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Sample records for experimental canine tooth

  1. Tooth fractures in canine clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capik, I.; Ledecky, V.; Sevcik, A.

    2001-01-01

    Tooth fractures constitute a considerable fraction of all tooth diseases. Out of the 5,370 dogs treated during four years, 492 were presented with dental problems and 28.3 % of the latter were treated for tooth fractures. Canines were the most frequently affected teeth (38.8 %), followed by premolars (33.1 %), incisors (25.9 %), and molars (2.2 %), 55.4 % of the patients with canine and incisor fractures being large breed dogs. Fractures of premolars (mostly of 108, 208) were divided evenly irrespective of breed or body size. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment yielded good therapeutic results in most cases, but repeated treatment was necessary in some patients

  2. Canine tooth size and fitness in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Steven R; Setchell, Joanna M; Charpentier, Marie; Knapp, Leslie A; Wickings, E Jean

    2008-07-01

    Sexual selection theory explains the evolution of exaggerated male morphologies and weaponry, but the fitness consequences of developmental and age-related changes in these features remain poorly understood. This long-term study of mandrill monkeys (Mandrillus sphinx) demonstrates how age-related changes in canine tooth weaponry and adult canine size correlate closely with male lifetime reproductive success. Combining long-term demographic and morphometric data reveals that male fitness covaries simply and directly with canine ontogeny, adult maximum size, and wear. However, fitness is largely independent of other somatometrics. Male mandrills sire offspring almost exclusively when their canines exceed approximately 30 mm, or two-thirds of average adult value (45 mm). Moreover, sires have larger canines than nonsires. The tooth diminishes through wear as animals age, corresponding with, and perhaps influencing, reproductive senescence. These factors combine to constrain male reproductive opportunities to a brief timespan, defined by the period of maximum canine length. Sexually-selected weaponry, especially when it is nonrenewable like the primate canine tooth, is intimately tied to the male life course. Our analyses of this extremely dimorphic species indicate that sexual selection is closely intertwined with growth, development, and aging, pointing to new directions for sexual selection theory. Moreover, the primate canine tooth has potential as a simple mammalian system for testing genetically-based models of aging. Finally, the tooth may record details of life histories in fossil primates, especially when sexual selection has played a role in the evolution of dimorphism.

  3. Development of the canine tooth in the beagle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amimoto, A.; Iwamoto, S.; Hachimura, H.; Miyamoto, T.; Murata, T.; Taura, Y.; Nakama, S.; Hayashi, K.

    1993-01-01

    The growth of the crown and root in the canine tooth of beagle dogs were observed macroscopically and radiographically, and changes of occlusion with age were investigated. Completion of growth in the crown of the canine tooth was observed in both mandible and maxilla, and its eruption was accompanied by development of the dental root. The permanent canine erupted on the lingual side of deciduous canine in the mandible, and on the mesial side of the deciduous canine in the maxilla. Movement of the permanent canine to normal occlusal position(buccal direction in mandibular canine, and distal direction in maxillary canine)was followed by the loss of the deciduous canine. Coexistence of the permanent and deciduous canines occurred for about 2.4 weeks in the maxilla and about 1.4 weeks in the mandible, on average. Macroscopically, the growth of the permanent canine was completed by 33 weeks of age in the mandible and about 34 weeks of age in the maxilla. The mature root of the permanent canine was recognized radiographically at about 43 weeks of age in the mandible and 47 weeks of age in the maxilla

  4. Effects of low-energy laser irradiation on the distalization velocity during experimental canine tooth movement in humans: 'comparative clinical study'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Delma Rebelo

    2003-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) upon the velocity of canine tooth movement and consequently bone remodeling. A total of eleven patients were treated with a 780 nm diode laser. One side of the upper arcade was considered control group and was not irradiated but received mechanical activation every thirty days. The opposite side received the same mechanical activation but was also irradiated at days 0, 3, 7 and 14 of each month. Data of the biometrical progress were taken on both sides on days 3,7,14,21 and 30 of each month. The results indicate that all patients showed significant acceleration of the distalization velocity on the side treated with LLLT when compared to the control. (author)

  5. Surgical treatments of the impacted canine tooth in young dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amimoto, A.; Iwamoto, S.; Hachimura, H.; Sasaki, K.; Taura, Y.; Nakama, S.; Yamanouchi, T.

    1993-01-01

    Surgical treatments of the impacted canine tooth were carried out in 8 young dogs, and the results were successful in 12 out of 14 cases (85.7%). The treatments consisting of surgical correction by immediate tipping movement, fenestration of the gingiva, and removal of the impacted tooth, were applied to 14 cases radiographically showing the immature tooth root and no abnormalities in the tooth root or alveolar bone. Impacted teeth were seen in 8 regions of the maxilla and 6 regions of the mandible. Mesioversion was seen in almost all maxillary impacted teeth, while linguoversion or lingual mesioversion in all mandibular cases. Surgical correction was carried out by immediate tipping movement after removal of the retained deciduous canine with or without resection of the alveolar bone. Fixation of the moved teeth was done using a wedge made from the deciduous canine root, which was driven into the vacant alveolar cavity after moving. An additional fixation using a steel wire and/or self-curing resin was done, if necessary

  6. Age estimation by canines' pulp/tooth ratio in an Iranian population using digital panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mahdieh; Shadkam, Elaheh; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Dehghani, Mahboobe

    2018-04-01

    Age estimation in adults is an important issue in forensic science. This study aimed to estimate the chronological age of Iranians by means of pulp/tooth area ratio (AR) of canines in digital panoramic radiographs. The sample consisted of panoramic radiographs of 271 male and female subjects aged 16-64 years. The pulp/tooth area ratio (AR) of upper and lower canines was calculated by AutoCAD software. Data were subjected to correlation and regression analysis. There was a significant and inverse correlation between age and pulp/tooth area ratio of upper and lower canines (r=-0.794 for upper canine and r=-0.282 for lower canine; p-value<0.001). Linear regression equations were derived separately for upper, lower and both canines. The mean difference between actual and estimated age using upper canine was 6.07±1.7. The results showed that the pulp/tooth area ratios of canines are a reliable method for age estimation in Iranians. The pulp/tooth area ratio of upper canine was better correlated with chronological age than that of lower canine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The timing of tooth eruption and root development of permanent canine and premolars in Korean children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Shin; Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the timing and sequence of eruption of permanent canine and premolars, and to evaluate tooth calcification stage on emergence in Korean children. The sample was comprised of 1,266 children (male 720, female 546) aged from 7-13 years. Tooth eruption and calcification stages were determined through oral and panoramic radiographic examination, respectively. Probit analysis was used to calculate the timing of tooth eruption and tooth calcification stage from these cross-sectional data. In both males and females, eruption occurred around the time when one third of tooth root or more was formed. The sequence was as follows: first premolar, canine, and second premolar in maxilla, and canine, first premolar and second premolar in mandible. Tooth eruption occurred earlier in girls compared with boys, averaging 0.63 years. Eruption sequence is identical in males and females with a trend for females to erupt earlier than males. Tooth eruption becomes earlier over the past decades in Korean children.

  8. The timing of tooth eruption and root development of permanent canine and premolars in Korean children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Chang Shin; Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the timing and sequence of eruption of permanent canine and premolars, and to evaluate tooth calcification stage on emergence in Korean children. The sample was comprised of 1,266 children (male 720, female 546) aged from 7-13 years. Tooth eruption and calcification stages were determined through oral and panoramic radiographic examination, respectively. Probit analysis was used to calculate the timing of tooth eruption and tooth calcification stage from these cross-sectional data. In both males and females, eruption occurred around the time when one third of tooth root or more was formed. The sequence was as follows: first premolar, canine, and second premolar in maxilla, and canine, first premolar and second premolar in mandible. Tooth eruption occurred earlier in girls compared with boys, averaging 0.63 years. Eruption sequence is identical in males and females with a trend for females to erupt earlier than males. Tooth eruption becomes earlier over the past decades in Korean children.

  9. Orthodontic tooth movement of total buccally blocked-out canine: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhal, Hessa M; Rabie, Bakr; Wong, Ricky W K

    2009-01-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement of total buccally blocked-out canine is usually difficult as it is related with the problems of severe crowding, midline deviation, involvement of long root movement and risk of gingival recession. A case report was presented to illustrate the treatment principles. It demonstrated with careful planning in extraction sequence and orthodontic mechanics to deliver light, controlled force, condition of totally blocked out canine could be corrected with good results.

  10. The effect of buccal corticotomy on accelerating orthodontic tooth movement of maxillary canine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbakhshi, Mohammad Reza; Motamedi, Ali Mohammad Kalantar; Feizbakhsh, Masoud; Mogharehabed, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Selective alveolar corticotomy is defined as an intentional injury to cortical bone. This technique is an effective means of accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of buccal corticotomy in accelerating maxillary canine retraction. Materials and Methods: The sample in this clinical trial study consisted of 15 adult female patients with therapeutic need for extraction of maxillary first premolars and maximum canine retraction. By use of split-mouth design, at the time of premolars extraction, buccal corticotomy was performed around the maxillary first premolar, randomly on one side of maxilla, and the other side was reserved as the control side. Canine retraction was performed by use of friction – less mechanic with simple vertical loop. Every 2 weeks, distance between canines and second premolars was measured until complete space closure. The velocity of space closure was calculated to evaluate the effect of this technique in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using independent t-test, and the significance was set at 0.05. Results: The rate of canine retraction was significantly higher on the corticotomy side than the control side by an average of 1.8 mm/month versus 1.1 mm/month in the corticotomy side and control side, respectively (P orthodontic tooth movement about two times faster than conventional orthodontics and it is significant in early stages after surgical porsedure. Therefore Buccal corticotomy is a useful adjunct technique for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. PMID:27605986

  11. Orthodontic tooth movement after extraction of previously autotransplanted maxillary canines and ridge augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, A R; Fletcher, B

    2000-12-01

    A case report is detailed in which autotransplanted maxillary canines were removed and the spaces closed. Substantial surrounding bone loss was associated with the upper right canine, and a bone graft was needed to reestablish normal dentoalveolar ridge morphology. Bone was taken from the maxillary tuberosity and placed in the canine extraction site, fixed with a bone screw, and covered with GoreTex. Seven months after placement of the bone graft, the GoreTex and stabilizing screw were removed to allow for consolidation of the bone. The upper left canine and lower second premolars were extracted, and fixed appliances were placed in both arches to align the teeth and close the spaces. Protraction of the upper right first premolar and retraction of the lateral incisor into the graft site were kept slow and constant with continued periodontal assessment. During the space closure, there was some concern that the bone in the graft site might resorb, leaving the teeth with compromised periodontal support. However, no significant periodontal attachment loss occurred despite ongoing concern about the amount of keratinized tissue. Perhaps the relatively slow rate of tooth movement provided for bone to be maintained and recreated ahead of the tooth. Almost complete closure of the upper canine extraction spaces was achieved. The upper premolars were substituted for the maxillary canines, and unfavorable prosthetic options were thus avoided. The lower arch was aligned, and the extraction spaces completely closed.

  12. Canine and incisor microwear in pitheciids and Ateles reflects documented patterns of tooth use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delezene, Lucas K; Teaford, Mark F; Ungar, Peter S

    2016-09-01

    Platyrrhine species differ in the extent to and the manner in which they use their incisors and canines during food ingestion. For example, Ateles uses its anterior teeth to process mechanically nondemanding soft fruits, while the sclerocarp-harvesting pitheciids rely extensively on these teeth to acquire and process more demanding foods. Pitheciids themselves vary in anterior tooth use, with the pitheciines (Cacajao, Chiropotes, and Pithecia) noted to use their robust canines in a variety of ways to predate seeds, while Callicebus, which rarely predates seeds, uses its incisors and exceptionally short canines to scrape tough mesocarp from fruits. To investigate the relationship between tooth use and dental wear, microwear textures were investigated for the anterior teeth of these five genera of platyrrhine primates. Using a white light confocal microscope, 12 microwear texture attributes that reflect feature size, anisotropy, density, and complexity were recorded from high-resolution epoxy casts of the incisors and canines of adult wild-collected Brazilian specimens of Ateles, Callicebus, Cacajao, Chiropotes, and Pithecia. Pitheciine canines tend to have deep microwear features and complex, anisotropic microwear textures, while Ateles anterior teeth tend to have very small features, low feature density, and less complex and anisotropic surfaces. Callicebus incisor and canine microwear is generally intermediate in size and complexity between those extremes. These findings align with expectations from reported field observations of tooth use and illustrate the potential for using microwear texture analysis to infer patterns of anterior tooth use in extinct primates. Am J Phys Anthropol 161:6-25, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Identification of stiffness variations in supporting substances of a human canine tooth with a bracket-beam-piezoelectric sensor and its electromechanical impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector A. Tinoco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental method is described to identify the stiffness variations produced by drillings done in different supporting substances of a human canine tooth. To measure the supporting substances parameters through of a canine, a sensor-actuator system was developed. The sensor-actuator device was composed of a stainless steel bracket bonded to a steel wire attached to two piezoelectric transducers, with a concentrated mass attached to the end of the wire. To excite the device, high frequency voltage (between 5 and 10 KHz was applied through the piezo-transducers, which affects the tooth by means of the vibration of the wire. High frequency mechanical vibrations allowed the appraisal of the mechanical response from the supporting substances. Mechanical responses associated with the stiffness of the support were quantified with the electrical impedance of the piezo-transducers. The device was coupled to the crown of a canine tooth simulating a condition of fixing as in the bone, the tooth was fastened by the root portion inside the supporting substance. Four supporting substances were characterized for the tests. After establishing base values of the stiffness of each supporting substance, the stiffness variations were assessed in two stages (two drillings; these were made perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the tooth, Results show that it is possible to assess stiffness variations with the proposed methodology as well as to quantify the stiffness differences, by means of variation indexes.

  14. Orthodontic treatment of an unerupted mandibular canine tooth in a patient with mixed dentition: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Dinoi, Maria Teresa; Marchetti, Enrico; Garagiola, Umberto; Caruso, Silvia; Mummolo, Stefano; Marzo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this case report was to describe the surgical?orthodontic treatment of an unerupted mandibular canine tooth in a 9-year-old girl. Case presentation A 9-year-old white girl presented with an unerupted right mandibular canine tooth. Combined surgical?orthodontic treatment was performed to correct dental impaction and to achieve good aesthetic and functional results. Conclusion Orthodontic treatment achieved all of the required objectives.

  15. Orthodontic treatment of an unerupted mandibular canine tooth in a patient with mixed dentition: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinoi, Maria Teresa; Marchetti, Enrico; Garagiola, Umberto; Caruso, Silvia; Mummolo, Stefano; Marzo, Giuseppe

    2016-06-10

    The aim of this case report was to describe the surgical-orthodontic treatment of an unerupted mandibular canine tooth in a 9-year-old girl. A 9-year-old white girl presented with an unerupted right mandibular canine tooth. Combined surgical-orthodontic treatment was performed to correct dental impaction and to achieve good aesthetic and functional results. Orthodontic treatment achieved all of the required objectives.

  16. Endodontic therapy of a mandibular canine tooth with irreversible pulpitis secondary to dentigerous cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGee, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Dentigerous cysts are uncommon, yet are being reported with increasing frequency in the veterinary literature. Dentigerous cysts are a type of benign odontogenic cyst associated with impacted teeth, most commonly the mandibular first premolar tooth. Significant bone destruction can occur secondary to the expansion of a dentigerous cyst. The expanding cyst can lead to pathology of neighboring teeth, which can include external root resorption or pulpitis. Intraoral dental radiographs are imperative to properly assess the presence and extent of a dentigerous cyst, as well as the status of the neighboring teeth. This case report describes treatment for dentigerous cyst including cyst lining curettage, mandibular bone regeneration, and endodontic therapy for a canine tooth with irreversible pulpitis.

  17. Models of experimental saccular aneurysms of carotid arteries in canine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haixia; Cheng Yingsheng; Li Minghua

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the availability by making experimental saccular aneurysm models of carotid arteries in canine similar to human intracranial aneurysms. Methods: Twenty healthy canines with experimental saccular side-wall aneurysms of carotid arteries were created successfully by surgery. Results: Forty experimental saccular side-wall aneurysms of carotid arteries were created successfully with 36 aneurysms and parent arteries maintaining patency with each other and four spontaneously occluded confirmed by angiography. Model successful rate reached 90%. Conclusions: Experimental saccular side-wall aneurysms of carotid arteries in canines were one of best models created for simulating human intracranial aneurysms. (authors)

  18. Prediction of Un-erupted Canine and Premolar Tooth Size in Mixed Dentition among Bangladeshi Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokrobrty, R; Rafique, T; Ghosh, R; Biswas, A K; Sajedeen, M; Hassan, G S

    2017-10-01

    Accurate prediction of the space available to accommodate the size of the un-erupted canines and premolars plays an important role in mixed dentition in Orthodontics. This Descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Orthodontics of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University from July 2014 to June 2015. Dental study models of 140 patients were taken as sample. The sample was consisted of 54 Bangladeshi males and 86 females aged between 12 to 17 years and without any previous orthodontic treatment fully erupted permanent teeth and with no dental anomalies were recruited. The study was done by measuring the mesio-distal dimensions of teeth over the dental cast. A pre-structured data collection form which includes the particulars of the patient and data was filled. All patients were having a serial number to maintain their confidentiality. The study protocol was approved by "Institutional Review Board" of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh. Un-paired t test were used to examine differences between genders, correlation coefficients and linear regression equations were used to carry out the analysis. Descriptive statistics including means, standard deviations, and minimum-maximum values were calculated. Unpaired sample 't' tests were carried out to compare tooth size between the sexes. Logistic regression for development of new prediction formula on the basis of study sample of our population. Pearson correlation coefficient test for found the correlation between mandibular incisors and mandibular and maxillary canine and premolars in each quadrant. The difference between the present study with that of Moyers and Tanaka and Johnston were statistically significant (p<0.001). The values from Moyers and Tanaka and Johnston methods exceed while comparing to Bangladeshi population. Therefore, Moyers and Tanaka and Johnston method of prediction are not applicable for our population.

  19. Focal hyalinization during experimental tooth movement in beagle dogs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böhl, Martina von; Maltha, J.C.; Hoff, J.W. Von den; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to study morphological differences between the periodontal structures of beagle dogs showing different rates of tooth movement under identical experimental conditions. An orthodontic appliance was placed on the mandibular second premolar and the first molar to exert a continuous and

  20. Effects of low-energy laser irradiation on the distalization velocity during experimental canine tooth movement in humans: 'comparative clinical study'; Efeitos da irradiacao com laser em baixa intensidade na velocidade de distalizacao de caninos durante a movimentacao ortodontica: 'estudo clinico comparativo'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Delma Rebelo

    2003-07-01

    This research investigated the effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) upon the velocity of canine tooth movement and consequently bone remodeling. A total of eleven patients were treated with a 780 nm diode laser. One side of the upper arcade was considered control group and was not irradiated but received mechanical activation every thirty days. The opposite side received the same mechanical activation but was also irradiated at days 0, 3, 7 and 14 of each month. Data of the biometrical progress were taken on both sides on days 3,7,14,21 and 30 of each month. The results indicate that all patients showed significant acceleration of the distalization velocity on the side treated with LLLT when compared to the control. (author)

  1. Mathematical equation for prediction of cat mandibular canal height dimension based on canine tooth width measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Miguel; Carreira, L Miguel

    2016-06-01

    The present study was performed in a sample of 33 cats and aimed (1) to characterise the mandible height (Mh), mandibular canal height (MCh) and the distance between the interdental alveolar margin and the mandibular canal (dIAM-MC); and (2) to develop a mathematical model for dimension prediction of MCh using the patient's age, weight (Wg) and canine tooth width at the free gingival margin level (wCGM) that was easily accessible during the oral examination. Age, sex, breed, weight, skull type and the wCGM were the recorded variables for each patient. Right and left lateral view skull radiographs were made followed by measurements of the mandible anatomical structures, taken between the third premolar distal root and the fourth premolar proximal root. Results were considered statistically significant for P values <0.05, and statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. We observed a strong correlation only between wCGM and MCh, and a prediction mathematical model was developed to calculate the MCh, with a standard error of only 0.4 mm. Our study allows a surgeon to establish relationships between a physical parameter, such as wCGM, evaluated in an oral examination, and the mandibular canal, which is a very important anatomical structure to consider in surgical procedures. Ideally, surgeons should always plan their mandible work only after obtaining a final diagnosis achieved through the use of complementary imaging exams, such as intra- and extra-oral radiographs. Thus, this mathematical equation offers an additional tool, providing more information on the relationships between oral anatomical structures, reducing the risk of iatrogenic lesions and promoting patient safety. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  2. Repair of a defect following the removal of an impacted maxillary canine by orthodontic tooth movement: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wai Yip; Rabie, A Bakr M; Wong, Ricky Wk

    2010-02-15

    This case report describes a 13-year-old boy with alveolar bony defect resulted from surgical removal of impacted upper canine transposed in the anterior region. The boy had a normal occlusion with malposition of upper central and lateral incisors. The treatment objectives were to align teeth, close spaces by mesial movement of the buccal segments in the upper jaw to repair bone loss. Fixed appliance with palatal root torque was used for the mesial movements, levelling, and alignment of teeth.Orthodontic tooth movement consisted of a sequence of root movement in a direction to increase the thickness of the labial cortical plate of bone, could ensure healthier periodontium. A healthier periodontium prior to space closure ensured repair of alveolar bony defect after surgical intervention. Orthodontic tooth movement should be added to our armamentarium for the repair of alveolar bony defect.

  3. Evaluating the Amount of Tooth Movement and Root Resorption during Canine Retraction with Friction versus Frictionless Mechanics Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlouf, Mohamed; Aboul-Ezz, Amr; Fayed, Mona Salah; Hafez, Hend

    2018-02-15

    The current study was carried out to compare the amount of tooth movement during canine retraction comparing two different retraction mechanics; friction mechanics represented by a NiTi closed coil spring versus frictionless mechanics represented by T - loop, and their effect on root resorption using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). Ten patients were selected in a split-mouth study design that had a malocclusion that necessitates the extraction of maxillary first premolars and retraction of maxillary canines. The right maxillary canines were retracted using T - loops fabricated from 0.017 X 0.025 TMA wires. The left maxillary canines received NiTi coil spring with 150 gm of retraction force. Pre retraction and post retraction Cone Beam Computed Tomography were taken to evaluate the amount of tooth movement and root resorption using three-dimensional planes. T - loop side showed statistically significant higher mean anteroposterior measurement than NiTi coil spring side, indicating a lower amount of canine movement pre and post a canine retraction. Concerning the root resorption, there was no statistically significant change in the mean measurements of canine root length post retraction. The NiTi coil spring side showed more distal movement more than the T-loop side. Both retraction mechanics with controlled retraction force, do not cause root resorption.

  4. The effect of buccal corticotomy on accelerating orthodontic tooth movement of maxillary canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Jahanbakhshi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on result of this study, corticotomy can accelerates the rate of orthodontic tooth movement about two times faster than conventional orthodontics and it is significant in early stages after surgical porsedure. Therefore Buccal corticotomy is a useful adjunct technique for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement.

  5. Inhibitory effect of interferon-γ on experimental tooth movement in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Haruka; Kitaura, Hideki; Yoshimatsu, Masako; Fujimura, Yuji; Morita, Yukiko; Eguchi, Toshiko; Yoshida, Noriaki

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of interferon (IFN)-γ on experimental tooth movement in mice using a murine experimental tooth movement model. An Ni-Ti closed-coil spring was inserted between the upper-anterior alveolar bones and the upper-left first molars in mice. We evaluated the relationship between local Ifn-γ mRNA levels and orthodontic tooth movement. In other experiments, IFN-γ was injected adjacent to each first molar every other day during tooth movement. After 12 days, the amount of tooth movement was measured. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells at the pressure side of each experimental tooth were counted as osteoclasts. Local Ifn-γ mRNA expression increased with orthodontic tooth movement. The number of TRAP-positive cells increased on the pressure side of the first molar. In contrast, the degree of tooth movement and the number of TRAP-positive cells on the pressure side in IFN-γ-injected mice were less than those of control mice. IFN-γ was induced in experimental tooth movement, and could inhibit mechanical force-loaded osteoclastogenesis and tooth movement. These results suggest that IFN-γ might be useful in controlling orthodontic tooth movement because of its inhibitory action on excessive osteoclastogenesis during this movement.

  6. Altered anatomy in a case with a buccally impacted maxillary canine tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, M C; Comes, C A; Stanciu, D; Ciuluvică, R C; Motoc, A; Niculescu, M C; Jianu, Adelina Maria

    2010-01-01

    Bilateral dissections of maxilla were performed in a human adult cadaver head, male, aged 53 years. After the en block removal of the soft tissues in the oral and infraorbital regions, the antero-lateral surface of maxilla was exposed and also the vestibular aspect of the upper alveolar process. An oblique labially impacted right upper canine was evidenced, completely submucosal: its apex was tangent to the maxillary sinus floor, while the superior side of the apical part of the root was in close relation with the floor of the laterally expanded inferior nasal meatus. Superior and adjacent to the neck of that impacted canine a follicular cyst was evidenced and the antral wall presented distally to the apex of the impacted canine a dehiscent area, where the antral mucosa was only covered by an incomplete thin bony lamella. The incisors on that side were present but no resorption was identified at their level. Within the anterior border of the wall separating the maxillary sinus, small, and the inferior nasal meatus, the nerve for that impacted canine was coursing; the nerves for the upper incisors were initially located within the antero-lateral wall of the inferior nasal meatus. Although small, the maxillary sinus presented a supero-medial recess above the enlarged inferior nasal meatus and lateral to the normally-sized middle nasal meatus.

  7. Guided tooth eruption: Comparison of open and closed eruption techniques in labially impacted maxillary canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M londhe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: After third molars, the maxillary canines are the most commonly impacted permanent teeth and one-third of these are labial impactions. Impacted canines often require orthodontic guidance in the eruption. This study was conducted to assess the posttreatment results of surgically exposed and orthodontically aligned labially impacted maxillary canines comparing two different surgical techniques. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two phases, a surgical phase and an orthodontic phase. In surgical phase, events during surgical exposure and recovery of 31 patients with labially impacted maxillary canine were recorded. Patients were managed with open and closed eruption technique. The assessment included comparison of two techniques of surgical exposure, postoperative pain, mobility, vitality, periodontal health, level of impaction, and duration of orthodontic treatment. Results: The postoperative recovery was longer after open eruption than close eruption technique (P = 0.000. Postoperative pain experienced by patients was similar, but regression of pain was faster in closed eruption technique. The mean surgical time for open eruption technique was lesser when compared with closed eruption technique (P = 0.000. The total duration of orthodontic treatment was directly dependent upon the level of impaction, with deeper level of impaction having longer duration of orthodontic treatment. The mobility and vitality of guided canine was similar in both techniques. Conclusion: The closed eruption technique was a longer surgical procedure, but the postoperative pain regression was faster. The duration of orthodontic treatment was longer with deeper level of impaction. The closed eruption surgical techniques provide better periodontal tissues around the guided erupted teeth.

  8. Evaluation of the efficacy and duration of immunity of a canine combination vaccine against virulent parvovirus, infectious canine hepatitis virus, and distemper virus experimental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmagid, Omar Y; Larson, Laurie; Payne, Laurie; Tubbs, Anna; Wasmoen, Terri; Schultz, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    The results of this study confirmed that dogs vaccinated subcutaneously with a commercially available multivalent vaccine containing modified-live canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 2, canine parvovirus type 2b, and canine parainfluenza virus antigens were protected against sequential experimental challenge 55 to 57 months after initial vaccination given at 7 to 8 weeks of age. All 10 vaccinates were protected against clinical diseases and mortality following parvovirus and infectious canine hepatitis experimental infections. All vaccinates were protected against mortality and 90% against clinical disease following distemper challenge. These data support at least a 4-year duration of immunity for these three "core" fractions in the combination vaccine.

  9. Experimental chemonucleolysis with chymopapain in canine intervertebral disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, T.; Sumi, A.; Hashimoto, A.

    1993-01-01

    The present study describes the radiological and histological changes in the canine intervertebral disk after the experimental injection of chymopapain as the chemical reagent, and determines the appropriate dose of the enzyme for treatment of herniated disks. By radiography, narrowing of the disk space was observed within 2 weeks after the injection of chymopapain, and recovered to 74.1% in the 0.1 mg group, 61.1% in the 1.0 mg group and 71.7% in the 10.0 mg group at 12 weeks. The disk space recovery showed a tendency to delay with aging. Microscopically, proteoglycan positive matrix appeared and the nuclear space was reduced in each disk at 2 weeks after chymopapain injection. The nucleus pulposus contained an irregularly-defined mass consisting of clusters of degenerated notochordal cells surrounded by proliferated chondrocytes and collagen matrix. In each disk at 12 weeks after chymopapain injection, the center of the nucleus pulposus was replaced by fibrocartilage tissue. In the disk into which 10.0 mg chymopapain was injected, the nuclear space filled with dense fibrocartilage tissue without a regenerated matrix component and narrowing of the disk were maintained. It is suggested that canine chemonucleolysis with 10.0 mg of chymopapain reduces the interdiskal pressure. This treatment may therefore relieve the signs and symptoms of herniation of the nucleus pulposus, and may effect chemical disk decompression

  10. Successful experimental challenge of dogs with canine parvovirus-2.

    OpenAIRE

    Carman, S; Povey, C

    1982-01-01

    Withholding food from dogs for 24 hours prior to, and for 48 hours following oral challenge with a gut mucosal homogenate of canine parvovirus-2, was a successful means of reproducing gastroenteric signs of canine parvovirus-2 infection. Twenty-one of 24 dogs, which had previously received various vaccine preparations of mink enteritis virus or were unvaccinated, and which were starved at challenge, developed soft or liquid feces with large or without large clots of mucus. Altered feces were ...

  11. Periodontal CGRP contributes to orofacial pain following experimental tooth movement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hu; Liao, Lina; Gao, Meiya; Ma, Wenqiang; Zhou, Yang; Jian, Fan; Wang, Yan; Lai, Wenli

    2015-08-01

    Calcitonin-related gene peptide (CGRP) plays an important role in orofacial inflammatory pain. The aim of this study was to determine whether periodontal CGRP contributes to orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Closed coil springs were used to deliver forces. Rats were euthanized on 0d, 1d, 3d, 5d, 7d, and 14d following experimental tooth movement. Then, alveolar bones were obtained for immunostaining of periodontal tissues against CGRP. Two hours prior to euthanasia on each day, orofacial pain levels were assessed through rat grimace scale. CGRP and olcegepant (CGRP receptor antagonist) were injected into periodontal tissues to verify the roles of periodontal CGRP in orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement. Periodontal CGRP expression levels and orofacial pain levels were elevated on 1d, 3d, 5d, and 7d following experimental tooth movement. The two indices were significantly correlated with each other and fitted into a dose-response model. Periodontal administration of CGRP could elevate periodontal CGRP expressions and exacerbate orofacial pain. Moreover, olcegepant administration could decrease periodontal CGRP expressions and alleviate orofacial pain. Therefore, periodontal CGRP plays an important role in pain transmission and modulation following experimental tooth movement. We suggest that it may participate in a positive feedback aiming to amplify orofacial pain signals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of periodontal ASIC3 in orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meiya; Long, Hu; Ma, Wenqiang; Liao, Lina; Yang, Xin; Zhou, Yang; Shan, Di; Huang, Renhuan; Jian, Fan; Wang, Yan; Lai, Wenli

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to clarify the roles of Acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) in orofacial pain following experimental tooth movement. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the experimental group (40g, n = 30) and the sham group (0g, n = 30). Closed coil springs were ligated between maxillary incisor and molars to achieve experimental tooth movement. Rat grimace scale (RGS) scores were assessed at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after the placement of the springs. ASIC3 immunostaining was performed and the expression levels of ASIC3 were measured through integrated optical density/area in Image-Pro Plus 6.0. Moreover, 18 rats were divided into APETx2 group (n = 6), amiloride group (n = 6), and vehicle group (n = 6), and RGS scores were obtained compared among them to verify the roles of ASIC3 in orofacial pain following tooth movement. ASIC3 expression levels became significantly higher in the experimental group than in sham group on 1, 3, and 5 days and became similar on 7 and 14 days. Pain levels (RGS scores) increased in both groups and were significantly higher in the experimental group on 1, 3, 5, and 7 days and were similar on 14 days. Periodontal ASIC3 expression levels were correlated with orofacial pain levels following experimental tooth movement. Periodontal administrations of ASIC3 antagonists (APETx2 and amiloride) could alleviate pain. This study needs to be better evidenced by RNA interference of ASIC3 in periodontal tissues in rats following experimental tooth movement. Moreover, we hope further studies would concentrate on the pain perception of ASIC3 knockout (ASIC3 -/- ) mice. Our results suggest that periodontal ASIC3 plays an important role in orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. A review of heat transfer in human tooth--experimental characterization and mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min; Xu, Feng; Lu, Tian Jian; Bai, Bo Feng

    2010-06-01

    With rapid advances in modern dentistry, high-energy output instruments (e.g., dental lasers and light polymerizing units) are increasingly employed in dental surgery for applications such as laser assisted tooth ablation, bleaching, hypersensitivity treatment and polymerization of dental restorative materials. Extreme high temperature occurs within the tooth during these treatments, which may induce tooth thermal pain (TTP) sensation. Despite the wide application of these dental treatments, the underlying mechanisms are far from clear. Therefore, there is an urgent need to better understand heat transfer (HT) process in tooth, thermally induced damage of tooth, and the corresponding TTP. This will enhance the design and optimization of clinical treatment strategies. This paper presents the state-of-the-art of the current understanding on HT in tooth, with both experimental study and mathematical modeling reviewed. Limitations of the current experimental and mathematical methodologies are discussed and potential solutions are suggested. Interpretation of TTP in terms of thermally stimulated dentinal fluid flow is also discussed. Copyright (c) 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  14. Tooth apatite as a bone substitute: an experimental study and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun-Seok Kim; Pill-Hoon Choung

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of calcined teeth powder as biological apatite. The animal experiment was performed in 36 rabbits aging 6 weeks and weighing 1.6 kg. In experimental group, tooth apatite powder was implanted to 10 mm bony defects in diameter made on the cranial bone of the rabbits. As control groups, synthetic porous hydroxyapatite and resorbable type calcium carbonate were implanted to the defects of same size. Each group was sacrificed in 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 weeks after the surgery. Specimens were prepared for decalcified samples and observed by a light microscope. And we also performed quantitative analysis of new bone formation through image analysis using computer. In clinical applications, we used tooth apatite alone or mixed with decalcified freeze-dried bone for reconstruction of bony defects in 15 patients undergone enucleation of cyst or ameloblastoma. The obtained results were as follows; 1) The powder of the calcined teeth was called as 'tooth apatite' and it seemed to have biocompatibility in rabbits and human. 2) In group of tooth apatite, after 4 weeks of operation, new bone directly bonded to the particles was observed. And in 12 weeks of it, new bone occupied most of the bony defects. In 6 weeks, resorption of the tooth apatite particles was observed. Thus the tooth apatite was regarded as one of resorbable apatite. 3) The group of tooth apatite showed new bone formation similar to the group of porous hydroxyapatite, but they were inferior to the group of resorbable calcium carbonate. 4) In clinical application, tooth apatite had biocompatibility and new bone formation was observed without any complication except for 1 case. So we think it is a useful bone substitute with osteoconductivity

  15. Experimental research of covered stent implanted in canine hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Bing; Liu Linxiang; Li Minghua; Wang Yongli; Cheng Yongde

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of success rate of implantation, post-procedure stenosis rate, apposition ability and endothelialization level, etc. for implantation with balloon-expandable covered stent in canine hepatic artery. Methods: 8 adult canines were implanted with balloon-expendable stents covered by expandable poly Teflon ester membrane (e-PTFEM). Follow-up DSA was performed immediately, 2, 4 and 12 wk after the procedure. The canines were sacrificed for histopathologic examination and statistical analysis with correlation of implantation manenvor and angiographic manifestations. Results: 8 cases were all implanted with the covered stents in proper hepatic artery/right hepatic artery successfully; showing good apposition ability and non-opacification of the separated branches. 2 cases showed intraluminal obvious stenosis( > 50%)of the stent at 2 weeks follow-up, so did 3 cases at 12 weeks follow-up, and the total stenosis rate was 37.5% and 5 cases manifested full endothelialization (3 different locations of the sample all manifested full endothelialization), 3 cased manifested partial endothelialization (at least 1 location of the sample didn't show full endothelialization), and the two terminal parts were easier to get endothelialization than the central part. Before and after the stent implantation, hepatic function of all cases didn't demonstrate any obvious changes. Conclusions: Balloon-expandable covered stent can be implanted in canine hepatic artery. successfully, with good apposition ability, full endothelialization, and no influence on hepatic function. (authors)

  16. Establishing experimental model of human internal carotid artery siphon segment in canine common carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Xuee; Li Minghua; Wang Yongli; Cheng Yingsheng; Li Wenbin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the feasibility of establishing experimental model of human internal carotid artery siphon segment in canine common carotid artery (CCA) by end-to-end anastomoses of one side common carotid artery segment with the other side common carotid artery. Methods: Surgical techniques were used to make siphon model in 8 canines. One side CCA was taken as the parent artery and anastomosing with the cut off contra-lateral CCA segment which has passed through within the S-shaped glass tube. Two weeks after the creation of models angiography showed the model siphons were patent. Results: Experimental models of human internal carotid artery siphon segment were successfully made in all 8 dogs. Conclusions: It is practically feasible to establish experimental canine common carotid artery models of siphon segment simulating human internal carotid artery. (authors)

  17. Periodontal tissue activation by vibration: intermittent stimulation by resonance vibration accelerates experimental tooth movement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Makoto; Chiba, Mirei; Ohashi, Toshiro; Sato, Masaaki; Shimizu, Yoshiyuki; Igarashi, Kaoru; Mitani, Hideo

    2008-04-01

    Accelerating the speed of orthodontic tooth movement should contribute to the shortening of the treatment period. This would be beneficial because long treatment times are a negative aspect of orthodontic treatment. In this study, we evaluated the effects of mechanical stimulation by resonance vibration on tooth movement, and we showed the cellular and molecular mechanisms of periodontal ligament responses. The maxillary first molars of 6-week-old male Wistar rats were moved to the buccal side by using an expansive spring for 21 days (n = 6, control group), and the amount of tooth movement was measured. Additional vibrational stimulation (60 Hz, 1.0 m/s(2)) was applied to the first molars by using a loading vibration system for 8 minutes on days 0, 7, and 14 during orthodontic tooth movement (n = 6, experimental group). The animals were killed under anesthesia, and each maxilla was dissected. The specimens were fixed, decalcified, and embedded in paraffin. Sections were used for immunohistochemical analysis of receptor activator of NF kappa B ligand (RANKL) expression. The number of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone was counted by using TRAP staining, and the amount of root resorption was measured in sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The average resonance frequency of the maxillary first molar was 61.02 +/- 8.38 Hz. Tooth movement in the experimental group was significantly greater than in the control group (P vibration might accelerate orthodontic tooth movement via enhanced RANKL expression in the periodontal ligament without additional damage to periodontal tissues such as root resorption.

  18. Experimental tumor growth of canine osteosarcoma cell line on chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (in vivo studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walewska, Magdalena; Dolka, Izabella; Małek, Anna; Wojtalewicz, Anna; Wojtkowska, Agata; Żbikowski, Artur; Lechowski, Roman; Zabielska-Koczywąs, Katarzyna

    2017-05-12

    The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model is extensively used in human medicine in preclinical oncological studies. The CAM model has several advantages: low cost, simple experimental approach, time saving and following "3R principles". Research has shown that the human osteosarcoma cell lines U2OS, MMNG-HOS, and SAOS can form tumors on the CAM. In veterinary medicine, this has been described only for feline fibrosarcomas, feline mammary carcinomas and canine osteosarcomas. However, in case of canine osteosarcomas, it has been shown that only non-adherent osteosarcoma stem cells isolated from KTOSA5 and CSKOS cell lines have the ability to form microtumors on the CAM after an incubation period of 5 days, in contrast to adherent KTOSA5 and CSKOS cells. In the presented study, we have proven that the commercial adherent canine osteosarcoma cell line (D-17) can form vascularized tumors on the CAM after the incubation period of 10 days.

  19. [Experimental model of tooth decay as an educational tool for school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Silva, Thiago Fernando; Feitosa, José Leonilson; Medeiros Dantas, Rodrigo Maristony; Dantas de Medeiros, Fabianna da Conceição; Cavalcanti Lima, Isabela Pinheiro; Guerra Seabra, Eduardo José

    2016-04-01

    Objective This work consisted of the construction of an educational in vitro model of dental caries that started with an adaptation of Miller's classic experiment. Methods In a sterilized and sealed glass jar, a sample paste of human saliva was collected and a substrate of manufactured sugar (sucrose) was added. In addition, a human tooth with healthy dental crown extracted in dental treatment but otherwise healthy was added. Research phase I had the negative control sample test (tooth + saliva without added) and the others were opened after 1, 2, 3 and 4 months of incubation. This phase was essential for the next experimental time development. In phase II, two saliva donors with poor levels of oral health habits were recruited. The incubation time (defined by phase I) was 2 and 3 months for each donor. Results This research data gives the possibility of building educational materials about the etiology of tooth decay and its clinical evolution. It also makes possible the production of an explanatory sheet about how to reproduce this experimental model to be used by school children in secondary education. Conclusions Doing this kind of work together at school can help reduce inequities in oral health, especially since there is an approximation toward the discourses, facilitating the process of information dissemination.

  20. Experimental tooth clenching. A model for studying mechanisms of muscle pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of this thesis was to broaden knowledge of pain mechanisms in myofascial temporomandibular disorders (M-TMD). The specific aims were to: Develop a quality assessment tool for experimental bruxism studies (study I). Investigate proprioceptive allodynia after experimental tooth clenching exercises (study II). Evaluate the release of serotonin (5-HT), glutamate, pyruvate, and lactate in healthy subjects (study III) and in patients with M-TMD (study IV), after experimental tooth clenching exercises. In (I), tool development comprised 5 steps: (i) preliminary decisions, (ii) item generation, (iii) face-validity assessment, (iv) reliability and discriminative validity testing, and (v) instrument refinement. After preliminary decisions and a literature review, a list of 52 items to be considered for inclusion in the tool was generated. Eleven experts were invited to participate on the Delphi panel, of which 10 agreed. After four Delphi rounds, 8 items remained and were included in the Quality Assessment Tool for Experimental Bruxism Studies (Qu-ATEBS). Inter-observer reliability was acceptable (k = 0.77), and discriminative validity high (phi coefficient 0.79; P < 0.01). During refinement, 1 item was removed; the final tool comprised 7 items. In (II), 16 healthy females participated in three 60-min sessions, each with 24- and 48-h follow-ups. Participants were randomly assigned to a repetitive experimental tooth clenching task with a clenching level of 10%, 20%, or 40% of maximal voluntary clenching force (MVCF). Pain intensity, fatigue, perceived intensity of vibration (PIV), perceived discomfort (PD), and pressure pain threshold (PPT) were measured throughout. A significant increase in pain intensity and fatigue but not in PD was observed over time. A significant increase in PIV was only observed at 40 min, and PPT decreased significantly over time at 50 and 60 min compared to baseline. In (III), 30 healthy subjects (16 females, and 14 males

  1. Kinematics modeling and experimentation of the multi-manipulator tooth-arrangement robot for full denture manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-de; Jiang, Jin-gang; Liang, Ting; Hu, Wei-ping

    2011-12-01

    Artificial teeth are very complicated in shape, and not easy to be grasped and manipulated accurately by a single robot. The method of tooth-arrangement by multi-manipulator for complete denture manufacturing proposed in this paper. A novel complete denture manufacturing mechanism is designed based on multi-manipulator and dental arch generator. Kinematics model of the multi-manipulator tooth-arrangement robot is built by analytical method based on tooth-arrangement principle for full denture. Preliminary experiments on tooth-arrangement are performed using the multi-manipulator tooth-arrangement robot prototype system. The multi-manipulator tooth-arrangement robot prototype system can automatically design and manufacture a set of complete denture that is suitable for a patient according to the jaw arch parameters. The experimental results verified the validity of kinematics model of the multi-manipulator tooth-arrangement robot and the feasibility of the manufacture strategy of complete denture fulfilled by multi-manipulator tooth-arrangement robot.

  2. Experimental study of pulmonary thromboembolism ischemia-reperfusion injury in canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianjun; Zhai Renyou; Zhang Dongpo; Huang Qiang; Yu Ping; Dai Dingke; Bao Na

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To establish a canine model of pulmonary thromboembolism ischemia- reperfusion injury (PTE IRI) that may be used for imaging study. Methods: Ten male and 10 female healthy mongrel canines with (18.6±0.8) kg/body weight, were used. A Swan-Ganz catheter was introduced into the right internal jugular vein via a preset percutaneous sheath using the Seldinger technique, and then was with further insertion the pulmonary artery. Balloon occlusion of the right inferior lobe pulmonary artery for 4 hours was followed by removing the catheter and ending with 4 hours of reperfusion. CT was performed before ischemia, 4 h after ischemia and 4 h after reperfusion. At last, dogs were killed and the bilateral inferior lung tissues were prepared for the examination by light and electronic microscopy. Results: All canine models were successfully developed pulmonary thromboembolism ischemia-reperfusion injury. The examination of CT, light and electron microscopy consistently indicated the presence of permeability pulmonary edema after reperfusion. Conclusions: A closed-chest canine model in vivo of pulmonary thromboembolism ischemia-reperfusion injury can be established with virtual pathophysiological process in human and be as well as for imaging experimental study. (authors)

  3. The establishment of bilateral external iliac artery stenosis model in experimental canines and its angiographic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yonghui; Li Weixiao; Bi Yonghua; Xu Ke

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish an experimental canine model of bilateral external iliac artery stenosis by surgical method with absorbable suture. Methods: Under general anesthesia bilateral external iliac arteries were partly obstructed (about 50%) with absorbable suture in ten dogs. Three months later angiography was performed to evaluate the arterial stricture degree. Results: Bilateral external iliac artery stenosis model was successfully established in eight dogs and the other two dogs died within two weeks after the procedure. Angiography performed three months after the procedure showed that the stricture degree of arterial lumen was (60.6±12.5)%. Conclusion: Satisfactory experimental canine model of bilateral external iliac artery stenosis can be established by surgical method with absorbable suture. This method can be used for reference when peripheral artery stenosis model is to be prepared in larger animals. (authors)

  4. Canine C-peptide for characterization of experimental diabetes in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Besch, W.; Freyse, E.-J.

    1985-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay of canine C-peptide (CCP) was developed for the characterization of endogenous beta cell function in experimentally diabetic dogs. The animals were rendered diabetic by subtotal pancreatectomy and intrasurgical infusion of 2 mg/kg streptozotocin into the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery. After an average duration of diabetes of 5 months the animals showed zero peripheral venous fasting CCP levels with no response to feeding, OGTT/i.v. glucagon loading or i.v. glucose tolerance testing. The data on CCP levels entirely coincided with simultaneously measured plasma IRI levels. In non-diabetic control animals clear-cut CCP increases were observed after all stimuli. The experimental model provided an IDDM-type diabetes without toxic symptoms but with a sufficient exocrine pancreatic function. The comparison showed that plasma IRI analyses would also allow reliable characterization of insulinogenic functions in these animals. (author)

  5. Effect of high-frequency near-infrared diode laser irradiation on periodontal tissues during experimental tooth movement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunji, Hidemi; Kunimatsu, Ryo; Tsuka, Yuji; Yoshimi, Yuki; Sumi, Keisuke; Awada, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Kengo; Kimura, Aya; Hiraki, Tomoka; Hirose, Naoto; Yanoshita, Makoto; Tanimoto, Kotaro

    2018-02-05

    Tooth movement during orthodontic treatment is associated with bone neoplasticity and bone resorption on the tension and pressure sides. Previous clinical studies have suggested that low-power laser irradiation can accelerate tooth movement during orthodontic treatment, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we used a high-frequency near-infrared diode laser that generates less heat and examined the histologic changes in periodontal tissue during experimental tooth movement with laser irradiation. A nickel-titanium closed coil was mounted between the maxillary left side first molar and incisor of rats to model experimental tooth movement. The laser-irradiation and the control groups were set, and the amount of movement of the first molar on 7th and 14th days after the start of pulling of the first molar tooth on the maxillary left was measured by three-dimensional analysis of µCT. After tooth movement, tissue samples from the mesial and tension sides were collected, and successive horizontal sections were prepared and examined using hematoxylin-eosin and TRAP staining and immunohistochemical staining for RANKL, OPG, ALP, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Changes in tissue temperature following laser irradiation were also examined. Laser irradiation significantly increased tooth movement compared with non-irradiated controls. Histologic staining of the pressure-side mesial root in laser-irradiated rats revealed enhanced RANKL expression and increased numbers of TRAP-positive cells compared with controls. By contrast, on the tension side, laser irradiation led to increased expression of ALP and PCNA. These data indicate that high-frequency near-infrared diode laser irradiation on the pressure side upregulates RANKL expression and accelerates osteoclast differentiation, facilitating bone resorption, whereas bone formation is induced on the tension side. This study demonstrates that high-frequency near-infrared diode laser

  6. A Randomized Clinical Study to Evaluate the Effect of Two Experimental Toothpastes on Tooth Enamel Gloss and Smoothness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milleman, Kimberly R; Milleman, Jeffery L; Creeth, Jonathan E; Butler, Andrew; Bosma, Mary Lynn

    2016-03-01

    The study compared the effects on examiner-assessed tooth gloss and smoothness of two experimental toothpastes (1% or 2% alumina abrasive) with a reference, silica-based toothpaste used twice daily for one, four, and eight weeks. The study also monitored the safety of the products. This was a randomized, examiner-blind study, stratified by gloss score and age, three-treatment, parallel-group using healthy adult volunteers. Following a two-week washout period where subjects brushed with a conventional silica-abrasive toothpaste, 169 subjects began the trial period after receiving a dental scaling and polishing using the washout toothpaste. Subjects brushed for two minutes, twice daily, with their assigned toothpaste. The experimental toothpastes contained 927 ppm fluoride as NaF with either 1% or 2% alumina as the sole abrasive. The reference toothpaste contained 927 ppm fluoride as NaF in a conventional amorphous silica abrasive base. Enamel polish (i.e., gloss) was assessed visually by comparing the facial surfaces of the maxillary incisors with a set of standards. Tooth smoothness was assessed by lightly dragging a dental explorer over the surface. Subjects using the 2% alumina toothpaste had significantly higher gloss compared to the reference toothpaste at Weeks 1 and 4, but the difference was of borderline significance at Week 8 (one-covariate analysis: p = 0.0529; two-covariate analysis: p = 0.0494). Subjects using the 1% alumina toothpaste had significantly higher gloss improvement scores than the reference toothpaste at Weeks 4 and 8, but not at Week 1. All three treatment groups' gloss scores improved during the study. Regarding tooth smoothness, the effects of the experimental toothpastes followed a broadly similar profile to the effects on tooth gloss. After four weeks' use, both experimental toothpastes were superior to the reference. After eight weeks' use, however, only the 2% alumina toothpaste approached significant superiority versus the reference

  7. Alkaline phosphatase activity in gingival crevicular fluid during canine retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, P; Kharbanda, Op; Duggal, R; Singh, N; Parkash, H

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate alkaline phosphatase activity in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during orthodontic tooth movement in humans. Postgraduate orthodontic clinic. Ten female patients requiring all first premolar extractions were selected and treated with standard edgewise mechanotherapy. Canine retraction was done using 100 g sentalloy springs. Maxillary canine on one side acted as experimental site while the contralateral canine acted as control. Gingival crevicular fluid was collected from mesial and distal of canines before initiation of canine retraction (baseline), immediately after initiation of retraction, and on 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day and the alkaline phosphatase activity was estimated. The results show significant (p < 0.05) changes in alkaline phosphatase activity on the 7th, 14th and 21st day on both mesial and distal aspects of the compared experimental and control sides. The peak in enzyme activity occurred on the 14th day of initiation of retraction followed by a significant fall in activity especially on the mesial aspect. The study showed that alkaline phosphatase activity could be successfully estimated in the GCF using calorimetric estimation assay kits. The enzyme activity showed variation according to the amount of tooth movement.

  8. Impact of Ellagic Acid in Bone Formation after Tooth Extraction: An Experimental Study on Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen M. Jamil Al-Obaidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To estimate the impact of ellagic acid (EA towards healing tooth socket in diabetic animals, after tooth extraction. Methods. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley male rats weighing 250–300 g were selected for this study. All animals were intraperitoneally injected with 45 mg/kg (b.w. of freshly prepared streptozotocin (STZ, to induce diabetic mellitus. Then, the animals were anesthetized, and the upper left central incisor was extracted and the whole extracted sockets were filled with Rosuvastatin (RSV. The rats were separated into three groups, comprising 8 rats each. The first group was considered as normal control group and orally treated with normal saline. The second group was regarded as diabetic control group and orally treated with normal saline, whereas the third group comprised diabetic rats, administrated with EA (50 mg/kg orally. The maxilla tissue stained by eosin and hematoxylin (H&E was used for histological examinations and immunohistochemical technique. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were used to evaluate the healing process in the extracted tooth socket by immunohistochemistry test. Results. The reactions of immunohistochemistry for FGF-2 and ALP presented stronger expression, predominantly in EA treated diabetic rat, than the untreated diabetic rat. Conclusion. These findings suggest that the administration of EA combined with RSV may have accelerated the healing process of the tooth socket of diabetic rats, after tooth extraction.

  9. The level’s changing of transforming growth factor β2 during canine retraction in non-growing age patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adianti Adianti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orthodontic tooth movement occurred as a result of alveolar bone remodeling and collagen due to mechanical load. This mechanical load applied to the tooth will exert a number of cytokine and growth factors. One of the growth factors that are often associated with orthodontic tooth movement is transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β. It has 3 isoforms, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3. It has been known that in adult patient, tooth movement rate was slower. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the changing level of TGF-β2 in non-growing patient due to mechanical load in canine retraction. Method: Gingival crevicular fluid from 6 subjects who undergo canine retraction was taken to investigate changing level of TGF-β2. Distal site of each upper canine served as an experimental tooth. The gingival crevicular fluid from experimental tooth was taken just prior to mechanical load, at 24h and 72h after mechanical load. Result: ELISA reader showed that level of TGF-β2 was decreasing during experiment time. Conclusion: It can be concluded that in non-growing patient, TGF-β2 has less role in alveolar bone resorption in orthodontic tooth movement.

  10. A novel device for the occlusion of left atrial appendage: an experimental study in canine models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhihong; Qin Yongwen; Wu Hong; Hu Jianqiang; Wang Shengqiang; Ding Zhongru; Liu Zongjun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, safety and biocompatibility of a novel device designed by the authors for the occlusion of left atrial appendage (LAA) in canine models. Methods: The occlusion of LAA was performed in 20 experimental dogs by using a novel LAA occluder, which was delivered to the LAA through a transseptal catheter. During the period of 2 weeks to 6 months after the procedure, the dogs were kept under observation for the device healing, migration, perforation and the formation of thrombus. Both scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to examine the endothelial growth on the surface of the occluder and the structure of the endothelial cells. Results: Of the total 20 dogs, the novel device was successfully implanted in 14. The LAA was occluded completely in 13 dogs. No mobile thrombi caused by the implantation procedure were observed. Endothelialization of the atrium-facing surface was observed at one month after the procedure, and the surface was completely covered with endothelial cells at 3 months after the treatment, which was confirmed by gross, histological and SEM examinations. TEM examination showed that the structure of endothelial cells, the mitochondrion and sarcomere of atrial cardiocyte were all normal. Gross and light microscopic examination of the kidney, lung spleen and liver showed that there was no evidence of embolism or infarction. Conclusion: The novel device is safe and feasible for the occlusion of the LAA in experimental dogs. Further study is needed to observe its long-term safety. (authors)

  11. Comparisons of orthodontic root resorption under heavy and jiggling reciprocating forces during experimental tooth movement in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikida, Takuji; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Shimizu, Mami; Kikuta, Jun; Yoshino, Tomokazu; Kasai, Kazutaka

    2016-07-01

    Root mobility due to reciprocating movement of the tooth (jiggling) may exacerbate orthodontic root resorption (ORR). "Jiggling" describes mesiodistal or buccolingual movement of the roots of the teeth during orthodontic treatment. In the present study, buccolingual movement is described as "jiggling." We aimed to investigate the relationship between ORR and jiggling and to test for positive cell expression in odontoclasts in resorbed roots during experimental tooth movement (jiggling) in vivo. Male Wistar rats were divided into control, heavy force (HF), optimal force (OF), and jiggling force (JF) groups. The expression levels of cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 protein, interleukin (IL)-6, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CINC-1; an IL-8-related protein in rodents), receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin protein in the dental root were determined using immunohistochemistry. On day 21, a greater number of root resorption lacunae, which contained multinucleated odontoclasts, were observed in the palatal roots of rats in the JF group than in rats from other groups. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in the numbers of cathepsin K-positive and MMP-9-positive odontoclasts in the JF group on day 21. Immunoreactivities for IL-6, CINC-1, and RANKL were stronger in resorbed roots exposed to jiggling than in the other groups on day 21. Negative reactivity was observed in the controls. These results suggest that jiggling may induce ORR via inflammatory cytokine production during orthodontic tooth movement, and that jiggling may be a risk factor for ORR.

  12. The effects of blocking N/OFQ receptors on orofacial pain following experimental tooth movement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Di; He, Yuwei; Long, Hu; Zhou, Yang; Liu, He; Xu, Rui; Huang, Renhuan; Lai, Wenli

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide receptor (N/OFQ receptor) antagonist on orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement in rats. A total of 36 male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-300 g were divided into six groups: a control group, force group, force+saline intraperitoneal group, force+saline periodontal group, force+UFP-101 ([Nphe¹,Arg¹⁴,Lys¹⁵]N/OFQ-NH ₂ antagonist for N/OFQ receptor) intraperitoneal group, and force+UFP-1 01 periodontal group. Closed coil springs were ligated between the upper incisors and first molar to exert an orthodontic force (40 g) between the teeth. Injectable administration dosages were 30 μl saline or 30 μl saline containing 0.03 mg/kg UFP-1 01. Following the injections, orofacial pain levels were assessed through directed face grooming (mouth wiping). Statistical analyses were performed in SPSS 17.0 (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) and p values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Orofacial pain levels were significantly higher in the force group than in the control group. Orofacial pain levels differed significantly between the force)group, force+saline periodontal group and force+UFP-101 periodontal group, but were similar between the control group, force+UFP-101 intraperitoneal group and force+saline intraperitoneal group. Moreover, orofacial pain levels did not differ between the force group, force+saline intraperitoneal group and force+UFP-1 01 intraperitoneal group. Periodontal, but not intraperitoneal, administration of UFP-101 could alleviate orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement in rats, suggesting that periodontal N/OFQ receptors participate in orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement.

  13. Age-related changes of dental pulp tissue after experimental tooth movement in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Von Böhl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the effect of orthodontic tooth movement on the dental pulp in adolescents is reversible and that it has no long-lasting effect on pulpal physiology. However, it is not clear yet if the same conclusion is also valid for adult subjects. Thus, in two groups of rats, aged 6 and 40 weeks respectively, 3 molars at one side of the maxilla were moved together in a mesial direction with a standardized orthodontic appliance delivering a force of 10 cN. The contralateral side served as a control. Parasagittal histological sections were prepared after tooth movement for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The pulp tissue was characterized for the different groups, with special emphasis on cell density, inflammatory cells, vascularity, and odontoblasts. Dimensions of dentin and the pulpal horns was determined and related with the duration of orthodontic force application and age ware evaluated. We found that neither in young nor in adult rats, force application led to long-lasting or irreversible changes in pulpal tissues. Dimensional variables showed significant age-related changes. In conclusion, orthodontic tooth movement per se has no long-lasting or irreversible effect on pulpal tissues, neither in the young nor in the adult animals.

  14. Canine gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Craig; Twedt, David C

    2003-09-01

    Gastritis--inflammation of the stomach--is a frequently cited differential yet rarely characterized diagnosis in cases of canine anorexia and vomiting. Although the list of rule-outs for acute or chronic gastritis is extensive, a review of the veterinary literature reveals fewer than 15 articles that have focused on clinical cases of canine gastritis over the last 25 years. The dog frequently appears in the human literature as an experimentally manipulated model for the study of endoscopic techniques or the effect of medications on gastric mucosa. In the veterinary patient, cases of acute gastritis are rarely pursued with the complete diagnostic armamentarium, and cases of chronic gastritis are rarely found to occur as an entity isolated from the rest of the gastrointestinal tract. This article focuses on those findings most clinically relevant to cases of canine gastritis in veterinary medicine.

  15. Experimental determination of net protein charge and A(tot) and K(a) of nonvolatile buffers in canine plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Peter D; Stämpfli, Henry R

    2005-01-01

    Acid-base abnormalities frequently are present in sick dogs. The mechanism for an acid-base disturbance can be determined with the simplified strong ion approach, which requires accurate values for the total concentration of plasma nonvolatile buffers (A(tot)) and the effective dissociation constant for plasma weak acids (K(a)). The aims of this study were to experimentally determine A(tot) and K(a) values for canine plasma. Plasma was harvested from 10 healthy dogs; the concentrations of quantitatively important strong ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, L-lactate) and nonvolatile buffer ions (total protein, albumin, phosphate) were determined; and the plasma was tonometered with CO2 at 37 degrees C. Strong ion difference (SID) was calculated from the measured strong ion concentrations, and nonlinear regression was used to estimate values for A(tot) and K(a), which were validated with data from an in vitro and in vivo study. Mean (+/- SD) values for canine plasma were A(tot) = (17.4 +/- 8.6) mM (equivalent to 0.273 mmol/g of total protein or 0.469 mmol/g of albumin); K(a) = (0.17 +/- 0.11) x 10(-7); pK(a) = 7.77. The calculated SID for normal canine plasma (pH = 7.40; P(CO2) = 37 mm Hg; [total protein] = 64 g/L) was 27 mEq/L. The net protein charge for normal canine plasma was 0.25 mEq/g of total protein or 0.42 mEq/g of albumin. Application of the experimentally determined values for A(tot), K(a), and net protein charge should improve understanding of the mechanism for complex acid-base disturbances in dogs.

  16. Pathogenesis of canine distemper virus in experimentally infected raccoon dogs, foxes, and minks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianjun; Shi, Ning; Sun, Yangang; Martella, Vito; Nikolin, Veljko; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Hailing; Hu, Bo; Bai, Xue; Yan, Xijun

    2015-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a broad range of carnivores and causes a highly contagious disease with severe immunosuppression. The disease severity markedly varies in different species. To investigate the pathogenesis of CDV in raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), fox (Vulpes vulpes) and mink (Neovison vison) species, three groups of CDV sero-negative animals were infected with CDV strain LN(10)1. This CDV strain belongs to the Asia-1 genotype, which is epidemiologically predominant in carnivores in China. CDV infection provoked marked differences in virulence in the three species that were studied. Raccoon dogs developed fever, severe conjunctivitis, and pathological lesions, with 100% (5/5) mortality and with high viral RNA loads in organs within 15 days post infection (dpi). In infected foxes, the onset of the disease was delayed, with 40% (2/5) mortality by 21 dpi. Infected minks developed only mild clinical signs and pathological lesions, and mortality was not observed. Raccoon dogs and foxes showed more severe immune suppression (lymphopenia, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, viremia and low-level virus neutralizing antibodies) than minks. We also observed a distinct pattern of cytokine mRNA transcripts at different times after infection. Decreased IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA responses were evident in the animals with fatal disease, while up-regulation of these cytokines was observed in the animals surviving the infection. Increased TNF-α response was detected in animals with mild or severe clinical signs. Based on the results, we could distinguish three different patterns of disease after experimental CDV infection, e.g. a mild form in minks, a moderate form in foxes and a severe disease in raccoon dogs. The observed differences in susceptibility to CDV could be related to distinct host cytokine profiles. Comparative evaluation of CDV pathogenesis in various animal species is pivotal to generate models suitable for the evaluation of CDV

  17. Shear bond strengths of tooth coating materials including the experimental materials contained various amounts of multi-ion releasing fillers and their effects for preventing dentin demineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Shoko; Suzuki, Masaya; Kazama-Koide, Miku; Shinkai, Koichi

    2017-10-01

    We examined shear bond strengths (SBSs) of various tooth-coating-materials including the experimental materials to dentin and demineralization resistance of a fractured adhesive surface after the SBS testing. Three resin-type tooth-coating-materials (BC, PRG Barrier Coat; HC, Hybrid Coat II; and SF, Shield force plus) and two glass-ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials (CV, Clinpro XT Varnish; and FJ, Fuji VII) were selected. The experimental PRG Barrier Coat containing 0, 17, and 33 wt% S-PRG filler (BC0, BC17, and BC33, respectively) were developed. Each tooth-coating-material was applied to flattened dentin surfaces of extracted human teeth for SBS testing. After storing in water for 32 days with 4000 thermal cycling, the specimens were subjected to the SBS test. Specimens after SBS testing were subjected to a pH cycling test, and then, demineralization depths were measured using a polarized-light microscope. ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test were used for statistical analysis. The SBS value of FJ and CV was significantly lower than those of other materials except for BC (p coating-materials demonstrated significantly higher SBS for dentin than the glass-ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials; however, they were inferior to the glass ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials in regards to the acid resistance of the fractured adhesion surface.

  18. Novel bone substitute material in alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction: an experimental study in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinyi; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Philipp, Alexander; Hild, Nora; Tawse-Smith, Andrew; Duncan, Warwick

    2016-07-01

    Electrospun cotton wool-like nanocomposite (ECWN) is a novel synthetic bone substitute that incorporates amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles into a biodegradable synthetic copolymer poly(lactide-co-glycolide). The objectives of this study were to develop a tooth extraction socket model in sheep for bone graft research and to compare ECWN and bovine-derived xenograft (BX) in this model. Sixteen cross-bred female sheep were used. Bilateral mandibular premolars were extracted atraumatically. Second and third premolar sockets were filled (Latin-square allocation) with BX, ECWN or left unfilled. Resorbable collagen membranes were placed over BX and selected ECWN grafted sockets. Eight sheep per time period were sacrificed after 8 and 16 weeks. Resin-embedded undemineralised sections were analysed for descriptive histology and histomorphometric analyses. At 8 weeks, there were with no distinct differences in healing among the different sites. At 16 weeks, osseous healing followed a fine trabecular pattern in ECWN sites. Non-grafted sites showed thick trabeculae separated by large areas of fibrovascular connective tissue. In BX grafted sites, xenograft particles were surrounded by newly formed bone or fibrovascular connective tissue. There were no statistically significant differences in bone formation across the four groups. However, ECWN sites had significantly less residual graft material than BX sites at 16 weeks (P = 0.048). This first description of a tooth extraction socket model in sheep supports the utility of this model for bone graft research. The results of this study suggested that the novel material ECWN did not impede bone ingrowth into sockets and showed evidence of material resorption. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The difference of canine, first and second premolar tooth size resulted from cone beam computed tomography imaging with Moyers Prediction Table on the working study model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julies Hariani Sugiaman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Model study is one of the standard orthodontic components which is important for diagnosis and treatment plan, but in some patients with the high gag reflex, it will be difficult to get this kind of study models. The existence of a new device which is able to show the condition of patients' mouth in three space areas (axial, sagittal, and coronal is expected to be an alternative when a study model is difficult to get. The purpose of this study is to find out whether or not there are any differences on the size of canine's mesiodistal, first and second premolar resulted from CBCT imaging with Moyers analysis on the study models. The method of the research is comparative descriptive. Measurements are made on 10 CBCT imaging results and 10 study models. The mesiodistal size, the result of CBCT imaging is measured by the available computer program and also the mesiodistal size of the study models is measured using a sliding compass, and then the size of canines, first and second premolar teeth resulted from CBCT imaging are compared to the result of Moyers method analysis on the study models. The t-test is used to find out if there is a difference between teeth size value between the CBCT imaging with the study models. The significance is determined based on the p-value t table.

  20. Early healing of the alveolar process after tooth extraction: an experimental study in the beagle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discepoli, Nicola; Vignoletti, Fabio; Laino, Luigi; de Sanctis, Massimo; Muñoz, Fernando; Sanz, Mariano

    2013-06-01

    To describe the early healing events in the alveolar socket during the first 8 weeks of spontaneous healing after tooth extraction. 16 adult beagle dogs were selected and five healing periods were analysed (4 h, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks). Mandibular premolars were extracted and each socket corresponding to the mesial root was left to heal undisturbed. In each healing period, three animals were euthanatized, each providing four study sites. Healing was assessed by descriptive histology and by histometric analysis using as landmarks: the vertical distance between buccal and lingual crest (B'L') and the width of buccal and lingual walls at three different levels. Differences between means for each variable for each healing period were compared (ANOVA; p healing period to a final value of 0.18 (0.08) mm. The lingual width (Lw) remains almost unchanged while the buccal width (Bw) at 1 (Bw1) and 2 (Bw2) mm was reduced in about 40% of its initial value. Minor vertical bone reduction in both the buccal and lingual socket walls were observed. A marked horizontal reduction of the buccal bone wall was observed mostly in its coronal aspect. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. An experimental in-vivo canine model for adult shunt infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procop Gary

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detailed human studies of the mechanisms and development of shunt infection in real time are not possible, and we have developed a canine hydrocephalus model to overcome this. The intention of this pilot study was to show that the canine hydrocephalus model could be shunted using conventional "human" shunts, and that a shunt infection could be established so that further studies could then be planned. Methods Hydrocephalus was induced in seven dogs (Canis familiaris by fourth ventricle obstruction. Four weeks later they were shunted using a Hakim Precision valve. Four of the dogs received shunts whose ventricular catheter had been inoculated with Staphylococcus epidermidis, and three were uninoculated controls. Four weeks after shunting the dogs were sacrificed and necropsy was performed. Removed shunts and tissue samples were examined microbiologically and isolates were subjected to detailed identification and genomic comparison. Results All the dogs remained well after shunting. Examination of removed shunt components revealed S. epidermidis in the brain and throughout the shunt system in the four inoculated animals, but in two of these Staphylococcus intermedius was also found. S. intermedius was also isolated from all three "negative" controls. There were slight differences between S. intermedius strains suggesting endogenous infection rather than cross- infection from a point source. Conclusion Shunt infection was established in the canine model, and had the experiment been extended beyond four weeks the typical microbiological, pathological and clinical features might have appeared. The occurrence of unplanned shunt infections in control animals due to canine normal skin flora reflects human clinical experience and underlines the usual source of bacteria causing shunt infection.

  2. Tooth anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whole tooth. This area is known as the "pulp" of the tooth. The jawbone is attached to ... JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  3. Unusual intraosseous transmigration of impacted tooth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Santosh; Urala, Arun Srinivas; Kamath, Abhay Taranath; Jayaswal, Priyanka; Valiathan, Ashima

    2012-01-01

    Transmigration of an impacted tooth through the symphyseal suture is a rare and special developmental anomaly of unknown etiology that is unique to the mandibular canine. Maxillary canine transmigration is even rarer. Transmigrated canines are particularly significant due to the aesthetic and functional importance. A maxillary lateral incisor crossing the mid-palatal suture has never been reported in the literature. The aim of this report is to present the first case of simultaneous transmigration of a lateral incisor and canine in the maxilla. The paper also reports four unusual cases of unilateral canine transmigration in the maxilla and mandible and successful eruption of one of the transmigrated mandibular canines following orthodontic traction. Etiology of transmigration and its clinical considerations are also discussed.

  4. Unusual intraosseous transmigration of impacted tooth

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    Kumar, Santosh; Urala, Arun Srinivas; Kamath, Abhay Taranath; Jayaswal, Priyanka; Valiathan, Ashima [Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal (India)

    2012-03-15

    Transmigration of an impacted tooth through the symphyseal suture is a rare and special developmental anomaly of unknown etiology that is unique to the mandibular canine. Maxillary canine transmigration is even rarer. Transmigrated canines are particularly significant due to the aesthetic and functional importance. A maxillary lateral incisor crossing the mid-palatal suture has never been reported in the literature. The aim of this report is to present the first case of simultaneous transmigration of a lateral incisor and canine in the maxilla. The paper also reports four unusual cases of unilateral canine transmigration in the maxilla and mandible and successful eruption of one of the transmigrated mandibular canines following orthodontic traction. Etiology of transmigration and its clinical considerations are also discussed.

  5. Effect of static magnetic field on pain level and expression of P2X3 receptors in the trigeminal ganglion in mice following experimental tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yafen; Wang, Shengguo; Long, Hu; Zhu, Jingyi; Jian, Fan; Ye, Niansong; Lai, Wenli

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that static magnetic fields (SMF) can generate an analgesic effect in different conditions. The present study explored effects of SMF on pain levels and expressions of P2X3 receptors in trigeminal ganglion (TG) in mice after experimental tooth movement (tooth movement induced by springs between teeth). Experiments were performed in male mice (body mass: 25-30 g) and divided into SMF + force group, force group, and no force group. Exposure time was over 22 h per day. Mouse Grimace Scale was used for evaluating orofacial pain levels during experimental tooth movement at 4 h and 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Meanwhile, expression levels of P2X3 receptors in the TG were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting at same time points. We finally found that during experimental tooth movement, pain levels of mice peaked at 3 days, and then decreased. While pain levels of mice were reduced in the SMF environment at 4 h, 1 and 3 days, there was a significant difference at 1 and 3 days. Meanwhile, under the action of SMF, expression levels of P2X3 receptors in TG were significantly lower at 4 h, 3 and 7 days. These results suggest that SMF can reduce pain levels in mice, and down-regulate P2X3 receptors in TG. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:22-30, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Percutaneous intradiscal ozone (O3)-injection: an experimental study in canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhijian; He Xiaofeng; Chen Yong; Zeng Qingle; Liu Chihong; Zhao Zhongqing; Lu Yong; Li Yanhao

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of ozone on normal nucleus pulpous and the safety of intradiscal ozone-injection for the treatment of herniated lumbar disc. Methods: Ozone was injected into selected lumbar discs (3 ml) and the para-spinal space (7 ml) with 20 G Chiba needle under fluoroscopy in five canines. The ozone concentration was 30 μg/ml and 50 μg/ml respectively. Two discs were selected for each concentration. Total 20 discs were injected. Three of the canines were given one-time ozone-injection and were sacrificed for pathology one week, one month and two months respectively after the procedure, and the other two canines were given two-time ozone-injection and were sacrificed one month and two months respectively after the procedure. The specimens including nucleus pulpous, end-plate, spinal cord, nerve root, and greater psoas muscle were observed macroscopically and microscopically. Results: No serious behavior abnormalities were observed in all animals. The atrophy of nucleus pulpous could be observed one month after ozone-injection due to significant reduction of water and extensive proliferation of collagenous fiber. The influence on the atrophy of nucleus pulpous demonstrated no apparent difference between the selected two concentrations of ozone, but was more apparent with two-time injection than that with one-time injection. The end-plates increased slightly or moderately in thickness in 16 simples and a few of fibers in greater psoas muscle suffered slight atrophy in 5 samples. Conclusion: It is suggested that percutaneous intradiscal ozone-injection is a safe method, and can cause gradual atrophy of nucleus pulpous. This study provides the evidence of the feasibility and value of this procedure's application in clinics

  7. The implantation of separating aortic stent-graft into the canine thoracic aorta: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Jinguo; Shi Haibin; Yang Zhengqiang; Li Chao; Liu Sheng; Zu Qingquan; Li Linsun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: to assess the technical feasibility of implanting separating stent-graft into the canine thoracic aorta and to study its biocompatibility. Methods: Twelve adult dogs were randomly and equally divided into three groups. The right femoral artery was cut open, through which the separating stent-graft was inserted and deployed in the canine thoracic aorta, with the proximal end of the graft being quite close to the origin of the left subclavian artery. the technical feasibility of the deployment process was assessed. Angiography was performed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after stent-graft placement to evaluate the position and patency of the stent-graft. Then the dogs were sacrificed and the specimens were collected for pathologic study. Both gross and microscopic examinations were made to evaluate the fixation of the stent-graft with the vessel wall, the endothelialization of stent-graft surface and the pathologic changes of the vascular wall. Results: A total of ten separating stent-grafts were successfully deployed in the canine thoracic aorta, no migration or deformation occurred. One dog died of massive bleeding due to the rupture of the right femoral artery which occurred when the delivery system containing the inner bare stent was inserted through the right femoral artery. Death occurred in another dog as a result of the ascending aorta rupture caused by the migration of outer-layer stent-graft. Angiography was conducted at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after stent-graft placement. No migration, deformation, rupture or stenosis of the implanted stent-grafts were observed. The formation of intima on the inner surface of the bare stent appeared at 4 weeks, which became more and more obvious with the time passing, and at 12 weeks complete endothelialization of stent-graft surface was observed. Conclusion: Technically, it is feasible to deploy the separating aortic stent-graft into the canine thoracic aorta. Moreover, the separating aortic stent-graft carries excellent

  8. Experimental studies on canine terminal carotid arterial aneurysm models pre- and post-embolized with microcoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qihong; Zhou Liangfu; Gong Jianqiu; Dai Jianhua; Zhang Xiaojun; Zhang Xinyuan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To establish canine terminal saccular aneurysm model of common carotid artery (CCA), and evaluate the images and hemodynamic changes of aneurysm cavities pre- and post-embolized with microcoil (MC). Methods: Seven CCA terminal saccular aneurysm models had been created by using improved microsurgical technique. Seven to fourteen days after surgery, models were undergone color Doppler, Magnetic resonance image (MRI), Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and then the analysis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) on these animal models were conducted. Afterwards they were compactly packed with MC, and then aneurysms again were examed under these methods, and simulation of pathological changes. Results: Models were created successfully with good MC compactly pack aneurysm cavities. DSA combined with other imaging methods can improve the diagnosis of aneurysms completely. CFD models can show the imitation hemodynamics of canine carotid aneurysms. Conclusions: This kind of aneurysm model is an ideal one on the area for the research of aneurysm embolization. Non-DSA imaging examination can noninvasively, repeatedly, clearly evaluate aneurysms pre- and post-embolized with MC. The interference on the inflow zone of the aneurysm is an effective method for cure and preventing recurrence of aneurysms. (authors)

  9. Experimental and numerical investigations of wire bending by linear winding of rectangular tooth coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komodromos, A.; Tekkaya, A. E.; Hofmann, J.; Fleischer, J.

    2018-05-01

    Since electric motors are gaining in importance in many fields of application, e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, optimization of the linear coil winding process greatly contributes to an increase in productivity and flexibility. For the investigation of the forming behavior of the winding wire the material behavior is characterized in different experimental setups. Numerical examinatons of the linear winding process are carried out in a case study for a rectangular bobbin in order to analyze the influence of forming parameters on the resulting properties of the wound coil. Besides the numerical investigation of the linear winding method by using the finite element method (FEM), a multi-body dynamics (MBD) simulation is carried out. The multi-body dynamics simulation is necessary to represent the movement of the bodies as well as the connection of the components during winding. The finite element method is used to represent the material behavior of the copper wire and the plastic strain distribution within the wire. It becomes clear that the MBD simulation is not sufficient for analyzing the process and the wire behavior in its entirety. Important parameters that define the final coil properties cannot be analyzed in the manner of a precise manifestation, e.g. the clearance between coil bobbin and wire as well as the wire deformation behavior in form of a diameter reduction which negatively affects the ohmic resistance. Finally, the numerical investigations are validated experimentally by linear winding tests.

  10. Effects of Danggui-Shaoyao-San on the Influence of Spatial Learning and Memory Induced by Experimental Tooth Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Shi; Ke, Jie; Zhao, Gui-Zhi; Wu, Li-An; Kou, Jun-Ping; Liu, Hong-Chen

    2015-07-20

    The pain caused by orthodontic treatment has been considered as tough problems in orthodontic practice. There is substantial literature on pain which has exactly effected on learning and memory; orthodontic tooth movement affected the emotional status has been showed positive outcomes. Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine prescription that has been used for pain treatment and analgesic effect for orthodontic pain via inhibiting the activations of neuron and glia. We raised the hypothesis that DSS could restore the impaired abilities of spatial learning and memory via regulating neuron or glia expression in the hippocampus. A total of 36 rats were randomly divided into three groups: (1) Sham group (n = 12), rats underwent all the operation procedure except for the placement of orthodontic forces and received saline treatment; (2) experimental tooth movement (ETM) group (n = 12), rats received saline treatment and ETM; (3) DSS + ETM (DETM) group (n = 12), rats received DSS treatment and ETM. All DETM group animals were administered with DSS at a dose of 150 mg/kg. Morris water maze test was evaluated; immunofluorescent histochemistry was used to identify astrocytes activation, and immunofluorescent dendritic spine analysis was used to identify the dendritic spines morphological characteristics expression levels in hippocampus. Maze training sessions during the 5 successive days revealed that ETM significantly deficits in progressive learning in rats, DSS that was given from day 5 prior to ETM enhanced progressive learning. The ETM group rats took longer to cross target quadrant during the probe trial and got less times to cross-platform than DETM group. The spine density in hippocampus in ETM group was significantly decreased compared to the sham group. In addition, thin and mature spine density were decreased too. However, the DSS administration could reverse the dendritic shrinkage and increase the spine density compared to the ETM group

  11. Effects of Danggui-Shaoyao-San on the Influence of Spatial Learning and Memory Induced by Experimental Tooth Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Shi Li; Jie Ke; Gui-Zhi Zhao; Li-An Wu; Jun-Ping Kou; Hong-Chen Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background:The pain caused by orthodontic treatment has been considered as tough problems in orthodontic practice.There is substantial literature on pain which has exactly effected on learning and memory;orthodontic tooth movement affected the emotional status has been showed positive outcomes.Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine prescription that has been used for pain treatment and analgesic effect for orthodontic pain via inhibiting the activations of neuron and glia.We raised the hypothesis that DSS could restore the impaired abilities of spatial learning and memory via regulating neuron or glia expression in the hippocampus.Methods:A total of 36 rats were randomly divided into three groups:(1) Sham group (n =12),rats underwent all the operation procedure except for the placement of orthodontic forces and received saline treatment;(2) experimental tooth movement (ETM) group (n =12),rats received saline treatment and ETM;(3) DSS + ETM (DETM) group (n =12),rats received DSS treatment and ETM.All DETM group animals were administered with DSS at a dose of 150 mg/kg.Morris water maze test was evaluated;immunofluorescent histochemistry was used to identify astrocytes activation,and immunofluorescent dendritic spine analysis was used to identify the dendritic spines morphological characteristics expression levels in hippocampus.Results:Maze training sessions during the 5 successive days revealed that ETM significantly deficits in progressive learning in rats,DSS that was given from day 5 prior to ETM enhanced progressive learning.The ETM group rats took longer to cross target quadrant during the probe trial and got less times to cross-platform than DETM group.The spine density in hippocampus in ETM group was significantly decreased compared to the sham group.In addition,thin and mature spine density were decreased too.However,the DSS administration could reverse the dendritic shrinkage and increase the spine density compared to the ETM group

  12. Morbillivirus Experimental Animal Models: Measles Virus Pathogenesis Insights from Canine Distemper Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fontoura Budaszewski, Renata; von Messling, Veronika

    2016-10-11

    Morbilliviruses share considerable structural and functional similarities. Even though disease severity varies among the respective host species, the underlying pathogenesis and the clinical signs are comparable. Thus, insights gained with one morbillivirus often apply to the other members of the genus. Since the Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes severe and often lethal disease in dogs and ferrets, it is an attractive model to characterize morbillivirus pathogenesis mechanisms and to evaluate the efficacy of new prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. This review compares the cellular tropism, pathogenesis, mechanisms of persistence and immunosuppression of the Measles virus (MeV) and CDV. It then summarizes the contributions made by studies on the CDV in dogs and ferrets to our understanding of MeV pathogenesis and to vaccine and drugs development.

  13. Orthodontic treatment of a complete transposed impacted maxillary canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Huei Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tooth transposition is a positional interchange of two adjacent teeth. Transposition most often occurs at maxillary canine. Moving transposed teeth to their normal positions is challenging because this requires bodily movement and translation of one tooth to pass another. This procedure may cause damage to the teeth or supporting structures. We report a case of complete transposition of maxillary canine and lateral incisor. Transposed teeth were successfully moved orthodontically to their normal positions. Multiple mechanics were meticulously applied to achieve complete correction of the tooth positions and to minimize root resorption and/or periodontal defects of canine and lateral incisors. Factors concerning treatment planning for transposed teeth are discussed.

  14. A newly-designed temporary cardia stent for the treatment of achalasia:an experimental study in canine models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang Xiaochun; Cheng Yingsheng; Zhu Yueqi; Li Feng; Wang Weiguo

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of a newly-designed temporary covered cardia stent for the treatment of achalasia in canine models and to investigate the histopathological changes at different points of follow-up time after the stent was removed. Methods: The canine achalasia model was created by injecting benzyl-dimethyl-tetradecyl ammonium chloride (BAC) circumferentially into the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) of the dogs. Twenty-four dogs with achalasia were randomly and equally divided into two groups with 12 dogs in each group: control group (using routine esophageal stents) and study group (using newly-designed temporary covered cardia stents). Under fluoroscopic guidance stents were implanted in the esophagus and were taken away from the esophagus 4 days after stent insertion in experimental dogs of both groups. LES pressures and timed barium esophagography (TBE) were performed in all dogs before and immediately after the stenting procedure, as well as at one week, 3 and 6 months after the stent was removed. Every three dogs were sacrificed each time at one week, 3 and 6 months after the stent was removed. The esophageal cardia was excised and sent for pathological examination. Results: All animals well tolerated the stent insertion / removal and the follow-up procedures. No severe complications such as esophageal perforation occurred. Comparison between two groups showed that stent migration occurrence was much lower in study group (n = 1) than that in control group (n = 5). The reduction of LES pressures in study group was more significant in comparison with control group (at 6-month follow-up, P = 0.027). The difference in barium column product (height x width) between 0-min and 5-min TBE was statistically significant in study group (at 3-month follow-up, P = 0.009). Integrated analysis of multi-comparison for LES pressures among subgroups of each group revealed that the dogs in study group exhibited better outcomes than the dogs in

  15. Comparison of rate of maxillary canine movement with or without modified corticotomy facilitated orthodontic treatment: A prospective clinical trial

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    Harshal N Suryavanshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The average orthodontic treatment time for extraction therapy is 31 months. One of the main disadvantages of orthodontic treatment is time. Alveolar corticotomies have been used in conjunction with orthodontics to reduce the treatment time by increasing the rate of tooth movement. Concerns about the possible risks of corticotomy procedure have led to the modification of this technique. Germeη et al. reported a case treated by their modified corticotomy technique and noted reduced treatment time without any adverse effects on the periodontium and the vitality of teeth with their new conservative corticotomy technique. This study was undertaken to clinically evaluate the efficacy of the aforesaid technique. Materials and Methods: A split-mouth study design was carried out to compare the rate of maxillary canine movement with and without modified corticotomy facilitated orthodontic treatment in 10 patients requiring maxillary first premolar extractions. The modified corticotomy procedure was performed on the maxillary arch unilaterally. The upper arch was immediately activated bilaterally after surgical procedure using equal orthodontic forces for retraction of the maxillary canines. The amount of tooth movement was recorded at an interval of every month till the completion of canine retraction. The rate of canine movement on experimental and control site was compared. The patients were followed for 6 months to check the occurrence of undesired effects such as root resorption, periodontal damage and loss of vitality of teeth on the experimental side. Results: Higher mean velocity was observed in canines with modified corticotomy facilitated retraction compared to conventionally retracted canines; with the difference in mean velocity between the two groups was found to be clinically significant as well as statistically significant (P < 0.001. Interpretation and Conclusion: The results suggested that modified corticotomy

  16. The effects of topical mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in canine experimental cutaneous wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Won; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Lyoo, Young S; Jung, Dong-In; Park, Hee-Myung

    2013-01-01

    Background Adult stem cells have been widely investigated in bioengineering approaches for tissue repair therapy. We evaluated the clinical value and safety of the application of cultured bone marrow-derived allogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treating skin wounds in a canine model. Hypothesis Topical allogenic MSC transplantation can accelerate the closure of experimental full-thickness cutaneous wounds and attenuate local inflammation. Animals Adult healthy beagle dogs (n = 10; 3–6 years old; 7.2–13.1 kg) were studied. Methods Full-thickness skin wounds were created on the dorsum of healthy beagles, and allogenic MSCs were injected intradermally. The rate of wound closure and the degree of collagen production were analysed histologically using haematoxylin and eosin staining and trichrome staining. The degree of cellular proliferation and angiogenesis was evaluated by immunocytochemistry using proliferating cell nuclear antigen-, vimentin- and α-smooth muscle actin-specific antibodies. Local mRNA expression levels of interleukin-2, interferon-γ, basic fibroblast growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-2 were evaluated by RT-PCR. Results Compared with the vehicle-treated wounds, MSC-treated wounds showed more rapid wound closure and increased collagen synthesis, cellular proliferation and angiogenesis. Moreover, MSC-treated wounds showed decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-2 and interferon-γ) and wound healing-related factors (basic fibroblast growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-2). Conclusion and clinical importance Topical transplantation of MSCs results in paracrine effects on cellular proliferation and angiogenesis, as well as modulation of local mRNA expression of several factors related to cutaneous wound healing. Résumé Contexte Les cellules souches adultes ont été largement étudiées dans les approches de bio-ingénierie pour la thérapie de réparation tissulaire. Nous évaluons l

  17. The effect of experimental gastric dilatation-volvulus on adenosine triphosphate content and conductance of the canine gastric and jejunal mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Peycke, Laura E.; Hosgood, Giselle; Davidson, Jacqueline R.; Tetens, Joanne; Taylor, H. Wayne

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if experimental gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) would decrease adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration and increase membrane conductance of the canine gastric and jejunal mucosa. Male dogs (n = 15) weighing between 20 and 30 kg were used. Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 equal groups: Group 1 was control, group 2 was GDV, and group 3 was ischemia. All dogs were anesthetized for 210 min. Group 1 had no manipulation. Group 2 had GDV experim...

  18. Surgical Procedures and Clinical Considerations for Impacted Canines: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Torkzaban

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaction of canine teeth is a clinical problem whose treatment usually requires an interdisciplinary approach. After the maxillary third molar, the maxillary canine is the second-most commonly impacted tooth, with an incidence of 1% - 2.5%. Maxillary canines are more common in females than males. This study reviews the surgical treatments and orthodontic considerations for impacted canines exposure reported in previous studies. The clinician should be aware of variations in the surgical management of labially and palatally impacted canines, as well as the most common methods of canine in orthodontic application, and the implications of canine extraction. The different factors that affect these decisions are discussed.

  19. Retrospective radiation dosimetry using electron paramagnetic resonance in canine dental enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Rao F.H.; Pekar, J.; Rink, W.J.; Boreham, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) biodosimetry of human tooth enamel has been widely used for measuring radiation doses in various scenarios. We have now developed EPR dosimetry in tooth enamel extracted from canines. Molars and incisors from canines were cleaned by processing in supersaturated aqueous potassium hydroxide solution. The dosimetric signal in canine tooth enamel was found to increase linearly as a function of laboratory added dose from 0.44±0.02 to 4.42±0.22 Gy. The gamma radiation sensitivity of the canine molar enamel was found to be comparable to that of human tooth enamel. The dosimetric signal in canine enamel has been found to be stable up to at least 6 weeks after in vitro irradiation. A dosimetric signal variation of 10-25% was observed for canines ranging from in age 3 years to 16 year old

  20. Evaluation of oral and subcutaneous delivery of an experimental canarypox recombinant canine distemper vaccine in the Siberian polecate (Mustela eversmanni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimsatt, Jeffrey; Biggins, Dean E.; Innes, Kim; Taylor, Bobbi; Garell, Della

    2003-01-01

    We assessed the safety and efficacy of an experimental canarypox-vectored recombinant canine distemper virus (CDV) subunit vaccine in the Siberian polecat (Mustela eversmanni), a close relative of the black-footed ferret, (M. nigripes), an endangered species that is highly susceptible to the virus. Siberian polecats were randomized into six treatment groups. Recombinant canine distemper vaccine was administered s.c. at three dose levels (104.5, 105.0, and 105.5 plaque-forming units [PFU] per dose) and was administered orally by spraying the vaccine into the oropharnyx at two dose levels (105.5, 108.0 PFU per dose). The sixth group of control animals was not vaccinated. For both routes of administration, two 1-ml doses of reconstituted vaccine were delivered 4 wk apart, followed by live virus challenge 3 wk after the second vaccination. During the challenge, Synder Hill test strain CDV obtained from the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Ames, Iowa, was administered i.p. Serial blood samples for CDV serology were collected immediately before vaccination and challenge, and 10, 15, and 20 days after challenge. Clinical signs and body weights were recorded up to 32 days after challenge. The survival rate in animals receiving vaccine at the highest oral dose (108.0 PFU per dose) was 83.3%. Survival rate was 50.0% in the high s.c. and 60.0% in the medium s.c. groups. All animals in the low–s.c. dose, low–oral dose, and control groups died after exposure. Vaccine dose overall (oral and s.c.) and dose in response to s.c. administration when considered alone were significant predictors of survival (P = 0.006 and P = 0.04, respectively). Among the polecats challenged with virulent virus, those that died became sick sooner than those that survived. Animals that died lost significantly more weight during the 10 days after challenge than did animals that survived (P = 0.02). Survival rates did not differ by sex, founder female status, or breeding pedigree in any of

  1. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment.

  2. Treatment modalities of palatal impacted canines

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Cena; Papakoca, Kiro; Ristoska, Sonja; Kovacevska, Ivona

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The orthodontic treatment of impacted maxillary canine remains a challenge to today’s clinicians. The treatment of this clinical entity usually involves surgical exposure of the impacted tooth, followed by orthodontic traction to guide and align it into the dental arch. The impacted palatal canine requires a combination of both treatment modalities: orthodontic management and oral surgical treatment. Two types of approach are commonly used: simple exposure, or exposure with brac...

  3. Experimental Model for Retrospective Assessment of X-Ray Exposures in Dento-Maxillary Radiology Measured by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in Tooth Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Costina DÂNŞOREANU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR dosimetry of human tooth enamel has been widely used in measuring radiation doses in various scenarios. For experimental purposes in X-ray diagnostic or therapy human persons can not be involved. For such cases we have developed an EPR dosimetry technique making use of enamel of molars extracted from pigs. The method can evaluate doses and dose-profiles of irradiated teeth at low level as 50 – 100 mGy (in air. EPR-spectra acquisition, data processing and dose assessment were done using non-dedicated equipment, devices and software.

  4. Ontogeny of canine dimorphism in extant hominoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, G T; Dean, C

    2001-07-01

    Many behavioral and ecological factors influence the degree of expression of canine dimorphism for different reasons. Regardless of its socioecological importance, we know virtually nothing about the processes responsible for the development of canine dimorphism. Our aim here is to describe the developmental process(es) regulating canine dimorphism in extant hominoids, using histological markers of tooth growth. Teeth preserve a permanent record of their ontogeny in the form of short- and long-period incremental markings in both enamel and dentine. We selected 52 histological sections of sexed hominoid canine teeth from a total sample of 115, from which we calculated the time and rate of cuspal enamel formation and the rate at which ameloblasts differentiate along the future enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) to the end of crown formation. Thus, we were able to reconstruct longitudinal growth curves for height attainment in male and female hominoid canines. Male hominoids consistently take longer to form canine crowns than do females (although not significantly so for our sample of Homo). Male orangutans and gorillas occasionally take up to twice as long as females to complete enamel formation. The mean ranges of female canine crown formation times are similar in Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo. Interspecific differences between female Pan canine crown heights and those of Gorilla and Pongo, which are taller, result from differences in rates of growth. Differences in canine crown heights between male Pan and the taller, more dimorphic male Gorilla and Pongo canines result both from differences in total time taken to form enamel and from faster rates of growth in Gorilla and Pongo. Although modern human canines do not emerge as significantly dimorphic in this study, it is well-known that sexual dimorphism in canine crown height exists. Larger samples of sexed modern human canines are therefore needed to identify clearly what underlies this. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. A Radiographic Study of Fused and Geminated Tooth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chul Jae; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyunhee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-02-15

    The incidence and several characteristic features of fused and geminated teeth were studied radiographically, with full mouth periapical radiogram and pantomogram, in 4201 patients of mixed dentition and 5358 patients of permanent dentition. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The prevalence was revealed to 2.86%, 0.32%, 0.33%, and 0.06% in deciduous fused tooth, permanent fused tooth, deciduous geminated tooth and permanent geminated tooth respectively, and these anomalies were occurred in female more than male. 2. Fused teeth were observed predominantly in lower anterior teeth area, especially in lateral incisor and canine region, and many cases of deciduous geminated tooth were observed in upper central incisor region. 3. Congenital missing rates of succedaneous tooth in deciduous fused teeth were 57.1%, 85.7%, 71.0%, 69.0% in upper right and left central-lateral incisor regions, lower right and left lateral incisor-canine regions, respectively. 4. Prevalence of dental caries was 42.3%, 18.8% and 5.6% in deciduous fused, deciduous geminated and permanent fused tooth, respectively. 5. In classifying of fused and geminated teeth into 9 type, by following appearance such as number of crown, root, pulp chamber and pulp canal of those teeth, it was more favorable that Type I (2 crown, 2 root, 2 pulp chamber, 2 pulp canal) in deciduous fused tooth and Type IX (1 crown, 1 root, 1 pulp chamber, 1 pulp canal) in permanent used tooth, deciduous and permanent geminated tooth.

  6. A Radiographic Study of Fused and Geminated Tooth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chul Jae; Lee, Sang Rae

    1990-01-01

    The incidence and several characteristic features of fused and geminated teeth were studied radiographically, with full mouth periapical radiogram and pantomogram, in 4201 patients of mixed dentition and 5358 patients of permanent dentition. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The prevalence was revealed to 2.86%, 0.32%, 0.33%, and 0.06% in deciduous fused tooth, permanent fused tooth, deciduous geminated tooth and permanent geminated tooth respectively, and these anomalies were occurred in female more than male. 2. Fused teeth were observed predominantly in lower anterior teeth area, especially in lateral incisor and canine region, and many cases of deciduous geminated tooth were observed in upper central incisor region. 3. Congenital missing rates of succedaneous tooth in deciduous fused teeth were 57.1%, 85.7%, 71.0%, 69.0% in upper right and left central-lateral incisor regions, lower right and left lateral incisor-canine regions, respectively. 4. Prevalence of dental caries was 42.3%, 18.8% and 5.6% in deciduous fused, deciduous geminated and permanent fused tooth, respectively. 5. In classifying of fused and geminated teeth into 9 type, by following appearance such as number of crown, root, pulp chamber and pulp canal of those teeth, it was more favorable that Type I (2 crown, 2 root, 2 pulp chamber, 2 pulp canal) in deciduous fused tooth and Type IX (1 crown, 1 root, 1 pulp chamber, 1 pulp canal) in permanent used tooth, deciduous and permanent geminated tooth.

  7. Experimental canine distemper infection as a means of demonstrating latent effects of subacute lead intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.J.; McLeod, S.

    1976-01-01

    Observations on the response of the body to experimental infection with distemper virus in dogs previously dosed subacutely with lead have demonstrated a latent effect of lead on several body systems. Effects which indicated a relationship to earlier treatment with lead included evidence for stimulation of haemoglobin synthesis, changes to red blood cells resulting in increased destruction, increased vulnerability of the parenchymatous cells of the liver to damage, reduction in the weight of the skeleton and thyroid, an increase in weight of the thymus and brain and histopathological changes in the thymus. 21 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  8. Combined stent implantation and embolization with liquid 2-polyhydroxyethyl methacrylate for treatment of experimental canine wide-necked aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klisch, J.; Zitt, J.; Schumacher, M. [Section of Neuroradiology, University of Freiburg (Germany); Schellhammer, F. [Department of Radiology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Scheufler, K.M. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Freiburg (Germany); Pagenstecher, A. [Department of Neuropathology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany); Nagursky, H. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of the study was the evaluation of 2-polyhydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-P-HEMA) for endovascular liquid embolization of experimental side-wall aneurysms following stent protection in a canine model. The swelling behaviour and polymerization characteristics of 2-P-HEMA in different solutions were investigated in vitro. Different methods for applications were tested in a latex aneurysm model under pulsatile flow conditions. Twenty broad-based carotid side-wall aneurysms were microsurgically produced in five dogs. Four weeks after surgery self-expandable nitinol stents were placed, covering the orifice of the aneurysms. 2-P-HEMA was injected via a microcatheter, which was positioned through the meshwork of the stent. Control angiography was performed immediately after treatment and after 1, 6 and 9 months. In-vivo stent placement succeeded in all but one case. Two aneurysms occluded spontaneously after stent placement. Combined embolization of 17 aneurysms using a stent and 2-P-HEMA was performed. Eleven aneurysms could be primarily completely occluded (65%). A small remaining neck was evident in six aneurysms. Efflux of 2-P-HEMA during the process of embolization was observed in seven aneurysms, due to an excess volume of 2-P-HEMA. The excessive 2-P-HEMA led to significant vessel stenosis in two cases. Two carotid arteries (three treated aneurysms) occluded after 1 month, due to insufficient anticoagulation management. Histological examination of embolized aneurysms revealed no foreign-body or inflammatory reaction. A smooth neo-intimal layer covered the stented vessel segment. Liquid embolization of side-wall aneurysms with 2-P-HEMA is technically feasible. Embolotherapy of aneurysms with liquid agents still has the risk that embolic material will exit even when it is stent-protected. To avoid this problem, stents with smaller strut diameter and/or additional balloon-protection are required. The inert 2-P-HEMA seems to be a promising agent for combining

  9. The significance of periventricular lucency on computed tomography: experimental study with canine hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, T.; Handa, H.; Mori, K.; Nakano, Y.

    1981-01-01

    In order to investigate the pathogenesis of periventricular lucency (PVL) in hydrocephalus, CT scans were performed with monitoring of the epidural pressure in a series of dogs with hydrocephalus induced with kaolin. PVL of various degrees was detected in the experimental animals, which disappeared immediately after a shunting operation. Correlations have been attempted between PVL on CT scans and histological examinations, contrast enhancement studies, metrizamide ventriculography, and measurement of regional cerebral blood flow in the periventricular white matter. PVL in hydrocephalus is considered to represent acute edema or chronic CSF retention in the periventricular white matter caused by an increase of water content. In other words, it is regarded as a sign of existing or preceding intraventricular hypertension on CT scan, and seems to be a reversible phenomenon to some extent. PVL may therefore become an indication for a shunt. (orig.)

  10. Acid and Alkaline Phosphatase Levels in GCF during Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Mohammad; Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Dianat, Omid; Khoramian Tusi, Somayeh; Younessian, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The present constituents of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) can reflect the changes occurring in underlying tissues. Considering variety of biologic bone markers, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase have been examined as bone turn over markers in orthodontic tooth movement. Purpose The current study designed in a longitudinal pattern to determine the changes of acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP & ALP) in GCF during orthodontic tooth movement. Materials and Method An upper canines from twelve patients (mean age: 14±2 years) undergoing extraction orthodontic treatment for distal movement served as the test tooth (DC), and its contralateral (CC) and antagonist (AC) canines were used as controls. The CC was included in orthodontic appliance without orthodontic force; the AC was free from any orthodontic appliance. The GCF around the experimental teeth was harvested from mesial and distal tooth sites immediately before appliance placement (T0), and 14 (T2) and 28 days (T3) after it and ALP and ACP concentration were determined spectrophotometrically. Results ALP concentration was elevated significantly in DC and CC groups at days 14 and 28 compared with the AC. In DC group, the ALP was significantly greater in mesial sites than distal site, while no significant changes were found between both sites of CC. The peak level of ALP was observed in mesial sites of DC at T2. Regarding ACP, significant elevation of this enzyme was seen in DC group both in mesial and distal sites at T2 and T3. The peak level of this enzyme was seen at T2. Conclusion Monitoring simultaneous changes of ALP and ACP levels in GCF can reflect the tissue responses occur in periodontium during bone formation and bone resorption during orthodontic tooth movement, respectively. PMID:26535403

  11. Tooth wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tušek Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tooth wear is the loss of dental hard tissue that was not caused by decay and represents a common clinical problem of modern man. In the etiology of dental hard tissue lesions there are three dominant mechanisms that may act synergistically or separately:friction (friction, which is caused by abrasion of exogenous, or attrition of endogenous origin, chemical dissolution of dental hard tissues caused by erosion, occlusal stress created by compression and flexion and tension that leads to tooth abfraction and microfracture. Wear of tooth surfaces due to the presence of microscopic imperfections of tooth surfaces is clinically manifested as sanding veneers. Tribology, as an interdisciplinary study of the mechanisms of friction, wear and lubrication at the ultrastructural level, has defined a universal model according to which the etiopathogenesis of tooth wear is caused by the following factors: health and diseases of the digestive tract, oral hygiene, eating habits, poor oral habits, bruxism, temporomandibular disorders and iatrogenic factors. Attrition and dental erosion are much more common in children with special needs (Down syndrome. Erosion of teeth usually results from diseases of the digestive tract that lead to gastroesophageal reflux (GER of gastric juice (HCl. There are two basic approaches to the assessment of the degree of wear and dental erosion. Depending on the type of wear (erosion, attrition, abfraction, the amount of calcium that was realised during the erosive attack could be determined qualitatively and quantitatively, or changes in optical properties and hardness of enamel could be recorded, too. Abrasion of teeth (abrasio dentium is the loss of dental hard tissue caused by friction between the teeth and exogenous foreign substance. It is most commonly provoked by prosthetic dentures and bad habits, while its effect depends on the size of abrasive particles and their amount, abrasive particle hardness and hardness of tooth

  12. MRI of degenerative bone marrow lesions in experimental osteoarthritis of canine knee joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolte-Ernsting, C.C.A. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52057 Aachen (Germany); Adam, G. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52057 Aachen (Germany); Buehne, M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52057 Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Aachen (Germany); Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52057 Aachen (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the value of MRI in the detection of degenerative bone marrow abnormalities in an animal osteoarthritis model. Design. In 10 dogs with experimentally induced unilateral osteoarthritis of the knee, MRI was performed using two-dimensional spin-echo (2D-SE) and three-dimensional gradient-echo (3D-GE) imaging. Contrast enhanced T1-weighted 2D-SE sequences were also obtained after injection of gadolinium-DTPA. The results were compared with the gross and histopathologic findings and with radiography. Results. Histopathologic specimens revealed 21 osteosclerotic lesions and 5 intraosseous cysts. On 2D-SE images, 24 of 26 lesions were detected, while 21 of 26 lesions were identified on 2D-GE sequences. Radiography, including conventional tomography, demonstrated 9 of 26 lesions. Regardless of the sequence weighting, all osteosclerotic lesions appeared hypointense on MRI. Signal loss in bone sclerosis resulted primarily from the reduction of intact fat marrow, the increased bone density being of secondary importance. Quantitative signal analysis allowed approximate estimation of the grade of sclerosis. On postcontrast images, sclerotic bone remained hypointense, although significant but non-specific enhancement relative to the normal fat marrow was observed. The extent of contrast enhancement did not correlate with the grade of osteosclerosis. All five cysts were readily diagnosed by MRI. Cysts displayed either central or marginal contrast enhancement within their cavities. Conclusions. MRI provides a sensitive method for the diagnosis of osteoarthritic bone abnormalities, allowing their differentiation from most non-degenerative subarticular lesions. (orig.). With 1 tab.

  13. Tolerance of the canine bladder to intraoperative radiation therapy: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsella, T.J.; Sindelar, W.F.; DeLuca, A.M.; Barnes, M.; Tochner, Z.; Mixon, A.; Glatstein, E.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental study of bladder tolerance to intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) was designed using a large animal model (adult American Foxhounds, weight 25-30 kg) to access acute and late radiation effects. Dogs were subjected to laparotomy where the bladder was mobilized and IORT was delivered using a 5 cm circular cone through a cystotomy incision with 12 MeV electrons. The bladder trigone including both ureteral orifices and the proximal urethra was irradiated in groups of 3 dogs with doses of 0, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 Gy. Dogs were followed clinically with repeat urinalysis, intravenous pyelogram (IVP), and cystometrogram at 1 month and then Q6 months for up to 4 years. One dog from each dose group was sacrificed electively at 1 and 2 years, whereas the other dog is being followed clinically for a minimum of 4 years. Complete autopsies were performed with particular attention to genitourinary and pelvic structures. No clinically detectable acute toxicity resulted from IORT to the bladder. Three of 15 IORT dogs (1 each at 25, 35, and 40 Gy) showed obstruction of a ureteral orifice with 2 dogs dying of renal failure secondary to bilateral hydronephrosis within 1-2 years of treatment. The remaining 12 IORT dogs and 3 control dogs have normal repeat IVP's and renal function with up to 4 years of follow-up. Serial cystometry demonstrates no major loss of bladder contractility or volume. At autopsy, histological changes of mucosal thinning and telangiectasia with submucosal fibrosis were confined to the IORT field and appeared dose-related. However, the bladder epithelium remained intact at all doses. The ureterovesical junction in animals receiving 20 Gy showed mild fibrosis of the lamina propria and moderate chronic inflammation. Above 20 Gy, these histological changes at the U-V junction were more pronounced with gross stenosis in 3 animals as predicted by the IVP

  14. Randomized Controlled Trial to Explore the Effect of Experimental Low Abrasivity Dentifrices on Enamel Gloss and Smoothness, and the Build-up of Extrinsic Tooth Stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milleman, Kimberly R; Milleman, Jeffery L; Young, Sarah; Parkinson, Charles

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate and compare examiner-assessed changes in enamel gloss, extrinsic dental stain, and surface smoothness following one, two, four, and eight weeks of twice-daily use of an experimental low abrasivity desensitizing dentifrice (relative dentin abrasivity [RDA] ~40) containing 5% sodium tripolyphosphate (STP) chemical cleaning agent and 1% aluminum trioxide abrasive. This was compared with an ultra-low abrasivity dentifrice (5% STP only; RDA ~13), a moderate abrasivity fluoride dentifrice (RDA ~80), and a higher abrasivity marketed whitening dentifrice (RDA ~142). This was a single-center, examiner-blind, randomized, controlled, parallel group study in healthy adults stratified by gloss score and age. Following a washout period with a conventional silica abrasive dentifrice, subjects received a dental scale and polish and were randomized to treatment. Subjects brushed their teeth for two minutes, twice daily, with their assigned dentifrice. Enamel gloss was assessed visually by comparing the facial surfaces of the maxillary incisors to the Sturzenberger gloss standards. Extrinsic dental stain was measured on the 12 anterior teeth (facial and lingual) using the Macpherson modification of the Lobene Stain Index (MLSI). Tooth smoothness was assessed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of a silicone impression of the central incisors. Of 120 screened subjects, 95 were randomized to the study. Subjects using the low abrasivity aluminum trioxide/STP dentifrice demonstrated statistically significant (p tooth smoothness, at Week 8, statistically significant increases in surface smoothness were observed for most treatment groups compared to baseline (p tooth gloss compared to a non-alumina ultra-low abrasivity STP-containing dentifrice, and moderate and high abrasivity dentifrices, over an eight-week period.

  15. Poly-lactic-acid coating of endovascular stents: preliminary results in canine experimental av-fistulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellhammer, F. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Berlis, A. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Bloss, H.G. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Pagenstecher, A. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Neuropathology; Schumacher, M. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2001-02-01

    Poly-Lactic-Acid (PLA) was evaluated for coating of vascular endoprotheses in the treatment of experimental arterio-venous-fistulae (AVF). Bilateral carotid-external jugular AVF were created in 5 adult dogs. 7 PLA coated nitinol stents were placed via a transfemoral approach covering 5 AVF. The contralateral AVF remained untreated. Angiography was performed immediately after stent placement, at weeks 1 and 3 and at months 3, 6 and 9. All grafts were removed and underwent histologic examination. In 2 cases the occlusion of the AVF was successful, while misplacement occurred in 3 cases. Occlusion of the parent vessel was disclosed in 3 cases. Histologic examination revealed a mild inflammatory reaction with the presence of macrophages. There was no foreign-body reaction or fragmentation of the arterial vessel wall. PLA, which is a well-known biodegradable material, showed a good mid-term biocompatibility. Elastic mismatch of the non-elastic coating and the self-expandable nitinol stent caused misplacement. Frequent vessel-occlusions were probably due to PLA-filaments fraying into the vessel lumen. Using a different textile structure PLA might be a material suitable for coating endovascular stents. (orig.) [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden mit Poly-Laktid ummantelte Gefaessprothesen in der Behandlung von experimentell angelegten arterio-venoesen Gefaesskurzschluessen getestet. Gefaesskurzschlussverbindungen der Halsarterien mit der parallel dazu verlaufenden, tiefen Halsvene wurden in 5 Hunden operativ angelegt. 7 mit Poly-Laktid ummantelte Gefaessprothesen aus Nitinol wurden in jeweils eine Halsarterie implantiert, so dass die Gefaesskurzschlussverbindungen vollstaendig ueberdeckt war. Die gegenueberliegende Seite verblieb als Kontrolle unbehandelt. Radiologische Gefaessdarstellungen erfolgten unmittelbar nach Implantation der Gefaessprothese, nach 1 und 3 Wochen sowie nach 3, 6 und 9 Monaten. Alle Prothesen wurden operativ entfernt und feingeweblich

  16. A new experimental carotid siphon aneurysm model in canine based on the MR angiography and rapid prototyping technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Jian; Li Minghua; Tan Huaqiao; Zhu Yueqi; Hu Dingjun; Qiao Ruihua; Fan Chunhua

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the experiment is to make an intracranial aneurysm model in canine. Methods: A digital tube was made based on raw magnetic resonance images of the human intracranial carotid artery. Then 6 tubes were made in the 3D rapid prototyping machine and coated with silicone. Finally we isolated the common carotid arteries of 6 canines and made them go through the tubes and anastomosed them end-to-side to get the aneurysm model. Six stents were implanted after one week. Results: Six aneurysm models were successfully made in canines. The parent artery had similar geometry of the human carotid siphon. All the aneurysms and parent arteries were patent in one week's follow-up. One canine died of excessive anesthesia after stenting. Two vascular models kept patent in one month without stenosis. The other 3 had some stenosis on the bends of the vessel. Conclusions: The aneurysm model in the experiment has high flexibility and reliability. The model provides an effective tool for research and testing neurovascular devices. It's also a useful device to train the neuroradiologists and interventional physicians. (authors)

  17. Tooth wear

    OpenAIRE

    Tušek Ivan; Tušek Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Tooth wear is the loss of dental hard tissue that was not caused by decay and represents a common clinical problem of modern man. In the etiology of dental hard tissue lesions there are three dominant mechanisms that may act synergistically or separately:friction (friction), which is caused by abrasion of exogenous, or attrition of endogenous origin, chemical dissolution of dental hard tissues caused by erosion, occlusal stress created by compression and flexion and tension that leads to toot...

  18. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  19. Impacted canines: Etiology, diagnosis, and orthodontic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit Manne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaction of maxillary and mandibular canines is a frequently encountered clinical problem, the treatment of which usually requires an interdisciplinary approach. Surgical exposure of the impacted tooth and the complex orthodontic mechanisms that are applied to align the tooth into the arch may lead to varying amounts of damage to the supporting structures of the tooth, not to mention the long treatment duration and the financial burden to the patient. Hence, it seems worthwhile to focus on the means of early diagnosis and interception of this clinical situation. In the present article, an overview of the incidence and sequelae, as well as the surgical, periodontal, and orthodontic considerations in the management of impacted canines is presented.

  20. Aspects and clinical procedures of eruptive changes of permanent upper canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Marcia Francisco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Even though the upper canine is the tooth that presents most eruption anomalies, after the third molars, canine retention prevalence in the population is quite low. Local, physiologic and pathologic factors can provide difficulties for the tooth eruptive process. The correct diagnosis in trying to prevent upper canine retention with ectopic eruption is fundamental to choose the ideal treatment, which can be performed by various methods. OBJECTIVE: The present paper has the purpose of approaching aspects related to impacted upper permanent canines by a literature review, including localization and treatment conducts.

  1. The Use of Tooth Particles as a Biomaterial in Post-Extraction Sockets. Experimental Study in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Guirado, José Luis; Maté-Sánchez de Val, José Eduardo; Ramos-Oltra, María Luisa; Pérez-Albacete Martínez, Carlos; Ramírez-Fernández, María Piedad; Maiquez-Gosálvez, Manuel; Gehrke, Sergio A; Fernández-Domínguez, Manuel; Romanos, Georgios E; Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael Arcesio

    2018-05-06

    Objectives : The objective of this study was to evaluate new bone formation derived from freshly crushed extracted teeth, grafted immediately in post-extraction sites in an animal model, compared with sites without graft filling, evaluated at 30 and 90 days. Material and Methods : The bilateral premolars P2, P3, P4 and the first mandibular molar were extracted atraumatically from six Beagle dogs. The clean, dry teeth were ground immediately using the Smart Dentin Grinder. The tooth particles obtained were subsequently sieved through a special sorting filter into two compartments; the upper container isolating particles over 1200 μm, the lower container isolated particles over 300 μm. The crushed teeth were grafted into the post-extraction sockets at P3, P4 and M1 (test group) (larger and smaller post-extraction alveoli), while P2 sites were left unfilled and acted as a control group. Tissue healing and bone formation were evaluated by histological and histomorphometric analysis after 30 and 90 days. Results : At 30 days, test site bone formation was greater in the test group than the control group ( p socket preservation.

  2. Diverse bone morphogenetic protein expression profiles and smad pathway activation in different phenotypes of experimental canine mammary tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Wensman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: BMPs are currently receiving attention for their role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Currently, most BMP expression studies are performed on carcinomas, and not much is known about the situation in sarcomas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have investigated the BMP expression profiles and Smad activation in clones from different spontaneous canine mammary tumors. Spindle cell tumor and osteosarcoma clones expressed high levels of BMPs, in particular BMP-2, -4 and -6. Clones from a scirrhous carcinoma expressed much lower BMP levels. The various clones formed different tumor types in nude mice but only clones that expressed high levels of BMP-6 gave bone formation. Phosphorylated Smad-1/5, located in the nucleus, was detected in tumors derived from clones expressing high levels of BMPs, indicating an active BMP signaling pathway and BMP-2 stimulation of mammary tumor cell clones in vitro resulted in activation of the Smad-1/5 pathway. In contrast BMP-2 stimulation did not induce phosphorylation of the non-Smad pathway p38 MAPK. Interestingly, an increased level of the BMP-antagonist chordin-like 1 was detected after BMP stimulation of non-bone forming clones. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the specific BMP expression repertoire differs substantially between different types of mammary tumors and that BMP-6 expression most probably has a biological role in bone formation of canine mammary tumors.

  3. Management of impacted all canines with surgical exposure and alignment by orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine impaction is a dental problem very often encountered in orthodontic practice. After the third molar, the canine is the most frequently impacted tooth. Bringing the impacted canine into a normal position is important for functional occlusion and the final esthetics of the orthodontic treatment. This article illustrates a peculiar case, in which all four permanent canines maintained their unerupted status at age of 16 years. All four impacted canines were surgically exposed, attachment bonded, traction given with K-9 spring and ideally positioned with fixed orthodontic mechanotherapy.

  4. An in vitro investigation into retention strength and fatigue resistance of various designs of tooth/implant supported overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatalla, Abdalbseet A; Song, Ke; Du, Tianfeng; Cao, Yingguang

    2012-02-01

    Previously, the choice of prosthetic implant-retained overdentures has depended on data from previous studies about the retention-fatigue strength of the attachment system selected. Little or no data have been available on the correlation between the attachment system selected and the overdenture support configuration. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the retention force and fatigue resistance of three attachment systems and four support designs of overdenture prosthesis. Four lower edentulous acrylic models were prepared and eight combinations of attachments groups were investigated in the study. These included: O-Rings with mini-dental implants (MDIs), Dalbo elliptic with Dalbo Rotex and fabricated flexible acrylic attachments with both MDI and Dalbo Rotex. The study was divided into four test groups: groups A and B, controls, and groups C and D, experimental groups. Control group A contained three overdenture supports: two free standing MDIs in the canine region and at the midline, and one simulated tooth root with Dalbo Rotex screwed in. Control group B contained four overdenture support foundations: two free standing MDIs in the right canine region and the first premolar region, and two simulated tooth roots with Dalbo Rotex screwed in at the same MDI position, but on the left side of the model. Experimental group C contained three overdenture support foundations: two free standing MDIs in the canine region and at the midline, and one simulated tooth root with MDI screwed in. Experimental group D contained four overdenture support foundations: two free standing MDIs in the right canine region and the first premolar region, and two simulated tooth roots with MDIs screwed in at the same MDI position, but on the left side of the model. Each group was further divided into two subgroups according to attachment type used. Five samples were prepared for each group. Retention force (N) values were recorded initially (0 cycles) and after 360, 720, 1440

  5. Graphene-based Wireless Bacteria Detection on Tooth Enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-27

    to reproduce , publish, or otherwise use the work for Federal purposes, and to authroize others to do so (DODGARS §32.36). The views, opinions and...2004). 4. Neat, M. L., Peacock , R. & Brittain, R. T. Implantation of electrodes in the dentine of an upper canine tooth in the dog. Br. J. Pharmacol

  6. Bilateral Second Premolars Agenesia Together with a Unilateral Canine Radiculomegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemoli, Arthur Musakulu; Junior, Thomas Munyao

    2017-01-01

    Congenitally missing teeth is a common feature for the third molars. However, missing teeth, macrodontia and radiculomegaly occurring in a single patient is very rare. This article describes a case of agenesis of mandibular second premolars, radiculomegaly with dilacerations of a canine tooth together with elongated roots of other canines. All these features had been discerned through diagnostic radiographs taken during a routine treatment planning.

  7. Bilateral second premolars agenesia together with a unilateral canine radiculomegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Musakulu Kemoli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenitally missing teeth is a common feature for the third molars. However, missing teeth, macrodontia and radiculomegaly occurring in a single patient is very rare. This article describes a case of agenesis of mandibular second premolars, radiculomegaly with dilacerations of a canine tooth together with elongated roots of other canines. All these features had been discerned through diagnostic radiographs taken during a routine treatment planning.

  8. Analysis of tooth tissues using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timchenko, E.V.; Timchenko, P.E.; Kulabukhova, A.Yu.; Volova, L.T.; Rosenbaum, A.Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The results of experimental studies of healthy tooth tissue and tooth tissues during caries disease are presented. Features of Raman spectrum of tooth tissues during caries disease are obtained: the main changes are detected at wavenumbers 956 cm -1 .1069 cm -1 . corresponding to phosphates. and 1241 cm -1 . 1660 cm -1 . corresponding to collagen III and collagen I. respectively. Were introduced criteria allowing to detect caries and to identify weakening of tooth tissues. preceding the caries. The reliability of research results is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. (paper)

  9. Influence of paclitaxel-eluting expandable metallic stent on tissue hyperplasia: an experimental study in a canine tracheal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ji Hoon; Kim, Jung Sun; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Won Chan; Woo, Chul Woong; Di, Zhenhai; Song, Ho Young; Yuk, Soon Hong; Lee, Yong Seok

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a paclitaxel-eluting expandable metallic stent in reducing tissue hyperplasia following stent placement in a canine tracheal model. Nine paclitaxel-eluting stents (drug stent, DS) consisting of a proximal bare part and a distal polyurethane-covered part were placed in the trachea of nine dogs and nine control stents (control stent, CS) were placed in the other nine dogs. The dogs were scheduled to be sacrificed 12 weeks after stent placement. Gross and histological factors, such as epithelial erosion/ulcer, granulation tissue thickness and inflammatory cell infiltration were evaluated after each dog was sacrificed. There were no procedure-related complications or malpositioning of any of the stents. One CS migrated less than eight weeks following stent placement. Four dogs (one DS and three CS dogs) died between three and five weeks following stent placement. Therefore, pathologic specimens were obtained from eight DS and five CS dogs. Epithelial erosion/ulcer or inflammatory cell infiltration was slightly more prominent in the DS cases than in the CS cases, in both the bare part and the covered part. However, the data was not statistically significant. Granulation tissue thickness was lower in the DS cases than in the CS cases in both the bare part (mean, 3.63-mm vs. 4.37-mm) and the covered part (mean, 1.75-mm vs. 2,78 mm), but the data was also statistically insignificant. Although the data was not statistically significant, placement of paclitaxel-eluting expandable metallic stent demonstrates a tendency toward a decrease in granulation tissue thickness in canine tracheal models

  10. Influence of paclitaxel-eluting expandable metallic stent on tissue hyperplasia: an experimental study in a canine tracheal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji Hoon; Kim, Jung Sun; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Won Chan; Woo, Chul Woong; Di, Zhenhai; Song, Ho Young [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yuk, Soon Hong [Hannam University, College of Engineering, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Seok [Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of a paclitaxel-eluting expandable metallic stent in reducing tissue hyperplasia following stent placement in a canine tracheal model. Nine paclitaxel-eluting stents (drug stent, DS) consisting of a proximal bare part and a distal polyurethane-covered part were placed in the trachea of nine dogs and nine control stents (control stent, CS) were placed in the other nine dogs. The dogs were scheduled to be sacrificed 12 weeks after stent placement. Gross and histological factors, such as epithelial erosion/ulcer, granulation tissue thickness and inflammatory cell infiltration were evaluated after each dog was sacrificed. There were no procedure-related complications or malpositioning of any of the stents. One CS migrated less than eight weeks following stent placement. Four dogs (one DS and three CS dogs) died between three and five weeks following stent placement. Therefore, pathologic specimens were obtained from eight DS and five CS dogs. Epithelial erosion/ulcer or inflammatory cell infiltration was slightly more prominent in the DS cases than in the CS cases, in both the bare part and the covered part. However, the data was not statistically significant. Granulation tissue thickness was lower in the DS cases than in the CS cases in both the bare part (mean, 3.63-mm vs. 4.37-mm) and the covered part (mean, 1.75-mm vs. 2,78 mm), but the data was also statistically insignificant. Although the data was not statistically significant, placement of paclitaxel-eluting expandable metallic stent demonstrates a tendency toward a decrease in granulation tissue thickness in canine tracheal models.

  11. Experimental adaptation of wild-type canine distemper virus (CDV to the human entry receptor CD150.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bieringer

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV, a close relative of measles virus (MV, is widespread and well known for its broad host range. When the goal of measles eradication may be achieved, and when measles vaccination will be stopped, CDV might eventually cross the species barrier to humans and emerge as a new human pathogen. In order to get an impression how fast such alterations may occur, we characterized required adaptive mutations to the human entry receptors CD150 (SLAM and nectin-4 as first step to infect human target cells. Recombinant wild-type CDV-A75/17(red adapted quickly to growth in human H358 epithelial cells expressing human nectin-4. Sequencing of the viral attachment proteins (hemagglutinin, H, and fusion protein, F genes revealed that no adaptive alteration was required to utilize human nectin-4. In contrast, the virus replicated only to low titres (10(2 pfu/ml in Vero cells expressing human CD150 (Vero-hSLAM. After three passages using these cells virus was adapted to human CD150 and replicated to high titres (10(5 pfu/ml. Sequence analyses revealed that only one amino acid exchange in the H-protein at position 540 Asp→Gly (D540G was required for functional adaptation to human CD150. Structural modelling suggests that the adaptive mutation D540G in H reflects the sequence alteration from canine to human CD150 at position 70 and 71 from Pro to Leu (P70L and Gly to Glu (G71E, and compensates for the gain of a negative charge in the human CD150 molecule. Using this model system our data indicate that only a minimal alteration, in this case one adaptive mutation, is required for adaptation of CDV to the human entry receptors, and help to understand the molecular basis why this adaptive mutation occurs.

  12. Bioeffects of albumin-encapsulated microbubbles and real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography in an experimental canine model

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    P.M.M. Dourado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial contrast echocardiography has been used for assessing myocardial perfusion. Some concerns regarding its safety still remain, mainly regarding the induction of microvascular alterations. We sought to determine the bioeffects of microbubbles and real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography (RTMCE in a closed-chest canine model. Eighteen mongrel dogs were randomly assigned to two groups. Nine were submitted to continuous intravenous infusion of perfluorocarbon-exposed sonicated dextrose albumin (PESDA plus continuous imaging using power pulse inversion RTMCE for 180 min, associated with manually deflagrated high-mechanical index impulses. The control group consisted of 3 dogs submitted to continuous imaging using RTMCE without PESDA, 3 dogs received PESDA alone, and 3 dogs were sham-operated. Hemodynamics and cardiac rhythm were monitored continuously. Histological analysis was performed on cardiac and pulmonary tissues. No hemodynamic changes or cardiac arrhythmias were observed in any group. Normal left ventricular ejection fraction and myocardial perfusion were maintained throughout the protocol. Frequency of mild and focal microhemorrhage areas in myocardial and pulmonary tissue was similar in PESDA plus RTMCE and control groups. The percentages of positive microscopical fields in the myocardium were 0.4 and 0.7% (P = NS in the PESDA plus RTMCE and control groups, respectively, and in the lungs they were 2.1 and 1.1%, respectively (P = NS. In this canine model, myocardial perfusion imaging obtained with PESDA and RTMCE was safe, with no alteration in cardiac rhythm or left ventricular function. Mild and focal myocardial and pulmonary microhemorrhages were observed in both groups, and may be attributed to surgical tissue manipulation.

  13. Using a Novel Absolute Ontogenetic Age Determination Technique to Calculate the Timing of Tooth Eruption in the Saber-Toothed Cat, Smilodon fatalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Aleksander Wysocki

    Full Text Available Despite the superb fossil record of the saber-toothed cat, Smilodon fatalis, ontogenetic age determination for this and other ancient species remains a challenge. The present study utilizes a new technique, a combination of data from stable oxygen isotope analyses and micro-computed tomography, to establish the eruption rate for the permanent upper canines in Smilodon fatalis. The results imply an eruption rate of 6.0 millimeters per month, which is similar to a previously published average enamel growth rate of the S. fatalis upper canines (5.8 millimeters per month. Utilizing the upper canine growth rate, the upper canine eruption rate, and a previously published tooth replacement sequence, this study calculates absolute ontogenetic age ranges of tooth development and eruption in S. fatalis. The timing of tooth eruption is compared between S. fatalis and several extant conical-toothed felids, such as the African lion (Panthera leo. Results suggest that the permanent dentition of S. fatalis, except for the upper canines, was fully erupted by 14 to 22 months, and that the upper canines finished erupting at about 34 to 41 months. Based on these developmental age calculations, S. fatalis individuals less than 4 to 7 months of age were not typically preserved at Rancho La Brea. On the whole, S. fatalis appears to have had delayed dental development compared to dental development in similar-sized extant felids. This technique for absolute ontogenetic age determination can be replicated in other ancient species, including non-saber-toothed taxa, as long as the timing of growth initiation and growth rate can be determined for a specific feature, such as a tooth, and that growth period overlaps with the development of the other features under investigation.

  14. Using a Novel Absolute Ontogenetic Age Determination Technique to Calculate the Timing of Tooth Eruption in the Saber-Toothed Cat, Smilodon fatalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, M Aleksander; Feranec, Robert S; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Bjornsson, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Despite the superb fossil record of the saber-toothed cat, Smilodon fatalis, ontogenetic age determination for this and other ancient species remains a challenge. The present study utilizes a new technique, a combination of data from stable oxygen isotope analyses and micro-computed tomography, to establish the eruption rate for the permanent upper canines in Smilodon fatalis. The results imply an eruption rate of 6.0 millimeters per month, which is similar to a previously published average enamel growth rate of the S. fatalis upper canines (5.8 millimeters per month). Utilizing the upper canine growth rate, the upper canine eruption rate, and a previously published tooth replacement sequence, this study calculates absolute ontogenetic age ranges of tooth development and eruption in S. fatalis. The timing of tooth eruption is compared between S. fatalis and several extant conical-toothed felids, such as the African lion (Panthera leo). Results suggest that the permanent dentition of S. fatalis, except for the upper canines, was fully erupted by 14 to 22 months, and that the upper canines finished erupting at about 34 to 41 months. Based on these developmental age calculations, S. fatalis individuals less than 4 to 7 months of age were not typically preserved at Rancho La Brea. On the whole, S. fatalis appears to have had delayed dental development compared to dental development in similar-sized extant felids. This technique for absolute ontogenetic age determination can be replicated in other ancient species, including non-saber-toothed taxa, as long as the timing of growth initiation and growth rate can be determined for a specific feature, such as a tooth, and that growth period overlaps with the development of the other features under investigation.

  15. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  16. Extraction of Unerupted Maxillary Canine Teeth in a Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes M. B. Pessoa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this case report is to describe the diagnosis and treatment of unerupted canine teeth in a maned wolf. After physical examination, complete blood count, and serum biochemical profile, the animal underwent general anesthesia and head radiography was performed to confirm the diagnosis. The treatment consisted of the extraction of both maxillary canine teeth and clinical and radiographic follow-up of the right mandibular canine tooth.

  17. Extraction of Unerupted Maxillary Canine Teeth in a Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus)

    OpenAIRE

    Pessoa, Lourdes M. B.; Roza, Marcello; Farias, Anderson; Jesus, Pedro Henrique de; Campbell, Rita de Cassia; Pinho, Mariângela Pereira de

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe the diagnosis and treatment of unerupted canine teeth in a maned wolf. After physical examination, complete blood count, and serum biochemical profile, the animal underwent general anesthesia and head radiography was performed to confirm the diagnosis. The treatment consisted of the extraction of both maxillary canine teeth and clinical and radiographic follow-up of the right mandibular canine tooth.

  18. Canine Gouging: A Taboo Resurfacing in Migrant Urban Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noman, Anila Virani; Wong, Ferranti; Pawar, Ravikiran Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Cosmopolitan cities have become a pool of migrants from different parts of the world, who carry their cultural beliefs and superstitions with them around the globe. Canine gouging is a kind of infant oral mutilation (IOM) which is widely practiced among rural population of Africa where the primary tooth bud of the deciduous canine is enucleated. The belief is that the life threatening illnesses in children like vomiting, diarrhoea, and fevers are caused by worms which infest on tooth buds. This case report is of a 15-year-old Somalian born boy, who presented at the dental institute with intermittent pain in his lower right permanent canine which was associated with a discharging intra oral buccal sinus. The tooth was endodontically treated and then restored with composite. General dental practitioners need to be vigilant when encountered with tooth presenting unusual morphology, unilateral missing tooth, and shift in the midline due to early loss of deciduous/permanent canines. Identification of any such dental mutilation practice will need further counselling of the individual and family members. It is the duty of every dental professional to educate and safeguard the oral and dental health of general public.

  19. Effect of plasma-rich in platelet-derived growth factors on peri-implant bone healing: An experimental study in canines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birang, Reza; Torabi, Alireza; Shahabooei, Mohammad; Rismanchian, Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tissue engineering principles can be exploited to enhance alveolar and peri-implant bone reconstruction by applying such biological factors as platelet-derived growth factors. The objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of autologous plasma-rich in growth factors (on the healing of peri-implant bone in canine mandible). Materials and Methods: In this prospective experimental animal study, two healthy canines of the Iranian mix breed were selected. Three months after removing their premolar teeth on both sides of the mandible, 12 implants of the Osteo Implant Corporationsystem, 5 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length, were selected to be implanted. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) were applied on six implants while the other six were used as plain implants without the plasma. The implants were installed in osteotomy sites on both sides of the mandible to be removed after 4 weeks with the surrounding bones using a trephine bur. Mesio-distal sections and implant blocks, 50 μ in diameter containing the peri-implant bone, were prepared By basic fuchin toluidine-bluefor histological and histomorphometric evaluation by optical microscope. The data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney Test (PPRGF and control groups had no statistically significant differences (P=0.261, P=0.2) although the parameters showed higher measured values in the PRGF group. However, compared to the control, application of PRGF had significantly increased bone-to-implant contact (P=0.028) Conclusion: Based on the results, it may be concluded that application of PRGF on the surface of implant may enhance bone-to-implant contact. PMID:22363370

  20. Changes in gnathosonic and tooth contact characteristics induced by experimental occlusal interferences created using a full-cast double crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asazuma, Y; Isogai, Y; Watanabe, K; Hara, K

    1995-03-01

    Occlusal sounds, contact timings and time moments were measured and analysed on 10 subjects onto whom an occlusal interference was created experimentally. A full-cast double crown was unilaterally set on the upper first molar of each subject, then gradually elevated for 0.06, 0.10, 0.20 and 0.30 mm by inserting a pre-calibrated metal folio. Occlusal sound was measured with an analyser designed for the purpose. Timings and time moments were analysed with a T-scan system. All measurements were performed at least 10 times per subject. The results showed that prolonged occlusal sound duration, changes in acoustic signal waveform and increased shift of the centre of effort were observed concomitantly with crown elevation. Differences in these values at 0.06 mm as compared with those at baseline were not statistically significant. This could be explained through a physiological compensation by the periodontal ligament. The differences with baseline were statistically significant from 0.10 mm ongoing. The distribution of occlusal conacts was determined by the use of a newly developed parameter. Referred to as 'Tap Score', the parameter consists of converting contact timings occurring in seven ranges into least-square-based weighted scores. Analysis of the tap score disclosed evident imbalance between the crowned and the non-crowned side starting from 0.10 mm elevation, whereby a forward shift of the major contact point was observed on the non-crowned side. Our study demonstrated that evident changes in gnathosonic and T-scan parameters are likely to occur at a crown elevation within a 0.06-0.10 mm range.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Clinical and Statistical Study on Canine Impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-Simona Coșarcă

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to perform a clinical and statistical research on permanent impacted canine patients among those with dental impaction referred to and treated at the Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgery Clinic of Tîrgu Mureș, over a four years period (2009-2012. Materials and methods: The study included 858 patients having dental impaction, and upon clinical records, different parameters, like frequency, gender, age, quadrant involvement, patient residence, associated complications, referring specialist and type of treatment, related to canine impaction, were assessed. Results: The study revealed: about 10% frequency of canine impaction among dental impactions; more frequent in women, in the first quadrant (tooth 13; most cases diagnosed between the age of 10-19 years; patients under 20 were referred by an orthodontist, those over 20 by a dentist; surgical exposure was more often performed than odontectomy. Conclusions: Canine impaction is the second-most frequent dental impaction in dental arch after third molars; it occurs especially in women. Due to its important role, canine recovery within dental arch is a goal to be achieved, whenever possible. Therefore, diagnose and treatment of canine impaction requires an interdisciplinary approach (surgical and orthodontic

  2. Influence of a dexamethasone-eluting covered stent on tissue reaction: an experimental study in a canine bronchial model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji Hoon; Song, Ho-Young; Choi, Gi Bok; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Suh, Ji-Yeon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Seo, Tae-Seok [Gachon Medical School, Department of Radiology, Gil Medical Center, Inchon (Korea); Yuk, Soon Hong [Hannam University, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Daejeon (Korea); Kim, Young-Hwa [Soonchunhyang University Chonan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Chonan (Korea); Cho, Yong-Mee [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a dexamethasone (DXM)-eluting, covered, self-expanding metallic stent to reduce tissue reaction following stent placement in a canine bronchial model. We placed a DXM-eluting, polyurethane-covered, self-expanding metallic stent (drug stent, DS) and a polyurethane-covered, self-expanding metallic stent (control stent, CS) alternately in each left main bronchus and left lower lobe bronchus in 12 dogs. The stents were 20 mm in diameter and length when fully expanded. The dose of DXM was approximately 36.7 mg in each DS, but was absent in the CS. The dogs were euthanased 1 week (n=4), 2 weeks (n=4) or 4 weeks (n=4) after stent placement. Histologic findings, such as epithelial erosion/ulcer or granulation tissue thickness, were obtained from the mid-portion of the bronchus, where the stent had been placed, and evaluated between DS and CS. There were no procedure-related complications or malpositioning of any of the bronchial stents. Stent migration was detected in one dog just before euthanasia 1 week following stent placement. Stent patency was maintained until euthanasia in all dogs. Epithelial erosion/ulcer (%) was significantly less in the DS (mean{+-}standard deviation, 46.88{+-}23.75) than in the CS (73.75{+-}14.08) (P=0.026) for all time-points. There was a decrease in epithelial erosion/ulcer as the follow-up period increased in both DS and CS. The granulation tissue thickness (mm) was less in DS (2.63{+-}2.05) than in CS (3.49{+-}2.95), although the difference was not significant (P=0.751) for all time-points. There was a tendency toward an increase in granulation tissue thickness and chronic lymphocytic infiltration as the follow-up period increased in both DS and CS. In conclusion, DXM-eluting, covered, self-expanding metallic stent seems to be effective in reducing tissue reaction secondary to stent placement in a canine bronchial model. (orig.)

  3. Influence of a dexamethasone-eluting covered stent on tissue reaction: an experimental study in a canine bronchial model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ji Hoon; Song, Ho-Young; Choi, Gi Bok; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Suh, Ji-Yeon; Seo, Tae-Seok; Yuk, Soon Hong; Kim, Young-Hwa; Cho, Yong-Mee

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a dexamethasone (DXM)-eluting, covered, self-expanding metallic stent to reduce tissue reaction following stent placement in a canine bronchial model. We placed a DXM-eluting, polyurethane-covered, self-expanding metallic stent (drug stent, DS) and a polyurethane-covered, self-expanding metallic stent (control stent, CS) alternately in each left main bronchus and left lower lobe bronchus in 12 dogs. The stents were 20 mm in diameter and length when fully expanded. The dose of DXM was approximately 36.7 mg in each DS, but was absent in the CS. The dogs were euthanased 1 week (n=4), 2 weeks (n=4) or 4 weeks (n=4) after stent placement. Histologic findings, such as epithelial erosion/ulcer or granulation tissue thickness, were obtained from the mid-portion of the bronchus, where the stent had been placed, and evaluated between DS and CS. There were no procedure-related complications or malpositioning of any of the bronchial stents. Stent migration was detected in one dog just before euthanasia 1 week following stent placement. Stent patency was maintained until euthanasia in all dogs. Epithelial erosion/ulcer (%) was significantly less in the DS (mean±standard deviation, 46.88±23.75) than in the CS (73.75±14.08) (P=0.026) for all time-points. There was a decrease in epithelial erosion/ulcer as the follow-up period increased in both DS and CS. The granulation tissue thickness (mm) was less in DS (2.63±2.05) than in CS (3.49±2.95), although the difference was not significant (P=0.751) for all time-points. There was a tendency toward an increase in granulation tissue thickness and chronic lymphocytic infiltration as the follow-up period increased in both DS and CS. In conclusion, DXM-eluting, covered, self-expanding metallic stent seems to be effective in reducing tissue reaction secondary to stent placement in a canine bronchial model. (orig.)

  4. Upper canine inclination influences the aesthetics of a smile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothung, C; Fischer, K; Schiffer, H; Springer, I; Wolfart, S

    2015-02-01

    This current study investigated which angle of canine inclination (angle between canine tooth axis (CA-line) and the line between the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral labial angle (EM-line)) is perceived to be most attractive in a smile. The second objective was to determine whether laymen and dental experts share the same opinion. A Q-sort assessment was performed with 48 posed smile photographs to obtain two models of neutral facial attractiveness. Two sets of images (1 male model set, 1 female model set), each containing seven images with incrementally altered canine and posterior teeth inclinations, were generated. The images were ranked for attractiveness by three groups (61 laymen, 59 orthodontists, 60 dentists). The images with 0° inclination, that is CA-line (maxillary canine axis) parallel to EM-line (the line formed by the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral corner of the mouth) (male model set: 54·4%; female model set: 38·9%), or -5° (inward) inclination (male model set: 20%; female model set: 29·4%) were perceived to be most attractive within each set. Images showing inward canine inclinations were regarded to be more attractive than those with outward inclinations. Dental experts and laymen were in accordance with the aesthetics. Smiles were perceived to be most attractive when the upper canine tooth axis was parallel to the EM-line. In reconstructive or orthodontic therapy, it is thus important to incline canines more inwardly than outwardly. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Experimental Model of Gene Transfection in Healthy Canine Myocardium: Perspectives of Gene Therapy for Ischemic Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato A. K. Kalil

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the transfection of the gene that encodes green fluorescent protein (GFP through direct intramyocardial injection. METHODS: The pREGFP plasmid vector was used. The EGFP gene was inserted downstream from the constitutive promoter of the Rous sarcoma virus. Five male dogs were used (mean weight 13.5 kg, in which 0.5 mL of saline solution (n=1 or 0.5 mL of plasmid solution containing 0.5 µg of pREGFP/dog (n=4 were injected into the myocardium of the left ventricular lateral wall. The dogs were euthanized 1 week later, and cardiac biopsies were obtained. RESULTS: Fluorescence microscopy showed differences between the cells transfected and not transfected with pREGFP plasmid. Mild fluorescence was observed in the cardiac fibers that received saline solution; however, the myocardial cells transfected with pREGFP had overt EGFP expression. CONCLUSION: Transfection with the EGFP gene in healthy canine myocardium was effective. The reproduction of this efficacy using vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF instead of EGFP aims at developing gene therapy for ischemic heart disease.

  6. Three-dimensional finite element analysis on canine teeth distalization by different accessories of bracket-free invisible orthodontics technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nuo; Lei, Xue; Yang, Xiaoli; Li, Xinhui; Ge, Zhenlin

    2018-04-01

    Objective: to compare canine tooth stress distribution condition during maxillary canine tooth distalization by different accessories of bracket-free invisible orthodontics technology after removal of maxillary first premolar, and provide basis for clinical design of invisible orthodontics technology. Method: CBCT scanning image of a patient with individual normal occlusion was adopted, Mimics, Geomagic and ProlE software were used for establishing three-dimensional models of maxilla, maxillary dentition, parodontium, invisible orthodontics appliance and accessories, ANSYS WORKBENCH was utilized as finite element analysis tools for analyzing stress distribution and movement pattern of canine tooth and parodontium when canine tooth was equipped with power arm and vertical rectangle accessory. Meanwhile, canine tooth none-accessory design group was regarded as a control. Result: teeth had even bistal surface stress distribution in the power arm group; stress was concentrated on distal tooth neck, and the stress was gradually deviated to mesial-labial side and distal lingual side in vertical rectangle group and none-accessory group. Conclusion: teeth tend to move as a whole in the Power arm group, vertical rectangle group has lower tooth gradient compared with the none-accessory group, teeth are inclined for movement in the none-accessory group, and canine teeth tend to rotate to the distal lingual side.

  7. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  8. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Contact Us Home Research Data & Statistics Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Dental caries (tooth decay) remains the most prevalent chronic disease ... adults, even though it is largely preventable. Although caries has significantly decreased for most Americans over the ...

  9. Overview of Tooth Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... teeth using a thin resin cement. Bleaching, or tooth whitening, is a process used by dentists to lighten ... following? Damage to only the hard outer surface (enamel) of the tooth An incomplete fracture of a ...

  10. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Home Research Data & Statistics Share Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Dental caries (tooth decay) remains the most prevalent chronic disease ... adults, even though it is largely preventable. Although caries has significantly decreased for most Americans over the ...

  11. Radioactive metallic stent for palliative treatment of esopageal cancer using Ho-166: an experimental study in canine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, J. H.; Lee, J. D. [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Wang, H. J.; Lim, H. E.; Park, C. H. [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Inchon (Korea, Republic of); Park, K. B. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    Self-expandable metallic stents are widely used for palliative treatment of esophageal cancer, however, tumor overgrowth and short survaval limit its long-term effect. The purpose of this study is to evaluate tissue response of the radiation effect in normal canine esophagus whether metallic stents coated with radioactive H-166 is effective for patients survival and preservation of stent patency longer than stents without radioactive materials. Ho-166 was incorporated within polyurethan (50{mu}) and coated over the outer surface of self-expandable metallic stents. Metallic stents with radioactivity of 4.0-7.8mCi (Group A), 1.0-1.8 mCi (Group B) and 0.5-0.7mCi (Group C) were placed in normal mid-esophagus in twelve dogs (Group A), five (Group B) and another five dogs (Group C) respectively, and the stents were tightly anchored by surgery to prevent migration. Estimated radiation dose was 6-70 Gy in Group C. Fluoroscopy confirmed stents in esophagus without migration for at least two days. The dogs were sacrified at two or three months later and histopathologic examinations were performed. In group A, mid-esophagus stricture, mucosal ulceration were found in all specimens. Severe fibrosis and degeneration of muscular propria, upper one half were found in three and complete fibrosis of esophageal wall, however, esophageal perforation was found but muscular layer was intact. In group C, no histological changes was demonstrated in three but submucosal inflammation with intact mucosa in two. In therapeutic dose level (group B), radioactive metallic stent showed radiation effect within esophageal wall without complication which might give additional palliative effect in malignant espohageal stricture.

  12. Prevalence rate and dentoskeletal features associated with buccally displaced maxillary canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucedero, Manuela; Ricchiuti, Maria Rosaria; Cozza, Paola; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence and distribution of buccally displaced canines (BDCs) in subjects scheduled for orthodontic treatment and to investigate the association between BDC and sagittal, vertical, and transverse dentoskeletal relationships. A study sample of 1852 subjects was examined, and it was divided randomly into two groups. A first group of 252 subjects served as control group: the 'reference' prevalence rates for the examined parameters were calculated in this group. The remaining 1600 subjects comprised the sample from which the experimental BDC group was derived. Presence of unilateral or bilateral maxillary BDC, ANB, and SN GOGn angles for sagittal and vertical skeletal relationships, intercanine and intermolar distances, and tooth crowding at the maxillary arch were recorded for each subject. The statistical significance of differences between the BDC and the control groups in transverse relations and tooth crowding at the upper arch was tested by means of independent sample t-tests. Chi-square tests were performed to compare the prevalence rates of BDC and also sagittal and vertical skeletal features in the two groups. The prevalence rate of BDC was 3.06 per cent with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. BDC subjects exhibited a significant association with hyperdivergent skeletal relationships (38.8%), reduced maxillary intercanine width, and crowding in the upper arch. The presence of specific dentoskeletal characteristics can be considered as a risk indicator for developing a buccal displacement of upper permanent canines.

  13. Self-expandable covered metallic esophageal stent impregnated with beta-emitting radionuclide: an experimental study in canine esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Je Hwan; Lee, Jong Doo; Wang, Hee Jung; Kim, Gui-Eon; Kim, Bong Wan; Yim, Hyunee; Han, Sang Keon; Park, Chan H.; Joh, Chul Woo; Kim, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Kyung Bae; Shin, Kyong-Min

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: A specially designed self-expandable covered metallic stent impregnated with the β-emitting radioisotope 166 Ho ( 166 Ho, energy: 1.85 and 1.76 MeV, T((1)/(2)): 26.8 h) was developed at our institute for the purpose of intraluminal palliative brachytherapy, as well as for treating malignant esophageal stricture and swallowing difficulty. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tissue response to brachytherapy and the safety of the radioactive metallic stent with regard to the normal canine esophagus before clinical application. Methods and Materials: 166 Ho was impregnated into the polyurethane membrane (50 μ thickness) covering the outer surface of a self-expandable metallic stent (diameter, 18 mm; length, 40 mm). Stents with radioactivity 4.0-7.8 mCi (Group A, n=15), 1.0-1.8 mCi (Group B, n 5), and 0.5-0.7 mCi (Group C, n=5) were placed in the esophagi of 25 healthy beagle dogs, and the stents were tightly anchored surgically to prevent migration. The estimated radiation dose calculated by Monte Carlo simulation was 194-383 Gy in Group A, 48-90 Gy in Group B, and 23-32 Gy in Group C. The dogs were killed 8-12 weeks after insertion of the stents, and histologic examinations of the esophageal walls were performed. Results: In Group A, 3 of 15 dogs died of wound infection, so specimens were obtained from only 12 dogs; all 12 cases showed esophageal stricture with mucosal ulceration. Microscopically, severe fibrosis and degeneration of the muscular propria were found in 3 dogs, complete fibrosis of the entire esophageal wall was found in 7 dogs, and esophageal fibrosis with radiation damage within periesophageal soft tissue was found in 2 dogs. However, esophageal perforation did not develop, despite extremely high radiation doses. In Group B, glandular atrophy and submucosal fibrosis were found, but the muscular layer was intact. In Group C, no histologic change was found in 3 dogs, but submucosal inflammation and glandular atrophy with intact mucosa

  14. Multi-body simulation of a canine hind limb: model development, experimental validation and calculation of ground reaction forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wefstaedt Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among other causes the long-term result of hip prostheses in dogs is determined by aseptic loosening. A prevention of prosthesis complications can be achieved by an optimization of the tribological system which finally results in improved implant duration. In this context a computerized model for the calculation of hip joint loadings during different motions would be of benefit. In a first step in the development of such an inverse dynamic multi-body simulation (MBS- model we here present the setup of a canine hind limb model applicable for the calculation of ground reaction forces. Methods The anatomical geometries of the MBS-model have been established using computer tomography- (CT- and magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI- data. The CT-data were collected from the pelvis, femora, tibiae and pads of a mixed-breed adult dog. Geometric information about 22 muscles of the pelvic extremity of 4 mixed-breed adult dogs was determined using MRI. Kinematic and kinetic data obtained by motion analysis of a clinically healthy dog during a gait cycle (1 m/s on an instrumented treadmill were used to drive the model in the multi-body simulation. Results and Discussion As a result the vertical ground reaction forces (z-direction calculated by the MBS-system show a maximum deviation of 1.75%BW for the left and 4.65%BW for the right hind limb from the treadmill measurements. The calculated peak ground reaction forces in z- and y-direction were found to be comparable to the treadmill measurements, whereas the curve characteristics of the forces in y-direction were not in complete alignment. Conclusion In conclusion, it could be demonstrated that the developed MBS-model is suitable for simulating ground reaction forces of dogs during walking. In forthcoming investigations the model will be developed further for the calculation of forces and moments acting on the hip joint during different movements, which can be of help in context with the in

  15. Esthetics with prosthetics in case of maxillary canine transposition: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These are mainly genetically governed and are treated orthodontically if complete segment of tooth is present; in case of missing teeth, participation of cosmetic dentist is must. The present case report describes a situation where left canine to lateral incisor complete transposition was present along with a missing left central ...

  16. The effect of experimental gastric dilatation-volvulus on adenosine triphosphate content and conductance of the canine gastric and jejunal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peycke, Laura E; Hosgood, Giselle; Davidson, Jacqueline R; Tetens, Joanne; Taylor, H Wayne

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if experimental gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) would decrease adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration and increase membrane conductance of the canine gastric and jejunal mucosa. Male dogs (n = 15) weighing between 20 and 30 kg were used. Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 equal groups: Group 1 was control, group 2 was GDV, and group 3 was ischemia. All dogs were anesthetized for 210 min. Group 1 had no manipulation. Group 2 had GDV experimentally induced for 120 min followed by decompression, derotation, and reperfusion for 90 min. Group 3 had GDV experimentally induced for 210 min. Gastric (fundus and pylorus) and jejunal tissue was taken at 0, 120, and 210 min from all of the dogs. Tissue was analyzed for ATP concentration, mucosal conductance, and microscopic changes. The ATP concentration in the fundus did not change significantly from baseline in group 2, but decreased significantly below baseline at 210 min in group 3. The ATP concentration in the jejunum decreased significantly below baseline in groups 2 and 3 at 120 min, remaining significantly decreased in group 3 but returning to baseline at 210 min in group 2. Mucosal conductance of the fundus did not change significantly in any dog. Mucosal conductance of the jejunum increased at 120 min in groups 2 and 3, and became significantly increased above baseline at 210 min. The jejunal mucosa showed more profound cellular changes than the gastric mucosa. The jejunum showed substantial decreases in ATP concentration with an increase in mucosal conductance, suggesting cell membrane dysfunction. Dogs sustaining a GDV are likely to have a change in the activity of mucosal cells in the jejunum, which may be important in the pathophysiology of GDV.

  17. Effect of the Plasmid-DNA Vaccination on Macroscopic and Microscopic Damage Caused by the Experimental Chronic Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in the Canine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Rodríguez-Morales

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dog is considered the main domestic reservoir for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and a suitable experimental animal model to study the pathological changes during the course of Chagas disease (CD. Vaccine development is one of CD prevention methods to protect people at risk. Two plasmids containing genes encoding a trans-sialidase protein (TcSP and an amastigote-specific glycoprotein (TcSSP4 were used as DNA vaccines in a canine model. Splenomegaly was not found in either of the recombinant plasmid-immunized groups; however, cardiomegaly was absent in animals immunized only with the plasmid containing the TcSSP4 gene. The inflammation of subendocardial and myocardial tissues was prevented only with the immunization with TcSSP4 gene. In conclusion, the vaccination with these genes has a partial protective effect on the enlargement of splenic and cardiac tissues during the chronic CD and on microscopic hearth damage, since both plasmids prevented splenomegaly but only one avoided cardiomegaly, and the lesions in heart tissue of dog immunized with plasmid containing the TcSSP4 gene covered only subepicardial tissue.

  18. Experimental oral immunization of ferret badgers (Melogale moschata) with a recombinant canine adenovirus vaccine CAV-2-E3Δ-RGP and an attenuated rabies virus SRV9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinghui; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fang, Lijun; Zhang, Fei; Hu, Rongliang

    2014-04-01

    Ferret badgers (Melogale moschata) are a major reservoir of rabies virus in southeastern China. Oral immunization has been shown to be a practical method for wildlife rabies management in Europe and North America. Two groups of 20 ferret badgers were given a single oral dose of a recombinant canine adenovirus-rabies vaccine, CAV-2-E3Δ-RGP, or an experimental attenuated rabies virus vaccine, SRV9. At 21 days, all ferret badgers had seroconverted, with serum virus-neutralizing antibodies ranging from 0.1 to 4.5 IU/mL. Titers were >0.50 IU/mL (an acceptable level) in 17/20 and 16/20 animals receiving CAV-2-E3Δ-RGP or SRV9, respectively. The serologic results indicate that the recombinant CAV-2-E3Δ-RGP is at least as effective as the attenuated rabies virus vaccine. Both may be considered for additional research as oral rabies vaccine candidates for ferret badgers.

  19. Evaluation of Live Recombinant Nonpathogenic Leishmania tarentolae Expressing Cysteine Proteinase and A2 Genes as a Candidate Vaccine against Experimental Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Mehdi; Zahedifard, Farnaz; Taheri, Tahereh; Taslimi, Yasaman; Jamshidi, Shahram; Shirian, Sadegh; Mahdavi, Niousha; Hassankhani, Mehdi; Daneshbod, Yahya; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Rafati, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) is a major veterinary and public health problem caused by Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) in many endemic countries. It is a severe chronic disease with generalized parasite spread to the reticuloendothelial system, such as spleen, liver and bone marrow and is often fatal when left untreated. Control of VL in dogs would dramatically decrease infection pressure of L. infantum for humans, since dogs are the main domestic reservoir. In the past decade, various subunits and DNA antigens have been identified as potential vaccine candidates in experimental animal models, but none has been approved for human use so far. In this study, we vaccinated outbreed dogs with a prime-boost regimen based on recombinant L. tarentolae expressing the L. donovani A2 antigen along with cysteine proteinase genes (CPA and CPB without its unusual C-terminal extension (CPB-CTE) and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective immunity against L. infantum infectious challenge. We showed that vaccinated animals produced significantly higher levels of IgG2, but not IgG1, and also IFN-γ and TNF-α, but low IL-10 levels, before and after challenge as compared to control animals. Protection in dogs was also correlated with a strong DTH response and low parasite burden in the vaccinated group. Altogether, immunization with recombinant L. tarentolae A2-CPA-CPB-CTE was proven to be immunogenic and induced partial protection in dogs, hence representing a promising live vaccine candidate against CVL. PMID:26197085

  20. Evaluation of Live Recombinant Nonpathogenic Leishmania tarentolae Expressing Cysteine Proteinase and A2 Genes as a Candidate Vaccine against Experimental Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shahbazi

    Full Text Available Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL is a major veterinary and public health problem caused by Leishmania infantum (L. infantum in many endemic countries. It is a severe chronic disease with generalized parasite spread to the reticuloendothelial system, such as spleen, liver and bone marrow and is often fatal when left untreated. Control of VL in dogs would dramatically decrease infection pressure of L. infantum for humans, since dogs are the main domestic reservoir. In the past decade, various subunits and DNA antigens have been identified as potential vaccine candidates in experimental animal models, but none has been approved for human use so far. In this study, we vaccinated outbreed dogs with a prime-boost regimen based on recombinant L. tarentolae expressing the L. donovani A2 antigen along with cysteine proteinase genes (CPA and CPB without its unusual C-terminal extension (CPB-CTE and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective immunity against L. infantum infectious challenge. We showed that vaccinated animals produced significantly higher levels of IgG2, but not IgG1, and also IFN-γ and TNF-α, but low IL-10 levels, before and after challenge as compared to control animals. Protection in dogs was also correlated with a strong DTH response and low parasite burden in the vaccinated group. Altogether, immunization with recombinant L. tarentolae A2-CPA-CPB-CTE was proven to be immunogenic and induced partial protection in dogs, hence representing a promising live vaccine candidate against CVL.

  1. No evidence of horizontal infection in horses kept in close contact with dogs experimentally infected with canine influenza A virus (H3N8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamanaka Takashi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since equine influenza A virus (H3N8 was transmitted to dogs in the United States in 2004, the causative virus, which is called canine influenza A virus (CIV, has become widespread in dogs. To date, it has remained unclear whether or not CIV-infected dogs could transmit CIV to horses. To address this, we tested whether or not close contact between horses and dogs experimentally infected with CIV would result in its interspecies transmission. Methods Three pairs of animals consisting of a dog inoculated with CIV (108.3 egg infectious dose50/dog and a healthy horse were kept together in individual stalls for 15 consecutive days. During the study, all the dogs and horses were clinically observed. Virus titres in nasal swab extracts and serological responses were also evaluated. In addition, all the animals were subjected to a gross pathological examination after euthanasia. Results All three dogs inoculated with CIV exhibited clinical signs including, pyrexia, cough, nasal discharge, virus shedding and seroconversion. Gross pathology revealed lung consolidations in all the dogs, and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated from the lesions. Meanwhile, none of the paired horses showed any clinical signs, virus shedding or seroconversion. Moreover, gross pathology revealed no lesions in the respiratory tracts including the lungs of the horses. Conclusions These findings may indicate that a single dog infected with CIV is not sufficient to constitute a source of CIV infection in horses.

  2. Experimental evaluation of a new retrievable inferior vena cava filter for protection from acute pulmonary embolism in canine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chungao; Shi Haibing; Liu Sheng; Wang Chenghu; Liu Hairi; Li Linsun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the validity, safety and feasibility of a new retrieval inferior vena cava filter for the prevention of pulmonary embolism in an animal model. Methods: The model of deep iliofemoral venous thrombosis was established in 12 experimental dogs. In control group(6 experimental dogs), the deep venous thrombosis was made to fall off directly. In experimental group (6 experimental dogs), the deep venous thrombosis was made to fall off with an implanted filter in inferior vena cava. The filter's thrombus-trapping efficacy was evaluated by angiography of pulmonary artery, measurement of the mean pressure of pulmonary artery and arterial oxygen saturation before and after the deep venous thrombus falling off. Results: All filters implanted in the experimental dogs could successfully capture clot coming from deep venous thrombosis. There was no case of pulmonary embolism in experimental groups. On the other hand, pulmonary embolism occurred following the fall of deep venous thrombus in all dogs of control group. Conclusion: The retrievable inferior vena cava filter can effectively prevent from the pulmonary embolism due to falling off of the emboli from deep venous thrombosis. The process of implantation and retrieval is relatively simple and easy. (authors)

  3. Transmigration of mandibular canine – case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruszka, Katarzyna; Różyło, T. Katarzyna; Różyło-Kalinowska, Ingrid; Denkiewicz, Katarzyna; Masłowska, Klaudia

    2014-01-01

    Transmigration is a phenomenon of movement of an unerupted tooth in the bone across the midline. This anomaly is not often found. Transmigration is more prevalent in females than in males, and more often encountered in the mandible than maxilla, it affects mostly canines. The aim of this study was to present a case report of a mandibular canine transmigration in a patient aged 12. Intraoral examination determined hypodontia of right second premolar and delayed eruption of left second premolar in maxilla, as well as persistent deciduous teeth: right second molar, left canine and second molar. The patient was referred for a Cone-Beam CT examination, which allowed precise visualization of the transmigrating canine as well as ruled out resorption of roots of mandibular incisors. The treatment with a maxillary fixed orthodontic appliance was finished after obtaining a satisfactory result. Proper alignment of the incisors in the anterior-posterior plane and correct midline position were accepted by the patient. Transmigrating canine after consultation with the surgeon was designed to further radiological observation

  4. Effect of Orthodontic Tooth Movement on Salivary Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiven Adhitya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 72 1024x768 Aspartate aminotransferase is one of biological indicator in gingival crevicular fluid (CGF. Force orthodontic application could increase activity of aspartate aminotransferase in CGF. However, the increase activity of aspartate aminotransferase in saliva due to orthodontic force and its correlation between aspartate aminotransferase activity and tooth movement remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate application orthodontic force on the aspartate aminotransferase activity in saliva based on the duration of force and finding correlation between tooth movement and aspartate aminotransferase activity. Methods: Twenty saliva samples collected before extraction of first premolar, at the time of force application for canine retraction and after force application. The canines retraction used 100 grams of interrupted force (module chain for thirty days. The collection of saliva and the measurement of tooth movement were carried out 1 day, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days after force application. The measurement of aspartate aminotransferase activity in saliva was done using spectrophotometer. Results: Application of orthodontic force influences the salivary aspartate aminotransferase activity (F=25.290, p=0.000. Furthermore, tooth movement correlated with aspartate aminotransferase activity (F=0.429, p=0.000. Conclusion: Aspartate aminotransferase activity could be used as tooth movement indicator that related to the duration of force application.DOI : 10.14693/jdi.v20i1.128

  5. The unerupted maxillary canine - a post-surgical review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dowling, Ian

    2009-10-01

    The orthodontic records of 685 patients referred for surgical exposure of an unerupted impacted maxillary canine tooth were examined. The condition was more common among females than males, slightly less than 2:1. The impacted teeth had a palatal-labial ratio of 3:1. All of the teeth were exposed using the open surgical technique and in 98% of cases the tooth erupted and was orthodontically aligned. In 2% of cases ankylosis occurred and the teeth were subsequently extracted. The presence of peg-shaped lateral incisors associated with the impacted maxillary canine tooth was 3.4% of the total number of impacted teeth and congenital absence was found in 1.7% of impacted teeth.

  6. The unerupted maxillary canine--a post-surgical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dowling, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The orthodontic records of 685 patients referred for surgical exposure of an unerupted impacted maxillary canine tooth were examined. The condition was more common among females than males, slightly less than 2:1. The impacted teeth had a palatal-labial ratio of 3:1. All of the teeth were exposed using the open surgical technique and in 98% of cases the tooth erupted and was orthodontically aligned. In 2% of cases ankylosis occurred and the teeth were subsequently extracted. The presence of peg-shaped lateral incisors associated with the impacted maxillary canine tooth was 3.4% of the total number of impacted teeth and congenital absence was found in 1.7% of impacted teeth.

  7. Canine length in wild male baboons: maturation, aging and social dominance rank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Galbany

    Full Text Available Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many primates. Specifically, we measured maxillary canine length in 80 wild male baboons (aged 5.04-20.45 years from the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya, and examined its relationship with maturation, age, and social dominance rank. In our analysis of maturation, we compared food-enhanced baboons (those that fed part time at a refuse pit associated with a tourist lodge with wild-feeding males, and found that food-enhanced males achieved long canines earlier than wild-feeding males. Among adult males, canine length decreased with age because of tooth wear. We found some evidence that, after controlling for age, longer canines were associated with higher adult dominance rank (accounting for 9% of the variance in rank, but only among relatively high-ranking males. This result supports the idea that social rank, and thus reproductive success and fitness, may depend in part on fighting ability mediated by canine size.

  8. Hemograma de cães submetidos ao envenenamento experimental por Tityus serrulatus Canine blood profile after experimental envenomation by Tityus serrulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.L. Ribeiro

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o hemograma de 12 cães adultos, saudáveis (14,2±5,4kg após a inoculação de veneno do escorpião amarelo (Tityus serrulatus. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos (G, com seis em cada: os do GI foram usados como controle e receberam 0,5mL de salina tamponada com fosfato (PBS por via subcutânea (SC na face medial da coxa esquerda (FMCE, e os do GII receberam veneno liofilizado do T. serrulatus (250µg/kg diluído em PBS por via SC na FMCE. Foram realizadas colheitas de sangue com anticoagulante EDTA a 10% antes da inoculação do veneno (T0 e após 2h, (T1, 6h (T2, 12h (T3, 24h (T4, 48h (T5 e 72h (T6, para contagem de eritrócitos, leucócitos e plaquetas em aparelho contador eletrônico e esfregaços sanguíneos para contagem diferencial de leucócitos. Houve aumento significativo (PThe canine blood profile after scorpion envenomation was evaluated using 12 healthy mongrel male dogs (14.2±5.4kg distributed in two groups, with six animals in each: group I (control group and group II (venom group. The lyophilized yellow scorpion (Tityus serrulatus venom (250µg/kg diluted in 0.5mL phosphate buffered saline (PBS was given to group II animals by subcutaneous injection, in the medial face of the left thigh. Group I animals received only 0.5mL of PBS, by subcutaneous injection, in the medial face of the left thigh. Blood samples were collected with EDTA before (T0 and 2 (T1, 6 (T2, 12 (T3, 24 (T4, 48 (T5, and 72h (T6 after envenomation. Significant increases (P<0.05 in erythrocytes counting, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration, 2 and 6h after envenomation were observed. Leukocytosis with significant increases (P<0.05 of neutrophils and lymphocytes 2 and 6h after envenomation was found. Then, T. serrulatus venom may induce alterations in blood profile in dogs, probably due to spleen contraction evoked by pain and catecholamines releasing.

  9. Effect of an experimental desensitizing agent on reduction of bleaching-induced tooth sensitivity: A triple-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreiras, Sibelli Olivieri; Szesz, Anna Luiza; Coppla, Fabiana Madalozzo; Martini, Eveline Claudia; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Reis, Alessandra

    2018-04-01

    In this randomized study, split-mouth, triple-blind clinical trial, the authors evaluated the efficacy of a desensitizing gel that contained 5% potassium nitrate and 5% glutaraldehyde applied before in-office bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP). Treatment with the desensitizing or placebo control gels was randomly assigned to one-half of the maxillary teeth of 42 patients in a split-mouth design. The desensitizing gels were applied and maintained in contact with the tooth enamel for 10 minutes, followed by 2 HP bleaching sessions separated by 1 week. The primary outcome variable was pain intensity assessed with a numeric rating scale and a visual analog scale. Color was evaluated by means of a digital spectrophotometer and a value-oriented shade guide. The difference in risk of developing tooth sensitivity between the desensitizing gel group (31.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 19.6 to 46.9) and the control group (70.7%; 95% CI, 55.5 to 82.3%) was statistically significant (P whitening reduced the risk and severity of dental sensitivity, without altering the effectiveness of whitening. A single application of desensitizing gel that contained 5% potassium nitrate and 5% glutaraldehyde can reduce tooth sensitivity after dental bleaching systems. Copyright © 2018 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of the correlation of serum IL-31 with severity of dermatitis in an experimental model of canine atopic dermatitis using beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, Rosanna; Ahrens, Kim; Sanford, Rachel

    2018-02-01

    IL-31 is a cytokine that is believed to play an important role in atopic dermatitis (AD). IL-31 levels positively correlate with disease severity in children with AD. Currently, there is no study that has investigated such a correlation in atopic dogs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between IL-31 serum levels and severity of dermatitis. It was hypothesized that a positive correlation exists between severity of AD and circulating levels of IL-31. Sixteen atopic beagles experimentally sensitized to house dust mites. Atopic beagles were exposed to dust mites epicutaneously twice weekly for four weeks. Severity of dermatitis was scored by the Canine Atopic Dermatitis and Extent Severity Index, 3 rd iteration (CADESI-03) on days 0 and 28. Blood samples were taken on days 0 and 28 to measure serum IL-31 using a commercially available ELISA. Correlation between CADESI-03 scores and serum IL-31 levels was not detected on day 0 (Pearson, r = -0.2609, P = 0.3291). After flare-up of dermatitis was induced with allergen exposure, a significant positive correlation was detected between serum IL-31 and CADESI-03 on Day 28 (r = 0.6738, P = 0.004). Positive correlation was detected in active disease between severity of dermatitis and circulating levels of IL-31. Additional studies are needed to investigate this correlation in other breeds of dogs and to test whether circulating levels of IL-31 may predict clinical response to biological agents aimed at IL-31. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  11. Orthodontic management of buccally erupted ectopic canine with two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avesh Sachan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic canine teeth develop displaced from their normal position. Any permanent tooth can be ectopic, and the cause may be both genetic and environmental. Orthodontic treatment is justified because ectopic canine teeth can migrate in the jaw bone and may damage the adjacent teeth roots and bone. Orthodontic treatment is also justifiable for aesthetic reasons. Diagnosis and treatment of ectopically erupting permanent maxillary canines requires timely management by the orthodontist. Internal or external root resorption of teeth adjacent to the ectopic canine is the most common sequel. Malocclusion with severe crowding is difficult to treat without extraction. Non-extraction treatment of ectopic canines can compromise the patient′s profile. This article represents two cases of extraction treatment approach for buccally displaced or ectopic canine in a patient with severe crowding in the mandibular arch.

  12. Permanent maxillary canines - review of eruption pattern and local etiological factors leading to impaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajnani, Anand K

    2015-02-01

    The position of the permanent maxillary canine at the angle of the mouth is strategically significant in maintaining the harmony and symmetry of the occlusal relationship. However, the maxillary canine is the second most frequently impacted tooth, with prevalence reported to be between 1% and 2%. Moreover, treatment of this condition is often complex and involves substantial time and financial cost. Hence, it is only prudent to monitor the eruption and identify the etiological factors that lead to impaction of the maxillary canine. Numerous researchers have tried to identify specific and nonspecific etiological factors responsible for displacement of canines. The purpose of this review was to track the development processes of maxillary canines and determine the hindrances that affect the eruption at different ages. Awareness of the eruption process and etiology of noneruption will help to reduce the incidence of impacted canines by allowing for early recognition and interceptive treatment. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Dual-energy CT based vascular iodine analysis improves sensitivity for peripheral pulmonary artery thrombus detection: An experimental study in canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chun Xiang [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Zhang, Long Jiang, E-mail: kevinzhlj@163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Han, Zong Hong; Zhou, Chang Sheng [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Krazinski, Aleksander W.; Silverman, Justin R. [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U. Joseph [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Lu, Guang Ming, E-mail: cjr.luguangming@vip.163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of dual-energy CT (DECT) based vascular iodine analysis for the detection of acute peripheral pulmonary thrombus (PE) in a canine model with histopathological findings as the reference standard. Materials and methods: The study protocol was approved by our institutional animal committee. Thrombi (n = 12) or saline (n = 4) were intravenously injected via right femoral vein in sixteen dogs, respectively. CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in DECT mode was performed and conventional CTPA images and DECT based vascular iodine studies using Lung Vessels application were reconstructed. Two radiologists visually evaluated the number and location of PEs using conventional CTPA and DECT series on a per-animal and a per-clot basis. Detailed histopathological examination of lung specimens and catheter angiography served as reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of DECT and CTPA were calculated on a segmental and subsegmental or more distal pulmonary artery basis. Weighted κ values were computed to evaluate inter-modality and inter-reader agreement. Results: Thirteen dogs were enrolled for final image analysis (experimental group = 9, control group = 4). Histopathological results revealed 237 emboli in 45 lung lobes in 9 experimental dogs, 11 emboli in segmental pulmonary arteries, 49 in subsegmental pulmonary arteries, 177 in fifth-order or more distal pulmonary arteries. Overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV, and NPV for CTPA plus DECT were 93.1%, 76.9%, 87.8%, 89.4%, and 84.2% for the detection of pulmonary emboli. With CTPA versus DECT, sensitivities, specificities, accuracies, PPVs, and NPVs are all 100% for the detection of pulmonary emboli on a segmental pulmonary artery basis, 88.9%, 100%, 96.0%, 100%, and 94.1% for CTPA and 90.4%, 93.0%, 92.0%, 88.7%, and 94.1% for DECT on a subsegmental pulmonary artery basis; 23.8%, 96.4%, 50.4%, 93

  14. Canine thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsohn, M.

    1985-01-01

    Thymoma is an uncommon canine neoplasm of thymic epithelial cells. It is seen in various breeds but may occur more frequently in German Shepherd Dogs. Middle-aged or older dogs can be affected and no sex predilection exists. A paraneoplastic syndrome of myasthenia gravis, nonthymic malignant tumors, and/or polymyositis occurs in a significant number of dogs with thymoma. Clinical signs are variable and are related to a space-occupying cranial mediastinal mass and/or manifestations of the paraneo-plastic syndrome. Dyspnea is the most common presenting clinical sign. Thoracic radiographs usually show a cranial mediastinal mass. Lymphoma is the main differential diagnosis. A definitive diagnosis may be made by closed biopsy but is more likely to be confirmed by thoracotomy. Thymomas may be completely contained within the thymic capsule or may spread by local invasion or metastasis. A staging system allows for an accurate prognosis and a therapeutic plan. Surgical removal of encapsulated thymomas may result in long-term survival or cure. Invasive or metastatic thymomas carry a guarded prognosis. Manifestations of the paraneoplastic syndrome complicate treatment. Adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy may be of value for advanced cases; however, adequate clinical trials have not been done in the dog

  15. The short and long term effects of intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy (IORT) on thoracic organs after pneumonectomy an experimental study in the canine model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Willem; Mehta, DM; Timens, W; Hoekstra, HJ

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The tolerance of mediastinal structures and thoracic organs to intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) was investigated in the canine model. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two adult beagles divided into three groups were subjected to a left pneumonectomy and IORT (10 MeV electrons) at doses of 20

  16. Nonsurgical, nonextraction management of impacted maxillary canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasneet Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available NS, a 12 year 2 months old female patient, presented with the chief complaint of irregular teeth. Diagnosis revealed skeletal Class II jaw base relation, with average (toward vertical growth pattern, dentoalveolar angles Class I molar relationship with severe crowding in upper and moderate crowding in the lower arch, normally positioned maxillary incisors but proclined lower incisors, “V” shape constricted maxillary arch with first premolar in crossbite, overretained deciduous molar and a high placed buccoversion canine in the first quadrant and an impacted canine in the second quadrant, constricted mandibular arch with first premolar blocked out in the third quadrant. Treatment with a nonsurgical, nonextraction treatment plan by expansion of the upper arch and taking advantage of natural eruptive forces of the tooth was planned. The final outcome solved the patient's complaints and achieved an esthetically pleasing and functionally adequate occlusal result.

  17. Computerized Analysis of Digital Photographs for Evaluation of Tooth Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toodehzaeim, Mohammad Hossein; Karandish, Maryam; Karandish, Mohammad Nabi

    2015-03-01

    Various methods have been introduced for evaluation of tooth movement in orthodontics. The challenge is to adopt the most accurate and most beneficial method for patients. This study was designed to introduce analysis of digital photographs with AutoCAD software as a method to evaluate tooth movement and assess the reliability of this method. Eighteen patients were evaluated in this study. Three intraoral digital images from the buccal view were captured from each patient in half an hour interval. All the photos were sent to AutoCAD software 2011, calibrated and the distance between canine and molar hooks were measured. The data was analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient. Photographs were found to have high reliability coefficient (P > 0.05). The introduced method is an accurate, efficient and reliable method for evaluation of tooth movement.

  18. Esthetic orthodontic correction of a canine crossbite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Tae Weon

    2010-01-01

    Serial Aligners are fabricated from the working cast at certain intervals during treatment. It offers flexibility to change the treatment plan at any stage throughout the course of treatment. The tooth movement is very efficient and the patient feels comfortable because Clear Aligner comes in three different thicknesses of plastic sheets. It enables the patient to receive necessary dental treatments during the aligner treatment. The treatment can also be restarted easily even when the patient has not worn the aligners for a period of time. This article reports a patient with canine crossbite combined with moderate crowding that was successfully treated using Serial Aligners.

  19. Autogenous tooth transplantation for replacing a lost tooth: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Youn Kang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The autogenous tooth transplantation is an alternative treatment replacing a missing tooth when a suitable donor tooth is available. It is also a successful treatment option to save significant amount of time and cost comparing implants or conventional prosthetics. These cases, which required single tooth extraction due to deep caries and severe periodontal disease, could have good results by transplanting non-functional but sound donor tooth to the extraction site.

  20. Rate of retraction of anterior teeth after canine distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litesh Singla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Orthodontists have always strived to develop a new technique to reduce the treatment time with minimal patient cooperation. Canine distraction was introduced as an alternative technique for canine retraction in a minimum possible period of 3 weeks, thus avoiding taxing the anchorage by molars since the canines are retracted within the lag phase of molars. It has been proved by numerous studies that the bone mesial to canine after rapid canine distraction through the extraction socket is a new and immature. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the rate of retraction of anterior teeth, the time taken, and anchorage loss during the retraction of anterior teeth into this newly organized bone. Methods: Six orthodontic patients who required first premolar extractions were selected. Undermining of the interseptal bone distal to the canine was done, and canines were retracted into the extraction space of the first premolar, using a custom-made tooth borne intraoral distraction screw, following which the incisors were retracted into the newly formed bone using closing loops. The patients were called at weekly intervals to measure the amount of space left between canine and lateral incisor, and the rate of retraction was calculated after space was closed. Results: The present study showed that the rate of retraction of mandibular and maxillary teeth was 0.74 ± 0.39 mm and 0.73 ± 0.15 mm/week, respectively. The anchorage loss was found to be 1.83 ± 0.29 mm and 2.08 ± 0.38 mm in mandibular and maxillary arches, respectively. The time taken to retract the incisors was found to be 40.3 ± 1.5 and 41.7 ± 0.6 days for mandibular and maxillary arches, respectively. Interpretation and Conclusion: Retraction of incisors is faster in both maxillary and mandibular arches when the incisors are retracted immediately into the immature bone created after canine distraction.

  1. Replacing a Missing Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lateral incisor. This may be accomplished by adding plastic or porcelain filling material or a porcelain crown ... This type of bridge requires much less tooth reduction of adjacent teeth, and there is no danger ...

  2. To Tell the Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Activity Sheets 2018 Brushing Calendar Sports Safety National Nutrition Month Choose Water for a Sparkling Smile Holiday Workshop Thanksgiving Back to School Fourth of July Fun Tooth Fairy Sugar Wars Valentine's Day Halloween Defeat Monster Mouth! Color and ...

  3. The placement of Y-shaped titanium-nickel memory alloy stent in the carina: a fundamental study in experimental canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Wei; Shen Che

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the pathological changes of local airway tissue after inserting Yshaped titanium-nickel memory alloy stent in carina, and to evaluate CT three-dimensional reconstruction technique in postoperative and follow-up observation. Methods: Twelve healthy adult canines were enrolled in this study. Based on the information of the carina obtained from CT three-dimensional reconstruction images, the preparation of Y-shape netlike stent was made by knitting method with single Ni-Ti memory alloy wire. The stent was then inserted in canine's carina with the help of a releasing system. After the operation fiberbronchoscopy and CT three-dimensional reconstruction were performed. The animals were sacrificed 12 weeks after the procedure and the bronchus of the stenting segment was removed and sent for histopathologic examination. Results: Technical success was achieved in all canines with the stent right in the carina. The airway remained unobstructed 12 weeks after the procedure. Histopathologic examination revealed that the stent became partial epithelialization. Conclusion: The Y-shaped titanium-nickel memory alloy stent has good histocompatibility and physicochemical stability and no re-stenosis of the airway develops in the follow-up period of three months. The stent-releasing technique is easy and simple. As a non-invasive and convenient exam, CT three-dimensional reconstruction technique is of great value in postoperative follow-up observation. (authors)

  4. Consequences of crown shortening canine teeth in Greenland sled dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortegaard, H E; Anthony Knudsen, T; Dahl, S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the consequences of crown shortening, focusing on the prevalence of pulp exposure and periapical pathology in Greenland sled dogs that had had their canine crowns shortened at an early age. METHODS: Five cadaver heads and 54 sled dogs underwent an oral examination for dental...... fractures and pulp exposure of canines. All canines were radiographed and evaluated for periapical pathology. RESULTS: The prevalence of canine pulp exposure in 12 (5 heads and 7 dogs) crown shortened dogs was 91 · 7%, and 21 · 3% in 47 not-crown shortened dogs. A significant (P pulp...... exposure of the canines in the crown shortened group compared to the not-crown shortened group was seen with a relative risk of 4 · 3 on a dog basis and a relative risk of 12 · 2 on a tooth basis. In dogs with pulp exposure of canines (n = 51) the prevalence of periapical pathology was 82 · 4%, but only 0...

  5. Levels of matrix metalloproteinase-7 and osteopontin in human gingival crevicular fluid during initial tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaval Oswal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: During orthodontic treatment, the early response of periodontal tissues to mechanical stress involves several metabolic changes that allow tooth movement. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate osteopontin (OPN and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-7 in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of human teeth exposed to orthodontic force. Materials and Methods: GCF samples were obtained from 15 healthy orthodontic patients (age, 12-22 years. In each patient, the left maxillary canine having the fixed orthodontic appliance was used as the test tooth, and its antagonist, with no appliance, was the control. Orthodontic force, 75 g was applied using a 16 × 22 beta titanium closing loop. The GCF sampling on the disto-buccal aspects of experimental and control tooth was performed at specific time interval with sterilized absorbent paper point. Processing was carried out with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect OPN and MMP-7 levels. Results: The peak level of OPN was seen after 1 h application of orthodontic force which was 1280.36 pg/ml ± 185.02. The peak level of MMP-7 was seen at 0 h which was 598.3 pg/ml ± 107.5. The levels of OPN after 1 h increased to 1280.36 pg/ml ± 185.02, and they decreased at 24 h to 1012.86 pg/ml ± 168.47 (P = 0.001. The levels of MMP-7 after 1 h decreased to 478 pg/ml ± 99.7 which increased at 24 h to 526.9 pg/ml ± 99.2. Conclusions: Orthodontic forces affect both OPN and MMP-7 protein levels on the compression side in a time-dependent fashion.

  6. A re-evaluation of subspecific variation and canine dimorphism in woolly spider monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, S R; Jungers, W L

    1994-12-01

    A recent study suggests that differing populations of woolly spider monkeys exhibit a substantial degree of morphological, cytogenetic, and behavioral variation. We re-evaluate the differences between populations in the degree of canine tooth height sexual dimorphism and in the frequency of thumbs. Statistical analysis of variation in the degree of canine sexual dimorphism between these populations fails to provide strong evidence for subspecific variation: differences in the degree of canine dimorphism cannot be considered statistically significant. Differences between populations in the frequency of thumbs are, however, statistically significant. The lack of clear distinctions between populations in the degree of canine dimorphism complicates assessments of behavioral variation between these populations. We suggest that the level of geographic variation in woolly spider monkey canine dimorphism is not consistent with subspecific status.

  7. Maxillary canine displacement and genetically determined predisposition to disturbed development of the dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Franka; Grabowski, Rosemarie

    2003-05-01

    The relationship between maxillary canine displacement and the simultaneous occurrence of "genetically determined predisposition to disturbed development of the dentition" as defined by Hoffmeister was investigated in 675 patients. Panoramic radiographs taken of each patient during the first and the second mixed dentition periods were evaluated. Canine inclination and the distance between the tip of the canine and a line connecting the cusps of the molars were computed in five different age groups according to Dausch-Neumann. Statistical analysis revealed 34 patients with "potential canine displacement", who exhibited further symptoms of "genetically determined predisposition to disturbed development of the dentition" significantly more frequently than the total group. The symptoms concerned were agenesia, displaced tooth buds, rotated or tilted incisors, aplasia and microdontia of lateral incisors. Careful follow-ups in patients with a predisposition to disturbed dental development enables risks to be anticipated and canine displacement to be detected at an early stage.

  8. Use of quantitative real-time RT-PCR to investigate the correlation between viremia and viral shedding of canine distemper virus, and infection outcomes in experimentally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehata, Go; Sato, Hiroaki; Ito, Toshihiro; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Noro, Taichi; Oishi, Eiji

    2015-07-01

    We used real-time RT-PCR and virus titration to examine canine distemper virus (CDV) kinetics in peripheral blood and rectal and nasal secretions from 12 experimentally infected dogs. Real-time RT-PCR proved extremely sensitive, and the correlation between the two methods for rectal and nasal (r=0.78, 0.80) samples on the peak day of viral RNA was good. Although the dogs showed diverse symptoms, viral RNA kinetics were similar; the peak of viral RNA in the symptomatic dogs was consistent with the onset of symptoms. These results indicate that real-time RT-PCR is sufficiently sensitive to monitor CDV replication in experimentally infected dogs regardless of the degree of clinical manifestation and suggest that the peak of viral RNA reflects active CDV replication.

  9. Asymmetry in development (mineralisation of permanent mandibular canine roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burić Mirjana V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The development of the teeth is closely associated with the proper and unobstructed physical and psychological development of the child. Aim. To determine the existence of asymmetry in the development of the roots of the lower permanent canine teeth in different age groups of children of both sexes. Material and methods. The study was conducted on 523 ortopantomograms (253 boys and 270 girls of orthodontic patients aged 6 to 14 years of the Dental Clinic in Niš. We analyzed the development of asymmetry in the lower permanent canine root, using the method of Gleiser and Hunt, or the modification by Tijanić (1981. Results. It was found that asymmetry in the development of the root in both sexes of the lower canine teeth was present in 20 patients (3.82%, 10 boys (3.95% and 10 girls (3.70%. The difference is in the range of one stage. Asymmetric development of the roots of the lower incisors in girls and boys usually present in the 7th and 8th stages (60% in girls and in 50% in boys. In 90% of girls in developing asymmetry the root of the lower canine is present in a single stage, and in 10% of girls it presents within three stages. Asymmetric development of the root of the lower canine is the most common in the 7th and 8th stages of development (55%. Conclusion. Asymmetric root development of permanent lower canines was found in 3.82% of patients. More than half of respondents (55% had asymmetrical canine root development stage in half and three quarters of the total root length. The results of this study indicate that the canine is the tooth with very little variations in its development.

  10. Rapid maxillary anterior teeth retraction en masse by bone compression: a canine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chufeng Liu

    Full Text Available The present study sought to establish an animal model to study the feasibility and safety of rapid retraction of maxillary anterior teeth en masse aided by alveolar surgery in order to reduce orthodontic treatment time.Extraction of the maxillary canine and alveolar surgery were performed on twelve adult beagle dogs. After that, the custom-made tooth-borne distraction devices were placed on beagles' teeth. Nine of the dogs were applied compression at 0.5 mm/d for 12 days continuously. The other three received no force as the control group. The animals were killed in 1, 14, and 28 days after the end of the application of compression.The tissue responses were assessed by craniometric measurement as well as histological examination. Gross alterations were evident in the experimental group, characterized by anterior teeth crossbite. The average total movements of incisors within 12 days were 4.63±0.10 mm and the average anchorage losses were 1.25±0.12 mm. Considerable root resorption extending into the dentine could be observed 1 and 14 days after the compression. But after consolidation of 28 days, there were regenerated cementum on the dentine. There was no apparent change in the control group. No obvious tooth loosening, gingival necrosis, pulp degeneration, or other adverse complications appeared in any of the dogs.This is the first experimental study for testing the technique of rapid anterior teeth retraction en masse aided by modified alveolar surgery. Despite a preliminary animal model study, the current findings pave the way for the potential clinical application that can accelerate orthodontic tooth movement without many adverse complications.It may become a novel method to shorten the clinical orthodontic treatment time in the future.

  11. Atypical Odontalgia (Phantom Tooth Pain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... atypical facial pain, phantom tooth pain, or neuropathic orofacial pain, is characterized by chronic pain in a tooth ... such as a specialist in oral medicine or orofacial pain. The information contained in this monograph is for ...

  12. Maxillary anterior tooth dimensions and proportions in an Irish young adult population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Condon, M

    2011-07-01

    This study was undertaken in a young Irish population to determine the dimensions and ratios of the six maxillary anterior teeth. One hundred and nine Irish subjects (age 18-25 inclusive) had irreversible hydrocolloid impressions made of their maxillary dentition poured in type V stone. Clinical crown dimensions were measured with a digital calliper. The stone casts were digitally photographed in a standardised manner enabling calculation of various ratios between the maxillary anterior teeth. Sexual dimorphism existed for various tooth dimensions; most notably canine teeth were in the region of 0·8 mm longer and 0·6 mm wider in males. Central and lateral incisors were found to be 0·5 mm wider in males. It is, therefore, recommended that dimensional tooth guidelines should be given for each of the sexes and not on a population basis. With regard to tooth proportion ratios, no significant differences were found between genders or the left and right sides for any of the measurements or ratios measured. The digitally recorded tooth proportions were similar for both sexes, and the Golden Proportion guidelines could only be applied to the lateral incisor\\/central incisor widths (0·618). Identified width proportions for the canine\\/central incisor were 0·58 and for canine\\/lateral incisor 0·89.

  13. Accelerated Tooth Movement with Orthodontic Mini-Screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aksakalli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report outlines the possibility of accelerated tooth movement with the combination of microosteoperforation and mini-screws. A 14-year-old male patient presented Class II malocclusion with maxillary incisor protrusion. Upper first premolars were extracted, and after leveling, accelerated canine distalization started. For pre- and postdistalization times, amount of distalization, periodontal health, and root resorption were assessed. Within the limitations of this case report, micro-osteoperforations with mini-screw have a potential for shortening the treatment time.

  14. Beeswax as dental filling on a neolithic human tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, Federico; Tuniz, Claudio; Coppa, Alfredo; Mancini, Lucia; Dreossi, Diego; Eichert, Diane; Turco, Gianluca; Biasotto, Matteo; Terrasi, Filippo; De Cesare, Nicola; Hua, Quan; Levchenko, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of prehistoric dentistry has been limited to a few cases, the most ancient dating back to the Neolithic. Here we report a 6500-year-old human mandible from Slovenia whose left canine crown bears the traces of a filling with beeswax. The use of different analytical techniques, including synchrotron radiation computed micro-tomography (micro-CT), Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating, Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), has shown that the exposed area of dentine resulting from occlusal wear and the upper part of a vertical crack affecting enamel and dentin tissues were filled with beeswax shortly before or after the individual's death. If the filling was done when the person was still alive, the intervention was likely aimed to relieve tooth sensitivity derived from either exposed dentine and/or the pain resulting from chewing on a cracked tooth: this would provide the earliest known direct evidence of therapeutic-palliative dental filling.

  15. Beeswax as dental filling on a neolithic human tooth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Bernardini

    Full Text Available Evidence of prehistoric dentistry has been limited to a few cases, the most ancient dating back to the Neolithic. Here we report a 6500-year-old human mandible from Slovenia whose left canine crown bears the traces of a filling with beeswax. The use of different analytical techniques, including synchrotron radiation computed micro-tomography (micro-CT, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS radiocarbon dating, Infrared (IR Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, has shown that the exposed area of dentine resulting from occlusal wear and the upper part of a vertical crack affecting enamel and dentin tissues were filled with beeswax shortly before or after the individual's death. If the filling was done when the person was still alive, the intervention was likely aimed to relieve tooth sensitivity derived from either exposed dentine and/or the pain resulting from chewing on a cracked tooth: this would provide the earliest known direct evidence of therapeutic-palliative dental filling.

  16. The single-tooth implant treatment of congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors using angled abutments: A clinical report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Hakan Tuna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The maxillary lateral incisor is the second most common congenitally absent tooth. There are several treatment options for replacing the missing maxillary lateral incisor, including canine substitution, tooth-supported restoration, or single-tooth implant. Dental implants are an appropriate treatment option for replacing missing maxillary lateral incisor teeth in adolescents when their dental and skeletal development is complete. This case report presents the treatment of a patient with congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors using dental implants with angled abutments.

  17. Parallel post-space preparation in different tooth types ex vivo : deviation from the canal centre and remaining dentine thickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.; Klein, M. H. J.; Kok, G. F.; Whitworth, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim To determine the deviation of parallel-sided twist-drills during post-channel preparation and relate this to tooth type and position. Methodology Human teeth with single root canals were selected: maxillary second premolars (group i); maxillary lateral incisors (group ii); mandibular canines

  18. Effects of low-level laser irradiation on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and associated pain with self-ligating brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamruddin, Irfan; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Mahroof, Verda; Fida, Mubassar; Khamis, Mohd Fadhli; Husein, Adam

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser irradiation applied at 3-week intervals on orthodontic tooth movement and pain associated with orthodontic tooth movement using self-ligating brackets. Twenty-two patients (11 male, 11 female; mean age, 19.8 ± 3.1 years) with Angle Class II Division 1 malocclusion were recruited for this split-mouth clinical trial; they required extraction of maxillary first premolars bilaterally. After leveling and alignment with self-ligating brackets (SmartClip SL3; 3M Unitek, St Paul, Minn), a 150-g force was applied to retract the canines bilaterally using 6-mm nickel-titanium closed-coil springs on 0.019 x 0.025-in stainless steel archwires. A gallium-aluminum-arsenic diode laser (iLas; Biolase, Irvine, Calif) with a wavelength of 940 nm in a continuous mode (energy density, 7.5 J/cm 2 /point; diameter of optical fiber tip, 0.04 cm 2 ) was applied at 5 points buccally and palatally around the canine roots on the experimental side; the other side was designated as the placebo. Laser irradiation was applied at baseline and then repeated after 3 weeks for 2 more consecutive follow-up visits. Questionnaires based on the numeric rating scale were given to the patients to record their pain intensity for 1 week. Impressions were made at each visit before the application of irradiation at baseline and the 3 visits. Models were scanned with a CAD/CAM scanner (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland). Canine retraction was significantly greater (1.60 ± 0.38 mm) on the experimental side compared with the placebo side (0.79 ± 0.35 mm) (P orthodontic tooth movement and reduce the pain associated with it. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Microradiographic investigations on experimentally provoked structural alterations in hard tooth tissues after sealing with plastic material in places where caries is apt to develop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falten, E.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was, after sealing three areas in extracted human teeth: fissures, dental necksand approximate areas and subsequent exposure to experimentally produced cariogenous noxae, to establish possible alterations in the area of transition between sealed and unsealed dental enamal. This would provide a further decision-taking aid with regard to the question whether also the remaining parts where caries is apt to develop should be sealed. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Transcription of Toll-Like Receptors 2, 3, 4 and 9, FoxP3 and Th17 Cytokines in a Susceptible Experimental Model of Canine Leishmania infantum Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein, Shazia; Rodríguez-Cortés, Alhelí; Blake, Damer P.; Allenspach, Karin; Alberola, Jordi; Solano-Gallego, Laia

    2015-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) due to Leishmania infantum is a chronic zoonotic systemic disease resulting from complex interactions between protozoa and the canine immune system. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential components of the innate immune system and facilitate the early detection of many infections. However, the role of TLRs in CanL remains unknown and information describing TLR transcription during infection is extremely scarce. The aim of this research project was to investigate the impact of L. infantum infection on canine TLR transcription using a susceptible model. The objectives of this study were to evaluate transcription of TLRs 2, 3, 4 and 9 by means of quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in skin, spleen, lymph node and liver in the presence or absence of experimental L. infantum infection in Beagle dogs. These findings were compared with clinical and serological data, parasite densities in infected tissues and transcription of IL-17, IL-22 and FoxP3 in different tissues in non-infected dogs (n = 10), and at six months (n = 24) and 15 months (n = 7) post infection. Results revealed significant down regulation of transcription with disease progression in lymph node samples for TLR3, TLR4, TLR9, IL-17, IL-22 and FoxP3. In spleen samples, significant down regulation of transcription was seen in TLR4 and IL-22 when both infected groups were compared with controls. In liver samples, down regulation of transcription was evident with disease progression for IL-22. In the skin, upregulation was seen only for TLR9 and FoxP3 in the early stages of infection. Subtle changes or down regulation in TLR transcription, Th17 cytokines and FoxP3 are indicative of the silent establishment of infection that Leishmania is renowned for. These observations provide new insights about TLR transcription, Th17 cytokines and Foxp3 in the liver, spleen, lymph node and skin in CanL and highlight possible markers of disease susceptibility in

  1. Apical root resorption of incisors after orthodontic treatment of impacted maxillary canines: a radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusveen, Elin Marie Gravdal; Brudvik, Pongsri; Bøe, Olav Egil; Mavragani, Maria

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate impacted maxillary canines as risk factor for orthodontic apical root resorption. The sample comprised 66 patients treated with fixed appliances. Thirty-two patients with a unilateral impacted maxillary canine, which was distanced from the roots of the incisors at a preliminary phase of treatment before bonding, formed the impaction group, and 34 patients without impactions served as the controls. Root shortening was calculated by using pretreatment and posttreatment intraoral radiographs. Inclination of the eruption path of the impacted canine relative to the midline, axis of the lateral incisor, and nasal line, root development, and the medial and vertical positions of the impacted tooth were recorded on orthopantomograms and lateral cephalometric films. The follicle/tooth ratio was evaluated by using periapical radiographs. No significant difference in apical resorption of the maxillary incisors was detected between the impaction and control groups, or between the incisors of the impacted and contralateral sides in the same subject. Likewise, no difference in the severity of root resorption was found between the incisors of impacted side alone and the incisors of the control group. Mesial and vertical inclinations of the impacted canines were negatively related to a lateral incisor's root resorption. No correlations were found between resorption and medial or vertical position of the crown of the canine. The follicle/tooth ratio was significantly related to the mesial inclination of the impacted canine, but not to root resorption. An impacted maxillary canine, after being distanced from the incisor roots, does not seem to be a risk factor for apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The experimental study of 32P and diallyl trisulfide coating stent for inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in a canine model of coronary restenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shanghua; Jiang Hong; Li Gengshan; Jiang Xuejun; Li Xiaoyan; Chen Yuanxiu; Wang Hairong; Wu Kegui; Nie Xiaomin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assesses the efficiency of 32 P and diallyl trisulfide (DT)-coated coronary stents on neointimal proliferation in a canine model of restenosis. Methods: 32 P (740 kBq/stent), DT (210 μg/stent) alone and jointly coated stents were deployed with mild oversizing in both the left circumflex coronary artery (LCX) and the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) of 10 dogs. The implantation of protein-coated stents was used as the control. The therapeutic effect was assessed 6 months after the intervention. The dogs were sacrificed and the vessels were excised. For morphologic examinations the tissue sections were stained with HE and Van Gieson. Results: Compared with the control stents, the neointimal area reduced in stents coated with 32 P, DT alone and 32 P+DT [ 32 P: (2.63±0.48) mm 2 , DT: (2.50±0.49) mm 2 , 32 P+DT: (1.42±0.41) mm 2 vs control group: (4.87±0. 80) mm 2 , P=0.001]. 32 P+DT was more effective than either of them alone for reducing the neointimal area (P≤0.005). Both jointly and alone coated stents of 32 P, DT decreased the percent area stenosis [ 32 P: (32.48±4.79)%, DT: (30.04±5.43)%, 32 P+DT: (17.21±4.05)% vs control group: (54.62±6.82)%, P 32 P+DT group compared with 32 P or DT-coated stents group (P≤0.001). Angiographic restenosis (diameter stenosis) was lighter in stents coated with 32 P, DT and 32 P+DT compared with control stents (P 32 P+DT was more effective than 32 P or DT alone for reducing diameter stenosis (P≤0.005). No evidence of 'edge effect' was seen in adjacent, nonstented coronary segments. Conclusion: Coronary stents coated with 32 P plus DT produced a significantly reduced neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis rate in the canine LCX and LAD 6 months after stents implantation

  3. Orthodontic treatment of the transposition of a maxillary canine and a first premolar: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa, Dinoi Maria; Stefano, Mummolo; Annalisa, Monaco; Enrico, Marchetti; Vincenzo, Campanella; Giuseppe, Marzo

    2015-03-01

    Transposition is an anomaly of tooth position, the most frequent of which involves the canine and the first maxillary premolar. We describe the orthodontic treatment of a unilateral transposition of an upper canine and an upper right first premolar in the permanent dentition. A 12-year-old Caucasian boy presented with transposition of his upper right canine and upper right first premolar. He had combined surgical-orthodontic treatment to correct the transposition and to obtain a Class I relationship between the molar and canine. This treatment resolved the dental crowding and achieved good functional and aesthetic results. In transposition, the choice of the most suitable treatment depends on the occlusion, level of dental crowding, aesthetics, position of the radicular apices, and the specific needs of the patient. In this case, orthodontic alignment of the transposed teeth into their physiological position achieved all of our objectives and our patient was satisfied with the aesthetic results obtained.

  4. Primary culprit for tooth loss!!

    OpenAIRE

    Nuvvula, Sailavanya; Chava, Vijay Kumar; Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: In order to facilitate planning for dental health services and to progress strategies to continue the reduction in tooth loss, it is important to identify the factors that result in such loss. therefore the aim of the study is to investigate the major cause for tooth extraction. Objective: to examine whether the major reason for tooth extraction is dental caries or periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: The study is carried out among the dental practitioners in our district. A quest...

  5. Nasolacrimal obstruction caused by root abscess of the upper canine in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, James M G; Sandmeyer, Lynne S; Laycock, Amanda R

    2010-03-01

    A 10-year-old, castrated male domestic short hair cat was presented to the Small Animal Clinic at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine with a presenting complaint of chronic, ocular discharge from the left eye. Ocular examination confirmed epiphora and mucopurulent discharge but there were no apparent reasons for the ocular discharge, and nasolacrimal obstruction was suspected. The cat had swelling of the left side of the face, severe periodontal disease and a fractured upper left canine tooth with pulpal exposure. Dacryocystorhinography revealed narrowing of the nasolacrimal duct above the root of the fractured upper left canine and dental radiographs showed a severe periapical lucency at the apex of the upper left canine tooth. The fractured canine tooth was removed. Subsequently, the ocular discharge and facial swelling resolved. After 2 years, the epiphora has never reoccurred. This is a noteworthy case because a suspected root abscess resulted in extralumenal compression of the nasolacrimal duct, which shows the importance of a thorough oral examination when nasolacrimal obstruction is evident.

  6. The short and long term effects of intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy (IORT) on thoracic organs after pneumonectomy an experimental study in the canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, Willem J. de; Mehta, Dinesh M.; Timens, Wim; Hoekstra, Harald J.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The tolerance of mediastinal structures and thoracic organs to intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) was investigated in the canine model. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two adult beagles divided into three groups were subjected to a left pneumonectomy and IORT (10 MeV electrons) at doses of 20 Gy (n = 9), 25 Gy (n = 4), or 30 Gy (n = 9). Intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy was delivered through a 5 cm circular lucite cone encompassing a mediastinal field including the bronchial stump, aorta, esophagus, heart, phrenic nerve, contralateral hilar structures, and lung. Clinical monitoring was performed with regular chest X-ray, ECG, bronchoscopy, esofagoscopy, and fluoroscopy. From the different treatment dose groups, dogs were electively sacrificed at 1.5, 6, 12, and 72 months with complete autopsies. Results: There was no bronchial stump dehiscence or acute morbidity. Four dogs developed radiation induced esophagitis (18%), one in the 20 Gy IORT group (11%) and three in the 30 Gy IORT group (33%). There were six IORT related mortalities (27.5%), one esophagoaortic fistula (4.5%) and five bronchovascular fistulas (23%): two in the 20 Gy IORT group (22%), two in the 25 Gy IORT group (50%) and two in the 30 Gy IORT group (22%). Histopathological findings in uncomplicated follow-up showed marked myointimal fibrosis in the muscular arteries, submucosal fibrosis of the esophagus, and interstitial fibrosis of bronchial and lung tissue, especially in the higher dose group. Conclusion: The mediastinal vascular, bronchial and esophageal structures are relatively sensitive to doses > 20Gy IORT. The IORT related morbidity found in this study may be lower when the current clinically used IORT doses of 10-15 Gy are applied. Further clinical application of IORT in the future treatment strategies for resectable non small cell lung cancer may be worthwhile to investigate

  7. Autogenous tooth transplantation: an alternative to replace extracted tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Kamadjaja

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gold standard treatment to replace missing tooth is dental implants, however, in certain cases, such as in young patients its placement is contraindicated. Autogenous tooth transplantation, which has been widely done in Scandinavian countries for many years, may become a good alternative to overcome this problem. Purpose: This article attempted to provide information about the indication, treatment planning, surgical technique and the successful result of autogenous tooth transplantation. Case: A fifteen year old male patient presented with large caries and periapical disease of his lower left first molar, which was partially erupted and the roots was not fully formed in radiograph. Case management: Autogenous tooth transplantation procedure was performed consisting of extraction of #36, odontectomy of #38 followed by its implantation to socket #36 and fixation of the transplanted tooth to the adjacent teeth. Post operative evaluation was done on regular basis within 18 months period. There was no complaint, the tooth was clinically stable and no evidence of periodontal problem. Serial radiographs showed healing of alveolar bone and periodontal tissue, and the complete root formation was evident by 18 months post operatively. Conclusion: Autogenous tooth transplantation is a potential alternative to replace extracted tooth. Provided that the case be properly planned and operation carefully performed, successful result of this treatment can be achieved.

  8. Automation of gender determination in human canines using artificial intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fidya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gender determination is an important aspect of the identification process. The tooth represents a part of the human body that indicates the nature of sexual dimorphism. Artificial intelligence enables computers to perform to the same standard the same tasks as those carried out by humans. Several methods of classification exist within an artificial intelligence approach to identifying sexual dimorphism in canines. Purpose: This study aimed to quantify the respective accuracy of the Naive Bayes, decision tree, and multi-layer perceptron (MLP methods in identifying sexual dimorphism in canines. Methods: A sample of results derived from 100 measurements of the diameter of mesiodistal, buccolingual, and diagonal upper and lower canine jaw models of both genders were entered into an application computer program that implements the algorithm (MLP. The analytical process was conducted by the program to obtain a classification model with testing being subsequently carried out in order to obtain 50 new measurement results, 25 each for males and females. A comparative analysis was conducted on the program-generated information. Results: The accuracy rate of the Naive Bayes method was 82%, while that of the decision tree and MLP amounted to 84%. The MLP method had an absolute error value lower than that of its decision tree counterpart. Conclusion: The use of artificial intelligence methods produced a highly accurate identification process relating to the gender determination of canine teeth. The most appropriate method was the MLP with an accuracy rate of 84%.

  9. Variations in tooth size and arch dimensions in Malay schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Khalid W; Rajion, Zainul A; Hassan, Rozita; Noor, Siti Noor Fazliah Mohd

    2009-11-01

    To compare the mesio-distal tooth sizes and dental arch dimensions in Malay boys and girls with Class I, Class II and Class III malocclusions. The dental casts of 150 subjects (78 boys, 72 girls), between 12 and 16 years of age, with Class I, Class II and Class III malocclusions were used. Each group consisted of 50 subjects. An electronic digital caliper was used to measure the mesio-distal tooth sizes of the upper and lower permanent teeth (first molar to first molar), the intercanine and intermolar widths. The arch lengths and arch perimeters were measured with AutoCAD software (Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, U.S.A.). The mesio-distal dimensions of the upper lateral incisors and canines in the Class I malocclusion group were significantly smaller than the corresponding teeth in the Class III and Class II groups, respectively. The lower canines and first molars were significantly smaller in the Class I group than the corresponding teeth in the Class II group. The lower intercanine width was significantly smaller in the Class II group as compared with the Class I group, and the upper intermolar width was significantly larger in Class III group as compared with the Class II group. There were no significant differences in the arch perimeters or arch lengths. The boys had significantly wider teeth than the girls, except for the left lower second premolar. The boys also had larger upper and lower intermolar widths and lower intercanine width than the girls. Small, but statistically significant, differences in tooth sizes are not necessarily accompanied by significant arch width, arch length or arch perimeter differences. Generally, boys have wider teeth, larger lower intercanine width and upper and lower intermolar widths than girls.

  10. How well does Invisalign work? A prospective clinical study evaluating the efficacy of tooth movement with Invisalign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Neal D; Kusnoto, Budi; BeGole, Ellen; Obrez, Ales; Agran, Brent

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate the efficacy of tooth movement with removable polyurethane aligners (Invisalign, Align Technology, Santa Clara, Calif). The study sample included 37 patients treated with Anterior Invisalign. Four hundred one anterior teeth (198 maxillary and 203 mandibular) were measured on the virtual Treat models. The virtual model of the predicted tooth position was superimposed over the virtual model of the achieved tooth position, created from the posttreatment impression, and the 2 models were superimposed over their stationary posterior teeth by using ToothMeasure, Invisalign's proprietary superimposition software. The amount of tooth movement predicted was compared with the amount achieved after treatment. The types of movements studied were expansion, constriction, intrusion, extrusion, mesiodistal tip, labiolingual tip, and rotation. The mean accuracy of tooth movement with Invisalign was 41%. The most accurate movement was lingual constriction (47.1%), and the least accurate movement was extrusion (29.6%)- specifically, extrusion of the maxillary (18.3%) and mandibular (24.5%) central incisors, followed by mesiodistal tipping of the mandibular canines (26.9%). The accuracy of canine rotation was significantly lower than that of all other teeth, with the exception of the maxillary lateral incisors. At rotational movements greater than 15 degrees, the accuracy of rotation for the maxillary canines fell significantly. Lingual crown tip was significantly more accurate than labial crown tip, particularly for the maxillary incisors. There was no statistical difference in accuracy between maxillary and mandibular teeth of the same tooth type for any movements studied. We still have much to learn regarding the biomechanics and efficacy of the Invisalign system. A better understanding of Invisalign's ability to move teeth might help the clinician select suitable patients for treatment, guide the proper sequencing of

  11. New method of control of tooth whitening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelov, I.; Mantareva, V.; Gisbrecht, A.; Valkanov, S.; Uzunov, Tz.

    2010-10-01

    New methods of control of tooth bleaching stages through simultaneous measurements of a reflected light and a fluorescence signal are proposed. It is shown that the bleaching process leads to significant changes in the intensity of a scattered signal and also in the shape and intensity of the fluorescence spectra. Experimental data illustrate that the bleaching process causes essential changes in the teeth discoloration in short time as 8-10 min from the beginning of the application procedure. The continuation of the treatment is not necessary moreover the probability of the enamel destroy increases considerably. The proposed optical back control of tooth surface is a base for development of a practical set up to control the duration of the bleaching procedure.

  12. Experimental study of a closed-chest pulmonary embolism-reperfusion injury canine model by means of Swan-Ganz catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Na; Zhai Renyou Jiang Tao; Wang Yajie; Zheng Juan; Wang Chen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To establish a closed-chest pulmonary embolism-reperfusion animal model by Swan-Ganz catheter and to explore the mechanisms of pulmonary embolism (PE)-reperfusion injury (RI). Methods: Experiments were made on 14 mongrel dogs, ranging in weight from 15 to 18 kg, anesthetized with 3% pentobarbital sodium. The dogs were intubated with I. D. 7 endotracheal tubes. Under sterile conditions, a 7 F Swan-Ganz catheter via the external jugular vein was positioned in the unilateral pulmonary diaphragmatic lobe (DL) artery. Occlusion/reperfusion of the DL artery was controlled with 1.2 ml diluted contrast agent filled into/drawn from the balloon. After the 24 h PE, the balloon was deflated to result in 4 h reperfusion of the DL. Measurements of blood gases and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)were made at normal condition, at 24 h PE and at 4 h reperfusion. Thin-section CT scans were performed at normal condition, 24 h PE, 30 rain, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h reperfusion, respectively. At the end of each experiment, tissue specimens of bilateral diaphragmatic lobes were obtained for both wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio and for pathological study. Results: Reperfusion pulmonary edema (RPE) was an acute, mixed, noncardiogenic edema that was observed in all 14 dogs who had been successfully established as PE/RI animal models. RPE demonstrated heterogeneous ground-glass opacifications that predominated in the areas distal to the recanalized vessels. It manifested pathologically as an edematous lung infihrated by inflammatory cells. The mean of PaO 2 and TNF-α of 4 h reperfusion was (81 ± 4) mm Hg( 1 mm Hg =0.133 kPa) and (16.0 ± 2.5)pg/ml, which were significantly different (P<0.05) from normal value [(96 ± 6)mm Hg and (13.9 ± 2.0) pg/ml]. The W/D of the injured lung (6.3 ± 1.2) was significantly greater (P<0.01) than that of the contralateral lung (4.5 ± 1.2), suggesting that the increase in the lung water was due to reperfusion injury. Conclusion: The closed-chest canine model

  13. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  14. Canine Parvovirus: Current Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nandi, S.; Kumar, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) has been considered to be an important pathogen of domestic and wild canids and has spread worldwide since its emergence in 1978. It has been reported from Asia, Australia, New Zealand, the Americas and Europe. Two distinct parvoviruses are now known to infect dogs—the pathogenic CPV-2 and CPV-1 or the minute virus of canine (MVC). CPV-2, the causative agent of acute hemorrhagic enteritis and myocarditis in dogs, is one of the most important pathogenic viruses with...

  15. Mandibular Symmetrical Bilateral Canine-Lateral Incisors Transposition: Its Early Diagnosis and Treatment Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehoshua Shapira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral mandibular tooth transposition is a relatively rare dental anomaly caused by distal migration of the mandibular lateral incisors and can be detected in the early mixed dentition by radiographic examination. Early diagnosis and interceptive intervention may reduce the risk of possible transposition between the mandibular canine and lateral incisor. This report illustrates the orthodontic management of bilateral mandibular canine-lateral incisor transposition. Correct positioning of the affected teeth was achieved on the left side while teeth on the right side were aligned in their transposed position. It demonstrates the outcome of good alignment of the teeth in the dental arch.

  16. Mandibular Symmetrical Bilateral Canine-Lateral Incisors Transposition: Its Early Diagnosis and Treatment Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Yehoshua; Finkelstein, Tamar; Kadry, Rana; Schonberger, Shirley; Shpack, Nir

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral mandibular tooth transposition is a relatively rare dental anomaly caused by distal migration of the mandibular lateral incisors and can be detected in the early mixed dentition by radiographic examination. Early diagnosis and interceptive intervention may reduce the risk of possible transposition between the mandibular canine and lateral incisor. This report illustrates the orthodontic management of bilateral mandibular canine-lateral incisor transposition. Correct positioning of the affected teeth was achieved on the left side while teeth on the right side were aligned in their transposed position. It demonstrates the outcome of good alignment of the teeth in the dental arch.

  17. Crevicular Alkaline Phosphatase Activity and Rate of Tooth Movement of Female Orthodontic Subjects under Different Continuous Force Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study is aimed to compare the effects of two different orthodontic forces on crevicular alkaline phosphatase activity, rate of tooth movement, and root resorption. Materials and Methods. Twelve female subjects of class II division 1 malocclusion participated. Maxillary canines with bonded fixed appliances acted as the tested teeth, while their antagonists with no appliances acted as the controls. Canine retraction was performed using nickel titanium coil spring that delivered forces of 100 gm or 150 gm to either side. Crevicular fluid was analyzed for ALP activity, and study models were casted to measure tooth movements. Root resorption was assessed using periapical radiographs before and after the force application. Results. ALP activity at the mesial sites peaked at week 1 for 150 gm group with significant differences when compared with the 100 gm group. Cumulative canine movements were significantly greater in the 150 gm force (2.10 ± 0.50 mm than in the 100 gm force (1.57 ± 0.44 mm. No root resorption was in the maxillary canines after retraction. Conclusions. A force of 150 gm produced faster tooth movements and higher ALP activity compared with the 100 gm group and had no detrimental effects such as root resorption.

  18. Partial tooth gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  19. Clinical management of a fused upper premolar with supernumerary tooth: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Min Cho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available n dentistry, the term 'fusion' is used to describe a developmental disorder of dental hard tissues. In the permanent dentition, fusion of a normal tooth and a supernumerary tooth usually involves the incisors or canines. However, a few cases of fusion involving premolars have also been reported to date. We present a rare case in which fusion of the maxillary left second premolar and a supernumerary tooth in a 13-year-old girl was diagnosed using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, Alphard-3030, Asahi Roentgen Ind. Co., Ltd.. The tooth was bicuspidized after routine nonsurgical root canal treatment, and the separated teeth underwent appropriate restoration procedures. The second premolar and supernumerary tooth remained asymptomatic without any signs of inflammation after a follow-up period of 9 years. Identification of anatomical anomalies is important for treatment in cases involving fusion with supernumerary tooth, and therefore the microscopic examinations and CBCT are essential for the diagnosis. Fused teeth can be effectively managed by the comprehensive treatment which includes both endodontic and periodontal procedures.

  20. New hominin fossils from Kanapoi, Kenya, and the mosaic evolution of canine teeth in early hominins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michael Plavcan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Whilst reduced size, altered shape and diminished sexual dimorphism of the canine–premolar complex are diagnostic features of the hominin clade, little is known about the rate and timing of changes in canine size and shape in early hominins. The earliest Australopithecus, Australopithecus anamensis, had canine crowns similar in size to those of its descendant Australopithecus afarensis, but a single large root alveolus has suggested that this species may have had larger and more dimorphic canines than previously recognised. Here we present three new associated dentitions attributed to A. anamensis, recently recovered from the type site of Kanapoi, Kenya, that provide evidence of canine evolution in early Australopithecus. These fossils include the largest mandibular canine root in the hominin fossil record. We demonstrate that, although canine crown height did not differ between these species, A. anamensis had larger and more dimorphic roots, more like those of extant great apes and Ardipithecus ramidus, than those of A. afarensis. The canine and premolar occlusal shapes of A. anamensis also resemble those of Ar. ramidus, and are intermediary between extant great apes and A. afarensis. A. afarensis achieved Homo-like maxillary crown basal proportions without a reduction in crown height. Thus, canine crown size and dimorphism remained stable during the early evolution of Australopithecus, but mandibular root dimensions changed only later within the A. anamensis–afarensis lineage, coincident with morphological changes in the canine–premolar complex. These observations suggest that selection on canine tooth crown height, shape and root dimensions was not coupled in early hominin evolution, and was not part of an integrated adaptive package.

  1. Morphology of palatally impacted canines: A case-controlled cone-beam volumetric tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Pilana Vithanage Kalani Shihanika; Olive, Richard John; Monsour, Paul

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between an apical curvature or a hook and the crown/root ratio in subjects with and without palatally impacted maxillary canines. An experimental group of 44 patients (17 boys, 27 girls; mean age, 13.6 years) with 59 palatally impacted maxillary canines was selected from the records of patients referred to a radiology practice for cone-beam imaging. If a patient had bilateral palatally impacted canines, 1 canine was randomly selected for analysis. The palatally impacted canine group was matched for age and sex with 49 normal subjects (25 boys, 24 girls; mean age, 13.2 years) with 98 canines. Cone-beam DICOM files were imported into In Vivo imaging software (version 5.3; Anatomage, San Jose, Calif) for analysis. The angulations and linear variables of the maxillary canines were measured by using the software measurement tools. Chi-square and independent t tests were used to test for differences between the groups. The presence of a hook at the apical third and other root curvature were significantly different between the 2 groups (P <0.001 and P <0.05, respectively). Of the 44 palatally impacted canines, 16 (36.4%) had an apical hook and only 1 canine in the control group had an apical hook (1.0%). The mean root length of the palatally impacted canines was 2.66 mm shorter (P <0.001), and the mean crown/root ratio was significantly greater for the palatally impacted canines compared with the nonimpacted group (P <0.001). Palatally impacted canines have a greater tendency to develop apical hooks and are less likely to develop other root curvatures than are nonimpacted canines. Also, they have shorter roots resulting in larger crown/root ratios compared with the control group. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus has limited replication in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genetically and antigenically distinct H3N2 canine influenza of avian-origin was detected in March of 2015 in Chicago, Illinois. A subsequent outbreak was reported with over 1,000 dogs in the Midwest affected. The potential for canine-to-swine transmission was unknown. Experimental infection in pi...

  3. Role of multiple cusps in tooth fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barani, Amir; Bush, Mark B; Lawn, Brian R

    2014-07-01

    The role of multiple cusps in the biomechanics of human molar tooth fracture is analysed. A model with four cusps at the bite surface replaces the single dome structure used in previous simulations. Extended finite element modelling, with provision to embed longitudinal cracks into the enamel walls, enables full analysis of crack propagation from initial extension to final failure. The cracks propagate longitudinally around the enamel side walls from starter cracks placed either at the top surface (radial cracks) or from the tooth base (margin cracks). A feature of the crack evolution is its stability, meaning that extension occurs steadily with increasing applied force. Predictions from the model are validated by comparison with experimental data from earlier publications, in which crack development was followed in situ during occlusal loading of extracted human molars. The results show substantial increase in critical forces to produce longitudinal fractures with number of cuspal contacts, indicating a capacity for an individual tooth to spread the load during mastication. It is argued that explicit critical force equations derived in previous studies remain valid, at the least as a means for comparing the capacity for teeth of different dimensions to sustain high bite forces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dental anomalies associated with buccally- and palatally-impacted maxillary canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajnani, Anand K; King, Nigel M

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the association of both buccally- and palatally-impacted canines with other dental anomalies. This retrospective study was conducted on a population of 533 southern Chinese children and adolescents who had impacted maxillary canines that had been treated in the Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics Clinic, Prince Philip Dental Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. Descriptions of the impacted canine and other associated anomalies were obtained from the case notes and radiographs. Clinical photographs and study casts were used, where available. A total of 253 (47.5%) patients with impacted maxillary canines were diagnosed with other dental anomalies. Microdontia was the most frequently-occurring anomaly reported in these patients, with the maxillary lateral incisor the most commonly affected tooth. Other odontogenic anomalies that were associated with both buccally- and palatally-impacted canines included hypodontia, supernumerary teeth, transposition of other teeth, enamel hypoplasia, other impacted teeth, and dens invaginatus. Both buccally- and palatally-impacted canines were found to be associated with other odontogenic anomalies. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Fusion of a primary mandibular lateral incisor and canine: A rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treville Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusion is a developmental anomaly of dental hard tissues characterized by the union of two adjacent teeth. It may be complete with the formation of an abnormally large tooth or incomplete with the union of crowns or roots only. The exact cause is still unknown. This report describes a case of unilateral fusion of the primary lateral incisor and canine in a 6-year-old female patient who accompanied her parents for dental treatment and later had a checkup herself during one of the visits to the dental clinic. Medical history was noncontributory while there was no family history of dental anomalies. An intraoral examination revealed that mandibular right primary lateral incisor was fused to the primary canine. The permanent central incisors were erupting lingually. The intraoral periapical radiograph showed a bifid pulp chamber with a normal-sized root canal. Since the tooth was noncarious, a preventive approach with a periodic follow-up was planned.

  6. Electron paramagnetic resonance biophysical radiation dosimetry with tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Rao F.H.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis deals with the advancements made in the field of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) for biophysical dosimetry with tooth enamel for accident, emergency, and retrospective radiation dose reconstruction. A methodology has been developed to measure retrospective radiation exposures in human tooth enamel. This entails novel sample preparation procedures with minimum mechanical treatment to reduce the preparation induced uncertainties, establish optimum measurement conditions inside the EPR cavity, post-process the measured spectrum with functional simulation of dosimetric and other interfering signals, and reconstruct dose. By using this technique, retrospective gamma exposures as low as 80±30 mGy have been successfully deciphered. The notion of dose modifier was introduced in EPR biodosimetry for low dose measurements. It has been demonstrated that by using the modified zero added dose (MZAD) technique for low radiation exposures, doses in 100 mGy ranges can be easily reconstructed in teeth that were previously thought useless for EPR dosimetry. Also, the use of a dose modifier makes robust dose reconstruction possible for higher radiation exposures. The EPR dosimetry technique was also developed for tooth samples extracted from rodents, which represent small tooth sizing. EPR doses in the molars, extracted from the mice irradiated with whole body exposures, were reassessed and shown to be correct within the experimental uncertainty. The sensitivity of human tooth enamel for neutron irradiation, obtained from the 3 MV McMaster K.N. Van de Graaff accelerator, was also studied. For the first time this work has shown that the neutron sensitivity of the tooth enamel is approximately 1/10th of the equivalent gamma sensitivity. Parametric studies for neutron dose rate and neutron energy within the available range of the accelerator, showed no impact on the sensitivity of the tooth enamel. Therefore, tooth enamel can be used as a dosimeter for both neutrons

  7. Erosive tooth wear in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, T.S.; Lussi, A.; Jaeggi, T.; Gambon, D.L.; Lussi, A.; Ganss, C.

    2014-01-01

    Erosive tooth wear in children is a common condition. Besides the anatomical differences between deciduous and permanent teeth, additional histological differences may influence their susceptibility to dissolution. Considering laboratory studies alone, it is not clear whether deciduous teeth are

  8. Current practices and research updates on diabetes mellitus in canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has evidence in ancient literatures, though recently is being considered as one amongst the most emerging disease condition in both human and companion animals. Diabetes mellitus is one of the common endocrinopathy of dog characterized by hyperglycemia, glycosuria and weight loss. Reports suggests high fraction of canine population suffer with diabetes world over. Studies in different veterinary hospitals of United States suggest increase in cases of canine diabetes and decrease in case fatality rate over time. Increase in cases of canine diabetes worldwide is attributed to awareness amongst pet owners, better veterinary health facilities, breed preferences by dog owners, increase dependence on commercial feeds, obesity, etc. Diabetes in most dogs is immune mediated and insulin dependent. Breed predisposition in canine is attributed to dog leukocyte antigen gene pool encoding form major histocompatibility complex-II molecules, however research is still underway. Diagnosis of diabetes still relies on blood sugar evaluation for screening of canine population, though many other diagnostic methods have shown promising benefits including measurement of fructosamine and glycated haemoglobin. Management of diabetes in dog is based on insulin therapy, diet modification and exercise. Use of oral anti-diabetics drugs in canine is limited though experimental studies have shown promising results. Alternative therapies have been explored, but only a few approaches have shown promise for clinical application.

  9. Comparison of the physiological properties of human periodontal-masseteric reflex evoked by incisor and canine stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko eOhmori

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was designed to clarify whether the bilateral cooperation in the human periodontal-masseteric reflex (PMR differs between central incisors and canines. Methods: Surface array electrodes were placed on the bilateral masseter muscles to simultaneously record the firing activities of single motor units from both sides in 7 healthy adults. During light clenching, mechanical stimulation was applied to the right maxillary central incisor and canine to evoke the PMR. Unitary activity was plotted with respect to the background activity and firing frequency. The slope of the regression line (sRL and the correlation coefficient (CC between the central incisor and canine and the lateral differences between these values were compared. Results: There were significant differences in the sRL and CC, as well as lateral differences, between the central incisor- and canine-driven PMR. Discussion: These results suggest that the PMR differs depending on both the tooth position and laterality.

  10. Maxillary canine-first premolar bilateral transposition in a Class III patient: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrubacz, Maciej Iancu; Tepedino, Michele; Chimenti, Claudio

    2016-05-01

    Tooth transposition is a rare dental anomaly that often represents a challenge for the clinician. The case of a girl with skeletal Class III malocclusion and concomitant maxillary canine-first premolar bilateral transposition, followed from 7 to 17 years of age, is presented. After a first phase of treatment aimed at resolving the Class III malocclusion, the transposition was maintained and the case finalized with a multibracket appliance.

  11. ESR dating of tooth enamel samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Tiemei; Yang quan; Wu En

    1993-01-01

    Five tooth samples from the palaeoanthropological site of Jinniushan were dated with both electron-spin-resonance (ESR) and uranium-series techniques. The ESR age of about 230 ka is in good agreement with the U-series dating result, which confirms the hypothesis of possible coexistence of Homo erect us and Homo sapiens in China. Problems in ESR dating are discussed such as: 1) inappropriate of simple exponential extrapolation for accumulated dose determination; 2)experimental measurement of alpha detection efficiency and radon emanation and 3)selection of U-uptake model

  12. A comparison of lower canine retraction and loss of anchorage between conventional and self-ligating brackets: a single-center randomized split-mouth controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Monini, André; Júnior, Luiz Gonzaga Gandini; Vianna, Alexandre Protásio; Martins, Renato Parsekian

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the rate of lower canine retraction, anchorage loss, and changes on lower canines and first molars axial inclination using self-ligating and conventional brackets. Twenty-five adult patients with a treatment plan involving extractions of four first premolars were selected for this split-mouth trial and had either conventional or self-ligating brackets bonded to lower canines in a block randomization. Retraction was accomplished using 100-g nickel titanium closed-coil springs, which were reactivated each 4 weeks. Oblique radiographs were taken before and after total canine retraction and the cephalograms were superimposed on stable structures of the mandible. Cephalometric points were digitized twice by a single-blinded operator for error control and the average of the points were used to determine the following variables: canine cusp horizontal changes, molar cusp horizontal changes, and angulation changes in canines and molars. Paired t tests were used to analyze the blinded data for group differences. All patients reached final phase without bracket debonds. No differences were found between the two groups for all variables tested. No serious harm was observed. Both brackets showed the same rate of canine retraction and loss of anteroposterior anchorage of the molars. No changes were found between brackets regarding the inclination of canines and first molars. Using self-ligating brackets to retract lower canines will not increase the velocity of tooth movement, does not increase anchorage, and does not decrease tipping.

  13. Maxillary canine-first premolar transposition in the permanent dentition: treatment considerations and a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Synodinos, Philippos N

    2010-12-01

    Transposition is defined as the interchange of position between two adjacent teeth within the same quadrant of the dental arch. Permanent maxillary canine-premolar transposition is the most commonly observed transposition in the human dentition. Its prevalence is relatively low and its aetiology remains unclear, although it has been associated with genetic factors. It may also be related to a combination of localised factors such as malformation of adjacent teeth, tooth agenesis, retention of the deciduous canine and a history of local trauma. Treatment is selected on an individual case basis after thoroughly considering the overall facial and dental characteristics, duration of treatment, cost, patient preference and the orthodontist\\'s experience. This article provides a case report of maxillary canine transposition in the permanent dentition, successfully managed with orthodontic treatment.

  14. Studies on the position of canines, premolars and molars by 450 .deg. oblique lateral cephalography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Department of Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1976-11-15

    This study was done using the 45 .deg. oblique lateral cephalograms of 20 year old, 18 male and 27 female, with normal occlusion, on canines, premolars, premolars and molars on upper and lower jaws. Axial inclination to nasal floor, occlusal plane and mandibular plane, and inter-axial inclination were examined. In addition the position of each tooth was examined in height and depth in upper and lower jaws. The results were obtained as follows; 1. The inclination of long axis of upper lst premolar was most nearly perpendicular, upper canine was tilted mesially, and 2nd premolar and molars were tilted distally. 2. The inclination of long axis of lower molars were tilted mesially. 3. There were no severe variation on the inter-axial inclination of canine to 2nd molar.

  15. Studies on the position of canines, premolars and molars by 450 .deg. oblique lateral cephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1976-01-01

    This study was done using the 45 .deg. oblique lateral cephalograms of 20 year old, 18 male and 27 female, with normal occlusion, on canines, premolars, premolars and molars on upper and lower jaws. Axial inclination to nasal floor, occlusal plane and mandibular plane, and inter-axial inclination were examined. In addition the position of each tooth was examined in height and depth in upper and lower jaws. The results were obtained as follows; 1. The inclination of long axis of upper lst premolar was most nearly perpendicular, upper canine was tilted mesially, and 2nd premolar and molars were tilted distally. 2. The inclination of long axis of lower molars were tilted mesially. 3. There were no severe variation on the inter-axial inclination of canine to 2nd molar.

  16. Maxillary canine impactions related to impacted central incisors: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Mehmet; Ozer, Mete; Sener, Ismail

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe the combined surgical and orthodontic treatment of two cases with an impacted maxillary central incisor and canine in the same quadrant and to discuss the causal relationship between them. The most common causes of canine impactions are usually the result of one or more factors such as a long path of eruption, tooth size-arch length discrepancies, abnormal position of the tooth bud, prolonged retention or early loss of the deciduous canine, trauma, the presence of an alveolar cleft, ankylosis, cystic or neoplastic formation, dilaceration of the root, supernumerary teeth, and odontomas. Although impaction of the maxillary central incisor is almost as prevalent as impacted canines its etiology is different. The principal factors involved in causing the anomaly are supernumerary teeth, odontomas, and trauma. Case #1: A 10.5-year-old girl in the early mixed dentition stage presented with a chief complaint of the appearance of her anterior teeth. She had a Class I skeletal pattern and a history of trauma to the maxillary central incisors at age five with premature exfoliation. Radiographs revealed an impacted upper right central incisor in the region of the nasal floor, delayed eruption of the maxillary permanent central incisor, and the adjacent lateral incisor was inclined toward the edentulous space. Treatment was done in two stages consisting of surgical exposure and traction of the impacted central incisor and fixed orthodontic treatment. Case #2: An 11.5-year-old girl presented for orthodontic treatment with the chief complaint of an unerupted tooth and the appearance of her upper anterior teeth. She was in the late mixed dentition period with a Class III skeletal pattern along with an anterior cross-bite with some maxillary transverse deficiency. The maxillary right canine and central incisor were absent, but the maxillary right deciduous canine was still present. Treatment included arch expansion followed by

  17. Canine parvovirus: current perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Kumar, Manoj

    2010-06-01

    Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) has been considered to be an important pathogen of domestic and wild canids and has spread worldwide since its emergence in 1978. It has been reported from Asia, Australia, New Zealand, the Americas and Europe. Two distinct parvoviruses are now known to infect dogs-the pathogenic CPV-2 and CPV-1 or the minute virus of canine (MVC). CPV-2, the causative agent of acute hemorrhagic enteritis and myocarditis in dogs, is one of the most important pathogenic viruses with high morbidity (100%) and frequent mortality up to 10% in adult dogs and 91% in pups. The disease condition has been complicated further due to emergence of a number of variants namely CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c over the years and involvement of domestic and wild canines. There are a number of different serological and molecular tests available for prompt, specific and accurate diagnosis of the disease. Further, both live attenuated and inactivated vaccines are available to control the disease in animals. Besides, new generation vaccines namely recombinant vaccine, peptide vaccine and DNA vaccine are in different stages of development and offer hope for better management of the disease in canines. However, new generation vaccines have not been issued license to be used in the field condition. Again, the presence of maternal antibodies often interferes with the active immunization with live attenuated vaccine and there always exists a window of susceptibility in spite of following proper immunization regimen. Lastly, judicious use of the vaccines in pet dogs, stray dogs and wild canids keeping in mind the new variants of the CPV-2 along with the proper sanitation and disinfection practices must be implemented for the successful control the disease.

  18. American Canine Hepatozoonosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, S. A.; Panciera, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    American canine hepatozoonosis (ACH) is a tick-borne disease that is spreading in the southeastern and south-central United States. Characterized by marked leukocytosis and periosteal bone proliferation, ACH is very debilitating and often fatal. Dogs acquire infection by ingesting nymphal or adult Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) that, in a previous life stage, ingested the parasite in a blood meal taken from some vertebrate intermediate host. ACH is caused by the apicomplexan Hepatozoon americanum and has been differentiated from Old World canine hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis. Unlike H. canis, which is transmitted by the ubiquitous brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), H. americanum is essentially an accidental parasite of dogs, for which Gulf Coast ticks are not favored hosts. The geographic portrait of the disease parallels the known distribution of the Gulf Coast tick, which has expanded in recent years. Thus, the endemic cycle of H. americanum involves A. maculatum as definitive host and some vertebrate intermediate host(s) yet to be identified. Although coyotes (Canis latrans) are known to be infected, it is not known how important this host is in maintaining the endemic cycle. This review covers the biology of the parasite and of the tick that transmits it and contrasts ACH with classical canine hepatozoonosis. Clinical aspects of the disease are discussed, including diagnosis and treatment, and puzzling epidemiologic issues are examined. Brief consideration is given to the potential for ACH to be used as a model for study of angiogenesis and of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. PMID:14557294

  19. Monte Carlo modeling of human tooth optical coherence tomography imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Boya; Meng, Zhuo; Wang, Longzhi; Liu, Tiegen

    2013-01-01

    We present a Monte Carlo model for optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of human tooth. The model is implemented by combining the simulation of a Gaussian beam with simulation for photon propagation in a two-layer human tooth model with non-parallel surfaces through a Monte Carlo method. The geometry and the optical parameters of the human tooth model are chosen on the basis of the experimental OCT images. The results show that the simulated OCT images are qualitatively consistent with the experimental ones. Using the model, we demonstrate the following: firstly, two types of photons contribute to the information of morphological features and noise in the OCT image of a human tooth, respectively. Secondly, the critical imaging depth of the tooth model is obtained, and it is found to decrease significantly with increasing mineral loss, simulated as different enamel scattering coefficients. Finally, the best focus position is located below and close to the dental surface by analysis of the effect of focus positions on the OCT signal and critical imaging depth. We anticipate that this modeling will become a powerful and accurate tool for a preliminary numerical study of the OCT technique on diseases of dental hard tissue in human teeth. (paper)

  20. The influence of a novel in-office tooth whitening procedure using an Er,Cr:YSGG laser on enamel surface morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios; Strakas, Dimitrios; Koliniotou-Koumpia, Eugenia

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of a novel in-office tooth whitening procedure using Er,Cr:YSGG laser radiation on bovine enamel. Forty-eight enamel specimens were prepared from bovine canines and divided into four groups: Group 1 specimens (control) received no whitening treatment; Group 2 received whitening treatment with an at-home whitening agent (22% carbamide peroxide) for 7 days; Group 3 received whitening treatment with a novel in-office whitening agent (35% H(2)O(2)); Group 4 received the same in-office whitening therapy with Group 3 using Er,Cr:YSGG laser in order to accelerate the whitening procedure. The specimens were stored for 10 days after the whitening treatment in artificial saliva. Vickers hardness was determined using a microhardness tester and surface roughness was evaluated using a VSI microscope. Three specimens of each experimental group were examined under SEM and the mineral composition of the specimens was evaluated using EDS. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's post-hoc test, Wilcoxon signed rank and Kruskal-Wallis tests (a = 0.05). The surface microhardness of the enamel was reduced after the in-office whitening treatments (Pwhitening treatment (P> 0.05). Moreover, the surface roughness was not significantly changed after tooth whitening. EDS analysis did not show alterations in the enamel mineral composition, while SEM observations indicated changes in the surface morphology, especially after in-office tooth whitening (Pwhitening treatment with Er,Cr:YSGG laser did not affect the alterations in enamel surface compared with the conventional in-office whitening technique. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Surgical Management of Compound Odontoma Associated with Unerupted Tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pacifici

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas represent the most common type of odontogenic benign jaws tumors among patients younger than 20 years of age. These tumors are composed of enamel, dentine, cementum, and pulp tissue. According to the World Health Organization classification, two distinct types of odontomas are acknowledged: complex and compound odontoma. In complex odontomas, all dental tissues are formed, but appeared without an organized structure. In compound odontomas, all dental tissues are arranged in numerous tooth-like structures known as denticles. Compound odontomas are often associated with impacted adjacent permanent teeth and their surgical removal represents the best therapeutic option. A case of a 20-year-old male patient with a compound odontoma-associated of impacted maxillary canine is presented. A minimally invasive surgical technique is adopted to remove the least amount of bone tissue as far as possible.

  2. A novel method to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuk, S. Kutalmış; Yavuz, Mustafa C.; Genc, Esra; Sunar, Oguzhan

    2018-01-01

    This clinical case report presents fixed orthodontic treatment of a patient with moderately crowded teeth. It was performed with a new technique called ‘discision’. Discision method that was described for the first time by the present authors yielded predictable outcomes, and orthodontic treatment was completed in a short period of time. The total duration of orthodontic treatment was 4 months. Class I molar and canine relationships were established at the end of the treatment. Moreover, crowding in the mandible and maxilla was corrected, and optimal overjet and overbite were established. No scar tissue was observed in any gingival region on which discision was performed. The discision technique was developed as a minimally invasive alternative method to piezocision technique, and the authors suggest that this new method yields good outcomes in achieving rapid tooth movement. PMID:29436571

  3. Age estimation by pulp/tooth ratio in lower premolars by orthopantomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameriere, Roberto; De Luca, Stefano; Alemán, Inmaculada; Ferrante, Luigi; Cingolani, Mariano

    2012-01-10

    Accurate age estimation has always been a problem for forensic scientists, and apposition of secondary dentine is often used as an indicator of age. Since 2004, in order to examine patterns of secondary dentine apposition, Cameriere et al. have been extensively studying the pulp/tooth area ratio of the canines by panoramic and peri-apical X-ray images. The main aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between age and age-related changes in the pulp/tooth area ratio in monoradicular teeth, with the exception of canines, by orthopantomography. A total of 606 orthopantomograms of Spanish white Caucasian patients (289 women and 317 men), aged between 18 and 75 years and coming from Bilbao and Granada (Spain), was analysed. Regression analysis of age of monoradicular teeth indicated that the lower premolars were the most closely correlated with age. An ANCOVA did not show significant differences between men and women. Multiple regression analysis, with age as dependent variable and pulp/tooth area ratio as predictor, yielded several formulae. R(2) ranged from 0.69 to 0.75 for a single lower premolar tooth and from 0.79 to 0.86 for multiple lower premolar teeth. Depending on the available number of premolar teeth, the mean of the absolute values of residual standard error, at 95% confidence interval, ranged between 4.34 and 6.02 years, showing that the pulp/tooth area ratio is a useful variable for assessing age with reasonable accuracy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tooth width predictions in a sample of Black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M I; Seedat, A K; Hlongwa, P

    2007-07-01

    Space analysis during the mixed dentition requires prediction of the mesiodistal widths of the unerupted permanent canines and premolars and prediction tables and equations may be used for this purpose. The Tanaka and Johnston prediction equations, which were derived from a North American White sample, is one example which is widely used. This prediction equation may be inapplicable to other race groups due to racial tooth size variability. Therefore the purpose of this study was to derive prediction equations that would be applicable to Black South African subjects. One hundred and ten pre-treatment study casts of Black South African subjects were analysed from the Department of Orthodontics' records at the University of Limpopo. The sample was equally divided by gender with all subjects having Class I molar relationship and relatively well aligned teeth. The mesiodistal widths of the maxillary and mandibular canines and premolars were measured with a digital vernier calliper and compared with the measurements predicted with the Tanaka and Johnston equations. The relationship between the measured and predicted values were analysed by correlation and regression analyses. The results indicated that the Tanaka and Johnston prediction equations were not fully applicable to the Black South African sample. The equations tended to underpredict the male sample, while slight overprediction was observed in the female sample. Therefore, new equations were formulated and proposed that would be accurate for Black subjects.

  5. Tissue engineering rib with the incorporation of biodegradable polymer cage and BMSCs/decalcified bone: an experimental study in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hua; Wu, Bin; Qin, Xiong; Zhang, Lu; Kretlow, Jim; Xu, Zhifei

    2013-05-20

    The reconstruction of large bone defects, including rib defects, remains a challenge for surgeons. In this study, we used biodegradable polydioxanone (PDO) cages to tissue engineer ribs for the reconstruction of 4cm-long costal defects. PDO sutures were used to weave 6cm long and 1cm diameter cages. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) which is a xenograft was molded into cuboids and seeded with second passage bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) that had been osteogenically induced. Two DBM cuboids seeded with BMSCs were put into the PDO cage and used to reconstruct the costal defects. Radiographic examination including 3D reconstruction, histologic examination and mechanical test was performed after 24 postoperative weeks. All the experimental subjects survived. In all groups, the PDO cage had completely degraded after 24 weeks and been replaced by fibrous tissue. Better shape and radian were achieved in PDO cages filled with DBM and BMSCs than in the other two groups (cages alone, or cages filled with acellular DBM cuboids). When the repaired ribs were subjected to an outer force, the ribs in the PDO cage/DBMs/BMSCs group kept their original shape while ribs in the other two groups deformed. In the PDO cage/DBMs/BMSCs groups, we also observed bony union at all the construct interfaces while there was no bony union observed in the other two groups. This result was also confirmed by radiographic and histologic examination. This study demonstrates that biodegradable PDO cage in combination with two short BMSCs/DBM cuboids can repair large rib defects. The satisfactory repair rate suggests that this might be a feasible approach for large bone repair.

  6. Bilateral supernumerary primary maxillary canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Mukhopadhyay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary teeth are more common in the permanent than in primary dentition. In the primary dentition, the anomaly is most frequently observed in the maxillary lateral incisor region, followed by the maxillary midline where they are termed as mesiodens. Supernumerary teeth in the primary canine region are rare. This paper describes a rare case of nonsyndromic supernumerary primary maxillary canine distributed bilaterally in a 4-year-old boy. Both the supernumeraries resembled size and shape of normal primary canine. The right supplemental canine is high labially placed, whereas the left one is seen normally aligned in the dental arch distal to lateral incisor. One of the most significant sequelae of primary supernumerary teeth is their duplication in the permanent series. Radiographic examination of supernumerary primary canine did not indicate any such anomaly in the permanent dentition. The patient was kept under observation.

  7. Effect of light energy on peroxide tooth bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Karen; Tam, Laura; Hubert, Manfred

    2004-02-01

    Light-activated bleaching is a method of tooth whitening. The authors conducted a study to compare the whitening effects and tooth temperature changes induced by various combinations of peroxide bleaches and light sources. The authors randomly assigned 250 extracted human teeth halves into experimental groups (n = 10). A placebo gel (control), a 35 percent hydrogen peroxide or a 10 percent carbamide peroxide bleach was placed on the tooth surface and was irradiated with no light (control); a halogen curing light; an infrared, or IR, light; an argon laser; or a carbon dioxide, or CO2, laser. Color changes were evaluated immediately, one day and one week after treatment using a value-oriented shade guide and an electronic dental color analyzer. The outer enamel and inner dentin surface temperatures were monitored before and immediately after each 30-second application of light using a thermocouple thermometer. Color and temperature changes were significantly affected by an interaction of the bleach and light variables. The application of lights significantly improved the whitening efficacy of some bleach materials, but it caused significant temperature increases in the outer and inner tooth surfaces. The IR and CO2 laser lights caused the highest tooth temperature increases. Dentists performing an in-office bleaching technique with the use of an additional light source to accelerate tooth whitening should consider the specific bleaching agent being used, as well as the potential risks of heating teeth. A specific combination of bleach and light that demonstrates good color change and little temperature rise should be selected for in-office tooth bleaching.

  8. Resection of the Tooth Apex with Diode Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzunov Tz.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An “in vitro” experimental study has been carried out on 70 extracted teeth. A laser resection of the root apex has been carried out with diode laser beam with a wavelength of - 810 ± 10 nm. Sequentially a radiation with increasing power has been applied, as follows: 1,3 W, 2W, 3W, 4W, 5W, 6W, 7W, in electro surgery mode. Successful resection of the tooth apex has been performed at: 3W; 4W; 5W; 6W and 7W power. It was established that when laser resected the tooth apex carbonizes.

  9. Tooth enamel sample preparation using alkaline treatment in ESR dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yongzeng, Zhou; Jiadong, Wang; Xiaomei, Jia; Ke, Wu; Jianbo, Cong

    2002-01-01

    Tooth enamel sample preparation using alkaline treatment was studied and compared with traditional mechanical method in this paper. 20 adult teeth were used. Samples were placed into NaOH solution. This method requires 4-5 weeks and the enamel was separated from dentin. Experimental results show that 8M NaOH was appropriate for separating enamel from dentin and that there is no difference in background signal relative intensity between samples prepared by mechanical and by chemical methods. There is also no difference in radiosensitivity between samples prepared by two methods mentioned above. Dose response curve for tooth enamel samples isolated by 8M NaOH solution was obtained

  10. Tooth polishing: The current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Alankar Sawai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy teeth and gums make a person feel confident and fit. As people go about their daily routines and with different eating and drinking habits, the tooth enamel turns yellowish or gets stained. Polishing traditionally has been associated with the prophylaxis procedure in most dental practices, which patients know and expect. However, with overzealous use of polishing procedure, there is wearing of the superficial tooth structure. This would lead to more accumulation of local deposits. Also, it takes a long time for the formation of the fluoride-rich layer of the tooth again. Hence, now-a-days, polishing is not advised as a part of routine oral prophylaxis procedure but is done selectively based on the patients′ need. The article here, gives an insight on the different aspects of the polishing process along with the different methods and agents used for the same.

  11. The prevalence of deciduous tooth wear in six-year-old children and its relationship with potential explanatory factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Daniela; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Honório, Heitor Marques; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Machado, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and aetiological factors involved with wear of deciduous teeth. A convenience sample of 356 children (aged 6 years old) was selected at Bauru, SP (Brazil). Clinical examinations were carried out by 1 examiner (Kappa = 0.87), using the Tooth Wear Index (G0-G4). A questionnaire addressing the aetiological factors of tooth wear was applied to parents. Wear on the incisors was diagnosed in 34.8% of children (91.1% G1 and 6.4% G2); 78.1% presented wear in canines (64.7% G1 and 33.1% G2); and 40.7% in molars (89.6% G1 and 9.0% G2). No significant correlation was observed between gastro-oesophageal reflux, toothbrushing habits, or consumption of citrus fruits/soft drinks and the presence of tooth wear for all groups of teeth. The wear showed correlation with the presence of bruxism for canines and with the habit of holding drinks in the mouth before swallowing for incisors (Chi-square test, p < 0.05). The findings indicate that the wear of incisors could be considered physiological for this age. Further longitudinal studies should be conducted in order to measure the wear in canines and molars in the period close to their replacement by permanent teeth.

  12. Primary culprit for tooth loss!!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailavanya Nuvvula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In order to facilitate planning for dental health services and to progress strategies to continue the reduction in tooth loss, it is important to identify the factors that result in such loss. therefore the aim of the study is to investigate the major cause for tooth extraction. Objective: to examine whether the major reason for tooth extraction is dental caries or periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: The study is carried out among the dental practitioners in our district. A questionnaire containing 10 items was distributed to the dental practitioners, which included age, gender, no of teeth indicated for extraction, the reason for extraction, and the periodontal parameters that are involved with the extracted tooth and were requested to complete the form on every extraction they were to undertake. the study form was collected at the end of the study period and data was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: A total of 502 patients were enrolled during the study period, and a total of 1055 teeth were extracted for several reasons. we found that 51.14%extractions are due to dental caries in case of 20-30years age groups, which is more when compared to tooth loss due to periodontal diseases in this age group. whereas in case of >40years of age group periodontal diseases account for 54.11%, and dental caries accounts for only 29.11%. Showing more teeth were lost due to periodontal disease. Conclusion: therefore we concluded that, caries is the dominant reason for extraction in patients with 20–30 years of age while periodontal disease accounts for the majority of tooth extraction in patients older than 40 years.

  13. In phantom dosimetric response of tooth enamel to neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattibene, P.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.; De Coste, V.

    2004-01-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance dosimetry based on tooth enamel has one important application in dose reconstruction of nuclear plant workers, where the contribution of neutrons to individual dose is often important. Evaluation of tooth enamel response to neutrons is thus an important goal. A few experimental data at thermal and fast neutron energies are available. A first evaluation of the tooth enamel relative response to 60 Co in monoenergetic neutron flux of 2.8 and of 14 MeV, published elsewhere, has provided results apparently non-consistent with the results obtained at lower and higher energies. A comparison of those results in the 2.8 and 14 MeV beams with those available in the literature for other beams is reported and possible reasons for incongruities are discussed. Dose conversion factors of enamel to the water and air are also calculated and reported. (authors)

  14. Proteomic analysis of human tooth pulp: proteomics of human tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Adam; Jágr, Michal; Pataridis, Statis; Mikšík, Ivan

    2014-12-01

    The unique pulp-dentin complex demonstrates strong regenerative potential, which enables it to respond to disease and traumatic injury. Identifying the proteins of the pulp-dentin complex is crucial to understanding the mechanisms of regeneration, tissue calcification, defense processes, and the reparation of dentin by dental pulp. The lack of knowledge of these proteins limits the development of more efficient therapies. The proteomic profile of human tooth pulp was investigated and compared with the proteome of human dentin and blood. The samples of tooth pulp were obtained from 5 sound permanent human third molars of 5 adults (n = 5). The extracted proteins were separated by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, analyzed by nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and identified by correlating mass spectra to the proteomic databases. A total of 342 proteins were identified with high confidence, and 2 proteins were detected for the first time in an actual human sample. The identified tooth pulp proteins have a variety of functions: structural, catalytic, transporter, protease activity, immune response, and many others. In a comparison with dentin and blood plasma, 140 (pulp/dentin) shared proteins were identified, 37 of which were not observed in plasma. It can be suggested that they might participate in the unique pulp-dentin complex. This proteomic investigation of human tooth pulp, together with the previously published study of human dentin, is one of the most comprehensive proteome lists of human teeth to date. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical manifestations of canine distemper in Nigerian dogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty dogs of local breeds found in Nigeria, experimentally infected with local isolate of canine distemper virus, manifested fever, conjunctivitis, photophobia salivation, anorexia, dermatitis, and diarrhoea. Apart from these clinical signs already described for the disease in other breeds of dogs,45% of the dogs showed ...

  16. Canine distemper associated with generalized oedema in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty puppies of Nigeria local breed of dogs which were experimentally infected with a local isolate of canine distemper virus manifested clinical signs known for the disease including anorexia, ocular discharges, postular dermatitis on the lower abdomen and diarrhoea. In addition, they also manifested generalized ...

  17. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Child First See a Dentist? The History of Dental Advances Why is Oral Health Important for Men? What is Baby Bottle Tooth Decay? Learn what those dental words mean. The Life of a Tooth Home | ...

  18. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dentist Your Family's Oral Health About the AGD Dental care and oral health information you need from ... Menstrual Calendar for Tooth Extraction Learn what those dental words mean. The Life of a Tooth Home | ...

  19. Panoramic radiological study to identify locally displaced maxillary canines in Bangladeshi population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alif, Sheikh Mohammad; Haque, Sejuty; Nimmi, Naima; Ashraf, Ali; Khan, Saeed Hossain; Khan, Mahfujul Haq

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of maxillary canine impaction on a basis of a single panoramic radiograph in Bangladeshi population. A random sample of seven hundred panoramic radiographs was collected from the patient record of a dental clinic. All the selected panoramic radiographs were taken from January 2009 to August 2010 by a single panoramic radiograph machine with the same exposure time (19 seconds) for all radiographs. One hundred and twenty panoramic radiographs were excluded to minimize the selection bias. In a dim lit room, an observer assessed the radiographs on a standard radiographic light box. The position of the impacted maxillary canine was recorded in line with the longitudinal axis of a tooth using the edge of a metal ruler. Data were subsequently put on SPSS 11.5 software and chi-square (x 2 ) tests were applied to find out the association. Among 580 panoramic radiographs it was found that impacted maxillary canines were present in only 7 (1.2%) radiographs. A statistical significant difference was found between the age of the patients and the vertical position of the impacted canines (p=0.000) and between the age of the patients and the horizontal position of the impacted canines (p=0.003). The prevalence was found to be low compared with the present study from the limitation of panoramic image. Further study needs to include three-dimensional imaging modality.

  20. Assessment of periodontal status following the alignment of impacted permanent maxillary canine teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarmach, I J; Szarmach, J; Waszkiel, D; Paniczko, A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of orthodontic movement of the impacted canines after surgical exposure and alignment on the periodontal status of the transpositioned and adjacent teeth as well as to compare certain parameters with those of spontaneously erupted teeth. Twenty-four patients (mean age 18.4 +/- 3.66) with unilaterally impacted 24 canines were enrolled in the study. The following parameters were assessed: pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), platelet index (PI) of Silness and Löe, and modified sulcus bleeding index (SBI). Optic density of the alveolar bone along the root surface of the aligned canine was analysed based on digital radiological images made with the right angle technique. Control group consisted of spontaneously erupted teeth. In comparison to the control group, in the orthodonticaly treated group PD was found to increase on the mesial buccal and palatal surfaces of the first premolar (p aligned canine (p aligned tooth were statistically significant (p alignment zone and the control, and there was no link between the method of treatment and periodontal status, either. The alignment of the impacted permanent maxillary canines poses a risk of periodontal deterioration. Patients subjected to surgical-orthodontic treatment require periodic periodontal follow-ups.

  1. Autotransplantation donor tooth site harvesting using piezosurgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ylikontiola, Leena P.; S?ndor, George K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The harvesting of a tooth as a candidate for tooth autotransplantation requires that the delicate dental tissues around the tooth be minimally traumatized. This is especially so for the periradicular tissues of the tooth root and the follicular tissues surrounding the crown. The aim of this report is to describe the use of piezosurgery as an attempt at morbidity reduction in the harvesting of teeth for autotransplantation. Methods: A piezosurgical handpiece and its ...

  2. Stem cells for tooth engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Bluteau

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Tooth development results from sequential and reciprocal interactions between the oral epithelium and the underlying neural crest-derived mesenchyme. The generation of dental structures and/or entire teeth in the laboratory depends upon the manipulation of stem cells and requires a synergy of all cellular and molecular events that finally lead to the formation of tooth-specific hard tissues, dentin and enamel. Although mesenchymal stem cells from different origins have been extensively studied in their capacity to form dentin in vitro, information is not yet available concerning the use of epithelial stem cells. The odontogenic potential resides in the oral epithelium and thus epithelial stem cells are necessary for both the initiation of tooth formation and enamel matrix production. This review focuses on the different sources of stem cells that have been used for making teeth in vitro and their relative efficiency. Embryonic, post-natal or even adult stem cells were assessed and proved to possess an enormous regenerative potential, but their application in dental practice is still problematic and limited due to various parameters that are not yet under control such as the high risk of rejection, cell behaviour, long tooth eruption period, appropriate crown morphology and suitable colour. Nevertheless, the development of biological approaches for dental reconstruction using stem cells is promising and remains one of the greatest challenges in the dental field for the years to come.

  3. AUTOGENOUS TOOTH TRANSPLANTATION IN ADULT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    ABSTRACT. A case of autotransplantation of a tooth in a 26 year old female African cleft palate patient is reported. This case report emphasizes the possibility and success of autotransplantation in our centre, it also emphasizes that transplantation is only technique sensitive but less equipment sensitive. It further stresses.

  4. Canine obesity: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossellin, J; Wren, J A; Sunderland, S J

    2007-08-01

    Canine patients are generally regarded as being clinically obese when their body weight is at least 15% above ideal. The incidence of obesity in dogs is thought to be in the range of 20-40% of the general population and, since obesity is known to predispose or exacerbate a range of serious medical conditions, its importance cannot be overstated. Management of obesity through dietary restriction and increased exercise is often difficult to achieve and dependent upon owner compliance. Until recently there has been no authorized therapeutic medication available for weight reduction in dogs, and drugs used in people have proved unsuitable. However, with the development of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitors for canine use, such as dirlotapide, the veterinarian has a novel method with which to augment traditional weight control programmes. This approach has the additional advantage that weight loss is achieved without dietary restriction or change in exercise regimen, providing encouragement for the owner to comply with subsequent dietary and exercise recommendations, thereby increasing the likelihood for long-term success.

  5. Peracute Infectious Canine Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Cheema*, I. Ahmed, G. Mustafa and A. Aslam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Peracute infectious canine hepatitis (ICH was diagnosed in two young male dogs out of 56 dead canines presented for necropsy examination during the period of April 2009 to June 2010. These dogs were purebred, one- month old Alsatian and 5-month old Labrador. None of the dogs had received any vaccination or deworming treatment; both had died after illness lasting for six hours and twenty four hours respectively. The dogs had shown signs of depression, anorexia and fever. At necropsy, lymph nodes were swollen, edematous and congested; livers were enlarged, bright red and mottled with numerous small white foci. Petechial hemorrhages were seen in the mucosa. Excessive serosanguinous fluid was present in the abdominal cavities. Histologically, the most significant lesion was necrohemorrhagic hepatitis with single cell necrosis of hepatocytes, lacunose dilation of sinusoids filled with blood and numerous large, solid intranuclear inclusion bodies (IIBs in the hepatocytes and macrophages. Both eosinophilic and basophilic (amphophilic inclusions were seen. It has been observed that ICH is re-emerging in some endemic countries. Pet dogs should be regularly protected by effective vaccination.

  6. Radioresistant canine hematopoietic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, T.G.; Shimizu, J.; Rosenblatt, L.S.; Goldman, M.

    1987-01-01

    Survival of dogs that are continuously exposed to a moderate dose-rate of gamma radiation (10 cGy/day) is dependent on the age of the dog at the time of exposure. Most dogs exposed postpartum to gamma radiation suffered from suppressed hematopoiesis and died of aplasia. On the other hand, none of the in utero-exposed dogs suffered from suppressed hematopoiesis and most became long-term survivors, tolerating 10-fold greater total dose, but dying of myeloproliferative disease (MPD). Using acute gamma irradiation of hematopoietic cells and colony forming unit cell assay (CFU), they observed that a canine hematopoietic cell line established from a myeloid leukemic dog that was a long-term survivor of continuous irradiation was approximately 4-fold more radioresistant than a hematopoietic cell line established from a dog with nonradiation-induced myeloid leukemia or hematopoietic cells from normal canine bone marrow. In utero dogs that are long-term survivors of continuous irradiation have radioresistant hematopoietic cells, and radioresistance that is a constitutive property of the cells

  7. Canine distemper virus-associated hypocalcemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrode, S E; Krakowka, S

    1979-01-01

    A retrospective study was done to correlate serum calcium concentrations and parathyroid gland ultrastructure to clinical, immunologic, and pathologic changes experimentally induced in gnotobiotic dogs by canine distemper virus (CDV). Dogs infected with CDV had significantly reduced serum calcium concentrations associated with ultrastructural evidence of parathyroid gland inactivity, degeneration, and viral inclusions. Although CDV-infected dogs exhibited neurologic signs, minimal lesions were present in the central nervous system. It is suggested that viral-induced parathyroid dysfunction may contribute to neutrologic disturbance of CDV infection.

  8. Embolus radiolabelling in a new canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, H.H.; Huchton, J.D.; Woo, J.; Cannon, D.C.; Anderson, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Embolus radiolabelling with 131 I fibrinogen was studied in a canine model of internal carotid artery embolization. The dog was chosen as the experimental animal because of its maxillocarotid artery which permits collateral flow round the occlusion and helps to prevent strokes. Clot was prepared by incubating blood at room temperature to inactivate plasminogen activators and then refrigerating it to promote clot retraction. Emboli persisting 48 hours were seen in 80% of animals. Major strokes were not seen when 0.25 to 0.30 cm 3 were used. Autoradiography and well counting revealed uptake of isotope. The test, when refined, should provide a tool for the investigation of thromboemboli. (author)

  9. Multiphoton microscopy imaging of developing tooth germs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yu Pan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: In this study, a novel multiphoton microscopy database of images from developing tooth germs in mice was set up. We confirmed that multiphoton laser microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating the development of tooth germ and is worthy for further application in the study of tooth regeneration.

  10. Equal pain – Unequal fear response: Enhanced susceptibility of tooth pain to fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lukas Meier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental fear conditioning in humans is widely used as a model to investigate the neural basis of fear learning and to unravel the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. It has been observed that fear conditioning depends on stimulus salience and subject vulnerability to fear. It is further known that the prevalence of dental-related fear and phobia is exceedingly high in the population. Dental phobia is unique as no other body part is associated with a specific phobia. Therefore, we hypothesized that painful dental stimuli exhibit an enhanced susceptibility to fear conditioning when comparing to equal perceived stimuli applied to other body sites. Differential susceptibility to pain-related fear was investigated by analyzing responses to an unconditioned stimulus (UCS applied to the right maxillary canine (UCS-c versus the right tibia (UCS-t. For fear conditioning, UCS-c and USC-t consisted of painful electric stimuli, carefully matched at both application sites for equal intensity and quality perception. UCSs were paired to simple geometrical forms which served as conditioned stimuli (CS+. Unpaired CS+ were presented for eliciting and analyzing conditioned fear responses. Outcome parameter were 1 skin conductance changes and 2 time-dependent brain activity (BOLD responses in fear-related brain regions such as the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, thalamus, orbitofrontal cortex and medial prefrontal cortex.A preferential susceptibility of dental pain to fear conditioning was observed, reflected by heightened skin conductance responses and enhanced time-dependent brain activity (BOLD responses in the fear network. For the first time, this study demonstrates fear-related neurobiological mechanisms that point towards a superior conditionability of tooth pain. Beside traumatic dental experiences our results offer novel evidence that might explain the high prevalence of dental-related fears in the population.

  11. Early Orthodontic Tooth Movement into Regenerative Bony Defects: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hui-Chen; Yao, Chung-Chen Jane; Wong, Man-Ying

    Early orthodontic tooth movement following regenerative surgery is controversial. In this case, during protraction of the maxillary right first premolar to substitute for the long-term missing maxillary right canine, Bio-Oss and Bio-Gide were used for lateral ridge augmentation at the area of the maxillary right lateral incisor and to cover the denuded surface at the buccal side of the first premolar. Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) commenced 2 weeks after regenerative surgery. After 8 months, new bone formation was observed on the root surface of the first premolar during implant surgery. A cone beam computed tomography scan taken 1.5 years postsurgery revealed good maintenance of regenerative bone at the same site. This satisfactory outcome of early OTM following regenerative surgery suggests biomechanical stimulation may not jeopardize the regenerative effect.

  12. Tooth enamel as a naturtal beta dosemeter for bone seeking radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, A.; Petzoldt, G.

    1996-01-01

    EPR dosimetry was done on teeth from residents of villages along the Techa river, Southern Urals, Russia. The residents have a 90 Sr body burden due to massive releases of liquid nuclear waste into the Techa river in the early fifties. A long time after ingestion, strontium is only incorporated into the skeleton and dentine of the adults but not in tooth enamel. Tooth enamel therefore, is measuring the beta dose from the contaminated dentine. Based on experimental data of this study a first approximation of the ingestion dose coefficient of tooth enamel was found to be more than 5 times lower than the value given in ICRP 69 for the bone surface of the skeleton. A similar difference was found earlier for the dose absorbed in tooth enamel and dentine. The result of this study allows the supposition that that the metabolism of strontium is very very similar for tooth dentine and the skeleton. (author)

  13. Root Length and Anatomy of Impacted Maxillary Canines in Patients with Unilateral Maxillary Canine Impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostfa Shahabi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Canine impaction is a common occurrence. In this study, we sought to investigate the root anatomy and length of impacted canines and lateral incisor adjacent to impacted maxillary canine. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, three-dimensional tomographic imaging was performed on 26 patients with unilateral maxillary canine impaction. In this study, we evaluated root length and anatomy of impacted canines, in terms of resorption intensity and curvature, with Planmeca Romexis Viewer 4.0. Furthermore, crown shape as well as root length and anatomy of the lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines were investigated and compared with the other side on the dental arch, where canine eruption was normal. Results: Root length of impacted canines was significantly lower than that of normal canines (P=0.011. There were no significant differences between root length of lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines and root length of lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.221. Moreover, the resorption intensity of the adjacent lateral incisors was higher than that of the impacted canines. No significant differences were noted in root resorption intensity between the lateral incisors adjacent to the imacted canines and the lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.36. In addition, resorption intensity was significantly higher in impacted canines than in normal canines (P=0.024. Root anatomy of impacted canines was not significantly different from that of normal canines (P=0.055. The crown shape of the lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines was not significantly different from that of the lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.052. Conclusion: Impaction can probably affect root length and canine resorption severity. However, root and crown shape of lateral incisors cannot always be associated with canine impaction.

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Human Tooth Pulp: Proteomics of Human Tooth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eckhardt, Adam; Jágr, Michal; Pataridis, Statis; Mikšík, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 12 (2014), s. 1961-1966 ISSN 0099-2399 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-17224S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/12/0453; GA MZd(CZ) NT14324 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : dentin * human pulp * tandem mass spectrometry * tooth proteome * 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 3.375, year: 2014

  15. Orthodontic management of a dilacerated central incisor and partially impacted canine with unilateral extraction - A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicita, A Sumathi

    2017-10-01

    To align a dilacerated maxillary central incisor and partially impacted canine with unilateral extraction in a young patient with skeletal deep bite. A 14 year old male patient reported to the hospital with skeletal deep bite (basal plane angle-17°), severe horizontal pattern of growth (Go-Gn to Sn -22°), upright maxillary incisors (U1 to NA -26°) and retroclined lower incisors (L1 to NB -11°). The maxillary left central incisor was dilacerated, and the maxillary left canine was partially impacted. Unilateral extraction of the left maxillary premolar and left mandibular central incisor was done. A canine disimpaction spring was used to align the impacted canine. An anterior bite plane was given to open the bite. Superimposition of lateral cephalogram (T1, T2) revealed bite opening, normal overjet and overbite. There was backward rotation of the mandible and increase in lower anterior facial height. There was no evidence of root resorption or loss of vitality in the dilacerated tooth. Clinically the canine was well aligned in the arch. Orthodontic management of a dilacerated incisor can be done without root resorption or loss of vitality. The partially impacted canine was well aligned in the arch. Unilateral extraction can produce good treatment results.

  16. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K.; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-01-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistr...

  17. Fluoridation and tooth wear in Irish adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, F M

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tooth wear in adults in Ireland and its relationship with water fluoridation. The National Survey of Adult Oral Health was conducted in 2000\\/2001. Tooth wear was determined using a partial mouth examination assessing the upper and lower anterior teeth. A total of 2456 subjects were examined. In this survey, increasing levels and severity of tooth wear were associated with ageing. Men were more affected by tooth wear and were more likely to be affected by severe tooth wear than women. It was found that age, and gender were significant predictors of tooth wear (P < 0.01). Overall, there was no significant relationship between fluoridation and tooth wear in this study.

  18. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reilly, Mary M

    2011-03-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the commonest inherited neuromuscular disorder affecting at least 1 in 2,500. Over the last two decades, there have been rapid advances in understanding the molecular basis for many forms of CMT with more than 30 causative genes now described. This has made obtaining an accurate genetic diagnosis possible but at times challenging for clinicians. This review aims to provide a simple, pragmatic approach to diagnosing CMT from a clinician\\'s perspective.

  19. Long-term effectiveness of canine-to-canine bonded flexible spiral wire lingual retainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, Anne-Marie; Renkema, Alianne; Bronkhorst, Ewald; Katsaros, Christos

    Introduction: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) canine-to-canine lingual retainer bonded to all 6 anterior teeth is a frequently used type of mandibular fixed retainer. This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of FSW canine-to-canine lingual retainers in maintaining the alignment of the

  20. Long-term effectiveness of canine-to-canine bonded flexible spiral wire lingual retainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, A.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Katsaros, C.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) canine-to-canine lingual retainer bonded to all 6 anterior teeth is a frequently used type of mandibular fixed retainer. This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of FSW canine-to-canine lingual retainers in maintaining the alignment of the

  1. Tooth eruption and browridge formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, M D

    1982-05-01

    One of the most reasonable hypotheses regarding the functional significance of the browridge is that the supraorbital torus forms in response to masticatory stress during development. Oyen, Walker, and Rice (1979) have recently proposed a model that tests this hypothesis: if browridges are functionally related to masticatory stresses on the cranial vault, then changes in the biomechanics of the masticatory system ought to be reflected by changes in the browridge. To test their model they attempted to relate biomechanical discontinuities resulting from tooth eruption to episodes of bone deposition on the supraorbital tori of a developmental series of dry Papio crania. This paper reports on a parallel test of the model on a cross-sectional sample of Australian Aboriginal juvenile crania. This sample showed no relation between tooth eruption and the supraorbital surface morphology thought to be indicative of active bone deposition. It is also demonstrated that no significant relationship between tooth eruption and episodes of bone deposition is shown by the Papio sample. It is concluded that the use of small cross-sectional samples of dry crania does not provide a valid test of the model.

  2. Investigación experimental de la equinococosis canina a partir de quiste hidatídico de origen porcino en México Experimental investigation of canine echinococcosis from swine hydatic cyst in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Zuñiga-A

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Para evaluar la infección y obtener el estado adulto del cestodos, se buscó reproducir la equinococosis en perros a partir de quiste hidatídico de origen porcino. MÉTODOS: Se formaron 2 grupos, uno de 5 y otro de 3 perros, a cada animal del grupo experimental se le dió 2 g de membrana germinativa de quíste hidatídico fértil por vía oral, el segundo grupo fue testigo. Ambos grupos fueron evaluados clínica, serológica y parasitológicamente, en el grupo experimental se sacrificó un animal el día 35 de la infección y los siguientes cada 5 dias hasta el 55, en el segundo grupo todos se sacrificaron el día 55. Se observaron huevos del cestodos en heces a partir del dia 51 postinfección. La evaluación morfol��gica se realizó mediante observación microscópica del raspado de mucosa intestinal. RESULTADOS: De 50 cestodos analizados, 10 de cada uno de los perros infectados, 49 (98% presentaron 3 proglótidos y 1 (2% tenía 4; 18 (36% de los cestodos presentaban un proglótido grávido. La longitud de los estróbilos varió de 1,6 a 2,6 mm. El número promedio de los ganchos largos y cortos fue de 31 y 34 respectivamente. La longitud de los ganchos largos varió entre 0,081 y 0,09 mm, los ganchos cortos fluctuaron entre 0,034 y 0,041 mm. En los perros evaluados clínicamente, el número de leucocitos y la cantidad de proteínas plasmáticas fue significativamente mayor en el grupo testigo (P OBJETIVO: Avaliar a infeção e obter o estado adulto do cestóides, provocando-se a reprodução da equinococose em cães a partir do cisto hidático de origem suína. MÉTODOS: Formaram-se dois grupos, um de 5 e outro de 3 cães. Cada animal do grupo experimental recebeu, por via oral, 2 g de membrana germinativa de cisto hidático fértil. O segundo grupo serviu como testemunha. Ambos os grupos foram avaliados de maneira clínica, sorológica e parasitológica. No grupo experimental foi sacrificado um animal no 35º dia da infe

  3. [Assessment of tooth bleaching efficacy with spectrophotometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenhao; Liu, Chang; Pan, Jie

    2014-06-01

    To analyze the changes in CIE L*, a*, and b* at cervical, body, and incisal sites after tooth bleaching by using a spectrophotometer. Sixty-seven intact and healthy maxillary central incisors were in-vestigated. These incisors were darker than A3 according to the Vita Classical shade guide. The CIE tooth shade parameters L*, a*, and b* were simultaneously recorded at three tooth areas (cervical, body, and incisal) with a spectrophotometer before and after tooth bleaching (35%H2O2 coordinating with Beyond whitening accelerator irradiating). The shade dif-ferential (DeltaE) was calculated. ANOVA, paired t-test, and Pearson correlation analysis were used for data analysis. The efficacy rates of tooth bleaching were satisfactory, with 86.6%, 86.6%, and 85.1% in the cervical, body, and incisal sites, respectively. The average values of DeltaE were 5.09, 4.44, and 4.40 in the cervical, body, and incisal sites. Tooth bleaching significantly increased L* and significantly decreased a* and b* in all tooth areas (P spectrophotometer could objectively evaluate the whitening effect of tooth bleaching at the different tooth sites. The tooth bleaching system (35%H202 coordinating with Beyond whitening accelerator irradiating) exerts powerful bleaching actions in most of the tooth areas investigated. The order of tooth bleaching effectiveness is cervicalbody>incisal. Yellow coloration is decreased mainly at the cervical site, and brightness was increased mostly at theincisal site. The effectiveness of tooth bleaching increases as the baseline b* value increases.

  4. The rat as a model for orthodontic tooth movement--a critical review and a proposed solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin; Maltha, Jaap C; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this study were to perform a systematic review of the use of rats as a model for experimental tooth movement, to give a critical evaluation of the use of elastics as a force delivery system, and to describe a newly designed well-defined model for tooth movement in rats. The literature

  5. Esthetic judgments of palatally displaced canines 3 months postdebond after surgical exposure with either a closed or an open technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Nicola A; Freeman, Jennifer V; Deery, Chris; Benson, Philip E

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the esthetic judgments of orthodontists and laypeople regarding the appearance of palatally displaced canines 3 months after treatment with either a closed or an open surgical exposure and orthodontic alignment. A multicenter randomized controlled trial was undertaken in 3 hospitals in the United Kingdom. Patients with unilateral palatally displaced canines were randomly allocated to receive either a closed or an open surgical exposure. The teeth were aligned with fixed appliances, and 3 months after debond, intraoral photographs were taken. The photographs were projected in random order to 2 panels of judges (orthodontists and laypeople), who completed a questionnaire. The images of 67 participants (closed, 33; open, 34) were included. The laypeople were able to identify the operated tooth only 49.7% of the time (95% CI, 45.3%-54.0%); this was no better than chance (P = 0.880). The orthodontists were more successful but still identified the treated canine with certainty only 60.7% of the time (95% CI, 53.7%-67.8%; P = 0.003). Both panels more frequently assessed the unoperated canine to have a better appearance than the contralateral operated canine; however, there were no differences between the closed and open groups (proportion preferring unoperated canine-laypeople: closed, 58.7%; open, 57.0%; P = 0.43; and orthodontists: closed, 60.9%; open, 60.6%; P = 0.27). There is an esthetic impact to aligning a palatally displaced canine, but it is mostly minor and unlikely to be detectable by laypeople. The esthetic impact was the same, whether the canine was exposed with a closed or an open surgical technique. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Root Length and Anatomy of Impacted Maxillary Canines in Patients with Unilateral Maxillary Canine Impaction

    OpenAIRE

    Mostfa Shahabi; Maryam Omidkhoda; Seyedeh Haniyeh Omidi; Seyed Hosein Hoseini Zarch

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Canine impaction is a common occurrence. In this study, we sought to investigate the root anatomy and length of impacted canines and lateral incisor adjacent to impacted maxillary canine. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, three-dimensional tomographic imaging was performed on 26 patients with unilateral maxillary canine impaction. In this study, we evaluated root length and anatomy of impacted canines, in terms of resorption intensity and curvature, with Planme...

  7. Surgical-orthodontic treatment of Class III malocclusion with agenesis of lateral incisor and unerupted canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Boaventura Vieira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Orthodontic-surgical treatment was performed in patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion due to exceeding mandibular growth. Patient also presented upper and lower dental protrusion, overjet of -3.0 mm, overbite of -1.0 mm, congenital absence of tooth #22, teeth #13 and supernumerary impaction, tooth #12 with conoid shape and partly erupted in supraversion, prolonged retention of tooth #53, tendency to vertical growth of the face and facial asymmetry. The discrepancy on the upper arch was -2.0 mm and -5.0 mm on the lower arch. METHODS: The pre-surgical orthodontic treatment was performed with extractions of the teeth #35 and #45. On the upper arch, teeth #53, #12 and supernumerary were extracted to accomplish the traction of the impacted canine. The spaces of the lower extractions were closed with mesialization of posterior segment. After aligning and leveling the teeth, extractions spaces closure and correct positioning of teeth on the bone bases, the correct intercuspation of the dental arch, with molars and canines in Angle's Class I, coincident midline, normal overjet and overbite and ideal torques, were evaluated through study models. The patient was submitted to orthognathic surgery and then the post-surgical orthodontic treatment was finished. RESULTS: The Class III malocclusion was treated establishing occlusal and facial normal standards.

  8. Diagnostics of power transmissions system with tooth gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz WOJNAR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of laboratory tests that were aimed at detecting early stages of various faults in toothed wheels by measurement and analysis of transverse vibration speed of the transmission gear shafts. In experimental investigation, cracking of the root tooth and chipping of the tooth were detected. The laser vibrometer Ometron VH300+ was used for non-contact measurement of shaft transversal vibration speed. Gear vibrations were recorded in selected points of gear housing and gear shafts at different speeds and gear loads. Results were analyzed and compared but in this paper is presented only selected examples. This paper shows that on the basis of the transverse vibration speed of transmission gear shafts, it is possible to detect defects at an earlier stage than on the basis of the housing vibration accelerations. In the case of measuring gear shaft vibration velocity, the way of the signal generated by the defect of a gear wheel (or bearing is shortened as well as the influence of composed transmittance of the bearing-gear housing system is eliminated. WV time-frequency analysis and complex continuous wavelet transformations were used for detection. The authors introduced a measure of local tooth damage, which was proportional to the size of damage. The results of research presented in this paperconfirmed that the defect's measure is very sensitive to the development of teeth faults.

  9. Comprehensive characterization of commercially available canine training aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, Christopher A; Caldwell, Patricia T; Kile, Brian M; Beussman, Douglas J; Rushing, Blake; Mitchell, Natalie J; Whitchurch, Christian J; Grime, Martin; Stockham, Rex; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2014-09-01

    Effective and reliable training aids for victim recovery canine teams is essential for law enforcement and investigative purposes. Without adequate training aids, the rate of recovery for sub surface or surface human remains deposition using canine teams may be adversely affected and result in confusing information. The composition of three commercially available canine training aids that purportedly generate volatile components responsible for the odor of human decomposition is relatively simple and not closely related to those compounds experimentally determined to be present at the site of surface or sub-surface human remains. In this study, these different commercial formulations were chemically characterized using six different sampling approaches, including two applications of direct liquid injection, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), purge and trap, ambient preconcentration/thermal desorption, and cryogenic preconcentration/thermal desorption. Direct liquid injections resulted in the fewest number of detected compounds, while a cryogen based thermal desorption method detected the greatest number of compounds in each formulation. Based solely upon the direct liquid injection analysis, Pseudo™ Scent I was composed of approximately 29±4% and 71±5% of 2-pyrrolidinone and 4-aminobutanoic acid, respectively. This same analysis showed that Pseudo™ Scent II was composed of approximately 11±1, 11±1, 24±5, and 54±7% of putrescine, cadaverine, 2-pyrrolidinone, and 4-aminobutanoic acid, respectively. Headspace analysis was conducted to more closely simulate the process whereby a canine's nose would capture a volatiles profile. More compounds were detected using the headspace sampling method; however, the vast majority was not consistent with current data on human decomposition. Additionally, the three formulations were tested in outdoor and indoor scenarios by a double-blinded canine team, using a certified and specifically trained victim recovery canine

  10. Determining the direction of tooth grinding: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Berge, F; te Poel, J; Ranjitkar, S; Kaidonis, J A; Lobbezoo, F; Hughes, T E; Townsend, G C

    2012-08-01

    The analysis of microwear patterns, including scratch types and widths, has enabled reconstruction of the dietary habits and lifestyles of prehistoric and modern humans. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine whether an assessment of microwear features of experimental scratches placed on enamel, perpendicularly to the direction of grinding, could predict the grinding direction. Experimental scratches were placed using a scalpel blade on standardised wear facets that had been prepared by wearing opposing enamel surfaces in an electromechanical tooth wear machine. These control 'baseline' facets (with unworn experimental scratches) were subjected to 50 wear cycles, so that differential microwear could be observed on the leading and trailing edges of the 'final' facets. In Group 1 (n=28), the 'footprint' microwear patterns corresponding to the known grinding direction of specimens in the tooth wear machine were identified. Then, they were used to predict the direction of tooth grinding blindly in the same sample after a 2-week intermission period. To avoid overfitting the predictive model, its sensitivity was also cross-validated in a new sample (Group 2, n=14). A crescent-shaped characteristic observed in most experimental scratches matched the grinding direction on all occasions. The best predictor of the direction of grinding was a combined assessment of the leading edge microwear pattern and the crescent characteristic (82.1% in Group 1 and 92.9% in Group 2). In conclusion, a simple scratch test can determine the direction of tooth grinding with high reliability, although further improvement in sensitivity is desirable. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. 3D enamel thickness in Neandertal and modern human permanent canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buti, Laura; Le Cabec, Adeline; Panetta, Daniele; Tripodi, Maria; Salvadori, Piero A; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Feeney, Robin N M; Benazzi, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    Enamel thickness figures prominently in studies of human evolution, particularly for taxonomy, phylogeny, and paleodietary reconstruction. Attention has focused on molar teeth, through the use of advanced imaging technologies and novel protocols. Despite the important results achieved thus far, further work is needed to investigate all tooth classes. We apply a recent approach developed for anterior teeth to investigate the 3D enamel thickness of Neandertal and modern human (MH) canines. In terms of crown size, the values obtained for both upper and lower unworn/slightly worn canines are significantly greater in Neandertals than in Upper Paleolithic and recent MH. The 3D relative enamel thickness (RET) is significantly lower in Neandertals than in MH. Moreover, differences in 3D RET values between the two groups appear to decrease in worn canines beginning from wear stage 3, suggesting that both the pattern and the stage of wear may have important effects on the 3D RET value. Nevertheless, the 3D average enamel thickness (AET) does not differ between the two groups. In both groups, 3D AET and 3D RET indices are greater in upper canines than in lower canines, and overall the enamel is thicker on the occlusal half of the labial aspect of the crown, particularly in MH. By contrast, the few early modern humans investigated show the highest volumes of enamel while for all other components of 3D enamel, thickness this group holds an intermediate position between Neandertals and recent MH. Overall, our study supports the general findings that Neandertals have relatively thinner enamel than MH (as also observed in molars), indicating that unworn/slightly worn canines can be successfully used to discriminate between the two groups. Further studies, however, are needed to understand whether these differences are functionally related or are the result of pleiotropic or genetic drift effects. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Test Tube Tooth: The Next Big Thing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Preeti; Tahir, Mohammed; Yadav, Harsh; Sureka, Rakshit; Garg, Aarti

    2016-06-01

    Unlike some vertebrates and fishes, humans do not have the capacity for tooth regeneration after the loss of permanent teeth. Although artificial replacement with removable dentures, fixed prosthesis and implants is possible through advances in the field of prosthetic dentistry, it would be ideal to recreate a third set of natural teeth to replace lost dentition. For many years now, researchers in the field of tissue engineering have been trying to bioengineer dental tissues as well as whole teeth. In order to attain a whole tooth through dental engineering, that has the same or nearly same biological, mechanical and physical properties of a natural tooth, it's necessary to deal with all the cells and tissues which are concerned with the formation, maintenance and repair of the tooth. In this article we review the steps involved in odontogenesis or organogenesis of a tooth and progress in the bioengineering of a whole tooth.

  13. Stress Analysis of Occlusal Forces in Canine Teeth and Their Role in the Development of Non-Carious Cervical Lesions: Abfraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihab A. Romeed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-carious cervical tooth lesions for many decades were attributed to the effects of abrasion and erosion mainly through toothbrush trauma, abrasive toothpaste, and erosive acids. However, though the above may be involved, more recently a biomechanical theory for the formation of these lesions has arisen, and the term abfraction was coined. The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanics of abfraction lesions in upper canine teeth under axial and lateral loading conditions using a three-dimensional finite element analysis. An extracted human upper canine tooth was scanned by μCT machine (Skyscan, Belgium. These μCT scans were segmented, reconstructed, and meshed using ScanIP (Simpleware, Exeter, UK to create a three-dimensional finite element model. A 100 N load was applied axially at the incisal edge and laterally at 45° midpalatally to the long axis of the canine tooth. Separately, 200 N axial and non-axial loads were applied simultaneously to the tooth. It was found that stresses were concentrated at the CEJ in all scenarios. Lateral loading produced maximum stresses greater than axial loading, and pulp tissues, however, experienced minimum levels of stresses. This study has contributed towards the understanding of the aetiology of non-carious cervical lesions which is a key in their clinical management.

  14. Canine oral melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Philip J

    2007-05-01

    Melanoma is the most common oral malignancy in the dog. Oral and/or mucosal melanoma has been routinely considered an extremely malignant tumor with a high degree of local invasiveness and high metastatic propensity. Primary tumor size has been found to be extremely prognostic. The World Health Organization staging scheme for dogs with oral melanoma is based on size, with stage I = or = 4cm tumor and/or lymph node metastasis, and stage IV = distant metastasis. Median survival times for dogs with oral melanoma treated with surgery are approximately 17 to 18, 5 to 6, and 3 months with stage I, II, and III disease, respectively. Significant negative prognostic factors include stage, size, evidence of metastasis, and a variety of histologic criteria. Standardized treatments such as surgery, coarse-fractionation radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have afforded minimal to modest stage-dependent clinical benefits and death is usually due to systemic metastasis. Numerous immunotherapeutic strategies have been employed to date with limited clinical efficacy; however, the use of xenogeneic DNA vaccines may represent a leap forward in clinical efficacy. Oral melanoma is a spontaneous syngeneic cancer occurring in outbred, immunocompetent dogs and appears to be a more clinically faithful therapeutic model for human melanoma; further use of canine melanoma as a therapeutic model for human melanoma is strongly encouraged. In addition, the development of an expanded but clinically relevant staging system incorporating the aforementioned prognostic factors is also strongly encouraged.

  15. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-12-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistry. Of interest, PMab-38 stained the lymphatic endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in melanoma tissues, although it did not stain any lymphatic endothelial cells in normal tissues. PMab-38 could be useful for uncovering the function of PDPN in canine melanomas.

  16. Comparison of the dental anomalies found in maxillary canine-first premolar transposition cases with those in palatally displaced canine cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerri, Erica Sultana; McDonald, Fraser; Camilleri, Simon

    2016-02-01

    To compare the developmental dental anomalies associated with maxillary canine-first premolar (MxCP1) transposition and those of palatally displaced canine (PDC) with each other and with the background prevalence in the Maltese population in order to elucidate whether the two conditions have similar or differing genetic backgrounds. Dental records of 477 subjects with PDC, 57 subjects with MxCP1, and a control group of 500 subjects with no history of a PDC or tooth transposition were compared for canine eruption anomalies and hypodontia. A high frequency of bilateral occurrence was present for both canine malpositions and when unilateral, a trend to right-sided occurrence was evident. The occurrence of transpositions in the PDC group and of PDC in the MxCP1 group was higher than expected. The prevalence of incisor hypodontia was significantly higher in subjects with PDC and MxCP1, as compared to the control group. The size of the MxCP1 group is relatively small. The study population is a small isolated Caucasian population and the results may not be applicable to other populations. There is no significant difference between the MxCP1 and PDC groups in the prevalence or distribution of hypodontia and each of these groups exhibits a higher prevalence of the other canine anomaly. These findings support the theory that PDC and MxCP1 form part of a group of interrelated dental anomalies that share a common genetic basis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Influence of medication on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement (Part 1: hormons and corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirhashemi Amirhossein

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review article was to define the mechanism of action and effects of commonly used medications on the tissue remodeling and Orthodontic Tooth Movement (OTM. A review on the effects of medications and dietary supplements on the rate of experimental tooth movement was performed using Cochrane library, Embase and medline (1980-2013. 63 articles were included in this review. 34 of them were related to the effects of hormones and analgesics, were evaluated in this article but their interpretation was hindered by the variability in experimental design, magnitude of force applied during tooth movement and medication regimens. Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs reduced the rate of tooth movement while non-NSAIDs such as acetaminophen had no effect on the rate of OTM. Corticosteroids, parathyroid hormone and thyroxin increased the rate of tooth movement. Sturgeons might slow OTM, but experimental studies are lacking. Medications might have an important influence on the rate of tooth movement and information on their consumption is necessary to adequately discuss treatment planning with patients.

  18. Approaches to canine health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Dan G; Church, David B; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; Brodbelt, Dave C

    2014-01-01

    Effective canine health surveillance systems can be used to monitor disease in the general population, prioritise disorders for strategic control and focus clinical research, and to evaluate the success of these measures. The key attributes for optimal data collection systems that support canine disease surveillance are representativeness of the general population, validity of disorder data and sustainability. Limitations in these areas present as selection bias, misclassification bias and discontinuation of the system respectively. Canine health data sources are reviewed to identify their strengths and weaknesses for supporting effective canine health surveillance. Insurance data benefit from large and well-defined denominator populations but are limited by selection bias relating to the clinical events claimed and animals covered. Veterinary referral clinical data offer good reliability for diagnoses but are limited by referral bias for the disorders and animals included. Primary-care practice data have the advantage of excellent representation of the general dog population and recording at the point of care by veterinary professionals but may encounter misclassification problems and technical difficulties related to management and analysis of large datasets. Questionnaire surveys offer speed and low cost but may suffer from low response rates, poor data validation, recall bias and ill-defined denominator population information. Canine health scheme data benefit from well-characterised disorder and animal data but reflect selection bias during the voluntary submissions process. Formal UK passive surveillance systems are limited by chronic under-reporting and selection bias. It is concluded that active collection systems using secondary health data provide the optimal resource for canine health surveillance.

  19. Evaluation of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Randomized Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guneet Guram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fixed orthodontic treatment is time-consuming procedure. Pain is usually associated with orthodontic treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of low-level laser therapy (LLLT on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM duration and pain perception. Materials and Methods: This randomized double-blind splint-mouth controlled clinical study includes 20 (8 males and 12 females orthodontic patients requiring bilateral canine retraction. Time taken for canine retraction with LLLT (Group A over control (Group B quadrant on the same patient was assessed along with pain experience using facial pain scale. The data were tabulated and statistically evaluated using SPSS 20 for windows (Microsoft, Chicago, IL, USA and t-test with P 0.05. There was statistically significant decrease in rate of canine retraction in Group A compared to Group B. There was statistically significant difference for maxillary and mandibular arches in Group A whereas it was not significant in Group B. Pain experience was statistically significant till 2nd day, and after 3rd day, it was not significant between the groups. Conclusion: LLLT can reduce the fixed OTM timing and pain experience.

  20. Variability in permanent tooth size of three ancient populations in Xi'an, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi-You; Kang, Ting; Liu, Dai-Yun; Duan, Yin-Zhong; Shao, Jin-Ling

    2012-11-01

    This paper compares permanent dental dimensions between three ancient populations that belonged to the same biological population throughout a temporal range of 2000 years to detect temporal trends and metric variation in dentition. The samples analysed were dental remains of 4502 permanent teeth from 321 individuals, which were excavated from three archaeological sites: Chang'an (1000-1300 years BP), Shanren (2200 years BP) and Shaolingyuan (3000 years BP) in the Xi'an region (northern China). For each tooth three standard measurements were taken: Mesiodistal (MD) diameter of crown, labiolingual or buccolingual (BL) diameter of crown and length of root (LR). Three ancient population samples generally displayed the same dental dimensions (p>0.05), whereas some tooth types varied. The Shaolingyuan had larger canine and the smallest maxillary second molars and the Chang'an had the largest mandibular first molars in the MD dimension. The Shanren had the smallest maxillary third molars and mandibular central incisors, and the Chang'an had the smallest maxillary lateral incisors in the BL dimension. In the LR measures, statistically significant differences of five tooth types showed that the Chang'an were smaller than the Shaolingyuan and the Shanren. Comparisons of coefficients of variation for teeth showed that the length of root and third molar usually displayed greater variation. Decreasing or increasing trend for crown size does not occur between the ancient populations, while changes in crown size of a few tooth types fluctuate. The root size is more variable than the crown size and is likely to reflect a degenerated trend in a few tooth types. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dacryocystitis following a nasolacrimal duct obstruction caused by an ectopic intranasal tooth in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelter-Ratson, Katrin; Hagen, Regine; Grundmann, Stefan; Spiess, Bernhard Martin

    2015-09-01

    To describe a nasolacrimal duct (NLD) obstruction secondary to an ectopic tooth in a 5-year-old male Border collie. The dog was presented with a 1-month history of mucopurulent discharge from the left eye (OS) preceded by a lifelong history of epiphora OS. Treatment with neomycin/polymyxin B/dexamethasone ophthalmic solution had not improved the clinical signs, and the NLD was not patent when irrigated by the referring veterinarian. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed followed by dacryocystorhinography and computed tomography (CT). The ophthalmologic examination revealed marked mucopurulent discharge, mild conjunctivitis, slightly elevated STT measurements, and a negative Jones test OS. Both nasolacrimal puncta OS could be cannulated without resistance for approximately 1.5 cm. Upon irrigation, copious amounts of mucopurulent discharge were exited through the corresponding punctum, while no fluid could be detected at the nares. Dacryocystorhinography was performed. Radiographs revealed an ectopic left canine tooth within the left nasal cavity. A cystic dilation of the NLD was observed proximal to the ectopic tooth. Computed tomography was performed to determine the exact position of the tooth and possible involvement of adjacent structures; CT confirmed the previous imaging findings. Treatment with systemic antibiotics, NSAIDs, and ofloxacin ophthalmic solution led to resolution of the clinical signs within several days. Surgery was declined by the owner. This is the first case report describing a blocked NLD due to an ectopic tooth in a dog. Ectopic teeth should be included as a differential diagnosis in cases of dacryocystitis and chronic epiphora in dogs. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  2. Canine and feline colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastant-Maillard, S; Aggouni, C; Albaret, A; Fournier, A; Mila, H

    2017-04-01

    Puppy and kitten survival over the first weeks is particularly dependent on colostrum, a specific secretion of the mammary gland produced during the first 2 days post-partum. Colostrum is a source of nutrients and immunoglobulins. It also contributes to the digestive tract maturation. Colostrum differentiates from milk mainly based on its concentration in immunoglobulins G: 20-30 g/L in dog colostrum, 40-50 g/L in cats' vs <1 g/L in milk. IgG concentration rapidly drops after parturition (-50% in 24 hr). Immune quality of colostrum is highly variable between bitches, with no relationship with maternal blood IgG level, dam's age, breed size or litter size. In addition to systemic immune protection, colostrum also plays a major role for local digestive protection, due to IgA, lysozyme, lactoferrin, white blood cells and various cytokines. Energetic concentration of canine and feline colostrum is not superior to that of mature milk. It depends on colostrum fat concentration and is affected by breed size (higher in breeds <10 kg adult body weight). As puppies and kittens are almost agammaglobulinemic at birth, transfer of IgG from their digestive tract into their bloodstream is crucial for their survival, IgG absorption ending at 12-16 hr after birth. Energetic supply over the two first days of life, as evidenced by growth rate over the two first days of life, also affects risk of neonatal mortality. Early and sufficient suckling of colostrum is thus the very first care to be provided to newborns for their later health and survival. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

  4. Investigation of EPR signals on tooth enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlenko, A; Mironova-Ulmane, N; Polakov, M; Riekstina, D [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Riga (Latvia)

    2007-12-15

    Calcified tissues are involved in continues metabolic process in human organism exchanging a number of chemical elements with environment. The rate of biochemical reactions is tissue dependent and the slowest one at the tooth enamel, the most mineralized tissue of human organism. The long time stability and unique chemical composition make tooth enamel suitable for number of application. The assessment of individual radiation dose by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and evaluations of elemental composition by Instrumentation Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) are the well known procedures where properties of tooth enamel intensively used. The current work is focused on investigation of EPR signals and determination of chemical composition on several teeth samples having different origin. The EPR spectra and INAA element content of milk tooth, caries tooth, and paradantose tooth have been compared to each other. The results showed that the intensity of EPR signal is much higher for the caries tooth than the for paradantose tooth that is in agreement with depleted Ca content.

  5. Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Historic Prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    The earliest report on orthodontic tooth movement in the English literature was published in 1911. Oppenheim carried out studies on baboons to determine what histologic changes occurred during tooth movement. Reitan and many others carried out research into the nature of tooth movement. The pressure-tension model of tooth movement developed from these studies, whereby the two sides of the tooth responded to forces as if in isolation. A second theory, proposed by Stuteville in 1938, was the hydraulic theory of tooth movement. In this theory, fluid from the vasculature, lymphatic system and intercellular spaces responds to the forces of tooth movement, damping the force and limiting movement. Bien and Baumrind expanded on this theory with their own studies in the 1960s. It is clear that both the pressure-tension and fluid flow concepts have merit, but considerable work needs to be done to ascertain the details so that tooth movement can be managed and controlled. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Mathematical description of tooth flank surface of globoidal worm gear with straight axial tooth profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połowniak, Piotr; Sobolak, Mariusz

    2017-12-01

    In this article, a mathematical description of tooth flank surface of the globoidal worm and worm wheel generated by the hourglass worm hob with straight tooth axial profile is presented. The kinematic system of globoidal worm gear is shown. The equation of globoid helix and tooth axial profile of worm is derived to determine worm tooth surface. Based on the equation of meshing the contact lines are obtained. The mathematical description of globoidal worm wheel tooth flank is performed on the basis of contact lines and generating the tooth side by the extreme cutting edge of worm hob. The presented mathematical model of tooth flank of TA worm and worm wheel can be used e.g. to analyse the contact pattern of the gear.

  7. Autogenous Transplantation for Replacing a Hopeless Tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakershahrak, Mehrsa; Moshari, Amirabbas; Vatanpour, Mehdi; Khalilak, Zohreh; Jalali Ara, Afsoon

    2017-01-01

    Autogenous tooth transplantation (ATT) is a simple and reasonable choice for replacing the missing teeth when a proper donor tooth is available. This report presents a case of successful ATT of a maxillary right third molar for replacement of mandibular right second molar with a concomitant endodontic-periodontal disease. The mandibular second molar was believed to be hopeless due to a severe damage to coronal tooth structure, inappropriate root canal treatment and apical radiolucency. After extraction of mandibular second molar and maxillary third molar (the donor), the tooth was re-implanted into the extracted socket of second molar site. Root canal therapy was then performed. After 3 years, clinical and radiographic examinations revealed satisfying results, with no signs and symptoms. The patient is asymptomatic and the transplanted tooth is still functional with no signs of marginal periodontal pathosis. Radiographies showed bone regeneration in the site of previous extensive periapical lesion, normal periodontal ligament with no signs of root resorption.

  8. Biologically Based Restorative Management of Tooth Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin G. D. Kelleher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and severity of tooth wear is increasing in industrialised nations. Yet, there is no high-level evidence to support or refute any therapeutic intervention. In the absence of such evidence, many currently prevailing management strategies for tooth wear may be failing in their duty of care to first and foremost improve the oral health of patients with this disease. This paper promotes biologically sound approaches to the management of tooth wear on the basis of current best evidence of the aetiology and clinical features of this disease. The relative risks and benefits of the varying approaches to managing tooth wear are discussed with reference to long-term follow-up studies. Using reference to ethical standards such as “The Daughter Test”, this paper presents case reports of patients with moderate-to-severe levels of tooth wear managed in line with these biologically sound principles.

  9. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated

  10. Immunohistochemical Characterization of Canine Lymphomas

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    Roxana CORA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lymphomas occur by clonal expansion of lymphoid cells and have distinctive morphological and immunophenotypic features. Determination of canine lymphoma immunophenotype is useful for accurate prognosis and further therapy. In the suggested study, we performed an immunohistochemical evaluation of some cases with canine lymphoma diagnosed in the Department of Pathology (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, in order to characterize them. The investigation included 39 dogs diagnosed with different anatomical forms of lymphoma, following necropsy analysis or assessment of biopsies. The diagnosis of lymphoma was confirmed by necropsy and histopathology (Hematoxylin-eosin stain examinations. The collected specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemistry technique (automatic method using the following antibodies: CD3, CD20, CD21 and CD79a. The analyzed neoplasms were characterized as follows: about 64.10% of cases were diagnosed as B-cell lymphomas, 33.34% of cases as T-cell lymphomas, whereas 2.56% of cases were null cell type lymphomas (neither B nor T. Most of multicentric (80%, mediastinal (60% and primary central nervous system lymphomas (100% had B immunophenotype, while the majority of cutaneous (80% and digestive (100% lymphomas had T immunophenotype. Immunohistochemical description of canine lymphomas can deliver some major details concerning their behavior and malignancy. Additionally, vital prognosis and efficacy of some therapeutic protocols are relying on the immunohistochemical features of canine lymphoma.

  11. Biomechanical characteristics of self-ligating brackets in a vertically displaced canine model: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S-J; Kwon, Y-H; Hwang, C-J

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the biomechanical characteristics between two types of self-ligating brackets and conventional metal brackets using finite element analysis of a vertically displaced canine model focusing on the desired force on the canine and undesirable forces on adjacent teeth. Three-dimensional finite element models of the maxillary dentition with 1-mm, 2-mm, and 3-mm vertically displaced canines were constructed. Two different self-ligating brackets (In-Ovation C and Smart clip) and a conventional metal bracket (Micro-arch) were modeled. After a 0.016-inch NiTi (0.40 mm, round) wire was engaged, the displacement of each tooth was calculated using x-, y-, and z-coordinates, and the tensile and compressive stresses were calculated. The extrusion and maximal tensile stress of the canine differed little between the three brackets, but the intrusion and minimal compressive stress values of the adjacent teeth differed considerably and were highest in the Smart clip and least in the In-Ovation C. The extrusion and maximal tensile stress of the canine in the 3-mm displacement model was less than that in the 2-mm displacement model, and the intrusion and minimal compressive stress of the adjacent teeth increased with the degree of displacement. Self-ligating brackets were not superior to conventional brackets in leveling a vertically displaced canine. A continuous arch wire may not be recommended for leveling of severely displaced canines whether using self-ligating or conventional brackets. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Tooth whitening: what we now know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Clifton M

    2014-06-01

    Current research about tooth whitening shows that it is safe and effective when manufacturer's protocol is followed, yet there are risks of which the profession and users should be aware. This update provides a summary of current research and assessment of the safety and efficacy of tooth whitening regimens. Tooth whitening has become one of the most frequently requested dental procedures by the public. The public has come to demand whiter, more perfect smiles and in response many choices for tooth whitening have been made available. These include home-based products such as toothpastes, gels, and films, as well as in-office based systems where products containing highly concentrated bleaching agents are applied under professional supervision. The profession and public have been aware of certain risks related to tooth whitening such as increased tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation. New research has shown that there are other risks such as tooth surface roughening and softening, increased potential for demineralization, degradation of dental restorations, and unacceptable color change of dental restorations. The new research is also focused on optimizing whitening procedures to reduce tooth sensitivity and to increase the persistence of the whitening. Current reports in the literature are reviewed that are related to the use of peroxide based whitening methods. These reports include in vitro studies for method optimization and mechanism as well as clinical studies on effects of various whitening regimens. When manufacturer's instructions are followed, hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide based tooth whitening is safe and effective. Patients should be informed of the risks associated with tooth whitening and instructed on identification of adverse occurrences so that they may seek professional help as needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of Ovariectomy and Orchiectomy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Root Resorption in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Ezzati, Baharak; Saedi, Sara; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2015-12-01

    Root resorption (RR) after orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is known as a multifactorial complication of orthodontic treatments. Hormonal deficiencies and their effect on bone turnover are reported to have influences on the rate of tooth movement and root resorption. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of female and male steroid sex hormones on tooth movement and root resorption. Orthodontic appliances were placed on the right maxillary first molars of 10 ovariectomized female and 10 orchiectomized male Wistar rats as experimental groups and 10 female and 10 male healthy Wistar rats as control groups. NiTi closed-coil springs (9mm, Medium, 011"×.030", Ortho Technology(®); Tampa, Florida) were placed between the right incisors and the first right maxillary molars to induce tipping movement in the first molars with the application of a 60g force. After 21 days, the rats were sacrificed and tooth movement was measured by using a digital caliper (Guanglu, China). Orthodontic induced root resorption (OIRR) was assessed by histomorphometric analysis after hematoxylin and eosin staining of sections of the mesial root. The rate of tooth movement was significantly higher in all female rats, with the root resorption being lower in the experimental group. The rate of tooth movement in experimental male rats was significantly higher than the control group (p= 0.001) and the rate of root resorption was significantly lower in the experimental group (p= 0.001). It seems that alterations in plasma levels of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone hormones can influence the rate of OTM and RR. The acceleration in tooth movement increased OTM and decreased RR.

  14. Evaluation of autogenous tooth transplantation for replacement of the missing or unrestorable mandibular molar tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahiduj Jaman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the functional and occlusal stability of autogenous tooth transplantation. A total of 30 patients were included. Among them, 21 participants received transplanted first molar and the remaining 9 received transplanted second molar. In all the cases, donor tooth were third molar. In each participant, extraction of un-restorable first or second molar tooth was performed which was then replaced by atrumatic extracted third molar tooth. Each third molar tooth was placed in the recipient extracted socket, followed by the evaluation of the occlusion and then stabilized with arch bar and ligature wire. Clinical follow-up evaluation was performed at 15 days, 3 and 12 months in respect to occlusal stability, tooth mobility and periodontal status. It was found that 23 transplanted tooth were successful and the remaining 7 tooth need long-term observation for the final outcome, which was statistically significant. It can be concluded that the autogenous tooth transplantation can replace missing tooth to ensure the preservation of function, aesthetic and to prevent bone resorption of the missing area of the jaw, which can lead to exceptional esthetic and functional outcome.

  15. One-step triplex PCR/RT-PCR to detect canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus, and canine kobuvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dafei; Liu, Fei; Guo, Dongchun; Hu, Xiaoliang; Li, Zhijie; Li, Zhigang; Ma, Jianzhang; Liu, Chunguo

    2018-01-23

    To rapidly distinguish Canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) in practice, a one-step multiplex PCR/RT-PCR assay was developed, with detection limits of 10 2.1 TCID 50 for CDV, 10 1.9 TCID 50 for CPV and 10 3 copies for CaKoV. This method did not amplify nonspecific DNA or RNA from other canine viruses. Therefore, the assay provides a sensitive tool for the rapid clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance of CDV, CPV and CaKoV in dogs.

  16. Tooth Retained Implant: No More an Oxymoron

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    Divya Bhat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periodontally af-fected teeth are treated in one of the two ways. (1 Tooth retention after periodontal surgery, in which the degree of regeneration achieved is unpredictable. (2 Tooth extrac-tion and implant placement. Implants have an osseointegrated surface which does not provide adequate shock absorption. Regeneration can be achieved by resecting the crown of the affected tooth and submerging the root. This technique has not had a clinical application so far as the tooth becomes difficult to restore. Placing an implant within the root can make the retained root restorable. At the same time, as the implant is placed within the root surface it achieves a periodontal integration which dampens occlusal forces better than osseointegration. Therefore, such a “tooth retained implant” may serve as an additional treatment option with significant benefits over tooth retention and implant placement alone. The hypothesis: Implants placed within retained roots have shown cementum deposition and attachment of periodontal ligament fibers over their surface. This periodontal attachment may be able to dam-pen forces better than in an osseointegrated implant. Moreover, since an implant is being placed, the crown of the tooth can be resected and submerged. This prevents epithelial migration, allows for the periodontal ligament cells to populate the wound and favors regeneration.Evaluation of the hypothesis: The technique of placing implants within cavities prepared in the root and then submerging them are simple for any practitioner placing implants routinely.

  17. Early canine plaque biofilms: characterization of key bacterial interactions involved in initial colonization of enamel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy J Holcombe

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease (PD is a significant problem in dogs affecting between 44% and 63.6% of the population. The main etiological agent for PD is plaque, a microbial biofilm that colonizes teeth and causes inflammation of the gingiva. Understanding how this biofilm initiates on the tooth surface is of central importance in developing interventions against PD. Although the stages of plaque development on human teeth have been well characterized little is known about how canine plaque develops. Recent studies of the canine oral microbiome have revealed distinct differences between the canine and human oral environments and the bacterial communities they support, particularly with respect to healthy plaque. These differences mean knowledge about the nature of plaque formation in humans may not be directly translatable to dogs. The aim of this study was to identify the bacterial species important in the early stages of canine plaque formation in vivo and then use isolates of these species in a laboratory biofilm model to develop an understanding of the sequential processes which take place during the initial colonization of enamel. Supra-gingival plaque samples were collected from 12 dogs at 24 and 48 hour time points following a full mouth descale and polish. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA identified 134 operational taxonomic units after statistical analysis. The species with the highest relative abundance were Bergeyella zoohelcum, Neisseria shayeganii and a Moraxella species. Streptococcal species, which tend to dominate early human plaque biofilms, had very low relative abundance. In vitro testing of biofilm formation identified five primary colonizer species, three of which belonged to the genus Neisseria. Using these pioneer bacteria as a starting point, viable two and three species communities were developed. Combining in vivo and in vitro data has led us to construct novel models of how the early canine plaque biofilm develops.

  18. Comparative Biomechanical Modeling of Metatherian and Placental Saber-Tooths: A Different Kind of Bite for an Extreme Pouched Predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroe, Stephen; Chamoli, Uphar; Parr, William C H; Clausen, Philip; Ridgely, Ryan; Witmer, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Questions surrounding the dramatic morphology of saber-tooths, and the presumably deadly purpose to which it was put, have long excited scholarly and popular attention. Among saber-toothed species, the iconic North American placental, Smilodon fatalis, and the bizarre South American sparassodont, Thylacosmilus atrox, represent extreme forms commonly forwarded as examples of convergent evolution. For S. fatalis, some consensus has been reached on the question of killing behaviour, with most researchers accepting the canine-shear bite hypothesis, wherein both head-depressing and jaw closing musculatures played a role in delivery of the fatal bite. However, whether, or to what degree, T. atrox may have applied a similar approach remains an open question. Here we apply a three-dimensional computational approach to examine convergence in mechanical performance between the two species. We find that, in many respects, the placental S. fatalis (a true felid) was more similar to the metatherian T. atrox than to a conical-toothed cat. In modeling of both saber-tooths we found that jaw-adductor-driven bite forces were low, but that simulations invoking neck musculature revealed less cranio-mandibular stress than in a conical-toothed cat. However, our study also revealed differences between the two saber-tooths likely reflected in the modus operandi of the kill. Jaw-adductor-driven bite forces were extremely weak in T. atrox, and its skull was even better-adapted to resist stress induced by head-depressors. Considered together with the fact that the center of the arc described by the canines was closer to the jaw-joint in Smilodon, our results are consistent with both jaw-closing and neck musculature playing a role in prey dispatch for the placental, as has been previously suggested. However, for T. atrox, we conclude that the jaw-adductors probably played no major part in the killing bite. We propose that the metatherian presents a more complete commitment to the already

  19. Genetics of Human and Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Simpson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in both humans and dogs. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM accounts for a large number of these cases, reported to be the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans and the second most common in dogs. In human studies of DCM there are more than 50 genetic loci associated with the disease. Despite canine DCM having similar disease progression to human DCM studies into the genetic basis of canine DCM lag far behind those of human DCM. In this review the aetiology, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of canine DCM are examined, along with highlighting possible different subtypes of canine DCM and their potential relevance to human DCM. Finally the current position of genetic research into canine and human DCM, including the genetic loci, is identified and the reasons many studies may have failed to find a genetic association with canine DCM are reviewed.

  20. Genetics of Human and Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Siobhan; Edwards, Jennifer; Ferguson-Mignan, Thomas F N; Cobb, Malcolm; Mongan, Nigel P; Rutland, Catrin S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in both humans and dogs. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) accounts for a large number of these cases, reported to be the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans and the second most common in dogs. In human studies of DCM there are more than 50 genetic loci associated with the disease. Despite canine DCM having similar disease progression to human DCM studies into the genetic basis of canine DCM lag far behind those of human DCM. In this review the aetiology, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of canine DCM are examined, along with highlighting possible different subtypes of canine DCM and their potential relevance to human DCM. Finally the current position of genetic research into canine and human DCM, including the genetic loci, is identified and the reasons many studies may have failed to find a genetic association with canine DCM are reviewed.

  1. A comparative study between mixed-type tumours from human salivary and canine mammary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genelhu, Marisa CLS; Cardoso, Sérgio V; Gobbi, Helenice; Cassali, Geovanni D

    2007-01-01

    In comparative pathology, canine mammary tumours have special interest because of their similarities with human breast cancer. Mixed tumours are uncommon lesions in the human breast, but they are found most frequently in the mammary gland of the female dogs and in the human salivary glands. The aim of the study was to compare clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical features of human salivary and canine mammary gland mixed tumours, in order to evaluate the latter as an experimental model for salivary gland tumours. Ten examples of each mixed tumour type (human pleomorphic adenoma and carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenomas and canine mixed tumour and metaplastic carcinoma) were evaluated. First, clinical and morphologic aspects of benign and malignant variants were compared between the species. Then, streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of cytokeratins, vimentin, p63 protein, estrogen receptor, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. After standardization, similar age and site distributions were observed in human and canine tumours. Histological similarities were identified in the comparison of the benign lesions as well. Metaplastic carcinomas also resembled general aspects of carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenomas in morphological evaluation. Additionally, immunohistochemical staining further presented similar antigenic expression between lesions. There are many similar features between human salivary and canine mammary gland mixed tumours. This observation is of great relevance for those interested in the study and management of salivary gland tumours, since canine lesions may constitute useful comparative models for their investigations

  2. Power Consumption Optimization in Tooth Gears Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatnikov, N.; Harlamov, G.; Kanatnikova, P.; Pashmentova, A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper reviews the issue of optimization of technological process of tooth gears production of the power consumption criteria. The authors dwell on the indices used for cutting process estimation by the consumed energy criteria and their applicability in the analysis of the toothed wheel production process. The inventors proposed a method for optimization of power consumptions based on the spatial modeling of cutting pattern. The article is aimed at solving the problem of effective source management in order to achieve economical and ecological effect during the mechanical processing of toothed gears. The research was supported by Russian Science Foundation (project No. 17-79-10316).

  3. Penatalaksanaan impaksi caninus permanen rahang atas dengan surgical exposure (The management of impacted permanent canine with surgical exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeh Brata Wijaya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Impacted tooth is often unidentified because there is no symptom. It is found when patient is examined by dentist. The maxillary canine should be retained for strength masticatory function, esthetics and child development. Purpose: The article was aimed to report treatment options of impacted canine in the 13 years old child. Case: Thirteen years-old girl came to the Universitas Gadjah Mada Dental Hospital with complaints of the upper right permanent canine had not erupted, with no history of pain. Periapical radiograph showed the impacted position of tooth #13 mesioangular. The shift sketch technique radiograph showed the impacted canine located at the palatal site. Case management: surgical exposure the upper right maxillary canine was done, followed by orthodontic treatment to direct tooth position into occlusal line. Fixed orthodontic appliance used was Roth bracket with straight wire technique. After surgery and orthodontic treatment, #13 was in normal occlusion. Conclusion: The surgical exposure followed by orthodontic treatment could be done successfully with special consideration to the patient’s age, the dental space, location of dental crowns, dental inclination, the apical root form of impacted tooth and patient cooperation.Latar belakang: Terjadinya gigi impaksi biasanya diketahui setelah melakukan pemeriksaan ke dokter gigi karena jarang menimbulkan keluhan. Gigi caninus rahang atas sebaiknya dipertahankan untuk kekuatan fungsi pengunyahan, estetik dan tumbuh kembang anak. Tujuan: Artikel ini bertujuan untuk melaporkan perawatan impaksi gigi kaninus atas pada anak 13 tahun. Kasus: Anak perempuan usia 13 tahun datang ke Rumah sakit Gigi dan Mulut Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Universitas Gadjah Mada dengan keluhan gigi kaninus permanen kanan atas yang belum erupsi, tanpa ada riwayat sakit di area tersebut. Hasil radiografi periapikal menunjukkan posisi gigi #13 impaksi mesioangular. Hasil radiografi dengan teknik shift

  4. Recent advances in engineering of tooth and tooth structures using postnatal dental cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki J. Honda

    2010-02-01

    This review focuses on the performance of postnatal and adult dental cells that have been used for generating teeth. Their ability to contribute to tooth development was assessed in the omentum or in the tooth socket. Adult dental cells were limited in their potential owing to various parameters. From these results described, new approaches for regenerated teeth are proposed in this review. One strategy to replace teeth is tooth root engineering using tissue from postnatal teeth. Since the enamel organ epithelium disappears after tooth maturation, the epithelial rest cells of Malassez were evaluated to determine their capacity to generate enamel. From these results, it is suggested that erupted mature teeth have cell sources with the capacity to produce tooth root. The development of biological approaches for tooth root regeneration using postnatal dental cells is promising and remains one of the greatest challenges in the dental field in the years to come.

  5. Effects of carbonated soft drink consumption on orthodontic tooth movements in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Agha Aghili

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this animal study was to evaluate the possible effects of Carbonated Soft Drink consumption on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement in rats.Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group. In the experimental groups (A&B, the water in the dietary regimen was replaced with soft drinks (Fanta® in group A and Cola® in group B two weeks before placement of orthodontic appliances. Then 5-mm nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were placed between the maxillary right first molars and first incisors under general anesthesia. This regimen continued for two weeks more and animals drank soft drink ad libitum. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were sacrificed, and interproximal tooth movements were measured.The mean amounts of tooth movement were 0.19mm in group A, 0.22mm in group B and 0.37mm in group C. Statistical analysis with analysis of variance (ANOVA test showed significant differences between all groups. The least movement occurred in group A that had received Fanta® drink.CSDs consumption decreases the rate of orthodontic tooth movement. The role of soft drinks in decreasing tooth movement might be related to its effects on bone metabolism.

  6. Age estimation by pulp-to-tooth area ratio using cone-beam computed tomography: A preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Arpita; Acharya, Ashith B; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G

    2016-01-01

    Age estimation of living or deceased individuals is an important aspect of forensic sciences. Conventionally, pulp-to-tooth area ratio (PTR) measured from periapical radiographs have been utilized as a nondestructive method of age estimation. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a new method to acquire three-dimensional images of the teeth in living individuals. The present study investigated age estimation based on PTR of the maxillary canines measured in three planes obtained from CBCT image data. Sixty subjects aged 20-85 years were included in the study. For each tooth, mid-sagittal, mid-coronal, and three axial sections-cementoenamel junction (CEJ), one-fourth root level from CEJ, and mid-root-were assessed. PTR was calculated using AutoCAD software after outlining the pulp and tooth. All statistical analyses were performed using an SPSS 17.0 software program. Linear regression analysis showed that only PTR in axial plane at CEJ had significant age correlation ( r = 0.32; P < 0.05). This is probably because of clearer demarcation of pulp and tooth outline at this level.

  7. [Gene clone and expression of Barx1 in different tooth of the mini-pig at embryonic day 40].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Yin, Ji-rong; Yang, Kai

    2012-10-01

    To partially clone and compare the quantitative expression of tooth development-related gene Barx1 in different teeth of the mini-pig embryo at embryonic day 40, and to investigate the relationship between Barx1 spatial quantitative expression and tooth morphogenesis. The mini-pig Barx1 genes was partially cloned and the mRNA sequences of human Barx1 genes was aligned with expressed sequence tags (EST) of pig by basic local alignment search tool (BLAST), which were assembled with DNAman v5.2.2. With designed primers, Barx1 was partially cloned in use of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and tested by BLAST with all the species in NCBI database and confirmed as one part of target gene. Laser capture microdissection was used to collect tooth samples from frozen sections which were prepared before in -80°C freezer. Real-time PCR was carried out to analyze quantitative expression in different teeth. Partial mini-pig Barx1 gene of 698 bp was cloned. Real-time PCR showed that, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase used as loading control, the figures of 2(-ΔCT) of lower deciduous incisor, canine, the third premolar and molar were 0.000 249, 0.000 715, 0.026 096 and 0.112 656, respectively. There was a trend of increasing expression from anterior to posterior teeth. Barx1 gene could be related to the number or differentiation of tooth cusps.

  8. Evolution of high tooth replacement rates in sauropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Emic, Michael D; Whitlock, John A; Smith, Kathlyn M; Fisher, Daniel C; Wilson, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Tooth replacement rate can be calculated in extinct animals by counting incremental lines of deposition in tooth dentin. Calculating this rate in several taxa allows for the study of the evolution of tooth replacement rate. Sauropod dinosaurs, the largest terrestrial animals that ever evolved, exhibited a diversity of tooth sizes and shapes, but little is known about their tooth replacement rates. We present tooth replacement rate, formation time, crown volume, total dentition volume, and enamel thickness for two coexisting but distantly related and morphologically disparate sauropod dinosaurs Camarasaurus and Diplodocus. Individual tooth formation time was determined by counting daily incremental lines in dentin. Tooth replacement rate is calculated as the difference between the number of days recorded in successive replacement teeth. Each tooth family in Camarasaurus has a maximum of three replacement teeth, whereas each Diplodocus tooth family has up to five. Tooth formation times are about 1.7 times longer in Camarasaurus than in Diplodocus (315 vs. 185 days). Average tooth replacement rate in Camarasaurus is about one tooth every 62 days versus about one tooth every 35 days in Diplodocus. Despite slower tooth replacement rates in Camarasaurus, the volumetric rate of Camarasaurus tooth replacement is 10 times faster than in Diplodocus because of its substantially greater tooth volumes. A novel method to estimate replacement rate was developed and applied to several other sauropodomorphs that we were not able to thin section. Differences in tooth replacement rate among sauropodomorphs likely reflect disparate feeding strategies and/or food choices, which would have facilitated the coexistence of these gigantic herbivores in one ecosystem. Early neosauropods are characterized by high tooth replacement rates (despite their large tooth size), and derived titanosaurs and diplodocoids independently evolved the highest known tooth replacement rates among archosaurs.

  9. Evolution of high tooth replacement rates in sauropod dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D D'Emic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tooth replacement rate can be calculated in extinct animals by counting incremental lines of deposition in tooth dentin. Calculating this rate in several taxa allows for the study of the evolution of tooth replacement rate. Sauropod dinosaurs, the largest terrestrial animals that ever evolved, exhibited a diversity of tooth sizes and shapes, but little is known about their tooth replacement rates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present tooth replacement rate, formation time, crown volume, total dentition volume, and enamel thickness for two coexisting but distantly related and morphologically disparate sauropod dinosaurs Camarasaurus and Diplodocus. Individual tooth formation time was determined by counting daily incremental lines in dentin. Tooth replacement rate is calculated as the difference between the number of days recorded in successive replacement teeth. Each tooth family in Camarasaurus has a maximum of three replacement teeth, whereas each Diplodocus tooth family has up to five. Tooth formation times are about 1.7 times longer in Camarasaurus than in Diplodocus (315 vs. 185 days. Average tooth replacement rate in Camarasaurus is about one tooth every 62 days versus about one tooth every 35 days in Diplodocus. Despite slower tooth replacement rates in Camarasaurus, the volumetric rate of Camarasaurus tooth replacement is 10 times faster than in Diplodocus because of its substantially greater tooth volumes. A novel method to estimate replacement rate was developed and applied to several other sauropodomorphs that we were not able to thin section. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Differences in tooth replacement rate among sauropodomorphs likely reflect disparate feeding strategies and/or food choices, which would have facilitated the coexistence of these gigantic herbivores in one ecosystem. Early neosauropods are characterized by high tooth replacement rates (despite their large tooth size, and derived titanosaurs and

  10. Tooth resorption in cats: contribution of vitamin D and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Tooth resorption in cats Tooth resorption affecting several teeth is a painful disease with a prevalence of up to 75% in household cats and is often accompanied by periodontitis. Tooth resorption is caused by an increased number and activity of tooth-resorbing odontoclasts, cells that share

  11. Cryopreservation of microencapsulated canine sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shambhu; Otsuki, Tsubasa; Fujimura, Chika; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamashita, Yasuhisa; Higaki, Shogo; Hishinuma, Mitsugu

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to develop a method for cryopreserving microencapsulated canine sperm. Pooled ejaculates from three beagle dogs were extended in egg yolk tris extender and encapsulated using alginate and poly-L-lysine at room temperature. The microcapsules were cooled at 4 °C, immersed in pre-cooled extender (equivalent in volume to the microcapsules) to reach final concentration of 7% (v/v) glycerol and 0.75% (v/v) Equex STM paste, and equilibrated for 5, 30 and 60 min at 4 °C. Thereafter, microcapsules were loaded into 0.5 mL plastic straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. In Experiment 1, characteristics of microencapsulated canine sperm were evaluated after glycerol addition at 4 °C. Glycerol exposure for 5, 30 and 60 min did not significantly affect progressive motility, viability, or acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm compared with pre-cooled unencapsulated sperm (control). In Experiment 2, characteristics of frozen-thawed canine microencapsulated sperm were evaluated at 0, 3, 6, and 9 h of culture at 38.5 °C. Pre-freeze glycerol exposure for 5, 30, and 60 min at 4 °C did not influence post-thaw quality in unencapsulated sperm. Post-thaw motility and acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm decreased more than those of unencapsulated sperm (P < 0.05) following glycerol exposure for 5 min. However, motility, viability and acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm after 30 and 60 min glycerol exposure were higher than unencapsulated sperm cultured for 6 or 9 h (P < 0.05). In conclusion, since microencapsulated canine sperm were successfully cryopreserved, this could be a viable alternative to convention sperm cryopreservation in this species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated negative consequences (lengthy placement, impaired wound healing around bulky knots, and the effect of unsightly knots on cosmetics). A study in 9 dogs found that celiotomy closure was easily achiev...

  13. Autotransplantation donor tooth site harvesting using piezosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylikontiola, Leena P; Sándor, George K

    2016-01-01

    The harvesting of a tooth as a candidate for tooth autotransplantation requires that the delicate dental tissues around the tooth be minimally traumatized. This is especially so for the periradicular tissues of the tooth root and the follicular tissues surrounding the crown. The aim of this report is to describe the use of piezosurgery as an attempt at morbidity reduction in the harvesting of teeth for autotransplantation. A piezosurgical handpiece and its selection of tips were easily adapted to allow the harvesting and delivery of teeth for autotransplantation purposes. Twenty premolar teeth were harvested using a piezosurgical device. The harvested teeth were subsequently successfully autotransplanted. All twenty teeth healed in a satisfactory manner without excessive mobility or ankyloses. Piezosurgery avoids some of the traumatic aspects of harvesting teeth and removing bone which are associated with thermal damage from the use of conventional rotary instruments or saws. Piezosurgery can be adapted to facilitate the predictable harvesting of teeth for autotransplantation purposes.

  14. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Is My Child at Risk for Early Childhood Tooth Decay? What is a Composite Resin (White Filling)? How Do I Care for My Child's Baby Teeth? Learn what those dental words mean. The Life ...

  15. Gear Tooth Wear Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Irebert R.

    2015-01-01

    Vibration-based condition indicators continue to be developed for Health Usage Monitoring of rotorcraft gearboxes. Testing performed at NASA Glenn Research Center have shown correlations between specific condition indicators and specific types of gear wear. To speed up the detection and analysis of gear teeth, an image detection program based on the Viola-Jones algorithm was trained to automatically detect spiral bevel gear wear pitting. The detector was tested using a training set of gear wear pictures and a blind set of gear wear pictures. The detector accuracy for the training set was 75 percent while the accuracy for the blind set was 15 percent. Further improvements on the accuracy of the detector are required but preliminary results have shown its ability to automatically detect gear tooth wear. The trained detector would be used to quickly evaluate a set of gear or pinion pictures for pits, spalls, or abrasive wear. The results could then be used to correlate with vibration or oil debris data. In general, the program could be retrained to detect features of interest from pictures of a component taken over a period of time.

  16. Ultrasonographic Detection of Tooth Flaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K.; Ghorayeb, S. R.

    2010-02-01

    The goal of our work is to adapt pulse-echo ultrasound into a high resolution imaging modality for early detection of oral diseases and for monitoring treatment outcome. In this talk we discuss our preliminary results in the detection of: demineralization of the enamel and dentin, demineralization or caries under and around existing restorations, caries on occlusal and interproximal surfaces, cracks of enamel and dentin, calculus, and periapical lesions. In vitro immersion tank experiments are compared to results from a handpiece which uses a compliant delay line to couple the ultrasound to the tooth surface. Because the waveform echoes are complex, and in order to make clinical interpretation of ultrasonic waveform data in real time, it is necessary to automatically interpret the signals. We apply the dynamic wavelet fingerprint algorithms to identify and delineate echographic features that correspond to the flaws of interest in teeth. The resulting features show a clear distinction between flawed and unflawed waveforms collected with an ultrasonic handpiece on both phantom and human cadaver teeth.

  17. Computer simulation of gear tooth manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavriplis, Dimitri; Huston, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    The use of computer graphics to simulate gear tooth manufacturing procedures is discussed. An analytical basis for the simulation is established for spur gears. The simulation itself, however, is developed not only for spur gears, but for straight bevel gears as well. The applications of the developed procedure extend from the development of finite element models of heretofore intractable geometrical forms, to exploring the fabrication of nonstandard tooth forms.

  18. Orthodontic Tooth Movement with Clear Aligners

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, Carl T.; McGorray, Susan P.; Dolce, Calogero; Nair, Madhu; Wheeler, Timothy T.

    2012-01-01

    Clear aligners provide a convenient model to measure orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). We examined the role of in vivo aligner material fatigue and subject-specific factors in tooth movement. Fifteen subjects seeking orthodontic treatment at the University of Florida were enrolled. Results were compared with data previously collected from 37 subjects enrolled in a similar protocol. Subjects were followed prospectively for eight weeks. An upper central incisor was programmed to move 0.5 mm. ev...

  19. Daylong Effect of Tooth Brushing or Combination Tooth Brushing and Tongue Cleaning Using Antiplaque®Toothpaste on Volatile Sulphur Compound Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriasti Indah Wardhany

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the daylong effect of Antiplaque® toothpaste active copound and the effect of tooth brushing or combination of tooth brushing and tongue cleaning on Volatile Sulphur Compounds (VSC levels. Methods: Clinical experimental double blinded microbiological and clinical examination. Subjects mainly from dental faculty student with or without a chief complain of halitosis. One hundred and twenty subjects were divided into four groups that consist of thirty samples each group. Two group are treatment subjects were divided into four groups that consist thirty samples each group. Two groups are treatment groups using Antiplaque® toothpaste and two groups are control groups using placebo toothpaste. The daylong effects of VSC levels are measured by Halimeter and organoleptic. The intraoral status were measured including periodontal status and tongue index. Result: There are a reduction of VSC levels in both treatment and control group, but the reduction only significant in group using Antiplaque® toothpaste (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p<0.05. There are a reduction of VSC levels in both treatment using Antiplaque® toothpaste, but the combination of tooth brushing and tongue cleaning reduced VSC levels significantly lower than tooth brushing treatment (Mann Whitney U test, P,0.05. Conclusion: Tooth brushing and tongue cleaning using Antiplaque® toothpaste significantly reduced VSC levels.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i2.95

  20. Tooth wear and wear investigations in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A; He, L H; Lyons, K; Swain, M V

    2012-03-01

    Tooth wear has been recognised as a major problem in dentistry. Epidemiological studies have reported an increasing prevalence of tooth wear and general dental practitioners see a greater number of patients seeking treatment with worn dentition. Although the dental literature contains numerous publications related to management and rehabilitation of tooth wear of varying aetiologies, our understanding of the aetiology and pathogenesis of tooth wear is still limited. The wear behaviour of dental biomaterials has also been extensively researched to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms and for the development of restorative materials with good wear resistance. The complex nature of tooth wear indicates challenges for conducting in vitro and in vivo wear investigations and a clear correlation between in vitro and in vivo data has not been established. The objective was to critically review the peer reviewed English-language literature pertaining to prevalence and aetiology of tooth wear and wear investigations in dentistry identified through a Medline search engine combined with hand-searching of the relevant literature, covering the period between 1960 and 2011. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Application of coenzyme Q10 for accelerating soft tissue wound healing after tooth extraction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Toshiki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kawabata, Yuya; Ekuni, Daisuke; Azuma, Tetsuji; Kataoka, Kota; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Morita, Manabu

    2014-12-10

    Accelerating wound healing after tooth extraction is beneficial in dental treatment. Application of antioxidants, such as reduced coenzyme Q10 (rCoQ10), may promote wound healing after tooth extraction. In this study, we examined the effects of topical application of rCoQ10 on wound healing after tooth extraction in rats. After maxillary first molars were extracted, male Fischer 344 rats (8 weeks old) (n = 27) received topical application of ointment containing 5% rCoQ10 (experimental group) or control ointment (control group) to the sockets for 3 or 8 days (n = 6-7/group). At 3 days after extraction, the experimental group showed higher collagen density and lower numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the upper part of socket, as compared to the control group (p healing in the soft tissue of the alveolar socket, but that rCoQ10 has a limited effect on bone remodeling in rats.

  2. Speed of human tooth movement in growers and non-growers: Selection of applied stress matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, L R; Liu, Y; Liu, H; Nickel, J C

    2017-06-01

    To test that the speed of tooth translation is not affected by stress magnitude and growth status. Advanced Education Orthodontic clinics at the Universities of Nebraska Medical Center and Missouri-Kansas City. Forty-six consenting subjects with orthodontic treatment plans involving maxillary first premolar extractions. This randomized split-mouth study used segmental mechanics with definitive posterior anchorage and individual vertical-loop maxillary canine retraction appliances and measured three-dimensional tooth movements. Height and cephalometric superimposition changes determined growing (G) and non-growing (NG) subjects. Subjects were appointed for 9-11 visits over 84 days for maxillary dental impressions to measure three-dimensional tooth movement and to ensure retraction forces were continuously applied via calibrated nitinol coil springs. Springs were custom selected to apply two different stresses of 4, 13, 26, 52 or 78 kPa to maxillary canines in each subject. Statistical analyses (α=0.050) included ANOVA, effect size (partial η 2 ) and Tukey's Honest Significant Difference (HSD) and two-group t tests. Distolateral translation speeds were 0.034±0.015, 0.047±0.019, 0.066±0.025, 0.068±0.016 and 0.079±0.030 mm/d for 4, 13, 26, 52 and 78 kPa, respectively. Stress significantly affected speed and partial η 2 =0.376. Overall, more distopalatal rotation was shown by teeth moved by 78 kPa (18.03±9.50º) compared to other stresses (3.86±6.83º), and speeds were significantly higher (P=.001) in G (0.062±0.026 mm/d) than NG subjects (0.041±0.019 mm/d). Stress magnitude and growth status significantly affected the speed of tooth translation. Optimal applied stresses were 26-52 kPa, and overall speeds were 1.5-fold faster in G compared to NG subjects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Can dead man tooth do tell tales? Tooth prints in forensic identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Vineetha; Murthy, Sarvani; Ashwinirani, S R; Prasad, Kulkarni; Girish, Suragimath; Vinit, Shashikanth Patil

    2017-01-01

    We know that teeth trouble us a lot when we are alive, but they last longer for thousands of years even after we are dead. Teeth being the strongest and resistant structure are the most significant tool in forensic investigations. Patterns of enamel rod end on the tooth surface are known as tooth prints. This study is aimed to know whether these tooth prints can become a forensic tool in personal identification such as finger prints. A study has been targeted toward the same. In the present in-vivo study, acetate peel technique has been used to obtain the replica of enamel rod end patterns. Tooth prints of upper first premolars were recorded from 80 individuals after acid etching using cellulose acetate strips. Then, digital images of the tooth prints obtained at two different intervals were subjected to biometric conversion using Verifinger standard software development kit version 6.5 software followed by the use of Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) software for comparison of the tooth prints. Similarly, each individual's finger prints were also recorded and were subjected to the same software. Further, recordings of AFIS scores obtained from images were statistically analyzed using Cronbach's test. We observed that comparing two tooth prints taken from an individual at two intervals exhibited similarity in many cases, with wavy pattern tooth print being the predominant type. However, the same prints showed dissimilarity when compared with other individuals. We also found that most of the individuals with whorl pattern finger print showed wavy pattern tooth print and few loop type fingerprints showed linear pattern of tooth prints. Further more experiments on both tooth prints and finger prints are required in establishing an individual's identity.

  4. Long-term periodontal response to orthodontic treatment of palatally impacted maxillary canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioglio, Alberto; Vanni, Arianna; Bolamperti, Laura

    2013-06-01

    One of the most important aspects to take into consideration when evaluating the outcome of treatment of impacted maxillary canines is the final periodontal status. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term periodontal response of palatally impacted maxillary canines aligned using a codified procedure and the 'Easy Cuspid' compared with contralateral spontaneously erupted teeth. The periodontal conditions of the adjacent teeth were also considered. From an initial sample of 124 patients, 33 patients (24 females and 9 males) were selected. All patients who had undergone surgical orthodontic treatment conducted in accordance with a standardized protocol were recalled for follow-up at an average of 4.6 years after the end of treatment. The average treatment time was 29 months and the mean eruption time of the previously impacted tooth was 3.1 months. The average probing depth values showed no significant clinical differences. Probing depths recorded at the vestibular surface of the lateral incisor (P alignment of palatally impacted canines without damage to the periodontium.

  5. CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Leonardis

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT disease is a common inherited disorder of the peripheral nervous system. In our paper, different types of CMT are described with their typical clinical pictures, electrophysiological signs and molecular genetic studies. CMT is classified as demyelinative and axonal type and distal motor neuronopathy.Conclusions. CMT can be of autosomal dominant, recessive and X-linked inheritance. The most frequent form of CMT is the result of the dominantly inherited duplication of chromosome 17p11.2 and is marked as CMT1A. The same group involves also rare patients with point mutation in the peripheral myelin protein-22 gene. CMT1B is associated with point mutations in protein zero gene. CMT1C is linked to chromosome 16p13.1–12.3. Patients with point mutations in early growth response 2 gene (EGR2 are included in group CMT1D. The disease can be also inhereted X-linked (CMTX with the mutations in connexin-32 gene. In autosomal recessive inherited demyelinating polyneuropathies (CMT4, mutations are found in the myotubularin-related protein-2 (CMT4B, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (CMT4D, EGR2 (CMT4E, and in the periaksin (CMT4F genes. In axonal inherited neuropathy, mutations are found in KIF1beta (CMT2A and in light neurofilament (CMT2E genes, other forms map to different chromosomal loci (CMT2B, CMT2D, CMT2F. Some suggestions for the diagnostic procedures of patients with CMT are given.

  6. Tooth loss might not alter molecular pathogenesis in an aged transgenic Alzheimer's disease model mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oue, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Yasunari; Koretake, Katsunori; Okada, Shinsuke; Doi, Kazuya; Jung, Cha-Gyun; Michikawa, Makoto; Akagawa, Yasumasa

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have reported that tooth loss is a risk factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the association between tooth loss and cognition and the impact of tooth loss on the molecular pathogenesis of AD remain elusive. In this study, we tested the effect of tooth loss on learning and memory and on the molecular pathogenesis of AD in an aged AD model mice. We divided 14-month-old amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice, an AD model mouse line, into upper molar extracted group (experimental) and molar intact group (control). At 18 months old, we analysed not only the changes of amyloid-beta (Aβ), pyramidal cells in the brain but also the learning and memory ability with step-through passive avoidance test. The amount of Aβ and the number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampus were not significantly different between the experimental and control group. Similarly, the difference of learning and memory ability could not be distinguished between the groups. Neither molecular pathogenesis of AD nor associated learning and memory were aggravated by tooth loss in these mice. The limited results of this study which used the aged mice may help the dental profession to plan and explain treatments to patients with AD, which must be designed while taking into account the severity of the AD symptoms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine. 113.306... Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... distemper virus, each of five canine distemper susceptible ferrets shall be injected with a sample of the...

  8. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine... canine distemper susceptible dogs (20 vaccinates and 5 controls) shall be used as test animals. Blood...

  9. A modified live canine parvovirus vaccine. II. Immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, L E; Joubert, J C; Pollock, R V

    1983-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of an attenuated canine parvovirus (A-CPV) vaccine was evaluated in both experimental and in field dogs. After parenteral vaccination, seronegative dogs developed hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody titers as early as postvaccination (PV) day 2. Maximal titers occurred within 1 week. Immunity was associated with the persistence of HI antibody titers (titers greater than 80) that endured at least 2 years. Immune dogs challenged with virulent CPV did not shed virus in their feces. The A-CPV vaccine did not cause illness alone or in combination with living canine distemper (CD) and canine adenovirus type-2 (CAV-2) vaccines, nor did it interfere with the immune response to the other viruses. A high rate (greater than 98%) of immunity was engendered in seronegative pups. In contrast, maternal antibody interfered with the active immune response to the A-CPV. More than 95% of the dogs with HI titers less than 10 responded to the vaccine, but only 50% responded when titers were approximately 20. No animal with a titer greater than 80 at the time of vaccination became actively immunized. Susceptibility to virulent CPV during that period when maternal antibody no longer protects against infection, but still prevents active immunization, is the principal cause of vaccinal failure in breeding kennels where CPV is present. Reduction, but not complete elimination, of CPV disease in large breeding kennels occurred within 1-2 months of instituting an A-CPV vaccination program.

  10. Canine scent detection of canine cancer: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorman DC

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available David C Dorman,1 Melanie L Foster,2 Katherine E Fernhoff,1 Paul R Hess2 1Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA Abstract: The scent detection prowess of dogs has prompted interest in their ability to detect cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dogs could use olfactory cues to discriminate urine samples collected from dogs that did or did not have urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC, at a rate greater than chance. Dogs with previous scent training (n=4 were initially trained to distinguish between a single control and a single TCC-positive urine sample. All dogs acquired this task (mean =15±7.9 sessions; 20 trials/session. The next training phase used four additional control urine samples (n=5 while maintaining the one original TCC-positive urine sample. All dogs quickly acquired this task (mean =5.3±1.5 sessions. The last training phase used multiple control (n=4 and TCC-positive (n=6 urine samples to promote categorical training by the dogs. Only one dog was able to correctly distinguish multiple combinations of TCC-positive and control urine samples suggesting that it mastered categorical learning. The final study phase evaluated whether this dog would generalize this behavior to novel urine samples. However, during double-blind tests using two novel TCC-positive and six novel TCC-negative urine samples, this dog did not indicate canine TCC-positive cancer samples more frequently than expected by chance. Our study illustrates the need to consider canine olfactory memory and the use of double-blind methods to avoid erroneous conclusions regarding the ability of dogs to alert on specimens from canine cancer patients. Our results also suggest that sample storage, confounding odors, and other factors need to be considered in the design of future studies that evaluate the detection of

  11. CT findings of the infraorbital space. Special reference to odontogenic infection caused by periapical lesions of the maxillary canine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikarugi, Yuko; Tanaka, Ray; Hayashi, Takafumi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the clinical significance of the infraorbital space demonstrated on CT for the diagnosis of odontogenic infection caused by periapical lesions of the maxillary canine tooth. We evaluated the radiological appearance of the labial cortical bone and the surrounding soft tissue adjacent to the root apex of the maxillary canine in 12 patients with infraorbital space infection demonstrated on CT. The patients consisted of 6 males and 6 females, and age ranged from 33 to 84 years with a mean age of 58.7 years. On CT, disruption of the labial cortical bone around the root apex of the maxillary canine accompanied with pathological soft tissue density adjacent to the disrupted cortical bone was observed in all of the cases. Swelling of the facial muscles (levator labii superioris muscle, levator anguli oris muscle) was shown in 6 (50%) of 12 cases. Deviation of the levator labii superioris muscle was demonstrated in 9 cases (75%), whereas that of the levator anguli oris muscle was observed only in 2 cases (17%). The anatomical appearance of the infraorbital space which is clearly demonstrated on CT might be useful in diagnosing the spread of odontogenic infection caused by periapical lesions of the maxillary canine. (author)

  12. New and emerging pathogens in canine infectious respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestnall, S L; Mitchell, J A; Walker, C A; Erles, K; Brownlie, J

    2014-03-01

    Canine infectious respiratory disease is a common, worldwide disease syndrome of multifactorial etiology. This review presents a summary of 6 viruses (canine respiratory coronavirus, canine pneumovirus, canine influenza virus, pantropic canine coronavirus, canine bocavirus, and canine hepacivirus) and 2 bacteria (Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Mycoplasma cynos) that have been associated with respiratory disease in dogs. For some pathogens a causal role is clear, whereas for others, ongoing research aims to uncover their pathogenesis and contribution to this complex syndrome. Etiology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, and epidemiology are described for each pathogen, with an emphasis on recent discoveries or novel findings.

  13. [Tooth shape and color as criteria for or against orthodontic space closure in case of a missing lateral incisor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wriedt, Susanne; Werner, Patrick; Wehrbein, Heinrich

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the esthetic parameters that are applied, more or less unconsciously, in deciding for or against orthodontic space closure in the case of aplasia or traumatic loss of lateral incisors. The width-height index for teeth 13 to 23 was measured on 200 dental students. The VITA Easyshade system was used to determine the components of the tooth color (L, C, h) and to identify differences between each tooth. Eight investigators subjectively assessed digital photographs of the subjects, opting for or against space closure. The Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated for the parameters measured. A comparison of the parameters showed that not one factor alone was responsible for the decision for or against space closure for esthetic reasons. Orthodontists were more likely to favor space closure when the canine was slightly wider and had a less pointed shape and the differences were very small between canine and central incisor in terms of hue, chroma, and lightness. We observed that the subjective decision on the esthetic aspects of space closure correlates closely with the objective criteria.

  14. GdNCT of spontaneous canine melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitin, V.N.; Kulakov, V.N.; Khokhlov, V.F.

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of GdNCT has been studied in dogs with spontaneous melanoma of the mucousmembrane of the oral cavity patients on the NCT base at the IRT MEPhI reactor. The control group with melanomas was treated with neutrons. Fourteen canine patients were selected in the Clinic of Experimental Therapy affiliated with the RCRC RAMS. The calculation of doses has shown that the total dose of energy release depending on Gd concentration in the target can be several times higher than the dose produced by the reactor neutron beam. The calculations were carried out using the diffusion pharmacokinetic model. The gadolinium drug dipentast was administered intratumorally immediately prior to irradiation. The tumor size was estimated by measuring it in three projections. The tumor was irradiated for 60-90 minutes with a thermal neutron flux of 0.7x10 9 n/cm 2 s. The dose on tumor was 80-120 Gy, on surrounding tissues - 12-15 Gy. The treatment plan included immunotherapy with Roncoleikin in a dose of (15-10)x10 3 IE/kg. The results of GdNCT are still under observation. The results conform to those obtained by us earlier in cell cultures and inoculated experimental tumors. GdNCT is also effective in combination with immunotherapy. (author)

  15. Cellular and molecular basis of tooth eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, GE

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Tooth eruption requires the presence of a dental follicle (DF), alveolar bone resorption for an eruption pathway, and alveolar bone formation at the base of the bony crypt. The objectives of our investigations have been to determine how the DF regulates both the osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis needed for eruption. Material & Methods Multiple experimental methods have been employed. Results The DF regulates osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis by regulating the expression of critical genes in both a chronological and spatial fashion. In the rat 1st mandibular molar there is a major burst of osteoclastogenesis at day 3 postnatally and a minor burst at day 10. At day 3, the DF maximally expresses colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) to down-regulate the expression of osteoprotegerin such that osteoclastogenesis can occur. At day 10, the minor burst of osteoclastogenesis is promoted by upregulation of VEGF and RANKL in the DF. Spatially, the bone resorption is in the coronal portion of the bony crypt and genes such as RANKL are expressed more in the coronal region of the DF than in its basal one-half. For osteogenesis, bone formation begins at day 3 at the base of the bony crypt and maximal growth is at days 9–14. Osteo-inductive genes such as BMP-2 appear to promote this and are expressed more in the basal half of the DF than in the coronal. Conclusion The osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis needed for eruption are regulated by differential gene expression in the DF both chronologically and spatially. PMID:19419449

  16. Canine and feline megaesophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mears, E.A.; Jenkins, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    Megaesophagus is rare in cats and occurs as a congenital or secondary acquired disorder. In dogs, megaesophagus can occur as a congenital disorder, as a secondary acquired disorder, or as an adult-onset idiopathic disease. This article reviews the anatomy, pathogenesis, causes, clinical signs, diagnosis, and management of megaesophagus. Pathogenesis includes experimental evidence that evaluates the neural pathway of affected patients. The many disease that can cause megaesophagus are delineated. Discussion focuses on the most common causes-myasthenia gravis, hypoadrenocorticism and possibly hypothyroidism, and the obstructive lesions of the esophagus (vascular ring anomalies, tumors, granulomas, strictures, and foreign bodies). The most common clinical sign associated with megaesophagus is regurgitation. Traditional as well as newer techniques (i.e., manometry and nuclear scintigraphy) for evaluating esophageal motility are presented. Definitive diagnosis requires identification of a dilated esophagus on survey thoracic radiographs or a barium esophagogram. Medical management, including alternative feeding methods and the role of prokinetic drugs, is discussed

  17. Concomitant canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, canine parvoviral enteritis, canine infectious tracheobronchitis, and toxoplasmosis in a puppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Fritzen, Juliana Torres Tomazi; Garcia, João Luis; Weissenböck, Herbert; da Silva, Ana Paula; Bodnar, Livia; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The concomitant infections of Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine adenovirus A types 1 (CAdV-1) and 2 (CAdV-2), Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), and Toxoplasma gondii are described in a 43-day-old mixed-breed puppy. Clinically, there were convulsions and blindness with spontaneous death; 14 siblings of this puppy, born to a 10-month-old dam, which was seropositive (titer: 1,024) for T. gondii, also died. Necropsy revealed unilateral corneal edema (blue eye), depletion of intestinal lymphoid tissue, non-collapsible lungs, congestion of meningeal vessels, and a pale area in the myocardium. Histopathology demonstrated necrotizing myocarditis associated with intralesional apicomplexan protozoa; necrotizing and chronic hepatitis associated with rare intranuclear inclusion bodies within hepatocytes; necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis; interstitial pneumonia associated with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies within epithelial cells; atrophy and fusion of intestinal villi with cryptal necrosis; and white matter demyelination of the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with intranuclear inclusion bodies within astrocytes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified the partial fragments (bp) of the CDV N gene (290 bp), CPV-2c VP2 capsid protein gene (583 bp), and CAdV-1 (508 bp) and CAdV-2 (1,030 bp) E gene from urine and tissue samples. The PCR assays demonstrated that the apicomplexan protozoa observed within several organs contained DNA specific for T. gondii; genotyping revealed T. gondii type III. The findings support the characterization of concomitant infections of CDV, CAdV-1, CAdV-2, CPV-2, and T. gondii in this puppy. Further, seroreactivity to T. gondii of the dam in association with the systemic disease observed in the puppy described herein is suggestive of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  18. Advances and perspectives in tooth tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Nelson; Yelick, Pamela C

    2017-09-01

    Bio-engineered teeth that can grow and remodel in a manner similar to that of natural teeth have the potential to serve as permanent replacements to the currently used prosthetic teeth, such as dental implants. A major challenge in designing functional bio-engineered teeth is to mimic both the structural and anisotropic mechanical characteristics of the native tooth. Therefore, the field of dental and whole tooth regeneration has advanced towards the molecular and nanoscale design of bio-active, biomimetic systems, using biomaterials, drug delivery systems and stem cells. The focus of this review is to discuss recent advances in tooth tissue engineering, using biomimetic scaffolds that provide proper architectural cues, exhibit the capacity to support dental stem cell proliferation and differentiation and sequester and release bio-active agents, such as growth factors and nucleic acids, in a spatiotemporal controlled manner. Although many in vitro and in vivo studies on tooth regeneration appear promising, before tooth tissue engineering becomes a reality for humans, additional research is needed to perfect methods that use adult human dental stem cells, as opposed to embryonic dental stem cells, and to devise the means to generate bio-engineered teeth of predetermined size and shape. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. [The effect of osteogenic inducer on healing of tooth extraction sockets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junliang; Shan, Chuncheng; He, Yun; Xia, Delin

    2012-06-01

    To study the effect of osteogenic inducer (dexamethasone, beta-sodium glycerophosphate and Vitamin C) carried by gelatin sponge on healing and remodeling of tooth extraction sockets. Fifty rabbits were selected. After extracting the first premolars of bilateral maxillary, the right side tooth extraction sockets were filled with gelatin sponge containing osteogenic inducer as experimental side, tooth extraction sockets on left side were filled with gelatin sponge as control. Every ten rabbits were executed at the end of 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks after tooth extraction. Bone density was measured through digital X-ray images. The specimens were examined by histology. The absorption height of alveolar bone at 12 weeks was measured. X-ray measurement showed that the bone density of experimental side was higher than that of control side at 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks, the difference had statistical significance (Psockets of experimental side was earlier than that in control side. The absorptional height of alveolar bone had significant difference between experimental side and control side (Psockets can promote the healing and new bone formation and prevent from alveolar bone absorption.

  20. Investigation of linear regression of EPR dosimetric signal of the man tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivovarov, S.P.; Rukhin, A.B.; Zhakparov, R.K.; Vasilevskaya, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    The experimental relations of the EPR radiation signal in samples of man tooth enamel of three donors of different age up to doses 1350 Gy are examined. To all of them the linear regression is applicable. The considerable errors leading to apparent non-linearity are eliminated most. (author)

  1. Alpha-1-antitrypsin studies: canine serum and canine surfactant protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, W.C.; Slauson, D.O.; Dahlstrom, M.; Gorman, C.

    1974-01-01

    Canine serum alpha-1-antitrypsin was isolated by gel filtration and affinity chromatography and characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis. Measurement of the trypsin inhibitory capacity of the separated protein indicated a ninefold concentration of functional trypsin inhibitor during the isolation procedure. Electrophoresis demonstrated the presence of a single protein with alpha-globulin mobility and a molecular weight near that of human alpha-1-antitrypsin. The trypsin inhibitory capacity of pulmonary surfactant protein from five Beagle dogs was measured, related to total surfactant protein concentration, and compared with similar measurements on whole serum from the same animals. Results indicated a variable concentration of trypsin inhibitor in the canine pulmonary surfactant protein. However, the concentration in the surfactant protein was always significantly higher than that in the corresponding serum sample. Preliminary experiments designed to separate the trypsin inhibitory fraction(s) from the other surfactant proteins by gel filtration chromatography indicated that the trypsin inhibitor was probably a single protein with a molecular weight near that of alpha-1-antitrypsin. (U.S.)

  2. Tooth enamel mineralization in ungulates: implications for recovering a primary isotopic time-series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Benjamin H.; Cerling, Thure E.

    2002-09-01

    Temporal changes in the carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of an animal are an environmental and behavioral input signal that is recorded into the enamel of developing teeth. In this paper, we evaluate changes in phosphorus content and density along the axial lengths of three developing ungulate teeth to illustrate the protracted nature of mineral accumulation in a volume of developing enamel. The least mature enamel in these teeth contains by volume about 25% of the mineral mass of mature enamel, and the remaining 75% of the mineral accumulates during maturation. Using data from one of these teeth (a Hippopotamus amphibius canine), we develop a model for teeth growing at constant rate that describes how an input signal is recorded into tooth enamel. The model accounts for both the temporal and spatial patterns of amelogenesis (enamel formation) and the sampling geometry. The model shows that input signal attenuation occurs as a result of time-averaging during amelogenesis when the maturation interval is long compared to the duration of features in the input signal. Sampling does not induce significant attenuation, provided that the sampling interval is several times shorter than the maturation interval. We present a detailed δ 13C and δ 18O record for the H. amphibius canine and suggest possible input isotope signals that may have given rise to the measured isotope signal.

  3. Interactive effects of periodontitis and orthodontic tooth movement on dental root resorption, tooth movement velocity and alveolar bone loss in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschneck, Christian; Fanghänel, Jochen; Wahlmann, Ulrich; Wolf, Michael; Roldán, J Camilo; Proff, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Many adult orthodontic patients suffer from chronic periodontitis with recurrent episodes of active periodontal inflammation. As their number is steadily increasing, orthodontists are more and more frequently challenged by respective treatment considerations. However, little is currently known regarding interactive effects on undesired dental root resorption (DRR), tooth movement velocity, periodontal bone loss and the underlying cellular and tissue reactions. A total of 63 male Fischer344 rats were used in three consecutive experiments employing 21 animals each (A/B/C), randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups (n=7, 1/2/3), respectively: (A) CBCT; (B) histology/serology; (C) RT-qPCR-(1) control; (2) orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) of the first/second upper left molars (NiTi coil spring, 0.25N); (3) OTM with experimentally induced periodontitis (cervical silk ligature). After 14days of OTM, we quantified blood leukocyte level, DRR, osteoclast activity and relative gene expression of inflammatory and osteoclast marker genes within the dental-periodontal tissue as well as tooth movement velocity and periodontal bone loss after 14 and 28 days. The experimentally induced periodontal bone loss was significantly increased by concurrent orthodontic force application. Periodontal inflammation during OTM on the other hand significantly augmented the extent of DRR, relative expression of inflammatory/osteoclast marker genes, blood leukocyte level and periodontal osteoclast activity. In addition, contrary to previous studies, we observed a significant increase in tooth movement velocity. Although accelerated tooth movement would be favourable for orthodontic treatment, our results suggest that orthodontic interventions should only be performed after successful systematic periodontal therapy and paused in case of recurrent active inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Surgical exposure of an impacted maxillary canine and increasing a band of keratinized gingiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An adequate amount of keratinized gingival tissue that is under proper plaque control, is a fundamental requirement for periodontal health. When the teeth erupt uneventfully in the center of the alveolar ridge, an adequate amount of keratinized tissue will surround the erupted permanent tooth. Labially or buccally erupting teeth show reduced dimensions of the gingiva as abnormal eruption of permanent teeth restricts or eliminates the keratinized tissue between the erupting cusp and the deciduous tooth. A lack of attached gingiva poses a potential risk for gingival recession in labially or buccally erupted teeth due to the possibility of accumulation of plaque and/or traumatic tooth-brushing during subsequent orthodontic treatment. A good understanding between the orthodontist and periodontist along with proper management of periodontal tissues, can prevent these problems. Various surgical techniques can be employed to uncover impacted teeth. This paper discusses the validity of utilizing periodontal surgery to increase a band of keratinized tissue in a case of an impacted canine erupting from the alveolar mucosa.

  5. Tooth angulation and dental arch perimeter-the effect of orthodontic bracket prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Luana F; Cecim, Rodolpho L; Machado, Sissy M; Normando, David

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of upper incisors and canine angulations introduced by different bracket prescriptions on dental arch perimeter. Cone beam computerized tomography scans collected using I-Cat (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA, USA) were selected conveniently from a database of routine exams of a clinical radiology center. Crown and radicular measurements of upper incisors and canines were made and exported to the Autocad 2011 software to create a virtual dental model. The virtual teeth were positioned with an angulation of zero; thereafter, a reference value for the perimeter of the arch was measured. Furthermore, teeth angulations were applied according to the standards of the Edgewise bracket system and the Straight-wire systems: MBT, Capelozza, Andrews, and Roth. The largest linear distances for tooth crown (anterior arch perimeter) and root (radicular distance) were obtained for each bracket prescription. The anterior perimeter for well-aligned incisors and canines without angulation was used as reference (crown: 47.34mm; root: 39.13mm). An increase in the arch perimeter was obtained for all bracket prescriptions evaluated, which ranged from 0.28 and 3.19mm in the Edgewise technique, for the crown and root measurements, respectively, to 1.09 and 11.28mm for the Roth prescription. Bracket prescriptions with greater angulation led to an increased use of space within the dental arch, mainly in the radicular region. The consequence of this radicular angular displacement will need to be further investigated. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Multivariate image analysis of laser-induced photothermal imaging used for detection of caries tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherif, Ashraf F.; Abdel Aziz, Wessam M.; El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.

    2010-08-01

    Time-resolved photothermal imaging has been investigated to characterize tooth for the purpose of discriminating between normal and caries areas of the hard tissue using thermal camera. Ultrasonic thermoelastic waves were generated in hard tissue by the absorption of fiber-coupled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses operating at 1064 nm in conjunction with a laser-induced photothermal technique used to detect the thermal radiation waves for diagnosis of human tooth. The concepts behind the use of photo-thermal techniques for off-line detection of caries tooth features were presented by our group in earlier work. This paper illustrates the application of multivariate image analysis (MIA) techniques to detect the presence of caries tooth. MIA is used to rapidly detect the presence and quantity of common caries tooth features as they scanned by the high resolution color (RGB) thermal cameras. Multivariate principal component analysis is used to decompose the acquired three-channel tooth images into a two dimensional principal components (PC) space. Masking score point clusters in the score space and highlighting corresponding pixels in the image space of the two dominant PCs enables isolation of caries defect pixels based on contrast and color information. The technique provides a qualitative result that can be used for early stage caries tooth detection. The proposed technique can potentially be used on-line or real-time resolved to prescreen the existence of caries through vision based systems like real-time thermal camera. Experimental results on the large number of extracted teeth as well as one of the thermal image panoramas of the human teeth voltanteer are investigated and presented.

  7. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies

    OpenAIRE

    J. Van Heerden; J. Bingham; M. Van Vuuren; R.E.J. Burroughs; E. Stylianides

    2002-01-01

    Wild dogs Lycaon pictus (n = 8) were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8) (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper) and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8) over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use ...

  8. Stress Distribution Evaluation of the Periodontal Ligament in the Maxillary Canine for Retraction by Different Alveolar Corticotomy Techniques: A Three-dimensional Finite Element Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Ariel Adriano Reyes; Saga, Armando Yukio; de Lima, Key Fonseca; Paese, Victor Nissen; Tanaka, Orlando M

    2016-01-01

    By using the finite element method (FEM), this study aimed to evaluate the effect of different corticotomy formats on the distribution and magnitude of stress on the periodontal ligament (PDL) during retraction of the maxillary canine. A geometric model of the left hemi-jaw was created from computed tomography scan images of a dry human skull and loads were administered during distalization movement of the canine. Three trials were performed: (1) without corticotomy, (2) box-shaped corticotomy and perforations in the cortical bone of the canine (CVC) and (3) CVC and circular-shaped corticotomy in the cortical bone of the edentulous space of the first premolar. There was no difference in stress distribution among the different corticotomy formats. Different corticotomy formats used to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement did not affect stress distribution in the PDL during canine retraction. From a mechanical perspective, the present study showed that the stress distribution on the PDL during canine retraction was similar in all the corticotomy formats. When using the Andrews T2 bracket, the PDL presented the highest levels of stress in the middle third of the PDL, suggesting that the force was near the center of resistance. Also, as bone weakening by corticotomies did not influence stress distribution, the surgical procedure could be simplified to a less aggressive one, focusing more on inflammatory cellular stimulation than on bone resistance. A simpler surgical act could also be performed by most orthodontists in their practices, enhancing postoperative response and reducing patient costs.

  9. The combination use of platelet-rich fibrin and treated dentin matrix for tooth root regeneration by cell homing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Baohui; Sheng, Lei; Chen, Gang; Guo, Shujuan; Xie, Li; Yang, Bo; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous regeneration through cell homing provides an alternative approach for tissue regeneration, except cell transplantation, especially considering clinical translation. However, tooth root regeneration through cell homing remains a provocative approach in need of intensive study. Both platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and treated dentin matrix (TDM) are warehouses of various growth factors, which can promote cell homing. We hypothesized that endogenous stem cells are able to sense biological cues from PRF membrane and TDM, and contribute to the regeneration of tooth root, including soft and hard periodontal tissues. Therefore, the biological effects of canine PRF and TDM on periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were evaluated respectively in vitro. Beagle dogs were used as orthotopic transplantation model. It was found that PRF significantly recruited and stimulated the proliferation of PDLSCs and BMSCs in vitro. Together, PRF and TDM induced cell differentiation by upregulating the mineralization-related gene expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopotin (OPN) after 7 days coculture. In vivo, transplantation of autologous PRF and allogeneic TDM into fresh tooth extraction socket achieved successful root regeneration 3 months postsurgery, characterized by the regeneration of cementum and periodontal ligament (PDL)-like tissues with orientated fibers, indicative of functional restoration. The results suggest that tooth root connected to the alveolar bone by cementum-PDL complex can be regenerated through the implantation of PRF and TDM in a tooth socket microenvironment, probably by homing of BMSCs and PDLSCs. Furthermore, bioactive cues and inductive microenvironment are key factors for endogenous regeneration. This approach provides a tangible pathway toward clinical translation.

  10. Roentgenologic investigations for the anterior tooth length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Pyo; Ahn, Hyung Kyu [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University , Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-11-15

    The author measured the length of crown, root and tooth on the films which was taken by intraoral bisecting technic with mesh plate on the films. The films were taken from the dry skulls, dentiform, same patients who had to be removed their upper incisors, and the other patients who admitted for dental care. From this serial experiment the results were made as follows: 1. By using the film and mesh plate in the oral cavity, the real tooth length can be measured easily on the film surfaces. 2. The film distortion in the oral cavity can be avoided when taking the film using the mesh plate and film together. 3. When measuring the film, length of crown was elongated and length of root was shortened. 4. When using the well-trained bisecting technic, the real tooth length can be measured directly on the intraoral film.

  11. Effect of drugs on orthodontic tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sarah Aulia Amrullah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic tooth movement is basically a biological response to mechanical forces given to the teeth in orthodontic treatment, which involving the periodontal tissue and alveolar bone, resulting in the release of numerous substances from the dental tissues and surrounding structure. Remodeling changes in periodontal tissues are considered to be essential in effecting orthodontic tooth movement which is the base of orthodontic correction. Molecules produced in various diseased tissues or drugs and nutrients consumed regularly by patients, can influence mechanically stressed periodontal tissue through the circulation and interact with target cell combination of which may be inhibitory, additive or synergize. Medications might have an important influence on the rate of tooth movement, and information on their consumption is essential to adequately discuss treatment planning with patients. Therefore it is imperative to the practitioners being in medical profession, must pay close attention to the drug consumption history of every patient before and during the course of treatment.

  12. Side effects of external tooth bleaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruzell, E.M.; Pallesen, Ulla; Thoresen, N.R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study was performed to assess the risk of at-home and in-office bleaching procedures, and to recognise potential predictors for side effects. Design Multi-centre, questionnaire-based prospective study with follow-ups at around 14 days and around one year post-treatment. Setting...... General practices and university clinics during the years 2007‑2009 in Scandinavia. Subjects Patients with tooth bleaching as part of the treatment plan. Results The prevalence of experienced tooth sensitivity at first follow-up was independent of bleaching procedure (at-home = 50.3% [n = 143]; in...... attributed to the bleaching treatment in the at-home and in-office groups, respectively. Predictors for side effects were tooth sensitivity, surface loss and gingivitis when observed at inclusion. Treatment-related predictors were bleaching concentration and contact between tray and gingiva. Conclusions...

  13. Characterization of the canine urinary proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Laura E; Ehrhart, E J; Scherman, Hataichanok; Olver, Christine S; Bohn, Andrea A; Prenni, Jessica E

    2014-06-01

    Urine is an attractive biofluid for biomarker discovery as it is easy and minimally invasive to obtain. While numerous studies have focused on the characterization of human urine, much less research has focused on canine urine. The objectives of this study were to characterize the universal canine urinary proteome (both soluble and exosomal), to determine the overlap between the canine proteome and a representative human urinary proteome study, to generate a resource for future canine studies, and to determine the suitability of the dog as a large animal model for human diseases. The soluble and exosomal fractions of normal canine urine were characterized using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Biological Networks Gene Ontology (BiNGO) software was utilized to assign the canine urinary proteome to respective Gene Ontology categories, such as Cellular Component, Molecular Function, and Biological Process. Over 500 proteins were confidently identified in normal canine urine. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that exosomal proteins were largely derived from an intracellular location, while soluble proteins included both extracellular and membrane proteins. Exosome proteins were assigned to metabolic processes and localization, while soluble proteins were primarily annotated to specific localization processes. Several proteins identified in normal canine urine have previously been identified in human urine where these proteins are related to various extrarenal and renal diseases. The results of this study illustrate the potential of the dog as an animal model for human disease states and provide the framework for future studies of canine renal diseases. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  14. Radioimmunoassay of canine growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eigenmann, J.E.; Eigenmann, R.Y.

    1981-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) for canine growth hormone (GH) was developed. Antibodies were elicited in rhesus monkeys. One antiserum exhibited a working titer at a dilution of 1:500 000. Radioiodination was performed enzymatically employing lactoperoxidase. Logit-log transformation and least squares fitting resulted in straight line fitting of the standard curve between 0.39 and 50 ng/ml. Formation of large-molecular [ 125 I]GH during storage caused diminished assay sensitivity. Therefore [ 125 I]GH was re-purified by gel chromatography. Using this procedure, high and reproducible assay sensitivity was obtained. Tracer preparations were used for as long as 3 months after iodination. Diluted plasma from normal and acromegalic dogs resulted in a dose-response curve parallel to the standard curve. Canine prolactin exhibited a cross-reactivity of 2%. The within-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was 3.8 and the between-assay CV was 7.2%. Mean plasma GH concentration in normal dogs was 1.92 +- 0.14 ng/ml (mean +- SEM.) GH levels in acromegalic dogs were appreciably higher. Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, arginine and ornithine administration resulted in inconsistent and sluggish GH increment. A better response was obtained by injecting a low dose of clonidine. Clonidine administration to hypopituitary dogs resulted in absent or poor GH increment. (author)

  15. Mandibular canine intrusion with the segmented arch technique: A finite element method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Giselle Milagros; Carvalho Filho, Osvaldo Abadia de; Hargreaves, Bernardo Oliveira; Brito, Hélio Henrique de Araújo; Magalhães Júnior, Pedro Américo Almeida; Oliveira, Dauro Douglas

    2015-06-01

    Mandibular canines are anatomically extruded in approximately half of the patients with a deepbite. Although simultaneous orthodontic intrusion of the 6 mandibular anterior teeth is not recommended, a few studies have evaluated individual canine intrusion. Our objectives were to use the finite element method to simulate the segmented intrusion of mandibular canines with a cantilever and to evaluate the effects of different compensatory buccolingual activations. A finite element study of the right quadrant of the mandibular dental arch together with periodontal structures was modeled using SolidWorks software (Dassault Systèmes Americas, Waltham, Mass). After all bony, dental, and periodontal ligament structures from the second molar to the canine were graphically represented, brackets and molar tubes were modeled. Subsequently, a 0.021 × 0.025-in base wire was modeled with stainless steel properties and inserted into the brackets and tubes of the 4 posterior teeth to simulate an anchorage unit. Finally, a 0.017 × 0.025-in cantilever was modeled with titanium-molybdenum alloy properties and inserted into the first molar auxiliary tube. Discretization and boundary conditions of all anatomic structures tested were determined with HyperMesh software (Altair Engineering, Milwaukee, Wis), and compensatory toe-ins of 0°, 4°, 6°, and 8° were simulated with Abaqus software (Dassault Systèmes Americas). The 6° toe-in produced pure intrusion of the canine. The highest amounts of periodontal ligament stress in the anchor segment were observed around the first molar roots. This tooth showed a slight tendency for extrusion and distal crown tipping. Moreover, the different compensatory toe-ins tested did not significantly affect the other posterior teeth. The segmented mechanics simulated in this study may achieve pure mandibular canine intrusion when an adequate amount of compensatory toe-in (6°) is incorporated into the cantilever to prevent buccal and lingual crown

  16. Tooth-germ damage by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobkowiak, E.M.; Beetke, E.; Bienengraeber, V.; Held, M.; Kittner, K.H.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments on animals (four-week-old dogs) were conducted in an investigation made to study the possibility of dose-dependent tooth-germ damage produced by ionizing radiation. The individual doses were 50 R and 200 R, respectively, and they were administered once to three times at weekly intervals. Hyperemia and edemata could be observed on tooth-germ pulps from 150 R onward. Both of these conditions became more acute as the radiation dose increased (from 150 R to 600 R). Possible damage to both the dentin and enamel is pointed out. (author)

  17. Tooth microwear formation rate in Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, D C; Purnell, M A; Hart, P J B

    2014-05-01

    Tooth microwear feature densities were significantly increased in a population of laboratory-reared three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus in four days, after they were transferred from a limnetic feeding regime to a benthic feeding regime. These results show that even in aquatic vertebrates with non-occluding teeth, changes in feeding can cause changes in tooth microwear in just a few days, as in mammals. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Expression, Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Canine FGF21 in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhong; Yang, Chengjun; Yin, Ruofeng; Jiang, Jinxi; He, Haiting; Wang, Xinxin; Kan, Mujie; Xiao, Yechen

    2016-01-01

    The canine metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, have become a worldwide problem. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a potent regulator which has many biological functions relative to metabolism regulation. It suggests that FGF21 plays important roles in regulating canine metabolic diseases. To acquire the recombinant canine FGF21 (rcFGF21) in Escherichia coli, the recombinant bacteria were induced by 0.5 mM IPTG for 16 hours at 16 °C, and the rcFGF21 protein was purified by Ni-NTA. 8 mg rcFGF21 was acquired from one liter bacteria. The rcFGF21 protein has specific immunoblot reactivity against anti-FGF21 and anti-His antibody. The in vivo experimental result showed that rcFGF21 can significantly reduce plasma glucose of STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  19. Esthetic Reconstruction of Diastema with Adhesive Tooth-Colored Restorations and Hyaluronic Acid Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawadee Naorungroj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This report presents a comprehensive esthetic treatment with adhesive tooth-colored restorations in a combination with hyaluronic acid (HA fillers of diastema in an orthodontic patient with relapse. Case Report. A 36-year-old female patient consulted about 1.5–2 mm midline diastema after an orthodontic relapse of replacing missing central incisors with lateral incisors and dark-colored gingival tissue as a result of a metal post and core with porcelain fused to a metal (PFM crown at the left lateral incisor. Restorative treatments included replacing the PFM with all-ceramic material and placing a ceramic veneer on the right lateral incisor. To close the space, crown forms of both lateral incisors were altered. A direct resin composite was then used to reform right and left canines to a more ideal lateral incisor shape. An HA fillers injection was used to fill the remaining open gingival embrasure. Eighteen months after treatment, the interdental papilla remained stable and the patient was satisfied with the result. Conclusion. Esthetic reconstruction of diastema and open gingival embrasure in this case can be accomplished without orthodontic retreatment. Tooth-colored restorations and HA filler injection appear as a promising modality to address this patient’s esthetic concern.

  20. Effect of dental wear, stabilization appliance and anterior tooth reconstruction on mandibular movements during speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Priscila de Oliveira; Faot, Fernanda; Del Bel Cury, Altair Antoninha; Rodrigues Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus

    2008-01-01

    This study described changes in mandibular movements during pronunciation of /m/ and /s/ sounds in Portuguese, in patients presenting dental wear before and after appliance insertion and tooth reconstruction. Subjects were divided into a control group of dentate patients and an experimental group of patients with incisal tooth wear due to bruxism. A magnetic jaw tracking device measured the jaw opening, and translations to left and right sides of the mandible during pronunciation of phonemes. Evaluations were carried out 1 week and immediately before appliance insertion; 24 h, 7, 30 and 60 days after appliance insertion; and 1 week and 1 month after tooth reconstruction. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney and Friedman tests (pspeech of /m/ and /s/ sounds were not changed after appliance insertion and reconstruction of teeth.

  1. Prediction of width of un-erupted incisors, canines and premolars in a Ugandan population: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buwembo William

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate prediction of the space forms an important part of an orthodontic assessment in the mixed dentition. However the most commonly used methods of space analysis are based on data developed on Caucasian populations. In order to provide more accurate local data we set out to develop a formula for predicting the widths of un-erupted canines and premolars for a Ugandan population and to compare the predicted widths of the teeth from this formula with those obtained from Moyers’ tables, and Tanaka and Johnston’s equations. Methods Dental casts were prepared using mandibular and maxillary arch impressions of 220 children (85 boys/135 girls aged 12–17 years recruited from schools in Kampala, Uganda. The mesio-distal width of the mandibular incisors, mandibular and maxillary canines and premolars were measured with a pair of digital calipers. Based on regression analysis, predictive equations were derived and the findings were compared with those presented in Moyers’ probability tables, and Tanaka and Johnston’s equations. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the tooth widths predicted by our equations and those from Moyers’ probability tables at the 65th and 75th percentile probabilities for the girls and at 75th level in boys in the mandibular arch. While in the maxillary arch no statistically significant differences at the 75th and 95th levels were noted in girls. There were statistically significant differences between predicted tooth sizes using equations from the present study and those predicted from the Tanaka and Johnston regression equations. Conclusions In this Ugandan population, Moyers’ probability tables could be used to predict tooth widths at specific percentile probabilities, but generally, Tanaka and Johnston technique tends to overestimate the tooth widths.

  2. Impact of balancing-side tooth contact on clenching induced mandibular displacements in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, K; Yugami, K; Yaka, T; Ai, M

    2001-08-01

    This study investigated mandibular displacements during clenching in the lateral mandibular position in relation to lateral occlusal relationships. Twelve healthy human subjects (mean=26.7 years) volunteered for this study. Acrylic occlusal devices were fabricated for the lower working-side canine, working-side second molar and balancing-side second molar in order to simulate a dominant canine guidance, working-side interference (WI), balancing-side interference (BI) and bilateral balanced occlusion (BO). Vertical displacements of the mandible were recorded by linear variable differential transformers during submaximal clenching in the right lateral position. The four experimental occlusal conditions were revealed to have a significant effect on mandibular displacement patterns (ANOVA, P experimental conditions. These results suggest that the nature of reaction forces at the temporomandibular (TM) joints caused by the elevation of the mandible varies in a predictable manner depending upon lateral occlusal relationships.

  3. Clinical tooth preparations and associated measuring methods: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiu, Janine; Al-Amleh, Basil; Waddell, J Neil; Duncan, Warwick J

    2015-03-01

    The geometries of tooth preparations are important features that aid in the retention and resistance of cemented complete crowns. The clinically relevant values and the methods used to measure these are not clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to retrieve, organize, and critically appraise studies measuring clinical tooth preparation parameters, specifically the methodology used to measure the preparation geometry. A database search was performed in Scopus, PubMed, and ScienceDirect with an additional hand search on December 5, 2013. The articles were screened for inclusion and exclusion criteria and information regarding the total occlusal convergence (TOC) angle, margin design, and associated measuring methods were extracted. The values and associated measuring methods were tabulated. A total of 1006 publications were initially retrieved. After removing duplicates and filtering by using exclusion and inclusion criteria, 983 articles were excluded. Twenty-three articles reported clinical tooth preparation values. Twenty articles reported the TOC, 4 articles reported margin designs, 4 articles reported margin angles, and 3 articles reported the abutment height of preparations. A variety of methods were used to measure these parameters. TOC values seem to be the most important preparation parameter. Recommended TOC values have increased over the past 4 decades from an unachievable 2- to 5-degree taper to a more realistic 10 to 22 degrees. Recommended values are more likely to be achieved under experimental conditions if crown preparations are performed outside of the mouth. We recommend that a standardized measurement method based on the cross sections of crown preparations and standardized reporting be developed for future studies analyzing preparation geometry. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of Coenzyme Q10 for Accelerating Soft Tissue Wound Healing after Tooth Extraction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Yoneda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Accelerating wound healing after tooth extraction is beneficial in dental treatment. Application of antioxidants, such as reduced coenzyme Q10 (rCoQ10, may promote wound healing after tooth extraction. In this study, we examined the effects of topical application of rCoQ10 on wound healing after tooth extraction in rats. After maxillary first molars were extracted, male Fischer 344 rats (8 weeks old (n = 27 received topical application of ointment containing 5% rCoQ10 (experimental group or control ointment (control group to the sockets for 3 or 8 days (n = 6–7/group. At 3 days after extraction, the experimental group showed higher collagen density and lower numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the upper part of socket, as compared to the control group (p < 0.05. Gene expression of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor-κB were also lower in the experimental group than in the control group (p < 0.05. At 8 days after tooth extraction, there were no significant differences in collagen density, number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and bone fill between the groups. Our results suggest that topical application of rCoQ10 promotes wound healing in the soft tissue of the alveolar socket, but that rCoQ10 has a limited effect on bone remodeling in rats.

  5. 21 CFR 872.5525 - Preformed tooth positioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5525 Preformed tooth positioner. (a) Identification. A preformed tooth positioner is a plastic device that is an impression of a perfected bite...

  6. Tooth breakage in patients injected with 224Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnabend, E.; Spiess, H.; Mays, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    Tooth breakage has been common among the 224 Ra patients, especially those injected as teenagers. The fracture of 1 or more teeth was reported by 26% (8/31) of boys and 23% (7/30) of girls injected with 224 Ra at 16-20 years of age. Combining results from all age groups, the incidence of tooth fractures increased significantly with dose (P=0.01). Unlike the normal loss of permanent teeth by periodontal disease, in which the entire tooth is lost, the tooth loss following 224 Ra injection was primarily from tooth resorption near the gum line causing the tooth crowns to break off easily. Eventually the tooth roots may either become incorporated into the jawbone or are resorbed and replaced with bone. These tooth fractures resembled those observed in the U.S. radium dial painters and in dogs injected with bone-seeking α-emitters. (orig.)

  7. Dental arch dimensions, form and tooth size ratio among a Saudi sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidi Omar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the dental arch dimensions and arch forms in a sample of Saudi orthodontic patients, to investigate the prevalence of Bolton anterior and overall tooth size discrepancies, and to compare the effect of gender on the measured parameters. Methods: This study is a biometric analysis of dental casts of 149 young adults recruited from different orthodontic centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The dental arch dimensions were measured. The measured parameters were arch length, arch width, Bolton’s ratio, and arch form. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS software version 22.0 (IBM Corporation, New York, USA; this cross-sectional study was conducted between April 2015 and May 2016. Results: Dental arch measurements, including inter-canine and inter-molar distance, were found to be significantly greater in males than females (p less than 0.05. The most prevalent dental arch forms were narrow tapered (50.3% and narrow ovoid (34.2%, respectively. The prevalence of tooth size discrepancy in all cases was 43.6% for anterior ratio and 24.8% for overall ratio. The mean Bolton’s anterior ratio in all malocclusion classes was 79.81%, whereas the mean Bolton’s overall ratio was 92.21%. There was no significant difference between males and females regarding Bolton’s ratio. Conclusion: The most prevalent arch form was narrow tapered, followed by narrow ovoid. Males generally had larger dental arch measurements than females, and the prevalence of tooth size discrepancy was more in Bolton’s anterior teeth ratio than in overall ratio.

  8. Tooth Decay Process: How to Reverse It and Avoid a Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Info Health Topics Tooth Decay Tooth decay (dental caries) is damage to a tooth that can happen ... Clinical Trials Show All Clinical Trials Data & Statistics Dental caries (tooth decay) remains the most prevalent chronic disease ...

  9. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying.

    Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the

  10. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dentist Your Family's Oral Health About the AGD Dental care and oral health information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Friday, May 11, 2018 About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference ... Resin (White Filling)? Check Menstrual Calendar for Tooth Extraction What is Dental Amalgam (Silver Filling)? Learn what those dental words ...

  11. Tooth mobility changes subsequent to root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth mobility changes in root-fractured permanent teeth and relate this to type of interfragment healing (hard tissue healing (HT), interfragment healing with periodontal ligament (PDL) and nonhealing with interposition of granulation tissue (GT) because...

  12. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2018 About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Oral Health and Overal Health Headaches and Jaw Pain? Check ... Tooth Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral Health | RSS About AGD | Contact AGD | Site Map | Reprints ...

  13. Bleaching of the discolored traumatized tooth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jon E.; Kopperud, Siemen E.; Pallesen, Ulla

    2018-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the treatment of discolored traumatized teeth, most of them being non-vital and subsequently, endodontically treated. Tooth bleaching based upon hydrogen peroxide as the active agent, applied directly or produced in a chemical reaction from sodium perborate or carbamide pe...

  14. Recent Approaches in Tooth Engineering Research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švandová, Eva; Veselá, Barbora; Křivánek, J.; Hampl, A.; Matalová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, Suppl 1 (2014), s. 21-29 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/11/1418; GA MZd(CZ) NT11420 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : engineering * tooth * stem cells * culture techniques Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2014

  15. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dental Advances Learn what those dental words mean. The Life of a Tooth Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral Health | RSS About AGD | Contact AGD | Site Map | Reprints and Permissions | Privacy Statement | Terms and Conditions © 1996-2018 Academy of General Dentistry. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Age effect on orthodontic tooth movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin

    2003-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of age on the efficiency of orthodontic tooth movement based on critical literature reviews, studies on a standardized orthodontic animal model and a non-invasive clinical investigation. A systematic review was performed on the optimum force for

  17. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... friv Home InfoBites Find an AGD Dentist Your Family's Oral Health About the AGD Dental care and ... a Tooth Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral Health | RSS About AGD | Contact AGD | Site ...

  18. Cigarette smoking, tooth brushing characteristics, and perceived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted among four hundred non-dental undergraduates of University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking, tooth brushing characteristics, perceived efficacy in oral self-care and preventing gingivodental diseases among them. The result showed that the perceived ...

  19. Storing tooth segments for optimal esthetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuzuner, T.; Turgut, S.; Özen, B.; Kılınç, H.; Bagis, B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A fractured whole crown segment can be reattached to its remnant; crowns from extracted teeth may be used as pontics in splinting techniques. We aimed to evaluate the effect of different storage solutions on tooth segment optical properties after different durations. Study design: Sixty

  20. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... June 1, 2018 About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Nutrition - Adults When Should My Child First See a Dentist? Check Menstrual Calendar for Tooth Extraction Temporomandibular Joint Disorder Men: Looking for a Better Job? Start by Visiting the Dentist Are You ...

  1. Restoration of the endodontically treated posterior tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Polesel

    2014-06-01

    Results and conclusions: Direct adhesive restorations, indirect bonded restorations and traditional full crown are three therapeutic options for the single posterior endodontically treated teeth. The amount of remaining sound tooth structure is the most significant factor influencing the therapeutic approach. The clinician's operative skill is a determining aspect for long-term success of adhesive inlays.

  2. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... oyunlarý bakugan oyunlarý geta poker friv Home InfoBites Find an AGD Dentist Your Family's Oral Health About ... mean. The Life of a Tooth Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral Health | RSS About ...

  3. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Children's Oral Health What is Baby Bottle Tooth Decay? Temporomandibular Joint ... Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral Health | RSS About AGD | Contact AGD | Site Map | Reprints ...

  4. Apoptotic cell elimination during early tooth development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matalová, Eva; Míšek, Ivan; Chovancová, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 7 (2003), s. 34 ISSN 0001-7213. [Congress of the European Association of Veterinary Anatomists/24./. 21.07.2002-25.07.2002, Brno] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP204/02/P112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : tooth development Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry

  5. Bevarage consumption during television viewing and tooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The study assessed the television (TV) viewing habits, preferred energy and acidic drinks consumed when watching television and the history of tooth sensitivity among adolescents who watched television >2 hours daily (HTV) and <2 hour daily. (LTV). Subjects and Methods: This is a descriptive study conducted in Ife ...

  6. EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattibene, Paola; Callens, Freddy

    2010-01-01

    When tooth enamel is exposed to ionizing radiation, radicals are formed, which can be detected using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. EPR dosimetry using tooth enamel is based on the (presumed) correlation between the intensity or amplitude of some of the radiation-induced signals with the dose absorbed in the enamel. In the present paper a critical review is given of this widely applied dosimetric method. The first part of the paper is fairly fundamental and deals with the main properties of tooth enamel and some of its model systems (e.g., synthetic apatites). Considerable attention is also paid to the numerous radiation-induced and native EPR signals and the radicals responsible for them. The relevant methods for EPR detection, identification and spectrum analyzing are reviewed from a general point of view. Finally, the needs for solid-state modelling and studies of the linearity of the dose response are investigated. The second part is devoted to the practical implementation of EPR dosimetry using enamel. It concerns specific problems of preparation of samples, their irradiation and spectrum acquisition. It also describes how the dosimetric signal intensity and dose can be retrieved from the EPR spectra. Special attention is paid to the energy dependence of the EPR response and to sources of uncertainties. Results of and problems encountered in international intercomparisons and epidemiological studies are also dealt with. In the final section the future of EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel is analyzed.

  7. Death in the life of a tooth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matalová, Eva; Tucker, A. S.; Sharpe, P. T.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 1 (2004), s. 11-16 ISSN 0022-0345 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP204/02/P112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : apoptosis * tooth development Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 3.131, year: 2004

  8. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Children's Oral Health Check Menstrual Calendar for Tooth Extraction The History ... Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral Health | RSS About AGD | Contact AGD | Site Map | Reprints ...

  9. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bomberman atari oyunlarý bakugan oyunlarý geta poker friv Home InfoBites Find an AGD Dentist Your Family's Oral ... dental words mean. The Life of a Tooth Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral Health | ...

  10. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Tooth Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbin Ranjitkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in children and adults, and of “silent refluxers” in particular, increases the responsibility of dentists to be alert to this potentially severe condition when observing unexplained instances of tooth erosion. Although gastroesophageal reflux is a normal physiologic occurrence, excessive gastric and duodenal regurgitation combined with a decrease in normal protective mechanisms, including an adequate production of saliva, may result in many esophageal and extraesophageal adverse conditions. Sleep-related GERD is particularly insidious as the supine position enhances the proximal migration of gastric contents, and normal saliva production is much reduced. Gastric acid will displace saliva easily from tooth surfaces, and proteolytic pepsin will remove protective dental pellicle. Though increasing evidence of associations between GERD and tooth erosion has been shown in both animal and human studies, relatively few clinical studies have been carried out under controlled trial conditions. Suspicion of an endogenous source of acid being associated with observed tooth erosion requires medical referral and management of the patient as the primary method for its prevention and control.

  11. Study of formation constant of molybdophosphate and it's application in the product of xenotime sand, tooth and bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samin; Lahagu, F.; Basuki, K. T.; Ernawati, F.

    1996-01-01

    The formation constant of molybdophosphate complex and it's application in the product of xenotime sand, tooth and bone have been studied by spectrophotometric method. The molybdophosphate complex were formed from reaction between phosphate and molybdate on several of pH in the strong acid condition (pH = 0.45 - 0.71) and several of phosphate mole fraction (0.01 - 0.08). The several of complex formation reactions were determined by matrix disintegration technique. Molybdophosphate complex were founded three forms i.e. (P 2 Mo 18 O 62 ) 6- or 9 MPA, (PMo 11 O 39 ) 7- or 11 MPA and (PMo 12 O 40 ) 3- or 12 MPA. The formation constant of (PMo 12 O 40 ) 3- complex was found β = 10 46.95 ± 10 3.7 , while for (P 2 Mo 18 O 62 ) 6- and (PMo 11 O 39 ) 7- were not detected. The application in samples were found the concentration of P in product of xenotime sand : 5.37±0.08 μg/ml, in canine-tooth: 10.40 - 19.49 % in cutting-tooth : 11.08 - 18.05 % and in bone 10.94 - 14.29 %. (author)

  12. Cyclooxygenase expression in canine platelets and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay-Mugford, P A; Benn, S J; LaMarre, J; Conlon, P D

    2000-12-01

    To examine cyclooxygenase (COX) expression in canine platelets and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in culture. Canine platelets and MDCK cells. Total RNA was recovered from isolated canine platelets and MDCK cells. Northern blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), using complementary DNA probes and primers designed from the human COX sequences, were used to determine COX-1 and -2 (cyclooxygenase isoforms 1 and 2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. Following northern blot analysis, canine platelets were found to express only the 2.8-kb COX-1 transcript; COX-2 was not detected. Canine MDCK cells expressed the 4.5-kb COX-2 transcript, in addition to the 2.8-kb COX-1 transcript. A single DNA band of 270 base pairs was identified following gel electrophoresis of the product obtained from RT-PCR of mRNA from canine platelets. Sequencing revealed that this PCR product was 90% homologous to a portion of the human COX-1 gene (Genbank M59979). Detection of COX-1 by RT-PCR of RNA obtained from canine platelets is a novel finding. The 90% homology of the PCR product with the human sequence suggests strong conservation between the canine and human COX-1 gene. Cloning and sequencing of the canine gene will be required to fully characterize homologous regions. Because of the importance of COX in the inflammatory process and as a potential target of currently available nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), a better understanding of canine COX may improve our ability to use NSAID appropriately, achieve efficacy, and avoid potential adverse drug effects in dogs.

  13. Effect of the vitality of the overdenture abutment tooth on stability of the tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Ahmad Omar Arafa

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: It was concluded that the overdenture over vital abutment teeth was more stable, with a lower incidence of tooth mobility and less attachment loss than overdentures placed on nonvital teeth.

  14. 21 CFR 872.3580 - Preformed gold denture tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tooth in a fixed or removable partial denture. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preformed gold denture tooth. 872.3580 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3580 Preformed gold denture tooth. (a...

  15. The Importance of Tooth Decay Prevention in Children under Three

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen; Chi, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Tooth decay and tooth loss was once the norm but public health interventions have led to major improvements for most people. Nevertheless, not all children have benefited. Dental disease in young children is unacceptably high. Tooth decay is preventable. Early childhood educators are often the first to notice the problem. Professional…

  16. Tooth-marked small theropod bone: an extremely rare trace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland

    2001-01-01

    Tooth-marked dinosaur bones provide insight into feeding behaviours and biting strategies of theropod dinosaurs. The majority of theropod tooth marks reported to date have been found on herbivorous dinosaur bones, although some tyrannosaurid bones with tooth marks have also been reported. In 1988...

  17. CANINE ECTOPIC TREATMENT WITH FIRST MOLAR EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Margo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision to extract or not and the type of tooth must be analyzed carefully in orthodontic treatment. Preferable tooth to be extracted was the tooth with large caries or restoration. Usually the type of tooth to be extracted was second molar (if the third molar appears, incisor, first molar, and combination of several teeth. Orthodontic treatment with molar extraction is more difficult to treat and the result is usually compromise. There are several considerations in extracting first molar such as tooth with large caries or restoration, hypoplasia, periapical disease, large discrepancy, high maxilla-mandibular plane angle, and cases with anterior open bite. Nowadays, orthodontic cases with molar extraction do not prolong the treatment time compared to premolar extraction case, but the anchorage system must be considered carefully. The present case was treated with extraction of first molar to solve anterior crowding with maximum anchorage at the upper jaw and using Nance Holding Appliance.

  18. Varied clinico-radiological presentations of transmigrated canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine is one of the most commonly impacted teeth in the dental arch. An unerupted permanent canine crossing the midline is called transmigration and is an unusual event. We report nine cases of impacted canine transmigration. Maxillary canine transmigration, bilateral transmigration, and transmigration associated with odontoma are rare presentations. This article discusses the varied clinico-radiologic presentations, etiology, and treatment options of transmigration. It also emphasizes the importance of panoramic radiographs for evaluation of over-retained deciduous canines or missing permanent canines.

  19. Canine adenovirus type 1 in a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Oem, Jae-Ku

    2014-12-01

    A 10-mo-old female fennec fox (Vulpes zerda) with drooling suddenly died and was examined postmortem. Histologic examination of different tissue samples was performed. Vacuolar degeneration and diffuse fatty change were observed in the liver. Several diagnostic methods were used to screen for canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and canine adenovirus (CAdV). Only CAdV type 1 (CAdV-1) was detected in several organs (liver, lung, brain, kidney, spleen, and heart), and other viruses were not found. CAdV-1 was confirmed by virus isolation and nucleotide sequencing.

  20. Canine babesiosis: from molecular taxonomy to control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Peter J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine babesiosis is a clinically significant emerging vector-borne disease caused by protozoan haemoparasites. This review article considers recent literature pertaining to the taxonomic classification of Babesia and Theileria species affecting dogs and the geographical distribution of these parasites. The diagnosis of canine babesiosis by traditional, molecular and serological methods is reviewed, together with recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of piroplasmosis, and of the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  1. Orthodontic Traction of Impacted Canine Using Cantilever

    OpenAIRE

    Nakandakari, Cláudia; Gonçalves, João Roberto; Cassano, Daniel Serra; Raveli, Taísa Boamorte; Bianchi, Jonas; Raveli, Dirceu Barnabé

    2016-01-01

    The impaction of the maxillary canines causes relevant aesthetic and functional problems. The multidisciplinary approach to the proper planning and execution of orthodontic traction of the element in question is essential. Many strategies are cited in the literature; among them is the good biomechanical control in order to avoid possible side effects. The aim of this paper is to present a case report in which a superior canine impacted by palatine was pulled out with the aid of the cantilever...

  2. Platelets Inhibit Migration of Canine Osteosarcoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, S C; Badial, P R; Silva, R C; Lunsford, K; Bulla, C

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between platelets and tumour cells is important for tumour growth and metastasis. Thrombocytopenia or antiplatelet treatment negatively impact on cancer metastasis, demonstrating potentially important roles for platelets in tumour progression. To our knowledge, there is no information regarding the role of platelets in cancer progression in dogs. This study was designed to test whether canine platelets affected the migratory behaviour of three canine osteosarcoma cell lines and to give insights of molecular mechanisms. Intact platelets, platelet lysate and platelet releasate inhibited the migration of canine osteosarcoma cell lines. Addition of blood leucocytes to the platelet samples did not alter the inhibitory effect on migration. Platelet treatment also significantly downregulated the transcriptional levels of SNAI2 and TWIST1 genes. The interaction between canine platelets or molecules released during platelet activation and these tumour cell lines inhibits their migration, which suggests that canine platelets might antagonize metastasis of canine osteosarcoma. This effect is probably due to, at least in part, downregulation of genes related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  4. Ultrasonography of the canine pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Avante

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the ultrasonographic techniques currently used in the evaluation of the canine pancreas. Ultrasonography was the first method to enable direct visualization of the pancreas in humans and it has been subsequently applied to animals. Currently, it is the method of choice for pancreatic evaluation and is essential as a diagnostic tool in the detection of abnormalities, especially tumors. Innovative equipment technology has led to the emergence of techniques complementary to B-mode ultrasound; such as Doppler, elastography, and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, which have enabled more accurate diagnosis. Doppler provides information on vascular architecture and the hemodynamic aspect of blood vessels in multiple organs. ARFI elastography provides detailed images of the alterations detected by conventional examination (qualitative method and assists in differentiating between benign and malignant processes (quantitative method. Microbubble contrast agents determine parameters related to homogeneous and heterogeneous filling of organs with microbubbles, mainly nodular areas, thus defining high and low intensity patterns.

  5. Theoretical analysis of alendronate and risedronate effects on canine vertebral remodeling and microdamage

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiang; Erickson, Antonia M.; Allen, Matthew R.; Burr, David B.; Martin, R. Bruce; Hazelwood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Bisphosphonates suppress bone remodeling activity, increase bone volume, and significantly reduce fracture risk in individuals with osteoporosis and other metabolic bone diseases. The objectives of the current study were to develop a mathematical model that simulates control and 1 year experimental results following bisphosphonate treatment (alendronate or risedronate) in the canine fourth lumbar vertebral body, validate the model by comparing simulation predictions to 3 year experimental res...

  6. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine...

  7. Is tooth wear in the primary dentition predictive of tooth wear in the permanent dentition? Report from a longitudinal study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harding, M A

    2010-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of tooth wear in the permanent dentition of a sample of 12-year-old school children and establish whether an association exists between tooth wear recorded now and tooth wear recorded in their primary dentition at age five.

  8. Role of canine circovirus in dogs with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A; Hartmann, K; Leutenegger, C M; Proksch, A L; Mueller, R S; Unterer, S

    2017-06-03

    Canine circovirus (CanineCV) has been detected in some dogs with severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea, but its pathogenic role is unclear. This study evaluated a suspected association between the presence of CanineCV and acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) in dogs. The prevalence of CanineCV in dogs with AHDS was compared with that in healthy dogs and those infected with canine parvovirus (CPV). Additionally, time to recovery and mortality rate were compared between CanineCV-positive and CanineCV-negative dogs. Faecal samples of dogs with AHDS (n=55), healthy dogs (n=66) and dogs infected with CPV (n=54) were examined by two real-time TaqMan PCR assays targeting the replicase and capsid genes of CanineCV. CanineCV was detected in faecal samples of two dogs with AHDS, three healthy controls and seven dogs infected with CPV. Among the three groups, there was no significant difference in prevalence of CanineCV. CPV-infected animals that were coinfected with CanineCV had a significantly higher mortality rate compared with those negative for CanineCV. CanineCV does not appear to be the primary causative agent of AHDS in dogs, but might play a role as a negative co-factor in disease outcome in dogs with CPV infection. British Veterinary Association.

  9. THE EFFECTS OF PGE1 AND INDOMETHACIN ON ORTHODONTIC TOOTH MOVEMENT IN RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EA. Niaki

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available  Prostaglandin £j (PGE-^ and indomethacin, a nonstroidal antiinflammatory drug, were separately administered during ortliodontic tooth movement in rats. At the beginning, an orthodontic appliance was placed and activated in male albinos rats. In tlie first examination, the experimental group received submucosal injections of PGE-y (10 mg/kg/day near the first maxillary riglit molars, and alcohol was injected to control group animals as a vehicle similarly. Jn the second examination, indomethacin (10 mg/kg/day and metiiyl cellulose subcutaneousfy injected to experimental and control groups respectively. Tooth movement was measured at 1,3,5,7,9 and 11 days. In PGE^ group, tooth movement increased significantly at the beginning of seven days as compared to the vehicle injected group and the number of osteoclast and Howship's lacunae were markedly increased. A significant iniiibition of tooth movement occurred beginning at seven days in the indomethacin group compared to the control group.

  10. Evaluation of post-vaccination immunity to canine distemper and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... Key words: Immunoblot ELISA, post-vaccination immunity, canine distemper, parvoviruses. INTRODUCTION. Canine ..... NGOs and other government agencies to fund and intensify ... Vaccination Programs for Dogs. In: recent ...

  11. Orthodontic correction of a transposed maxillary canine and first premolar in the permanent dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Kazuaki; Nakao, Kimihisa; Aoki, Taijyu; Fuyamada, Mariko; Saito, Keisuke; Goto, Shigemi

    2012-10-01

    The patient was a 16-year-old Japanese girl whose chief complaints were crowding and transposition of the maxillary canine and first premolar. A setup model was used to preoperatively align the teeth in their transposed positions. The amount of postoperative reshaping was estimated for the occlusal surfaces of the teeth. However, the patient did not wish to have her teeth reduced by reshaping or to have composite materials for restorative camouflage. Because she strongly expected alignment of her teeth in the correct intra-arch position, her transposed teeth were corrected without extraction of the transposed teeth. Cone-beam computed tomography was used to obtain more detailed information about the transposition, and the direction of tooth movement was examined. Although the duration of the treatment was long, both the crowns and the roots of the transposed teeth were aligned correctly. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Failure of tooth eruption in two patients with cerebral palsy and bruxism-a 10-year follow-up: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufer, Kirsten; Hamadeh, Sinan; Gesch, Dietmar

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze delayed tooth eruption in two children with cerebral palsy who had severe bruxism and to determine whether treatment could influence tooth eruption and alignment. Extraction of primary teeth was carried out and orthodontic treatment was considered due to severe tooth wear of primary teeth, lack of space, and development of a class III malocclusion. Analysis was based on clinical examination, photographs, radiographs, and dental casts. In both patients, early mixed dentition was delayed for more than 5 years. Calcification and root development of posterior permanent teeth corresponded with the chronological age. Root resorption of the severely abraded primary teeth and eruption of their successors were delayed or failed. Eruption of permanent teeth occurred slowly after primary teeth were extracted. Orthodontic treatment succeeded in one patient, achieving a normal overjet in combination with a successful orofacial therapy. The disturbed exfoliation of abraded primary teeth and failure of tooth eruption of the posterior teeth could be linked to the systemic pathology and to bruxism. At age 20, eruption of the canines and premolars remained questionable.

  13. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-09-05

    Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  14. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna McRee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV and canine distemper virus (CDV, which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV. These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34% had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84% had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13% dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  15. Expression of Sox genes in tooth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Katsushige; Kawasaki, Maiko; Watanabe, Momoko; Idrus, Erik; Nagai, Takahiro; Oommen, Shelly; Maeda, Takeyasu; Hagiwara, Nobuko; Que, Jianwen; Sharpe, Paul T; Ohazama, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Sox gene family play roles in many biological processes including organogenesis. We carried out comparative in situ hybridization analysis of seventeen sox genes (Sox1-14, 17, 18, 21) during murine odontogenesis from the epithelial thickening to the cytodifferentiation stages. Localized expression of five Sox genes (Sox6, 9, 13, 14 and 21) was observed in tooth bud epithelium. Sox13 showed restricted expression in the primary enamel knots. At the early bell stage, three Sox genes (Sox8, 11, 17 and 21) were expressed in pre-ameloblasts, whereas two others (Sox5 and 18) showed expression in odontoblasts. Sox genes thus showed a dynamic spatio-temporal expression during tooth development.

  16. Tooth structure and fracture strength of cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondelli, José; Sene, Fábio; Ramos, Renata Pereira

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated, in vitro, the loss of tooth substance after cavity preparation for direct and indirect restorations and its relationship with fracture strength of the prepared teeth. Sixty sound human maxillary first premolars were assigned to 6 groups (n=10). MOD direct composite cavities......) or 1/2 (Groups III and VI) of the intercuspal distance. Teeth were weighed (digital balance accurate to 0.001 g) before and after preparation to record tooth substance mass lost during cavity preparation. The prepared teeth were submitted to occlusal loading to determine their fracture strength using...... mass loss (13.91%) than composite resin preparations with the same width (10.02%). 1/2-inlay cavities had 21.34% of mass loss versus 16.19% for the 1/2-composite resin cavities. Fracture strength means (in kgf) were: GI = 187.65; GII = 143.62; GIII = 74.10; GIV = 164.22; GV = 101.92; GVI = 50...

  17. Large scale study of tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodart, F.; Deconninck, G.; Martin, M.T.

    Human tooth enamel contains traces of foreign elements. The presence of these elements is related to the history and the environment of the human body and can be considered as the signature of perturbations which occur during the growth of a tooth. A map of the distribution of these traces on a large scale sample of the population will constitute a reference for further investigations of environmental effects. On hundred eighty samples of teeth were first analyzed using PIXE, backscattering and nuclear reaction techniques. The results were analyzed using statistical methods. Correlations between O, F, Na, P, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Sr were observed and cluster analysis was in progress. The techniques described in the present work have been developed in order to establish a method for the exploration of very large samples of the Belgian population. (author)

  18. Biophysical dosimetry using electron paramagnetic resonance in human tooth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, R.F.H.; Boreham, D.R.; Rink, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Accidental dosimetry utilizing radiation induced paramagnetic species in biophysical tissues like teeth is a technique; that can measure the amount of radiation exposure to an individual. The major problem in implementing this technique at low doses is the presence of native organic signal, and various other artifacts produced as a result of sample processing. After a series of experimental trials, we developed an optimum set of rules, which uses high temperature ultrasonic treatment of enamel in KOH, multiple sample rotation during in-cavity measurement of natural and calibrated added irradiations, and dose construction using a backward extrapolation method. By using this we report the successful dose reconstruction in a few of our laboratory samples in 100 mGy range (76.29 ± 30.14) mGy with reasonably low uncertainty. Keywords: biophysical dosimetry, human tooth enamel, low dose measurements, accidental dosimetry (author)

  19. The challenges of treating a fused tooth

    OpenAIRE

    Baratto-Filho, Flares; Leonardi, Denise Piotto; Crozeta, Bruno Monguilhott; Baratto, Samantha Pugsley; Campos, Edson Alves; Tomazinho, Flavia Sens Fagundes; Deliberador, Tatiana Miranda

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses the multidisciplinary treatment involving a permanent maxillary lateral incisor fused to a supernumerary tooth, both presenting pulp necrosis and periapical lesion. A 15-year-old male patient sought treatment complaining of pain, swelling and mobility on the maxillary right lateral incisor. After clinical and radiographic examination, root canal preparation was performed according to the crown-down technique and a calcium hydroxide dressing was placed for 15...

  20. Orthodontic-Surgical Alternatives for Tooth Ankylosis

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo-Mira, Juan Felipe; Velásquez Velásquez, Mariluz

    2014-01-01

    Treatment for tooth ankylosis poses a big challenge in dentistry. Orthosurgical techniques must be included to obtain a satisfactory esthetic and functional result. The treatment options are surgical removal, segmentary osteotomy with immediate repo- sition and segmentary osteotomy with distraction osteogenesis, which can be done using distractors or orthodontics, thus achieving acceptable long-term outcomes. El tratamiento de dientes anquilosados presenta un gran desafio en odontologia. E...

  1. Enamel alteration following tooth bleaching and remineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coceska, Emilija; Gjorgievska, Elizabeta; Coleman, Nichola J; Gabric, Dragana; Slipper, Ian J; Stevanovic, Marija; Nicholson, John W

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of professional tooth whitening agents containing highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide (with and without laser activation), on the enamel surface; and the potential of four different toothpastes to remineralize any alterations. The study was performed on 50 human molars, divided in two groups: treated with Opalescence(®) Boost and Mirawhite(®) Laser Bleaching. Furthermore, each group was divided into five subgroups, a control one and 4 subgroups remineralized with: Mirasensitive(®) hap+, Mirawhite(®) Gelleѐ, GC Tooth Mousse™ and Mirafluor(®) C. The samples were analysed by SEM/3D-SEM-micrographs, SEM/EDX-qualitative analysis and SEM/EDX-semiquantitative analysis. The microphotographs show that both types of bleaching cause alterations: emphasized perikymata, erosions, loss of interprizmatic substance; the laser treatment is more aggressive and loss of integrity of the enamel is determined by shearing off the enamel rods. In all samples undergoing remineralization deposits were observed, those of toothpastes based on calcium phosphate technologies seem to merge with each other and cover almost the entire surface of the enamel. Loss of integrity and minerals were detected only in the line-scans of the sample remineralized with GC Tooth Mousse™. The semiquantitative EDX analysis of individual elements in the surface layer of the enamel indicates that during tooth-bleaching with HP statistically significant loss of Na and Mg occurs, whereas the bleaching in combination with a laser leads to statistically significant loss of Ca and P. The results undoubtedly confirm that teeth whitening procedures lead to enamel alterations. In this context, it must be noted that laser bleaching is more aggressive for dental substances. However, these changes are reversible and can be repaired by application of remineralization toothpastes. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  2. Enamel alteration following tooth bleaching and remineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Coceska, Emilija; Gjorgievska, Elizabeta; Coleman, Nichola; Gabric, Dragana; Slipper, Ian J.; Stevanovic, Marija; Nicholson, John

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of professional tooth whitening agents containing highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide (with and without laser activation), on the enamel surface; and the potential of four different toothpastes to remineralize any alterations.\\ud \\ud The study was performed on 50 human molars, divided in two groups: treated with Opalescence® Boost and Mirawhite® Laser Bleaching. Furthermore, each group was divided into five subgroups, a control one and 4 ...

  3. Abutment tooth loss in patients with overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Ronald L; Qian, Fang

    2004-06-01

    Since the 1960s, the use of natural teeth as overdenture abutments has become part of accepted clinical practice. Several longitudinal studies have been conducted, but tooth loss has not been reported to be a significant problem. The aim of this study was to identify the incidence and causes of tooth loss in a prospective cohort study of subjects wearing overdentures. The study, conducted between 1973 and 1994, evaluated 273 subjects (62.3 percent male) with a mean age of 59.6 years. Of the 273 subjects with 666 abutments, 74 lost 133 abutments. The most common cause of tooth loss was periodontal disease (29.3 percent) followed by periapical lesions (18.8 percent) and caries (16.5 percent). Through logistic regression, the authors found that subjects who lost teeth were more likely to have medical problems that could cause soft-tissue lesions of the oral mucosa, were less likely to use fluoride daily and were less likely to return for yearly recall visits. The authors found 22 vertical fractures in 17 subjects. Chi2 analysis revealed that overdenture teeth in the maxillary arch that were opposed by natural teeth were more likely to experience vertical fractures. In a study that followed up some patients for as long as 22 years, the rate of tooth loss was 20.0 percent. Many of these failures could have been prevented if patients had practiced better oral hygiene. The findings suggest that if a dentist recommends overdenture therapy, the patient needs to be examined regularly to reduce the risk of experiencing caries and periodontal disease. Also, if the abutments are in the maxilla and are opposed by natural teeth, the dentist should consider using thimble crowns to reduce the risk of vertical fractures.

  4. Caspase-7 in molar tooth development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matalová, Eva; Vanden Berghe, T.; Švandová, Eva; Vandenabeele, P.; Healy, C.; Sharpe, P. T.; Tucker, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 11 (2012), s. 1474-1481 ISSN 0003-9969 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600450904 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP502/12/1285 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : tooth * apoptosis * mineralisation Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 1.549, year: 2012

  5. Clear aligners generations and orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Joe; Al-Awadhi, Ebrahim A

    2016-03-01

    Clear aligner technology has evolved over the last 15 years, with these appliances continually being modified to increase the range of tooth movements that they can achieve. However, there is very little clinical research available to show how these appliances achieve their results. This article describes the different generations of clear aligners that are available and highlights their use. However, until more clinical research becomes available, aligners cannot be routinely prescribed as an effective alternative to fixed labial appliances.

  6. Tooth damage in captive orcas (Orcinus orca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, John; Visser, Ingrid N; Ventre, Jeffrey; Waltz, Jordan; Loch, Carolina

    2017-12-01

    Tooth damage as a result of oral stereotypies is evident in captive orca, yet little research on the topic exists. This study examines the associations between dental pathology, sex, facility, duration of captivity and other factors in captive orca. We evaluated mandibular and maxillary teeth from dental images of 29 captive orca owned by a US-based theme park. Each tooth was scored for coronal wear, wear at or below gum line and bore holes. Fractured and missing teeth were also noted. Summary statistics described the distribution and severity of pathologies; inferential statistics examined how pathologies differed between sexes, between wild-captured and captive-born orcas and between captive orca at four facilities. We also evaluated how dental pathology and duration of captivity were related. Approximately 24% of whales exhibited "major" to "extreme" mandibular coronal tooth wear, with coronal wear and wear at or below gum line highly correlated. More than 60% of mandibular teeth 2 and 3 exhibited fractures. Bore holes were observed primarily among anterior mandibular teeth, with more than 61% of teeth 2 and 3 bearing evidence of having been drilled. Four of five orca with the highest age-adjusted tooth pathology indices were captive-born. Various dental pathologies were observed across all whales, with pathologies beginning at a young age. Oral stereotypies exhibited by captive orca contributed to the observed dental damage. By making dental and health records of captive whales publicly available, the theme park industry is uniquely positioned to provide further insight into dental pathology and resultant health consequences in captive orca. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Toward accurate tooth segmentation from computed tomography images using a hybrid level set model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Yangzhou; Zhao, Qunfei [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, and Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Shanghai 200240 (China); Xia, Zeyang, E-mail: zy.xia@siat.ac.cn, E-mail: jing.xiong@siat.ac.cn; Hu, Ying [Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Xiong, Jing, E-mail: zy.xia@siat.ac.cn, E-mail: jing.xiong@siat.ac.cn [Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 510855 (China); Zhang, Jianwei [TAMS, Department of Informatics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg 22527 (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: A three-dimensional (3D) model of the teeth provides important information for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Tooth segmentation is an essential step in generating the 3D digital model from computed tomography (CT) images. The aim of this study is to develop an accurate and efficient tooth segmentation method from CT images. Methods: The 3D dental CT volumetric images are segmented slice by slice in a two-dimensional (2D) transverse plane. The 2D segmentation is composed of a manual initialization step and an automatic slice by slice segmentation step. In the manual initialization step, the user manually picks a starting slice and selects a seed point for each tooth in this slice. In the automatic slice segmentation step, a developed hybrid level set model is applied to segment tooth contours from each slice. Tooth contour propagation strategy is employed to initialize the level set function automatically. Cone beam CT (CBCT) images of two subjects were used to tune the parameters. Images of 16 additional subjects were used to validate the performance of the method. Volume overlap metrics and surface distance metrics were adopted to assess the segmentation accuracy quantitatively. The volume overlap metrics were volume difference (VD, mm{sup 3}) and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC, %). The surface distance metrics were average symmetric surface distance (ASSD, mm), RMS (root mean square) symmetric surface distance (RMSSSD, mm), and maximum symmetric surface distance (MSSD, mm). Computation time was recorded to assess the efficiency. The performance of the proposed method has been compared with two state-of-the-art methods. Results: For the tested CBCT images, the VD, DSC, ASSD, RMSSSD, and MSSD for the incisor were 38.16 ± 12.94 mm{sup 3}, 88.82 ± 2.14%, 0.29 ± 0.03 mm, 0.32 ± 0.08 mm, and 1.25 ± 0.58 mm, respectively; the VD, DSC, ASSD, RMSSSD, and MSSD for the canine were 49.12 ± 9.33 mm{sup 3}, 91.57 ± 0.82%, 0.27 ± 0.02 mm, 0

  8. Toward accurate tooth segmentation from computed tomography images using a hybrid level set model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Yangzhou; Zhao, Qunfei; Xia, Zeyang; Hu, Ying; Xiong, Jing; Zhang, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A three-dimensional (3D) model of the teeth provides important information for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Tooth segmentation is an essential step in generating the 3D digital model from computed tomography (CT) images. The aim of this study is to develop an accurate and efficient tooth segmentation method from CT images. Methods: The 3D dental CT volumetric images are segmented slice by slice in a two-dimensional (2D) transverse plane. The 2D segmentation is composed of a manual initialization step and an automatic slice by slice segmentation step. In the manual initialization step, the user manually picks a starting slice and selects a seed point for each tooth in this slice. In the automatic slice segmentation step, a developed hybrid level set model is applied to segment tooth contours from each slice. Tooth contour propagation strategy is employed to initialize the level set function automatically. Cone beam CT (CBCT) images of two subjects were used to tune the parameters. Images of 16 additional subjects were used to validate the performance of the method. Volume overlap metrics and surface distance metrics were adopted to assess the segmentation accuracy quantitatively. The volume overlap metrics were volume difference (VD, mm 3 ) and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC, %). The surface distance metrics were average symmetric surface distance (ASSD, mm), RMS (root mean square) symmetric surface distance (RMSSSD, mm), and maximum symmetric surface distance (MSSD, mm). Computation time was recorded to assess the efficiency. The performance of the proposed method has been compared with two state-of-the-art methods. Results: For the tested CBCT images, the VD, DSC, ASSD, RMSSSD, and MSSD for the incisor were 38.16 ± 12.94 mm 3 , 88.82 ± 2.14%, 0.29 ± 0.03 mm, 0.32 ± 0.08 mm, and 1.25 ± 0.58 mm, respectively; the VD, DSC, ASSD, RMSSSD, and MSSD for the canine were 49.12 ± 9.33 mm 3 , 91.57 ± 0.82%, 0.27 ± 0.02 mm, 0.28 ± 0.03 mm

  9. 9 CFR 113.317 - Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). 113.317... Virus Vaccines § 113.317 Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine recommended for use in dogs... from each dog shall be individually tested for neutralizing antibody against canine parvovirus to...

  10. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine... antibody against canine parvovirus to determine susceptibility. A constant virus-varying serum... vaccinates and the controls shall be challenged with virulent canine parvovirus furnished or approved by...

  11. ISS protocol for EPR tooth dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onori, S.; Aragno, D.; Fattibene, P.; Petetti, E.; Pressello, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    The accuracy in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) dose reconstruction with tooth enamel is affected by sample preparation, dosimetric signal amplitude evaluation and unknown dose estimate. Worldwide efforts in the field of EPR dose reconstruction with tooth enamel are focused on the optimization of the three mentioned steps in dose assessment. In the present work, the protocol implemented at ISS in the framework of the European Community Nuclear Fission Safety project 'Dose Reconstruction' is presented. A combined mechanical-chemical procedure for ground enamel sample preparation is used. The signal intensity evaluation is carried out with powder spectra simulation program. Finally, the unknown dose is evaluated individually for each sample with the additive dose method. The unknown dose is obtained by subtracting a mean native dose from the back-extrapolated dose. As an example of the capability of the ISS protocol in unknown dose evaluation, the results obtained in the framework of the 2nd International Intercomparison on EPR tooth enamel dosimetry are reported

  12. Anthropology, tooth wear, and occlusion ab origine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, W G

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this essay is to emphasize that anthropology, the study of man in his environments, is a potent tool for scientific discovery and inspiration in dental science. It attempts to capture flashes of creative anthropological insight which have illuminated studies of tooth wear and occlusion in the past. While it documents contributions, understandings, and misunderstandings from Australian and New Zealand dentists, it is not a hagiography. The real saint of this essay is the Australian aborigine. For when men and women are understood in their environments, much is learned from them which challenges preconceptions of our dental science culture. The essay concludes that new, contemporary Australian culture needs to be studied by anthropological approaches if we are to understand how dental erosion is exacerbating tooth wear and damaging the occlusions of contemporary Australians. Much remains to be discovered about contemporary lifestyles, habits, and diets that lead to dental erosion, the principal cause of contemporary tooth wear in this part of the world.

  13. Tooth Wear Inclination in Great Ape Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Sadler, Jordan; Fiorenza, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Primate dietary diversity is reflected in their dental morphology, with differences in size and shape of teeth. In particular, the tooth wear angle can provide insight into a species' ability to break down certain foods. To examine dietary and masticatory information, digitized polygon models of dental casts provide a basis for quantitative analysis of wear associated with tooth attrition. In this study, we analyze and compare the wear patterns of Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorillagorilla and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii lower molars, focusing on the degree of inclination of specific wear facets. The variation in wear angles appears to be indicative of jaw movements and the specific stresses imposed on food during mastication, reflecting thus the ecology of these species. Orangutans exhibit flatter wear angles, more typical of a diet consisting of hard and brittle foods, while gorillas show a wear pattern with a high degree of inclination, reflecting thus their more leafy diet. Chimpanzees, on the other hand, show intermediate inclinations, a pattern that could be related to their highly variable diet. This method is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for better understanding the relationship between food, mastication and tooth wear processes in living primates, and can be potentially used to reconstruct the diet of fossil species. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Orthodontic tooth movement with clear aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Carl T; McGorray, Susan P; Dolce, Calogero; Nair, Madhu; Wheeler, Timothy T

    2012-01-01

    Clear aligners provide a convenient model to measure orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). We examined the role of in vivo aligner material fatigue and subject-specific factors in tooth movement. Fifteen subjects seeking orthodontic treatment at the University of Florida were enrolled. Results were compared with data previously collected from 37 subjects enrolled in a similar protocol. Subjects were followed prospectively for eight weeks. An upper central incisor was programmed to move 0.5 mm. every two weeks using clear aligners. A duplicate aligner was provided for the second week of each cycle. Weekly polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impressions were taken, and digital models were fabricated to measure OTM. Initial and final cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained to characterize OTM. Results were compared to data from a similar protocol, where subjects received a new aligner biweekly. No significant difference was found in the amount of OTM between the two groups, with mean total OTM of 1.11 mm. (standard deviation (SD) 0.30) and 1.07 mm. (SD 0.33) for the weekly aligner and biweekly control groups, respectively (P = 0.72). Over eight weeks, in two-week intervals, material fatigue does not play a significant role in the rate or amount of tooth movement.

  15. Canine hypothyroidism. A diagnostic challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boretti, Felicitos; Reusch, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrinopathies in dogs. Clinical symptoms and hematological and biochemical parameters lead to a first suspicion. To confirm diagnosis can be challenging, however. Determination of total serum T4 concentration is accepted as the primary screening test for the disease, and low serum T4 concentrations are intuitively suggestive of hypothyroidism. However it is well known that low T4 concentrations are frequently encountered in euthyroid dogs with various nonthyroidal diseases and in dogs receiving certain pharmacologic agents. Since assessment of endogenous TSH (canine TSH) using current canine TSH assays shows normal values in a high percentage of hypothyroid dogs (up to 40%), its diagnostic value is only limited. The TSH-stimulation test can still be recognized as the gold standard for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in dogs. Determination of circulating T4 concentration before and 6 hours after the administration of exogenous TSH (recombinant human TSH, Thyrogen registered ) provides an assessment of the functional reserve capacity of the thyroid gland with minimal change in post-TSH T4 concentration, compared with the basal concentration, expected in dogs with hypothyroidism. Also this test can be influenced by nonthyroidal illness and by medications known to affect thyroid function. This suppressing influence seems to be less pronounced using a higher dose of TSH. Therefore, to improve the discriminatory power of the TSH stimulation test to differentiate between euthyroid-sick and primary hypothyroidism, the higher dose should be used in cases in which testing cannot be delayed. More recently, ultrasonography and scintigraphy have been used for the diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. Using ultrasonography, a sensitivity of 98% was reported if size and echogenicity of the gland were combined. However, specificity was as low as 77%. and care must be taken when measuring the gland because of a relatively high

  16. Position and Eruption of Permanent Maxillary Canines in Cases of Maxillary Lateral Incisor Agenesis in Mixed Dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Cátia; Lavall, Asela; Pinho, Teresa

    2018-01-01

    Assess whether the permanent maxillary canine (MC) has a natural tendency to erupt mesially in children with maxillary lateral incisors agenesis (MLIA), compared to children without agenesis. This retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study consisted of children between 5 and 12 years old divided into three groups: the first group with unilateral MLIA, in which an intraindividual analysis was performed, the second group presented bilateral MLIA, and the third group with patients without agenesis. These last two groups were matched for comparison interindividual, being pared by sex and maturation of the MC. The canine position in the horizontal sector showed a clear mesial positioning of the MC on the agenesis side in individuals with unilateral MLIA (group 1) when compared with the counter lateral side; and in individuals with bilateral MLIA (Group 2) compared with control Individuals without agenesis (group 3). Even with the maintenance of this deciduous tooth in the dental arch, the MC keeps its tendency to mesial eruption. There is a greater tendency for mesial angulation of the maxillary canine in patients with MLIA, regardless of the presence or absence of deciduous lateral incisor.

  17. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-09-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age.

  18. Booster effect of canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and infectious canine hepatitis combination vaccine in domesticated adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2012-08-01

    Domesticated adult dogs with antibody titer classified as below 'high' to one or more of canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAdV-1) were then given an additional inoculation, and the effectiveness of this booster evaluated 2 months later. Consequently, CDV and CAdV-1 antibody titer experienced a significant increase, but the same effect was not observed in the antibody titer of CPV-2. These findings suggest that with additional inoculation, a booster effect may be expected in increasing antibody titers for CDV and CAdV-1, but it is unlikely to give an increase in CPV-2 antibody titer. © 2012 The Societies and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Orthodontic Traction of Impacted Canine Using Cantilever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Nakandakari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impaction of the maxillary canines causes relevant aesthetic and functional problems. The multidisciplinary approach to the proper planning and execution of orthodontic traction of the element in question is essential. Many strategies are cited in the literature; among them is the good biomechanical control in order to avoid possible side effects. The aim of this paper is to present a case report in which a superior canine impacted by palatine was pulled out with the aid of the cantilever on the Segmented Arch Technique (SAT concept. A 14.7-year-old female patient appeared at clinic complaining about the absence of the upper right permanent canine. The proposed treatment prioritized the traction of the upper right canine without changing the occlusion and aesthetics. For this, it only installed the upper fixed appliance (Roth with slot 0.018, opting for SAT in order to minimize unwanted side effects. The use of cantilever to the traction of the upper right canine has enabled an efficient and predictable outcome, because it is of statically determined mechanics.

  20. Surgical Orthodontic Treatment of an Impacted Canine in the Presence of Dens Invaginatus and Follicular Cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canevello, Carola; Laffi, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. “Dens invaginatus” is a dental anomaly which originates from the invagination of the ameloblastic epithelium into the lingual surface of the dental crown during the odontogenesis. It can cause early pulpal necrosis, abscesses, retention or dislocation of contiguous elements, cysts, and internal resorptions. It normally affects the upper lateral incisors. In the following study the authors will discuss the etiology, the physiopathology, and the surgical-orthodontic management of a rare case of impacted canine associated with dens invaginatus and follicular cyst, with the aim of highlighting the importance of taking any therapeutic decision based on the data available in the literature. Case Report. The present study describes a combined surgical-orthodontic treatment of an impacted canine associated with a lateral incisor (2.2) suffering from type III dens invaginatus with radicular cyst, in a 15-year-old patient. Discussion. When treating a dens invaginatus there are different therapeutic solutions: they depend on the gravity of the anomaly and on the association with the retention of a permanent tooth. The aesthetic and functional restoration becomes extremely important when performing a surgical-orthodontic repositioning. PMID:24963421

  1. Ultrasonographic description of canine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasch, Katja; Wehrend, Axel; Bostedt, Hartwig

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasonographic images were acquired of the mammary glands of 40 bitches with physiologically lactating (n = 20) or inflamed glands (n = 20). Echogenicity, structure, homogeneity, thickness, and distinguishability of each tissue layer were assessed. Additionally, overall echogenicity was noted. In the normal lactating gland, different tissues could be differentiated easily. The parenchyma was, without exception, separated from adjacent tissues and was visible as medium echogenic tissue with a coarse-grained structure. The tissue always had some echogenic lines and anechoic areas and was slightly heterogeneous. The loss of distinct layering of the tissue was characteristic of an inflamed mammary gland and inflamed regions had reduced echogenicity. Additionally in five bitches with mastitis, the ultrasound examination was repeated five times for documentation of the progress of the illness and associated changes, supplemented with a color Doppler sonogram to assess changes in blood vessel density. Information from the examinations carried out via B-mode did not allow treatment success to be predicted. Two bitches with reduced blood vessel density centrally had a poor outcome whereas three bitches with increased blood vessel density had a good outcome. Thus, Doppler sonography might be a useful tool to obtain information of the prognosis in acute canine mastitis.

  2. Canine Intracranial Meningioma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Gomes de Carvalho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Carvalho J.R.G., Vasconcellos C.H.C., Bastos I. P.B., Trajano F.L.C., Costa T.S. & Fernandes J.I [Canine Intracranial Meningioma: Case report.] Meningioma intracraniano canino: Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(supl. 3:1- 7, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23.897-000, Brasil, E-mail: vetjulio@yahoo.com.br Intracranial neoplasms usually show their signals in a moderate way, revealing a long background of nonspecific signs, making the diagnosis more difficult. The meningioma is the most common intracranial neoplasm in dogs and cats. Along the years, the Veterinary Medicine has experienced important technological improvements, making it possible the diagnosis of a lot of diseases. Therefore, diseases considered not common in the past, started being diagnosed more frequently, for instance, brain lesions. The objective of this research is to report a case of intracranial meningioma in a Boxer dog that arrived at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, highlighting its clinical improvement, diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Retração rápida de caninos Rapid canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Carvalho Ribeiro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a retração rápida de caninos por distração do ligamento periodontal é uma técnica de movimentação dentária que permite o fechamento de espaço da extração de primeiros pré-molares em um intervalo de duas ou três semanas, proporcionando uma redução significativa no tempo do tratamento ortodôntico. OBJETIVO: apresentar modificações propostas na técnica cirúrgica original e no posicionamento dos distratores. CONCLUSÕES: a retração rápida de caninos é uma técnica que proporciona uma redução significativa no tempo de tratamento ortodôntico. A modificação na técnica cirúrgica proporcionou maior velocidade e segurança ao ato cirúrgico. O distrator posicionado por palatina, no mínimo, proporcionou a preservação da tábua óssea vestibular e evitou a vestibularização dos caninos.INTRODUCTION: Rapid canine retraction through distraction of the periodontal ligament is a tooth movement technique that allows the closure of first premolar extraction space within a period of two to three weeks while providing significant reduction in orthodontic treatment time. OBJECTIVE: To propose changes in the original surgical technique and in the placement of distractors. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid canine retraction is a technique that provides significant reduction in orthodontic treatment time. Changes in the surgical technique provided greater speed and safety in surgery. As a minimum benefit, when positioned palatally, distractors helped to preserve the buccal bone plate and prevented canine proclination.

  4. 3D exemplar-based random walks for tooth segmentation from cone-beam computed tomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Yuru, E-mail: peiyuru@cis.pku.edu.cn; Ai, Xingsheng; Zha, Hongbin [Department of Machine Intelligence, School of EECS, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu, Tianmin [School of Stomatology, Stomatology Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China); Ma, Gengyu [uSens, Inc., San Jose, California 95110 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    images. Three metrics, including the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), the Jaccard similarity coefficient (JSC), and the mean surface deviation (MSD), were used to quantitatively analyze the segmentation of anterior teeth including incisors and canines, premolars, and molars. The segmentation of the anterior teeth achieved a DSC up to 98%, a JSC of 97%, and an MSD of 0.11 mm compared with manual segmentation. For the premolars, the average values of DSC, JSC, and MSD were 98%, 96%, and 0.12 mm, respectively. The proposed method yielded a DSC of 95%, a JSC of 89%, and an MSD of 0.26 mm for molars. Aside from the interactive definition of label priors by the user, automatic tooth segmentation can be achieved in an average of 1.18 min. Conclusions: The proposed technique enables an efficient and reliable tooth segmentation from CBCT images. This study makes it clinically practical to segment teeth from CBCT images, thus facilitating pre- and interoperative uses of dental morphologies in maxillofacial and orthodontic treatments.

  5. Dental radiography: tooth enamel EPR dose assessment from Rando phantom measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragno, D.; Fattibene, P.; Onori, S.

    2000-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry of tooth enamel is now established as a suitable method for individual dose reconstruction following radiation accidents. The accuracy of the method is limited by some confounding factors, among which is the dose received due to medical x-ray irradiation. In the present paper the EPR response of tooth enamel to endoral examination was experimentally evaluated using an anthropomorphic phantom. The dose to enamel for a single exposure of a typical dental examination performed with a new x-ray generation unit working at 65 kVp gave rise to a CO 2 -signal of intensity similar to that induced by a dose of about 2 mGy of 60 Co. EPR measurements were performed on the entire tooth with no attempt to separate buccal and lingual components. Also the dose to enamel for an orthopantomography exam was estimated. It was derived from TLD measurements as equivalent to 0.2 mGy of 60 Co. In view of application to risk assessment analysis, in the present work the value for the ratio of the reference dose at the phantom surface measured with TLD to the dose at the tooth measured with EPR was determined. (author)

  6. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Gene Therapy in the Canine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked lethal muscle disease caused by dystrophin deficiency. Gene therapy has significantly improved the outcome of dystrophin-deficient mice. Yet, clinical translation has not resulted in the expected benefits in human patients. This translational gap is largely because of the insufficient modeling of DMD in mice. Specifically, mice lacking dystrophin show minimum dystrophic symptoms, and they do not respond to the gene therapy vector in the same way as human patients do. Further, the size of a mouse is hundredfolds smaller than a boy, making it impossible to scale-up gene therapy in a mouse model. None of these limitations exist in the canine DMD (cDMD) model. For this reason, cDMD dogs have been considered a highly valuable platform to test experimental DMD gene therapy. Over the last three decades, a variety of gene therapy approaches have been evaluated in cDMD dogs using a number of nonviral and viral vectors. These studies have provided critical insight for the development of an effective gene therapy protocol in human patients. This review discusses the history, current status, and future directions of the DMD gene therapy in the canine model. PMID:25710459

  7. Morphological and Immunohistochemical Characterization of Canine Osteosarcoma Spheroid Cell Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhard, C; Gabriel, C; Walter, I

    2016-06-01

    Spheroid cell culture emerges as powerful in vitro tool for experimental tumour research. In this study, we established a scaffold-free three-dimensional spheroid system built from canine osteosarcoma (OS) cells (D17). Spheroids (7, 14 and 19 days of cultivation) and monolayer cultures (2 and 7 days of cultivation) were evaluated and compared on light and electron microscopy. Monolayer and spheroid cultures were tested for vimentin, cytokeratin, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and collagen I by means of immunohistochemistry. The spheroid cell culture exhibited a distinct network of collagen I in particular after 19-day cultivation, whereas in monolayer cultures, collagen I was arranged as a lamellar basal structure. Necrotic centres of large spheroids, as observed in 14- and 19-day cultures, were characterized by significant amounts of osteocalcin. Proliferative activity as determined by Ki-67 immunoreactivity showed an even distribution in two-dimensional cultures. In spheroids, proliferation was predominating in the peripheral areas. Metastasis-associated markers ezrin and S100A4 were shown to be continuously expressed in monolayer and spheroid cultures. We conclude that the scaffold-free spheroid system from canine OS cells has the ability to mimic the architecture of the in vivo tumour, in particular cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. © 2015 The Authors. Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Overexpression of vimentin in canine prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, M M P; Rema, A; Gärtner, F

    2011-01-01

    Canine prostatic tumours exhibit similarities to those of man and may represent a useful model system to explore the mechanisms of cancer progression. Tumour progression to malignancy requires a change from an epithelial phenotype to a fibroblastic or mesenchymal phenotype. Vimentin expression...... is associated with the invasive phenotype of human prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to characterize immunohistochemically the expression of vimentin by canine prostatic carcinomas. Primary carcinomas and metastatic tumour foci both showed vimentin expression. This finding suggests...... that the acquisition of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype in canine prostatic carcinoma may be characterized by the presence of mesenchymal intermediate filament (vimentin) that could lead to a higher likelihood of metastasis....

  9. A Comprehensive Mixture of Tobacco Smoke Components Retards Orthodontic Tooth Movement via the Inhibition of Osteoclastogenesis in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Nagaie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of numerous components. Nevertheless, most experiments have examined the effects of individual chemicals in tobacco smoke. The comprehensive effects of components on tooth movement and bone resorption remain unexplored. Here, we have shown that a comprehensive mixture of tobacco smoke components (TSCs attenuated bone resorption through osteoclastogenesis inhibition, thereby retarding experimental tooth movement in a rat model. An elastic power chain (PC inserted between the first and second maxillary molars robustly yielded experimental tooth movement within 10 days. TSC administration effectively retarded tooth movement since day 4. Histological evaluation disclosed that tooth movement induced bone resorption at two sites: in the bone marrow and the peripheral bone near the root. TSC administration significantly reduced the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive osteoclastic cells in the bone marrow cavity of the PC-treated dentition. An in vitro study indicated that the inhibitory effects of TSCs on osteoclastogenesis seemed directed more toward preosteoclasts than osteoblasts. These results indicate that the comprehensive mixture of TSCs might be a useful tool for detailed verification of the adverse effects of tobacco smoke, possibly contributing to the development of reliable treatments in various fields associated with bone resorption.

  10. Targeting VEGF in canine oxygen-induced retinopathy - a model for human retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLeod DS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available D Scott McLeod, Gerard A Lutty Department of Ophthalmology, Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Development of the dog superficial retinal vasculature is similar to the mechanism of human retinal vasculature development; they both develop by vasculogenesis, differentiation, and assembly of vascular precursors called angioblasts. Canine oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR was first developed by Arnall Patz in an effort to experimentally determine the effects of hyperoxia on the development of the retinal vasculature. The canine OIR model has many characteristics in common with human retinopathy of prematurity. Exposure of 1-day-old dogs to hyperoxia for 4 days causes a vaso-obliteration throughout the retina. Vasoproliferation, after the animals have returned to room air, is robust. The initial small preretinal neovascular formations anastomose to form large preretinal membranes that eventually cause tractional retinal folds. The end-stage pathology of the canine model is similar to stage IV human retinopathy of prematurity. Therefore, canine OIR is an excellent forum to evaluate the response to drugs targeting VEGF and its receptors. Evaluation of an antibody to VEGF-R2 and the VEGF-Trap demonstrated that doses should be titered down so that preretinal neovascularization is inhibited but retinal revascularization is able to proceed, vascularizing peripheral retina and preventing it from being a source of VEGF. Keywords: angioblasts, blood vessels, endothelial cells, oxygen, retinopathy, retina, vascular endothelial cell growth factor

  11. Targeting VEGF in canine oxygen-induced retinopathy - a model for human retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, D Scott; Lutty, Gerard A

    2016-01-01

    Development of the dog superficial retinal vasculature is similar to the mechanism of human retinal vasculature development; they both develop by vasculogenesis, differentiation, and assembly of vascular precursors called angioblasts. Canine oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) was first developed by Arnall Patz in an effort to experimentally determine the effects of hyperoxia on the development of the retinal vasculature. The canine OIR model has many characteristics in common with human retinopathy of prematurity. Exposure of 1-day-old dogs to hyperoxia for 4 days causes a vaso-obliteration throughout the retina. Vasoproliferation, after the animals have returned to room air, is robust. The initial small preretinal neovascular formations anastomose to form large preretinal membranes that eventually cause tractional retinal folds. The end-stage pathology of the canine model is similar to stage IV human retinopathy of prematurity. Therefore, canine OIR is an excellent forum to evaluate the response to drugs targeting VEGF and its receptors. Evaluation of an antibody to VEGF-R2 and the VEGF-Trap demonstrated that doses should be titered down so that preretinal neovascularization is inhibited but retinal revascularization is able to proceed, vascularizing peripheral retina and preventing it from being a source of VEGF.

  12. Spectra processing at tooth enamel dosimetry: Analytical description of EPR spectrum at different microwave power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tieliewuhan, E.; Ivannikov, A.; Zhumadilov, K.; Nalapko, M.; Tikunov, D.; Skvortsov, V.; Stepanenko, V.; Toyoda, S.; Tanaka, K.; Endo, S.; Hoshi, M.

    2006-01-01

    Variation of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of the human tooth enamel recorded at different microwave power is investigated. The analytical models describing the native and the radiation-induced signals in the enamel are proposed, which fit the experimental spectra in wide range of microwave power. These models are designed to use for processing the spectra of irradiated enamel at determination of the absorbed dose from the intensity of the radiation-induced signal

  13. Effect of differential pressure on the magnitude of the destructive force in tooth penetration into rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesnikov, N.A.; Shestakov, V.N.

    1981-08-01

    Analytical relations are established describing the final stage of the breakup of rocks in the course of penetration of the tooth of a drilling bit into the rock in the presence of a pressure drop. A good convergence between the calculated and experimental data is shown. A formula is presented permitting calculation of contact pressures necessary for the volumetric breakup of rocks in the presence of a pressure drop.

  14. Impact of Bisphosphonate on Orthodontic tooth movement and osteoclastic count: An Animal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Venkataramana, V; Chidambaram, S; Reddy, B Vishnuvardhan; Goud, E V Soma Shekara; Arafath, Mohammed; Krishnan, Santhana

    2014-01-01

    Background : The aim of the current study is to examine the effect of systemically administered BP-Pamidronate, on Orthodontic Tooth Movement (OTM) along with osteoclastic quantification in New Zealand white rabbits. Materials & Methods : Twenty rabbits used in the study, were equally divided into 2 groups ; Group-1 as Control & Group-2 as Experimental. A sentalloy NITI closed coil spring (GAC International, USA) of 100 gram force, ligated between the lower first mo...

  15. Genetics of Human and Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Siobhan Simpson; Jennifer Edwards; Thomas F. N. Ferguson-Mignan; Malcolm Cobb; Nigel P. Mongan; Catrin S. Rutland

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in both humans and dogs. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) accounts for a large number of these cases, reported to be the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans and the second most common in dogs. In human studies of DCM there are more than 50 genetic loci associated with the disease. Despite canine DCM having similar disease progression to human DCM studies into the genetic basis of canine DCM lag far behind those of human DCM. In th...

  16. Infrared light sensor applied to early detection of tooth decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjumea, Eberto; Espitia, José; Díaz, Leonardo; Torres, Cesar

    2017-08-01

    The approach dentistry to dental care is gradually shifting to a model focused on early detection and oral-disease prevention; one of the most important methods of prevention of tooth decay is opportune diagnosis of decay and reconstruction. The present study aimed to introduce a procedure for early diagnosis of tooth decay and to compare result of experiment of this method with other common treatments. In this setup, a laser emitting infrared light is injected in core of one bifurcated fiber-optic and conduced to tooth surface and with the same bifurcated fiber the radiation reflected for the same tooth is collected and them conduced to surface of sensor that measures thermal and light frequencies to detect early signs of decay below a tooth surface, where demineralization is difficult to spot with x-ray technology. This device will can be used to diagnose tooth decay without any chemicals and rays such as high power lasers or X-rays.

  17. Reliability of mandibular canines as indicators for sexual dichotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosmani, Jagadish V; Nayak, Ramakant S; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S; S, Pradeep; Babji, Deepa

    2013-02-01

    Amongst the various calcified structures in the human body, teeth have gained lot of popularity in estimating the sex of an individual as they are highly resistant to destruction and decomposition. Using permanent mandibular canines many researchers have predicted a high level of accuracy in identifying the sex correctly. The purpose of our study was to gauge the effectiveness of mandibular canines in discerning sex. Fifty dental casts each of males and females were utilized for the study. Mesio-distal dimension and inter-canine distance of mandibular right and left canine was recorded using digital vernier caliper and mandibular canine index was calculated. The mean value of mesio-distal dimensions of right and left mandibular canine was slightly greater in males compared to females. The mandibular canine index was equal in both sexes. Inter-canine distance was marginally higher in males compared to females. Despite of higher values in males none of the parameters were statistically significant. The results herein bolster contemporary studies that mesio-distal dimensions of mandibular canines and mandibular canine index do not reflect sexual dimorphism and that its application should be discontinued in sex prediction among Indian populations. How to cite this article: Hosmani J V, Nayak R S, Kotrashetti V S, Pradeep S, Babji D. Reliability of Mandibular Canines as Indicators for Sexual Dichotomy. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):1-7.

  18. Effect of tooth profile modification on wear in internal gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunalioglu, M. S.; Tuc, B.

    2018-05-01

    Internal gears are often used in the automotive industry when two gears are required to rotate in the same direction. Tooth shapes, slippage speeds at the beginning and end of meshing are different according to the external gears. Manufacturing of internal gears is more difficult than external gears. Thus, it is necessary to determine the working conditions and wear behavior of internal gears carefully. The profile modification method in terms of strength and surface tension of the gear mechanism are performed in order to increase the load-carrying capability. In this study, profile modification method was performed in the internal gears to reduce the wear on the teeth. For this purpose, the wear of the internal gears was theoretically investigated by adapting the Archard wear equation to the internal gears. Closed circuit power circulation system was designed and manufactured to experimentally investigate the wear in internal gears. With this system, wear tests of gears made of St 50 material without profile modification and different profile modifications were made and the results were compared. Experimental study was performed in the same loading and cycle time conditions to validate the theoretical results and it was seen that the results are compatible. According to the experimental results, it is seen that in the internal gears, when profile modification done the wear is decreased in the teeth tip region.

  19. Detection of canine distemper virus nucleocapsid protein gene in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells by RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Y; Mori, T; Okita, M; Gemma, T; Kai, C; Mikami, T

    1995-06-01

    For a rapid diagnosis of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection, the reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was carried out to detect CDV nucleoprotein (NP) gene from canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Two sets of primers were targeted to two regions of NP gene of CDV Onderstepoort strain. The NP gene fragments were well amplified by the RT-PCR in each of the RNA extracts from Vero cells infected with 6 laboratory strains of CDV including Onderstepoort strain, and from PBMCs of a dog experimentally infected with CDV. The amplified NP gene was detected in 17 of 32 samples from dogs which were clinically suspected for CDV infection at veterinary hospitals. No RT-PCR product was found in 52 samples from healthy dogs including 40 specific pathogen free beagles vaccinated with an attenuated live virus-vaccine for CDV and 12 stray dogs. The RT-PCR provides a fast, sensitive, and supplementary method for the diagnosis of CDV infection in dogs.

  20. Detection of intracellular canine distemper virus antigen in mink inoculated with an attenuated or a virulent strain of canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blixenkrone-Møller, M

    1989-09-01

    Using an indirect immunofluorescence technique, the distribution of viral antigen in various tissues and blood mononuclear leukocytes was studied in wild mink, either vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine strain of canine distemper virus (CDV) or experimentally inoculated with the virulent Snyder-Hill strain of CDV. Viral antigen was detected in cells of the lymphoid system 6 to 12 days after vaccination. From 2 to 3 days after inoculation with the virulent strain, CDV antigen was demonstrated in cells of the lymphoid system and, during the incubation period, the antigen had spread to the epithelia and brain at days 6 and 12, respectively. In clinical cases of acute fatal canine distemper, the viral antigen was detected in a wide variety of tissues, including the cells of the lymphoid system, epithelial cells of skin, mucous membranes, lung, kidney, and cells of the CNS. The diagnostic importance of CDV antigen detection is discussed on the basis of these findings.

  1. Effect of magnetic attachment with stress breaker on lateral stress to abutment tooth under overdenture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, T; Ikebe, K; Ono, T; Nokubi, T

    2004-10-01

    Recently, a newly developed magnetic attachment with stress breaker was used in retentive components in overdentures. Excessive lateral stress has a more harmful effect on natural teeth than axial stress, and the magnetic attachment with stress breaker is expected to reduce lateral forces on abutment teeth and protect it teeth from excessive stress. However, the properties of this retainer have not yet been determined experimentally. This study compares the lateral forces on abutment teeth for three retainers under loading on the denture base in a model study. A mandibular simulation model is constructed to measure lateral stress. Three types of retentive devices are attached to the canine root. These devices include the conventional root coping, the conventional magnetic attachment and the new magnetic attachment with stress breaker. For each retentive device, load is generated on the occlusal table of the model overdenture, and the lateral stress on the canine root and the displacement of the overdenture measured. The magnetic attachment with stress breaker does not displace the denture and exhibits lower lateral stress in the canine root than conventional root coping and magnetic attachments.

  2. Manipulation of food intake and weight dynamics using retrograde neural gastric electrical stimulation in a chronic canine model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aelen, P.; Neshev, E.; Cholette, M.; Crisanti, K.; Mitchell, P.; De bru, E.; Church, N.; Mintchev, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    Neural gastric electrical stimulation (NGES) could be a new technique for treating obesity. However, chronic animal experimentation exploring the efficacy of this therapy is lacking. In this study we investigated the utility of retrograde NGES in a chronic canine model. Nine mongrel dogs (26.8 ± 5.2

  3. Relationship between the maxillary transverse dimension and palatally displaced canines: A cone-beam computed tomographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei-Hsin; Radfar, Rebecca; Chung, Chun-Hsi

    2015-05-01

    To examine the relationship between palatally displaced maxillary canines (PDC) and the maxillary transverse dimension using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Thirty-three patients (11 males and 22 females, mean age 18.2 years) with PDC were matched to 66 patients (22 males and 44 females, mean age 18.1 years) without PDC (control) by gender, age, and posterior occlusion. A CBCT image was taken on all the patients prior to any orthodontic treatment. For each patient the maxillary basal bone widths and interdental widths at the maxillary first molars and first and second premolars were measured on axial and coronal sections of CBCT images. In addition, the presence of permanent tooth agenesis and the widths of maxillary incisors were recorded. Similar maxillary transverse dimensions, both skeletally and dentally, were found between the PDC and control groups. In the PDC group, the number of patients with permanent tooth agenesis was six times higher than in the control group. In addition, the maxillary lateral incisors on PDC-affected sides were smaller than those of control group (P transverse dimension, both skeletally and dentally, had no effect on the occurrence of PDC. The higher prevalence of permanent tooth agenesis was found in the PDC group. Moreover, the mean mesiodistal width of maxillary lateral incisors in the PDC group was significantly smaller than in the control group (P < .05).

  4. Epithelial topography for repetitive tooth formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Gaete

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the formation of repetitive ectodermally derived organs such as mammary glands, lateral line and teeth, the tissue primordium iteratively initiates new structures. In the case of successional molar development, new teeth appear sequentially in the posterior region of the jaw from Sox2+ cells in association with the posterior aspect of a pre-existing tooth. The sequence of molar development is well known, however, the epithelial topography involved in the formation of a new tooth is unclear. Here, we have examined the morphology of the molar dental epithelium and its development at different stages in the mouse in vivo and in molar explants. Using regional lineage tracing we show that within the posterior tail of the first molar the primordium for the second and third molar are organized in a row, with the tail remaining in connection with the surface, where a furrow is observed. The morphology and Sox2 expression of the tail retains characteristics reminiscent of the earlier stages of tooth development, such that position along the A-P axes of the tail correlates with different temporal stages. Sox9, a stem/progenitor cell marker in other organs, is expressed mainly in the suprabasal epithelium complementary with Sox2 expression. This Sox2 and Sox9 expressing molar tail contains actively proliferating cells with mitosis following an apico-basal direction. Snail2, a transcription factor implicated in cell migration, is expressed at high levels in the tip of the molar tail while E-cadherin and laminin are decreased. In conclusion, our studies propose a model in which the epithelium of the molar tail can grow by posterior movement of epithelial cells followed by infolding and stratification involving a population of Sox2+/Sox9+ cells.

  5. Temperament and perception of tooth bleaching results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Mehr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background . The neurophysiological process of perceiving the results of tooth bleaching requires the correct interaction between the central nervous system and the organs of sight. Exaggerated beliefs concerning defective facial features may enhance inner attitudes about one’s own color of dentition, as well as a feeling of dissatisfaction with the degree of leaching. Objectives. The study aimed to assess the degree of the patient satisfaction with the results of tooth bleaching in relation to their temperament. Material and methods. There were 68 generally healthy volunteers, aged 28–38 years, with external discolorations of the teeth. They had never undergone dental bleaching and their frontal teeth did not have any fillings. After clinical evaluation and the completion of formalities, the patients were asked to fill in Strelau’s temperament questionnaire. Questionnaires and visual status were assessed three times by three doctors: before bleaching, and then 24 hours and two weeks after the home-bleaching operation, which was done with the use of Opalescence (Ultradent in uniform sequence. Results . There were practically no adverse side results, except a periodic dentin hypersensitivity that occurred periodically in 44 patients. The results of the visual assessment performed by the physicians did not differ. The questionnaire data showed that women were more critical of the results in relation to the expectations. Among elancholics, full satisfaction was declared by 41%, whereas among sanguine people, full satisfaction was obtained by 85%. Satisfaction with the aesthetic results was associated with bleaching by at least 4 degrees. Conclusions . Patients’ temperament affects their subjective evaluation of the effectiveness of tooth bleaching, which should be taken into consideration in the patient’s individual dental treatment plan.

  6. Magnesium stable isotope ecology using mammal tooth enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeremy E.; Vance, Derek; Balter, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical inferences on ancient diet using bone and enamel apatite rely mainly on carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) and to a lesser extent on strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) and barium/calcium (Ba/Ca) elemental ratios. Recent developments in nontraditional stable isotopes provide an unprecedented opportunity to use additional paleodietary proxies to disentangle complex diets such as omnivory. Of particular relevance for paleodietary reconstruction are metals present in large quantity in bone and enamel apatite, providing that biologically mediated fractionation processes are constrained. Calcium isotope ratios (δ44Ca) meet these criteria but exhibit complex ecological patterning. Stable magnesium isotope ratios (δ26Mg) also meet these criteria but a comprehensive understanding of its variability awaits new isotopic data. Here, 11 extant mammal species of known ecology from a single locality in equatorial Africa were sampled for tooth enamel and, together with vegetation and feces, analyzed for δ26Mg, δ13C, Sr/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios. The results demonstrate that δ26Mg incorporated in tooth enamel becomes heavier from strict herbivores to omnivores/faunivores. Using data from experimentally raised sheep, we suggest that this 26Mg enrichment up the trophic chain is due to a 26Mg enrichment in muscle relative to bone. Notably, it is possible to distinguish omnivores from herbivores, using δ26Mg coupled to Ba/Ca ratios. The potential effects of metabolic and dietary changes on the enamel δ26Mg composition remain to be explored but, in the future, multiproxy approaches would permit a substantial refinement of dietary behaviors or enable accurate trophic reconstruction despite specimen-limited sampling, as is often the case for fossil assemblages.

  7. Tooth positioners and their effects on treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravindevaprasad, A; Therese, Beena Agnes

    2013-07-01

    Malocclusion can also be corrected by means of clear removable appliances called as "tooth positioners" or "aligners". A tooth positioner is used to control settling and to minimize or eliminate relapse of the teeth after an orthodontic treatment. In this article, a complete review of the objectives, course of treatment, fabrication, and the materials used for fabrication of tooth positioners along with their importance and disadvantages were discussed. Tooth positioners did improve the overall orthodontic treatment outcome as quantified by the ABO (American Board of orthodontics) objective scoring method. But once the initial occlusal contact was achieved, the vertical movement of teeth was found to be inhibited.

  8. Tooth color: effects on judgments of attractiveness and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosofsky, Alexis; Adkins, Sarah; Bastholm, Robert; Meyer, Leif; Krueger, Lisa; Meyer, Joshua; Torma, Peter

    2003-02-01

    Tooth whitening has become a very popular procedure. Advertisements for whitening products imply that whiter teeth are more attractive than yellower teeth. We tested this idea empirically by manipulating the tooth color of pictures of male and female targets. Participants' ratings of attractiveness were not influenced by tooth color. Exp. 2 yielded a negative correlation between attractiveness and age ratings: targets judged to be older were rated as less attractive. Unless whiter teeth help in some other way, e.g., improved self-esteem or confidence, it seems that tooth whitening procedures or products are not associated with increased attractiveness to others.

  9. [Adenovirus-mediated canine interferon-gamma expression and its antiviral activity against canine parvovirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kao; Jin, Huijun; Zhong, Fei; Li, Xiujin; Neng, Changai; Chen, Huihui; Li, Wenyan; Wen, Jiexia

    2012-11-04

    To construct recombinant adenovirus containing canine interferon-gamma (cIFN-gamma) gene and to investigate its antiviral activity against canine parvovirus in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK). [Methods] The cIFN-gamma gene was inserted into adenovirus shuttle plasmid to construct pShuttle3-cIFN-gamma expression vector, from which the cIFN-gamma expression cassette was transferred into the adenovirus genomic plasmid pAdeno-X by specific restriction sites to generate recombinant adenovirus genomic plasmid pAd-cIFN-gamma. The pAd-cIFN-gamma plasmid was linearized by digestion and transfected into human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells to generate the replication-defective cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus (Ad-cIFN-gamma). To analyze its anti-canine parvovirus activity, the MDCK cells were pre-infected by Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus, and then infected by canine parvovirus. The antiviral activity of the Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus against parvovirus was analyzed. The recombinant adenovirus containing cIFN-gamma gene was constructed by the ligation method. The recombinant adenovirus could mediates recombinant cIFN-gamma secretory expression in MDCK cells. The Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus could significantly inhibit canine parvovirus replication in MDCK cells pre-infected with the recombinant adenovirus. These results indicate that the Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus has the potent antiviral activity against canine parvovirus. The Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus was successfully constructed by the ligation method and possessed a powerful antiviral activity against canine parvovirus.

  10. Military Working Dogs and Canine Ehrlichiosis (Tropical Canine Pancytopenia) in the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-05

    anemia, dermatitis, edema of the limbs and scrotum, and petechial hemorrhages on the penis (116). Hematologic findings included a leucopenia with...idiopathic hemorrhagic disease, and canine hemorrhagic fever (116). Attempts to identity the cause of tropical canine pancytopenia continued in 1969...Following inoculation with infective blood, signs of acute disease appear within 7-10 days and consfst of fever , serous nasal and ocular discharges

  11. Autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinós, Carmen; Calpena, Eduardo; Martínez-Rubio, Dolores; Lupo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy that comprises a complex group of more than 50 diseases, is the most common inherited neuropathy. CMT is generally divided into demyelinating forms, axonal forms and intermediate forms. CMT is also characterized by a wide genetic heterogeneity with 29 genes and more than 30 loci involved. The most common pattern of inheritance is autosomal dominant (AD), although autosomal recessive (AR) forms are more frequent in Mediterranean countries. In this chapter we give an overview of the associated genes, mechanisms and epidemiology of AR-CMT forms and their associated phenotypes.

  12. Thermal induced EPR signals in tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattibene, P.; Aragno, D.; Onori, S.; Pressello, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to detect the effects of temperature on powdered human tooth enamel, not irradiated in the laboratory. Samples were heated at temperature between 350 and 450, at 600 and at 1000 deg. C, for different heating times, between 6 min and 39 h. Changes in the EPR spectra were detected, with the formation of new signals. Possible correlation between the changes in EPR spectra and modifications in the enamel and in the mineral phase of bone detected with other techniques is discussed. The implications for dosimetric applications of signals induced by overheating due to mechanical friction during sample preparation are underlined

  13. Clinical evaluation of a newly designed orthodontic tooth brush - A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C S Saimbi

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the newly designed orthodontic tooth brush is compared with an ordinary tooth brush. Results of this study show that the newly designed orthodontic tooth brush is superior in its cleaning efficiency as compared to the ordinary tooth brush. The results show that plaque removing capacity of orthodontic tooth brush is nearly 95-99%.

  14. Analytical Support, Characterization, and Optimization of a Canine Training Aid Delivery System: Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-29

    Arlington, Virginia 22203-1995 61-9496-A-2-5 ONR May 2014 – April 2015 *Nova Research, Inc., Alexandria, VA Improvised explosive device Detector dog Canine...37 Figure 30. Mass of MeS collected from three subsequent mock dog sniffs above the MODD. .. 37 Figure 31. Vapor concentration...means for experimentally validating the use of the Merger or MODD. As the purpose of the MODD or Merger was to represent mixed odor from unmixed

  15. Prevalence of vertical root fracture as the reason for tooth extraction in dental clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Koichi; Ito, Koji; Kuroda, Masahiko; Sugihara, Naoki

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, by gender, of vertical root fracture (VRF) as the main reason for the extraction of permanent teeth in dental clinics in Tokyo. Participating dentists were requested to provide information about extractions of permanent teeth they had performed from 1 January 2013 to 30 June 2013. The main reasons for extraction were categorized as follows: VRF, caries (horizontal root fracture included), periodontal disease and others. At a total of 24 clinics, 736 teeth were extracted from 626 patients during the 6-month period. A total of 233 teeth were extracted by VRF (31.7%), and 93.6% of these were endodontically treated teeth. Among non-vital extracted teeth, 82.1% (179/218) had cast posts or screw posts. The percentage of extraction due to VRF was 29.4% in males and 34.7% in females. In females, the percentage of extractions due to VRF (34.7%) was higher than for periodontal disease (28.1%). In males, the percentage of extractions due to VRF increased with age (p < 0.05). The tooth types with the highest percentage of extractions due to VRF were the upper canine (46.7%), lower second premolar (48.0%) and lower first molar (50.0%) in males and the upper first premolar (43.3%), upper second premolar (44.4%), lower second premolar (53.8%) and lower first molar (54.5%) in females. These results indicate that we need to pay more attention to maintaining vital teeth while being aware of the particular tooth types in which VRF most frequently occurs.

  16. Cardiac involvement in canine babesiosis : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Lobetti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac dysfunction in canine babesiosis has traditionally been regarded as a rare complication, with the majority of lesions reported as incidental findings at post-mortem examination. Recent studies have, however, demonstrated cardiac lesions in canine babesiosis. Cardiac troponins, especially troponin I, are sensitive markers of myocardial injury in canine babesiosis, and the magnitude of elevation of plasma troponin I concentrations appears to be proportional to the severity of the disease. ECG changes in babesiosis are similar to the pattern described for myocarditis and myocardial ischaemia and together with histopathological findings indicate that the heart suffers from the same pathological processes described in other organs in canine babesiosis, namely inflammation and hypoxia. The clinical application of the ECG appears to be limited and thus cardiovascular assessment should be based on functional monitoring rather than an ECG tracing. On cardiac histopathology from dogs that succumbed to babesiosis, haemorrhage, necrosis, inflammation and fibrin microthrombi in the myocardium were documented, all of which would have resulted in ECG changes and elevations in cardiac troponin. Myocardial damage causes left ventricular failure, which will result in hypotension and an expansion of the plasma volume due to homeostatic mechanisms.

  17. Canine distemper outbreak in rhesus monkeys, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-08-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People's Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%-60% disease incidence); 5%-30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  18. Canine trypanosomosis: Clinical observations and morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical and pathological aspects of canine trypanosomosis were determined in naturally infected dogs presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, at different times between 2012 and 2013. The breeds, sexes, ages and body weights of the dogs were recorded. Clinical signs ...

  19. Molecular Epidemiology of Canine Parvovirus, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desario, Costantina; Addie, Diane D.; Martella, Vito; Vieira, Maria João; Elia, Gabriella; Zicola, Angelique; Davis, Christopher; Thompson, Gertrude; Thiry, Ethienne; Truyen, Uwe; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2007-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV), which causes hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs, has 3 antigenic variants: types 2a, 2b, and 2c. Molecular method assessment of the distribution of the CPV variants in Europe showed that the new variant CPV-2c is widespread in Europe and that the viruses are distributed in different countries. PMID:17953097

  20. Prostate histotripsy for BPH: initial canine results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, William W.; Hall, Timothy L.; Hempel, Christopher R.; Cain, Charles A.

    2009-02-01

    Histotripsy is an extracorporeal ablative technology that utilizes microsecond pulses of intense ultrasound (< 1% duty cycle) to produce nonthermal, mechanical fractionation of targeted tissue. We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of histotripsy prostate ablation. In this study we sought to assess the chronic tissue response, tolerability and safety of histotripsy in a chronic in vivo canine model. Five acute and thirteen chronic canine subjects were anesthetized and treated with histotripsy targeting the prostate. Pulses consisted of 3 cycle bursts of 750 kHz ultrasound at a repetition rate of 300 Hz delivered transabdominally from a highly focused 15 cm aperture array. Transrectal ultrasound imaging provided accurate targeting and real-time monitoring of histotripsy treatment. Prostates were harvested at 0, 7, 28, or 56 days after treatment. Consistent mechanical tissue fractionation and debulking of prostate tissue was seen acutely and at delayed time points without collateral injury. Urothelialization of the treatment cavity was apparent 28 days after treatment. Canine subjects tolerated histotripsy with minimal hematuria or discomfort. Only mild transient lab abnormalities were noted. Histotripsy is a promising non-invasive therapy for prostate tissue fractionation and debulking that appears safe and well tolerated without systemic side effects in the canine model.

  1. Canine specific ELISA for coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Tom; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Tranholm, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    available to date. In this study, a canine specific ELISA for measurement of FVII:Ag in plasma was developed and validated. The FVII:Ag ELISA correctly diagnosed homozygous and heterozygous hereditary FVII deficiency. Together with activity based assays, such as FVII:C, the FVII:Ag ELISA should be valuable...

  2. Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People’s Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%–60% disease incidence); 5%–30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain. PMID:21801646

  3. A novel bocavirus in canine liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Linlin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bocaviruses are classified as a genus within the Parvoviridae family of single-stranded DNA viruses and are pathogenic in some mammalian species. Two species have been previously reported in dogs, minute virus of canines (MVC, associated with neonatal diseases and fertility disorders; and Canine bocavirus (CBoV, associated with respiratory disease. Findings In this study using deep sequencing of enriched viral particles from the liver of a dog with severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, necrotizing vasculitis, granulomatous lymphadenitis and anuric renal failure, we identified and characterized a novel bocavirus we named Canine bocavirus 3 (CnBoV3. The three major ORFs of CnBoV3 (NS1, NP1 and VP1 shared less than 60% aa identity with those of other bocaviruses qualifying it as a novel species based on ICTV criteria. Inverse PCR showed the presence of concatemerized or circular forms of the genome in liver. Conclusions We genetically characterized a bocavirus in a dog liver that is highly distinct from prior canine bocaviruses found in respiratory and fecal samples. Its role in this animal’s complex disease remains to be determined.

  4. MREIT conductivity imaging of the postmortem canine abdomen using CoReHA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Kiwan; Lee, Chang-Ock; Minhas, Atul S; Kim, Young Tae; Jeong, Woo Chul; Kim, Hyung Joong; Woo, Eung Je; Kang, Byeong Teck; Park, Hee Myung; Seo, Jin Keun

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a new bio-imaging modality providing cross-sectional conductivity images from measurements of internal magnetic flux densities produced by externally injected currents. Recent experimental results of postmortem and in vivo imaging of the canine brain demonstrated its feasibility by showing conductivity images with meaningful contrast among different brain tissues. MREIT image reconstructions involve a series of data processing steps such as k-space data handling, phase unwrapping, image segmentation, meshing, modelling, finite element computation, denoising and so on. To facilitate experimental studies, we need a software tool that automates these data processing steps. In this paper, we summarize such an MREIT software package called CoReHA (conductivity reconstructor using harmonic algorithms). Performing imaging experiments of the postmortem canine abdomen, we demonstrate how CoReHA can be utilized in MREIT. The abdomen with a relatively large field of view and various organs imposes new technical challenges when it is chosen as an imaging domain. Summarizing a few improvements in the experimental MREIT technique, we report our first conductivity images of the postmortem canine abdomen. Illustrating reconstructed conductivity images, we discuss how they discern different organs including the kidney, spleen, stomach and small intestine. We elaborate, as an example, that conductivity images of the kidney show clear contrast among cortex, internal medulla, renal pelvis and urethra. We end this paper with a brief discussion on future work using different animal models

  5. Labiogingival groove: A rare developmental tooth anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Chauhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Labiogingival groove is a congenital morphologic dental anomaly, in which an infolding of the inner enamel epithelium and Hertwig's epithelial root sheath create a groove extending varying depth into root. Epithelial attachment can be breached by gingival irritation secondary to plaque accumulation creating a periodontal defect that spreads to the pulp causing primary periodontal/secondary endodontic. A 12-year-old boy reported with the complaint of painful tooth with pus discharge from labial gingival surface in the maxillary right lateral incisor for 4 months. Intraoral examination revealed bluish red gingiva with loss of contour in relation to maxillary right lateral incisor and purulent discharge in relation to it. A provisional diagnosis of localized gingival abscess in relation to maxillary right incisor (primary periodontic and secondary endodontic involvement was given, and required treatment was carried out. On exposure of the involved tooth, a labiogingival groove was noticed which could have been a contributing factor for the progression of the condition.

  6. Massive clot formation after tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Hunasgi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral surgical procedures mainly tooth extraction can be related with an extended hemorrhage owed to the nature of the process resulting in an "open wound." The attempt of this paper is to present a case of massive postoperative clot formation after tooth extraction and highlight on the oral complications of surgical procedures. A 32-year-old male patient reported to the Dental Clinic for evaluation and extraction of grossly decayed 46. Clinical evaluation of 46 revealed root stumps. Extraction of the root stumps was performed, and it was uneventful. Hemostasis was achieved and postsurgical instructions were specified to the patient. The patient reported to the clinic, the very subsequent morning with a criticism of bleeding at the extraction site. On clinical examination, bleeding was noted from the socket in relation to 46. To control bleeding, oral hemostatic drugs Revici - E (Ethamsylate 500 mg was prescribed and bleeding was stopped in 2 h. However, a massive clot was formed at the extraction site. Further, this clot resolved on its own in 1-week time. Despite the fact that dental extraction is considered to be a minor surgical procedure, some cases may present with life-threatening complications including hemorrhage. Vigilant and significant history taking, physical and dental examinations prior to dental procedures are a must to avoid intraoperative and postoperative complications.

  7. Measurement of opalescence of tooth enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Yu, Bin

    2007-08-01

    Opalescent dental esthetic restoratives look natural and esthetic in any light, react to light in the same manner as the natural tooth and show improved masking effect. The objective of this study was to determine the opalescence of tooth enamel with reflection spectrophotometers. Color of intact bovine and human enamel was measured in the reflectance and transmittance modes. Two kinds of spectrophotometers were used for bovine and one kind was used for human enamel. The opalescence parameter (OP) was calculated as the difference in yellow-blue color coordinate (CIE Deltab(*)) and red-green color coordinate (CIE Deltaa(*)) between the reflected and transmitted colors. Mean OP value of bovine enamel was 10.6 (+/-1.4) to 19.0 (+/-2.1), and varied by the configuration of spectrophotometers. Mean OP value of human enamel was 22.9 (+/-1.9). Opalescence varied by the configuration of measuring spectrophotometer and the species of enamel. These values could be used in the development of esthetic restorative materials.

  8. Tooth cusp sharpness as a dietary correlate in great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthaume, Michael A

    2014-02-01

    Mammalian molars have undergone heavy scrutiny to determine correlates between morphology and diet. Here, the relationship between one aspect of occlusal morphology, tooth cusp radius of curvature (RoC), and two broad dietary categories, folivory and frugivory, is analyzed in apes. The author hypothesizes that there is a relationship between tooth cusp RoC and diet, and that folivores have sharper teeth than frugivores, and further test the correlation between tooth cusp RoC and tooth cusp size. Eight measures of tooth cusp RoC (two RoCs per cusp) were taken from 53 M(2) s from four species and subspecies of frugivorous apes (Pongo pygmaeus, Pan troglodytes troglodytes, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, and Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and two subspecies of folivorous apes (Gorilla beringei beringei, and Gorilla beringei graueri). Phylogenetically corrected ANOVAs were run on the full dataset and several subsets of the full dataset, revealing that, when buccolingual RoCs are taken into account, tooth cusp RoCs can successfully differentiate folivores and frugivores. PCAs revealed that folivores consistently had duller teeth than frugivores. In addition, a weak, statistically significant positive correlation exists between tooth cusp size and tooth cusp RoC. The author hypothesizes differences in tooth cusp RoC are correlated with wear rates, where, per vertical unit of wear, duller cusps will have a longer length of exposed enamel ridge than sharper cusps. More data need to be gathered to determine if the correlation between tooth cusp RoC and tooth cusp size holds true when small primates are considered. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Duration of serological response to canine parvovirus-type 2, canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 1 and canine parainfluenza virus in client-owned dogs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S A; Zwijnenberg, R J; Huang, J; Hodge, A; Day, M J

    2012-12-01

    To determine whether client-owned dogs in Australia, last vaccinated with Canvac(®) vaccines containing canine parvovirus-type 2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) ± canine parainfluenza virus (CPiV) at least 18 months ago, were seropositive or responded serologically to revaccination. A total of 235 dogs were recruited from 23 veterinary clinics, representing a variety of breeds, ages and time since last vaccination (TSLV: range 1.5-9 years, mean 2.8 years). Dogs had a blood sample taken and were revaccinated on day 0. A second blood sample was taken 7-14 days later. Blood samples were assessed for antibody titres to CPV-2 (by haemagglutination inhibition) and CDV, CAV type 1 (CAV-1) and CPiV (by virus neutralisation). Dogs with a day 0 titre >10 or a four-fold increase in titre following revaccination were considered to be serological responders. The overall percentage of dogs classified as serological responders was 98.7% for CPV-2, 96.6% for CDV, 99.6% for CAV-1 and 90.3% for CPiV. These results suggest that the duration of serological response induced by modified-live vaccines against CPV-2, CDV, CAV-1 and CPiV, including Canvac(®) vaccines, is beyond 18 months and may extend up to 9 years. Accordingly, these vaccines may be considered for use in extended revaccination interval protocols as recommended by current canine vaccine guidelines. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. Constant-flow ventilation in canine experimental pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachenberg, T; Wendt, M; Meyer, J; Struckmeier, O; Lawin, P

    1989-07-01

    The efficacy of constant-flow ventilation (CFV) was investigated in eight mongrel dogs before (control-phase) and after development of papain-induced panlobular emphysema (PLE-phase). For CFV, heated, humidified and oxygen-enriched air was continuously delivered via two catheters positioned within each mainstem bronchus at flow rates (V) of 0.33, 0.5 and 0.66 l/s. Data obtained during intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) served as reference. In the control-phase, Pao2 was lower (P less than or equal to 0.05) and alveolo-arterial O2 difference (P(A-a)O2) was higher (P less than or equal to 0.01) during CFV at all flow rates when compared with IPPV. This may be due to inhomogeneities of intrapulmonary gas distribution and increased ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) mismatching. Paco2 and V showed a hyperbolic relationship; constant normocapnia (5.3 kPa) was achieved at 0.48 +/- 0.21 l/s (V53). Development of PLE resulted in an increase of functional residual capacity (FRC), residual volume (RV) and static compliance (Cstat) (P less than or equal to 0.05). PaO2 had decreased and P(A-a)O2 had increased (P less than or equal to 0.05), indicating moderate pulmonary dysfunction. Oxygenation during CFV was not significantly different in the PLE-phase when compared with the control-phase. Paco2 and V showed a hyperbolic relationship and V5.3 was even lower than in the control-group (0.42 +/- 0.13 l/s). In dogs with emphysematous lungs CFV maintains sufficient gas exchange. This may be due to preferential ventilation of basal lung units, thereby counterbalancing the effects of impaired lung morphometry and increased airtrapping. Conventional mechanical ventilation is more effective in terms of oxygenation and CO2-elimination.

  11. Effects of local and whole body irradiation on appearance of osteoclasts during wound healing of tooth extraction sockets in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Sakakura, Yasunori; Tanaka, Likinobu; Okumura, Kazuhiko; Yajima, Toshihiko; Kaneko, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    We examined effects of local and whole body irradiation before tooth extraction on appearance and differentiation of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone of rat maxillary first molars. Wistar rats weighting 100 g were divided into three groups: non-irradiation group, local irradiation group, and whole body irradiation group. In the local irradiation group, a field made with lead blocks was placed over the maxillary left first molar tooth. In the whole body irradiation group, the animals were irradiated in cages. Both groups were irradiated at 8 Gy. The number of osteoclasts around the interradicular alveolar bone showed chronological changes common to non-irradiated and irradiated animals. Several osteoclasts appeared one day after tooth extraction, and the maximal peak was observed 3 days after extraction. Local irradiation had no difference from non-irradiated controls. In animals receiving whole body irradiation, tooth extraction one day after irradiation caused smaller number of osteoclasts than that 7 day after irradiation during the experimental period. Whole body-irradiated rats had small osteoclasts with only a few nuclei and narrow resorption lacunae, indicating deficiency of radioresistant osteoclast precursor cells. Injection of intact bone marrow cells to whole body-irradiated animals immediately after tooth extraction recovered to some content the number of osteoclasts. These findings suggest that bone resorption in the wound healing of alveolar socket requires radioresistant, postmitotic osteoclast precursor cells from hematopoietic organs, but not from local sources around the alveolar socket, at the initial phase of wound healing. (author)

  12. Effects of local and whole body irradiation on appearance of osteoclasts during wound healing of tooth extraction sockets in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Sakakura, Yasunori; Tanaka, Likinobu; Okumura, Kazuhiko; Yajima, Toshihiko; Kaneko, Masayuki

    2007-07-01

    We examined effects of local and whole body irradiation before tooth extraction on appearance and differentiation of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone of rat maxillary first molars. Wistar rats weighting 100 g were divided into three groups: non-irradiation group, local irradiation group, and whole body irradiation group. In the local irradiation group, a field made with lead blocks was placed over the maxillary left first molar tooth. In the whole body irradiation group, the animals were irradiated in cages. Both groups were irradiated at 8 Gy. The number of osteoclasts around the interradicular alveolar bone showed chronological changes common to non-irradiated and irradiated animals. Several osteoclasts appeared one day after tooth extraction, and the maximal peak was observed 3 days after extraction. Local irradiation had no difference from non-irradiated controls. In animals receiving whole body irradiation, tooth extraction one day after irradiation caused smaller number of osteoclasts than that 7 day after irradiation during the experimental period. Whole body-irradiated rats had small osteoclasts with only a few nuclei and narrow resorption lacunae, indicating deficiency of radioresistant osteoclast precursor cells. Injection of intact bone marrow cells to whole body-irradiated animals immediately after tooth extraction recovered to some content the number of osteoclasts. These findings suggest that bone resorption in the wound healing of alveolar socket requires radioresistant, postmitotic osteoclast precursor cells from hematopoietic organs, but not from local sources around the alveolar socket, at the initial phase of wound healing.

  13. Effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on palatal mucosal defects and tooth extraction sockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günay, Ahmet; Arpağ, Osman Fatih; Atilgan, Serhat; Yaman, Ferhan; Atalay, Yusuf; Acikan, İzzet

    2014-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on palatal mucosal defects and tooth extraction sockets in an experimental model. Materials and methods Forty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats with a mean age of 7 weeks and weighing 280–490 g were used in this study. The rats were randomly divided into two groups: group A (the control group, n=21) and group B (the experimental group, n=21). Under anesthesia with ketamine (8 mg/100 g, intraperitoneally), palatal mucosal defects were created and tooth extraction was performed in the rats in groups A and B. Group A received no treatment, whereas group B received CAPE. CAPE was injected daily (10 μmol/kg, intraperitoneally). The rats were killed on days 7, 14, and 30 after the procedures. Palatal mucosa healing and changes in bone tissue and fibrous tissue were evaluated histopathologically. Result Pairwise comparisons showed no statistically significant difference between days 7 and 14 in either group (P>0.05). At day 30, bone healing was significantly better in group B (CAPE) than in group A (control) (P0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, the findings of this study suggest that CAPE can significantly improve tooth socket healing. PMID:25364232

  14. Effects of calcitonin on orthodontic tooth movement and associated root resorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ling; Lin, Suai; Yan, Weijun; Chen, Lei; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2017-11-01

    Our main aim was to evaluate the effects of calcitonin (CT) on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and orthodontic root resorption in a rat model. Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Rats in the negative control group were not given any appliances or injections. All the remaining rats were used to establish a model of OTM. The positive control group were then injected with normal saline, while rats in the three experimental groups were injected with 0.2 IU, 1 IU or 5 IU/kg/day CT. Nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were used to deliver an initial 50 g mesial force to the left maxillary first molar for 14 days in rats in the positive control group and the experimental groups. Each group was randomly subdivided into two groups, one for analysis of tooth movement, tissue changes and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells in alveolar bone, the other to examine root resorption by scanning electron microscopy. The OTM distance, the number of force-induced osteoclasts and root resorption areas were significantly decreased in CT-injected rats in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of CT reduces the root resorption area and may therefore be effective as a novel adjunctive orthodontic approach to diminish undesired tooth movement via enhancing anchorage or preventing relapse after OTM.

  15. SIGNS Molar tooth sign − looking beyond the obvious

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tooth are represented by thick, perpendicular, non-decussated superior cerebellar peduncles, while the 'body' of the molar tooth is formed by the cerebral peduncles of the brainstem with a deep interpeduncular fossa (Fig. 1a).[3]. Diffusion tensor tractography confirms the failure of superior cerebellar peduncle decussation.

  16. A theropod tooth from the Late Triassic of southern Africa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An isolated, large recurved and finely serrated tooth found associated with the prosauropod Euskelosaurus from the Late Triassic part of the Elliot Formation is described here. It is compared to the Triassic thecodonts and carnivorous dinosaurs and its possible affinity is discussed. The tooth possibly belongs to a basal ...

  17. Assessment of the progression of tooth wear on dental casts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoorn-Vis, G.M.G.J.; Wetselaar, P.; Koutris, M.; Visscher, C.M.; Evälahti, M.; Ahlberg, J.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2015-01-01

    Many methods are available for the grading of tooth wear, but their ability to assess the progression of wear over time has not been studied frequently. The aim was to assess whether the occlusal/incisal grading scale of the Tooth Wear Evaluation System (TWES) was sensitive enough for the detection

  18. Reasons for tooth mortality as perceived by dental professionals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that among the patients attending dental clinics and hospitals in Udaipur city, dental caries and periodontal disease was found to be the two major causes of tooth mortality. This is probably the first study to report on the trends in tooth loss in general practice in Udaipur ...

  19. Association between Severity of Tooth Wear and Dentinal Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Ayer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Tooth wear (attrition, abrasion, erosion, and abfraction is perceived globally as ever increasing problem. Several outcome of the tooth wear are hypersensitivity, esthetic problems, functional impairment, annoyance to the patient, and fracture of the tooth. Among these, the measurable and more commonly reported outcome is hypersensitivity to stimuli. Although dentin hypersensitivity is a common clinical condition and is generally reported by the patient after experiencing a sharp, short pain caused by one of the several different external stimuli, it is often inadequately understood. None of the scientific literature available till date attempted to establish the relationship between tooth wear and dentin hypersensitivity which could be a key factor in monitoring those patients.  The aim of the study was to estimate the association between severity of teeth wear and sensitivity in the patients with reported dentinal hypersensitivity.Materials & Methods: Fifty patients with dentin hypersensitivity were investigated for tooth wear. Tooth wear measured using exact tooth wear index and level of sensitivity to stimuli was recorded using a numerical rating scale. Results: Enamel wear at cervical region of teeth showed a positive correlation (p=.010, similarly, dentin wear at cervical region of teeth showed positive correlation and significant association (p<.001 with dentinal hypersensitivity.Conclusion: The observation supports a significant association between severities of tooth surface wear and dentinal hypersensitivity.

  20. Accelerated tooth eruption in children with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Shantanu; Cheng, Bin; Kaplan, Selma; Softness, Barney; Greenberg, Ellen; Goland, Robin S; Lalla, Evanthia; Lamster, Ira B

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate tooth eruption in 6- to 14-year-old children with diabetes mellitus. Tooth eruption status was assessed for 270 children with diabetes and 320 control children without diabetes. Data on important diabetes-related variables were collected. Analyses were performed using logistic regression models. Children with diabetes exhibited accelerated tooth eruption in the late mixed dentition period (10-14 years of age) compared to healthy children. For both case patients and control subjects the odds of a tooth being in an advanced eruptive stage were significantly higher among girls than boys. There was also a trend associating gingival inflammation with expedited tooth eruption in both groups. No association was found between the odds of a tooth being in an advanced stage of eruption and hemoglobin A(1c) or duration of diabetes. Patients with higher body mass index percentile demonstrated statistically higher odds for accelerated tooth eruption, but the association was not clinically significant. Children with diabetes exhibit accelerated tooth eruption. Future studies need to ascertain the role of such aberrations in dental development and complications such as malocclusion, impaired oral hygiene, and periodontal disease. The standards of care for children with diabetes should include screening and referral programs aimed at oral health promotion and disease prevention.