobuccal, mesiolingual and distobuccal root canals were the most frequently canals with endodontic problems and failures. The relationship between mesiobuccal, mesiolingual and distal canals in mandibular molars and mesiobuccal, distobuccal and palatal canals in maxillary molars in terms of endodontic failures were statistically significant by chi square analysis (P≤0.05). The most common cause of endodontic treatment failure was under filling followed by poor filling and over filling and first molar was the most frequently involved tooth with endodontic problems and failures.

  11. A review of the regenerative endodontic treatment procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bin-Na; Moon, Jong-Wook; Chang, Hoon-Sang; Hwang, In-Nam; Oh, Won-Mann; Hwang, Yun-Chan

    2015-08-01

    Traditionally, apexification has been used to treat immature permanent teeth that have lost pulp vitality. This technique promotes the formation of an apical barrier to close the open apex so that the filling materials can be confined to the root canal. Because tissue regeneration cannot be achieved with apexification, a new technique called regenerative endodontic treatment was presented recently to treat immature permanent teeth. Regenerative endodontic treatment is a treatment procedure designed to replace damaged pulp tissue with viable tissue which restores the normal function of the pulp-dentin structure. After regenerative endodontic treatment, continued root development and hard tissue deposition on the dentinal wall can occur under ideal circumstances. However, it is difficult to predict the result of regenerative endodontic treatment. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to summarize multiple factors effects on the result of regenerative endodontic treatment in order to achieve more predictable results. In this study, we investigated the features of regenerative endodontic treatment in comparison with those of other pulp treatment procedures and analyzed the factors that have an effect on regenerative endodontic treatment.

  12. [Colonization of Porphyromonas endodontalis in primary and secondary endodontic infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Li; Hai, Ji; Yan-Yan, He; Shenghui, Yang; Benxiang, Hou

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to assess and compare the prevalence of Porphyromonas endodontalis (P. endodontalis) in root canals associated with primary and secondary endodontic infections by using 16s rDNA PCR and real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTFQ-PCR). A total of 120 adult patients with one radiographically documented periapical lesion were included. Sixty teeth presented with primary endodontic infections and 60 with secondary endodontic infections requiring retreatment. P. endodontalis was identified by using 16s rDNA PCR techniques. The positive DNA expression of P. endodontalis in two types of infected root canals were quantitatively compared by using SYBR GREEN I RTFQ-PCR. The prevalence of P. endodontalis in the root canals with primary endodontic infections was significantly higher than that in root canals with secondary endodontic infections (P = 0.001). However, RTFQ-PCR results showed no significant difference in DNA expression quantities between the primary and secondary endodontic infections root canals (P = 0.303). P. endodontalis is more highly associated with root canals having primary endodontic infections, although P. endodontalis colonize in both root canals with primary and secondary chronic apical periodontitis.

  13. A review of the regenerative endodontic treatment procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Na Lee,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, apexification has been used to treat immature permanent teeth that have lost pulp vitality. This technique promotes the formation of an apical barrier to close the open apex so that the filling materials can be confined to the root canal. Because tissue regeneration cannot be achieved with apexification, a new technique called regenerative endodontic treatment was presented recently to treat immature permanent teeth. Regenerative endodontic treatment is a treatment procedure designed to replace damaged pulp tissue with viable tissue which restores the normal function of the pulp-dentin structure. After regenerative endodontic treatment, continued root development and hard tissue deposition on the dentinal wall can occur under ideal circumstances. However, it is difficult to predict the result of regenerative endodontic treatment. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to summarize multiple factors effects on the result of regenerative endodontic treatment in order to achieve more predictable results. In this study, we investigated the features of regenerative endodontic treatment in comparison with those of other pulp treatment procedures and analyzed the factors that have an effect on regenerative endodontic treatment.

  14. Current trends in endodontic practice: emergency treatments and technological armamentarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michelle; Winkler, Johnathon; Hartwell, Gary; Stewart, Jeffrey; Caine, Rufus

    2009-01-01

    The current clinical practice of endodontics includes the utilization of a variety of new technological advances and materials. The last comprehensive survey that compared treatment modalities used in endodontic practices was conducted in 1990. The purpose of the current survey was to determine the frequency with which these new endodontic technologies and materials are being used in endodontic practices today. An e-mail questionnaire was sent to the 636 active diplomates of the American Board of Endodontics with current e-mail addresses. Two hundred thirty-two diplomates responded for a response rate of 35%. Calcium hydroxide was found to be the most frequently used intracanal medicament for all cases diagnosed with necrotic pulps. Ibuprofen was the most frequently prescribed medication for pain, and penicillin was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic when an active infection was present. Eighty-two percent of the respondents are still incorporating hand files in some fashion during the cleansing and shaping phase of treatment. Lateral condensation and continuous wave were the most common methods used for obturation. Digital radiography was reported as being used by 72.5% of the respondents, whereas 45.3% reported using the microscope greater than 75% of the patient treatment. Ultrasonics was used by 97.8% of the respondents. It appears from the results that new endodontic technology is currently being used in the endodontic offices of those who responded to the survey.

  15. Sterilization of rotary NiTi instruments within endodontic sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, H W A; Tan, K H; Dashper, S G; Reynolds, E C; Parashos, P

    2015-08-17

    To determine whether the following can be sterilized by autoclaving - endodontic sponges, rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments within endodontic sponges, and rotary NiTi instruments with rubber stoppers. Sixty-four samples of eight different endodontic sponges (n = 512) were placed into brain heart infusion broth (BHI) for 72 h. An aliquot of this was then spread onto horse blood agar and cultured aerobically and anaerobically to test sterility at purchase. Bacterial suspensions of Enterococcus faecalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Geobacillus stearothermophilus in BHI were used to contaminate sterile sponges and rotary NiTi instruments (with and without rubber stoppers) inserted into sponges. The various samples were autoclaved and then cultured aerobically and anaerobically. Success of sterilization was measured qualitatively as no growth. The experiment was repeated with clinically used rotary NiTi instruments (n = 512). All experiments were conducted in quadruplicate. No sponges on purchase had microbial growth when anaerobically cultured but some did when aerobically cultured. All autoclaved sponges and instruments (within or without sponges, and with or without rubber stoppers) were associated with no microbial growth. All nonautoclaved positive control samples showed microbial growth. Autoclaving was effective in the sterilization of sponges and endodontic instruments. Endodontic sponges should be autoclaved before clinical use. For clinical efficiency and cost-effectiveness, rotary NiTi instruments can be sterilized in endodontic sponges without removal of rubber stoppers. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evolving Trends in Endodontic Research: An Assessment of Published Articles in 2 Leading Endodontic Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanetakis, Giorgos N; Stefopoulos, Spyridon; Loizides, Alexios L; Kakavetsos, Vasileios D; Kontakiotis, Evangelos G

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and analyze the evolving trends in endodontic research in 2 leading endodontic journals (ie, Journal of Endodontics and International Endodontic Journal) in articles published from January 2009 to December 2013. The differences in content between this period and a 10-year earlier period from January 1999 to December 2003 were also evaluated. Each journal's content was accessed through the web edition. For each article, the following parameters were recorded: number of authors, article type, number of affiliations, field of study, source of article, and geographic origin. The recorded data were analyzed using both descriptive and analytic statistics. During 2009-2013 (second period), the mean number of authors per article increased significantly compared with 1999-2003 (first period). The main volume of the literature in both periods and journals was original research articles. The number of published reviews increased significantly from the first to the second study period in contrast to case reports/clinical articles, which presented a significant decrease. "Endodontic materials" was the most prevalent thematic category in both study periods. The number of published articles related to "biology" and "chemical preparation and disinfection" increased significantly from the first to the second study period. On the contrary, the number of articles regarding "obturation and microleakage" presented a considerable decrease at the same time. The United States was the leading country in the number of publications in the first period followed by Brazil. In the second period, this rank was reversed with Brazil becoming the leading country followed by the United States. In the last 15 years, the progress of the specialty of endodontology was apparent as shown through the trends and shifts in research orientation in published articles in the 2 leading endodontic journals. The results of the present reviewing process encourage both journals

  17. Evaluation of the Doxycycline Release from AH26 Sealer-Doxycycline Combination: An ex vivo Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ashofteh Yazdi, Kazem; Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Moazeni, Esmaeil; Mirzayi Rad, Sina

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The purpose of this ex vivo study was to determine the releasing characteristics and doxycycline dentinal diffusion of AH26 sealer-doxycycline combination from apical 3mm of tooth root and apical foramen. MATERIALS AND METHODS One-hundred and two recently extracted single-rooted human teeth were decoronated and prepared with #3 and #4 Gates-Glidden drills and rotary Mtwo files. Smear layer was removed; all surfaces except for apical 3mm of each root were sealed with two coats of ...

  18. Alkaline Materials and Regenerative Endodontics: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Kahler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Periapical health is the primary goal of endodontic treatment in mature and immature teeth. In addition, the goals of treatment of immature teeth with arrested root development include root growth to length and maturation of the apex, as well as thickening of the canal wall. These goals are valid for immature teeth that have been subjected to trauma and dental caries or that are the result of developmental anomalies that expose the tooth to the risk of pulp necrosis and consequently result in the cessation of root maturation. Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs have been described as a “paradigm shift” in the treatment of immature teeth with pulp necrosis and underdeveloped roots, as there is the potential for further root maturation and return of vitality. Treatment with REPs is advocated as the treatment of choice for immature teeth with pulp necrosis. REP protocols involve the use of alkaline biomaterials, primarily sodium hypochlorite, calcium hydroxide, mineral trioxide aggregates and Biodentine, and are the essential components of a successful treatment regimen.

  19. Optical coherence tomography for endodontic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soest, G.; Shemesh, H.; Wu, M.-K.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.; Wesselink, P. R.

    2008-02-01

    In root canal therapy, complications frequently arise as a result of root fracture or imperfect cleaning of fins and invaginations. To date, there is no imaging method for nondestructive in vivo evaluation of the condition of the root canal, during or after treatment. There is a clinical need for a technique to detect defects before they give rise to complications. In this study we evaluate the ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to image root canal walls, and its capacity to identify complicating factors in root canal treatment. While the potential of OCT to identify caries has been explored before, endodontic imaging has not been reported. We imaged extracted lower front teeth after endodontic preparation and correlated these images to histological sections. A 3D OCT pullback scan was made with an endoscopic rotating optical fiber probe inside the root canal. All oval canals, uncleaned fins, risk zones, and one perforation that were detected by histology were also imaged by OCT. As an example of an area where OCT has clinical potential, we present a study of vertical root fracture identification with OCT.

  20. Alkaline Materials and Regenerative Endodontics: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Bill; Chugal, Nadia; Lin, Louis M

    2017-12-05

    Periapical health is the primary goal of endodontic treatment in mature and immature teeth. In addition, the goals of treatment of immature teeth with arrested root development include root growth to length and maturation of the apex, as well as thickening of the canal wall. These goals are valid for immature teeth that have been subjected to trauma and dental caries or that are the result of developmental anomalies that expose the tooth to the risk of pulp necrosis and consequently result in the cessation of root maturation. Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) have been described as a "paradigm shift" in the treatment of immature teeth with pulp necrosis and underdeveloped roots, as there is the potential for further root maturation and return of vitality. Treatment with REPs is advocated as the treatment of choice for immature teeth with pulp necrosis. REP protocols involve the use of alkaline biomaterials, primarily sodium hypochlorite, calcium hydroxide, mineral trioxide aggregates and Biodentine, and are the essential components of a successful treatment regimen.

  1. Scaffolds in regenerative endodontics: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathani, Kinjal M.; Raghavendra, Srinidhi Surya

    2016-01-01

    Root canal therapy has enabled us to save numerous teeth over the years. The most desired outcome of endodontic treatment would be when diseased or nonvital pulp is replaced with healthy pulp tissue that would revitalize the teeth through regenerative endodontics. ‘A search was conducted using the Pubmed and MEDLINE databases for articles with the criteria ‘Platelet rich plasma’, ‘Platelet rich fibrin’, ‘Stem cells’, ‘Natural and artificial scaffolds’ from 1982–2015’. Tissues are organized as three-dimensional structures, and appropriate scaffolding is necessary to provide a spatially correct position of cell location and regulate differentiation, proliferation, or metabolism of the stem cells. Extracellular matrix molecules control the differentiation of stem cells, and an appropriate scaffold might selectively bind and localize cells, contain growth factors, and undergo biodegradation over time. Different scaffolds facilitate the regeneration of different tissues. To ensure a successful regenerative procedure, it is essential to have a thorough and precise knowledge about the suitable scaffold for the required tissue. This article gives a review on the different scaffolds providing an insight into the new developmental approaches on the horizon. PMID:27857762

  2. Worldwide pattern of antibiotic prescription in endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Egea, Juan José; Martín-González, Jenifer; Jiménez-Sánchez, María Del Carmen; Crespo-Gallardo, Isabel; Saúco-Márquez, Juan José; Velasco-Ortega, Eugenio

    2017-08-01

    Odontogenic infections, and especially endodontic infections, are polymicrobial, involving a combination of Gram-positive and Gram-negative facultative anaerobes and strictly anaerobic bacteria. Therefore, antibiotics can be used as an adjunct to endodontic treatment. However, most chronic and even acute endodontic infections can be successfully managed by disinfection of the root-canal system, which eliminates the source of infection, followed by abscess drainage or tooth extraction, without the need for antibiotics. The literature provides evidence of inadequate prescribing practices by dentists. The aim of this concise review was to analyse the worldwide pattern of antibiotic prescription in endodontic infections. Comprehensive searches were conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed, Wiley Online Database, Web of Science and Scopus. The databases were searched up to 13 March 2016 for studies in which dentists used systemic antibiotics to treat endodontic lesions and which reported data on the type of antibiotic prescribed and on the diagnosis of the endodontic disease treated. The electronic and hand searches identified 69 titles, of which 25 were included in the final analysis. Amoxicillin was reported as the drug of choice for endodontic infections in most countries, and clindamycin and erythromycin were the choice for patients allergic to penicillin. Dentists worldwide prescribe antibiotics for non-indicated conditions, such as pulpitis. Antibiotics are overprescribed for the management of endodontic infections. It is necessary to improve antibiotic-prescribing habits in the treatment of endodontic infections, as well as to introduce educational initiatives to encourage the coherent and proper use of antibiotics in such conditions. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.

  3. Possibilities of endodontic therapy of endodonic-periodontal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešković Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intoduction. Endoperiodontal lesions are frequent in clinical practice and may require complex therapy. It is very important to determine differential diagnosis and the origin of the lesion, because the treatment plan is based on aetiology and stadium of the development of the lesion. Objective. The aim of this clinical study was to analyze the efficacy of endodontic treatment in different types of endodontic- periodontal lesions. Methods. Thirty patients and 42 teeth with diagnosed endoperiodontal lesions were included in the study and divided in two groups. Vital pulp therapy was applied to 18 vital teeth where the diagnosis was perio-endodontic lesions. The therapy of infected canal system was applied to 24 teeth with endodontic- periodontal or combined lesions. Standard endodontic procedure consisted of cleaning and shaping of the root canal system and between sessions filling with calcium-hydroxide paste. Obturation was made by lateral compact of the guttapercha and Apexit paste. Efficiency was evaluated clinically and radiographically three, six and twelve months later. Results. Radiographic and clinical follow-up showed a significant radiographic improvement and absence of subjective symptoms in a very high percentage of the treated vital and avital teeth. The results of this study showed that in the observation period of 12 months endodontic therapy was successful in 88.89% of vital teeth, and in the group of avital teeth the percentage was 91.67%. Conclusion. Endodontic treatment of the endoperiodontal lesions was sufficient and it was the basic condition to achieve a complete healing of endodontic-periodontal lesions. Such therapy ensures significant improvement or even complete healing of both types of lesions, of endodontic and periodontal origin.

  4. The Effect of Canal Dryness on Bond Strength of Bioceramic and Epoxy-resin Sealers after Irrigation with Sodium Hypochlorite or Chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmi, Hasan; Bolhari, Behnam; Karamzadeh Dashti, Negar; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of canal dryness on the push-out bond strength of two resin sealers (AH-Plus and Adseal) and a bioceramic sealer (Endosequence BC sealer) after canal irrigation with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX). A total of 18 extracted human premolars were used. Canals were prepared and were divided to two groups based on irrigation solution (either NaOCl or CHX). The samples were again divided based on pre-obturation canal condition (wet, half-wet and dry). The samples were sub-divided into 3 groups based on the sealer type; the teeth were obturated with gutta-percha and test sealers (Adseal, AH-Plus or BC sealer). A total number of 18 groups were available to be cut into dentine disks (12 disks in each group). The type of bond failure was also assessed in each group. Data were analyzed using the 3-way ANOVA, post hoc Tukey's tests, t-test and the Fisher's exact test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. The bond strength of Adseal was not affected by the canal condition or irrigation with either NaOCl or CHX. Although the bond strength of AH-Plus was not affected by the irrigant type, the highest bond strength was seen in dry canals. For Endosequence BC sealer, the canal conditions did not affect the bond strength; however, CHX reduced the bond strength. Bond strength of resin sealers was not affected by irrigation solution; however, canal moisture negatively affected the bond strength of AH-Plus. CHX reduced the bond strength of BC sealer.

  5. Efficacy of Endodontic Treatment on the Persistence of Selected Endodontic Pathogens and on Radiographical Periapical Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Zeledón DDS, Esp, Rodolfo; Ballestero DDS, Esp, Carolina; Hernández DDS. Esp, Erick; Ramírez DDS, MSD, Tatiana; Benavides DDS, Esp, Marianela; Meneses DDS, Esp, Pablo; Reyes Carmona DDS, MSD, PhD, Jessie; Silva MQC, MSc, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this clinical study was to evaluate by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) the antimicrobial efficacy and the outcome of an endodontic protocol treatment (EPT) performed by under-graduated dental students on infected root canals associated with periapical lesions. Fifty-six patients attending for treatment of pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis were included. A specific EPT approach was performed and DNA extracts were taken at the baseline (S1), after a disinfection-neutraliza...

  6. Evaluation of the efect of EDTA, EGTA and CDTA on dentin adhesiveness and microleakage with different root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa-Neto Manoel D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chelating solutions EDTA, EGTA and CDTA on human dentin adhesiveness and microleakage with 4 sealers (Sealer 26, Sealapex, N-Rickert and Endofill was evaluated in vitro. Whether or not there was a mathematical correlation between the tests of adhesiveness and microleakage was also evaluated. A total of eighty maxillary and mandibular molars were used to test adhesiveness. After wearing of the occlusal surface to obtain a flat surface, the sealer was placed with an aluminum cylinder (10 mm x 6 mm. Adhesiveness was evaluated with a 4444 Instron universal testing machine. Microleakage was evaluated in 160 maxillary canines after root canal instrumentation, obturation and clearing. The penetration of India ink in the apical region was measured with a measurescope. The teeth were divided into 4 groups: group 1, distilled water; group 2, EDTA; group 3, EGTA; group 4, CDTA. Sealer 26 and EDTA had the best results (p<0.01 for adhesiveness and microleakage. There was no correlation between the test for adhesiveness and microleakage.

  7. Mensuração digital da radiopacidade de diferentes cimentos obturadores resinosos e de base zinco-enólica = Digital radiopacity measurement of different resin- and zinc oxide-based root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodanezi, Augusto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a radiopacidade produzida por sete cimentos comercialmente disponíveis (AH Plus, Epiphany, Sealapex, Acroseal, Sealer 26, Endomethasone and Endofill e um em estágio experimental (MBP. Metodologia: Depois de homogeneizados os materiais, o teste de radiopacidade foi executado conforme a especificação no 57 da ANSI/ADA. Radiografou-se os espécimes junto a uma escala de Alumínio e as imagens resultantes foram digitalizadas. As densidades radiográficas expressas em milímetros de Alumínio (mm Al foram comparadas por meio da análise de variância e teste de Tukey (a=0. 05. Resultados: Os cimentos AH Plus (10 mm Al e Epiphany (9 mm Al apresentaram as maiores radiopacidades seguidos pelo Sealapex (8 mm Al, Endofill (7 mm Al, Endométhasone (7 mm Al, MBP (7 mm Al e Sealer 26 (6 mm Al. Acroseal (5 mm Al mostrou a menor radiopacidade entre os cimentos testados (P<0. 05. Conclusão: Concluiu-se que as diferentes radiopacidades dos cimentos testados estão acima do nível mínimo recomendado pela especificação nº 57 da ANSI/ADA

  8. Oxidative stress in patients with endodontic pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengerfeldt, Veiko; Mändar, Reet; Saag, Mare; Piir, Anneli; Kullisaar, Tiiu

    2017-01-01

    Apical periodontitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease affecting periradicular tissues. It is a widespread condition but its etiopathogenetic mechanisms have not been completely elucidated and the current treatment options are not always successful. To compare oxidative stress (OxS) levels in the saliva and the endodontium (root canal [RC] contents) in patients with different endodontic pathologies and in endodontically healthy subjects. The study group of this comparison study included 22 subjects with primary chronic apical periodontitis (pCAP), 26 with posttreatment or secondary chronic apical periodontitis (sCAP), eight with acute periapical abscess, 13 with irreversible pulpitis, and 17 healthy controls. Resting saliva samples were collected before clinical treatment. Pulp samples (remnants of the pulp, tooth tissue, and/or previous root filling material) were collected under strict aseptic conditions using the Hedström file. The samples were frozen to -80°C until analysis. OxS markers (myeloperoxidase [MPO], oxidative stress index [OSI], 8-isoprostanes [8-EPI]) were detected in the saliva and the endodontium. The highest MPO and 8-EPI levels were seen in pCAP and pulpitis, while the highest levels of OSI were seen in pCAP and abscess patients, as well as the saliva of sCAP patients. Controls showed the lowest OxS levels in both RC contents and saliva. Significant positive correlations between OxS markers, periapical index, and pain were revealed. Patients with pain had significantly higher OxS levels in both the endodontium (MPO median 27.9 vs 72.6 ng/mg protein, p=0.004; OSI 6.0 vs 10.4, p<0.001; 8-EPI 50.0 vs 75.0 pg/mL, p<0.001) and saliva (MPO 34.2 vs 117.5 ng/mg protein, p<0.001; 8-EPI 50.0 vs 112.8 pg/mL, p<0.001) compared to pain-free subjects. OxS is an important pathomechanism in endodontic pathologies that is evident at both the local (RC contents) and systemic (saliva) level. OxS is significantly associated with dental pain and bone destruction.

  9. Oxidative stress in patients with endodontic pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengerfeldt V

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Veiko Vengerfeldt,1 Reet Mändar,2,3 Mare Saag,1 Anneli Piir,2 Tiiu Kullisaar2 1Institute of Dental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, 2Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, 3Competence Centre on Health Technologies, Tartu, Estonia Background: Apical periodontitis (AP is an inflammatory disease affecting periradicular tissues. It is a widespread condition but its etiopathogenetic mechanisms have not been completely elucidated and the current treatment options are not always successful.Purpose: To compare oxidative stress (OxS levels in the saliva and the endodontium (root canal [RC] contents in patients with different endodontic pathologies and in endodontically healthy subjects.Patients and methods: The study group of this comparison study included 22 subjects with primary chronic apical periodontitis (pCAP, 26 with posttreatment or secondary chronic apical periodontitis (sCAP, eight with acute periapical abscess, 13 with irreversible pulpitis, and 17 healthy controls. Resting saliva samples were collected before clinical treatment. Pulp samples (remnants of the pulp, tooth tissue, and/or previous root filling material were collected under strict aseptic conditions using the Hedström file. The samples were frozen to −80°C until analysis. OxS markers (myeloperoxidase [MPO], oxidative stress index [OSI], 8-isoprostanes [8-EPI] were detected in the saliva and the endodontium. Results: The highest MPO and 8-EPI levels were seen in pCAP and pulpitis, while the highest levels of OSI were seen in pCAP and abscess patients, as well as the saliva of sCAP patients. Controls showed the lowest OxS levels in both RC contents and saliva. Significant positive correlations between OxS markers, periapical index, and pain were revealed. Patients with pain had significantly higher OxS levels in both the endodontium (MPO median 27.9 vs 72.6 ng/mg protein, p=0.004; OSI 6.0 vs 10.4, p<0

  10. Apical sealing ability of two novel root canal sealers: An ex-vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Setia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to compare the sealing ability of two root canal sealers viz.: Hybrid Root SEAL (Sun Medical, Tokyo, Japan and iRoot SP (Innovative BioCeramix Inc., Vancouver, Canada. Materials and Methods: A sample of 60 permanent single rooted, human maxillary central incisors of similar sizes was selected for the study. The teeth were decoronated and randomly divided into two groups viz.: Group A and Group B, comprising of thirty teeth each. In Group A, Hybrid Root SEAL and Group B, iRoot SP were used as root canal sealers along with Gutta-percha cones using lateral condensation technique to obturate the canals. After obturation roots were covered with nail paint except 2.0 mm of root and stored in 0.5% methylene blue dye for 1 week. The teeth were immersed in 10 ml of 65% nitric acid for complete dissolution and subsequently subjected to UV spectrophotometer to quantify the concentration of the dye in each sample. The data were analyzed using the unpaired t-test. Results: The mean dye leakage value in Group B (0.368 was less as compared to Group A (0.408. However, statistically the difference was nonsignificant (P = 0.053. Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference among the two groups.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide in endodontics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Z; Shalavi, S; Yazdizadeh, M

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of endodontic therapy is to preserve the patient's natural teeth without compromising the patient's local or systemic health. Calcium hydroxide has been included in several materials and antimicrobial formulations that are used in several treatment modalities in endodontics, such as inter-appointment intracanal medicaments. The purpose of this article was to review the antimicrobial properties of calcium hydroxide in endodontics. Calcium hydroxide has a high pH (approximately 12.5-12.8) and is classified chemically as a strong base. The lethal effects of calcium hydroxide on bacterial cells are probably due to protein denaturation and damage to DNA and cytoplasmic membranes. Calcium hydroxide has a wide range of antimicrobial activity against common endodontic pathogens but is less effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Calcium hydroxide is also a valuable anti-endotoxin agent. However, its effect on microbial biofilms is controversial.

  12. Physical characterisation of endodontic instruments in NiTi alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, L. [Messina Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisica; Marco, G. di [Ist. di Tecniche Spettroscopiche del CNR, Messina (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    NiTi based endodontic instruments are investigated in functionality and wear. The instrument surfaces have been studied applying Auger electron spectroscopy, mechanical analysis, differential-scanning calorimetry, wear tests, and scanning electron microscopy. (orig.)

  13. Guided Tissue Regeneration Using a Barrier Membrane in Endodontic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbella, Stefano; Taschieri, Silvio; Elkabbany, Ahmed; Del Fabbro, Massimo; von Arx, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Endodontic surgery aims at the resolution of a periapical inflammatory process by surgical access followed by enucleation of the lesion and root-end filling to curb any potentially noxious agent within the physical confines of the affected root. Guided bone regeneration could be associated to endodontic surgery aiming to enhance periradicular tissue regeneration. The objective of this paper was to review the scientific literature about guided bone regeneration in endodontic surgery, evaluating the effects on periapical lesion healing process. The included articles are classified considering the anatomical characteristics of the lesion. Fourteen articles were included in the review after abstract and title selection. Eight articles were on studies on lesions affecting only the periapical region (three about through-and-through lesions) while six were about the treatment of apico-marginal lesions. On the basis of the currently available literature, there is a low scientific evidence of a benefit related. to the use of guided bone regeneration procedure in endodontic surgery.

  14. Ultrasonics in endodontic surgery: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paolis, Gianfranco; Vincenti, Valentina; Prencipe, Matteo; Milana, Valerio; Plotino, Gianluca

    2010-04-01

    Currently, although ultrasonics (US) is used in dentistry for therapeutic and diagnostic applications as well as for cleaning of instruments before sterilization, its main use is for scaling and root planing of teeth and in root canal therapy, both for orthograde and retrograde therapy. Both in conventional and surgical treatments, US in endodontics has enhanced quality of clinical procedures and represents an important adjunct in the treatment of difficult cases. More precisely it has become increasingly more useful in applications such as gaining access to canal openings, cleaning and shaping, obturation of root canals, removal of intracanal materials and obstructions, and endodontic surgery. This review of the literature aims at presenting the numerous advantages of US in surgical endodontics and emphasizes its application in a modern-day endodontic practice.

  15. [Decision-making of restorations for endodontically treated teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Chen; Binwen, Chen

    2015-04-01

    Coronal restoration of endodontically treated teeth may be viewed as one of the main parameters that influence the outcome of endodontic treatment. The purposes of restoring endodontically-treated teeth include preventing recontamination of the root canal system and periapical area, replacing the compromised dental hard tissue, restoring the coronal morphology and function, providing necessary strength for the restoration/tooth complex for functional stress, and avoiding crown and/or root fracture. This article reviewed recent researches on the restoration of endodontically treated teeth, provided evidence for clinical practice on topics as when to restore them, basic principles to be considered during treatment planning, and specific restoration options for both anterior and posterior teeth under different functional occulsal load conditions. Several issues should be taken into account during the decision making process, such as remaining tooth tissue, functional masticatory forces, comprehensive oral rehabilitation, and esthetic requirements.

  16. Photodynamic therapy in combating the causative microorganisms from endodontic infections

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Oliveira, Bruna Paloma; Aguiar, Carlos Menezes; Câmara, Andréa Cruz

    2014-01-01

    ...s. The purpose of this paper is to review the dental literature about the main factors that encompass the use of PDT combined with endodontic treatment for decontamination of the root canal system...

  17. Endodontic practice management with cone-beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyank Sethi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, conventional periapical radiology formed the backbone of endodontics for diagnosis, treatment planning, and management. One of the major associated gripes being the technique created two-dimensional images of three-dimensional (3D structures, suffered magnification, superimposition, and distortion, leading to compromised diagnostic information. The need to analyze the area of interest in all the possible planes led to the introduction of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT, a novel modality specifically designed to produce precise, undistorted 3D reconstructed images of the maxillofacial skeleton. CBCT is increasingly being embraced by various fields in dentistry, remarkably in endodontic practice. A systematic literature-based and book-based review was conducted using the keywords “CBCT in endodontics” and “endodontic applications of CBCT.” This article hereby discusses the prospects of CBCT in endodontics with an emphasis on its application in diagnosis and management along with treatment outcome assessment.

  18. Photodynamic therapy in combating the causative microorganisms from endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Bruna Paloma; Aguiar, Carlos Menezes; Câmara, Andréa Cruz

    2014-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is presented as a promising antimicrobial therapy that can eliminate microorganisms present in endodontic infections. This treatment is based on the use of a nontoxic photosensitizing agent followed by irradiation of a resonant light source being capable of generating highly reactive species that are harmful to microorganisms. The purpose of this paper is to review the dental literature about the main factors that encompass the use of PDT combined with endodontic treatment for decontamination of the root canal system. A literature search was performed using the following index databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and MedLine, between 2000 and 2014, looking for studies regarding antimicrobial action of PDT and its application to endodontic therapy. It was observed that despite numerous promising results, it is still necessary to establish different parameters so that PDT can be used with maximum effectiveness in eliminating microorganisms that cause endodontic infections.

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontics: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalavi, S; Yazdizadeh, M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of endodontic therapy is to preserve the patient's natural teeth without compromising the patient's local or systemic health. Calcium hydroxide has been included in several materials and antimicrobial formulations that are used in several treatment modalities in endodontics, such as inter-appointment intracanal medicaments. The purpose of this article was to review the antimicrobial properties of calcium hydroxide in endodontics. Calcium hydroxide has a high pH (approximately 12.5-12.8) and is classified chemically as a strong base. The lethal effects of calcium hydroxide on bacterial cells are probably due to protein denaturation and damage to DNA and cytoplasmic membranes. Calcium hydroxide has a wide range of antimicrobial activity against common endodontic pathogens but is less effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Calcium hydroxide is also a valuable anti-endotoxin agent. However, its effect on microbial biofilms is controversial. PMID:23323217

  20. Bioactive Materials in Endodontics: An Evolving Component of Clinical Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Satyajit; Patro, Swadheena; Mishra, Sumita

    2016-06-01

    Achieving biocompatibility in a material requires an interdisciplinary approach that involves a sound knowledge of materials science, bioengineering, and biotechnology. The host microbial-material response is also critical. Endodontic treatment is a delicate procedure that must be planned and executed properly. Despite major advances in endodontic therapy in recent decades, clinicians are confronted with a complex root canal anatomy and a wide selection of endodontic filling materials that, in turn, may not be well tolerated by the periapical tissues and may evoke an immune reaction. This article discusses published reports of various bioactive materials that are used in endodontic therapy, including calcium hydroxide, mineral trioxide aggregate, a bioactive dentin substrate, calcium phosphate ceramics, and calcium phosphate cements.

  1. Central Giant Cell Granuloma: A potential endodontic misdiagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Seifi, Safoura; Fouroghi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Central Giant Cell Granulomas (CGCGs) may manifest as radiolucencies anywhere in the mandible or maxilla. In rare cases, it can appear as a localized periradicular area and mimic an endodontic lesion. This case report presents an uncommon location of CGCG which was not accurately diagnosed nor timely treated. Periodic follow ups of periapical radiolucencies after RCT are necessary. Dentists should include CGCG in differential diagnosis of lesions that are refractory to endodontic treatment. [...

  2. A Naval Postgraduate Dental School Analysis Of Initial Endodontic Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    DENTAL SCHOOL ANALYSIS OF INITIAL ENDODONTIC TREATMENT ALLEN DANIEL RASMUSSEN D.M.D., ENDODONTICS, 2015 Thesis directed by: CAPT Teny Webb, D.D.S...re-treatment, surgical treatment, or canal obturation using Resilon, carrier-based, silver points or a paste fill technique . Additionally, if any...location by quadrant Follow-up variables Pain location by tooth Permanent restoration History of orthodontic treatment Intracanal post History of external

  3. Operating microscope in Endodontics: visual magnification and luminosity

    OpenAIRE

    Letícia Moreira Feix; Daiana Boijink; Ronise Ferreira; Márcia Helena Wagner; Fernando Branco Barletta

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The surgical microscope has been used in Endodontics in order to minimize the obscurity of the surgical field, because it provides a high magnification and luminosity, thereby enhancing the procedures performed and providing a final result of higher quality. Objective and literature review: The objective of this study was to review the literature by addressing the current situation of the operating microscope in Endodontics, emphasizing its advantages and limitations. Despite be...

  4. Taurodontism: an endodontic challenge. Report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsesis, Igor; Shifman, Arie; Kaufman, Arieh Y

    2003-05-01

    Taurodontism is a morphoanatomical change in the shape of a tooth, which usually occurs in multirooted teeth. An enlarged body and pulp chamber, as well as apical displacement of the pulpal floor, are characteristic features. Endodontic treatment of a taurodont tooth is challenging, because it requires special care in handling and identifying the number of root canals. A case of endodontic treatment of a maxillary first molar with taurodontism is presented.

  5. Endodontic treatment of a taurodontism tooth: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Shahrzad; Mirmotalebi, Farshid

    2006-01-01

    Taurodontism is a rare dental anomaly in which the involved tooth has an enlarged and elongated body and pulp chamber with apical displacement of the pulpal floor. Endodontic treatment of these teeth is challenging, because it is hard to identify the number of root canals. In this article a case of bilateral involvement of maxillary first molars is presented. Endodontic treatment of right maxillary first molar with taurodontism was indicated due to irreversible pulpitis. This article describes the procedures of root canal therapy.

  6. Absorbed radiation by various tissues during simulated endodontic radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torabinejad, M.; Danforth, R.; Andrews, K.; Chan, C.

    1989-06-01

    The amount of absorbed radiation by various organs was determined by placing lithium fluoride thermoluminescent chip dosimeters at selected anatomical sites in and on a human-like X-ray phantom and exposing them to radiation at 70- and 90-kV X-ray peaks during simulated endodontic radiography. The mean exposure dose was determined for each anatomical site. The results show that endodontic X-ray doses received by patients are low when compared with other radiographic procedures.

  7. [Overall digitalization: leading innovation of endodontics in big data era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, J Q

    2016-04-09

    In big data era, digital technologies bring great challenges and opportunities to modern stomatology. The applications of digital technologies, such as cone-beam CT(CBCT), computer aided design,(CAD)and computer aided manufacture(CAM), 3D printing and digital approaches for education , provide new concepts and patterns to the treatment and study of endodontic diseases. This review provides an overview of the application and prospect of commonly used digital technologies in the development of endodontics.

  8. Use of Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfe, William C.; Levin, Martin D.; Gane, David; Farman, Allan G.

    2009-01-01

    Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is a diagnostic imaging modality that provides high-quality, accurate three-dimensional (3D) representations of the osseous elements of the maxillofacial skeleton. CBCT systems are available that provide small field of view images at low dose with sufficient spatial resolution for applications in endodontic diagnosis, treatment guidance, and posttreatment evaluation. This article provides a literature review and pictorial demonstration of CBCT as an imaging adjunct for endodontics. PMID:20379362

  9. Management of Post Endodontic Retreatment Pain With Low Level Laser Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaashari, Mohammad; Ashraf, Hengameh; Daghayeghi, Amir Houshang; Mojahedi, Seyed Masoud; Azari-Marhabi, Saranaz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Pharmacotherapy with analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been traditionally used to relief post-operative pain of endodontic treatments. However, due to the side effects reported for these drugs, some efforts have been made to decrease the post-operative pain of the endodontic treatments through laser irradiation. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the reduction of pain after root canal retreatment. Methods: In this clinical trial, 61 patients requiring endodontic retreatments in posterior teeth were selected. A single visit endodontic retreatment was performed. After biomechanical preparation, low level laser was irradiated to the buccal and lingual mucosa overlying the apices of the target tooth in the experimental group. In the control group patients received placebo laser to eliminate the probable psychological effects of laser. Laser irradiation was done with a single dose of 808 nm wavelength (Whitening Lase II- Laser DMC, Samsung, Korea) with 100 mW power, and dose of 70 J/cm2 for 80 seconds. Pain severity was recorded before, immediately after and 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 hours after the treatment by visual analogue scale (VAS). The pain scores were statistically analyzed by chi-square test between 2 groups. The effects of different variables on the post-operative pain experience were also studied by means of Logistic regression. Results: Pain scores decreased significantly through time until 48 hours after treatment. No significant differences were observed between the 2 modalities regarding pain scores at any time. According to regression analysis, pain severity scores were lower in the laser-irradiated specimens than control groups (OR = 5.69); however, this difference was not statistically significant. Consumption of analgesics after the treatment had significant effect in decreasing post-operative pain experience (OR = 56) while factors of age, gender, laser irradiation

  10. Evaluation physical characteristics and comparison antimicrobial and anti-inflammation potentials of dental root canal sealers containing hinokitiol in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Hua Shih

    Full Text Available Hinokitiol displays potent antimicrobial activity. It has been used in toothpaste and oral-care gel to improve the oral lichen planus and reduce halitosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 3 different dental root canal sealers with hinokitiol (sealers+H and their physical and biological effects. AH Plus (epoxy amine resin-based, AH, Apexit Plus (calcium-hydroxide-based, AP, and Canals (zinc-oxide-eugenol-based, CA, were used in this study. The original AH and CA exhibited strong anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (anti-MRSA activity, but AP did not. The setting time, working time, flowability, film thickness, and solubility of each sealer+0.2%H complied with ISO 6876:2001. CA+0.2%H exhibited high cytotoxicity, but the others sealers+0.2%H did not. Because hinokitiol combined with Zn2+ in CA creates a synergistic effect. The physical tests of AP+0.5%-1%H complied with ISO 6876:2001, improved antimicrobial activity, inhibited inflammation genes cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α mRNA in MG-63 cells and human gingival fibroblasts (HGF, and down-regulated lysyl oxidase (LOX mRNA of HGF. In summary, AH and CA demonstrated strong antimicrobial activity, but AP did not. Application of hinokitiol increases AH anti-MRSA activity should less than 0.2% for keep well flowability. AP+0.5%-1% hinokitiol exhibited strong physical, antibacterial, and anti-inflammation potentials, and inhibited S. aureus abscess formation. Applying an appreciable proportion of hinokitiol to epoxy-amine-resin-based and calcium-hydroxide-based root canal sealers is warranted, but the enhanced cytotoxicity and synergistic effect must be considered.

  11. Dentine tubule infection and endodontic therapy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntebi, B R

    1994-07-01

    A critical review of the literature suggests that the microenvironment of dentinal tubules appears to favour the selection of relatively few bacterial types irrespective of the aetiology of the infection process; coronal dental caries or pulpar necrosis. These bacteria may constitute an important reservoir from which root canal infection and reinfection may occur following pulp necrosis or during and after endodontic treatment. Previous studies of this microflora have utilized microbiological culture techniques which need to be supplemented by those that allow in situ demonstration as well as identification of the bacteria. Newer treatment strategies that are designed to eliminate this microflora must include agents that can penetrate the dentinal tubules and destroy these microorganisms, since they are located in an area beyond the host defence mechanisms where they cannot be reached by systemically administered antimicrobial agents.

  12. Magnification's effect on endodontic fine motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, David J; Glickman, Gerald N; Solomon, Eric S; He, Jianing

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively investigate the effect of magnification on fine motor skills used in endodontics. This study used a novel manual dexterity test that was performed with and without magnification. An 8x operating microscope and 2.5x dental loupes were used for the magnification tests. Forty subjects, 20 with microscope experience and 20 without, participated in the study. Performance on the test was evaluated by using an accuracy scoring system, and the time needed to complete the test was recorded for each subject. A significant increase in accuracy score with each level of magnification was demonstrated (P magnification to enhance fine motor skills was supported in all age groups and experience levels. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Irrigants in non-surgical endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, John D; Fleury, Alex A P

    2006-01-01

    This paper highlights that one of the main goals of root canal treatment is the elimination of microorganisms from the contaminated root canal system. Instrumentation alone will not allow for adequate debridement and disinfection of the complex and diverse root canal system. Chemomechanical debridement is required. The importance of the use of irrigants during non-surgical root canal treatment has frequently been neglected both during instruction of dental students and later in the clinical practice of endodontics. The article highlights 'shape, clean and fill' vs. 'clean, shape and fill' to enable chemomechanical debridement. Our protocol advises mechanical debridement and copious irrigation for a minimum of twenty minutes with 2.5% to 6% solutions of sodium hypochlorite, followed by a rinse with a 17% solution of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and a final rinse with 2% chlorhexidine. The canals are dried with high volume aspirators and sterile paper points.

  14. Regenerative Endodontics: A Road Less Travelled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ramta; Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Kaur, Dilpreet

    2014-01-01

    Although traditional approaches like root canal therapy and apexification procedures have been successful in treating diseased or infected root canals, but these modalities fail to re-establish healthy pulp tissue in treated teeth. Regeneration-based approaches aims to offer high levels of success by replacing diseased or necrotic pulp tissues with healthy pulp tissue to revitalize teeth. The applications of regenerative approaches in dental clinics have potential to dramatically improve patients’ quality of life. This review article offers a detailed overview of present regenerative endodontic approaches aiming to revitalize teeth and also outlines the problems to be dealt before this emerging field contributes to clinical treatment protocols. It conjointly covers the basic trilogy elements of tissue engineering. PMID:25478476

  15. Virtual prototyping of adhesively restored, endodontically treated molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magne, Pascal

    2010-06-01

    Teeth and dental restorations are difficult to model because of their complex anatomical shape and layered structure. The purpose of this investigation was to describe the use of an efficient virtual prototyping method for the comparison of bonded porcelain and composite resin onlays to restore endodontically treated molars. An intact mandibular molar was digitized with a micro-CT scanner. Surface contours of enamel and dentin were fitted following tooth segmentation based on pixel density using an interactive medical image processing software (Mimics). Standard triangle language files of enamel and dentin surfaces were then exported to a design and meshing software (3-matic). The root filling, base material, and a 3.0-mm-thick onlay were created by merging primitive shapes. Surface splitting, removal of unwanted surfaces, and remeshing allowed generation of an assembly with optimized interfacial mesh congruence and T-junctions. Solid 3-dimensional (3-D) models obtained in a finite element software (Marc/Mentat) were subjected to nonlinear contact analysis to simulate occlusal loading at 200 N and 700 N. Maximum principal stress values were used to calculate the risk of fracture and for validation with existing experimental data. There were similar stress distributions at 200 N (maximum peak values of 24 to 26 MPa) for both restorative materials, but marked differences at 700 N, with the porcelain onlay showing occlusal stress peaks more than 30% higher than composite resin. High stress concentrations were found at 700 N at the root level of the porcelain-restored tooth (95 MPa). For the composite resin onlay, secondary peaks of stress at the 700-N load were found above the cemento-enamel junction (47 MPa) with only minor effects at the root. The risk of fracture was increased for porcelain onlays, which correlated with the existing validation data and the decreased risk of fracture below the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) observed for composite resin onlays. The

  16. Physicochemical and Biological Evaluation of Endodontic Filling Materials for Primary Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Pilownic, Katerine Jahnecke; GOMES, Ana Paula Neutzling; Wang, Zhe Jun; Almeida,Luiza Helena Silva de; ROMANO,Ana Regina; Shen, Ya; Felix, Anelize de Oliveira Campello; Haapasalo, Markus; Pappen, Fernanda Geraldo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study assessed the pH, radiopacity, antimicrobial effect, cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of endodontic filling materials for primary teeth. Zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE), Vitapex and Calen paste thickened with zinc oxide (ZO) were evaluated in comparison to an experimental MTA-based material. Radiopacity was tested using a graduated aluminum stepwedge with a digital sensor (n=5). The materials pH was recorded at 1, 4, 12 h; 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days (n=5). Direct contact test was us...

  17. Laser Doppler flowmetry in endodontics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, H

    2009-06-01

    Vascular supply is the most accurate marker of pulp vitality. Tests for assessing vascular supply that rely on the passage of light through a tooth have been considered as possible methods for detecting pulp vitality. Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), which is a noninvasive, objective, painless, semi-quantitative method, has been shown to be reliable for measuring pulpal blood flow. The relevant literature on LDF in the context of endodontics up to March 2008 was reviewed using PubMed and MEDLINE database searches. This search identified papers published between June 1983 and March 2008. Laser light is transmitted to the pulp by means of a fibre optic probe. Scattered light from moving red blood cells will be frequency-shifted whilst that from the static tissue remains unshifted. The reflected light, composed of Doppler-shifted and unshifted light, is returned by afferent fibres and a signal is produced. This technique has been successfully employed for estimating pulpal vitality in adults and children, differential diagnosis of apical radiolucencies (on the basis of pulp vitality), examining the reactions to pharmacological agents or electrical and thermal stimulation, and monitoring of pulpal responses to orthodontic procedures and traumatic injuries. Assessments may be highly susceptible to environmental and technique-related factors. Nonpulpal signals, principally from periodontal blood flow, may contaminate the signal. Because this test produces no noxious stimuli, apprehensive or distressed patients accept it more readily than current methods of pulp vitality assessment. A review of the literature and a discussion of the application of this system in endodontics are presented.

  18. Accidental separation and lodgment of rotary endodontic file into the dentist's thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnik, Rohit; Shetty, Subraj; Desai, Rajiv S; Shetty, Karthick

    2016-01-01

    Separation of the endodontic instrument within the root canal system and sharp injuries to the dentist is not an uncommon event in endodontic practice. Although root canal instruments can fracture at any stage of endodontic treatment, its fracture within the dentist's hand is a very rare event. An unusual case of accidental separation and lodgment of rotary endodontic file in the dentist's thumb is presented along with its management. A 33-year-old dentist reported with an accidental lodgment of rotary endodontic file into his thumb. The fractured instrument was removed successfully by a surgeon. The present case describes a rare event of occupational risk in endodontic practice.

  19. Improving the quality of endodontic record keeping through clinical audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E; Shekaran, L; Muthukrishnan, A

    2017-03-10

    Introduction Record keeping is an essential part of day-to-day practice and plays an important role in treatment, audit and dento-legal procedures. Creating effective endodontic records is challenging due to the scope of information required for comprehensive notes. Two audits were performed to assess the standards of endodontic record keeping by dentists in a restorative dentistry department and students on an endodontic MSc course.Methods Fifty sets of departmental records and 10 sets of student records were retrospectively evaluated against the European Society of Endodontology 2006 guidelines. Results of the first cycle of both audits were presented to departmental staff and MSc students, alongside an educational session. Additionally, departmental guidelines, consent leaflets and endodontic record keeping forms were developed. Both audits were repeated using the same number of records, thus completing both audit cycles.Results The most commonly absent records included consent, anaesthetic details, rubber dam method, working length reference point, irrigation details and obturation technique. Almost all areas of record keeping improved following the second audit cycle, with some areas reaching 100% compliance when record keeping forms were used. Statistically significant improvements were seen in 24 of the 29 areas in the departmental audit and 14 of the 29 areas in the MSc audit (P = 0.05).Conclusions Significant improvements in endodontic record keeping can be achieved through the provision of education, departmental guidelines, consent leaflets and endodontic record keeping forms.

  20. Application of forensic luminol for blood detection in endodontic files

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    Rodrigo ARRUDA-VASCONCELOS

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Blood is a biological material with high potential of infectious transmission in dental environments, including herpes simplex, hepatitis and AIDS. Aim To investigate the efficacy of luminol in detecting blood in endodontic files before and after the sterilization process. Material and method Luminol was used to investigate the presence or absence of traces of blood tissue in 50 endodontic files, visible to naked eye or not, after performing endodontic treatment and after the cleaning/sterilization process. The results obtained were tabulated and statistically analyzed by using the Friedman’s test at a significance level of 5% (p<0.05. Result By naked eye, it was found that 31/50 files showed no trace of blood, 8/50 showed a slight presence of blood and 11/50 showed a considerable presence of blood after endodontic treatment. After the use of luminol, however, 16/50 endodontic files showed no trace of blood, 19/50 showed a slight presence of blood and 15/50 showed a considerable presence of blood. After the cleaning and sterilization process, no blood was detected in the files. Conclusion It was concluded that the luminol solution is effective in detecting blood tissue in endodontic files as well as in validating the cleaning/sterilization process.

  1. Methodological Quality Assessment of Meta-analyses in Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, Sereen; Lee, Su-Min; Kohli, Meetu R; Setzer, Frank C; Karabucak, Bekir

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this review were to assess the methodological quality of published meta-analyses related to endodontics using the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (AMSTAR) tool and to provide a follow-up to previously published reviews. Three electronic databases were searched for eligible studies according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria: Embase via Ovid, The Cochrane Library, and Scopus. The electronic search was amended by a hand search of 6 dental journals (International Endodontic Journal; Journal of Endodontics; Australian Endodontic Journal; Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology; Endodontics and Dental Traumatology; and Journal of Dental Research). The searches were conducted to include articles published after July 2009, and the deadline for inclusion of the meta-analyses was November 30, 2016. The AMSTAR assessment tool was used to evaluate the methodological quality of all included studies. A total of 36 reports of meta-analyses were included. The overall quality of the meta-analyses reports was found to be medium, with an estimated mean overall AMSTAR score of 7.25 (95% confidence interval, 6.59-7.90). The most poorly assessed areas were providing an a priori design, the assessment of the status of publication, and publication bias. In recent publications in the field of endodontics, the overall quality of the reported meta-analyses is medium according to AMSTAR. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of obturating systems, dowel materials, and adhesive luting techniques on the resistance to fracture of endodontically treated teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Guindy, Jylan; Fouda, Manar Y

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of obturating systems, dowel materials, and adhesive techniques on the resistance to fracture of endodontically treated teeth. Eighty maxillary central incisors were selected and randomly divided into two groups according to the obturating system (n = 40); group I: gutta-percha and Roeko sealer; group II: RealSeal. Both groups were further subdivided into two subgroups; subgroup A: using ceramic dowels (Cosmopost); subgroup B using fiber dowels (Easy Post). Each subgroup was assigned to two divisions according to the adhesive luting technique; division V (total-etch) Variolink II resin cement; division U (self-adhesive) RelyX Unicem. Composite core build-up was made using a core former. Each specimen was loaded 2 mm from its incisal edge on the palatal side at a 135° angle with the long axis of the tooth using a universal testing machine with a load cell of 5 KN at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. Failure loads were recorded in N. Scanning electron microscopic examination at the dentin/resin interface (1000x) was performed. Three-way ANOVA was used to test the effect of obturating system, dowel material, adhesive technique, and their interactions (obturating system * dowel material, obturating system * adhesive, dowel material * adhesive, obturating system * dowel material * adhesive). Duncan's test was used for pairwise comparison. The significance level was set at p≤ 0.05. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 16.0. The mean resistance to fracture (617.4 N) was statistically significantly higher in the ceramic dowel with gutta-percha and Variolink (GP/C/V) group than in the other groups. The RealSeal and RelyX fiber dowel group's mean resistance was the lowest and was significantly lower than the other groups. In this study, three factors played a part in enhancing the resistance to fracture of endodontically treated teeth. High resistance to fracture was achieved when ceramic dowels were luted

  3. Survey of attitudes, materials and methods employed in endodontic treatment by general dental practitioners in North Jordan

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    Al-Omari Wael M

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General dental practitioners provide the majority of endodontic treatment in Jordan. The aim of this study was to gather information on the methods, materials and attitudes employed in root canal treatment by dentists in North Jordan, in order to evaluate and improve the quality of current practice. Methods A questionnaire was posted to all registered general dental practitioners working in private practice in Irbid Governate in North Jordan (n = 181. The questionnaire included information on methods, materials and techniques used in endodontic treatment. Results Reply rate was 72% (n = 131. The results demonstrated that only five dentists used rubber dam occasionally and not routinely. The majority used cotton rolls for isolation solely or in combination with a high volume saliva ejector (n = 116. The most widely used irrigants were sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide, which were used by 32.9% (n = 43 and 33.6% (n = 44 of the respondents, respectively. Forty eight percent of the respondents (n = 61 used the cold lateral condensation technique for canal obturation, 31.3% (n = 41 used single cone, 9.9% (n = 13 used vertical condensation and 12.2% (n = 16 used paste or cement only for the obturation. The majority used zinc oxide eugenol as a sealer (72.5%. All, but one, respondents used hand instruments for canal preparation and the technique of choice was step back (52.7%. More than 50% (n = 70 of the dentists took one radiograph for determining the working length, whilst 22.9% (n = 30 did not take any radiograph at all. Most practitioners performed tr