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Sample records for experimental canine tooth

  1. Tooth fractures in canine clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capik, I.; Ledecky, V.; Sevcik, A.

    2001-01-01

    Tooth fractures constitute a considerable fraction of all tooth diseases. Out of the 5,370 dogs treated during four years, 492 were presented with dental problems and 28.3 % of the latter were treated for tooth fractures. Canines were the most frequently affected teeth (38.8 %), followed by premolars (33.1 %), incisors (25.9 %), and molars (2.2 %), 55.4 % of the patients with canine and incisor fractures being large breed dogs. Fractures of premolars (mostly of 108, 208) were divided evenly irrespective of breed or body size. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment yielded good therapeutic results in most cases, but repeated treatment was necessary in some patients

  2. Effects of low-energy laser irradiation on the distalization velocity during experimental canine tooth movement in humans: 'comparative clinical study'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Delma Rebelo

    2003-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) upon the velocity of canine tooth movement and consequently bone remodeling. A total of eleven patients were treated with a 780 nm diode laser. One side of the upper arcade was considered control group and was not irradiated but received mechanical activation every thirty days. The opposite side received the same mechanical activation but was also irradiated at days 0, 3, 7 and 14 of each month. Data of the biometrical progress were taken on both sides on days 3,7,14,21 and 30 of each month. The results indicate that all patients showed significant acceleration of the distalization velocity on the side treated with LLLT when compared to the control. (author)

  3. Retrospective Study of Association between Displacement of Maxillary Canine and Tooth Agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, E; Lee, K; An, S; Song, J; Ra, J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interrelationships between displacement of maxillary canine and tooth agenesis in age from 10 to 19 years. The panoramic radiographs of 128 subjects with displacement of maxillary canine and 600 subjects without displacement of maxillary canine were examined. The panoramic radiographs taken between 2003 and 2013 were used for diagnosis other related dental anomalies, including permanent tooth agenesis and small maxillary lateral incisor. Patients with maxillary canine displacement had a significantly higher prevalence rate of permanent tooth agenesis excluding of third molars (p agenesis of maxillary lateral incisor (p 0.05). This study indicates that there is positive relationship between displacement of maxillary canine, small maxillary lateral incisor and permanent tooth agenesis. Especially, maxillary lateral incisor and maxillary second premolar have strong association with maxillary canine displacement. Consequently, permanent tooth agenesis and small maxillary lateral incisor can be a predictor of maxillary canine displacement.

  4. Age estimation by canines' pulp/tooth ratio in an Iranian population using digital panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mahdieh; Shadkam, Elaheh; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Dehghani, Mahboobe

    2018-04-01

    Age estimation in adults is an important issue in forensic science. This study aimed to estimate the chronological age of Iranians by means of pulp/tooth area ratio (AR) of canines in digital panoramic radiographs. The sample consisted of panoramic radiographs of 271 male and female subjects aged 16-64 years. The pulp/tooth area ratio (AR) of upper and lower canines was calculated by AutoCAD software. Data were subjected to correlation and regression analysis. There was a significant and inverse correlation between age and pulp/tooth area ratio of upper and lower canines (r=-0.794 for upper canine and r=-0.282 for lower canine; p-value<0.001). Linear regression equations were derived separately for upper, lower and both canines. The mean difference between actual and estimated age using upper canine was 6.07±1.7. The results showed that the pulp/tooth area ratios of canines are a reliable method for age estimation in Iranians. The pulp/tooth area ratio of upper canine was better correlated with chronological age than that of lower canine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment of an avulsed maxillary permanent central incisor by autotransplantation of a primary canine tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, D; Dalci, K; Tunç, E Sen

    2008-07-01

    To present a case in which an avulsed permanent maxillary central incisor was replaced by autotransplantation of a primary canine tooth. The present case describes transplantation of a primary canine tooth into the space left by an avulsed permanent maxillary central incisor after a delay of several days. After root canal treatment, the primary canine tooth was extracted and placed into the prepared socket. To provide better adaptation of the donor tooth, the recipient alveolar site was remodeled using surgical burs. Semi-rigid splinting was maintained for 15 days. The crown of the primary canine was reshaped with composite resin and with an interim prosthesis, preventing movement of the lateral incisor tooth into the space of the transplanted canine. After 24-month follow-up the autotransplanted primary canine showed ankylosis but the tooth was in an acceptable state. The use of permanent tooth autotransplantation has been well documented. However a literature search revealed only one case report on the autotransplantation of primary teeth. Long term results of primary tooth autotransplantation are scarce but the procedure in this case report could be considered as a temporary space maintainer for the treatment of a patient with a lost permanent incisor under 10 years of age. Success of primary tooth autotransplantation may be affected by several factors, such as case selection, extra oral time, surgical and endodontic procedures.

  6. [Etiology and diagnostics of upper canine tooth retention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyulai-Gaál, Szabolcs; Mihályi, Szilvia; Martonffy, Katalin; Suba, Zsuzsanna

    2010-06-01

    Upper canines have significant esthetical and functional roles in the dental arch. Upper canine retention is a frequent anomaly as the germ develops rather far from its final place. Moreover, the neighboring teeth may narrow the place of the canine because of its late eruption. Impacted canines without treatment may cause severe complications. Impaction of canines can be diagnosed early by clinical and radiological findings, which enables the clinician to perform a complete rehabilitation by successful surgical and orthodontic treatment.

  7. The timing of tooth eruption and root development of permanent canine and premolars in Korean children

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    Cheong, Chang Shin; Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the timing and sequence of eruption of permanent canine and premolars, and to evaluate tooth calcification stage on emergence in Korean children. The sample was comprised of 1,266 children (male 720, female 546) aged from 7-13 years. Tooth eruption and calcification stages were determined through oral and panoramic radiographic examination, respectively. Probit analysis was used to calculate the timing of tooth eruption and tooth calcification stage from these cross-sectional data. In both males and females, eruption occurred around the time when one third of tooth root or more was formed. The sequence was as follows: first premolar, canine, and second premolar in maxilla, and canine, first premolar and second premolar in mandible. Tooth eruption occurred earlier in girls compared with boys, averaging 0.63 years. Eruption sequence is identical in males and females with a trend for females to erupt earlier than males. Tooth eruption becomes earlier over the past decades in Korean children.

  8. The effect of buccal corticotomy on accelerating orthodontic tooth movement of maxillary canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbakhshi, Mohammad Reza; Motamedi, Ali Mohammad Kalantar; Feizbakhsh, Masoud; Mogharehabed, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Selective alveolar corticotomy is defined as an intentional injury to cortical bone. This technique is an effective means of accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of buccal corticotomy in accelerating maxillary canine retraction. The sample in this clinical trial study consisted of 15 adult female patients with therapeutic need for extraction of maxillary first premolars and maximum canine retraction. By use of split-mouth design, at the time of premolars extraction, buccal corticotomy was performed around the maxillary first premolar, randomly on one side of maxilla, and the other side was reserved as the control side. Canine retraction was performed by use of friction - less mechanic with simple vertical loop. Every 2 weeks, distance between canines and second premolars was measured until complete space closure. The velocity of space closure was calculated to evaluate the effect of this technique in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using independent t-test, and the significance was set at 0.05. The rate of canine retraction was significantly higher on the corticotomy side than the control side by an average of 1.8 mm/month versus 1.1 mm/month in the corticotomy side and control side, respectively (P orthodontic tooth movement about two times faster than conventional orthodontics and it is significant in early stages after surgical porsedure. Therefore Buccal corticotomy is a useful adjunct technique for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement.

  9. The effect of buccal corticotomy on accelerating orthodontic tooth movement of maxillary canine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbakhshi, Mohammad Reza; Motamedi, Ali Mohammad Kalantar; Feizbakhsh, Masoud; Mogharehabed, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Selective alveolar corticotomy is defined as an intentional injury to cortical bone. This technique is an effective means of accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of buccal corticotomy in accelerating maxillary canine retraction. Materials and Methods: The sample in this clinical trial study consisted of 15 adult female patients with therapeutic need for extraction of maxillary first premolars and maximum canine retraction. By use of split-mouth design, at the time of premolars extraction, buccal corticotomy was performed around the maxillary first premolar, randomly on one side of maxilla, and the other side was reserved as the control side. Canine retraction was performed by use of friction – less mechanic with simple vertical loop. Every 2 weeks, distance between canines and second premolars was measured until complete space closure. The velocity of space closure was calculated to evaluate the effect of this technique in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using independent t-test, and the significance was set at 0.05. Results: The rate of canine retraction was significantly higher on the corticotomy side than the control side by an average of 1.8 mm/month versus 1.1 mm/month in the corticotomy side and control side, respectively (P orthodontic tooth movement about two times faster than conventional orthodontics and it is significant in early stages after surgical porsedure. Therefore Buccal corticotomy is a useful adjunct technique for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. PMID:27605986

  10. Canine tooth dimorphism: An adjunct for establishing sex identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwanati, Madhavi; Karia, Ashok; Yuwanati, Monal

    2012-07-01

    Teeth are an excellent material for genetic, odontological and forensic investigations and research purpose. From all the teeth, the mandibular canines are found to exhibit sexual dimorphism. However, very few studies have been published on maxillary canine's measurements. 1. To find out utility of maxillary and mandibular canine width as a tool for sex determination in Central Indian population. 2. To find out the average size of canines in males and females of Central Indian population. 3. To compare the findings with National and International studies. The present study was conducted in 100 cases in the age group of 17-21 years. Mesiodistal width of right and left mandibular and maxillary canines were measured on the casts with digital calliper and subjected to statistical analysis. Statistical analysis was done to assess sex difference using Students "t" test (paired). It was seen that a definite statistically significant sexual dimorphism exists when mandibular and maxillary canine measurements were compared. Thus, it can be suggested that canine width measurements can be used as an adjunct for sex identification purpose in Central Indian Population.

  11. Orthodontic tooth movement after extraction of previously autotransplanted maxillary canines and ridge augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, A R; Fletcher, B

    2000-12-01

    A case report is detailed in which autotransplanted maxillary canines were removed and the spaces closed. Substantial surrounding bone loss was associated with the upper right canine, and a bone graft was needed to reestablish normal dentoalveolar ridge morphology. Bone was taken from the maxillary tuberosity and placed in the canine extraction site, fixed with a bone screw, and covered with GoreTex. Seven months after placement of the bone graft, the GoreTex and stabilizing screw were removed to allow for consolidation of the bone. The upper left canine and lower second premolars were extracted, and fixed appliances were placed in both arches to align the teeth and close the spaces. Protraction of the upper right first premolar and retraction of the lateral incisor into the graft site were kept slow and constant with continued periodontal assessment. During the space closure, there was some concern that the bone in the graft site might resorb, leaving the teeth with compromised periodontal support. However, no significant periodontal attachment loss occurred despite ongoing concern about the amount of keratinized tissue. Perhaps the relatively slow rate of tooth movement provided for bone to be maintained and recreated ahead of the tooth. Almost complete closure of the upper canine extraction spaces was achieved. The upper premolars were substituted for the maxillary canines, and unfavorable prosthetic options were thus avoided. The lower arch was aligned, and the extraction spaces completely closed.

  12. Canine and incisor microwear in pitheciids and Ateles reflects documented patterns of tooth use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delezene, Lucas K; Teaford, Mark F; Ungar, Peter S

    2016-09-01

    Platyrrhine species differ in the extent to and the manner in which they use their incisors and canines during food ingestion. For example, Ateles uses its anterior teeth to process mechanically nondemanding soft fruits, while the sclerocarp-harvesting pitheciids rely extensively on these teeth to acquire and process more demanding foods. Pitheciids themselves vary in anterior tooth use, with the pitheciines (Cacajao, Chiropotes, and Pithecia) noted to use their robust canines in a variety of ways to predate seeds, while Callicebus, which rarely predates seeds, uses its incisors and exceptionally short canines to scrape tough mesocarp from fruits. To investigate the relationship between tooth use and dental wear, microwear textures were investigated for the anterior teeth of these five genera of platyrrhine primates. Using a white light confocal microscope, 12 microwear texture attributes that reflect feature size, anisotropy, density, and complexity were recorded from high-resolution epoxy casts of the incisors and canines of adult wild-collected Brazilian specimens of Ateles, Callicebus, Cacajao, Chiropotes, and Pithecia. Pitheciine canines tend to have deep microwear features and complex, anisotropic microwear textures, while Ateles anterior teeth tend to have very small features, low feature density, and less complex and anisotropic surfaces. Callicebus incisor and canine microwear is generally intermediate in size and complexity between those extremes. These findings align with expectations from reported field observations of tooth use and illustrate the potential for using microwear texture analysis to infer patterns of anterior tooth use in extinct primates. Am J Phys Anthropol 161:6-25, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The effect of low-level laser therapy on tooth movement during canine distalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üretürk, Sevin Erol; Saraç, Müyesser; Fıratlı, Sönmez; Can, Şule Batu; Güven, Yegane; Fıratlı, Erhan

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effects of low level laser therapy on tooth movement during canine distalization by evaluating IL-1β, TGF-β1 levels in gingival crevicular fluid. Maxillary first premolars of the 15 Angle Class II division I patients (12-19 years old) were extracted. Right maxillary canines were distalized by standard protocol as control group whereas the left maxillary canines distalized by laser application. A gallium-aluminum-arsenide diode laser with an output power of 20 mW was applied as five doses from the buccal and the palatal side on the day 0, and the 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21th 30th, 33st, 37th, 60th, 63th, and 67th days. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were obtained with filtration paper at the initial, 7th, 14th, and 21th days, and the IL-1ß and TGF-ß1 cytokine levels were analyzed. Orthodontic models and periodontal indices were taken initially and on the days 30th, 60th, and 90th of canine distalization period. Tooth movement was assessed by scanning models (3Shape). The amount of tooth movement in the laser group was 40% more than the control group. First day IL-1ß levels were statistically higher than initial and 21st day levels (P= 0.003, P = 0.012). The rise in IL-1ß levels caused the negative correlations between 7th day IL-1β and 21st day TGF-β1 levels describes the tissue effects of laser application. Periodontal indices showed no sign of gingival inflammation during canine distalization period. As conclusion, laser does accelerate tooth movement and could shorten the whole treatment duration.

  14. Does alveolar corticotomy accelerate orthodontic tooth movement when retracting upper canines? A split-mouth design randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naoum, Fadi; Hajeer, Mohammad Y; Al-Jundi, Azzam

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of alveolar corticotomy on orthodontic tooth movement when retracting upper canines compared with the conventional technique and to evaluate patients' pain and discomfort levels after corticotomy. A split-mouth design randomized controlled trial at the Department of Orthodontics (University Al-Baath Dental School) was performed. A total of 30 patients whose orthodontic treatment required canine retraction were included. The predictor variable was the use of corticotomy to facilitate tooth movement. The velocity of space closure was evaluated as the primary outcome variable by measuring the distance between the canine and first molar on each side of the mouth immediately after corticotomy and at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after corticotomy. The levels of pain and discomfort were evaluated as the secondary outcome variables using a questionnaire administered 4 times during the first week after corticotomy. Paired t tests or Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank tests were used to detect significant differences. A total of 30 patients (15 males and 15 females) were recruited with a mean age of 20.04 ± 3.63 years (range 15 to 24). The space closure velocity after corticotomy was significantly faster on the experimental side than on the control side (mean = 0.74 mm/week vs 0.20 mm/week between 1 week after and immediately after corticotomy, respectively; P orthodontic tooth movement and was accompanied by moderate degrees of pain and discomfort. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Endodontic therapy of a mandibular canine tooth with irreversible pulpitis secondary to dentigerous cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGee, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Dentigerous cysts are uncommon, yet are being reported with increasing frequency in the veterinary literature. Dentigerous cysts are a type of benign odontogenic cyst associated with impacted teeth, most commonly the mandibular first premolar tooth. Significant bone destruction can occur secondary to the expansion of a dentigerous cyst. The expanding cyst can lead to pathology of neighboring teeth, which can include external root resorption or pulpitis. Intraoral dental radiographs are imperative to properly assess the presence and extent of a dentigerous cyst, as well as the status of the neighboring teeth. This case report describes treatment for dentigerous cyst including cyst lining curettage, mandibular bone regeneration, and endodontic therapy for a canine tooth with irreversible pulpitis.

  16. Prediction of Un-erupted Canine and Premolar Tooth Size in Mixed Dentition among Bangladeshi Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokrobrty, R; Rafique, T; Ghosh, R; Biswas, A K; Sajedeen, M; Hassan, G S

    2017-10-01

    Accurate prediction of the space available to accommodate the size of the un-erupted canines and premolars plays an important role in mixed dentition in Orthodontics. This Descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Orthodontics of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University from July 2014 to June 2015. Dental study models of 140 patients were taken as sample. The sample was consisted of 54 Bangladeshi males and 86 females aged between 12 to 17 years and without any previous orthodontic treatment fully erupted permanent teeth and with no dental anomalies were recruited. The study was done by measuring the mesio-distal dimensions of teeth over the dental cast. A pre-structured data collection form which includes the particulars of the patient and data was filled. All patients were having a serial number to maintain their confidentiality. The study protocol was approved by "Institutional Review Board" of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh. Un-paired t test were used to examine differences between genders, correlation coefficients and linear regression equations were used to carry out the analysis. Descriptive statistics including means, standard deviations, and minimum-maximum values were calculated. Unpaired sample 't' tests were carried out to compare tooth size between the sexes. Logistic regression for development of new prediction formula on the basis of study sample of our population. Pearson correlation coefficient test for found the correlation between mandibular incisors and mandibular and maxillary canine and premolars in each quadrant. The difference between the present study with that of Moyers and Tanaka and Johnston were statistically significant (p<0.001). The values from Moyers and Tanaka and Johnston methods exceed while comparing to Bangladeshi population. Therefore, Moyers and Tanaka and Johnston method of prediction are not applicable for our population.

  17. Age estimation using pulp/tooth area ratio in maxillary canines-A digital image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Manjushree; Devi, Yashoda B K; Rakesh, N; Juneja, Saurabh

    2014-09-01

    Determination of age of a subject is one of the most important aspects of medico-legal cases and anthropological research. Radiographs can be used to indirectly measure the rate of secondary dentine deposition which is depicted by reduction in the pulp area. In this study, 200 patients of Karnataka aged between 18-72 years were selected for the study. Panoramic radiographs were made and indirectly digitized. Radiographic images of maxillary canines (RIC) were processed using a computer-aided drafting program (ImageJ). The variables pulp/root length (p), pulp/tooth length (r), pulp/root width at enamel-cementum junction (ECJ) level (a), pulp/root width at mid-root level (c), pulp/root width at midpoint level between ECJ level and mid-root level (b) and pulp/tooth area ratio (AR) were recorded. All the morphological variables including gender were statistically analyzed to derive regression equation for estimation of age. It was observed that 2 variables 'AR' and 'b' contributed significantly to the fit and were included in the regression model, yielding the formula: Age = 87.305-480.455(AR)+48.108(b). Statistical analysis indicated that the regression equation with selected variables explained 96% of total variance with the median of the residuals of 0.1614 years and standard error of estimate of 3.0186 years. There is significant correlation between age and morphological variables 'AR' and 'b' and the derived population specific regression equation can be potentially used for estimation of chronological age of individuals of Karnataka origin.

  18. Effects of local administration of osteocalcin on experimental tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Y; Takagi, H; Sakai, H; Hashimoto, F; Mataki, S; Kobayashi, K; Kato, Y

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of local administration of osteocalcin, a major noncollagenous bone matrix protein, on experimental tooth movement in rats. An orthodontic elastic band was inserted between the upper first and second molars, and the first molar was moved mesially. Purified osteocalcin (0 to 10 micrograms) in 20 microliters of phosphate-buffered saline was injected into the region of the root bifurcation of the first molar daily for 4 days. Tooth movement increased significantly following the injections. Histological studies revealed that the injections markedly stimulated the appearance of osteoclasts on the pressured side of the alveolar bone surface. The results suggest that osteocalcin has an additive effect on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement through the enhancement of osteoclastogenesis on the pressured side.

  19. Effects of low-energy laser irradiation on the distalization velocity during experimental canine tooth movement in humans: 'comparative clinical study'; Efeitos da irradiacao com laser em baixa intensidade na velocidade de distalizacao de caninos durante a movimentacao ortodontica: 'estudo clinico comparativo'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Delma Rebelo

    2003-07-01

    This research investigated the effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) upon the velocity of canine tooth movement and consequently bone remodeling. A total of eleven patients were treated with a 780 nm diode laser. One side of the upper arcade was considered control group and was not irradiated but received mechanical activation every thirty days. The opposite side received the same mechanical activation but was also irradiated at days 0, 3, 7 and 14 of each month. Data of the biometrical progress were taken on both sides on days 3,7,14,21 and 30 of each month. The results indicate that all patients showed significant acceleration of the distalization velocity on the side treated with LLLT when compared to the control. (author)

  20. Repair of a defect following the removal of an impacted maxillary canine by orthodontic tooth movement: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wai Yip; Rabie, A Bakr M; Wong, Ricky Wk

    2010-02-15

    This case report describes a 13-year-old boy with alveolar bony defect resulted from surgical removal of impacted upper canine transposed in the anterior region. The boy had a normal occlusion with malposition of upper central and lateral incisors. The treatment objectives were to align teeth, close spaces by mesial movement of the buccal segments in the upper jaw to repair bone loss. Fixed appliance with palatal root torque was used for the mesial movements, levelling, and alignment of teeth.Orthodontic tooth movement consisted of a sequence of root movement in a direction to increase the thickness of the labial cortical plate of bone, could ensure healthier periodontium. A healthier periodontium prior to space closure ensured repair of alveolar bony defect after surgical intervention. Orthodontic tooth movement should be added to our armamentarium for the repair of alveolar bony defect.

  1. Evaluating the Amount of Tooth Movement and Root Resorption during Canine Retraction with Friction versus Frictionless Mechanics Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlouf, Mohamed; Aboul-Ezz, Amr; Fayed, Mona Salah; Hafez, Hend

    2018-02-15

    The current study was carried out to compare the amount of tooth movement during canine retraction comparing two different retraction mechanics; friction mechanics represented by a NiTi closed coil spring versus frictionless mechanics represented by T - loop, and their effect on root resorption using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). Ten patients were selected in a split-mouth study design that had a malocclusion that necessitates the extraction of maxillary first premolars and retraction of maxillary canines. The right maxillary canines were retracted using T - loops fabricated from 0.017 X 0.025 TMA wires. The left maxillary canines received NiTi coil spring with 150 gm of retraction force. Pre retraction and post retraction Cone Beam Computed Tomography were taken to evaluate the amount of tooth movement and root resorption using three-dimensional planes. T - loop side showed statistically significant higher mean anteroposterior measurement than NiTi coil spring side, indicating a lower amount of canine movement pre and post a canine retraction. Concerning the root resorption, there was no statistically significant change in the mean measurements of canine root length post retraction. The NiTi coil spring side showed more distal movement more than the T-loop side. Both retraction mechanics with controlled retraction force, do not cause root resorption.

  2. Evaluating the Amount of Tooth Movement and Root Resorption during Canine Retraction with Friction versus Frictionless Mechanics Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlouf, Mohamed; Aboul–Ezz, Amr; Fayed, Mona Salah; Hafez, Hend

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current study was carried out to compare the amount of tooth movement during canine retraction comparing two different retraction mechanics; friction mechanics represented by a NiTi closed coil spring versus frictionless mechanics represented by T - loop, and their effect on root resorption using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). METHOD: Ten patients were selected in a split-mouth study design that had a malocclusion that necessitates the extraction of maxillary first premolars and retraction of maxillary canines. The right maxillary canines were retracted using T - loops fabricated from 0.017 X 0.025 TMA wires. The left maxillary canines received NiTi coil spring with 150 gm of retraction force. Pre retraction and post retraction Cone Beam Computed Tomography were taken to evaluate the amount of tooth movement and root resorption using three-dimensional planes. RESULTS: T - loop side showed statistically significant higher mean anteroposterior measurement than NiTi coil spring side, indicating a lower amount of canine movement pre and post a canine retraction. Concerning the root resorption, there was no statistically significant change in the mean measurements of canine root length post retraction. CONCLUSION: The NiTi coil spring side showed more distal movement more than the T-loop side. Both retraction mechanics with controlled retraction force, do not cause root resorption. PMID:29531610

  3. The effect of buccal corticotomy on accelerating orthodontic tooth movement of maxillary canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Jahanbakhshi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on result of this study, corticotomy can accelerates the rate of orthodontic tooth movement about two times faster than conventional orthodontics and it is significant in early stages after surgical porsedure. Therefore Buccal corticotomy is a useful adjunct technique for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement.

  4. Altered anatomy in a case with a buccally impacted maxillary canine tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, M C; Comes, C A; Stanciu, D; Ciuluvică, R C; Motoc, A; Niculescu, M C; Jianu, Adelina Maria

    2010-01-01

    Bilateral dissections of maxilla were performed in a human adult cadaver head, male, aged 53 years. After the en block removal of the soft tissues in the oral and infraorbital regions, the antero-lateral surface of maxilla was exposed and also the vestibular aspect of the upper alveolar process. An oblique labially impacted right upper canine was evidenced, completely submucosal: its apex was tangent to the maxillary sinus floor, while the superior side of the apical part of the root was in close relation with the floor of the laterally expanded inferior nasal meatus. Superior and adjacent to the neck of that impacted canine a follicular cyst was evidenced and the antral wall presented distally to the apex of the impacted canine a dehiscent area, where the antral mucosa was only covered by an incomplete thin bony lamella. The incisors on that side were present but no resorption was identified at their level. Within the anterior border of the wall separating the maxillary sinus, small, and the inferior nasal meatus, the nerve for that impacted canine was coursing; the nerves for the upper incisors were initially located within the antero-lateral wall of the inferior nasal meatus. Although small, the maxillary sinus presented a supero-medial recess above the enlarged inferior nasal meatus and lateral to the normally-sized middle nasal meatus.

  5. Guided tooth eruption: Comparison of open and closed eruption techniques in labially impacted maxillary canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M londhe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: After third molars, the maxillary canines are the most commonly impacted permanent teeth and one-third of these are labial impactions. Impacted canines often require orthodontic guidance in the eruption. This study was conducted to assess the posttreatment results of surgically exposed and orthodontically aligned labially impacted maxillary canines comparing two different surgical techniques. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two phases, a surgical phase and an orthodontic phase. In surgical phase, events during surgical exposure and recovery of 31 patients with labially impacted maxillary canine were recorded. Patients were managed with open and closed eruption technique. The assessment included comparison of two techniques of surgical exposure, postoperative pain, mobility, vitality, periodontal health, level of impaction, and duration of orthodontic treatment. Results: The postoperative recovery was longer after open eruption than close eruption technique (P = 0.000. Postoperative pain experienced by patients was similar, but regression of pain was faster in closed eruption technique. The mean surgical time for open eruption technique was lesser when compared with closed eruption technique (P = 0.000. The total duration of orthodontic treatment was directly dependent upon the level of impaction, with deeper level of impaction having longer duration of orthodontic treatment. The mobility and vitality of guided canine was similar in both techniques. Conclusion: The closed eruption technique was a longer surgical procedure, but the postoperative pain regression was faster. The duration of orthodontic treatment was longer with deeper level of impaction. The closed eruption surgical techniques provide better periodontal tissues around the guided erupted teeth.

  6. Establishing experimental model of human internal carotid artery siphon segment in canine common carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Xuee; Li Minghua; Wang Yongli; Cheng Yingsheng; Li Wenbin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the feasibility of establishing experimental model of human internal carotid artery siphon segment in canine common carotid artery (CCA) by end-to-end anastomoses of one side common carotid artery segment with the other side common carotid artery. Methods: Surgical techniques were used to make siphon model in 8 canines. One side CCA was taken as the parent artery and anastomosing with the cut off contra-lateral CCA segment which has passed through within the S-shaped glass tube. Two weeks after the creation of models angiography showed the model siphons were patent. Results: Experimental models of human internal carotid artery siphon segment were successfully made in all 8 dogs. Conclusions: It is practically feasible to establish experimental canine common carotid artery models of siphon segment simulating human internal carotid artery. (authors)

  7. A study of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in dogs as a disease model for canine necrotizing encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Hae-Won; Lee, Hee-Chun; Jeon, Joon-Hyeok; Kim, Na-Hyun; Sur, Jung-Hyang; Ha, Jeongim

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the use of dogs with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a disease model for necrotizing encephalitis (NE) was assessed. Twelve healthy dogs were included in this study. Canine forebrain tissues (8 g), including white and grey matter, were homogenized with 4 mL of phosphate-buffered saline for 5 min in an ice bath. The suspension was emulsified with the same volume of Freund's complete adjuvant containing 1 mg/mL of killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. Under sedation, each dog was injected subcutaneously with canine brain homogenate at four sites: two in the inguinal and two in the axillary regions. A second injection (booster) was administered to all the dogs using the same procedure 7 days after the first injection. Clinical assessment, magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid analyses, necropsies, and histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations were performed for the dogs with EAE. Out of the 12 animals, seven (58%) developed clinically manifest EAE at various times after immunization. Characteristics of canine EAE models were very similar to canine NE, suggesting that canine EAE can be a disease model for NE in dogs. PMID:25269720

  8. A study of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in dogs as a disease model for canine necrotizing encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Hae-Won; Lee, Hee-Chun; Jeon, Joon-Hyeok; Kim, Na-Hyun; Sur, Jung-Hyang; Ha, Jeongim; Jung, Dong-In

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the use of dogs with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a disease model for necrotizing encephalitis (NE) was assessed. Twelve healthy dogs were included in this study. Canine forebrain tissues (8 g), including white and grey matter, were homogenized with 4 mL of phosphate-buffered saline for 5 min in an ice bath. The suspension was emulsified with the same volume of Freund's complete adjuvant containing 1 mg/mL of killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. Under sedation, each dog was injected subcutaneously with canine brain homogenate at four sites: two in the inguinal and two in the axillary regions. A second injection (booster) was administered to all the dogs using the same procedure 7 days after the first injection. Clinical assessment, magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid analyses, necropsies, and histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations were performed for the dogs with EAE. Out of the 12 animals, seven (58%) developed clinically manifest EAE at various times after immunization. Characteristics of canine EAE models were very similar to canine NE, suggesting that canine EAE can be a disease model for NE in dogs.

  9. Cartilage integrity and proteoglycan turnover are comparable in canine experimentally induced and human joint degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke Intema

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The value of experimental models of osteoarthritis (OA largely depends on the ability to translate observations to human OA. Surprisingly, direct comparison of characteristics of human and experimental OA is scarce. In the present study, cartilage integrity and matrix turnover in a canine model of joint degeneration were compared to human clinical OA. In 23 Beagle dogs, joint degeneration was induced in one knee, the contra-lateral knee served as a control. For comparison, human osteoarthritic and healthy knee cartilage were obtained at arthroplasty (n=14 and post-mortem (n=13. Cartilage was analyzed by histology and biochemistry. Values for cartilage integrity and proteoglycan (PG synthesis showed species specific differences; GAG content of healthy cartilage was 2-fold higher in canine cartilage and PG synthesis even 8-fold. However, the relative decrease in PG content between healthy and OA cartilage was similar for humans and canines (-17% vs. -15%, respectively, as was the histological damage (+7.0 vs. +6.1, respectively and the increase of PG synthesis (+100% vs. +70%, respectively. Remarkably, the percentage release of total and of newly formed PGs in human and canine controls was similar, as was the increase due to degeneration (+65% vs. +81% and +91% vs. +52%, respectively. Despite differences in control conditions, the observed changes in characteristics of cartilage integrity and matrix turnover are similar in a canine model of joint degeneration and human clinical OA. The canine Groove model shows that its characteristics reflect those of human OA which makes the model appropriate for studying human OA.

  10. Tooth apatite as a bone substitute: an experimental study and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun-Seok Kim; Pill-Hoon Choung

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of calcined teeth powder as biological apatite. The animal experiment was performed in 36 rabbits aging 6 weeks and weighing 1.6 kg. In experimental group, tooth apatite powder was implanted to 10 mm bony defects in diameter made on the cranial bone of the rabbits. As control groups, synthetic porous hydroxyapatite and resorbable type calcium carbonate were implanted to the defects of same size. Each group was sacrificed in 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 weeks after the surgery. Specimens were prepared for decalcified samples and observed by a light microscope. And we also performed quantitative analysis of new bone formation through image analysis using computer. In clinical applications, we used tooth apatite alone or mixed with decalcified freeze-dried bone for reconstruction of bony defects in 15 patients undergone enucleation of cyst or ameloblastoma. The obtained results were as follows; 1) The powder of the calcined teeth was called as 'tooth apatite' and it seemed to have biocompatibility in rabbits and human. 2) In group of tooth apatite, after 4 weeks of operation, new bone directly bonded to the particles was observed. And in 12 weeks of it, new bone occupied most of the bony defects. In 6 weeks, resorption of the tooth apatite particles was observed. Thus the tooth apatite was regarded as one of resorbable apatite. 3) The group of tooth apatite showed new bone formation similar to the group of porous hydroxyapatite, but they were inferior to the group of resorbable calcium carbonate. 4) In clinical application, tooth apatite had biocompatibility and new bone formation was observed without any complication except for 1 case. So we think it is a useful bone substitute with osteoconductivity

  11. Transmigration of impacted canines: prevalence, management and implications on tooth structure and pulp vitality of adjacent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazinis, Emmanuel; Zafeiriadis, Anastasios; Karathanasis, Athinodoros; Lambrianidis, Theodor

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of transmigrant canines in a sample of panoramic radiographs of a random Greek population, to classify them and evaluate clinically and radiographically all the implications for adjacent teeth. Panoramic radiographs of 3,586 patients retrieved from eight private practices between 1998 and 2009, were examined. Panoramic radiographs with extracted canines were not included in this study. An impacted canine was considered to be transmigrant when at least part of its length had crossed the midline. Six radiographs exhibited transmigrant canines (0.17% of the total sample of panoramic radiographs), of which four were mandibular and two maxillary. Canine transmigration is a rare phenomenon in Greek population. The impact of transmigrant canines on adjacent teeth varied from inclination, calcific metamorphosis and root resorption to no effect. Orthodontic therapy was the treatment of choice for two of the cases, while in the remaining cases the patients were scheduled for periodic recalls. Clinical and radiographic evaluation and early diagnosis are crucial aids in proper treatment planning.

  12. An experimental study on the tooth root resorption for digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Phill Gyo; Kim, Jae Duk [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluated experimental tooth root resorption for digital radiography. For this study, experimentally three root sites were used, and radiograms were taken with standardized apparatus. Digital imaging system were consisted of NEC PC-9801 (computer), TRINITRON (monitor), SONY XC-711 CCD camera. The display monitor had a resolution of 512 X 512 pixels. The following results were obtained: 1. In the difference of the four X-ray film of the contrast correction, the contrast difference was one gray scale variation at mean value. 2. Viewing of the view box of the periapical radiographs, experimental tooth root resorption of the periapical area of the first premolar, middle of mesial surface of the first molar mesial root, middle of lingual surface of the first molar distal root were recognized by increased diameter. 3. On the analysis by histogram, the periapical area of the first premolar, the middle surface of the first molar mesial root were each recognized tooth root resorption of the 5,6,7 pixel, 2,4,5 pixel by increased diameter. 4. On the analysis by histogram, the middle of lingual surface of the first molar distal root was each recognized tooth root resorption of the none, 3,6, pixel by increased diameter.

  13. An experimental study on the tooth root resorption for digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Phill Gyo; Kim, Jae Duk

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluated experimental tooth root resorption for digital radiography. For this study, experimentally three root sites were used, and radiograms were taken with standardized apparatus. Digital imaging system were consisted of NEC PC-9801 (computer), TRINITRON (monitor), SONY XC-711 CCD camera. The display monitor had a resolution of 512 X 512 pixels. The following results were obtained: 1. In the difference of the four X-ray film of the contrast correction, the contrast difference was one gray scale variation at mean value. 2. Viewing of the view box of the periapical radiographs, experimental tooth root resorption of the periapical area of the first premolar, middle of mesial surface of the first molar mesial root, middle of lingual surface of the first molar distal root were recognized by increased diameter. 3. On the analysis by histogram, the periapical area of the first premolar, the middle surface of the first molar mesial root were each recognized tooth root resorption of the 5,6,7 pixel, 2,4,5 pixel by increased diameter. 4. On the analysis by histogram, the middle of lingual surface of the first molar distal root was each recognized tooth root resorption of the none, 3,6, pixel by increased diameter.

  14. Periodontal tissue activation by vibration: intermittent stimulation by resonance vibration accelerates experimental tooth movement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Makoto; Chiba, Mirei; Ohashi, Toshiro; Sato, Masaaki; Shimizu, Yoshiyuki; Igarashi, Kaoru; Mitani, Hideo

    2008-04-01

    Accelerating the speed of orthodontic tooth movement should contribute to the shortening of the treatment period. This would be beneficial because long treatment times are a negative aspect of orthodontic treatment. In this study, we evaluated the effects of mechanical stimulation by resonance vibration on tooth movement, and we showed the cellular and molecular mechanisms of periodontal ligament responses. The maxillary first molars of 6-week-old male Wistar rats were moved to the buccal side by using an expansive spring for 21 days (n = 6, control group), and the amount of tooth movement was measured. Additional vibrational stimulation (60 Hz, 1.0 m/s(2)) was applied to the first molars by using a loading vibration system for 8 minutes on days 0, 7, and 14 during orthodontic tooth movement (n = 6, experimental group). The animals were killed under anesthesia, and each maxilla was dissected. The specimens were fixed, decalcified, and embedded in paraffin. Sections were used for immunohistochemical analysis of receptor activator of NF kappa B ligand (RANKL) expression. The number of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone was counted by using TRAP staining, and the amount of root resorption was measured in sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The average resonance frequency of the maxillary first molar was 61.02 +/- 8.38 Hz. Tooth movement in the experimental group was significantly greater than in the control group (P vibration might accelerate orthodontic tooth movement via enhanced RANKL expression in the periodontal ligament without additional damage to periodontal tissues such as root resorption.

  15. Traumatic displacement of a maxillary primary canine tooth into the middle nasal concha presenting as chronic facial pain: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bušic, Njegoslav; Mihovilovic, Ante; Poljak, Nikola Kolja; Macan, Darko

    2015-01-01

    The case of a 32-year-old woman who sustained a nasal bone fracture and dental trauma at the age of 9 is described in this article. Misdiagnosis of the dental displacement into the middle turbinate at the initial examination led to chronic facial pain. The cause of the pain was incorrectly diagnosed or misinterpreted by several medical specialists, including an otolaryngologist, neurologist, physiatrist, ophthalmologist, internist, radiologist, oral surgeon, dentist, and the patient's family physician. Finally, 23 years after the dental trauma, a multislice computed tomogram revealed that the primary maxillary canine was dislocated into the right middle nasal concha. The tooth, which had become embedded into necrotic, inflammatory tissue, was removed by endoscopic surgery, which resulted in full resolution of the patient's pain.

  16. Ridge alterations following tooth extraction with and without flap elevation: an experimental study in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Mauricio G; Lindhe, Jan

    2009-06-01

    Different approaches were advocated to preserve or improve the dimension and contour of the ridge following tooth extraction. In some of studies, socket 'flapless extraction' apparently had a successful outcome. The objective of the present experiment was to compare hard tissue healing following tooth extraction with or without the prior elevation of mucosal full-thickness flaps. Five mongrel dogs were used. The two second mandibular premolars ((2)P(2)) were hemi-sected. The mesial roots were retained. By random selection the distal root in one side was removed after the elevation of full-thickness flaps while on the contralateral side, root extraction was performed in a flapless procedure. The soft tissue wound was closed with interrupted sutures. After 6 months of healing, the dogs were euthanized and biopsies were sampled. From each experimental site, four ground sections - two from the mesial root and two from the healed socket - were prepared, stained and examined in the microscope. The data showed that the removal of a single tooth (root) during healing caused a marked change in the edentulous ridge. In the apical and middle portions of the socket site minor dimensional alterations occurred while in the coronal portion of the ridge the reduction of the hard tissue volume was substantial. Similar amounts of hard tissue loss occurred during healing irrespective of the procedure used to remove the tooth was, i.e. flapless or following flap elevation. Tooth loss (extraction) resulted in marked alterations of the ridge. The size of the alveolar process was reduced. The procedure used for tooth extraction - flapless or following flap elevation - apparently did not influence the more long-term outcome of healing.

  17. An experimental study of inferior vena caval stent in canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Wang, Z; Guo, J

    1999-09-01

    To investigate the feasibility of our self made inferior vena cave (IVC) stent. Self-expanding, stainless steel, Z-shaped stents were deployed in the IVC of 14 dogs. They were randomly divided into four groups, four dogs in the first three groups, and 2 in the fourth group. IVC specimens were taken at 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks following stent deployment. No anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy was given. All stents were widely stretched out and so was the vessel lumen. No thrombus was present and the patency was 100% in all groups. The stents were completely covered by neointima 2 weeks after stent deployment. The neointimal thickness varied significantly: the thinnest at 2 weeks, the thickest at 4 weeks and becoming thinner at 8 weeks and stable until 16 weeks. The inflammatory reaction was gradually reduced. Under scanning electronic microscopy, the neointima was covered by a layer of endothelial cells 2 weeks following stenting, which were irregularly shaped and aligned. The cells became slender, spindle-shaped and aligned parallel to the direction of bolld flow 4 weeks afterwards. Experimental study indicated that our self-expanding IVC stent was feasible for clinical application.

  18. [Experimental model of tooth decay as an educational tool for school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Silva, Thiago Fernando; Feitosa, José Leonilson; Medeiros Dantas, Rodrigo Maristony; Dantas de Medeiros, Fabianna da Conceição; Cavalcanti Lima, Isabela Pinheiro; Guerra Seabra, Eduardo José

    2016-04-01

    Objective This work consisted of the construction of an educational in vitro model of dental caries that started with an adaptation of Miller's classic experiment. Methods In a sterilized and sealed glass jar, a sample paste of human saliva was collected and a substrate of manufactured sugar (sucrose) was added. In addition, a human tooth with healthy dental crown extracted in dental treatment but otherwise healthy was added. Research phase I had the negative control sample test (tooth + saliva without added) and the others were opened after 1, 2, 3 and 4 months of incubation. This phase was essential for the next experimental time development. In phase II, two saliva donors with poor levels of oral health habits were recruited. The incubation time (defined by phase I) was 2 and 3 months for each donor. Results This research data gives the possibility of building educational materials about the etiology of tooth decay and its clinical evolution. It also makes possible the production of an explanatory sheet about how to reproduce this experimental model to be used by school children in secondary education. Conclusions Doing this kind of work together at school can help reduce inequities in oral health, especially since there is an approximation toward the discourses, facilitating the process of information dissemination.

  19. Experimental tooth clenching. A model for studying mechanisms of muscle pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of this thesis was to broaden knowledge of pain mechanisms in myofascial temporomandibular disorders (M-TMD). The specific aims were to: Develop a quality assessment tool for experimental bruxism studies (study I). Investigate proprioceptive allodynia after experimental tooth clenching exercises (study II). Evaluate the release of serotonin (5-HT), glutamate, pyruvate, and lactate in healthy subjects (study III) and in patients with M-TMD (study IV), after experimental tooth clenching exercises. In (I), tool development comprised 5 steps: (i) preliminary decisions, (ii) item generation, (iii) face-validity assessment, (iv) reliability and discriminative validity testing, and (v) instrument refinement. After preliminary decisions and a literature review, a list of 52 items to be considered for inclusion in the tool was generated. Eleven experts were invited to participate on the Delphi panel, of which 10 agreed. After four Delphi rounds, 8 items remained and were included in the Quality Assessment Tool for Experimental Bruxism Studies (Qu-ATEBS). Inter-observer reliability was acceptable (k = 0.77), and discriminative validity high (phi coefficient 0.79; P < 0.01). During refinement, 1 item was removed; the final tool comprised 7 items. In (II), 16 healthy females participated in three 60-min sessions, each with 24- and 48-h follow-ups. Participants were randomly assigned to a repetitive experimental tooth clenching task with a clenching level of 10%, 20%, or 40% of maximal voluntary clenching force (MVCF). Pain intensity, fatigue, perceived intensity of vibration (PIV), perceived discomfort (PD), and pressure pain threshold (PPT) were measured throughout. A significant increase in pain intensity and fatigue but not in PD was observed over time. A significant increase in PIV was only observed at 40 min, and PPT decreased significantly over time at 50 and 60 min compared to baseline. In (III), 30 healthy subjects (16 females, and 14 males

  20. c-fos expression in the trigeminal sensory complex and pontine parabrachial areas following experimental tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, T; Nakagawa, K; Satoh, K; Moriyama, H; Takada, K

    1997-07-07

    Ortodontic tooth movement causes continuous pain. However, it does not appear immediately, usually appearing after the application of orthodontic force to the teeth. Mechanically induced inflammatory responses in the periodontal membrane are assumed to be related to the mechanism of the later pain sensation. In the present study, we investigated Fos-like immunoreactivity in the trigeminal sensory complex and pontine parabrachial areas 24 h after the commencement of experimental tooth movement. An orthodontic elastic module was unilaterally inserted between upper molars. Following experimental tooth movement, Fos-like immunoreactive neurons appeared ipsilaterally in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis and bilaterally in the lateral parabrachial nucleus. These results indicate that experimental tooth movement evokes delayed and continuous nociception after application of orthodontic force to the teeth and that the nociceptive information would be conveyed to the ipsilateral trigeminal subnucleus caudalis and further processed, at least in part, to the lateral parabrachial nucleus.

  1. Microscopic evaluation of induced tooth movement after subluxation trauma: an experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Carlos Agner Busato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the histological alterations that occurred in the periodontal area of rat molars submitted to induced tooth movement (ITM right after an intentional trauma (subluxation. METHODS: Forty adult male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus were selected. The animals were divided into eight groups (n = 5, according to the combination of variables: Group 1 - control (neither trauma nor ITM; Group 2 - ITM; Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 - dentoalveolar trauma groups corresponding, respectively, to 1, 3, 8 and 10 days after trauma; Groups 7 and 8 - the animals' molars were subjected to a 900 cN impact and, one and three days after the trauma event, tooth movement was induced. The rats' maxillary first molars were mesially moved during seven days with a closed coil (50 cN. After the experimental period of each group, the animals were sacrificed by anesthetic overdose and the right maxillas were removed and processed for histological analysis under light microscopy. RESULTS: In the animals of group 3, 4, 5 and 6, the histological alterations were not very significant. Consequently, the effect of induced tooth movement right after a subluxation event (groups 7 and 8 was very similar to those described for Group 2. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in the quality of periodontal repair when ITM was applied to teeth that had suffered a subluxation trauma.

  2. Canine C-peptide for characterization of experimental diabetes in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Besch, W.; Freyse, E.-J.

    1985-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay of canine C-peptide (CCP) was developed for the characterization of endogenous beta cell function in experimentally diabetic dogs. The animals were rendered diabetic by subtotal pancreatectomy and intrasurgical infusion of 2 mg/kg streptozotocin into the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery. After an average duration of diabetes of 5 months the animals showed zero peripheral venous fasting CCP levels with no response to feeding, OGTT/i.v. glucagon loading or i.v. glucose tolerance testing. The data on CCP levels entirely coincided with simultaneously measured plasma IRI levels. In non-diabetic control animals clear-cut CCP increases were observed after all stimuli. The experimental model provided an IDDM-type diabetes without toxic symptoms but with a sufficient exocrine pancreatic function. The comparison showed that plasma IRI analyses would also allow reliable characterization of insulinogenic functions in these animals. (author)

  3. Comparisons of orthodontic root resorption under heavy and jiggling reciprocating forces during experimental tooth movement in a rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Hikida, Takuji; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Shimizu, Mami; Kikuta, Jun; Yoshino, Tomokazu; Kasai, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    Objective Root mobility due to reciprocating movement of the tooth (jiggling) may exacerbate orthodontic root resorption (ORR). "Jiggling" describes mesiodistal or buccolingual movement of the roots of the teeth during orthodontic treatment. In the present study, buccolingual movement is described as "jiggling." We aimed to investigate the relationship between ORR and jiggling and to test for positive cell expression in odontoclasts in resorbed roots during experimental tooth movement (jiggli...

  4. Inflammatory responses in two commonly used rat models for experimental tooth movement: comparison with ligature-induced periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, R.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Maltha, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare two often used rat models for experimental tooth movement, namely the elastic band, and the coil spring model. They were compared with a silk-ligature-induced periodontitis model. DESIGN: Thirty six, 6-weeks-old rats were used. In a split mouth design four experimental

  5. OPN deficiency suppresses appearance of odontoclastic cells and resorption of the tooth root induced by experimental force application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chooryung J; Soma, Kunimichi; Rittling, Susan R; Denhardt, David T; Hayata, Tadayoshi; Nakashima, Kazuhisa; Ezura, Yoichi; Noda, Masaki

    2008-03-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a major non-collagenous bone matrix protein implicated in the regulation of cell function. Although OPN is rich in the cementum of the tooth, the significance of OPN in this tissue is not understood. Tooth root resorption is the most frequent complication of orthodontic tooth movement (TM). The objective of this study was to examine the pathophysiological role of OPN in cementum of the tooth root. For this purpose, the upper right first molar (M1) in OPN-deficient and wild-type (WT) mice was subjected to mechanical force via 10 gf NiTi coil spring while the left side molar was kept intact to serve as an internal control. Micro-CT section and the level of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells on the tooth root surface defined as odontoclasts were quantified at the end of the force application. In WT mice, force application to the tooth caused appearance of odontoclasts around the mesial surface of the tooth root resulting in tooth root resorption. In contrast, OPN deficiency significantly suppressed the force-induced increase in the number of odontoclasts and suppressed root resorption. This force application also induced increase in the number of TRAP-positive cells in the alveolar bone on the pressure side defined as osteoclasts, while the levels of the increase in osteoclastic cell number in such alveolar bone were similar between the OPN-deficient and WT mice. These observations indicate that OPN deficiency suppresses specifically tooth root resorption in case of experimental force application. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Effect of Methylphenidate on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Histological Features of Bone Tissue in Rats: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghili, Hossein; Yassaei, Soghra; Zahir, Shokouh Taghipour; Arjmandi, Rahele

    2017-07-01

    Methylphenidate is a psychostimulant drug, which is commonly used by children and teenagers. This age group receives most orthodontic treatment. Effect of this drug on tooth movement is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of methylphenidate on orthodontic tooth movement and histological features of bone tissue in rats. Forty-two Wistar rats (male) were selected and divided to three groups, randomly (n=14). The control group (Group 1) received no drug, the experimental Group 2 received a constant dose of methylphenidate daily for 14 days while the experimental Group 3 received increasing doses of methylphenidate daily. To exert force, a NiTi coil spring was placed between the maxillary right first molar and the maxillary right central incisor. At the end of the study period, the amount of tooth movement was measured and then the rats were sacrificed for histological analysis of bone tissue. Differences between the experimental groups were analysed using Kruskal-wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. No significant differences were found in the amount of orthodontic tooth movement or osteoclasts and lacunae, between the experimental groups (p>0.05). Mann-Whitney U analysis showed significant differences in the depth of resorption lacuna between Group 2 and 3 (p=0.037). Methylphenidate has no significant effect on orthodontic tooth movement or histological features of bone tissue in rats.

  7. Effect of Diode Laser on Healing of Tooth Extraction Socket: An Experimental Study in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Shehab Ahmed; Naif, Jandar S; Abdullah, Mahdi A

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy on healing of extracted tooth socket of healthy rabbits. The sample of this study was 20 male rabbits of 2-2.5 kg weight with age range of 8-12 months. Right and left lower first premolar teeth were extracted. The extraction sockets of lower right first premolar were irradiated with 0.9 W gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser for 5 min, immediately after extraction and then every 72 h for the next 12 days. The extraction socket of left side were not exposed to laser and served as a control. The animals were sacrificed after 7, 14, 30 and 45 days and the experimental and control sockets were removed from the harvested mandibles and prepared for haematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson's stain. The prepared slides were examined under light microscope for histological and histomorphometric examination. The histological examination showed that diode laser-treated sockets demonstrated early formed new bone with faster maturation of primary bone to secondary bone as compared to non-treated control sockets. Histomorphometric analysis revealed a statistically significant increase in the density and volume of trabecular bone in laser-treated sockets than control sockets. Diode laser application to tooth extraction socket has a positive effect on bone formation.

  8. Root resorption after local injection of prostaglandin E2 during experimental tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudvik, P; Rygh, P

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of orthodontic root resorption in connection with local injection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The material consisted of 25 male Wistar rats. The control group comprised six animals where no force was applied. In five animals 0.1 ml of 0.1 micrograms/microliter PGE2 was injected in the gingival area of the upper right first molar. In one animal no PGE2 was injected. The animals were killed after 3 days. The experimental tooth movement groups consisted of 19 animals. Duration of experiments was 3 days, 7 days, and 10 days. The maxillary first molars on both sides were each moved mesially by means of a coil spring. On the right side 0.1 ml of PGE2 0.1 micrograms/microliters was injected in the gingiva on the buccal side of the upper first molar on days 0, 3, 5, and 7. On the left side no injection of PGE2 was performed. In three animals in the 7-day group the vehicle (Waymouth medium) was injected. There was no significant difference in root resorption between the experimentally moved teeth with and without local injection of PGE2, but a trend towards more root resorption was registered on the teeth where such injections had been performed.

  9. Experimental infection of dogs with Leishmania and saliva as a model to study Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Joaquim Costa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, transmitted by the bite of Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. Dogs are the main domestic reservoir of the parasite. The establishment of an experimental model that partially reproduces natural infection in dogs is very important to test vaccine candidates, mainly regarding those that use salivary proteins from the vector and new therapeutical approaches. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, we describe an experimental infection in dogs, using intradermal injection of Leishmania infantum plus salivary gland homogenate (SGH of Lutzomyia longipalpis. Thirty-five dogs were infected with 1×10(7 parasites combined with five pairs of Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary glands and followed for 450 days after infection and clinical, immunological and parasitological parameters were evaluated. Two hundred and ten days after infection we observed that 31,4% of dogs did not display detectable levels of anti-Leishmania antibodies but all presented different numbers of parasites in the lymph nodes. Animals with a positive xenodiagnosis had at least 3,35×10(5 parasites in their lymph nodes. An increase of IFN-γ and IL-10 levels was detected during infection. Twenty two percent of dogs developed symptoms of CVL during infection. CONCLUSION: The infection model described here shows some degree of similarity when compared with naturally infected dogs opening new perspectives for the study of CVL using an experimental model that employs the combination of parasites and sand fly saliva both present during natural transmission.

  10. The effect of prostaglandins on experimental tooth movement in monkeys (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, K; Shibata, Y; Fukuhara, T

    1982-12-01

    Local administrations of prostaglandins E1 or E2 combined with orthodontic tooth movement can approximately double the rate of tooth movement in monkeys compared to that of the control. Macroscopically, no side-effect was observed in the gingiva and associated structures.

  11. Randomized-controlled clinical trial of customized zirconia and titanium implant abutments for single-tooth implants in canine and posterior regions: 3-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembic, Anja; Sailer, Irena; Jung, Ronald Ernst; Hämmerle, Christoph Hans Franz

    2009-08-01

    The aim was to test whether or not zirconia abutments exhibit the same survival and technical/biological outcome as titanium abutments. Twenty-two patients receiving 40 single-tooth implants in canine and posterior regions were included. The implant sites were randomly assigned to 20 zirconia and 20 titanium abutments. All-ceramic and metal-ceramic crowns were fabricated. At baseline, 6, 12 and 36 months, the reconstructions were examined for technical and biological problems. Probing pocket depth (PPD), plaque control record (PCR) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were assessed at abutments (test) and analogous contralateral teeth (control). Standardized radiographs of the implants were made and the bone level (BL) was measured referring to the implant shoulder on mesial (mBL) and distal sides (dBL). The difference of color (DeltaE) of the peri-implant mucosa and the gingiva of control teeth was assessed with a spectrophotometer. The data were statistically analyzed with Mann-Whitney Rank and Student's unpaired t-tests. Eighteen patients with 18 zirconia and 10 titanium abutments were examined at a mean follow-up of 36 months (range 31.5-53.3 months). No fracture of an abutment or loss of a reconstruction was found. Hence, both exhibited 100% survival. At two metal-ceramic crowns supported by titanium abutments chipping of the veneering ceramic occurred. No difference of the biological outcome of zirconia and titanium abutments was observed: PPD (meanPPD(ZrO(2)) 3.2 +/- 1 mm, mPPD(Ti) 3.4 +/- 0.5 mm), PCR (mPCR(ZrO(2)) 0.1 +/- 0.2, mPCR(Ti) 0.1 +/- 0.2) and BOP (mBOP(ZrO(2)) 0.4 +/- 0.4, mBOP(Ti) 0.2 +/- 0.3). Furthermore, the BL was similar at implants supporting zirconia and titanium abutments (mBL(ZrO(2)) 1.7 +/- 1, dBL(ZrO(2)) 1.6 +/- 1; mBL(Ti) 2 +/- 1, dBL(Ti) 2.1 +/- 1). Both, zirconia and titanium abutments induced a similar amount of discoloration of the mucosa compared with the gingiva at natural teeth (DeltaE(ZrO(2)) 9.3 +/- 3.8, DeltaE(Ti) 6.8 +/- 3.8). At

  12. The level’s changing of transforming growth factor β2 during canine retraction in non-growing age patient

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    Adianti Adianti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orthodontic tooth movement occurred as a result of alveolar bone remodeling and collagen due to mechanical load. This mechanical load applied to the tooth will exert a number of cytokine and growth factors. One of the growth factors that are often associated with orthodontic tooth movement is transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β. It has 3 isoforms, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3. It has been known that in adult patient, tooth movement rate was slower. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the changing level of TGF-β2 in non-growing patient due to mechanical load in canine retraction. Method: Gingival crevicular fluid from 6 subjects who undergo canine retraction was taken to investigate changing level of TGF-β2. Distal site of each upper canine served as an experimental tooth. The gingival crevicular fluid from experimental tooth was taken just prior to mechanical load, at 24h and 72h after mechanical load. Result: ELISA reader showed that level of TGF-β2 was decreasing during experiment time. Conclusion: It can be concluded that in non-growing patient, TGF-β2 has less role in alveolar bone resorption in orthodontic tooth movement.

  13. Experimental determination of net protein charge and A(tot) and K(a) of nonvolatile buffers in canine plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Peter D; Stämpfli, Henry R

    2005-01-01

    Acid-base abnormalities frequently are present in sick dogs. The mechanism for an acid-base disturbance can be determined with the simplified strong ion approach, which requires accurate values for the total concentration of plasma nonvolatile buffers (A(tot)) and the effective dissociation constant for plasma weak acids (K(a)). The aims of this study were to experimentally determine A(tot) and K(a) values for canine plasma. Plasma was harvested from 10 healthy dogs; the concentrations of quantitatively important strong ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, L-lactate) and nonvolatile buffer ions (total protein, albumin, phosphate) were determined; and the plasma was tonometered with CO2 at 37 degrees C. Strong ion difference (SID) was calculated from the measured strong ion concentrations, and nonlinear regression was used to estimate values for A(tot) and K(a), which were validated with data from an in vitro and in vivo study. Mean (+/- SD) values for canine plasma were A(tot) = (17.4 +/- 8.6) mM (equivalent to 0.273 mmol/g of total protein or 0.469 mmol/g of albumin); K(a) = (0.17 +/- 0.11) x 10(-7); pK(a) = 7.77. The calculated SID for normal canine plasma (pH = 7.40; P(CO2) = 37 mm Hg; [total protein] = 64 g/L) was 27 mEq/L. The net protein charge for normal canine plasma was 0.25 mEq/g of total protein or 0.42 mEq/g of albumin. Application of the experimentally determined values for A(tot), K(a), and net protein charge should improve understanding of the mechanism for complex acid-base disturbances in dogs.

  14. Vibratory stimulation increases interleukin-1 beta secretion during orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leethanakul, Chidchanok; Suamphan, Sumit; Jitpukdeebodintra, Suwanna; Thongudomporn, Udom; Charoemratrote, Chairat

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of application of vibratory stimuli on interleukin (IL)-1β secretion during maxillary canine distalization. Split-mouth design study in 15 subjects (mean age, 22.9 years; range 19-25 years) whose bilateral maxillary first premolars were extracted with subsequent canine distalization. On the experimental side, light force (60 g) was applied to the canine for 3 months in combination with vibratory stimuli provided using an electric toothbrush 15 minutes a day for 2 months; only orthodontic force was applied to the contralateral control canine. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was collected from the mesial and distal sides of each canine at each monthly appointment. IL-1β levels were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Canine movement was measured monthly. Overall, enhanced IL-1β secretion was observed at the pressure sites of experimental canines compared to control canines (mean, 0.64 ± 0.33 pg/µL vs 0.10 ± 0.11 pg/µL, respectively, P electric toothbrush enhanced the secretion of IL-1β in GCF and accelerated orthodontic tooth movement.

  15. Pathogenesis of canine distemper virus in experimentally infected raccoon dogs, foxes, and minks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianjun; Shi, Ning; Sun, Yangang; Martella, Vito; Nikolin, Veljko; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Hailing; Hu, Bo; Bai, Xue; Yan, Xijun

    2015-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a broad range of carnivores and causes a highly contagious disease with severe immunosuppression. The disease severity markedly varies in different species. To investigate the pathogenesis of CDV in raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), fox (Vulpes vulpes) and mink (Neovison vison) species, three groups of CDV sero-negative animals were infected with CDV strain LN(10)1. This CDV strain belongs to the Asia-1 genotype, which is epidemiologically predominant in carnivores in China. CDV infection provoked marked differences in virulence in the three species that were studied. Raccoon dogs developed fever, severe conjunctivitis, and pathological lesions, with 100% (5/5) mortality and with high viral RNA loads in organs within 15 days post infection (dpi). In infected foxes, the onset of the disease was delayed, with 40% (2/5) mortality by 21 dpi. Infected minks developed only mild clinical signs and pathological lesions, and mortality was not observed. Raccoon dogs and foxes showed more severe immune suppression (lymphopenia, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, viremia and low-level virus neutralizing antibodies) than minks. We also observed a distinct pattern of cytokine mRNA transcripts at different times after infection. Decreased IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA responses were evident in the animals with fatal disease, while up-regulation of these cytokines was observed in the animals surviving the infection. Increased TNF-α response was detected in animals with mild or severe clinical signs. Based on the results, we could distinguish three different patterns of disease after experimental CDV infection, e.g. a mild form in minks, a moderate form in foxes and a severe disease in raccoon dogs. The observed differences in susceptibility to CDV could be related to distinct host cytokine profiles. Comparative evaluation of CDV pathogenesis in various animal species is pivotal to generate models suitable for the evaluation of CDV

  16. Impact of Ellagic Acid in Bone Formation after Tooth Extraction: An Experimental Study on Diabetic Rats

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    Mazen M. Jamil Al-Obaidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To estimate the impact of ellagic acid (EA towards healing tooth socket in diabetic animals, after tooth extraction. Methods. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley male rats weighing 250–300 g were selected for this study. All animals were intraperitoneally injected with 45 mg/kg (b.w. of freshly prepared streptozotocin (STZ, to induce diabetic mellitus. Then, the animals were anesthetized, and the upper left central incisor was extracted and the whole extracted sockets were filled with Rosuvastatin (RSV. The rats were separated into three groups, comprising 8 rats each. The first group was considered as normal control group and orally treated with normal saline. The second group was regarded as diabetic control group and orally treated with normal saline, whereas the third group comprised diabetic rats, administrated with EA (50 mg/kg orally. The maxilla tissue stained by eosin and hematoxylin (H&E was used for histological examinations and immunohistochemical technique. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were used to evaluate the healing process in the extracted tooth socket by immunohistochemistry test. Results. The reactions of immunohistochemistry for FGF-2 and ALP presented stronger expression, predominantly in EA treated diabetic rat, than the untreated diabetic rat. Conclusion. These findings suggest that the administration of EA combined with RSV may have accelerated the healing process of the tooth socket of diabetic rats, after tooth extraction.

  17. Age-related changes of dental pulp tissue after experimental tooth movement in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Bohl, Martina; Ren, Yijin; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne M.; Fudalej, Piotr S.; Maltha, Jaap C.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the effect of orthodontic tooth movement on the dental, pulp in adolescents is reversible and that it has no long-lasting effect on pulpal physiology. However, it is not clear yet if the same conclusion is also valid for adult subjects. Thus, in two groups of rats, aged

  18. Age-related changes of dental pulp tissue after experimental tooth movement in rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohl, M. Von; Ren, Y.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Fudalej, P.S.; Maltha, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the effect of orthodontic tooth movement on the dental pulp in adolescents is reversible and that it has no long-lasting effect on pulpal physiology. However, it is not clear yet if the same conclusion is also valid for adult subjects. Thus, in two groups of rats, aged

  19. The biomechanical behaviour of the hyalinized periodontal ligament in dogs during experimental orthodontic tooth movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsdottir, S.H.; Giesen, E.B.W.; Maltha, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    During orthodontic tooth movement, the mechanical behaviour of the extracellular matrix of the periodontal ligament (PDL) determines the cellular processes involved in turnover of the PDL and alveolar bone. This mechanical behaviour is the basis for finite element (FE) models and FE analyses. Five

  20. The biomechanical behaviour of the hyalinized periodontal ligament in dogs during experimental orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónsdóttir, S H; Giesen, E B W; Maltha, J C

    2012-10-01

    During orthodontic tooth movement, the mechanical behaviour of the extracellular matrix of the periodontal ligament (PDL) determines the cellular processes involved in turnover of the PDL and alveolar bone. This mechanical behaviour is the basis for finite element (FE) models and FE analyses. Five young adult male beagle dogs were used to test the null hypothesis that the mechanical behaviour of the PDL is identical in normal and hyalinized PDL. Therefore, tooth transposition was measured after standardized force application by super-elastic nickel titanium (NiTi) coil springs, exerting a constant force of 100 cN for 5 hours in both conditions. A rapid transposition during the first few seconds was found. However, it was significantly less for hyalinized than for non-hyalinized PDL. Subsequently, a short-lived creep movement was found for hyalinized PDL, while creep persisted at the non-hyalinized sides (analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparisons post hoc tests). The results showed substantial biomechanical differences between hyalinized and non-hyalinized PDL at different time points (Mann-Whitney). This indicates that FE models in the study of long-term orthodontic tooth movement, which are based solely on the characteristics of normal PDL should be reconsidered.

  1. Age-related changes of dental pulp tissue after experimental tooth movement in rats

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    Martina Von Böhl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the effect of orthodontic tooth movement on the dental pulp in adolescents is reversible and that it has no long-lasting effect on pulpal physiology. However, it is not clear yet if the same conclusion is also valid for adult subjects. Thus, in two groups of rats, aged 6 and 40 weeks respectively, 3 molars at one side of the maxilla were moved together in a mesial direction with a standardized orthodontic appliance delivering a force of 10 cN. The contralateral side served as a control. Parasagittal histological sections were prepared after tooth movement for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The pulp tissue was characterized for the different groups, with special emphasis on cell density, inflammatory cells, vascularity, and odontoblasts. Dimensions of dentin and the pulpal horns was determined and related with the duration of orthodontic force application and age ware evaluated. We found that neither in young nor in adult rats, force application led to long-lasting or irreversible changes in pulpal tissues. Dimensional variables showed significant age-related changes. In conclusion, orthodontic tooth movement per se has no long-lasting or irreversible effect on pulpal tissues, neither in the young nor in the adult animals.

  2. A modified dis-impaction spring for impacted canines

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    Syed Omar Aziz Rizvi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tooth impaction is the retardation in the eruption pattern of a tooth. One of the most commonly impacted teeth is the maxillary canine. However, impaction of mandibular canines is not as common as maxillary canines. Treatment of such impacted teeth usually involves surgical exposure, followed by bonding of an orthodontic attachment to facilitate extrusive movement of the impacted tooth. However, some side-effects on other teeth can be expected which includes the intrusion and tipping of adjacent teeth. In order to prevent side-effects on the adjacent teeth, we present a modified uprighting spring used to extrude an impacted canine.

  3. Inflammatory responses in two commonly used rat models for experimental tooth movement: comparison with ligature-induced periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rui; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Maltha, Jaap C

    2011-02-01

    To compare two often used rat models for experimental tooth movement, namely the elastic band, and the coil spring model. They were compared with a silk-ligature-induced periodontitis model. Thirty six, 6-weeks-old rats were used. In a split mouth design four experimental conditions were allocated by permutation: (1) insertion of an orthodontic elastic band between the maxillary first and the second molar, (2) placement of a silk ligature around the cervix of the upper second molar, (3) a 10cN NiTi coil spring for mesial movement of the three maxillary molars as one block, and (4) Control. After 1, 3, and 5 days, rats were killed and immunohistochemical staining for ED1, cathepsin K, and MMP9 was performed. A time-dependent increase in the inflammatory infiltration of the interdental papilla was found in the elastic band and the ligature model, but not in the spring model. The disruption of the epithelium of the interdental papilla and the transseptal fibers was less severe in the spring group than in the other two experimental groups. All three experimental groups showed a time-dependent resorption of the interdental bony septum. However, this started faster and was more severe in the elastic band and the ligature than in the spring group. The numbers of cathepsin K+ and MMP9+ cells were higher in the elastic band and the ligature group than in the spring group. Elastic bands yield similar periodontal effects as ligatures. The spring model is to be preferred for experimental tooth movement studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental Research Regarding the Sprocket Toothing on Milling Machine "ISEL MSP 4329"

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin BUCUR; Mihai ȘIMON

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper are analyzed the research results of possibilities which aims verification of processing the sprocket with double toothing, on the milling machine “ISEL MSP 4329”, to determine the precision of the profile execution by splintering with an endmill cutter. Obtained profile is measured, using “PC-DMIS” software on the “CNC” measuring machine “3D Sheffield” and an automatic analyzing of roughness with the Taly Profile Gold 5.1.1.5374 software on the Surtronic device . The res...

  5. Canine extrusion with a vertical tube supported cantilever spring

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    U H Vijayashree

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary canine is the most frequently impacted tooth in the dental arch and twice common in females than in males. Treatment of impacted maxillary canine can be difficult and time consuming, depending on its position. Improper direction and magnitude of applied force can lead to increased chances of adjacent tooth resorption. This article describes about a simple cantilever spring that can be fabricated at chair side for extrusion of a bucally impacted canine.

  6. Effects of near-infrared LED therapy on experimental tooth replantation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigatto Mitihiro, Débora; de Paula Ramos, Solange; Corazza Montero, Janaína; Alves Campos, Aline; de Oliveira Toginho Filho, Dari; Dezan Garbelini, Cassia Cilene

    2017-02-01

    Dental avulsion damages periodontal tissues and may induce dentoalveolar ankylosis and root resorption after replantation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of light-emitting diode (LED) therapy after tooth replantation. The upper right incisors of 36 male Wistar rats were extracted and replanted after 15 min. The control group (Co, n = 18) was submitted to replantation and the LED group (n = 18) was submitted to replantation and LED therapy (940 nm, 4 J cm -2 ) for three consecutive days (0, 24, and 48 h). Six animals from each group were euthanized at 7, 14, and 21 days for histological analysis. The upper left incisors were used as a negative control. Data were compared using the Fisher exact test, considering P LED (72.2%) groups presented areas of periodontal ligament necrosis. However, periodontal ligament necrosis was more frequent in the LED group at 14 (70%, P LED group (24.4%, P LED group after 21 days (83.3%, P LED group after 14 (79%, P LED therapy up to 48 h after tooth replantation may delay periodontal ligament repair. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Shear bond strengths of tooth coating materials including the experimental materials contained various amounts of multi-ion releasing fillers and their effects for preventing dentin demineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Shoko; Suzuki, Masaya; Kazama-Koide, Miku; Shinkai, Koichi

    2017-10-01

    We examined shear bond strengths (SBSs) of various tooth-coating-materials including the experimental materials to dentin and demineralization resistance of a fractured adhesive surface after the SBS testing. Three resin-type tooth-coating-materials (BC, PRG Barrier Coat; HC, Hybrid Coat II; and SF, Shield force plus) and two glass-ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials (CV, Clinpro XT Varnish; and FJ, Fuji VII) were selected. The experimental PRG Barrier Coat containing 0, 17, and 33 wt% S-PRG filler (BC0, BC17, and BC33, respectively) were developed. Each tooth-coating-material was applied to flattened dentin surfaces of extracted human teeth for SBS testing. After storing in water for 32 days with 4000 thermal cycling, the specimens were subjected to the SBS test. Specimens after SBS testing were subjected to a pH cycling test, and then, demineralization depths were measured using a polarized-light microscope. ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test were used for statistical analysis. The SBS value of FJ and CV was significantly lower than those of other materials except for BC (p coating-materials demonstrated significantly higher SBS for dentin than the glass-ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials; however, they were inferior to the glass ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials in regards to the acid resistance of the fractured adhesion surface.

  8. Morbillivirus Experimental Animal Models: Measles Virus Pathogenesis Insights from Canine Distemper Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fontoura Budaszewski, Renata; von Messling, Veronika

    2016-10-11

    Morbilliviruses share considerable structural and functional similarities. Even though disease severity varies among the respective host species, the underlying pathogenesis and the clinical signs are comparable. Thus, insights gained with one morbillivirus often apply to the other members of the genus. Since the Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes severe and often lethal disease in dogs and ferrets, it is an attractive model to characterize morbillivirus pathogenesis mechanisms and to evaluate the efficacy of new prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. This review compares the cellular tropism, pathogenesis, mechanisms of persistence and immunosuppression of the Measles virus (MeV) and CDV. It then summarizes the contributions made by studies on the CDV in dogs and ferrets to our understanding of MeV pathogenesis and to vaccine and drugs development.

  9. Morbillivirus Experimental Animal Models: Measles Virus Pathogenesis Insights from Canine Distemper Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Fontoura Budaszewski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Morbilliviruses share considerable structural and functional similarities. Even though disease severity varies among the respective host species, the underlying pathogenesis and the clinical signs are comparable. Thus, insights gained with one morbillivirus often apply to the other members of the genus. Since the Canine distemper virus (CDV causes severe and often lethal disease in dogs and ferrets, it is an attractive model to characterize morbillivirus pathogenesis mechanisms and to evaluate the efficacy of new prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. This review compares the cellular tropism, pathogenesis, mechanisms of persistence and immunosuppression of the Measles virus (MeV and CDV. It then summarizes the contributions made by studies on the CDV in dogs and ferrets to our understanding of MeV pathogenesis and to vaccine and drugs development.

  10. Temporary preservation of avulsed tooth in oral submucosal tissue: an experimental study in cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamalpour, Mohammad Reza; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Tootunchi, Amir Sasan; Roshanipaian, Milad

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of oral submucosal tissue to serve as a temporary storage medium for the maintenance of periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability of avulsed teeth. Thirty cats were divided into five groups. After extraction of three teeth in each cat, one tooth was put in the depth of cat's oral submucosal tissue and the other two teeth were put in Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) and tap water. The teeth were removed after 8, 24, 48, 72, and 168 h from their mediums and sent for laboratory processing and counting of vital periodontal cells. Statistical analysis demonstrated that submucosal tissue kept PDL cells viable as good as HBSS. This animal study showed that the efficacy of oral submucosal tissue in maintaining the viability of human PDL cells is similar to that of HBSS. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Novel bone substitute material in alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction: an experimental study in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinyi; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Philipp, Alexander; Hild, Nora; Tawse-Smith, Andrew; Duncan, Warwick

    2016-07-01

    Electrospun cotton wool-like nanocomposite (ECWN) is a novel synthetic bone substitute that incorporates amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles into a biodegradable synthetic copolymer poly(lactide-co-glycolide). The objectives of this study were to develop a tooth extraction socket model in sheep for bone graft research and to compare ECWN and bovine-derived xenograft (BX) in this model. Sixteen cross-bred female sheep were used. Bilateral mandibular premolars were extracted atraumatically. Second and third premolar sockets were filled (Latin-square allocation) with BX, ECWN or left unfilled. Resorbable collagen membranes were placed over BX and selected ECWN grafted sockets. Eight sheep per time period were sacrificed after 8 and 16 weeks. Resin-embedded undemineralised sections were analysed for descriptive histology and histomorphometric analyses. At 8 weeks, there were with no distinct differences in healing among the different sites. At 16 weeks, osseous healing followed a fine trabecular pattern in ECWN sites. Non-grafted sites showed thick trabeculae separated by large areas of fibrovascular connective tissue. In BX grafted sites, xenograft particles were surrounded by newly formed bone or fibrovascular connective tissue. There were no statistically significant differences in bone formation across the four groups. However, ECWN sites had significantly less residual graft material than BX sites at 16 weeks (P = 0.048). This first description of a tooth extraction socket model in sheep supports the utility of this model for bone graft research. The results of this study suggested that the novel material ECWN did not impede bone ingrowth into sockets and showed evidence of material resorption. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The difference of canine, first and second premolar tooth size resulted from cone beam computed tomography imaging with Moyers Prediction Table on the working study model

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    Julies Hariani Sugiaman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Model study is one of the standard orthodontic components which is important for diagnosis and treatment plan, but in some patients with the high gag reflex, it will be difficult to get this kind of study models. The existence of a new device which is able to show the condition of patients' mouth in three space areas (axial, sagittal, and coronal is expected to be an alternative when a study model is difficult to get. The purpose of this study is to find out whether or not there are any differences on the size of canine's mesiodistal, first and second premolar resulted from CBCT imaging with Moyers analysis on the study models. The method of the research is comparative descriptive. Measurements are made on 10 CBCT imaging results and 10 study models. The mesiodistal size, the result of CBCT imaging is measured by the available computer program and also the mesiodistal size of the study models is measured using a sliding compass, and then the size of canines, first and second premolar teeth resulted from CBCT imaging are compared to the result of Moyers method analysis on the study models. The t-test is used to find out if there is a difference between teeth size value between the CBCT imaging with the study models. The significance is determined based on the p-value t table.

  13. Experimental basis of shockwave-induced renal trauma in the model of the canine kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassweiler, J; Köhrmann, K U; Back, W; Fröhner, S; Raab, M; Weber, A; Kahmann, F; Marlinghaus, E; Jünemann, K P; Alken, P

    1993-01-01

    Using the new electromagnetic shockwave source of the Modulith SL 20 shockwave-induced renal trauma was evaluated by acute and chronic studies in the the canine kidney model. In a further study the electromagnetic shockwave source of the Lithostar Plus Overhead module was tested. Overall, 92 kidneys were exposed to shock waves coupled either by water bath (Modulith lab type) or by water cushion (Modulith prototype, Lithostar Overhead) under ultrasound localization. The generator voltage ranged between 11 and 21 kV, the number of impulses between 25 and 2500. After application of 1500/2500 shocks the extent of the renal lesion depended strictly on the applied generator voltage and was classified into 4 grades: Grade 0, no macroscopic trauma detectable (at 11-12 kV); grade 1, petechial medullary bleeding (at 13 kV); grade 2, cortical hematoma (at 14-16 kV); and grade 3, perirenal hematoma (17-20 kV). Whereas at low and medium energy levels the number of shocks played only a minor role, at maximal generator voltage (20 kV) even 25 impulses induced a grade 2 and 600 shocks a grade 3 lesion, emphasizing the importance of shockwave limitation in the upper energy range. In shockwave-induced renal trauma a vascular lesion was predominant and cellular necrosis was secondary. Coupling with a water cushion resulted in a 15%-20% decrease in the disintegrative and traumatic effect, which was compensated for by increasing the generator voltage by 2 kV. Long-term studies showed complete restitution following grade 1 and 2 trauma, whereas after a grade 3 lesion a small segmental and capsular fibrosis without hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular apparatus was observed. Based on the characteristic ultrasound pattern found in the first study, the threshold for induction of grade 1 lesion was investigated. With both lithotripters a wide range for induction of a grade 1 lesion (Modulith 234-411, Lithostar Plus 220-740) and also a significant overlapping with grade 0 and 2 lesions was

  14. Early healing of the alveolar process after tooth extraction: an experimental study in the beagle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discepoli, Nicola; Vignoletti, Fabio; Laino, Luigi; de Sanctis, Massimo; Muñoz, Fernando; Sanz, Mariano

    2013-06-01

    To describe the early healing events in the alveolar socket during the first 8 weeks of spontaneous healing after tooth extraction. 16 adult beagle dogs were selected and five healing periods were analysed (4 h, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks). Mandibular premolars were extracted and each socket corresponding to the mesial root was left to heal undisturbed. In each healing period, three animals were euthanatized, each providing four study sites. Healing was assessed by descriptive histology and by histometric analysis using as landmarks: the vertical distance between buccal and lingual crest (B'L') and the width of buccal and lingual walls at three different levels. Differences between means for each variable for each healing period were compared (ANOVA; p healing period to a final value of 0.18 (0.08) mm. The lingual width (Lw) remains almost unchanged while the buccal width (Bw) at 1 (Bw1) and 2 (Bw2) mm was reduced in about 40% of its initial value. Minor vertical bone reduction in both the buccal and lingual socket walls were observed. A marked horizontal reduction of the buccal bone wall was observed mostly in its coronal aspect. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The effects of topical mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in canine experimental cutaneous wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Won; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Lyoo, Young S; Jung, Dong-In; Park, Hee-Myung

    2013-01-01

    Background Adult stem cells have been widely investigated in bioengineering approaches for tissue repair therapy. We evaluated the clinical value and safety of the application of cultured bone marrow-derived allogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treating skin wounds in a canine model. Hypothesis Topical allogenic MSC transplantation can accelerate the closure of experimental full-thickness cutaneous wounds and attenuate local inflammation. Animals Adult healthy beagle dogs (n = 10; 3–6 years old; 7.2–13.1 kg) were studied. Methods Full-thickness skin wounds were created on the dorsum of healthy beagles, and allogenic MSCs were injected intradermally. The rate of wound closure and the degree of collagen production were analysed histologically using haematoxylin and eosin staining and trichrome staining. The degree of cellular proliferation and angiogenesis was evaluated by immunocytochemistry using proliferating cell nuclear antigen-, vimentin- and α-smooth muscle actin-specific antibodies. Local mRNA expression levels of interleukin-2, interferon-γ, basic fibroblast growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-2 were evaluated by RT-PCR. Results Compared with the vehicle-treated wounds, MSC-treated wounds showed more rapid wound closure and increased collagen synthesis, cellular proliferation and angiogenesis. Moreover, MSC-treated wounds showed decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-2 and interferon-γ) and wound healing-related factors (basic fibroblast growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-2). Conclusion and clinical importance Topical transplantation of MSCs results in paracrine effects on cellular proliferation and angiogenesis, as well as modulation of local mRNA expression of several factors related to cutaneous wound healing. Résumé Contexte Les cellules souches adultes ont été largement étudiées dans les approches de bio-ingénierie pour la thérapie de réparation tissulaire. Nous évaluons l

  16. Dimensional ridge alterations following tooth extraction. An experimental study in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Mauricio G; Lindhe, Jan

    2005-02-01

    To study dimensional alterations of the alveolar ridge that occurred following tooth extraction as well as processes of bone modelling and remodelling associated with such change. Twelve mongrel dogs were included in the study. In both quadrants of the mandible incisions were made in the crevice region of the 3rd and 4th premolars. Minute buccal and lingual full thickness flaps were elevated. The four premolars were hemi-sected. The distal roots were removed. The extraction sites were covered with the mobilized gingival tissue. The extractions of the roots and the sacrifice of the dogs were staggered in such a manner that all dogs contributed with sockets representing 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks of healing. The animals were sacrificed and tissue blocks containing the extraction socket were dissected, decalcified in EDTA, embedded in paraffin and cut in the buccal-lingual plane. The sections were stained in haematoxyline-eosine and examined in the microscope. It was demonstrated that marked dimensional alterations occurred during the first 8 weeks following the extraction of mandibular premolars. Thus, in this interval there was a marked osteoclastic activity resulting in resorption of the crestal region of both the buccal and the lingual bone wall. The reduction of the height of the walls was more pronounced at the buccal than at the lingual aspect of the extraction socket. The height reduction was accompanied by a "horizontal" bone loss that was caused by osteoclasts present in lacunae on the surface of both the buccal and the lingual bone wall. The resorption of the buccal/lingual walls of the extraction site occurred in two overlapping phases. During phase 1, the bundle bone was resorbed and replaced with woven bone. Since the crest of the buccal bone wall was comprised solely of bundle this modelling resulted in substantial vertical reduction of the buccal crest. Phase 2 included resorption that occurred from the outer surfaces of both bone walls. The reason for this

  17. Experimental Infection of Dogs with Avian-Origin Canine Influenza A Virus (H3N2)

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Daesub; Lee, Chulseung; Kang, Bokyu; Jung, Kwonil; Oh, Taehoon; Kim, Hyekwon; Park, Bongkyun; Oh, Jinsik

    2009-01-01

    Susceptible dogs were brought into contact with dogs experimentally infected with an avian-origin influenza A virus (H3N2) that had been isolated from a pet dog with severe respiratory syndrome. All the experimentally infected and contact-exposed dogs showed elevated rectal temperatures, virus shedding, seroconversion, and severe necrotizing tracheobronchitis and bronchioalveolitis.

  18. Experimental infection of dogs with avian-origin canine influenza A virus (H3N2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Daesub; Lee, Chulseung; Kang, Bokyu; Jung, Kwonil; Oh, Taehoon; Kim, Hyekwon; Park, Bongkyun; Oh, Jinsik

    2009-01-01

    Susceptible dogs were brought into contact with dogs experimentally infected with an avian-origin influenza A virus (H3N2) that had been isolated from a pet dog with severe respiratory syndrome. All the experimentally infected and contact-exposed dogs showed elevated rectal temperatures, virus shedding, seroconversion, and severe necrotizing tracheobronchitis and bronchioalveolitis.

  19. Effect of static magnetic field on pain level and expression of P2X3 receptors in the trigeminal ganglion in mice following experimental tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yafen; Wang, Shengguo; Long, Hu; Zhu, Jingyi; Jian, Fan; Ye, Niansong; Lai, Wenli

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that static magnetic fields (SMF) can generate an analgesic effect in different conditions. The present study explored effects of SMF on pain levels and expressions of P2X3 receptors in trigeminal ganglion (TG) in mice after experimental tooth movement (tooth movement induced by springs between teeth). Experiments were performed in male mice (body mass: 25-30 g) and divided into SMF + force group, force group, and no force group. Exposure time was over 22 h per day. Mouse Grimace Scale was used for evaluating orofacial pain levels during experimental tooth movement at 4 h and 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Meanwhile, expression levels of P2X3 receptors in the TG were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting at same time points. We finally found that during experimental tooth movement, pain levels of mice peaked at 3 days, and then decreased. While pain levels of mice were reduced in the SMF environment at 4 h, 1 and 3 days, there was a significant difference at 1 and 3 days. Meanwhile, under the action of SMF, expression levels of P2X3 receptors in TG were significantly lower at 4 h, 3 and 7 days. These results suggest that SMF can reduce pain levels in mice, and down-regulate P2X3 receptors in TG. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:22-30, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Canine Distemper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although this brochure provides basic information about canine distemper, your veterinarian is always your best source of ... Consult your veterinarian for more information about canine distemper and its prevention. And Now A Note On ...

  1. Unusual intraosseous transmigration of impacted tooth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Santosh; Urala, Arun Srinivas; Kamath, Abhay Taranath; Jayaswal, Priyanka; Valiathan, Ashima [Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal (India)

    2012-03-15

    Transmigration of an impacted tooth through the symphyseal suture is a rare and special developmental anomaly of unknown etiology that is unique to the mandibular canine. Maxillary canine transmigration is even rarer. Transmigrated canines are particularly significant due to the aesthetic and functional importance. A maxillary lateral incisor crossing the mid-palatal suture has never been reported in the literature. The aim of this report is to present the first case of simultaneous transmigration of a lateral incisor and canine in the maxilla. The paper also reports four unusual cases of unilateral canine transmigration in the maxilla and mandible and successful eruption of one of the transmigrated mandibular canines following orthodontic traction. Etiology of transmigration and its clinical considerations are also discussed.

  2. Immunization with H1, HASPB1 and MML Leishmania proteins in a vaccine trial against experimental canine leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J; Nieto, J; Masina, S; Cañavate, C; Cruz, I; Chicharro, C; Carrillo, E; Napp, S; Reymond, C; Kaye, P M; Smith, D F; Fasel, N; Alvar, J

    2007-07-20

    The protective capabilities of three Leishmania recombinant proteins - histone 1 (H1) and hydrophilic acylated surface protein B1 (HASPB1) immunized singly, or together as a protein cocktail vaccine with Montanide, and the polyprotein MML immunized with MPL-SE adjuvant - were assessed in beagle dogs. Clinical examination of the dogs was carried out periodically under blinded conditions and the condition of the dogs defined as asymptomatic or symptomatic. At the end of the trial, we were able to confirm that following infection with L. infantum promastigotes, five out of eight dogs immunized with H1 Montanide, and four out of eight dogs immunized with either the combination of HASPB1 with Montanide or the combination of H1+HASPB1 with Montanidetrade mark, remained free of clinical signs, compared with two out of seven dogs immunized with the polyprotein MML and adjuvant MPL-SE, and two out of eight dogs in the control group. The results demonstrate that HASPB1 and H1 antigens in combination with Montanide were able to induce partial protection against canine leishmaniasis, even under extreme experimental challenge conditions.

  3. Evaluation of oral and subcutaneous delivery of an experimental canarypox recombinant canine distemper vaccine in the Siberian polecate (Mustela eversmanni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimsatt, Jeffrey; Biggins, Dean E.; Innes, Kim; Taylor, Bobbi; Garell, Della

    2003-01-01

    We assessed the safety and efficacy of an experimental canarypox-vectored recombinant canine distemper virus (CDV) subunit vaccine in the Siberian polecat (Mustela eversmanni), a close relative of the black-footed ferret, (M. nigripes), an endangered species that is highly susceptible to the virus. Siberian polecats were randomized into six treatment groups. Recombinant canine distemper vaccine was administered s.c. at three dose levels (104.5, 105.0, and 105.5 plaque-forming units [PFU] per dose) and was administered orally by spraying the vaccine into the oropharnyx at two dose levels (105.5, 108.0 PFU per dose). The sixth group of control animals was not vaccinated. For both routes of administration, two 1-ml doses of reconstituted vaccine were delivered 4 wk apart, followed by live virus challenge 3 wk after the second vaccination. During the challenge, Synder Hill test strain CDV obtained from the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Ames, Iowa, was administered i.p. Serial blood samples for CDV serology were collected immediately before vaccination and challenge, and 10, 15, and 20 days after challenge. Clinical signs and body weights were recorded up to 32 days after challenge. The survival rate in animals receiving vaccine at the highest oral dose (108.0 PFU per dose) was 83.3%. Survival rate was 50.0% in the high s.c. and 60.0% in the medium s.c. groups. All animals in the low–s.c. dose, low–oral dose, and control groups died after exposure. Vaccine dose overall (oral and s.c.) and dose in response to s.c. administration when considered alone were significant predictors of survival (P = 0.006 and P = 0.04, respectively). Among the polecats challenged with virulent virus, those that died became sick sooner than those that survived. Animals that died lost significantly more weight during the 10 days after challenge than did animals that survived (P = 0.02). Survival rates did not differ by sex, founder female status, or breeding pedigree in any of

  4. Randomized controlled clinical trial of customized zirconia and titanium implant abutments for canine and posterior single-tooth implant reconstructions: preliminary results at 1 year of function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, Irena; Zembic, Anja; Jung, Ronald Ernst; Siegenthaler, David; Holderegger, Claudia; Hämmerle, Christoph Hans Franz

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether or not customized zirconia abutments exhibit the same survival rates in canine and posterior regions as titanium abutments, and to compare the esthetic result of the two abutment types. Twenty-two patients with 40 implants in posterior regions were included and the implant sites were randomly assigned to 20 customized zirconia and 20 customized titanium abutments. All-ceramic (AC) and metal-ceramic (MC) crowns were fabricated. In all except two cases, the crowns were cemented on the abutments using resin or glass-ionomer cements. Two zirconia reconstructions were screw retained. At baseline, 6 and 12 months, the reconstructions were examined for technical and biological problems. Probing pocket depth (PPD), plaque (Pl) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were assessed and compared with natural control teeth. Furthermore, the difference of color (DeltaE) of the peri-implant mucosa and the gingiva of control teeth was evaluated by means of a spectrophotometer (Spectroshade). The data were analyzed with Student's unpaired t-test, ANOVA and regression analyses. Twenty patients with 19 zirconia and 12 titanium abutments were examined at a mean follow-up of 12.6+/-2.7 months. The survival rate for reconstructions and abutments was 100%. No technical or biological problems were found at the test and control sites. Two chippings (16.7%) occurred at crowns supported by titanium abutments. No difference was found regarding PPD (meanPPD(ZrO2) 3.4+/-0.7 mm, mPPD(Ti) 3.3+/-0.6 mm), Pl (mPl(ZrO2) 0.2+/-0.3, mPl(Ti) 0.1+/-1.8) and BOP (mBOP(ZrO2) 60+/-30%, mBOP(Ti) 30+/-40%) between the two groups. Both crowns on zirconia and titanium abutments induced a similar amount of discoloration of the soft tissue compared with the gingiva at natural teeth (DeltaE(ZrO2) 8.1+/-3.9, DeltaE(Ti) 7.8+/-4.3). At 1 year, zirconia abutments exhibited the same survival and a similar esthetic outcome as titanium abutments.

  5. Effects of Danggui-Shaoyao-San on the Influence of Spatial Learning and Memory Induced by Experimental Tooth Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Shi Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pain caused by orthodontic treatment has been considered as tough problems in orthodontic practice. There is substantial literature on pain which has exactly effected on learning and memory; orthodontic tooth movement affected the emotional status has been showed positive outcomes. Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS is a Traditional Chinese Medicine prescription that has been used for pain treatment and analgesic effect for orthodontic pain via inhibiting the activations of neuron and glia. We raised the hypothesis that DSS could restore the impaired abilities of spatial learning and memory via regulating neuron or glia expression in the hippocampus. Methods: A total of 36 rats were randomly divided into three groups: (1 Sham group (n = 12, rats underwent all the operation procedure except for the placement of orthodontic forces and received saline treatment; (2 experimental tooth movement (ETM group (n = 12, rats received saline treatment and ETM; (3 DSS + ETM (DETM group (n = 12, rats received DSS treatment and ETM. All DETM group animals were administered with DSS at a dose of 150 mg/kg. Morris water maze test was evaluated; immunofluorescent histochemistry was used to identify astrocytes activation, and immunofluorescent dendritic spine analysis was used to identify the dendritic spines morphological characteristics expression levels in hippocampus. Results: Maze training sessions during the 5 successive days revealed that ETM significantly deficits in progressive learning in rats, DSS that was given from day 5 prior to ETM enhanced progressive learning. The ETM group rats took longer to cross target quadrant during the probe trial and got less times to cross-platform than DETM group. The spine density in hippocampus in ETM group was significantly decreased compared to the sham group. In addition, thin and mature spine density were decreased too. However, the DSS administration could reverse the dendritic shrinkage and increase the

  6. Tooth extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... several teeth using the methods above. For an impacted tooth , the surgeon may have to cut a flap ... loosens or damages teeth Tooth injury from trauma Impacted teeth that are causing problems, such as wisdom teeth ( ...

  7. Tooth anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002214.htm Tooth anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... upper jawbone is called the maxilla. Images Tooth anatomy References Chan S, Alessandrini EA. Dental injuries. In: Selbst ...

  8. Surgical Procedures and Clinical Considerations for Impacted Canines: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Torkzaban

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaction of canine teeth is a clinical problem whose treatment usually requires an interdisciplinary approach. After the maxillary third molar, the maxillary canine is the second-most commonly impacted tooth, with an incidence of 1% - 2.5%. Maxillary canines are more common in females than males. This study reviews the surgical treatments and orthodontic considerations for impacted canines exposure reported in previous studies. The clinician should be aware of variations in the surgical management of labially and palatally impacted canines, as well as the most common methods of canine in orthodontic application, and the implications of canine extraction. The different factors that affect these decisions are discussed.

  9. Experimental canine distemper infection as a means of demonstrating latent effects of subacute lead intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.J.; McLeod, S.

    1976-01-01

    Observations on the response of the body to experimental infection with distemper virus in dogs previously dosed subacutely with lead have demonstrated a latent effect of lead on several body systems. Effects which indicated a relationship to earlier treatment with lead included evidence for stimulation of haemoglobin synthesis, changes to red blood cells resulting in increased destruction, increased vulnerability of the parenchymatous cells of the liver to damage, reduction in the weight of the skeleton and thyroid, an increase in weight of the thymus and brain and histopathological changes in the thymus. 21 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  10. Combined stent implantation and embolization with liquid 2-polyhydroxyethyl methacrylate for treatment of experimental canine wide-necked aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klisch, J.; Zitt, J.; Schumacher, M.; Schellhammer, F.; Scheufler, K.M.; Pagenstecher, A.; Nagursky, H.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the study was the evaluation of 2-polyhydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-P-HEMA) for endovascular liquid embolization of experimental side-wall aneurysms following stent protection in a canine model. The swelling behaviour and polymerization characteristics of 2-P-HEMA in different solutions were investigated in vitro. Different methods for applications were tested in a latex aneurysm model under pulsatile flow conditions. Twenty broad-based carotid side-wall aneurysms were microsurgically produced in five dogs. Four weeks after surgery self-expandable nitinol stents were placed, covering the orifice of the aneurysms. 2-P-HEMA was injected via a microcatheter, which was positioned through the meshwork of the stent. Control angiography was performed immediately after treatment and after 1, 6 and 9 months. In-vivo stent placement succeeded in all but one case. Two aneurysms occluded spontaneously after stent placement. Combined embolization of 17 aneurysms using a stent and 2-P-HEMA was performed. Eleven aneurysms could be primarily completely occluded (65%). A small remaining neck was evident in six aneurysms. Efflux of 2-P-HEMA during the process of embolization was observed in seven aneurysms, due to an excess volume of 2-P-HEMA. The excessive 2-P-HEMA led to significant vessel stenosis in two cases. Two carotid arteries (three treated aneurysms) occluded after 1 month, due to insufficient anticoagulation management. Histological examination of embolized aneurysms revealed no foreign-body or inflammatory reaction. A smooth neo-intimal layer covered the stented vessel segment. Liquid embolization of side-wall aneurysms with 2-P-HEMA is technically feasible. Embolotherapy of aneurysms with liquid agents still has the risk that embolic material will exit even when it is stent-protected. To avoid this problem, stents with smaller strut diameter and/or additional balloon-protection are required. The inert 2-P-HEMA seems to be a promising agent for combining

  11. Synergistic acceleration of experimental tooth movement by supplementary high-frequency vibration applied with a static force in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Sasaki, Kiyo; Fatemeh, Goudarzi; Fukunaga, Tomohiro; Seiryu, Masahiro; Daimaruya, Takayoshi; Takeshita, Nobuo; Kamioka, Hiroshi; Adachi, Taiji; Ida, Hiroto; Mayama, Atsushi

    2017-10-25

    Several recent prospective clinical trials have investigated the effect of supplementary vibration applied with fixed appliances in an attempt to accelerate tooth movement and shorten the duration of orthodontic treatment. Among them, some studies reported an increase in the rate of tooth movement, but others did not. This technique is still controversial, and the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we developed a new vibration device for a tooth movement model in rats, and investigated the efficacy and safety of the device when used with fixed appliances. The most effective level of supplementary vibration to accelerate tooth movement stimulated by a continuous static force was 3 gf at 70 Hz for 3 minutes once a week. Furthermore, at this optimum-magnitude, high-frequency vibration could synergistically enhance osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast function via NF-κB activation, leading to alveolar bone resorption and finally, accelerated tooth movement, but only when a static force was continuously applied to the teeth. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism by which optimum-magnitude high-frequency vibration accelerates tooth movement, and may lead to novel approaches for the safe and effective treatment of malocclusion.

  12. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment.

  13. Tolerance of the canine bladder to intraoperative radiation therapy: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsella, T.J.; Sindelar, W.F.; DeLuca, A.M.; Barnes, M.; Tochner, Z.; Mixon, A.; Glatstein, E.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental study of bladder tolerance to intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) was designed using a large animal model (adult American Foxhounds, weight 25-30 kg) to access acute and late radiation effects. Dogs were subjected to laparotomy where the bladder was mobilized and IORT was delivered using a 5 cm circular cone through a cystotomy incision with 12 MeV electrons. The bladder trigone including both ureteral orifices and the proximal urethra was irradiated in groups of 3 dogs with doses of 0, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 Gy. Dogs were followed clinically with repeat urinalysis, intravenous pyelogram (IVP), and cystometrogram at 1 month and then Q6 months for up to 4 years. One dog from each dose group was sacrificed electively at 1 and 2 years, whereas the other dog is being followed clinically for a minimum of 4 years. Complete autopsies were performed with particular attention to genitourinary and pelvic structures. No clinically detectable acute toxicity resulted from IORT to the bladder. Three of 15 IORT dogs (1 each at 25, 35, and 40 Gy) showed obstruction of a ureteral orifice with 2 dogs dying of renal failure secondary to bilateral hydronephrosis within 1-2 years of treatment. The remaining 12 IORT dogs and 3 control dogs have normal repeat IVP's and renal function with up to 4 years of follow-up. Serial cystometry demonstrates no major loss of bladder contractility or volume. At autopsy, histological changes of mucosal thinning and telangiectasia with submucosal fibrosis were confined to the IORT field and appeared dose-related. However, the bladder epithelium remained intact at all doses. The ureterovesical junction in animals receiving 20 Gy showed mild fibrosis of the lamina propria and moderate chronic inflammation. Above 20 Gy, these histological changes at the U-V junction were more pronounced with gross stenosis in 3 animals as predicted by the IVP

  14. MRI of degenerative bone marrow lesions in experimental osteoarthritis of canine knee joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolte-Ernsting, C.C.A. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52057 Aachen (Germany); Adam, G. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52057 Aachen (Germany); Buehne, M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52057 Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Aachen (Germany); Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52057 Aachen (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the value of MRI in the detection of degenerative bone marrow abnormalities in an animal osteoarthritis model. Design. In 10 dogs with experimentally induced unilateral osteoarthritis of the knee, MRI was performed using two-dimensional spin-echo (2D-SE) and three-dimensional gradient-echo (3D-GE) imaging. Contrast enhanced T1-weighted 2D-SE sequences were also obtained after injection of gadolinium-DTPA. The results were compared with the gross and histopathologic findings and with radiography. Results. Histopathologic specimens revealed 21 osteosclerotic lesions and 5 intraosseous cysts. On 2D-SE images, 24 of 26 lesions were detected, while 21 of 26 lesions were identified on 2D-GE sequences. Radiography, including conventional tomography, demonstrated 9 of 26 lesions. Regardless of the sequence weighting, all osteosclerotic lesions appeared hypointense on MRI. Signal loss in bone sclerosis resulted primarily from the reduction of intact fat marrow, the increased bone density being of secondary importance. Quantitative signal analysis allowed approximate estimation of the grade of sclerosis. On postcontrast images, sclerotic bone remained hypointense, although significant but non-specific enhancement relative to the normal fat marrow was observed. The extent of contrast enhancement did not correlate with the grade of osteosclerosis. All five cysts were readily diagnosed by MRI. Cysts displayed either central or marginal contrast enhancement within their cavities. Conclusions. MRI provides a sensitive method for the diagnosis of osteoarthritic bone abnormalities, allowing their differentiation from most non-degenerative subarticular lesions. (orig.). With 1 tab.

  15. Canine evolution in sabretoothed carnivores: natural selection or sexual selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Randau

    Full Text Available The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae, representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids in relation to body size in order to characterize and identify the evolutionary processes driving their development, using the scaling relationships of carnassial teeth in both groups as a control. Carnassials display isometric allometry in both sabretooths and non-sabretooths, supporting their close relationship with meat-slicing, whereas the upper canines of both groups display positive allometry with body size. Whereas there is no statistical difference in allometry of upper canine height between dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, the significantly stronger positive allometry of upper canine height shown by sabretooths as a whole compared to non-sabretooths reveals that different processes drove canine evolution in these groups. Although sabretoothed canines must still have been effective for prey capture and processing by hypercarnivorous predators, canine morphology in these extinct carnivores was likely to have been driven to a greater extent by sexual selection than in non-sabretooths. Scaling relationships therefore indicate the probable importance of sexual selection in the evolution of the hypertrophied sabretooth anterior dentition.

  16. CO2low-level laser therapy has an early but not delayed pain effect during experimental tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, T; Kim, D G; Kamioka, H

    2017-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that the use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) reduces elevated pain by controlling the release of neurochemicals during orthodontic tooth movement. Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Okayama University. Sixty-five Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to tooth movement and LLLT. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study. Groups included day 0 controls, irradiation only controls and with or without irradiation sacrificed at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days after tooth movement (n=5 each, total n=65). Tooth movement was achieved by insertion of an elastic module between molar teeth. Immunohistochemistry for CD-11b, GFAP and c-fos in the brain stem was performed. Stains were quantified by constructing a three-dimensional image using IMARIS, and counted using NEURON TRACER and WinROOF software. Two-way ANOVA followed by a Tukey's post hoc test (PLow-level laser therapy may reduce early neurochemical markers but have no effect on delayed pain neurochemical markers after tooth movement. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Ontogeny of canine dimorphism in extant hominoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, G T; Dean, C

    2001-07-01

    Many behavioral and ecological factors influence the degree of expression of canine dimorphism for different reasons. Regardless of its socioecological importance, we know virtually nothing about the processes responsible for the development of canine dimorphism. Our aim here is to describe the developmental process(es) regulating canine dimorphism in extant hominoids, using histological markers of tooth growth. Teeth preserve a permanent record of their ontogeny in the form of short- and long-period incremental markings in both enamel and dentine. We selected 52 histological sections of sexed hominoid canine teeth from a total sample of 115, from which we calculated the time and rate of cuspal enamel formation and the rate at which ameloblasts differentiate along the future enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) to the end of crown formation. Thus, we were able to reconstruct longitudinal growth curves for height attainment in male and female hominoid canines. Male hominoids consistently take longer to form canine crowns than do females (although not significantly so for our sample of Homo). Male orangutans and gorillas occasionally take up to twice as long as females to complete enamel formation. The mean ranges of female canine crown formation times are similar in Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo. Interspecific differences between female Pan canine crown heights and those of Gorilla and Pongo, which are taller, result from differences in rates of growth. Differences in canine crown heights between male Pan and the taller, more dimorphic male Gorilla and Pongo canines result both from differences in total time taken to form enamel and from faster rates of growth in Gorilla and Pongo. Although modern human canines do not emerge as significantly dimorphic in this study, it is well-known that sexual dimorphism in canine crown height exists. Larger samples of sexed modern human canines are therefore needed to identify clearly what underlies this. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. A new experimental carotid siphon aneurysm model in canine based on the MR angiography and rapid prototyping technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Jian; Li Minghua; Tan Huaqiao; Zhu Yueqi; Hu Dingjun; Qiao Ruihua; Fan Chunhua

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the experiment is to make an intracranial aneurysm model in canine. Methods: A digital tube was made based on raw magnetic resonance images of the human intracranial carotid artery. Then 6 tubes were made in the 3D rapid prototyping machine and coated with silicone. Finally we isolated the common carotid arteries of 6 canines and made them go through the tubes and anastomosed them end-to-side to get the aneurysm model. Six stents were implanted after one week. Results: Six aneurysm models were successfully made in canines. The parent artery had similar geometry of the human carotid siphon. All the aneurysms and parent arteries were patent in one week's follow-up. One canine died of excessive anesthesia after stenting. Two vascular models kept patent in one month without stenosis. The other 3 had some stenosis on the bends of the vessel. Conclusions: The aneurysm model in the experiment has high flexibility and reliability. The model provides an effective tool for research and testing neurovascular devices. It's also a useful device to train the neuroradiologists and interventional physicians. (authors)

  19. Agenesis of a Mandibular Canine: A case report | Dosumu | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Hypodontia is one of the most common developmental anomalies in man. The most frequently missing tooth is the third molar. Agenesis of canine in the secondary dentition is rarely reported. OBJECTIVE: To report a very rare form of missing tooth in the secondary dentition due to agenesis. METHODS: A ...

  20. A custom made jig for individual canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Kumar Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We face difficulty in individual canine retraction in the bracket system lacking power arms on the canines. When orthodontic force is applied through the center of resistance (CR, then, tooth translation ensues. Forces applied at a distance from the CR create a moment that tends to rotate and tip the tooth. The tendency of tipping is increased in the bracket system lacking power arm, since, force is applied more occlusally. Hence, we have designed a chair side custom made jig to retract the canines individually.

  1. Experimental Model for Retrospective Assessment of X-Ray Exposures in Dento-Maxillary Radiology Measured by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in Tooth Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Costina DÂNŞOREANU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR dosimetry of human tooth enamel has been widely used in measuring radiation doses in various scenarios. For experimental purposes in X-ray diagnostic or therapy human persons can not be involved. For such cases we have developed an EPR dosimetry technique making use of enamel of molars extracted from pigs. The method can evaluate doses and dose-profiles of irradiated teeth at low level as 50 – 100 mGy (in air. EPR-spectra acquisition, data processing and dose assessment were done using non-dedicated equipment, devices and software.

  2. The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on the acceleration of tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showkatbakhsh, Rahman; Jamilian, Abdolreza; Showkatbakhsh, Mehrdad

    2010-01-01

    Accelerating the speed of orthodontic tooth movement should contribute to the shortening of the treatment period. This study was designed to determine whether a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) affects orthodontic tooth movement. The canines of one side of 10 patients (mean age 23.0 ± 3.3 years) who needed canine retraction were exposed to a PEMF; the canines on the contralateral sides of the same patients were not similarly exposed. After extraction of the maxillary first premolars, both canines were retracted with coil springs. A circuit and a watch battery were used to generate a PEMF (1 Hz). The generator was embedded in a removable appliance. Foil was used to obstruct the contol group from PEMF exposure. Patients were instructed to use the device from the commencement of canine retraction, and it was removed when Class I canine relationship was achieved in either of the canines after 5.0 ± 0.6 months. The changes in the space between the maxillary canine and first molar were measured to indicate the amount of tooth movement. The canine retraction distances were compared by paired t test. Afterward, the treatment plan was continued. With exposure to a PEMF, canine retraction was 1.57 ± 0.83 mm more than the control group (Porthodontic tooth movement. © 2011 BY QUINTESSENCE PUBLISHING CO, INC.

  3. Accelerated tooth movement with piezocision and its periodontal-transversal effects in patients with Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksakalli, Sertac; Calik, Berra; Kara, Burcak; Ezirganli, Seref

    2016-01-01

    To compare the extent of canine distalization and the transversal changes, postdistalization gingival indices, and mobility scores between patients who were undergoing orthodontic treatment involving upper premolar extraction with (experimental group) or without piezocision. Twenty maxillary canines of 10 patients were evaluated with split mouth design. Pre- and postdistalization dental casts were prepared and scanned with an orthodontic scanner to compare the extent of distalization and transversal changes between the two groups. The pre- and postdistalization gingival indices and mobility scores were also calculated. Three-dimensional analysis of the models revealed significant differences in tooth movement (lesser anchorage loss and greater canine distalization) between the experimental and control groups. Furthermore, the distalization time was shortened in the experimental group. There were no differences in the transversal changes, pre- and postdistalization gingival indices, or mobility scores between groups. Piezocision-assisted distalization accelerates tooth movement, decreases the anchorage loss for posterior teeth, and does not induce any maxillary transversal change. Moreover, piezocision does not have any adverse effects on periodontal health.

  4. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

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    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  5. Diverse bone morphogenetic protein expression profiles and smad pathway activation in different phenotypes of experimental canine mammary tumors.

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    Helena Wensman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: BMPs are currently receiving attention for their role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Currently, most BMP expression studies are performed on carcinomas, and not much is known about the situation in sarcomas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have investigated the BMP expression profiles and Smad activation in clones from different spontaneous canine mammary tumors. Spindle cell tumor and osteosarcoma clones expressed high levels of BMPs, in particular BMP-2, -4 and -6. Clones from a scirrhous carcinoma expressed much lower BMP levels. The various clones formed different tumor types in nude mice but only clones that expressed high levels of BMP-6 gave bone formation. Phosphorylated Smad-1/5, located in the nucleus, was detected in tumors derived from clones expressing high levels of BMPs, indicating an active BMP signaling pathway and BMP-2 stimulation of mammary tumor cell clones in vitro resulted in activation of the Smad-1/5 pathway. In contrast BMP-2 stimulation did not induce phosphorylation of the non-Smad pathway p38 MAPK. Interestingly, an increased level of the BMP-antagonist chordin-like 1 was detected after BMP stimulation of non-bone forming clones. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the specific BMP expression repertoire differs substantially between different types of mammary tumors and that BMP-6 expression most probably has a biological role in bone formation of canine mammary tumors.

  6. Immunotherapy Using Autoclaved L. Major Antigens and M. Vaccae with Meglumine Antimoniate, for the Treatment of Experimental Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Jamshidi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate immunotherapy against canine visceral leishmaniasis, Leishmania ma­jor antigen and heat-killed Mycobacterium vaccae (SRL172 were used as stimulators of immune de­fense mechanisms and the results were compared with standard chemotherapy meglumine antimoni­ate.Methods: Nineteen mongrel dogs aging 1-3 years old were used in this experiment. Infection was carried out in 15 out of 19 dogs using L. infantum, isolated from a naturally infected poly-symptomatic dog.Results: All the cases showed positive serologic results by direct agglutination test during 30-60 days following inoculation. In the first group, which was under chemotherapy (GlucantimeR, one of the members showed recurrence of the disease despite rapid effect of the therapeutic protocol. Im­munotherapy using SRL172 caused complete cleaning of the parasite in group 2, but the speed was less than Glucantime. Immunotherapy using L. major antigen combined with M. vaccae in group 3 and combine administration of immunotherapy and chemotherapy in group 4 both were with relapsing of one case in each group. Group 5 and 6 were consisted of positive and negative con­trol dogs, respectively.Conclusion: Immunotherapy seems to be an adjuvant in treatment of canine leishmaniasis but it needs more investigation for final confirmation.

  7. Aspects and clinical procedures of eruptive changes of permanent upper canines

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    Sheila Marcia Francisco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Even though the upper canine is the tooth that presents most eruption anomalies, after the third molars, canine retention prevalence in the population is quite low. Local, physiologic and pathologic factors can provide difficulties for the tooth eruptive process. The correct diagnosis in trying to prevent upper canine retention with ectopic eruption is fundamental to choose the ideal treatment, which can be performed by various methods. OBJECTIVE: The present paper has the purpose of approaching aspects related to impacted upper permanent canines by a literature review, including localization and treatment conducts.

  8. A Radiographic Study of Fused and Geminated Tooth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chul Jae; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyunhee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-02-15

    The incidence and several characteristic features of fused and geminated teeth were studied radiographically, with full mouth periapical radiogram and pantomogram, in 4201 patients of mixed dentition and 5358 patients of permanent dentition. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The prevalence was revealed to 2.86%, 0.32%, 0.33%, and 0.06% in deciduous fused tooth, permanent fused tooth, deciduous geminated tooth and permanent geminated tooth respectively, and these anomalies were occurred in female more than male. 2. Fused teeth were observed predominantly in lower anterior teeth area, especially in lateral incisor and canine region, and many cases of deciduous geminated tooth were observed in upper central incisor region. 3. Congenital missing rates of succedaneous tooth in deciduous fused teeth were 57.1%, 85.7%, 71.0%, 69.0% in upper right and left central-lateral incisor regions, lower right and left lateral incisor-canine regions, respectively. 4. Prevalence of dental caries was 42.3%, 18.8% and 5.6% in deciduous fused, deciduous geminated and permanent fused tooth, respectively. 5. In classifying of fused and geminated teeth into 9 type, by following appearance such as number of crown, root, pulp chamber and pulp canal of those teeth, it was more favorable that Type I (2 crown, 2 root, 2 pulp chamber, 2 pulp canal) in deciduous fused tooth and Type IX (1 crown, 1 root, 1 pulp chamber, 1 pulp canal) in permanent used tooth, deciduous and permanent geminated tooth.

  9. A Radiographic Study of Fused and Geminated Tooth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chul Jae; Lee, Sang Rae

    1990-01-01

    The incidence and several characteristic features of fused and geminated teeth were studied radiographically, with full mouth periapical radiogram and pantomogram, in 4201 patients of mixed dentition and 5358 patients of permanent dentition. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The prevalence was revealed to 2.86%, 0.32%, 0.33%, and 0.06% in deciduous fused tooth, permanent fused tooth, deciduous geminated tooth and permanent geminated tooth respectively, and these anomalies were occurred in female more than male. 2. Fused teeth were observed predominantly in lower anterior teeth area, especially in lateral incisor and canine region, and many cases of deciduous geminated tooth were observed in upper central incisor region. 3. Congenital missing rates of succedaneous tooth in deciduous fused teeth were 57.1%, 85.7%, 71.0%, 69.0% in upper right and left central-lateral incisor regions, lower right and left lateral incisor-canine regions, respectively. 4. Prevalence of dental caries was 42.3%, 18.8% and 5.6% in deciduous fused, deciduous geminated and permanent fused tooth, respectively. 5. In classifying of fused and geminated teeth into 9 type, by following appearance such as number of crown, root, pulp chamber and pulp canal of those teeth, it was more favorable that Type I (2 crown, 2 root, 2 pulp chamber, 2 pulp canal) in deciduous fused tooth and Type IX (1 crown, 1 root, 1 pulp chamber, 1 pulp canal) in permanent used tooth, deciduous and permanent geminated tooth.

  10. Acid and Alkaline Phosphatase Levels in GCF during Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Mohammad; Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Dianat, Omid; Khoramian Tusi, Somayeh; Younessian, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The present constituents of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) can reflect the changes occurring in underlying tissues. Considering variety of biologic bone markers, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase have been examined as bone turn over markers in orthodontic tooth movement. Purpose The current study designed in a longitudinal pattern to determine the changes of acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP & ALP) in GCF during orthodontic tooth movement. Materials and Method An upper canines from twelve patients (mean age: 14±2 years) undergoing extraction orthodontic treatment for distal movement served as the test tooth (DC), and its contralateral (CC) and antagonist (AC) canines were used as controls. The CC was included in orthodontic appliance without orthodontic force; the AC was free from any orthodontic appliance. The GCF around the experimental teeth was harvested from mesial and distal tooth sites immediately before appliance placement (T0), and 14 (T2) and 28 days (T3) after it and ALP and ACP concentration were determined spectrophotometrically. Results ALP concentration was elevated significantly in DC and CC groups at days 14 and 28 compared with the AC. In DC group, the ALP was significantly greater in mesial sites than distal site, while no significant changes were found between both sites of CC. The peak level of ALP was observed in mesial sites of DC at T2. Regarding ACP, significant elevation of this enzyme was seen in DC group both in mesial and distal sites at T2 and T3. The peak level of this enzyme was seen at T2. Conclusion Monitoring simultaneous changes of ALP and ACP levels in GCF can reflect the tissue responses occur in periodontium during bone formation and bone resorption during orthodontic tooth movement, respectively. PMID:26535403

  11. Experimental adaptation of wild-type canine distemper virus (CDV to the human entry receptor CD150.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bieringer

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV, a close relative of measles virus (MV, is widespread and well known for its broad host range. When the goal of measles eradication may be achieved, and when measles vaccination will be stopped, CDV might eventually cross the species barrier to humans and emerge as a new human pathogen. In order to get an impression how fast such alterations may occur, we characterized required adaptive mutations to the human entry receptors CD150 (SLAM and nectin-4 as first step to infect human target cells. Recombinant wild-type CDV-A75/17(red adapted quickly to growth in human H358 epithelial cells expressing human nectin-4. Sequencing of the viral attachment proteins (hemagglutinin, H, and fusion protein, F genes revealed that no adaptive alteration was required to utilize human nectin-4. In contrast, the virus replicated only to low titres (10(2 pfu/ml in Vero cells expressing human CD150 (Vero-hSLAM. After three passages using these cells virus was adapted to human CD150 and replicated to high titres (10(5 pfu/ml. Sequence analyses revealed that only one amino acid exchange in the H-protein at position 540 Asp→Gly (D540G was required for functional adaptation to human CD150. Structural modelling suggests that the adaptive mutation D540G in H reflects the sequence alteration from canine to human CD150 at position 70 and 71 from Pro to Leu (P70L and Gly to Glu (G71E, and compensates for the gain of a negative charge in the human CD150 molecule. Using this model system our data indicate that only a minimal alteration, in this case one adaptive mutation, is required for adaptation of CDV to the human entry receptors, and help to understand the molecular basis why this adaptive mutation occurs.

  12. Bioeffects of albumin-encapsulated microbubbles and real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography in an experimental canine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M.M. Dourado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial contrast echocardiography has been used for assessing myocardial perfusion. Some concerns regarding its safety still remain, mainly regarding the induction of microvascular alterations. We sought to determine the bioeffects of microbubbles and real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography (RTMCE in a closed-chest canine model. Eighteen mongrel dogs were randomly assigned to two groups. Nine were submitted to continuous intravenous infusion of perfluorocarbon-exposed sonicated dextrose albumin (PESDA plus continuous imaging using power pulse inversion RTMCE for 180 min, associated with manually deflagrated high-mechanical index impulses. The control group consisted of 3 dogs submitted to continuous imaging using RTMCE without PESDA, 3 dogs received PESDA alone, and 3 dogs were sham-operated. Hemodynamics and cardiac rhythm were monitored continuously. Histological analysis was performed on cardiac and pulmonary tissues. No hemodynamic changes or cardiac arrhythmias were observed in any group. Normal left ventricular ejection fraction and myocardial perfusion were maintained throughout the protocol. Frequency of mild and focal microhemorrhage areas in myocardial and pulmonary tissue was similar in PESDA plus RTMCE and control groups. The percentages of positive microscopical fields in the myocardium were 0.4 and 0.7% (P = NS in the PESDA plus RTMCE and control groups, respectively, and in the lungs they were 2.1 and 1.1%, respectively (P = NS. In this canine model, myocardial perfusion imaging obtained with PESDA and RTMCE was safe, with no alteration in cardiac rhythm or left ventricular function. Mild and focal myocardial and pulmonary microhemorrhages were observed in both groups, and may be attributed to surgical tissue manipulation.

  13. Impacted maxillary canines--a perennial problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Mohit; Murray, Alison; Sandler, Jonathan

    2012-09-01

    Ectopic eruption with impaction of maxillary permanent canine teeth is a frequently encountered clinical problem. Surgical exposure and attachment of a gold chain to impacted maxillary canines is often required in order to bring them into the dental arch and to allow good alignment. The principle of radiographic parallax is employed to determine whether the impacted canine is placed buccal or palatal to adjacent teeth. Good flap design allows adequate access to the impacted tooth. Bone removal should be adequate to free the impacted crown to its greatest circumference. An orthodontic eyelet with a gold chain is then bonded to the crown of the impacted tooth. Use of a good bonding technique will minimize chances of bond failure necessitating a second surgical procedure. A traumatic surgical procedure will allow minimal postoperative complications and a rapid recovery. This article describes a surgical technique to expose impacted maxillary canines and attach gold chains, to facilitate orthodontic alignment into the dental arch. The principle of radiographic parallax to determine the bucco-palatal position of impacted canines is also discussed.

  14. American canine hepatozoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panciera, R J; Ewing, S A

    2003-06-01

    American canine hepatozoonosis is an emerging, tick-transmitted infection of domestic dogs caused by a recently recognized species of apicomplexan parasite, Hepatozoon americanum. The known definitive host of the protozoan is the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum. Presently recognized intermediate hosts include the domestic dog and the coyote, Canis latrans. Laboratory-reared larval or nymphal A. maculatum can be infected readily by feeding to repletion on a parasitemic intermediate host; sporogony requires 35-40 days. Transmission of infection to the dog has been produced experimentally by oral administration of mature oocysts or oocyst-containing ticks. Canine disease follows experimental exposure in 4-6 weeks and is characterized by systemic illness, extreme neutrophilic leukocytosis, muscle and bone pain, and proliferation of periosteal bone. Histopathological findings include multifocal skeletal and cardiac myositis associated with escape of mature merozoites from within the host-cell environment. There is also rapid onset of periosteal activation and osteogenesis and, less frequently, glomerulopathy and amyloidosis. Sequential stages of development of H. americanum in both the dog and the tick have been elucidated. Gamonts potentially infectious to ticks have been observed in peripheral blood leukocytes of the dog in as few as 28 days after exposure to oocysts. Young coyotes experimentally exposed to a canine strain of H. americanum acquired disease indistinguishable from that of similarly exposed young dogs.

  15. Canine Parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finally, do not let your puppy or adult dog to come into contact with the fecal waste of other dogs while walking or playing outdoors. Prompt and proper ... advisable as a way to limit spread of canine parvovirus infection as well as other diseases that ...

  16. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost–effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL. PMID:22566950

  17. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL.

  18. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  19. Management of impacted all canines with surgical exposure and alignment by orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine impaction is a dental problem very often encountered in orthodontic practice. After the third molar, the canine is the most frequently impacted tooth. Bringing the impacted canine into a normal position is important for functional occlusion and the final esthetics of the orthodontic treatment. This article illustrates a peculiar case, in which all four permanent canines maintained their unerupted status at age of 16 years. All four impacted canines were surgically exposed, attachment bonded, traction given with K-9 spring and ideally positioned with fixed orthodontic mechanotherapy.

  20. Influence of a dexamethasone-eluting covered stent on tissue reaction: an experimental study in a canine bronchial model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ji Hoon; Song, Ho-Young; Choi, Gi Bok; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Suh, Ji-Yeon; Seo, Tae-Seok; Yuk, Soon Hong; Kim, Young-Hwa; Cho, Yong-Mee

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a dexamethasone (DXM)-eluting, covered, self-expanding metallic stent to reduce tissue reaction following stent placement in a canine bronchial model. We placed a DXM-eluting, polyurethane-covered, self-expanding metallic stent (drug stent, DS) and a polyurethane-covered, self-expanding metallic stent (control stent, CS) alternately in each left main bronchus and left lower lobe bronchus in 12 dogs. The stents were 20 mm in diameter and length when fully expanded. The dose of DXM was approximately 36.7 mg in each DS, but was absent in the CS. The dogs were euthanased 1 week (n=4), 2 weeks (n=4) or 4 weeks (n=4) after stent placement. Histologic findings, such as epithelial erosion/ulcer or granulation tissue thickness, were obtained from the mid-portion of the bronchus, where the stent had been placed, and evaluated between DS and CS. There were no procedure-related complications or malpositioning of any of the bronchial stents. Stent migration was detected in one dog just before euthanasia 1 week following stent placement. Stent patency was maintained until euthanasia in all dogs. Epithelial erosion/ulcer (%) was significantly less in the DS (mean±standard deviation, 46.88±23.75) than in the CS (73.75±14.08) (P=0.026) for all time-points. There was a decrease in epithelial erosion/ulcer as the follow-up period increased in both DS and CS. The granulation tissue thickness (mm) was less in DS (2.63±2.05) than in CS (3.49±2.95), although the difference was not significant (P=0.751) for all time-points. There was a tendency toward an increase in granulation tissue thickness and chronic lymphocytic infiltration as the follow-up period increased in both DS and CS. In conclusion, DXM-eluting, covered, self-expanding metallic stent seems to be effective in reducing tissue reaction secondary to stent placement in a canine bronchial model. (orig.)

  1. Influence of a dexamethasone-eluting covered stent on tissue reaction: an experimental study in a canine bronchial model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji Hoon; Song, Ho-Young; Choi, Gi Bok; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Suh, Ji-Yeon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Seo, Tae-Seok [Gachon Medical School, Department of Radiology, Gil Medical Center, Inchon (Korea); Yuk, Soon Hong [Hannam University, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Daejeon (Korea); Kim, Young-Hwa [Soonchunhyang University Chonan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Chonan (Korea); Cho, Yong-Mee [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a dexamethasone (DXM)-eluting, covered, self-expanding metallic stent to reduce tissue reaction following stent placement in a canine bronchial model. We placed a DXM-eluting, polyurethane-covered, self-expanding metallic stent (drug stent, DS) and a polyurethane-covered, self-expanding metallic stent (control stent, CS) alternately in each left main bronchus and left lower lobe bronchus in 12 dogs. The stents were 20 mm in diameter and length when fully expanded. The dose of DXM was approximately 36.7 mg in each DS, but was absent in the CS. The dogs were euthanased 1 week (n=4), 2 weeks (n=4) or 4 weeks (n=4) after stent placement. Histologic findings, such as epithelial erosion/ulcer or granulation tissue thickness, were obtained from the mid-portion of the bronchus, where the stent had been placed, and evaluated between DS and CS. There were no procedure-related complications or malpositioning of any of the bronchial stents. Stent migration was detected in one dog just before euthanasia 1 week following stent placement. Stent patency was maintained until euthanasia in all dogs. Epithelial erosion/ulcer (%) was significantly less in the DS (mean{+-}standard deviation, 46.88{+-}23.75) than in the CS (73.75{+-}14.08) (P=0.026) for all time-points. There was a decrease in epithelial erosion/ulcer as the follow-up period increased in both DS and CS. The granulation tissue thickness (mm) was less in DS (2.63{+-}2.05) than in CS (3.49{+-}2.95), although the difference was not significant (P=0.751) for all time-points. There was a tendency toward an increase in granulation tissue thickness and chronic lymphocytic infiltration as the follow-up period increased in both DS and CS. In conclusion, DXM-eluting, covered, self-expanding metallic stent seems to be effective in reducing tissue reaction secondary to stent placement in a canine bronchial model. (orig.)

  2. The expression of calretinin and cytokeratins in canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, A; Arzi, B; Murphy, B; Naydan, D K; Verstraete, F J M

    2014-12-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma (CAA) represent two epithelium-derived neoplasms that affect the oral cavity of dogs. The expression of cytokeratins (CKs) and calretinin has been previously established in the canine tooth bud and odontogenic tumours. The aim of this study was to characterize the CK and calretinin expression profile of OSCC in comparison to CAA and canine tooth bud tissues. Samples from 15 OSCC and 15 CAA cases, as well as 6 tooth buds and 2 normal gingival tissues were examined. OSCC CK expression was consistent with the CK expression profile of CAA and canine tooth bud tissue. Calretinin was positively expressed in 10 of 15 OSCC cases, with 5 cases demonstrating high staining intensity. Only 2 of 15 CAA cases demonstrated mild-moderate staining intensity. The statistically significant difference in staining pattern and intensity of calretinin in OSCC and CAA can help distinguish between these two tumour types. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Dens invaginatus (dilated odontome) in mandibular canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halawar, Sangamesh S; Satyakiran, Gvv; Krishnanand, Ps; Prashanth, R

    2014-09-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental malformation of teeth related to shape of the teeth. Affected teeth show a deep infolding of enamel and dentin starting from the tip of the cusps and may extend deep into the root. It results from the invagination of the enamel organ into the dental papilla before calcification has occurred. Teeth most affected are maxillary lateral incisors. The presence of dens invaginatus in mandibular canine is extremely rare. The tooth was symptomatic in that it was mobile and was oriented horizontally. This article presents a case of symptomatic dens invaginatus in mandibular canine.

  4. Experimental Model of Gene Transfection in Healthy Canine Myocardium: Perspectives of Gene Therapy for Ischemic Heart Disease

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    Renato A. K. Kalil

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the transfection of the gene that encodes green fluorescent protein (GFP through direct intramyocardial injection. METHODS: The pREGFP plasmid vector was used. The EGFP gene was inserted downstream from the constitutive promoter of the Rous sarcoma virus. Five male dogs were used (mean weight 13.5 kg, in which 0.5 mL of saline solution (n=1 or 0.5 mL of plasmid solution containing 0.5 µg of pREGFP/dog (n=4 were injected into the myocardium of the left ventricular lateral wall. The dogs were euthanized 1 week later, and cardiac biopsies were obtained. RESULTS: Fluorescence microscopy showed differences between the cells transfected and not transfected with pREGFP plasmid. Mild fluorescence was observed in the cardiac fibers that received saline solution; however, the myocardial cells transfected with pREGFP had overt EGFP expression. CONCLUSION: Transfection with the EGFP gene in healthy canine myocardium was effective. The reproduction of this efficacy using vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF instead of EGFP aims at developing gene therapy for ischemic heart disease.

  5. Bilateral Second Premolars Agenesia Together with a Unilateral Canine Radiculomegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemoli, Arthur Musakulu; Junior, Thomas Munyao

    2017-01-01

    Congenitally missing teeth is a common feature for the third molars. However, missing teeth, macrodontia and radiculomegaly occurring in a single patient is very rare. This article describes a case of agenesis of mandibular second premolars, radiculomegaly with dilacerations of a canine tooth together with elongated roots of other canines. All these features had been discerned through diagnostic radiographs taken during a routine treatment planning.

  6. Bilateral second premolars agenesia together with a unilateral canine radiculomegaly

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    Arthur Musakulu Kemoli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenitally missing teeth is a common feature for the third molars. However, missing teeth, macrodontia and radiculomegaly occurring in a single patient is very rare. This article describes a case of agenesis of mandibular second premolars, radiculomegaly with dilacerations of a canine tooth together with elongated roots of other canines. All these features had been discerned through diagnostic radiographs taken during a routine treatment planning.

  7. Tooth wear

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    Tušek Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tooth wear is the loss of dental hard tissue that was not caused by decay and represents a common clinical problem of modern man. In the etiology of dental hard tissue lesions there are three dominant mechanisms that may act synergistically or separately:friction (friction, which is caused by abrasion of exogenous, or attrition of endogenous origin, chemical dissolution of dental hard tissues caused by erosion, occlusal stress created by compression and flexion and tension that leads to tooth abfraction and microfracture. Wear of tooth surfaces due to the presence of microscopic imperfections of tooth surfaces is clinically manifested as sanding veneers. Tribology, as an interdisciplinary study of the mechanisms of friction, wear and lubrication at the ultrastructural level, has defined a universal model according to which the etiopathogenesis of tooth wear is caused by the following factors: health and diseases of the digestive tract, oral hygiene, eating habits, poor oral habits, bruxism, temporomandibular disorders and iatrogenic factors. Attrition and dental erosion are much more common in children with special needs (Down syndrome. Erosion of teeth usually results from diseases of the digestive tract that lead to gastroesophageal reflux (GER of gastric juice (HCl. There are two basic approaches to the assessment of the degree of wear and dental erosion. Depending on the type of wear (erosion, attrition, abfraction, the amount of calcium that was realised during the erosive attack could be determined qualitatively and quantitatively, or changes in optical properties and hardness of enamel could be recorded, too. Abrasion of teeth (abrasio dentium is the loss of dental hard tissue caused by friction between the teeth and exogenous foreign substance. It is most commonly provoked by prosthetic dentures and bad habits, while its effect depends on the size of abrasive particles and their amount, abrasive particle hardness and hardness of tooth

  8. IL-31-induced pruritus in dogs: a novel experimental model to evaluate anti-pruritic effects of canine therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Andrea J; Fleck, Timothy J; Humphrey, William R; Galvan, Betsy A; Aleo, Michelle M; Mahabir, Sean P; Tena, Jezaniah-Kira; Greenwood, Karen G; McCall, Robert B

    2016-02-01

    Pruritus is a characteristic clinical sign of allergic skin conditions including atopic dermatitis (AD) in the dog. IL-31 is a cytokine found in the serum of some dogs with AD and can induce pruritic behaviours in laboratory beagle dogs. The objectives were to characterize an IL-31-induced pruritus model by evaluating the efficacy of prednisolone, dexamethasone and oclacitinib, and to compare the speed of anti-pruritic effects of oclacitinib against those of prednisolone and dexamethasone. Purpose-bred beagle dogs were used in all studies. Randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled studies were designed to evaluate and compare the anti-pruritic properties of prednisolone, dexamethasone and oclacitinib following a single intravenous injection of recombinant canine IL-31. Video surveillance was used to monitor and score pruritic behaviours in study animals. Prednisolone [0.5 mg/kg, per os (p.o.)] reduced IL-31-induced pruritus when given 10 h prior to observation. When the time interval between drug treatment and observation was shortened to 1 h, dexamethasone (0.2 mg/kg, intramuscular) but not prednisolone (0.25 or 0.5 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced IL-31-induced pruritus. Oclacitinib (0.4 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced pruritus when given 1, 6, 11 and 16 h prior to the observation period, and the anti-pruritic activity of oclacitinib was greater when compared to prednisolone and dexamethasone at all time points assessed. The efficacy of prednisolone, dexamethasone and oclacitinib in the IL-31-induced pruritus model gives confidence that this may be a relevant model for acute pruritus associated with allergic dermatitis including AD and can be used to evaluate novel compounds or formulations. © 2015 Zoetis Inc. Veterinary Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of ESVD and ACVD.

  9. Experimental zirconia abutments for implant-supported single-tooth restorations in esthetically demanding regions: 4-year results of a prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glauser, Roland; Sailer, Irena; Wohlwend, Arnold; Studer, Stephan; Schibli, Monica; Schärer, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluated an experimental implant abutment made of densely sintered zirconia with respect to peri-implant hard and soft tissue reaction as well as fracture resistance over time. Twenty-seven consecutively treated patients with 54 single-tooth implants were included. Zirconia abutment ingots were individually shaped and set on the implants with gold screws. All-ceramic (Empress I) crowns were cemented using a composite cement. At the 1- and 4-year examinations, reconstructions were evaluated for technical problems (fracture of abutment or crown, loosening of abutment screw). Modified Plaque and simplified Gingival Indices were recorded at implants and neighboring teeth, and peri-implant bone levels were radiographically determined. All but 1 of the 27 patients with 53 restorations could be evaluated at 1 year, and 36 restorations in 18 patients were evaluated 4 years after abutment and crown insertion. The median observation period for the reconstructions was 49.2 months. No abutment fractures occurred. Abutment screw loosening was reported for 2 restorations at 8 months and 27 months, respectively. Mean Plaque Index was 0.4 (SD 0.6) at abutments and 0.5 (SD 0.6) at teeth; mean Gingival Index was 0.7 (SD 0.5) at abutments and 0.9 (SD 0.5) at teeth. Mean marginal bone loss measured 1.2 mm (SD 0.5) after 4 years of functional loading. Zirconia abutments offered sufficient stability to support implant-supported single-tooth reconstructions in anterior and premolar regions. The soft and hard tissue reaction toward zirconia was favorable.

  10. Extraction of Unerupted Maxillary Canine Teeth in a Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus

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    Lourdes M. B. Pessoa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this case report is to describe the diagnosis and treatment of unerupted canine teeth in a maned wolf. After physical examination, complete blood count, and serum biochemical profile, the animal underwent general anesthesia and head radiography was performed to confirm the diagnosis. The treatment consisted of the extraction of both maxillary canine teeth and clinical and radiographic follow-up of the right mandibular canine tooth.

  11. Clinical and Statistical Study on Canine Impaction

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    Adina-Simona Coșarcă

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to perform a clinical and statistical research on permanent impacted canine patients among those with dental impaction referred to and treated at the Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgery Clinic of Tîrgu Mureș, over a four years period (2009-2012. Materials and methods: The study included 858 patients having dental impaction, and upon clinical records, different parameters, like frequency, gender, age, quadrant involvement, patient residence, associated complications, referring specialist and type of treatment, related to canine impaction, were assessed. Results: The study revealed: about 10% frequency of canine impaction among dental impactions; more frequent in women, in the first quadrant (tooth 13; most cases diagnosed between the age of 10-19 years; patients under 20 were referred by an orthodontist, those over 20 by a dentist; surgical exposure was more often performed than odontectomy. Conclusions: Canine impaction is the second-most frequent dental impaction in dental arch after third molars; it occurs especially in women. Due to its important role, canine recovery within dental arch is a goal to be achieved, whenever possible. Therefore, diagnose and treatment of canine impaction requires an interdisciplinary approach (surgical and orthodontic

  12. Multi-body simulation of a canine hind limb: model development, experimental validation and calculation of ground reaction forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Gabriele; Behrens, Bernd-Arno; Stolorz, Martin; Wefstaedt, Patrick; Nolte, Ingo

    2009-11-23

    Among other causes the long-term result of hip prostheses in dogs is determined by aseptic loosening. A prevention of prosthesis complications can be achieved by an optimization of the tribological system which finally results in improved implant duration. In this context a computerized model for the calculation of hip joint loadings during different motions would be of benefit. In a first step in the development of such an inverse dynamic multi-body simulation (MBS-) model we here present the setup of a canine hind limb model applicable for the calculation of ground reaction forces. The anatomical geometries of the MBS-model have been established using computer tomography- (CT-) and magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI-) data. The CT-data were collected from the pelvis, femora, tibiae and pads of a mixed-breed adult dog. Geometric information about 22 muscles of the pelvic extremity of 4 mixed-breed adult dogs was determined using MRI. Kinematic and kinetic data obtained by motion analysis of a clinically healthy dog during a gait cycle (1 m/s) on an instrumented treadmill were used to drive the model in the multi-body simulation. As a result the vertical ground reaction forces (z-direction) calculated by the MBS-system show a maximum deviation of 1.75%BW for the left and 4.65%BW for the right hind limb from the treadmill measurements. The calculated peak ground reaction forces in z- and y-direction were found to be comparable to the treadmill measurements, whereas the curve characteristics of the forces in y-direction were not in complete alignment. In conclusion, it could be demonstrated that the developed MBS-model is suitable for simulating ground reaction forces of dogs during walking. In forthcoming investigations the model will be developed further for the calculation of forces and moments acting on the hip joint during different movements, which can be of help in context with the in silico development and testing of hip prostheses.

  13. Multi-body simulation of a canine hind limb: model development, experimental validation and calculation of ground reaction forces

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    Wefstaedt Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among other causes the long-term result of hip prostheses in dogs is determined by aseptic loosening. A prevention of prosthesis complications can be achieved by an optimization of the tribological system which finally results in improved implant duration. In this context a computerized model for the calculation of hip joint loadings during different motions would be of benefit. In a first step in the development of such an inverse dynamic multi-body simulation (MBS- model we here present the setup of a canine hind limb model applicable for the calculation of ground reaction forces. Methods The anatomical geometries of the MBS-model have been established using computer tomography- (CT- and magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI- data. The CT-data were collected from the pelvis, femora, tibiae and pads of a mixed-breed adult dog. Geometric information about 22 muscles of the pelvic extremity of 4 mixed-breed adult dogs was determined using MRI. Kinematic and kinetic data obtained by motion analysis of a clinically healthy dog during a gait cycle (1 m/s on an instrumented treadmill were used to drive the model in the multi-body simulation. Results and Discussion As a result the vertical ground reaction forces (z-direction calculated by the MBS-system show a maximum deviation of 1.75%BW for the left and 4.65%BW for the right hind limb from the treadmill measurements. The calculated peak ground reaction forces in z- and y-direction were found to be comparable to the treadmill measurements, whereas the curve characteristics of the forces in y-direction were not in complete alignment. Conclusion In conclusion, it could be demonstrated that the developed MBS-model is suitable for simulating ground reaction forces of dogs during walking. In forthcoming investigations the model will be developed further for the calculation of forces and moments acting on the hip joint during different movements, which can be of help in context with the in

  14. Endodontic management of mandibular canine with two canals

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    Nidhi Shrivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic treatment may sometimes fail because morphological features of the tooth adversely affect the treatment procedures. Many investigators have reported the anatomical variations associated with mandibular canines. Mandibular canines are recognized as usually having one root and one root canal in most cases. This case report describes a clinical case of mandibular canine with two canals. Human mandibular canines do not present internal anatomy as simple as could be expected; there are such canines with a single root and two canals, two roots or fused roots. The existence of mandibular canines with more than one root canal is a fact that clinicians ought to keep in mind, in order to avoid failure during endodontic treatment. In spite of the low incidence of lower canines with one root and two canals, this possibility cannot be forgotten, inasmuch as the presence of a second canal in these teeth leads to difficulties in endodontic treatment. The precise knowledge of the dental endocanalicular system′s anatomy is essential in the success of the root canal therapy, because the failure to detect the accessories canals and the incomplete radicular obturation leads to the infection of the periapical space, which will ultimately result in the loss of the tooth.

  15. CANINE IMPACTIONS: AN ORTHODONTIST’S PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Harikrishna; Arindom; Anil Kumar; Akhila

    2014-01-01

    : Impacted teeth are those which are not predictable and do not erupt absolutely based on clinical and radiographic assessment. Certain impactions can be complicated and the outcome unpredictable if the tooth is positioned unfavourably either horizontally or vertically in the alveolar bone. Presence of canines buccally, palatally or lingually can be seen using various diagnostic methods. Factors that interfere with its development and eruption have influence on aesthetics’, ...

  16. No evidence of horizontal infection in horses kept in close contact with dogs experimentally infected with canine influenza A virus (H3N8

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    Yamanaka Takashi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since equine influenza A virus (H3N8 was transmitted to dogs in the United States in 2004, the causative virus, which is called canine influenza A virus (CIV, has become widespread in dogs. To date, it has remained unclear whether or not CIV-infected dogs could transmit CIV to horses. To address this, we tested whether or not close contact between horses and dogs experimentally infected with CIV would result in its interspecies transmission. Methods Three pairs of animals consisting of a dog inoculated with CIV (108.3 egg infectious dose50/dog and a healthy horse were kept together in individual stalls for 15 consecutive days. During the study, all the dogs and horses were clinically observed. Virus titres in nasal swab extracts and serological responses were also evaluated. In addition, all the animals were subjected to a gross pathological examination after euthanasia. Results All three dogs inoculated with CIV exhibited clinical signs including, pyrexia, cough, nasal discharge, virus shedding and seroconversion. Gross pathology revealed lung consolidations in all the dogs, and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated from the lesions. Meanwhile, none of the paired horses showed any clinical signs, virus shedding or seroconversion. Moreover, gross pathology revealed no lesions in the respiratory tracts including the lungs of the horses. Conclusions These findings may indicate that a single dog infected with CIV is not sufficient to constitute a source of CIV infection in horses.

  17. Evaluation of Live Recombinant Nonpathogenic Leishmania tarentolae Expressing Cysteine Proteinase and A2 Genes as a Candidate Vaccine against Experimental Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Mehdi; Zahedifard, Farnaz; Taheri, Tahereh; Taslimi, Yasaman; Jamshidi, Shahram; Shirian, Sadegh; Mahdavi, Niousha; Hassankhani, Mehdi; Daneshbod, Yahya; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Rafati, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) is a major veterinary and public health problem caused by Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) in many endemic countries. It is a severe chronic disease with generalized parasite spread to the reticuloendothelial system, such as spleen, liver and bone marrow and is often fatal when left untreated. Control of VL in dogs would dramatically decrease infection pressure of L. infantum for humans, since dogs are the main domestic reservoir. In the past decade, various subunits and DNA antigens have been identified as potential vaccine candidates in experimental animal models, but none has been approved for human use so far. In this study, we vaccinated outbreed dogs with a prime-boost regimen based on recombinant L. tarentolae expressing the L. donovani A2 antigen along with cysteine proteinase genes (CPA and CPB without its unusual C-terminal extension (CPB-CTE) and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective immunity against L. infantum infectious challenge. We showed that vaccinated animals produced significantly higher levels of IgG2, but not IgG1, and also IFN-γ and TNF-α, but low IL-10 levels, before and after challenge as compared to control animals. Protection in dogs was also correlated with a strong DTH response and low parasite burden in the vaccinated group. Altogether, immunization with recombinant L. tarentolae A2-CPA-CPB-CTE was proven to be immunogenic and induced partial protection in dogs, hence representing a promising live vaccine candidate against CVL.

  18. Effect of the Plasmid-DNA Vaccination on Macroscopic and Microscopic Damage Caused by the Experimental Chronic Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in the Canine Model

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    Olivia Rodríguez-Morales

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dog is considered the main domestic reservoir for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and a suitable experimental animal model to study the pathological changes during the course of Chagas disease (CD. Vaccine development is one of CD prevention methods to protect people at risk. Two plasmids containing genes encoding a trans-sialidase protein (TcSP and an amastigote-specific glycoprotein (TcSSP4 were used as DNA vaccines in a canine model. Splenomegaly was not found in either of the recombinant plasmid-immunized groups; however, cardiomegaly was absent in animals immunized only with the plasmid containing the TcSSP4 gene. The inflammation of subendocardial and myocardial tissues was prevented only with the immunization with TcSSP4 gene. In conclusion, the vaccination with these genes has a partial protective effect on the enlargement of splenic and cardiac tissues during the chronic CD and on microscopic hearth damage, since both plasmids prevented splenomegaly but only one avoided cardiomegaly, and the lesions in heart tissue of dog immunized with plasmid containing the TcSSP4 gene covered only subepicardial tissue.

  19. Evaluation of canine retraction following periodontal distraction using NiTi coil spring and implants – A clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rohit; Tikku, Tripti; Sachan, Kiran; Maurya, R.P.; Verma, Geeta; Ojha, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the amount of canine retraction with periodontal distraction using miniscrew implants and NiTi coil spring. Material and method Sample comprised of 25 patients who were scheduled for all 1st premolar extraction (13 males and 12 females), in the age range of 16–22 years with mean age 18.8 ± 2.7 years. For each patient left side served as control side (Group I) and right side as experimental side (Group II). At the time of first premolar extraction, periodontal distraction was performed only on the experimental side, followed by retraction of canine from mini-implant by closed NiTi coil spring on both the sides. “Nemotech” software was used to evaluate the amount of canine retraction for a period of 3 months. Results Significantly higher amount of tooth movement was seen from T0–T1 and from T1–T2 in Group II for the maxillary parameters 3C-5C, 6CF-3C, 3C-I/3C-J and for the mandibular parameter 6CF″-3C″. Whereas no significant amount of tooth movement was observed for maxillary and mandibular parameters between T2-T3 except for 6CF″-3C″ (p ≤ 0.01) which was significantly higher for the Group II. Conclusion There was accelerated canine retraction on the periodontal distraction side as compared to the control side, with negligible anchorage loss. PMID:25737943

  20. Dentigerous cyst associated with an impacted anterior maxillary supernumerary tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kaushal Mahendra; Karagir, Amol; Adaki, Shridevi; Pattanshetti, Channaveer

    2013-01-31

    Most typical dentigerous cysts are commonly seen in association with third molars and maxillary canines. Only 5-6% of dentigerous cysts are associated with supernumerary teeth. We report a rare case of dentigerous cyst associated with an impacted anterior maxillary supernumerary tooth. The patient was treated surgically by enucleation of the cyst.

  1. Relations between experimentally induced tooth pain threshold changes, psychometrics and clinical pain relief following TENS. A retrospective study in patients with long-lasting pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widerström, E G; Aslund, P G; Gustafsson, L E; Mannheimer, C; Carlsson, S G; Andersson, S A

    1992-12-01

    The present study investigates the relationships between clinical pain relief, physiological and psychological parameters. Out of 50 patients with long-lasting musculoskeletal neck- and shoulder-pain treated with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), 21 were selected and classified as responders (n = 13) or non-responders (n = 8). Tooth pain thresholds (PT) were measured before and after an experimental TENS treatment and the relative change in PT following the stimulation was calculated. Three psychometric self-inventories were administered: Zung Depression Scale, Spielberger's Trait Anxiety Scale and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale. Responders (R) and non-responders (NR) differed significantly from each other in the PT measurements as well as on the psychometric scales. NR exhibited higher levels of anxiety and depression, a more pronounced powerful other orientation and no change or a decrease in PT following TENS compared to R. These findings indicate relationships and interactions between physiological and psychological factors in patients with long-lasting pain.

  2. Hemograma de cães submetidos ao envenenamento experimental por Tityus serrulatus Canine blood profile after experimental envenomation by Tityus serrulatus

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    E.L. Ribeiro

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o hemograma de 12 cães adultos, saudáveis (14,2±5,4kg após a inoculação de veneno do escorpião amarelo (Tityus serrulatus. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos (G, com seis em cada: os do GI foram usados como controle e receberam 0,5mL de salina tamponada com fosfato (PBS por via subcutânea (SC na face medial da coxa esquerda (FMCE, e os do GII receberam veneno liofilizado do T. serrulatus (250µg/kg diluído em PBS por via SC na FMCE. Foram realizadas colheitas de sangue com anticoagulante EDTA a 10% antes da inoculação do veneno (T0 e após 2h, (T1, 6h (T2, 12h (T3, 24h (T4, 48h (T5 e 72h (T6, para contagem de eritrócitos, leucócitos e plaquetas em aparelho contador eletrônico e esfregaços sanguíneos para contagem diferencial de leucócitos. Houve aumento significativo (PThe canine blood profile after scorpion envenomation was evaluated using 12 healthy mongrel male dogs (14.2±5.4kg distributed in two groups, with six animals in each: group I (control group and group II (venom group. The lyophilized yellow scorpion (Tityus serrulatus venom (250µg/kg diluted in 0.5mL phosphate buffered saline (PBS was given to group II animals by subcutaneous injection, in the medial face of the left thigh. Group I animals received only 0.5mL of PBS, by subcutaneous injection, in the medial face of the left thigh. Blood samples were collected with EDTA before (T0 and 2 (T1, 6 (T2, 12 (T3, 24 (T4, 48 (T5, and 72h (T6 after envenomation. Significant increases (P<0.05 in erythrocytes counting, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration, 2 and 6h after envenomation were observed. Leukocytosis with significant increases (P<0.05 of neutrophils and lymphocytes 2 and 6h after envenomation was found. Then, T. serrulatus venom may induce alterations in blood profile in dogs, probably due to spleen contraction evoked by pain and catecholamines releasing.

  3. Prevalence rate and dentoskeletal features associated with buccally displaced maxillary canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucedero, Manuela; Ricchiuti, Maria Rosaria; Cozza, Paola; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence and distribution of buccally displaced canines (BDCs) in subjects scheduled for orthodontic treatment and to investigate the association between BDC and sagittal, vertical, and transverse dentoskeletal relationships. A study sample of 1852 subjects was examined, and it was divided randomly into two groups. A first group of 252 subjects served as control group: the 'reference' prevalence rates for the examined parameters were calculated in this group. The remaining 1600 subjects comprised the sample from which the experimental BDC group was derived. Presence of unilateral or bilateral maxillary BDC, ANB, and SN GOGn angles for sagittal and vertical skeletal relationships, intercanine and intermolar distances, and tooth crowding at the maxillary arch were recorded for each subject. The statistical significance of differences between the BDC and the control groups in transverse relations and tooth crowding at the upper arch was tested by means of independent sample t-tests. Chi-square tests were performed to compare the prevalence rates of BDC and also sagittal and vertical skeletal features in the two groups. The prevalence rate of BDC was 3.06 per cent with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. BDC subjects exhibited a significant association with hyperdivergent skeletal relationships (38.8%), reduced maxillary intercanine width, and crowding in the upper arch. The presence of specific dentoskeletal characteristics can be considered as a risk indicator for developing a buccal displacement of upper permanent canines.

  4. Using a Novel Absolute Ontogenetic Age Determination Technique to Calculate the Timing of Tooth Eruption in the Saber-Toothed Cat, Smilodon fatalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, M Aleksander; Feranec, Robert S; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Bjornsson, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Despite the superb fossil record of the saber-toothed cat, Smilodon fatalis, ontogenetic age determination for this and other ancient species remains a challenge. The present study utilizes a new technique, a combination of data from stable oxygen isotope analyses and micro-computed tomography, to establish the eruption rate for the permanent upper canines in Smilodon fatalis. The results imply an eruption rate of 6.0 millimeters per month, which is similar to a previously published average enamel growth rate of the S. fatalis upper canines (5.8 millimeters per month). Utilizing the upper canine growth rate, the upper canine eruption rate, and a previously published tooth replacement sequence, this study calculates absolute ontogenetic age ranges of tooth development and eruption in S. fatalis. The timing of tooth eruption is compared between S. fatalis and several extant conical-toothed felids, such as the African lion (Panthera leo). Results suggest that the permanent dentition of S. fatalis, except for the upper canines, was fully erupted by 14 to 22 months, and that the upper canines finished erupting at about 34 to 41 months. Based on these developmental age calculations, S. fatalis individuals less than 4 to 7 months of age were not typically preserved at Rancho La Brea. On the whole, S. fatalis appears to have had delayed dental development compared to dental development in similar-sized extant felids. This technique for absolute ontogenetic age determination can be replicated in other ancient species, including non-saber-toothed taxa, as long as the timing of growth initiation and growth rate can be determined for a specific feature, such as a tooth, and that growth period overlaps with the development of the other features under investigation.

  5. Dentigerous Cyst Associated with Ectopic Canine and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amongst the cysts of the jaw dentigerous cyst (DC) is one of the most prevalent types of odontogenic cysts, which is associated with the crown of an unerupted or developing tooth. DC is more commonly seen with mandibular third molar and maxillary canine and rarely other teeth are involved. These cysts seldom associate ...

  6. Morphometric analysis of canine in gender determination: Revisited in India

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    Geetha Paramkusam

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation and Conclusion: Use of the standard mandibular CI in gender determination is recommended for forensic procedures as it was found to have an acceptable accuracy. MD width of canine may be used in a setup when only the single tooth or a fragment of a jaw is available for analysis, with due consideration to its relatively low accuracy.

  7. Esthetics with prosthetics in case of maxillary canine transposition: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These are mainly genetically governed and are treated orthodontically if complete segment of tooth is present; in case of missing teeth, participation of cosmetic dentist is must. The present case report describes a situation where left canine to lateral incisor complete transposition was present along with a missing left central ...

  8. Transmigration of mandibular canine – case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruszka, Katarzyna; Różyło, T. Katarzyna; Różyło-Kalinowska, Ingrid; Denkiewicz, Katarzyna; Masłowska, Klaudia

    2014-01-01

    Transmigration is a phenomenon of movement of an unerupted tooth in the bone across the midline. This anomaly is not often found. Transmigration is more prevalent in females than in males, and more often encountered in the mandible than maxilla, it affects mostly canines. The aim of this study was to present a case report of a mandibular canine transmigration in a patient aged 12. Intraoral examination determined hypodontia of right second premolar and delayed eruption of left second premolar in maxilla, as well as persistent deciduous teeth: right second molar, left canine and second molar. The patient was referred for a Cone-Beam CT examination, which allowed precise visualization of the transmigrating canine as well as ruled out resorption of roots of mandibular incisors. The treatment with a maxillary fixed orthodontic appliance was finished after obtaining a satisfactory result. Proper alignment of the incisors in the anterior-posterior plane and correct midline position were accepted by the patient. Transmigrating canine after consultation with the surgeon was designed to further radiological observation

  9. Osteocalcin and N-telopeptides of type I collagen marker levels in gingival crevicular fluid during different stages of orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaqeeh, Sarah A; Anil, Sukumaran

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the study was to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze changes in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during orthodontic movement by assessing the levels of cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen marker (NTx) and osteocalcin (OC) activity. Twenty patients requiring all first premolars to be extracted were selected and treated with conventional straight-wire mechanotherapy. The canines were retracted with closed-coil springs. The maxillary canine on one side acted as the experimental site, and the contralateral canine was the control. GCF was collected from around the canines before retraction, and 1 hour, 1 day, 7 days, 14 days, and 21 days after retraction. GCF NTx and OC levels were estimated and compared with the control side. The results showed statistically significant changes in NTx and OC levels on days 7, 14, and 21 when we compared the experimental and control sides. The peak in all activity of the variables occurred on day 14 after retraction. The study showed that NTx and OC levels can be successfully estimated in the GCF, and its increased levels might indicate the active tooth movement phase in orthodontic therapy. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Alignment of palatally impacted canine with open window technique and modified K-9 spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Shastri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient was an 18-year-old female who had an Angle Class I malocclusion with a left palatally impacted maxillary canine. The orthodontic treatment of a palatally impacted canine is aimed at bringing the tooth into its correct position in the dental arch without causing any periodontal damage. To achieve this goal, a variety of surgical and orthodontic techniques have been proposed in relation to the position of the impacted tooth and there are various treatment methods used for traction. The duration of the traction was 3 months and alignment duration was 12 months the total treatment time was 15 months. In the following case, we presented that maxillary palatally impacted canine was brought into the arch with open window method for canine exposure and modified K-9 spring for traction, that is simple spring for orthodontic traction of the palatally impacted canines.

  11. Experimental canine model for sentinel lymph node biopsy in the vulva using technetium and patent blue dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, José Ulcijara; Pinheiro, Luiz Gonzaga Porto; Vasques, Paulo Henrique Diógenes; Rocha, João Ivo Xavier; Cruz, Diego Alves; Beserra, Hugo Enrique Orsini; Cavalcante, Raissa Vasconcelos

    2012-02-01

    This paper aims to study and define the experimental model of sentinel lymph node biopsy of the vulva in bitches. 0.2 ml of 99mTc phytate was injected intradermally, using a fine gauge insulin needle in the anterior commissure of the vulva. Thirty minutes after 99mTc injection, the inguinal mapping was performed using a gamma probe. After this, 0.5 ml of blue dye (bleu patenté V Guerbet 2.5%) was injected in the same place. After 15 minutes, a 3 cm long inguinal incision was made at point maximum uptake followed by careful dissection, guided by visualization of a bluish afferent lymphatic system that points to the sentinel lymph node (SLN). It was observed that 88% of SLN were identified. It wasn't found a significant difference among the presence or not of sentinel lymph node in the sides, which is an indication of a good consistency. It was observed a high (88%) and significant (χ2=12.89 and p=0.0003) intercession between both methods (blue dye and radiation). The experimental model adopted is feasible, becoming advantageous in applying the association of Patent blue and 99mTc.

  12. Analysis of tooth tissues using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timchenko, E.V.; Timchenko, P.E.; Kulabukhova, A.Yu.; Volova, L.T.; Rosenbaum, A.Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The results of experimental studies of healthy tooth tissue and tooth tissues during caries disease are presented. Features of Raman spectrum of tooth tissues during caries disease are obtained: the main changes are detected at wavenumbers 956 cm -1 .1069 cm -1 . corresponding to phosphates. and 1241 cm -1 . 1660 cm -1 . corresponding to collagen III and collagen I. respectively. Were introduced criteria allowing to detect caries and to identify weakening of tooth tissues. preceding the caries. The reliability of research results is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. (paper)

  13. Slide tracheoplasty applied to acquired subglottic and upper tracheal stenosis: an experimental study in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkafy, Wael M; El Atriby, Mohamed N; Iskandar, Nagy M; Mattox, Douglas E; Mansour, Kamal A

    2007-04-01

    To assess the applicability and complications of slide tracheoplasty in the management of subglottic and upper tracheal stenosis in experimental animals. Subglottic stenosis was induced in 10 dogs by cauterizing the subglottic area and the upper 3 to 4 cm of the trachea. After 21 days, the severity of stenosis ranged from 30% to 60%. The subglottic area was reconstruction with slide tracheoplasty, and the results were evaluated at 4, 12, and 24 weeks postoperatively. Ten mongrel dogs (Canis familiaris) were included in the study, each weighing between 12 and 17 kg. Slide tracheoplasty. Patency of the reconstructed segment. Follow-up examination revealed no airway obstruction in any animal. Examination of the reconstructed segment revealed good healing without granulation tissue and a patent endotracheal lumen in all cases. Histopathological examination of sections taken at the suture line confirmed complete healing without granulation tissue. Slide tracheoplasty can be applied successfully to the subglottic area. It offers many advantages in tracheal reconstruction and can be used for the management of acquired subglottic stenosis. The vascularized tracheal cartilage heals without granulation tissue often seen after cartilage interposition grafts. Furthermore, this technique reduces the need for tracheal and laryngeal mobilization for the treatment of longer areas of stenosis.

  14. The unerupted maxillary canine - a post-surgical review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dowling, Ian

    2009-10-01

    The orthodontic records of 685 patients referred for surgical exposure of an unerupted impacted maxillary canine tooth were examined. The condition was more common among females than males, slightly less than 2:1. The impacted teeth had a palatal-labial ratio of 3:1. All of the teeth were exposed using the open surgical technique and in 98% of cases the tooth erupted and was orthodontically aligned. In 2% of cases ankylosis occurred and the teeth were subsequently extracted. The presence of peg-shaped lateral incisors associated with the impacted maxillary canine tooth was 3.4% of the total number of impacted teeth and congenital absence was found in 1.7% of impacted teeth.

  15. The unerupted maxillary canine--a post-surgical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dowling, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The orthodontic records of 685 patients referred for surgical exposure of an unerupted impacted maxillary canine tooth were examined. The condition was more common among females than males, slightly less than 2:1. The impacted teeth had a palatal-labial ratio of 3:1. All of the teeth were exposed using the open surgical technique and in 98% of cases the tooth erupted and was orthodontically aligned. In 2% of cases ankylosis occurred and the teeth were subsequently extracted. The presence of peg-shaped lateral incisors associated with the impacted maxillary canine tooth was 3.4% of the total number of impacted teeth and congenital absence was found in 1.7% of impacted teeth.

  16. Dual-energy CT based vascular iodine analysis improves sensitivity for peripheral pulmonary artery thrombus detection: An experimental study in canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chun Xiang [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Zhang, Long Jiang, E-mail: kevinzhlj@163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Han, Zong Hong; Zhou, Chang Sheng [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Krazinski, Aleksander W.; Silverman, Justin R. [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U. Joseph [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Lu, Guang Ming, E-mail: cjr.luguangming@vip.163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of dual-energy CT (DECT) based vascular iodine analysis for the detection of acute peripheral pulmonary thrombus (PE) in a canine model with histopathological findings as the reference standard. Materials and methods: The study protocol was approved by our institutional animal committee. Thrombi (n = 12) or saline (n = 4) were intravenously injected via right femoral vein in sixteen dogs, respectively. CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in DECT mode was performed and conventional CTPA images and DECT based vascular iodine studies using Lung Vessels application were reconstructed. Two radiologists visually evaluated the number and location of PEs using conventional CTPA and DECT series on a per-animal and a per-clot basis. Detailed histopathological examination of lung specimens and catheter angiography served as reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of DECT and CTPA were calculated on a segmental and subsegmental or more distal pulmonary artery basis. Weighted κ values were computed to evaluate inter-modality and inter-reader agreement. Results: Thirteen dogs were enrolled for final image analysis (experimental group = 9, control group = 4). Histopathological results revealed 237 emboli in 45 lung lobes in 9 experimental dogs, 11 emboli in segmental pulmonary arteries, 49 in subsegmental pulmonary arteries, 177 in fifth-order or more distal pulmonary arteries. Overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV, and NPV for CTPA plus DECT were 93.1%, 76.9%, 87.8%, 89.4%, and 84.2% for the detection of pulmonary emboli. With CTPA versus DECT, sensitivities, specificities, accuracies, PPVs, and NPVs are all 100% for the detection of pulmonary emboli on a segmental pulmonary artery basis, 88.9%, 100%, 96.0%, 100%, and 94.1% for CTPA and 90.4%, 93.0%, 92.0%, 88.7%, and 94.1% for DECT on a subsegmental pulmonary artery basis; 23.8%, 96.4%, 50.4%, 93

  17. Canine length in wild male baboons: maturation, aging and social dominance rank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Galbany

    Full Text Available Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many primates. Specifically, we measured maxillary canine length in 80 wild male baboons (aged 5.04-20.45 years from the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya, and examined its relationship with maturation, age, and social dominance rank. In our analysis of maturation, we compared food-enhanced baboons (those that fed part time at a refuse pit associated with a tourist lodge with wild-feeding males, and found that food-enhanced males achieved long canines earlier than wild-feeding males. Among adult males, canine length decreased with age because of tooth wear. We found some evidence that, after controlling for age, longer canines were associated with higher adult dominance rank (accounting for 9% of the variance in rank, but only among relatively high-ranking males. This result supports the idea that social rank, and thus reproductive success and fitness, may depend in part on fighting ability mediated by canine size.

  18. Frequency of impacted teeth and categorization of impacted canines: A retrospective radiographic study using orthopantomograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zoubi, Hassan; Alharbi, Abdulgader Abdullatif; Ferguson, Donald J; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the frequency of impacted maxillary canines using seven subtype classification system. For this purpose, impacted maxillary canines have been divided into seven various subtypes. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional, and retrospective study conducted using radiographic data of residents of Madinah, Al Munawwarah. Radiographic data of 14,000 patients, who attended College of Dentistry, Taibah University, from January 2011 to February 2015, were screened against the selection criteria for the presence of impacted teeth. The individuals with maxillary impacted canines were matched to maxillary canine impaction. The occurrence of each subtype of impacted canines was calculated. Impacted teeth are more common in the maxilla compared to mandible. The impacted canine represented the highest proportion of all impacted maxillary teeth followed by the second premolars and the central incisors. According to the classification system represented, Type II of canine impaction comprised the highest proportion (51%) while Type IV (0.5%) comprised the lowest frequency. The maxillary canine is the most frequently impacted tooth followed by mandibular canines. Although there are many variations, the majority of impacted canines fall into Type II of the classification of impacted canines.

  19. The short and long term effects of intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy (IORT) on thoracic organs after pneumonectomy an experimental study in the canine model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Willem; Mehta, DM; Timens, W; Hoekstra, HJ

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The tolerance of mediastinal structures and thoracic organs to intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) was investigated in the canine model. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two adult beagles divided into three groups were subjected to a left pneumonectomy and IORT (10 MeV electrons) at doses of 20

  20. The prevalence of tooth-buds extraction in children and mother’s knowledge on teething symptoms in children of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Simangwa, L.; Gazhva, S.; Gurenkova, N.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 900 mothers were interviewed with regard to practice of tooth-buds extraction in children and 900 children aged 0-5 years old were examined for missing primary teeth, scar or wounds on the gums due to tooth-buds extraction. The prevalence of tooth-buds extraction at Ilembula Lutheran Hospital was 0.7% and in all cases the extracted tooth-buds were lower jaw canines.

  1. Canine thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsohn, M.

    1985-01-01

    Thymoma is an uncommon canine neoplasm of thymic epithelial cells. It is seen in various breeds but may occur more frequently in German Shepherd Dogs. Middle-aged or older dogs can be affected and no sex predilection exists. A paraneoplastic syndrome of myasthenia gravis, nonthymic malignant tumors, and/or polymyositis occurs in a significant number of dogs with thymoma. Clinical signs are variable and are related to a space-occupying cranial mediastinal mass and/or manifestations of the paraneo-plastic syndrome. Dyspnea is the most common presenting clinical sign. Thoracic radiographs usually show a cranial mediastinal mass. Lymphoma is the main differential diagnosis. A definitive diagnosis may be made by closed biopsy but is more likely to be confirmed by thoracotomy. Thymomas may be completely contained within the thymic capsule or may spread by local invasion or metastasis. A staging system allows for an accurate prognosis and a therapeutic plan. Surgical removal of encapsulated thymomas may result in long-term survival or cure. Invasive or metastatic thymomas carry a guarded prognosis. Manifestations of the paraneoplastic syndrome complicate treatment. Adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy may be of value for advanced cases; however, adequate clinical trials have not been done in the dog

  2. Novel treatment of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis of incisor teeth in a 22-year-old Arabian mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier-Lowe, Candace K; Anthony, James

    2015-08-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis is a rarely reported condition in the incisor and canine teeth of older horses. Histologically, there is internal and external resorption of the tooth with formation of excessive cementum. Once lesions become infected or supragingival this condition is very painful. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of hypercementosis in an Arabian mare are described.

  3. Novel treatment of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis of incisor teeth in a 22-year-old Arabian mare

    OpenAIRE

    Grier-Lowe, Candace K.; Anthony, James

    2015-01-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis is a rarely reported condition in the incisor and canine teeth of older horses. Histologically, there is internal and external resorption of the tooth with formation of excessive cementum. Once lesions become infected or supragingival this condition is very painful. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of hypercementosis in an Arabian mare are described.

  4. Social ranking effects on tooth-brushing behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Maltby, John; Paterson, Kevin; Day, Liz; Jones, Ceri; Kinnear, Hayley; Buchanan, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A tooth-brushing social rank hypothesis is tested suggesting tooth-brushing duration is influenced when individuals position their behaviour in a rank when comparing their behaviour with other individuals.\\ud Design: Study 1 used a correlation design, Study 2 used a semi-experimental design, and Study 3 used a randomized intervention design to examine the tooth-brushing social rank hypothesis in terms of self-reported attitudes, cognitions, and behaviour towards tooth-brushing dura...

  5. Multidisciplinary Treatment of Severe Upper Incisor Root Resorption Secondary to Transposed Canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Yasemin Nur; Yagci, Filiz

    2017-02-01

    Tooth transposition is a rare dental anomaly that could lead to undesirable side effects on other teeth. This case report aims to describe the multidisciplinary treatment of a patient with a severely resorbed permanent maxillary central incisor due to transposition with the permanent canine. A girl aged 13 years and 7 months with a chief complaint of a pink spot on her maxillary left incisor with a slightly erupted tooth above it was referred to our clinic. Her left maxillary canine was transposed to her left central incisor site. The left canine was impacted and had caused severe resorption of the left central incisor root. Her maxillary left canine was substituted for the central incisor after the compulsory extraction of her left central incisor. The canine was prosthetically restored after orthodontic treatment. The results were stable 1 year after treatment had been completed. Orthodontic treatment in coordination with other dental specialties like prosthodontics, periodontology and oral and maxillofacial surgery can provide functional and esthetic outcome in cases of severely transposed canines. This is a rare case of transposition that shows the significant root resorption on the maxillary central incisor due to the ectopic eruption of the canine. Canine substitution for the central incisor was chosen as a treatment plan instead of placing an implant. An esthetic smile and a functional occlusion were established at the end of the treatment. (J Esthet Restor Dent 29:5-12, 2017). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Overview of Tooth Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... necessitated by crowns and bridges. Bonding involves the attachment of tooth-colored fillings to natural teeth with ... Drugs Mentioned In This Article Generic Name Select Brand Names tetracycline ACHROMYCIN V Tooth Disorders Overview of ...

  7. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  8. [Cervical skeletal abnormalities in patients with palatally displaced canine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lan-Yue; Niu, Lei; Chen, Yan-Na; Zheng, Bo-Wen; Liu, Yi

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the association between palatally displaced canines and cervical skeletal abnormalities by lateral cephalometric, panoramic radiographs and cone-beam CT. One hundred and three patients with palatally displaced canines were chosen as the experimental group, and 103 patients with Class I and normal canines eruption were as the control group.The data of the first four cervical fusions and posterior arch defects were measured on the lateral cephalometrics. The relationship of the cervical skeletal abnormalities and palatally displaced canines was analyzed with SPSS 21.0 software package for Chi-square test. The incidence of cervical fusion in the experimental group was 71.84%(74 cases), while 15.53% (16 cases) in the control group; the difference between the experimental group and the control group was significant (Pcanines, and cervical vertebra bone abnormalities can be combined with other diagnostic parameters to confirm the situation of impacted canines.

  9. Tooth Eruption without Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, X.-P.

    2013-01-01

    Root development and tooth eruption are very important topics in dentistry. However, they remain among the less-studied and -understood subjects. Root development accompanies rapid tooth eruption, but roots are required for the movement of teeth into the oral cavity. It has been shown that the dental follicle and bone remodeling are essential for tooth eruption. So far, only limited genes have been associated with root formation and tooth eruption. This may be due to the diffic...

  10. Accelerated orthodontic tooth movement: molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hechang; Williams, Ray C; Kyrkanides, Stephanos

    2014-11-01

    Accelerating orthodontic tooth movement can significantly reduce treatment duration and risks of side effects. The rate of orthodontic tooth movement is chiefly determined by the remodeling of tissues surrounding the roots; this in turn is under the control of molecular mechanisms regulating cellular behaviors in the alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying accelerated orthodontic tooth movement, and the clinical and experimental methods that accelerate orthodontic tooth movement with possible molecular mechanisms. The review also shows directions for future studies to develop more clinically applicable methods to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Esthetic orthodontic correction of a canine crossbite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Tae Weon

    2010-01-01

    Serial Aligners are fabricated from the working cast at certain intervals during treatment. It offers flexibility to change the treatment plan at any stage throughout the course of treatment. The tooth movement is very efficient and the patient feels comfortable because Clear Aligner comes in three different thicknesses of plastic sheets. It enables the patient to receive necessary dental treatments during the aligner treatment. The treatment can also be restarted easily even when the patient has not worn the aligners for a period of time. This article reports a patient with canine crossbite combined with moderate crowding that was successfully treated using Serial Aligners.

  12. Supplemental tooth in primary dentition

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, Ravi Prakash Sasankoti; Verma, Sankalp; Singh, Udita; Agarwal, Neha

    2014-01-01

    An extra tooth causing numerical excess in dentition is described as supernumerary tooth, and the resultant condition is termed as hyperdontia. Hyperdontia is more commonly seen in the permanent dentition than primary one. Supernumerary tooth which resembles tooth shape and supplements for occlusion is called as supplemental tooth. We present a case with supplemental tooth in primary dentition.

  13. Supplemental tooth in primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Ravi Prakash Sasankoti; Verma, Sankalp; Singh, Udita; Agarwal, Neha

    2014-06-09

    An extra tooth causing numerical excess in dentition is described as supernumerary tooth, and the resultant condition is termed as hyperdontia. Hyperdontia is more commonly seen in the permanent dentition than primary one. Supernumerary tooth which resembles tooth shape and supplements for occlusion is called as supplemental tooth. We present a case with supplemental tooth in primary dentition. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  14. Effect of Orthodontic Tooth Movement on Salivary Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiven Adhitya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 72 1024x768 Aspartate aminotransferase is one of biological indicator in gingival crevicular fluid (CGF. Force orthodontic application could increase activity of aspartate aminotransferase in CGF. However, the increase activity of aspartate aminotransferase in saliva due to orthodontic force and its correlation between aspartate aminotransferase activity and tooth movement remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate application orthodontic force on the aspartate aminotransferase activity in saliva based on the duration of force and finding correlation between tooth movement and aspartate aminotransferase activity. Methods: Twenty saliva samples collected before extraction of first premolar, at the time of force application for canine retraction and after force application. The canines retraction used 100 grams of interrupted force (module chain for thirty days. The collection of saliva and the measurement of tooth movement were carried out 1 day, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days after force application. The measurement of aspartate aminotransferase activity in saliva was done using spectrophotometer. Results: Application of orthodontic force influences the salivary aspartate aminotransferase activity (F=25.290, p=0.000. Furthermore, tooth movement correlated with aspartate aminotransferase activity (F=0.429, p=0.000. Conclusion: Aspartate aminotransferase activity could be used as tooth movement indicator that related to the duration of force application.DOI : 10.14693/jdi.v20i1.128

  15. Effect of an experimental desensitizing agent on reduction of bleaching-induced tooth sensitivity: A triple-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreiras, Sibelli Olivieri; Szesz, Anna Luiza; Coppla, Fabiana Madalozzo; Martini, Eveline Claudia; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Reis, Alessandra

    2018-04-01

    In this randomized study, split-mouth, triple-blind clinical trial, the authors evaluated the efficacy of a desensitizing gel that contained 5% potassium nitrate and 5% glutaraldehyde applied before in-office bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP). Treatment with the desensitizing or placebo control gels was randomly assigned to one-half of the maxillary teeth of 42 patients in a split-mouth design. The desensitizing gels were applied and maintained in contact with the tooth enamel for 10 minutes, followed by 2 HP bleaching sessions separated by 1 week. The primary outcome variable was pain intensity assessed with a numeric rating scale and a visual analog scale. Color was evaluated by means of a digital spectrophotometer and a value-oriented shade guide. The difference in risk of developing tooth sensitivity between the desensitizing gel group (31.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 19.6 to 46.9) and the control group (70.7%; 95% CI, 55.5 to 82.3%) was statistically significant (P whitening reduced the risk and severity of dental sensitivity, without altering the effectiveness of whitening. A single application of desensitizing gel that contained 5% potassium nitrate and 5% glutaraldehyde can reduce tooth sensitivity after dental bleaching systems. Copyright © 2018 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Canine adenoviruses and herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2008-07-01

    Canine adenoviruses (CAVs) and canine herpesvirus (CHV) are pathogens of dogs that have been known for several decades. The two distinct types of CAVs, type 1 and type 2, are responsible for infectious canine hepatitis and infectious tracheobronchitis, respectively. In the present article, the currently available literature on CAVs and CHV is reviewed, providing a meaningful update on the epidemiologic, pathogenetic, clinical, diagnostic, and prophylactic aspects of the infections caused by these important pathogens.

  17. Canine respiratory viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Buonavoglia , Canio; Martella , Vito

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Acute contagious respiratory disease (kennel cough) is commonly described in dogs worldwide. The disease appears to be multifactorial and a number of viral and bacterial pathogens have been reported as potential aetiological agents, including canine parainfluenza virus, canine adenovirus and Bordetella bronchiseptica, as well as mycoplasmas, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, canine herpesvirus and reovirus-1,-2 and -3. Enhancement of pathogenicity by multiple in...

  18. Tooth eruption without roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X-P

    2013-03-01

    Root development and tooth eruption are very important topics in dentistry. However, they remain among the less-studied and -understood subjects. Root development accompanies rapid tooth eruption, but roots are required for the movement of teeth into the oral cavity. It has been shown that the dental follicle and bone remodeling are essential for tooth eruption. So far, only limited genes have been associated with root formation and tooth eruption. This may be due to the difficulties in studying late stages of tooth development and tooth movement and the lack of good model systems. Transgenic mice with eruption problems and short or no roots can be used as a powerful model for further deciphering of the cellular, molecular, and genetic mechanisms underlying root formation and tooth eruption. Better understanding of these processes can provide hints on delivering more efficient dental therapies in the future.

  19. Restorative dental treatments of abraded canine teeth in a Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Foreest, A; Roeters, J

    1997-12-01

    A Sumatran tiger had developed severely abraded canine teeth by biting on cage-bars. This resulted in weakening and marked sensitivity of the teeth. Indications for, techniques of and complications of restorative dental treatments are described. The outcome of different restorative dental treatments indicates that endodontic treatment should be carried out first if the fracture of a weakened tooth is anticipated. To improve retention, the acid-etch technique is preferred in combination with macroretentive preparations. In this case, amalgam was used successfully in combination with composite resin to restore function to a canine tooth with a large distal defect.

  20. Immediate Implant Placement After Removal of Maxillary Impacted Canine Teeth: A Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarosi, Federica; Varoni, Elena; Rimondini, Lia; Carrassi, Antonio; Leghissa, Giulio Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Impacted maxillary canine teeth commonly occur in the general population. The traditional therapeutic approach comprises fenestration and orthodontic traction; however, if traction is not feasible or the patient refuses orthodontic treatment, an alternative solution is to remove the impacted tooth and immediately place an implant. This technical note describes a novel surgical approach to rehabilitation after impacted canine tooth removal, entailing immediate placement of a long implant in combination with regenerative materials and a barrier. Of note, this procedure preserves the apical ridge bone crest, allowing implant anchorage and primary stability to be achieved.

  1. Consequences of crown shortening canine teeth in Greenland sled dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortegaard, H E; Anthony Knudsen, T; Dahl, S; Agger, J F G; Eriksen, T

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the consequences of crown shortening, focusing on the prevalence of pulp exposure and periapical pathology in Greenland sled dogs that had had their canine crowns shortened at an early age. Five cadaver heads and 54 sled dogs underwent an oral examination for dental fractures and pulp exposure of canines. All canines were radiographed and evaluated for periapical pathology. The prevalence of canine pulp exposure in 12 (5 heads and 7 dogs) crown shortened dogs was 91 · 7%, and 21 · 3% in 47 not-crown shortened dogs. A significant (P canines in the crown shortened group compared to the not-crown shortened group was seen with a relative risk of 4 · 3 on a dog basis and a relative risk of 12 · 2 on a tooth basis. In dogs with pulp exposure of canines (n = 51) the prevalence of periapical pathology was 82 · 4%, but only 0 · 8% in dogs without pulp exposure (n = 133) resulting in a significant (relative risk, 109 · 5; P < 0 · 001) risk of periapical pathology in teeth with pulp exposure compared to teeth without pulp exposure. The high risk of periapical pathology observed in teeth with pulp exposure confirms that these teeth should not be neglected in affected dogs. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  2. Orthodontic Intervention to Impacted and Transposed Lower Canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Kılıç

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Impacted and transposed teeth cause serious difficulties in tooth eruption and movement as well as esthetic and functional outcomes. Proper treatment planning including good biomechanical control is essential in order to avoid side effects during traction and aligning of the impacted and/or transposed teeth. The purpose of the present study was to present a successfully treated female patient having transposed and impacted lower canines by means of a modified lingual arch and fixed orthodontic appliance. A female patient aged 13 years and 9 months presented to the orthodontic department with a chief compliant of bilateral spacing and missing teeth in mandibular dentition. After leveling and creating sufficient space in the mandibular arch for the canines, a modified lingual arch was cemented to the mandibular first molars. The lingual arch had two hooks extending to the distobuccal areas of the canine spaces. Elastic chains were applied between the hooks on the lingual arch and the ligatures tied to the attachments on the canine crowns. The light forces generated by elastic materials caused impacted canines to erupt and tend towards their own spaces in the dental arch. As a result, impacted and transposed lower canines were properly positioned in their spaces, and the treatment results were stable during the retention period.

  3. Consequences of crown shortening canine teeth in Greenland sled dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortegaard, H E; Anthony Knudsen, T; Dahl, S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the consequences of crown shortening, focusing on the prevalence of pulp exposure and periapical pathology in Greenland sled dogs that had had their canine crowns shortened at an early age. METHODS: Five cadaver heads and 54 sled dogs underwent an oral examination for dental...... fractures and pulp exposure of canines. All canines were radiographed and evaluated for periapical pathology. RESULTS: The prevalence of canine pulp exposure in 12 (5 heads and 7 dogs) crown shortened dogs was 91 · 7%, and 21 · 3% in 47 not-crown shortened dogs. A significant (P ... exposure of the canines in the crown shortened group compared to the not-crown shortened group was seen with a relative risk of 4 · 3 on a dog basis and a relative risk of 12 · 2 on a tooth basis. In dogs with pulp exposure of canines (n = 51) the prevalence of periapical pathology was 82 · 4%, but only 0...

  4. Accelerated Tooth Movement with Orthodontic Mini-Screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksakalli, S; Balaban, A; Nazaroglu, K; Saglam, E

    2017-01-01

    This case report outlines the possibility of accelerated tooth movement with the combination of microosteoperforation and mini-screws. A 14-year-old male patient presented Class II malocclusion with maxillary incisor protrusion. Upper first premolars were extracted, and after leveling, accelerated canine distalization started. For pre- and postdistalization times, amount of distalization, periodontal health, and root resorption were assessed. Within the limitations of this case report, micro-osteoperforations with mini-screw have a potential for shortening the treatment time.

  5. [Comparison between the tooth length measured by cone-beam CT and the tooth length measured with vernier caliper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-qiang; Mi, Zhen-lin; Ge, Zhen-lin

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of cone-bean CT (CBCT) on the measurement of the tooth length. One hundred and sixty single root premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes were selected. The tooth length was measured with vernier caliper. The premolars were divided into 10 groups randomly, 16 premolars in each group.In each group, the teeth were lined in molar area, premolar area, canine area and anterior tooth area in maxilla and mandible. Then CBCT was taken, and the tooth length was measured using the software supplied by the manufacturer in coronal and sagittal plane. Accuracy was compared between vernier caliper measurement and CBCT measurement. The tooth length measured by CBCT was smaller than that measured with the vernier caliper. Significant differences were found in six areas, except the maxillary and mandibular premolar areas. With the increase of mesial-distal inclination or buccolingual torque angle, the difference between tooth length measured by CBCT and that measured with vernier caliper increased. The correlation between buccolingual torque angle (∠X1) and the coronal view of CBCT radiology tooth length (Spearmen index was 7.00, P caliper.

  6. A rare case of dens invaginatus in a mandibular canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Roy; Moule, Alexander J; Walsh, Laurence J

    2010-08-01

    Dens invaginatus (dens in dente) is a common dental anomaly with a reported prevalence of between 0.04% and 10%. It typically affects permanent maxillary lateral incisors, central incisors and premolars. These developmental lesions are less common in mandibular teeth and are extremely rare in canines and molars. This report describes a rare case of dens invaginatus (Oehlers type II) in a permanent mandibular canine. The tooth was mature with a closed apex and showed apical pathosis. The tooth was treated endodontically using a non-surgical technique with hand endodontic files, and then followed up after a period of 8 months. A follow-up radiograph showed some healing of the lesion.

  7. A new understanding of oral and dental disorders of the equine incisor and canine teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Edward; Rawlinson, Jennifer T

    2013-08-01

    This article discusses the classification systems for dental fractures and how the assessment affects treatment options. Diagonal incisor malocclusion is discussed in relation to skull asymmetry and how this commonly relates to premolar and molar occlusion. Oral and radiographic assessment of incisive bone fracture and incisor avulsion is reviewed for determining treatment options. A summary of incisor and canine resorption and hypercementosis is presented. Clinical presentations, staging, and classifications of tooth resorption as well as canine odontoplasty are discussed. Excessive plaque and calculus formation on lower canines leading to periodontal disease and abscess is examined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Controlled canine retraction using orthodontic mini-implants coupled with bondable powerarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousley, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Many patients present with a substantial amount of anterior dental crowding, necessitating canine retraction prior to incisor alignment. Conventional biomechanics typically requires anchorage reinforcement and risks distal tipping of the canine crown and a delay before incisor alignment. However, it is now possible to produce controlled canine retraction without anchorage loss, even with narrow, flexible archwires in situ. This enables simultaneous alignment of displaced incisors. This technique involves a combination of orthodontic mini-implants (OMIs) and a powerarm bonded directly on either the labial or palatal surface of the target tooth, as described in this paper.

  9. Root Canal Morphology of Permanent Maxillary and Mandibular Canines in Indian Population Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhita Somalinga Amardeep

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the root canal anatomy of single-rooted permanent maxillary and mandibular canines in an Indian population using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. Methodology. A total of 250 permanent maxillary canines and 250 permanent mandibular canines were selected and scanned using CBCT. The root anatomy of each tooth was evaluated for the following parameters: the pattern of the root canals, anatomic length of the crown and the root, the presence of accessory canals, the shape of the access cavity, the position of the apical foramina, root diameter, and dentin thickness of the root. Results. Majority of the teeth had a Type I canal configuration in both maxillary canines (81.6% and mandibular canines (79.6%. In maxillary canine the other canal patterns found were Type III (11.6%, Type II (2.8%, Type V (2%, Type XIX (1.2%, and Type IV (0.8%. In mandibular canines the various other canal patterns found were Type III (13.6%, Type II (3.2%, Type V (2%, and Type XIX (1.6%. Apical foramina were laterally positioned in the majority of the teeth, 70.4% and 65.6% in maxillary and mandibular canines, respectively. 12% of the maxillary canines and 12.8% of the mandibular canines had accessory canals. Conclusion. The root canal anatomy of permanent maxillary and mandibular canines varied widely in an Indian population.

  10. A re-evaluation of subspecific variation and canine dimorphism in woolly spider monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, S R; Jungers, W L

    1994-12-01

    A recent study suggests that differing populations of woolly spider monkeys exhibit a substantial degree of morphological, cytogenetic, and behavioral variation. We re-evaluate the differences between populations in the degree of canine tooth height sexual dimorphism and in the frequency of thumbs. Statistical analysis of variation in the degree of canine sexual dimorphism between these populations fails to provide strong evidence for subspecific variation: differences in the degree of canine dimorphism cannot be considered statistically significant. Differences between populations in the frequency of thumbs are, however, statistically significant. The lack of clear distinctions between populations in the degree of canine dimorphism complicates assessments of behavioral variation between these populations. We suggest that the level of geographic variation in woolly spider monkey canine dimorphism is not consistent with subspecific status.

  11. Maxillary canine displacement and genetically determined predisposition to disturbed development of the dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Franka; Grabowski, Rosemarie

    2003-05-01

    The relationship between maxillary canine displacement and the simultaneous occurrence of "genetically determined predisposition to disturbed development of the dentition" as defined by Hoffmeister was investigated in 675 patients. Panoramic radiographs taken of each patient during the first and the second mixed dentition periods were evaluated. Canine inclination and the distance between the tip of the canine and a line connecting the cusps of the molars were computed in five different age groups according to Dausch-Neumann. Statistical analysis revealed 34 patients with "potential canine displacement", who exhibited further symptoms of "genetically determined predisposition to disturbed development of the dentition" significantly more frequently than the total group. The symptoms concerned were agenesia, displaced tooth buds, rotated or tilted incisors, aplasia and microdontia of lateral incisors. Careful follow-ups in patients with a predisposition to disturbed dental development enables risks to be anticipated and canine displacement to be detected at an early stage.

  12. Evaluation of the Effect of Corticotomy on Rate of Tooth Movement and Comparison with Conventional Method

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    B. Rahsepar

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Reduction of orthodontic therapy treatment time is considered an important goal inthe management of malocclusion in adult patients. Corticotomy- facilitated orthodontic treatment may beconsidered an intermediate therapy between orthognatic surgry and conventional orthodontics for reducing treatment time.Purpose: This study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the rate of tooth movement of upper canine following corticotomy with conventional method.Materials and Methods: Ten young adult patients, 17-25 years old was selected through sequential sampling procedure in orthodontics department of Shiraz Dental School. The patients exhibited different orthodontic problems and needed extraction of premolars. Following extraction of premolars and initial phase oforthodontic treatment, corticotomy were performed unilaterally on buccual and palatal sides of extraction areaas described by Takami. The other imoperated sides were used as control. After subsiding the resultant inflammation, the activated NiTi spring was used and measurement of the amount of tooth movement wereassessed by using Rugae as reference point. The panoramic radiographs were super imposed for evaluation of canines tipping. For analyzing the results, Kolmogorou- simirnov and t.tcst were used. Results: The rate of canine tooth movement was much greater in the corticotomy sides than the unoperated (control side (P=0.015. This was especially significant at the end of first week of tooth movement(P=0.000. Comparing the two sides, the amount of canine tipping was much lesser in corticotomy group than the control group (P=0.046. There was no significant difference concerning the anchorage loss between thetwo groups (P=0.410.Conclusion: Corticotomy procedure had a positive effect on the rate of tooth movement with less tipping of the canines comparing to conventional orthodontic treatment. To get more benefit from this procedure, it is recommended to select those

  13. Fractal pattern of canine trichoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vico, Gionata; Cataldi, Marielda; Maiolino, Paola; Carella, Francesca; Beltraminelli, Stefano; Losa, Gabriele A

    2011-06-01

    To assess by fractal analysis the specific architecture, growth pattern, and tissue distribution that characterize subtypes of canine trichoblastoma, a benign tumor derived from or reduplicating the primitive hair germ of embryonic follicular development. Tumor masks and outlines obtained from immunohistologic images by gray threshold segmentation of epithelial components were analyzed by fractal and conventional morphometry. The fractal dimension [FD] of each investigated case was determined from the slope of the regression line describing the fractal region within a bi-asymptotic curve experimentally established. All tumor masks and outlines obtained by gray threshold segmentation of epithelial components showed fractal self-similar properties that were evaluated by peculiar FDs. However, only masks revealed significantly different FD values, ranging from 1.75 to 1.85, enabling the discrimination of canine trichoblastoma subtypes. The FD data suggest that an iterative morphogenetic process, involving both the air germ and associated dermal papilla, may be responsible of the peculiar tissue architecture of trichoblastoma. The present study emphasized the reliability of fractal analysis in achieving the objective characterization of canine trichoblastoma.

  14. Behavior of mandibular canines as abutment teeth and indirect retainers in Kennedy class II Removable Partial Denture Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol C. Camacho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavior of mandibular canines acting as abutment teeth and indirect retainers of a Kennedy class II according to different designs: lingual rest and lingual rest associated with a reciprocal arm. Materials & methods: A resin cast with two simulated canine teeth was made in Ni-Cr alloy, representing a Kennedy class II mandibular arch. With the objective of simulating the resilience of the periodontal ligament, a polyurethane layer was added at the canine tooth's root. A metallic framework of Co-Cr alloy was fabricated with a T bar clasp and a lingual rest associated with a reciprocal arm. To obtain the second framework, the reciprocal arm was removed using a tungsten bur. Each framework was submitted to tensile force using a VersaTest machine. The magnitude and direction of canine movement during removal of the framework was measured using two dial gauges (mm. The axial tensile force required to remove the experimental framework (N was also evaluated. The data were compared using the paired t-test with 95% confidence intervals. Differences were considered significant at P < .05. Results: The mean retentive force of the modified design framework with the reciprocal arm was significantly higher (P < .0001 than that of the framework with the lingual rest. The abutment teeth showed movement in the lingual and mesial directions, and this movement was less when associated with the reciprocal arm design. Conclusion: The reciprocal arm in association with a lingual rest in the framework decreased the movement of the abutment teeth when analyzed in the bucco-lingual and mesio-distal directions and contributed to increased retention by friction. Keywords: Materials science, Dentistry, Engineering

  15. Sexual dimorphism in tooth morphometrics: An evaluation of the parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhishek; Kamath, Venkatesh V; Satelur, Krishnanand; Rajkumar, Komali; Sundaram, Lavanya

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism refers to the variations in tooth size and shape between the sexes. The consistency of these variations is valuable in the identification of the sex of an individual in times of mass disaster when whole body parts get destroyed or are unavailable. There exist differences in the expression of these variables across races and regions. This study aims to tabulate and identify the variations in tooth measurements using standarized reference points in an attempt to establish parameters of sexual dimorphism. 100 individuals (50 of each sex) in the age group 19-23 years were assessed for standard morphometric parameters of the maxillary central incisor, canine, premolar and molar. Odontometric measurements of established parameters were recorded from impression casts of the maxillary jaws. The mesiodistal width (MDW), the bucco-ligual width (BLW), the crown length (CL) and the cervical angle (CA) were charted among the teeth. The consistency of the variations was statistically analyzed and a logistic regression table was prepared to identify the sex of the individual from the tooth measurements. The BLW, MDW and CL reflected significant variations among all the teeth to be effective in establishing sexual dimorphism. CA as a parameter was inadequate across all the teeth. The permanent maxillary canine was the most important tooth to be reflective of the gender and statistically significant to be utilized for gender determination.

  16. Computerized Analysis of Digital Photographs for Evaluation of Tooth Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohammadHossein Toodehzaeim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Various methods have been introduced for evaluation of tooth movement in orthodontics. The challenge is to adopt the most accurate and most beneficial method for patients. This study was designed to introduce analysis of digital photographs with Auto- CAD software as a method to evaluate tooth movement and assess the reliability of this method.Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients were evaluated in this study. Three intraoral digital images from the buccal view were captured from each patient in half an hour inter- val. All the photos were sent to AutoCAD software 2011, calibrated and the distance be- tween canine and molar hooks were measured. The data was analyzed using intraclass cor- relation coefficient.Results: Photographs were found to have high reliability coefficient (P > 0.05. Conclusion: The introduced method is an accurate, efficient and reliable method for eval- uation of tooth movement.

  17. Three-dimensional analysis of mandibular growth and tooth eruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, S.; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, Per

    2005-01-01

    Normal and abnormal jaw growth and tooth eruption are topics of great importance for several dental and medical disciplines. Thus far, clinical studies on these topics have used two-dimensional (2D) radiographic techniques. The purpose of the present study was to analyse normal mandibular growth...... and tooth eruption in three dimensions based on computer tomography (CT) scans, extending the principles of mandibular growth analysis proposed by Bjork in 1969 from two to three dimensions. As longitudinal CT data from normal children are not available (for ethical reasons), CT data from children......, relocated laterally during growth. Furthermore, the position of tooth buds remained relatively stable inside the jaw until root formation started. Eruption paths of canines and premolars were vertical, whereas molars erupted in a lingual direction. The 3D method would seem to offer new insight into jaw...

  18. Computerized Analysis of Digital Photographs for Evaluation of Tooth Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toodehzaeim, Mohammad Hossein; Karandish, Maryam; Karandish, Mohammad Nabi

    2015-03-01

    Various methods have been introduced for evaluation of tooth movement in orthodontics. The challenge is to adopt the most accurate and most beneficial method for patients. This study was designed to introduce analysis of digital photographs with AutoCAD software as a method to evaluate tooth movement and assess the reliability of this method. Eighteen patients were evaluated in this study. Three intraoral digital images from the buccal view were captured from each patient in half an hour interval. All the photos were sent to AutoCAD software 2011, calibrated and the distance between canine and molar hooks were measured. The data was analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient. Photographs were found to have high reliability coefficient (P > 0.05). The introduced method is an accurate, efficient and reliable method for evaluation of tooth movement.

  19. Canine pulmonary angiostrongylosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Jørgen; Willesen, Jakob Lundgren

    2009-01-01

    Canine pulmonary angiostrongylosis is an emerging snail-borne disease causing verminous pnemonia and coagulopathy in dogs. The parasite is fund in Europe, North and South America and Africa, covering tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. Its distribution has been characterised by isolated...... larvae may not reflect what happens under field conditions. There is insufficient understanding of the spread of infection and the dynamic consequences of this parasite in the canine population. This review discusses the biology, epidemiology, clinical aspects and management of canine pulmonary...

  20. Diagnostics of power transmissions system with tooth gear

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz WOJNAR; Bogusław ŁAZARZ; Henryk MADEJ

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results of laboratory tests that were aimed at detecting early stages of various faults in toothed wheels by measurement and analysis of transverse vibration speed of the transmission gear shafts. In experimental investigation, cracking of the root tooth and chipping of the tooth were detected. The laser vibrometer Ometron VH300+ was used for non-contact measurement of shaft transversal vibration speed. Gear vibrations were recorded in selected points of gear housing and g...

  1. Cavities/Tooth Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a process that occurs over time. Here's how tooth decay develops: Plaque forms. Dental plaque is a clear sticky film that coats ... by a lack of saliva, which helps prevent tooth decay by washing away food and plaque from your teeth. Substances found in saliva also help counter the ...

  2. Canine tooth syndrome due to superior oblique myocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pramod Kumar; Bhatia, Amit; Garg, Deepali; Singh, Rashmi

    2006-01-01

    A 13-year-old boy had right periocular pain, upgaze vertical diplopia, and lid swelling. Right extorsion and hypodense cystic swelling in the right superior oblique involving the muscle and tendon behind the trochlea existed. Oral treatment was prescribed. MRI revealed a collapsed cyst. Ocular motility improved, but levoelevation diplopia persisted.

  3. Influence of attachments and interproximal reduction on the accuracy of canine rotation with Invisalign. A prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Neal D; Kusnoto, Budi; Agran, Brent; Viana, Grace

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the influence of attachments and interproximal reduction on canines undergoing rotational movement with Invisalign. In this prospective clinical study, 53 canines (33 maxillary and 20 mandibular) were measured from the virtual TREAT models of 31 participants treated with anterior Invisalign. The pretreatment virtual model of the predicted final tooth position was superimposed on the posttreatment virtual model using ToothMeasure, Invisalign's proprietary measurement software. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (P Invisalign was 35.8% (SD = 26.3). Statistical analyses indicated that there was no significant difference in accuracy between groups AO, IO, and N (P = .343). There was no statistically significant difference (P = .888) in rotational accuracy for maxillary and mandibular canines for any of the treatment groups. The most commonly prescribed attachment shape was the vertical-ellipsoid (70.5%). Vertical-ellipsoid attachments and interproximal reduction do not significantly improve the accuracy of canine rotation with the Invisalign system.

  4. Use of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis and Treatment of an Unusual Canine Abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Gopalakrishnan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis and treatment planning are important for successful endodontic treatment. We report a 24-year old male who presented to the Government Dental College in Kozhikode, Kerala, India, in 2015 with pain in his right upper canine. A digital periapical radiograph indicated the presence of a supernumerary tooth superimposing the root of the canine. However, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT confirmed that the supernumerary tooth was an illusion and that the canine root had a sharp invagination involving the labial and pulpal dentin surfaces, with evidence of periapical bone destruction. A blunt resection was performed at the level of the invagination and the resected end was filled with a dentin substitute. At a one-year follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic and the periapical region appeared to be healing well. This report highlights the importance of CBCT in visualising abnormal canine morphology, thus allowing appropriate endodontic treatment.

  5. Canine retraction: A systematic review of different methods used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshrestha, Rohit S; Tandon, Ragni; Chandra, Pratik

    2015-01-01

    Canine retraction is a very important step in treatment of patients with crowding, or first premolar extraction cases. In severe crowding cases until, the canines have been distilized to relive the crowding, space to correctly align the incisors will not be available. Correct positioning of the canines after retraction is of great importance for the function, stability, and esthetics. The aim of this systematic review was to examine, in an evidence-based way, which kinds of canine retraction methods/techniques are most effective and which have the least side effects. A literature survey was performed by applying the Medline Database (Entrez PubMed) and Science Direct database covering the period from 1985 to 2014, to find out efficient ways to accomplish canine retraction. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective and retrospective controlled studies, and clinical trials were included. Two reviewers selected and extracted the data independently and assessed the quality of the retrieved studies. The search strategy resulted in 324 articles, of which 22 met the inclusion criteria. Due to the vast heterogeneity in study methods, the scientific evidence was too weak to evaluate retraction efficiency during space closure. The data so far reviewed proved that elastomeric power chains, elastic threads, magnets, NiTi coil springs, corticotomies, distraction osteogenesis, and laser therapy, all are able to provide optimum rate of tooth movements. All the methods were nearly similar to each other for retraction of canines Most of the techniques lead to anchorage loss in various amounts depending on the methods used. Most of the studies had serious problems with small sample size, confounding factors, lack of method error analysis, and no blinding in measurements. To obtain reliable scientific evidence, controlled RCT's with sufficient sample sizes are needed to determine which method/technique is the most effective in the respective retraction situation. Further

  6. Levels of matrix metalloproteinase-7 and osteopontin in human gingival crevicular fluid during initial tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaval Oswal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: During orthodontic treatment, the early response of periodontal tissues to mechanical stress involves several metabolic changes that allow tooth movement. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate osteopontin (OPN and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-7 in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of human teeth exposed to orthodontic force. Materials and Methods: GCF samples were obtained from 15 healthy orthodontic patients (age, 12-22 years. In each patient, the left maxillary canine having the fixed orthodontic appliance was used as the test tooth, and its antagonist, with no appliance, was the control. Orthodontic force, 75 g was applied using a 16 × 22 beta titanium closing loop. The GCF sampling on the disto-buccal aspects of experimental and control tooth was performed at specific time interval with sterilized absorbent paper point. Processing was carried out with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect OPN and MMP-7 levels. Results: The peak level of OPN was seen after 1 h application of orthodontic force which was 1280.36 pg/ml ± 185.02. The peak level of MMP-7 was seen at 0 h which was 598.3 pg/ml ± 107.5. The levels of OPN after 1 h increased to 1280.36 pg/ml ± 185.02, and they decreased at 24 h to 1012.86 pg/ml ± 168.47 (P = 0.001. The levels of MMP-7 after 1 h decreased to 478 pg/ml ± 99.7 which increased at 24 h to 526.9 pg/ml ± 99.2. Conclusions: Orthodontic forces affect both OPN and MMP-7 protein levels on the compression side in a time-dependent fashion.

  7. [Mechanisms of tooth eruption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltha, J C

    2014-04-01

    Tooth eruption is of the utmost importance for the normal development of the dentition and the face. Since the 1980s, it has been known that the tooth germ itself is not essential for facilitating the processes that make tooth eruption possible. For that reason, recent research on the regulatory mechanisms of tooth eruption has focused mainly on the enamel organ and the dental follicle. Different regulatory mechanisms act on the occlusal and the apical sides of an erupting tooth. On the occlusal side osteoclast differentiation is stimulated. This leads to the development of an eruption canal, a process in which macrophages and matrix metalloproteases also play an important role. On the apical side the most important factors are the transcription factor RUNX2 and the bone morphogenic protein 2. They are responsible for the deposition of trabecular bone in that area. Many regulatory mechanisms which are involved in tooth eruption are also active in other developmental processes. This explains that certain syndromes can also have an effect on the tooth eruption process.

  8. TOOTH AGENESIS - THE PROBLEM AND ITS SOLVING IN OUR PRACTICE, PREVALENCE AND RELATION WITH OTHER DEFORMITIES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Yordanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tooth agenesis is an orthodontic abnormality affecting the number of teeth. This leads to various types of malocclusion, disturbance in the masticatory function and poor esthetics. This survey includes 1510 orthodontic patients treated by us. Two hundred and seven (13.71% of all of the patients have been diagnosed with tooth agenesis. One hundred thirty-seven (8.87% of the treated patients have tooth agenesis, while 31 (2.05% of all of the patients and 23.13% of the patients with tooth agenesis have tooth agenesis also in the third molars. In general 207 of the patients have tooth agenesis of 637 teeth. In 104 patients there are 348 absent germs of third molars. Chiefly the tooth agenesis affects one or two teeth. Fifty three patients 39.55% are with one missing tooth and 50 of them – 37.31% are with two missing teeth. It affects most often lower second premolars, followed up by the upper lateral incisors, the next group is the group of the upper second premolars. In 5 of our patients we diagnosed and treated tooth agenesis of the canines, in two of those patients the tooth agenesis of the canines was bilateral. This is a very rare problem that creates to serious occlusal dysfunctions. We found out that the ratio of distribution among the genders is at higher level for the female patients (9.70% compared to the male patients (7.51%. Knowing the rate of the problem among a certain nation is very important for its early diagnosis and considering the optimal treatment plan.

  9. The interactions between attrition, abrasion and erosion in tooth wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellis, R Peter; Addy, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Tooth wear is the result of three processes: abrasion (wear produced by interaction between teeth and other materials), attrition (wear through tooth-tooth contact) and erosion (dissolution of hard tissue by acidic substances). A further process (abfraction) might potentiate wear by abrasion and/or erosion. Knowledge of these tooth wear processes and their interactions is reviewed. Both clinical and experimental observations show that individual wear mechanisms rarely act alone but interact with each other. The most important interaction is the potentiation of abrasion by erosive damage to the dental hard tissues. This interaction seems to be the major factor in occlusal and cervical wear. The available evidence is insufficient to establish whether abfraction is an important contributor to tooth wear in vivo. Saliva can modulate erosive/abrasive tooth wear, especially through formation of pellicle, but cannot prevent it. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Autogenous tooth transplantation for replacing a lost tooth: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Youn Kang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The autogenous tooth transplantation is an alternative treatment replacing a missing tooth when a suitable donor tooth is available. It is also a successful treatment option to save significant amount of time and cost comparing implants or conventional prosthetics. These cases, which required single tooth extraction due to deep caries and severe periodontal disease, could have good results by transplanting non-functional but sound donor tooth to the extraction site.

  11. Assessment of the Effects of a Novel Herbal Immunomodulator Drug (IMOD on Cytokine Profiles in Experimental Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis: a Preliminary Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolali Malmasi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines play a fundamental role in the regulation of immune responses in remission and/or relapsing of leishmaniasis. Therefore, immunotherapy for the treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL has represented a principle approach in control of the infection. The present research aimed to evaluating the immunotherapeutic potential of a novel herbal immunomodulator drug (IMOD on CVL.Twelve mongrel dogs were intravenously infected with Iranian strain of L. infantum and randomly divided into three groups; 1: negative control (non-infected, 2: immunotherapy with IMOD and 3: positive control (non-treated. Cell proliferation and Th1-/Th2-type cytokines were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC by cell proliferation kit I (MTT and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot assays, respectively.At the 60 days follow-up assessment, no adverse effects were observed in treated interventional group. Cellular proliferation assay indicated that PBMCs of IMOD group had higher stimulation index (SI than positive control group (p < 0.05. Enhancement of CD4+T cells such as IL-2, IL-4 & IL-10 were detected in negative control group due to in vitro IMOD stimulation 30 days post-treatment. In accordance to decreasing trends of Th1 & Th2 cytokines in positive control group, the mean number of IFN-γ IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 spot forming cells (SFCs down regulated for IMOD group during the study.These data indicate that IMOD had immunomodulatory potential but is not sufficient for total parasitic cure due to balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines. This is a preliminary study and we propose to undertake a series of experiments to evaluate the CVL due to in vitro modulatory effects of IMOD.

  12. Replacing a Missing Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... there are two options for replacement: First, a removable partial denture may be used to replace the missing tooth. ... appearance look and feel more natural than a removable partial denture. However, it does require grinding down the support ...

  13. To Tell the Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Sparkling Smile Holiday Workshop Thanksgiving Back to School Fourth of July Fun Tooth Fairy Sugar Wars Valentine's Day Halloween Defeat Monster Mouth! Color and Count Puzzle Fun Oral Health Made Easy ...

  14. The cracked tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, G R

    1998-01-01

    Fractured molars and premolars are very common. Fractures usually result from cracks that develop and slowly extend until the tooth separates into buccal and lingual fragments. Sometimes, as these cracks expand, the patient exhibits symptoms of what is commonly referred to as "cracked tooth syndrome" (CTS). When CTS occurs, an opportunity exists to diagnose and treat these patients, to relieve their discomfort and prevent sequelae that would require more extensive treatment.

  15. Prevalence and patterns of tooth agenesis among Malay children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Shani Ann; Mohsin, Wan Salmah Yang; John, Jacob

    2014-03-01

    Tooth agenesis in Malay children, hitherto unreported, was assessed retrospectively from orthopantomograms of 834 healthy children aged 12-16 years who attended the Dental Clinic of Universiti Sains Malaysia. All teeth, including third molars, were assessed for agenesis. On an average, 2.3 teeth were missing per child. Missing third molars were found in 25.7% of children with one or two third molars found to be missing in 18.3% of children. Three point two percent of children had missing teeth other than third molars. After third molars, the upper lateral incisors were found to be the most common missing tooth (1.7%), followed by upper and lower second premolars (1.5%). Eight missing upper canines were also seen (1%). Bilateral agenesis was more common than unilateral agenesis. There were no significant differences between males and females. There was a significant difference between missing teeth between the maxilla and the mandible and right and left side, with more missing teeth in the maxilla and on the right side. The odds of any 3rd molar missing were increased 3.3 times when there was any other missing tooth. In conclusion, the prevalence of tooth agenesis among the studied population was within the normal range, but less than some Asian countries. Unlike other Asian countries, the upper lateral incisor was the most common missing tooth. The prevalence of maxillary canine agenesis was higher than most previous reports. Missing teeth were associated with missing third molars, which is likely due to a genetic abnormality.

  16. Hunter-Schreger Band patterns in human tooth enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Christopher D; O'Sullivan, Victor R; Dockery, Peter; McGillycuddy, Catherine T; Sloan, Alastair J

    2010-08-01

    Using light microscopy, we examined Hunter-Schreger Band (HSB) patterns on the axial and occlusal/incisal surfaces of 160 human teeth, sectioned in both the buccolingual and mesiodistal planes. We found regional variations in HSB packing densities (number of HSBs per mm of amelodentinal junction length) and patterns throughout the crown of each class of tooth (maxillary and mandibular: incisor, canine, premolar, and molar) examined. HSB packing densities were greatest in areas where functional and occlusal loads are greatest, such as the occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth and the incisal regions of incisors and canines. From this it is possible to infer that the behaviour of ameloblasts forming enamel prisms during amelogenesis is guided by genetic/evolutionary controls that act to increase the fracture and wear resistance of human tooth enamel. It is suggested that HSB packing densities and patterns are important in modern clinical dental treatments, such as the bonding of adhesive restorations to enamel, and in the development of conditions, such as abfraction and cracked tooth syndrome.

  17. Experimental study of a closed-chest pulmonary embolism-reperfusion injury canine model by means of Swan-Ganz catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Na; Zhai Renyou Jiang Tao; Wang Yajie; Zheng Juan; Wang Chen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To establish a closed-chest pulmonary embolism-reperfusion animal model by Swan-Ganz catheter and to explore the mechanisms of pulmonary embolism (PE)-reperfusion injury (RI). Methods: Experiments were made on 14 mongrel dogs, ranging in weight from 15 to 18 kg, anesthetized with 3% pentobarbital sodium. The dogs were intubated with I. D. 7 endotracheal tubes. Under sterile conditions, a 7 F Swan-Ganz catheter via the external jugular vein was positioned in the unilateral pulmonary diaphragmatic lobe (DL) artery. Occlusion/reperfusion of the DL artery was controlled with 1.2 ml diluted contrast agent filled into/drawn from the balloon. After the 24 h PE, the balloon was deflated to result in 4 h reperfusion of the DL. Measurements of blood gases and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)were made at normal condition, at 24 h PE and at 4 h reperfusion. Thin-section CT scans were performed at normal condition, 24 h PE, 30 rain, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h reperfusion, respectively. At the end of each experiment, tissue specimens of bilateral diaphragmatic lobes were obtained for both wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio and for pathological study. Results: Reperfusion pulmonary edema (RPE) was an acute, mixed, noncardiogenic edema that was observed in all 14 dogs who had been successfully established as PE/RI animal models. RPE demonstrated heterogeneous ground-glass opacifications that predominated in the areas distal to the recanalized vessels. It manifested pathologically as an edematous lung infihrated by inflammatory cells. The mean of PaO 2 and TNF-α of 4 h reperfusion was (81 ± 4) mm Hg( 1 mm Hg =0.133 kPa) and (16.0 ± 2.5)pg/ml, which were significantly different (P<0.05) from normal value [(96 ± 6)mm Hg and (13.9 ± 2.0) pg/ml]. The W/D of the injured lung (6.3 ± 1.2) was significantly greater (P<0.01) than that of the contralateral lung (4.5 ± 1.2), suggesting that the increase in the lung water was due to reperfusion injury. Conclusion: The closed-chest canine model

  18. Clinical application of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) upon orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, K; Shibata, Y; Imai, S; Tani, Y; Shibasaki, Y; Fukuhara, T

    1984-06-01

    Chemically produced prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) was administered in clinical cases of orthodontic tooth movement. In the first phase, lingual arch springs were applied on both sides of the maxilla to upper first premolars which were scheduled for extraction. One side received submucosal injections of PGE1 and the other received vehicle injections. The rate of tooth movement in the buccal direction approximately doubled on the side of several PGE1 injections as compared to the control side. In the second phase, the PGE1 injections were applied in canine-retraction cases for up to 3 weeks in first-premolar-extraction cases. The rate of distal canine movement was almost double on the side receiving PGE1 injections as compared to the vehicle-injected side. In the third phase, the PGE1 injections were applied on routine canine retraction in first-premolar-extraction cases. The rate of distal canine movement was almost 1.6-fold on the side of PGE1 injections as compared to the vehicle-injected side. Throughout this study, no side effects were observed macroscopically in the gingiva and roentgenographically in the alveolar bone, except for a slight pain reaction consistent with orthodontic tooth movement.

  19. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  20. Microradiographic investigations on experimentally provoked structural alterations in hard tooth tissues after sealing with plastic material in places where caries is apt to develop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falten, E.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was, after sealing three areas in extracted human teeth: fissures, dental necksand approximate areas and subsequent exposure to experimentally produced cariogenous noxae, to establish possible alterations in the area of transition between sealed and unsealed dental enamal. This would provide a further decision-taking aid with regard to the question whether also the remaining parts where caries is apt to develop should be sealed. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Effects of low-level laser irradiation on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and associated pain with self-ligating brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamruddin, Irfan; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Mahroof, Verda; Fida, Mubassar; Khamis, Mohd Fadhli; Husein, Adam

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser irradiation applied at 3-week intervals on orthodontic tooth movement and pain associated with orthodontic tooth movement using self-ligating brackets. Twenty-two patients (11 male, 11 female; mean age, 19.8 ± 3.1 years) with Angle Class II Division 1 malocclusion were recruited for this split-mouth clinical trial; they required extraction of maxillary first premolars bilaterally. After leveling and alignment with self-ligating brackets (SmartClip SL3; 3M Unitek, St Paul, Minn), a 150-g force was applied to retract the canines bilaterally using 6-mm nickel-titanium closed-coil springs on 0.019 x 0.025-in stainless steel archwires. A gallium-aluminum-arsenic diode laser (iLas; Biolase, Irvine, Calif) with a wavelength of 940 nm in a continuous mode (energy density, 7.5 J/cm 2 /point; diameter of optical fiber tip, 0.04 cm 2 ) was applied at 5 points buccally and palatally around the canine roots on the experimental side; the other side was designated as the placebo. Laser irradiation was applied at baseline and then repeated after 3 weeks for 2 more consecutive follow-up visits. Questionnaires based on the numeric rating scale were given to the patients to record their pain intensity for 1 week. Impressions were made at each visit before the application of irradiation at baseline and the 3 visits. Models were scanned with a CAD/CAM scanner (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland). Canine retraction was significantly greater (1.60 ± 0.38 mm) on the experimental side compared with the placebo side (0.79 ± 0.35 mm) (P Low-level laser irradiation applied at 3-week intervals can accelerate orthodontic tooth movement and reduce the pain associated with it. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Maxillary anterior tooth dimensions and proportions in an Irish young adult population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Condon, M

    2011-07-01

    This study was undertaken in a young Irish population to determine the dimensions and ratios of the six maxillary anterior teeth. One hundred and nine Irish subjects (age 18-25 inclusive) had irreversible hydrocolloid impressions made of their maxillary dentition poured in type V stone. Clinical crown dimensions were measured with a digital calliper. The stone casts were digitally photographed in a standardised manner enabling calculation of various ratios between the maxillary anterior teeth. Sexual dimorphism existed for various tooth dimensions; most notably canine teeth were in the region of 0·8 mm longer and 0·6 mm wider in males. Central and lateral incisors were found to be 0·5 mm wider in males. It is, therefore, recommended that dimensional tooth guidelines should be given for each of the sexes and not on a population basis. With regard to tooth proportion ratios, no significant differences were found between genders or the left and right sides for any of the measurements or ratios measured. The digitally recorded tooth proportions were similar for both sexes, and the Golden Proportion guidelines could only be applied to the lateral incisor\\/central incisor widths (0·618). Identified width proportions for the canine\\/central incisor were 0·58 and for canine\\/lateral incisor 0·89.

  3. Nasolacrimal obstruction caused by root abscess of the upper canine in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, James M G; Sandmeyer, Lynne S; Laycock, Amanda R

    2010-03-01

    A 10-year-old, castrated male domestic short hair cat was presented to the Small Animal Clinic at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine with a presenting complaint of chronic, ocular discharge from the left eye. Ocular examination confirmed epiphora and mucopurulent discharge but there were no apparent reasons for the ocular discharge, and nasolacrimal obstruction was suspected. The cat had swelling of the left side of the face, severe periodontal disease and a fractured upper left canine tooth with pulpal exposure. Dacryocystorhinography revealed narrowing of the nasolacrimal duct above the root of the fractured upper left canine and dental radiographs showed a severe periapical lucency at the apex of the upper left canine tooth. The fractured canine tooth was removed. Subsequently, the ocular discharge and facial swelling resolved. After 2 years, the epiphora has never reoccurred. This is a noteworthy case because a suspected root abscess resulted in extralumenal compression of the nasolacrimal duct, which shows the importance of a thorough oral examination when nasolacrimal obstruction is evident.

  4. Automation of gender determination in human canines using artificial intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fidya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gender determination is an important aspect of the identification process. The tooth represents a part of the human body that indicates the nature of sexual dimorphism. Artificial intelligence enables computers to perform to the same standard the same tasks as those carried out by humans. Several methods of classification exist within an artificial intelligence approach to identifying sexual dimorphism in canines. Purpose: This study aimed to quantify the respective accuracy of the Naive Bayes, decision tree, and multi-layer perceptron (MLP methods in identifying sexual dimorphism in canines. Methods: A sample of results derived from 100 measurements of the diameter of mesiodistal, buccolingual, and diagonal upper and lower canine jaw models of both genders were entered into an application computer program that implements the algorithm (MLP. The analytical process was conducted by the program to obtain a classification model with testing being subsequently carried out in order to obtain 50 new measurement results, 25 each for males and females. A comparative analysis was conducted on the program-generated information. Results: The accuracy rate of the Naive Bayes method was 82%, while that of the decision tree and MLP amounted to 84%. The MLP method had an absolute error value lower than that of its decision tree counterpart. Conclusion: The use of artificial intelligence methods produced a highly accurate identification process relating to the gender determination of canine teeth. The most appropriate method was the MLP with an accuracy rate of 84%.

  5. Accelerated Tooth Movement with Orthodontic Mini-Screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aksakalli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report outlines the possibility of accelerated tooth movement with the combination of microosteoperforation and mini-screws. A 14-year-old male patient presented Class II malocclusion with maxillary incisor protrusion. Upper first premolars were extracted, and after leveling, accelerated canine distalization started. For pre- and postdistalization times, amount of distalization, periodontal health, and root resorption were assessed. Within the limitations of this case report, micro-osteoperforations with mini-screw have a potential for shortening the treatment time.

  6. Save-a-tooth: Conservative surgical management of dentigerous cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaprakash P

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentigerous cysts are the most common bony lesions of the jaws in children. It is one of the most prevalent types of odontogenic cysts associated with an erupted or developing tooth, particularly the mandibular third molars; the other teeth that are commonly affected are, in order of frequency, the maxillary canines, the maxillary third molars, and rarely the central incisors. Radiographically, the cyst appears as ovoid well-demarcated unilocular radiolucency with a sclerotic border. Careful evaluation of the history and the clinical and radiographical findings help clinicians to currently diagnose the condition, identify the etiological factors, and administer the appropriate treatment.

  7. Prevalence and distribution of permanent canine agenesis in dental paediatric and orthodontic patients in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rózsa, N; Nagy, K; Vajó, Z; Gábris, K; Soós, A; Alberth, M; Tarján, I

    2009-08-01

    Non-syndromic permanent canine agenesis, or combined with agenesis, or developmental absence of other tooth types, has occasionally been described in the literature, but isolated forms are rarely observed. The purpose of the present retrospective radiographic study was to provide data on the prevalence and distribution of permanent canine agenesis in the Hungarian population. Dental panoramic tomograms and the medical history data of 4417, 6- to 18-year-old children (average age 12 years, male-to-female ratio 1:1), who presented for treatment at the Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics of the Semmelweis University Budapest, Hungary, were examined. Patients with systemic diseases were excluded. Chi-square and Fisher's tests were performed to determine statistical significance at a level of P agenesis. The overall prevalence was 0.29 per cent. The prevalence of permanent canine agenesis was 0.27 per cent in the maxilla and 0.09 per cent in the mandible (P Dental anomalies associated with permanent canine agenesis were found: 11 patients had retention of the primary canines, 10 other types of agenesis of the permanent teeth, one a primary supernumerary tooth, one a supernumerary cusp, and nine occlusal disturbances.

  8. Biomaterial Selection for Tooth Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhenglin; Nie, Hemin; Wang, Shuang; Lee, Chang Hun; Li, Ang; Fu, Susan Y.; Zhou, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Biomaterials are native or synthetic polymers that act as carriers for drug delivery or scaffolds for tissue regeneration. When implanted in vivo, biomaterials should be nontoxic and exert intended functions. For tooth regeneration, biomaterials have primarily served as a scaffold for (1) transplanted stem cells and/or (2) recruitment of endogenous stem cells. This article critically synthesizes our knowledge of biomaterial use in tooth regeneration, including the selection of native and/or synthetic polymers, three-dimensional scaffold fabrication, stem cell transplantation, and stem cell homing. A tooth is a complex biological organ. Tooth loss represents the most common organ failure. Tooth regeneration encompasses not only regrowth of an entire tooth as an organ, but also biological restoration of individual components of the tooth including enamel, dentin, cementum, or dental pulp. Regeneration of tooth root represents perhaps more near-term opportunities than the regeneration of the whole tooth. In the adult, a tooth owes its biological vitality, arguably more, to the root than the crown. Biomaterials are indispensible for the regeneration of tooth root, tooth crown, dental pulp, or an entire tooth. PMID:21699433

  9. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Sasani, F.; Javanbakht, J.; Samani, R.; Shirani, D.

    2014-01-01

    Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL) is a significant veterinary problem. Infected dogs also serve as parasite reservoirs and contribute to human transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Histologically, the lesions were nodular to diffuse interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with histiocytic pseudorosettes together with numerous amastigotes within macrophages and occasionally within the interstitium. Organisms were often contained within clear and intracellular vacuoles. The other inflammato...

  10. Beeswax as dental filling on a neolithic human tooth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Bernardini

    Full Text Available Evidence of prehistoric dentistry has been limited to a few cases, the most ancient dating back to the Neolithic. Here we report a 6500-year-old human mandible from Slovenia whose left canine crown bears the traces of a filling with beeswax. The use of different analytical techniques, including synchrotron radiation computed micro-tomography (micro-CT, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS radiocarbon dating, Infrared (IR Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, has shown that the exposed area of dentine resulting from occlusal wear and the upper part of a vertical crack affecting enamel and dentin tissues were filled with beeswax shortly before or after the individual's death. If the filling was done when the person was still alive, the intervention was likely aimed to relieve tooth sensitivity derived from either exposed dentine and/or the pain resulting from chewing on a cracked tooth: this would provide the earliest known direct evidence of therapeutic-palliative dental filling.

  11. Beeswax as dental filling on a neolithic human tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, Federico; Tuniz, Claudio; Coppa, Alfredo; Mancini, Lucia; Dreossi, Diego; Eichert, Diane; Turco, Gianluca; Biasotto, Matteo; Terrasi, Filippo; De Cesare, Nicola; Hua, Quan; Levchenko, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of prehistoric dentistry has been limited to a few cases, the most ancient dating back to the Neolithic. Here we report a 6500-year-old human mandible from Slovenia whose left canine crown bears the traces of a filling with beeswax. The use of different analytical techniques, including synchrotron radiation computed micro-tomography (micro-CT), Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating, Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), has shown that the exposed area of dentine resulting from occlusal wear and the upper part of a vertical crack affecting enamel and dentin tissues were filled with beeswax shortly before or after the individual's death. If the filling was done when the person was still alive, the intervention was likely aimed to relieve tooth sensitivity derived from either exposed dentine and/or the pain resulting from chewing on a cracked tooth: this would provide the earliest known direct evidence of therapeutic-palliative dental filling.

  12. Morphology of palatally impacted canines: A case-controlled cone-beam volumetric tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Pilana Vithanage Kalani Shihanika; Olive, Richard John; Monsour, Paul

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between an apical curvature or a hook and the crown/root ratio in subjects with and without palatally impacted maxillary canines. An experimental group of 44 patients (17 boys, 27 girls; mean age, 13.6 years) with 59 palatally impacted maxillary canines was selected from the records of patients referred to a radiology practice for cone-beam imaging. If a patient had bilateral palatally impacted canines, 1 canine was randomly selected for analysis. The palatally impacted canine group was matched for age and sex with 49 normal subjects (25 boys, 24 girls; mean age, 13.2 years) with 98 canines. Cone-beam DICOM files were imported into In Vivo imaging software (version 5.3; Anatomage, San Jose, Calif) for analysis. The angulations and linear variables of the maxillary canines were measured by using the software measurement tools. Chi-square and independent t tests were used to test for differences between the groups. The presence of a hook at the apical third and other root curvature were significantly different between the 2 groups (P <0.001 and P <0.05, respectively). Of the 44 palatally impacted canines, 16 (36.4%) had an apical hook and only 1 canine in the control group had an apical hook (1.0%). The mean root length of the palatally impacted canines was 2.66 mm shorter (P <0.001), and the mean crown/root ratio was significantly greater for the palatally impacted canines compared with the nonimpacted group (P <0.001). Palatally impacted canines have a greater tendency to develop apical hooks and are less likely to develop other root curvatures than are nonimpacted canines. Also, they have shorter roots resulting in larger crown/root ratios compared with the control group. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Advances in the treatment of diseased equine incisor and canine teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlinson, Jennifer T; Earley, Edward

    2013-08-01

    Dental therapies for equid incisor and canine teeth have modernized significantly over the last 2 decades. Basic principles in incisor reduction have become more conservative, and extraction procedures more exacting. Periodontal and endodontic treatments are described to save teeth that would have succumbed to extraction in the past. Pathologic impacts on treatment decisions for equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis are significant, and veterinarians and owners need to be aware of treatment options and outcomes. Easy access to equid incisor and canine teeth offers a variety of therapeutic options, and this article reviews some of the practical procedures available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mandibular Symmetrical Bilateral Canine-Lateral Incisors Transposition: Its Early Diagnosis and Treatment Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehoshua Shapira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral mandibular tooth transposition is a relatively rare dental anomaly caused by distal migration of the mandibular lateral incisors and can be detected in the early mixed dentition by radiographic examination. Early diagnosis and interceptive intervention may reduce the risk of possible transposition between the mandibular canine and lateral incisor. This report illustrates the orthodontic management of bilateral mandibular canine-lateral incisor transposition. Correct positioning of the affected teeth was achieved on the left side while teeth on the right side were aligned in their transposed position. It demonstrates the outcome of good alignment of the teeth in the dental arch.

  15. The avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus has limited replication in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genetically and antigenically distinct H3N2 canine influenza of avian-origin was detected in March of 2015 in Chicago, Illinois. A subsequent outbreak was reported with over 1,000 dogs in the Midwest affected. The potential for canine-to-swine transmission was unknown. Experimental infection in pi...

  16. Role of the Wnt signaling molecules in the tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Tamura, PhD, DDS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wnt signaling plays a central role in many processes during embryonic development and adult homeostasis. At least 19 types of Wnt ligands, receptors, transducers, transcription factors, and antagonists have been identified in mammals. Two distinct Wnt signaling pathways, the canonical signaling pathway and the noncanonical signaling pathway, have been described. Some Wnt signaling pathway components are expressed in the dental epithelium and mesenchyme during tooth development in humans and mice. Functional studies and experimental analysis of relevant animal models confirm the effects of Wnt signaling pathway on the regulation of developing tooth formation and adult tooth homeostasis. Mutations in some Wnt signaling pathway components have been identified in syndromic and non-syndromic tooth agenesis. This review provides an overview of progress in elucidating the role of Wnt signaling pathway components in the tooth and the resulting possibilities for therapeutic development.

  17. The cracked tooth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Christoper D; McConnell, Robert J

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the clinical features, diagnosis and management of the cracked tooth syndrome (CTS). The condition refers to an incomplete fracture of a vital posterior tooth that occasionally extends into the pulp. A lack of awareness of the condition coupled with its varied clinical features can make diagnosis of CTS difficult. Common symptoms include an uncomfortable sensation or pain from a tooth that occurs while chewing hard foods and which ceases when the pressure is withdrawn. The patient is often unable to identify the offending tooth or quadrant involved, and may report a history of numerous dental procedures with unsatisfactory results. Successful diagnosis and management requires an awareness of the existence of CTS and the appropriate diagnostic tests. Management options depend on the nature of the symptoms and extent of the lesion. These options include routine monitoring, occlusal adjustments, placement of a cast restoration and endodontic treatment. A decision flowchart indicating the treatment options available to the dental practitioner is presented.

  18. New hominin fossils from Kanapoi, Kenya, and the mosaic evolution of canine teeth in early hominins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michael Plavcan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Whilst reduced size, altered shape and diminished sexual dimorphism of the canine–premolar complex are diagnostic features of the hominin clade, little is known about the rate and timing of changes in canine size and shape in early hominins. The earliest Australopithecus, Australopithecus anamensis, had canine crowns similar in size to those of its descendant Australopithecus afarensis, but a single large root alveolus has suggested that this species may have had larger and more dimorphic canines than previously recognised. Here we present three new associated dentitions attributed to A. anamensis, recently recovered from the type site of Kanapoi, Kenya, that provide evidence of canine evolution in early Australopithecus. These fossils include the largest mandibular canine root in the hominin fossil record. We demonstrate that, although canine crown height did not differ between these species, A. anamensis had larger and more dimorphic roots, more like those of extant great apes and Ardipithecus ramidus, than those of A. afarensis. The canine and premolar occlusal shapes of A. anamensis also resemble those of Ar. ramidus, and are intermediary between extant great apes and A. afarensis. A. afarensis achieved Homo-like maxillary crown basal proportions without a reduction in crown height. Thus, canine crown size and dimorphism remained stable during the early evolution of Australopithecus, but mandibular root dimensions changed only later within the A. anamensis–afarensis lineage, coincident with morphological changes in the canine–premolar complex. These observations suggest that selection on canine tooth crown height, shape and root dimensions was not coupled in early hominin evolution, and was not part of an integrated adaptive package.

  19. Biomechanical comparison of a 3.5-mm conical coupling plating system and a 3.5-mm locking compression plate applied as plate-rod constructs to an experimentally created fracture gap in femurs of canine cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremolada, Giovanni; Lewis, Daniel D; Paragnani, Ken Luka; Conrad, Bryan P; Kim, Stanley E; Pozzi, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare stiffness and resistance to cyclic fatigue of two 3.5-mm locking system plate-rod constructs applied to an experimentally created fracture gap in femurs of canine cadavers. SAMPLE 20 femurs from cadavers of 10 mixed-breed adult dogs. PROCEDURES 1 femur from each cadaver was stabilized with a conical coupling plating system-rod construct, and the contralateral femur was stabilized with a locking compression plate (LCP)-rod construct. An intramedullary Steinmann pin was inserted in each femur. A 40-mm gap then was created; the gap was centered beneath the central portion of each plate. Cyclic axial loading with increasing loads was performed. Specimens that did not fail during cyclic loading were subjected to an acute load to failure. RESULTS During cyclic loading, significantly more LCP constructs failed (6/10), compared with the number of conical coupling plating system constructs that failed (1/10). Mode of failure of the constructs included fracture of the medial or caudal aspect of the cortex of the proximal segment with bending of the plate and pin, bending of the plate and pin without fracture, and screw pullout. Mean stiffness, yield load, and load to failure were not significantly different between the 2 methods of stabilization. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Both constructs had similar biomechanical properties, but the conical coupling plating system was less likely to fail than was the LCP system when subjected to cyclic loading. These results should be interpreted with caution because testing was limited to a single loading mode.

  20. Comparison of the mechanical behaviors of semicontoured, locking plate-rod fixation and anatomically contoured, conventional plate-rod fixation applied to experimentally induced gap fractures in canine femora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Clara S S; Santoni, Brandon G; Puttlitz, Christian M; Palmer, Ross H

    2009-01-01

    To compare the mechanical behaviors of a semicontoured, locking compression plate-rod (LCP-rod) construct and an anatomically contoured, limited-contact dynamic compression plate-rod (LC-DCP-rod) construct applied to experimentally induced gap fractures in canine femora. 16 femora from 8 cadaveric dogs. 8 limbs from 8 dogs were assigned to the LCP-rod construct group or the LC-DCP-rod construct group. In each femur, a 39-mm mid-diaphyseal ostectomy was performed at the same plate location and the assigned construct was applied. Construct stiffness and ostectomy gap subsidence were determined before and after cyclic axial loading (6,000 cycles at 20%, 40%, and 60% of live body weight [total, 18,000 cycles]). Three constructs from each group further underwent 45,000 cycles at 60% of body weight (total, 63,000 cycles). Following cyclic loading, mode of failure during loading to failure at 5 mm/min was recorded for all constructs. After 18,000 or 63,000 cycles, construct stiffness did not differ significantly between construct groups. No implant failure occurred in any construct that underwent 63,000 cycles. In both construct groups, ostectomy gap subsidence similarly increased as axial load increased but did not change after 18,000 cycles. Mean +/- SEM loads at failure in the LCP-rod (1,493.83 +/- 200.12 N) and LC-DCP-rod (1,276.05 +/- 156.11 N) construct groups were not significantly different. The primary failure event in all constructs occurred at the screw hole immediately distal to the ostectomy. Biomechanically, the semicontoured LCP-rod construct is similar to the anatomically contoured LC-DCP-rod system.

  1. 3D Simulation Modeling of the Tooth Wear Process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Dai

    Full Text Available Severe tooth wear is the most common non-caries dental disease, and it can seriously affect oral health. Studying the tooth wear process is time-consuming and difficult, and technological tools are frequently lacking. This paper presents a novel method of digital simulation modeling that represents a new way to study tooth wear. First, a feature extraction algorithm is used to obtain anatomical feature points of the tooth without attrition. Second, after the alignment of non-attrition areas, the initial homogeneous surface is generated by means of the RBF (Radial Basic Function implicit surface and then deformed to the final homogeneous by the contraction and bounding algorithm. Finally, the method of bilinear interpolation based on Laplacian coordinates between tooth with attrition and without attrition is used to inversely reconstruct the sequence of changes of the 3D tooth morphology during gradual tooth wear process. This method can also be used to generate a process simulation of nonlinear tooth wear by means of fitting an attrition curve to the statistical data of attrition index in a certain region. The effectiveness and efficiency of the attrition simulation algorithm are verified through experimental simulation.

  2. Current practices and research updates on diabetes mellitus in canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has evidence in ancient literatures, though recently is being considered as one amongst the most emerging disease condition in both human and companion animals. Diabetes mellitus is one of the common endocrinopathy of dog characterized by hyperglycemia, glycosuria and weight loss. Reports suggests high fraction of canine population suffer with diabetes world over. Studies in different veterinary hospitals of United States suggest increase in cases of canine diabetes and decrease in case fatality rate over time. Increase in cases of canine diabetes worldwide is attributed to awareness amongst pet owners, better veterinary health facilities, breed preferences by dog owners, increase dependence on commercial feeds, obesity, etc. Diabetes in most dogs is immune mediated and insulin dependent. Breed predisposition in canine is attributed to dog leukocyte antigen gene pool encoding form major histocompatibility complex-II molecules, however research is still underway. Diagnosis of diabetes still relies on blood sugar evaluation for screening of canine population, though many other diagnostic methods have shown promising benefits including measurement of fructosamine and glycated haemoglobin. Management of diabetes in dog is based on insulin therapy, diet modification and exercise. Use of oral anti-diabetics drugs in canine is limited though experimental studies have shown promising results. Alternative therapies have been explored, but only a few approaches have shown promise for clinical application.

  3. Evaluation of Canine Pancreas-Specific Lipase Activity, Lipase Activity, and Trypsin-Like Immunoreactivity in an Experimental Model of Acute Kidney Injury in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsebosch, S E; Palm, C A; Segev, G; Cowgill, L D; Kass, P H; Marks, S L

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of pancreatitis in dogs is complicated by extrapancreatic disorders that can alter the results of laboratory tests. Extrapancreatic disorders can also affect the diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI). The effects of acute kidney injury (AKI) on pancreas-specific lipase activity (Spec cPL(®) Test), serum lipase activity and trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI) in dogs have not been evaluated. Serum Spec cPL, lipase activity, and TLI concentrations will increase secondary to decreased kidney function. Five purpose-bred dogs. Experimental prospective study. Gentamicin was used to induce AKI in 5 purpose-bred dogs. Serum samples were collected for measurement of creatinine, Spec cPL, lipase activity and TLI over 60 days, during both induction of, and recovery from, AKI. All dogs developed and recovered from AKI. Six of 52 (12%) serum Spec cPL concentrations were increased (2 in the equivocal zone and 4 consistent with pancreatitis) in 2 of 5 (40%) dogs. Two of 51 (4%) serum lipase activity values were increased in 2 of 5 dogs. Serum TLI was increased above the reference range in 17 of 50 (34%) samples in 3 of 5 dogs. For all biomarkers, there was no consistent correlation with increases in serum creatinine concentration. Decreased renal excretion during experimental AKI did not cause consistent and correlated increases in serum Spec cPL, lipase activity, or TLI in this cohort of dogs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Administration of the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid during tooth development inhibits tooth eruption and formation and induces dental abnormalities in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Toru; Ninomiya, Tadashi; Hosoya, Akihiro; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2010-06-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are potent inhibitors of osteoclastic bone resorption and widely used for the treatment of osteoporosis and metastatic bone diseases. Recently, BPs have also been shown to benefit children with primary and secondary osteoporosis, including osteogenesis imperfecta; however, their long-term safety has not been established yet. Clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that BPs delay or inhibit tooth eruption. The failure of tooth eruption causes several dental abnormalities. In this study, to determine the effects of BPs on tooth formation, the BP zoledronic acid (ZOL) was injected into 7- and 14-day-old rats, and the development of the mandibular teeth was examined. X-ray analysis demonstrated that ZOL inhibited the eruption of both incisors and molars and their formation, especially in the molar roots. Histological examination showed that, in ZOL-treated animals, alveolar bone remained unresorbed around tooth crowns, which injured ameloblasts and enamel matrix, leading to defects of the enamel. Furthermore, haphazard proliferation of odontogenic epithelium and mesenchyme associated with primitive tooth structures, which resembles human odontomas, was induced at the basal end of incisors but not around the molars. Tooth ankylosis to alveolar bone was occasionally observed in molars. These results suggest that administration of BPs during tooth development has the potential to inhibit tooth eruption and formation and to induce several types of dental abnormalities, which may be attributed to the altered osteoclastic activities.

  5. Dental anomalies associated with buccally- and palatally-impacted maxillary canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajnani, Anand K; King, Nigel M

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the association of both buccally- and palatally-impacted canines with other dental anomalies. This retrospective study was conducted on a population of 533 southern Chinese children and adolescents who had impacted maxillary canines that had been treated in the Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics Clinic, Prince Philip Dental Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. Descriptions of the impacted canine and other associated anomalies were obtained from the case notes and radiographs. Clinical photographs and study casts were used, where available. A total of 253 (47.5%) patients with impacted maxillary canines were diagnosed with other dental anomalies. Microdontia was the most frequently-occurring anomaly reported in these patients, with the maxillary lateral incisor the most commonly affected tooth. Other odontogenic anomalies that were associated with both buccally- and palatally-impacted canines included hypodontia, supernumerary teeth, transposition of other teeth, enamel hypoplasia, other impacted teeth, and dens invaginatus. Both buccally- and palatally-impacted canines were found to be associated with other odontogenic anomalies. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of the Stress Induced in Tooth, Periodontal Ligament & Alveolar Bone with Varying Degrees of Bone Loss During Various Types of Orthodontic Tooth Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anupam; Mahajan, Shalu; Verma, Santosh; Bhardwaj, Preeti; Sharma, Geeta

    2016-02-01

    The force applied on to a tooth with periodontal bone loss may generate different magnitude and pattern of stresses in the periodontium when compared to a tooth with no bone loss & under the same force system. The intensity of the forces and moment to force ratios needed to be applied during an Orthodontic treatment must be adapted to obtain the same movement as in a tooth with a healthy periodontal support. Evaluation and assessment of the stress distribution during various types of Orthodontic tooth movement on application of Orthodontic force, at various levels of alveolar bone loss; & determination of the most ideal force system producing the Optimum Stress (i.e., stress within optimum range), uniformly (conducive to bodily movement of maxillary canine with varying degrees of bone loss). A human maxillary canine tooth of right side was simulated by means of Finite Element Method (FEM). Five different models were constructed with bone loss ranging from 0mm in model 1, to 8mm in model 5 (progressing at 2mm per model). Ten different loading conditions were applied on these models and the stress generated was charted at various occluso-gingival levels and surfaces around the tooth. The evaluation and assessment of the stress distribution during various types of Orthodontic tooth movement on application of Orthodontic force, at various levels of alveolar bone loss was done. The results showed that there was a high positive correlation between the increase in bone loss & the stress generated, suggesting an elevation in the stress with advancing bone loss. Additionally, the type of tooth movement was found to be changed with bone loss. During the determination of ideal force system it was found that the centre of resistance of the canine migrated apically with bone loss and an increase in the moment to force ratio (Mc:F) was required to control the root position in these cases. A high positive correlation exists between the increase in bone loss and the stress

  7. Visual and digital comparative tooth colour assessment methods and atomic force microscopy surface roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundlingh, A A; Grossman, E S; Shrivastava, S; Witcomb, M J

    2013-10-01

    This study compared digital and visual colour tooth colour assessment methods in a sample of 99 teeth consisting of incisors, canines and pre-molars. The teeth were equally divided between Control, Ozicure Oxygen Activator bleach and Opalescence Quick bleach and subjected to three treatments. Colour readings were recorded at nine intervals by two assessment methods, VITA Easyshade and VITAPAN 3D MASTER TOOTH GUIDE, giving a total of 1782 colour readings. Descriptive and statistical analysis was undertaken using a GLM test for Analysis of Variance for a Fractional Design set at a significance of P colour assessment showed significance for the independent variables of treatment, number of treatments, tooth type and the combination tooth type and treatment. Digital colour assessment indicated treatment and tooth type to be of significance in tooth colour change. Poor agreement was found between visual and digital colour assessment methods for Control and Ozicure Oxygen Activator treatments. Surface roughness values increased two-fold for Opalescence Quick specimens over the two other treatments, implying that increased light scattering improved digital colour reading. Both digital and visual colour matching methods should be used in tooth bleaching studies to complement each other and to compensate for deficiencies.

  8. The relationship between tooth wear in the primary and permanent dentitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales-Peres, S H C; Sales-Peres, A C; Marsicano, J A; Carvalho, C A P; Carvalho, F S; Lauris, J R P; Sales-Peres, A

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the relationship between tooth wear in primary and permanent dentition in 7 to 10-year-old school children, in 2007. An epidemiological cross-sectional survey was conducted by trained, calibrated examiners, using the dental wear index (DWI). The cluster sample consisted of 764 children (382 boys, 382 girls) attending 4 public schools selected in different regions of the city. The DWI was proposed to evaluate primary and permanent teeth, coded as letters and numbers, respectively. Data were collected via clinical examinations performed outdoors under natural light, following the WHO recommendations and using a dental mirror and probe. Proportions and confidence intervals were used to describe the prevalence of dental wear. The Mann-Whitney and the Odds Ratio (OR) tests were used to compare the tooth wear prevalence between primary and permanent teeth according to surface (p tooth wear. The tooth wear was mostly seen on the occlusal/incisal surfaces (47%), involving enamel or enamel-dentine. Tooth wear in primary teeth was found in canines and molars (93%) and in permanent teeth in molars (34%). There was significant difference between primary and permanent teeth (p primary teeth was greater in boys than in girls (p = 0.02) but not in permanent teeth. The results suggest that 7 to 10-year-old children with tooth wear in primary teeth had more chances of developing tooth wear in permanent dentition. However, the findings of this study are not conclusive as the associations described are not causal.

  9. Fusion of a primary mandibular lateral incisor and canine: A rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treville Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusion is a developmental anomaly of dental hard tissues characterized by the union of two adjacent teeth. It may be complete with the formation of an abnormally large tooth or incomplete with the union of crowns or roots only. The exact cause is still unknown. This report describes a case of unilateral fusion of the primary lateral incisor and canine in a 6-year-old female patient who accompanied her parents for dental treatment and later had a checkup herself during one of the visits to the dental clinic. Medical history was noncontributory while there was no family history of dental anomalies. An intraoral examination revealed that mandibular right primary lateral incisor was fused to the primary canine. The permanent central incisors were erupting lingually. The intraoral periapical radiograph showed a bifid pulp chamber with a normal-sized root canal. Since the tooth was noncarious, a preventive approach with a periodic follow-up was planned.

  10. Cracked tooth syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Tanumihardja

    2009-01-01

    Cracked tooth syndrome is usually found in daily dental practice. The incidence of cracks teeth tends to increasing. People are living longer and keeping their teeth longer. As a consequence, people have more complex restoration and endodontic treatment, leaving teeth more prone to cracks. In addition, stressful lives may provoke unconscious habits such as clenching and bruxism which can induce cracks in teeth. However, many cracks teeth can be saved nowadays when the character...

  11. Effect of endodontic sealers on tooth color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meincke, Débora Könzgen; Prado, Maíra; Gomes, Brenda Paula Figueiredo; Bona, Alvaro Della; Sousa, Ezilmara Leonor Rolim

    2013-08-01

    One of the goals of endodontic treatment is the adequate filling of the root canal,which is often done using gutta-percha and sealer. It has been reported that sealer remnants in the coronary pulp chamber cause tooth color changes. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the effect of endodontic sealer remnants on tooth color, testing the hypothesis that sealers cause coronal color changes. Forty single-rooted human teeth were endodontically treated leaving excess sealer material in the coronary pulp chamber. The specimens were divided into four groups (n = 10) according to the endodontic sealer used (AH, AH Plus; EF, Endofill; EN,endome´ thasoneN; and S26, Sealer 26). Teeth were stored at 37 8C moist environment.Color coordinates (L*a*b*) were measured with a spectrophotometer before endodontic treatment(baseline-control), 24 h and 6 months after treatment. L*a*b* values were used to calculate color changes (DE). Data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney-U tests. Color changes were observed for all groups with S26 and EN producing the greatest mean DE values after 6 months. Endodontic sealer remnants affect tooth color confirming the experimental hypothesis. This study examined the effect of endodontic sealer remnants on tooth color, and observed that after 6 months, the sealers produced unacceptable color changes. 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of the physiological properties of human periodontal-masseteric reflex evoked by incisor and canine stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko eOhmori

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was designed to clarify whether the bilateral cooperation in the human periodontal-masseteric reflex (PMR differs between central incisors and canines. Methods: Surface array electrodes were placed on the bilateral masseter muscles to simultaneously record the firing activities of single motor units from both sides in 7 healthy adults. During light clenching, mechanical stimulation was applied to the right maxillary central incisor and canine to evoke the PMR. Unitary activity was plotted with respect to the background activity and firing frequency. The slope of the regression line (sRL and the correlation coefficient (CC between the central incisor and canine and the lateral differences between these values were compared. Results: There were significant differences in the sRL and CC, as well as lateral differences, between the central incisor- and canine-driven PMR. Discussion: These results suggest that the PMR differs depending on both the tooth position and laterality.

  13. Chick tooth induction revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jinglei; Cho, Sung-Won; Ishiyama, Mikio; Mikami, Masato; Hosoya, Akihiro; Kozawa, Yukishige; Ohshima, Hayato; Jung, Han-Sung

    2009-07-15

    Teeth have been missing from Aves for almost 100 million years. However, it is believed that the avian oral epithelium retains the molecular signaling required to induce odontogenesis, and this has been widely examined using heterospecific recombinations with mouse dental mesenchyme. It has also been argued that teeth can form from the avian oral epithelium owing to contamination of the mouse mesenchyme with mouse dental epithelial cells. To investigate the possibility of tooth formation from chick oral epithelium and the characteristics of possible chick enamel, we applied LacZ transgenic mice during heterospecific recombination and examined the further tooth formation. Transmission electron microscopy was used to identify the two tissues during development after heterospecific recombination. No mixing was detected between chick oral epithelium and mouse dental mesenchyme after 2 days, and secretory ameloblasts with Tomes' processes were observed after 1 week. Teeth were formed after 3 weeks with a single cusp pattern, possibly determined by epithelial factors, which is similar to that of the avian tooth in the late Jurassic period. These recombinant teeth were smaller than mouse molars, whereas perfect structures of both ameloblasts and enamel showed histological characteristics similar to those of mice. Together these observations consistent with previous report that odontogenesis is initially directed by species-specific mesenchymal signals interplaying with common epithelial signals. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Evaluation of extraction sites for evidence of retained tooth roots and periapical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James I; Niemiec, Brook

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective clinical study was to determine the frequency and pathogenicity of unintentional retained tooth root fragments after extraction of the maxillary fourth premolar (108 and 208) and mandibular first molar teeth (309 and 409) in 74 canine and 42 feline client-owned patients. Radiographs of client-owned animals with historical evidence of extraction of teeth 309 and 409 were reviewed. All patients had dental extraction(s) for clinical reasons, and all extractions were deemed successful by the practitioners. Extraction sites were radiographed to identify tooth root fragments and pathology. Twenty-five canine and 25 feline patients that had extractions utilizing preoperative and postoperative radiography were also included. Sixty-one of 74 canine patients (82.4%; P periapical pathology was found in 66 of 116 (56.8%; P = 0.000000743) radiographs, including 39 of 74 canine cases (52.7%; P = 0.00002765) and 27 of 42 feline cases (64.3%; P = 0.01589). The control group had no evidence of retained root fragments. Further veterinary dental training and routine use of pre- and postoperative dental radiology are recommended.

  15. Maxillary canine-first premolar transposition in the permanent dentition: treatment considerations and a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Synodinos, Philippos N

    2010-12-01

    Transposition is defined as the interchange of position between two adjacent teeth within the same quadrant of the dental arch. Permanent maxillary canine-premolar transposition is the most commonly observed transposition in the human dentition. Its prevalence is relatively low and its aetiology remains unclear, although it has been associated with genetic factors. It may also be related to a combination of localised factors such as malformation of adjacent teeth, tooth agenesis, retention of the deciduous canine and a history of local trauma. Treatment is selected on an individual case basis after thoroughly considering the overall facial and dental characteristics, duration of treatment, cost, patient preference and the orthodontist\\'s experience. This article provides a case report of maxillary canine transposition in the permanent dentition, successfully managed with orthodontic treatment.

  16. Effects of diode laser (980 nm) on orthodontic tooth movement and interleukin 6 levels in gingival crevicular fluid in female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassaei, S; Aghili, H; Afshari, J Tavakol; Bagherpour, A; Eslami, F

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-level laser irradiation on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and the interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during orthodontic treatment. In this randomized split-mouth double blind clinical trial, 11 female patients aged 14 to 25 years (mean 19 ± 4.21 year), who required canine retraction following four first premolars extraction, were selected. The GaAlAs laser diode laser (A.R.C. Laser GmbH, Nürnberg, Germany) (980 nm, 100 mW, 5.6 J/cm 2 , three points from the buccal side and three from lingual side of the tooth, 56 s, running in continuous mode) was used for canine retraction in only one maxillary quadrant (LG). The irradiation time for each cervical and middle third of the tooth was 10 s, and 8 s for the apical third of the tooth. The other maxillary quadrant served as the control group (CG) using the laser pseudo-application in this side. The laser irradiation was applied on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of each month during the canine retraction phase. Canine retraction was done using closed coil spring with 150 g force on rectangular wires after the alignment and leveling. This study was done in 11 months. Dental casts were made at different time points during the treatment, and the amount of tooth movement was measured. To evaluate the levels of IL-6, GCF samples were collected from the distal side of the maxillary canine teeth on both quadrants at the beginning of the trial, the end of aligning phase, and on day 21 of each month during canine retraction. Although the mean rate of canine retraction was higher in the LG (0.013) than the CG (0.012) and there was definitely a tendency for more canine retraction in the LLLI, but the results failed to show any significant difference between the mean rate of canine retraction of both groups (P = 0.068). A paired t test showed that there was no significant difference in the mean concentration of IL

  17. Bilateral supernumerary primary maxillary canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Mukhopadhyay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary teeth are more common in the permanent than in primary dentition. In the primary dentition, the anomaly is most frequently observed in the maxillary lateral incisor region, followed by the maxillary midline where they are termed as mesiodens. Supernumerary teeth in the primary canine region are rare. This paper describes a rare case of nonsyndromic supernumerary primary maxillary canine distributed bilaterally in a 4-year-old boy. Both the supernumeraries resembled size and shape of normal primary canine. The right supplemental canine is high labially placed, whereas the left one is seen normally aligned in the dental arch distal to lateral incisor. One of the most significant sequelae of primary supernumerary teeth is their duplication in the permanent series. Radiographic examination of supernumerary primary canine did not indicate any such anomaly in the permanent dentition. The patient was kept under observation.

  18. How well does Invisalign work? A prospective clinical study evaluating the efficacy of tooth movement with Invisalign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Neal D; Kusnoto, Budi; BeGole, Ellen; Obrez, Ales; Agran, Brent

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate the efficacy of tooth movement with removable polyurethane aligners (Invisalign, Align Technology, Santa Clara, Calif). The study sample included 37 patients treated with Anterior Invisalign. Four hundred one anterior teeth (198 maxillary and 203 mandibular) were measured on the virtual Treat models. The virtual model of the predicted tooth position was superimposed over the virtual model of the achieved tooth position, created from the posttreatment impression, and the 2 models were superimposed over their stationary posterior teeth by using ToothMeasure, Invisalign's proprietary superimposition software. The amount of tooth movement predicted was compared with the amount achieved after treatment. The types of movements studied were expansion, constriction, intrusion, extrusion, mesiodistal tip, labiolingual tip, and rotation. The mean accuracy of tooth movement with Invisalign was 41%. The most accurate movement was lingual constriction (47.1%), and the least accurate movement was extrusion (29.6%)- specifically, extrusion of the maxillary (18.3%) and mandibular (24.5%) central incisors, followed by mesiodistal tipping of the mandibular canines (26.9%). The accuracy of canine rotation was significantly lower than that of all other teeth, with the exception of the maxillary lateral incisors. At rotational movements greater than 15 degrees, the accuracy of rotation for the maxillary canines fell significantly. Lingual crown tip was significantly more accurate than labial crown tip, particularly for the maxillary incisors. There was no statistical difference in accuracy between maxillary and mandibular teeth of the same tooth type for any movements studied. We still have much to learn regarding the biomechanics and efficacy of the Invisalign system. A better understanding of Invisalign's ability to move teeth might help the clinician select suitable patients for treatment, guide the proper sequencing of

  19. A windowing and mapping strategy for gear tooth fault detection of a planetary gearbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xihui; Zuo, Ming J.; Liu, Libin

    2016-12-01

    When there is a single cracked tooth in a planet gear, the cracked tooth is enmeshed for very short time duration in comparison to the total time of a full revolution of the planet gear. The fault symptom generated by the single cracked tooth may be very weak. This study aims to develop a windowing and mapping strategy to interpret the vibration signal of a planetary gear at the tooth level. The fault symptoms generated by a single cracked tooth of the planet gear of interest can be extracted. The health condition of the planet gear can be assessed by comparing the differences among the signals of all teeth of the planet gear. The proposed windowing and mapping strategy is tested with both simulated vibration signals and experimental vibration signals. The tooth signals can be successfully decomposed and a single tooth fault on a planet gear can be effectively detected.

  20. Web-based evaluation of experts' opinions on impacted maxillary canines forced eruption using CBCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miresmaeili, Amirfarhang; Farhadian, Nasrin; Mollabashi, Vahid; Yousefi, Faezeh

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at examining the difficulty in performing forced eruption of impacted maxillary canines, using CBCT information and according to experienced orthodontist's opinion. The second aim was to find the most important factors related to this decision. Based on a careful literature review on impacted maxillary canines, ten main factors were selected to assess difficulties associated with impacted teeth. Thirty six consecutive patients with 50 impacted maxillary canines were examined and variables were measured for each impacted tooth using Dolphin 3D software. Ten orthodontists assessed the radiographs of teeth and provided their opinion on the difficulty in bringing impacted teeth into occlusion named subjective degree of difficulty (SDD). The correlation established between mean SDD of each tooth and measured variables were analyzed by means of linear regression. Mean SDD was 6.45 ± 1.22 for all 50 teeth. Linear regression showed a high coefficient of correlation between mean SDD and age, dilacerations, vertical height, angulation and horizontal overlap (P impacted maxillary canines forced eruption, according to the opinion of experienced orthodontists, the factors age, dilaceration, angulation, overlap and vertical distance from the occlusal plane are the most important variables.

  1. Web-based evaluation of experts' opinions on impacted maxillary canines forced eruption using CBCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirfarhang Miresmaeili

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aims at examining the difficulty in performing forced eruption of impacted maxillary canines, using CBCT information and according to experienced orthodontist's opinion. The second aim was to find the most important factors related to this decision. METHODS: Based on a careful literature review on impacted maxillary canines, ten main factors were selected to assess difficulties associated with impacted teeth. Thirty six consecutive patients with 50 impacted maxillary canines were examined and variables were measured for each impacted tooth using Dolphin 3D software. Ten orthodontists assessed the radiographs of teeth and provided their opinion on the difficulty in bringing impacted teeth into occlusion named subjective degree of difficulty (SDD. The correlation established between mean SDD of each tooth and measured variables were analyzed by means of linear regression. RESULTS: Mean SDD was 6.45 ± 1.22 for all 50 teeth. Linear regression showed a high coefficient of correlation between mean SDD and age, dilacerations, vertical height, angulation and horizontal overlap (P < 0.05. CONCLUSION: To predict the difficulty of impacted maxillary canines forced eruption, according to the opinion of experienced orthodontists, the factors age, dilaceration, angulation, overlap and vertical distance from the occlusal plane are the most important variables.

  2. Masculinization of the eruption pattern of permanent mandibular canines in opposite sex twin girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Tuomo; Harila, Virpi; Tapanainen, Juha S; Alvesalo, Lassi

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of prenatal androgenization on the clinical eruption of permanent teeth expressing dimorphism and bimaturism. The eruption curves of permanent teeth (except third molars), including those that make up the canine complex (permanent canines, lower first premolars), are compared among opposite sex twins (OS twins) relative to single-born boys and girls. The comparisons are made with regard to three phases of eruption (pierced mucosa, half- erupted, and completely erupted) from a cross-sectional sample of dental casts, using Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyzes. The casts were collected from 2159 school children from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project, including 39 pairs of OS-twins, of which 12 pairs (30.8%) were Euro-Americans and 27 pairs (69.2%) were of African-American ancestry. The eruption patterns of the incisors, upper first molars, and lower canines were found to be significantly masculinized (delayed) among OS twin girls. The differences in most other teeth were either not significant, or the number of observations of active eruption phases were too few, such as in the upper first molars and incisors, to yield strong evidence and meaningful results. The masculinization of the tooth eruption pattern in OS twin girls is intriguing because of the lower canine responses during puberty, as well as canine primordial formation during early fetal androgenization of their co-twin during the 8th to 14th gestational weeks. The present results offer a challenge for future research exploring tooth eruption mechanisms, and may also highlight some cases of delayed or ectopic canines, which are biased toward females. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Tenoxicam controls pain without altering orthodontic movement of maxillary canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, G M; Arantes, V M N; Ashmawi, H A; Posso, I P

    2009-02-01

    To study the efficacy of tenoxicam for pain control, its potential for preemptive analgesia, and its influence on the orthodontic movement of upper canine teeth. This was a randomized controlled double-blind cross-over study. The patients were divided into three groups. Two groups received tenoxicam in daily doses of 20 mg orally for 3 days. Group A received the first dose of the drug before orthodontic activation and group B, just afterwards. Group C (control) received a placebo for 3 days. All groups had access to 750 mg of paracetamol up to four times a day. Three orthodontic activations were performed at 30-day intervals. Each patient belonged to two different groups. Pain intensity was assessed using a descriptive Pain Scale and a Visual Analog Scale. Private clinic; 36 patients undergoing bilateral canine tooth retraction. The statistical analysis did not show any difference in movement between the active groups and the control at any time. There was no statistical difference between the groups that received tenoxicam. Pain intensity in these groups was lower than in the placebo group. The difference in pain intensity between the active groups and the control was greatest at the assessment made 12 h after activation and it tended to zero, 72 h after activation. Tenoxicam did not influence orthodontic movement of the upper canines. It was effective for pain control and did not present any preemptive analgesic effect.

  4. Impaired tooth eruption: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noffke, C E E; Chabikuli, N J; Nzima, N

    2005-11-01

    Eruption is the continuous process of movement of a tooth from its developmental location inside the jaw to its functional location in the mouth. Impaired tooth eruption, where this process is disturbed, is common in dental practice. It may manifest either as delayed or complete absence of eruption. Although unerupted teeth are usually asymptomatic, they may cause cosmetic and pathologic complications. The purpose of this article is to provide a review on the pathogenesis and differential radiographic interpretation of impaired tooth eruption.

  5. [Tooth eruption disturbances and syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterkamp, B C M; Ockeloen, C W; Carels, C E L; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    2014-04-01

    In the tooth eruption mechanism, various disturbances can appear as a result of gene mutations, a consequence of which can be that tooth eruption does not occur. There are 5 syndromes which involve the complete failure of several or even all teeth to erupt, specifically: cleidocranial dysplasia, Gardner's syndrome, osteopetrosis, mucopolysaccharidosis and GAPO syndrome. Some are very rare and will seldom be encountered in a dental practice, but they show how vulnerable the tooth eruption mechanism is. Dentists are generally the ones who identify a tooth eruption problem in a patient. Since syndromes can be associated with other disorders, additional investigation by a clinical geneticist is always important when a syndrome is suspected.

  6. The Influence of Crown Height to Diameter Ratio on the Force to Fracture of Canine Teeth in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Jason W.; Collins, Caitlyn; Ploeg, Heidi-Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Summary Previous work suggests that the tooth height to diameter ratio (H/D) may have an influence on the fracture resistance of dog canine teeth. Thus, it can be hypothesized that canine teeth with distal abrasion or teeth already requiring pulpal manipulation may benefit from a reduction in height and that an ideal H/D exists that balances tooth fracture resistance and tooth function. Therefore, a study was performed to investigate the influence of H/D on force to fracture and probability of fracture of canine teeth in dogs. Thirty extracted canine teeth from laboratory Beagle dogs were standardized by hard tissue volume and evenly distributed among three groups; unaltered H/D (group A), 10% reduction in H/D (group B) and 20% reduction in H/D (group C). The teeth were potted in clear auto-polymerizing orthodontic acrylic and then secured within a universal materials testing machine. A displacement was applied at a speed of 1 mm/min to the distoocclusal line angle at 45° angle to the long axis of the crown. The maximum measured force at the time of fracture represented the maximum force to fracture. A linear regression model showed a significant inverse relationship between H/D and force to fracture (p=0.043; 95% CI -55.2 to -0.09). A margin of safety (MoS) analysis was performed to determine the probability of fracture by comparing normal force distributions of the measured force at fracture to that reported in a previous study, representative of normal biting-pulling loads on canine teeth. When 100% of the load was applied to a single unaltered canine tooth the probability of fracture was 36.7%. Decreases in H/D of 10% and 20% resulted in a decreased probability of fracture by 24.1% and 60.4%, respectively. A paired MoS analysis was conducted wherein the applied loads were distributed across two maxillary canine teeth according to their relative heights. Within the pair, a 20% decrease in H/D decreased the probability of fracture of that tooth by 86.5%, but

  7. The Influence of Crown Height to Diameter Ratio on the Force to Fracture of Canine Teeth in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Jason W; Collins, Caitlyn; Ploeg, Heidi-Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggests that the tooth height to diameter ratio (H/D) may have an influence on the fracture resistance of dog canine teeth. Thus, it can be hypothesized that canine teeth with distal abrasion or teeth already requiring pulpal manipulation may benefit from a reduction in height and that an ideal H/D exists that balances tooth fracture resistance and tooth function. Therefore, a study was performed to investigate the influence of H/D on force to fracture and probability of fracture of canine teeth in dogs. Thirty extracted canine teeth from laboratory Beagle dogs were standardized by hard tissue volume and evenly distributed among three groups; unaltered H/D (group A), 10% reduction in H/D (group B), and 20% reduction in H/D (group C). The teeth were potted in clear autopolymerizing orthodontic acrylic and then secured within a universal materials testing machine. A displacement was applied at a speed of 1-mm/min to the distoocclusal line angle at an angle of 45 degrees to the long axis of the crown. The maximum measured force at the time of fracture represented the maximum force to fracture. A linear regression model showed a significant inverse relationship between H/D and force to fracture (p = 0.043; 95% CI-55.2 to -0.09). A margin of safety (MoS) analysis was performed to determine the probability of fracture by comparing normal force distributions of the measured force at fracture to that reported in a previous study, representative of normal biting-pulling loads on canine teeth. When 100% of the load was applied to a single unaltered canine tooth the probability of fracture was 36.7%. Decreases in H/D of 10% and 20% resulted in a decreased probability of fracture by 24.1% and 60.4%, respectively. A paired MoS analysis was conducted wherein the applied loads were distributed across 2 maxillary canine teeth according to their relative heights. Within the pair, a 20% decrease in H/D decreased the probability of fracture of that tooth by 86.5%, but

  8. Clinical manifestations of canine distemper in Nigerian dogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty dogs of local breeds found in Nigeria, experimentally infected with local isolate of canine distemper virus, manifested fever, conjunctivitis, photophobia salivation, anorexia, dermatitis, and diarrhoea. Apart from these clinical signs already described for the disease in other breeds of dogs,45% of the dogs showed ...

  9. Canine distemper associated with generalized oedema in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty puppies of Nigeria local breed of dogs which were experimentally infected with a local isolate of canine distemper virus manifested clinical signs known for the disease including anorexia, ocular discharges, postular dermatitis on the lower abdomen and diarrhoea. In addition, they also manifested generalized ...

  10. Effect of serial extraction alone on crowding: relationships between tooth width, arch length, and crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, T; Matsumoto, Y; Suzuki, J; Sato, N; Oguchi, H

    1999-12-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of serial extraction alone on crowding. We also investigated the relationships between tooth width, arch length, and irregularity index. Maxillary dental casts from 32 subjects who had undergone only serial extraction were analyzed at 3 stages: before deciduous canines extraction, after first premolars extraction, and at the end of the observation period. The mean of the irregularity index decreased significantly as serial extraction proceeded and further decreased during the observation period. In cases where the width of the incisor was more than 2 standard deviations above the means for the control subjects, there was a significant correlation between tooth width of the lateral incisors and irregularity index before extraction as well as a significant correlation between the summation of tooth widths of the central and lateral incisors and irregularity index at that time. There was a significant negative correlation between arch length discrepancy and irregularity index before extraction and also a significant correlation between arch length discrepancy and correction of the irregularity index from before deciduous canines extraction to after first premolars extraction. These results suggest that tooth width and arch length discrepancy might preferentially affect the degree of anterior crowding in cases of severe crowding. There was no aggravation of the average crowding level during the observation period in the present study. The present study quantitatively suggested that serial extraction was useful for the purpose of correcting crowding in most cases.

  11. Evaluation of effect of low level laser therapy on pain during orthodontic tooth movement in human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini MH

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Lasers with different characteristics have been used to stimulate orthodontic tooth movements and to inhibit the pain during tooth movements. Considering the contradictory finding in this respect, the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT was evaluated on the pain during orthodontic tooth movement. "nMaterials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, 12 patients were included with extracted upper first premolars and required canine retraction into extraction site. While in both sides canines were retracted by Niti coil spring, one side was exposed to GaAlAs laser (890nm. LLLT was done on the buccal and palatal mucosa by slow movement of probe. The patients were asked about their pain on both sides 2 days after beginning of retraction. Pain measurement was evaluated with VAS. "nResults: Pain perception in LLLT side significantly decreased (P=0.007. "nConclusion: Based on the results, single irradiation of GaAlAs laser (12J energy per tooth can decrease pain perception.

  12. Autogenous tooth transplantation: an alternative to replace extracted tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Kamadjaja

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gold standard treatment to replace missing tooth is dental implants, however, in certain cases, such as in young patients its placement is contraindicated. Autogenous tooth transplantation, which has been widely done in Scandinavian countries for many years, may become a good alternative to overcome this problem. Purpose: This article attempted to provide information about the indication, treatment planning, surgical technique and the successful result of autogenous tooth transplantation. Case: A fifteen year old male patient presented with large caries and periapical disease of his lower left first molar, which was partially erupted and the roots was not fully formed in radiograph. Case management: Autogenous tooth transplantation procedure was performed consisting of extraction of #36, odontectomy of #38 followed by its implantation to socket #36 and fixation of the transplanted tooth to the adjacent teeth. Post operative evaluation was done on regular basis within 18 months period. There was no complaint, the tooth was clinically stable and no evidence of periodontal problem. Serial radiographs showed healing of alveolar bone and periodontal tissue, and the complete root formation was evident by 18 months post operatively. Conclusion: Autogenous tooth transplantation is a potential alternative to replace extracted tooth. Provided that the case be properly planned and operation carefully performed, successful result of this treatment can be achieved.

  13. Equine Odontoclastic Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis: Histopathologic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, R C; Earley, E T; Galloway, S S; Baratt, R M; Rawlinson, J E

    2015-09-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH) is a painful progressive condition of older horses that involves multiple teeth, including canines and incisors. EOTRH is uncommonly recognized by veterinary pathologists and in some cases may be misdiagnosed as cementoblastoma. The cause is unknown. The goals of this study were to describe the histopathologic features of EOTRH in 17 affected horses from the United States and to increase awareness of this condition. Samples ranged from affected tooth to the entire rostral mandible and maxilla. Affected teeth exhibited cemental hyperplasia and lysis. The marked proliferation of cementum in severe cases caused bulbous enlargement of the intra-alveolar portions of affected teeth. Several teeth contained necrotic debris, bacteria, and plant material in the regions of cemental lysis. All horses exhibited dentinal lysis in at least affected tooth, and several contained necrotic debris in these regions. Endodontic disease was often present with inflammation, lysis, necrotic debris, fibrosis, and/or a thin rim of atubular mineralized tissue in the pulp cavity. Periodontal disease was a common feature that was primarily characterized by moderate lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Resorption with secondary hypercementosis appears to begin on the external surface of the teeth rather than within the pulp cavity. Distinguishing EOTRH from other diseases requires a complete history that includes the number and location of affected teeth, a gross description of regional hard/soft tissue health, and radiographic findings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. A radiological study on the tooth shape anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Karp Shik [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and distribution according to the types of tooth shape anomalies in permanent teeth of 6,082 persons by means of analysis of the full mouth periapical radiographs. And the following results were obtained ; 1. Among tooth shape anomalies, the highest incidence was observed on dilaceration (20.14%), followed by dens invaginatus (3.02%), peg lateralis (1.48%), taurodontism (0.34%), dens evaginatus (0.33%), talon cusp (0.20%), fusion (0.07%) and gemination (0%) in descending order of frequency. 2. Peg lateralis, dens invaginatus and dilaceration occurred more prevalent in females, and other types of tooth shape anomalies occurred more prevalent in males. 3. Dens evaginatus and taurodontism occurred with bilateral tendency, but other anomalies occurred with unilateral tendency. 4. As to the involved teeth, maxillary lateral incisors were the most frequently involved teeth on peg lateralis, dens invaginatus and talon cusp. And the mandibular premolars were the most frequently involved teeth on dens evaginatus, the maxillary first molars were on taurodontism, the maxillary second premolars were on dilaceration, and the mandibular incisors and canines were on fusion.

  15. A radiological study on the tooth shape anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Karp Shik

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and distribution according to the types of tooth shape anomalies in permanent teeth of 6,082 persons by means of analysis of the full mouth periapical radiographs. And the following results were obtained ; 1. Among tooth shape anomalies, the highest incidence was observed on dilaceration (20.14%), followed by dens invaginatus (3.02%), peg lateralis (1.48%), taurodontism (0.34%), dens evaginatus (0.33%), talon cusp (0.20%), fusion (0.07%) and gemination (0%) in descending order of frequency. 2. Peg lateralis, dens invaginatus and dilaceration occurred more prevalent in females, and other types of tooth shape anomalies occurred more prevalent in males. 3. Dens evaginatus and taurodontism occurred with bilateral tendency, but other anomalies occurred with unilateral tendency. 4. As to the involved teeth, maxillary lateral incisors were the most frequently involved teeth on peg lateralis, dens invaginatus and talon cusp. And the mandibular premolars were the most frequently involved teeth on dens evaginatus, the maxillary first molars were on taurodontism, the maxillary second premolars were on dilaceration, and the mandibular incisors and canines were on fusion.

  16. Primary tooth emergence in Australian children: timing, sequence and patterns of asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, S; Mihailidis, S; Hughes, T; Bockmann, M; Seow, W K; Gotjamanos, T; Townsend, G

    2010-09-01

    Information on the timing and sequence of human tooth emergence is valuable when analysing human growth and development, predicting the age of individuals, and for understanding the effects of genetic and environmental influences on growth processes. This paper provides updated data on the timing and sequence of primary tooth emergence in Australian children for both clinicians and researchers. Twins were recruited from around Australia with data collected through parental recording of twins' primary tooth emergence. One twin from each pair was then randomly selected to enable the calculation of descriptive statistics for timing, sequence and asymmetry in tooth emergence. The first and last primary teeth emerged, on average, at 8.6 months and 27.9 months, respectively, with teeth emerging in the order: central incisor, lateral incisor, first molar, canine, second molar. Left-side antimeric teeth were more likely to emerge before their right-side counterparts but this was not statistically significant. At least 35% of all antimeric pairs had emerged within two weeks of each other, serving as a useful guideline for assessing symmetrical versus asymmetrical development. Primary tooth emergence in Australian twins is occurring later than reported previously for Australian singletons but is consistent with findings for singletons in other ethnic groups. The most common sequence of primary tooth emergence appears to be consistent in twins and singletons and has not changed over time.

  17. Clinical management of a fused upper premolar with supernumerary tooth: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Min Cho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available n dentistry, the term 'fusion' is used to describe a developmental disorder of dental hard tissues. In the permanent dentition, fusion of a normal tooth and a supernumerary tooth usually involves the incisors or canines. However, a few cases of fusion involving premolars have also been reported to date. We present a rare case in which fusion of the maxillary left second premolar and a supernumerary tooth in a 13-year-old girl was diagnosed using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, Alphard-3030, Asahi Roentgen Ind. Co., Ltd.. The tooth was bicuspidized after routine nonsurgical root canal treatment, and the separated teeth underwent appropriate restoration procedures. The second premolar and supernumerary tooth remained asymptomatic without any signs of inflammation after a follow-up period of 9 years. Identification of anatomical anomalies is important for treatment in cases involving fusion with supernumerary tooth, and therefore the microscopic examinations and CBCT are essential for the diagnosis. Fused teeth can be effectively managed by the comprehensive treatment which includes both endodontic and periodontal procedures.

  18. [Tooth eruption disturbances and syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterkamp, B.A.M. van; Ockeloen, C.W.; Carels, C.E.L.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the tooth eruption mechanism, various disturbances can appear as a result of gene mutations, a consequence of which can be that tooth eruption does not occur. There are 5 syndromes which involve the complete failure of several or even all teeth to erupt, specifically: cleidocranial dysplasia,

  19. Broken or knocked out tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Broken or knocked out tooth URL of this page: // ... and fluid solution. Consider buying 1 for your home first aid kit . Also ... If your tooth is badly broken, your nerve endings may be exposed. You will ...

  20. Prospective evaluation of immediate and delayed provisional single tooth restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Michael S; Mercante, Donald E; Lirette, Denise; Mohamed, Waheed; Ryser, Mark; Castellon, Paulino

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was 2-fold: to determine whether there is a significant difference in the hard and soft tissue response comparing immediate with delayed implant placement after tooth removal, with immediate provisionalization, in maxillary anterior sites; and to determine and compare the crestal bone levels as the primary endpoint variable for implants placed and immediately temporized in extraction sites, to implants placed into extraction sites after the extraction site has been grafted and healed for 4 months, all immediately restored with an anatomic provisional restoration. This aim was to be evaluated by measuring crestal bone levels on standardized digital radiographs of the implants, using implant threads as a monitor of magnification and a pre-extraction reference. Secondary endpoint variables include soft tissue measures compared with method. A total of 76 patients were recruited and randomized into treatment groups. Group 1 had a maxillary tooth (premolar, canine, lateral or central incisor) removed, with immediate socket grafting, followed by implant placement and provisionalization 4 months later with a single tooth. Group 2 had immediate implant placement and provisionalization. Standardized radiograph holders were used to expose digital radiographs every 6 months from baseline to up to 2 years restored. Soft tissue measures were made from standardized reference points. Data collected were analyzed by a statistician to test the hypotheses. A total of 55 patients completed their follow-up. Twenty-one patients were lost to follow-up because of implant loss (n = 5), 1 treated out of protocol because of labial bone loss found at the time of tooth removal (n = 1), geographic relocation (n = 11), dropped for noncompliance (n = 3), or medical problems (n = 1). The analyses showed no significant differences between groups in implant integration or crestal interdental bone movement on either the implant or the adjacent tooth. The bone level on the

  1. Tooth Fairy guilty of favouritism!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patcas, Raphael; van Waes, Hubertus Jm; Daum, Moritz M; Landolt, Markus A

    2017-12-11

    To determine the proportion of children visited by the Tooth Fairy, the child-related factors that influence the likelihood of her visit, and the parent-related variables that affect the amount of money the Tooth Fairy leaves. Cross-sectional questionnaire study. Zürich, Switzerland. 3617 parents of children (mean age of children, 6.8 years; 51.9% girls) who had lost at least one deciduous tooth received a self-developed questionnaire; 1274 questionnaires were returned (35.2%). Primary outcome variables were the Tooth Fairy's visit after tooth loss and the amount of money given in case of a visit. Child- and parent-related variables were assessed as predictors of the main outcomes. Most parents (71.0%) reported that the Tooth Fairy visited their child. She usually exchanged the lost tooth for money (55.8% of visits) or placed money next to the tooth (40.7%); rarely did she take the tooth without pecuniary substitution. The Tooth Fairy left an average of 7.20 Swiss francs (approximately AU$9.45). The Tooth Fairy favoured visiting for the teeth of older children (odds ratio [OR], per year, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.09-3.21), of boys (OR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.09-6.42), and of children who believed in her (OR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.77-9.64). The amount of money was influenced by maternal, but not paternal socio-demographic factors, including level of education (OR, per level, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.66-0.92) and country of origin (OR, Western countries v non-Western countries, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.20-4.62). The Tooth Fairy does not visit all children after tooth loss, displaying clear preferences in her choice of business partners. The odds of a visit are dramatically increased if she is believed in, and the value of a deciduous tooth is influenced by socio-demographic factors.

  2. Assessment of periodontal status following the alignment of impacted permanent maxillary canine teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarmach, I J; Szarmach, J; Waszkiel, D; Paniczko, A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of orthodontic movement of the impacted canines after surgical exposure and alignment on the periodontal status of the transpositioned and adjacent teeth as well as to compare certain parameters with those of spontaneously erupted teeth. Twenty-four patients (mean age 18.4 +/- 3.66) with unilaterally impacted 24 canines were enrolled in the study. The following parameters were assessed: pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), platelet index (PI) of Silness and Löe, and modified sulcus bleeding index (SBI). Optic density of the alveolar bone along the root surface of the aligned canine was analysed based on digital radiological images made with the right angle technique. Control group consisted of spontaneously erupted teeth. In comparison to the control group, in the orthodonticaly treated group PD was found to increase on the mesial buccal and palatal surfaces of the first premolar (p aligned canine (p aligned tooth were statistically significant (p alignment zone and the control, and there was no link between the method of treatment and periodontal status, either. The alignment of the impacted permanent maxillary canines poses a risk of periodontal deterioration. Patients subjected to surgical-orthodontic treatment require periodic periodontal follow-ups.

  3. Panoramic radiological study to identify locally displaced maxillary canines in Bangladeshi population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alif, Sheikh Mohammad [Northern University, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Haque, Sejuty [Bangladesh Dental College, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Nimmi, Naima; Ashraf, Ali [AIKO Dental Clinic and Implant Centre, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Khan, Saeed Hossain; Khan, Mahfujul Haq [WHO Collaborating Centre and Ibrahim Medical College, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2011-12-15

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of maxillary canine impaction on a basis of a single panoramic radiograph in Bangladeshi population. A random sample of seven hundred panoramic radiographs was collected from the patient record of a dental clinic. All the selected panoramic radiographs were taken from January 2009 to August 2010 by a single panoramic radiograph machine with the same exposure time (19 seconds) for all radiographs. One hundred and twenty panoramic radiographs were excluded to minimize the selection bias. In a dim lit room, an observer assessed the radiographs on a standard radiographic light box. The position of the impacted maxillary canine was recorded in line with the longitudinal axis of a tooth using the edge of a metal ruler. Data were subsequently put on SPSS 11.5 software and chi-square (x{sup 2}) tests were applied to find out the association. Among 580 panoramic radiographs it was found that impacted maxillary canines were present in only 7 (1.2%) radiographs. A statistical significant difference was found between the age of the patients and the vertical position of the impacted canines (p=0.000) and between the age of the patients and the horizontal position of the impacted canines (p=0.003). The prevalence was found to be low compared with the present study from the limitation of panoramic image. Further study needs to include three-dimensional imaging modality.

  4. [Study on the appropriate parameters of automatic full crown tooth preparation for dental tooth preparation robot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, F S; Wang, Y; Zhang, Y P; Sun, Y C; Wang, D X; Lyu, P J

    2017-05-09

    of 11 resin teeth was approximately (2.089±0.026) mm, the error was about (0.089±0.026) mm; the average convergence angle was about 6.56°±0.30°, the error was about 0.56°±0.30°. Compared with the target preparation shape, the average shape error of the 11 resin tooth preparations was about 0.02-0.11 mm. And the average preparation depth of the occlusal surface of 15 natural teeth was approximately (2.097±0.022) mm, the error was about (0.097±0.022) mm; the average convergence angle was about 6.98°±0.35°, the error was about 0.98°±0.35°. Compared with the target preparation shape, the average shape error of the 15 natural tooth preparations was about 0.05-0.17 mm. Conclusions: The experimental results indicate that the automatic tooth preparation for resin teeth and the teeth were completed according to the specific parameters of the single cutting depth by the micro robot controlling picosecond laser respectively, its preparation accuracy met the clinical needs. And the suitability of the parameter was confirmed.

  5. Computational and clinical investigation on the role of mechanical vibration on orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhipeng; Elekdag-Turk, Selma; Turk, Tamer; Grove, Johnathan; Dalci, Oyku; Chen, Junning; Zheng, Keke; Ali Darendeliler, M; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2017-07-26

    The aim of this study is to investigate the biomechanics for orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) subjected to concurrent single-tooth vibration (50Hz) with conventional orthodontic force application, via a clinical study and computational simulation. Thirteen patients were recruited in the clinical study, which involved distal retraction of maxillary canines with 1.5N (150g) force for 12weeks. In a split mouth study, vibration and non-vibration sides were randomly assigned to each subject. Vibration of 50Hz, of approximately 0.2N (20g) of magnitude, was applied on the buccal surface of maxillary canine for the vibration group. A mode-based steady-state dynamic finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted based on an anatomically detailed model, complying with the clinical protocol. Both the amounts of space closure and canine distalization of the vibration group were significantly higher than those of the control group, as measured intra-orally or on models (p<0.05). Therefore it is indicated that a 50Hz and 20g single-tooth vibration can accelerate maxillary canine retraction. The volume-average hydrostatic stress (VHS) in the periodontal ligament (PDL) was computationally calculated to be higher with vibration compared with the control group for maxillary teeth and for both linguo-buccal and mesial-distal directions. An increase in vibratory frequency further amplified the PDL response before reaching a local natural frequency. An amplification of PDL response was also shown to be induced by vibration based on computational simulation. The vibration-enhanced OTM can be described by mild, vigorous and diminishing zones among which the mild zone is considered to be clinically beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigación experimental de la equinococosis canina a partir de quiste hidatídico de origen porcino en México Experimental investigation of canine echinococcosis from swine hydatic cyst in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Zuñiga-A

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Para evaluar la infección y obtener el estado adulto del cestodos, se buscó reproducir la equinococosis en perros a partir de quiste hidatídico de origen porcino. MÉTODOS: Se formaron 2 grupos, uno de 5 y otro de 3 perros, a cada animal del grupo experimental se le dió 2 g de membrana germinativa de quíste hidatídico fértil por vía oral, el segundo grupo fue testigo. Ambos grupos fueron evaluados clínica, serológica y parasitológicamente, en el grupo experimental se sacrificó un animal el día 35 de la infección y los siguientes cada 5 dias hasta el 55, en el segundo grupo todos se sacrificaron el día 55. Se observaron huevos del cestodos en heces a partir del dia 51 postinfección. La evaluación morfol��gica se realizó mediante observación microscópica del raspado de mucosa intestinal. RESULTADOS: De 50 cestodos analizados, 10 de cada uno de los perros infectados, 49 (98% presentaron 3 proglótidos y 1 (2% tenía 4; 18 (36% de los cestodos presentaban un proglótido grávido. La longitud de los estróbilos varió de 1,6 a 2,6 mm. El número promedio de los ganchos largos y cortos fue de 31 y 34 respectivamente. La longitud de los ganchos largos varió entre 0,081 y 0,09 mm, los ganchos cortos fluctuaron entre 0,034 y 0,041 mm. En los perros evaluados clínicamente, el número de leucocitos y la cantidad de proteínas plasmáticas fue significativamente mayor en el grupo testigo (P OBJETIVO: Avaliar a infeção e obter o estado adulto do cestóides, provocando-se a reprodução da equinococose em cães a partir do cisto hidático de origem suína. MÉTODOS: Formaram-se dois grupos, um de 5 e outro de 3 cães. Cada animal do grupo experimental recebeu, por via oral, 2 g de membrana germinativa de cisto hidático fértil. O segundo grupo serviu como testemunha. Ambos os grupos foram avaliados de maneira clínica, sorológica e parasitológica. No grupo experimental foi sacrificado um animal no 35º dia da infe

  7. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K.; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-01-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistr...

  8. Root Length and Anatomy of Impacted Maxillary Canines in Patients with Unilateral Maxillary Canine Impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostfa Shahabi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Canine impaction is a common occurrence. In this study, we sought to investigate the root anatomy and length of impacted canines and lateral incisor adjacent to impacted maxillary canine. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, three-dimensional tomographic imaging was performed on 26 patients with unilateral maxillary canine impaction. In this study, we evaluated root length and anatomy of impacted canines, in terms of resorption intensity and curvature, with Planmeca Romexis Viewer 4.0. Furthermore, crown shape as well as root length and anatomy of the lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines were investigated and compared with the other side on the dental arch, where canine eruption was normal. Results: Root length of impacted canines was significantly lower than that of normal canines (P=0.011. There were no significant differences between root length of lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines and root length of lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.221. Moreover, the resorption intensity of the adjacent lateral incisors was higher than that of the impacted canines. No significant differences were noted in root resorption intensity between the lateral incisors adjacent to the imacted canines and the lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.36. In addition, resorption intensity was significantly higher in impacted canines than in normal canines (P=0.024. Root anatomy of impacted canines was not significantly different from that of normal canines (P=0.055. The crown shape of the lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines was not significantly different from that of the lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.052. Conclusion: Impaction can probably affect root length and canine resorption severity. However, root and crown shape of lateral incisors cannot always be associated with canine impaction.

  9. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasani, F; Javanbakht, J; Samani, R; Shirani, D

    2016-03-01

    Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL) is a significant veterinary problem. Infected dogs also serve as parasite reservoirs and contribute to human transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Histologically, the lesions were nodular to diffuse interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with histiocytic pseudorosettes together with numerous amastigotes within macrophages and occasionally within the interstitium. Organisms were often contained within clear and intracellular vacuoles. The other inflammatory cells, which were present in the biopsies of the Leishmania-infected dog, were lymphocytes and plasma cells. The histopathology results emphasized the role of dog, particularly asymptomatic dog, as reservoirs for CCL because of the high cutaneous parasite loads. These results may help to explain the maintenance of high transmission rates and numbers of CCL cases in endemic urban regions.

  10. Abiotic tooth enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Bongjun; Sain, Trisha; Lacevic, Naida; Bukharina, Daria; Cha, Sang-Ho; Waas, Anthony M.; Arruda, Ellen M.; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2017-03-01

    Tooth enamel comprises parallel microscale and nanoscale ceramic columns or prisms interlaced with a soft protein matrix. This structural motif is unusually consistent across all species from all geological eras. Such invariability—especially when juxtaposed with the diversity of other tissues—suggests the existence of a functional basis. Here we performed ex vivo replication of enamel-inspired columnar nanocomposites by sequential growth of zinc oxide nanowire carpets followed by layer-by-layer deposition of a polymeric matrix around these. We show that the mechanical properties of these nanocomposites, including hardness, are comparable to those of enamel despite the nanocomposites having a smaller hard-phase content. Our abiotic enamels have viscoelastic figures of merit (VFOM) and weight-adjusted VFOM that are similar to, or higher than, those of natural tooth enamels—we achieve values that exceed the traditional materials limits of 0.6 and 0.8, respectively. VFOM values describe resistance to vibrational damage, and our columnar composites demonstrate that light-weight materials of unusually high resistance to structural damage from shocks, environmental vibrations and oscillatory stress can be made using biomimetic design. The previously inaccessible combinations of high stiffness, damping and light weight that we achieve in these layer-by-layer composites are attributed to efficient energy dissipation in the interfacial portion of the organic phase. The in vivo contribution of this interfacial portion to macroscale deformations along the tooth’s normal is maximized when the architecture is columnar, suggesting an evolutionary advantage of the columnar motif in the enamel of living species. We expect our findings to apply to all columnar composites and to lead to the development of high-performance load-bearing materials.

  11. Electron paramagnetic resonance biophysical radiation dosimetry with tooth enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rao F. H.

    This thesis deals with advancements made in the field of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) for biophysical dosimetry with tooth enamel for accident, emergency and retrospective radiation dose reconstruction. A methodology has been developed to measure retrospective radiation exposures in human tooth enamel. This entails novel sample preparation procedures with minimum mechanical treatment to reduce the preparation induced uncertainties, establish optimum measurement conditions inside the EPR cavity, post process the measured spectrum with functional simulation of dosimetric and other interfering signals, and reconstruct dose. By using this technique, retrospective gamma radiation exposures as low as 80 +/- 30 mGy have been successfully deciphered. The notion of dose modifier was introduced in EPR biodosimetry for low dose measurements. It has been demonstrated that by using the modified zero added dose (MZAD) technique for low radiation exposures, doses in the 100 mGy range can be easily reconstructed in teeth which were previously thought useless for EPR dosimetry. Also the use of a dose modifier makes robust dose reconstruction possible for higher radiation exposures. The EPR dosimetry technique was also developed for tooth samples extracted from rodents, which represent small tooth sizing. EPR doses in the molars, extracted from mice irradiated with whole body exposures, were reassessed and shown to be correct within the experimental uncertainty. The sensitivity of human tooth enamel for neutron irradiation, obtained from the 3 MV McMaster K. N. Van de Graaff accelerator, was also studied. For the first time this work has shown that the neutron sensitivity of the tooth enamel is approximately 1/10th of the equivalent gamma sensitivity. Parametric studies for neutron dose rate and neutron energy within the available range of the accelerator, showed no impact on the sensitivity of the tooth enamel. Therefore, tooth enamel can be used as a dosimeter for both

  12. Long-term effectiveness of canine-to-canine bonded flexible spiral wire lingual retainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, A.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Katsaros, C.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) canine-to-canine lingual retainer bonded to all 6 anterior teeth is a frequently used type of mandibular fixed retainer. This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of FSW canine-to-canine lingual retainers in maintaining the alignment of the

  13. Long-term effectiveness of canine-to-canine bonded flexible spiral wire lingual retainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, Anne-Marie; Renkema, Alianne; Bronkhorst, Ewald; Katsaros, Christos

    Introduction: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) canine-to-canine lingual retainer bonded to all 6 anterior teeth is a frequently used type of mandibular fixed retainer. This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of FSW canine-to-canine lingual retainers in maintaining the alignment of the

  14. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine. 113.305 Section 113.305 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell...

  15. Tooth fragment reattachment technique on a pluri traumatized tooth

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Lo Giudice; Frank Lipari; Angelo Lizio; Gabriel Cervino; Marco Cicciù

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes and analyses a tooth fragment reattachment technique used to resolve crown fractures of the anterior teeth. This treatment allows a conservative approach to traumatic coronal lesions offering a better possibility of maintaining aesthetics and function. The authors have illustrated here a clinical case of a fractured incisor. This case is characterized by several traumas on the same tooth that required different therapeutic solutions. We used an easy and ultra-conser...

  16. Surgical Management of Compound Odontoma Associated with Unerupted Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Roberta; Pacifici, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Odontomas represent the most common type of odontogenic benign jaws tumors among patients younger than 20 years of age. These tumors are composed of enamel, dentine, cementum, and pulp tissue. According to the World Health Organization classification, two distinct types of odontomas are acknowledged: complex and compound odontoma. In complex odontomas, all dental tissues are formed, but appeared without an organized structure. In compound odontomas, all dental tissues are arranged in numerous tooth-like structures known as denticles. Compound odontomas are often associated with impacted adjacent permanent teeth and their surgical removal represents the best therapeutic option. A case of a 20-year-old male patient with a compound odontoma-associated of impacted maxillary canine is presented. A minimally invasive surgical technique is adopted to remove the least amount of bone tissue as far as possible. PMID:26199762

  17. Root Length and Anatomy of Impacted Maxillary Canines in Patients with Unilateral Maxillary Canine Impaction

    OpenAIRE

    Mostfa Shahabi; Maryam Omidkhoda; Seyedeh Haniyeh Omidi; Seyed Hosein Hoseini Zarch

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Canine impaction is a common occurrence. In this study, we sought to investigate the root anatomy and length of impacted canines and lateral incisor adjacent to impacted maxillary canine. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, three-dimensional tomographic imaging was performed on 26 patients with unilateral maxillary canine impaction. In this study, we evaluated root length and anatomy of impacted canines, in terms of resorption intensity and curvature, with Planme...

  18. NSAIDs in orthodontic tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukumar Karthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic tooth movement is basically a biological response toward a mechanical force. The movement is induced by prolonged application of controlled mechanical forces, which create pressure and tension zones in the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, causing remodeling of tooth sockets. Orthodontists often prescribe drugs to manage pain from force application to biologic tissues. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are the drugs usually prescribed. NSAIDs block prostaglandin synthesis and result in slower tooth movement. Prostaglandins have been found to play a direct role in bone resorption. Aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, diclofenac, vadecoxib, and celecoxib are the commonly prescribed drugs. Acetaminophen is the drug of choice for orthodontic pain without affecting orthodontic tooth movement.

  19. Erosive tooth wear in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, T.S.; Lussi, A.; Jaeggi, T.; Gambon, D.L.; Lussi, A.; Ganss, C.

    2014-01-01

    Erosive tooth wear in children is a common condition. Besides the anatomical differences between deciduous and permanent teeth, additional histological differences may influence their susceptibility to dissolution. Considering laboratory studies alone, it is not clear whether deciduous teeth are

  20. Monte Carlo modeling of human tooth optical coherence tomography imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Boya; Meng, Zhuo; Wang, Longzhi; Liu, Tiegen

    2013-01-01

    We present a Monte Carlo model for optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of human tooth. The model is implemented by combining the simulation of a Gaussian beam with simulation for photon propagation in a two-layer human tooth model with non-parallel surfaces through a Monte Carlo method. The geometry and the optical parameters of the human tooth model are chosen on the basis of the experimental OCT images. The results show that the simulated OCT images are qualitatively consistent with the experimental ones. Using the model, we demonstrate the following: firstly, two types of photons contribute to the information of morphological features and noise in the OCT image of a human tooth, respectively. Secondly, the critical imaging depth of the tooth model is obtained, and it is found to decrease significantly with increasing mineral loss, simulated as different enamel scattering coefficients. Finally, the best focus position is located below and close to the dental surface by analysis of the effect of focus positions on the OCT signal and critical imaging depth. We anticipate that this modeling will become a powerful and accurate tool for a preliminary numerical study of the OCT technique on diseases of dental hard tissue in human teeth. (paper)

  1. Monte Carlo modeling of human tooth optical coherence tomography imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Boya; Meng, Zhuo; Wang, Longzhi; Liu, Tiegen

    2013-07-01

    We present a Monte Carlo model for optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of human tooth. The model is implemented by combining the simulation of a Gaussian beam with simulation for photon propagation in a two-layer human tooth model with non-parallel surfaces through a Monte Carlo method. The geometry and the optical parameters of the human tooth model are chosen on the basis of the experimental OCT images. The results show that the simulated OCT images are qualitatively consistent with the experimental ones. Using the model, we demonstrate the following: firstly, two types of photons contribute to the information of morphological features and noise in the OCT image of a human tooth, respectively. Secondly, the critical imaging depth of the tooth model is obtained, and it is found to decrease significantly with increasing mineral loss, simulated as different enamel scattering coefficients. Finally, the best focus position is located below and close to the dental surface by analysis of the effect of focus positions on the OCT signal and critical imaging depth. We anticipate that this modeling will become a powerful and accurate tool for a preliminary numerical study of the OCT technique on diseases of dental hard tissue in human teeth.

  2. SEM Analysis of Tooth Enamel

    OpenAIRE

    Azinović, Zoran; Keros, Jadranka; Buković, Dino; Azinović, Ana

    2003-01-01

    SEM analysis contains researches of tooth enamel surfaces of two populations. First group of samples is tooth enamel of prehistorically ancestor from Vu~edol and the second group of samples is enamel of modern Croatian citizen. Even on small number of human teeth samples from cooperage site of Vu~edol (3,000 BC) and today’s Croatian people, we can conclude about chewing biometry of prehistorically ancestors and today’s modern Croatian people, comparing interspecifically the mor...

  3. Orthodontic tooth movement and bioelectricity.

    OpenAIRE

    Karanth H; Shetty K

    2001-01-01

    Research in the field of orthodontics is now focused on the biology of tooth movement. Advanced molecular biology techniques has showed the researchers new avenue towards finding answers to the questions asked for the last few decades. Now it is possible for the researches to explore the lacunae in the field. One such field is, pharmaco-therapeutically or electrophysiologically enhancing the rate of tooth movement, improving the stability of the results, augmenting the anchorage. The voltage ...

  4. The essential role of cone beam computed tomography to diagnose the localization of impacted maxillary canine and to detect the austerity of the adjacent root resorption in the Romanian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oana, Lăduncă; Zetu, Irina; Petcu, Ana; Nemtoi, A; Dragan, Eliza; Haba, Danisia

    2013-01-01

    The impaction phenomenon is a pathological condition which is defined as the lack of eruption of a permanent tooth in the oral cavity. After third molar, the first permanent tooth impacted in the alveolar bone is the permanent maxillary canine, with varies from 1% to 3%. The aim of this study was to use the most recently imaging technique--CBCT, to evaluate the position of the impacted maxillary canine and to determinate the severity of root resorption of the adjacent teeth. The all 230 patients of this study were referred to a CBCT scanning with Scanora machine and only the region of clinical interest was irradiated. The age of the subjects was distributed between the ages of 11 and 42 years. From a total of 364 impacted canine teeth, 92 were side impacted canines, 97 right impacted canines and 87 were left impacted canines. We report a lateral incisors root resorption present in 54.37% and 24.29% the resorption of central incisors. The use of CBCT in patients with impacted canines has potential diagnostic and may influence the planning of treatment. Also the CBCT can be a genuine method used to rectify, to diagnose and to make a suggestive treatment for the resorption of the root of incisors.

  5. Tooth eruption sequence and dental crowding: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshkelgosha, Vahid; Khosravifard, Negar; Golkari, Ali

    2014-01-01

    When cases of dental crowding are identified and diagnosed promptly, interceptive orthodontics is particularly successful. To assess the differences in the eruption sequence of the mandibular canine and first premolar teeth in children with and without dental crowding. Children who attended the Shiraz Dental School's orthodontic clinic (Iran) from September to December 2012 were enrolled in this case-control study. Tooth size arch length discrepancy (TSALD) of all 8-10 year olds was calculated from patients' dental models. Thirty-six children were randomly selected from those with TSALD of equal or less than 4mm (those with crowding). Each selected case was matched for sex and age with another child (as control) with TSALD>-4mm attending the same clinic, in the same time period. The existing panoramic radiographs were traced and the eruption percentages were measured for mandibular canine and first premolar teeth. The mean difference between canine and first premolar eruption percentages was compared between the case and control groups using the SPSS (version PASW 18) software and a paired sample t-test. Canine and first premolar eruption percentages in the case group were 65.82±13.00 and 78.92±10.15 percent, respectively. The mean eruption percentages for canines and first premolars of the control group were 74.12±14.55 and 75.47±11.60 percent, respectively. There was a significant difference in pre-eruptive positions of canine and first premolar teeth in those with moderate to severe crowding when compared to the control group (p<0.001). These findings may improve the early diagnosis of children with high risk of developing moderate to severe crowding during mixed dentition.

  6. Age estimation based on pulp/tooth volume ratio measured on cone-beam CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulsahi, Ayse; Kulah, Cemal Kivanc; Bakirarar, Batuhan; Gulen, Orhan; Kamburoglu, Kivanc

    2018-01-01

    After tooth eruption, the size of the pulp cavity decreases with age owing to deposition of secondary dentine. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the chronological age and the ratio of pulp volume (PV) to tooth volume (TV) measurements using CBCT images of single rooted teeth. Maxillary anterior, canine and mandibular canine/premolar CBCT scans of patients older than 15 years of age were collected from the archives between 2013 and 2015 years. Patients with CBCT scans of teeth were seen in detail and patients with known chronological age were included. Teeth with caries, filling or crown restorations, periapical pathologies or pulps that could not be identified were excluded. Consequently, 204 patients with 655 teeth were evaluated. The PV and the TV of each tooth was measured and then the PV/TV ratio was calculated. Simple linear regression analysis was performed in order to predict age estimation by using PV/TV. The PV/TV of all teeth ranged between 0.01 and 0.08. A negative correlation was found between the PV/TV ratio and age (p 0.05). This study revealed that PV/TV ratio was not gender dependent and the strongest correlation was found between the age and PV/TV ratio measured on maxillary central incisors than other teeth.

  7. Tooth width predictions in a sample of Black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M I; Seedat, A K; Hlongwa, P

    2007-07-01

    Space analysis during the mixed dentition requires prediction of the mesiodistal widths of the unerupted permanent canines and premolars and prediction tables and equations may be used for this purpose. The Tanaka and Johnston prediction equations, which were derived from a North American White sample, is one example which is widely used. This prediction equation may be inapplicable to other race groups due to racial tooth size variability. Therefore the purpose of this study was to derive prediction equations that would be applicable to Black South African subjects. One hundred and ten pre-treatment study casts of Black South African subjects were analysed from the Department of Orthodontics' records at the University of Limpopo. The sample was equally divided by gender with all subjects having Class I molar relationship and relatively well aligned teeth. The mesiodistal widths of the maxillary and mandibular canines and premolars were measured with a digital vernier calliper and compared with the measurements predicted with the Tanaka and Johnston equations. The relationship between the measured and predicted values were analysed by correlation and regression analyses. The results indicated that the Tanaka and Johnston prediction equations were not fully applicable to the Black South African sample. The equations tended to underpredict the male sample, while slight overprediction was observed in the female sample. Therefore, new equations were formulated and proposed that would be accurate for Black subjects.

  8. Canine oral melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Philip J

    2007-05-01

    Melanoma is the most common oral malignancy in the dog. Oral and/or mucosal melanoma has been routinely considered an extremely malignant tumor with a high degree of local invasiveness and high metastatic propensity. Primary tumor size has been found to be extremely prognostic. The World Health Organization staging scheme for dogs with oral melanoma is based on size, with stage I = or = 4cm tumor and/or lymph node metastasis, and stage IV = distant metastasis. Median survival times for dogs with oral melanoma treated with surgery are approximately 17 to 18, 5 to 6, and 3 months with stage I, II, and III disease, respectively. Significant negative prognostic factors include stage, size, evidence of metastasis, and a variety of histologic criteria. Standardized treatments such as surgery, coarse-fractionation radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have afforded minimal to modest stage-dependent clinical benefits and death is usually due to systemic metastasis. Numerous immunotherapeutic strategies have been employed to date with limited clinical efficacy; however, the use of xenogeneic DNA vaccines may represent a leap forward in clinical efficacy. Oral melanoma is a spontaneous syngeneic cancer occurring in outbred, immunocompetent dogs and appears to be a more clinically faithful therapeutic model for human melanoma; further use of canine melanoma as a therapeutic model for human melanoma is strongly encouraged. In addition, the development of an expanded but clinically relevant staging system incorporating the aforementioned prognostic factors is also strongly encouraged.

  9. Primary tooth size asymmetry in twins and singletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, T; Harila, V; Ollikkala, A; Alvesalo, L

    2016-08-01

    To explore asymmetry values of antimeric deciduous tooth crown dimensions in three types of twins: monozygotic (MZ), dizygotic same-sex (DZ) and opposite-sex (OS) vs. single-born controls. Mesiodistal and labio-lingual crown dimensions of second deciduous molars and mesiodistal canine and first molar crown dimensions of 2159 children at 6-12 years of age were evaluated, originating from the US cross-sectional Collaborative Perinatal Study from the 1970s, including altogether MZ (n = 28), DZ same-sex (n = 33) and OS (n = 39) pairs. Single born (n = 1959) were used as controls. Dental casts were measured for comparison of variance relationships calculated from antimeric teeth, exhibiting fluctuating (FA), and directional (DA) asymmetry using anova. Significant differences appeared in MZ and OS girls in DA of deciduous canines, which gain size in the first and second trimester, and deciduous second molars, which finally stop crown growth during the early post-natal period. Significantly, increased FA values appeared for lower deciduous canines and second molars, indicating greatest environmental stress in OS girls, MZ girls and DZ boys. Twin girls had more fluctuating and directional crown asymmetry than twin boys, but in some dimensions, the twins were more symmetric than controls. Transmembrane hormonal influence between opposite-sex twins, and late gestational stress factors, caused by placental malfunction and/or monochorionicity, may be involved in asymmetric growth of antimers, during critical periods of crown size gain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Optimum force magnitude for orthodontic tooth movement: a mathematic model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Y.; Maltha, J.C.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a mathematic model to describe the relationship between magnitude of applied force and rate of orthodontic tooth movement. Initially, data were extracted from experimental studies in dogs (beagles), in which controlled, standardized forces were used to move

  11. Guided eruption of palatally impacted canines through combined use of 3-dimensional computerized tomography scans and the easy cuspid device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioglio, Alberto; Siani, Lea; Caprioglio, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    The permanent maxillary canine has a high incidence of impaction. In the clinical treatment of impaction, the first problem is diagnosis and localization. The new diagnostic 3-dimensional systems shown in this article provide valid support in understanding anatomic connections and planning the movements needed for orthodontic correction. Thus, the clinician can reduce the incidence of iatrogenic damage of adjacent structures. This article reviews several biomedical systems for guided eruption of palatally impacted canines and discusses a new device for guided eruption of the surgically disimpacted tooth. This device, called Easy Cuspid, is designed to reduce recognized problems with reaction forces through a simple method. A clinical case of bilateral impaction of the permanent maxillary canines shows the application of the diagnostic method and the biomechanical system, Easy Cuspid.

  12. Esthetic judgments of palatally displaced canines 3 months postdebond after surgical exposure with either a closed or an open technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Nicola A; Freeman, Jennifer V; Deery, Chris; Benson, Philip E

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the esthetic judgments of orthodontists and laypeople regarding the appearance of palatally displaced canines 3 months after treatment with either a closed or an open surgical exposure and orthodontic alignment. A multicenter randomized controlled trial was undertaken in 3 hospitals in the United Kingdom. Patients with unilateral palatally displaced canines were randomly allocated to receive either a closed or an open surgical exposure. The teeth were aligned with fixed appliances, and 3 months after debond, intraoral photographs were taken. The photographs were projected in random order to 2 panels of judges (orthodontists and laypeople), who completed a questionnaire. The images of 67 participants (closed, 33; open, 34) were included. The laypeople were able to identify the operated tooth only 49.7% of the time (95% CI, 45.3%-54.0%); this was no better than chance (P = 0.880). The orthodontists were more successful but still identified the treated canine with certainty only 60.7% of the time (95% CI, 53.7%-67.8%; P = 0.003). Both panels more frequently assessed the unoperated canine to have a better appearance than the contralateral operated canine; however, there were no differences between the closed and open groups (proportion preferring unoperated canine-laypeople: closed, 58.7%; open, 57.0%; P = 0.43; and orthodontists: closed, 60.9%; open, 60.6%; P = 0.27). There is an esthetic impact to aligning a palatally displaced canine, but it is mostly minor and unlikely to be detectable by laypeople. The esthetic impact was the same, whether the canine was exposed with a closed or an open surgical technique. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-12-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistry. Of interest, PMab-38 stained the lymphatic endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in melanoma tissues, although it did not stain any lymphatic endothelial cells in normal tissues. PMab-38 could be useful for uncovering the function of PDPN in canine melanomas.

  14. Approaches to canine health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Dan G; Church, David B; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; Brodbelt, Dave C

    2014-01-01

    Effective canine health surveillance systems can be used to monitor disease in the general population, prioritise disorders for strategic control and focus clinical research, and to evaluate the success of these measures. The key attributes for optimal data collection systems that support canine disease surveillance are representativeness of the general population, validity of disorder data and sustainability. Limitations in these areas present as selection bias, misclassification bias and discontinuation of the system respectively. Canine health data sources are reviewed to identify their strengths and weaknesses for supporting effective canine health surveillance. Insurance data benefit from large and well-defined denominator populations but are limited by selection bias relating to the clinical events claimed and animals covered. Veterinary referral clinical data offer good reliability for diagnoses but are limited by referral bias for the disorders and animals included. Primary-care practice data have the advantage of excellent representation of the general dog population and recording at the point of care by veterinary professionals but may encounter misclassification problems and technical difficulties related to management and analysis of large datasets. Questionnaire surveys offer speed and low cost but may suffer from low response rates, poor data validation, recall bias and ill-defined denominator population information. Canine health scheme data benefit from well-characterised disorder and animal data but reflect selection bias during the voluntary submissions process. Formal UK passive surveillance systems are limited by chronic under-reporting and selection bias. It is concluded that active collection systems using secondary health data provide the optimal resource for canine health surveillance.

  15. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Xu, Min-Jun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Song, Hui-Qun; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-07-28

    Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures.

  16. Analysis of split tooth as an unstudied reason for tooth extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Osaghae, Ifueko Patience; Azodo, Clement Chinedu

    2014-01-01

    Background Split tooth is an unstudied reason for tooth extraction. The purpose of this study was to determine and analyze split tooth as a reason for extraction in a dental clinic in Benin City. Methods The prospective study was carried out on 669 patients having tooth extraction between May, 2005 and December, 2012. Over the period of the study, diagnosis and tooth extraction were done by three dentists of more five years practice experience. The indications for tooth extraction were noted ...

  17. 3D enamel thickness in Neandertal and modern human permanent canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buti, Laura; Le Cabec, Adeline; Panetta, Daniele; Tripodi, Maria; Salvadori, Piero A; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Feeney, Robin N M; Benazzi, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    Enamel thickness figures prominently in studies of human evolution, particularly for taxonomy, phylogeny, and paleodietary reconstruction. Attention has focused on molar teeth, through the use of advanced imaging technologies and novel protocols. Despite the important results achieved thus far, further work is needed to investigate all tooth classes. We apply a recent approach developed for anterior teeth to investigate the 3D enamel thickness of Neandertal and modern human (MH) canines. In terms of crown size, the values obtained for both upper and lower unworn/slightly worn canines are significantly greater in Neandertals than in Upper Paleolithic and recent MH. The 3D relative enamel thickness (RET) is significantly lower in Neandertals than in MH. Moreover, differences in 3D RET values between the two groups appear to decrease in worn canines beginning from wear stage 3, suggesting that both the pattern and the stage of wear may have important effects on the 3D RET value. Nevertheless, the 3D average enamel thickness (AET) does not differ between the two groups. In both groups, 3D AET and 3D RET indices are greater in upper canines than in lower canines, and overall the enamel is thicker on the occlusal half of the labial aspect of the crown, particularly in MH. By contrast, the few early modern humans investigated show the highest volumes of enamel while for all other components of 3D enamel, thickness this group holds an intermediate position between Neandertals and recent MH. Overall, our study supports the general findings that Neandertals have relatively thinner enamel than MH (as also observed in molars), indicating that unworn/slightly worn canines can be successfully used to discriminate between the two groups. Further studies, however, are needed to understand whether these differences are functionally related or are the result of pleiotropic or genetic drift effects. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Resection of the Tooth Apex with Diode Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzunov Tz.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An “in vitro” experimental study has been carried out on 70 extracted teeth. A laser resection of the root apex has been carried out with diode laser beam with a wavelength of - 810 ± 10 nm. Sequentially a radiation with increasing power has been applied, as follows: 1,3 W, 2W, 3W, 4W, 5W, 6W, 7W, in electro surgery mode. Successful resection of the tooth apex has been performed at: 3W; 4W; 5W; 6W and 7W power. It was established that when laser resected the tooth apex carbonizes.

  19. Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Clinical Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalaie, Kazem; Hamedi, Roya; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Mahdian, Mina; Bayat, Mehrdad

    2015-04-01

    One major drawback of orthodontic treatment is its long duration due to slow tooth movement and the pain at the onset of treatment following application of forces. There is controversy regarding the efficacy of laser for decreasing the treatment time and pain of orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low level diode laser on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and the associated pain. In this double blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 12 orthodontic patients referring to Shahid Beheshti School of Dentistry for first premolar extraction were randomly selected and allocated to gallium aluminum-arsenide laser (GA-AL-AS diode laser, 880 nm, 100 mW, 5 j/cm(2), 8 points, 80 seconds, continuous mode) or control group. The patients initially underwent leveling and alignment using the sectional system. Force (150 gr) was applied to each canine tooth via sectional closing loops. The loops were activated every month. The rate of tooth movement and pain were monitored over the treatment period and recorded on days 1, 3, 7, 30, 33, 37, 60, 63 and 67. Two-way ANOVA was used for comparison of groups. There was no significant difference in terms of tooth movement and pain scores between the irradiated and non-irradiated sides at any time point (P>0.05). Although laser enhanced orthodontic tooth movement in the upper jaw, we failed to provide solid evidence to support the efficacy of laser for expediting tooth movement or reducing the associated pain.

  20. Tooth morphometry and the pattern of palatal rugae among monozygotic and dizygotic twins in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagatika Panda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A stronger correlation of physical traits among monozygotic (MZ twins than dizygotic (DZ twins indicates predominant contribution by genetic factors than environmental factors. Exploring the degree of resemblance in tooth morphometry and the pattern of rugae among twins shall aid in forensic identification. Aim and Objective: To find out the degree of correlation in tooth morphometry and the palatal rugae pattern among MZ and DZ twins. Materials and Methods: The maximum coronal mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of the maxillary teeth excluding the second and third molars in 21 pairs of MZ and 12 pairs of DZ twins along with a MZ triplet were recorded using digital calipers calibrated to 0.01 mm. The dimensions of the teeth based on the number, shape, size, and the unification palatal rugae pattern among twin pairs were analyzed and recorded. Results: Our results suggest a stronger correlation of tooth dimension among MZ than DZ twins, which differs for individual maxillary tooth. There may be a separate set of genes responsible for controlling the mesiodistal and buccolingual tooth dimensions. The maxillary canine and maxillary premolars do show the least amount of genetic variability. The results in our study provide remarkable evidence regarding the existence of mirror imaging in tooth dimension as well as the number and shape of the palatal rugae. Conclusion: This first of its kind study in the Indian population suggests a remarkable similarity with regard to the tooth’s size and uniqueness of the palatal rugae pattern among MZ and DZ twins, which suggests their strong inheritability potential. This may be useful as additional tools for zygosity determination along with other dental traits. The significant evidence of mirror imaging of tooth dimension and rugae shall definitely contribute to the concept of development of human body.

  1. Surgical-orthodontic treatment of Class III malocclusion with agenesis of lateral incisor and unerupted canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Boaventura Vieira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Orthodontic-surgical treatment was performed in patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion due to exceeding mandibular growth. Patient also presented upper and lower dental protrusion, overjet of -3.0 mm, overbite of -1.0 mm, congenital absence of tooth #22, teeth #13 and supernumerary impaction, tooth #12 with conoid shape and partly erupted in supraversion, prolonged retention of tooth #53, tendency to vertical growth of the face and facial asymmetry. The discrepancy on the upper arch was -2.0 mm and -5.0 mm on the lower arch. METHODS: The pre-surgical orthodontic treatment was performed with extractions of the teeth #35 and #45. On the upper arch, teeth #53, #12 and supernumerary were extracted to accomplish the traction of the impacted canine. The spaces of the lower extractions were closed with mesialization of posterior segment. After aligning and leveling the teeth, extractions spaces closure and correct positioning of teeth on the bone bases, the correct intercuspation of the dental arch, with molars and canines in Angle's Class I, coincident midline, normal overjet and overbite and ideal torques, were evaluated through study models. The patient was submitted to orthognathic surgery and then the post-surgical orthodontic treatment was finished. RESULTS: The Class III malocclusion was treated establishing occlusal and facial normal standards.

  2. Effect of light energy on peroxide tooth bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Karen; Tam, Laura; Hubert, Manfred

    2004-02-01

    Light-activated bleaching is a method of tooth whitening. The authors conducted a study to compare the whitening effects and tooth temperature changes induced by various combinations of peroxide bleaches and light sources. The authors randomly assigned 250 extracted human teeth halves into experimental groups (n = 10). A placebo gel (control), a 35 percent hydrogen peroxide or a 10 percent carbamide peroxide bleach was placed on the tooth surface and was irradiated with no light (control); a halogen curing light; an infrared, or IR, light; an argon laser; or a carbon dioxide, or CO2, laser. Color changes were evaluated immediately, one day and one week after treatment using a value-oriented shade guide and an electronic dental color analyzer. The outer enamel and inner dentin surface temperatures were monitored before and immediately after each 30-second application of light using a thermocouple thermometer. Color and temperature changes were significantly affected by an interaction of the bleach and light variables. The application of lights significantly improved the whitening efficacy of some bleach materials, but it caused significant temperature increases in the outer and inner tooth surfaces. The IR and CO2 laser lights caused the highest tooth temperature increases. Dentists performing an in-office bleaching technique with the use of an additional light source to accelerate tooth whitening should consider the specific bleaching agent being used, as well as the potential risks of heating teeth. A specific combination of bleach and light that demonstrates good color change and little temperature rise should be selected for in-office tooth bleaching.

  3. Detecting gear tooth fracture in a high contact ratio face gear mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, James J.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.; Decker, Harry J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarized the results of a study in which three different vibration diagnostic methods were used to detect gear tooth fracture in a high contact ratio face gear mesh. The NASA spiral bevel gear fatigue test rig was used to produce unseeded fault, natural failures of four face gear specimens. During the fatigue tests, which were run to determine load capacity and primary failure mechanisms for face gears, vibration signals were monitored and recorded for gear diagnostic purposes. Gear tooth bending fatigue and surface pitting were the primary failure modes found in the tests. The damage ranged from partial tooth fracture on a single tooth in one test to heavy wear, severe pitting, and complete tooth fracture of several teeth on another test. Three gear fault detection techniques, FM4, NA4*, and NB4, were applied to the experimental data. These methods use the signal average in both the time and frequency domain. Method NA4* was able to conclusively detect the gear tooth fractures in three out of the four fatigue tests, along with gear tooth surface pitting and heavy wear. For multiple tooth fractures, all of the methods gave a clear indication of the damage. It was also found that due to the high contact ratio of the face gear mesh, single tooth fractures did not significantly affect the vibration signal, making this type of failure difficult to detect.

  4. Canine and feline colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastant-Maillard, S; Aggouni, C; Albaret, A; Fournier, A; Mila, H

    2017-04-01

    Puppy and kitten survival over the first weeks is particularly dependent on colostrum, a specific secretion of the mammary gland produced during the first 2 days post-partum. Colostrum is a source of nutrients and immunoglobulins. It also contributes to the digestive tract maturation. Colostrum differentiates from milk mainly based on its concentration in immunoglobulins G: 20-30 g/L in dog colostrum, 40-50 g/L in cats' vs <1 g/L in milk. IgG concentration rapidly drops after parturition (-50% in 24 hr). Immune quality of colostrum is highly variable between bitches, with no relationship with maternal blood IgG level, dam's age, breed size or litter size. In addition to systemic immune protection, colostrum also plays a major role for local digestive protection, due to IgA, lysozyme, lactoferrin, white blood cells and various cytokines. Energetic concentration of canine and feline colostrum is not superior to that of mature milk. It depends on colostrum fat concentration and is affected by breed size (higher in breeds <10 kg adult body weight). As puppies and kittens are almost agammaglobulinemic at birth, transfer of IgG from their digestive tract into their bloodstream is crucial for their survival, IgG absorption ending at 12-16 hr after birth. Energetic supply over the two first days of life, as evidenced by growth rate over the two first days of life, also affects risk of neonatal mortality. Early and sufficient suckling of colostrum is thus the very first care to be provided to newborns for their later health and survival. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Lateral incisor agenesis, canine impaction and characteristics of supernumerary teeth in a South European male population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delli, Konstantina; Livas, Christos; Bornstein, Michael M

    2013-07-01

    To assess the prevalence of lateral incisor agenesis impacted canines and supernumerary teeth in a young adult male population. The panoramic radiographs of 1745 military students (mean age: 18.6 ± 0.52 years) who attended the Center of Aviation Medicine of the Armed Forces of Greece during the period 1997-2011 were initially analyzed for lateral incisor agenesis by two observers. After exclusion of the known orthodontic cases, a subgroup of 1636 examinees (mean age: 18.6 ± 0.44 years) was evaluated for canine impaction and supernumerary teeth. Twenty-eight missing lateral incisors were observed in 22 military students, indicating an incidence of 1.3% in the investigated population. No lateral incisor agenesis was detected in the mandibular arch. A prevalence rate of 0.8% was determined for canine impaction in the sample of young adults. The majority of impacted teeth (86.7%) were diagnosed in the maxillary arch. Thirty-five supernumerary teeth were observed in 24 examinees (prevalence rate: 1.5%). The ratio of supernumerary teeth located in the maxilla versus the mandible was 2.2:1. The most common type of supernumerary tooth was the upper distomolar. The prevalence of lateral incisor agenesis, canine impaction, and supernumerary teeth ranged from 0.8 to 1.5% in the sample of male Greek military students.

  6. Detecting Gear Tooth Fatigue Cracks in Advance of Complete Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, James J.; Lewicki, David G.

    1996-01-01

    Results of using vibration-based methods to detect gear tooth fatigue cracks are presented. An experimental test rig was used to fail a number of spur gear specimens through bending fatigue. The gear tooth fatigue crack in each test was initiated through a small notch in the fillet area of a tooth on the gear. The primary purpose of these tests was to verify analytical predictions of fatigue crack propagation direction and rate as a function of gear rim thickness. The vibration signal from a total of three tests was monitored and recorded for gear fault detection research. The damage consisted of complete rim fracture on the two thin rim gears and single tooth fracture on the standard full rim test gear. Vibration-based fault detection methods were applied to the vibration signal both on-line and after the tests were completed. The objectives of this effort were to identify methods capable of detecting the fatigue crack and to determine how far in advance of total failure positive detection was given. Results show that the fault detection methods failed to respond to the fatigue crack prior to complete rim fracture in the thin rim gear tests. In the standard full rim gear test all of the methods responded to the fatigue crack in advance of tooth fracture; however, only three of the methods responded to the fatigue crack in the early stages of crack propagation.

  7. Equal pain – Unequal fear response: Enhanced susceptibility of tooth pain to fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lukas Meier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental fear conditioning in humans is widely used as a model to investigate the neural basis of fear learning and to unravel the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. It has been observed that fear conditioning depends on stimulus salience and subject vulnerability to fear. It is further known that the prevalence of dental-related fear and phobia is exceedingly high in the population. Dental phobia is unique as no other body part is associated with a specific phobia. Therefore, we hypothesized that painful dental stimuli exhibit an enhanced susceptibility to fear conditioning when comparing to equal perceived stimuli applied to other body sites. Differential susceptibility to pain-related fear was investigated by analyzing responses to an unconditioned stimulus (UCS applied to the right maxillary canine (UCS-c versus the right tibia (UCS-t. For fear conditioning, UCS-c and USC-t consisted of painful electric stimuli, carefully matched at both application sites for equal intensity and quality perception. UCSs were paired to simple geometrical forms which served as conditioned stimuli (CS+. Unpaired CS+ were presented for eliciting and analyzing conditioned fear responses. Outcome parameter were 1 skin conductance changes and 2 time-dependent brain activity (BOLD responses in fear-related brain regions such as the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, thalamus, orbitofrontal cortex and medial prefrontal cortex.A preferential susceptibility of dental pain to fear conditioning was observed, reflected by heightened skin conductance responses and enhanced time-dependent brain activity (BOLD responses in the fear network. For the first time, this study demonstrates fear-related neurobiological mechanisms that point towards a superior conditionability of tooth pain. Beside traumatic dental experiences our results offer novel evidence that might explain the high prevalence of dental-related fears in the population.

  8. Force loss in archwire-guided tooth movement of conventional and self-ligating brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montasser, Mona A; El-Bialy, Tarek; Keilig, Ludger; Reimann, Susanne; Jäger, Andreas; Bourauel, Christoph

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the differences in the force loss during simulated archwire-guided canine retraction between various conventional and self-ligating brackets. Three types of orthodontic brackets have been investigated experimentally using a biomechanical set-up: 1. conventional ligating brackets (Victory Series and Mini-Taurus), 2. self-ligating brackets (SmartClip: passive self-ligating bracket, and Time3 and SPEED: active self-ligating brackets), and 3. a conventional low-friction bracket (Synergy). All brackets had a nominal 0.022″ slot size. The brackets were combined with three rectangular 0.019×0.025″ archwires: 1. Remanium (stainless steel), 2. Nitinol SE (nickel-titanium alloy, NiTi), and 3. Beta III Titanium (titanium-molybdenum alloy). Stainless steel ligatures were used with the conventional brackets. Archwire-guided tooth movement was simulated over a retraction path of up to 4mm using a superelastic NiTi coil spring (force: 1 N). Force loss was lowest for the Victory Series and SmartClip brackets in combination with the steel guiding archwire (35 and 37.6 per cent, respectively) and highest for the SPEED and Mini-Taurus brackets in combination with the titanium wire (73.7 and 64.4 per cent, respectively). Force loss gradually increased by 10 per cent for each bracket type in combination with the different wires in the following sequence: stainless steel, Nitinol, and beta-titanium. Self-ligating brackets did not show improved performance compared with conventional brackets. There was no consistent pattern of force loss when comparing conventional and self-ligating brackets or passive and active self-ligating brackets.

  9. Effects of low-intensity laser therapy on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement: A clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Ankur; Kittur, Nandan; Kumbhojkar, Vinayak; Keluskar, Kanhoba Mahabaleshwar; Dahiya, Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) can be utilized for different treatments in the field of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of LILT on (1) the rate of canine movement during canine retraction phase and (2) evaluate the radiographic changes occurring during LILT around the irradiated area. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 patients of both genders were included for this study. One quadrant of the upper arch was considered control group (CG) and received mechanical activation of the canine teeth with 150 g. The opposite quadrant received the same mechanical activation and was also irradiated with a diode emitting light (gallium-arsenide laser) at 904 nm, for 10 s at 12 mW, at 4.2 J/cm2. Laser application was done on 1st day, 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21th, 28th, 35th, 42nd, 49th, 56th day respectively during the canine retraction phase. Distance was measured on 1st day, 35th day and 63rd day and appliance activation was done on 1st and 35th day. Results were analyzed using t-test with the significance level set at P laser group (LG). Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of tooth movement during canine retraction between the LG and the CG. There was no evidence of any pathologic changes in the radiograph following LILT. PMID:25225562

  10. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated

  11. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Sant'Anna; L.G.P. Giordano; K.K.M.C. Flaiban; E.E. Muller; M.I.M. Martins

    2014-01-01

    The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra tre...

  12. Immunohistochemical Characterization of Canine Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana CORA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lymphomas occur by clonal expansion of lymphoid cells and have distinctive morphological and immunophenotypic features. Determination of canine lymphoma immunophenotype is useful for accurate prognosis and further therapy. In the suggested study, we performed an immunohistochemical evaluation of some cases with canine lymphoma diagnosed in the Department of Pathology (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, in order to characterize them. The investigation included 39 dogs diagnosed with different anatomical forms of lymphoma, following necropsy analysis or assessment of biopsies. The diagnosis of lymphoma was confirmed by necropsy and histopathology (Hematoxylin-eosin stain examinations. The collected specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemistry technique (automatic method using the following antibodies: CD3, CD20, CD21 and CD79a. The analyzed neoplasms were characterized as follows: about 64.10% of cases were diagnosed as B-cell lymphomas, 33.34% of cases as T-cell lymphomas, whereas 2.56% of cases were null cell type lymphomas (neither B nor T. Most of multicentric (80%, mediastinal (60% and primary central nervous system lymphomas (100% had B immunophenotype, while the majority of cutaneous (80% and digestive (100% lymphomas had T immunophenotype. Immunohistochemical description of canine lymphomas can deliver some major details concerning their behavior and malignancy. Additionally, vital prognosis and efficacy of some therapeutic protocols are relying on the immunohistochemical features of canine lymphoma.

  13. Stress Analysis of Occlusal Forces in Canine Teeth and Their Role in the Development of Non-Carious Cervical Lesions: Abfraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihab A. Romeed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-carious cervical tooth lesions for many decades were attributed to the effects of abrasion and erosion mainly through toothbrush trauma, abrasive toothpaste, and erosive acids. However, though the above may be involved, more recently a biomechanical theory for the formation of these lesions has arisen, and the term abfraction was coined. The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanics of abfraction lesions in upper canine teeth under axial and lateral loading conditions using a three-dimensional finite element analysis. An extracted human upper canine tooth was scanned by μCT machine (Skyscan, Belgium. These μCT scans were segmented, reconstructed, and meshed using ScanIP (Simpleware, Exeter, UK to create a three-dimensional finite element model. A 100 N load was applied axially at the incisal edge and laterally at 45° midpalatally to the long axis of the canine tooth. Separately, 200 N axial and non-axial loads were applied simultaneously to the tooth. It was found that stresses were concentrated at the CEJ in all scenarios. Lateral loading produced maximum stresses greater than axial loading, and pulp tissues, however, experienced minimum levels of stresses. This study has contributed towards the understanding of the aetiology of non-carious cervical lesions which is a key in their clinical management.

  14. Tooth polishing: The current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Alankar Sawai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy teeth and gums make a person feel confident and fit. As people go about their daily routines and with different eating and drinking habits, the tooth enamel turns yellowish or gets stained. Polishing traditionally has been associated with the prophylaxis procedure in most dental practices, which patients know and expect. However, with overzealous use of polishing procedure, there is wearing of the superficial tooth structure. This would lead to more accumulation of local deposits. Also, it takes a long time for the formation of the fluoride-rich layer of the tooth again. Hence, now-a-days, polishing is not advised as a part of routine oral prophylaxis procedure but is done selectively based on the patients′ need. The article here, gives an insight on the different aspects of the polishing process along with the different methods and agents used for the same.

  15. Coping with cracked tooth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benenati, F W

    1996-01-01

    Cracked tooth syndrome typically poses a diagnostic challenge for the dentist. Symptoms include tenderness to biting on certain foods, often poorly localized, and occasional thermal sensitivity. Knowing where to look for this entity, especially in the mandibular molar region, can be especially helpful. Treatment of the tooth depends on the degree of pulpal involvement and the extent of the crack. Cuspal coverage is required of all cracked posterior teeth that are retainable. Root canal therapy is included if symptoms persist or if pulpal pathosis exists at the outset. Cracks extending beyond the osseous crest indicate a poor prognosis. Armed with this knowledge, the dentist can overcome many cracked tooth dilemmas, resulting in satisfaction for both patient and practitioner alike.

  16. Primary culprit for tooth loss!!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuvvula, Sailavanya; Chava, Vijay Kumar; Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2016-01-01

    In order to facilitate planning for dental health services and to progress strategies to continue the reduction in tooth loss, it is important to identify the factors that result in such loss. therefore the aim of the study is to investigate the major cause for tooth extraction. to examine whether the major reason for tooth extraction is dental caries or periodontal disease. The study is carried out among the dental practitioners in our district. A questionnaire containing 10 items was distributed to the dental practitioners, which included age, gender, no of teeth indicated for extraction, the reason for extraction, and the periodontal parameters that are involved with the extracted tooth and were requested to complete the form on every extraction they were to undertake. the study form was collected at the end of the study period and data was subjected to statistical analysis. A total of 502 patients were enrolled during the study period, and a total of 1055 teeth were extracted for several reasons. we found that 51.14%extractions are due to dental caries in case of 20-30years age groups, which is more when compared to tooth loss due to periodontal diseases in this age group. whereas in case of >40years of age group periodontal diseases account for 54.11%, and dental caries accounts for only 29.11%. Showing more teeth were lost due to periodontal disease. therefore we concluded that, caries is the dominant reason for extraction in patients with 20-30 years of age while periodontal disease accounts for the majority of tooth extraction in patients older than 40 years.

  17. Tooth Tutoring: The Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Richard; And Others

    Findings are reported on a three year cross-age tutoring program in which undergraduate dental hygiene students and college students from other disciplines trained upper elementary students to tutor younger students in the techniques of dental hygiene. Data includes pre-post scores on the Oral Hygiene Index of plaque for both experimental and…

  18. On gear tooth stiffness evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard; Jørgensen, Martin Felix

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of gear stiffness is important for determining the load distribution between the gear teeth when two sets of teeth are in contact. Two factors have a major influence on the stiffness; firstly the boundary condition through the gear rim size included in the stiffness calculation...... and secondly the size of the contact. In the FE calculation the true gear tooth root profile is applied. The meshing stiffnesses of gears are highly non-linear, it is however found that the stiffness of an individual tooth can be expressed in a linear form assuming that the contact width is constant. © 2014...... Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Determining the age of cats by pulp cavity/tooth width ratio using dental radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoungsun; Ahn, Jaesang; Kang, Sunmee; Lee, Euiri; Kim, Soohyun; Park, Sangwan; Park, Sungwon; Noh, Hyunwoo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of age on the ratio of pulp cavity/tooth width (P/T ratio) in healthy cats. The dental radiographs of 32 cats (16 males and 16 females) were generated with a digital dental X-ray unit with the animals under general anesthesia. Standardized measurement of the canine teeth was performed by drawing a line on the radiograph perpendicular to the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) of the tooth. There was an inversely proportional correlation between chronological age and the P/T ratio. Moreover, a strong Pearson squared correlation (γ2 = 0.92) was identified by the curved regression model. No significant differences in the P/T ratio based on gender or breed were found. These results suggest that determination of age by P/T ratio could be clinically useful for estimating the chronological age of cats. PMID:25234207

  20. [Analysis of dental agenesis patterns of the oligodontia patients using the method of tooth agenesis code].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun-xia; Zheng, Shu-guo; Ge, Li-hong

    2013-11-01

    To analyze the common dental agenesis patterns of the oligodontia patients. The information of 64 oligodontia patients was collected, including the histories, oral examinations and panoramic radiographs. The Tooth Agenesis Code (TAC) procedure was used to analyze the agenesis pattern of each quadrant. In the maxilla, 63% (40/64) (right side) and 58% (37/64) (left side) could be described using eight different patterns. The most common pattern was agenesis of the maxillary lateral incisor, canine and both premolars.In the mandible, 52% (33/64) (right side) and 53% (34/64) (left side) of the patients could be described using only five different patterns, the most common pattern was agenesis of both mandibular premolars. Common patterns of tooth agenesis were successfully identified in non-syndromic oligodontia patients.

  1. Proteomic analysis of human tooth pulp: proteomics of human tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Adam; Jágr, Michal; Pataridis, Statis; Mikšík, Ivan

    2014-12-01

    The unique pulp-dentin complex demonstrates strong regenerative potential, which enables it to respond to disease and traumatic injury. Identifying the proteins of the pulp-dentin complex is crucial to understanding the mechanisms of regeneration, tissue calcification, defense processes, and the reparation of dentin by dental pulp. The lack of knowledge of these proteins limits the development of more efficient therapies. The proteomic profile of human tooth pulp was investigated and compared with the proteome of human dentin and blood. The samples of tooth pulp were obtained from 5 sound permanent human third molars of 5 adults (n = 5). The extracted proteins were separated by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, analyzed by nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and identified by correlating mass spectra to the proteomic databases. A total of 342 proteins were identified with high confidence, and 2 proteins were detected for the first time in an actual human sample. The identified tooth pulp proteins have a variety of functions: structural, catalytic, transporter, protease activity, immune response, and many others. In a comparison with dentin and blood plasma, 140 (pulp/dentin) shared proteins were identified, 37 of which were not observed in plasma. It can be suggested that they might participate in the unique pulp-dentin complex. This proteomic investigation of human tooth pulp, together with the previously published study of human dentin, is one of the most comprehensive proteome lists of human teeth to date. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiographic evaluation in clinical practice of the types and stage of incisor tooth resorption and hypercementosis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, T J; Puchalski, S M; Arzi, B; Kass, P H; Verstraete, F J M

    2017-07-01

    There are several reports of incisor tooth resorption and hypercementosis in horses but, to date, studies have been limited in case numbers and to advanced lesions. Tooth resorption in other species is a radiographic diagnosis of types of resorption that are often identified before clinical signs. Our goal was to evaluate radiographically incisor tooth resorption in a large population of horses, utilising interpretation criteria from canine and human dentistry. To document and classify incisor tooth resorption and hypercementosis. Retrospective descriptive case series. Horses presented for routine dental care >5 years old were included only if owners were unaware of incisor pathology. Radiographs (three views) were obtained of the incisor teeth and incisor teeth resorption was classified according to the radiographic criteria described for man and dogs. Hypercementosis and its location were recorded. Tooth resorption was detected in 149 of 169 (88.2%) horses and 951 of 1952 (48.7%) of incisor teeth. The classification system used was applicable in 926 (97.2%) of 951 affected teeth. Hypercementosis was detected in 34 (20.1%) horses and 148 (7.6%) teeth. As horses increased in age, resorption and hypercementosis was more frequent; no significant differences were found among sex or breed categories. All horses with hypercementosis had resorption, but only 23.4% of horses with resorption had hypercementosis. Advanced (stage ≥3) resorption was detected in 159 (8.1%) teeth and 54 (32.0%) horses in an otherwise clinically healthy population. Certain horses' anatomy precluded isolation of the mandibular third incisor teeth from the canine teeth due to superimposition. Incisor tooth resorption, in particular external replacement resorption and external inflammatory resorption, is common in horses. Hypercementosis is consistently associated with resorption, but the inverse association is inconsistent. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  3. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more Children's Oral Health What is Baby Bottle Tooth Decay? What is Orofacial Pain? How Do I Care ... Is My Child at Risk for Early Childhood Tooth Decay? Learn what those dental words mean. The Life ...

  4. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more Children's Oral Health What is Baby Bottle Tooth Decay? What is Orofacial Pain? How Do I Care ... Is My Child at Risk for Early Childhood Tooth Decay? Learn what those dental words mean. The Life ...

  5. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Child First See a Dentist? The History of Dental Advances Why is Oral Health Important for Men? What is Baby Bottle Tooth Decay? Learn what those dental words mean. The Life of a Tooth Home | ...

  6. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Children's Oral Health What is Baby Bottle Tooth Decay? Why is Oral ... Tooth Decay? The History of Dental Advances Learn what those dental words mean. The Life of a ...

  7. The cracked tooth syndrome: an elusive diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türp, J C; Gobetti, J P

    1996-10-01

    The authors review the literature and present a case of cracked tooth syndrome. Special emphasis is placed on diagnostic problems associated with this syndrome. The case report demonstrates classic and atypical features of cracked tooth syndrome.

  8. Management of Invasive Cervical Root Resorption in a Mandibular Canine Using Biodentine as a Restorative Material: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhar, Leila; Ashraf, Hengameh; Jabbari, Sanaa

    2017-01-01

    Invasive cervical root resorption (ICR) is the reversible/irreversible loss of tooth structure in the connective tissue attachment zone with unclear etiology. In the present case a history of periodontal surgery was presumed to be the predisposing factor. Early diagnosis and proper treatment may lead to long-term retention of the tooth. The tooth is usually asymptomatic and diagnosis is commonly made as a result of a routine radiographic finding. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is extremely useful in diagnosis and treatment planning of ICR. The treatment should aim toward complete removal of the resorptive defect and reconstruction by placement of a suitable filling material. The present report demonstrates the management of a mandibular canine with invasive cervical root resorption using Biodentine for the defect. PMID:28808471

  9. The relationship between periodontal disease, tooth loss and decreased skeletal bone mineral density in ageing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić Pavičin, Ivana; Dumančić, Jelena; Jukić, Tomislav; Badel, Tomislav

    2017-12-01

    Osteoporosis and periodontitis are both chronic diseases characterised by bone loss. Potential association is of great clinical importance because of multifactorial aetiology and common risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine relationship between bone mineral density (BMD), tooth loss and periodontal status taking into account age, number of years since onset of menopause and educational level. With increasing age, number of years since onset of menopause and lower educational level, decreased BMD, deteriorating periodontal status and greater tooth loss are expected. Cross-sectional study included 112 women aged 45-80 years (mean 58.3 years). BMD was determined for lumbar spine region and proximal femur by DEXA technology. Dental status and periodontal status were evaluated clinically and on panoramic radiographs. For the analysis of tooth loss frequency, participants were divided into four age groups. Significant inverse correlation was found between number of lost teeth and BMD at hip region (r = -.227; P = .028) but not at the lumbar spine (r = -.05; P = .669). Several indicators of the periodontal condition were significantly correlated with BMD, but not with postmenopausal period length. Important result is that participants missing one or more incisors or canines had significantly lower mean value of BMD comparing to those who had all the incisors and canines remained. Although osteoporosis is not the main cause of periodontitis, it may be a factor that leads to enhanced periodontal pocket depth and greater risk of tooth loss in ageing women. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Intentional replantation of periodontally compromised hopeless tooth

    OpenAIRE

    Nagappa, G.; Aspalli, Shivanand; Devanoorkar, Archana; Shetty, Sudhir; Parab, Prachi

    2013-01-01

    Aesthetic considerations have influenced the management of dental maladies in varying degrees for many years. Even single tooth mal-alignment makes the patient to approach a dentist. Intentional replantation is a procedure in which an intentional tooth extraction is performed followed by reinsertion of the extracted tooth. Many authors agree that it should be reserved as the last resort to save a tooth after other procedures have failed or would likely to fail. The main reason of failure in r...

  11. Localization of Impacted Maxillary Canines and Root Resorption of Neighbouring Lateral Incisor Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Farokh-Gisour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Canine impaction is one of the most prevalent impactions and it affects aesthetic and function of the oral cavity. Recent advances in 3D imaging has provided new facilities for precise localization of the impacted teeth and their effect on adjacent roots. The aim of this study was to assess the location of impacted canine and adjacent root resorption by CBCT in an Iranian adolescent population. In this retrospective, descriptive-analytic study, CBCT images of 25 orthodontic patients (seven had bilateral canine impaction and the bucco-lingual and vertical position of teeth and tooth location to the adjacent teeth were evaluated using CBCT. A total of 32 impacted canines were examined (24 females,8 males. Of these, 11 (34.4% were located buccally, 11 (34.4% mid-alveolar and 10 (31.1% palatally .in vertical position, 7 of the impacted canines (21.9% were coronal and 16 (50% in the cervical 2/3 and 8 teeth (25% were positioned in cervical one third and one of them (3.1% was positioned apically. Among 32 studied teeth, 6 (%8.8 of them did not cause incisor degeneration and 8 (%25 teeth cause mild degeneration and none of them caused intense incisor resorption. The average size of follicle was 3.6mm. According to the results, CBCT is a good tool for evaluation of impacted canine location and its effect on adjacent roots. Another important finding was the high prevalence of root resorption (90%, which implies immediate treatment of impacted canines.

  12. One-step triplex PCR/RT-PCR to detect canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus, and canine kobuvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dafei; Liu, Fei; Guo, Dongchun; Hu, Xiaoliang; Li, Zhijie; Li, Zhigang; Ma, Jianzhang; Liu, Chunguo

    2018-01-23

    To rapidly distinguish Canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) in practice, a one-step multiplex PCR/RT-PCR assay was developed, with detection limits of 10 2.1 TCID 50 for CDV, 10 1.9 TCID 50 for CPV and 10 3 copies for CaKoV. This method did not amplify nonspecific DNA or RNA from other canine viruses. Therefore, the assay provides a sensitive tool for the rapid clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance of CDV, CPV and CaKoV in dogs.

  13. Multiphoton microscopy imaging of developing tooth germs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yu Pan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: In this study, a novel multiphoton microscopy database of images from developing tooth germs in mice was set up. We confirmed that multiphoton laser microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating the development of tooth germ and is worthy for further application in the study of tooth regeneration.

  14. [Canine teeth impacted in the palate--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovcencu, Loredana; Costan, V V

    2011-01-01

    Maxillary canines have the longest period of development, the deepest area of formation and the most difficult path of all teeth. The maxillary canines are the most likely to remain unerupted or impacted. The maxillary permanent canine is considered important by virtue of its place in the scheme of functional occlusion and its contribution to facial appearance. We successfully orthodontically treated two cases with palatally impacted canines. Although both cases had palatally impacted canines, they were different due to canine position and angulation.

  15. AUTOGENOUS TOOTH TRANSPLANTATION IN ADULT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    ABSTRACT. A case of autotransplantation of a tooth in a 26 year old female African cleft palate patient is reported. This case report emphasizes the possibility and success of autotransplantation in our centre, it also emphasizes that transplantation is only technique sensitive but less equipment sensitive. It further stresses.

  16. Stem cells for tooth engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Bluteau

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Tooth development results from sequential and reciprocal interactions between the oral epithelium and the underlying neural crest-derived mesenchyme. The generation of dental structures and/or entire teeth in the laboratory depends upon the manipulation of stem cells and requires a synergy of all cellular and molecular events that finally lead to the formation of tooth-specific hard tissues, dentin and enamel. Although mesenchymal stem cells from different origins have been extensively studied in their capacity to form dentin in vitro, information is not yet available concerning the use of epithelial stem cells. The odontogenic potential resides in the oral epithelium and thus epithelial stem cells are necessary for both the initiation of tooth formation and enamel matrix production. This review focuses on the different sources of stem cells that have been used for making teeth in vitro and their relative efficiency. Embryonic, post-natal or even adult stem cells were assessed and proved to possess an enormous regenerative potential, but their application in dental practice is still problematic and limited due to various parameters that are not yet under control such as the high risk of rejection, cell behaviour, long tooth eruption period, appropriate crown morphology and suitable colour. Nevertheless, the development of biological approaches for dental reconstruction using stem cells is promising and remains one of the greatest challenges in the dental field for the years to come.

  17. Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a group of genetic nerve disorders. It is named after the three doctors who first identified it. ... a nerve biopsy. There is no cure. The disease can be so mild you don't realize ...

  18. Diagnosis of cracked tooth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebeena Mathew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidences of cracks in teeth seem to have increased during the past decade. Dental practitioners need to be aware of cracked tooth syndrome (CTS in order to be successful at diagnosing CTS. Early diagnosis has been linked with successful restorative management and predictably good prognosis. The purpose of this article is to highlight factors that contribute to detecting cracked teeth.

  19. Diagnosis of cracked tooth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sebeena; Thangavel, Boopathi; Mathew, Chalakuzhiyil Abraham; Kailasam, Sivakumar; Kumaravadivel, Karthick; Das, Arjun

    2012-08-01

    The incidences of cracks in teeth seem to have increased during the past decade. Dental practitioners need to be aware of cracked tooth syndrome (CTS) in order to be successful at diagnosing CTS. Early diagnosis has been linked with successful restorative management and predictably good prognosis. The purpose of this article is to highlight factors that contribute to detecting cracked teeth.

  20. Diagnosis of cracked tooth syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Sebeena; Thangavel, Boopathi; Mathew, Chalakuzhiyil Abraham; Kailasam, SivaKumar; Kumaravadivel, Karthick; Das, Arjun

    2012-01-01

    The incidences of cracks in teeth seem to have increased during the past decade. Dental practitioners need to be aware of cracked tooth syndrome (CTS) in order to be successful at diagnosing CTS. Early diagnosis has been linked with successful restorative management and predictably good prognosis. The purpose of this article is to highlight factors that contribute to detecting cracked teeth.

  1. A comparative study between mixed-type tumours from human salivary and canine mammary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genelhu, Marisa CLS; Cardoso, Sérgio V; Gobbi, Helenice; Cassali, Geovanni D

    2007-01-01

    In comparative pathology, canine mammary tumours have special interest because of their similarities with human breast cancer. Mixed tumours are uncommon lesions in the human breast, but they are found most frequently in the mammary gland of the female dogs and in the human salivary glands. The aim of the study was to compare clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical features of human salivary and canine mammary gland mixed tumours, in order to evaluate the latter as an experimental model for salivary gland tumours. Ten examples of each mixed tumour type (human pleomorphic adenoma and carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenomas and canine mixed tumour and metaplastic carcinoma) were evaluated. First, clinical and morphologic aspects of benign and malignant variants were compared between the species. Then, streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of cytokeratins, vimentin, p63 protein, estrogen receptor, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. After standardization, similar age and site distributions were observed in human and canine tumours. Histological similarities were identified in the comparison of the benign lesions as well. Metaplastic carcinomas also resembled general aspects of carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenomas in morphological evaluation. Additionally, immunohistochemical staining further presented similar antigenic expression between lesions. There are many similar features between human salivary and canine mammary gland mixed tumours. This observation is of great relevance for those interested in the study and management of salivary gland tumours, since canine lesions may constitute useful comparative models for their investigations

  2. Leukotrienes in orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, A H; Tatakis, D N; Dziak, R

    1989-03-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) and leukotrienes (LTs) are products of arachidonic acid conversion. PGs have an established role in mediating orthodontic tooth movement. The role of LTs in modulating or mediating orthodontic tooth movement was investigated in this study. One hundred thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were used; the animals weighed 300 to 400 gm with equal numbers of male and female rats. They were divided into five main groups of 24 animals each and a sham group of 12 animals. An orthodontic appliance was placed and activated on all the animals except the sham group; in this group the appliances were not active. Each main group was given one of the following treatments daily: distilled water, 5% gum arabic solution, PG synthesis inhibitor indomethacin, LT synthesis inhibitor AA861, and a combination of both drugs. Each group was divided into six subgroups of four animals; the animals were killed at either 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, or 14 days, and tooth movement measured. The three sham subgroups received distilled water and were killed at 1, 7, or 10 days. The first maxillary molar (the moved tooth) and surrounding tissues were removed from all animals in the sham group and the subgroups killed at 1, 7, and 10 days in the gum arabic solution group and the LT synthesis inhibitor group. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) were extracted, measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA), and standardized per milligram of protein in the sample. A significant inhibition of tooth movement occurred beginning on day 7 in the indomethacin, AA861, and combination groups; there was no significant difference among these groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Agenesis of permanent canines: Rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kumar Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Agenesis of permanent canines is a rare condition, and that of both maxillary and mandibular permanent canines is extremely rare. It may occur either isolated or in association with other dental anomalies. Reports of such cases are very scarce in the literature. Need for early diagnosis of such conditions should be emphasized because of functional, esthetic, and psychological problems which should be evaluated and treated appropriately. The present paper presents a report of bilaterally missing permanent maxillary and mandibular canines. This case might contribute in the future studies of incidence of agenesis of permanent canines.

  4. Agenesis of permanent canines: Rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sumit Kumar; Yadav, Achla Bharti; Kedia, Neal Bharat; Singh, Abhinav Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Agenesis of permanent canines is a rare condition, and that of both maxillary and mandibular permanent canines is extremely rare. It may occur either isolated or in association with other dental anomalies. Reports of such cases are very scarce in the literature. Need for early diagnosis of such conditions should be emphasized because of functional, esthetic, and psychological problems which should be evaluated and treated appropriately. The present paper presents a report of bilaterally missing permanent maxillary and mandibular canines. This case might contribute in the future studies of incidence of agenesis of permanent canines.

  5. [Clinical observation on the characteristics of occlusion and tooth abrasion in patients with cracked tooth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Lin, Zheng-mei; Ling, Jun-qi

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the occlusal characteristics and the condition of tooth abrasion in patients with cracked tooth and to discuss the etiology of the cracked tooth and the relationships between occlusal disorder, tooth abrasion and cracked tooth. Twenty-seven patients with cracked tooth were selected. The occlusal courses were recorded by T-ScanIII system in intercuspal position, protrusive movement and lateral movement. Teeth with cracked tooth were regarded as the cracked tooth group, and the healthy adjacent teeth as the control group. The distribution of premature contact, occlusal interference, the center of occlusal force were examined. The abrasive conditions of the two groups were recorded according to the Smith tooth wear index and compared. There were more teeth with occlusal interference in cracked tooth group (20 teeth) than in the control group (6 teeth), which was significantly different (OR = 5.67, chi(2) = 8.45, P = 0.003). In 24 patients with single affected tooth, the center of occlusal force (COF) located in the inside and outside ellipse were 6 teeth (25%) and 18 teeth (75%) respectively, Z test showed that there were statistical differences between the cracked tooth group and normal people. In cracked tooth group, the proportion of the teeth with abrasion was higher in teeth with occlusal interference than those without occlusal interference (chi(2) = 4.79, P = 0.029). The formation of the cracked tooth was related to the occlusal disorder and associated with the tooth abrasion.

  6. Fluorescein angiography of the canine retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaepdrijver, L. de; Simoens, P.; Lauwers, H.

    1996-01-01

    The retinal vascular bed was examined in 37 canine eyes by studying 50 retinal fluorangiograms. All angiographic phases could distinctly be visualized by the use of a small intravenous bolus of 10 mg/kg fluorescein. The choroidal phase is characterized by spot-like and lobular filling of the choriocapillaris. By coalescence of the choroidal lobules, this uneven filling progressively disappears in the subsequent phases. The retinal arterial phase is characterized by a hyperfluorescence of the retinal arterioles at the level of the optic disc border. The time interval between the start of the choroidal phase and the retinal arterial phase is very short due to the common origin of the choroidal and retinal arteries from the choroidoretinal arteries. The retinal arterio-venous phase is characterized by a complete filling of the smaller arterioles, capillaries, and venules. During this phase the branching pattern of the retinal blood vessels at the area centralis region can be most easily studied. This also applies to the periarteriolar capillary-free zones and the radial peripapillary capillaries. The retinal early venous phase is characterized by the onset of laminar flow in the larger retinal venules. A homogeneous and complete filling of the larger venules is characteristic for the onset of the late venous phase. During the retinal venous phase the border venule can be observed just posterior to the ora ciliaris retinae. Fluorescein angiography of the canine retinal microvasculature shows that the dog is less suitable as an experimental animal model in ophthalmology, due to the presence of the choroidal tapetum which reflects fluorescent light and thus diminishes the contrast between the retinal blood vessels and the background

  7. The rat as a model for orthodontic tooth movement--a critical review and a proposed solution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Y.; Maltha, J.C.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this study were to perform a systematic review of the use of rats as a model for experimental tooth movement, to give a critical evaluation of the use of elastics as a force delivery system, and to describe a newly designed well-defined model for tooth movement in rats. The literature

  8. The rat as a model for orthodontic tooth movement--a critical review and a proposed solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin; Maltha, Jaap C; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this study were to perform a systematic review of the use of rats as a model for experimental tooth movement, to give a critical evaluation of the use of elastics as a force delivery system, and to describe a newly designed well-defined model for tooth movement in rats. The literature

  9. Cryopreservation of microencapsulated canine sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shambhu; Otsuki, Tsubasa; Fujimura, Chika; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamashita, Yasuhisa; Higaki, Shogo; Hishinuma, Mitsugu

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to develop a method for cryopreserving microencapsulated canine sperm. Pooled ejaculates from three beagle dogs were extended in egg yolk tris extender and encapsulated using alginate and poly-L-lysine at room temperature. The microcapsules were cooled at 4 °C, immersed in pre-cooled extender (equivalent in volume to the microcapsules) to reach final concentration of 7% (v/v) glycerol and 0.75% (v/v) Equex STM paste, and equilibrated for 5, 30 and 60 min at 4 °C. Thereafter, microcapsules were loaded into 0.5 mL plastic straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. In Experiment 1, characteristics of microencapsulated canine sperm were evaluated after glycerol addition at 4 °C. Glycerol exposure for 5, 30 and 60 min did not significantly affect progressive motility, viability, or acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm compared with pre-cooled unencapsulated sperm (control). In Experiment 2, characteristics of frozen-thawed canine microencapsulated sperm were evaluated at 0, 3, 6, and 9 h of culture at 38.5 °C. Pre-freeze glycerol exposure for 5, 30, and 60 min at 4 °C did not influence post-thaw quality in unencapsulated sperm. Post-thaw motility and acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm decreased more than those of unencapsulated sperm (P < 0.05) following glycerol exposure for 5 min. However, motility, viability and acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm after 30 and 60 min glycerol exposure were higher than unencapsulated sperm cultured for 6 or 9 h (P < 0.05). In conclusion, since microencapsulated canine sperm were successfully cryopreserved, this could be a viable alternative to convention sperm cryopreservation in this species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Human Tooth Pulp: Proteomics of Human Tooth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eckhardt, Adam; Jágr, Michal; Pataridis, Statis; Mikšík, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 12 (2014), s. 1961-1966 ISSN 0099-2399 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-17224S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/12/0453; GA MZd(CZ) NT14324 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : dentin * human pulp * tandem mass spectrometry * tooth proteome * 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 3.375, year: 2014

  11. Fluoridation and tooth wear in Irish adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, F M

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tooth wear in adults in Ireland and its relationship with water fluoridation. The National Survey of Adult Oral Health was conducted in 2000\\/2001. Tooth wear was determined using a partial mouth examination assessing the upper and lower anterior teeth. A total of 2456 subjects were examined. In this survey, increasing levels and severity of tooth wear were associated with ageing. Men were more affected by tooth wear and were more likely to be affected by severe tooth wear than women. It was found that age, and gender were significant predictors of tooth wear (P < 0.01). Overall, there was no significant relationship between fluoridation and tooth wear in this study.

  12. Tooth agenesis: dento-skeletal characteristics in subjects with orthodontic treatment need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganà, G; Lombardi, C C; Franchi, L; Cozza, P

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse skeletal, dental and arch morphology in a group of subjects with dental agenesis and to compare it with a control group. 2 groups of subjects were selected: an experimental group (84 patients) with tooth agenesis and a control group (84 subjects) without tooth agenesis. Skeletal, dental, morphological and aesthetic parameters were studied using lateral and posteroanterior cephalograms and dental casts. Transversal and sagittal measurements showed a significant decrease in maxillary size associated with tooth agenesis in the agenesis group. No changes were observed in mandibular size. Orthodontists should consider that patients with agenesis present altered craniofacial dimensions.

  13. Towards tooth friendly soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad; Kadivar, Mahdi

    2009-10-01

    Most soft drinks contain high concentration of simple carbohydrates and have a pH of 3 or even lower. Therefore, they are harmful for tooth structure. A tooth friendly soft drink (T.F.S.D) should have the following characteristics and elements; fluoride (approximately 1 ppm), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (2%), xylitol (4-6g/serving), tea polyphenols (2-4 mg/ml), cranberry extract (250 mg/ml of the flavonoids quercetin and myricetin), sugar free, pH close to 5.5 and super oxygenation (240,000 ppm) vs. carbonation. T.F.S.D can be packaged in a container which gaseous oxygen is dissolved in a liquid in the form of bubbles. However, looking at opportunities for so-called sophisticated soft drinks, T.F.S.D will be an example for a functional and health oriented soft drink.

  14. Pink tooth phenomenon: an enigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapar, Raveena; Choudhry, Swati; Sinha, Anju; Bali, Ruchita; Shukla, Deepika

    2013-10-01

    The appearance of pink teeth is a common phenomenon which has been observed after death in certain circumstances on post-mortem examination. Extra fibrinolytic activity of pulp facilitates rapid breakdown of red blood cells and diffusion of hemoglobin and its derivatives to flow into dentine. We reviewed various studies on pink tooth phenomenon which have stated the various factors that lead to pink tooth formation. Most of the authors have stressed that post-mortem pink teeth must not be considered as a reliable odontological parameter for determining cause of death. No correlation has been found between the occurrence of pink teeth and the cause of death but condition of the surroundings certainly plays an important role in the development of this phenomenon. This paper reviews the factors and conditions responsible for formation of pink teeth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Penatalaksanaan impaksi caninus permanen rahang atas dengan surgical exposure (The management of impacted permanent canine with surgical exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeh Brata Wijaya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Impacted tooth is often unidentified because there is no symptom. It is found when patient is examined by dentist. The maxillary canine should be retained for strength masticatory function, esthetics and child development. Purpose: The article was aimed to report treatment options of impacted canine in the 13 years old child. Case: Thirteen years-old girl came to the Universitas Gadjah Mada Dental Hospital with complaints of the upper right permanent canine had not erupted, with no history of pain. Periapical radiograph showed the impacted position of tooth #13 mesioangular. The shift sketch technique radiograph showed the impacted canine located at the palatal site. Case management: surgical exposure the upper right maxillary canine was done, followed by orthodontic treatment to direct tooth position into occlusal line. Fixed orthodontic appliance used was Roth bracket with straight wire technique. After surgery and orthodontic treatment, #13 was in normal occlusion. Conclusion: The surgical exposure followed by orthodontic treatment could be done successfully with special consideration to the patient’s age, the dental space, location of dental crowns, dental inclination, the apical root form of impacted tooth and patient cooperation.Latar belakang: Terjadinya gigi impaksi biasanya diketahui setelah melakukan pemeriksaan ke dokter gigi karena jarang menimbulkan keluhan. Gigi caninus rahang atas sebaiknya dipertahankan untuk kekuatan fungsi pengunyahan, estetik dan tumbuh kembang anak. Tujuan: Artikel ini bertujuan untuk melaporkan perawatan impaksi gigi kaninus atas pada anak 13 tahun. Kasus: Anak perempuan usia 13 tahun datang ke Rumah sakit Gigi dan Mulut Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Universitas Gadjah Mada dengan keluhan gigi kaninus permanen kanan atas yang belum erupsi, tanpa ada riwayat sakit di area tersebut. Hasil radiografi periapikal menunjukkan posisi gigi #13 impaksi mesioangular. Hasil radiografi dengan teknik shift

  16. Optical spectroscopy and tooth decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, P.; De, T.; Singh, R.

    2005-11-01

    Optical spectroscopy in the ultraviolet, visible and mid-infrared spectral regions has been used to discriminate between healthy and diseased teeth of patients in the age range 15-75 years. Spectral scans of absorbance versus wavenumber and fluorescence intensity versus wavelength have been recorded and investigated for caries and periodontal disease. Such optical diagnostics can prove very useful in the early detection and treatment of tooth decay.

  17. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reilly, Mary M

    2011-03-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the commonest inherited neuromuscular disorder affecting at least 1 in 2,500. Over the last two decades, there have been rapid advances in understanding the molecular basis for many forms of CMT with more than 30 causative genes now described. This has made obtaining an accurate genetic diagnosis possible but at times challenging for clinicians. This review aims to provide a simple, pragmatic approach to diagnosing CMT from a clinician\\'s perspective.

  18. Diagnostics of power transmissions system with tooth gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz WOJNAR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of laboratory tests that were aimed at detecting early stages of various faults in toothed wheels by measurement and analysis of transverse vibration speed of the transmission gear shafts. In experimental investigation, cracking of the root tooth and chipping of the tooth were detected. The laser vibrometer Ometron VH300+ was used for non-contact measurement of shaft transversal vibration speed. Gear vibrations were recorded in selected points of gear housing and gear shafts at different speeds and gear loads. Results were analyzed and compared but in this paper is presented only selected examples. This paper shows that on the basis of the transverse vibration speed of transmission gear shafts, it is possible to detect defects at an earlier stage than on the basis of the housing vibration accelerations. In the case of measuring gear shaft vibration velocity, the way of the signal generated by the defect of a gear wheel (or bearing is shortened as well as the influence of composed transmittance of the bearing-gear housing system is eliminated. WV time-frequency analysis and complex continuous wavelet transformations were used for detection. The authors introduced a measure of local tooth damage, which was proportional to the size of damage. The results of research presented in this paperconfirmed that the defect's measure is very sensitive to the development of teeth faults.

  19. Cytologic effects of primary tooth endodontic filling materials

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Hung, Chi-Jr; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Chien, Hung-Chih; Kao, Chia-Tze

    2009-01-01

    Primary tooth endodontic filling materials should be bio-compatible with periodontal tissue. The purpose of this study was to analyze the biologic effects of different endodontic filling materials for primary teeth on a human osteosarcoma cell line (U2OS). Materials and methods: Experimental groups comprised different mixes of endodontic filling materials: zinc oxide-eugenol (ZnOE) + formocresol (FC); calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] + FC; Ca(OH)2 + iodoform + deionized water; Ca(OH)2 + iodofor...

  20. Wnt signaling during tooth replacement in zebrafish (Danio rerio: pitfalls and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann eHuysseune

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The canonical (β-catenin dependent Wnt signaling pathway has emerged as a likely candidate for regulating tooth replacement in continuously renewing dentitions. So far, the involvement of canonical Wnt signaling has been experimentally demonstrated predominantly in amniotes. These studies tend to show stimulation of tooth formation by activation of the Wnt pathway, and inhibition of tooth formation when blocking the pathway. Here, we report a strong and dynamic expression of the soluble Wnt inhibitor dickkopf1 (dkk1 in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio tooth germs, suggesting an active repression of Wnt signaling during morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation of a tooth, and derepression of Wnt signaling during start of replacement tooth formation. To further analyse the role of Wnt signaling, we used different gain-of-function approaches. These yielded disjunct results, yet none of them indicating enhanced tooth replacement. Thus, masterblind (mbl mutants, defective in axin1, mimic overexpression of Wnt, but display a normally patterned dentition in which teeth are replaced at the appropriate times and positions. Activating the pathway with LiCl had variable outcomes, either resulting in the absence, or the delayed formation, of first-generation teeth, or yielding a regular dentition with normal replacement, but no supernumerary teeth or accelerated tooth replacement.The failure so far to influence tooth replacement in the zebrafish by perturbing Wnt signaling is discussed in the light of (i potential technical pitfalls related to dose- or time-dependency, (ii the complexity of the canonical Wnt pathway, and (iii species-specific differences in the nature and activity of pathway components. Finally, we emphasize the importance of in-depth knowledge of the wild-type pattern for reliable interpretations. It is hoped that our analysis can be inspiring to critically assess and elucidate the role of Wnt signaling in tooth development in polyphyodonts.

  1. Tooth eruption and browridge formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, M D

    1982-05-01

    One of the most reasonable hypotheses regarding the functional significance of the browridge is that the supraorbital torus forms in response to masticatory stress during development. Oyen, Walker, and Rice (1979) have recently proposed a model that tests this hypothesis: if browridges are functionally related to masticatory stresses on the cranial vault, then changes in the biomechanics of the masticatory system ought to be reflected by changes in the browridge. To test their model they attempted to relate biomechanical discontinuities resulting from tooth eruption to episodes of bone deposition on the supraorbital tori of a developmental series of dry Papio crania. This paper reports on a parallel test of the model on a cross-sectional sample of Australian Aboriginal juvenile crania. This sample showed no relation between tooth eruption and the supraorbital surface morphology thought to be indicative of active bone deposition. It is also demonstrated that no significant relationship between tooth eruption and episodes of bone deposition is shown by the Papio sample. It is concluded that the use of small cross-sectional samples of dry crania does not provide a valid test of the model.

  2. Tooth brushing for oral prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruaki Hayasaki, DDS, PhD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Control of plaque and debris is essential for the prevention of inflammatory periodontal diseases and dental caries, because plaque is the primary etiological factor in the introduction and development of both of these infection-oriented diseases. Plaque removal with a toothbrush is the most frequently used method of oral hygiene. Powered toothbrushes were developed beginning in the 1960s and are now widely used in developed countries. The bristles of a toothbrush should be able to reach and clean efficiently most areas of the mouth, and recently the design of both manual and powered toothbrushes has focused on the ability to reach and clean interproximal tooth surfaces. An individual's tooth brushing behavior, including force, duration, motivation and motion, are also critical to tooth brushing efficacy. Dental floss and the type of toothpaste play additional important roles as auxiliary tools for oral prophylaxis. Dental professionals should help their care-receivers’ meet the requirements of oral hygiene to maintain their QOL. This article reviews these topics.

  3. The Influence of Force Direction on the Fracture Pattern and Fracture Resistance of Canine Teeth in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Stephanie; Zimmerman, Catherine; Collins, Caitlyn; Hetzel, Scott; Ploeg, Heidi-Lynn; Soukup, Jason W

    2017-03-01

    Biomechanical studies of the elongated canine tooth of animals are few, and thus our understanding of mechanical and physical properties of animal teeth is limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of force direction on fracture resistance and fracture pattern of canine teeth in an ex vivo dog cadaver model. Forty-five extracted canine teeth from laboratory beagle dogs were standardized by hard tissue volume and randomly distributed among 3 force direction groups. The teeth were secured within a universal testing machine and a load was applied at different directions based on testing group. The maximum force to fracture and the fracture pattern classification were recorded for each tooth. After correcting for hard tissue cross-sectional area in a multivariate analysis, no significant difference in the amount of force required for fracture was apparent between the different force direction groups. However, the influence of force direction on fracture pattern was significant. The results of this study may allow the clinician to educate clients on possible causal force directions in clinically fractured teeth and, thus, help prevent any contributing behavior in the future.

  4. Evaluation of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Randomized Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guram, Guneet; Reddy, Rajesh Kumar; Dharamsi, Anand M; Syed Ismail, Prabhu Mahin; Mishra, Samvit; Prakashkumar, M Dave

    2018-01-01

    Fixed orthodontic treatment is time-consuming procedure. Pain is usually associated with orthodontic treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) duration and pain perception. This randomized double-blind splint-mouth controlled clinical study includes 20 (8 males and 12 females) orthodontic patients requiring bilateral canine retraction. Time taken for canine retraction with LLLT (Group A) over control (Group B) quadrant on the same patient was assessed along with pain experience using facial pain scale. The data were tabulated and statistically evaluated using SPSS 20 for windows (Microsoft, Chicago, IL, USA) and t -test with P 0.05). There was statistically significant decrease in rate of canine retraction in Group A compared to Group B. There was statistically significant difference for maxillary and mandibular arches in Group A whereas it was not significant in Group B. Pain experience was statistically significant till 2 nd day, and after 3 rd day, it was not significant between the groups. LLLT can reduce the fixed OTM timing and pain experience.

  5. Molecular Genetics of Supernumerary Tooth Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Ping; Fan, Jiabing

    2011-01-01

    Summary Despite advances in the knowledge of tooth morphogenesis and differentiation, relatively little is known about the aetiology and molecular mechanisms underlying supernumerary tooth formation. A small number of supernumerary teeth may be a common developmental dental anomaly, while multiple supernumerary teeth usually have a genetic component and they are sometimes thought to represent a partial third dentition in humans. Mice, which are commonly used for studying tooth development, only exhibit one dentition, with very few mouse models exhibiting supernumerary teeth similar to those in humans. Inactivation of Apc or forced activation of Wnt/β(catenin signalling results in multiple supernumerary tooth formation in both humans and in mice, but the key genes in these pathways are not very clear. Analysis of other model systems with continuous tooth replacement or secondary tooth formation, such as fish, snake, lizard, and ferret, is providing insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying succesional tooth development, and will assist in the studies on supernumerary tooth formation in humans. This information, together with the advances in stem cell biology and tissue engineering, will pave ways for the tooth regeneration and tooth bioengineering. PMID:21309064

  6. Individual human odor fallout as detected by trained canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyplelová, Petra; Vokálek, Václav; Pinc, Ludvík; Pacáková, Zuzana; Bartoš, Luděk; Santariová, Milena; Čapková, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that if odor fallout (the release of a human's odor onto an untouched object) in human subjects exists, then holding a hand above an absorbent will produce a detectable scent which will be subsequently matched in a detection test by trained canines. Scents were collected from seven males to sterile cotton absorbent squares. The left hand was used to get the control scent and the right hand served as the target scent. Each experimental subject was sitting; his left hand was laid down on a cotton square for 3 min. The right hand was held 5 cm above another cotton square for 3 min. The scent identification was done by two specially trained police German shepherds. These canines had routinely performed scent identification line-ups as part of criminal investigation procedures. Both canines performed 14 line-ups and correctly matched the collected scents of all test subjects. The results suggest the existence of human odor fallout, whereby a human scent trace is left by humans even if they do not touch an object. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. [Assessment of tooth bleaching efficacy with spectrophotometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenhao; Liu, Chang; Pan, Jie

    2014-06-01

    To analyze the changes in CIE L*, a*, and b* at cervical, body, and incisal sites after tooth bleaching by using a spectrophotometer. Sixty-seven intact and healthy maxillary central incisors were in-vestigated. These incisors were darker than A3 according to the Vita Classical shade guide. The CIE tooth shade parameters L*, a*, and b* were simultaneously recorded at three tooth areas (cervical, body, and incisal) with a spectrophotometer before and after tooth bleaching (35%H2O2 coordinating with Beyond whitening accelerator irradiating). The shade dif-ferential (DeltaE) was calculated. ANOVA, paired t-test, and Pearson correlation analysis were used for data analysis. The efficacy rates of tooth bleaching were satisfactory, with 86.6%, 86.6%, and 85.1% in the cervical, body, and incisal sites, respectively. The average values of DeltaE were 5.09, 4.44, and 4.40 in the cervical, body, and incisal sites. Tooth bleaching significantly increased L* and significantly decreased a* and b* in all tooth areas (P spectrophotometer could objectively evaluate the whitening effect of tooth bleaching at the different tooth sites. The tooth bleaching system (35%H202 coordinating with Beyond whitening accelerator irradiating) exerts powerful bleaching actions in most of the tooth areas investigated. The order of tooth bleaching effectiveness is cervicalbody>incisal. Yellow coloration is decreased mainly at the cervical site, and brightness was increased mostly at theincisal site. The effectiveness of tooth bleaching increases as the baseline b* value increases.

  8. Canine scent detection of canine cancer: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorman DC

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available David C Dorman,1 Melanie L Foster,2 Katherine E Fernhoff,1 Paul R Hess2 1Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA Abstract: The scent detection prowess of dogs has prompted interest in their ability to detect cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dogs could use olfactory cues to discriminate urine samples collected from dogs that did or did not have urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC, at a rate greater than chance. Dogs with previous scent training (n=4 were initially trained to distinguish between a single control and a single TCC-positive urine sample. All dogs acquired this task (mean =15±7.9 sessions; 20 trials/session. The next training phase used four additional control urine samples (n=5 while maintaining the one original TCC-positive urine sample. All dogs quickly acquired this task (mean =5.3±1.5 sessions. The last training phase used multiple control (n=4 and TCC-positive (n=6 urine samples to promote categorical training by the dogs. Only one dog was able to correctly distinguish multiple combinations of TCC-positive and control urine samples suggesting that it mastered categorical learning. The final study phase evaluated whether this dog would generalize this behavior to novel urine samples. However, during double-blind tests using two novel TCC-positive and six novel TCC-negative urine samples, this dog did not indicate canine TCC-positive cancer samples more frequently than expected by chance. Our study illustrates the need to consider canine olfactory memory and the use of double-blind methods to avoid erroneous conclusions regarding the ability of dogs to alert on specimens from canine cancer patients. Our results also suggest that sample storage, confounding odors, and other factors need to be considered in the design of future studies that evaluate the detection of

  9. GdNCT of spontaneous canine melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitin, V.N.; Kulakov, V.N.; Khokhlov, V.F.

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of GdNCT has been studied in dogs with spontaneous melanoma of the mucousmembrane of the oral cavity patients on the NCT base at the IRT MEPhI reactor. The control group with melanomas was treated with neutrons. Fourteen canine patients were selected in the Clinic of Experimental Therapy affiliated with the RCRC RAMS. The calculation of doses has shown that the total dose of energy release depending on Gd concentration in the target can be several times higher than the dose produced by the reactor neutron beam. The calculations were carried out using the diffusion pharmacokinetic model. The gadolinium drug dipentast was administered intratumorally immediately prior to irradiation. The tumor size was estimated by measuring it in three projections. The tumor was irradiated for 60-90 minutes with a thermal neutron flux of 0.7x10 9 n/cm 2 s. The dose on tumor was 80-120 Gy, on surrounding tissues - 12-15 Gy. The treatment plan included immunotherapy with Roncoleikin in a dose of (15-10)x10 3 IE/kg. The results of GdNCT are still under observation. The results conform to those obtained by us earlier in cell cultures and inoculated experimental tumors. GdNCT is also effective in combination with immunotherapy. (author)

  10. Influence of medication on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement (Part 1: hormons and corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirhashemi Amirhossein

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review article was to define the mechanism of action and effects of commonly used medications on the tissue remodeling and Orthodontic Tooth Movement (OTM. A review on the effects of medications and dietary supplements on the rate of experimental tooth movement was performed using Cochrane library, Embase and medline (1980-2013. 63 articles were included in this review. 34 of them were related to the effects of hormones and analgesics, were evaluated in this article but their interpretation was hindered by the variability in experimental design, magnitude of force applied during tooth movement and medication regimens. Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs reduced the rate of tooth movement while non-NSAIDs such as acetaminophen had no effect on the rate of OTM. Corticosteroids, parathyroid hormone and thyroxin increased the rate of tooth movement. Sturgeons might slow OTM, but experimental studies are lacking. Medications might have an important influence on the rate of tooth movement and information on their consumption is necessary to adequately discuss treatment planning with patients.

  11. Canine and feline megaesophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mears, E.A.; Jenkins, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    Megaesophagus is rare in cats and occurs as a congenital or secondary acquired disorder. In dogs, megaesophagus can occur as a congenital disorder, as a secondary acquired disorder, or as an adult-onset idiopathic disease. This article reviews the anatomy, pathogenesis, causes, clinical signs, diagnosis, and management of megaesophagus. Pathogenesis includes experimental evidence that evaluates the neural pathway of affected patients. The many disease that can cause megaesophagus are delineated. Discussion focuses on the most common causes-myasthenia gravis, hypoadrenocorticism and possibly hypothyroidism, and the obstructive lesions of the esophagus (vascular ring anomalies, tumors, granulomas, strictures, and foreign bodies). The most common clinical sign associated with megaesophagus is regurgitation. Traditional as well as newer techniques (i.e., manometry and nuclear scintigraphy) for evaluating esophageal motility are presented. Definitive diagnosis requires identification of a dilated esophagus on survey thoracic radiographs or a barium esophagogram. Medical management, including alternative feeding methods and the role of prokinetic drugs, is discussed

  12. Dental occlusion analysis in the Mesolithic-Neolithic Age, Bronze Age, and Roman to Medieval times in Serbia: Tooth size comparison in skeletal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajević, Tina; Glišić, Branislav

    2017-05-01

    Anthropological studies have reported that tooth size decreases in the context of diet changes. Some investigations have found a reverse trend in tooth size from the prehistoric to the modern times. The aims of this study were to analyze tooth size in skeletal samples from Mesolithic-Neolithic Age, Bronze Age, and Roman to Medieval times to determine sex differences and establish a temporal trend in tooth size in the aforementioned periods. Well-preserved permanent teeth were included in the investigation. The mesiodistal (MD) diameter of all teeth and buccolingual (BL) diameter of the molars were measured. Effects of sex and site were tested by one-way ANOVA, and the combined effect of these factors was analyzed by UNIANOVA. Sexual dimorphism was present in the BL diameters of all molars and MD diameters of the upper first and the lower third molar. The lower canine was the most dimorphic tooth in the anterior region. The MD diameter of most teeth showed no significant difference between the groups, (sample from: Mesolithic-Neolithic Age-group 1; Bronze Age-group 2; Roman times-group 3; Medieval times-group 4), whereas the BL diameters of the upper second and the lower first molar were the largest in the first group. Multiple comparisons revealed a decrease in the BL diameter of the upper second and the lower first molar from the first to the later groups. Lower canine MD diameter exhibited an increase in the fourth group compared to the second group. On the basis of the MD diameter, a temporal trend could not be observed for most of the teeth. The lower canine exhibited an increase in the MD diameter from the prehistoric to the Medieval times. Changes of BL diameter were more homogeneous, suggesting that the temporal trend of molar size decreased from the Mesolithic-Neolithic to Medieval times in Serbia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. New and emerging pathogens in canine infectious respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestnall, S L; Mitchell, J A; Walker, C A; Erles, K; Brownlie, J

    2014-03-01

    Canine infectious respiratory disease is a common, worldwide disease syndrome of multifactorial etiology. This review presents a summary of 6 viruses (canine respiratory coronavirus, canine pneumovirus, canine influenza virus, pantropic canine coronavirus, canine bocavirus, and canine hepacivirus) and 2 bacteria (Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Mycoplasma cynos) that have been associated with respiratory disease in dogs. For some pathogens a causal role is clear, whereas for others, ongoing research aims to uncover their pathogenesis and contribution to this complex syndrome. Etiology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, and epidemiology are described for each pathogen, with an emphasis on recent discoveries or novel findings.

  14. Radiological prevalence of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehrl, S; Schröder, W; Müller, C; Staszyk, C; Lischer, C

    2017-10-25

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH) is a painful and progressive dental disease that mainly affects the incisors and canine teeth of aged horses. Diagnosis is based on radiographs to detect early stages of the disease. EOTRH is probably underdiagnosed and its prevalence in Germany unknown. This study was performed to determine the radiological prevalence of EOTRH in a large horse population in Berlin-Brandenburg, Germany. Prevalence study. The study population (142 horses) consisted of all horses 10 years and older that were presented at the Equine Hospital for a routine dental examination. The horses were either presented as clinical cases (CC population) or belonged to a riding school (RS population). Digital radiographs of the incisor dentition were taken and evaluated for changes related to EOTRH, leading to an overall classification for each horse. The mean age of the study population was 21 years and ranged from 10 to 37 years. Overall, 94% of all horses had at least minor and 62% had moderate to severe radiological changes of the incisor teeth associated to EOTRH. No horse older than 14 years was without radiological signs of EOTRH and all horses over 28 years of age had at least moderate radiological changes of the incisor teeth. The clinical cases group might have a bias towards horses with existing dental problems such as EOTRH, because they were presented explicitly for dental care to a clinic. Focusing on radiological changes, this study shows that EOTRH is a common condition of horses in Berlin-Brandenburg. With older age, disease is more frequent and radiological changes become more severe. Since no horse older than 14 years was without radiological findings, it is likely that mild changes may be associated with the normal tooth ageing process. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  15. Tooth-brushing behaviour in 6-12 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, Anna; Cressey, Janet; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina

    2011-01-01

    A common clinical finding is that many schoolchildren display a nonacceptable oral hygiene. To evaluate the tooth-brushing behaviour in children aged 6-12 years. The study used a cross-sectional descriptive design. Children aged 6, 8, 10, and 12 years in an elementary school in a middle class area in Umeå, a city in northern Sweden, were invited and 82 (82%) consented. Visible plaque on buccal surfaces of incisors and canines was recorded from photographs of the participant's teeth before and after brushing using the scores of the Green and Vermillion Oral Hygiene Index. Brushing technique was recorded with a video camera. A questionnaire was used to collect data about oral hygiene habits at home. The ratio between the sum of plaque scores after and before brushing was statistically significantly higher in the 6-year-old group compared with the 10-year olds, (P brushing and the ratio between the sum of plaque scores after and before brushing (r = -0.31, P 0.05). Six-year olds spent statistically significantly less time for brushing than older children (P brushing was poor and averaged 19% for 6-year olds and 30% for older children. The results of brushing for children aged 8-12 years could benefit from increasing tooth-brushing time. Children could be given an increasing responsibility from 7 to 8 year of age but parental help is motivated up to 10 years of age. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2010 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Mechanisms of tooth eruption and orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, G E; King, G J

    2008-05-01

    Teeth move through alveolar bone, whether through the normal process of tooth eruption or by strains generated by orthodontic appliances. Both eruption and orthodontics accomplish this feat through similar fundamental biological processes, osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis, but there are differences that make their mechanisms unique. A better appreciation of the molecular and cellular events that regulate osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis in eruption and orthodontics is not only central to our understanding of how these processes occur, but also is needed for ultimate development of the means to control them. Possible future studies in these areas are also discussed, with particular emphasis on translation of fundamental knowledge to improve dental treatments.

  17. Intentional replantation of periodontally compromised hopeless tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagappa, G.; Aspalli, Shivanand; Devanoorkar, Archana; Shetty, Sudhir; Parab, Prachi

    2013-01-01

    Aesthetic considerations have influenced the management of dental maladies in varying degrees for many years. Even single tooth mal-alignment makes the patient to approach a dentist. Intentional replantation is a procedure in which an intentional tooth extraction is performed followed by reinsertion of the extracted tooth. Many authors agree that it should be reserved as the last resort to save a tooth after other procedures have failed or would likely to fail. The main reason of failure in replanted teeth is root resorption, specifically ankylosis or replacement resorption. Although the success rate is not always high, intentional replantation may be a treatment alternative that deserves consideration to maintain the natural dentition and avoid extraction of the tooth. Here is case report of a patient desiring alignment of malpositioned periodontally involved anterior single tooth due to various causes treated by intentional replantation. PMID:24174765

  18. Intentional replantation of periodontally compromised hopeless tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Nagappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aesthetic considerations have influenced the management of dental maladies in varying degrees for many years. Even single tooth mal-alignment makes the patient to approach a dentist. Intentional replantation is a procedure in which an intentional tooth extraction is performed followed by reinsertion of the extracted tooth. Many authors agree that it should be reserved as the last resort to save a tooth after other procedures have failed or would likely to fail. The main reason of failure in replanted teeth is root resorption, specifically ankylosis or replacement resorption. Although the success rate is not always high, intentional replantation may be a treatment alternative that deserves consideration to maintain the natural dentition and avoid extraction of the tooth. Here is case report of a patient desiring alignment of malpositioned periodontally involved anterior single tooth due to various causes treated by intentional replantation.

  19. Intentional replantation of periodontally compromised hopeless tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagappa, G; Aspalli, Shivanand; Devanoorkar, Archana; Shetty, Sudhir; Parab, Prachi

    2013-09-01

    Aesthetic considerations have influenced the management of dental maladies in varying degrees for many years. Even single tooth mal-alignment makes the patient to approach a dentist. Intentional replantation is a procedure in which an intentional tooth extraction is performed followed by reinsertion of the extracted tooth. Many authors agree that it should be reserved as the last resort to save a tooth after other procedures have failed or would likely to fail. The main reason of failure in replanted teeth is root resorption, specifically ankylosis or replacement resorption. Although the success rate is not always high, intentional replantation may be a treatment alternative that deserves consideration to maintain the natural dentition and avoid extraction of the tooth. Here is case report of a patient desiring alignment of malpositioned periodontally involved anterior single tooth due to various causes treated by intentional replantation.

  20. Diagnosis and treatment planning: cracked tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Eric M; Williamson, Anne

    2003-03-01

    This article discusses the cracked tooth, one of the five major classifications of longitudinal tooth fractures: 1) craze line; 2) cuspal fracture; 3) cracked tooth; 4) split tooth; and 5) vertical root fracture. The term "longitudinal tooth fracture" was first introduced by Rivera (Personal Communication, Iowa City, IA, 1996) and has two meanings. The first implies distance (length), particularly in the vertical (occlusal-cervical) plane, as illustrated by longitudinal lines on a map. The second indicates that these fractures occur over a period of time. Therefore, the term longitudinal tooth fracture applies to fractures that have both a distance and a time component. Thus, fractures are described that are not related to impact trauma (which occurs primarily in incisors), in which the distance (length) component may be similar, but is immediate instead of over a period of time.

  1. Test Tube Tooth: The Next Big Thing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Preeti; Tahir, Mohammed; Yadav, Harsh; Sureka, Rakshit; Garg, Aarti

    2016-06-01

    Unlike some vertebrates and fishes, humans do not have the capacity for tooth regeneration after the loss of permanent teeth. Although artificial replacement with removable dentures, fixed prosthesis and implants is possible through advances in the field of prosthetic dentistry, it would be ideal to recreate a third set of natural teeth to replace lost dentition. For many years now, researchers in the field of tissue engineering have been trying to bioengineer dental tissues as well as whole teeth. In order to attain a whole tooth through dental engineering, that has the same or nearly same biological, mechanical and physical properties of a natural tooth, it's necessary to deal with all the cells and tissues which are concerned with the formation, maintenance and repair of the tooth. In this article we review the steps involved in odontogenesis or organogenesis of a tooth and progress in the bioengineering of a whole tooth.

  2. Gender determination from the mesiodistal dimension of permanent maxillary incisors and canines: An odontometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gender determination is crucial for identification, as the number of possible matches is reduced by 50%. The inert, mineralized structures of teeth resist post-mortem degradation and survive deliberate, accidental or natural change, better than any other skeletal structure. Tooth size measurements based on odontometric investigations in a specific population can be used in gender determination. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate and estimate the accuracy of using permanent maxillary incisors and canines for gender determination. Settings and Design: The undergraduate students of a dental college, meeting the inclusion criteria, were selected. After short listing the undergraduate students through the convenience sampling technique, a total of 300 subjects were purposively selected. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 300 subjects (150 males and 150 females, the mesiodistal dimensions of the maxillary anterior teeth were taken with the help of a digital vernier calliper and manual divider, with a sharp fine tip. Statistical Analysis: The collected data was subjected to statistical analysis. The data was subsequently processed and analyzed using the SPSS software package version 17. Results: The mesiodistal dimensions of the right and left maxillary canines and central incisors were significantly different (i.e., greater in males as compared to females. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that the maxillary central incisors and canines revealed a statistically highly significant sexual dimorphism and could be used as an adjunct for the determination of gender in individuals, as well as in groups, such as, in mass disasters or archaeological sites.

  3. Evaluation of mandibular infiltration versus mandibular block anaesthesia in treating primary canines in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassen, Ghaeth H

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effectiveness of mandibular infiltration compared with mandibular block in treating primary canines in children and to relate the effectiveness to the type of treatment performed. A total of 89 children, 6-9 years old, requiring identical treatment on contralateral mandibular canines were selected. The split mouth study design was used. The anaesthetic used in both techniques was 2% lidocaine solution with 1 : 80,000 epinephrine. Dental procedures included class III, IV, and V restorations, formocresol pulpotomies, and extractions. Child's pain reaction and behaviour for each anaesthesia technique and the type of treatment were rated at certain intervals of treatment using sounds, motor, and ocular changes indicating pain and the Frankl Behaviour Rating Scale. Evaluations were made upon injection, probing, rubber dam placement, and during tooth preparation and extraction. No statistically significant difference was found between the two anaesthetic techniques for either pain or behaviour at all evaluation intervals (P > 0.05), during the performance of restorations, pulpotomies, or during extractions. Mandibular infiltration anaesthesia is as effective as mandibular block for restoration, pulpotomy, and extraction in primary canines. The mandibular infiltration anaesthesia was not significantly less painful than the mandibular block.

  4. Long-term periodontal response to orthodontic treatment of palatally impacted maxillary canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioglio, Alberto; Vanni, Arianna; Bolamperti, Laura

    2013-06-01

    One of the most important aspects to take into consideration when evaluating the outcome of treatment of impacted maxillary canines is the final periodontal status. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term periodontal response of palatally impacted maxillary canines aligned using a codified procedure and the 'Easy Cuspid' compared with contralateral spontaneously erupted teeth. The periodontal conditions of the adjacent teeth were also considered. From an initial sample of 124 patients, 33 patients (24 females and 9 males) were selected. All patients who had undergone surgical orthodontic treatment conducted in accordance with a standardized protocol were recalled for follow-up at an average of 4.6 years after the end of treatment. The average treatment time was 29 months and the mean eruption time of the previously impacted tooth was 3.1 months. The average probing depth values showed no significant clinical differences. Probing depths recorded at the vestibular surface of the lateral incisor (P alignment of palatally impacted canines without damage to the periodontium.

  5. Variability in permanent tooth size of three ancient populations in Xi'an, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi-You; Kang, Ting; Liu, Dai-Yun; Duan, Yin-Zhong; Shao, Jin-Ling

    2012-11-01

    This paper compares permanent dental dimensions between three ancient populations that belonged to the same biological population throughout a temporal range of 2000 years to detect temporal trends and metric variation in dentition. The samples analysed were dental remains of 4502 permanent teeth from 321 individuals, which were excavated from three archaeological sites: Chang'an (1000-1300 years BP), Shanren (2200 years BP) and Shaolingyuan (3000 years BP) in the Xi'an region (northern China). For each tooth three standard measurements were taken: Mesiodistal (MD) diameter of crown, labiolingual or buccolingual (BL) diameter of crown and length of root (LR). Three ancient population samples generally displayed the same dental dimensions (p>0.05), whereas some tooth types varied. The Shaolingyuan had larger canine and the smallest maxillary second molars and the Chang'an had the largest mandibular first molars in the MD dimension. The Shanren had the smallest maxillary third molars and mandibular central incisors, and the Chang'an had the smallest maxillary lateral incisors in the BL dimension. In the LR measures, statistically significant differences of five tooth types showed that the Chang'an were smaller than the Shaolingyuan and the Shanren. Comparisons of coefficients of variation for teeth showed that the length of root and third molar usually displayed greater variation. Decreasing or increasing trend for crown size does not occur between the ancient populations, while changes in crown size of a few tooth types fluctuate. The root size is more variable than the crown size and is likely to reflect a degenerated trend in a few tooth types. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dacryocystitis following a nasolacrimal duct obstruction caused by an ectopic intranasal tooth in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelter-Ratson, Katrin; Hagen, Regine; Grundmann, Stefan; Spiess, Bernhard Martin

    2015-09-01

    To describe a nasolacrimal duct (NLD) obstruction secondary to an ectopic tooth in a 5-year-old male Border collie. The dog was presented with a 1-month history of mucopurulent discharge from the left eye (OS) preceded by a lifelong history of epiphora OS. Treatment with neomycin/polymyxin B/dexamethasone ophthalmic solution had not improved the clinical signs, and the NLD was not patent when irrigated by the referring veterinarian. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed followed by dacryocystorhinography and computed tomography (CT). The ophthalmologic examination revealed marked mucopurulent discharge, mild conjunctivitis, slightly elevated STT measurements, and a negative Jones test OS. Both nasolacrimal puncta OS could be cannulated without resistance for approximately 1.5 cm. Upon irrigation, copious amounts of mucopurulent discharge were exited through the corresponding punctum, while no fluid could be detected at the nares. Dacryocystorhinography was performed. Radiographs revealed an ectopic left canine tooth within the left nasal cavity. A cystic dilation of the NLD was observed proximal to the ectopic tooth. Computed tomography was performed to determine the exact position of the tooth and possible involvement of adjacent structures; CT confirmed the previous imaging findings. Treatment with systemic antibiotics, NSAIDs, and ofloxacin ophthalmic solution led to resolution of the clinical signs within several days. Surgery was declined by the owner. This is the first case report describing a blocked NLD due to an ectopic tooth in a dog. Ectopic teeth should be included as a differential diagnosis in cases of dacryocystitis and chronic epiphora in dogs. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  7. Concomitant canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, canine parvoviral enteritis, canine infectious tracheobronchitis, and toxoplasmosis in a puppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Fritzen, Juliana Torres Tomazi; Garcia, João Luis; Weissenböck, Herbert; da Silva, Ana Paula; Bodnar, Livia; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The concomitant infections of Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine adenovirus A types 1 (CAdV-1) and 2 (CAdV-2), Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), and Toxoplasma gondii are described in a 43-day-old mixed-breed puppy. Clinically, there were convulsions and blindness with spontaneous death; 14 siblings of this puppy, born to a 10-month-old dam, which was seropositive (titer: 1,024) for T. gondii, also died. Necropsy revealed unilateral corneal edema (blue eye), depletion of intestinal lymphoid tissue, non-collapsible lungs, congestion of meningeal vessels, and a pale area in the myocardium. Histopathology demonstrated necrotizing myocarditis associated with intralesional apicomplexan protozoa; necrotizing and chronic hepatitis associated with rare intranuclear inclusion bodies within hepatocytes; necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis; interstitial pneumonia associated with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies within epithelial cells; atrophy and fusion of intestinal villi with cryptal necrosis; and white matter demyelination of the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with intranuclear inclusion bodies within astrocytes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified the partial fragments (bp) of the CDV N gene (290 bp), CPV-2c VP2 capsid protein gene (583 bp), and CAdV-1 (508 bp) and CAdV-2 (1,030 bp) E gene from urine and tissue samples. The PCR assays demonstrated that the apicomplexan protozoa observed within several organs contained DNA specific for T. gondii; genotyping revealed T. gondii type III. The findings support the characterization of concomitant infections of CDV, CAdV-1, CAdV-2, CPV-2, and T. gondii in this puppy. Further, seroreactivity to T. gondii of the dam in association with the systemic disease observed in the puppy described herein is suggestive of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  8. Alpha-1-antitrypsin studies: canine serum and canine surfactant protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, W.C.; Slauson, D.O.; Dahlstrom, M.; Gorman, C.

    1974-01-01

    Canine serum alpha-1-antitrypsin was isolated by gel filtration and affinity chromatography and characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis. Measurement of the trypsin inhibitory capacity of the separated protein indicated a ninefold concentration of functional trypsin inhibitor during the isolation procedure. Electrophoresis demonstrated the presence of a single protein with alpha-globulin mobility and a molecular weight near that of human alpha-1-antitrypsin. The trypsin inhibitory capacity of pulmonary surfactant protein from five Beagle dogs was measured, related to total surfactant protein concentration, and compared with similar measurements on whole serum from the same animals. Results indicated a variable concentration of trypsin inhibitor in the canine pulmonary surfactant protein. However, the concentration in the surfactant protein was always significantly higher than that in the corresponding serum sample. Preliminary experiments designed to separate the trypsin inhibitory fraction(s) from the other surfactant proteins by gel filtration chromatography indicated that the trypsin inhibitor was probably a single protein with a molecular weight near that of alpha-1-antitrypsin. (U.S.)

  9. Early eruption of permanent canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Madhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic and local factors can modify the eruption time of teeth. Generalized eruption time changes could be due to some systemic diseases like hyperthyroidism, hypophosphatasia, precocious puberty, Proteus syndrome, etc. Localized early eruption of permanent teeth could be due to early extraction of deciduous teeth. Presented here is an extremely rare case of early eruption of permanent canines in a 7-year old female child. Though the number of such cases is very limited, the clinician should poses adequate knowledge and keeps an open eye to identify such cases.

  10. Administration of osteocalcin accelerates orthodontic tooth movement induced by a closed coil spring in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, F; Kobayashi, Y; Mataki, S; Kobayashi, K; Kato, Y; Sakai, H

    2001-10-01

    The effect of local administration of osteocalcin (OC) on experimental tooth movement was examined in the rat. The maxillary first molar was first moved mesially with an initial tipping force of 30 g with a closed-coil spring anchored to the incisor for 10 days (n = 48). Three experimental groups (n = 8) were injected with purified rat OC at doses of 0.1, 1, and 10 micrograms, respectively. The injection into the palatal bifurcation site of the first molar was repeated daily. The control groups (n = 8) were injected with rat serum albumin (10 micrograms), phosphate buffered saline (PBS), or were not injected. Tooth movement was evaluated daily by measuring the inter-cuspal distance between the first and the second molars on a precise plaster model. The cumulative tooth movement (mm) in the 1-microgram OC-injected groups was significantly more than that in all of the control groups on day 9. The rate of tooth movement (mm/day) showed periodical elevation, with high values on days 1, 4, 7, and 9. Acceleration of tooth movement by OC was significant in the early experimental period. Subsequently, acceleration of early tooth movement by OC was histologically evaluated (n = 40). Each of four animals from the control (PBS, n = 20) and the experimental (1 microgram OC, n = 20) groups was killed daily up to 5 days. A significantly larger number of osteoclasts accumulated on the mesial alveolar bone surface in the 1-microgram OC-injected group on day 3 than that observed in control group. These results suggest that administration of OC accelerates orthodontic tooth movement due to enhancement of osteoclastogenesis on the pressure side, primarily in the early experimental period.

  11. Cracked tooth syndrome: Overview of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Shamimul; Singh, Kuldeep; Salati, Naseer

    2015-01-01

    Pain is defined as an ?unpleasant sensory and emotional feeling which is associated with actual or potential injury of tissue or expressed in terms of such injury.? Tooth pain usually refers to pain around the teeth or jaws mainly as a result of a dental condition. Mostly, toothaches are caused by a carious cavity, a broken tooth, an exposed tooth root or gum disease. The toothache may sometimes be the result of radiating pain from structures in the vicinity of tooth and jaws (cardiac pain, e...

  12. Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, T M; Sinclair, P M

    1987-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the application of a simple surgically noninvasive, pulsed electromagnetic field could increase both the rate and amount of orthodontic tooth movement observed in guinea pigs. In addition, the objective was to evaluate the electromagnetic field's effects on bony physiology and metabolism and to search for possible systemic side effects. Laterally directed orthodontic force was applied to the maxillary central incisors of a sample of 40 young male, Hartley guinea pigs (20 experimental, 20 control) by means of a standardized intraoral coil spring inserted under constricting pressure into holes drilled in the guinea pigs' two maxillary central incisors. During the experimental period, the guinea pigs were placed in specially constructed, plastic animal holders with their heads positioned in an area of uniform electromagnetic field. Control animals were placed in similar plastic holders that did not carry the electrical apparatus. The application of a pulsed electromagnetic field to the experimental animals significantly increased both the rate and final amount of orthodontic tooth movement observed over the 10-day experimental period. The experimental animals also demonstrated histologic evidence of significantly greater amounts of bone and matrix deposited in the area of tension between the orthodontically moved maxillary incisors. This increase in cellular activity was also reflected by the presence of significantly greater numbers of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone surrounding the maxillary incisors of the experimental animals. After a 10-day exposure to pulsed electromagnetic field, minor changes in serologic parameters relating to protein metabolism and muscle activity were noted. The results of this study suggest that it is possible to increase the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and bone deposition through the application of a noninvasive, pulsed electromagnetic field.

  13. Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szigeti, Kinga; Lupski, James R

    2009-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders presenting with the phenotype of a chronic progressive neuropathy affecting both the motor and sensory nerves. During the last decade over two dozen genes have been identified in which mutations cause CMT. The disease illustrates a multitude of genetic principles, including diverse mutational mechanisms from point mutations to copy number variation (CNV), allelic heterogeneity, age-dependent penetrance and variable expressivity. Population based studies have determined the contributions of the various genes to disease burden enabling evidence-based approaches to genetic testing. PMID:19277060

  14. Radioimmunoassay of canine growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eigenmann, J.E.; Eigenmann, R.Y.

    1981-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) for canine growth hormone (GH) was developed. Antibodies were elicited in rhesus monkeys. One antiserum exhibited a working titer at a dilution of 1:500 000. Radioiodination was performed enzymatically employing lactoperoxidase. Logit-log transformation and least squares fitting resulted in straight line fitting of the standard curve between 0.39 and 50 ng/ml. Formation of large-molecular [ 125 I]GH during storage caused diminished assay sensitivity. Therefore [ 125 I]GH was re-purified by gel chromatography. Using this procedure, high and reproducible assay sensitivity was obtained. Tracer preparations were used for as long as 3 months after iodination. Diluted plasma from normal and acromegalic dogs resulted in a dose-response curve parallel to the standard curve. Canine prolactin exhibited a cross-reactivity of 2%. The within-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was 3.8 and the between-assay CV was 7.2%. Mean plasma GH concentration in normal dogs was 1.92 +- 0.14 ng/ml (mean +- SEM.) GH levels in acromegalic dogs were appreciably higher. Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, arginine and ornithine administration resulted in inconsistent and sluggish GH increment. A better response was obtained by injecting a low dose of clonidine. Clonidine administration to hypopituitary dogs resulted in absent or poor GH increment. (author)

  15. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Sant'Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra treated surgically. Group 1 consisted of dogs that were discharged within 48 hours after surgery and Group 2 consisted of those who required prolonged hospitalization or died. The findings of hematological, biochemical and blood lactate levels were compared between groups and variables such as bacterial multidrug resistance, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, hyperlactatemia and increased creatinine were analyzed through the dispersion of frequencies between groups. Among the variables studied, the presence of SIRS and elevated serum creatinine >2.5mg/mL were effective in predicting the worsening of the disease and can be used as prognostic markers of canine pyometra.

  16. Rare Condition of Dens Invaginatus in a Maxillary Primary Molar and a Birooted Maxillary Primary Canine diagnosed during Routine Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Brandão, Eliana Costa; Aguiar Ribeiro, Apoena; Alto Seabra, Luciane Monte

    2017-01-01

    Congenital morphological dental alterations are related to the physiological phase of tooth development. Since the etiology of the dens invaginatus and supernumerary roots has yet to be fully determined, a rare presentation of dens invaginatus in a primary molar and a birooted deciduous maxillary canine were incidentally detected in routine radiographic examinations. Essential clinical considerations and treatment options are presented. This study highlights the importance of a deep and comprehensive anamnesis and clinical examination, with radiographs taken when necessary. The negligence of these stages in an initial consultation could cause irreversible future damage to the patient, since rare dental anomalies or other lesions that require treatment may not be detected. Brandão ECB, Ribeiro AAA, Seabra LMA. Rare Condition of Dens Invaginatus in a Maxillary Primary Molar and a Birooted Maxillary Primary Canine diagnosed during Routine Examination. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(2): 193-195.

  17. The fluid dynamics of canine olfaction: unique nasal airflow patterns as an explanation of macrosmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Brent A.; Paterson, Eric G.; Settles, Gary S.

    2010-01-01

    The canine nasal cavity contains hundreds of millions of sensory neurons, located in the olfactory epithelium that lines convoluted nasal turbinates recessed in the rear of the nose. Traditional explanations for canine olfactory acuity, which include large sensory organ size and receptor gene repertoire, overlook the fluid dynamics of odorant transport during sniffing. But odorant transport to the sensory part of the nose is the first critical step in olfaction. Here we report new experimental data on canine sniffing and demonstrate allometric scaling of sniff frequency, inspiratory airflow rate and tidal volume with body mass. Next, a computational fluid dynamics simulation of airflow in an anatomically accurate three-dimensional model of the canine nasal cavity, reconstructed from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans, reveals that, during sniffing, spatially separate odour samples are acquired by each nostril that may be used for bilateral stimulus intensity comparison and odour source localization. Inside the nose, the computation shows that a unique nasal airflow pattern develops during sniffing, which is optimized for odorant transport to the olfactory part of the nose. These results contrast sharply with nasal airflow in the human. We propose that mammalian olfactory function and acuity may largely depend on odorant transport by nasal airflow patterns resulting from either the presence of a highly developed olfactory recess (in macrosmats such as the canine) or the lack of one (in microsmats including humans). PMID:20007171

  18. Comparative HPLC-MSn analysis of canine and human meibomian lipidomes: many similarities, a few differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butovich, Igor A.; Borowiak, Anna M.; Eule, J. Corinna

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the lipidome of meibomian gland secretions in canines (cMGS) - a common pet and laboratory animal - and to compare it with that of human MGS (hMGS), to determine whether canines could be used as a valid experimental animal model in studies of the biochemistry and physiology of the human ocular surface in general, and of the Meibomian glands in particular. The MGS of both species were evaluated using HPLC in combination with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry. The main lipid classes found in cMGS were very long chain cholesteryl esters, wax esters, (O-acyl)-omega-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFA), and cholesteryl esters of OAHFA. The lipidomes of cMGS and hMGS were found to be qualitatively similar, which implies similar biosynthetic and biodegradation pathways in canines and humans. However, some quantitative differences between the two were observed.

  19. Ex vivo radiographic tooth length measurements with the reference sphere method (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, Felix; Brüllmann, Dan; d'Hoedt, Bernd; Schulze, Ralf

    2010-12-01

    A reference-based radiographic "reference sphere method" (RSM) for accurate length measurements in (dental) projection radiographs for the assessment of tooth length in dry human mandible sections is evaluated. RSM determines the depth coordinates of reference spheres placed in the object plane from the elliptical distortion of their shadows. Two segments (one canine and one molar) of dry human mandibles were exposed 95 times at different angulations (0-40°) on a dental charge-coupled device receptor. Three steel spheres (diameters d (1) = 2.00 mm, d (2) = 3.00 mm) were attached roughly coplanar with the tooth's main axis. Radiographs were assessed once by visual inspection plus manual landmark identification with a mouse-driven cursor. The results were compared to the true tooth length assessed after extraction and to a conventional method (C), i.e., the rule of proportion based on magnification of the sphere shadows. Mean relative length error was 2.28% (d (1)) and 0.46% (d (2)) for RSM and -13.58% (d (1)) and -9.90% (d (2)) for C. For both methods, length errors were significantly (p correction of objects coplanar with the reference spheres. Remaining errors are mainly due to incorrect landmark definition. In our setup, these were exaggerated by the visual/manual image-evaluation process. Automated image analysis has been shown for similar tasks to minimize these errors considerably.

  20. Effect of prostaglandin E1 versus corticotomy on orthodontic tooth movement: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, U B; Krishna Nayak, U S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare the effect of corticotomy versus prostaglandin E1 injection in human subjects on rate of tooth movement, anchorage loss and their effect on crest bone height and root length. Clinical interventional study. Split mouth design was used. Study was done on 32 regular orthodontic patients. A volume of 100 mcg of prostaglandin E1 was injected on the right side once in 2 weeks and on the left side corticotomy was performed, and canine retraction was started on both sides simultaneously. The rate of space closure and anchorage loss was assessed with casts. The root length and crestal bone height changes were assed with IOPAs. The comparison of rate of tooth movement, anchorage loss, crestal bone height and root length changes between the sides were statistically analyzed using paired t-test. The average rate of space closure on right side was 0.36 mm/week with a standard deviation of 0.05 mm/week and on the left side average rate of space closure was 0.40 mm/week with a standard deviation of 0.04 mm/week. The difference between the rate of closure between the right side and left where found to be statistically significant (P=0.003). The anchorage loss, the crestal bone height changes and root length changes were not statistically significant. The rate of tooth movement was significantly more with corticotomies when compared with given dose of prostaglandin injection.

  1. [Tooth eruption times of permanent teeth in male and female adolescents in Niedersachsen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedl, Jürgen S; Schoder, Volker; Friedrich, Reinhard E

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the eruption times of permanent teeth, excluding third molars, in a defined area population of a country district in Lower Saxony. The authors investigated 2495 oral findings of 664 patients (male 315, female 349) in a longitudinal study. The minimum age was 3.00 years and the maximum age 24.00 years. The dental findings were collected over a period of about 20 years (1980-2002). The oral findings per child/adolescent were assessed between one and 16 times. The eruption times of teeth in females are earlier than those for the same teeth in males. Further, the permanent dentition in females is completed earlier than in males. The tooth eruption occurs symmetrically in both jaws. The comparison of both jaws revealed a slightly advanced eruption of the lower jaw teeth for both sexes. There is a noteworthy change in the eruption sequence of the teeth. In contrast to other reports we determined that the eruption of the canine proceeds the eruption of the second premolar. We found no acceleration of the dentition when compared to other reports and confirmed the rules of tooth eruption in man. Oral examination of teeth is a simple tool to calculate tooth eruption intervals. This first investigation on a population of Lower Saxony revealed a change in the eruption sequence of permanent teeth. The findings are relevant for dental treatment planning and should be reconfirmed at certain intervals.

  2. Three-dimensional tooth crown size symmetry in cleft lip and cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcam, M Okan; Aydemir, Halise; Özer, Levent; Özel, Berna; Toygar-Memikoğlu, T Ufuk

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate and compare three-dimensional tooth size symmetry in the right and left sides of upper and lower dental arches in cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients and to compare it with an Angle Class I normal occlusion control group. Dental casts of 72 individuals with CLP (20 bilateral [BCLP], 34 unilateral left [ULCLP], and 18 unilateral right [URCLP]) and 53 individuals with Class I occlusion, all with permanent dentition, were randomly selected. Mesiodistal (MD), labiolingual (LL), and occlusogingival (OG) measurements of upper and lower teeth were recorded with a digital caliper. Descriptive statistics and paired t-test were used for statistical analysis. Significant asymmetries were found between the right and left sides of the dental arches in CLP as follows: MD dimension: mandibular first premolar (ULCLP, P central incisor and first premolar (ULCLP, P central incisor (BLCLP, P < .01), mandibular canine and first premolar (ULCLP, P < .01), and first molar (ULCLP, P < .05). Tooth crown size asymmetries were also recorded in the Class I group. Significant three-dimensional tooth size asymmetries were found in CLP subjects; however, such asymmetries were also present on the Class I control group.

  3. The Effect of Ovariectomy and Orchiectomy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Root Resorption in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Ezzati, Baharak; Saedi, Sara; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Root resorption (RR) after orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is known as a multifactorial complication of orthodontic treatments. Hormonal deficiencies and their effect on bone turnover are reported to have influences on the rate of tooth movement and root resorption. Purpose This study was designed to evaluate the effect of female and male steroid sex hormones on tooth movement and root resorption. Materials and Method Orthodontic appliances were placed on the right maxillary first molars of 10 ovariectomized female and 10 orchiectomized male Wistar rats as experimental groups and 10 female and 10 male healthy Wistar rats as control groups. NiTi closed-coil springs (9mm, Medium, 011"×.030", Ortho Technology®; Tampa, Florida) were placed between the right incisors and the first right maxillary molars to induce tipping movement in the first molars with the application of a 60g force. After 21 days, the rats were sacrificed and tooth movement was measured by using a digital caliper (Guanglu, China). Orthodontic induced root resorption (OIRR) was assessed by histomorphometric analysis after hematoxylin and eosin staining of sections of the mesial root. Results The rate of tooth movement was significantly higher in all female rats, with the root resorption being lower in the experimental group. The rate of tooth movement in experimental male rats was significantly higher than the control group (p= 0.001) and the rate of root resorption was significantly lower in the experimental group (p= 0.001). Conclusion It seems that alterations in plasma levels of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone hormones can influence the rate of OTM and RR. The acceleration in tooth movement increased OTM and decreased RR. PMID:26636117

  4. Tooth root growth impairment after mantle radiation in long-term survivors of Hodgkin's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, J.P. Jr.; Hopkins, K.P.; Thompson, E.I.; Hustu, H.O.

    1985-10-01

    The tooth root growth impairment that resulted from 35 to 37 Gy mantle port radiation in 47 long-term survivors of childhood Hodgkin's disease was quantified and related to specific age groups and categories of teeth. Root measurements of the mandibular permanent canines, first and second premolars, and first and second molars were made from sequential panoramic radiographs taken at the time of radiation therapy and after the closure of root apexes. The severity of root growth impairment was greatest in patients who received radiation during the early stages of odontogenesis. With later stages of odontogenesis, and as the age increased at the time of treatment, less impairment occurred. The potential difficulties of using repeated panoramic radiographs to assess tooth lengths in longitudinal studies also were discussed.

  5. Psychosocial Aspect of Anterior Tooth Discoloration among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty two (65.9%), 47 (50.0%) and 38 (40.4%) respectively reported that it prevented them from freely answering questions, smiling and interacting. After oral examination, 120 (31.2%) subjects had one form of anterior tooth discoloration. The cause of tooth discoloration in the majority 64 (16.7%) of the participants was due ...

  6. psychosocial aspect of anterior tooth discoloration among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    discoloration on the psychosocial well being of adolescents with a view to providing information that will aid the ... Keywords: Psychosocial, Anterior tooth discolouration, Adolescents. Ann Ibd. Pg. Med 2011. Vol.9, No.2 94-99 ... often results in loss of self-esteem and damage to physical and mental health.9,10 Tooth ...

  7. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Posture! Is My Child at Risk for Early Childhood Tooth Decay? Men: Looking for a Better Job? Start by Visiting the Dentist Learn what those dental words mean. The Life of a Tooth Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral Health | RSS About AGD | Contact AGD | Site Map | Reprints ...

  8. Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Historic Prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    The earliest report on orthodontic tooth movement in the English literature was published in 1911. Oppenheim carried out studies on baboons to determine what histologic changes occurred during tooth movement. Reitan and many others carried out research into the nature of tooth movement. The pressure-tension model of tooth movement developed from these studies, whereby the two sides of the tooth responded to forces as if in isolation. A second theory, proposed by Stuteville in 1938, was the hydraulic theory of tooth movement. In this theory, fluid from the vasculature, lymphatic system and intercellular spaces responds to the forces of tooth movement, damping the force and limiting movement. Bien and Baumrind expanded on this theory with their own studies in the 1960s. It is clear that both the pressure-tension and fluid flow concepts have merit, but considerable work needs to be done to ascertain the details so that tooth movement can be managed and controlled. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

  10. Stress Distribution Evaluation of the Periodontal Ligament in the Maxillary Canine for Retraction by Different Alveolar Corticotomy Techniques: A Three-dimensional Finite Element Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Ariel Adriano Reyes; Saga, Armando Yukio; de Lima, Key Fonseca; Paese, Victor Nissen; Tanaka, Orlando M

    2016-01-01

    By using the finite element method (FEM), this study aimed to evaluate the effect of different corticotomy formats on the distribution and magnitude of stress on the periodontal ligament (PDL) during retraction of the maxillary canine. A geometric model of the left hemi-jaw was created from computed tomography scan images of a dry human skull and loads were administered during distalization movement of the canine. Three trials were performed: (1) without corticotomy, (2) box-shaped corticotomy and perforations in the cortical bone of the canine (CVC) and (3) CVC and circular-shaped corticotomy in the cortical bone of the edentulous space of the first premolar. There was no difference in stress distribution among the different corticotomy formats. Different corticotomy formats used to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement did not affect stress distribution in the PDL during canine retraction. From a mechanical perspective, the present study showed that the stress distribution on the PDL during canine retraction was similar in all the corticotomy formats. When using the Andrews T2 bracket, the PDL presented the highest levels of stress in the middle third of the PDL, suggesting that the force was near the center of resistance. Also, as bone weakening by corticotomies did not influence stress distribution, the surgical procedure could be simplified to a less aggressive one, focusing more on inflammatory cellular stimulation than on bone resistance. A simpler surgical act could also be performed by most orthodontists in their practices, enhancing postoperative response and reducing patient costs.

  11. Mandibular canine intrusion with the segmented arch technique: A finite element method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Giselle Milagros; Carvalho Filho, Osvaldo Abadia de; Hargreaves, Bernardo Oliveira; Brito, Hélio Henrique de Araújo; Magalhães Júnior, Pedro Américo Almeida; Oliveira, Dauro Douglas

    2015-06-01

    Mandibular canines are anatomically extruded in approximately half of the patients with a deepbite. Although simultaneous orthodontic intrusion of the 6 mandibular anterior teeth is not recommended, a few studies have evaluated individual canine intrusion. Our objectives were to use the finite element method to simulate the segmented intrusion of mandibular canines with a cantilever and to evaluate the effects of different compensatory buccolingual activations. A finite element study of the right quadrant of the mandibular dental arch together with periodontal structures was modeled using SolidWorks software (Dassault Systèmes Americas, Waltham, Mass). After all bony, dental, and periodontal ligament structures from the second molar to the canine were graphically represented, brackets and molar tubes were modeled. Subsequently, a 0.021 × 0.025-in base wire was modeled with stainless steel properties and inserted into the brackets and tubes of the 4 posterior teeth to simulate an anchorage unit. Finally, a 0.017 × 0.025-in cantilever was modeled with titanium-molybdenum alloy properties and inserted into the first molar auxiliary tube. Discretization and boundary conditions of all anatomic structures tested were determined with HyperMesh software (Altair Engineering, Milwaukee, Wis), and compensatory toe-ins of 0°, 4°, 6°, and 8° were simulated with Abaqus software (Dassault Systèmes Americas). The 6° toe-in produced pure intrusion of the canine. The highest amounts of periodontal ligament stress in the anchor segment were observed around the first molar roots. This tooth showed a slight tendency for extrusion and distal crown tipping. Moreover, the different compensatory toe-ins tested did not significantly affect the other posterior teeth. The segmented mechanics simulated in this study may achieve pure mandibular canine intrusion when an adequate amount of compensatory toe-in (6°) is incorporated into the cantilever to prevent buccal and lingual crown

  12. Mathematical description of tooth flank surface of globoidal worm gear with straight axial tooth profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połowniak, Piotr; Sobolak, Mariusz

    2017-12-01

    In this article, a mathematical description of tooth flank surface of the globoidal worm and worm wheel generated by the hourglass worm hob with straight tooth axial profile is presented. The kinematic system of globoidal worm gear is shown. The equation of globoid helix and tooth axial profile of worm is derived to determine worm tooth surface. Based on the equation of meshing the contact lines are obtained. The mathematical description of globoidal worm wheel tooth flank is performed on the basis of contact lines and generating the tooth side by the extreme cutting edge of worm hob. The presented mathematical model of tooth flank of TA worm and worm wheel can be used e.g. to analyse the contact pattern of the gear.

  13. Surgical exposure of an impacted maxillary canine and increasing a band of keratinized gingiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An adequate amount of keratinized gingival tissue that is under proper plaque control, is a fundamental requirement for periodontal health. When the teeth erupt uneventfully in the center of the alveolar ridge, an adequate amount of keratinized tissue will surround the erupted permanent tooth. Labially or buccally erupting teeth show reduced dimensions of the gingiva as abnormal eruption of permanent teeth restricts or eliminates the keratinized tissue between the erupting cusp and the deciduous tooth. A lack of attached gingiva poses a potential risk for gingival recession in labially or buccally erupted teeth due to the possibility of accumulation of plaque and/or traumatic tooth-brushing during subsequent orthodontic treatment. A good understanding between the orthodontist and periodontist along with proper management of periodontal tissues, can prevent these problems. Various surgical techniques can be employed to uncover impacted teeth. This paper discusses the validity of utilizing periodontal surgery to increase a band of keratinized tissue in a case of an impacted canine erupting from the alveolar mucosa.

  14. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying.

    Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the

  15. Triple bone labeling of canine mandibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Kwon, P H

    1990-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy was used for evaluation of new bone formation in 16 canine mandibles augmented with hydroxylapatite (HA) granules. Three fluorochromes were injected at different time intervals during therapeutic radiation treatment. Oxytetracycline, DCAF, and alizarin-complexone were give...

  16. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying. Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the nutritional and

  17. Analysis of split tooth as an unstudied reason for tooth extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaghae, Ifueko Patience; Azodo, Clement Chinedu

    2014-09-10

    Split tooth is an unstudied reason for tooth extraction. The purpose of this study was to determine and analyze split tooth as a reason for extraction in a dental clinic in Benin City. The prospective study was carried out on 669 patients having tooth extraction between May, 2005 and December, 2012. Over the period of the study, diagnosis and tooth extraction were done by three dentists of more five years practice experience. The indications for tooth extraction were noted with specific interest on those diagnosed as split tooth without restoration. Data was entered into Microsoft excel, sorted and transported into SPSS (SPSS version 16.0, Chicago, IL, USA). Split teeth constituted for 39 (5%) of extracted teeth. This 39 extractions were done in 38 patients meaning that two split teeth were extracted on separate occasions from same patient. The majority 23 (61%) of extracted split tooth were done in patients in the fifth decade of life. More of the split tooth extraction were performed in males 28 (72%) than females 11 (28%). Overall mandibular teeth were more affected than the maxillary teeth and the most affected teeth were mandibular second molars 23 (59%) while the least affected were the mandibular first premolars 1 (3%) and the third molars 1 (3%). The reported masticatory accident as aetiology, were biting on stone 21 (53%) or piece of bone 10 (26%) while eating. A few 3 (8%) were suspected bruxists. The majority 25 (65%) visited the dental clinic 3-6 months after the incident and onset of symptoms. Split tooth constitute a reasonable common reason for tooth extraction and this was most common in the fifth decade of life. It is therefore important to improve early diagnosis of a cracked tooth in order to prevent the progression of the crack tooth to split tooth.

  18. Reliability of single panoramic radiograph with vertical and horizontal parallax; and intraoral periapical radiograph with Clark′s rule compared to computed tomography/surgical exposure in localization of impacted permanent maxillary canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Bokkasam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate an accurate, inexpensive and low-radiation conventional radiograph suitable for localization of impacted maxillary permanent canine. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 38 subjects in the age group of 13-50 years of both the genders with 50 impacted canines. Panoramic radiographs (OPGs (on which Chaushu et al. criteria was applied and intraoral periapical radiographs (IOPARs (on which Clark′s rule was applied of the subjects were made and the accuracy of the above two radiographic techniques were compared with computed tomography (CT axial sections or with surgical exposure, which was considered as the standard guide for localization of impacted maxillary permanent canine. The data obtained was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis using the statistical package for SAS software. Results: Localization of impacted maxillary permanent canine tooth done with SLOB (Same Lingual Opposite Buccal/Clark′s rule technique could predict the bucco-palatal canine impactions in 98% of cases. OPG using differential magnification index could predict location only in 68% of bucco-palatal canine impactions and in 72% based on vertical position. Conclusion: In 68% of cases the bucco-lingual position of the canine in OPG (by magnification index coincided with the location as per CT/surgical exposure. In 98% of cases localization with SLOB technique coincided with CT/surgical exposure. 72% of cases showed coincidence with vertical position of the canine on OPG with CT/surgical exposure. IOPARs taken with SLOB technique are more accurate than OPGs for localization of impacted permanent maxillary canine teeth.

  19. Tooth whitening: what we now know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Clifton M

    2014-06-01

    Current research about tooth whitening shows that it is safe and effective when manufacturer's protocol is followed, yet there are risks of which the profession and users should be aware. This update provides a summary of current research and assessment of the safety and efficacy of tooth whitening regimens. Tooth whitening has become one of the most frequently requested dental procedures by the public. The public has come to demand whiter, more perfect smiles and in response many choices for tooth whitening have been made available. These include home-based products such as toothpastes, gels, and films, as well as in-office based systems where products containing highly concentrated bleaching agents are applied under professional supervision. The profession and public have been aware of certain risks related to tooth whitening such as increased tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation. New research has shown that there are other risks such as tooth surface roughening and softening, increased potential for demineralization, degradation of dental restorations, and unacceptable color change of dental restorations. The new research is also focused on optimizing whitening procedures to reduce tooth sensitivity and to increase the persistence of the whitening. Current reports in the literature are reviewed that are related to the use of peroxide based whitening methods. These reports include in vitro studies for method optimization and mechanism as well as clinical studies on effects of various whitening regimens. When manufacturer's instructions are followed, hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide based tooth whitening is safe and effective. Patients should be informed of the risks associated with tooth whitening and instructed on identification of adverse occurrences so that they may seek professional help as needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Systemic inflammarory response in canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Boel

    2003-01-01

    Research efforts have focused mainly on the hormonal aspects of canine pyometra for more than 6 decades. However, this disease is often manifested as systemic illness in response to the bacterial uterine infection. Studies I-II were undertaken to clarify bacteriological aspects of canine pyometra; i.e. the origin of the infecting bacteria, the infecting bacteria’s impact on severity of the systemic illness and the presence of bacterial endotoxin in the systemic circulation. Study I, a bacteri...

  1. Dietary effects on canine and feline behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, Katherine A; Zicker, Steven

    2003-03-01

    The effects of dietary deficiency, including both malnutrition and deficiency of specific vitamins, on behavior is discussed with special emphasis on the growing kitten and puppy. The effect of caloric restriction on behavior is reviewed so that owners can be advised what to expect when their dog is placed on a reducing diet. The evidence for influence of dietary protein and tryptophan on canine aggression is presented. The effect of special diets on canine cognitive dysfunction is reviewed.

  2. Canine babesiosis: from molecular taxonomy to control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Peter J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine babesiosis is a clinically significant emerging vector-borne disease caused by protozoan haemoparasites. This review article considers recent literature pertaining to the taxonomic classification of Babesia and Theileria species affecting dogs and the geographical distribution of these parasites. The diagnosis of canine babesiosis by traditional, molecular and serological methods is reviewed, together with recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of piroplasmosis, and of the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  3. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversa, Donato; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; La Torre, Francesco; Drake, Jason; Pietrobelli, Mario

    2014-02-13

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings.

  4. Varied clinico-radiological presentations of transmigrated canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine is one of the most commonly impacted teeth in the dental arch. An unerupted permanent canine crossing the midline is called transmigration and is an unusual event. We report nine cases of impacted canine transmigration. Maxillary canine transmigration, bilateral transmigration, and transmigration associated with odontoma are rare presentations. This article discusses the varied clinico-radiologic presentations, etiology, and treatment options of transmigration. It also emphasizes the importance of panoramic radiographs for evaluation of over-retained deciduous canines or missing permanent canines.

  5. Actionable mutations in canine hemangiosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guannan Wang

    Full Text Available Angiosarcomas (AS are rare in humans, but they are a deadly subtype of soft tissue sarcoma. Discovery sequencing in AS, especially the visceral form, is hampered by the rarity of cases. Most diagnostic material exists as archival formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue which serves as a poor source of high quality DNA for genome-wide sequencing. We approached this problem through comparative genomics. We hypothesized that exome sequencing a histologically similar tumor, hemangiosarcoma (HSA, that occurs in approximately 50,000 dogs per year, may lead to the identification of potential oncogenic drivers and druggable targets that could also occur in angiosarcoma.Splenic hemangiosarcomas are common in dogs, which allowed us to collect a cohort of archived matched tumor and normal tissue samples suitable for whole exome sequencing. Mapping of the reads to the latest canine reference genome (Canfam3 demonstrated that >99% of the targeted exomal regions were covered, with >80% at 20X coverage and >90% at 10X coverage.Sequence analysis of 20 samples identified somatic mutations in PIK3CA, TP53, PTEN, and PLCG1, all of which correspond to well-known tumor drivers in human cancer, in more than half of the cases. In one case, we identified a mutation in PLCG1 identical to a mutation observed previously in this gene in human visceral AS. Activating PIK3CA mutations present novel therapeutic targets, and clinical trials of targeted inhibitors are underway in human cancers. Our results lay a foundation for similar clinical trials in canine HSA, enabling a precision medicine approach to this disease.

  6. Actionable mutations in canine hemangiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guannan; Wu, Ming; Maloneyhuss, Martha A; Wojcik, John; Durham, Amy C; Mason, Nicola J; Roth, David B

    2017-01-01

    Angiosarcomas (AS) are rare in humans, but they are a deadly subtype of soft tissue sarcoma. Discovery sequencing in AS, especially the visceral form, is hampered by the rarity of cases. Most diagnostic material exists as archival formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue which serves as a poor source of high quality DNA for genome-wide sequencing. We approached this problem through comparative genomics. We hypothesized that exome sequencing a histologically similar tumor, hemangiosarcoma (HSA), that occurs in approximately 50,000 dogs per year, may lead to the identification of potential oncogenic drivers and druggable targets that could also occur in angiosarcoma. Splenic hemangiosarcomas are common in dogs, which allowed us to collect a cohort of archived matched tumor and normal tissue samples suitable for whole exome sequencing. Mapping of the reads to the latest canine reference genome (Canfam3) demonstrated that >99% of the targeted exomal regions were covered, with >80% at 20X coverage and >90% at 10X coverage. Sequence analysis of 20 samples identified somatic mutations in PIK3CA, TP53, PTEN, and PLCG1, all of which correspond to well-known tumor drivers in human cancer, in more than half of the cases. In one case, we identified a mutation in PLCG1 identical to a mutation observed previously in this gene in human visceral AS. Activating PIK3CA mutations present novel therapeutic targets, and clinical trials of targeted inhibitors are underway in human cancers. Our results lay a foundation for similar clinical trials in canine HSA, enabling a precision medicine approach to this disease.

  7. Effects of low-intensity laser therapy on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement: A clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Kansal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-intensity laser therapy (LILT can be utilized for different treatments in the field of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of LILT on (1 the rate of canine movement during canine retraction phase and (2 evaluate the radiographic changes occurring during LILT around the irradiated area. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 patients of both genders were included for this study. One quadrant of the upper arch was considered control group (CG and received mechanical activation of the canine teeth with 150 g. The opposite quadrant received the same mechanical activation and was also irradiated with a diode emitting light (gallium-arsenide laser at 904 nm, for 10 s at 12 mW, at 4.2 J/cm 2 . Laser application was done on 1 st day, 3 rd , 7 th , 14 th , 21 th , 28 th , 35 th , 42 nd , 49 th , 56 th day respectively during the canine retraction phase. Distance was measured on 1 st day, 35 th day and 63 rd day and appliance activation was done on 1 st and 35 th day. Results were analyzed using t-test with the significance level set at P < 0.01. Results: Mean value obtained from 1 st to 63 rd day was 3.30 ± 2.36 mm for CG and 3.53 ± 2.30 mm for laser group (LG. Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of tooth movement during canine retraction between the LG and the CG. There was no evidence of any pathologic changes in the radiograph following LILT.

  8. Age estimation by pulp-to-tooth area ratio using cone-beam computed tomography: A preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Arpita; Acharya, Ashith B.; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Age estimation of living or deceased individuals is an important aspect of forensic sciences. Conventionally, pulp-to-tooth area ratio (PTR) measured from periapical radiographs have been utilized as a nondestructive method of age estimation. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a new method to acquire three-dimensional images of the teeth in living individuals. Aims: The present study investigated age estimation based on PTR of the maxillary canines measured in three planes obtained from CBCT image data. Settings and Design: Sixty subjects aged 20–85 years were included in the study. Materials and Methods: For each tooth, mid-sagittal, mid-coronal, and three axial sections—cementoenamel junction (CEJ), one-fourth root level from CEJ, and mid-root—were assessed. PTR was calculated using AutoCAD software after outlining the pulp and tooth. Statistical Analysis Used: All statistical analyses were performed using an SPSS 17.0 software program. Results and Conclusions: Linear regression analysis showed that only PTR in axial plane at CEJ had significant age correlation (r = 0.32; P < 0.05). This is probably because of clearer demarcation of pulp and tooth outline at this level. PMID:28123269

  9. [Gene clone and expression of Barx1 in different tooth of the mini-pig at embryonic day 40].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Yin, Ji-rong; Yang, Kai

    2012-10-01

    To partially clone and compare the quantitative expression of tooth development-related gene Barx1 in different teeth of the mini-pig embryo at embryonic day 40, and to investigate the relationship between Barx1 spatial quantitative expression and tooth morphogenesis. The mini-pig Barx1 genes was partially cloned and the mRNA sequences of human Barx1 genes was aligned with expressed sequence tags (EST) of pig by basic local alignment search tool (BLAST), which were assembled with DNAman v5.2.2. With designed primers, Barx1 was partially cloned in use of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and tested by BLAST with all the species in NCBI database and confirmed as one part of target gene. Laser capture microdissection was used to collect tooth samples from frozen sections which were prepared before in -80°C freezer. Real-time PCR was carried out to analyze quantitative expression in different teeth. Partial mini-pig Barx1 gene of 698 bp was cloned. Real-time PCR showed that, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase used as loading control, the figures of 2(-ΔCT) of lower deciduous incisor, canine, the third premolar and molar were 0.000 249, 0.000 715, 0.026 096 and 0.112 656, respectively. There was a trend of increasing expression from anterior to posterior teeth. Barx1 gene could be related to the number or differentiation of tooth cusps.

  10. Age estimation by pulp-to-tooth area ratio using cone-beam computed tomography: A preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Arpita; Acharya, Ashith B; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G

    2016-01-01

    Age estimation of living or deceased individuals is an important aspect of forensic sciences. Conventionally, pulp-to-tooth area ratio (PTR) measured from periapical radiographs have been utilized as a nondestructive method of age estimation. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a new method to acquire three-dimensional images of the teeth in living individuals. The present study investigated age estimation based on PTR of the maxillary canines measured in three planes obtained from CBCT image data. Sixty subjects aged 20-85 years were included in the study. For each tooth, mid-sagittal, mid-coronal, and three axial sections-cementoenamel junction (CEJ), one-fourth root level from CEJ, and mid-root-were assessed. PTR was calculated using AutoCAD software after outlining the pulp and tooth. All statistical analyses were performed using an SPSS 17.0 software program. Linear regression analysis showed that only PTR in axial plane at CEJ had significant age correlation ( r = 0.32; P < 0.05). This is probably because of clearer demarcation of pulp and tooth outline at this level.

  11. Mechanism of human tooth eruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Human eruption is a unique developmental process in the organism. The aetiology or the mechanism behind eruption has never been fully understood and the scientific literature in the field is extremely sparse. Human and animal tissues provide different possibilities for eruption analyses, briefly...... discussed in the introduction. Human studies, mainly clinical and radiological, have focused on normal eruption and gender differences. Why a tooth begins eruption and what enables it to move eruptively and later to end these eruptive movements is not known. Pathological eruption courses contribute......, and the ability of the periodontal ligament to adapt to eruptive movements. Animal studies and studies on normal and pathological eruption in humans can support and explain different aspects in the new theory. The eruption mechanism still needs elucidation and the paper recommends that future research on eruption...

  12. Accelerated orthodontic tooth movement following le fort I osteotomy in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hao; Zhu, Xiaofang; Lu, Jingting; Dai, Jiewen; Fang, Bing; Shen, Steve G F

    2014-04-01

    In surgery-first accelerated orthognathic surgery, the clinical phenomenon of accelerated orthodontic tooth movement after osteotomy is a benefit compared with the conventional approach. However, because much of the literature on this phenomenon is based on empirical evidence and case reports, experimental animal-based studies are needed to verify and quantify this acceleration effect. The purpose of this prospective experimental study was to identify whether osteotomy procedures increase tooth movement. Le Fort I osteotomies were performed on the left maxillas in 15 male adult Sprague-Dawley rats. After surgery, a continuous force of 0.5 N was placed on the maxillary left first molar to move the tooth mesially. Another 15 rats had no surgery and served as controls. On days 1, 14, and 28, digital caliper measurements were taken to record tooth movement. In the experimental group, the maxillary left first molars moved significantly more rapidly on days 14 and 28 (P accelerated the rate of orthodontic tooth movement. Histologically, more active and extensive bone remodeling was observed after osteotomy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Effects of carbonated soft drink consumption on orthodontic tooth movements in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghili, Hossein Agha; Hoseini, Seyed Mohammad; Yassaei, Soghra; Fatahi Meybodi, Seyed Amirreza; Zaeim, Mohammad Hosein Toudeh; Moghadam, Mahdjoubeh Goldani

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this animal study was to evaluate the possible effects of Carbonated Soft Drink consumption on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement in rats. Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group. In the experimental groups (A&B), the water in the dietary regimen was replaced with soft drinks (Fanta® in group A and Cola® in group B) two weeks before placement of orthodontic appliances. Then 5-mm nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were placed between the maxillary right first molars and first incisors under general anesthesia. This regimen continued for two weeks more and animals drank soft drink ad libitum. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were sacrificed, and interproximal tooth movements were measured. The mean amounts of tooth movement were 0.19mm in group A, 0.22mm in group B and 0.37mm in group C. Statistical analysis with analysis of variance (ANOVA) test showed significant differences between all groups. The least movement occurred in group A that had received Fanta® drink. CSDs consumption decreases the rate of orthodontic tooth movement. The role of soft drinks in decreasing tooth movement might be related to its effects on bone metabolism.

  14. Effects of carbonated soft drink consumption on orthodontic tooth movements in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Agha Aghili

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this animal study was to evaluate the possible effects of Carbonated Soft Drink consumption on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement in rats.Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group. In the experimental groups (A&B, the water in the dietary regimen was replaced with soft drinks (Fanta® in group A and Cola® in group B two weeks before placement of orthodontic appliances. Then 5-mm nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were placed between the maxillary right first molars and first incisors under general anesthesia. This regimen continued for two weeks more and animals drank soft drink ad libitum. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were sacrificed, and interproximal tooth movements were measured.The mean amounts of tooth movement were 0.19mm in group A, 0.22mm in group B and 0.37mm in group C. Statistical analysis with analysis of variance (ANOVA test showed significant differences between all groups. The least movement occurred in group A that had received Fanta® drink.CSDs consumption decreases the rate of orthodontic tooth movement. The role of soft drinks in decreasing tooth movement might be related to its effects on bone metabolism.

  15. Prediction of width of un-erupted incisors, canines and premolars in a Ugandan population: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buwembo William

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate prediction of the space forms an important part of an orthodontic assessment in the mixed dentition. However the most commonly used methods of space analysis are based on data developed on Caucasian populations. In order to provide more accurate local data we set out to develop a formula for predicting the widths of un-erupted canines and premolars for a Ugandan population and to compare the predicted widths of the teeth from this formula with those obtained from Moyers’ tables, and Tanaka and Johnston’s equations. Methods Dental casts were prepared using mandibular and maxillary arch impressions of 220 children (85 boys/135 girls aged 12–17 years recruited from schools in Kampala, Uganda. The mesio-distal width of the mandibular incisors, mandibular and maxillary canines and premolars were measured with a pair of digital calipers. Based on regression analysis, predictive equations were derived and the findings were compared with those presented in Moyers’ probability tables, and Tanaka and Johnston’s equations. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the tooth widths predicted by our equations and those from Moyers’ probability tables at the 65th and 75th percentile probabilities for the girls and at 75th level in boys in the mandibular arch. While in the maxillary arch no statistically significant differences at the 75th and 95th levels were noted in girls. There were statistically significant differences between predicted tooth sizes using equations from the present study and those predicted from the Tanaka and Johnston regression equations. Conclusions In this Ugandan population, Moyers’ probability tables could be used to predict tooth widths at specific percentile probabilities, but generally, Tanaka and Johnston technique tends to overestimate the tooth widths.

  16. Tooth Decay Process: How to Reverse It and Avoid a Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Finding Dental Care Home Health Info Health Topics Tooth Decay Tooth decay (dental caries) is damage to a tooth that can happen ... hole in a tooth, called a cavity. If tooth decay is not treated, it can cause pain, infection, ...

  17. Evaluation of autogenous tooth transplantation for replacement of the missing or unrestorable mandibular molar tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahiduj Jaman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the functional and occlusal stability of autogenous tooth transplantation. A total of 30 patients were included. Among them, 21 participants received transplanted first molar and the remaining 9 received transplanted second molar. In all the cases, donor tooth were third molar. In each participant, extraction of un-restorable first or second molar tooth was performed which was then replaced by atrumatic extracted third molar tooth. Each third molar tooth was placed in the recipient extracted socket, followed by the evaluation of the occlusion and then stabilized with arch bar and ligature wire. Clinical follow-up evaluation was performed at 15 days, 3 and 12 months in respect to occlusal stability, tooth mobility and periodontal status. It was found that 23 transplanted tooth were successful and the remaining 7 tooth need long-term observation for the final outcome, which was statistically significant. It can be concluded that the autogenous tooth transplantation can replace missing tooth to ensure the preservation of function, aesthetic and to prevent bone resorption of the missing area of the jaw, which can lead to exceptional esthetic and functional outcome.

  18. Role of canine circovirus in dogs with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A; Hartmann, K; Leutenegger, C M; Proksch, A L; Mueller, R S; Unterer, S

    2017-06-03

    Canine circovirus (CanineCV) has been detected in some dogs with severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea, but its pathogenic role is unclear. This study evaluated a suspected association between the presence of CanineCV and acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) in dogs. The prevalence of CanineCV in dogs with AHDS was compared with that in healthy dogs and those infected with canine parvovirus (CPV). Additionally, time to recovery and mortality rate were compared between CanineCV-positive and CanineCV-negative dogs. Faecal samples of dogs with AHDS (n=55), healthy dogs (n=66) and dogs infected with CPV (n=54) were examined by two real-time TaqMan PCR assays targeting the replicase and capsid genes of CanineCV. CanineCV was detected in faecal samples of two dogs with AHDS, three healthy controls and seven dogs infected with CPV. Among the three groups, there was no significant difference in prevalence of CanineCV. CPV-infected animals that were coinfected with CanineCV had a significantly higher mortality rate compared with those negative for CanineCV. CanineCV does not appear to be the primary causative agent of AHDS in dogs, but might play a role as a negative co-factor in disease outcome in dogs with CPV infection. British Veterinary Association.

  19. Spectroscopic investigations of carious tooth decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thareja, R K; Sharma, A K; Shukla, Shobha

    2008-11-01

    We report on the elemental composition of healthy and infected part of human tooth using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). We have used prominent constituent transitions in laser-excited tooth to diagnose the state of the tooth. A nanosecond laser pulse (355nm, 5ns) was used as an ablating pulse and the sodium (3s2S-3p2P) at 588.99 and (3s2S-3p2P) at 589.99nm, strontium (5s21S-1s5P) at 460.55nm, and calcium (3d3D-4f 3F0) at 452.55nm transitions for spectroscopic analysis. The spectroscopic observations in conjunction with discriminate analysis showed that calcium attached to the hydroxyapatite structure of the tooth was affected severely at the infected part of the tooth. The position-time plots generated from two-dimensional (2D) images conclusively showed a decrease in calcium concentration in the infected region of the irradiated tooth. Using the technique, we could distinguish between the healthy and carious parts of the tooth with significant accuracy.

  20. Tooth Retained Implant: No More an Oxymoron

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    Divya Bhat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periodontally af-fected teeth are treated in one of the two ways. (1 Tooth retention after periodontal surgery, in which the degree of regeneration achieved is unpredictable. (2 Tooth extrac-tion and implant placement. Implants have an osseointegrated surface which does not provide adequate shock absorption. Regeneration can be achieved by resecting the crown of the affected tooth and submerging the root. This technique has not had a clinical application so far as the tooth becomes difficult to restore. Placing an implant within the root can make the retained root restorable. At the same time, as the implant is placed within the root surface it achieves a periodontal integration which dampens occlusal forces better than osseointegration. Therefore, such a “tooth retained implant” may serve as an additional treatment option with significant benefits over tooth retention and implant placement alone. The hypothesis: Implants placed within retained roots have shown cementum deposition and attachment of periodontal ligament fibers over their surface. This periodontal attachment may be able to dam-pen forces better than in an osseointegrated implant. Moreover, since an implant is being placed, the crown of the tooth can be resected and submerged. This prevents epithelial migration, allows for the periodontal ligament cells to populate the wound and favors regeneration.Evaluation of the hypothesis: The technique of placing implants within cavities prepared in the root and then submerging them are simple for any practitioner placing implants routinely.

  1. Molecular cloning of canine Wilms' tumor 1 for immunohistochemical analysis in canine tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Osamu; Sakurai, Masashi; Sakai, Hiroki; Kubo, Masahito; Hiraoka, Hiroko; Baba, Kenji; Okuda, Masaru; Mizuno, Takuya

    2017-07-28

    Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) expression has been investigated in various human cancers as a target molecule for cancer immunotherapy. However, few studies have focused on WT1 expression in dogs. Firstly, cDNA of canine WT1 (cWT1) was molecularly cloned from normal canine kidney. The cross-reactivity of the anti-human WT1 monoclonal antibody (6F-H2) with cWT1 was confirmed via Western blotting using cells overexpressing cWT1. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that cWT1 expression was detected in all canine lymphoma tissues and in some normal canine tissues, including the kidney and lymph node. cWT1 is a potential immunotherapy target against canine cancers.

  2. [Dissertations 25 years after date 9. How is tooth eruption regulated?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltha, J C

    2006-08-01

    A lot of attention has been paid to the questions of how and why teeth erupt. In the past many theories were developed, all of which showed mechanistic characteristics and suggested that a certain structure exerts force on the tooth germ to initiate its eruption. The dominant theory considered the collagenous fibres or the fibroblasts within the periodontal ligament to be the primary moving force in the eruption process. However, most research was done on continuously erupting incisors of rodents or lagomorphs, an experimental model with serious drawbacks. Because dogs, like humans, have teeth with limited eruption, 25 years ago research was carried out on tooth eruption in beagles. One of the most important conclusions of this study was that the periodontal ligament is not the primary moving force in tooth eruption, as its development only begins at the end of the eruption process. In subsequent years several others have focused their research on tooth eruption in beagles. The current state of knowledge in this field can be summarized as follows: the reduced enamel epithelium and the dental follicle control bone deposition and resorption around an erupting tooth germ, enabling its occlusal movement; the periodontal ligament develops only after its emergence in the oral cavity, and is thus not important in the eruption process; the tooth itself does not play a role in the regulation of its eruption.

  3. CANINE ECTOPIC TREATMENT WITH FIRST MOLAR EXTRACTION

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    Angelica Margo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision to extract or not and the type of tooth must be analyzed carefully in orthodontic treatment. Preferable tooth to be extracted was the tooth with large caries or restoration. Usually the type of tooth to be extracted was second molar (if the third molar appears, incisor, first molar, and combination of several teeth. Orthodontic treatment with molar extraction is more difficult to treat and the result is usually compromise. There are several considerations in extracting first molar such as tooth with large caries or restoration, hypoplasia, periapical disease, large discrepancy, high maxilla-mandibular plane angle, and cases with anterior open bite. Nowadays, orthodontic cases with molar extraction do not prolong the treatment time compared to premolar extraction case, but the anchorage system must be considered carefully. The present case was treated with extraction of first molar to solve anterior crowding with maximum anchorage at the upper jaw and using Nance Holding Appliance.

  4. Dental anomaly patterns associated with tooth agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Su Ji; Lee, Je Woo; Song, Ji Hyun

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between tooth agenesis and the occurrence of other dental anomalies in children and adolescents. Panoramic radiographs of 195 subjects with tooth agenesis, except for the third molar, were retrospectively examined and compared with a non-agenesis control group of 600 subjects. Their ages ranged from 7 to 15 years. Panoramic and periapical radiographs were used to analyze the presence of other associated dental anomalies. The occurrences of these anomalies were compared with those in the non-agenesis group. Subjects with tooth agenesis showed a significantly higher prevalence of a small maxillary lateral incisor (17.7%), distoangulation of the mandibular second premolar (6.5%), delayed development of a permanent tooth (10.8%), and hypo-occlusion of a primary molar (11.8%). In contrast, the prevalence of a supernumerary tooth was higher in the control group, and no difference was observed in the prevalence of ectopic eruption of a first molar. According to the agenesis area, microdontia of the maxillary lateral incisors occurred more often in patients with anterior or premolar agenesis than in the molar agenesis groups. Distoangulation of the mandibular second premolars, delayed tooth development, and hypo-occlusion of the primary molars were associated with premolar tooth agenesis. A small maxillary lateral incisor, distoangulation of the mandibular second premolar, delayed development of a permanent tooth, and hypo-occlusion of a primary molar were frequently associated with tooth agenesis, providing additional evidence of a genetic interrelationship in the causes of these dental anomalies.

  5. The Sirt6 gene: Does it play a role in tooth development?

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    Xueyang Liao

    Full Text Available Dental Mesenchymal Cells (DMCs are known to play a role in tooth development as well as in the repair and regeneration of dental tissue. A large number of signaling molecules regulate the proliferation and differentiation of DMC, though the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Sirtuin-6 (SIRT6, a key regulator of aging, can exert an impact on embryonic stem cell (ESC differentiation. The experimental deletion of Sirt6 in mouse bone marrow cells has been found to have an inhibiting impact on the bone mineral density and the osteogenic differentiation of these cells. The possible role of Sirt6 in tooth development, however, has at present remained largely unexplored. In the present study, we found that SIRT6 had no effect on tooth development before birth. However, Sirt6 gene deletion in knockout mice did have two post-natal impacts: a delay in tooth eruption and sluggishness in the development of dental roots. We propose an explanation of the possible molecular basis of the changes observed in Sirt6-/- mice. SIRT6 is expressed in mouse odontoblasts. Sirt6 deletion enhanced the proliferation of DMCs, as well as their capacity for adipogenic differentiation. On the other hand, it inhibited their capacity for in vitro osteogenic/chondrogenic differentiation. Further studies suggested that other factors may mediate the role of Sirt6 in odontogenesis. These include the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK, extracellular regulated MAP kinase (ERK pathways and the mitochondrial energy. We demonstrated that Sirt6 plays a role in tooth root formation and confirmed that SIRT6 is necessary for DMC differentiation as well as for the development of the tooth root and for eventual tooth eruption. These results establish a new link between SIRT6 and tooth development.

  6. The Sirt6 gene: Does it play a role in tooth development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xueyang; Feng, Bo; Zhang, Demao; Liu, Peng; Zhou, Xuedong; Li, Ruimin; Ye, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Dental Mesenchymal Cells (DMCs) are known to play a role in tooth development as well as in the repair and regeneration of dental tissue. A large number of signaling molecules regulate the proliferation and differentiation of DMC, though the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Sirtuin-6 (SIRT6), a key regulator of aging, can exert an impact on embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation. The experimental deletion of Sirt6 in mouse bone marrow cells has been found to have an inhibiting impact on the bone mineral density and the osteogenic differentiation of these cells. The possible role of Sirt6 in tooth development, however, has at present remained largely unexplored. In the present study, we found that SIRT6 had no effect on tooth development before birth. However, Sirt6 gene deletion in knockout mice did have two post-natal impacts: a delay in tooth eruption and sluggishness in the development of dental roots. We propose an explanation of the possible molecular basis of the changes observed in Sirt6-/- mice. SIRT6 is expressed in mouse odontoblasts. Sirt6 deletion enhanced the proliferation of DMCs, as well as their capacity for adipogenic differentiation. On the other hand, it inhibited their capacity for in vitro osteogenic/chondrogenic differentiation. Further studies suggested that other factors may mediate the role of Sirt6 in odontogenesis. These include the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK), extracellular regulated MAP kinase (ERK) pathways and the mitochondrial energy. We demonstrated that Sirt6 plays a role in tooth root formation and confirmed that SIRT6 is necessary for DMC differentiation as well as for the development of the tooth root and for eventual tooth eruption. These results establish a new link between SIRT6 and tooth development. PMID:28355287

  7. Prevalence and genetic basis of tooth agenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Shimizu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tooth agenesis or hypodontia is one of the most common anomalies of the human dentition, characterized by the developmental absence of one or more teeth. Many studies have reported that the prevalence of congenital absence of permanent teeth varies from 3% to 11% among European and Asian populations. Recent advances in the fields of molecular biology and human genetics have improved our understanding of the cause of tooth agenesis. In this review, we assess the previous literature on prevalence of tooth agenesis comparing the Japanese with other racial populations, and describe the recent genetic studies associated with hypodontia in human and mouse models.

  8. Power Consumption Optimization in Tooth Gears Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatnikov, N.; Harlamov, G.; Kanatnikova, P.; Pashmentova, A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper reviews the issue of optimization of technological process of tooth gears production of the power consumption criteria. The authors dwell on the indices used for cutting process estimation by the consumed energy criteria and their applicability in the analysis of the toothed wheel production process. The inventors proposed a method for optimization of power consumptions based on the spatial modeling of cutting pattern. The article is aimed at solving the problem of effective source management in order to achieve economical and ecological effect during the mechanical processing of toothed gears. The research was supported by Russian Science Foundation (project No. 17-79-10316).

  9. Properties of tooth enamel in great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James J-W; Morris, Dylan; Constantino, Paul J; Lucas, Peter W; Smith, Tanya M; Lawn, Brian R

    2010-12-01

    A comparative study has been made of human and great ape molar tooth enamel. Nanoindentation techniques are used to map profiles of elastic modulus and hardness across sections from the enamel-dentin junction to the outer tooth surface. The measured data profiles overlap between species, suggesting a degree of commonality in material properties. Using established deformation and fracture relations, critical loads to produce function-threatening damage in the enamel of each species are calculated for characteristic tooth sizes and enamel thicknesses. The results suggest that differences in load-bearing capacity of molar teeth in primates are less a function of underlying material properties than of morphology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. In vivo confocal microscopy for the detection of canine fungal keratitis and monitoring of therapeutic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Eric C; Norman, Mary L; Starr, Jennifer K

    2016-05-01

    To describe in vivo corneal confocal microscopy of dogs during the clinical course of fungal keratitis and correlate findings with clinical evaluations and an ex vivo experimental canine fungal keratitis model. Seven dogs with naturally acquired fungal keratitis and ex vivo canine corneas experimentally infected with clinical fungal isolates. Dogs with naturally acquired fungal keratitis were examined by in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy. Initial confocal microscopic examinations were performed to assist in establishing the diagnosis of fungal keratitis. Serial confocal microscopic examinations were performed to guide antifungal chemotherapy. Confocal microscopy images of canine corneal fungal isolates were obtained by examination of experimentally infected ex vivo canine corneas to corroborate in vivo findings. Fungi cultured and detected by PCR from canine corneal samples included Candida albicans, Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti, Malassezia pachydermatis, and a Rhodotorula sp. Linear, branching, interlocking, hyperreflective structures were detected by confocal microscopy in dogs with filamentous fungal keratitis and round to oval hyperreflective structures were detected in dogs with yeast fungal keratitis. Antifungal chemotherapy was associated with a progressive reduction in the distribution and density of corneal fungal elements, alterations to fungal morphology, decreased leukocyte numbers, restoration of epithelial layers, and an increased number of visible keratocyte nuclei. No dogs had a recurrence of fungal keratitis following medication discontinuation. Confocal microscopic fungal morphologies were similar between in vivo and ex vivo examinations. In vivo corneal confocal microscopy is a rapid method of diagnosing fungal keratitis in dogs and provides a noninvasive mechanism for monitoring therapeutic response. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  11. Speed of human tooth movement in growers and non-growers: Selection of applied stress matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, L R; Liu, Y; Liu, H; Nickel, J C

    2017-06-01

    To test that the speed of tooth translation is not affected by stress magnitude and growth status. Advanced Education Orthodontic clinics at the Universities of Nebraska Medical Center and Missouri-Kansas City. Forty-six consenting subjects with orthodontic treatment plans involving maxillary first premolar extractions. This randomized split-mouth study used segmental mechanics with definitive posterior anchorage and individual vertical-loop maxillary canine retraction appliances and measured three-dimensional tooth movements. Height and cephalometric superimposition changes determined growing (G) and non-growing (NG) subjects. Subjects were appointed for 9-11 visits over 84 days for maxillary dental impressions to measure three-dimensional tooth movement and to ensure retraction forces were continuously applied via calibrated nitinol coil springs. Springs were custom selected to apply two different stresses of 4, 13, 26, 52 or 78 kPa to maxillary canines in each subject. Statistical analyses (α=0.050) included ANOVA, effect size (partial η 2 ) and Tukey's Honest Significant Difference (HSD) and two-group t tests. Distolateral translation speeds were 0.034±0.015, 0.047±0.019, 0.066±0.025, 0.068±0.016 and 0.079±0.030 mm/d for 4, 13, 26, 52 and 78 kPa, respectively. Stress significantly affected speed and partial η 2 =0.376. Overall, more distopalatal rotation was shown by teeth moved by 78 kPa (18.03±9.50º) compared to other stresses (3.86±6.83º), and speeds were significantly higher (P=.001) in G (0.062±0.026 mm/d) than NG subjects (0.041±0.019 mm/d). Stress magnitude and growth status significantly affected the speed of tooth translation. Optimal applied stresses were 26-52 kPa, and overall speeds were 1.5-fold faster in G compared to NG subjects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Application of coenzyme Q10 for accelerating soft tissue wound healing after tooth extraction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Toshiki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kawabata, Yuya; Ekuni, Daisuke; Azuma, Tetsuji; Kataoka, Kota; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Morita, Manabu

    2014-12-10

    Accelerating wound healing after tooth extraction is beneficial in dental treatment. Application of antioxidants, such as reduced coenzyme Q10 (rCoQ10), may promote wound healing after tooth extraction. In this study, we examined the effects of topical application of rCoQ10 on wound healing after tooth extraction in rats. After maxillary first molars were extracted, male Fischer 344 rats (8 weeks old) (n = 27) received topical application of ointment containing 5% rCoQ10 (experimental group) or control ointment (control group) to the sockets for 3 or 8 days (n = 6-7/group). At 3 days after extraction, the experimental group showed higher collagen density and lower numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the upper part of socket, as compared to the control group (p healing in the soft tissue of the alveolar socket, but that rCoQ10 has a limited effect on bone remodeling in rats.

  13. Mandibular canine: A tool for sex identification in forensic odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumawat, Ramniwas M; Dindgire, Sarika L; Gadhari, Mangesh; Khobragade, Pratima G; Kadoo, Priyanka S; Yadav, Pradeep

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of mandibular canine index (MCI) and mandibular mesiodistal odontometrics in sex identification in the age group of 17-25 years in central Indian population. The study sample comprised total 300 individuals (150 males and 150 females) of an age group ranging from 17 to 25 years of central Indian population. The maximum mesiodistal diameter of mandibular canines, the linear distance between the tips of mandibular canines, was measured using digital vernier caliper on the study models. Overall sex could be predicted accurately in 79.66% (81.33% males and 78% females) of the population by MCI. Whereas, considering the mandibular canine width for sex identification, the overall accuracy was 75% for the right mandibular canine and 73% for the left mandibular canine observed. Sexual dimorphism of canine is population specific, and among the Indian population, MCI and mesiodistal dimension of mandibular canine can aid in sex determination.

  14. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-09-05

    Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  15. Regenerative Applications Using Tooth Derived Stem Cells in Other Than Tooth Regeneration: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jong Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tooth derived stem cells or dental stem cells are categorized according to the location from which they are isolated and represent a promising source of cells for regenerative medicine. Originally, as one kind of mesenchymal stem cells, they are considered an alternative of bone marrow stromal cells. They share many commonalties but maintain differences. Considering their original function in development and the homeostasis of tooth structures, many applications of these cells in dentistry have aimed at tooth structure regeneration; however, the application in other than tooth structures has been attempted extensively. The availability from discarded or removed teeth can be an innate benefit as a source of autologous cells. Their origin from the neural crest results in exploitation of neurological and numerous other applications. This review briefly highlights current and future perspectives of the regenerative applications of tooth derived stem cells in areas beyond tooth regeneration.

  16. Regenerative Applications Using Tooth Derived Stem Cells in Other Than Tooth Regeneration: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yun-Jong; Cha, Seunghee; Park, Young-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Tooth derived stem cells or dental stem cells are categorized according to the location from which they are isolated and represent a promising source of cells for regenerative medicine. Originally, as one kind of mesenchymal stem cells, they are considered an alternative of bone marrow stromal cells. They share many commonalties but maintain differences. Considering their original function in development and the homeostasis of tooth structures, many applications of these cells in dentistry have aimed at tooth structure regeneration; however, the application in other than tooth structures has been attempted extensively. The availability from discarded or removed teeth can be an innate benefit as a source of autologous cells. Their origin from the neural crest results in exploitation of neurological and numerous other applications. This review briefly highlights current and future perspectives of the regenerative applications of tooth derived stem cells in areas beyond tooth regeneration.

  17. Evolution of high tooth replacement rates in sauropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Emic, Michael D; Whitlock, John A; Smith, Kathlyn M; Fisher, Daniel C; Wilson, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Tooth replacement rate can be calculated in extinct animals by counting incremental lines of deposition in tooth dentin. Calculating this rate in several taxa allows for the study of the evolution of tooth replacement rate. Sauropod dinosaurs, the largest terrestrial animals that ever evolved, exhibited a diversity of tooth sizes and shapes, but little is known about their tooth replacement rates. We present tooth replacement rate, formation time, crown volume, total dentition volume, and enamel thickness for two coexisting but distantly related and morphologically disparate sauropod dinosaurs Camarasaurus and Diplodocus. Individual tooth formation time was determined by counting daily incremental lines in dentin. Tooth replacement rate is calculated as the difference between the number of days recorded in successive replacement teeth. Each tooth family in Camarasaurus has a maximum of three replacement teeth, whereas each Diplodocus tooth family has up to five. Tooth formation times are about 1.7 times longer in Camarasaurus than in Diplodocus (315 vs. 185 days). Average tooth replacement rate in Camarasaurus is about one tooth every 62 days versus about one tooth every 35 days in Diplodocus. Despite slower tooth replacement rates in Camarasaurus, the volumetric rate of Camarasaurus tooth replacement is 10 times faster than in Diplodocus because of its substantially greater tooth volumes. A novel method to estimate replacement rate was developed and applied to several other sauropodomorphs that we were not able to thin section. Differences in tooth replacement rate among sauropodomorphs likely reflect disparate feeding strategies and/or food choices, which would have facilitated the coexistence of these gigantic herbivores in one ecosystem. Early neosauropods are characterized by high tooth replacement rates (despite their large tooth size), and derived titanosaurs and diplodocoids independently evolved the highest known tooth replacement rates among archosaurs.

  18. Evolution of high tooth replacement rates in sauropod dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D D'Emic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tooth replacement rate can be calculated in extinct animals by counting incremental lines of deposition in tooth dentin. Calculating this rate in several taxa allows for the study of the evolution of tooth replacement rate. Sauropod dinosaurs, the largest terrestrial animals that ever evolved, exhibited a diversity of tooth sizes and shapes, but little is known about their tooth replacement rates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present tooth replacement rate, formation time, crown volume, total dentition volume, and enamel thickness for two coexisting but distantly related and morphologically disparate sauropod dinosaurs Camarasaurus and Diplodocus. Individual tooth formation time was determined by counting daily incremental lines in dentin. Tooth replacement rate is calculated as the difference between the number of days recorded in successive replacement teeth. Each tooth family in Camarasaurus has a maximum of three replacement teeth, whereas each Diplodocus tooth family has up to five. Tooth formation times are about 1.7 times longer in Camarasaurus than in Diplodocus (315 vs. 185 days. Average tooth replacement rate in Camarasaurus is about one tooth every 62 days versus about one tooth every 35 days in Diplodocus. Despite slower tooth replacement rates in Camarasaurus, the volumetric rate of Camarasaurus tooth replacement is 10 times faster than in Diplodocus because of its substantially greater tooth volumes. A novel method to estimate replacement rate was developed and applied to several other sauropodomorphs that we were not able to thin section. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Differences in tooth replacement rate among sauropodomorphs likely reflect disparate feeding strategies and/or food choices, which would have facilitated the coexistence of these gigantic herbivores in one ecosystem. Early neosauropods are characterized by high tooth replacement rates (despite their large tooth size, and derived titanosaurs and

  19. Decreased bone density induced by antiepileptic drugs can cause accelerated orthodontic tooth movement in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoundi, Mohammad Sadegh Ahmad; Sheikhzadeh, Sedigheh; Mirhashemi, Amirhossein; Ansari, Elahe; Kheirandish, Yasaman; Allaedini, Mozhgan; Dehpour, Ahmadreza

    2018-02-16

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the carbamazepine and valproic acid on orthodontic tooth movement in male Wistar rats. Evaluation of tooth movement after 21 days of drugs infusion was carried out by feeler gauge. Bone densitometry on lateral cephalograms was conducted on days 1 and 21. After dissection of the maxillae, histologic parameters were evaluated. Orthodontic tooth movement was accelerated in experimental groups rather than controls. Optical density was significantly increased in these groups. In histologic sections, mesioapical portion of the PDL (Periodontal Ligament) was wider in experimental groups. Also, distoapical portion of the PDL was wider only in valproic acid group. Valproic acid and carbamazepine can decrease the bone density which may induce the accelerated orthodontic tooth movement in rats. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Effectiveness of minimally invasive surgical procedures in the acceleration of tooth movement: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfawal, Alaa M H; Hajeer, Mohammad Y; Ajaj, Mowaffak A; Hamadah, Omar; Brad, Bassel

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess systematically the available scientific evidence relating the efficiency of minimally invasive surgical procedures in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement and the adverse effects associated with these procedures. Electronic search of these databases CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar Beta, Trip, OpenGrey and PQDT OPEN was performed (last updated January 2016). The reference lists of the included studies were hand searched. Unpublished literature and ongoing studies were also checked electronically through ClinicalTrials.gov and (ICTRP). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with patients who received minimally invasive surgical procedures combined with fixed orthodontic appliances compared with conventional treatment were included. Cochrane's risk of bias tool was used to assess risk of bias. Four RCTs (61 patients) and nine ongoing protocols were included in this review. Only three RCTs were suitable for quantitative synthesis. Higher tooth movement rate was found with the minimally invasive surgical procedures by a weighted mean difference of 0.65 mm for 1 month of canine retraction (WMD = 0.65: 95 % CI (0.54, 0.76), p accelerated orthodontics (MISAO). Although the current review indicated that MISAO can help in accelerating canine retraction, further research in this domain should be performed before it can be recommended in everyday clinical practice.

  1. [Tooth shape and color as criteria for or against orthodontic space closure in case of a missing lateral incisor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wriedt, Susanne; Werner, Patrick; Wehrbein, Heinrich

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the esthetic parameters that are applied, more or less unconsciously, in deciding for or against orthodontic space closure in the case of aplasia or traumatic loss of lateral incisors. The width-height index for teeth 13 to 23 was measured on 200 dental students. The VITA Easyshade system was used to determine the components of the tooth color (L, C, h) and to identify differences between each tooth. Eight investigators subjectively assessed digital photographs of the subjects, opting for or against space closure. The Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated for the parameters measured. A comparison of the parameters showed that not one factor alone was responsible for the decision for or against space closure for esthetic reasons. Orthodontists were more likely to favor space closure when the canine was slightly wider and had a less pointed shape and the differences were very small between canine and central incisor in terms of hue, chroma, and lightness. We observed that the subjective decision on the esthetic aspects of space closure correlates closely with the objective criteria.

  2. Initial force systems during bodily tooth movement with plastic aligners and composite attachments: A three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Juan Pablo; Peña, Fabio Marcelo; Martínez, Valentina; Giraldo, Diana C; Cardona, Carlos Iván

    2015-05-01

    To describe, using a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model, the initial force system generated during bodily movement of upper canines with plastic aligners with and without composite attachments. A CAD model of an upper right canine, its alveolar bone and periodontal ligament, thermoformed plastic aligner, and two light-cured composite attachments were constructed. A FE model was used to analyze the effects of imposing a distal movement condition of 0.15 mm on the aligner (simulating the mechanics used to produce a distal bodily movement) with and without composite attachments. In terms of tension and compression stress distribution, without composite attachments a compression area in the cervical third of the distal root surface and a tension area in the apical third of the mesial surface were observed. With composite attachments, uniform compression areas in the distal root surface and uniform tension area in the mesial root surface were observed. Compression areas in the active surfaces of the composite attachments were also observed. In terms of movement patterns, an uncontrolled distal inclination, with rotation axis between the middle and cervical root thirds, was observed without composite attachment. Distal bodily movement (translation) was observed with composite attachment. In a three-dimensional FE analysis of a plastic aligner system biomechanically supplementary composite attachments generate the force system required to produce bodily tooth movement; the absence of biomechanically supplementary composite attachments favors the undesired inclination of the tooth during the translation movements.

  3. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Pregnancy and Oral Health Headaches and Jaw Pain? Check Your Posture! Men: ... Start by Visiting the Dentist Why is Oral Health Important for Men? What is Baby Bottle Tooth ...

  4. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... April 7, 2018 About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Children's Oral Health The History of Dental ... Orofacial Pain? What is Baby Bottle Tooth Decay? Learn what those dental words mean. The Life of ...

  5. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Children's Oral Health What is Baby Bottle Tooth Decay? What is ... The History of Dental Advances Why is Oral Health Important for Men? How Do I Care for ...

  6. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Is My Child at Risk for Early Childhood Tooth Decay? What is a Composite Resin (White Filling)? How Do I Care for My Child's Baby Teeth? Learn what those dental words mean. The Life ...

  7. Immediate tooth replacement using fiber-reinforced composite and natural tooth pontic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermanshah, Hamid; Motevasselian, Fariba

    2010-01-01

    The loss and replacement of anterior maxillary teeth poses several challenges. In patients refusing implant surgery, when minimal tooth reduction is desired, a fiber-reinforced composite fixed-partial denture may be used as a conservative alternative to a conventional fixed-partial denture for replacement of a single missing tooth. This article describes a clinical technique and six-year follow-up. The patient presented with a missing maxillary central incisor due to localized juvenile periodontitis. The abutment teeth were clinically stable. The advantage of supragingival margins and minimal tooth structure removal made the bonded bridge with a natural tooth pontic a viable procedure for this compromised restorative situation.

  8. Comparative study of gene expression during tooth eruption and orthodontic tooth movement in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X F; Zhao, Y B; Zhang, F M; Han, P Y

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to understand tooth eruption by comparing the gene expression during tooth eruption and orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). Orthodontic force was applied on maxillary molars for 2, 4, 7 and 14 days to study tooth movement. Mice at PN 0, 7, 10, 15 and 21 were fixed to observe tooth eruption. Comparative study of two procedures was assessed by haematoxylin and eosin, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining and in situ hybridization for matrix metalloproteinase (Mmp)2, 13, bone sialoprotein (Bsp) and osteocalcin (Ocn). Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and expression of Mmp2, 13 were obviously detectable in the compression region during OTM. They were also identified in the occlusal and apical region of alveolar bone during tooth eruption. Strong expression of Bsp and Ocn was detectable at the tension side during OTM. These genes were also expressed in the inner lateral region of alveolar bone adjacent to the tooth, but absent in the inner surface of the occlusal and root apical regions during tooth eruption. The process of alveolar bone metabolism during developmental eruption and OTM shares the same mechanism. Internal force, as the orthodontic force for OTM, may be initiating factor for tooth eruption.

  9. Impacted supernumerary tooth in coronoid process: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Se; Lee, Je Ho; Park, Hyok; Jung, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog [Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Impaction of tooth is a situation in which an unerupted tooth is wedged against another tooth or teeth or otherwise located so that it cannot erupt normally. The supernumerary tooth is also called as hyperdontia and defined as the condition of having additional tooth to the regular number of teeth. The most common supernumerary tooth is a mesiodens, which is a mal-formed, peg-like tooth that occurs between the maxillary incisors. The supernumerary tooth is commonly impacted but they are frequently impacted on maxilla. Ectopic impaction of supernumerary tooth on mandibular condyle, coronoid process, ascending ramus, and pterygomandibular space is very rare condition. In this case, we report a case of impacted supernumerary tooth on mandibular sigmoid notch without definite pathologic change.

  10. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Canine). 113.214 Section 113.214 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine... antibody against canine parvovirus to determine susceptibility. A constant virus-varying serum...

  11. 9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. 113.316... Virus Vaccines § 113.316 Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine shall be prepared... immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared...

  12. Palatoplasty with latex biomembrane with polilisine 0,1% in canine experimental palatal defectPalatoplastia com biomembrana natural de látex com polilisina 0,1% em cães com defeito palatino experimentalmente induzido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Barboza Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The palatoplasty is a correction surgery to restore the isolation between the oral and nasal cavity, avoid breath of food. There are many techniques to repair palatal defects, and the most used is mucoperiosteal flap. Grafts and prothesis, can be used too. Scientific works with Natural Latex Biomembrane with 0,1% Polylisine reveals properties like biocompatibility, improve and accelerate the cicatricial process, the stimulation of new vessels and organized tissue growth in different organs. Seven dogs were arranged in two groups and were submitted to experimental hard palate cleft. Five dogs received palatal repair with the natural latex biomembrane with 0,1% polylisine. Two animals did not receive any repair (control group and the defect healing by second intention. After surgery, the groups were observed macroscopically and clinically to evaluate the results. The healling of cleft palate of group I was faster than control group, and this fact suggests that the biomembrane is an accelerator factor for cicatricial process. A palatoplastia é uma cirurgia de correção para restabelecer o isolamento entre as cavidades oral e nasal impedindo assim que alimentos sejam aspirados. O tamanho da fenda limita seu fechamento, mas existem várias técnicas descritas para isso, a maioria, realizadas com retalhos autólogos da mucosa do palato, ou ainda enxertos e próteses. Trabalhos científicos realizados com a Biomembrana Natural de Látex com Polilisina 0,1% tornaram conhecidas suas propriedades de favorecimento e aceleração do processo cicatricial, de estimulação da neovascularização, de crescimento tecidual organizado em diferentes órgãos e tecidos e de biocompatibilidade. Foi provocado um defeito no palato secundário de sete cães, dos quais, cinco foram recobertos com a biomembrana de látex, os outros (dois foram escolhidos como controle e tiveram o fechamento por segunda intenção. No período pós-operatório foram realizadas observa

  13. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-09-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age.

  14. Association between Tooth Agenesis and Skeletal Malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana Maria Guerra; Trevizan, Mariana; Matsumoto, Mírian Aiko Nakane; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; da Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; Horta, Karla Carpio; Romano, Fabio Lourenço; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Küchler, Erika Calvano

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between tooth agenesis and skeletal malocclusions in Brazilian non-syndromic orthodontic patients. Pretreatment orthodontic records of 348 patients of both genders and with various skeletal malocclusions were examined. Tooth agenesis was evaluated in panoramic radiographs. Angular measurements were taken from lateral cephalometric radiographs to classify the patient's malocclusion as skeletal Class I, Class II and Class III. Subjects were divided into 2 groups, "with tooth agenesis" and "without tooth agenesis". Chi-square or Fisher exact test was used to compare categorical data. ANOVA with Tukey's post-test was used for means comparisons. An alpha of 5% was established. From 348 analysed patients, 28 presented tooth agenesis. There was no difference between genders (P = 0.27) nor mean age (P = 0.16). The most prevalent skeletal malocclusion was Class I (63.11%), followed by Class II (25.94%), and Class III (10.95%). The mean of congenitally missing teeth was 1.3 (SD 0.13). Thirteen subjects had premolar agenesis, 13 upper lateral incisor agenesis, 4 lower incisor agenesis and 2 molars agenesis. The group with tooth agenesis presented A point-nasion-B point (ANB) angle smaller (1.66 [SD 2.52]) than the group without tooth agenesis (2.86 [SD 2.49]) (P = 0.01). ANB angle had a negative correlation with the number of congenitally missing teeth (P = 0.039; r = -0.39). Tooth agenesis is associated with a smaller A point-nasion-B point angle and is negatively correlated with the number of congenitally missing teeth.

  15. Dielectric response of the human tooth dentine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leskovec, J. [Dental Clinic, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Hrvatski trg 6, 1104 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Filipic, C. [Jozef Stefan Institute, P.O. Box 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Levstik, A. [Jozef Stefan Institute, P.O. Box 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: adrijan.levstik@ijs.si

    2005-07-15

    Dielectric properties of tooth dentine can be well described by the model which was developed for the dielectric response to hydrating porous cement paste. It is shown that the normalized dielectric constant and the normalized specific conductivity are proportional to the model parameters -bar {sub v0} and {sigma}{sub v}, indicating the deposition of AgCl in the dentine tubules during the duration of the precipitation. The fractal dimension of the tooth dentine was determined by dielectric spectroscopy.

  16. Dielectric response of the human tooth dentine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovec, J.; Filipic, C.; Levstik, A.

    2005-01-01

    Dielectric properties of tooth dentine can be well described by the model which was developed for the dielectric response to hydrating porous cement paste. It is shown that the normalized dielectric constant and the normalized specific conductivity are proportional to the model parameters -bar v0 and σ v , indicating the deposition of AgCl in the dentine tubules during the duration of the precipitation. The fractal dimension of the tooth dentine was determined by dielectric spectroscopy

  17. Dielectric response of the human tooth dentine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskovec, J.; Filipič, C.; Levstik, A.

    2005-07-01

    Dielectric properties of tooth dentine can be well described by the model which was developed for the dielectric response to hydrating porous cement paste. It is shown that the normalized dielectric constant and the normalized specific conductivity are proportional to the model parameters ɛ and σv, indicating the deposition of AgCl in the dentine tubules during the duration of the precipitation. The fractal dimension of the tooth dentine was determined by dielectric spectroscopy.

  18. Alveolar bone resorption after tooth extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Cena; Popovski, Stipica

    2012-01-01

    Alveolar ridge resorption has long been considered an unavoidable consequence of tooth extraction. Atrophy of the alveolar bone may cause significant esthetic and surgical problems in implantation, as well as at prosthetic and restorative dentistry. Alveolar ridge prophylaxis immediately upon tooth extraction may reduce such sequelae for both, the treating dentist and the patient. Attempts to reduce alveolar bone resorption have included the placement of natural roots, root analogues, and...

  19. Tooth surface treatment strategies for adhesive cementation

    OpenAIRE

    Rohr, Nadja; Fischer, Jens

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tooth surface pre-treatment steps on shear bond strength, which is essential for understanding the adhesive cementation process. MATERIALS AND METHODS Shear bond strengths of different cements with various tooth surface treatments (none, etching, priming, or etching and priming) on enamel and dentin of human teeth were measured using the Swiss shear test design. Three adhesives (Permaflo DC, Panavia F 2.0, and Panavia V5) and one sel...

  20. Computer simulation of gear tooth manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavriplis, Dimitri; Huston, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    The use of computer graphics to simulate gear tooth manufacturing procedures is discussed. An analytical basis for the simulation is established for spur gears. The simulation itself, however, is developed not only for spur gears, but for straight bevel gears as well. The applications of the developed procedure extend from the development of finite element models of heretofore intractable geometrical forms, to exploring the fabrication of nonstandard tooth forms.