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Sample records for experiment method analiz

  1. Upravlenie transgranichnymi vodnymi resursami: sravnitel'nyj analiz rossijskogo i amerikanskogo opyta [Management of Trans-boundary Water Resources: Comparing Russian and American Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanko Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a comparative analysis of Russia and US’s experience of participation in international cooperation in the field of trans-boundary water management. The author showcases the work of Russian-Estonian Commission for Protection and Rational Use of Trans-Boundary Waters and the US-Canadian International Joint Commission. The Russian-Estonian Commission works in accordance with the principle of intergovernmentalism, whereas transnationalism is the founding principle of the International Joint Commission in North America. Though the Russian-Estonian Commission is more efficient in water quality improvement in its area of responsibility, it is early still to claim that intergovernmental cooperation is more effective than transnational cooperation. However, it gives a reason to question the conclusions of the proponents of transnationalism in the international relations theory, who claim that the latter is more efficient. Practical significance of this paper is in the proposed recommendations for further modernization of international cooperation in the field of trans-boundary water management.

  2. Formal Methods: Practice and Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodcock, Jim; Larsen, Peter Gorm; Bicarregui, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Formal methods use mathematical models for analysis and verification at any part of the program life-cycle. We describe the state of the art in the industrial use of formal methods, concentrating on their increasing use at the earlier stages of specification and design. We do this by reporting....... Based on this, we discuss the issues surrounding the industrial adoption of formal methods. Finally, we look to the future and describe the development of a Verified Software Repository, part of the worldwide Verified Software Initiative. We introduce the initial projects being used to populate...

  3. Straipsnių pasikartojimo internetinėje žiniasklaidoje analizė

    OpenAIRE

    Skarbalius, Ramūnas

    2013-01-01

    Šiame darbe yra pateikiama informacija apie esamų darbų apžvalgą, kuriuose yra minimas panašios bei pasikartojančios informacijos ieškojimas, taip pat aprašoma darbų analizė, kuriuose yra minimas informacijos nuskaitymas iš internetinio portalo bei jos išsaugojimas. Dabartinėje rinkoje egzistuojančių programinių paketų bei karkasų apžvalga, kurių pagalba galima nuskaityti informacija iš internetinio puslapio paverčiant DOM objektais. Po darbų bei sistemų analizės sukurta sistema, kuri suge...

  4. My Experience with the Lozanov Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Dolores A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the suggestopedic method and an experiment using it in an American college elementary language class. The class organization, the way suggestopedia works, the classroom program, and results of suggestopedic courses are discussed. (AMH)

  5. Experience with the SARA OSL method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, V.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes our experience using the single aliquot regeneration added dose (SARA) OSL method during a 2-yr period for dating archaeological and geological materials. The principle of the method is outlined and a simple method for testing whether a possible sensitivity change depends...... on the added dose is shown. Advantages of the SARA method is discussed and results obtained using this method for 15 archaeological samples are compared with TL results. A correlation coefficient of 0.967 was found. The test also included comparison of a SARA dare with an archaeomagnetic date for a brick kiln...

  6. Introducing a method for mapping recreational experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Dempsey, Nicola; Burton, Mel

    2013-01-01

    The provision of recreational opportunities forms an important and long-standing urban planning and management objective. However, considering a range of experiences encountered when in such spaces currently does not form part of existing open space assessment tools in the UK. In this paper, ‘rec......-mapping’, an innovative method of analysing and mapping positive recreational experiences in urban green spaces is explored and piloted within the UK planning context. Originating in the Nordic countries, this on-site method can provide urban planners and designers with data about the extent to which specific green...... spaces provide and support a range of recreational experiences. The exploration reported here is based on a short review of the methods background and an application in two test sites in Sheffield, South Yorkshire in early summer 2010. This paper critically appraises the application of rec...

  7. Finansų maklerio įmonių 2011–2015 m. veiklos analizė

    OpenAIRE

    Ramazanova, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Kiekvienas klientas, kreipdamasis į finansų maklerio įmonę, turi suprasti, kaip tоkiоs institucijоs vеikia ir kam jos skirtos. Tačiau to neužtenka, norint tinkamai išanalizuoti finansų maklerio įmonių veiklą. Svarbią reikšmę turi ir pačių įmonių veiklos rezultatų analizė, nes tai gali turėti tiesioginės įtakos invеstаvimо rezultatams. Norint teisingai įvertinti įmonės finansinę būklę, reikia mokėti interpretuoti finansinius rodiklius. Dėl šiоs priežаsties аtliеkamа finansinės būkl...

  8. Functional Analysis in Public Sector Funkcinė analizė viešajame sektoriuje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živilė Tunčikienė

    2011-02-01

    š privataus sektoriaus „pasiskolintų“ ir viešajam sektoriui pritaikytų efektyvaus valdymo priemonių yra strateginis planavimas. Rengiant viešojo sektoriaus institucijų strateginius veiklos planus ir jų įgyvendinimo priemones, būtina vadovautis valstybės plėtros prioriteto, rinkos kaip institucijų veiklos reguliatoriaus pagrįstumo ir kitais principais. Siekiant įgyvendinti tokius principus, tikslinga taikyti funkcinės analizės metodą. Tyrimo tikslas – atskleisti funkcinės analizės esmę viešajame sektoriuje. Tokio tikslo pasirinkimą lėmė aktuali viešojo sektoriaus veiklos neefektyvumo problema. Tikslui pasiekti straipsnyje nagrinėjami įvairių mokslininkų bei praktikų pateikti funkcinės analizės tikslai ir uždaviniai, funkcinės analizės technologija, siūloma taikyti viešajam sektoriui. Naudojamas kokybinis tyrimo metodas – mokslinės literatūros analizė, vertinimas ir apibendrinimas.

    Raktiniai žodžiai: viešasis sektorius, viešojo administravimo reforma, viešosios institucijos, funkcinė analizė, efektyvumas.

  9. The guided autobiography method: a learning experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, James E

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the proposition that learning is an unexplored feature of the guided autobiography method and its developmental exchange. Learning, conceptualized and explored as the embedded and embodied processes, is essential in narrative activities of the guided autobiography method leading to psychosocial development and growth in dynamic, temporary social groups. The article is organized in four sections and summary. The first section provides a brief overview of the guided autobiography method describing the interplay of learning and experiencing in temporary social groups. The second section offers a limited review on learning and experiencing as processes that are essential for development, growth, and change. The third section reviews the small group activities and the emergence of the "developmental exchange" in the guided autobiography method. Two theoretical constructs provide a conceptual foundation for the developmental exchange: a counterpart theory of aging as development and collaborative-situated group learning theory. The summary recaps the main ideas and issues that shape the guided autobiography method as learning and social experience using the theme, "Where to go from here."

  10. Individual Differences Methods for Randomized Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments allow researchers to randomly vary the key manipulation, the instruments of measurement, and the sequences of the measurements and manipulations across participants. To date, however, the advantages of randomized experiments to manipulate both the aspects of interest and the aspects that threaten internal validity have been primarily…

  11. Data processing method for neutron diffraction experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Palomino, L.A. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Dawidowski, J. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)]. E-mail: javier@cab.cnea.gov.ar; Blostein, J.J. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Cuello, G.J. [Institut Laue Langevin, Boite Postale 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2007-05-15

    We present a procedure to perform multiple scattering, attenuation and efficiency corrections in reactor neutron diffraction experiments, based on a Monte Carlo code applied iteratively. We discuss the application of two procedures, the first based on Granada's synthetic model, useful for incoherent scatterers, and the second, based on the measured experimental distributions for coherent scatterers. Experiments on samples of polyethylene, light water, heavy water and Teflon of different sizes were performed and the correction procedures are tested. The problem of normalization in an absolute scale in diffraction experiments is addressed and results obtained from the present procedure are shown.

  12. Research Methods in Landscape Perception and Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karmanov, D.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Experiencing nature, landscape and heritage, first chapter. Karmanov provides a general overview of methods of studying landscape perceptions, illustrated by a wide variety of mainly experimental psychological research.

  13. The Guided Autobiography Method: A Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, James E.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the proposition that learning is an unexplored feature of the guided autobiography method and its developmental exchange. Learning, conceptualized and explored as the embedded and embodied processes, is essential in narrative activities of the guided autobiography method leading to psychosocial development and growth in…

  14. Social Experiments and Participatory Research as Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2007-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research with stakeholders and users challenge the research methodologies to be used. These have to provide a shared language for all the participants, to build up trust, and to offer insights into the diverse perspectives of the participants. Further more it challenge ways...... to discuss and validate contributions from each others - across different criteria for each discipline, and crosswise different agendas for stakeholders, politicians, practitioners and researchers. Participatory research and social experiments are methodologies which have been developed to cope...... with this kind of complexity in regards to technology development and design projects. Based on experiences and lessons learned from the project "The Digital North Denmark (DDN), the chapter reflects on participatory research in a complex organizational setting of researchers, stakeholders and users emphasising...

  15. Estimation method for serial dilution experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Avishai; Davidson, Charles E

    2014-12-01

    Titration of microorganisms in infectious or environmental samples is a corner stone of quantitative microbiology. A simple method is presented to estimate the microbial counts obtained with the serial dilution technique for microorganisms that can grow on bacteriological media and develop into a colony. The number (concentration) of viable microbial organisms is estimated from a single dilution plate (assay) without a need for replicate plates. Our method selects the best agar plate with which to estimate the microbial counts, and takes into account the colony size and plate area that both contribute to the likelihood of miscounting the number of colonies on a plate. The estimate of the optimal count given by our method can be used to narrow the search for the best (optimal) dilution plate and saves time. The required inputs are the plate size, the microbial colony size, and the serial dilution factors. The proposed approach shows relative accuracy well within ±0.1log10 from data produced by computer simulations. The method maintains this accuracy even in the presence of dilution errors of up to 10% (for both the aliquot and diluent volumes), microbial counts between 10(4) and 10(12) colony-forming units, dilution ratios from 2 to 100, and plate size to colony size ratios between 6.25 to 200. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. The comparative method as a breaching experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David

    Comparative studies have remained an exception in qualitative reception and audience studies (Jensen, 1998b), although recent years have witnessed ambitious projects (e.g. Barker & Mathijs, 2008) and increased cross-national research collaborations. This paper will present the design...... the interpretation of a cultural phenomenon. 3) The method provided empirical borders to an analysis of culture, hence preventing such analysis to take a life of its own. Consequently, the comparative method was instrumental in articulating, delimitating and validating culture as an empirical category of analysis...... of an empirical comparative study of the cultural, cognitive and linguistic determinants of news comprehension and a discussion of the challenges, issues and benefits found in engaging with a comparative methodology in the context of reception and discourse analyses. The research project on which this paper...

  17. Analyzing parliamentary discourse: systemic functional perspective. Parlamento diskurso analizė: sisteminė funkcinė perspektyva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Treimane

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary research views parliamentary discourse as a variety of political language which is largely defined by its contextual properties and thus requires a contextual approach of analysis. According to the systemic functional theory, a contextual discourse analysis is the analysis of register, i.e. the analysis of the text as embedded in its situational context. The present research demonstrates the relevance of the systemic parameters to parliamentary discourse analysis where the parliamentary transcripts of the debate held at the British House of Commons and the Latvian Parliament (Saeima are used as the empirical data. The investigation of parliamentary texts reveals a consistent occurrence of fixed lexico-grammatical patterns, namely, noun phrases which are realized as politeness formulas and verb phrases which ensure the legislative procedure. Both in Latvia and in Britain these fixed patterns may be considered as indexical features of parliamentary register. The contextual analysis reveals significant discrepancies in the interpretation of the categories of context within systemic functional linguistics and underscores the necessity of developing a more systemic context framework which would employ extra-linguistic, rather than linguistic, criteria for context analysis.            Naujausi diskurso tyrimai rodo, kad parlamento diskursas laikytinas viena formaliausių ir savo normas turinčių politinio diskurso atmainų. Šis diskursas apibrėžiamas specifiniais konteksto bruožais, t. y. vieta, dalyviais ir tematika, o jo tyrimai neatskiriami nuo konteksto analizės. Konteksto analizė kalbotyroje sietina su sistemine funkcine gramatika, kurioje kalba suprantama kaip „socialinis semiotinis“ reiškinys, tirtinas konkrečiame socialiniame kontekste. Straipsnyje aprašomu tyrimu siekiama parodyti sisteminių funkcinių parametrų svarbą parlamento diskurso analizei. Empiriniai tyrimo duomenys rinkti iš transkribuot

  18. What role for qualitative methods in randomized experiments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin; Camfield, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The vibrant debate on randomized experiments within international development has been slow to accept a role for qualitative methods within research designs. Whilst there are examples of how 'field visits' or descriptive analyses of context can play a complementary, but secondary, role...... to quantitative methods, little attention has been paid to the possibility of randomized experiments that allow a primary role to qualitative methods. This paper assesses whether a range of qualitative methods compromise the internal and external validity criteria of randomized experiments. It suggests that life...... history interviews have advantages over other qualitative methods, and offers one alternative to the conventional survey tool....

  19. ÖĞRETMEN ADAYLARININ TARIHI GÖRSELLERI ANALIZ DÜZEYLERİ / TEACHER CANDIDATES’ ANALYSIS LEVELS of HISTORICAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turan, I.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Görsel kaynaklar tarih araştırmalarında ve öğretiminde büyük bir öneme sahiptir. Tarih eğitiminde görsel kaynaklar doğası gereği soyut olan tarihi bilgiyi somutlaştırarak onu yeni kuşaklar için daha anlaşılır bir hale getirmekte aynı zamanda öğrencilerin yaratıcı düşünce ve hayal gücünün gelişmesinde yardımcı olmaktadır (Smirnova ve Romanov, 2007: 1. Öğrencilerin görsel analiz becerilerini geliştirmek sadece tarih derslerindeki kavrama ve başarı düzeyleri açısından değil aynı zamanda yaşam boyu öğrenme becerilerinin gelişimi açısından da önemlidir. Çünkü bu alanda iyi olan bir kişi, çevresinde gördüğü eylemlerin, objelerin ve sembollerin farklılığını anlayabilmekte ve onları daha doğru yorumlayabilmektedir (Alpan, 2008: 76-77. Öğrencilerin görsel analiz becerilerinin gelişiminde en önemli unsur tabi öğretmenlerdir. Görsellerin öğretmenler tarafından tarih derslerinde doğru kullanımı öğrencilerin görsel analiz ve görsel okuryazarlık becerilerini olumlu yönde etkileyecektir. Bu araştırmanın amacı tarih ve sosyal bilgiler öğretmen adaylarının görsel analiz düzeylerini tespit etmektir. Çalışmada nitel durum araştırması yöntemi ve iç içe geçmiş tek durum deseni kullanılmıştır. Çalışma grubuna Atatürk Üniversitesi Kazım Karabekir Eğitim Fakültesi Tarih Eğitimi ve Sosyal Bilgiler Eğitimi son sınıf öğrencileri dâhil edilmiştir. Veri toplama aracı olarak araştırmacılar tarafından hazırlanmış “Görsel Analiz Düzeyi” çalışma kâğıdı kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda öğretmen adaylarının büyük çoğunluğunun tarihsel görselleri analiz ederken tanımlama düzeyindeki görevlerde dahi zorlandıkları, görseller hakkında derinlemesine ve detaylı analizler yapamadıkları, genellikle kısa ifadeler ve açıklamalar kullandıkları, akademik bir tavır sergileyemeyerek kaynağa duygusal bir bak

  20. Experience sampling with elderly persons: an exploration of the method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatiuk, S H

    1991-01-01

    The daily lives of a sample of elderly widows (greater than 69 years of age) were studied using the method of experience sampling developed by Csikszentmihalyi and his colleagues. The purpose of the study was to investigate the response of elderly people to experience sampling as a means of collecting information about their activities, thoughts, and moods during the course of one week. The method proved acceptable to the majority of participants and yielded reliable, valid data about their home lives, particularly from among the younger, more physically able women. Experience sampling was, within certain limits, a useful method of obtaining information from elderly people.

  1. Kompiuterinių testavimo priemonių analizė, tobulinimas ir taikymas

    OpenAIRE

    Jasinskienė, Jolanta

    2005-01-01

    This master‘s thesis is analysing the use of computer testing tools in teaching process, also knowledge checking by testing method and possibility to use paperless testing systems in various schools of Lithuania. In nowadays there is a life – long learning principle in the society. The assessment of students‘ learning attempts and results is an obligatory part of teaching and learning process. Testing is one of the learning process feedback realization methods. Well organized testing and ...

  2. Finansinio audito paslaugų kokybės analizė ir vertinimas

    OpenAIRE

    Vaicekauskas, Darius

    2015-01-01

    The object of the doctoral dissertation is financial audit service quality (further – audit service quality). The aim of the doctoral dissertation is to conceptualize audit service quality and based on the conceptual model to analyse and evaluate audit service quality in Lithuania while providing recommendations for quality improvements. The aim is achieved while applying following research methods: analysis of scientific literature, content analysis, questionnaire survey, expert judgement. ...

  3. The construction of optimal stated choice experiments theory and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Street, Deborah J

    2007-01-01

    The most comprehensive and applied discussion of stated choice experiment constructions available The Construction of Optimal Stated Choice Experiments provides an accessible introduction to the construction methods needed to create the best possible designs for use in modeling decision-making. Many aspects of the design of a generic stated choice experiment are independent of its area of application, and until now there has been no single book describing these constructions. This book begins with a brief description of the various areas where stated choice experiments are applicable, including marketing and health economics, transportation, environmental resource economics, and public welfare analysis. The authors focus on recent research results on the construction of optimal and near-optimal choice experiments and conclude with guidelines and insight on how to properly implement these results. Features of the book include: Construction of generic stated choice experiments for the estimation of main effects...

  4. Analiză comparată a sistemelor de evaluare a programelor educaționale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin CĂRBUNĂREAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The major changes that occurred in the higher education systems across Europe led to changes in the functioning of educational programs. These changes have emphasized the need for quality assurance mechanisms. This article begins with a brief presentation of the quality assurance methods and models, focusing afterwards on the European quality assurance systems used in higher education. Some of these systems are analyzed and then we look at the evaluation processes and procedures used to ensure the quality of three master programs from Romania. Comparing the quality assessment models used in some European countries we can state that the criteria and the procedures utilized are quite diverse. Only two criteria have been identified as common to all models, and few more which were common only to some systems. We also found that the beneficiaries’ satisfaction is an indicator used rather often in assessing the quality of the three master programs from Romania. We conclude that the evaluation process has gain in significance and its evolution is likely to be tied to the activity of international quality assurance networks which began to develop guidelines for the national agencies. In addition to that, we witness an increase in standardization.

  5. Analysis of computational footprinting methods for DNase sequencing experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmao, Eduardo G; Allhoff, Manuel; Zenke, Martin; Costa, Ivan G

    2016-04-01

    DNase-seq allows nucleotide-level identification of transcription factor binding sites on the basis of a computational search of footprint-like DNase I cleavage patterns on the DNA. Frequently in high-throughput methods, experimental artifacts such as DNase I cleavage bias affect the computational analysis of DNase-seq experiments. Here we performed a comprehensive and systematic study on the performance of computational footprinting methods. We evaluated ten footprinting methods in a panel of DNase-seq experiments for their ability to recover cell-specific transcription factor binding sites. We show that three methods--HINT, DNase2TF and PIQ--consistently outperformed the other evaluated methods and that correcting the DNase-seq signal for experimental artifacts significantly improved the accuracy of computational footprints. We also propose a score that can be used to detect footprints arising from transcription factors with potentially short residence times.

  6. Analysis of reactivity determination methods in the subcritical experiment Yalina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Carl-Magnus; Seltborg, Per; Åhlander, Alexandra; Gudowski, Waclaw; Stummer, Thomas; Kiyavitskaya, Hanna; Bournos, Victor; Fokov, Yurij; Serafimovich, Ivan; Chigrinov, Sergey

    2005-12-01

    Different reactivity determination methods have been investigated, based on experiments performed at the subcritical assembly Yalina in Minsk, Belarus. The development of techniques for on-line monitoring of the reactivity level in a future accelerator-driven system (ADS) is of major importance for safe operation. Since an ADS is operating in a subcritical mode, the safety margin to criticality must be sufficiently large. The investigated methods are the Slope Fit Method, the Sjöstrand Method and the Source Jerk Method. The results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations performed with different nuclear data libraries. The results of the Slope Fit Method are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation results, whereas the Sjöstrand Method appears to underestimate the criticality somewhat. The Source Jerk Method is subject to inadequate statistical accuracy.

  7. Methods for Influencing Social Policy: The Role of Social Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Marybeth

    2016-12-01

    Research methods in community psychology have grown more diverse since the Swampscott conference, but rigorous social experiments maintain a place among the multiplicity of methods that can promote community psychology values. They are particularly influential in policy circles. Two examples of social experiments to end homelessness for different populations illustrate their role. Both studies show that offering extremely poor and disenfranchised people autonomy and the resources they seek works better than "helping" them to overcome deficits in ways designed by well-meaning service providers. Experiments are neither the first nor the last method community psychologists should employ, but are a critical part of the field's armamentarium for systems change. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  8. Environmental and mental conditions predicting the experience of involuntary musical imagery: An experience sampling method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floridou, Georgia A; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    An experience sampling method (ESM) study on 40 volunteers was conducted to explore the environmental factors and psychological conditions related to involuntary musical imagery (INMI) in everyday life. Participants reported 6 times per day for one week on their INMI experiences, relevant contextual information and associated environmental conditions. The resulting data was modeled with Bayesian networks and led to insights into the interplay of factors related to INMI experiences. The activity that a person is engaged was found to play an important role in the experience of mind wandering, which in turn enables the experience of INMI. INMI occurrence is independent of the time of the day while the INMI trigger affects the subjective evaluation of the INMI experience. The results are compared to findings from earlier studies based on retrospective surveys and questionnaires and highlight the advantage of ESM techniques in research on spontaneous experiences like INMI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Experience with the mother kangaroo method: mother’s perception

    OpenAIRE

    Antonia do Carmo Soares Campos; Mariana Pordeus Lopes Carvalho; Karla Maria Carneiro Rolim; Ana Júlia Couto de Alencar

    2012-01-01

    The refl ection concerning the importance of the method mother-kangaroo for the well-being and feeling better of the binomial mother-child was what impelled us to accomplish this study which aimed to know the mothers’ perception on the mother kangaroo method. It meant to evaluate the mothers’ knowledge on the benefi ts of the mother Kangaroo method for the binomial mother-child and to identify the feeling of the mothers who experience such method. It was accomplished with 13 mothers within th...

  10. A Modified Cooling Method and Its Application in "Drosophila" Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wen-hui; Zhu, Tong-bo; Yang, Da-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Chilling is a cost-effective and safe method of immobilising flies in "Drosophila" experiments. However, should condensation form on the plate, it would be fatal to the flies. Here we describe a modified cooling method using reusable commercial ice pack(s) (ca. 400 ml, 2-3 cm tall) rather than crushed ice. The ice pack is covered with a…

  11. Using Observational Methods to Research the Student Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Debby R. E.; Stokes, Alison; Cotton, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Much pedagogic research undertaken in geography and other disciplines relies on post-hoc methods such as surveys or interviews to investigate the student experience of higher education (often based on self-reports of behaviour). However, observation of students provides a far more direct route to obtain information about their behaviour, and there…

  12. MODELING AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR DOUBLE MODULATION PHOTO REFLECTANCE EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hernández

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an improved method to be used in double modulation photo reflectance experiments, inorder to reduce the influence of parasitic effects in the useful signal. The method uses the inner and outer sectionsof a single chopper disk to modulate the monochromator and the laser beam, eliminating the need of complexelectronic filters, and two additional PIN photodiodes for scattered light compensation. The method has beennumerically simulated using LabVIEW in order to investigate the influence of the modulator finite switching timeand the finite resolution of the digital acquisition system. Results show that a relative error less than 1% can beachieved.

  13. Robust test method for time-course microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Stephen L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a time-course microarray experiment, the expression level for each gene is observed across a number of time-points in order to characterize the temporal trajectories of the gene-expression profiles. For many of these experiments, the scientific aim is the identification of genes for which the trajectories depend on an experimental or phenotypic factor. There is an extensive recent body of literature on statistical methodology for addressing this analytical problem. Most of the existing methods are based on estimating the time-course trajectories using parametric or non-parametric mean regression methods. The sensitivity of these regression methods to outliers, an issue that is well documented in the statistical literature, should be of concern when analyzing microarray data. Results In this paper, we propose a robust testing method for identifying genes whose expression time profiles depend on a factor. Furthermore, we propose a multiple testing procedure to adjust for multiplicity. Conclusions Through an extensive simulation study, we will illustrate the performance of our method. Finally, we will report the results from applying our method to a case study and discussing potential extensions.

  14. The quality of methods reporting in parasitology experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez-Vargas, Oscar; Bramhall, Michael; Noyes, Harry; Cruickshank, Sheena; Stevens, Robert; Brass, Andy

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing concern both inside and outside the scientific community over the lack of reproducibility of experiments. The depth and detail of reported methods are critical to the reproducibility of findings, but also for making it possible to compare and integrate data from different studies. In this study, we evaluated in detail the methods reporting in a comprehensive set of trypanosomiasis experiments that should enable valid reproduction, integration and comparison of research findings. We evaluated a subset of other parasitic (Leishmania, Toxoplasma, Plasmodium, Trichuris and Schistosoma) and non-parasitic (Mycobacterium) experimental infections in order to compare the quality of method reporting more generally. A systematic review using PubMed (2000-2012) of all publications describing gene expression in cells and animals infected with Trypanosoma spp was undertaken based on PRISMA guidelines; 23 papers were identified and included. We defined a checklist of essential parameters that should be reported and have scored the number of those parameters that are reported for each publication. Bibliometric parameters (impact factor, citations and h-index) were used to look for association between Journal and Author status and the quality of method reporting. Trichuriasis experiments achieved the highest scores and included the only paper to score 100% in all criteria. The mean of scores achieved by Trypanosoma articles through the checklist was 65.5% (range 32-90%). Bibliometric parameters were not correlated with the quality of method reporting (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient 0.05). Our results indicate that the quality of methods reporting in experimental parasitology is a cause for concern and it has not improved over time, despite there being evidence that most of the assessed parameters do influence the results. We propose that our set of parameters be used as guidelines to improve the quality of the reporting of experimental infection models

  15. The quality of methods reporting in parasitology experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Flórez-Vargas

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern both inside and outside the scientific community over the lack of reproducibility of experiments. The depth and detail of reported methods are critical to the reproducibility of findings, but also for making it possible to compare and integrate data from different studies. In this study, we evaluated in detail the methods reporting in a comprehensive set of trypanosomiasis experiments that should enable valid reproduction, integration and comparison of research findings. We evaluated a subset of other parasitic (Leishmania, Toxoplasma, Plasmodium, Trichuris and Schistosoma and non-parasitic (Mycobacterium experimental infections in order to compare the quality of method reporting more generally. A systematic review using PubMed (2000-2012 of all publications describing gene expression in cells and animals infected with Trypanosoma spp was undertaken based on PRISMA guidelines; 23 papers were identified and included. We defined a checklist of essential parameters that should be reported and have scored the number of those parameters that are reported for each publication. Bibliometric parameters (impact factor, citations and h-index were used to look for association between Journal and Author status and the quality of method reporting. Trichuriasis experiments achieved the highest scores and included the only paper to score 100% in all criteria. The mean of scores achieved by Trypanosoma articles through the checklist was 65.5% (range 32-90%. Bibliometric parameters were not correlated with the quality of method reporting (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient 0.05. Our results indicate that the quality of methods reporting in experimental parasitology is a cause for concern and it has not improved over time, despite there being evidence that most of the assessed parameters do influence the results. We propose that our set of parameters be used as guidelines to improve the quality of the reporting of experimental

  16. Studying collaborative information seeking: Experiences with three methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden; Hertzum, Morten; Hansen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative information seeking (CIS) has lately produced interesting empirical studies, describing CIS in real-life settings. While these studies explore how and why CIS manifests itself in different domains, discussions about how to study CIS have been scarce. The research area of CIS may......, however, benefit from a discussion of methodological issues. This chapter describes the application of three methods for collecting and analyzing data in three CIS studies. The three methods are Multidimensional Exploration, used in a CIS study of students’ in-formation behavior during a group assignment......; Task-structured Observation, used in a CIS study of patent engineers; and Condensed Observation, used in a CIS study of information-systems development. The three methods are presented in the context of the studies for which they were devised, and the experiences gained using the methods are discussed...

  17. The Role of Qualitative Research Methods in Discrete Choice Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vass, Caroline; Rigby, Dan; Payne, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Background. The use of qualitative research (QR) methods is recommended as good practice in discrete choice experiments (DCEs). This study investigated the use and reporting of QR to inform the design and/or interpretation of healthcare-related DCEs and explored the perceived usefulness of such methods. Methods. DCEs were identified from a systematic search of the MEDLINE database. Studies were classified by the quantity of QR reported (none, basic, or extensive). Authors (n = 91) of papers reporting the use of QR were invited to complete an online survey eliciting their views about using the methods. Results. A total of 254 healthcare DCEs were included in the review; of these, 111 (44%) did not report using any qualitative methods; 114 (45%) reported “basic” information; and 29 (11%) reported or cited “extensive” use of qualitative methods. Studies reporting the use of qualitative methods used them to select attributes and/or levels (n = 95; 66%) and/or pilot the DCE survey (n = 26; 18%). Popular qualitative methods included focus groups (n = 63; 44%) and interviews (n = 109; 76%). Forty-four studies (31%) reported the analytical approach, with content (n = 10; 7%) and framework analysis (n = 5; 4%) most commonly reported. The survey identified that all responding authors (n = 50; 100%) found that qualitative methods added value to their DCE study, but many (n = 22; 44%) reported that journals were uninterested in the reporting of QR results. Conclusions. Despite recommendations that QR methods be used alongside DCEs, the use of QR methods is not consistently reported. The lack of reporting risks the inference that QR methods are of little use in DCE research, contradicting practitioners’ assessments. Explicit guidelines would enable more clarity and consistency in reporting, and journals should facilitate such reporting via online supplementary materials. PMID:28061040

  18. The Role of Qualitative Research Methods in Discrete Choice Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vass, Caroline; Rigby, Dan; Payne, Katherine

    2017-04-01

    The use of qualitative research (QR) methods is recommended as good practice in discrete choice experiments (DCEs). This study investigated the use and reporting of QR to inform the design and/or interpretation of healthcare-related DCEs and explored the perceived usefulness of such methods. DCEs were identified from a systematic search of the MEDLINE database. Studies were classified by the quantity of QR reported (none, basic, or extensive). Authors ( n = 91) of papers reporting the use of QR were invited to complete an online survey eliciting their views about using the methods. A total of 254 healthcare DCEs were included in the review; of these, 111 (44%) did not report using any qualitative methods; 114 (45%) reported "basic" information; and 29 (11%) reported or cited "extensive" use of qualitative methods. Studies reporting the use of qualitative methods used them to select attributes and/or levels ( n = 95; 66%) and/or pilot the DCE survey ( n = 26; 18%). Popular qualitative methods included focus groups ( n = 63; 44%) and interviews ( n = 109; 76%). Forty-four studies (31%) reported the analytical approach, with content ( n = 10; 7%) and framework analysis ( n = 5; 4%) most commonly reported. The survey identified that all responding authors ( n = 50; 100%) found that qualitative methods added value to their DCE study, but many ( n = 22; 44%) reported that journals were uninterested in the reporting of QR results. Despite recommendations that QR methods be used alongside DCEs, the use of QR methods is not consistently reported. The lack of reporting risks the inference that QR methods are of little use in DCE research, contradicting practitioners' assessments. Explicit guidelines would enable more clarity and consistency in reporting, and journals should facilitate such reporting via online supplementary materials.

  19. Validation method training: nurses' experiences and ratings of work climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, Mona; Norberg, Astrid; Hansebo, Görel

    2014-03-01

    Training nursing staff in communication skills can impact on the quality of care for residents with dementia and contributes to nurses' job satisfaction. Changing attitudes and practices takes time and energy and can affect the entire nursing staff, not just the nurses directly involved in a training programme. Therefore, it seems important to study nurses' experiences of a training programme and any influence of the programme on work climate among the entire nursing staff. To explore nurses' experiences of a 1-year validation method training programme conducted in a nursing home for residents with dementia and to describe ratings of work climate before and after the programme. A mixed-methods approach. Twelve nurses participated in the training and were interviewed afterwards. These individual interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed, then analysed using qualitative content analysis. The Creative Climate Questionnaire was administered before (n = 53) and after (n = 56) the programme to the entire nursing staff in the participating nursing home wards and analysed with descriptive statistics. Analysis of the interviews resulted in four categories: being under extra strain, sharing experiences, improving confidence in care situations and feeling uncertain about continuing the validation method. The results of the questionnaire on work climate showed higher mean values in the assessment after the programme had ended. The training strengthened the participating nurses in caring for residents with dementia, but posed an extra strain on them. These nurses also described an extra strain on the entire nursing staff that was not reflected in the results from the questionnaire. The work climate at the nursing home wards might have made it easier to conduct this extensive training programme. Training in the validation method could develop nurses' communication skills and improve their handling of complex care situations. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. An experiment teaching method based on the Optisystem simulation platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jihua; Xiao, Xuanlu; Luo, Yuan

    2017-08-01

    The experiment teaching of optical communication system is difficult to achieve because of expensive equipment. The Optisystem is optical communication system design software, being able to provide such a simulation platform. According to the characteristic of the OptiSystem, an approach of experiment teaching is put forward in this paper. It includes three gradual levels, the basics, the deeper looks and the practices. Firstly, the basics introduce a brief overview of the technology, then the deeper looks include demoes and example analyses, lastly the practices are going on through the team seminars and comments. A variety of teaching forms are implemented in class. The fact proves that this method can not only make up the laboratory but also motivate the students' learning interest and improve their practical abilities, cooperation abilities and creative spirits. On the whole, it greatly raises the teaching effect.

  1. From Talk to Experience: Transforming the Preservice Physics Methods Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Russell

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This report of a collaborative self-study describes and interprets our pedagogical approach at the beginning of a preservice physics methods course and outlines the strategy that we used to create a context for productive learning. We focus on our attempt to engage teacher candidates in dialogue about learning physics and learning to teach physics by engaging them in brief teaching experiences in the first month of a preservice teacher education program, before the first practicum placement. Self-study methodologies are used to frame and reframe our perceptions of teaching and learning as we enacted a pedagogy of teacher education that was unfamiliar both to us and to our teacher candidates.Keywords: self-study of teacher education practices, lesson study, teacher education, physics, curriculum methods

  2. Inoculation method could impact the outcome of microbiological experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Alhede, Maria; Rybtke, Morten; Stavnsberg, Camilla; Jensen, Peter Ø; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Whiteley, Marvin; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2017-12-21

    For the last 150 years, bacteria have primarily been investigated in liquid bacth cultures (LBC). Contrary to most expectations, these cultures are not a homogeneous mixture of single-celled bacteria as free-floating bacterial aggregates eventually develop in most LBC. These aggregates share characteristics with biofilms such as increased antibiotic tolerance. We have investigated how aggregates develop and what influences this development in LBC of Pseudomonas aeruginosa We focused on how the method of inoculation impacted aggregation by assessing aggregate frequency and size using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Four traditional methods of initiating an overnight bacterial culture were investigated comprising inoculation directly from frozen culture, using agar grown cells, or using cells grown in liquid. We discovered a direct link between the inoculation method and the size and frequency of biofilm aggregates in a LBC, with inoculation directly from a plate resulting in the most numerous and largest aggregates. These large aggregates had an overall impact on the cultures' subsequent tolerance towards tobramycin indicating that the inoculation method has a profound impact on antibiotic tolerance. We also observed a mechanism where pre-formed aggregates recruited single cells from the surrounding culture in a "snowball effect", building up aggregated biomass in the culture. This recruitment was found to rely heavily on the exopolysaccharide Psl. Additionally, we found that both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus also produce aggregates in LBC. Our results stress the importance of inoculation consistency throughout experiments and the substantial impact aggregate development in LBC has on the output of microbiological experiments.IMPORTANCE Liquid pure cultures are fundamental to the field of microbiological research. These cultures are normally thought of as a homogeneous mix of single cell bacteria. The present study shows how this is not always true

  3. [Reflective writing in nursing education: background, experiences and methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Licia; Benaglio, Carla; Zannini, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    In the nursing field, writing one's own educational/professional experience has been utilized for a long time, to develop reflection and therefore learning. Reflective writing has been fostered to sustain the development of nurses' clinical, relational and ethical competence, and to promote self knowledge. To de scribe reflective writing experiences published in the literature, focussing on the educational contexts and the writing strategies used in the nursing field. Method. Narrative analysis of the international literature, based on the MedLine and Cinahl data sources. Reflective writing is used in undergraduate, post-graduate and continuing nursing education, to develop clinical learning or a professional and/or personal growth. In the former, short written assignments (also starting from scenarios) are given, while diaries and journals, with prompts focalizing on specific aspects of the experience, support a more global growth of the student/professional. These prompts are useful with individuals not used to write. Critical incidents or meaningful episodes from the clinical practice are also used. Many papers underline the importance of sharing writings with peers and/or a teacher/facilitator. Nursing students/professionals can be effectively supported by reflective writing in their experiential learning. However, their attitude to reflective writing should be considered with care and a feedback by peers and/or a facilitator must be provided. Since giving feedback requires adequate human resources, the implementation of writing activities in the nursing training should be carefully evaluated.

  4. User Experience Evaluation Methods in Product Development (UXEM'09)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roto, Virpi; Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, Kaisa; Law, Effie; Vermeeren, Arnold

    High quality user experience (UX) has become a central competitive factor of product development in mature consumer markets [1]. Although the term UX originated from industry and is a widely used term also in academia, the tools for managing UX in product development are still inadequate. A prerequisite for designing delightful UX in an industrial setting is to understand both the requirements tied to the pragmatic level of functionality and interaction and the requirements pertaining to the hedonic level of personal human needs, which motivate product use [2]. Understanding these requirements helps managers set UX targets for product development. The next phase in a good user-centered design process is to iteratively design and evaluate prototypes [3]. Evaluation is critical for systematically improving UX. In many approaches to UX, evaluation basically needs to be postponed until the product is fully or at least almost fully functional. However, in an industrial setting, it is very expensive to find the UX failures only at this phase of product development. Thus, product development managers and developers have a strong need to conduct UX evaluation as early as possible, well before all the parts affecting the holistic experience are available. Different types of products require evaluation on different granularity and maturity levels of a prototype. For example, due to its multi-user characteristic, a community service or an enterprise resource planning system requires a broader scope of UX evaluation than a microwave oven or a word processor that is meant for a single user at a time. Before systematic UX evaluation can be taken into practice, practical, lightweight UX evaluation methods suitable for different types of products and different phases of product readiness are needed. A considerable amount of UX research is still about the conceptual frameworks and models for user experience [4]. Besides, applying existing usability evaluation methods (UEMs) without

  5. Methodical Specifics of Thermal Experiments with Thin Carbon Reinforced Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Denisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer composite materials (CM are widely used in creation of large space constructions, especially reflectors of space antennas. Composite materials should provide high level of specific stiffness and strength for space structures. Thermal conductivity in reinforcement plane is a significant factor in case of irregular heating space antennas. Nowadays, data on CM reinforcement plane thermal conductivity are limited and existing methods of its defining are imperfect. Basically, traditional methods allow us to define thermal conductivity in perpendicular direction towards the reinforcement plane on the samples of round or rectangular plate. In addition, the thickness of standard samples is larger than space antenna thickness. Consequently, new methods are required. Method of contact heating, which was developed by BMSTU specialists with long hollow carbon beam, could be a perspective way. This article is devoted to the experimental method of contact heating on the thin carbon plates.Thermal tests were supposed to provide a non-stationary temperature field with a gradient being co-directional with the plane reinforcement in the material sample. Experiments were conducted in vacuum chamber to prevent unstructured convection. Experimental thermo-grams processing were calculated by 1-d thermal model for a thin plate. Influence of uncertainty of experimental parameters, such as (radiation emission coefficients of sample surface, glue, temperature sensors and uncertainty of sensors placement on the result of defined thermal conductivity has been estimated. New data on the thermal conductivity in reinforcement plane were obtained within 295 - 375 K temperature range, which can be used to design and develop reflectors of precision space antennas. In the future it is expedient to conduct tests of thin-wall plates from carbon fiber-reinforced plastic in wide temperature range, especially in the low-range temperatures.

  6. Validity and reliability of the Experience-Sampling Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csikszentmihalyi, M; Larson, R

    1987-09-01

    To understand the dynamics of mental health, it is essential to develop measures for the frequency and the patterning of mental processes in every-day-life situations. The Experience-Sampling Method (ESM) is an attempt to provide a valid instrument to describe variations in self-reports of mental processes. It can be used to obtain empirical data on the following types of variables: a) frequency and patterning of daily activity, social interaction, and changes in location; b) frequency, intensity, and patterning of psychological states, i.e., emotional, cognitive, and conative dimensions of experience; c) frequency and patterning of thoughts, including quality and intensity of thought disturbance. The article reviews practical and methodological issues of the ESM and presents evidence for its short- and long-term reliability when used as an instrument for assessing the variables outlined above. It also presents evidence for validity by showing correlation between ESM measures on the one hand and physiological measures, one-time psychological tests, and behavioral indices on the other. A number of studies with normal and clinical populations that have used the ESM are reviewed to demonstrate the range of issues to which the technique can be usefully applied.

  7. Muzikinių kompiuterinių programų analizė ir programos muzikiniam ritmui ugdyti kūrimas

    OpenAIRE

    Šakalys, Artūras

    2009-01-01

    Darbo tikslas buvo išanalizuoti kompiuterizuotas muzikos dalyko programas ir sukurti kompiuterinę programą mokinių muzikiniam ritmui ugdyti. Analitinėje dalyje atlikta muzikos mokytojų ir mokinių apklausa, panaudojant internetinį puslapį (saityną), bei kompiuterinių programų, skirtų muzikos ugdymui, analizė pagal išplėstus ITC kriterijus. Tyrimu nustatyta, kad Lietuvos bendrojo lavinimo mokyklose lietuviška kompiuterinė programa ritmui ugdyti yra labai reikalinga, o užsienio kalbomis pr...

  8. Tuning Parameters in Heuristics by Using Design of Experiments Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arin, Arif; Rabadi, Ghaith; Unal, Resit

    2010-01-01

    With the growing complexity of today's large scale problems, it has become more difficult to find optimal solutions by using exact mathematical methods. The need to find near-optimal solutions in an acceptable time frame requires heuristic approaches. In many cases, however, most heuristics have several parameters that need to be "tuned" before they can reach good results. The problem then turns into "finding best parameter setting" for the heuristics to solve the problems efficiently and timely. One-Factor-At-a-Time (OFAT) approach for parameter tuning neglects the interactions between parameters. Design of Experiments (DOE) tools can be instead employed to tune the parameters more effectively. In this paper, we seek the best parameter setting for a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to solve the single machine total weighted tardiness problem in which n jobs must be scheduled on a single machine without preemption, and the objective is to minimize the total weighted tardiness. Benchmark instances for the problem are available in the literature. To fine tune the GA parameters in the most efficient way, we compare multiple DOE models including 2-level (2k ) full factorial design, orthogonal array design, central composite design, D-optimal design and signal-to-noise (SIN) ratios. In each DOE method, a mathematical model is created using regression analysis, and solved to obtain the best parameter setting. After verification runs using the tuned parameter setting, the preliminary results for optimal solutions of multiple instances were found efficiently.

  9. Developing Conceptual Hypersonic Airbreathing Engines Using Design of Experiments Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemann, Shelly M.; Robinson, Jeffrey S.; Martin, John G.; Leonard, Charles P.; Taylor, Lawrence W.; Kamhawi, Hilmi

    2000-01-01

    Designing a hypersonic vehicle is a complicated process due to the multi-disciplinary synergy that is required. The greatest challenge involves propulsion-airframe integration. In the past, a two-dimensional flowpath was generated based on the engine performance required for a proposed mission. A three-dimensional CAD geometry was produced from the two-dimensional flowpath for aerodynamic analysis, structural design, and packaging. The aerodynamics, engine performance, and mass properties arc inputs to the vehicle performance tool to determine if the mission goals were met. If the mission goals were not met, then a flowpath and vehicle redesign would begin. This design process might have to be performed several times to produce a "closed" vehicle. This paper will describe an attempt to design a hypersonic cruise vehicle propulsion flowpath using a Design of' Experiments method to reduce the resources necessary to produce a conceptual design with fewer iterations of the design cycle. These methods also allow for more flexible mission analysis and incorporation of additional design constraints at any point. A design system was developed using an object-based software package that would quickly generate each flowpath in the study given the values of the geometric independent variables. These flowpath geometries were put into a hypersonic propulsion code and the engine performance was generated. The propulsion results were loaded into statistical software to produce regression equations that were combined with an aerodynamic database to optimize the flowpath at the vehicle performance level. For this example, the design process was executed twice. The first pass was a cursory look at the independent variables selected to determine which variables are the most important and to test all of the inputs to the optimization process. The second cycle is a more in-depth study with more cases and higher order equations representing the design space.

  10. A phenomenological hermeneutical method for researching lived experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindseth, Anders; Norberg, Astrid

    2004-06-01

    This study describes a phenomenological hermeneutical method for interpreting interview texts inspired by the theory of interpretation presented by Paul Ricoeur. Narrative interviews are transcribed. A naïve understanding of the text is formulated from an initial reading. The text is then divided into meaning units that are condensed and abstracted to form sub-themes, themes and possibly main themes, which are compared with the naïve understanding for validation. Lastly the text is again read as a whole, the naïve understanding and the themes are reflected on in relation to the literature about the meaning of lived experience and a comprehensive understanding is formulated. The comprehensive understanding discloses new possibilities for being in the world. This world can be described as the prefigured life world of the interviewees as configured in the interview and refigured first in the researcher's interpretation and second in the interpretation of the readers of the research report. This may help the readers refigure their own life.

  11. An experiment with content distribution methods in touchscreen mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Lopez, Eva; Garcia-Cabot, Antonio; de-Marcos, Luis

    2015-09-01

    This paper compares the usability of three different content distribution methods (scrolling, paging and internal links) in touchscreen mobile devices as means to display web documents. Usability is operationalized in terms of effectiveness, efficiency and user satisfaction. These dimensions are then measured in an experiment (N = 23) in which users are required to find words in regular-length web documents. Results suggest that scrolling is statistically better in terms of efficiency and user satisfaction. It is also found to be more effective but results were not significant. Our findings are also compared with existing literature to propose the following guideline: "try to use vertical scrolling in web pages for mobile devices instead of paging or internal links, except when the content is too large, then paging is recommended". With an ever increasing number of touchscreen web-enabled mobile devices, this new guideline can be relevant for content developers targeting the mobile web as well as institutions trying to improve the usability of their content for mobile platforms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Organisational reviews - requirements, methods and experience. Progress report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.; Wahlstroem, B. [VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Rollenhagen, C.; Kahlbom, U. [Maelardalen University (FI)

    2007-04-15

    Organisational reviews are important instruments in the continuous quest for improved performance. In the nuclear field there has been an increasing regulatory interest in organisational performance, because incidents and accidents often point to organisational deficiencies as one of the major precursors. Many methods for organisational reviews have been proposed, but they are mostly based on ad hoc approaches to specific problems. The absence of well-established techniques for organisational reviews has already shown to cause discussions and controversies on different levels. The aim of the OrRe project is to collect the experiences from organisational reviews carried out so far and to reflect them in a theoretical model of organisational performance. Furthermore, the project aims to reflect on the criteria for the definition of the scope and content of organisational reviews. Finally, recommendations will be made for guidance for people participating in organisational reviews. This progress report describes regulatory practices in Finland and Sweden together with some case examples of organizational reviews and assessment in both countries. Some issues of concern are raised and an outline for the next year's work is proposed. Issues of concern include the sufficient depth of the assessment, the required competence in assessments, data and criteria problems, definition of the boundaries of the system to be assessed, and the necessary internal support and organisational maturity required for successful assessments. Finally, plans for next year's work are outlined. (au)

  13. [First Experience with Femtosecond Laser Presbyopia Correction Method INTRACOR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žiak, P; Lucká, K; Mojžiš, P; Katuščáková, I; Halička, J

    We report the first experience with presbyopia correcting femtosecond laser surgical procedure INTRACOR. This procedure is so far the only one that is made purely intrastromally without generating a wound connected to corneal surface or anterior chamber.Presbyopia - caused by physiological aging and decreasing elasticity of the lens, impairs patients accommodative ability. In the case of the method INTRACOR, presbyopia is corrected by steepening of corneal curvature in the central optical zone. Procedure is usually performed only in the non-dominant eye. Intracor procedure was performed in 10 eyes of 10 patients (3 women and 7 men, aged 47-58 years). All procedures were performed with the femtosecond laser VICTUS (Bausch - Lomb, USA) in the non-dominant eye by an experienced surgeon. One-year follow-up. Mean monocular uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA) improved from 0.2 ± 0.1 before surgery to 0.7 ± 0.3 after treatment (mean improvement of four lines). Mean near uncorrected binocular visual acuity (UNBVA) improved from a mean preoperative value of 0.23 ± 0.08 to a mean postoperative value of 0.8 ± 0.22 (mean improvement of about 5 lines). The mean monocular uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) was 0.9 ± 0.1 before surgery and 0.8 ± 0.3 after treatment (average loss of 1 line). The mean binocular uncorrected distance visual acuity improved from 1.0 ± 0,1 to 1,3 ± 0.3 after surgery. All patients had improvements in near vision. In 3 patient, monocular distance vision improved, in 6 patient improved binocular distance vision. We observed statistically significant decrease (mean loss of 1 line) of monocular best corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA). Patients subjectively reported satisfaction with the quality of vision achieved for near and distance and high levels of spectacle independence under good lighting conditions.The results shows that INTRACOR method is well suitable for low hyperopic patients, who because of good distance visual acuity are

  14. Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network: design, methods and recruitment experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Corette B; Hogue, Carol J R; Koch, Matthew A; Willinger, Marian; Reddy, Uma M; Thorsten, Vanessa R; Dudley, Donald J; Silver, Robert M; Coustan, Donald; Saade, George R; Conway, Deborah; Varner, Michael W; Stoll, Barbara; Pinar, Halit; Bukowski, Radek; Carpenter, Marshall; Goldenberg, Robert

    2011-09-01

    The Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network (SCRN) has conducted a multisite, population-based, case-control study, with prospective enrollment of stillbirths and livebirths at the time of delivery. This paper describes the general design, methods and recruitment experience. The SCRN attempted to enroll all stillbirths and a representative sample of livebirths occurring to residents of pre-defined geographical catchment areas delivering at 59 hospitals associated with five clinical sites. Livebirths <32 weeks gestation and women of African descent were oversampled. The recruitment hospitals were chosen to ensure access to at least 90% of all stillbirths and livebirths to residents of the catchment areas. Participants underwent a standardised protocol including maternal interview, medical record abstraction, placental pathology, biospecimen testing and, in stillbirths, post-mortem examination. Recruitment began in March 2006 and was completed in September 2008 with 663 women with a stillbirth and 1932 women with a livebirth enrolled, representing 69% and 63%, respectively, of the women identified. Additional surveillance for stillbirths continued until June 2009 and a follow-up of the case-control study participants was completed in December 2009. Among consenting women, there were high consent rates for the various study components. For the women with stillbirths, 95% agreed to a maternal interview, chart abstraction and a placental pathological examination; 91% of the women with a livebirth agreed to all of these components. Additionally, 84% of the women with stillbirths agreed to a fetal post-mortem examination. This comprehensive study is poised to systematically study a wide range of potential causes of, and risk factors for, stillbirths and to better understand the scope and incidence of the problem. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. New methods for assessing the fascinating nature of nature experiences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Joye

    Full Text Available In recent years, numerous environmental psychology studies have demonstrated that contact with nature as opposed to urban settings can improve an individual's mood, can lead to increased levels of vitality, and can offer an opportunity to recover from stress. According to Attention Restoration Theory (ART the restorative potential of natural environments is situated in the fact that nature can replenish depleted attentional resources. This replenishment takes place, in part, because nature is deemed to be a source of fascination, with fascination being described as having an "attentional", an "affective" and an "effort" dimension. However, the claim that fascination with nature involves these three dimensions is to a large extent based on intuition or derived from introspection-based measurement methods, such as self-reports. In three studies, we aimed to more objectively assess whether these three dimensions indeed applied to experiences related to natural environments, before any (attentional depletion has taken place. The instruments that were used were: (a the affect misattribution procedure (Study 1, (b the dot probe paradigm (Study 2 and (c a cognitively effortful task (Study 3. These instrument were respectively aimed at verifying the affective, attentional and effort dimension of fascination. Overall, the results provide objective evidence for the claims made within the ART framework, that natural as opposed to urban settings are affectively positive (cfr., affective dimension and that people have an attentional bias to natural (rather than urban environments (cfr., attentional dimension. The results regarding the effort dimension are less straightforward, and suggest that this dimension only becomes important in sufficiently difficult cognitive tasks.

  16. New methods for assessing the fascinating nature of nature experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joye, Yannick; Pals, Roos; Steg, Linda; Evans, Ben Lewis

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous environmental psychology studies have demonstrated that contact with nature as opposed to urban settings can improve an individual's mood, can lead to increased levels of vitality, and can offer an opportunity to recover from stress. According to Attention Restoration Theory (ART) the restorative potential of natural environments is situated in the fact that nature can replenish depleted attentional resources. This replenishment takes place, in part, because nature is deemed to be a source of fascination, with fascination being described as having an "attentional", an "affective" and an "effort" dimension. However, the claim that fascination with nature involves these three dimensions is to a large extent based on intuition or derived from introspection-based measurement methods, such as self-reports. In three studies, we aimed to more objectively assess whether these three dimensions indeed applied to experiences related to natural environments, before any (attentional) depletion has taken place. The instruments that were used were: (a) the affect misattribution procedure (Study 1), (b) the dot probe paradigm (Study 2) and (c) a cognitively effortful task (Study 3). These instrument were respectively aimed at verifying the affective, attentional and effort dimension of fascination. Overall, the results provide objective evidence for the claims made within the ART framework, that natural as opposed to urban settings are affectively positive (cfr., affective dimension) and that people have an attentional bias to natural (rather than urban) environments (cfr., attentional dimension). The results regarding the effort dimension are less straightforward, and suggest that this dimension only becomes important in sufficiently difficult cognitive tasks.

  17. New Methods for Assessing the Fascinating Nature of Nature Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joye, Yannick; Pals, Roos; Steg, Linda; Evans, Ben Lewis

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous environmental psychology studies have demonstrated that contact with nature as opposed to urban settings can improve an individual’s mood, can lead to increased levels of vitality, and can offer an opportunity to recover from stress. According to Attention Restoration Theory (ART) the restorative potential of natural environments is situated in the fact that nature can replenish depleted attentional resources. This replenishment takes place, in part, because nature is deemed to be a source of fascination, with fascination being described as having an “attentional”, an “affective” and an “effort” dimension. However, the claim that fascination with nature involves these three dimensions is to a large extent based on intuition or derived from introspection-based measurement methods, such as self-reports. In three studies, we aimed to more objectively assess whether these three dimensions indeed applied to experiences related to natural environments, before any (attentional) depletion has taken place. The instruments that were used were: (a) the affect misattribution procedure (Study 1), (b) the dot probe paradigm (Study 2) and (c) a cognitively effortful task (Study 3). These instrument were respectively aimed at verifying the affective, attentional and effort dimension of fascination. Overall, the results provide objective evidence for the claims made within the ART framework, that natural as opposed to urban settings are affectively positive (cfr., affective dimension) and that people have an attentional bias to natural (rather than urban) environments (cfr., attentional dimension). The results regarding the effort dimension are less straightforward, and suggest that this dimension only becomes important in sufficiently difficult cognitive tasks. PMID:23922645

  18. On Teaching Methods: The Personal Experiences of Teachers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Melinda L. F.

    2017-01-01

    With the globalization and internationalization of education, many teachers from Asian countries pursue their professional development in English-speaking settings. However, there seems to be scarce research on these teachers' expectations, lived experiences and identities in these contexts, and how their personal experiences influence their views…

  19. Informacinių gebėjimų valdymas mokyklos bibliotekoje: konkrečių atvejų analizė

    OpenAIRE

    Skridailaitė, Ingrida

    2010-01-01

    Baigiamojo diplominio darbo tema – informaciniai gebėjimai mokyklų bibliotekose. Darbe nagrinėjama informacinių gebėjimų svarba mokyklų bibliotekose, informacinių gebėjimų ugdymas bei valdymas. Mokslinių publikacijų ir kitų dokumentų analizės metodas naudojamas, apibūdinant informacinių gebėjimų sampratą, jų reikšmę ir svarbą mokyklų bibliotekoms. Esminis tyrimo metodas, padėjęs įvertinti esamą situaciją – anketinė apklausa. Ja buvo siekiama išsiaiškinti kaip atliekamas informacinių gebėjimų ...

  20. Panevėžio ir Ramygalos vandenviečių geriamojo vandens kokybės analizė

    OpenAIRE

    Kontautas, Deivydas

    2011-01-01

    Šiame darbe analizuojama surinkta informacija apie vandens kokybės valstybinio monitoringo 2007 – 2010 m. tyrimų rezultatus iš dviejų vandenviečių – Panevėžio ir Ramygalos, eksploatuojančių požeminį geriamą vandenį iš to paties viršutinio-vidurinio devono geologinio sluoksnio. Vandenvietės viena nuo kitos nutolusios 27 km atstumu, skiriasi esama agroekologine situacija bei dirvožemio sudėtimi. Atlikus statistinę analizę nustatyta, kad tarp tiriamų cheminių elementų abiejose vandenvietėse s...

  1. Valstybinio miško sektoriaus išlaidų visuomeniniams interesams užtikrinti ekonominė analizė

    OpenAIRE

    Kašelionis, Dainius

    2011-01-01

    Darbo objektas – Miškų urėdijų veiklos finansiniai ir socialiniai rezultatai. Darbo tikslas – atlikti visuomeninio intereso užtikrinimui skiriamų miškų urėdijų išlaidų ekonominę analizę. Darbo metodai – skaičiuojami pagrindiniai finansiniai rodikliai. Visi šie rodikliai skaičiuojami dviem variantais – pagal faktinius finansinius įmonių rezultatus bei atsižvelgiant į miškų urėdijų daromas išlaidas visuomeniniam interesui tenkinti. Darbo rezultatai. Vidutinis miškų urėdijų grynasis p...

  2. Effects of user experience and method in the inflation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Endotracheal tube cuff pressure (ETCP) is recommended to be maintained between 20.30 cmH2O limits. While insufficient inflation of ETC may cause aspirations, over.inflation of it may lead to damage in tracheal epithelium. Aims: We planned to investigate the effects of user experience and cuff pressure inflation ...

  3. A process variant modeling method comparison : Experience report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aysolmaz, Banu; Yaldiz, Ali; Reijers, Hajo

    2016-01-01

    Various process variant modeling methods have been introduced in the literature to manage process diversity in a business context. In industrial settings, it is difficult to select a method suitable for the needs and limitations of the organization due to the limited number of examples and

  4. Quality of experience advanced concepts, applications and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Raake, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This pioneering book develops definitions and concepts related to Quality of Experience in the context of multimedia- and telecommunications-related applications, systems and services, and applies these to various fields of communication and media technologies. The editors bring together numerous key-protagonists of the new discipline “Quality of Experience” and combine the state-of-the-art knowledge in one single volume. 

  5. Experiences with leak rate calculations methods for LBB application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebner, H.; Kastner, W.; Hoefler, A.; Maussner, G. [and others

    1997-04-01

    In this paper, three leak rate computer programs for the application of leak before break analysis are described and compared. The programs are compared to each other and to results of an HDR Reactor experiment and two real crack cases. The programs analyzed are PIPELEAK, FLORA, and PICEP. Generally, the different leak rate models are in agreement. To obtain reasonable agreement between measured and calculated leak rates, it was necessary to also use data from detailed crack investigations.

  6. Mathematical methods for mechanics a handbook with Matlab experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gekeler, Eckart W

    2008-01-01

    This book introduces all the mathematical tools necessary for solving complex problems in the field of mechanics. It also contains various applications of mathematical and numerical methods for modeling comprehensive mechanical-technical practical problems.

  7. Solid-State Photoemission and Related Methods Theory and Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Schattke, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Photoemission is one of the principal techniques for the characterization and investigation of condensed matter systems. The field has experienced many developments in recent years, which may also be put down to important achievements in closely related areas. This timely and up-to-date handbook is written by experts in the field who provide the background needed by both experimentalists and theorists. It represents an interesting framework for showing the connection between theory and experiment by bringing together different concepts in the investigation of the properties of materials. The w

  8. Advanced quantitative magnetic nondestructive evaluation methods - Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J. R.; Kusenberger, F. N.; Beissner, R. E.; Matzkanin, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reviews the scale of fatigue crack phenomena in relation to the size detection capabilities of nondestructive evaluation methods. An assessment of several features of fatigue in relation to the inspection of ball and roller bearings suggested the use of magnetic methods; magnetic domain phenomena including the interaction of domains and inclusions, and the influence of stress and magnetic field on domains are discussed. Experimental results indicate that simplified calculations can be used to predict many features of these results; the data predicted by analytic models which use finite element computer analysis predictions do not agree with respect to certain features. Experimental analyses obtained on rod-type fatigue specimens which show experimental magnetic measurements in relation to the crack opening displacement and volume and crack depth should provide methods for improved crack characterization in relation to fracture mechanics and life prediction.

  9. Review article: Wave analysis methods for space plasma experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Yasuhito

    2017-05-01

    A review of analysis methods is given on quasi-monochromatic waves, turbulent fluctuations, and wave-wave and wave-particle interactions for single-spacecraft data in situ in near-Earth space and interplanetary space, in particular using magnetic field and electric field data. Energy spectra for different components of the fluctuating fields, minimum variance analysis, propagation and polarization properties of electromagnetic waves, wave distribution function, helicity quantities, higher-order statistics, and detection methods for wave-particle interactions are explained.

  10. Statistical methods for quantitative mass spectrometry proteomic experiments with labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberg Ann L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mass Spectrometry utilizing labeling allows multiple specimens to be subjected to mass spectrometry simultaneously. As a result, between-experiment variability is reduced. Here we describe use of fundamental concepts of statistical experimental design in the labeling framework in order to minimize variability and avoid biases. We demonstrate how to export data in the format that is most efficient for statistical analysis. We demonstrate how to assess the need for normalization, perform normalization, and check whether it worked. We describe how to build a model explaining the observed values and test for differential protein abundance along with descriptive statistics and measures of reliability of the findings. Concepts are illustrated through the use of three case studies utilizing the iTRAQ 4-plex labeling protocol.

  11. Inoculation method could impact the outcome of microbiological experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Alhede, Maria; Rybtke, Morten

    2018-01-01

    characteristics with biofilms such as increased antibiotic tolerance. We have investigated how aggregates develop and what influences this development in LBC of Pseudomonas aeruginosa We focused on how the method of inoculation impacted aggregation by assessing aggregate frequency and size using confocal laser...... of biofilm aggregates in a LBC, with inoculation directly from a plate resulting in the most numerous and largest aggregates. These large aggregates had an overall impact on the cultures' subsequent tolerance towards tobramycin indicating that the inoculation method has a profound impact on antibiotic...... tolerance. We also observed a mechanism where pre-formed aggregates recruited single cells from the surrounding culture in a "snowball effect", building up aggregated biomass in the culture. This recruitment was found to rely heavily on the exopolysaccharide Psl. Additionally, we found that both Escherichia...

  12. Modified Misgav Ladach method for cesarean section: clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulas, Tomislav; Habek, Dubravko; Karsa, Matija; Bobić-Vuković, Mirna

    2008-01-01

    To determine the advantages of modified a Misgav Ladach method over conventional (Pfannenstiel-Dorffler) cesarean section. From October 2002 to March 2005, 217 cesarean sections performed according to a modified Misgav Ladach method (without routine preoperative urinary catheterization, blunt separation of the fascia after a small incision, and unprepared plica vesicouterina) were prospectively compared with 153 randomly selected conventional cesarean sections. Maternal age, parity, gestational age, neonatal birth weight, procedure duration, operative complications and postoperative course were analyzed. The incidence of postoperative fever was 2.30 and 4.57% (p = 0.001), wound seroma 0.46 and 1.96% (p = 0.01), local wound infection 0.92 and 1.96% (p = 0.01), wound dehiscence 0 and 0.65% (NS), anemia 3.68 and 7.84% (p = 0.001), and need of blood transfusion 1.38 and 1.96% (NS) in the modified Misgav Ladach and conventional group, respectively. The mean duration of the operation was 26.24 min with the Misgav Ladach versus 39.41 min with the conventional operation (p cesarean section is associated with faster postoperative recovery, lower morbidity and blood loss, shorter length of operative procedure, lower incidence of operative complications, lesser postoperative use of antibiotics and analgesics/antipyretics, and lower utilization of surgical material. The modified Misgav Ladach method of cesarean section is suitable for emergency and elective procedures, justifying its use in daily routine. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Conducting organizational safety reviews - requirements, methods and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.; Wahlstroem, B. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland); Rollenhagen, C. [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, (Sweden); Kahlbom, U. [RiskPilot (Sweden)

    2008-03-15

    Organizational safety reviews are part of the safety management process of power plants. They are typically performed after major reorganizations, significant incidents or according to specified review programs. Organizational reviews can also be a part of a benchmarking between organizations that aims to improve work practices. Thus, they are important instruments in proactive safety management and safety culture. Most methods that have been used for organizational reviews are based more on practical considerations than a sound scientific theory of how various organizational or technical issues influence safety. Review practices and methods also vary considerably. The objective of this research is to promote understanding on approaches used in organizational safety reviews as well as to initiate discussion on criteria and methods of organizational assessment. The research identified a set of issues that need to be taken into account when planning and conducting organizational safety reviews. Examples of the issues are definition of appropriate criteria for evaluation, the expertise needed in the assessment and the organizational motivation for conducting the assessment. The study indicates that organizational safety assessments involve plenty of issues and situations where choices have to be made regarding what is considered valid information and a balance has to be struck between focus on various organizational phenomena. It is very important that these choices are based on a sound theoretical framework and that these choices can later be evaluated together with the assessment findings. The research concludes that at its best, the organizational safety reviews can be utilised as a source of information concerning the changing vulnerabilities and the actual safety performance of the organization. In order to do this, certain basic organizational phenomena and assessment issues have to be acknowledged and considered. The research concludes with recommendations on

  14. An alternative method of determining the neutrino mass ordering in reactor neutrino experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Bilenky

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a novel alternative method of determining the neutrino mass ordering in medium baseline experiments with reactor antineutrinos. Results on the potential sensitivity of the new method are also presented.

  15. An alternative method of determining the neutrino mass ordering in reactor neutrino experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilenky, S. M.; Capozzi, F.; Petcov, S. T.

    2017-09-01

    We discuss a novel alternative method of determining the neutrino mass ordering in medium baseline experiments with reactor antineutrinos. Results on the potential sensitivity of the new method are also presented.

  16. An Enzymatic Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Incorporating an Introduction to Mathematical Method Comparison Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, Mark

    2004-01-01

    An enzymatic laboratory experiment based on the analysis of serum is described that is suitable for students of clinical chemistry. The experiment incorporates an introduction to mathematical method-comparison techniques in which three different clinical glucose analysis methods are compared using linear regression and Bland-Altman difference…

  17. Experiences from introduction of peer-to-peer teaching methods in Advanced Biochemistry E2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Ditlev; Etzerodt, Michael; Rasmussen, Jan Trige

    2012-01-01

    During the autumn semester 2010, we experimented with a range of active teaching methods on the course, Advanced Biochemistry, at the Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics.......During the autumn semester 2010, we experimented with a range of active teaching methods on the course, Advanced Biochemistry, at the Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics....

  18. Analiz vmesto emotsii / Josef Kats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kats, Josef, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Peaminister Andrus Ansipi ja välisminister Urmas Paeti sõnul on valitsus küsinud Vene-Saksa gaasijuhtme ehitamiseks vajalike teadusuuringute läbiviimiseks nõu enam kui 20 asutuselt, nende alusel tuleb teha kaalutletud otsus

  19. New method for taking into account radiative events in the MOLLER inclusive experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zykunov, V. A.

    2017-07-01

    A new method ( N-method) for taking into account radiative events in inclusive polarized experiments that, in principle, makes no use of an unphysical separation into soft-and hard-photon regions is demonstrated. A procedure for taking into account bremsstrahlung in theMOLLER forthcoming ultraprecise experiment at the Thomas Jefferson Laboratory is developed on the basis of this method. The algorithm of the method is described in detail, and the results obtained by means of the N method are compared with the results of applying traditional methods.

  20. Morality through Metaphor: a Cross-Linguistic Analysis of Political Discourse. Moralės metafora: gretinamoji politinio diskurso analizė

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Arcimavičienė

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Šio straipsnio tikslas – nustatyti moralės modelius, analizuojant konceptualiąją metaforą politiniame diskurse anglų ir lietuvių kalbose. Remtasi analitiniais straipsniais politikos temomis. Jie pasitelkti iš Interneto tinklalapių www.politika.lt ir www.economist.com elektroninio archyvo. Straipsniai anali­zuojami remiantis kognityvinės lingvistikos principais bei kokybiniu analizės metodu (Fauconnier & Turner 2002; Kövecses 2005; Lakoff & Johnson 1997, Lakoff 2005; Turner 1994, kurie leidžia atskleisti kalbiniuose pasakymuose (linguistic expressions glūdinčias konceptualiąsias metaforas. Kalbiniai pasakymai buvo skirstomi pagal tris moralinio vertinimo modelius: (1 Huxley, kuris apibrėžia moralę kaip žmonių sąmoningai sukurtą vertinimo skalę, reikalingą kovoje su žmogaus įgimtomis blogybėmis, (2 Kanto požiūris į moralę, kaip į racionalų veiksmą glaudžiai siejamą su pareigomis, bei galiausiai (3 integruotas požiūris, kai moralus elgesys suvokiamas kaip sentimentų ir emocinių reakcijų pasekmė (Black 1995; Boehm 2000; Flack & de Waal 2002. Išanalizavus konceptualiųjų metaforų kalbinę raišką paaiškėjo, kad straipsniuose vyrauja metaforos POLITIKA KAIP JĖGA ir POLITIKA KAIP TARPUSAVIO SANTYKIAI.

  1. Poemele homerice în veșminte românești. O analiză diacronică (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Gheorghe Bârlea

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lucrarea pe care o propunem vizează istoria traducerilor românești ale poemelor homerice, din perspectiva evoluției limbii române literare. Pornim de la premisa că orice asemenea traducere reprezintă o probă de virtuozitate nu numai pentru traducătorul în cauză, ci și pentru limba și cultura modernă respectivă, așa încît este interesant de studiat modul în care dezvoltarea exegezei homerice și a teoriilor traductologice se manifestă în paralel cu etapele evoluției limbilor moderne. Grila de analiză va include, așadar, principii, metode și instrumente de lucru ale domeniilor amintite aici (istoria limbii, traductologie, dar și elemente împrumutate din gramatica constrastiv-tipologică, din filologie, în sensul restrîns al conceptului, din teoria mentalităților, istoria culturală ș.a. Demersul nostru evidențiază faptul că evoluția istorică a actului traducerii este marcată, în mod firesc, de personalitatea traducătorului (opțiuni teoretice, ideologice, pe lîngă competențe lingvistice, har poetic etc., dar și de contextul cultural al epocii și al spațiului respectiv. Pentru cultura română, cel puțin, putem constata că, în ansamblu, versiunea cea mai recentă este și cea mai reușită.

  2. How does delivery method influence factors that contribute to women's childbirth experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carquillat, Pierre; Boulvain, Michel; Guittier, Marie-Julia

    2016-12-01

    whether delivery method influences factors contributing to women's childbirth experience remains debated. we compared subjective childbirth experience according to different delivery methods. this study used a cross-sectional design. the setting comprised two university hospitals: one in Geneva, Switzerland and one in Clermont-Ferrand, France. a total of 291 primiparous women were recruited from July 2014 to January 2015 during their stay in the maternity wards. The mean age of the participants was 30.8 (SD=4.7) years, and most were Swiss or European (86%). the 'Questionnaire for Assessing Childbirth Experience' was sent between four and six weeks after delivery. Clinimetric and psychometric approaches were used to assess childbirth experience according to delivery method. the mean scores of the four questionnaire dimensions varied significantly by delivery method. 'First moments with the newborn' was more negatively experienced by women from the caesarean section group compared to those who delivered vaginally (pchildbirth experience. a comparison of best expected positive responses to each item (clinimetric approach) showed useful results for clinicians. This research indicated that delivery method influenced key factors (psychometric approach) of the childbirth experience. delivery method should not be considered alone and health professionals should focus on what is important for women to foster a more positive experience. In addition, women who have had an emergency caesarean section require special attention during post partum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation Methods for Assessing Users' Psychological Experiences of Web-Based Psychosocial Interventions: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, Jacqueline Susan; Howson, Moira; Ritchie, Linda; Carter, Philip D; Parry, David Tudor; Koziol-McLain, Jane

    2016-06-30

    The use of Web-based interventions to deliver mental health and behavior change programs is increasingly popular. They are cost-effective, accessible, and generally effective. Often these interventions concern psychologically sensitive and challenging issues, such as depression or anxiety. The process by which a person receives and experiences therapy is important to understanding therapeutic process and outcomes. While the experience of the patient or client in traditional face-to-face therapy has been evaluated in a number of ways, there appeared to be a gap in the evaluation of patient experiences of therapeutic interventions delivered online. Evaluation of Web-based artifacts has focused either on evaluation of experience from a computer Web-design perspective through usability testing or on evaluation of treatment effectiveness. Neither of these methods focuses on the psychological experience of the person while engaged in the therapeutic process. This study aimed to investigate what methods, if any, have been used to evaluate the in situ psychological experience of users of Web-based self-help psychosocial interventions. A systematic literature review was undertaken of interdisciplinary databases with a focus on health and computer sciences. Studies that met a predetermined search protocol were included. Among 21 studies identified that examined psychological experience of the user, only 1 study collected user experience in situ. The most common method of understanding users' experience was through semistructured interviews conducted posttreatment or questionnaires administrated at the end of an intervention session. The questionnaires were usually based on standardized tools used to assess user experience with traditional face-to-face treatment. There is a lack of methods specified in the literature to evaluate the interface between Web-based mental health or behavior change artifacts and users. Main limitations in the research were the nascency of the topic

  4. Dynamics of psychological crisis experience with psychological consulting by gestalt therapy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrutdinova, Liliya Raifovna; Nugmanova, Dzhamilia Renatovna

    2015-01-01

    Dynamics of experience as such and its corporeal, emotional and cognitive elements in the situation of psychological consulting provisioning is covered. The aim of research was to study psychological crisis experience dynamics in the situation when psychological consulting by gestalt therapy methods is provided. Theoretical analysis of the problem of crisis situations, phenomenon and structural, and dynamic organization of experience of the subject of consulting have been carried out. To fulfill research project test subjects experience crisis situation have been selected, studied in the situation when they provided psychological consulting by methods of gestalt therapy, and methodology of study of crisis situations experience has been prepared. Specifics of psychological crisis experience have been revealed and its elements in different stages of psychological consulting by gestalt therapy methods. Dynamics of experience of psychological crisis and its structural elements have been revealed and reliable changes in it have been revealed. Dynamics of psychological crisis experience and its structural elements have been revealed and reliable changes in it have been revealed. "Desiccation" of experience is being observed, releasing its substantiality of negative impression to the end of consulting and development of the new experience of control over crisis situation. Interrelations of structural elements of experience in the process of psychological consulting have been shown. Effecting one structure causes reliable changes in all others structural elements of experience. Giving actual psychological help to clients in crisis situation by methods of gestalt therapy is possible as it was shown in psychological consulting sessions. Structure of client's request has been revealed - problems of personal sense are fixed as the most frequent cause of clients' applications, as well as absence of choices, obtrusiveness of negative thoughts, tend to getting stuck on events

  5. Design and analysis methods for fish survival experiments based on release-recapture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burnham, Kenneth P

    1987-01-01

    .... The application of the methods developed here is more general, however, as it includes experiments to estimate survival of fish as they pass over spillways or through bypass systems and several dams...

  6. Exploring Reticence in Research Methods: The Experience of Studying Psychological Research Methods in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Barbara E.; Robertson, Julia M.

    2017-01-01

    As a fundamental element of any psychology degree, the teaching and learning of research methods is repeatedly brought into sharp focus, and it is often regarded as a real challenge by undergraduate students. The reasons for this are complex, but frequently attributed to an aversion of maths. To gain a more detailed understanding of students'…

  7. Methods to increase efficiency of laser therapy of oncologic diseases: methods, equipment, experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikov, A. A.; Svirin, V. N.

    2008-04-01

    The rapid development of quantum electronics and the advent of various types of lasers favored the formation of an independent line in medicine, namely, laser medicine In recent years devices based on semiconductor lasers have been introduced into medicine at a most rapid pace At present day this is connected with , that the essential improvement energy and spectral features has occurred in development semiconductor laser. The power of serial discrete near-IR semiconductor lasers has reached a level of 5 W and more, the spectral range has extended to 1.7...1.8 μm. Laser-optical information technologies and devices develop since the 70- years at the end of 20 century and are broadly used for treatment of oncologic diseases. Although such methods as photodynamic therapy (PDT), laser-induce thermotherapy (LITT), fluorescent diagnostics and spectrophotometry already more than 30 years are used for treatment and diagnostics of oncologic diseases, nevertheless, they are enough new methods and, as a rule, are used in large scientific centers and medical institutions. This is bound, first of all, with lack of information on modern method of cancer treatment, the absence of widely available laser procedures and corresponding devices in the polyclinics and even in district hospitals, as well as insufficient understanding of application areas, where laser methods has an advantage by comparison, for instance, with beam or chemotherapy. Presented in the article are new developed methods and results of designing equipment and software for their realization aimed at increase in efficiency of treatment of oncologic diseases as well as several clinical materials of the use of industrial models of the developed devices at medical institutions.

  8. Eğitim kurumu müdürlerinin liderliği ile okul çıktıları arasındaki ilişkilerin meta-analiz yöntemiyle incelenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Sarıer, Yılmaz

    2013-01-01

    Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı, eğitim kurumu müdürlerinin liderliği ile okul çıktıları arasındaki ilişkilerin meta-analiz yöntemiyle incelenmesidir. Yöntem: Çalışmada ulaşılan veriler, betimsel ve meta-analiz yöntemleri kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma kapsamına, 01.01.2000 ile 31.12.2011 tarihleri arasında Türkiye’de üretilen, çalışmanın amacına ve sınırlılıklarına uygun, 55 adet bildiri, makale ve tez alınmıştır. Çalışmada, etki büyüklüğü, anlamlılık ve heterojenlik d...

  9. A Static Method as an Alternative to Gel Chromatography: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burum, Alex D.; Splittgerber, Allan G.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a static method as an alternative to gel chromatography, which may be used as an undergraduate laboratory experiment. In this method, a constant mass of Sephadex gel is swollen in a series of protein solutions. UV-vis spectrophotometry is used to find a partition coefficient, KD, that indicates the fraction of the interior…

  10. Validation of chromatographic methods: an experiment using HPLC and Green Chemistry in methylxanthines determination

    OpenAIRE

    Nádia Machado de Aragão; Márcia Cristina da Cunha Veloso; Jailson Bittencourt de Andrade

    2009-01-01

    The validation of analytical methods is an important step in quality control. The main objective of this study is to propose an HPLC experiment to verify the parameters of validation of chromatographic methods, based on green chemistry principles, which can be used in experimental courses of chemistry and related areas.

  11. Learning Practice-Based Research Methods: Capturing the Experiences of MSW Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natland, Sidsel; Weissinger, Erika; Graaf, Genevieve; Carnochan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The literature on teaching research methods to social work students identifies many challenges, such as dealing with the tensions related to producing research relevant to practice, access to data to teach practice-based research, and limited student interest in learning research methods. This is an exploratory study of the learning experiences of…

  12. SUGGESTOPEDIA AS THE METHOD OF THE MUSIC EXPERIENCE FORMATION OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya T. Таgiltseva; Filip D. Shavov

    2015-01-01

    The article aims to consider the possibility of suggestopedia methods use that are successfully practiced in foreign language teaching, pedagogy of music education of preschool children, in starting schools; to find out the degree of methods efficiency of suggestopedia in shaping the musical experience of preschool children in various activities at music lessons. Methods. The theoretical foundations of the article are views and concepts of the Bulgarian researcher, teacher and psychologist, G...

  13. Evaluation Methods for Assessing Users’ Psychological Experiences of Web-Based Psychosocial Interventions: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howson, Moira; Ritchie, Linda; Carter, Philip D; Parry, David Tudor; Koziol-McLain, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of Web-based interventions to deliver mental health and behavior change programs is increasingly popular. They are cost-effective, accessible, and generally effective. Often these interventions concern psychologically sensitive and challenging issues, such as depression or anxiety. The process by which a person receives and experiences therapy is important to understanding therapeutic process and outcomes. While the experience of the patient or client in traditional face-to-face therapy has been evaluated in a number of ways, there appeared to be a gap in the evaluation of patient experiences of therapeutic interventions delivered online. Evaluation of Web-based artifacts has focused either on evaluation of experience from a computer Web-design perspective through usability testing or on evaluation of treatment effectiveness. Neither of these methods focuses on the psychological experience of the person while engaged in the therapeutic process. Objective This study aimed to investigate what methods, if any, have been used to evaluate the in situ psychological experience of users of Web-based self-help psychosocial interventions. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken of interdisciplinary databases with a focus on health and computer sciences. Studies that met a predetermined search protocol were included. Results Among 21 studies identified that examined psychological experience of the user, only 1 study collected user experience in situ. The most common method of understanding users’ experience was through semistructured interviews conducted posttreatment or questionnaires administrated at the end of an intervention session. The questionnaires were usually based on standardized tools used to assess user experience with traditional face-to-face treatment. Conclusions There is a lack of methods specified in the literature to evaluate the interface between Web-based mental health or behavior change artifacts and users. Main

  14. Interest of the non linear fitting method for reactivity assessment using flux transient experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geslot, B.; Jammes, C. [DER/SPEx/LDCI, CEA, 13108, Cadarache (France)

    2006-07-01

    Flux transient measurements, meaning rod drop or source jerk experiments, are useful to estimate subcritical core reactivity or control rod worth. Among numerous analysis methods, the most widely used is the so called 'inverse kinetics' method (IK). Based on the inversion of the counting rates, this method gives very good results when counting rates are high. When assessing far subcritical levels with low counting rates, it appears that results are biased and very imprecise. In order to overcome those problems in the case of measurements performed in the framework of the first phase of the RACE-T program, we used a non linear fitting method (NF) to analyse transient experiments. In this paper, we present the NF method reactivity estimator and study its behaviour, in terms of bias and uncertainties, on simulated transients. Then, RACE-T results on experimental source jerk measurements, obtained using IK and NF, are compared and discussed. (authors)

  15. Sociodemographic differences in women’s experience of early labour care: a mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, J.; Redshaw, M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore women’s experiences of early labour care focussing on sociodemographic differences, and to examine the effect of antenatal education, using mixed methods. Setting: England, 2014. Participants: Women who completed postal questionnaires about their experience of maternity care, including questions about antenatal education, early labour and sociodemographic factors, included space for free-text comments. Outcome measures: Worries about labour, contact with ...

  16. Experiments to Evaluate and Implement Passive Tracer Gas Methods to Measure Ventilation Rates in Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunden, Melissa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heredia, Elizabeth [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cohn, Sebastian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dickerhoff, Darryl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Noris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Logue, Jennifer [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hotchi, Toshifumi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report documents experiments performed in three homes to assess the methodology used to determine air exchange rates using passive tracer techniques. The experiments used four different tracer gases emitted simultaneously but implemented with different spatial coverage in the home. Two different tracer gas sampling methods were used. The results characterize the factors of the execution and analysis of the passive tracer technique that affect the uncertainty in the calculated air exchange rates. These factors include uncertainties in tracer gas emission rates, differences in measured concentrations for different tracer gases, temporal and spatial variability of the concentrations, the comparison between different gas sampling methods, and the effect of different ventilation conditions.

  17. A 3-year experience implementing blended TBL: active instructional methods can shift student attitudes to learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lindsay K

    2011-01-01

    Medical educators have been encouraged to adopt active instructional strategies that require learners to engage in and direct their own learning. These innovations may be seen as disruptive and face early challenges due to student resistance. We report 3 years of experience implementing a blend of team-based learning (TBL) and online learning modules in an undergraduate medical course. Three sequential cohorts of first year medical students were surveyed exploring how they valued different instructional methods during a period of evolving curricular design. In addition to a demonstrated increase in acceptance of new teaching methods, there was a shift in student perceptions of the relative merits of didactic, online and TBL teaching. Medical students' appreciations of different instructional methods are influenced by the maturity of instructional design. Educational change is best viewed through a longer term lens, acknowledging the necessity for teachers to develop experience in implementing new methods in the context of their institution.

  18. Using the Experience Sampling Method in the Context of Contingency Management for Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husky, Mathilde M.; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Barry, Danielle; Petry, Nancy M.

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) treatments have been shown to be effective in reducing substance use. This manuscript illustrates how the experience sampling method (ESM) can depict behavior and behavior change and can be used to explore CM treatment mechanisms. ESM characterizes idiosyncratic patterns of behavior and offers the potential to determine…

  19. Teaching Teachers: Methods and Experiences Used in Educating Doctoral Students to Prepare Preservice Music Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Steven N.; VanWeelden, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    This investigation addressed methods and experiences used to educate doctoral music education students to work as university college professors. Selected faculty representing every institution offering a Ph.D. in music education in the United States and Canada (N = 46) were sent an online questionnaire concerning (1) the extent respondents…

  20. Teaching Methods and Their Impact on Students' Emotions in Mathematics: An Experience-Sampling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Sticca, Fabio; Brunner, Esther; Becker, Eva; Morger, Vinzenz; Hubbard, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    Various theoretical approaches propose that emotions in the classroom are elicited by appraisal antecedents, with subjective experiences of control playing a crucial role in this context. Perceptions of control, in turn, are expected to be influenced by the classroom social environment, which can include the teaching methods being employed (e.g.,…

  1. Using Grounded Theory Method to Capture and Analyze Health Care Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Geraldine; Timonen, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Grounded theory (GT) is an established qualitative research method, but few papers have encapsulated the benefits, limits, and basic tenets of doing GT research on user and provider experiences of health care services. GT can be used to guide the entire study method, or it can be applied at the data analysis stage only. Methods We summarize key components of GT and common GT procedures used by qualitative researchers in health care research. We draw on our experience of conducting a GT study on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients’ experiences of health care services. Findings We discuss why some approaches in GT research may work better than others, particularly when the focus of study is hard-to-reach population groups. We highlight the flexibility of procedures in GT to build theory about how people engage with health care services. Conclusion GT enables researchers to capture and understand health care experiences. GT methods are particularly valuable when the topic of interest has not previously been studied. GT can be applied to bring structure and rigor to the analysis of qualitative data. PMID:25523315

  2. Visual Research Methods: A Novel Approach To Understanding The Experiences of Compulsive Hoarders: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satwant Singh

    2012-04-01

    Conclusion: The study concluded that the experience of hoarding is both psychologically and physically distressing with numerous impacts upon everyday living and relationships. The study also concluded that visual research methods may be particularly helpful when generating qualitative evidence within this specialist field. [JCBPR 2012; 1(1.000: 36-42

  3. Paragogy and Flipped Assessment: Experience of Designing and Running a MOOC on Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yenn; Rofe, J. Simon

    2016-01-01

    This study draws on the authors' first-hand experience of designing, developing and delivering (3Ds) a massive open online course (MOOC) entitled "Understanding Research Methods" since 2014, largely but not exclusively for learners in the humanities and social sciences. The greatest challenge facing us was to design an assessment…

  4. Prompt photon identification in the ALICE experiment: The isolation cut method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conesa, G. [IFIC - Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Valencia (Spain); SUBATECH - Ecole des Mines, Universite de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Nantes (France)], E-mail: Gustavo.Conesa.Balbastre@cern.ch; Delagrange, H. [SUBATECH - Ecole des Mines, Universite de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Nantes (France); Diaz, J. [IFIC - Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: jose.diaz@ific.uv.es; Kharlov, Y.V. [Institute for High-Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation); Schutz, Y. [SUBATECH - Ecole des Mines, Universite de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Nantes (France); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2007-10-11

    The ALICE experiment at LHC will detect and identify prompt photons and light neutral mesons with the PHOS and EMCal detectors. Charged particles will be detected and identified by the central tracking system. In this paper, a method to identify prompt photons and to separate them from the background of hadrons and decay photons in PHOS with the help of isolation cuts is presented.

  5. Numerical Experience with Damped Quasi-Newton Optimization Methods when the Objective Function is Quadratic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehiddin Al-Baali

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A class of damped quasi-Newton methods for nonlinear optimization has recently been proposed by extending the damped-technique of Powell for the BFGS method to the Broyden family of quasi-Newton methods. It has been shown that this damped class has the global and superlinear convergence property that a restricted class of 'undamped' methods has for convex objective functions in unconstrained optimization. To test this result, we applied several members of the Broyden family and their corresponding damped methods to a simple quadratic function and observed several useful features of the damped-technique. These observations and other numerical experiences are described in this paper. The important role of the damped-technique is shown not only for enforcing the above convergence property, but also for improving the performance of efficient, inefficient and divergent undamped methods substantially (significantly in the latter case. Thus, some appropriate ways for employing the damped-technique are suggested.

  6. A global parallel model based design of experiments method to minimize model output uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazil, Jason N; Buzzard, Gregory T; Rundell, Ann E

    2012-03-01

    Model-based experiment design specifies the data to be collected that will most effectively characterize the biological system under study. Existing model-based design of experiment algorithms have primarily relied on Fisher Information Matrix-based methods to choose the best experiment in a sequential manner. However, these are largely local methods that require an initial estimate of the parameter values, which are often highly uncertain, particularly when data is limited. In this paper, we provide an approach to specify an informative sequence of multiple design points (parallel design) that will constrain the dynamical uncertainty of the biological system responses to within experimentally detectable limits as specified by the estimated experimental noise. The method is based upon computationally efficient sparse grids and requires only a bounded uncertain parameter space; it does not rely upon initial parameter estimates. The design sequence emerges through the use of scenario trees with experimental design points chosen to minimize the uncertainty in the predicted dynamics of the measurable responses of the system. The algorithm was illustrated herein using a T cell activation model for three problems that ranged in dimension from 2D to 19D. The results demonstrate that it is possible to extract useful information from a mathematical model where traditional model-based design of experiments approaches most certainly fail. The experiments designed via this method fully constrain the model output dynamics to within experimentally resolvable limits. The method is effective for highly uncertain biological systems characterized by deterministic mathematical models with limited data sets. Also, it is highly modular and can be modified to include a variety of methodologies such as input design and model discrimination.

  7. Intensity-based hierarchical Bayes method improves testing for differentially expressed genes in microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesselkamper Scott C

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The small sample sizes often used for microarray experiments result in poor estimates of variance if each gene is considered independently. Yet accurately estimating variability of gene expression measurements in microarray experiments is essential for correctly identifying differentially expressed genes. Several recently developed methods for testing differential expression of genes utilize hierarchical Bayesian models to "pool" information from multiple genes. We have developed a statistical testing procedure that further improves upon current methods by incorporating the well-documented relationship between the absolute gene expression level and the variance of gene expression measurements into the general empirical Bayes framework. Results We present a novel Bayesian moderated-T, which we show to perform favorably in simulations, with two real, dual-channel microarray experiments and in two controlled single-channel experiments. In simulations, the new method achieved greater power while correctly estimating the true proportion of false positives, and in the analysis of two publicly-available "spike-in" experiments, the new method performed favorably compared to all tested alternatives. We also applied our method to two experimental datasets and discuss the additional biological insights as revealed by our method in contrast to the others. The R-source code for implementing our algorithm is freely available at http://eh3.uc.edu/ibmt. Conclusion We use a Bayesian hierarchical normal model to define a novel Intensity-Based Moderated T-statistic (IBMT. The method is completely data-dependent using empirical Bayes philosophy to estimate hyperparameters, and thus does not require specification of any free parameters. IBMT has the strength of balancing two important factors in the analysis of microarray data: the degree of independence of variances relative to the degree of identity (i.e. t-tests vs. equal variance assumption

  8. Using Characteristics Method to Infer Sound Speed in Nonsymmetric Impact and Release Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaomian; Pan, Hao; Wu, Zihui

    2017-06-01

    Sound speed is important to high velocity impact phenomena because it is used to deduce the shear moduli, strength and phase transition of materials at high pressure. Historically the sound speed analysis methods cannot infer the right results from the velocity-time history of a windowed-surface in the nonsymmetric impact and release experiment due to impedance mismatch between a flyer, sample and window. A characteristics method has been modified to account for the effect of the flyer/sample and sample/window interactions, thus it can be applied to the nonsymmetric impact and release experiment with only one depth of material. Synthetic analyses of the nonsymmetric impact suggest that this method can give accurate results including sound speed-particle velocity and release path at high pressure, moreover, this method also do not need to know the form of equations of state (EOS) and constitutive model of the sample.These features facilitate applying this method to infer sound speed from the velocity profile of nonsymmetric impact experiments.

  9. Path planning of mobile robot by mixing experience with modified artificial potential field method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huasong Min

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a new method is proposed to help the mobile robot to avoid many kinds of collisions effectively, which combined past experience with modified artificial potential field method. In the process of the actual global obstacle avoidance, system will invoke case-based reasoning algorithm using its past experience to achieve obstacle avoidance when obstacles are recognized as known type; otherwise, it will invoke the modified artificial potential field method to solve the current problem and the new case will also be retained into the case base. In case-based reasoning, we innovatively consider that all the complex obstacles are retrieved by two kinds of basic build-in obstacle models (linear obstacle and angle-type obstacle. Our proposed experience mixing with modified artificial potential field method algorithm has been simulated in MATLAB and implemented on actual mobile robot platform successfully. The result shows that the proposed method is applicable to the dynamic real-time obstacle avoidance under unknown and unstructured environment and greatly improved the performances of robot path planning not only to reduce the time consumption but also to shorten the moving distance.

  10. Exploring Inpatients' Experiences of Healing and Healing Spaces: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAllister, Lorissa; Bellanti, Dawn; Sakallaris, Bonnie R

    2016-12-01

    In order to understand a patient's healing experience it is essential to understand the elements that they, the patient, believes contributed to their healing. Previous research has focused on symptom reducers or contributors through environment such as stress. A person's experience of healing happens over time not instantaneous. Therefore, in this study, the interviews with patients happened after forty-eight hours of hospitalization. This mixed methods study describes the experiences of seventeen inpatients from two healthcare systems using a phenomenological approach combined with evidence based design evaluation methods to document the setting. The qualitative data was analyzed first for reoccurring themes then further explored and defined through quantitative environmental observations. The seventeen patients defined healing as "getting better/well." Seventy three statements were recorded about contributors and detractors to healing in the physical environment. Three primary themes emerged from the data as positive influencers of a healing experience: being cared for, being comfortable and experiencing something familiar or like home. These results demonstrate that patients perceive their inpatient healing experience through a supported environment.

  11. Determination of Calcium in Cereal with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Experiment for a Quantitative Methods of Analysis Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Ali; Kreuz, Bette; Fischer, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    An experiment for determination of calcium in cereal using two-increment standard addition method in conjunction with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) is demonstrated. The experiment is intended to introduce students to the principles of atomic absorption spectroscopy giving them hands on experience using quantitative methods of…

  12. New method of processing heat treatment experiments with numerical simulation support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kik, T.; Moravec, J.; Novakova, I.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, benefits of combining modern software for numerical simulations of welding processes with laboratory research was described. Proposed new method of processing heat treatment experiments leading to obtaining relevant input data for numerical simulations of heat treatment of large parts was presented. It is now possible, by using experiments on small tested samples, to simulate cooling conditions comparable with cooling of bigger parts. Results from this method of testing makes current boundary conditions during real cooling process more accurate, but also can be used for improvement of software databases and optimization of a computational models. The point is to precise the computation of temperature fields for large scale hardening parts based on new method of temperature dependence determination of the heat transfer coefficient into hardening media for the particular material, defined maximal thickness of processed part and cooling conditions. In the paper we will also present an example of the comparison standard and modified (according to newly suggested methodology) heat transfer coefficient data’s and theirs influence on the simulation results. It shows how even the small changes influence mainly on distribution of temperature, metallurgical phases, hardness and stresses distribution. By this experiment it is also possible to obtain not only input data and data enabling optimization of computational model but at the same time also verification data. The greatest advantage of described method is independence of used cooling media type.

  13. Efficient data analysis and travel time picking methods for crosshole GPR experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keskinen, Johanna; Moreau, Julien; Nielsen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution GPR crosshole experiments are conducted to resolve fine-scale anisotropy of chalk. Chalk plays important roles in groundwater production onshore Denmark and in hydrocarbon exploration in the North Sea, and chalk has previously been studied extensively with geological and geophysical...... methods. Future time-lapse GPR studies of different types of chalk aim at characterizing the flow characteristics of these economically important lithologies. In the framework of the current study, we have collected new crosshole GPR data from a site located in a former quarry in Eastern Denmark, where...... crosshole GPR experiments have been previously carried out. Time-lapse GPR crosshole experiments involve the interpretation of large datasets organised in terms of transmitter or receiver gathers and hence call for efficient and robust data inspection and picking of first arrivals. To this end, we have...

  14. Academic rigour in the lived experience of researchers using phenomenological methods in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, P; Beeby, J; Parker, D

    1995-06-01

    In its quest for knowledge, nursing has relied heavily on the positivist approach to scientific enquiry. Phenomenological enquiry identifies the essence of a phenomenon and accurately describes it through the lived experience. Through consistency in the use of the methodology, and avoidance of method slurring, academic rigour can be maintained. It is advocated that the phenomenological method is congruent with nursing ideals where humanistic knowledge is valued. Nurses and phenomenologists share skills in observation, interviewing, interaction and interpersonal relationships in the appreciation of the individual's perception of an experience. Through the development of professional practice, nurses thus gain the tools to assist them in phenomenological research. It is suggested that, given appropriate attention to rigour, phenomenological methodology could become the basic instrument in the reform of nursing research as it moves from the positivist to the humanist paradigm.

  15. Computational Experiment Study on Selection Mechanism of Project Delivery Method Based on Complex Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Project delivery planning is a key stage used by the project owner (or project investor for organizing design, construction, and other operations in a construction project. The main task in this stage is to select an appropriate project delivery method. In order to analyze different factors affecting the PDM selection, this paper establishes a multiagent model mainly to show how project complexity, governance strength, and market environment affect the project owner’s decision on PDM. Experiment results show that project owner usually choose Design-Build method when the project is very complex within a certain range. Besides, this paper points out that Design-Build method will be the prior choice when the potential contractors develop quickly. This paper provides the owners with methods and suggestions in terms of showing how the factors affect PDM selection, and it may improve the project performance.

  16. [Our experience with the Krause method in the Clínica y Maternidad Conchita].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides de Anda, L

    1969-11-01

    The author reports on his experience with the Krause method of pregnancy termination at the "Conchita" Maternity Clinic in Mexico during a period of 13 years, from 1955 to 1968. The following indications are accepted as legitimate and justify use of this method: dead retained ovum, hydatidiform mole, fetal death, and such complications in pregnancy as isoimmunization to the Rh factor, diabetes mellitus, gravidic toxemia, chronic hypertension. 149 patients were studied, of whom 9 had hydatidiform mole, 29 had induced delivery, and 111 had retained dead ovum. The technique and stages of the procedure are described in detail and the results are summarized in 4 tables. The technique is described as simple and requiring few instruments. Results are considered satisfactory, although the method involves some serious dangers. Brief reference is made to other methods of interrupting pregnancy, such as dilatation and curettage, hysterectomy, the injection of hypertonic solution into the uterine cavity and the perfusion of intravenous oxytoxin.

  17. Medical students' views and experiences of methods of teaching and learning communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Charlotte; Sheard, Charlotte; McPherson, Amy

    2004-07-01

    This study aims to explore undergraduate medical students' views and experiences of methods of teaching and learning communication skills. Five focus groups were conducted with 32 students, with representatives from each of the 5 years of the medical degree, at the University of Nottingham, UK. The audiotapes were transcribed in full and the transcripts were theme analysed independently by two analysts. Two themes relating to methods of teaching and learning communication skills emerged from the analysis. Students had mixed views about instructional methods of teaching and learning communication skills such as lectures. Students seemed to prefer experiential methods of learning communication skills such as role-playing with simulated patients and communicating with real patients in a clinical context. These findings have a number of educational and research implications and these are discussed in this paper.

  18. Agile methods in biomedical software development: a multi-site experience report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, David W; Hohman, Moses M; Cerami, Ethan G; McCormick, Michael W; Kuhlmman, Karl F; Byrd, Jeff A

    2006-01-01

    Background Agile is an iterative approach to software development that relies on strong collaboration and automation to keep pace with dynamic environments. We have successfully used agile development approaches to create and maintain biomedical software, including software for bioinformatics. This paper reports on a qualitative study of our experiences using these methods. Results We have found that agile methods are well suited to the exploratory and iterative nature of scientific inquiry. They provide a robust framework for reproducing scientific results and for developing clinical support systems. The agile development approach also provides a model for collaboration between software engineers and researchers. We present our experience using agile methodologies in projects at six different biomedical software development organizations. The organizations include academic, commercial and government development teams, and included both bioinformatics and clinical support applications. We found that agile practices were a match for the needs of our biomedical projects and contributed to the success of our organizations. Conclusion We found that the agile development approach was a good fit for our organizations, and that these practices should be applicable and valuable to other biomedical software development efforts. Although we found differences in how agile methods were used, we were also able to identify a set of core practices that were common to all of the groups, and that could be a focus for others seeking to adopt these methods. PMID:16734914

  19. Was the Driver Drunk? An Instrumental Methods Experiment for the Determination of Blood Alcohol Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabzdyr, Jennifer L.; Lillard, Sheri J.

    2001-09-01

    Introducing forensic scenarios into the instrumental laboratory is a simple yet effective strategy to give students the opportunity to perform realistic experiments and to learn proper analytical techniques. In this laboratory experiment, which is designed for upper-division students in an instrumental methods course, unknown ethanol concentrations are quantitated in simulated serum samples using headspace gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection. For the quantitative determination of blood alcohol content (BAC) in cases where drunk driving is suspected, GC is considered the most reliable method. Furthermore, headspace sampling helps to eliminate interferences from biological matrices such as blood or serum. An unknown sample of ethanol in serum, which brackets the 0.080 g/mL legal limit (e.g., BAC 0.075-0.087 g/mL), is given to the student for measurement. Both external and internal standardization methods are used for calibration. The students calculate serum alcohol concentration based on the measurement of their unknown sample using each calibration curve, and the results from each calibration method are compared and discussed in terms of accuracy. They then use a conversion factor to calculate BAC from serum alcohol concentration and use their results to determine if the "suspected driver" was driving under the influence. See Letter re: this article.

  20. Optimization of Automotive Suspension System by Design of Experiments: A Nonderivative Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban C. Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of health issues like low back pain, digestive disorders, and musculoskeletal disorders are caused as a result of the whole body vibrations induced by automobiles. This paper is concerned with the enhancement and optimization of suspension performance by using factorial methods of Design of Experiments, a nonderivative method. It focuses on the optimization of ride comfort and determining the parameters which affect the suspension behavior significantly as per the guidelines stated in ISO 2631-1:1997 standards. A quarter car test rig integrated with a LabVIEW based data acquisition system was developed to understand the real time behavior of a vehicle. In the pilot experiment, only three primary suspension parameters, that is, spring-stiffness, damping, and sprung mass, were considered and the full factorial method was implemented for the purpose of optimization. But the regression analysis of the data obtained rendered a very low goodness of fit which indicated that other parameters are likely to influence the response. Subsequently, steering geometry angles, camber and toe and tire pressure, were included in the design. Fractional factorial method with six factors was implemented to optimize ride comfort. The resultant optimum combination was then verified on the test rig with high correlation.

  1. Agile methods in biomedical software development: a multi-site experience report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhlmman Karl F

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agile is an iterative approach to software development that relies on strong collaboration and automation to keep pace with dynamic environments. We have successfully used agile development approaches to create and maintain biomedical software, including software for bioinformatics. This paper reports on a qualitative study of our experiences using these methods. Results We have found that agile methods are well suited to the exploratory and iterative nature of scientific inquiry. They provide a robust framework for reproducing scientific results and for developing clinical support systems. The agile development approach also provides a model for collaboration between software engineers and researchers. We present our experience using agile methodologies in projects at six different biomedical software development organizations. The organizations include academic, commercial and government development teams, and included both bioinformatics and clinical support applications. We found that agile practices were a match for the needs of our biomedical projects and contributed to the success of our organizations. Conclusion We found that the agile development approach was a good fit for our organizations, and that these practices should be applicable and valuable to other biomedical software development efforts. Although we found differences in how agile methods were used, we were also able to identify a set of core practices that were common to all of the groups, and that could be a focus for others seeking to adopt these methods.

  2. SUGGESTOPEDIA AS THE METHOD OF THE MUSIC EXPERIENCE FORMATION OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya T. Таgiltseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to consider the possibility of suggestopedia methods use that are successfully practiced in foreign language teaching, pedagogy of music education of preschool children, in starting schools; to find out the degree of methods efficiency of suggestopedia in shaping the musical experience of preschool children in various activities at music lessons. Methods. The theoretical foundations of the article are views and concepts of the Bulgarian researcher, teacher and psychologist, G. Lozanov; he had studied out the suggestopedia method for foreign language teaching, and the theory of meta-subject education on the basis of artistic-creative activity and appeal to masterpieces of art. Monitoring and surveillance over non-verbal behavior of children, surveys and discussions were used as practical methods. Results. Musical experience of the child is considered as the process of the development of musical memory. Many suggestopedia techniques developed by Bulgarian and Russian researchers were selected and tested; those that involve the use of involuntary memorization of music when performing creative tasks: free movement or plastic intonation, paint color schemes, music and organizational tasks related to the preparation and conduct music lessons. Three series of diagnostic tasks associated with memory, remembering and recognition of classical pieces of music unknown for preschoolers were worked out to test the effectiveness of these methods and its integration into the process of preschoolers’ music education. The conducted experiment has shown that methods of suggestopedia provide memory activation – children keep in memory classical music. Scientific novelty. The research demonstrates the application reasonability of suggestopedia methods used at foreign language teaching, music education of preschool children and juniors. It has been proved that involuntary memorizing of classical music by children listening to background

  3. Two methods for estimating aeroelastic damping of operational wind turbine modes from experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Thomsen, Kenneth; Fuglsang, Peter

    2006-01-01

    show that turbine vibrations related to the first two tower bending modes can be excited by blade pitch and generator torque variations. However, the excited turbine vibrations are not pure modal vibrations and the estimated damping is therefore not the actual modal damping. The second method is based......The theory and results of two experimental methods for estimating the modal damping of a wind turbine during operation are presented. Estimations of the aeroelastic damping of the operational turbine modes (including the effects of the aerodynamic forces) give a quantitative view of the stability...... characteristics of the turbine. In the first method the estimation of modal damping is based on the assumption that a turbine mode can be excited by a harmonic force at its natural frequency, whereby the decaying response after the end of excitation gives an estimate of the damping. Simulations and experiments...

  4. EMS-45 Tool Steels Hardenability Experiment using Jominy ASTM A255 Test Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsul Hadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hardenability of steels is an important way to determine heat treatment and material properties that produce component products. Jominy test is one of the method to know hardenability of steels. The Jominy ASTM A255 in used as a method for carriying out and this reseach. Parameter such as austenite temperature, holding time, cooling rate and then the results is dedicated by the prediction result, with Non Linear Numerical Equation Method. Based on test, it’s known, increasing austenite temperature, longer holding time and high cooling rate, will increase hardenability of steels. The different between the results and the prediction result done by Sonh Yue-Peng[15], Matja equation[14] and Zehtab equation[10], about 5 % -10 %. The data obtained from this experiment can be used to determine the appropriated heat treatment in order to get the desired mechanical properties, as well as to avoid distortion.

  5. Comics – a Method that Allows Boys Deeper Experience of Children’s Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kerneza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the acquisition of reading skills girls are more successful than boys. As a method of interpretation comics could allow boys a deeper perception, understanding and evaluation of youth literary texts, and help them to express their literary perception experience. The main research method is case study with a number of linguistic motivations used. After getting acquainted with the comics, the students applied new knowledge to detect textual information embedded in stage directions, and expanded their literary worlds by converting texts into comic form. The research is based on qualitative research methods of literary didactic research. Boys’ deficits were successfully compensated – in some cases they were even more successful than girls, and the mehod of work also suited girls.

  6. A journey from nuclear criticality methods to high energy density radflow experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-08

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a nuclear weapons laboratory supporting our nation's defense. In support of this mission is a high energy-density physics program in which we design and execute experiments to study radiationhydrodynamics phenomena and improve the predictive capability of our largescale multi-physics software codes on our big-iron computers. The Radflow project’s main experimental effort now is to understand why we haven't been able to predict opacities on Sandia National Laboratory's Z-machine. We are modeling an increasing fraction of the Z-machine's dynamic hohlraum to find multi-physics explanations for the experimental results. Further, we are building an entirely different opacity platform on Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's National Ignition Facility (NIF), which is set to get results early 2017. Will the results match our predictions, match the Z-machine, or give us something entirely different? The new platform brings new challenges such as designing hohlraums and spectrometers. The speaker will recount his history, starting with one-dimensional Monte Carlo nuclear criticality methods in graduate school, radiative transfer methods research and software development for his first 16 years at LANL, and, now, radflow technology and experiments. Who knew that the real world was more than just radiation transport? Experiments aren't easy and they are as saturated with politics as a presidential election, but they sure are fun.

  7. A journey from nuclear criticality methods to high energy density radflow experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a nuclear weapons laboratory supporting our nation's defense. In support of this mission is a high energy-density physics program in which we design and execute experiments to study radiationhydrodynamics phenomena and improve the predictive capability of our largescale multi-physics software codes on our big-iron computers. The Radflow project’s main experimental effort now is to understand why we haven't been able to predict opacities on Sandia National Laboratory's Z-machine. We are modeling an increasing fraction of the Z-machine's dynamic hohlraum to find multi-physics explanations for the experimental results. Further, we are building an entirely different opacity platform on Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's National Ignition Facility (NIF), which is set to get results early 2017. Will the results match our predictions, match the Z-machine, or give us something entirely different? The new platform brings new challenges such as designing hohlraums and spectrometers. The speaker will recount his history, starting with one-dimensional Monte Carlo nuclear criticality methods in graduate school, radiative transfer methods research and software development for his first 16 years at LANL, and, now, radflow technology and experiments. Who knew that the real world was more than just radiation transport? Experiments aren't easy, but they sure are fun.

  8. Systematic mixed-methods review of interventions, outcomes and experiences for imprisoned pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Judith; Downe, Soo; Kingdon, Carol

    2015-07-01

    To review published studies reporting maternity experiences and outcomes for pregnant incarcerated women and their babies. Numbers of women in prison have increased in many countries. Imprisoned women who are pregnant are particularly vulnerable and marginalised. Little is known about their maternity care experiences, or outcomes. Systematic mixed-methods review using a segregated approach. The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE Psych INFO and PubMed were searched using the terms 'mother' and 'prison', (January 1995-July 2012). From July 2012-May 2014 possible new studies were identified through scrutiny of 50 relevant journal contents pages via Zetoc. Seven studies met the review criteria and quality standards, all from the USA or UK. Four of the studies were quantitative; two were qualitative; and one used mixed-methods. None reported the outcomes of an intervention. Examination of the quantitative data identified a complex picture of potential harms and benefits for babies born in prison. Qualitative data revealed the unique needs of childbearing women in prison, as they continuously negotiate being an inmate, becoming a mother, complex social histories and the threat of losing their baby, all coalescing with opportunities for transformation offered by pregnancy. There is very limited published data on the experiences and outcomes of childbearing women in prison. There appear to be no good quality intervention studies examining the effectiveness of interventions to improve well-being in the short or longer term for these women and their babies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Establishing the Boundaries and Building Bridges: Research Methods Into the Ecology of the Refugee Parenting Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nombasa Williams

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the suitability of the focus group method for conducting research early in post-resettlement among refugee parents and carers in South Australia. This method was employed to uncover the refugee parenting experience in pre-resettlement contexts. There were three refugee focus groups, consisting of a Sudanese women’s group, an African men’s group, and an Afghani and Iraqi women’s group. To illustrate each group’s differential parenting ecologies in milieus of forced migration ecological matrixes were devised which are presented in the results section. An ecological matrix was also developed to unpack, code and analyse transcripts. The matrix was designed to include categories and actions so as to construct meaning units and subsequent condensed meaning units to determine the concluding themes. These provided an analytical framework with which to illuminate the constructed meanings participants attributed to their refugee parenting experiences. The findings provide insights into the ecology of the refugee parenting experience and might be of considerable importance for Australian resettlement services and state systems of child protection seeking to develop culturally appropriate and relevant services.

  10. A method for fine positioning of diagnostic packages in inertial confinement fusion experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Tielin; Lee, Kok-Meng

    2011-12-01

    A method based on binocular vision servoing for positioning of a diagnostic package in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments is presented. The general diagnostic instrument manipulator will provide precision three dimension positioning and alignment-to-target capability in ICF experiments. In this work, we focus on the final precise automatic positioning with a binocular vision system. A three dimension image projection vector (IPV), which has an almost linear relationship with the target position in 3D space under the condition of weak perspective, is introduced to extract target position information from binocular image. The difference of the IPV between the current image and the desired image will be used as the input of servo controller. A differential motion model was found for the hybrid manipulator with three degrees of freedom. With this model and the said IPV, the servo strategy will be dramatically simplified compare with general image based visual servo in which the image Jacobian matrix needs estimated online. The experiment result implies that the locating accuracy of the manipulator is less than two pixels. This method can also be used in micromanipulation visual servo field.

  11. Determining the Parameters of Importance of a Graphene Synthesis Process Using Design-of-Experiments Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udit Narula

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A systematic method to identify key factors that control the synthesis of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD-based graphene on copper is necessary for engineering graphene growth. The statistical design-of-experiments method is employed and demonstrated in this work in order to fulfill the necessity. Full-factorial design-of-experiments are performed to examine the significance of the main effects and the extent of the interactions of the controlling factors, which are responsible for the number of layers and the quality of the grown graphene. We found that a thinner amorphous carbon layer and a higher annealing temperature are suitable for the growth of mono-layer/few-layer graphene with low defects, while the effect of annealing time has a trade-off and needs to be optimized further. On the other hand, the same treatment, but with larger annealing times will result in multi-layer graphene and low defects. The results obtained from the analysis of the design-of-experiments are verified experimentally with Raman characterization.

  12. RNA-seq mixology: designing realistic control experiments to compare protocols and analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holik, Aliaksei Z; Law, Charity W; Liu, Ruijie; Wang, Zeya; Wang, Wenyi; Ahn, Jaeil; Asselin-Labat, Marie-Liesse; Smyth, Gordon K; Ritchie, Matthew E

    2017-03-17

    Carefully designed control experiments provide a gold standard for benchmarking different genomics research tools. A shortcoming of many gene expression control studies is that replication involves profiling the same reference RNA sample multiple times. This leads to low, pure technical noise that is atypical of regular studies. To achieve a more realistic noise structure, we generated a RNA-sequencing mixture experiment using two cell lines of the same cancer type. Variability was added by extracting RNA from independent cell cultures and degrading particular samples. The systematic gene expression changes induced by this design allowed benchmarking of different library preparation kits (standard poly-A versus total RNA with Ribozero depletion) and analysis pipelines. Data generated using the total RNA kit had more signal for introns and various RNA classes (ncRNA, snRNA, snoRNA) and less variability after degradation. For differential expression analysis, voom with quality weights marginally outperformed other popular methods, while for differential splicing, DEXSeq was simultaneously the most sensitive and the most inconsistent method. For sample deconvolution analysis, DeMix outperformed IsoPure convincingly. Our RNA-sequencing data set provides a valuable resource for benchmarking different protocols and data pre-processing workflows. The extra noise mimics routine lab experiments more closely, ensuring any conclusions are widely applicable. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. CryoPause: A New Method to Immediately Initiate Experiments after Cryopreservation of Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen G. Wong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs provide an unlimited cell source for cell therapies and disease modeling. Despite their enormous power, technical aspects have hampered reproducibility. Here, we describe a modification of PSC workflows that eliminates a major variable for nearly all PSC experiments: the quality and quantity of the PSC starting material. Most labs continually passage PSCs and use small quantities after expansion, but the “just-in-time” nature of these experiments means that quality control rarely happens before use. Lack of quality control could compromise PSC quality, sterility, and genetic integrity, which creates a variable that might affect results. This method, called CryoPause, banks PSCs as single-use, cryopreserved vials that can be thawed and immediately used in experiments. Each CryoPause bank provides a consistent source of PSCs that can be pre-validated before use to reduce the possibility that high levels of spontaneous differentiation, contamination, or genetic integrity will compromise an experiment.

  14. General Practitioners’ responses to global climate change - lessons from clinical experience and the clinical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blashki Grant

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate change is a global public health problem that will require complex thinking if meaningful and effective solutions are to be achieved. In this conceptual paper we argue that GPs have much to bring to the issue of climate change from their wide-ranging clinical experience and from the principles underpinning their clinical methods. This experience and thinking calls forth particular contributions GPs can and should make to debate and action. Discussion We contend that the privileged experience and GP way of thinking can make valuable contributions when applied to climate change solutions. These include a lifetime of experience, reflection and epistemological application to first doing no harm, managing uncertainty, the ability to make necessary decisions while possessing incomplete information, an appreciation of complex adaptive systems, maintenance of homeostasis, vigilance for unintended consequences, and an appreciation of the importance of transdisciplinarity and interprofessionalism. Summary General practitioners have a long history of public health advocacy and in the case of climate change may bring a way of approaching complex human problems that could be applied to the dilemmas of climate change.

  15. General Practitioners' responses to global climate change - lessons from clinical experience and the clinical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashki, Grant; Abelsohn, Alan; Woollard, Robert; Arya, Neil; Parkes, Margot W; Kendal, Paul; Bell, Erica; Bell, R Warren

    2012-08-08

    Climate change is a global public health problem that will require complex thinking if meaningful and effective solutions are to be achieved. In this conceptual paper we argue that GPs have much to bring to the issue of climate change from their wide-ranging clinical experience and from the principles underpinning their clinical methods. This experience and thinking calls forth particular contributions GPs can and should make to debate and action. We contend that the privileged experience and GP way of thinking can make valuable contributions when applied to climate change solutions. These include a lifetime of experience, reflection and epistemological application to first doing no harm, managing uncertainty, the ability to make necessary decisions while possessing incomplete information, an appreciation of complex adaptive systems, maintenance of homeostasis, vigilance for unintended consequences, and an appreciation of the importance of transdisciplinarity and interprofessionalism. General practitioners have a long history of public health advocacy and in the case of climate change may bring a way of approaching complex human problems that could be applied to the dilemmas of climate change.

  16. Calibration of DEM parameters on shear test experiments using Kriging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Bednarek; Sylvain, Martin; Abibatou, Ndiaye; Véronique, Peres; Olivier, Bonnefoy

    2017-06-01

    Calibration of powder mixing simulation using Discrete-Element-Method is still an issue. Achieving good agreement with experimental results is difficult because time-efficient use of DEM involves strong assumptions. This work presents a methodology to calibrate DEM parameters using Efficient Global Optimization (EGO) algorithm based on Kriging interpolation method. Classical shear test experiments are used as calibration experiments. The calibration is made on two parameters - Young modulus and friction coefficient. The determination of the minimal number of grains that has to be used is a critical step. Simulations of a too small amount of grains would indeed not represent the realistic behavior of powder when using huge amout of grains will be strongly time consuming. The optimization goal is the minimization of the objective function which is the distance between simulated and measured behaviors. The EGO algorithm uses the maximization of the Expected Improvement criterion to find next point that has to be simulated. This stochastic criterion handles with the two interpolations made by the Kriging method : prediction of the objective function and estimation of the error made. It is thus able to quantify the improvement in the minimization that new simulations at specified DEM parameters would lead to.

  17. Determination of the Constants of GTN Damage Model Using Experiment, Polynomial Regression and Kriging Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foad Rahimidehgolan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Damage models, particularly the Gurson–Tvergaard–Needleman (GTN model, are widely used in numerical simulation of material deformations. Each damage model has some constants which must be identified for each material. The direct identification methods are costly and time consuming. In the current work, a combination of experimental, numerical simulation and optimization were used to determine the constants. Quasi-static and dynamic tests were carried out on notched specimens. The experimental profiles of the specimens were used to determine the constants. The constants of GTN damage model were identified through the proposed method and using the results of quasi-static tests. Numerical simulation of the dynamic test was performed utilizing the constants obtained from quasi-static experiments. The results showed a high precision in predicting the specimen’s profile in the dynamic testing. The sensitivity analysis was performed on the constants of GTN model to validate the proposed method. Finally, the experiments were simulated using the Johnson–Cook (J–C damage model and the results were compared to those obtained from GTN damage model.

  18. Evaluating First Experiences with an Educational Computer Game: A multi-Method Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Obrist

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents our evaluation approach for a specific case study, namely the evaluation of an early prototype of an educational game with children aged between 12 and 14 years. The main goal of this initial evaluation study was to explore children’s first impressions and experiences of the game on the one hand and to assess the students’ ideas and wishes for the further development of the game on the other hand. The main challenge for the evaluation activities was the selection of the appropriate methodological approach, taking into account children as a special user group. We opted for a combination of different, mainly qualitative and explorative methods that were reported beneficial for work with children in the human-computer interaction (HCI field. By presenting our multi-method approach, in particular the different steps and procedure within our study, other researchers can get inspirations for follow up activities when evaluating games with children as well as benefit from our experiences in exploring more collaborative methods and methodological combinations.

  19. Application of Optical Measurement Method in Brazilian Disk Splitting Experiment Under Dynamic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang YIN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A real-time and in situ optical measuring system is developed, which can be used to observe the determination of the displaced field on Brazilian disk splitting under dynamic loading. The system consists of high speed (HS photography, split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB, synchronization controlling system and the operation of differential image. In the present experiments, photographs of the specimen were taken using a FASTCAM SA1.1 high speed camera, the frame rate was 100,000 fps. The continuous images of rock sample dynamic Brazil fracturing process and stress wave loading on the specimen were observed by synchronization controlling system. The change law of surface displacement field was calculated from the method of differential image base on the joint probability distribution function of two images. This method was considered the image correlation, and effectively eliminated the influence of background noise, and could identify the surface displacement and the occurrence and expansion of the crack in the dynamic Brazilian disk splitting experiments straightforward and effectively. This method can provide a novel measurement of surface displacement field in Brazilian disk splitting tests under high strain rates.

  20. Calibration of DEM parameters on shear test experiments using Kriging method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednarek Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Calibration of powder mixing simulation using Discrete-Element-Method is still an issue. Achieving good agreement with experimental results is difficult because time-efficient use of DEM involves strong assumptions. This work presents a methodology to calibrate DEM parameters using Efficient Global Optimization (EGO algorithm based on Kriging interpolation method. Classical shear test experiments are used as calibration experiments. The calibration is made on two parameters - Young modulus and friction coefficient. The determination of the minimal number of grains that has to be used is a critical step. Simulations of a too small amount of grains would indeed not represent the realistic behavior of powder when using huge amout of grains will be strongly time consuming. The optimization goal is the minimization of the objective function which is the distance between simulated and measured behaviors. The EGO algorithm uses the maximization of the Expected Improvement criterion to find next point that has to be simulated. This stochastic criterion handles with the two interpolations made by the Kriging method : prediction of the objective function and estimation of the error made. It is thus able to quantify the improvement in the minimization that new simulations at specified DEM parameters would lead to.

  1. Maximising the value of computer experiments using multi-method global sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianosi, F.; Iwema, J.; Rosolem, R.; Wagener, T.

    2015-12-01

    Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) is increasingly recognised as an essential technique for a structured and quantitative approach to the calibration and diagnostic evaluation of environmental models. However, the implementation and interpretation of GSA is complicated by a number of choices that users need to make and for which multiple, equally sensible, options are often available. These choices include in the first place the choice of the GSA method, as well as many implementation details like the definition of the sampling space and strategy. The issue is exacerbated by computational complexity, in terms of both computing time and storage space needed to run the model, which might strongly constrain the number of experiments that can be afforded. While several algorithmic improvements can be adopted to reduce the computing burden of specific GSA methods, in this talk we discuss how a multi-method approach can be established to maximise the information gathered from an individual sample of model evaluations. Using as an example the GSA of a land surface model, we show how different analytical and approximation techniques can be applied sequentially to the same sample of model inputs and outputs, providing complimentary information about the model behaviour from different angles, and allowing for testing the impact of the choices made to generate the sample. We further expand our analysis to show how GSA is interconnected with model calibration and uncertainty analysis, so that a careful design of the simulation experiment can be used to address different questions simultaneously.

  2. An Innovative Sequential Focus Group Method for Investigating Diabetes Care Experiences With Indigenous Peoples in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Jacklin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the innovative use of sequential focus groups (SFGs with Indigenous adults living with type 2 diabetes. This use of SFGs has not been previously described in the literature. In our project, SFGs were used to explore Indigenous people’s experiences in managing their diabetes. Our research objective has been to elucidate deep understandings of these experiences in order to inform the development of continuing medical education curriculum with the aim of improving approaches to diabetes care for Indigenous people. Working in partnerships with Indigenous health organizations, we recruited four groups comprising participants from diverse Indigenous communities (two urban, two rural in three provinces of Canada. We conducted a series of five focus groups (SFGs with the same participants (6–8 participants at each site for a total of 20 focus groups and 29 participants. Indigenous people living with type 2 diabetes were asked open-ended questions concerning their experiences with diabetes and diabetes care in primary health-care settings. Our findings concerning the use of SFGs for Indigenous health research draw on team member and participants’ reflections captured in facilitator field notes, memos from debriefing sessions, and focus group transcripts. The SFG approach enabled in-depth exploration of the complex, and at times sensitive, issues related to Indigenous people’s views on diabetes and their experiences of diabetes care. The repeated sessions facilitated comfort and camaraderie among participants, which led to insightful sessions filled with personal and emotional stories of living with diabetes, the impacts of colonization, and health-care experiences. Overall, the method fostered a deeper level of engagement, exploration, and reflection than a single-session focus group typically would. We suggest this adaptation of the traditional single-session focus groups would be applicable to a wide variety of research

  3. The iso-response method: Measuring neuronal stimulus integration with closed-loop experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eGollisch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the nervous system, neurons integrate high-dimensional input streams and transform them into an output of their own. This integration of incoming signals involves filtering processes and complex nonlinear operations. The shapes of these filters and nonlinearities determine the computational features of single neurons and their functional roles within larger networks. A detailed characterization of signal integration is thus a central ingredient to understanding information processing in neural circuits. Conventional methods for measuring single-neuron response properties, such as reverse correlation, however, are often limited by the implicit assumption that stimulus integration occurs in a linear fashion. Here, we review a conceptual and experimental alternative that is based on exploring the space of those sensory stimuli that result in the same neural output. As demonstrated by recent results in the auditory and visual system, such iso-response stimuli can be used to identify the nonlinearities relevant for stimulus integration, disentangle subsequent neural processing steps, and determine their characteristics with unprecedented precision. Automated closed-loop experiments are crucial for this advance, allowing rapid search strategies for identifying iso-response stimuli during experiments. Prime targets for the method are feed-forward neural signaling chains in sensory systems, but the method has also been successfully applied to feedback systems. Depending on the specific question, iso-response may refer to a predefined firing rate, single-spike probability, first-spike latency, or other output measures. Examples from different studies show that substantial progress in understanding neural dynamics and coding can be achieved once rapid online data analysis and stimulus generation, adaptive sampling, and computational modelling are tightly integrated into experiments.

  4. The iso-response method: measuring neuronal stimulus integration with closed-loop experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollisch, Tim; Herz, Andreas V. M.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the nervous system, neurons integrate high-dimensional input streams and transform them into an output of their own. This integration of incoming signals involves filtering processes and complex non-linear operations. The shapes of these filters and non-linearities determine the computational features of single neurons and their functional roles within larger networks. A detailed characterization of signal integration is thus a central ingredient to understanding information processing in neural circuits. Conventional methods for measuring single-neuron response properties, such as reverse correlation, however, are often limited by the implicit assumption that stimulus integration occurs in a linear fashion. Here, we review a conceptual and experimental alternative that is based on exploring the space of those sensory stimuli that result in the same neural output. As demonstrated by recent results in the auditory and visual system, such iso-response stimuli can be used to identify the non-linearities relevant for stimulus integration, disentangle consecutive neural processing steps, and determine their characteristics with unprecedented precision. Automated closed-loop experiments are crucial for this advance, allowing rapid search strategies for identifying iso-response stimuli during experiments. Prime targets for the method are feed-forward neural signaling chains in sensory systems, but the method has also been successfully applied to feedback systems. Depending on the specific question, “iso-response” may refer to a predefined firing rate, single-spike probability, first-spike latency, or other output measures. Examples from different studies show that substantial progress in understanding neural dynamics and coding can be achieved once rapid online data analysis and stimulus generation, adaptive sampling, and computational modeling are tightly integrated into experiments. PMID:23267315

  5. A Simulation Modeling Approach Method Focused on the Refrigerated Warehouses Using Design of Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, G. S.

    2017-09-01

    For performance optimization of Refrigerated Warehouses, design parameters are selected based on the physical parameters such as number of equipment and aisles, speeds of forklift for ease of modification. This paper provides a comprehensive framework approach for the system design of Refrigerated Warehouses. We propose a modeling approach which aims at the simulation optimization so as to meet required design specifications using the Design of Experiment (DOE) and analyze a simulation model using integrated aspect-oriented modeling approach (i-AOMA). As a result, this suggested method can evaluate the performance of a variety of Refrigerated Warehouses operations.

  6. A case method for Sales and Operations Planning: a learning experience from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    SCAVARDA,LUIZ FELIPE; Hellingrath, Bernd; Kreuter, Tobias; Thomé, Antonio Márcio Tavares; Seeling, Marcelo Xavier; Fischer, Jan-Hendrick; Mello, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Adequate preparation, learning, and training is required for Sales and Operations Planning (S&OP) to aid organizations in achieving the full expected benefits from its implementation. This paper presents a case method for S&OP and the learning experience of its application at the University of Münster (Germany). The “constructive alignment principle” was applied with a “team teaching” approach, involving an executive from the case company. Students improved their knowledge on S&OP an...

  7. Studentų emocijų, mokymosi produktyvumo, akademinių pasiekimų ir fiziologinių parametrų ryšių analizė

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnė Matuliauskaitė

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Daugybė pasaulyje atliktų tyrimų nagrinėja tarpusavio priklausomybę tarp studentų mokymosi produktyvumo, mokymosi įdomumo, emocinės ir psichologinės būsenos bei fiziologinių parametrų. Emocinė būsena ir mokymosi įdomumas lemia mokymosi produktyvumą, o tai matoma iš fiziologinių parametrų kitimo. Straipsnyje aptariami ir sisteminami įvairių autorių tyrimų rezultatai, nagrinėjama, kaip teigiamos ir neigiamos emocijos lemia mokymosi produktyvumą, kokie fiziologiniai parametrai turi būti analizuojami produktyvumo įvertinimui. Nustačius šiuos tarpusavyje susijusius parametrus ir panaudojant jų analizę galima gerinti studentų akademinius pasiekimus.Straipsnis anglų kalba

  8. Using the factorial experiment method to analyze the corrosion protection process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ţîţu Mihail Aurel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The organization functions are: research-development, production, commercial, financial-accounting, personnel and quality. In this paper the factorial experimental method will be applied, which is currently one of the most widespread methods used in the research-development departments of the organizations, due to its advantages and efficiency. The experiment was carried out at SC Coifer Impex SRL-Mirsa’s metal structures factory. In this paper it is presented the factors modelling that exerts their influence on two objectives functions: the ensuring the nominal thickness of the rough-cast film and the consumption limiting. For data processing the STATISTICA 7 software was used which provides an accurately and effectively way to determine the influence degree of each variable on the settled objectives.

  9. [COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF VARIOUS METHODS OF SIMULATION OF BILIARY PERITONITIS IN EXPERIMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichitaylo, M Yu; Furmanov, Yu O; Gutsulyak, A I; Savytska, I M; Zagriychuk, M S; Goman, A V

    2016-02-01

    In experiment on rabbits a comparative analysis of various methods of a biliary peritonitis simulation was conducted. In 6 animals a biliary peritonitis was simulated, using perforation of a gallbladder, local serous-fibrinous peritonitis have occurred in 50% of them. In 7 animals biliary peritonitis was simulated, applying intraabdominal injection of medical sterile bile in a 5-40 ml volume. Diffuse peritonitis with exudates and stratification of fibrin was absent. Most effective method have appeared that, when intraabdominal injection of bile was done together with E. coli culture in the rate of 0.33 microbal bodies McF (1.0 x 10(8) CFU/ml) on 1 kg of the animal body mass. Diffuse biliary peritonitis have occurred in all 23 animals, including serous-fibrinous one--in 17 (76%), and purulent-fibrinous--in 6 (24%).

  10. Exploring Risky Youth Experiences: Popular Theatre as a Participatory, Performative Research Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Conrad

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a Popular Theatre project with a group of high school drama students in a rural Alberta community. As a research method, Popular Theatre draws on traditions in participatory research and performance ethnography. In our project, entitled “Life in the Sticks,” based on students' initial claims that their issues were determined by their rural environment, Popular Theatre was a way to collectively draw out, represent and question their experiences through theatrical means. Our process helped students re-examine their beliefs and helped me reframe the notion “at-risk” to include the perceptions of youth. Popular Theatre is shown to be an effective pedagogical tool and research method in the new insights and critical understandings it yielded..

  11. A Video Quality Assessment Method for VoIP Applications Based on User Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zedong; Wang, Jing; Wang, Fei; Li, Chengcai; Fei, Zesong; Rahim, Tariq

    2017-12-01

    An objective video quality assessment method is proposed to evaluate the video quality in voice over internet protocol (VoIP) applications under network distortion. The fluency and the clarity of videos are two main parts of the factors that affect user experience, thus the method evaluates these two parts to assess the distortions of videos in VoIP applications caused by codec and packet loss. The clarity of the video is measured by calculating block artifacts and frame blurring. Video blocking artifacts are measured by splitting the picture into small blocks and calculating the difference of the pixels around each border while video blurring is measured by getting edge information through Sobel operator, and counting the gradient histogram. Then the video clarity can be measured by a weighted sum of block artifacts score and blurring score using linear regression. The scores are also normalized in order to eliminate the impact of different video contents. The video fluency is calculated by counting the wrong frame in the video. Finally, a weighted sum of video clarity score and video fluency score can represent the quality of the video. The experimental results show that the objective quality scores have a strong correlation with the subjective quality scores, and the algorithm concludes two parts of user experience other than just image quality, which is more comprehensive and it can be used in video quality assessment in VoIP applications.

  12. Youth soccer coaches’ profile, experience and teaching methods in the province of Huelva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Robles Rodríguez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The coach is the key in sport training with young sportsmen; it became one of the most influential powers in the right development of boys and girls (Jones, 1992. This study tried to show the profile and the experience of football coaches in the province of Huelva, as well as the teaching methods used. 79 football coaches of the province of Huelva were analysed with the help of a survey. The data showed that the profile of a football coach for children of the province of Huelva corresponded to the following: male, between 21 and 30 years, graduated secondary school, B.U.P./C.O.U., who is playing or played football, and had been training at the youth football between 0 and 5 years. Outstanding within the results was that people with a lower level of football qualification, had less experience in the field of training a football team. Furthermore, about half of the coaches used direct teaching methods. It would be suitable to carry out studies about coaches of young football players. Through observation studies our collected data could be verified

  13. Experience with a computer word-entry method in processing Chinese characters by fluent typists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Chuang, Chun-Yu

    2008-06-01

    A 2003 study by Green and Bavelier showed that action video-game playing modified the visual selective attention of habitual players so the present hypothesis was whether processing of Chinese characters became more phonologically or orthographically oriented depending on whether participants were experienced typing with the phonological (zhuyin) or the orthographic (changjie) word-entry method. In Exp. 1, 38 changjie and 40 zhuyin users typed a short text on a computer using the word-entry method they had experienced. Every keystroke was recorded, and typing errors were categorized. In Exp. 2, 25 changjie and 25 zhuyin users had to circle all characters which contained a predesignated radical when they read a short passage. In Exp. 3, 25 changjie and 20 zhuyin users heard pairs of syllables and had to decide whether the two syllables in a pair shared the same onset consonant in one block of trials or the same rhyme in another block of trials. Analysis showed participants with extensive experience using phonological typing displayed more phonologically related typing errors, better sensitivity to the onset and rhyme of a syllable, but poorer sensitivity to the radical of a character. Participants with extensive experience using orthographic typing displayed opposite results. Although the general cognitive system might be similar in the two groups of participants, the specific configuration of the system can vary to meet the demand of a particular design of the artifactual environment.

  14. Visual Research Methods: A Novel Approach To Understanding The Experiences of Compulsive Hoarders: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satwant Singh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Compulsive hoarding is a syndrome characterised by excessive collecting and saving behaviour that results in cluttered living space and significant distress or impairment. This study set out to gain a greater understanding of the personal experiences of compulsive hoarders in addition to attaining their evaluations of attending a therapy group. Method: Using a participatory photography methodology, a purposive sample of 12 members of a hoarding therapy group were recruited. Participants were asked to take photographs which best captured their hoarding problems. The photographs were then used to encourage narrative dialogue in a subsequent semi structured interview. Results: Seven key themes emerged from the data including: Feelings of isolation and vulnerability, lifestyle disruption, losing and misplacing, clutter and metaphor, rationalisation of the acquisition of hoarded items, failed previous support and the benefits of a therapy support group. Conclusion: The study concluded that the experience of hoarding is both psychologically and physically distressing with numerous impacts upon everyday living and relationships. The study also concluded that visual research methods may be particularly helpful when generating qualitative evidence within this specialist field.

  15. Use of the finite-element method for a dielectric-constant gas-thermometry experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandt, T.; Gaiser, C.; Fellmuth, B.; Haft, N.; Thiele-Krivoi, B.; Kuhn, A.

    2013-09-01

    The finite-element method is a well-established computational methodology for the numerical treatment of partial differential equations. It is primarily used for solving problems in applied engineering and science. In previous publications, we have shown that the method is suitable to solve problems in temperature metrology, for instance to predict temperature profiles and thermal equilibration processes in complex measurement setups. In this paper, the method is used for a primary thermometry experiment, namely dielectric-constant gas thermometry. Within the framework of an international project directed to the new definition of the base unit kelvin, measurements were performed at the triple point of water in order to determine the Boltzmann constant k. The finite-element method was used for the data evaluation in different ways: calculation of the effective compressibility of the measuring capacitor by describing the deformation of its electrodes under the influence of the pressure of the gas, the dielectric constant of which has to be determined; calculation of resonance frequencies for the determination of the elastic constants of the electrode material by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy; electrostatic simulations for calculating capacitance values; estimation of uncertainty components, which allowed to draw conclusions concerning the future reduction of uncertainty components.

  16. Pose Measurement Method and Experiments for High-Speed Rolling Targets in a Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyuan Jia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High-precision wind tunnel simulation tests play an important role in aircraft design and manufacture. In this study, a high-speed pose vision measurement method is proposed for high-speed and rolling targets in a supersonic wind tunnel. To obtain images with high signal-to-noise ratio and avoid impacts on the aerodynamic shape of the rolling targets, a high-speed image acquisition method based on ultrathin retro-reflection markers is presented. Since markers are small-sized and some of them may be lost when the target is rolling, a novel markers layout with which markers are distributed evenly on the surface is proposed based on a spatial coding method to achieve highly accurate pose information. Additionally, a pose acquisition is carried out according to the mentioned markers layout after removing mismatching points by Case Deletion Diagnostics. Finally, experiments on measuring the pose parameters of high-speed targets in the laboratory and in a supersonic wind tunnel are conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Experimental results indicate that the position measurement precision is less than 0.16 mm, the pitching and yaw angle precision less than 0.132° and the roll angle precision 0.712°.

  17. Field experience in science for fifth grade students---a mixed methods study of learning environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Barbara E.

    The purpose of this research is to compare students' perceptions of the learning environment in a traditional science classroom and a field study classroom. This mixed methods study used a sequential explanatory design. Phase one was the quantitative phase using two survey tools. A modified version of the "What is happening in this Classroom Survey" (WIHIC) (Fraser et al., 1996) and the "Test of Science Related Attitudes" (TOSRA) (Fraser, 1982) was administered to 60 fifth grade students from one school. Data was then disaggregated by socioeconomic class and ethnicity. Results from Phase one showed that students prefer the classroom for investigation and prefer the field environment for enjoyment of science. Differences in ethnicity and class were small but Hispanic students prefer the field for investigation and equity. Students that are low socio-economic class rank cooperation in the field higher than the classroom and students that do not qualify for free or reduced lunch prefer the field environment for enjoyment of science. Finally, there are strong correlations for the variables of cooperation, investigation, equity and enjoyment of science in both the classroom and the field environment. Questions raised from the analysis of the survey data were further explored through qualitative data collection methods in phase two. Student responses to three questions were coded using template analysis to provide answers to the "how and why" field experience effects students' attitudes toward science. Three themes emerged from the coding of the results. These results showed that students are physically engaged, develop a sense of place and learn skills in the field that reinforce concepts learned in the classroom. This information will help teachers in developing quality and meaningful experiences for all students. "Closing the gaps among minority groups while improving achievement of all students constitutes the dual goals of education in the nation" (Lee et al., 2004

  18. An improved adaptive sampling and experiment design method for aerodynamic optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jiangtao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Experiment design method is a key to construct a highly reliable surrogate model for numerical optimization in large-scale project. Within the method, the experimental design criterion directly affects the accuracy of the surrogate model and the optimization efficient. According to the shortcomings of the traditional experimental design, an improved adaptive sampling method is proposed in this paper. The surrogate model is firstly constructed by basic sparse samples. Then the supplementary sampling position is detected according to the specified criteria, which introduces the energy function and curvature sampling criteria based on radial basis function (RBF network. Sampling detection criteria considers both the uniformity of sample distribution and the description of hypersurface curvature so as to significantly improve the prediction accuracy of the surrogate model with much less samples. For the surrogate model constructed with sparse samples, the sample uniformity is an important factor to the interpolation accuracy in the initial stage of adaptive sampling and surrogate model training. Along with the improvement of uniformity, the curvature description of objective function surface gradually becomes more important. In consideration of these issues, crowdness enhance function and root mean square error (RMSE feedback function are introduced in C criterion expression. Thus, a new sampling method called RMSE and crowdness enhance (RCE adaptive sampling is established. The validity of RCE adaptive sampling method is studied through typical test function firstly and then the airfoil/wing aerodynamic optimization design problem, which has high-dimensional design space. The results show that RCE adaptive sampling method not only reduces the requirement for the number of samples, but also effectively improves the prediction accuracy of the surrogate model, which has a broad prospects for applications.

  19. A computational method for estimating the PCR duplication rate in DNA and RNA-seq experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Vikas

    2017-03-14

    PCR amplification is an important step in the preparation of DNA sequencing libraries prior to high-throughput sequencing. PCR amplification introduces redundant reads in the sequence data and estimating the PCR duplication rate is important to assess the frequency of such reads. Existing computational methods do not distinguish PCR duplicates from "natural" read duplicates that represent independent DNA fragments and therefore, over-estimate the PCR duplication rate for DNA-seq and RNA-seq experiments. In this paper, we present a computational method to estimate the average PCR duplication rate of high-throughput sequence datasets that accounts for natural read duplicates by leveraging heterozygous variants in an individual genome. Analysis of simulated data and exome sequence data from the 1000 Genomes project demonstrated that our method can accurately estimate the PCR duplication rate on paired-end as well as single-end read datasets which contain a high proportion of natural read duplicates. Further, analysis of exome datasets prepared using the Nextera library preparation method indicated that 45-50% of read duplicates correspond to natural read duplicates likely due to fragmentation bias. Finally, analysis of RNA-seq datasets from individuals in the 1000 Genomes project demonstrated that 70-95% of read duplicates observed in such datasets correspond to natural duplicates sampled from genes with high expression and identified outlier samples with a 2-fold greater PCR duplication rate than other samples. The method described here is a useful tool for estimating the PCR duplication rate of high-throughput sequence datasets and for assessing the fraction of read duplicates that correspond to natural read duplicates. An implementation of the method is available at https://github.com/vibansal/PCRduplicates .

  20. Methods for interpreting lists of affected genes obtained in a DNA microarray experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedegaard Jakob

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper was to describe and compare the methods used and the results obtained by the participants in a joint EADGENE (European Animal Disease Genomic Network of Excellence and SABRE (Cutting Edge Genomics for Sustainable Animal Breeding workshop focusing on post analysis of microarray data. The participating groups were provided with identical lists of microarray probes, including test statistics for three different contrasts, and the normalised log-ratios for each array, to be used as the starting point for interpreting the affected probes. The data originated from a microarray experiment conducted to study the host reactions in broilers occurring shortly after a secondary challenge with either a homologous or heterologous species of Eimeria. Results Several conceptually different analytical approaches, using both commercial and public available software, were applied by the participating groups. The following tools were used: Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, MAPPFinder, LIMMA, GOstats, GOEAST, GOTM, Globaltest, TopGO, ArrayUnlock, Pathway Studio, GIST and AnnotationDbi. The main focus of the approaches was to utilise the relation between probes/genes and their gene ontology and pathways to interpret the affected probes/genes. The lack of a well-annotated chicken genome did though limit the possibilities to fully explore the tools. The main results from these analyses showed that the biological interpretation is highly dependent on the statistical method used but that some common biological conclusions could be reached. Conclusion It is highly recommended to test different analytical methods on the same data set and compare the results to obtain a reliable biological interpretation of the affected genes in a DNA microarray experiment.

  1. Evaluation method of single blow experiment for the determination of heat transfer coefficient and dispersive Peclet number*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roetzel Wilfried

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation method is developed for single blow experiments with liquids on heat exchangers. The method is based on the unity Mach number dispersion model. The evaluation of one experiment yields merely one equation for the two unknowns, the number of transfer units and the dispersive Peclet number. Calculations on an example confirm that one single blow test alone cannot provide reliable values of the unknowns. A second test with a liquid of differing heat capacity is required, or a tracer experiment for the measurement of the Peclet number. A modified method is developed for gases. One experiment yields the effective number of transfer units and approximate values of the two unknowns. The numerical evaluation of calculated experiments demonstrates the applicability of the evaluation methods.

  2. Understanding the patient experience through the power of film: A mixed method qualitative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogston-Tuck, Sherri; Baume, Kath; Clarke, Chris; Heng, Simon

    2016-11-01

    For decades film has proved to be a powerful form of communication. Whether produced as entertainment, art or documentary, films have the capacity to inform and move us. Films are a highly attractive teaching instrument and an appropriate teaching method in health education. It is a valuable tool for studying situations most transcendental to human beings such as pain, disease and death. The objectives were to determine how this helps students engage with their role as health care professionals; to determine how they view the personal experience of illness, disease, disability or death; and to determine how this may impact upon their provision of patient care. The project was underpinned by the film selection determined by considerate review, intensive scrutiny, contemplation and discourse by the research team. 7 films were selected, ranging from animation; foreign, documentary, biopic and Hollywood drama. Each film was shown discretely, in an acoustic lecture theatre projected onto a large screen to pre-registration student nurses (adult, child and mental health) across each year of study from different cohorts (n=49). A mixed qualitative method approach consisted of audio-recorded 5-minute reactions post film screening; coded questionnaires; and focus group. Findings were drawn from the impact of the films through thematic analysis of data sets and subjective text condensation categorised as: new insights looking through patient eyes; evoking emotion in student nurses; spiritual care; going to the moves to learn about the patient experience; self discovery through films; using films to link theory to practice. Deeper learning through film as a powerful medium was identified in meeting the objectives of the study. Integration of film into pre registration curriculum, pedagogy, teaching and learning is recommended. The teaching potential of film stems from the visual process linked to human emotion and experience. Its impact has the power to not only help in

  3. Psychological and emotional methods of affecting consumers’ behavior: generalization of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.О. Borodkina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern economic conditions with the development of trade, intensifying of competition and strengthening of general informative pressure on a man, the efficiency of traditional methods of stimulation of sales (in particular, discounts, bonuses, gifts, free concomitant services, price methods and etc. substantially grows short. Such a situation induces specialists (marketing specialists, managers, managers of companies to search for new unconventional and non-standard approaches of moving of commodities and services, in particular, directly in the places of sale. Foremost, we mean marketing technologies used for designing of consumers’ behavior. Specialists say that for successful moving of commodities it is necessary to call to the emotional, subconscious sphere. The role of marketing is taken to communication with a consumer directly in the places of sale, where there is the possibility to provide the most complete immersion of a consumer in the world of brand and to stimulate spontaneous purchases. The task of marketing consists in forming of so-called indoor-environment that is the atmosphere in the places of sale. Foremost, we mean visual (color, voice (audiomarketing and aromatic (aromamarketing design inside a building. The essence of such technologies consists in the influence on man’s subconsciousness and in the creation of manipulation mechanism of management of consumer’s actions and behavior by complex influence on 5 organs of man’s feeling such as sight, hearing, sense of smell, touch, taste. The article generalizes the existent experience of the use of psycho-emotional methods of stimulation of sales used to influence on consumer’s behavior. The authors describe the basic methods of psyho-emotional influence such as color, audiomarketing (or voice design and aromamarketing. It is marked that there is the necessity of the complex use of psyho-emotional methods and receptions from the point of view of their utility for all

  4. A permutation-based multiple testing method for time-course microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Stephen L

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time-course microarray experiments are widely used to study the temporal profiles of gene expression. Storey et al. (2005 developed a method for analyzing time-course microarray studies that can be applied to discovering genes whose expression trajectories change over time within a single biological group, or those that follow different time trajectories among multiple groups. They estimated the expression trajectories of each gene using natural cubic splines under the null (no time-course and alternative (time-course hypotheses, and used a goodness of fit test statistic to quantify the discrepancy. The null distribution of the statistic was approximated through a bootstrap method. Gene expression levels in microarray data are often complicatedly correlated. An accurate type I error control adjusting for multiple testing requires the joint null distribution of test statistics for a large number of genes. For this purpose, permutation methods have been widely used because of computational ease and their intuitive interpretation. Results In this paper, we propose a permutation-based multiple testing procedure based on the test statistic used by Storey et al. (2005. We also propose an efficient computation algorithm. Extensive simulations are conducted to investigate the performance of the permutation-based multiple testing procedure. The application of the proposed method is illustrated using the Caenorhabditis elegans dauer developmental data. Conclusion Our method is computationally efficient and applicable for identifying genes whose expression levels are time-dependent in a single biological group and for identifying the genes for which the time-profile depends on the group in a multi-group setting.

  5. Examining organizational change in primary care practices: experiences from using ethnographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Grant; Advocat, Jenny; Geneau, Robert; Farrell, Barbara; Thille, Patricia; Ward, Natalie; Evans, Samantha

    2012-08-01

    Qualitative methods are an important part of the primary care researcher's toolkit providing a nuanced view of the complexity in primary care reform and delivery. Ethnographic research is a comprehensive approach to qualitative data collection, including observation, in-depth interviews and document analysis. Few studies have been published outlining methodological issues related to ethnography in this setting. This paper examines some of the challenges of conducting an ethnographic study in primary care setting in Canada, where there recently have been major reforms to traditional methods of organizing primary care services. This paper is based on an ethnographic study set in primary care practices in Ontario, Canada, designed to investigate changes to organizational and clinical routines in practices undergoing transition to new, interdisciplinary Family Health Teams (FHTs). The study was set in six new FHTs in Ontario. This paper is a reflexive examination of some of the challenges encountered while conducting an ethnographic study in a primary care setting. Our experiences in this study highlight some potential benefits of and difficulties in conducting an ethnographic study in family practice. Our study design gave us an opportunity to highlight the changes in routines within an organization in transition. A study with a clinical perspective requires training, support, a mixture of backgrounds and perspectives and ongoing communication. Despite some of the difficulties, the richness of this method has allowed the exploration of a number of additional research questions that emerged during data analysis.

  6. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in ovarian tumors – diagnostic parameters: method presentation and initial experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAXIM, ANITA-ROXANA; BADEA, RADU; TAMAS, ATILLA; TRAILA, ALEXANDRU

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss and illustrate the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in evaluating ovarian tumors compared to conventional ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound and the histopathological analysis and suggest how this technique may best be used to distinguish benign from malignant ovarian masses. We present the method and initial experience of our center by analyzing the parameters used in contrast-enhanced ultrasound in 6 patients with ovarian tumors of uncertain etiology. For examination we used a Siemens ultrasound machine with dedicated contrast software and the contrast agent SonoVue, Bracco. The patients underwent conventional ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound and i.v. administration of the contrast agent. The parameters studied were: inflow of contrast (rise time), time to peak enhancement, mean transit time. The series of patients is part of an extensive prospective PhD study aimed at elaborating a differential diagnosis protocol for benign versus malignant ovarian tumors, by validating specific parameters for contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Although the method is currently used with great success in gastroenterology, urology and senology, its validation in gynecology is still in the early phases. Taking into consideration that the method is minimally invasive and much less costly that CT/MRI imaging, demonstrating its utility in oncologic gynecology would be a big step in preoperative evaluation of these cases. PMID:26527912

  7. Elma Suyunda HPLC ile Patulin Analiz Yöntemlerinin Karşılaştırılması

    OpenAIRE

    Uygun, Mine; Ekşi, Aziz

    2000-01-01

    In this research; well-known four HPLC methods for patulin analysis were compared in case of repeatability and recovery. The repeatability of these methods was investigated by variation coefficient. In the same apple juice, variation coefficient of parallel patulin findings was found to be changed between 7.2-15.2 %. Different amounts of patulin, 25.8, 514, 77.4 ug/L, for the determination of recovery have been added into apple juice. The average recovery was found to be varied between 73.4-1...

  8. A method for indication and improving the position stability of the bubble in single-bubble cavitation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plocek, Jaroslav

    2017-10-01

    A newly developed method for indication of the bubble state in classical single-bubble cavitation experiments is introduced. The method is based on processing the signal from a sensor, positioned on the flask from outside. The technical means of the method are further explored to improve the position stability of the bubble.

  9. A longitudinal, mixed methods investigation of newly qualified nurses' workplace stressors and stress experiences during transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Yvonne; Terry, Louise M; Curzio, Joan

    2017-11-01

    To investigate transition in newly qualified nurses through an exploration of their stressors and stress experiences during their first 12 months postqualifying. Globally, thousands of new nurses qualify annually. They are crucial for the profession and healthcare service delivery. Work-related stress has multiple serious consequences, yet there is a lack of robust, empirical evidence that directly analyses newly qualified nurses and the stress they feel and experience in the workplace. Understanding what causes newly qualified nurses' stress is vital to retaining and nurturing this vital component of the workforce. Longitudinal, explanatory sequential mixed methods, cohort study. At the point of qualification (n = 288), 6 months postqualifying (n = 107) and 12 months postqualifying (n = 86), newly qualified nurses completed the Nursing Stress Scale, with 14 completing a one-to-one interview at 12 months postqualifying. Data were collected from 2010 - 2012. Inferential statistics, "thematic analysis" and "side-by-side comparisons in a discussion" were used for analysis. Workload was consistently the highest reported stressor with inadequate staffing and managing multiple role demands given as explanations. Incivility within the workplace was a noted stressor. Conversely, being part of "a good team" provided a civil, supportive, facilitative work environment. Entering nurse education with previous healthcare experience had a mediating effect on the reported frequency of stressors. Newly qualified nurses encounter multiple work-related stressors over their first 12 months postqualifying, which are intrinsically entwined with their transition. Employing organizations need to be more proactive in managing their workload and addressing workplace incivility. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. nuPRISM: An experimental method to remove neutrino interaction uncertainties from oscillation experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Future experiments propose to make precision measurements of parameters in the neutrino mixing matrix, including the possibly maximal mixing angle theta23, and an unknown CP violating phase, dCP, by comparing the event rate of neutrinos and antineutrinos observed close to, and far from the source. Such "near to far" extrapolation methods must achieve percent level understanding of neutrino and antineutrino interactions; the interaction determines the relationship between experimental observables and the oscillation probability which depends on the neutrino energy. However, recent developments over the last 5 years demonstrate that our understanding of neutrino interactions is insufficient. In particular, the interaction of neutrinos on correlated pairs of nucleons has only recently been added to neutrino interaction simulations. The identification of these processes as interactions on a single nucleon results in a significant bias to the measured mixing parameters, even when near detector i...

  11. A new method for the design of slot antenna arrays: Theory and experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Clauzier, Sebastien

    2016-04-10

    The present paper proposes and validates a new general design methodology that can be used to automatically find proper positions and orientations of waveguide-based radiating slots capable of realizing any given radiation beam profile. The new technique combines basic radiation theory and waveguide propagation theory in a novel analytical model that allows the prediction of the radiation characteristics of generic slots without the need to perform full-wave numerical solution. The analytical model is then used to implement a low-cost objective function within a global optimization scheme (here genetic algorithm.) The algorithm is then deployed to find optimum positions and orientations of clusters of radiating slots cut into the waveguide surface such that any desired beam pattern can be obtained. The method is verified using both full-wave numerical solution and experiment.

  12. Natural Experiments: An Overview of Methods, Approaches, and Contributions to Public Health Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Peter; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Leyland, Alastair; Popham, Frank

    2017-03-20

    Population health interventions are essential to reduce health inequalities and tackle other public health priorities, but they are not always amenable to experimental manipulation. Natural experiment (NE) approaches are attracting growing interest as a way of providing evidence in such circumstances. One key challenge in evaluating NEs is selective exposure to the intervention. Studies should be based on a clear theoretical understanding of the processes that determine exposure. Even if the observed effects are large and rapidly follow implementation, confidence in attributing these effects to the intervention can be improved by carefully considering alternative explanations. Causal inference can be strengthened by including additional design features alongside the principal method of effect estimation. NE studies often rely on existing (including routinely collected) data. Investment in such data sources and the infrastructure for linking exposure and outcome data is essential if the potential for such studies to inform decision making is to be realized.

  13. A new MC-based method to evaluate the fission fraction uncertainty at reactor neutrino experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, X B; Chen, Y X

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainties of fission fraction is an important uncertainty source for the antineutrino flux prediction in a reactor antineutrino experiment. A new MC-based method of evaluating the covariance coefficients between isotopes was proposed. It was found that the covariance coefficients will varying with reactor burnup and which may change from positive to negative because of fissioning balance effect, for example, the covariance coefficient between $^{235}$U and $^{239}$Pu changes from 0.15 to -0.13. Using the equation between fission fraction and atomic density, the consistent of uncertainty of fission fraction and the covariance matrix were obtained. The antineutrino flux uncertainty is 0.55\\% which does not vary with reactor burnup, and the new value is about 8.3\\% smaller.

  14. Narrative coherence and the trauma experience: an exploratory mixed-method analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Benjamin D; Whitt-Woosley, Adrienne; Sprang, Ginny

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines trauma narratives from 28 survivors of interpersonal violence. A mixed-method approach assessed coherence and explored narrative characteristics among differentially exposed groups. The quantitative analysis revealed: (1) exposure to repetitive interpersonal violence was described with greater perception of severity and emotional tone than single interpersonal violence episodes, and (2) exposure to interpersonal violence in childhood was described with greater emotional tone than exposure to interpersonal violence in adulthood. The qualitative analysis revealed: (1) traumatic events were connected to proceeding adverse experiences, (2) attempted avoidance of memories of the violence, (3) an altered view of the self, and (4) lacked recognition that the violence was abnormal. The study supports the "dose-response relationship" of trauma exposure, and the life-altering, transformative nature of trauma exposure.

  15. Measuring the Change in Water Table with Gravity Methods - a Controlled Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S; Christiansen, Lars; Andersen, O. B.

    2009-01-01

    Gravity changes linearly with the change in soil water content. With the GRACE satellite mission the interest for ground-based gravity methods in hydrology has gained new attention. Time-lapse gravity data have the potential to constrain hydrological model parameters in a calibration scheme...... in water content, a controlled experiment was set up in 30 m by 20 m basin. The water table was lowered 0.69 m within 1½ hours and the corresponding gravity signal measured using two different approaches: a time series measurements at one location and a gravity network measurement including four points....... Both where in agreement with the calculated maximum theoretical gravity change of 27*10^-8 m/s^2. Uncertainties on the change in gravity in the network measurements where 4*10^-8 m/s^2 (one standard deviation). This corresponds to an infinite horizontal slab of water with a thickness of 0.1 m. The time...

  16. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Characterisation methods and instruments. Experiences from the construction phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    This report describes the different investigation methods used during the Aespoe HRL construction phase which commenced 1990 and ended 1995. The investigation methods are described with respect to performance, errors, uncertainty and usefulness in determined, analysed and/or calculated parameter values or other kind of geoscientific information. Moreover, other comments of the different methods, like those related to the practical performance of the measurements or tests are given. The practical performance is a major task as most of the investigations were conducted in parallel with the construction work. Much of the wide range of investigations carried out during the tunnelling work required special efforts of the personnel involved. Experiences and comments on these operations are presented in the report. The pre-investigation methods have been evaluated by comparing predictions based on pre-investigation models with data and results from the construction phase and updated geoscientific models. In 1997 a package of reports describe the general results of the pre-investigations. The investigation methods are in this report evaluated with respect to usefulness for underground characterisation of a rock volume, concerning geological, geohydrological, hydrochemical and rock mechanical properties. The report describes out opinion of the methods after the construction phase, i.e. the same platform of knowledge as for the package of reports of 1997. The evaluation of usefulness of the underground investigation methods are structured according to the key issues used for the preinvestigation modelling and predictions, i.e. Geological-structural model, Groundwater flow (hydrogeology), Groundwater chemistry (hydrochemistry), Transport of solutes and Mechanical stability models (or rock mechanics). The investigation methods selected for the different subjects for which the predictions were made are presented. Some of the subjects were slightly modified or adjusted during

  17. A new paradigm on battery powered embedded system design based on User-Experience-Oriented method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuoran; Wu, Yue

    2014-03-01

    The battery sustainable time has been an active research topic recently for the development of battery powered embedded products such as tablets and smart phones, which are determined by the battery capacity and power consumption. Despite numerous efforts on the improvement of battery capacity in the field of material engineering, the power consumption also plays an important role and easier to ameliorate in delivering a desirable user-experience, especially considering the moderate advancement on batteries for decades. In this study, a new Top-Down modelling method, User-Experience-Oriented Battery Powered Embedded System Design Paradigm, is proposed to estimate the target average power consumption, to guide the hardware and software design, and eventually to approach the theoretical lowest power consumption that the application is still able to provide the full functionality. Starting from the 10-hour sustainable time standard, average working current is defined with battery design capacity and set as a target. Then an implementation is illustrated from both hardware perspective, which is summarized as Auto-Gating power management, and from software perspective, which introduces a new algorithm, SleepVote, to guide the system task design and scheduling.

  18. GUINEVERE experiment: Kinetic analysis of some reactivity measurement methods by deterministic and Monte Carlo codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchini, G.; Burgio, N.; Carta, M. [ENEA C.R. CASACCIA, via Anguillarese, 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria Roma (Italy); Peluso, V. [ENEA C.R. BOLOGNA, Via Martiri di Monte Sole, 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Fabrizio, V.; Ricci, L. [Univ. of Rome La Sapienza, C/o ENEA C.R. CASACCIA, via Anguillarese, 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria Roma (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    The GUINEVERE experiment (Generation of Uninterrupted Intense Neutrons at the lead Venus Reactor) is an experimental program in support of the ADS technology presently carried out at SCK-CEN in Mol (Belgium). In the experiment a modified lay-out of the original thermal VENUS critical facility is coupled to an accelerator, built by the French body CNRS in Grenoble, working in both continuous and pulsed mode and delivering 14 MeV neutrons by bombardment of deuterons on a tritium-target. The modified lay-out of the facility consists of a fast subcritical core made of 30% U-235 enriched metallic Uranium in a lead matrix. Several off-line and on-line reactivity measurement techniques will be investigated during the experimental campaign. This report is focused on the simulation by deterministic (ERANOS French code) and Monte Carlo (MCNPX US code) calculations of three reactivity measurement techniques, Slope ({alpha}-fitting), Area-ratio and Source-jerk, applied to a GUINEVERE subcritical configuration (namely SC1). The inferred reactivity, in dollar units, by the Area-ratio method shows an overall agreement between the two deterministic and Monte Carlo computational approaches, whereas the MCNPX Source-jerk results are affected by large uncertainties and allow only partial conclusions about the comparison. Finally, no particular spatial dependence of the results is observed in the case of the GUINEVERE SC1 subcritical configuration. (authors)

  19. Experience in Use of Project Method During Technology Lessons in Secondary Schools of the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheludko Inna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the opportunities and prospects for the use of experience of project method during “technology lessons” in US secondary schools, since the value of project technology implementation experience into the educational process in the USA for ensuring holistic development of children, preparing them for adult life, in which they will be able to realize themselves and benefit society, seems undeniable to improve the quality of Ukrainian education. Its structure and content accorded with national traditions and European standards have made possible the success of educational components of American secondary school. This encourages national scientists and teachers to identify and scientifically justify the ways how to use scientific achievements of American educational system. Given the above, we have defined the following objectives: to summarize progressive trends and innovative approaches to the quality training of students in national secondary schools; to formulate guidelines that will improve the efficiency of training Ukrainian students during technology lessons and as a result, will provide the successful integration of the national education system into the European educational space.

  20. A Mixed Methods Study of Health Care Experience Among Asian Indians in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gagne, Jennie C; Oh, Jina; So, Aeyoung; Haidermota, Murtaza; Lee, Shih-Yu

    2015-09-01

    The study explored health care experiences among Asian Indian immigrants living in the Southeastern United States. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was used with a purposive sample of 125 Asian Indian immigrants aged between 40 and 64 years in the survey and 10 participants in the focus group. The majority of the participants had health insurance and higher socioeconomic status. They had a moderate level of knowledge on the U.S. health care system and health insurance while presenting moderate satisfaction with the system. Barriers to health care services and needs in the health care system were identified from both quantitative and qualitative data. Some of the barriers were high costs, dissatisfaction with services, and inconvenience in accessing services. Participants called for self-management and community-based health programs as well as culturally tailored health care services. Findings congruent with prior studies further support the importance of comprehending Asian Indians' unique cultural background and experiences in the health care system. This study can be the foundation for culturally competent care to advance the body of transcultural nursing knowledge. Culturally congruent community-based health care programs are needed to provide better care for the ethnic minority to maintain and promote their health status. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Sociodemographic differences in women’s experience of early labour care: a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jane; Redshaw, Maggie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore women’s experiences of early labour care focusing on sociodemographic differences, and to examine the effect of antenatal education, using mixed methods. Setting England, 2014. Participants Women who completed postal questionnaires about their experience of maternity care, including questions about antenatal education, early labour and sociodemographic factors, included space for free-text comments. Outcome measures Worries about labour, contact with midwives in early labour and subsequent care. Methods This study was based on secondary analysis of a national maternity survey carried out in England in 2014. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression; qualitative data were analysed using a thematic content analytic approach. Results Completed questionnaires were received from 4578 women (47% response rate). There were significant differences by sociodemographic factors, particularly ethnicity, in women’s worries about early labour. Compared with white women, women from black or minority ethnic groups had an adjusted OR of 1.93 (95% CI 1.56 to 2.39) of feeling worried about not knowing when labour would start. Among women who contacted a midwife at the start of labour, 84% perceived their advice as appropriate, more in older and multiparous women. Overall, 64% of women were asked to come to the hospital at this time, more in multiparous women (adjusted OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.96). Those who did not have access to antenatal education experienced greater worry about early labour. Five themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: ‘Differentiating between early and active labour’, ‘Staff attitudes’, ‘Not being allowed…’, ‘Previous labours’ and ‘Perceived consequences for women’. Conclusion These findings reinforce the importance of providing reassurance to women in early labour, taking care that women do not feel neglected or dismissed. In particular, primiparous and

  2. Cardiac Patients’ Experiences and Perceptions of Social Media: Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Stephanie R; Grunseit, Anne C; Gallagher, Patrick; Freeman, Becky; O'Hara, Blythe J; Neubeck, Lis; Due, Sarah; Paull, Glenn; Ding, Ding; Bauman, Adrian; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Roach, Kellie; Sadler, Leonie; Glinatsis, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Background Traditional in-person cardiac rehabilitation has substantial benefits for cardiac patients, which are offset by poor attendance. The rapid increase in social media use in older adults provides an opportunity to reach patients who are eligible for cardiac rehabilitation but unable to attend traditional face-to-face groups. However, there is a paucity of research on cardiac patients’ experiences and perspectives on using social media to support their health. Objective The aim of this study was to describe cardiac rehabilitation patients’ experiences in using social media in general and their perspective on using social media, particularly Facebook, to support their cardiac health and secondary prevention efforts. Methods A mixed-methods study was undertaken among cardiac rehabilitation patients in both urban and rural areas. First, this study included a survey (n=284) on social media use and capability. Second, six focus group interviews were conducted with current Facebook users (n=18) to elucidate Facebook experience and perspectives. Results Social media use was low (28.0%, 79/282) but more common in participants who were under 70 years of age, employed, and had completed high school. Social media users accessed Web-based information on general health issues (65%, 51/79), medications (56%, 44/79), and heart health (43%, 34/79). Participants were motivated to invest time in using Facebook for “keeping in touch” with family and friends and to be informed by expert cardiac health professionals and fellow cardiac participants if given the opportunity. It appeared that participants who had a higher level of Facebook capability (understanding of features and the consequences of their use and efficiency in use) spent more time on Facebook and reported higher levels of “liking,” commenting, or sharing posts. Furthermore, higher Facebook capability appeared to increase a participants’ willingness to participate in a cardiac Facebook support group

  3. Encountering aged care: a mixed methods investigation of medical students' clinical placement experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annear, Michael J; Lea, Emma; Lo, Amanda; Tierney, Laura; Robinson, Andrew

    2016-02-04

    Residential aged care is an increasingly important health setting due to population ageing and the increase in age-related conditions, such as dementia. However, medical education has limited engagement with this fast-growing sector and undergraduate training remains primarily focussed on acute presentations in hospital settings. Additionally, concerns have been raised about the adequacy of dementia-related content in undergraduate medical curricula, while research has found mixed attitudes among students towards the care of older people. This study explores how medical students engage with the learning experiences accessible in clinical placements in residential aged care facilities (RACFs), particularly exposure to multiple comorbidity, cognitive impairment, and palliative care. Fifth-year medical students (N = 61) completed five-day clinical placements at two Australian aged care facilities in 2013 and 2014. The placements were supported by an iterative yet structured program and academic teaching staff to ensure appropriate educational experiences and oversight. Mixed methods data were collected before and after the clinical placement. Quantitative data included surveys of dementia knowledge and questions about attitudes to the aged care sector and working with older adults. Qualitative data were collected from focus group discussions concerning medical student expectations, learning opportunities, and challenges to engagement. Pre-placement surveys identified good dementia knowledge, but poor attitudes towards aged care and older adults. Negative placement experiences were associated with a struggle to discern case complexity and a perception of an aged care placement as an opportunity cost associated with reduced hospital training time. Irrespective of negative sentiment, post-placement survey data showed significant improvements in attitudes to working with older people and dementia knowledge. Positive student experiences were explained by in

  4. The study of membrane formation via phase inversion method by cloud point and light scattering experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arahman, Nasrul; Maimun, Teuku; Mukramah, Syawaliah

    2017-01-01

    The composition of polymer solution and the methods of membrane preparation determine the solidification process of membrane. The formation of membrane structure prepared via non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) method is mostly determined by phase separation process between polymer, solvent, and non-solvent. This paper discusses the phase separation process of polymer solution containing Polyethersulfone (PES), N-methylpirrolidone (NMP), and surfactant Tetronic 1307 (Tet). Cloud point experiment is conducted to determine the amount of non-solvent needed on induced phase separation. Amount of water required as a non-solvent decreases by the addition of surfactant Tet. Kinetics of phase separation for such system is studied by the light scattering measurement. With the addition of Tet., the delayed phase separation is observed and the structure growth rate decreases. Moreover, the morphology of fabricated membrane from those polymer systems is analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The images of both systems show the formation of finger-like macrovoids through the cross-section.

  5. A method to determine the mechanical properties of the retina based on an experiment in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiuqing; Zhang, Kunya; Liu, Zhicheng

    2015-01-01

    A method is proposed to determine the mechanical properties of retina based on in vivo experiments and numerical simulations. First, saline water was injected into the anterior chamber of the right eye of a cat to cause acute high intraocular pressure. After the eye was scanned using optical coherence tomography under different acute high intraocular pressures, the images of the retina in vivo were obtained and the thickness of the retina was calculated. Then, the three-dimensional structure of the optic nerve head including the retina and the choroid were reconstructed using image processing technology. Three different material models for the retina and the choroid were taken and the finite element models of the optic nerve head were constructed. Finally, an inverse method was proposed to determine the parameters of a constitutive model of the retina and of the choroid simultaneously. The results showed that the deformation of the retina can be properly simulated taking into consideration the nonlinear elastic properties of the retina and of the choroid.

  6. Parameter-free methods distinguish Wnt pathway models and guide design of experiments

    KAUST Repository

    MacLean, Adam L.

    2015-02-17

    The canonical Wnt signaling pathway, mediated by β-catenin, is crucially involved in development, adult stem cell tissue maintenance, and a host of diseases including cancer. We analyze existing mathematical models of Wnt and compare them to a new Wnt signaling model that targets spatial localization; our aim is to distinguish between the models and distill biological insight from them. Using Bayesian methods we infer parameters for each model from mammalian Wnt signaling data and find that all models can fit this time course. We appeal to algebraic methods (concepts from chemical reaction network theory and matroid theory) to analyze the models without recourse to specific parameter values. These approaches provide insight into aspects of Wnt regulation: the new model, via control of shuttling and degradation parameters, permits multiple stable steady states corresponding to stem-like vs. committed cell states in the differentiation hierarchy. Our analysis also identifies groups of variables that should be measured to fully characterize and discriminate between competing models, and thus serves as a guide for performing minimal experiments for model comparison.

  7. A case method for Sales and Operations Planning: a learning experience from Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Scavarda

    Full Text Available Abstract Adequate preparation, learning, and training is required for Sales and Operations Planning (S&OP to aid organizations in achieving the full expected benefits from its implementation. This paper presents a case method for S&OP and the learning experience of its application at the University of Münster (Germany. The “constructive alignment principle” was applied with a “team teaching” approach, involving an executive from the case company. Students improved their knowledge on S&OP and their analytical skills by understanding the conceptual S&OP building blocks and by learning how to deal with them to provide a solution for a case based on a real-life situation. The learning results were evaluated positively during the discipline’s student evaluation of teaching (SET. The applied case method enhanced the student’s motivation and engagement (e.g., higher preparation effort and class attendance, which were considered higher than in other disciplines with the traditional lecture-based education.

  8. THE USE OF THE EXPERIMENT PLANNING METHOD TO EVALUATE THE ACCURACY OF FLEXIBLE UNITS IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Yehorov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The identification of rolling stock on the railroads is an integral part of many automation systems as trains in general and cars separately. Various information management systems at sorting yards require the operational information about the object while performing the manufacturing operations. The improvement of the determination accuracy of different parameters characterizing the rolling stock, leads to the immediate quality progress in the traffic volumes management. The aim of the paper is to develop a method to estimate the errors of determination the interaxle distance of the flexible units in the control section using the point path-control transducer for future identification of cars and locomotives. Methodology. To achieve this goal the simulation method and experiment planning were used. The simulation model allowing determining the time intervals between the collisions of wheelset of movable units in point path-control transducer on the control section with variable characteristics of identification devices was developed. The values of the time intervals obtained with using the simulation mode were applied in the method of experiment planning to the final target. Findings. The calculated analytical values of the errors of the interaxle distances do not have the significant differences from values obtained using the simulation model. It makes possible to use the received functional dependence to estimate the possible errors in the identification of rolling stock. The results of this work can be used to identify separate flexible units, and trains in general. Originality. The functional dependence of the error of the interaxle distance error from the fixing point of the wheel path-control transducer, the distance between the sensors and the measured distance was derived using a previously conducted research of the factors influencing the error in determining the interaxle distance of the movable units, and developed

  9. Analysis and optimization of coupled windings in magnetic resonant wireless power transfer systems with orthogonal experiment method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yudi, Xiao; Xingkui, Mao; Mao, Lin

    2017-01-01

    inductance model. Then the design method with orthogonal experiments and finite element method simulation is proposed to maximize the kQ due to low precise analytical model of AC resistance and inductance for PCB windings at high- frequency. The method can reduce the design iterations and thereby can get...... more optimal design results. The experiments verified the design objective of kQ as well as the design method effectively. In the optimal PCB windings prototype at operating frequency of 4 MHz, the kQ and the maximum efficiency are increased by about 12% and 4% respectively....

  10. Assessment of medical communication skills by computer: assessment method and student experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsman, R L; Mollema, E D; Hoos, A M; de Haes, J C J M; Donnison-Speijer, J D

    2004-08-01

    A computer-assisted assessment (CAA) program for communication skills designated ACT was developed using the objective structured video examination (OSVE) format. This method features assessment of cognitive scripts underlying communication behaviour, a broad range of communication problems covered in 1 assessment, highly standardised assessment and rating procedures, and large group assessments without complex organisation. The Academic Medical Centre (AMC) at the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Aims To describe the development of the AMC Communication Test (ACT); to describe our experiences with the examination and rating procedures; to present test score descriptives, and to present the students' opinions of ACT. The ACT presents films on history taking, breaking bad news and shared decision making. Each film is accompanied by 3 types of short essay questions derived from our assessment model: "knows", "knows why/when" and "knows how". Evaluation questions about ACT were integrated into the assessment. Participants A total of 210 third year medical undergraduates were assessed. This study reports on the 110 (53%) students who completed all evaluation questions. Marking 210 examinations took about 17 days. The test score matched a normal distribution and showed a good level of discrimination of the students. About 75% passed the examination. Some support for the validity of our assessment model was found in the students' differential performance on the 3 types of questions. The ACT was well received. Student evaluations confirmed our efforts to develop realistic films that related well to the communication training programme. The ACT is a useful assessment method which complements interpersonal assessment methods for the evaluation of the medical communication skills of undergraduates.

  11. Improved methods for generating and estimating turbulence in tanks suitable for fish larvae experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Erik Stiansen

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental design has been developed for the purpose of testing the response of larval fish feeding to turbulence. The main purpose of the design is to reproduce natural turbulence within the range of scales relevant to the feeding processes. The design is based on grid-generated turbulence in a circular tank with a diameter of 1.5 m and a water depth of 0.90 m. The spatial distribution of the turbulence was measured. The data analysis of our experiment indicate that we successfully simulated natural turbulence covering six orders of magnitude for the energy dissipation rate (4*10-11 - 2*10-4 W/kg and over three orders of spatial scales from the Kolmogorov microscale (0.3 mm -13 mm to the size of the tank. It is concluded that the tank is well designed for studies of zooplankton - larval fish interactions, as the turbulence is generated on a range of scales similar to the separation distance between the zooplankton particles found in nature. The short and relatively slow movement of the grid in addition to the relatively large volume of water should make it possible for the larvae to avoid extreme shears, and minimises mechanical impact on larvae behaviour compared to other known turbulence generating systems. A method is developed to calculate the turbulent energy dissipation rate in a zero mean velocity field, assuming the turbulent cascade follows a -5/3 law in the inertial subrange. This method is also expanded for use on noisy time series. Comparisons with five other methods have been conducted. The comparisons show that Taylors frozen turbulence hypothesis can be used even when the ratio between the turbulent and the mean velocity is approximately 1.

  12. A mixed-methods exploration of the contraceptive experiences of female teens with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Ruth; Dennis, Amanda

    2014-09-01

    We explored the contraceptive experiences of female teens with epilepsy, including their knowledge and perceptions of interactions between antiepileptic drugs and hormonal contraception and contraceptive decision-making processes. From November 2012 to May 2013, we conducted one online survey (n=114) and 12 online focus group discussions (n=26) with female teens with epilepsy about their contraceptive experiences and unmet needs. Survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and focus group transcripts were analyzed thematically using modified grounded theory methods. Both survey and focus group participants reported believing that interactions between epilepsy medications and hormonal contraceptives could lead to reductions in contraceptive efficacy and seizure control. However, their knowledge about these types of medication interactions was often incomplete. Many study participants viewed contraceptive decision making as a difficult process, and some participants reported avoiding hormonal contraceptives because of potential interactions with antiepileptic drugs. Study participants reported relying on health care providers and parents for contraceptive decision-making support. Focus group participants also reported they wanted health care providers to provide more in-depth and comprehensive counseling about contraception, and that they desired peer support with contraceptive decisions. The ability to make informed contraceptive decisions is important for teens with epilepsy as interactions between anti-epileptic drugs and hormonal contraceptives can impact seizure occurrence and lead to an increased risk of unplanned pregnancy. Guidance for providers offering contraceptive care to this population is needed, as well as a contraceptive support tool that empowers teens with epilepsy to advocate for desired health care. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sociodemographic differences in women's experience of early labour care: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jane; Redshaw, Maggie

    2017-07-13

    To explore women's experiences of early labour care focusing on sociodemographic differences, and to examine the effect of antenatal education, using mixed methods. England, 2014. Women who completed postal questionnaires about their experience of maternity care, including questions about antenatal education, early labour and sociodemographic factors, included space for free-text comments. Worries about labour, contact with midwives in early labour and subsequent care. This study was based on secondary analysis of a national maternity survey carried out in England in 2014. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression; qualitative data were analysed using a thematic content analytic approach. Completed questionnaires were received from 4578 women (47% response rate). There were significant differences by sociodemographic factors, particularly ethnicity, in women's worries about early labour. Compared with white women, women from black or minority ethnic groups had an adjusted OR of 1.93 (95% CI 1.56 to 2.39) of feeling worried about not knowing when labour would start. Among women who contacted a midwife at the start of labour, 84% perceived their advice as appropriate, more in older and multiparous women. Overall, 64% of women were asked to come to the hospital at this time, more in multiparous women (adjusted OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.96). Those who did not have access to antenatal education experienced greater worry about early labour. Five themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: 'Differentiating between early and active labour', 'Staff attitudes', 'Not being allowed…', 'Previous labours' and 'Perceived consequences for women'. These findings reinforce the importance of providing reassurance to women in early labour, taking care that women do not feel neglected or dismissed. In particular, primiparous and ethnic minority women reported greater worry about early labour and require additional reassurance.

  14. Dificultăți de traducere în limba română a Aforismelor lui Arthur Schopenhauer. O analiză contrastiv-diacronică (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia-Iuliana Vârlan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lucrarea de față se concentrează asupra unei opere de maturitate a filozofului german Arthur Schopenhauer, Aforisme asupra înțelepciunii în viață, și asupra singurei versiuni românești a acesteia, realizate de Titu Maiorescu la sfîrșitul secolului al XIX-lea. Existența a cinci variante ale versiunii românești, publicate de traducătorul însuși de-a lungul a patru decenii, reprezintă o dovadă clară a faptului că transpunerea în românește a acestui text de filozofie practică a incumbat o serie întreagă de dificultăți de traducere. Urmărind modul în care Titu Maiorescu a încercat să rezolve aceste dificultăți, prin adoptarea anumitor soluții traductologice, am realizat o analiză a acestora, din perspectivă lingvistică, cercetarea urmînd concomitent două direcții: contrastivă (rezultată din supra- punerea textului-sursă și a textului-țintă și diacronică (urmărind intervențiile realizate de același traducător asupra propriului text, la intervale de timp diferite. Demersul de analiză lingvistică a traducerii unui text filozofic ni s-a părut util nu doar studiului nostru, ci și viitorilor eventuali traducători ai Aforismelor, a căror intenție ar putea fi aceea de a adapta discursul versiunii românești a lui Titu Maiorescu la limba română contemporană, ținînd seama de evoluția evidentă a acesteia și, mai ales, a componentei sale de limbaj filozofic.

  15. Cardiac Patients' Experiences and Perceptions of Social Media: Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Stephanie R; Grunseit, Anne C; Gallagher, Patrick; Freeman, Becky; O'Hara, Blythe J; Neubeck, Lis; Due, Sarah; Paull, Glenn; Ding, Ding; Bauman, Adrian; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Roach, Kellie; Sadler, Leonie; Glinatsis, Helen; Gallagher, Robyn

    2017-09-15

    Traditional in-person cardiac rehabilitation has substantial benefits for cardiac patients, which are offset by poor attendance. The rapid increase in social media use in older adults provides an opportunity to reach patients who are eligible for cardiac rehabilitation but unable to attend traditional face-to-face groups. However, there is a paucity of research on cardiac patients' experiences and perspectives on using social media to support their health. The aim of this study was to describe cardiac rehabilitation patients' experiences in using social media in general and their perspective on using social media, particularly Facebook, to support their cardiac health and secondary prevention efforts. A mixed-methods study was undertaken among cardiac rehabilitation patients in both urban and rural areas. First, this study included a survey (n=284) on social media use and capability. Second, six focus group interviews were conducted with current Facebook users (n=18) to elucidate Facebook experience and perspectives. Social media use was low (28.0%, 79/282) but more common in participants who were under 70 years of age, employed, and had completed high school. Social media users accessed Web-based information on general health issues (65%, 51/79), medications (56%, 44/79), and heart health (43%, 34/79). Participants were motivated to invest time in using Facebook for "keeping in touch" with family and friends and to be informed by expert cardiac health professionals and fellow cardiac participants if given the opportunity. It appeared that participants who had a higher level of Facebook capability (understanding of features and the consequences of their use and efficiency in use) spent more time on Facebook and reported higher levels of "liking," commenting, or sharing posts. Furthermore, higher Facebook capability appeared to increase a participants' willingness to participate in a cardiac Facebook support group. More capable users were more receptive to the use

  16. Large photocathode 20-inch PMT testing methods for the JUNO experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfimov, N.

    2017-06-01

    a candidate for the JUNO experiment. In this article the container design and mass-testing method, the scanning setup and scanning method are briefly described and preliminary results for performance test of this PMT are reported.

  17. Measuring decision weights in recognition experiments with multiple response alternatives: comparing the correlation and multinomial-logistic-regression methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Huanping; Micheyl, Christophe

    2012-11-01

    Psychophysical "reverse-correlation" methods allow researchers to gain insight into the perceptual representations and decision weighting strategies of individual subjects in perceptual tasks. Although these methods have gained momentum, until recently their development was limited to experiments involving only two response categories. Recently, two approaches for estimating decision weights in m-alternative experiments have been put forward. One approach extends the two-category correlation method to m > 2 alternatives; the second uses multinomial logistic regression (MLR). In this article, the relative merits of the two methods are discussed, and the issues of convergence and statistical efficiency of the methods are evaluated quantitatively using Monte Carlo simulations. The results indicate that, for a range of values of the number of trials, the estimated weighting patterns are closer to their asymptotic values for the correlation method than for the MLR method. Moreover, for the MLR method, weight estimates for different stimulus components can exhibit strong correlations, making the analysis and interpretation of measured weighting patterns less straightforward than for the correlation method. These and other advantages of the correlation method, which include computational simplicity and a close relationship to other well-established psychophysical reverse-correlation methods, make it an attractive tool to uncover decision strategies in m-alternative experiments.

  18. Sample Selection in Randomized Experiments: A New Method Using Propensity Score Stratified Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Elizabeth; Hedges, Larry; Vaden-Kiernan, Michael; Borman, Geoffrey; Sullivan, Kate; Caverly, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Randomized experiments are often seen as the "gold standard" for causal research. Despite the fact that experiments use random assignment to treatment conditions, units are seldom selected into the experiment using probability sampling. Very little research on experimental design has focused on how to make generalizations to well-defined…

  19. What is it like to meditate? Methods and issues for micro-phenomenological description of meditative experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petitmengin, Claire; Beek, Martijn van; Bitbol, Michel

    2017-01-01

    In our society where interest in Buddhist meditation is expanding enormously, numerous scientific studies are now conducted on the neurophysiological effects of meditation practices and on the neural correlates of meditative states. However, very few studies have been conducted on the experience...... associated with contemplative practice: what it is like to meditate – from moment to moment, at different stages of practice – remains almost invisible in contemporary contemplative science. Recently, "micro-phenomenological" interview methods have been developed to help us become aware of lived experience...... and describe it with rigor and precision. The present article presents the results of a pilot project aiming at applying these methods to the description of meditative experience. The first part of the article describes these methods and their adjustment for the investigation of meditative experience...

  20. The analysis of covariance and alternatives statistical methods for experiments, quasi-experiments, and single-case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Huitema, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    A complete guide to cutting-edge techniques and best practices for applying covariance analysis methods The Second Edition of Analysis of Covariance and Alternatives sheds new light on its topic, offering in-depth discussions of underlying assumptions, comprehensive interpretations of results, and comparisons of distinct approaches. The book has been extensively revised and updated to feature an in-depth review of prerequisites and the latest developments in the field. The author begins with a discussion of essential topics relating to experimental design and analysis

  1. The healthcare experiences of Koreans living in North Carolina: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gagne, Jennie C; Oh, Jina; So, Aeyoung; Kim, Suk-Sun

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the healthcare experiences of Korean immigrants aged 40-64 living in the North Carolina Triangle area of the Southeastern United States. Using a mixed methods design, we collected quantitative data via a questionnaire from 125 participants and conducted a focus group with 10 interviewees from December 2010 to February 2011. The quantitative data were analysed using t-tests and chi-square tests, and a thematic analysis was used for the focus group study. Questionnaire findings showed that only 27.2% had sufficient English skills to communicate adequately. Participants with insurance were significantly more likely to be employed (P healthcare services showed significantly less knowledge (P healthcare system than those using healthcare services. Sixty-two participants (49.6%) reported having no health insurance for one or more of the following reasons: high costs (75.8%), medical tourism (22.6%) and lack of information or knowledge (6.5%). The following themes emerged from the data collected during the focus group: (i) barriers to utilisation of healthcare services; (ii) facilitators of utilisation of healthcare services; and (iii) social support seeking for health management. Our mixed methods study findings indicate that healthcare disparities exist among Korean immigrants and that a number of factors, including health literacy, may contribute to their poor health outcomes. Continued collaboration among community members, healthcare professionals and academicians is needed to discuss the community's health concerns and to develop sustainable programmes that will ensure meaningful access to care for those with limited English proficiency and medically underserved populations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Migration experiences, employment status and psychological distress among Somali immigrants: a mixed-method international study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warfa Nasir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. Methods There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. Results The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. Conclusion The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.

  3. The stonehenge technique: a new method of crystal alignment for coherent bremsstrahlung experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Kenneth

    2005-08-01

    In the coherent bremsstrahlung technique a thin diamond crystal oriented correctly in an electron beam can produce photons with a high degree of linear polarization.1 The crystal is mounted on a goniometer to control its orientation and it is necessary to measure the angular offsets a) between the crystal axes and the goniometer axes and b) between the goniometer and the electron beam axis. A method for measuring these offsets and aligning the crystal was developed by Lohman et al, and has been used successfully in Mainz.2 However, recent attempts to investigate new crystals have shown that this approach has limitations which become more serious at higher beam energies where more accurate setting of the crystal angles, which scale with l/Ebeam, is required. (Eg. the recent installation of coherent bremsstrahlung facility at Jlab, with Ebeam = 6 GeV ) This paper describes a new, more general alignment technique, which overcomes these limitations. The technique is based on scans where the horizontal and vertical rotation axes of the goniometer are adjusted in a series of steps to make the normal to the crystal describe a cone of a given angle. For each step in the scan, the photon energy spectrum is measured using a tagging spectrometer, and the offsets between the electron beam and the crystal lattice are inferred from the resulting 2D plot. Using this method, it is possible to align the crystal with the beam quickly, and hence to set any desired orientation of the crystal relative to the beam. This is essential for any experiment requiring linearly polarized photons produced via coherent bremsstrahlung, and is also required for a systematic study of the channeling radiation produced by the electron beam incident on the crystal.

  4. An Innovative Mixed Methods Approach to Studying the Online Health Information Seeking Experiences of Adults with Chronic Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoh, Joanne; Bond, Carol S.; Todres, Les

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an innovative sequential mixed methods approach to researching the experiences of U.K. adults with chronic health conditions seeking health information online. The use of multiple methods integrated within a single study ensured that the focus of the research was emergent and relevant and ultimately provided a more complete…

  5. Three-dimensional finite element method simulation of Bridgman crystal growth and comparison with experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minwu Yao [Ohio Aerospace Inst., Brook Park, OH (United States); Groh, H. de III [NASA, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center

    1993-12-01

    The crystal growth of succinonitrile (SCN) in a horizontal Bridgman apparatus is studied through a three-dimensional numerical simulation. The governing equations considered include the steady state Navier-Stokes and the thermal energy equations. The temperature boundary conditions imposed at the outer surface of the glass ampoule are taken from experimental measurements. To model the phase change in SCN, the authors use the effective specific heat formulation of the enthalpy method and treat the SCN as a generalized Newtonian fluid. The authors solve the numerical model using the segregated solution approach provided by a commercial finite element code, FIDAP. The numerical results are compared with data from experiments, and very good agreement has been achieved. The advantages of applying the segregated solution approach in large-scale three-dimensional (3-D) computations are shown through detailed comparisons of efficiency and memory requirements between the segregated and the conventional fully coupled solution approaches. The significant savings of memory requirements by the segregated approach make it possible to solve large-scale 3-D problems on work stations.

  6. Mixed methods study examining work reintegration experiences from perspectives of Veterans with mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Marina; Rattray, Nicholas A; Salyers, Michelle P

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that reintegration for Veterans is often challenging. One difficult aspect of reintegration—transitioning into the civilian workplace—has not been fully explored in the literature. To address this gap and examine work reintegration, this mixed methods study examined the perspectives of Veterans with mental health disorders receiving Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare. Forty Veterans rated factors that affect work success; participants also provided narratives on their most and least successful work experiences. We used t-tests and qualitative analysis to compare participants who did and did not serve in combat. Several themes relevant to work reintegration emerged in the narratives, particularly for Veterans who served in combat. An array of work difficulties were reported in the months following military discharge. In addition, Veterans who served in combat reported significantly more work barriers than Veterans who did not serve in combat, particularly health-related barriers. In conclusion, Veterans with mental health disorders who served in combat experienced more work reintegration difficulty than their counterparts who did not serve in combat. The role of being a Veteran affected how combat Veterans formed their self-concept, which also shaped their work success and community reintegration, especially during the early transition period.

  7. Measurement of Paraphotons in the Double Chooz Experiment Using Articulated Arm Calibration Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, Edward Angus

    This thesis details the design, development, and use of a novel calibration system for the Double Chooz experiment, the Articulated Arm. The Articulated Arm is capable of making radioactive source deployments throughout the volume of the Double Chooz Neutrino Target with a precision of Articulated Arm is a powerful asset, able to validate detector response through direct comparison of on-axis and off-axis points. T. his thesis also details a search for paraphoton signals in the Double Chooz 3rd publication dataset. The paraphoton is a light, electrically neutral, axion-like particle, generated from adding a new U(1) symmetry of Baryon number - Lepton Number. We search for decays of these particles inside the Double Chooz Far Detector using a rate-based method. We observed no events in excess of background, giving a new laboratory limit on the photon-paraphoton mixing angle chi at the 95% confidence level for paraphoton masses between 26 and 30 keV. Our limiting value was chi > 4.23 x 10 -3 for 26 keV paraphotons.

  8. Detailed characterizations of a Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) instrument: experiments vs. modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, V.; Hansen, R. F.; Locoge, N.; Stevens, P. S.; Dusanter, S.

    2015-04-01

    The Hydroxyl radical (OH) is an important oxidant in the daytime troposphere that controls the lifetime of most trace gases, whose oxidation leads to the formation of harmful secondary pollutants such as ozone (O3) and Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). In spite of the importance of OH, uncertainties remain concerning its atmospheric budget and integrated measurements of the total sink of OH can help reducing these uncertainties. In this context, several methods have been developed to measure the first-order loss rate of ambient OH, called total OH reactivity. Among these techniques, the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) is promising and has already been widely used in the field and in atmospheric simulation chambers. This technique relies on monitoring competitive OH reactions between a reference molecule (pyrrole) and compounds present in ambient air inside a sampling reactor. However, artefacts and interferences exist for this method and a thorough characterization of the CRM technique is needed. In this study, we present a detailed characterization of a CRM instrument, assessing the corrections that need to be applied on ambient measurements. The main corrections are, in the order of their integration in the data processing: (1) a correction for a change in relative humidity between zero air and ambient air, (2) a correction for the formation of spurious OH when artificially produced HO2 react with NO in the sampling reactor, and (3) a correction for a deviation from pseudo first-order kinetics. The dependences of these artefacts to various measurable parameters, such as the pyrrole-to-OH ratio or the bimolecular reaction rate constants of ambient trace gases with OH are also studied. From these dependences, parameterizations are proposed to correct the OH reactivity measurements from the abovementioned artefacts. A comparison of experimental and simulation results is then discussed. The simulations were performed using a 0-D box model including either (1) a

  9. Methodological challenges for the large N study of local participatory experiences. Combining methods and databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galais, Carolina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyse the effects of different data collection strategies in the study of local participatory experiences in a region of Spain (Andalusia. We examine the divergences and similarities between the data collected using different methods, as well as the implications for the reliability of the data. We have collected participatory experiences through two parallel processes: a survey of municipalities and web content mining. The survey of municipalities used two complementary strategies: an online questionnaire and a CATI follow-up for those municipalities that had not answered our first online contact attempt. Both processes (survey and data mining were applied to the same sample of municipalities, but provided significantly different images of the characteristics of Andalusia’s participatory landscape. The goal of this work is to discuss the different types of biases introduced by each data collection procedure and their implications for substantive analyses.

    En este artículo analizamos los efectos de diferentes estrategias para la recolección de datos en el estudio de las experiencias participativas andaluzas. Examinamos para ello las diferencias y similitudes entre los datos recogidos mediante diferentes métodos, así como las implicaciones para la fiabilidad de los datos. Para ello, hemos utilizado dos procedimientos paralelos. En primer lugar, una encuesta a municipios y la minería de datos en Internet. La encuesta se realizó utilizando dos modos de administración diferentes, un cuestionario online y un cuestionario telefónico de seguimiento a los municipios que no respondieron al primer intento de contacto vía correo electrónico. Tanto la encuesta como la minería de datos fueron aplicados a la misma muestra de municipios, aunque arrojaron diferencias significativas en cuanto a las características del panorama participativo en Andalucía. El objetivo de este trabajo es discutir los diferentes tipos

  10. Multi-TGDR: a regularization method for multi-class classification in microarray experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyan Tian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As microarray technology has become mature and popular, the selection and use of a small number of relevant genes for accurate classification of samples has arisen as a hot topic in the circles of biostatistics and bioinformatics. However, most of the developed algorithms lack the ability to handle multiple classes, arguably a common application. Here, we propose an extension to an existing regularization algorithm, called Threshold Gradient Descent Regularization (TGDR, to specifically tackle multi-class classification of microarray data. When there are several microarray experiments addressing the same/similar objectives, one option is to use a meta-analysis version of TGDR (Meta-TGDR, which considers the classification task as a combination of classifiers with the same structure/model while allowing the parameters to vary across studies. However, the original Meta-TGDR extension did not offer a solution to the prediction on independent samples. Here, we propose an explicit method to estimate the overall coefficients of the biomarkers selected by Meta-TGDR. This extension permits broader applicability and allows a comparison between the predictive performance of Meta-TGDR and TGDR using an independent testing set. RESULTS: Using real-world applications, we demonstrated the proposed multi-TGDR framework works well and the number of selected genes is less than the sum of all individualized binary TGDRs. Additionally, Meta-TGDR and TGDR on the batch-effect adjusted pooled data approximately provided same results. By adding Bagging procedure in each application, the stability and good predictive performance are warranted. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with Meta-TGDR, TGDR is less computing time intensive, and requires no samples of all classes in each study. On the adjusted data, it has approximate same predictive performance with Meta-TGDR. Thus, it is highly recommended.

  11. Multi-TGDR: A Regularization Method for Multi-Class Classification in Microarray Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Suyan; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte

    2013-01-01

    Background As microarray technology has become mature and popular, the selection and use of a small number of relevant genes for accurate classification of samples has arisen as a hot topic in the circles of biostatistics and bioinformatics. However, most of the developed algorithms lack the ability to handle multiple classes, arguably a common application. Here, we propose an extension to an existing regularization algorithm, called Threshold Gradient Descent Regularization (TGDR), to specifically tackle multi-class classification of microarray data. When there are several microarray experiments addressing the same/similar objectives, one option is to use a meta-analysis version of TGDR (Meta-TGDR), which considers the classification task as a combination of classifiers with the same structure/model while allowing the parameters to vary across studies. However, the original Meta-TGDR extension did not offer a solution to the prediction on independent samples. Here, we propose an explicit method to estimate the overall coefficients of the biomarkers selected by Meta-TGDR. This extension permits broader applicability and allows a comparison between the predictive performance of Meta-TGDR and TGDR using an independent testing set. Results Using real-world applications, we demonstrated the proposed multi-TGDR framework works well and the number of selected genes is less than the sum of all individualized binary TGDRs. Additionally, Meta-TGDR and TGDR on the batch-effect adjusted pooled data approximately provided same results. By adding Bagging procedure in each application, the stability and good predictive performance are warranted. Conclusions Compared with Meta-TGDR, TGDR is less computing time intensive, and requires no samples of all classes in each study. On the adjusted data, it has approximate same predictive performance with Meta-TGDR. Thus, it is highly recommended. PMID:24260109

  12. A mixed methods analysis of experiences and expectations among early-career medical oncologists in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, W K Tim; Kirby, Emma; Broom, Alex; Sibbritt, David; Francis, Kay; Karapetis, Christos S; Karikios, Deme; Harrup, Rosemary; Lwin, Zarnie

    2018-01-26

    A viable and sustainable medical oncology profession is integral for meeting the increasing demand for quality cancer care. The aim of this study was to explore the workforce-related experiences, perceptions and career expectations of early-career medical oncologists in Australia. A mixed-methods design, including a survey (n  =  170) and nested qualitative semistructured interviews (n  =  14) with early-career medical oncologists. Recruitment was through the Medical Oncology Group of Australia. Qualitative data were thematically analyzed and for the survey results, logistic regression modeling was conducted. Early-career medical oncologists experienced uncertainty regarding their future employment opportunities. The competitive job market has made them cautious about securing a preferred job leading to a perceived need to improve their qualifications through higher degree training and research activities. The following themes and trends were identified from the qualitative and quantitative analyses: age, career stage and associated early-career uncertainty; locale, professional competition and training preferences; participation in research and evolving professional expectations; and workload and career development opportunities as linked to career uncertainty. Perceived diminished employment opportunities in the medical oncology profession, and shifting expectations to be "more qualified," have increased uncertainty among junior medical oncologists in terms of their future career prospects. Structural factors relating to adequate funding of medical oncology positions may facilitate or inhibit progressive change in the workforce and its sustainability. Workforce planning and strategies informed by findings from this study will be necessary in ensuring that both the needs of cancer patients and of medical oncologists are met. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Migration experiences, employment status and psychological distress among Somali immigrants: a mixed-method international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfa, Nasir; Curtis, Sarah; Watters, Charles; Carswell, Ken; Ingleby, David; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-09-07

    The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK) and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA) helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.

  14. Discrete- vs. Continuous-Time Modeling of Unequally Spaced Experience Sampling Method Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Haan-Rietdijk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Experience Sampling Method is a common approach in psychological research for collecting intensive longitudinal data with high ecological validity. One characteristic of ESM data is that it is often unequally spaced, because the measurement intervals within a day are deliberately varied, and measurement continues over several days. This poses a problem for discrete-time (DT modeling approaches, which are based on the assumption that all measurements are equally spaced. Nevertheless, DT approaches such as (vector autoregressive modeling are often used to analyze ESM data, for instance in the context of affective dynamics research. There are equivalent continuous-time (CT models, but they are more difficult to implement. In this paper we take a pragmatic approach and evaluate the practical relevance of the violated model assumption in DT AR(1 and VAR(1 models, for the N = 1 case. We use simulated data under an ESM measurement design to investigate the bias in the parameters of interest under four different model implementations, ranging from the true CT model that accounts for all the exact measurement times, to the crudest possible DT model implementation, where even the nighttime is treated as a regular interval. An analysis of empirical affect data illustrates how the differences between DT and CT modeling can play out in practice. We find that the size and the direction of the bias in DT (VAR models for unequally spaced ESM data depend quite strongly on the true parameter in addition to data characteristics. Our recommendation is to use CT modeling whenever possible, especially now that new software implementations have become available.

  15. Sillamjaeskii port : analiz riskov / Jevgeni Ashihmin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ashihmin, Jevgeni

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna firma E-Konsult eksperdid hindasid Sillamäe sadama riske, esitati soovitused, millised peaksid olema vedelkütuseid vedavad tankerid, raudteesõlme ja raudteejaama ehitusel kasutatavad raudteerööpad. Sadama võimalikust mõjust keskkonnale

  16. A Qualitative Investigation of Panelists' Experiences of Standard Setting Using Two Variations of the Bookmark Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Serge F.; Skaggs, Gary E.

    2009-01-01

    Only a small number of qualitative studies have investigated panelists' experiences during standard-setting activities or the thought processes associated with panelists' actions. This qualitative study involved an examination of the experiences of 11 panelists who participated in a prior, one-day standard-setting meeting in which either the…

  17. Injection molded nanofluidic chips: Fabrication method and functional tests using single-molecule DNA experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utko, Pawel; Persson, Karl Fredrik; Kristensen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels.......We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels....

  18. Adolescent Students and Their Experiences of Dealing with Pregnancy: A Mexican Mixed-Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienzo, Erika E.; Campero, Lourdes; Marín, Eréndira; González, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    In impoverished communities in Mexico, most adolescent mothers do not attend school; but typically, they become pregnant once they dropped out. Understanding the experiences of adolescents who have had a pregnancy and continue in school is complicated since few manage to do it. The goal of this study is to describe experiences within the family…

  19. Principles and Methods to Guide Education for Purpose: A Brazilian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Ulisses F.; Arantes, Valeria Amorim; Danza, Hanna Cebel; Pinheiro, Viviane Potenza Guimarães; Garbin, Monica

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a Brazilian experience in training teachers to educate for purpose. Understanding that purpose is a value to be constructed through real-world and contextualised experiences, the authors discuss some psychological processes that underlie purpose development. Then the authors show how these processes are used in a purpose…

  20. Piloting the use of experience sampling method to investigate the everyday social experiences of children with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Brown, Nicole; Chen, Yu-Wei; Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study explored the nature and quality of social experiences of children with Asperger Syndrome/High Functioning Autism (AS/HFA) through experience sampling method (ESM) while participating in everyday activities. ESM was used to identify the contexts and content of daily life experiences. Six children with AS/HFA (aged 8-12) wore an iPod Touch on seven consecutive days, while being signalled to complete a short survey. Participants were in the company of others 88.3% of their waking time, spent 69.0% of their time with family and 3.8% with friends, but only conversed with others 26.8% of the time. Participants had more positive experiences and emotions when they were with friends compared with other company. Participating in leisure activities was associated with enjoyment, interest in the occasion, and having positive emotions. ESM was found to be helpful in identifying the nature and quality of social experiences of children with AS/HFA from their perspective.

  1. Effects of user experience and method in the inflation of endotracheal tube pilot balloon on cuff pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, A B; Demirel, I; Gunduz, G; Erhan, O L

    2013-01-01

    Endotracheal tube cuff pressure (ETCP) is recommended to be maintained between 20-30 cm H2O limits. While insufficient inflation of ETC may cause aspirations, over-inflation of it may lead to damage in tracheal epithelium. We planned to investigate the effects of user experience and cuff pressure inflation method differences following endotracheal tube cuff pressure and complaints about it. Two hundred and fifty patients planned for general anaesthesia were included in this study. ETC was inflated by users with different experience according to leakage or pilot balloon palpation techniques. ETCPs were measured by manometer at three periods (5 and 60 minutes after endotracheal intubation, and before extubation). Complaints about it were recorded in post anaesthetic care unit and 24 hours postoperatively. Though we found experience of user had significant effect on the ETCP regulations, we observed inflation methods did not have any effect. However we found ETCP was higher than normal range with experienced users. A correlation was observed between cuff pressure and anaesthesia duration with postoperative complaints. Our study concluded that the methods used do not have any significant advantage over one another. While ETC inflated at normal pressure increases as user's experience increases, experience alone is not enough in adjusting ETCP. A manometer should be used in routine inflation of ETC instead of conventional methods. CP and anaesthesia duration have correlations with some postoperative complaints.

  2. The performance of diphoton primary vertex reconstruction methods in H → γγ+Met channel of ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiwa, K. G.

    2017-09-01

    The search for new physics in the H → γγ+met relies on how well the missing transverse energy is reconstructed. The Met algorithm used by the ATLAS experiment in turns uses input variables like photon and jets which depend on the reconstruction of the primary vertex. This document presents the performance of di-photon vertex reconstruction algorithms (hardest vertex method and Neural Network method). Comparing the performance of these algorithms for the nominal Standard Model sample and the Beyond Standard Model sample, we see the overall performance of the Neural Network method of primary vertex selection performed better than the Hardest vertex method.

  3. Methods for the Design and Analysis of Sedimentation Velocity and Sedimentation Equilibrium Experiments with Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeler, Borries

    2010-01-01

    Analytical ultracentrifugation experiments play an integral role in the solution phase characterization of recombinant proteins and other biological macromolecules. This unit discusses the design of sedimentation velocity and sedimentation equilibrium experiments performed with a Beckman Optima XL-A or XL-I analytical ultracentrifuge. Optimal instrument settings and experimental design considerations are explained, and strategies for the analysis of experimental data with the UltraScan data analysis software package are presented. Special attention is paid to the strengths and weaknesses of the available detectors, and guidance is provided on how to extract maximum information from analytical ultracentrifugation experiments. PMID:20393977

  4. The phenomenological method revisited: towards comparative studies and non-theological interpretations of the religious experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ake Sander

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, two major and interrelated themes have dominated the study of religion: (a the theme claiming that the long taken-for-granted so-called secularization thesis was all wrong, and (b the theme of the so-called “return” or “resurgence of religion”. This global revival of religion — on micro, meso and macro levels — has been chronicled in a number of important books lately. As even a quick glance in some of the many textbooks about religious studies reveal that there are many various ways of studying religion — theologically, sociologically, psychologically, anthropologically, philosophically, etc. — and they can be tackled from many different ideological or theoretical “slants” or perspectives – gender, postcolonial, orientalism, postmodernism, inside/outside, hermeneutical, etc. And it seems to be a general rule within science that the more important, complex and controversial a subject area is perceived to be, the more heated the debate about theory, method and definitions of concepts seems to be within it. Comparative religion can, very broadly, be carried out from two types of data: texts or actual living human beings. During the last thirty or so years, and in tandem with the initially mentioned two themes, the latter – what many scholars now call “lived religion” (Hall, 1997; Orsi, 2005; Ammerman, 2007; Mcguire, 2008 – have more and more come to the fore in departments of religious studies. This can be seen as a “rejuvenation” of Friedrich Schleiermacher’s opinions that the only way to study religion adequately was in and through the religious beliefs and practices of actually living human beings and that the heart of religion was to be found, not in rules and regulations, hierarchies and hymn books, but in the individual’s experience of dependence upon a power infinitely greater than his own. The student of religion must, in other words, concentrate, not on what people might do

  5. RNA-seq mixology: designing realistic control experiments to compare protocols and analysis methods

    OpenAIRE

    Holik, Aliaksei Z.; Law, Charity W.; Liu, Ruijie; Wang, Zeya; Wang, Wenyi; Ahn, Jaeil; Asselin-Labat, Marie-Liesse; Gordon K. Smyth; Ritchie, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Carefully designed control experiments provide a gold standard for benchmarking different genomics research tools. A shortcoming of many gene expression control studies is that replication involves profiling the same reference RNA sample multiple times. This leads to low, pure technical noise that is atypical of regular studies. To achieve a more realistic noise structure, we generated a RNA-sequencing mixture experiment using two cell lines of the same cancer type. Variability was a...

  6. The vocabulary of Learner-Space Interactions - Understanding learning spaces experience through the repertory grid method

    OpenAIRE

    Lallemand, Carine; Koenig, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Higher education institutions are facing new educational challenges and are striving for an evolution in pedagogical practices. This evolution is accompanied by the need for innovative learning spaces to support students in the development of “21st century skills”. Designing these spaces requires a deep understanding of learners’ needs and experiences. User-centered design therefore appears as an adequate process to understand learning experiences in relation to spatial design. In this paper,...

  7. Derin Yapı Yüzey Yapı İlişkisi Bağlamında Temel Dil Becerileri Üzerine Bir Analiz Çalışması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilginer ONAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, derin yapı yüzey yapı ilişkileri bağlamında, ana dili eğitiminde temel dil becerileri olarak kabul edilen dinleme, konuşma, okuma ve yazma kavramları analiz edilmiştir. Birinci bölümde, ilk kez Port Royal Gramer Okulu tarafından ortaya konan ve 1960’larda Noam Chomsky tarafından Üretimci Dönüşümsel Dil Bilgisi kuramıyla tekrar gündeme getirilen derin yapı ve yüzey yapı kavramları hakkında bilgi verilmiştir. Çalışmanın ikinci bölümünde ise derin yapı ve yüzey yapı ilişkileri çerçevesinde dinleme, konuşma, okuma ve yazma becerileri analiz edilmiştir. Çalışmanın amacı, dilin iki temel boyutu olan anlam ve biçim ilişkileri bağlamında, temel dil becerilerinin eğitimi sürecinde belirleyici olan unsurları tespit ederek, sürecin programlanmasına yönelik öneriler geliştirmektir. Çalışma çerçevesinde yapılan analizlerde boğumlama, bürün olguları, beden dili, üretici kelime hazinesi, alıcı kelime hazinesi, akıcılık, metin türü, yazım ve noktalama, bağdaşıklık, tutarlılık, ön bilgi, kelime tanıma, kelime ayırt etme, edinilmiş bilgi, önvarsayım, sezdirim kavramlarının derin yapı yüzey yapı ilişkileri bağlamında temel dil becerilerinin geliştirilmesinde süreci etkileyen unsurlar olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Bu kavramlar arasında boğumlama, bürün olgusu, beden dili, akıcılık, bağdaşıklık, metin türü, kelime tanıma, kelime ayırt etme, yazım ve noktalama, doğrudan yüzey yapıyla ilgilidir. Üretici kelime hazinesi, akıcılık, alıcı kelime hazinesi, tutarlılık, ön bilgi, edinilmiş bilgi, önvarsayım ve sezdirim kavramları ise derin yapıyı ilgilendirmektedir. Akıcılık kavramının bütün dil becerileriyle ilgili olduğu belirlenmiştir.

  8. A Method to Determine the Slip Factor of Centrifugal Pumps through Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Liang; Zhu, Zu-Chao; Dou, Hua-Shu; Cui, Bao-Ling; Li, Yi; Xiao, Jun-Jian

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a method to determine the slip factor of centrifugal impellers is proposed based on the experimental result of the external performance of centrifugal pumps. This proposed method is superior to the conventional experimental method, which needs not to measure the flow parameters at impeller outlet. The results show that the present method can be used to obtain the slip factor at offdesign condition in a wide range of flow rate besides at the design point.

  9. Design and experiments of the fuel control method for the scramjet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The control method is one of the key application technologies of the engine. And the core of the scramjet control system is the fuel-based control method. The design and the experimental verification of the scramjet fuel-based control method were mainly carried out in this paper. The correlation between the engine thrust, ...

  10. Undergraduate Student Teachers' Views and Experiences of a Compulsory Course in Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, B. J. J.

    2015-01-01

    In comparison to attention given to research methods for education students at postgraduate level, the offering of research methods for education students at undergraduate level is less often considered. Yet, it is agreed that research methods for undergraduate level students is important for shaping student attitudes, learning and achievement in…

  11. Dificultăți de traducere în limba română a Aforismelor lui Arthur Schopenhauer. O analiză contrastiv-diacronică (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia-Iuliana Vârlan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available În acest articol continuăm analiza lingvistică a versiunilor românești ale unei opere de maturitate a filosofului german Arthur Schopenhauer, Aforisme asupra înțelepciunii în viață. Vom păstra cele două direcții de cercetare, cea contrastivă (rezultată din suprapunerea textului-sursă și a textului-țintă și cea diacronică (urmărind intervențiile realizate de același traducător asupra propriului text, la intervale de timp diferite. Vom prezenta, de asemenea, rezultatele cercetării, precum și concluziile rezultate în urma acestui demers, a cărui perspectivă lingvistică ne-a permis să urmărim, într-un mod obiectiv, maniera în care traducătorul (Titu Maiorescu a rezolvat dificultățile de transpunere în românește ale unui text filosofic german, consemnînd atît reușitele, cît și nereușitele sale.Demersul de analiză lingvistică a traducerii unui text filosofic ni s-a părut util nu doar studiului nostru, ci și viitorilor eventuali traducători ai Aforismelor, a căror intenție ar putea fi aceea de a adapta discursul versiunii românești a lui Titu Maiorescu la limba română contemporană, ținînd seama de evoluția evidentă a acesteia și, mai ales, a componentei sale de limbaj filosofic.

  12. Replication of the OMOP experiment in Europe: evaluating methods for risk identification in electronic health record databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuemie, Martijn J; Gini, Rosa; Coloma, Preciosa M; Straatman, Huub; Herings, Ron M C; Pedersen, Lars; Innocenti, Francesco; Mazzaglia, Giampiero; Picelli, Gino; van der Lei, Johan; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M

    2013-10-01

    The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) has just completed a large scale empirical evaluation of statistical methods and analysis choices for risks identification in longitudinal observational healthcare data. This experiment drew data from four large US health insurance claims databases and one US electronic health record (EHR) database, but it is unclear to what extend the findings of this study apply to other data sources. To replicate the OMOP experiment in six European EHR databases. Six databases of the EU-ADR (Exploring and Understanding Adverse Drug Reactions) database network participated in this study: Aarhus (Denmark), ARS (Italy), HealthSearch (Italy), IPCI (the Netherlands), Pedianet (Italy), and Pharmo (the Netherlands). All methods in the OMOP experiment were applied to a collection of 165 positive and 234 negative control drug-outcome pairs across four outcomes: acute liver injury, acute myocardial infarction, acute kidney injury, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC) was computed per database and for a combination of all six databases using meta-analysis for random effects. We provide expected values of estimation error as well, based on negative controls. Similarly to the US experiment, high predictive accuracy was found (AUC >0.8) for some analyses. Self-controlled designs, such as self-controlled case series, IC temporal pattern discovery and self-controlled cohort achieved higher performance than other methods, both in terms of predictive accuracy and observed bias. The major findings of the recent OMOP experiment were also observed in the European databases.

  13. Commercial Seed Selection and Effectiveness of Sanitization Methods in Preparation for Plant Growth Experiments on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Emma

    2017-01-01

    A closed-loop food production system will be important to gain autonomy on long duration space missions. Crop growth experiments in the Veggie plant chamber aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are helping to identify methods and limitations of food production in space. Prior to flight, seeds are surface sterilized to reduce environmental and crew contamination risks.

  14. Sex-Role Egalitarian Attitudes and Gender Role Socialization Experiences of African American Men and Women: A Mixed Methods Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Courtney Christian Charisse

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the sex-role egalitarian attitudes and gender role socialization experiences of African American men and women. A sequential mixed-methods design was employed to research this phenomenon. The Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale-Short Form BB (SRES-BB) was utilized to assess sex-role egalitarian attitudes (King…

  15. Assessing the Relationship between Family Mealtime Communication and Adolescent Emotional Well-Being Using the Experience Sampling Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offer, Shira

    2013-01-01

    While most prior research has focused on the frequency of family meals the issue of which elements of family mealtime are most salient for adolescents' well-being has remained overlooked. The current study used the experience sampling method, a unique form of time diary, and survey data drawn from the 500 Family Study (N = 237 adolescents with…

  16. Understanding Black Male Student Athletes' Experiences at a Historically Black College/University: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Joseph N.; Hall, Jori

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how a mixed methods approach was employed to acquire a better understanding of Black male student athletes' experiences at a historically Black college/university in the southeastern United States. A concurrent triangulation design was incorporated to allow different data sources to be collected and…

  17. "Sure, I Would Like to Continue": A Method for Mapping the Experience of Engagement in Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonau-Fog, Henrik; Bjorner, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore one aspect of the engaging nature of computer games, this study will propose a method that aims at classifying the experience of engagement in video games. Inspired by a literature review, we will focus on the fundamental causes of engagement that motivate a player so much that he or she wants to continue playing. By organizing…

  18. Accelerating Reflexivity? An Ethno-Theater Interpretation of a Pre-Service Teacher Literacy Methods Field Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jenifer Jasinski; King, James R.; Kozdras, Deborah; Minick, Vanessa; Welsh, James L.

    2012-01-01

    During a teaching methods field experience, we initiated several processes to facilitate pre-service teachers' reflection, empowerment, and performance as they learned to teach students. Through an ethno-theater presentation and subsequent revisions to an ethno-theater script, we turned the reflective lens on ourselves as we discovered instances…

  19. How Depressive Levels Are Related to the Adults' Experiences of Lower-Limb Amputation: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senra, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The current pilot study aims to explore whether different adults' experiences of lower-limb amputation could be associated with different levels of depression. To achieve these study objectives, a convergent parallel mixed methods design was used in a convenience sample of 42 adult amputees (mean age of 61 years; SD = 13.5). All of them had…

  20. Valuing patients' experiences of healthcare processes: towards broader applications of existing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Mandy; Kinghorn, Philip; Entwistle, Vikki A; Francis, Jill J

    2014-04-01

    Healthcare policy leaders internationally recognise that people's experiences of healthcare delivery are important, and invest significant resources to monitor and improve them. However, the value of particular aspects of experiences of healthcare delivery - relative to each other and to other healthcare outcomes - is unclear. This paper considers how economic techniques have been and might be used to generate quantitative estimates of the value of particular experiences of healthcare delivery. A recently published conceptual map of patients' experiences served to guide the scope and focus of the enquiry. The map represented both what health services and staff are like and do and what individual patients can feel like, be and do (while they are using services and subsequently). We conducted a systematic search for applications of economic techniques to healthcare delivery. We found that these techniques have been quite widely used to estimate the value of features of healthcare systems and processes (e.g. of care delivery by a nurse rather than a doctor, or of a consultation of 10 minutes rather than 15 minutes), but much less to estimate the value of the implications of these features for patients personally. To inform future research relating to the valuation of experiences of healthcare delivery, we organised a workshop for key stakeholders. Participants undertook and discussed 'exercises' that explored the use of different economic techniques to value descriptions of healthcare delivery that linked processes to what patients felt like and were able to be and do. The workshop identified a number of methodological issues that need careful attention, and highlighted some important concerns about the ways in which quantitative estimates of the value of experiences of healthcare delivery might be used. However the workshop confirmed enthusiasm for efforts to attend directly to the implications of healthcare delivery from patients' perspectives, including in terms of

  1. TOMO-ETNA Experiment -Etna volcano, Sicily, investigated with active and passive seismic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luehr, Birger-G.; Ibanez, Jesus M.; Díaz-Moreno, Alejandro; Prudencio, Janire; Patane, Domenico; Zieger, Toni; Cocina, Ornella; Zuccarello, Luciano; Koulakov, Ivan; Roessler, Dirk; Dahm, Torsten

    2017-04-01

    The TOMO-ETNA experiment, as part of the European Union project "MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV)", was devised to image the crustal structure beneath Etna by using state of the art passive and active seismic methods. Activities on-land and offshore are aiming to obtain new high-resolution seismic images to improve the knowledge of crustal structures existing beneath the Etna volcano and northeast Sicily up to the Aeolian Islands. In a first phase (June 15 - July 24, 2014) at Etna volcano and surrounding areas two removable seismic networks were installed composed by 80 Short Period and 20 Broadband stations, additionally to the existing network belonging to the "Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia" (INGV). So in total air-gun shots could be recorded by 168 stations onshore plus 27 ocean bottom instruments offshore in the Tyrrhenian and Ionian Seas. Offshore activities were performed by Spanish and Italian research vessels. In a second phase the broadband seismic network remained operative until October 28, 2014, as well as offshore surveys during November 19 -27, 2014. Active seismic sources were generated by an array of air-guns mounted in the Spanish Oceanographic vessel "Sarmiento de Gamboa" with a power capacity of up to 5.200 cubic inches. In total more than 26.000 shots were fired and more than 450 local and regional earthquakes could be recorded and will be analyzed. For resolving a volcanic structure the investigation of attenuation and scattering of seismic waves is important. In contrast to existing studies that are almost exclusively based on S-wave signals emitted by local earthquakes, here air-gun signals were investigated by applying a new methodology based on the coda energy ratio defined as the ratio between the energy of the direct P-wave and the energy in a later coda window. It is based on the assumption that scattering caused by heterogeneities removes energy from direct P-waves that constitutes the earliest possible

  2. Detailed characterizations of the new Mines Douai comparative reactivity method instrument via laboratory experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, V.; Hansen, R. F.; Locoge, N.; Stevens, P. S.; Dusanter, S.

    2015-08-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) radical is an important oxidant in the troposphere, which controls the lifetime of most air quality- and climate-related trace gases. However, there are still uncertainties concerning its atmospheric budget, and integrated measurements of OH sinks have been valuable to improve this aspect. Among the analytical tools used for measuring total OH reactivity in ambient air, the comparative reactivity method (CRM) is spreading rapidly in the atmospheric community. However, measurement artifacts have been highlighted for this technique, and additional work is needed to fully characterize them. In this study, we present the new Mines Douai CRM instrument, with an emphasis on the corrections that need to be applied to ambient measurements of total OH reactivity. Measurement artifacts identified in the literature have been investigated, including (1) a correction for a change in relative humidity between the measurement steps leading to different OH levels, (2) the formation of spurious OH in the sampling reactor when hydroperoxy radicals (HO2) react with nitrogen monoxide (NO), (3) not operating the CRM under pseudo-first-order kinetics, and (4) the dilution of ambient air inside the reactor. The dependences of these artifacts on various measurable parameters, such as the pyrrole-to-OH ratio and the bimolecular reaction rate constants of ambient trace gases with OH, have also been studied. Based on these observations, parameterizations are proposed to correct ambient OH reactivity measurements. On average, corrections of 5.2 ± 3.2, 9.2 ± 15.7, and 8.5 ± 5.8 s-1 were respectively observed for (1), (2) and (3) during a field campaign performed in Dunkirk, France (summer 2014). Numerical simulations have been performed using a box model to check whether experimental observations mentioned above are consistent with our understanding of the chemistry occurring in the CRM reactor. Two different chemical mechanisms have been shown to reproduce the magnitude

  3. Experiences of gout-related disability from the patients' perspective: a mixed methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Klooster, Peter M.; Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; Oude Voshaar, Antonius H.; Bode, Christina; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2014-01-01

    Disability is a common problem in patients with gout. Recently, the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) was recommended for assessing patient-reported activity limitations in gout. However, few studies have explored experiences and issues of disability from the perspective of

  4. Transformation Rubric for Engaged Learning: A Tool and Method for Measuring Life-Changing Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springfield, Emily; Gwozdek, Anne; Smiler, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    ePortfolios and other engaged learning experiences can have extensive impact on students in many facets of their lives, such as subject-area learning, skill and competence development, perspectives on "how the world works," and even students' own identities, confidence, and needs. Assessing these various impacts can be a challenge for…

  5. Temporal aspects of user experience : Models and methods beyond a single use situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kujala, S.; Minge, M.; Pohlmeyer, A.E.; Vogel, M.

    2012-01-01

    User Experience (UX) is an ongoing process and should not be limited to a single use situation. However, this is unfortunately often the case in HCI research. The goal of this workshop is to deepen and expand available knowledge with respect to temporal dynamics of UX. Relevant aspects will be the

  6. How patients experience progressive loss of visual function: a model of adjustment using qualitative methods

    OpenAIRE

    Hayeems, R Z; Geller, G.; Finkelstein, D; Faden, R. R.

    2005-01-01

    Background: People with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) experience functional and psychological challenges as they adjust to progressive loss of visual function. The authors aimed to understand better the process of adjusting to RP in light of the emotional suffering associated with this process.

  7. A simulation-based sample size calculation method for pre-clinical tumor xenograft experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianrong; Yang, Shengping

    2017-04-07

    Pre-clinical tumor xenograft experiments usually require a small sample size that is rarely greater than 20, and data generated from such experiments very often do not have censored observations. Many statistical tests can be used for analyzing such data, but most of them were developed based on large sample approximation. We demonstrate that the type-I error rates of these tests can substantially deviate from the designated rate, especially when the data to be analyzed has a skewed distribution. Consequently, the sample size calculated based on these tests can be erroneous. We propose a modified signed log-likelihood ratio test (MSLRT) to meet the type-I error rate requirement for analyzing pre-clinical tumor xenograft data. The MSLRT has a consistent and symmetric type-I error rate that is very close to the designated rate for a wide range of sample sizes. By simulation, we generated a series of sample size tables based on scenarios commonly expected in tumor xenograft experiments, and we expect that these tables can be used as guidelines for making decisions on the numbers of mice used in tumor xenograft experiments.

  8. Resisting Coherence: Trans Men's Experiences and the Use of Grounded Theory Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, D. Chase J.

    2017-01-01

    In this methodological reflective manuscript, I explore my decision to use a grounded theoretical approach to my dissertation study on trans* men in higher education. Specifically, I question whether grounded theory as a methodology is capable of capturing the complexity and capaciousness of trans*-masculine experiences. Through the lenses of…

  9. The effects of cancer research participation on patient experience: a mixed-methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath-Lone, L; Ward, H; Schoenborn, C; Day, S

    2016-11-01

    Patient-reported benefits of research participation have been described by study participants; however, many studies have small sample sizes or are limited to patient groups with poor prognoses. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of research participation on patient experience using survey responses from a large, national sample of cancer patients (N = 66 462) and interviews with breast cancer patients attending a London trust. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate associations between taking part in research and positive patient experience. Based on our analysis, patients who participated in research were more likely to rate their overall care and treatment as 'very good/excellent' (ORadj :1.64, 95%CI: 1.53-1.76, P experiences, such as better access to non-standard care, better interactions with staff and being treated as an individual. However, findings from our interviews indicated that there was no common understanding of what constitutes cancer research and no clear delineation between research participation and standard care, from the patient perspective. Further work to explore how participation positively influences patient experience would be useful to develop strategies to improve care and treatment for all patients regardless of whether or not they choose, or have the opportunity, to take part in research. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Cancer Care Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Undergraduate Greek Leadership Experiences: A Proven Method for Gaining Career Related and Life-Long Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermersheim, Katherine L.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 96 past leaders of college Greek organizations (chapter presidents, Pan-Hellenic councils, Greek service organizations) at Western Illinois University investigated the impact of Greek leadership experience on work-related and personal life skills. Ninety-five percent felt their undergraduate Greek leadership position was extremely…

  11. Novice Head Teachers' Isolation and Loneliness Experiences: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Lokman; Thakib, Mohd Taufiq Mohd; Hamzah, Mohd Hilmi; Said, Mohd Nihra Haruzuan Mohd; Musah, Mohammed Borhandden

    2017-01-01

    Most studies in headship focus on the elements of training and head teachers' capabilities in leading schools. The concept of isolation experienced by head teachers during the early years of their headship is, however, overlooked. This article attempts to explore the neglected aspect of headships' experiences with isolation that later contributes…

  12. Ekmeklik Buğday (Triticum aestivum L.) Çeşitlerinde Protein Oranının Üç Farklı Analiz Yöntemine Göre Karşılaştırılması Üzerine Bir Araştırma

    OpenAIRE

    OLGUN, Murat; BUDAK BAŞÇİFTÇİ, Zekiye; AYTER, N. Gözde; İmren KUTLU; AKIN, Arzu; KARADUMAN, Yaşar

    2013-01-01

    Çalışmamızda ekmeklik buğday çeşitlerinin protein oranları üç farklı yöntemle belirlenmiş, ekmeklik buğday çeşitleri ve analiz yöntemleri arası farkların belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Çalışmada Harmankaya, Müfitbey, İkizce, Sönmez, Altay, Dağdaş, Bezostaja, Çetinel, Tekirdağ, Tosunbey, Pehlivan, Presto, Mirzabey çeşitlerine ait protein oranları Kjeldahl, NIR ve Dumas yöntemleriyle belirlenmiş ve gerek çeşitler ve gerekse protein analiz yöntemleri arası farklılıklar ortaya konmuştur. Çalışmada p...

  13. The varieties of contemplative experience: A mixed-methods study of meditation-related challenges in Western Buddhists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared R Lindahl

    Full Text Available Buddhist-derived meditation practices are currently being employed as a popular form of health promotion. While meditation programs draw inspiration from Buddhist textual sources for the benefits of meditation, these sources also acknowledge a wide range of other effects beyond health-related outcomes. The Varieties of Contemplative Experience study investigates meditation-related experiences that are typically underreported, particularly experiences that are described as challenging, difficult, distressing, functionally impairing, and/or requiring additional support. A mixed-methods approach featured qualitative interviews with Western Buddhist meditation practitioners and experts in Theravāda, Zen, and Tibetan traditions. Interview questions probed meditation experiences and influencing factors, including interpretations and management strategies. A follow-up survey provided quantitative assessments of causality, impairment and other demographic and practice-related variables. The content-driven thematic analysis of interviews yielded a taxonomy of 59 meditation-related experiences across 7 domains: cognitive, perceptual, affective, somatic, conative, sense of self, and social. Even in cases where the phenomenology was similar across participants, interpretations of and responses to the experiences differed considerably. The associated valence ranged from very positive to very negative, and the associated level of distress and functional impairment ranged from minimal and transient to severe and enduring. In order to determine what factors may influence the valence, impact, and response to any given experience, the study also identified 26 categories of influencing factors across 4 domains: practitioner-level factors, practice-level factors, relationships, and health behaviors. By identifying a broader range of experiences associated with meditation, along with the factors that contribute to the presence and management of experiences reported

  14. Flotation of Mineral and Dyes: A Laboratory Experiment for Separation Method Molecular Hitchhikers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappon, Tim; Sylvestre, Jarrett A.; Rappon, Manit

    2016-01-01

    Flotation as a method of separation is widely researched and is applied in many industries. It has been used to address a wide range of environmental issues including treatment of wastewater, recovery of heavy metals for recycling, extraction of minerals in mining, and so forth. This laboratory attempts to show how such a simple method can be used…

  15. Eating up Experiments: Teaching Research Methods with Classroom Simulation and "Food Detectives"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    The subject of research methods is often unknown, foreboding, and unappealing to undergraduate communication majors. Thus, in the research methods course, two ways to overcome such issues and achieve learning are by: (1) making the unfamiliar more familiar and accessible; and (2) placing abstract knowledge in its useful real-world context. Making…

  16. A Study of Teacher Candidates' Experiences Investigating Global Climate Change within an Elementary Science Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestness, Emily; McGinnis, J. Randy; Riedinger, Kelly; Marbach-Ad, Gili

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the inclusion of a curricular module on global climate change in an Elementary Science Methods course. Using complementary research methods, we analyzed findings from 63 teacher candidates' drawings, questionnaires, and journal entries collected throughout their participation in the module. We highlighted three focal cases to…

  17. Parallelism experiments to evaluate matrix effects, selectivity and sensitivity in ligand-binding assay method development: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jing; Bennett, Patrick

    2017-07-01

    Parallelism is an essential experiment characterizing relative accuracy for a ligand-binding assay (LBA). By assessing the effects of dilution on the quantitation of endogenous analyte(s) in matrix, selectivity, matrix effects, minimum required dilution, endogenous levels of healthy and diseased populations and the LLOQ are assessed in a single experiment. This review compares and discusses all available approaches that can be used to assess key assay parameters for pharmacokinetic and biomarker LBAs, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. This review also summarizes a systematic approach that can apply to guide endogenous LBA method development and optimization with a suggested way to interpret parallelism data.

  18. Development of Methods for Obtaining Position Image and Chemical Binding Information from Flow Experiments of Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugan, Are

    1998-12-01

    Existing oil reservoirs might be more fully exploited if the properties of the flow of oil and water in porous media were better known. In laboratory experiments it is important to collect as much information as possible to make a descriptive model of the system, including position imaging and chemical binding information. This thesis develops nuclear methods for obtaining position image and chemical binding information from flow experiments of porous media. A combined positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography system to obtain position images, and a time-differential perturbed angular correlation system to obtain chemical binding information, have been built and thoroughly tested. 68 refs., 123 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. Technical and technological investigation of cultural heritage: experience in applications of spectroscopic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorieva, I. A.; Chugunova, K. S.; Kadikova, I. F.; Khavrin, S. V.; Pisareva, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Physical and chemical methods of analysis are indispensable for restoration, study of painting techniques, examination and attribution of works of art. Development of new directions of investigations as well as improvements in sample preparation allow applying non-destructive analysis methods, minimizing amount of matter used to obtain informative spectra, preventing alteration and destruction of samples in the course of investigation. This paper observes the examples of applying optical and spectral methods, including molecular spectral analysis and electron microscopy, for study of binding media and pigments of painting and archaeological artifacts.

  20. Technical and technological investigation of cultural heritage: experience in applications of spectroscopic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorieva I.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical methods of analysis are indispensable for restoration, study of painting techniques, examination and attribution of works of art. Development of new directions of investigations as well as improvements in sample preparation allow applying non-destructive analysis methods, minimizing amount of matter used to obtain informative spectra, preventing alteration and destruction of samples in the course of investigation. This paper observes the examples of applying optical and spectral methods, including molecular spectral analysis and electron microscopy, for study of binding media and pigments of painting and archaeological artifacts.

  1. Alternatives to hormone replacement therapy: a multi-method study of women's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathen, C Nadine

    2006-09-01

    To explore women's decision-making regarding use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) during menopause. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 20 women who were currently or had previously used hormone replacement therapy (HRT), including questions about their experiences with alternatives to HRT. This was followed by a non-random questionnaire survey of 285 demographically representative Canadian women aged 45-65 who were current or former HRT users. Fifty-seven percent (57%, n = 162) of women reported either having used or considered a CAM approach for menopause. Women who had tried or considered CAM were significantly younger (mean age = 54.9 years versus 56.8 years; t(280) = 3.4, p menopause-specific symptoms than those who had not, and these women also reported a worse experience of menopause overall. : A majority of menopausal women in the current study considered or tried CAM alternatives to HRT.

  2. Radioactive wastes Conditioning. Optimization of operating parameters by the experience plan method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bouchra El hilal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The conditioning of exhausted Resins Exchanging Ions (REI (radioactive wastes generated by nuclear operations was optimized using a full factorial experiments plan 24. Sixteen experiments with a suitable choice of four interpretable variables led to a mathematical model in the form of a first degree polynomial. After analysing the effects, this model showed that the most influential factor on the response (compression strength is the water/cement ratio (W/C with a positive effect of (+2.17, the second factor in order is the mixing time with a positive effect of (+1.54. The interaction between the (W/C and the number of vibration and interaction between the (W/C and the mixing time also have effects on the response.

  3. The playful as a psycho-pedagogic method: one experience in preventing youth drug dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Tobón Marulanda, Flor Ángela; Gaviria García, Nelson Alveiro; Ramírez Villegas, John Fernando

    2012-01-01

    This participatory action research was based on a experience of educational intervention on La Cruz and Bello Oriente (Manrique-Medellin), a marginal zone in the northeastern part of the Commune 3 in Medellin,. Colombia. In this marginal sector, psychosocial problems seem to be associated to limited educational and employment opportunities, domestic violence, illegal armed forces, sexual abuse, social discrimination, and lack of adequate public services, among others.  All these are also cons...

  4. Method of Instruction in Cooking and Experimenting with Eggs in Elementary School Homemaking Education

    OpenAIRE

    富士栄, 登美子; Fujie, Tomiko

    1997-01-01

    It is our wish and heart's desire that school children cultivate creative and active minds through homemaking education. Homemaking education also aims to develop school children's spirit of inquiry into various phenomena in their daily lives. We can take up a variety of subjects in homemaking classes in order to realize these wishes and desires. For instance, we can cook and experiment with eggs. Teachers should encourage school children not only to acquire the basic knowledge and skill to c...

  5. Attitudes and Experiences of Close Interethnic Friendships Among Native Emerging Adults: A Mixed-Methods Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Merrill L.

    2017-01-01

    This study included 114 Native adults and 6 Native/non-Native pairs of friends (age 18-25). Experiences and attitudes for close interethnic friendships were investigated. Friendship patterns and predictors were quantitatively assessed for the 114 Natives, with qualitative examination of the development and qualities of the six friend pairs. Results of quantitative analysis revealed that 80% of this sample reported friendship investment with Whites, and 55% reported friendship investment wi...

  6. A fast and efficient gene-network reconstruction method from multiple over-expression experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thurner Stefan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reverse engineering of gene regulatory networks presents one of the big challenges in systems biology. Gene regulatory networks are usually inferred from a set of single-gene over-expressions and/or knockout experiments. Functional relationships between genes are retrieved either from the steady state gene expressions or from respective time series. Results We present a novel algorithm for gene network reconstruction on the basis of steady-state gene-chip data from over-expression experiments. The algorithm is based on a straight forward solution of a linear gene-dynamics equation, where experimental data is fed in as a first predictor for the solution. We compare the algorithm's performance with the NIR algorithm, both on the well known E. coli experimental data and on in-silico experiments. Conclusion We show superiority of the proposed algorithm in the number of correctly reconstructed links and discuss computational time and robustness. The proposed algorithm is not limited by combinatorial explosion problems and can be used in principle for large networks.

  7. Methods for building an inexpensive computer-controlled olfactometer for temporally-precise experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Johan N; Gordon, Amy R; Alden, Eva C; Boesveldt, Sanne; Albrecht, Jessica

    2010-11-01

    Many human olfactory experiments call for fast and stable stimulus-rise times as well as exact and stable stimulus-onset times. Due to these temporal demands, an olfactometer is often needed. However, an olfactometer is a piece of equipment that either comes with a high price tag or requires a high degree of technical expertise to build and/or to run. Here, we detail the construction of an olfactometer that is constructed almost exclusively with "off-the-shelf" parts, requires little technical knowledge to build, has relatively low price tags, and is controlled by E-Prime, a turnkey-ready and easily-programmable software commonly used in psychological experiments. The olfactometer can present either solid or liquid odor sources, and it exhibits a fast stimulus-rise time and a fast and stable stimulus-onset time. We provide a detailed description of the olfactometer construction, a list of its individual parts and prices, as well as potential modifications to the design. In addition, we present odor onset and concentration curves as measured with a photo-ionization detector, together with corresponding GC/MS analyses of signal-intensity drop (5.9%) over a longer period of use. Finally, we present data from behavioral and psychophysiological recordings demonstrating that the olfactometer is suitable for use during event-related EEG experiments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. SUGGESTOPEDIA AS THE METHOD OF THE MUSIC EXPERIENCE FORMATION OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Natalya T. Таgiltseva; Filip D. Shavov

    2015-01-01

    The article aims to consider the possibility of suggestopedia methods use that are successfully practiced in foreign language teaching, pedagogy of music education of preschool children, in starting schools...

  9. Assessment of medical communication skills by computer: assessment method and student experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsman, R. L.; Mollema, E. D.; Hoos, A. M.; de Haes, J. C. J. M.; Donnison-Speijer, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND A computer-assisted assessment (CAA) program for communication skills designated ACT was developed using the objective structured video examination (OSVE) format. This method features assessment of cognitive scripts underlying communication behaviour, a broad range of communication

  10. Method of temperature waves in thermophysical investigations (Analysis of Soviet and Russian Experiences)

    OpenAIRE

    Ivliyev, A. D.

    2009-01-01

    The procedure of employing temperature waves for the investigation of the thermophysical properties of condensed materials is considered. Some experimental facilities utilizing this method are described. © 2009 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

  11. The method of nursing support in hospital and patients' and family members' experiences of the effectiveness of the support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Elina; Kaunonen, Marja; Aalto, Pirjo; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2014-06-01

    Nurses are an important source of support for patients and family members during hospitalization. It is unclear, however, what kinds of support methods are used in hospitals and how the support affects the patient and family member(s). This study describes methods of nursing support in hospital and adult patients' and their family members' experiences of this support. The data were collected in spring 2009 through essays written by and group interviews with nurses (n = 11) working at a Finnish university hospital. The data from patients (n = 9) and family members (n = 7) were collected in individual and group interviews. The material was interpreted by inductive content analysis. In their interaction with patients and family members, the hospital nurses used the methods of emotional and informational support. Patients' and family members' experiences of the effectiveness of this support were related to the establishment of a care relationship, their future outlook, mental well-being and experiences of getting well. The evidence from this research will be useful in developing methods of nursing support for patients and family members and family-oriented care in hospital. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  12. Treatment of dysfunctionally stored experiences with the method Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing – EMDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cvetek

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new therapeutic method called EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing is described. The method was formed mainly for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder, but there are also some reports about success with other mental disorders. The theoretical base of EMDR and especially the accelerated information processing model, the concept of memory networks and the explanations of effects of eye movements are presented. The process of EMDR is also described.

  13. The simulation method in learning interpersonal communication competence--experiences of masters' degree students of health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaranen, Terhi; Vaajoki, Anne; Kellomäki, Marjaana; Hyvärinen, Marja-Leena

    2015-02-01

    This article describes the experiences of master students of nursing science in learning interpersonal communication competence through the simulation method. The exercises reflected challenging interactive situations in the field of health care. Few studies have been published on using the simulation method in the communication education of teachers, managers, and experts in this field. The aim of this study is to produce information which can be utilised in developing the simulation method to promote the interpersonal communication competence of master-level students of health sciences. This study used the qualitative, descriptive research method. At the Department of Nursing Science, the University of Eastern Finland, students major in nursing science specialise in nursing leadership and management, preventive nursing science, or nurse teacher education. Students from all three specialties taking the Challenging Situations in Speech Communication course participated (n=47). Essays on meaningful learning experiences collected using the critical incident technique, underwent content analysis. Planning of teaching, carrying out different stages of the simulation exercise, participant roles, and students' personal factors were central to learning interpersonal communication competence. Simulation is a valuable method in developing the interpersonal communication competence of students of health sciences at the masters' level. The methods used in the simulation teaching of emergency care are not necessarily applicable as such to communication education. The role of teacher is essential to supervising students' learning in simulation exercises. In the future, it is important to construct questions that help students to reflect specifically on communication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Method to predict fatigue lifetimes of GRP wind turbine blades and comparison with experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echtermeyer, A.T. [Det Norske Veritas Research AS, Hoevik (Norway); Kensche, C. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany, F.R); Bach, P. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Poppen, M. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden); Lilholt, H.; Andersen, S.I.; Broendsted, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes a method to predict fatigue lifetimes of fiber reinforced plastics in wind turbine blades. It is based on extensive testing within the EU-Joule program. The method takes the measured fatigue properties of a material into account so that credit can be given to materials with improved fatigue properties. The large number of test results should also give confidence in the fatigue calculation method for fiber reinforced plastics. The method uses the Palmgren-Miner sum to predict lifetimes and is verified by tests using well defined load sequences. Even though this approach is generally well known in fatigue analysis, many details in the interpretation and extrapolation of the measurements need to be clearly defined, since they can influence the results considerably. The following subjects will be described: Method to measure SN curves and to obtain tolerance bounds, development of a constant lifetime diagram, evaluation of the load sequence, use of Palmgren-Miner sum, requirements for load sequence testing. The fatigue lifetime calculation method has been compared against measured data for simple loading sequences and the more complex WISPERX loading sequence for blade roots. The comparison is based on predicted mean lifetimes, using the same materials to obtain the basic SN curves and to measure laminates under complicated loading sequences. 24 refs, 7 figs, 5 tabs

  15. Compatible validated spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric methods for determination of vildagliptin and saxagliptin by factorial design experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, Omar; Ayad, Miriam F.; Tadros, Mariam M.

    2015-04-01

    Simple, selective and reproducible spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of vildagliptin and saxagliptin in bulk and their pharmaceutical dosage forms. The first proposed spectrofluorimetric method is based on the dansylation reaction of the amino group of vildagliptin with dansyl chloride to form a highly fluorescent product. The formed product was measured spectrofluorimetrically at 455 nm after excitation at 345 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in a concentration range of 100-600 μg ml-1. The second proposed spectrophotometric method is based on the charge transfer complex of saxagliptin with tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (p-chloranil). The formed charge transfer complex was measured spectrophotometrically at 530 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in a concentration range of 100-850 μg ml-1. The third proposed spectrophotometric method is based on the condensation reaction of the primary amino group of saxagliptin with formaldehyde and acetyl acetone to form a yellow colored product known as Hantzsch reaction, measured at 342.5 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in a concentration range of 50-300 μg ml-1. All the variables were studied to optimize the reactions' conditions using factorial design. The developed methods were validated and proved to be specific and accurate for quality control of vildagliptin and saxagliptin in their pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  16. Filtration Characterization Method as Tool to Assess Membrane Bioreactor Sludge Filterability—The Delft Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lousada-Ferreira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevention and removal of fouling is often the most energy intensive process in Membrane Bioreactors (MBRs, responsible for 40% to 50% of the total specific energy consumed in submerged MBRs. In the past decade, methods were developed to quantify and qualify fouling, aiming to support optimization in MBR operation. Therefore, there is a need for an evaluation of the lessons learned and how to proceed. In this article, five different methods for measuring MBR activated sludge filterability and critical flux are described, commented and evaluated. Both parameters characterize the fouling potential in full-scale MBRs. The article focuses on the Delft Filtration Characterization method (DFCm as a convenient tool to characterize sludge properties, namely on data processing, accuracy, reproducibility, reliability, and applicability, defining the boundaries of the DFCm. Significant progress was made concerning fouling measurements in particular by using straight forward approaches focusing on the applicability of the obtained results. Nevertheless, a fouling measurement method is still to be defined which is capable of being unequivocal, concerning the fouling parameters definitions; practical and simple, in terms of set-up and operation; broad and useful, in terms of obtained results. A step forward would be the standardization of the aforementioned method to assess the sludge filtration quality.

  17. The Mirrortron experiment: A proof of principle test for a method of generating high transient potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglass, Scott Roger [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The Mirrortron is a concept in which heavy ions are accelerated by a large local transient space potential that is produced in a hot electron plasma. The purpose of this experiment is to begin a proof of principle experiment to investigate the feasibility of producing this space potential and its associated electric field. If a large magnetic field is suddenly generated in a hot electron plasma with a loss-cone distribution, then potentials on the order of the electron temperature are expected. This potential lasts a few tens of nanoseconds. The investigation begins with a theoretical analysis of this phenomenon giving the space potential as a function of the applied magnetic field. The theory is further extended to cases of relativistic electron distributions. This is then followed by design work on a mirror confinement system for hot electrons. In this experiment a 50--100 keV electron temperature plasma is created with electron cyclotron resonance heating using two frequencies of relatively low microwave power. The microwaves are coupled to resonant frequencies of the vacuum chamber. The volume averaged plasma density is measured to be in the 109 cm-3 range. A strap coil and a flat Blumlein transmission line pulse generator were developed to produce a 150 gauss field within 70 ns. The strap coil was placed at the midplane of the mirror field, where the field is 700 gauss. Based on theoretical estimates and computer simulations a 20 kV potential is expected. Measurement of this potential is derived from the modulation of the current of a monoenergetic electron beam after it passes through the high potential region. The variation in the beam energy allows bunching to occur in transit to the detector.

  18. An effective method for trapping ion beams in superfluid helium for laser spectroscopy experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang X.F

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel laser spectroscopy technique -“OROCHI” (Optical Radioisotopes Observation in Condensed Helium as Ion-catcher has been proposed. This method aimed to investigate the structure of exotic nuclei systematically by measuring nuclear spins and moments. For in-situ laser spectroscopy of atoms in He II, a method to trap atoms precisely at the observation region of laser is highly needed. In this work, a setup composed of a degrader, two plastic scintillators and a photon detection system is further tested and verified for adjusting and checking the stopping position of 84–87Rb beam. Details of the current setup, experimental results using this method are presented.

  19. Can’t Count or Won’t Count? Embedding Quantitative Methods in Substantive Sociology Curricula: A Quasi-Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Malcolm; Sloan, Luke; Cheung, Sin Yi; Sutton, Carole; Stevens, Sebastian; Runham, Libby

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a quasi-experiment in which quantitative methods (QM) are embedded within a substantive sociology module. Through measuring student attitudes before and after the intervention alongside control group comparisons, we illustrate the impact that embedding has on the student experience. Our findings are complex and even contradictory. Whilst the experimental group were less likely to be distrustful of statistics and appreciate how QM inform social research, they were also less confident about their statistical abilities, suggesting that through ‘doing’ quantitative sociology the experimental group are exposed to the intricacies of method and their optimism about their own abilities is challenged. We conclude that embedding QM in a single substantive module is not a ‘magic bullet’ and that a wider programme of content and assessment diversification across the curriculum is preferential. PMID:27330225

  20. Can't Count or Won't Count? Embedding Quantitative Methods in Substantive Sociology Curricula: A Quasi-Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Malcolm; Sloan, Luke; Cheung, Sin Yi; Sutton, Carole; Stevens, Sebastian; Runham, Libby

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on a quasi-experiment in which quantitative methods (QM) are embedded within a substantive sociology module. Through measuring student attitudes before and after the intervention alongside control group comparisons, we illustrate the impact that embedding has on the student experience. Our findings are complex and even contradictory. Whilst the experimental group were less likely to be distrustful of statistics and appreciate how QM inform social research, they were also less confident about their statistical abilities, suggesting that through 'doing' quantitative sociology the experimental group are exposed to the intricacies of method and their optimism about their own abilities is challenged. We conclude that embedding QM in a single substantive module is not a 'magic bullet' and that a wider programme of content and assessment diversification across the curriculum is preferential.

  1. Sales Education beyond the classroom: Building participative learning experiences in Sales Management through the CMGS Method (Case Method with Guest Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ruizalba Robledo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The overarching goal of working through the CMGSMethod (Case Method with GuestSpeakers in Sales Management courses is toprovide Marketing students with practical knowledge about how a sales managercan deal with a wide variety of possible professional scenarios. Even when thecase method itself is an excellent way to equip students for their prospectiveemployment, the potential of this method can be enhanced with innovativepedagogical tools. Firstly, eight sales managers were invited to the SalesManagement Course as guest speakers. Students were required to prepare forthese sessions, gathering information about the speaker’s sector andidentifying areas of special interest. Each speaker shared their hands-onexperience and offered an overview of their field in a workshop, whileanswering the students’ questions. These sessions increased the interaction ofstudents with sales professionals, who presented their insights into a careerin sales management. The learning experiences built through these workshopswere narrated by the students in the course blog. Secondly, students were askedto present a scientific paper with the aim of bridging the gap between highereducation and cutting-edge research. This article portrays the reasoning behindthe course as well as the different steps followed during the process. Thecourse finished with encouraging results, suggesting the desirability ofincorporating PL (participative learning experiences into any marketingcourse.

  2. Women's experiences of continuous fetal monitoring - a mixed-methods systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Alexandra; Hayes, Dexter; Johnstone, Edward D; Heazell, Alexander E P

    2017-12-01

    Antepartum stillbirth is often preceded by detectable signs of fetal compromise, including changes in fetal heart rate and movement. It is hypothesized that continuous fetal monitoring could detect these signs more accurately and objectively than current forms of fetal monitoring and allow for timely intervention. This systematic review aimed to explore available evidence on women's experiences of continuous fetal monitoring to investigate its acceptability before clinical implementation and to inform clinical studies. Systematic searching of four electronic databases (Embase, PsycINFO, MEDLINE and CINAHL), using key terms defined by initial scoping searches, identified a total of 35 studies. Following title and abstract screening by two independent researchers, five studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies were not excluded based on language, methodology or quality assessment. An integrative methodology was used to synthesize qualitative and quantitative data together. Forms of continuous fetal monitoring used included Monica AN24 monitors (n = 4) and phonocardiography (n = 1). Four main themes were identified: practical limitations of the device, negative emotions, positive perceptions, and device implementation. Continuous fetal monitoring was reported to have high levels of participant satisfaction and was preferred by women to intermittent cardiotocography. This review suggests that continuous fetal monitoring is accepted by women. However, it has also highlighted both the paucity and heterogeneity of current studies and suggests that further research should be conducted into women's experiences of continuous fetal monitoring before such devices can be used clinically. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. B meson proper time measurements with the LHCb experiment impact on physics parameters and calibration methods

    CERN Document Server

    Balbi, G

    2007-01-01

    The LHCb (Large Hadron Collider beauty) experiment is one of the four experiments at the LHC, and is specifically dedicated to explore the B-meson dynamics. To this end, LHCb will exploit the large beauty production cross section, expected to be about 500 µb at 14 TeV p-p collisions. Differently from the B-factory case, the hadronization of the b-quarks at LHC will generate all the possible B-hadrons, remarkably the Bs and Bc mesons, where the present experimental knowledge is still rather poor. The number of b/b_bar pairs produced at the LHCb interaction point will be of the order of 10^12 per year, allowing for the search of extremely rare decays, with branching fractions at the level of 10^-9. In order to reduce the acquisition rate to a sustainable level (order of 2 kHz), maintaining at the same time a high efficiency on the signals of interest, LHCb is provided with an efficient and flexible trigger system. LHCb, by means of its vertex detector, will be able to reconstruct the proper time of decays wi...

  4. Learning Analytics Architecture to Scaffold Learning Experience through Technology-based Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannicke Madeleine Baalsrud Hauge

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of delivering personalized learning experiences is often increased by the size of classrooms and online learning communities. Serious Games (SGs are increasingly recognized for their potential to improve education. However, the issues related to their development and their level of effectiveness can be seriously affected when brought too rapidly into growing online learning communities. Deeper insights into how the students are playing is needed to deliver a comprehensive and intelligent learning framework that facilitates better understanding of learners' knowledge, effective assessment of their progress and continuous evaluation and optimization of the environments in which they learn. This paper discusses current SOTA and aims to explore the potential in the use of games and learning analytics towards scaffolding and supporting teaching and learning experience. The conceptual model (ecosystem and architecture discussed in this paper aims to highlight the key considerations that may advance the current state of learning analytics, adaptive learning and SGs, by leveraging SGs as an suitable medium for gathering data and performing adaptations.

  5. Faculty Members' Perceived Experiences and Impact of Cyberbullying from Students at a Canadian University: A Mixed Methods Study

    OpenAIRE

    Blizard, Lida Marie

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods study was conducted at a Canadian University in 2012, using an online survey and individual interviews to explore faculty members’ perceived experiences of having aggressive, intimidating, defaming, or threatening message(s) sent to them or about them by students via electronic media. Limited empirical research on this issue within the context of higher education led the researcher to draw from literature on workplace bullying, academic bullying, and K-12 sector cyberbullyi...

  6. An accurate Rb density measurement method for a plasma wakefield accelerator experiment using a novel Rb reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Öz, E.; Batsch, F.; Muggli, P.

    2016-09-01

    A method to accurately measure the density of Rb vapor is described. We plan on using this method for the Advanced Wakefield (AWAKE) (Assmann et al., 2014 [1]) project at CERN , which will be the world's first proton driven plasma wakefield experiment. The method is similar to the hook (Marlow, 1967 [2]) method and has been described in great detail in the work by Hill et al. (1986) [3]. In this method a cosine fit is applied to the interferogram to obtain a relative accuracy on the order of 1% for the vapor density–length product. A single-mode, fiber-based, Mach–Zenhder interferometer will be built and used near the ends of the 10 meter-long AWAKE plasma source to be able to make accurate relative density measurement between these two locations. This can then be used to infer the vapor density gradient along the AWAKE plasma source and also change it to the value desired for the plasma wakefield experiment. Here we describe the plan in detail and show preliminary results obtained using a prototype 8 cm long novel Rb vapor cell.

  7. Resistivity Correction Factor for the Four-Probe Method: Experiment I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masato; Yamaguchi, Shoji; Enjoji, Hideo

    1988-05-01

    Experimental verification of the theoretically derived resistivity correction factor (RCF) is presented. Resistivity and sheet resistance measurements by the four-probe method are made on three samples: isotropic graphite, ITO film and Au film. It is indicated that the RCF can correct the apparent variations of experimental data to yield reasonable resistivities and sheet resistances.

  8. Active Teaching Methods: Personal Experience of Integrating Spiritual and Moral Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Tengku Sarina Aini Tengku; Yusoff, Yusmini Md

    2014-01-01

    Islamic education has always recognized spiritual and moral values as significant elements in developing a "balanced" human being. One way of demonstrating spiritual and moral concepts is through effective teaching methods that integrate and forefront these values. This article offers an investigation of how the authors' teaching…

  9. An analytical method to simulate the H I 21-cm visibility signal for intensity mapping experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Anjan Kumar; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Marthi, Visweshwar Ram

    2018-01-01

    Simulations play a vital role in testing and validating H I 21-cm power spectrum estimation techniques. Conventional methods use techniques like N-body simulations to simulate the sky signal which is then passed through a model of the instrument. This makes it necessary to simulate the H I distribution in a large cosmological volume, and incorporate both the light-cone effect and the telescope's chromatic response. The computational requirements may be particularly large if one wishes to simulate many realizations of the signal. In this paper, we present an analytical method to simulate the H I visibility signal. This is particularly efficient if one wishes to simulate a large number of realizations of the signal. Our method is based on theoretical predictions of the visibility correlation which incorporate both the light-cone effect and the telescope's chromatic response. We have demonstrated this method by applying it to simulate the H I visibility signal for the upcoming Ooty Wide Field Array Phase I.

  10. Understanding the Subjective Experiences of the Chief Diversity Officer: A Q Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravley-Stack, Kara; Ray, Chris M.; Peterson, Claudette M.

    2016-01-01

    The research presented within this study focuses on the work of postsecondary institutional leaders, chief diversity officers (CDOs), who are change agents within the academy to address historical inequalities in education. Applying the Inclusive Excellence Change Model as the theoretical framework to guide this Q Method study, the researchers…

  11. Methods for interpreting lists of affected genes obtained in a DNA microarray experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Jakob; Arce, Christina; Bicciato, Silvio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe and compare the methods used and the results obtained by the participants in a joint EADGENE (European Animal Disease Genomic Network of Excellence) and SABRE (Cutting Edge Genomics for Sustainable Animal Breeding) workshop focusing on post analysis of microa...

  12. Curiosity and Pedagogy: A Mixed-Methods Study of Student Experiences in the Design Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Korydon H.

    2010-01-01

    Curiosity is often considered the foundation of learning. There is, however, little understanding of how (or if) pedagogy in higher education affects student curiosity, especially in the studio setting of architecture, interior design, and landscape architecture. This study used mixed-methods to investigate curiosity among design students in the…

  13. A Teaching Experience with the Suggestopaedic Method. Reports, Studies, Conferences: Round Table with Dr. Lozanov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racle, Gabriel, Ed.

    Experimental courses in learning French were given to Anglophone public servants under the Lozanov method (suggestopedia) as adapted for use in a Canadian situational context. This book (an English-French bilingual edition) describes the introduction of suggestopedia to Canada and provides information on and clarification of the principles and…

  14. Comparison of CAD Formulas, Method of Moments and Experiments for Rectangular Microstrip Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Novacek

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Calculations of several cases for rectangular microstrip patchantennas using more accurate cavity model have been compared with theconventional cavity calculations, expressions generated by curvefitting to full wave solutions and method of moments. Calculated aswell as experimental values have been studied for different thickness,patch sizes and substrate materials with different permittivities andlosses.

  15. Applying the Mixed Methods Instrument Development and Construct Validation Process: the Transformative Experience Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Sondergeld, Toni A.; Stewart, Victoria C.; Pugh, Kevin J.

    2018-01-01

    Onwuegbuzie and colleagues proposed the Instrument Development and Construct Validation (IDCV) process as a mixed methods framework for creating and validating measures. Examples applying IDCV are lacking. We provide an illustrative case integrating the Rasch model and cognitive interviews applied to the development of the Transformative…

  16. Attentuation of Free Riding in Environmental Valuation : Evidence from Field Experiment: Contingent Valuation Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kitessa, Rahel Jigi

    2017-01-01

    Standard economic theory suggests that agents make decision based on the outcomes. Subsequently, environmental valuation using contingent valuation method (CVM) assumes the agent’s valuation of a given environmental good is based on the (expected) results. However, Bulte et al. (2005) found that

  17. Using different methods to communicate: how adults with severe acquired communication difficulties make decisions about the communication methods they use and how they experience them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Helen; Carpenter, Christine

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore how adults with severe acquired communication difficulties experience and make decisions about the communication methods they use. The primary objectives were to explore their perceptions of different communication methods, how they choose communication methods to use in different situations and with different communication partners, and what facilitates their decision-making. A qualitative phenomenological approach was used. Data collection methods were face-to-face video-recorded interviews using each participant's choice of communication method and e-mail interviews. The methodological challenges of involving participants with severe acquired communication disorders in research were addressed in the study design. Seven participants, all men, were recruited from a long-term care setting in a rehabilitation hospital. The data analysis process was guided by Colaizzi's (1978) analytic framework. Four main themes were identified: communicating in the digital age – e-mail and social media, encountering frustrations in using communication technologies, role and identity changes and the influences of communication technology and seeking a functional interaction using communication technologies. Adults with acquired communication difficulties find digital communication, such as e-mail and social media, and mainstream technologies, such as iPads, beneficial in communicating with others. Current communication technologies present a number of challenges for adults with disabilities and are limited in their communicative functions to support desired interactions. The implications for AAC technology development and speech and language therapy service delivery are addressed.

  18. An Experiment of Ocular Artifacts Elimination from EEG Signals using ICA and PCA Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjon Turnip

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the modern world of automation, biological signals, especially Electroencephalogram (EEG is gaining wide attention as a source of biometric information. Eye-blinks and movement of the eyeballs produce electrical signals (contaminate the EEG signals that are collectively known as ocular artifacts. These noise signals are required to be separated from the EEG signals to obtain the accurate results. This paper reports an experiment of ocular artifacts elimination from EEG signal using blind source separation algorithm based on independent component analysis and principal component analysis. EEG signals are recorded on three conditions, which are normal conditions, closed eyes, and blinked eyes. After processing, the dominant frequency of EEG signals in the range of 12-14 Hz either on normal, closed, and blinked eyes conditions is obtained. 

  19. Radionuclide scrotal imaging: further experience with 210 patients. Part I. Anatomy, pathophysiology, and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.C.P.; Holder, L.E.; Melloul, M.

    1983-08-01

    Ten years' experience with radionuclide scrotal imaging (RSI) to evaluate perfusion of the scrotal contents has confirmed the value of this examination. In 1973, Nadel et al. first proposed using sodium pertechnetate (Tc-99m) to diagnose testicular torsion. By the end of 1982, more than thirty articles have been published on this topic, with most emphasizing the usefulness of RSI in managing patients with acute scrotal pain. The present communication describes our findings in 210 patients, not previously reported. There were four groups with relatively distinct clinical presentations: (a) acute scrotal pain, (b) chronic scrotal pain, (c) scrotal injury, and (d) scrotal mass. The anatomic and pathophysiologic bases for the scan findings will be emphasized. We discuss the staging of testicular torsion; viability of the compromised testicle; variability in the presentation of acute infection; anatomy of trauma, varicocele, and inguinal hernia; and the correlation with scrotal sonography.

  20. In-depth performance evaluation of PFP and ESG sequence-based function prediction methods in CAFA 2011 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitale Meghana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Automatic Function Prediction (AFP methods were developed to cope with an increasing growth of the number of gene sequences that are available from high throughput sequencing experiments. To support the development of AFP methods, it is essential to have community wide experiments for evaluating performance of existing AFP methods. Critical Assessment of Function Annotation (CAFA is one such community experiment. The meeting of CAFA was held as a Special Interest Group (SIG meeting at the Intelligent Systems in Molecular Biology (ISMB conference in 2011. Here, we perform a detailed analysis of two sequence-based function prediction methods, PFP and ESG, which were developed in our lab, using the predictions submitted to CAFA. Results We evaluate PFP and ESG using four different measures in comparison with BLAST, Prior, and GOtcha. In addition to the predictions submitted to CAFA, we further investigate performance of a different scoring function to rank order predictions by PFP as well as PFP/ESG predictions enriched with Priors that simply adds frequently occurring Gene Ontology terms as a part of predictions. Prediction accuracies of each method were also evaluated separately for different functional categories. Successful and unsuccessful predictions by PFP and ESG are also discussed in comparison with BLAST. Conclusion The in-depth analysis discussed here will complement the overall assessment by the CAFA organizers. Since PFP and ESG are based on sequence database search results, our analyses are not only useful for PFP and ESG users but will also shed light on the relationship of the sequence similarity space and functions that can be inferred from the sequences.

  1. In-depth performance evaluation of PFP and ESG sequence-based function prediction methods in CAFA 2011 experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitale, Meghana; Khan, Ishita K; Kihara, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    Many Automatic Function Prediction (AFP) methods were developed to cope with an increasing growth of the number of gene sequences that are available from high throughput sequencing experiments. To support the development of AFP methods, it is essential to have community wide experiments for evaluating performance of existing AFP methods. Critical Assessment of Function Annotation (CAFA) is one such community experiment. The meeting of CAFA was held as a Special Interest Group (SIG) meeting at the Intelligent Systems in Molecular Biology (ISMB) conference in 2011. Here, we perform a detailed analysis of two sequence-based function prediction methods, PFP and ESG, which were developed in our lab, using the predictions submitted to CAFA. We evaluate PFP and ESG using four different measures in comparison with BLAST, Prior, and GOtcha. In addition to the predictions submitted to CAFA, we further investigate performance of a different scoring function to rank order predictions by PFP as well as PFP/ESG predictions enriched with Priors that simply adds frequently occurring Gene Ontology terms as a part of predictions. Prediction accuracies of each method were also evaluated separately for different functional categories. Successful and unsuccessful predictions by PFP and ESG are also discussed in comparison with BLAST. The in-depth analysis discussed here will complement the overall assessment by the CAFA organizers. Since PFP and ESG are based on sequence database search results, our analyses are not only useful for PFP and ESG users but will also shed light on the relationship of the sequence similarity space and functions that can be inferred from the sequences.

  2. Goggatomy: a Method for Opening Small Cuticular Compartments in Arthropods for Physiological Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R Kay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Most sense organs of arthropods are ensconced in small exoskeletal compartments that hinder direct access to plasma membranes. We have developed a method for exposing live sensory and supporting cells in such structures. The technique uses a viscous light cured resin to embed and support the structure, which is then sliced with a sharp blade. We term the procedure a ‘goggatomy’, from the Khoisan word for a bug, gogga. To demonstrate the utility of the method we show that it can be used to expose the auditory chordotonal organs in the second antennal segment and the olfactory receptor neurons in the third antennal segment of Drosophila melanogaster, preserving the transduction machinery. The procedure can also be used on other small arthropods, like mosquitoes and mites to expose a variety of cells.

  3. A Two-Phase Support Method for Solving Linear Programs: Numerical Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohand Bentobache

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a single artificial variable technique to initialize the primal support method for solving linear programs with bounded variables. We first recall the full artificial basis technique, then we will present the proposed algorithm. In order to study the performances of the suggested algorithm, an implementation under the MATLAB programming language has been developed. Finally, we carry out an experimental study about CPU time and iterations number on a large set of the NETLIB test problems. These test problems are practical linear programs modelling various real-life problems arising from several fields such as oil refinery, audit staff scheduling, airline scheduling, industrial production and allocation, image restoration, multisector economic planning, and data fitting. It has been shown that our approach is competitive with our implementation of the primal simplex method and the primal simplex algorithm implemented in the known open-source LP solver LP_SOLVE.

  4. Industrial Process Identification and Control Design Step-test and Relay-experiment-based Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tao

    2012-01-01

      Industrial Process Identification and Control Design is devoted to advanced identification and control methods for the operation of continuous-time processes both with and without time delay, in industrial and chemical engineering practice.   The simple and practical step- or relay-feedback test is employed when applying the proposed identification techniques, which are classified in terms of common industrial process type: open-loop stable; integrating; and unstable, respectively. Correspondingly, control system design and tuning models that follow are presented for single-input-single-output processes.   Furthermore, new two-degree-of-freedom control strategies and cascade control system design methods are explored with reference to independently-improving, set-point tracking and load disturbance rejection. Decoupling, multi-loop, and decentralized control techniques for the operation of multiple-input-multiple-output processes are also detailed. Perfect tracking of a desire output trajectory is realiz...

  5. Understanding experiences and outcomes in treatment of binge eating disorder and obesity: A mixed method study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Lene; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht

    and obesity. Treatment is found effective in reducing eating disorder symptomatology, but rarely leads to weight loss. It is still unknown how the issue of obesity can be addressed in BED treatment without increasing the risk of binge eating relapse. Objectives: The study is an explorative investigation...... of the outcome of a newly developed group based treatment that combines psychotherapy and either weight loss or well-being components for patients with binge eating disorders and obesity. Methods: The study uses a convergent mixed methods design. Qualitative and quantitative data are gathered using in......Background: Binge eating disorder (BED) has recently been recognized as a diagnosis in the DSM-5 (Diagnostic Manual of Mental Disorders). BED is a severe eating disorder with physical, social and psychological consequences. The prevalence of BED is 2-3% and the majority develop weight problems...

  6. Urinary catecholamine metabolites: Capillary gas chromatography method and experience with 12 cases of neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grkovic, Sanja; Nikolic, Rajko; Dordevic, Maja; Stojanov, Ljubomir

    2005-07-01

    We propose a rapid, simple metodology for routine analysis of human urine to detect vanillylmandelic and homovanillic acid related to neuroblastoma. The assay were specific capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. In this methodology an internal standard is used and the procedure involves ethyl ester formation without isolation of the compounds of interest. The run time is 36 minutes. We also report quantitative results for urinary vanillylmandelic and homovanillic acid in neuroblastoma patients, demonstrating the diagnostic value of this method.

  7. How to carry out interdisciplinary legal research
    Some experiences with an interdisciplinary research method

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy Schrama

    2011-01-01

    Interdisciplinary legal research, in which non-legal data are combined with legal data, is a fairly new branch of legal scholarship in the Netherlands. Although it improves the possibilities to measure the effectiveness of legal instruments, it also raises numerous methodological questions, such as a lack of matching empirical data and the translation of legal concepts in socio-empirical terms. Both the pros and cons of the interdisciplinary research method will be addressed and illustrated o...

  8. Tevatron Beam Halo Collimation System: Design, Operational Experience and New Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhov, Nikolai; Annala, Jerry; Carrigan, Richard; Church, Michael; Drozhdin, Alexander; Johnson, Todd; Robert, Reilly; Shiltsev, Vladimir; Stancari, Guilio; Still, Dean; Valishev, Alexander; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Zvoda, Viktoriya

    2012-01-01

    Collimation of proton and antiproton beams in the Tevatron collider is required to protect CDF and D0 detectors and minimize their background rates, to keep irradiation of superconducting magnets under control, to maintain long-term operational reliability, and to reduce the impact of beam-induced radiation on the environment. In this article we briefly describe the design, practical implementation and performance of the collider collimation system, methods to control transverse and longitudi...

  9. Oil refinery experience with the assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters using biologically based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comber, Michael H I; Girling, Andrew; den Haan, Klaas H; Whale, Graham

    2015-10-01

    The trend in discharges of petroleum-related substances from refineries in Europe shows a consistent picture of declining emissions, since first measured in 1969. This decline coincides with enhanced internal capture or recycling procedures and increasing use of physical and biological treatments. At the same time, and partly in response to legislative drivers, there has been an increase in the use of chronic (long-term) toxicity tests and alternative methods for assessing the quality of effluent discharges. The Whole Effluent Assessment (WEA) approach has also driven the increased conduct of studies addressing the fate of effluent constituents. Such studies have included the use of biodegradation and solid-phase micro-extraction-biomimetic extraction (SPME-BE) methods to address potentially bioaccumulative substances (PBS). In this way, it is then possible to address the persistence and toxicity of these PBS constituents of an effluent. The data collected in various case studies highlights the advantages and pitfalls of using biologically-based methods to assess the potential for refinery effluents to cause environmental impacts. © 2015 SETAC.

  10. [A brief history of resuscitation - the influence of previous experience on modern techniques and methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucmin, Tomasz; Płowaś-Goral, Małgorzata; Nogalski, Adam

    2015-02-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is relatively novel branch of medical science, however first descriptions of mouth-to-mouth ventilation are to be found in the Bible and literature is full of descriptions of different resuscitation methods - from flagellation and ventilation with bellows through hanging the victims upside down and compressing the chest in order to stimulate ventilation to rectal fumigation with tobacco smoke. The modern history of CPR starts with Kouwenhoven et al. who in 1960 published a paper regarding heart massage through chest compressions. Shortly after that in 1961Peter Safar presented a paradigm promoting opening the airway, performing rescue breaths and chest compressions. First CPR guidelines were published in 1966. Since that time guidelines were modified and improved numerously by two leading world expert organizations ERC (European Resuscitation Council) and AHA (American Heart Association) and published in a new version every 5 years. Currently 2010 guidelines should be obliged. In this paper authors made an attempt to present history of development of resuscitation techniques and methods and assess the influence of previous lifesaving methods on nowadays technologies, equipment and guidelines which allow to help those women and men whose life is in danger due to sudden cardiac arrest. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  11. Boosting Deuteron Polarization in HD Targets: Experience of moving spins between H and D with RF methods during the E06-101 experiment at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xiangdong; Bass, Christopher; D' Angelo, Annalisa; Deur, Alexandre; Dezern, Gary; Kageya, Tsuneo; Laine, Vivien; Lowry, Michael; Sandorfi, Andrew; Teachey, Robert; Wang, Haipeng; Whisnant, Charles

    2014-06-01

    Solid HDice targets are polarized by bringing the HD crystal to thermal equilibrium at low temperature and high magnetic field, typically 10-20 mK and 15 Tesla, at Jefferson Lab. In this regime, due to its smaller magnetic moment, the resulting polarization for D is always at least three times smaller than for H. The controlled amount of polarizing catalysts, o-H2 and p-D2, used in the process of reaching a frozen-spin state, further limit the maximum achievable D polarization. Nonetheless, H and D polarizations can be transferred from one to the other by connecting the H and D sub-states of the HD system with RF. In a large target, the RF power needed for such transitions is effectively limited by non-uniformities in the RF field. High efficiency transfers can require substantial RF power levels, and a tuned-RF circuit is needed to prevent large temperature excursions of the holding cryostat. In this paper, we compare the advantages and limitations of two different RF transfer methods to increase D polarization, Forbidden Adiabatic and Saturated Forbidden RF Transitions. The experience with the HD targets used during the recently completed E06-101 experiment in Hall-B of Jefferson Lab is discussed.

  12. Assessment of two theoretical methods to estimate potentiometric titration curves of peptides: comparison with experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Joanna; Bagiñska, Katarzyna; Makowski, Mariusz; Jagielska, Anna; Liwo, Adam; Kasprzykowski, Franciszek; Chmurzyñski, Lech; Scheraga, Harold A

    2006-03-09

    We compared the ability of two theoretical methods of pH-dependent conformational calculations to reproduce experimental potentiometric titration curves of two models of peptides: Ac-K5-NHMe in 95% methanol (MeOH)/5% water mixture and Ac-XX(A)7OO-NH2 (XAO) (where X is diaminobutyric acid, A is alanine, and O is ornithine) in water, methanol (MeOH), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), respectively. The titration curve of the former was taken from the literature, and the curve of the latter was determined in this work. The first theoretical method involves a conformational search using the electrostatically driven Monte Carlo (EDMC) method with a low-cost energy function (ECEPP/3 plus the SRFOPT surface-solvation model, assumming that all titratable groups are uncharged) and subsequent reevaluation of the free energy at a given pH with the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, considering variable protonation states. In the second procedure, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are run with the AMBER force field and the generalized Born model of electrostatic solvation, and the protonation states are sampled during constant-pH MD runs. In all three solvents, the first pKa of XAO is strongly downshifted compared to the value for the reference compounds (ethylamine and propylamine, respectively); the water and methanol curves have one, and the DMSO curve has two jumps characteristic of remarkable differences in the dissociation constants of acidic groups. The predicted titration curves of Ac-K5-NHMe are in good agreement with the experimental ones; better agreement is achieved with the MD-based method. The titration curves of XAO in methanol and DMSO, calculated using the MD-based approach, trace the shape of the experimental curves, reproducing the pH jump, while those calculated with the EDMC-based approach and the titration curve in water calculated using the MD-based approach have smooth shapes characteristic of the titration of weak multifunctional acids with small differences

  13. Methods of computer experiment in gamma-radiation technologies using new radiation sources

    CERN Document Server

    Bratchenko, M I; Rozhkov, V V

    2001-01-01

    Presented id the methodology of computer modeling application for physical substantiation of new irradiation technologies and irradiators design work flow. Modeling tasks for irradiation technologies are structured along with computerized methods of their solution and appropriate types of software. Comparative analysis of available packages for Monte-Carlo modeling of electromagnetic processes in media is done concerning their application to irradiation technologies problems. The results of codes approbation and preliminary data on gamma-radiation absorbed dose distributions for nuclides of conventional sources and prospective Europium-based gamma-sources are presented.

  14. Patient experiences of training and transition to home haemodialysis: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Camilla S; Chapman, Jeremy R; Craig, Jonathan C; Harris, David C; Kairaitis, Lukas K; Nicdao, Maryann; Mikaheal, Mary; Tong, Allison

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to describe patients' perspectives on the transition to home haemodialysis. Up to three sequential semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 patients during the transition to home haemodialysis at an Australian renal unit. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Participants completed a satisfaction questionnaire after commencing home haemodialysis. We identified six themes: persevering despite trepidations (diminishing intimidation of machinery, acquiescing to fatal risks, reconciling fears of cannulation, dispelling concerns of neglect and tolerating necessary concessions); optimizing the learning pathway (practising problem solving, learning from mistakes, grasping technical complexity, minimizing cognitive overload and progressing at own pace); developing confidence (believing in own abilities, adapting to independence, depending on caregiver partnership and faith in crisis support); interrupted transition momentum (lacking individual attention, language barriers, installation delays, interfering illness and complications and acclimatizing to new conditions); noticing immediate gains (reclaiming lifestyle normality, satisfying self-sufficiency, personalizing treatment regime and thriving in a positive environment); and depleting resources and energy (exhaustion with gruelling routine, confronting medicalization of the home, draining financial reserves and imposing family burden). Fewer than 30% of respondents indicated low satisfaction with staff availability domains, staff interpersonal domains or technical domains. Home haemodialysis training fosters confidence in patients; however, many patients experience stress because of medical isolation, treatment responsibilities, family impositions and financial difficulties. Addressing patient's on-going psychosocial concerns may alleviate burdens on patients and their families during the transition to home haemodialysis. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  15. Consumer experience of formal crisis-response services and preferred methods of crisis intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarato, Kara; Lee, Stuart; Kroschel, Jon; Hollander, Yitzchak; Brennan, Alice; Warren, Narelle

    2014-08-01

    The manner in which people with mental illness are supported in a crisis is crucial to their recovery. The current study explored mental health consumers' experiences with formal crisis services (i.e. police and crisis assessment and treatment (CAT) teams), preferred crisis supports, and opinions of four collaborative interagency response models. Eleven consumers completed one-on-one, semistructured interviews. The results revealed that the perceived quality of previous formal crisis interventions varied greatly. Most participants preferred family members or friends to intervene. However, where a formal response was required, general practitioners and mental health case managers were preferred; no participant wanted a police response, and only one indicated a preference for CAT team assistance. Most participants welcomed collaborative crisis interventions. Of four collaborative interagency response models currently being trialled internationally, participants most strongly supported the Ride-Along Model, which enables a police officer and a mental health clinician to jointly respond to distressed consumers in the community. The findings highlight the potential for an interagency response model to deliver a crisis response aligned with consumers' preferences. © 2014 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  16. How patients experience progressive loss of visual function: a model of adjustment using qualitative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayeems, R Z; Geller, G; Finkelstein, D; Faden, R R

    2005-05-01

    People with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) experience functional and psychological challenges as they adjust to progressive loss of visual function. The authors aimed to understand better the process of adjusting to RP in light of the emotional suffering associated with this process. Adults with RP were recruited from the Foundation Fighting Blindness and the Wilmer Eye Institute in Baltimore. Focus groups and semistructured interviews addressed the process of adjusting to RP and were audiotaped and transcribed. The transcripts were analysed qualitatively in order to generate a model of adjustment. A total of 43 individuals participated. It was found that, on diagnosis, people with RP seek to understand its meaning in their lives. Mastering the progressive functional implications associated with RP is contingent upon shifting personal identity from a sighted to a visually impaired person. In this sample, six participants self identified as sighted, 10 self identified as in transition, and 27 self identified as visually impaired. This adjustment process can be understood in terms of a five stage model of behaviour change. The proposed model presents one way to understand the process of adjusting to RP and could assist ophthalmologists in meeting their moral obligation to lessen patients' suffering, which arises in the course of their adjustment to progressive loss of visual function.

  17. Blending Qualitative and Computational Linguistics Methods for Fidelity Assessment: Experience with the Familias Unidas Preventive Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Carlos; Pantin, Hilda; Villamar, Juan; Prado, Guillermo; Tapia, Maria; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Cruden, Gracelyn; Brown, C Hendricks

    2015-09-01

    Careful fidelity monitoring and feedback are critical to implementing effective interventions. A wide range of procedures exist to assess fidelity; most are derived from observational assessments (Schoenwald and Garland, Psycholog Assess 25:146-156, 2013). However, these fidelity measures are resource intensive for research teams in efficacy/effectiveness trials, and are often unattainable or unmanageable for the host organization to rate when the program is implemented on a large scale. We present a first step towards automated processing of linguistic patterns in fidelity monitoring of a behavioral intervention using an innovative mixed methods approach to fidelity assessment that uses rule-based, computational linguistics to overcome major resource burdens. Data come from an effectiveness trial of the Familias Unidas intervention, an evidence-based, family-centered preventive intervention found to be efficacious in reducing conduct problems, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic youth. This computational approach focuses on "joining," which measures the quality of the working alliance of the facilitator with the family. Quantitative assessments of reliability are provided. Kappa scores between a human rater and a machine rater for the new method for measuring joining reached 0.83. Early findings suggest that this approach can reduce the high cost of fidelity measurement and the time delay between fidelity assessment and feedback to facilitators; it also has the potential for improving the quality of intervention fidelity ratings.

  18. Blending Qualitative and Computational Linguistics Methods for Fidelity Assessment: Experience with the Familias Unidas Preventive Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Carlos; Pantin, Hilda; Villamar, Juan; Prado, Guillermo; Tapia, Maria; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Cruden, Gracelyn; Brown, C Hendricks

    2014-01-01

    Careful fidelity monitoring and feedback are critical to implementing effective interventions. A wide range of procedures exist to assess fidelity; most are derived from observational assessments (Schoenwald et al, 2013). However, these fidelity measures are resource intensive for research teams in efficacy/effectiveness trials, and are often unattainable or unmanageable for the host organization to rate when the program is implemented on a large scale. We present a first step towards automated processing of linguistic patterns in fidelity monitoring of a behavioral intervention using an innovative mixed methods approach to fidelity assessment that uses rule-based, computational linguistics to overcome major resource burdens. Data come from an effectiveness trial of the Familias Unidas intervention, an evidence-based, family-centered preventive intervention found to be efficacious in reducing conduct problems, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic youth. This computational approach focuses on “joining,” which measures the quality of the working alliance of the facilitator with the family. Quantitative assessments of reliability are provided. Kappa scores between a human rater and a machine rater for the new method for measuring joining reached .83. Early findings suggest that this approach can reduce the high cost of fidelity measurement and the time delay between fidelity assessment and feedback to facilitators; it also has the potential for improving the quality of intervention fidelity ratings. PMID:24500022

  19. [Selecting methods and awaiting growth: the teaching experience of fundamental nursing practicum instructors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Chen; Lin, Chi-Yi; Chien, Tsui-Wei; Liu, Kuei-Fen; Chen, Miao-Yen; Lin, Wen-Chuan

    2013-02-01

    A constellation of factors accounts for teaching efficacy in the fundamental nursing practicum. Teachers play a critical role in terms of designing and executing an appropriate teaching plan, choosing effective methods, and holding appropriate teaching attitudes. It is thus extremely important that clinical teachers master the core characteristics of basic nursing practice. This study aimed to illuminate the core characteristics of basic nursing practice for students for reference by clinical practicum teachers. Qualitative research was used to identify the fundamentals of nursing practice by clinical teacher. Five focus group meetings were convened during the practice period. The researchers presided over group discussions held during the normal weekly teaching schedule and lasting approximately 2-4 hours each. The content analysis was adopted to analyze the data. Three major themes were proposed, including (1) student status: "novices were stymied by problems and thus improved slowly"; (2) teacher awareness: "teachers need to be aware of student capabilities, mood, and discomfort"; and (3) teaching style: "a good choice of methods should support and encourage students. To cultivate professional nursing knowledge and self-confidence for future professional commitment, clinical teachers must first understand the characteristics and motivations of learning of their students and then select the, skills, and attitudes appropriate to provide step-by-step guidance. Communication with staffs and the preparation of atmosphere prior to nursing practice are also essential for students. Results provide insights into the technical college environment with regard to basic-level clinical nursing practice.

  20. Methods for evaluation of medical care other than credentialing. Cost, experience, and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, P A

    1990-08-01

    Unfortunately, the majority of studies proposed to evaluate a physician's capabilities, such as effectiveness programs, outcome research, and hospital evaluation, do not focus directly on the individual practitioner. The certifying process, although imperfect, still offers the best method of evaluation. The other evaluation methods will need additional refinement to be able to individually analyze a specific physician's performance and determine whether he or she is truly providing the highest quality care. Physicians are being asked to document the effectiveness of their clinical decision making. On the surface this seems so simple, and in some areas where the outcome is either life or death or a specific yes or no type of answer, many have the capability to come forth with some realistic documentation. However, today's society is focused on health and the perfect outcome, and many nonlife-threatening therapies are evaluated by a patient's unrealistic expectation. Thus, the same result may be interpreted differently in one geographic area or by patients with different expectations. The biggest mistake would be to believe that outcome studies can be used to reduce cost. There may be some initial reduction or delays in treatment that suggest an immediate reduction of cost, the so-called sentinel effect, but no information or evidence indicates that these effects can be expanded without actually reducing needed health care services. In fact, the delays or obstruction to entering the health-care system experienced by many individuals often lead to more costly and less effective care with suboptimal results.

  1. Counseling psychology trainees' experiences with debt stress: a mixed methods examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson-Garriott, Amber N; Garriott, Patton O; Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien

    2015-04-01

    Financial debt accrued by graduate psychology students has increased in recent years and is a chief concern among psychology trainees (El-Ghoroury, Galper, Sawaqdeh, & Bufka, 2012). This study examined debt stress among counseling psychology trainees using a complementary mixed methods research design. Qualitative analyses (N = 11) using the consensual qualitative research method (CQR; Hill, Thompson, & Williams, 1997; Hill et al., 2005) revealed six domains, 15 categories, and 34 subcategories. Domains included social class contributions, institutional contributions, long-term effects, coping mechanisms, personal relationships, and effect on well-being. The transactional model of stress and coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) and social class worldview model (Liu, Soleck, Hopps, Dunston, & Pickett, 2004) guided quantitative analyses. Results of a path analysis (N = 285) indicated total debt and subjective social class were significant predictors of debt stress and that the relationship between debt stress and psychological distress was mediated by avoidant coping. Avoidant coping also moderated the association between debt stress and psychological distress. Results are discussed in relation to professional training and the career development of counseling psychology trainees. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Harmonization of dosimetric information obtained by different EPR methods: Experience of the Techa river study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volchkova, A. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, 68A, Vorovsky Str., 454076 Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Shishkina, E.A., E-mail: ElenaA.Shishkina@gmail.com [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, 68A, Vorovsky Str., 454076 Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Ivanov, D. [Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 18, S. Kovalevskoy Str., 620041 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Timofeev, Yu. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, 68A, Vorovsky Str., 454076 Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Fattibene, P.; Della Monaca, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Wieser, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Degteva, M.O. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, 68A, Vorovsky Str., 454076 Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15

    Between 1949 and 1956 the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia) was contaminated as a result of releases of radioactive waste by the Mayak Production Association. EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel has been used to estimate the external exposure of Techa riverside residents over the last 17 years. The database 'Tooth' of the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (URCRM) has accumulated about 1000 EPR measurements of tooth enamel from the rural population of the Urals region. The teeth were investigated by laboratories of Russia, USA, Germany and Italy. Most of the enamel samples were measured several times in different laboratories. Each laboratory used different equipment and its own methods for sample preparation and EPR spectra analysis. Even measurements performed at the same laboratory over 10-15 years may not be assumed as uniform: methods change with time, and equipment is subject to aging. These two factors influenced EPR performance. The purpose of this study is, therefore, the harmonization of EPR data accumulated during long-term dosimetric investigations in the Southern Urals for further pooled analysis. The results will be used for external dose evaluation in the Techa River region.

  3. A Method for Observing Soil Re-Deposition and Soil Loss Rates in Large Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Y. P.; Bugna, G. C.; Nemours, D.

    2014-12-01

    The lack of quality soil erosion field data, which is required for the verification and calibration of soil erosion models, has been one of the serious problems in the soil conservation modeling today. Observing soil erosion of a relatively large field under truly unobstructed runoff conditions has rarely been done and doccumented. Report here is the results of our observation of soil erosion in a 7.3 ha peanut-cotton cropping system in the Mears Farm of Grand Ridge, FL. We used the mesh-pad method to quantify soil loss from the field and soil re-deposition in the field over the cropping season of 2010. The main slope (1-3 %) of the field is about 210 m long. We show that the amount of soil re-deposition was 50-150 times of the soil loss from the slope. The corresponding organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorous and silt and clay contents of the lost soil, however, were 20.9%, 21%, 17.6% and 14.2%, respectively, of the total amounts re-deposited on the slope. The amounts of soil loss predicted by a SWAT model was 10-20 times greater than our observed values. Soil erosion process was quite heterogeneous, as shown by the mesh-pad method, even on a seemingly uniform cultivated field. Soil erosion models need to be verified and calibrated by extensive quality field data in order to improve their performance.

  4. Characterization and optimization of electrospun TiO2/PVP nanofibers using Taguchi design of experiment method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Albetran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanofibers were prepared within polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP polymer using a combination of sol–gel and electrospinning techniques. Based on a Taguchi design of experiment (DoE method, the effects of sol–gel and electrospinning on the TiO2/PVP nanofibers’ diameter, including titanium isopropoxide (TiP concentration, flow rate, needle tip-to-collector distance, and applied voltage were evaluated. The analysis of DoE experiments for nanofiber diameters demonstrated that TiP concentration was the most significant factor. An optimum combination to obtain smallest diameters was also determined with a minimum variation for electrospun TiO2/PVP nanofibers. The optimum combination was determined to be a 60% TiP concentration, at a flow rate of 1 ml/h, with the needle tip-to-collector distance at 11 cm (position a, and the applied voltage of 18 kV. This combination was further validated by conducting a confirmation experiment that used two different needles to study the effect of needle size. The average nanofiber diameter was approximately the same for both needle sizes in good accordance with the optimum condition estimated by the Taguchi DoE method.

  5. Remote Observing: Equipment, Methods and Experiences at the Dark Sky Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, Daniel B.; Hawkins, L.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last few years we have experimented with remote observing with the 32-inch telescope at our Dark Sky Observatory. We have used relatively inexpensive X10 control modules and software to control many electrical and electronic circuits and devices. User access is via a combination of Microsoft Remote Desktop and RealVNC. X10's ActiveHome Pro software provides the interface for device control. Data acquisition has been with a Photometrics CH250 CCD camera under control of PMIS. Our new imaging camera is an Apogee U42 controlled by MaximDL. In both cases the control over the Internet is by the RD/VNC interface. All of this goes through an ordinary DSL connection at the observatory and provides surprisingly good performance even with the user having only DSL access at home as well. Field acquisition for cases of telescope misalignment with the sky after an instrument changeover are provided by an ImagingSource DMK 41AU02-USB camera on a Vixen 80mm f/5 auxiliary telescope. In some cases, to prevent crashing PMIS due to buffer overrun/interrupt issues, the field alignment is monitored using a streaming Linksys webcam that looks at the data-acquisition PC's monitor. Autoguiding uses an SBIG ST-402 camera and either CCDOPS or MaximDL. While we have only done imaging via remote use, we are working to develop control of the spectrograph as well. Weather conditions are monitored with a combination of a Davis Vantage Pro weather station, a Boltwood cloud/precipitation detector, daytime webcams and an infrared-sensitive SBIG Meteor camera for night views of the sky. We are grateful for support for this work from National Science Foundation grants AST-0520812 and AST-0722491.

  6. Efficient model calibration method based on phase experiments for anaerobic-anoxic/nitrifying (A2N) two-sludge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongliang; Chen, Wenliang; Dai, Zheqin; Li, Xiang; Lu, Xiwu

    2017-08-01

    A systematic calibration and validation procedure for the complex mechanistic modeling of anaerobic-anoxic/nitrifying (A2N) two-sludge system is needed. An efficient method based on phase experiments, sensitivity analysis, and genetic algorithm is proposed here for model calibration. Phase experiments (anaerobic phosphorus release, aerobic nitrification, and anoxic denitrifying phosphate accumulation) in an A2N sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were performed to reflect the process conditions accurately and improve the model calibration efficiency. The calibrated model was further validated using 30 batch experiments and 3-month dynamic continuous flow (CF) experiments for A2N-SBR and CF-A2N process, respectively. Several statistical criteria were conducted to evaluate the accuracy of model predications, including the average relative deviation (ARD), mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and Janus coefficient. Visual comparisons and statistical analyses indicated that the calibrated model could provide accurate predictions for the effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 + -N), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP), with only one iteration.

  7. How to carry out interdisciplinary legal research
    Some experiences with an interdisciplinary research method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Schrama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Interdisciplinary legal research, in which non-legal data are combined with legal data, is a fairly new branch of legal scholarship in the Netherlands. Although it improves the possibilities to measure the effectiveness of legal instruments, it also raises numerous methodological questions, such as a lack of matching empirical data and the translation of legal concepts in socio-empirical terms. Both the pros and cons of the interdisciplinary research method will be addressed and illustrated on the basis of family law research which incorporates socio-empirical data. There are, however, no simple solutions to the pitfalls, but to create awareness of the potential problems may contribute to a better research design and, in the end, to better results.

  8. Women with breast cancer: experience of chemotherapy-induced pain: triangulation of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerstedt-Börjesson, Susanne; Nordin, Karin; Fjällskog, Marie-Louise; Holmström, Inger K; Arving, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy treatment for cancer diseases can cause body pain during adjuvant therapy. The aim was to describe the perceived impact of adjuvant chemotherapy-induced pain (CHIP) on the daily lives of women with newly diagnosed breast cancer, using triangulation. Fifty-seven women scheduled for chemotherapy in doses of 75 mg/m or greater of epirubicin and/or docetaxel participated. Twenty-two of these women registered pain with values of 4 or more on the visual analog scale on day 10 following chemotherapy. Of these 22, 16 participated in an interview and colored a printed body image. A qualitative thematic stepwise analysis of the interviews was performed. Chemotherapy-induced pain had a profound impact on daily life. Ten women reported the worst possible pain, with visual analog scale scores of 8 to 10. Three different categories crystallized: perception (A) of manageable pain, which allowed the women to maintain their daily lives; perception (B) of pain beyond imagination, whereby the impact of pain had become more complex; and perception (C) of crippling pain, challenging the women's confidence in survival. The findings highlight the inability to capture CHIP with 1 method only; it is thus necessary to use complimentary methods to capture pain. We found that pain had a considerable impact on daily life, with surprisingly high scores of perceived pain, findings that to date have been poorly investigated qualitatively. Nurses need to (1) better identify, understand and treat CHIP, using instruments and protocols; and (2) provide improved communication about pain and pain management.

  9. Results of clubfoot treatment after manipulation and casting using the Ponseti method: experience in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Tracey; Chandramohan, Daniel; Bruce, Jane; Kuper, Hannah; Lavy, Christopher; Foster, Allen

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of the Ponseti manipulation and casting method for clubfoot in a tertiary hospital in Zimbabwe and explore predictors of these outcomes. A cohort study included children with idiopathic clubfoot managed from 2011 to 2013 at Parirenyatwa Hospital. Demographic data, clinical features and treatment outcomes were extracted from clinic records. The primary outcome measure was the final Pirani score (clubfoot severity measure) after manipulation and casting. Secondary outcomes included change in Pirani score (pre-treatment to end of casting), number of casts for correction, proportion receiving tenotomy and proportion lost to follow up. A total of 218 children (337 feet) were eligible for inclusion. The median age at treatment was 8 months; 173 children (268 feet) completed casting treatment within the study period. The mean length of time for corrective treatment was 10.2 weeks (9.5-10.9 weeks). Of the 45 children who did not complete treatment, 28 were under treatment and 17 were lost to follow up. A Pirani score of 1 or less was achieved in 85% of feet. Mean Pirani score at presentation was 3.80 (SD 1.15) and post-treatment 0.80 (SD 0.56, P-value <0.0001). Severity of deformity and being male were associated with a higher (worse) final Pirani score. Severity and age over two were associated with an increase in the number of casts required to correct deformity. This case series demonstrates that the majority (80%+) of children with clubfoot can achieve a good outcome with the Ponseti manipulation and casting method. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. How cytogenetical methods help victims prove radiation exposure and claim right for social support: NCERM experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksanin, S., E-mail: Aleksanin@arcerm.spb.ru [Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine EMERCOM of Russia, (NRCERM) ul. Akademika Lebedeva 4/2, 194044 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Slozina, N., E-mail: NataliaSlozina@peterlink.ru [Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine EMERCOM of Russia, (NRCERM) ul. Akademika Lebedeva 4/2, 194044 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Neronova, E.; Smoliakov, E. [Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine EMERCOM of Russia, (NRCERM) ul. Akademika Lebedeva 4/2, 194044 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15

    Russian citizens who were irradiated because of radiation disasters, nuclear weapons testing and some other sources have a right to some social support and financial compensation. In order to get this compensation people have to prove that they were irradiated. As it is, not all victims for a variety of reasons have formal documents. Thus they apply for cytogenetic investigation to prove irradiation months, years and even decades after irradiation. Since 1992 the cytogenetic investigations related to radiation exposure were performed in NRCERM for more than 700 people. At the beginning of this investigation FISH method was not certified as a biodosimenty test in Russia. Only dicentric analysis was approved as a proof of irradiation. It is known that the rate of dicentrics decrease in time, but the residual level of cytogenetical markers could be revealed a long time after a radiation accident. Thus the dicentric analysis was performed for the people who applied for biological indication of radiation exposure at that time. Rates of dicentrics exceeding control levels were revealed in half the people who applied for radiation conformation. Now FISH method is certified in Russia and both cytogenetic tests of biodosimetry (dicentrics and FISH) are available for all comers. Increased levels of translocations were found in 8 cases (the dose rate from 0.16 to 0.64 Gy). On the basis of the results of cytogenetic tests official documents were supplied to these people and they were entitled to apply for radiation exposure compensation. Thus cytogenetic tests are very effective and in some cases the only possible way for the victims to prove irradiation exposure and to apply for radiation exposure compensation a long time after an accident.

  11. Assessing the impact of natural policy experiments on socioeconomic inequalities in health: how to apply commonly used quantitative analytical methods?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannan Hu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The scientific evidence-base for policies to tackle health inequalities is limited. Natural policy experiments (NPE have drawn increasing attention as a means to evaluating the effects of policies on health. Several analytical methods can be used to evaluate the outcomes of NPEs in terms of average population health, but it is unclear whether they can also be used to assess the outcomes of NPEs in terms of health inequalities. The aim of this study therefore was to assess whether, and to demonstrate how, a number of commonly used analytical methods for the evaluation of NPEs can be applied to quantify the effect of policies on health inequalities. Methods We identified seven quantitative analytical methods for the evaluation of NPEs: regression adjustment, propensity score matching, difference-in-differences analysis, fixed effects analysis, instrumental variable analysis, regression discontinuity and interrupted time-series. We assessed whether these methods can be used to quantify the effect of policies on the magnitude of health inequalities either by conducting a stratified analysis or by including an interaction term, and illustrated both approaches in a fictitious numerical example. Results All seven methods can be used to quantify the equity impact of policies on absolute and relative inequalities in health by conducting an analysis stratified by socioeconomic position, and all but one (propensity score matching can be used to quantify equity impacts by inclusion of an interaction term between socioeconomic position and policy exposure. Conclusion Methods commonly used in economics and econometrics for the evaluation of NPEs can also be applied to assess the equity impact of policies, and our illustrations provide guidance on how to do this appropriately. The low external validity of results from instrumental variable analysis and regression discontinuity makes these methods less desirable for assessing policy effects

  12. Arctic (and Antarctic) Observing Experiment - an Assessment of Methods to Measure Temperature over Polar Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigor, I. G.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Nghiem, S. V.; Hall, D. K.; Woods, J. E.; Henderson, G. R.; Zook, J.; Marshall, C.; Gallage, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic environment has been undergoing profound changes; the most visible is the dramatic decrease in Arctic sea ice extent (SIE). These changes pose a challenge to our ability to measure surface temperature across the Polar Regions. Traditionally, the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP) and International Programme for Antarctic Buoys (IPAB) have measured surface air temperature (SAT) at 2-m height, which minimizes the ambiguity of measurements near of the surface. Specifically, is the temperature sensor measuring open water, snow, sea ice, or air? But now, with the dramatic decrease in Arctic SIE, increase in open water during summer, and the frailty of the younger sea ice pack, the IABP has had to deploy and develop new instruments to measure temperature. These instruments include Surface Velocity Program (SVP) buoys, which are commonly deployed on the world's ice-free oceans and typically measure sea surface temperature (SST), and the new robust Airborne eXpendable Ice Beacons (AXIB), which measure both SST and SAT. "Best Practice" requires that these instruments are inter-compared, and early results showing differences in collocated temperature measurements of over 2°C prompted the establishment of the IABP Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX) buoy test site at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Barrow, Alaska. Preliminary results showed that the color of the hull of SVP buoys introduces a bias due to solar heating of the buoy. Since then, we have recommended that buoys should be painted white to reduce biases in temperature measurements due to different colors of the buoys deployed in different regions of the Arctic or the Antarctic. Measurements of SAT are more robust, but some of the temperature shields are susceptible to frosting. During our presentation we will provide an intercomparison of the temperature measurements at the AOX test site (i.e. high quality DOE/ARM observations compared with

  13. Experience of the Indirect Neutron Radiography Method Based on the X-ray Imaging Plate at CARR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guohai; Han, Songbai; Wang, Hongli; He, Linfeng; Wang, Yu; Wu, Meimei; Liu, Yuntao; Chen, Dongfeng

    Indirect neutron radiography (INR) experiments by X-ray imaging plate were carried out at the China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR). The key experiment parameters were optimized, especially the exposure time of the neutron converter andimaging plate. The optimized total exposure time is 37.25 min, it is two-fifths of the timebased on the film method under the same experimental conditions. The qualitative and quantitativeinspections were tested with dummy nuclear fuel rods and a water temperaturesensor ofa motor vehicle. The spring in the sensor and the defects of the dummy fuel rod's pellets can be qualitatively detected. The thickness of the tape at one position on the cladding of the dummy nuclear fuel rodwas quantitatively calculated to be 9.57 layers with the relative error of ±4.3%.

  14. Using Online Methods to Develop and Examine the Hong Kong Chinese Translation of the Dissociative Experiences Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chitat; Fung, Hong Wang; Choi, Tat Ming; Ross, Colin A

    2017-01-01

    Identifying dissociation is important for mental health services because it could fundamentally affect one's diagnosis and treatment plan. The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) is a widely-used self-report scale for measuring dissociative experiences. It has been translated into many languages and used in many countries. However, there is no validated Hong Kong Chinese version of the DES available in the field, and there is no other validated Hong Kong Chinese instrument for assessing dissociative disorders. This pilot study used online methods to translate the DES to Hong Kong Chinese (HKC-DES). The results indicated that the HKC-DES has excellent internal consistency (α = .953) and very good test-retest reliability (r = .797). Bilingual participants' responses to the DES and HKC-DES indicated high similarity, and were significantly correlated (r = .960). These results initially verified the reliability and cross-language equivalence of the scale. Implications for healthcare practice and research are discussed.

  15. Does the MUNIX Method Reflect Clinical Dysfunction in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Practical Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, Malgorzata; Kuzma-Kozakiewicz, Magdalena

    2016-05-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the usefulness of the MUNIX method in reflecting the clinical dysfunction in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), as well as to assess an intra-rater reproducibility of MUNIX. The study group consisted of a total of 15 ALS patients. The mean age of symptoms onset was 55 years, and the mean disease duration was 10 months. The muscle strength and patients' functional status were assessed according to the Medical Research Council (MRC) and by ALS functional rating scale revised (ALSFRS-R), respectively. The MUNIX was performed in 6 muscles: abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor digiti minimi (ADM), biceps brachii (BB), tibial anterior (TA), extensor digitorum brevis (EDB), and abductor hallucis (AH), unilaterally, at a less affected side. Both muscle-specific and global MRC and MUNIX scores were calculated. In 11 patients, the study protocol was repeated at least twice every 3 months. An additional testing of the intra-rater reliability was performed at the first visit.There were no significant differences between MUNIX test and re-test values in the APB, ADM, BB, TA, EDB, and AH muscles (P >0.05). The highest variability of the test-retest values was found in the BB muscle (7.53%). Although there was a significant test-retest difference in the global MUNIX score (P = 0.02), the variability of the results was as low as 1.26%. The MUNIX value correlated with the muscle-specific MRC score in ABP, ADM, TA, EDB and AH (P <0.05), and the global MUNIX values correlated with global MRC scores (P <0.05). There was also a significant correlation between the global MUNIX score and the clinical dysfunction measured by the ALSFRS-R scale (P <0.05). The global MUNIX showed a higher monthly decline (4.3%) as compared with ALFRS-R (0.7%) and the MRC global score (0.5%).This study confirms that the MUNIX method is a sensitive, reliable, and accurate tool reflecting both motor dysfunction and disease progression in ALS

  16. Optimization of a surfactant free polyol method for the synthesis of platinum-cobalt electrocatalysts using Taguchi design of experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grolleau, C. [Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique (LACCO), Universite de Poitiers, 40 av Recteur Pineau, F-86000 Poitiers (France); ST Microelectronics Tours, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-37100 Tours (France); Coutanceau, C.; Leger, J.-M. [Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique (LACCO), Universite de Poitiers, 40 av Recteur Pineau, F-86000 Poitiers (France); Pierre, F. [ST Microelectronics Tours, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-37100 Tours (France)

    2010-03-15

    A design of experiments (derived from the Taguchi method) was implemented to optimize experimental conditions of a surfactant free polyol method for the synthesis of PtCo electrocatalysts. Considered responses were the active surface area and the catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction. Metallic salt concentration, pH, temperature ramp, addition order of reactants and particle cleaning step were chosen as main parameters according to considerations coming from literature and previous experiments. Matrix models describing the behaviour of the synthesis system was elaborated taking into account the effects of each considered parameter and their interactions. From this model, an optimized PtCo/C catalyst, in terms of active surface area and activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction, was synthesized. Both the measured values of the active surface area and the electrocatalytic activity are in very good agreement with the calculated ones from the matrix model. Furthermore, actions of parameters and interactions between parameters can be better understood using this method. (author)

  17. Older People's Experiences of Mobility and Mood in an Urban Environment: A Mixed Methods Approach Using Electroencephalography (EEG) and Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Sara; Neale, Chris; Patuano, Agnès; Cinderby, Steve

    2017-02-04

    There are concerns about mental wellbeing in later life in older people as the global population becomes older and more urbanised. Mobility in the built environment has a role to play in improving quality of life and wellbeing, as it facilitates independence and social interaction. Recent studies using neuroimaging methods in environmental psychology research have shown that different types of urban environments may be associated with distinctive patterns of brain activity, suggesting that we interact differently with varying environments. This paper reports on research that explores older people's responses to urban places and their mobility in and around the built environment. The project aim was to understand how older people experience different urban environments using a mixed methods approach including electroencephalography (EEG), self-reported measures, and interview results. We found that older participants experience changing levels of "excitement", "engagement" and "frustration" (as interpreted by proprietary EEG software) whilst walking between a busy built urban environment and an urban green space environment. These changes were further reflected in the qualitative themes that emerged from transcribed interviews undertaken one week post-walk. There has been no research to date that has directly assessed neural responses to an urban environment combined with qualitative interview analysis. A synergy of methods offers a deeper understanding of the changing moods of older people across time whilst walking in city settings.

  18. Biological induced corrosion of materials II: New test methods and experiences from mir station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintworth, R.; Reher, H. J.; Viktorov, A. N.; Bohle, D.

    1999-09-01

    During previous long-term manned missions, more than 100 species of microorganisms have been identified on surfaces of materials (bacteria and fungi). Among them were potentially pathogenic ones (saprophytes) which are capable of active growth on artificial substrates, as well as technophilic bacteria and fungi causing damages (destruction and degradation) to various materials (metals and polymers), resulting in failures and disruptions in the functioning of equipment and hardware. Aboard a space vehicle some microclimatic parameters are optimal for microorganism growth: the atmospheric fluid condensate with its specific composition, chemical and/or antropogenic contaminants (human metobolic products, etc.) all are stimulating factors for the development of bacteria and mould fungi on materials of the interior and equipment of an orbital station during its operational phase(s). Especially Russian long-term missions (SALJUT, MIR) have demonstrated that uncontrolled interactions of microorganisms with materials will ultimately lead to the appearence of technological and medical risks, significantly influencing safety and reliability characteristics of individual as well as whole systems and/ or subsystems. For a first conclusion, it could be summarized, that countermeasures and anti-strategies focussing on Microbial Contamination Management (MCM) for the International Space Station (ISS, next long-term manned mission) at least require a new materials test approach. Our respective concept includes a combined age-ing/biocorrosion test sequence. It is represented here, as well as current status of MCM program, e.g. continuous monitoring (microbiological analyses), long-term disinfection, frequent cleaning methods, mathematical modeling of ISS, etc.

  19. Recover Act. Verification of Geothermal Tracer Methods in Highly Constrained Field Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Matthew W. [California State University, Long Beach, CA (United States)

    2014-05-16

    The prediction of the geothermal system efficiency is strong linked to the character of the flow system that connects injector and producer wells. If water flow develops channels or “short circuiting” between injection and extraction wells thermal sweep is poor and much of the reservoir is left untapped. The purpose of this project was to understand how channelized flow develops in fracture geothermal reservoirs and how it can be measured in the field. We explored two methods of assessing channelization: hydraulic connectivity tests and tracer tests. These methods were tested at a field site using two verification methods: ground penetrating radar (GPR) images of saline tracer and heat transfer measurements using distributed temperature sensing (DTS). The field site for these studies was the Altona Flat Fractured Rock Research Site located in northeastern New York State. Altona Flat Rock is an experimental site considered a geologic analog for some geothermal reservoirs given its low matrix porosity. Because soil overburden is thin, it provided unique access to saturated bedrock fractures and the ability image using GPR which does not effectively penetrate most soils. Five boreholes were drilled in a “five spot” pattern covering 100 m2 and hydraulically isolated in a single bedding plane fracture. This simple system allowed a complete characterization of the fracture. Nine small diameter boreholes were drilled from the surface to just above the fracture to allow the measurement of heat transfer between the fracture and the rock matrix. The focus of the hydraulic investigation was periodic hydraulic testing. In such tests, rather than pumping or injection in a well at a constant rate, flow is varied to produce an oscillating pressure signal. This pressure signal is sensed in other wells and the attenuation and phase lag between the source and receptor is an indication of hydraulic connection. We found that these tests were much more effective than constant

  20. A method for estimating the temperature in high energy density free electron laser experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Principi, Emiliano, E-mail: emiliano.principi@unicam.i [CNISM, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Camerino via Madonna delle Carceri, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Ferrante, Carino; Filipponi, Adriano [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi dell' Aquila, Via Vetoio, I-67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Bencivenga, Filippo; D' Amico, Francesco; Masciovecchio, Claudio [Synchrotron ELETTRA, Strada Statale 14-I-34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Di Cicco, Andrea [CNISM, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Camerino via Madonna delle Carceri, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); IMPMC, Universite Paris 6, CNRS, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France)

    2010-09-21

    Present and forthcoming free electron laser (FEL) large scale facilities deliver high fluence ultrafast soft and hard X-ray pulses able to create and probe warm dense matter (WDM). Proper diagnostic for basic physical quantities, like temperature and density, is necessary, but the short lifetime of the WDM state (few ps) makes their measurements a challenging task. In this work we propose a method to estimate the WDM temperature using the experimental information from a slow temperature pyrometric probe exploiting the properties of the heat diffusion equation. Numerical simulations show that for typical thin foil samples, a temperature measurement with 1-10{mu}s temporal resolution at the distance of about 300-500{mu}m from the beam center contains sufficient information to retrieve the initial spatial temperature distribution with sufficient accuracy providing information on the temperature reached in the WDM regime. The inversion of the experimental information is obtained by means of a Bayesian approach exploiting a Metropolis Monte Carlo numerical procedure. The model and calculations presented in this work provide the theoretical background for the development of a device for temperature diagnostics of the TIMEX end-station at the Fermi-Elettra FEL facility.

  1. Assessing the impact of natural policy experiments on socioeconomic inequalities in health: how to apply commonly used quantitative analytical methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yannan; van Lenthe, Frank J; Hoffmann, Rasmus; van Hedel, Karen; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2017-04-20

    The scientific evidence-base for policies to tackle health inequalities is limited. Natural policy experiments (NPE) have drawn increasing attention as a means to evaluating the effects of policies on health. Several analytical methods can be used to evaluate the outcomes of NPEs in terms of average population health, but it is unclear whether they can also be used to assess the outcomes of NPEs in terms of health inequalities. The aim of this study therefore was to assess whether, and to demonstrate how, a number of commonly used analytical methods for the evaluation of NPEs can be applied to quantify the effect of policies on health inequalities. We identified seven quantitative analytical methods for the evaluation of NPEs: regression adjustment, propensity score matching, difference-in-differences analysis, fixed effects analysis, instrumental variable analysis, regression discontinuity and interrupted time-series. We assessed whether these methods can be used to quantify the effect of policies on the magnitude of health inequalities either by conducting a stratified analysis or by including an interaction term, and illustrated both approaches in a fictitious numerical example. All seven methods can be used to quantify the equity impact of policies on absolute and relative inequalities in health by conducting an analysis stratified by socioeconomic position, and all but one (propensity score matching) can be used to quantify equity impacts by inclusion of an interaction term between socioeconomic position and policy exposure. Methods commonly used in economics and econometrics for the evaluation of NPEs can also be applied to assess the equity impact of policies, and our illustrations provide guidance on how to do this appropriately. The low external validity of results from instrumental variable analysis and regression discontinuity makes these methods less desirable for assessing policy effects on population-level health inequalities. Increased use of the

  2. The eating experience in long-term survivors of head and neck cancer: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzer, Heidi; Rothpletz-Puglia, Pamela; Byham-Gray, Laura; Murphy, Barbara A; Touger-Decker, Riva

    2015-11-01

    This study explored the eating experience in long-term survivors of head and neck cancer (HNC) ≥3 years post concurrent chemoradiation. Quality of life (QOL) and the meanings and perceptions survivors had as it related to the eating experience were explored. Purposive sampling was utilized; 10 long-term survivors of HNC participated in the study. A mixed-methods approach was used; exploratory qualitative research using content analysis and summary statistics was used to describe demographic and clinical characteristics and the Vanderbilt Head and Neck Symptom Survey version 2.0 scores (VHNSS 2.0). Four categories (psychological, social impact, functional status, and the current eating experience) containing 15 subthemes and 1 overarching theme (adaptation) emerged. Current health status, QOL, and QOL related to eating were viewed favorably despite the impact of treatment late effects on participants' daily lives. Adaptation and maladaptation in regard to food choice and downplaying of symptoms were recognized. Interviews as well as the VHNSS 2.0 scores indicated that xerostomia, mucosal sensitivity, swallowing difficulty, length of time required to eat, and dysgeusia remained problematic. Psychological, functional, and social losses associated with eating were identified. Participants modify or avoid foods that are challenging yet report enjoyment with eating. Challenges with eating were downplayed. Due to the potential negative nutritional and social implications of avoiding specific food/food groups, standard of care in long-term survivors of HNC should include assessment of the eating experience and functional challenges. Nutrition professional can help patients optimize dietary intake and the eating experience.

  3. The experiment to detect equivalent optical path difference in independent double aperture interference light path based on step scanning method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaoyan; Chen, Xin-yang; Zheng, Lixin; Ding, Yuanyuan

    2014-11-01

    Fringe test is the method which can detect the relative optical path difference in optical synthetic aperture telescope array. To get to the interference fringes, the two beams of light in the meeting point must be within the coherence length. Step scanning method is within its coherence length, selecting a specific step, changing one-way's optical path of both by changing position of micro displacement actuator. At the same time, every fringe pattern can be recorded. The process of fringe patterns is from appearing to clear to disappearing. Firstly, a particular pixel is selected. Then, we keep tract of the intensity of every picture in the same position. From the intensity change, the best position of relative optical path difference can be made sure. The best position of relative optical path difference is also the position of the clearest fringe. The wavelength of the infrared source is 1290nm and the bandwidth is 63.6nm. In this experiment, the coherence length of infrared source is detected by cube reflection experiment. The coherence length is 30μm by data collection and data processing, and that result of 30μm is less different from the 26μm of theoretical calculated. In order to further test the relative optical path of optical synthetic aperture using step scanning method, the infrared source is placed into optical route of optical synthesis aperture telescope double aperture. The precision position of actuator can be obtained when the fringe is the clearest. By the experiment, we found that the actuating step affects the degree of precision of equivalent optical path. The smaller step size, the more accurate position. But the smaller the step length, means that more steps within the coherence length measurement and the longer time.

  4. Some observations concerning blade-element-momentum (BEM) methods and vortex wake methods, including numerical experiments with a simple vortex model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snel, H. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, Renewable Energy, Wind Energy (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    Recently the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method has been made more versatile. Inclusion of rotational effects on time averaged profile coefficients have improved its achievements for performance calculations in stalled flow. Time dependence as a result of turbulent inflow, pitching actions and yawed operation is now treated more correctly (although more improvement is needed) than before. It is of interest to note that adaptations in modelling of unsteady or periodic induction stem from qualitative and quantitative insights obtained from free vortex models. Free vortex methods and further into the future Navier Stokes (NS) calculations, together with wind tunnel and field experiments, can be very useful in enhancing the potential of BEM for aero-elastic response calculations. It must be kept in mind however that extreme caution must be used with free vortex methods, as will be discussed in the following chapters. A discussion of the shortcomings and the strength of BEM and of vortex wake models is given. Some ideas are presented on how BEM might be improved without too much loss of efficiency. (EG)

  5. Improving patient experience in a pediatric ambulatory clinic: a mixed method appraisal of service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeteman, Marijn; Peters, Vera; Busari, Jamiu O

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, customer satisfaction surveys showed that patients were unhappy with the services provided at our ambulatory clinic. In response, we performed an appraisal of our services, which resulted in the development of a strategy to reduce waiting time and improve quality of service. Infrastructural changes to our clinic's waiting room, consultation rooms, and back offices were performed, and schedules were redesigned to reduce wait time to 10 minutes and increase consultation time to 20 minutes. Our objective was to identify if this would improve 1) accessibility to caregivers and 2) quality of service and available amenities. We conducted a multi-method survey using 1) a patient flow analysis to analyze the flow of service and understand the impact of our interventions on patient flow and 2) specially designed questionnaires to investigate patients' perceptions of our wait time and how to improve our services. The results showed that 79% of our respondents were called in to see a doctor within 20 minutes upon arrival. More patients (55%) felt that 10-20 minutes was an acceptable wait time. We also observed a perceived increase in satisfaction with wait time (94%). Finally, a large number of patients (97%) were satisfied with the quality of service and with the accessibility to caregivers (94%). The majority of our patients were satisfied with the accessibility to our ambulatory clinics and with the quality of services provided. The appraisal of our operational processes using a patient flow analysis also demonstrated how this strategy could effectively be applied to investigate and improve quality of service in patients.

  6. Improving patient experience in a pediatric ambulatory clinic: a mixed method appraisal of service delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soeteman M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Marijn Soeteman,1 Vera Peters,2 Jamiu O Busari1,3 1Department of Pediatrics, Atrium Medical Center, Heerlen, 2Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, 3Department of Educational Development and Research, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands Objective: In 2013, customer satisfaction surveys showed that patients were unhappy with the services provided at our ambulatory clinic. In response, we performed an appraisal of our services, which resulted in the development of a strategy to reduce waiting time and improve quality of service. Infrastructural changes to our clinic’s waiting room, consultation rooms, and back offices were performed, and schedules were redesigned to reduce wait time to 10 minutes and increase consultation time to 20 minutes. Our objective was to identify if this would improve 1 accessibility to caregivers and 2 quality of service and available amenities. Design: We conducted a multi-method survey using 1 a patient flow analysis to analyze the flow of service and understand the impact of our interventions on patient flow and 2 specially designed questionnaires to investigate patients’ perceptions of our wait time and how to improve our services. Results: The results showed that 79% of our respondents were called in to see a doctor within 20 minutes upon arrival. More patients (55% felt that 10–20 minutes was an acceptable wait time. We also observed a perceived increase in satisfaction with wait time (94%. Finally, a large number of patients (97% were satisfied with the quality of service and with the accessibility to caregivers (94%. Conclusion: The majority of our patients were satisfied with the accessibility to our ambulatory clinics and with the quality of services provided. The appraisal of our operational processes using a patient flow analysis also demonstrated how this strategy could effectively be applied to investigate and improve quality of

  7. Von Roll RCP method - first experiences; Von Roll RCP - Verfahren. Erste Erfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capitaine, P.; Engweiler, J. [Roll Umwelttechnik AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-09-01

    The RCP method was designed as a residue-optimised alternative to the thermally optimised grate firing of residual wastes. Its technical realisation and development to market maturity took no more than 5 years. In the first process stage the waste is converted to high-carbon pyrolysis charcoal and high-rank gas in the absence of oxygen. In the second stage these substances are oxidised by addition of oxygen. The resulting temperature causes the non-combustible constituents of the slag to melt. In a third, optional, stage this molten slag can be liberated of (heavy) metals to such an extent that it can subsequently be used directly as additive for grinding. Further exhaust gas treatment is facilitated by the use of a circulatory fluidised-bed secondary combustion chamber. Despite the reduced flue gas volume and resultant higher pollutant concentrations in the crude gas, overall emissions are lower than in conventional plants. [Deutsch] Das reststoffoptimierte RCP Verfahren ist als Alternative zur thermisch optimierten Rostverbrennung von Restabfaellen konzipiert. In nur fuenf Jahren wurde das Verfahren technisch umgesetzt und zur Marktreife entwickelt. In einer ersten Stufe des Verfahrens wird der Abfall unter Luftabschluss in einen kohlenstoffreichen Pyrolysekoks und eine heizwertreiches Gas umgesetzt. Im zweiten Schritt werden diese Stoffe unter Zugabe von Sauerstoff oxidiert. Dabei treten Temperaturen auf, bei denen die nichtbrennbaren Bestandteile der Schlacke schmelzen. Optional wird diese Schmelzschlacke in einem dritten Schritt derart von (Schwer-) Metallen befreit, dass sie anschliessend direkt als Zement-Zumahlstoff eingesetzt werden kann. Die Nutzung der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht - Nachbrennkammer zur Abgasbehandlung vereinfacht die weitergehende Abgasbehandlung. Trotz verringertem Rauchgasvolumen und damit hoeheren Schadstoffkonzentrationen im Rohgas werden die Gesamtemissionen gegenueber konventionellen Anlagen verringert. (orig./SR)

  8. An Experience of Statistical Method Application in Forest Survey at Angara River Region in 1932

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Vashchuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Report of the Angara forest economic expedition of forest economic survey in 1932 on the left bank of the Angara River has been found. The survey covered a part of Krasnoyarsk Territory and Irkutsk region, a total area of 18641.8 thousand ha. The report describes technology of forest inventory and achievements that have not previously been published. The survey was conducted by statistical method, which consisted of a sample by a continuous forest inventory enumeration of trees on sample plots (SP, arranged in an array on a particular system, followed by mathematical-statistical recalculation of the sample results to the entire survey. To do this, strip finders (sights were cut in the latitudinal direction at a distance from one another at 16 km. On the hacked sights, by every 2 km, 0.1 ha (10 × 100 m SP were established. In total 32 forest inventory sights were hacked, with total length of 9931 km, which incorporated 4817 SP. The accuracy of forest resources’ inventory characteristics determining also was investigated using smaller sample plots. For this purpose, each of the SP were cut to smaller area of 0.01 ha (10 × 10 m, where independent continuous enumeration of trees was conducted, andsample trees were cut, measured and bucked to the assortments, to explore the tree stand assortment structure. At each «sample cutting area» all the trees were felled out from 44 cm and above DBH. At half of the sample plot with 5 × 10 m size, located in the eastern end, all the trees were felled out and measured from 24 cm and above DBH. Every four «sample cutting area» in the fifth, all the trees with 12 cm and above DBH were cut down and measured. According to the results of the work, a detailed description of forest resources in the whole Angara river basin, and across 17 forest exploitation areas was completed.

  9. Analysis of flow boiling heat transfer in narrow annular gaps applying the design of experiments method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunar Boye

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The axial heat transfer coefficient during flow boiling of n-hexane was measured using infrared thermography to determine the axial wall temperature in three geometrically similar annular gaps with different widths (s = 1.5 mm, s = 1 mm, s = 0.5 mm. During the design and evaluation process, the methods of statistical experimental design were applied. The following factors/parameters were varied: the heat flux q · = 30 − 190 kW / m 2 , the mass flux m · = 30 − 700 kg / m 2 s , the vapor quality x · = 0 . 2 − 0 . 7 , and the subcooled inlet temperature T U = 20 − 60 K . The test sections with gap widths of s = 1.5 mm and s = 1 mm had very similar heat transfer characteristics. The heat transfer coefficient increases significantly in the range of subcooled boiling, and after reaching a maximum at the transition to the saturated flow boiling, it drops almost monotonically with increasing vapor quality. With a gap width of 0.5 mm, however, the heat transfer coefficient in the range of saturated flow boiling first has a downward trend and then increases at higher vapor qualities. For each test section, two correlations between the heat transfer coefficient and the operating parameters have been created. The comparison also shows a clear trend of an increasing heat transfer coefficient with increasing heat flux for test sections s = 1.5 mm and s = 1.0 mm, but with increasing vapor quality, this trend is reversed for test section 0.5 mm.

  10. A novel method of assessing quality of postgraduate psychiatry training: experiences from a large training programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Most assessments of the quality of postgraduate training are based on anonymised questionnaires of trainees. We report a comprehensive assessment of the quality of training at a large postgraduate psychiatry training institute using non-anonymised face-to-face interviews with trainees and their trainers. Methods Two consultant psychiatrists interviewed 99 trainees and 109 trainers. Scoring of interview responses was determined by using a pre-defined criteria. Additional comments were recorded as free text. Interviews covered 13 domains, including: Clinical, teaching, research and management opportunities, clinical environment, clinical supervision, adequacy of job description, absence of bullying and job satisfaction. Multiple interview domain scores were combined, generating a ‘Combined’ score for each post. Results The interview response rate was 97% for trainers 88% for trainees. There was a significant correlation between trainee and trainer scores for the same interview domains (Pearson’s r = 0.968, ppsychiatry posts as compared to general adult psychiatry posts (Two tailed t-test, p psychiatry as compared to other specialist psychiatry posts (t-test: p = 0.038, 95% CI: -0.3901, -0.0118). Job satisfaction scores of year 1 to year 3 core trainees showed a significant increase with increasing seniority (Linear regression coefficient = 0.273, 95% CI: 0.033 to 0.513, ANOVA p= 0.026). Conclusions This in-depth examination of the quality of training on a large psychiatry training programme successfully elicited strengths and weakness of our programme. Such an interview scheme could be easily implemented in smaller schemes and may well provide important information to allow for targeted improvement of training. Additionally, trends in quality of training and job satisfaction amongst various psychiatric specialities were identified; specifically speciality posts and liaison posts in psychiatry were revealed to be the most popular with trainees. PMID

  11. Within- and between-pen transmission of Classical Swine Fever Virus: a new method to estimate the basic reproduction ratio from transmission experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkenberg, D.; Bree, de J.; Laevens, H.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    We present a method to estimate basic reproduction ratio R0 from transmission experiments. By using previously published data of experiments with Classical Swine Fever Virus more extensively, we obtained smaller confidence intervals than the martingale method used in the original papers. Moreover,

  12. Student Veterans' Shared Experience Using Social Media in Higher Education: A Pilot Study with a Hybrid Phenomenological Data Analysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsilio, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    This study emphasized understanding how student veterans experience and what they do with social media. Student veterans typically have a much different college experience than nonmilitary students. A qualitative method was used to perform this research. The researcher adapted Colaizzi's and Moustakas's phenomenological methods to create a data…

  13. Data and Analysis Methods of the Son-O-Mermaid and MERMAID Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J. D.; Simons, F. J.; Nolet, G.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present, for the first time, the results from pilot deployments of the Son-O-Mermaid project, an autonomously drifting, oceangoing data-collection platform that can be cheaply deployed without the need for a costly research vessel, and that records and transmits hydroacoustic signals (with a target of those generated by teleseismic earthquakes) in near real-time. Both deployments employ three identical hydrophones spaced about 70 cm apart at the end of a 700 m long cable attached to a surface buoy that houses electronics, communications, and a GPS location package. The maiden voyage occurred October 8, 2012, in Exuma Bay, Bahamas and returned 25 hours of acoustic data. A second deployment is to take place in September 2014, with near-immediate data relay via Iridium modem. The experimental setup is different from the MERMAID instrument, which sinks to a midcolumn depth and surfaces to transmit waveforms when an event detection algorithm is triggered. MERMAIDs have recorded hundreds of seismic traces from 18 active floats in the Indian and Mediterranean Oceans with a signal-to-noise ratio suitable for global tomography. As with earthquake early-warning studies, both Son-O-Mermaid and MERMAID benefit from rapid and accurate event detection, discrimination, and measurement technology. With this triple purpose in mind we continue to improve methods (in the time-domain, via spectrogram analysis and using wavelets) that we illustrate on the latest and some of the older data, as well. While hydroacoustic data have numerous other applications beyond seismology (whale calls, ice calving, weather patterns, and so on) the Son-O-Mermaid and MERMAID instruments may potentially revolutionize seismic data collection in the oceans. Moreover, in the near future they will be fitted with more or different instruments, becoming multipurpose and multidisciplinary platforms for all types of scientific research in and of the oceans. In seismology we envision a future when the

  14. A Developed Meta-model for Selection of Cotton Fabrics Using Design of Experiments and TOPSIS Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shankar; Chatterjee, Prasenjit

    2017-12-01

    Selection of cotton fabrics for providing optimal clothing comfort is often considered as a multi-criteria decision making problem consisting of an array of candidate alternatives to be evaluated based of several conflicting properties. In this paper, design of experiments and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) are integrated so as to develop regression meta-models for identifying the most suitable cotton fabrics with respect to the computed TOPSIS scores. The applicability of the adopted method is demonstrated using two real time examples. These developed models can also identify the statistically significant fabric properties and their interactions affecting the measured TOPSIS scores and final selection decisions. There exists good degree of congruence between the ranking patterns as derived using these meta-models and the existing methods for cotton fabric ranking and subsequent selection.

  15. A Developed Meta-model for Selection of Cotton Fabrics Using Design of Experiments and TOPSIS Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shankar; Chatterjee, Prasenjit

    2017-11-01

    Selection of cotton fabrics for providing optimal clothing comfort is often considered as a multi-criteria decision making problem consisting of an array of candidate alternatives to be evaluated based of several conflicting properties. In this paper, design of experiments and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) are integrated so as to develop regression meta-models for identifying the most suitable cotton fabrics with respect to the computed TOPSIS scores. The applicability of the adopted method is demonstrated using two real time examples. These developed models can also identify the statistically significant fabric properties and their interactions affecting the measured TOPSIS scores and final selection decisions. There exists good degree of congruence between the ranking patterns as derived using these meta-models and the existing methods for cotton fabric ranking and subsequent selection.

  16. Los Alamos nEDM Experiment and Demonstration of Ramsey's Method on Stored UCNs at the LANL UCN Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Steven; Chupp, Tim; Cude-Woods, Christopher; Currie, Scott; Ito, Takeyasu; Liu, Chen-Yu; Long, Joshua; MacDonald, Stephen; Makela, Mark; O'Shaughnessy, Christopher; Plaster, Brad; Ramsey, John; Saunders, Andy; LANL nEDM Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory ultracold neutron (UCN) source was recently upgraded for a factor of 5 improvement in stored density, providing the statistical precision needed for a room temperature neutron electric dipole moment measurement with sensitivity 3 ×10-27 e . cm, a factor 10 better than the limit set by the Sussex-RAL-ILL experiment. Here, we show results of a demonstration of Ramsey's separated oscillatory fields method on stored UCNs at the LANL UCN source and in a geometry relevant for a nEDM measurement. We argue a world-leading nEDM experiment could be performed at LANL with existing technology and a short lead time, providing a physics result with sensitivity intermediate between the current limit set by Sussex-RAL-ILL, and the anticipated limit from the complex, cryogenic nEDM experiment planned for the next decade at the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (SNS-nEDM). This work was supported by the Los Alamos LDRD Program, Project 20140015DR.

  17. Intrusion Experiments to Measure Territory Size: Development of the Method, Tests through Simulations, and Application in the Frog Allobates femoralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringler, Max; Ringler, Eva; Magaña Mendoza, Daniela; Hödl, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Territoriality is a widespread behaviour in animals and its analysis is crucial in several areas of behavioural, ecological and evolutionary research. Commonly, territory size is assessed through territory mapping and the application of simple area estimators such as minimum convex polygons. In the present study we demonstrate that territory size can be determined adequately with an active approach through intrusion experiments, a technique that is commonly used in behavioural research in other contexts. Tests with simulated data indicate that a minimum of twelve trials needs to be performed to establish reliable orders of relative territory size. To estimate absolute territory size, detailed hull techniques are most appropriate when analyzing point patterns of intrusion experiments, while the local convex hull estimator enables the construction of internal utilization distributions based on such point patterns. Additionally we suggest a ‘stretch the centre’ approach to emphasize the actual process of intrusion experiments in the construction of internal utilization distributions. To demonstrate the utility of the method, we apply all findings from the simulations to data from fieldwork with the model species Allobates femoralis, a territorial aromobatid frog from the lowland rainforest of French Guiana. PMID:22022456

  18. A simulation experiment as a method for the investigation of the mobility of heavy metals from inundated land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJOKICA PETROVIĆ

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A simulation experiment was used to study the interaction of river water with different soils (arable land, orchards, meadows, pastures and forestland. The results obtained by sequential extraction before and after the simulation experiment were compared in order to determine the substrates of the heavy metals in inundated land and to evaluate their mobility. Samples of various soils were collected from the region of the future accumulation Lake Bogovina (Serbia and analysed for ten elements using AAS, GFAAS and ICP. Investigation of the nature of the association of heavy metals and the identification of their substrates were provided by a five-step sequential extraction. Correlation analysis was used as a method for the determination of the substrates for heavy metals. The good correlation among the microelements and certain macroelements indicated the substrates of the microelements. Manganese and iron had a good correlation with most of the microelements. Calcium had only a few correlations with some microelements. Some elements, such as nickel and cadmium, had one substrate before and another after the simulation experiment.

  19. A Mixed L2 Norm Regularized HRF Estimation Method for Rapid Event-Related fMRI Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain state decoding or “mind reading” via multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA has become a popular focus of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies. In brain decoding, stimulus presentation rate is increased as fast as possible to collect many training samples and obtain an effective and reliable classifier or computational model. However, for extremely rapid event-related experiments, the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD signals evoked by adjacent trials are heavily overlapped in the time domain. Thus, identifying trial-specific BOLD responses is difficult. In addition, voxel-specific hemodynamic response function (HRF, which is useful in MVPA, should be used in estimation to decrease the loss of weak information across voxels and obtain fine-grained spatial information. Regularization methods have been widely used to increase the efficiency of HRF estimates. In this study, we propose a regularization framework called mixed L2 norm regularization. This framework involves Tikhonov regularization and an additional L2 norm regularization term to calculate reliable HRF estimates. This technique improves the accuracy of HRF estimates and significantly increases the classification accuracy of the brain decoding task when applied to a rapid event-related four-category object classification experiment. At last, some essential issues such as the impact of low-frequency fluctuation (LFF and the influence of smoothing are discussed for rapid event-related experiments.

  20. Three Years Experience of Third Year Undergraduate Medical Students in Different Teaching Learning Methods: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariarathinam Newtonraj

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: India is a second largest populous country producing more than sixty thousand doctors every year. Still in India research on teaching learning methods are subtle. To improve the quality of knowledge and skills of medical students, there is a need to analyse the existing teaching learning methods as well as innovating new methods. Aim: To compare the three years experience of third year MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery students in three different teaching learning methods (Tutorials, Integrated Teaching sessions and Routine Lectures. Materials and Methods: Qualitative study was carried out among 60 third year MBBS students in medical college in south India. A semi-structured questionnaire was developed, with the help of literature review and is distributed among 66 students. Six participants excluded due to incomplete information. Questionnaire consisted of totally 16 questions. For the first ten questions answers were captured in Likert scale of one to five (one-poor; five- excellent. Eleventh to sixteenth questions were asked as an open-ended question to mention some positive and negative things about each method. Questions with Likert scale were analysed using Kruskal Wallis H Test and the open ended questions were analysed by thematic analysis. Results: Overall mean rank for Tutorial was 129.03 followed by Integrated Teaching (mean rank 86.33 and Routine Lecture (mean rank 56.14. Students gave better scores for Tutorials in areas such as easily understandable, better attention span and students involvement in the session. Students gave better scoring for Integrated Teaching in areas such as well organized, integration with other departments, ideal usage of audio visual aids and providing detailed information to the students. Drawbacks of Integrated Teaching were failure to attract the students, prolonged sessions (long duration, boring and minimal involvement of students. Lecture classes on the other hand

  1. Analysis methods of neutrons induced resonances in the transmission experiments by time-of-flight and automation of these methods on IBM 7094 II computer; Methode d'analyse des resonances induites par les neutrons dans les experiences de transmission par temps-de-vol et automatisation de ces methodes sur ordinateur IBM-7094 II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corge, C

    1967-07-01

    The neutron induced resonances analysis aims to determine the neutrons characteristics, leading to the excitation energies, de-excitation probabilities by gamma radiation emission, by neutron emission or by fission, their spin, their parity... This document describes the methods developed, or adapted, the calculation schemes and the algorithms implemented to realize such analysis on a computer, from data obtained during time-of-flight experiments on the linear accelerator of Saclay. (A.L.B.)

  2. Application of a sine transform method to experiments of single-photon-decay spectroscopy: Single exponential decay signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R. J.; González, F.; Moreno, F.

    1992-06-01

    In this article we present as an experiment in single-photon-decay spectroscopy an alternative method to that based on the measurement of the probability distribution function, Pf(t), of the time intervals for the time of arrival of the first photon after the excitation pulse. We propose the measurement of the sine transform of Pf(t), which gives a maximum when the fluorescence signal is of the single exponential decay type. The existence of this maximum allows us to determine very accurately the value of the decay constant using a number of measurements which is lower than that required to establish a Pf(t) that is accurate enough to draw the same conclusions. A theoretical model of the error is studied and is compared by means of a computer simulation with the usual method of measuring Pf(t). An experiment is performed using a TMMC crystal to verify the validity of the theoretical predictions and of the simulation results.

  3. Bridging the qualitative-quantitative divide: Experiences from conducting a mixed methods evaluation in the RUCAS programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrakis, Vassilios; Kostoulas-Makrakis, Nelly

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative and qualitative approaches to planning and evaluation in education for sustainable development have often been treated by practitioners from a single research paradigm. This paper discusses the utility of mixed method evaluation designs which integrate qualitative and quantitative data through a sequential transformative process. Sequential mixed method data collection strategies involve collecting data in an iterative process whereby data collected in one phase contribute to data collected in the next. This is done through examples from a programme addressing the 'Reorientation of University Curricula to Address Sustainability (RUCAS): A European Commission Tempus-funded Programme'. It is argued that the two approaches are complementary and that there are significant gains from combining both. Using methods from both research paradigms does not, however, mean that the inherent differences among epistemologies and methodologies should be neglected. Based on this experience, it is recommended that using a sequential transformative mixed method evaluation can produce more robust results than could be accomplished using a single approach in programme planning and evaluation focussed on education for sustainable development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental results and early clinical experience with an easy method for intracorporeal knot tying using a novel laparoscopic needleholder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, T; Yamaguchi, S; Tsutsumi, S; Mochiki, E; Kuwano, H

    2007-09-01

    Intracorporeal suturing and knot tying are among the most difficult procedures in laparoscopic operations. An easy and inexpensive method for intracorporeal instrumental ligation with a modified laparoscopic needle driver is presented. The needle driver developed in this study has a novel mechanism that can fix the suturing thread in a hook at the distal site of the holder's jaw hinge. This hook projects out from the rod only when the jaw of the holder is open. After the needle is removed from the tissue using the grasper, the needle driver is placed under the grasper, which the surgeon manipulates by the left hand. Then the thread is hooked on the needle driver by withdrawal of the driver with the jaw opening. The tip of the needle driver is moved over the shaft of the grasper by keeping the thread on the hook. The thread is entwined during a series of crossing movements of the rods of the forceps. The short tail of the suture material is gripped and tied up as a first throw of ligation. The side edge of the jaw, used for thread cutting, is sharpened by grinding. When the angle of the forceps is set at 90 degrees in the box trainer, no difference in terms of ligation time and degree of error is observed between the hook and conventional C-loop methods. In the case of the 30 degree forceps angle, the novel method is superior to the conventional method. The novel needle driver provides an easy and inexpensive method for performing an intracorporeal ligation, particularly in a case involving a sharp axis angle of the forceps. More clinical experience is necessary for evaluation of this method, but it has potential advantages in laparoscopic operations.

  5. Qualitative research and its methods in epilepsy: Contributing to an understanding of patients' lived experiences of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Frances; Clement, Clare; Doel, Marcus A; Hutchings, Hayley A

    2015-04-01

    This review paper makes the case for the usefulness of qualitative research methods in the context of epilepsy research. It begins with an assessment of the current state of epilepsy literature and identifies gaps especially in the following: research in 'developing' countries and research around surgery for adults with epilepsy. It makes the case that disclosure of people's behaviors, actions, and reactions in different, often complex health-care situations can indicate how they bring meaning to their disease experiences and support needs. It shows the value of encouraging work that clarifies how patients manage their illness and how they understand changes in their health and well-being over the life course of their illness and how health-care professionals and other stakeholder groups care for those with epilepsy. The paper suggests a range of methods for addressing gaps in the literature and highlights a range of data collection, data analysis, and data interpretation and synthesis techniques that are appropriate in this context. It pays particular attention to the strengths of qualitative applications in mixed-methods research using an example from a recent ulcerative colitis drug trial that indicates how they can be integrated into study findings, add rich description, and enhance study outcomes. Ethnographic methodology is also presented, as a way of offering rare access to the 'lived experience' dimension, before the paper concludes with an assessment of the qualitative criteria of credibility, dependability, transferability, and confirmability for judging a study's 'trustworthiness'. The criteria evidence not only the trustworthiness of data and findings but also the ways in which a study has approached any challenges inherent in its research design. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Using Freire's Participatory Educational Method to Understand the Experience of Living With Chronic Illness in the Current Age of Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo Plazas, Maria del Pilar; Cameron, Brenda L

    2015-06-01

    Many approaches and efforts have been used to better understand chronic diseases worldwide. Yet, little is known about the meaning of living with chronic illness under the pressures of globalization and neoliberal ideologies. Through Freire's participatory educational method, this article presents an innovative approach to understanding the multiple dimensions of living with chronic illness. In this way, we hope to use an innovative approach to address the impact of globalization on the daily life of chronically ill people and thus expand to the body of knowledge on nursing. This article uses Freire's participatory educational method to understand the multiple dimensions of living with chronic illness. This qualitative study follows an interpretive inquiry approach and uses a critical hermeneutic phenomenological method and critical research methodologies. Five participants were recruited for this participatory educational activity. Data collection methods included digitally recorded semistructured individual interviews and a Freire's participatory educational method session. Data analysis included a thematic analysis. Participants reported lacking adequate access to healthcare services because of insurance policies; a general perception that they were an unwanted burden on the healthcare system; and a general lack of government support, advocacy, and political interest. This research activity assisted participants to gain a new critical perspective about the condition of others with chronic diseases and thus provided an enlightening opportunity to learn about the illnesses and experiences of others and to realize that others experienced the same oppression from the healthcare system. Participants became agents of change within their own families and communities. Chronic diseases cause many economic and social consequences in their victims. These findings urge us to move from merely acknowledging the difficulties of people who live with chronic illness in an age of

  7. Determination of hydraulic fracture azimuth by geophysical, geological, and oriented-core methods at the multiwell experiment site, Rifle, CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teufel, L.W.; Hart, C.M.; Sattler, A.R.

    1984-09-01

    A comprehensive program for prediction of hydraulic fracture azimuth is being conducted in the tight, lenticular, gas sandstone reservoirs of the Mesaverde Group in the Department of Energy's Multi-Well Experiment near Rifle, Colorado. Methods used in the program can be divided into two groups: 1) indirect, predictive techniques which determine either the principal paleo-stresses or in-situ stresses prior to fracturing and 2) direct observation from either geophysical detection and mapping of hydraulic fracture propagation or wellbore impression-packers of open-hole hydraulic fractures. Predictive methods which determine the paleo-stress directions include geologic observations of the orientation of normal faults and fractures at the surface and in oriented core and twinned calcite strain analysis of oriented core. These methods show a consistent direction of N75/sup 0/W + or - 10/sup 0/ for the maximum horizontal paleo-stress. Predictive methods which determine the in-situ stress directions include 1) oriented core analysis using anelastic strain recovery measurements and differential strain curve analysis, 2) oriented caliper and televiewer logs to infer stress directions from wellbore breakouts, and 3) computer modeling of the horizontal stress directions due to gravitational loading of topographic relief. The results of these methods are fairly consistent, and are in general agreement with the paleo-stress results, but also suggest a possible 20/sup 0/ clockwise rotation with depth of the maximum horizontal in-situ stress from N89/sup 0/W + or - 10/sup 0/ in the upper fluvial zone starting at 1330 m to N68/sup 0/W + or - 9/sup 0/ in the marine zone ending at 2450 m.

  8. 4C-ker: A Method to Reproducibly Identify Genome-Wide Interactions Captured by 4C-Seq Experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Raviram

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available 4C-Seq has proven to be a powerful technique to identify genome-wide interactions with a single locus of interest (or "bait" that can be important for gene regulation. However, analysis of 4C-Seq data is complicated by the many biases inherent to the technique. An important consideration when dealing with 4C-Seq data is the differences in resolution of signal across the genome that result from differences in 3D distance separation from the bait. This leads to the highest signal in the region immediately surrounding the bait and increasingly lower signals in far-cis and trans. Another important aspect of 4C-Seq experiments is the resolution, which is greatly influenced by the choice of restriction enzyme and the frequency at which it can cut the genome. Thus, it is important that a 4C-Seq analysis method is flexible enough to analyze data generated using different enzymes and to identify interactions across the entire genome. Current methods for 4C-Seq analysis only identify interactions in regions near the bait or in regions located in far-cis and trans, but no method comprehensively analyzes 4C signals of different length scales. In addition, some methods also fail in experiments where chromatin fragments are generated using frequent cutter restriction enzymes. Here, we describe 4C-ker, a Hidden-Markov Model based pipeline that identifies regions throughout the genome that interact with the 4C bait locus. In addition, we incorporate methods for the identification of differential interactions in multiple 4C-seq datasets collected from different genotypes or experimental conditions. Adaptive window sizes are used to correct for differences in signal coverage in near-bait regions, far-cis and trans chromosomes. Using several datasets, we demonstrate that 4C-ker outperforms all existing 4C-Seq pipelines in its ability to reproducibly identify interaction domains at all genomic ranges with different resolution enzymes.

  9. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) Initiative: Developing methods and best practices for global agricultural monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, C.; Jarvis, I.; Defourny, P.; Davidson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems differ significantly throughout the world, making a 'one size fits all' approach to remote sensing and monitoring of agricultural landscapes problematic. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) was established in 2009 to bring together the global scientific community to work towards a set of best practices and recommendations for using earth observation data to map, monitor and report on agricultural productivity globally across an array of diverse agricultural systems. These methods form the research and development component of the Group on Earth Observation Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative to harmonize global monitoring efforts and increase market transparency. The JECAM initiative brings together researchers from a large number of globally distributed, well monitored agricultural test sites that cover a range of crop types, cropping systems and climate regimes. Each test site works independently as well as together across multiple sites to test methods, sensors and field data collection techniques to derive key agricultural parameters, including crop type, crop condition, crop yield and soil moisture. The outcome of this project will be a set of best practices that cover the range of remote sensing monitoring and reporting needs, including satellite data acquisition, pre-processing techniques, information retrieval and ground data validation. These outcomes provide the research and development foundation for GEOGLAM and will help to inform the development of the GEOGLAM "system of systems" for global agricultural monitoring. The outcomes of the 2014 JECAM science meeting will be discussed as well as examples of methods being developed by JECAM scientists.

  10. Demand response evaluation and forecasting — Methods and results from the EcoGrid EU experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Emil Mahler; Pinson, Pierre; Leimgruber, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    into a real-time market. EcoGrid EU is a smart grid experiment with 1900 residential customers who are equipped with smart meters and automated devices reacting to five-minute electricity pricing. Customers are grouped and analysed according to the manufacturer that controlled devices. A number of advanced......Understanding electricity consumers participating in new demand response schemes is important for investment decisions and the design and operation of electricity markets. Important metrics include peak response, time to peak response, energy delivered, ramping, and how the response changes...... with respect to external conditions. Such characteristics dictate the services DR is capable of offering, like primary frequency reserves, peak load shaving, and system balancing. In this paper, we develop methods to characterise price-responsive demand from the EcoGrid EU demonstration in a way that was bid...

  11. Using Design of Experiments Methods for Assessing Peak Contact Pressure to Material Properties of Soft Tissue in Human Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Bahraminasab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact pressure in the knee joint is a key element in the mechanisms of knee pain and osteoarthritis. Assessing the contact pressure in tibiofemoral joint is a challenging mechanical problem due to uncertainty in material properties. In this study, a sensitivity analysis of tibiofemoral peak contact pressure to the material properties of the soft tissue was carried out through fractional factorial and Box-Behnken designs. The cartilage was modeled as linear elastic material, and in addition to its elastic modulus, interaction effects of soft tissue material properties were added compared to previous research. The results indicated that elastic modulus of the cartilage is the most effective factor. Interaction effects of axial/radial modulus with elastic modulus of cartilage, circumferential and axial/radial moduli of meniscus were other influential factors. Furthermore this study showed how design of experiment methods can help designers to reduce the number of finite element analyses and to better interpret the results.

  12. A Mixed Methods Investigation of the Experience of Poverty Among a Population of Low-Income Parenting Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Brittany C L; Dáu, Ana Luísa B T; Goldblum, Joanne; Alfano, Janet; Smith, Megan V

    2017-10-01

    This study sought to operationalize poverty in the context of parenting specific to a sample of low-income mothers; to examine how mothers describe sources of stress related to poverty; and to explore how these experiences affect mothers' parenting practices. Mothers trained in research methods administered surveys to other mothers in community settings assessing parenting stressors, mental wellbeing, basic needs, and goals. Women reported difficulty obtaining basic needs. Qualitatively, women described financial hardship, housing, employment status, and transportation as sources of stress, which influenced their parenting practices. These findings connect a mother's inability to meet her basic needs with parenting quality, and suggest that programs promoting early childhood development through building the capacity of parents must focus on basic needs and strategies to alleviate poverty. Healthcare providers may be able to glean specific terminology utilized by women when they inquire about basic needs and form partnerships with basic needs providers.

  13. Correlates and Experiences of HIV Stigma in Prisoners Living with HIV in Indonesia: A Mixed Method Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Gabriel J.; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Wulanyani, Ni Made Swasti; Wegman, Martin P.; Waluyo, Agung; Altice, Frederick L.

    2015-01-01

    In Indonesia, the syndemic nature of HIV, drug use, and incarceration may influence experiences of stigma for HIV-infected prisoners. This mixed method study explores HIV stigma in prisoners living with HIV in Indonesia. Randomly selected male HIV-infected prisoners (n = 102) from two large prisons in Jakarta completed in-depth interviews and a structured HIV stigma survey. Quantitative results found 4 groups of HIV-infected prisoners with significantly higher HIV stigma levels, including those: (a) with drug-related offenses, (b) seeking help to decrease drug use, (c) diagnosed with HIV before the current incarceration, and (d) who had not disclosed their HIV status to family members or friends. Qualitative results highlighted the prominent role of HIV stigma in decisions to disclose HIV status to family members, partners, and other prisoners. Interventions should address HIV stigma in HIV-infected prisoners in Indonesia to achieve HIV treatment as prevention goals. PMID:26304049

  14. Food and beverage price discounts to improve health in remote Aboriginal communities: mixed method evaluation of a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Megan; O'Dea, Kerin; Holden, Stacey; Miles, Eddie; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2017-02-01

    Retrospectively evaluate food price discounts in remote Aboriginal community stores. Four price discount strategies of 10% were designed in 2010, aiming to influence grocery, fruit, vegetables and diet soft-drink sales. This natural experiment across a group of stores was evaluated using an explanatory, sequential mixed method design through analysis of store point-of-sale, document, observation and interview data. The outcome was measured by change in: 1) percentage of grocery sales to total food and beverage; 2) fruit and vegetable sales; and 3) diet soft-drink sales. Qualitative data enabled the interpretation of outcomes through understanding perceived success and benefits, and enablers and barriers to implementation. Eighteen community stores and 54 informants participated. While targeted price discounts were considered important to improving health, no discernible effect was evident, due to inadequate design and communication of discount promotion, and probably inadequate magnitude of discount. Strategy impact on food and beverage sales was limited by promotion and magnitude of discount. Implication for Public Health: This study demonstrates key factors and commitment required to design, communicate, implement and monitor strategies to improve health in this challenging remote retail context. Evaluation of natural experiments can contribute evidence to policy-making. © 2016 The Authors.

  15. When practice precedes theory - A mixed methods evaluation of students' learning experiences in an undergraduate study program in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Kristin; Falk, Hanna; Jakobsson Ung, Eva

    2016-01-01

    A key area for consideration is determining how optimal conditions for learning can be created. Higher education in nursing aims to prepare students to develop their capabilities to become independent professionals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sequencing clinical practice prior to theoretical studies on student's experiences of self-directed learning readiness and students' approach to learning in the second year of a three-year undergraduate study program in nursing. 123 nursing students was included in the study and divided in two groups. In group A (n = 60) clinical practice preceded theoretical studies. In group (n = 63) theoretical studies preceded clinical practice. Learning readiness was measured using the Directed Learning Readiness Scale for Nursing Education (SDLRSNE), and learning process was measured using the revised two-factor version of the Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F). Students were also asked to write down their personal reflections throughout the course. By using a mixed method design, the qualitative component focused on the students' personal experiences in relation to the sequencing of theoretical studies and clinical practice. The quantitative component provided information about learning readiness before and after the intervention. Our findings confirm that students are sensitive and adaptable to their learning contexts, and that the sequencing of courses is subordinate to a pedagogical style enhancing students' deep learning approaches, which needs to be incorporated in the development of undergraduate nursing programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Linear Methods for Analysis and Quality Control of Relative Expression Ratios from Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Page

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Relative expression quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR experiments are a common means of estimating transcript abundances across biological groups and experimental treatments. One of the most frequently used expression measures that results from such experiments is the relative expression ratio (RE, which describes expression in experimental samples (i.e., RNA isolated from organisms, tissues, and/or cells that were exposed to one or more experimental or nonbaseline condition in terms of fold change relative to calibrator samples (i.e., RNA isolated from organisms, tissues, and/or cells that were exposed to a control or baseline condition. Over the past decade, several models of RE have been proposed, and it is now clear that endogenous reference gene stability and amplification efficiency must be assessed in order to ensure that estimates of RE are valid. In this review, we summarize key issues associated with estimating RE from cycle threshold data. In addition, we describe several methods based on linear modeling that enable researchers to estimate model parameters and conduct quality control procedures that assess whether model assumptions have been violated.

  17. EXPERIENCE OF USING THE MONTE-CARLO METHOD IN DETERMINING OPTIMAL PLASTER COMPOSITIONS WITH IMPROVED STRENGTH PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khrystyna Moskalova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering that modern building materials impose increasing performance requirements, it is necessary to expand the range of building materials and improve their multicomponent composition. The effects of polymer and porous components (expanded perlite sand and carbonate filler – limestone-shell rock in cement-lime light plaster on the physico-mechanical properties of the mixtures under equal workability conditions of mixtures are analyzed based on experimental-statistical modeling. The results of the physico-mechanical and operational experiments confirm the rationality of using porous fillers and additives to improve certain specific properties of the final product. The so-called Monte-Carlo method is implemented for determining an optimal composition of multicomponent cement-lime light plaster, based on multivariate statistical modeling and iterative random scanning of property fields. According to the results of the computational experiment, a composition that reduces the number of expensive mixture components and improves the physical and mechanical characteristics of the resulting composition is selected.

  18. Fathers' experiences with their preterm babies admitted to neonatal intensive care unit: A multi-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefana, Alberto; Padovani, Ezio Maria; Biban, Paolo; Lavelli, Manuela

    2018-01-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate fathers' emotional experiences of their infant's preterm birth and subsequent stay in neonatal intensive care unit. When a baby is born preterm, there is also the premature interruption of the process of preparation for fatherhood. As a result, the impact on fathers of the preterm birth can bring negative consequences for the development of father-infant relationship. A multi-method approach was used which included ethnographic observation, semi-structured interviews with fathers, a self-report questionnaire and clinical information between September 2015-March 2017. Data were analysed using a mixed-method: a thematic analysis of data from the interviews and quantitative analyses to detect possible clusters of fathers' emotional experiences and associations between clusters and fathers' and/or infants' characteristics. Two clusters were identified. The "fathers-of-preterm-infants" touched their baby as soon as they were given the opportunity and without fear that they would harm their infant. They were struck by their baby's physical appearance. In contrast, the "preterm fathers" preferred not to touch their baby when first given the chance, for fear of breaking/damaging/infecting her/him. They were struck both by the baby's physical appearance and by the technology/equipment around her/him and were afraid that their infant would die. All the "fathers-of-preterm-infants", but only just over half of the "preterm fathers", were actively engaged in their infant's care. Clusters were associated with the infant's gestational age. Fathers of preterm infants should receive personalized support specifically addressed to them and based on the infant's gestational age. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. MetaQTL: a package of new computational methods for the meta-analysis of QTL mapping experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charcosset Alain

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integration of multiple results from Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL studies is a key point to understand the genetic determinism of complex traits. Up to now many efforts have been made by public database developers to facilitate the storage, compilation and visualization of multiple QTL mapping experiment results. However, studying the congruency between these results still remains a complex task. Presently, the few computational and statistical frameworks to do so are mainly based on empirical methods (e.g. consensus genetic maps are generally built by iterative projection. Results In this article, we present a new computational and statistical package, called MetaQTL, for carrying out whole-genome meta-analysis of QTL mapping experiments. Contrary to existing methods, MetaQTL offers a complete statistical process to establish a consensus model for both the marker and the QTL positions on the whole genome. First, MetaQTL implements a new statistical approach to merge multiple distinct genetic maps into a single consensus map which is optimal in terms of weighted least squares and can be used to investigate recombination rate heterogeneity between studies. Secondly, assuming that QTL can be projected on the consensus map, MetaQTL offers a new clustering approach based on a Gaussian mixture model to decide how many QTL underly the distribution of the observed QTL. Conclusion We demonstrate using simulations that the usual model choice criteria from mixture model literature perform relatively well in this context. As expected, simulations also show that this new clustering algorithm leads to a reduction in the length of the confidence interval of QTL location provided that across studies there are enough observed QTL for each underlying true QTL location. The usefulness of our approach is illustrated on published QTL detection results of flowering time in maize. Finally, MetaQTL is freely available at http://bioinformatics.org/mqtl.

  20. The impact of educational experiences on nursing students' knowledge and attitudes toward people with Alzheimer's disease: A mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimzey, Michelle; Mastel-Smith, Beth; Alfred, Danita

    2016-11-01

    As the population ages, the effects of Alzheimer's disease will be felt by all nurses. Providing proper care for people with Alzheimer's disease is difficult and requires specific skills, attitudes, and knowledge. Limited data exists regarding nursing students' attitudes and knowledge toward people with Alzheimer's disease, whether undergraduate education prepares students to care for this population, or the best methods to support students in learning in an innovative and interactive environment. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different educational experiences on nursing students' knowledge and attitudes toward people with Alzheimer's disease and to explore nursing students' knowledge and attitudes surrounding the care of people with Alzheimer's disease. A convergent mixed method design. A three group (Alzheimer's disease clinical experience, online learning module, and no dementia-specific intervention), pretest and posttest design served as the quantitative arm of the study. A focus group discussion with themes extracted served as the qualitative piece of the study. College of Nursing in North Texas. Convenience sample of 94 senior level nursing students enrolled in the undergraduate nursing program's Community Health course. Students completed pre and posttest surveys which included Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale, Dementia Attitudes Scale, and demographic questionnaire. Content analysis was conducted on focus group responses to qualitative interview questions. The Alzheimer's disease clinical group experienced increased knowledge and improved attitudes toward people with Alzheimer's disease compared with students who completed the online module or had no dementia-specific intervention. Four themes emerged from focus group data: Basic Alzheimer's disease knowledge, need for Alzheimer's disease experiential learning, negative feelings related to behaviors, and appropriate responses to behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

  1. Experiences of end of life amongst family carers of people with advanced dementia: longitudinal cohort study with mixed methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kirsten J; Davis, Sarah; Gola, Anna; Harrington, Jane; Kupeli, Nuriye; Vickerstaff, Victoria; King, Michael; Leavey, Gerard; Nazareth, Irwin; Jones, Louise; Sampson, Elizabeth L

    2017-07-03

    Many studies have examined the mental health of carers of people with dementia. Few have examined their experiences in the advanced stages of disease and into bereavement. We aimed to understand the experiences of carers during advanced dementia exploring the links between mental health and experiences of end of life care. Mixed methods longitudinal cohort study. Thirty-five family carers of people with advanced dementia (6 at home, 29 in care homes) were recruited and assessed monthly for up to nine months or until the person with dementia died, then at two and seven months into bereavement. Assessments included: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Short Form 12 health-related quality of life, 22-item Zarit Burden Interview, Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced, Inventory of Complicated Grief and Satisfaction with Care at End of Life in Dementia. Subsequently, 12 carers (34%) were bereaved and 12 undertook a qualitative interview two months after death; these data were analysed thematically. We analysed quantitative and qualitative data independently and then merged findings at the point of interpretation. At study entry psychological distress was high; 26% reached caseness for depression and 41% for anxiety and median complicated grief scores were 27 [IQR 22-37] indicating that on average 11 of the 16 grief symptoms occurred at least monthly. Physical health reflected population norms (mean = 50) and median burden scores were 17 [IQR 9-30]. Three qualitative themes were identified: the importance of relationships with care services, understanding of the progression of dementia, and emotional responses to advanced dementia. An overarching theme tying these together was the carer's ability to control and influence end of life care. While carers report high levels of psychological distress during advanced dementia, the experience of end of life care in dementia may be amenable to change with the provision of sensitive and timely information about

  2. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Fiona W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping of microchannel gain lots of attention from researchers along with the rapid development of microfluidic technology. The conventional methods carried few disadvantages such as high cost, time consuming, required high operating pressure and temperature and involve expertise in operating the equipment. In this work, new method adapting xurography method is introduced to replace the conventional method of fabrication of microchannels. The novelty in this study is replacing the adhesion film with clear plastic film which was used to cut the design of the microchannel as the material is more suitable for fabricating more complex microchannel design. The microchannel was then mold using polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS and bonded with a clean glass to produce a close microchannel. The microchannel produced had a clean edge indicating good master mold was produced using the cutting plotter and the bonding between the PDMS and glass was good where no leakage was observed. The materials used in this method is cheap and the total time consumed is less than 5 hours where this method is suitable for rapid prototyping of microchannel.

  3. Experiences of female survivors of sexual violence in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo: a mixed-methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC is the deadliest since World War II. Over a decade of fighting amongst an array of armed groups has resulted in extensive human rights abuses, particularly the widespread use of sexual violence against women. Methods Using a mixed-methods approach, we surveyed a non-random sample of 255 women attending a referral hospital and two local non-governmental organizations to characterize their experiences of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV. We then conducted focus groups of 48 women survivors of SGBV to elaborate on survey findings. Quantitative and qualitative data underwent thematic and statistical analysis respectively. Findings Of the women surveyed, 193 (75.7% experienced rape. Twenty-nine percent of raped women were rejected by their families and 6% by their communities. Thirteen percent of women had a child from rape. Widowhood, husband abandonment, gang rape, and having a child from rape were significant risk factors for social rejection. Mixed methods findings show rape survivors were seen as "contaminated" with HIV, contributing to their isolation and over 95% could not access prophylactic care in time. Receiving support from their husbands after rape was protective against survivors' feelings of shame and social isolation. Interpretation Rape results not only in physical and psychological trauma, but can destroy family and community structures. Women face significant obstacles in seeking services after rape. Interventions offering long-term solutions for hyper-vulnerable women are vital, but lacking; reintegration programs on SGBV for women, men, and communities are also needed.

  4. The Contribution Of FDI Flows To Domestic Investment: An Econometric Analysis Of Developing Countries (Doğrudan Yabancı Sermaye Yatırımlarının Yurtiçi Yatırımlara Etkisi: Gelişmekte Olan Ülkeler İçin Ekonometrik Bir Analiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren İPEK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment flows may affect domestic investment in different dimensions. The interests related to the impact of FDI on domestic investment focus on whether FDI is a complement or a substitute for domestic investment. The aim of this paper is to research for the effects of FDI on domestic investment for Turkey, Brazil, Russia, South Africa and Mexico by using time series analyses. For this purpose, we utilize GMM (Generalized Method of Moments methodology. The sample period is 1990:1-2012:3 for Turkey and Mexico; 1995:1-2012:3 for Brazil; 1995:1-2012:2 for Russia and 1990:1-2011:4 for South Africa. The empirical results put forth an evidence of crowding out effect for Turkey and South Africa. On the other hand, it is found that FDI creates crowding in effects for Russia. One other finding of the study is statistically insignificant coefficients for Brazil and Mexico. Doğrudan yabancı sermaye yatırımları yurtiçi yatırımları çeşitli şekillerde etkileyebilmektedir. Bu türdeki sermaye akımlarının yurtiçi yatırımlar üzerindeki etkisine yönelik ilgi, DYSY'nın etkisinin tamamlayıcı mı yoksa ikame edici mi olduğu üzerine odaklanmıştır. Çalışmanın amacı zaman serileri analizini kullanarak Türkiye, Brezilya, Rusya, Güney Afrika ve Meksika için doğrudan yabancı yatırımların yurtiçi yatırımlar üzerindeki etkilerini araştırmaktır. Bu amaç için GMM yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Örneklem dönemi Türkiye ve Meksika için 1990:1- 2012:3, Brezilya için 1995:1-2012:3, Rusya için 1995:1-2012:2 ve Güney Afrika için 1990:1- 2011:4 olarak belirlenmiştir. Analiz sonuçları Türkiye ve Güney Afrika için dışlama etkisinin geçerli olduğunu göstermektedir. Diğer taraftan Rusya için doğrudan yabancı yatırımların artırma etkisi yarattığı bulunmuştur. Çalışmanın diğer bir bulgusu, Brezilya ve Meksika için istatistiksel olarak anlamsız katsayı tahminlerinin elde edilmesidir.

  5. A mixed-methods exploration of women's experiences of anal intercourse: meanings related to pain and pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Ajduković, Dea

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this mixed-methods study was to document and analyze the dimensions and meanings of anoreceptive pain and pleasure among heterosexual women. An online survey was carried out on a convenience sample of 1,893 women aged 18-60 years. Qualitative data were collected using open-ended questions mailed to women who expressed interest in continuing participation in the study; narratives from 68 women who had experienced anal intercourse were collected and analyzed for pain themes. Most surveyed women had experienced anoreceptive intercourse. A majority of women (79.1%) reported their first anal intercourse to be painful, but for most of them the intensity and duration of pain/discomfort substantially diminished over time. Less than a third (27.7%) of participants who regularly engaged in anoreceptive intercourse in the past 12 months stated that they rarely or never experience pain/discomfort with the practice. Nevertheless, most women who continued to practice anal intercourse (58.1%) reported it to be very arousing and pleasurable. The pleasure associated with anoreceptive intercourse was best predicted by masturbatory frequency and orgasmic ability (with sexual intercourse). The qualitative assessment pointed to a wide range of personal experiences with and meanings attached to pain/discomfort associated with anoreceptive intercourse. Three broad pain themes emerged: (1) pain as insurmountable obstacle, (2) strategic management of pain, and (3) pain eroticization. The study findings suggested that the successful inclusion of anal intercourse into a couple's sex life is often dependent on a specific learning process.

  6. Adults with intellectual disability: a mixed-methods investigation of their experiences of dental treatment under general anaesthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Victoria A; Morgaine, Kate C; Thomson, W Murray

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to explore the experiences of dental care under general anaesthesia in adults with an intellectual disability. The study used an explanatory mixed-methods design. In the initial quantitative phase of the study, a clinical audit of oral health services provided for adults with intellectual disabilities was carried out for individuals who underwent a general anaesthetic (GA) for dental treatment at Christchurch Hospital during a 5-year period. In a qualitative second phase, fifteen semi-structured interviews were carried out for 13 individuals with an intellectual disability to investigate the experience and perceptions of individuals with an intellectual disability (and caregivers and guardians) relating to their oral health care. The majority of the treated patients lived in care, and many had severe medical problems. Most had both restorative treatment and tooth extractions carried out under GA. Their major concern was anxiety associated with the dental visits. Support people/ guardians shared this concern, and played a vital role in helping to manage this anxiety. Many of the latter had difficulty identifying dental problems in their charges, and they often relied on detection of changes in the individual's behaviour or demeanour. The time spent waiting in waiting rooms for treatment was a frequently reported cause of stress. As a group, these individuals present challenges for the provision of oral health care, given their severe disability and medical conditions, and many require a high level of support for daily activities. When dental treatment is required, a GA is often necessary in order to carry it out. The management of anxiety was a key issue for the patient group and support people play a vital role in helping to manage this anxiety, and achieve a successful visit. There is potential to improve the service with a multidisciplinary approach to coordinate other health services during treatment episodes, reduced time spent in waiting rooms

  7. Physician Experiences With High Value Care in Internal Medicine Residency: Mixed-Methods Study of 2003-2013 Residency Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryskina, Kira L; Holmboe, Eric S; Shea, Judy A; Kim, Esther; Long, Judith A

    2017-07-28

    Phenomenon: High healthcare costs and relatively poor health outcomes in the United States have led to calls to improve the teaching of high value care (defined as care that balances potential benefits of interventions with their harms including costs) to physicians-in-training. Numerous interventions to increase high value care in graduate medical education were implemented at the national and local levels over the past decade. However, there has been little evaluation of their impact on physician experiences during training and perceived preparedness for practice. We aimed to assess trends in U.S. physician experiences with high value care during residency over the past decade. This mixed-methods study used a cross-sectional survey mailed July 2014 to January 2015 to 902 internists who completed residency in 2003-2013, randomly selected from the American Medical Association Masterfile. Quantitative analyses of survey responses and content analysis of free-text comments submitted by respondents were performed. A total of 456 physicians (50.6%) responded. Fewer than one fourth reported being exposed to teaching about high value care at least frequently (23.6%, 106/450). Only 43.8% of respondents (193/446) felt prepared to use overtreatment guidelines in conversations with patients, whereas 85.8% (379/447) felt prepared to participate in shared decision making with patients at the conclusion of their training, and 84.4% (380/450) reported practicing generic prescribing. Physicians who completed residency more recently were more likely to report practicing generic prescribing and feeling well prepared to use overtreatment guidelines in conversations with patients (p high value care during training, which may reflect increased national and local efforts in this area. However, being exposed to high value care as a trainee may not translate into specific tools for practice. In fact, many U.S. internists reported inadequate exposure to prepare them for patient

  8. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kimball

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  9. The influence of alternative pedagogical methods in postsecondary biology education: How do students experience a multimedia case-study environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Bjorn Hugo Karl

    The purpose of this study was to better understand how an online, multimedia case study method influenced students' motivation, performance, and perceptions of science in collegiate level biology classes. It utilized a mix-methods design including data from pre- and post-test, student surveys, and focus group interviews to answer one primary question, did participation in the affect student performance? Two sub-questions were: (a) did participation affect persistence? and (b) did students believe it to be a good learning experience? One hundred and eight students in 5 classes from 4 campuses in the United States and Puerto Rico participated in this study during spring semester 2009. After receiving instruction on HIV, students took a 6 questions pre-test to measure their initial knowledge of both HIV and lab procedures. Participants then engaged in the Case It! learning environment, where they watched case-studies on HIV, used virtual lab tools, created an online poster of their findings, and role-played as both family members and physicians about their case. A post-test identical to the pre-test was given to students upon completion. Both were then scored using rubrics and analyzed via paired t-Tests and ANOVA. The researcher visited all 4 study sites to conduct both the focus group interviews and student surveys. Student surveys were quantified and descriptive statistics generated. Focus group interviews were video recorded, transcribed, and inductively and deductively coded. Student knowledge increased because of participation, and the majority of students said they found the Case It! project to be both a good learning experience (95%) and one that would help with future classes or careers (87%). Based on student interviews, the Case It! project did have a beneficial impact on students' intentions to persist as science majors. Many students noted that the learning environment created an overall context in which they could apply knowledge from multiple classes

  10. Simulation of breaking waves using the high-order spectral method with laboratory experiments: wave-breaking energy dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Betsy R.; Ducrozet, Guillaume

    2017-11-01

    We examine the implementation of a wave-breaking mechanism into a nonlinear potential flow solver. The success of the mechanism will be studied by implementing it into the numerical model HOS-NWT, which is a computationally efficient, open source code that solves for the free surface in a numerical wave tank using the high-order spectral (HOS) method. Once the breaking mechanism is validated, it can be implemented into other nonlinear potential flow models. To solve for wave-breaking, first a wave-breaking onset parameter is identified, and then a method for computing wave-breaking associated energy loss is determined. Wave-breaking onset is calculated using a breaking criteria introduced by Barthelemy et al. (J Fluid Mech https://arxiv.org/pdf/1508.06002.pdf, submitted) and validated with the experiments of Saket et al. (J Fluid Mech 811:642-658, 2017). Wave-breaking energy dissipation is calculated by adding a viscous diffusion term computed using an eddy viscosity parameter introduced by Tian et al. (Phys Fluids 20(6): 066,604, 2008, Phys Fluids 24(3), 2012), which is estimated based on the pre-breaking wave geometry. A set of two-dimensional experiments is conducted to validate the implemented wave breaking mechanism at a large scale. Breaking waves are generated by using traditional methods of evolution of focused waves and modulational instability, as well as irregular breaking waves with a range of primary frequencies, providing a wide range of breaking conditions to validate the solver. Furthermore, adjustments are made to the method of application and coefficient of the viscous diffusion term with negligible difference, supporting the robustness of the eddy viscosity parameter. The model is able to accurately predict surface elevation and corresponding frequency/amplitude spectrum, as well as energy dissipation when compared with the experimental measurements. This suggests the model is capable of calculating wave-breaking onset and energy dissipation

  11. Simulation of breaking waves using the high-order spectral method with laboratory experiments: wave-breaking energy dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Betsy R.; Ducrozet, Guillaume

    2018-01-01

    We examine the implementation of a wave-breaking mechanism into a nonlinear potential flow solver. The success of the mechanism will be studied by implementing it into the numerical model HOS-NWT, which is a computationally efficient, open source code that solves for the free surface in a numerical wave tank using the high-order spectral (HOS) method. Once the breaking mechanism is validated, it can be implemented into other nonlinear potential flow models. To solve for wave-breaking, first a wave-breaking onset parameter is identified, and then a method for computing wave-breaking associated energy loss is determined. Wave-breaking onset is calculated using a breaking criteria introduced by Barthelemy et al. (J Fluid Mech https://arxiv.org/pdf/1508.06002.pdf, submitted) and validated with the experiments of Saket et al. (J Fluid Mech 811:642-658, 2017). Wave-breaking energy dissipation is calculated by adding a viscous diffusion term computed using an eddy viscosity parameter introduced by Tian et al. (Phys Fluids 20(6): 066,604, 2008, Phys Fluids 24(3), 2012), which is estimated based on the pre-breaking wave geometry. A set of two-dimensional experiments is conducted to validate the implemented wave breaking mechanism at a large scale. Breaking waves are generated by using traditional methods of evolution of focused waves and modulational instability, as well as irregular breaking waves with a range of primary frequencies, providing a wide range of breaking conditions to validate the solver. Furthermore, adjustments are made to the method of application and coefficient of the viscous diffusion term with negligible difference, supporting the robustness of the eddy viscosity parameter. The model is able to accurately predict surface elevation and corresponding frequency/amplitude spectrum, as well as energy dissipation when compared with the experimental measurements. This suggests the model is capable of calculating wave-breaking onset and energy dissipation

  12. Türk Edebiyatının Klasik Eserlerinin Günümüz Televizyon İzleyicisine Sunumu ve İzleyici Algısının Analiz Edilmesi The Presentation Of The Canonical Texts In Turkish Literature To The Contemporary Tv Audience And The Analysis Of The Audience Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat KORKMAZ

    2013-07-01

    programme. Data have been analysed in terms of reliability, and Cronbach’s Alfa value has been 0.920. This value shows that the study is highly reliable. Data have been analysed with different analysis methods and finally it has been detected that the participants have pointed to the significant differences between the original literary texts and the TV adaptations. Birçok kültür ve toplumun en önemli değerleri arasında edebiyat eserleri yer alır. Bunlar geçmişten günümüze yansıyan başta yaşanmışlıklar, tarih, kültür ve sanata yönelik yapıtlardır. Oysaki günümüzde bunun tam tersi olarak geçmişteki bu değerler ekonomik bir takım rant ve beklentilerin esiri olmuştur. Bunun da en önemli nedenleri arasında toplumsal beklentilerin karşılanması ve buna paralel olarak bir takım kurum ve kuruluşların bunu bir rant haline dönüştürme düşüncesidir. Bu durumu yine tarih ve sanata verilmeyen önem olarak gösterebiliriz. Birçok alanda olduğu gibi sanat ve edebi eserler noktasında da artık ekonomik beklenti en ön plandadır. Değişen toplum ve kültür anlayışına paralel olarak ortaya çıkan sorunlar yine birçok farklı kurumun stratejik olarak hareket etmesine neden olmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, geçmişten günümüze yansıyan klasik Türk edebiyatı içerisinde değerlendirilen eserlerin günümüz televizyon izleyicisine sunulması ve izleyici üzerinde oluşturduğu algının belirlenmesidir. Çalışmamız, son yıllarda bir dizi furyası şeklinde ortaya çıkan televizyon yapıtlarının izleyiciye sunulması ve izleyiciden sağlanan avantajların neler olduğunun belirlenmesidir. Ayrıca seyircinin ilgi ve beğenisini kazanmak amacıyla eserlerde meydana getirilen erozyon ve değişiklikler nedeniyle ortaya çıkan milli değer kayıpları başta olmak üzere yapılan yanlışlıklar ve olumsuzluklar yazıda gösterilmeye çalışılmıştır. Araştırma uygulamalı bir araştırmadır. Araştırmada

  13. Valuing Health Using Time Trade-Off and Discrete Choice Experiment Methods: Does Dimension Order Impact on Health State Values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, Brendan; Shah, Koonal; Janssen, Mathieu F Bas; Longworth, Louise; Ibbotson, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Health states defined by multiattribute instruments such as the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire with five response levels (EQ-5D-5L) can be valued using time trade-off (TTO) or discrete choice experiment (DCE) methods. A key feature of the tasks is the order in which the health state dimensions are presented. Respondents may use various heuristics to complete the tasks, and therefore the order of the dimensions may impact on the importance assigned to particular states. To assess the impact of different EQ-5D-5L dimension orders on health state values. Preferences for EQ-5D-5L health states were elicited from a broadly representative sample of members of the UK general public. Respondents valued EQ-5D-5L health states using TTO and DCE methods across one of three dimension orderings via face-to-face computer-assisted personal interviews. Differences in mean values and the size of the health dimension coefficients across the arms were compared using difference testing and regression analyses. Descriptive analysis suggested some differences between the mean TTO health state values across the different dimension orderings, but these were not systematic. Regression analysis suggested that the magnitude of the dimension coefficients differs across the different dimension orderings (for both TTO and DCE), but there was no clear pattern. There is some evidence that the order in which the dimensions are presented impacts on the coefficients, which may impact on the health state values provided. The order of dimensions is a key consideration in the design of health state valuation studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Advancing the Study of a Movement: The Status of Methods and Measures in First-Year Experience and Student Transition Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzie, Jillian

    2013-01-01

    The essay examines the variety of research methods and measures used in the first-year experience and students-in-transition field over the past 25 years. Interrogating the extant research, Kinzie explores whether the methods and analytic processes most commonly employed are adequate to advance our understanding of complex issues in the field. The…

  15. Implementing History and Philosophy in Science Teaching: Strategies, Methods, Results and Experiences from the European HIPST Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höttecke, Dietmar; Henke, Andreas; Riess, Falk

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a rationale for utilizing HPS to teach physics and the NoS developed in the course of a project funded by the European Union. A core feature of this approach is formed by the development of historical case studies for the use in lessons. Furthermore, the learners' perspectives are explicitly taken into account. Teaching methods comprise student-centered activities as creative writing for understanding science and scientists and role-play activities. Emphasis is laid on experimental work which is performed with the help of true-to-the-original replications of historical apparatus, especially built for this purpose. A new characteristic for NoS learning is introduced, namely the reflection corner giving the opportunity to explicitly discussing the relationship between history, knowledge acquisition, and the application of scientific findings. In order to make use of the special skills, creative potentials and experiences of teachers a symbiotic strategy for the development and evaluation process of the teaching material was adopted where a close and long-standing cooperation between science teachers and science educators could be established. On this basis the German partners were able to complete numerous case studies from the fields of mechanics, electricity, magnetism and heat.

  16. Disconnects in pedagogy and practice in community health nursing clinical experiences: Qualitative findings of a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijl-Zieber, Em M; Barton, Sylvia; Awosoga, Olu; Konkin, Jill

    2015-10-01

    Many baccalaureate schools of nursing are using non-traditional placements for undergraduate community health clinical rotations. These placements occur at agencies not organizationally affiliated with the health care system and they typically do not employ registered nurses (RNs). In this paper, we describe the qualitative findings of a mixed method study that explored these gaps as they relate to pre-registration nursing students' preparation for community health roles. While non-traditional community health placements offer unique opportunities for learning through carefully crafted service learning pedagogy, these placements also present challenges for student preparation for practice in community health roles. The theory-practice gap and the gap between the expected and actual performance of new graduates are accentuated through the use of non-traditional community clinical experiences. These gaps are not necessarily due to poor pedagogy, but rather due to the perceptions and values of the stakeholders involved: nursing students, community health nursing faculty, and community health nurses. New ways must be developed between academe and community health practice areas to provide students with opportunities to develop competence for practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [From bedside to evidence - and back to bedside. 5 years evidence-based guidelines in South Tyrol: methods and experiences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Gero; Siller, Marianne; Tappeiner, Waltraud

    2013-06-01

    In South Tyrol we developed guidelines with two different methodological approaches: one relates to the autonomous development of a nursing guideline for oral care using GRADE, and the other relates to the adaptation process of the NICE guideline on the prevention of venous thromboembolism. Both methods do have advantages and disadvantages: by autonomously developing guidelines the guideline panel identifies more with the product but time and effort is much higher than adapting and amending existing (high quality) guidelines. On the other hand there are only few high quality nursing guidelines. Additionally, the experiences in South Tyrol show that nursing guidelines seem to be not really suitable for a 1:1 application into practice because nearly half of the nurses have not changed their practice - although they knew the content of the guideline. Therefore, in order to promote the implementation process multimodal strategies on different organisational levels were adopted. Amongst these was the involvement of management through the negotiations of objectives, training and active participation of staff in the development of user-friendly application tools.

  18. Engineering Evaluation of Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiement for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlberg, Jon A.; Roberts, Kenneth T.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Little, Leslie E.; Brady, Sherman D.

    2009-09-30

    This evaluation was performed by Pro2Serve in accordance with the Technical Specification for an Engineering Evaluation of the Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (BJC 2009b). The evaluators reviewed the Engineering Evaluation Work Plan for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Residual Salt Removal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2008). The Work Plan (DOE 2008) involves installing a salt transfer probe and new drain line into the Fuel Drain Tanks and Fuel Flush Tank and connecting them to the new salt transfer line at the drain tank cell shield. The probe is to be inserted through the tank ball valve and the molten salt to the bottom of the tank. The tank would then be pressurized through the Reactive Gas Removal System to force the salt into the salt canisters. The Evaluation Team reviewed the work plan, interviewed site personnel, reviewed numerous documents on the Molten Salt Reactor (Sects. 7 and 8), and inspected the probes planned to be used for the transfer. Based on several concerns identified during this review, the team recommends not proceeding with the salt transfer via the proposed alternate salt transfer method. The major concerns identified during this evaluation are: (1) Structural integrity of the tanks - The main concern is with the corrosion that occurred during the fluorination phase of the uranium removal process. This may also apply to the salt transfer line for the Fuel Flush Tank. Corrosion Associated with Fluorination in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fluoride Volatility Process (Litman 1961) shows that this problem is significant. (2) Continued generation of Fluorine - Although the generation of Fluorine will be at a lower rate than experienced before the uranium removal, it will continue to be generated. This needs to be taken into consideration regardless of what actions are taken with the salt. (3) More than one phase of material

  19. Determination of Consumers'Preferences for Conventional, Healthy and Organic Cucumbers in Isfahan City Using Choice Experiment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sandoghi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Continuing growth in human population and consumptionmeans that the global demand for food will increase for at least another 40 years and that the world needs 70-100% more food by 2050. Environmental issues such as climate change, depletion of naturalresources and biodiversity loss increasingly threaten the welfare ofhuman civilization. Confronting these threats requires, among otherthings, behavioral changes in citizens, governments and companies.Farmers and other producers are responding to consumer concerns about pesticides by creating new marketing opportunities for products grown with environmentally sound practices. Environmental economists are increasingly interested in better understanding of how people cognitively organize their beliefs and attitudes towards environmental change in order to identify key motives and barriers that stimulate or prevent action.The purpose of the presentinvestigation is to evaluate the consumers’ preferences and factors affecting their choice for conventional, healthy and organic cucumbers in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: Data were collected on a sample of 230consumers in 2013 by using the proportionate stratification samplingmethod through face-to-face interviews based on a comprehensive structured questionnaire. Before the survey, the reliability and validity of the questionnaire were initially evaluated in a pre-test study, respectively, by using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO criteria. Individual preferences were uncovered in choice experiment method (CEM by a contingent ranking experiment. In a contingent ranking experiment, respondents are required to rank a set of alternative options, characterized by a number of attributes, which are offered at different levels across the options.Data were analyzed by multinomial logit models. The approach consists of modeling utility, that isto say the net benefit a consumer obtains from selecting a

  20. Sales Education beyond the Classroom: Building Participative Learning Experiences in Sales Management through the CMGS Method (Case Method with Guest Speakers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruizalba Robledo, José Luis; Almenta López, Estefanía; Vallespín Arán, María

    2014-01-01

    The overarching goal of working through the CMGS Method (Case Method with Guest Speakers) in Sales Management courses is to provide Business and marketing learners with practical knowledge about how a sales manager can deal with a wide variety of possible professional scenarios. Even when the case method itself is an excellent way to equip…

  1. Following a natural experiment of guideline adaptation and early implementation: a mixed-methods study of facilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogherty Elizabeth J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facilitation is emerging as an important strategy in the uptake of evidence. However, it is not entirely clear from a practical perspective how facilitation occurs to help move research evidence into nursing practice. The Canadian Partnership Against Cancer, also known as the 'Partnership,' is a Pan-Canadian initiative supporting knowledge translation activity for improved care through guideline use. In this case-series study, five self-identified groups volunteered to use a systematic methodology to adapt existing clinical practice guidelines for Canadian use. With 'Partnership' support, local and external facilitators provided assistance for groups to begin the process by adapting the guidelines and planning for implementation. Methods To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the nature of facilitation, we conducted a mixed-methods study. Specifically, we examined the role and skills of individuals actively engaged in facilitation as well as the actual facilitation activities occurring within the 'Partnership.' The study was driven by and builds upon a focused literature review published in 2010 that examined facilitation as a role and process in achieving evidence-based practice in nursing. An audit tool outlining 46 discrete facilitation activities based on results of this review was used to examine the facilitation noted in the documents (emails, meeting minutes, field notes of three nursing-related cases participating in the 'Partnership' case-series study. To further examine the concept, six facilitators were interviewed about their practical experiences. The case-audit data were analyzed through a simple content analysis and triangulated with participant responses from the focus group interview to understand what occurred as these cases undertook guideline adaptation. Results The analysis of the three cases revealed that almost all of the 46 discrete, practical facilitation activities from the literature were

  2. Women's status and experiences of mistreatment during childbirth in Uttar Pradesh: a mixed methods study using cultural health capital theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhinaraset, May; Treleaven, Emily; Melo, Jason; Singh, Kanksha; Diamond-Smith, Nadia

    2016-10-28

    Mistreatment of women in healthcare settings during childbirth has been gaining attention globally. Mistreatment during childbirth directly and indirectly affects health outcomes, patient satisfaction, and the likelihood of delivering in a facility currently or in the future. It is important that we study patients' reports of mistreatment and abuse to develop a deeper understanding of how it is perpetrated, its consequences, and to identify potential points of intervention. Patients' perception of the quality of care is dependent, not only on the content of care, but importantly, on women's expectations of care. This study uses rich, mixed-methods data to explore women's characteristics and experiences of mistreatment during childbirth among slum-resident women in Uttar Pradesh, India. To understand the ways in which women's social and cultural factors influence their expectations of care and consequently their perceptions of respectful care, we adopt a Cultural Health Capital (CHC) framework. The quantitative sample includes 392 women, and the qualitative sample includes 26 women. Quantitative results suggest high levels of mistreatment (over 57 % of women reported any form of mistreatment). Qualitative findings suggest that lack of cultural health capital disadvantages patients in their patient-provider relationships, and that women use resources to improve care they receive. Participants articulated how providers set expectations and norms regarding behaviors in facilities; patients with lower social standing may not always understand standard practices and are likely to suffer poor health outcomes as a result. Of importance, however, patients also blame themselves for their own lack of knowledge. Lack of cultural health capital disadvantages women during delivery care in India. Providers set expectations and norms around behaviors during delivery, while women are often misinformed and may have low expectations of care.

  3. “It was Fun”: An Evaluation of Sand Tray Pictures, an Innovative Visually Expressive Method for Researching Children's Experiences with Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara D. Linzmayer PhD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study children's subjective experiences, researchers need to employ methods that are interesting and engaging but at the same time can produce data that answers research questions. This article critically reflects on the use of an innovative visually expressive method, sand tray pictures, which allows children to communicate their multi-dimensional subjective experiences with nature. In this study, sand tray pictures were compared with photographs taken and pictures drawn by the children as approaches for understanding children's experiences in a public botanic garden during a five-day summer camp. Sand trays were identified as a highly effective tool in eliciting insights about children's subjective and socio-cultural experiences in nature.

  4. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gnatov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently repair and recovery vehicle body operations become more and more popular. A special place here is taken by equipment that provides performance of given repair operations. The most interesting things are methods for recovery of car body panels that allow the straightening without disassembling of car body panels and damaging of existing protective coating. Now, there are several technologies for repair and recovery of car body panels without their disassembly and dismantling. The most perspective is magnetic-pulse technology of external noncontact straightening. Basics of magnetic-pulse attraction, both ferromagnetic and nonferromagnetic thin-walled sheet metal, are explored. Inductor system calculation models of magnetic-pulse straightening tools are presented. Final analytical expressions for excited efforts calculation in the tools under consideration are introduced. According to the obtained analytical expressions, numerical evaluations of excited forces were executed. The volumetric epures of the attractive force radial distributions for different types of inductors were built. The practical testing of magnetic-pulse straightening with research tools is given. Using the results of the calculations we can create effective tools for an external magnetic-pulse straightening of car body panels.

  5. Examination of the Effects of Dohsa-Method Induced Positive Mind-Body Experience on Nostalgic Affects Using a EEG Pleasantness Scale and an Affective Imagery Scale

    OpenAIRE

    今野, 義孝; 上杉, 喬

    2003-01-01

    Authors examined the effects of the positive mind-body experiences through Dohsa-method on enhancing nostalgic affects elicited by sound stimuli in undergraduate students. Nostalgia is a universal affect that results in a heightened mental state, an enhancing, uplifting mood related to particular memories of the past. Nostalgia is also entails the recognition and acceptance of past experiences, and may facilitate the positive reevaluation of life, strengthen subjective well-being and happines...

  6. Psy Toolkit: A Novel Web-Based Method for Running Online Questionnaires and Reaction-Time Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoet, Gijsbert

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews PsyToolkit, a free web-based service designed for setting up, running, and analyzing online questionnaires and reaction-time (RT) experiments. It comes with extensive documentation, videos, lessons, and libraries of free-to-use psychological scales and RT experiments. It provides an elaborate interactive environment to use (or…

  7. Tapping into Graduate Students' Collaborative Technology Experience in a Research Methods Class: Insights on Teaching Research Methods in a Malaysian and American Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez-Colina, Maria D.; Maslin-Ostrowski, Pat; Baba, Suria

    2017-01-01

    This case study used qualitative and quantitative methods to investigate challenges of learning and teaching research methods by examining graduate students' use of collaborative technology (i.e., digital tools that enable collaboration and information seeking such as software and social media) and students' computer self-efficacy. We conducted…

  8. Methods for organizing the interaction of circulating particle beams with internal targets in nuclear physics experiments at synchrotrons and storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artiomov, A. S.

    2017-05-01

    The first methods for using internal targets and their further development for organization of nuclear physics experiments at synchrotrons and storage rings are reviewed. With these methods, new results are obtained and discoveries are made in physics of interactions of elementary particles and nuclei. Current uses of various internal targets and circulating particle beams in ongoing and projected research in particle physics, relativistic nuclear and spin physics, and physics of interactions of exotic and radioactive nuclei and for producing fluxes of secondary particles (mesons, neutrons, exotic and radioactive nuclei, etc.) for physics experiments are described.

  9. Effectiveness and experience of arts-based pedagogy among undergraduate nursing students: a mixed methods systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Kendra L; Chernomas, Wanda M; McMillan, Diana E; Morin, Francine L; Demczuk, Lisa

    2016-11-01

    To develop well rounded professional nurses, educators need diverse pedagogical approaches. There is growing interest in arts-based pedagogy (ABP) as the arts can facilitate reflection, create meaning and engage healthcare students. However, the emerging body of research about ABP needs to be systematically examined. To synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of ABP in enhancing competencies and learning behaviors in undergraduate nursing education and to explore nursing students' experiences with art-based pedagogy. The review considered studies that included participants who are undergraduate nursing students. The qualitative (QL) component considered studies investigating nursing students' experiences of ABP, and the quantitative (QN) component considered studies evaluating the effectiveness of ABP in undergraduate nursing education. The QL component considered QL studies including designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, action research and feminist research. The QN component considered studies that examined the effectiveness of ABP including designs such as randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental, before and after studies, prospective and retrospective cohort studies, case-control studies, analytical cross-sectional studies, case series, individual case reports and descriptive cross-sectional studies. The following QN outcomes of ABP were assessed: knowledge acquisition, level of empathy, attitudes toward others, emotional states, reflective practice, self-transcendence, cognitive/ethical maturity, learning behaviors and students' perspectives of ABP. An extensive three-step search strategy was conducted for primary research studies published between January 1, 1994 and April 7, 2015. The strategy included searching CINAHL, MEDLINE, ERIC, PsycINFO, Academic Search Complete, Arts and Humanities Citation Index, Art Full Text, Scopus, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, A&I, and

  10. Experiences of a student-run clinic in primary care: a mixed-method study with students, patients and supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröberg, Maria; Leanderson, Charlotte; Fläckman, Birgitta; Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik; Björklund, Karin; Nilsson, Gunnar H; Stenfors, Terese

    2018-03-01

    To explore how a student-run clinic (SRC) in primary health care (PHC) was perceived by students, patients and supervisors. A mixed methods study. Clinical learning environment, supervision and nurse teacher evaluation scale (CLES + T) assessed student satisfaction. Client satisfaction questionnaire-8 (CSQ-8) assessed patient satisfaction. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with supervisors. Gustavsberg PHC Center, Stockholm County, Sweden. Students in medicine, nursing, physiotherapy, occupational therapy and psychology and their patients filled in questionnaires. Supervisors in medicine, nursing and physiotherapy were interviewed. Mean values and medians of CLES + T and CSQ-8 were calculated. Interviews were analyzed using content analysis. A majority of 199 out of 227 student respondents reported satisfaction with the pedagogical atmosphere and the supervisory relationship. Most of the 938 patient respondents reported satisfaction with the care given. Interviews with 35 supervisors showed that the organization of the SRC provided time and support to focus on the tutorial assignment. Also, the pedagogical role became more visible and targeted toward the student's individual needs. However, balancing the student's level of autonomy and the own control over care was described as a challenge. Many expressed the need for further pedagogical education. High student and patient satisfaction reported from five disciplines indicate that a SRC in PHC can be adapted for heterogeneous student groups. Supervisors experienced that the SRC facilitated and clarified their pedagogical role. Simultaneously their need for continuous pedagogical education was highlighted. The SRC model has the potential to enhance student-centered tuition in PHC. Key Points Knowledge of student-run clinics (SRCs) as learning environments within standard primary health care (PHC) is limited. We report experiences from the perspectives of students, their patients and supervisors

  11. Detailed characterization of a Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) instrument for ambient OH reactivity measurements: experiments vs. modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, Vincent; Locoge, Nadine; Dusanter, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    The Hydroxyl radical (OH) is the main daytime oxidant in the troposphere, leading to the oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and the formation of harmful pollutants such as ozone (O3) and Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). While OH plays a key role in tropospheric chemistry, recent studies have highlighted that there are still uncertainties associated with the OH budget, i.e the identification of sources and sinks and the quantification of production and loss rates of this radical. It has been demonstrated that ambient measurements of the total OH loss rate (also called total OH reactivity) can be used to identify and reduce these uncertainties. In this context, the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM), developed by Sinha et al. (ACP, 2008), is a promising technique to measure total OH reactivity in ambient air and has already been used during several field campaigns. This technique relies on monitoring competitive reactions of OH with ambient trace gases and a reference compound (pyrrole) in a sampling reactor to derive ambient OH reactivity. However, this technique requires a complex data processing chain that has yet to be carefully investigated in the laboratory. In this study, we present a detailed characterization of a CRM instrument developed at Mines Douai, France. Experiments have been performed to investigate the dependence of the CRM response on humidity, ambient NOx levels, and the pyrrole-to-OH ratio inside the sampling reactor. Box modelling of the chemistry occurring in the reactor has also been performed to assess our theoretical understanding of the CRM measurement. This work shows that the CRM response is sensitive to both humidity and NOx, which can be accounted for during data processing using parameterizations depending on the pyrrole-to-OH ratio. The agreement observed between laboratory studies and model results suggests a good understanding of the chemistry occurring in the sampling reactor and gives confidence in the CRM

  12. Lytinio ugdymo ir lytinio švietimo procesų lyginamoji analizė bei lytinio švietimo integravimo į Lietuvos švietimo sistemą pobūdis

    OpenAIRE

    Obelenienė, Birutė

    2010-01-01

    Straipsnyje analizuojamas socialinių gebėjimų įgijimas savanoriškoje veikloje. Autorės aptaria socialinius gebėjimus ir savanorystę, kaip artimo meilės išraišką. Tyrimo rezultatai atskleidė, kad savanoriai savanoriškoje veikloje daugiausia įgyja bendravimo, bendradarbiavimo ir mokymosi iš kitų socialinių gebėjimų. Early adolescent sexual experiences provoke very serious social and health problems. When solving questions of prevention of risky adolescent sexual behaviour, it is common for b...

  13. Experiences of Participants in a Self-Management Program for Employees with Complaints of the Arm, Neck or Shoulder (CANS): A Mixed Methods Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutting, N.; Detaille, S.I.; Heerkens, Y.F.; Engels, J.A.; Staal, J.B.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the experiences of participants of a self-management program for employees with complaints of the arm, neck or shoulder (CANS). The program consisted of six group sessions combined with an eHealth module. Methods Semi-structured interviews with the first 31 consecutive

  14. The Impact of Student Teaching Experience on Pre-Service Teachers' Readiness for Technology Integration: A Mixed Methods Study with Growth Curve Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Strobel, Johannes; Newby, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Adopting a two-phase explanatory sequential mixed methods research design, the current study examined the impact of student teaching experiences on pre-service teachers' readiness for technology integration. In phase-1 of quantitative investigation, 2-level growth curve models were fitted using online repeated measures survey data collected from…

  15. Managing Facilities for Cultural Democracy. Symposium on "Methods of Managing Socio-cultural Facilities to be Applied in Pilot Experiments." (San Remo, 26-29 April 1972).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    The conference proceedings from a symposium held by the Council for Cultural Cooperation were concerned with identifying those European facilities and methods which give the greatest promise of overcoming the problems of sociocultural development and are worthy of further development and study as pilot experiments. Participant countries were asked…

  16. Reflecting on the Postgraduate Experience: Teaching Research Methods and Statistics: Review of the DART-P Sponsored Workshop at PsyPAG 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Emma J.; Davies, Emma. L.

    2014-01-01

    Following the success of last year's teaching and career development workshop, this year's DART-P sponsored workshop at the Psychology Postgraduate Affairs Group (PsyPAG) Annual Conference held at Lancaster University focused on postgraduate's experiences of teaching research methods. This article provides a review of the invited speakers…

  17. A Mixed Methods Assessment of Students' Flow Experiences during a Mobile Augmented Reality Science Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressler, D. M.; Bodzin, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Current studies have reported that secondary students are highly engaged while playing mobile augmented reality (AR) learning games. Some researchers have posited that players' engagement may indicate a flow experience, but no research results have confirmed this hypothesis with vision-based AR learning games. This study investigated factors…

  18. Does CenteringPregnancy Group Prenatal Care Affect the Birth Experience of Underserved Women? A Mixed Methods Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rhianon; Chao, Maria T; Jostad-Laswell, Ariana; Duncan, Larissa G

    2017-04-01

    We examined the birth experience of immigrant and minority women and how CenteringPregnancy (Centering), a model of group prenatal care and childbirth education, influenced that experience. In-depth interviews and surveys were conducted with a sample of racially diverse Centering participants about their birth experiences. Interview transcripts were analyzed thematically. Study participants (n = 34) were primarily low-income, Spanish-speaking immigrants with an average age of 29.7. On a scale from 1 (not satisfied) to 10 (very satisfied), women reported high satisfaction with birth (9.0) and care (9.3). In interviews, they expressed appreciation for the choice to labor with minimal medical intervention. Difficulties with communication arose from fragmented labor and delivery care by multiple providers. Centering provided women with pain coping skills, a familiar birth attendant, and knowledge to advocate for themselves. High reported satisfaction may obscure challenges to providing high quality childbirth care for marginalized women. Further study should examine the potential of Centering to positively impact underserved women's birth experiences.

  19. HIGH-TEMPERATURE EXAFS EXPERIMENTS ON LIQUID KPB ALLOYS ANALYZED WITH THE REVERSE MONTE-CARLO METHOD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRAS, W; XU, R; WICKS, JD; VANDERHORST, F; OVERSLUIZEN, M; MCGREEVY, RL; VANDERLUGT, W

    1994-01-01

    A new sample chamber has been designed which allows high temperature Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) experiments on metallic melts which offer a number of special experimental problems: they are highly corrosive, have high vapour pressures and strongly absorb X-rays. The EXAFS

  20. Supporting 13 years of global change research: the history, technology, and methods of the Aspen FACE Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark E. Kubiske; Anita R. Foss; Andrew J. Burton; Wendy S. Jones; Keith F. Lewin; John Nagy; Kurt S. Pregitzer; Donald R. Zak; David F. Karnosky

    2015-01-01

    This publication is an additional source of metadata for data stored and publicly available in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Research Data Archive. Here, we document the development, design, management, and operation of the experiment. In 1998, a team of scientists from the U.S. Forest Service, Department of Energy (DOE), Michigan Technological...

  1. A simple computer-based method for performing and analyzing intracranial self-stimulation experiments in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling-Petersen, T; Svensson, K

    1993-05-01

    Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in the rat is a useful tool for studying the importance of various brain monoamines in positive reinforcement. The effects of compounds interacting with dopaminergic neurotransmission is measurable by studying the changes of reward thresholds. By computerisation of the analysis of these thresholds, standardisation and reproducibility is greatly enhanced. The use of an object-oriented programming language simplifies the programming of a specific application and it provides scientists without formal training in computer programming the means to create their own software. A system for the acquisition, execution, analysis and storage of ICSS experiments is described. The hardware is based on Apple Macintosh computers, interfaced to the test chambers and physiological stimulators using a plug-in card supporting A/D, D/A, digital I/O and timer functions. The software written in G (LabVIEW) provides the user with a graphically based 'Virtual Instrument' performing all aspect of the ICSS experiment. The software performs threshold analysis immediately after completion of the ICSS experiment, thereby greatly reducing the total time previously needed to evaluate these experiments. The graphical approach used in LabVIEW allows the programmer to make fast and simple alterations to suit different experimental problems.

  2. Axial transmission method for long bone fracture evaluation by ultrasonic guided waves: simulation, phantom and in vitro experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kailiang; Ta, Dean; He, Runxin; Qin, Yi-Xian; Wang, Weiqi

    2014-04-01

    Mode conversion occurs when the ultrasonic guided waves encounter fractures. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of fracture assessment in long cortical bone using guided-mode conversion. Mode conversion behavior between the fundamental modes S0 and A0 was analyzed. The expressions proposed for modal velocity were used to identify the original and converted modes. Simulations and phantom experiments were performed using 1.0-mm-thick steel plates with a notch width of 0.5 mm and notch depths of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mm. Furthermore, in vitro experiments were carried out on nine ovine tibias with 1.0-mm-wide partial transverse gap break and cortical thickness varying from 2.10 to 3.88 mm. The study confirmed that mode conversion gradually becomes observable as fracture depth increases. Energy percentages of the converted modes correlated strongly with fracture depth, as illustrated by the frequency-sweeping experiments on steel phantoms (100-1100 kHz, r(2) = 0.97, p < 0.0069) and the fixed-frequency experiments on nine ovine tibias (250 kHz, r(2) = 0.97, p < 0.0056). The approaches described, including mode excitation, velocity expressions and energy percentage criteria, may also contribute to ultrasonic monitoring of long bone fracture healing. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Grounded Theory of Preservice Music Educators' Lesson Planning Processes within Field Experience Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy; Bond, Vanessa L.; Powell, Sean R.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to understand the process of field experience lesson planning for preservice music educators enrolled in choral, general, and instrumental music education courses within three university contexts. Data sources included multiple interviews, written responses, and field texts from 42 participants. Four…

  4. Process Integration Design Methods for Water Conservation and Wastewater Reduction in Industry. Part 3: Experience of Industrial Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Dunn, Russell; Gottrup, Lene

    2002-01-01

    This paper is Part 3 in a three part series of papers addressing operational techniques for applying mass integration principles to design in industry with special focus on water conservation and wastewater reduction. The presented techniques derive from merging US and Danish experience with indu...

  5. Methods to test the interactive effects of drought and plant invasion on ecosystem structure and function using complementary common garden and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Christina; NeSmith, Julienne E; Fahey, Catherine; Angelini, Christine; Flory, Stephen Luke

    2017-03-01

    Abiotic global change drivers affect ecosystem structure and function, but how they interact with biotic factors such as invasive plants is understudied. Such interactions may be additive, synergistic, or offsetting, and difficult to predict. We present methods to test the individual and interactive effects of drought and plant invasion on native ecosystems. We coupled a factorial common garden experiment containing resident communities exposed to drought (imposed with rainout shelters) and invasion with a field experiment where the invader was removed from sites spanning a natural soil moisture gradient. We detail treatments and their effects on abiotic conditions, including soil moisture, light, temperature, and humidity, which shape community and ecosystem responses. Ambient precipitation during the garden experiment exceeded historic norms despite severe drought in prior years. Soil moisture was 48% lower in drought than ambient plots, but the invader largely offset drought effects. Additionally, temperature and light were lower and humidity higher in invaded plots. Field sites spanned up to a 10-fold range in soil moisture and up to a 2.5-fold range in light availability. Invaded and resident vegetation did not differentially mediate soil moisture, unlike in the garden experiment. Herbicide effectively removed invaded and resident vegetation, with removal having site-specific effects on soil moisture and light availability. However, light was generally higher in invader-removal than control plots, whereas resident removal had less effect on light, similar to the garden experiment. Invasion mitigated a constellation of abiotic conditions associated with drought stress in the garden experiment. In the field, where other factors co-varied, these patterns did not emerge. Still, neither experiment suggested that drought and invasion will have synergistic negative effects on ecosystems, although invasion can limit light availability. Coupling factorial garden

  6. Teacher Experiences on the Play Based Methods and Instructional Practices Used in Half vs Full Day Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gina E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine the play based teaching and learning methods at one particular elementary school in southeastern Massachusetts with the aim of identifying methods and practices that are seen as essential in developing the academic and social skills in kindergarten students. This school of study has been utilizing…

  7. [Experience with the diagnosis of taeniarhynchiasis caused by the northern isolate of the beef tapeworm by B. E. Rabinovich's method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitsu, G A

    1992-01-01

    It has been shown that the method of B. E. Rabinovich may be used for the diagnosis of infestation caused by the northern isolate of Taeniorhynchus. Bearing in mind biological specificities of the above helminth species, to enhance the efficacy of diagnostics it is advisable to use the technique in combination with the method of Kato.

  8. Experiments of the selection of a method evaluating the fire resistance of some materials based on macromolecular compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Steln; Sebe, Mircea Octavian

    1987-01-01

    A comparative experimental study on the application of various tests for the evaluation of the fire-resistant properties of plastic materials is presented. On the basis of the results obtained conclusions are drawn on the advantages and disadvantages of the methods used, and a preferred test method is picked, i.e., the introduction of fire retardant materials into the polymers.

  9. A simple method of measuring profiles of thin liquid films for microfluidics experiments by means of interference reflection microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Berejnov, V

    2010-01-01

    A simple method was developed to observe the interference patterns of the light reflected by the interfaces of thin liquid films. Employing a fluorescent microscope with epi-illumination, we collected the 2D patterns of interference fringes containing information of the liquid film topography at microscale. To demonstrate the utility of the proposed visualization method we developed a framework for reconstructing the profiles of liquid films by analysing the reflected interferograms numerically. Both the visualization and reconstruction methods should be useful for variety of microfluidic applications involving the flows with droplets and bubbles in which the knowledge of the topography of the interfacial liquid film is critical.

  10. Comparison of Resource Requirements for a Wind Tunnel Test Designed with Conventional vs. Modern Design of Experiments Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoach, Richard; Micol, John R.

    2011-01-01

    The factors that determine data volume requirements in a typical wind tunnel test are identified. It is suggested that productivity in wind tunnel testing can be enhanced by managing the inference error risk associated with evaluating residuals in a response surface modeling experiment. The relationship between minimum data volume requirements and the factors upon which they depend is described and certain simplifications to this relationship are realized when specific model adequacy criteria are adopted. The question of response model residual evaluation is treated and certain practical aspects of response surface modeling are considered, including inference subspace truncation. A wind tunnel test plan developed by using the Modern Design of Experiments illustrates the advantages of an early estimate of data volume requirements. Comparisons are made with a representative One Factor At a Time (OFAT) wind tunnel test matrix developed to evaluate a surface to air missile.

  11. Workspace design for crane cabins applying a combined traditional approach and the Taguchi method for design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasojević Brkić, Vesna K; Veljković, Zorica A; Golubović, Tamara; Brkić, Aleksandar Dj; Kosić Šotić, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Procedures in the development process of crane cabins are arbitrary and subjective. Since approximately 42% of incidents in the construction industry are linked to them, there is a need to collect fresh anthropometric data and provide additional recommendations for design. In this paper, dimensioning of the crane cabin interior space was carried out using a sample of 64 crane operators' anthropometric measurements, in the Republic of Serbia, by measuring workspace with 10 parameters using nine measured anthropometric data from each crane operator. This paper applies experiments run via full factorial designs using a combined traditional and Taguchi approach. The experiments indicated which design parameters are influenced by which anthropometric measurements and to what degree. The results are expected to be of use for crane cabin designers and should assist them to design a cabin that may lead to less strenuous sitting postures and fatigue for operators, thus improving safety and accident prevention.

  12. 9th GCC closed forum: CAPA in regulated bioanalysis; method robustness, biosimilars, preclinical method validation, endogenous biomarkers, whole blood stability, regulatory audit experiences and electronic laboratory notebooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Roger; LeLacheur, Richard; Dumont, Isabelle; Couerbe, Philippe; Safavi, Afshin; Islam, Rafiq; Pattison, Colin; Cape, Stephanie; Rocci, Mario; Briscoe, Chad; Cojocaru, Laura; Groeber, Elizabeth; Silvestro, Luigi; Bravo, Jennifer; Shoup, Ron; Verville, Manon; Zimmer, Jennifer; Caturla, Maria Cruz; Khadang, Ardeshir; Bourdage, James; Hughes, Nicola; Fatmi, Saadya; Di Donato, Lorella; Sheldon, Curtis; Keyhani, Anahita; Satterwhite, Christina; Yu, Mathilde; Fiscella, Michele; Hulse, James; Lin, Zhongping John; Garofolo, Wei; Savoie, Natasha; Xiao, Yi Qun; Kurylak, Kai; Harris, Sarah; Saxena, Manju; Buonarati, Mike; Lévesque, Ann; Boudreau, Nadine; Lin, Jenny; Khan, Masood U; Ray, Gene; Liu, Yansheng; Xu, Allan; Soni, Gunjan; Ward, Ian; Kingsley, Clare; Ritzén, Hanna; Tabler, Edward; Nicholson, Bob; Bennett, Patrick; van de Merbel, Nico; Karnik, Shane; Bouhajib, Mohammed; Wieling, Jaap; Mulvana, Daniel; Ingelse, Benno; Allen, Mike; Malone, Michele; Fang, Xinping

    2016-03-01

    The 9th GCCClosed Forum was held just prior to the 2015 Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (WRIB) in Miami, FL, USA on 13 April 2015. In attendance were 58 senior-level participants, from eight countries, representing 38 CRO companies offering bioanalytical services. The objective of this meeting was for CRO bioanalytical representatives to meet and discuss scientific and regulatory issues specific to bioanalysis. The issues selected at this year's closed forum include CAPA, biosimilars, preclinical method validation, endogenous biomarkers, whole blood stability, and ELNs. A summary of the industry's best practices and the conclusions from the discussion of these topics is included in this meeting report.

  13. EXPERIENCE AND TRENDS OF TRAINIG SPECIALISTS IN THE FIELDS OF MATHMATICAL METHODS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN HEALTH CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В С Томашевская

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the experience of implementing educational programs for bachelors and masters with focus on areas of training in the field of computer science with the introduction into educational process modern technologies, attracting the largest enterprises-employers and experts of the subject domain. As an example of this approach, describes the implementation of educational programs at the intersection of information technology and health care, and especially their Information Technology Services.

  14. Experiences of racism and discrimination among migrant care workers in England:Findings from a mixed-methods research project

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Martin; Hussein, Shereen; Manthorpe, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Abstract This article reports part of the findings of research undertaken in 2007-09 that aimed to investigate the contribution made by migrant workers to the care workforce in England. The study involved analysis of national statistics on social care and social workers and semi-structured interviews with a wide range of stakeholders, including 96 migrant care workers. The interviews elicited some accounts relating experiences of racism and discrimination from some peo...

  15. Seeking to understand lived experiences of personal recovery in personality disorder in community and forensic settings - a qualitative methods investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Andrew; Sanders, Caroline; Shaw, Jenny

    2017-08-01

    Understandings of personal recovery have emerged as an alternative framework to traditional ideas of clinical progression, or symptom remission, in clinical practice. Most research in this field has focussed on the experience of individuals suffering with psychotic disorders and little research has been conducted to explore the experience of individuals with a personality disorder diagnosis, despite the high prevalence of such difficulties. The nature of the personality disorder diagnosis, together with high prevalence rates in forensic settings, renders the understanding of recovery in these contexts particularly problematic. The current study seeks to map out pertinent themes relating to the recovery process in personality disorder as described by individuals accessing care in either community or forensic settings. Individual qualitative interviews were utilised to explore the lived experience of those receiving a personality disorder diagnosis and accessing mental health care in either community or forensic settings. A thematic analysis was conducted to identify shared concepts and understanding between participants. Fourty-one individual participant interviews were conducted across forensic and community settings. Recovery was presented by participants as a developing negotiated understanding of the self, together with looked for change and hope in the future. Four specific themes emerged in relation to this process: 1. Understanding early lived experience as informing sense of self 2. Developing emotional control 3. Diagnosis as linking understanding and hope for change 4. The role of mental health services. Through considering personal recovery in personality disorder as a negotiated understanding between the individual, their social networks and professionals this study illustrates the complexity of working through such a process. Clarity of understanding in this area is essential to avoid developing resistance in the recovery process. Understanding of

  16. Experimenting with a design experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Judith; Denters, Sebastianus A.H.

    2012-01-01

    The design experiment is an experimental research method that aims to help design and further develop new (policy) instruments. For the development of a set of guidelines for the facilitation of citizens’ initiatives by local governments, we are experimenting with this method. It offers good

  17. Coherence between data gathering technique and data analysis method in qualitative studies. A research experience based on leukemia survivors’ narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Zannini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Framed in the field of human sciences research, this paper is aimed at critically analyzing the issue of consistency between data gathering technique and data analysis method in qualitative research, starting from a study based on written narratives of patients who had suffered from leukemia, during their childhood/adolescence (Zannini et al., 2014. Even if we collected patients’ narratives, we did not choose Narrative Inquiry as research method, but we decided for a Grounded Theory study (Strauss & Corbin, 1990, a method that allow researchers to reconstruct the “theory”, which participants have developed on a certain phenomenon/process. The discussion of the paper is focused on the methodological issues, considering data analysis as a process that does not depend exclusively on data characteristics (i.e. narrative, but also on research questions and, consequently, on the selected research method.

  18. Time-trends in method-specific suicide rates compared with the availability of specific compounds. The Danish experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Qin, Ping; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Restriction of means for suicide is an important part of suicide preventive strategies in different countries. All suicides in Denmark between 1970 and 2000 were examined with regard to method used for suicide. Overall suicide mortality and method-specific suicide mortality was compared...... in the number of suicides by self-poisoning with these compounds. Restricted access occurred concomittantly with a 55% decrease in suicide rate...

  19. Otizmli Bireylerin Eğitiminde Video ile Model Olma Uygulamalarının Değerlendirilmesi: Bir Alanyazın Derlemesi ve Meta-Analiz Örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necdet Karasu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Otizmli bireylerin eğitimlerinde teknolojinin de gelişmesi ile beraber video ile model kullanımı konusunda ilerlemeler kaydedilmiştir. Bu yöntemin etkililiğinin test edildiği tek denekli araştırma modellerine dayanan araştırmaların, niteliksel ve niteliksel özetlemeleri alanyazınını takip etmekte olan uygulamacı ve araştırmacılar için yardımcı olacaktır. Bu çalışmada otizmli bireylerle gerçekleştirilmiş, 2005 sonrası yayınlanmış, 24 adet tek denekli araştırma modeli kullanmış makale incelenmiştir. Ayrıca örtüşmeyen verilerin yüzdesi yöntemi ile etki büyüklüğü hesaplamaları da yapılarak, niceliksel sonuçlar da elde edilmiştir. Toplamda 59 katılımcının yer aldığı bu çalışmalarda iletişim, günlük yaşam becerileri, özbakım becerileri ve mesleki eğitim becerilerinin geliştirilmesi konularına odaklandıkları belirlenmiştir. Bu çalışmalar sonucunda otizmli bireylerin hedeflenen davranışlar üzerinde gelişme gösterdiklerine dair veriler elde edilmekle birlikte bazı sorular da ortaya çıkmıştır. Use of video modeling in education of autism is in increase in regard to the developments in technology. The quantitative and qualitative summaries of studies which based on single subject research methodology focused on the effectiveness of this method is important to the researchers and the teachers. This study reviewed 24 single subject design studies focused on students with autism and published after 2005. Also, effect-size calculations were completed by using percentage of nonoverlapping data method. Those selected studies included 59 participants and focused on communication skills, daily living skills, self-care skills and work skills. Even though the results have indicate to improvement on the selected behaviors, some questions have been also raised.

  20. Controlling Legionella in hospital water systems: experience with the superheat-and-flush method and copper-silver ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, J E; Lin, Y S; Goetz, A M; Muder, R R

    1998-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of copper-silver ionization on Legionella colonization and nosocomial legionnaires' disease and to compare the efficacy of metal ions versus the superheat-and-flush method of disinfection. Prospective determination over a 36-month period of copper and silver ion concentrations in the recirculating hot-water system, Legionella colonization of the hospital water distribution system, and cases of nosocomial legionnaires' disease. Retrospective comparison of results with the previous 13 years, during which the superheat-and-flush method was used. The Pittsburgh Veterans' Affairs Health Care System (University Drive Division) acute-care hospital. Three copper-silver ionization systems were installed on the hot-water distribution system in November 1994. The average number of cases of legionnaires' disease per year and the percentage of distal sites positive for Legionella pneumophila for the superheat-and-flush method versus the copper-silver ionization method was six cases with 15% positivity versus two cases with 4% positivity, respectively. The reduction in Legionella colonization after copper-silver ionization was significant (Pcopper and silver ion concentrations (mg/L) were 0.29 and 0.054 from hot-water tanks, and 0.17 and 0.04 from distal outlets, respectively. We conclude that a properly maintained and monitored copper-silver ionization system was more effective than the superheat-and-flush method for reducing the recovery of Legionella from the hospital water distribution system.

  1. Set up of a method for the adjustment of resonance parameters on integral experiments; Mise au point d`une methode d`ajustement des parametres de resonance sur des experiences integrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaise, P.

    1996-12-18

    Resonance parameters for actinides play a significant role in the neutronic characteristics of all reactor types. All the major integral parameters strongly depend on the nuclear data of the isotopes in the resonance-energy regions.The author sets up a method for the adjustment of resonance parameters taking into account the self-shielding effects and restricting the cross section deconvolution problem to a limited energy region. (N.T.).

  2. High frequency scattering from trihedral corner reflectors and other benchmark targets - SBR versus experiment. [Shooting and Bouncing Ray method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, John; Lee, Shung-Wu; Lin, Luke; Jeng, Shyh-Kang; Scarborough, Steven M.; Yu, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    A general method for calculating the radar cross section (RCS) from a three-dimensional target is described. The target is first constructed by using a solid-geometry-modeling computer-aided design (CAD) package. Following the shooting and bouncing ray (SBR) method, a very dense grid of rays is launched from the incident direction toward the target. Each ray is traced according to the geometrical optics theory including the effect of ray tube divergence, polarization, and material reflection coefficient. At the point where the ray exits the target, a physical optics-type integration is performed to obtain the scattered far fields. This method is tested using several simple examples involving interaction among plates, cylinders, and spheres. The theoretical results are generally in good agreement with measured data.

  3. An Experience of Forest Inventory by Photo Interpretation Method Based on Advanced Firmware and Digital Aerial Photographs of New Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Arkhipov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The main stages of the developed technology of forest inventory by interpretation method, named «From survey – to project», with the use of modern aerial survey data, special software and hardware are discussed in the paper. A need for development of high-end technology of forest inventory is due to increasing demands of state, business, and civil community for actual and correct information about forests. The tasks of research were: integration software and hardware into single technology, testing on the real object, and development of recommendations for introduction into production and forming of system of preparing specialists for forest interpretation. Positive results of experimental works by measurement and analytical forest interpretation in stereo regime on base of photogrammetric software were obtained by specialists from Russia, Croatia, Belarus, and Sweden. In the technology «From survey – to project», the following instruments are used: photogrammetric complex Vision Map A3, digital photogrammetric system Photomod, program «ESAUL», GIS ArcGIS, special hardware for stereo visualization. Results of testing this technology are shown on example of model territory. Comparison of results of forest inventory obtained by interpretation method and results of control inventory obtained by enumeration method demonstrated that errors of determination of main forest inventory characteristics do not exceed the norms. The advantages of practical use of the technology are shown. It has been noted that forest inventory by interpretation method is a complex psychophysiological process and it requires an attraction of specialists with high qualification on base of special training. It is indicated the necessity of forming system for training forest inventory specialists on interpretation method. The designed and prepared curriculums and training manuals for interpretation method in forestry are listed.

  4. Using experience sampling methods/ecological momentary assessment (ESM/EMA) in clinical assessment and clinical research: introduction to the special section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trull, Timothy J; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W

    2009-12-01

    This article introduces the special section on experience sampling methods and ecological momentary assessment in clinical assessment. We review the conceptual basis for experience sampling methods (ESM; Csikszentmihalyi & Larson, 1987) and ecological momentary assessment (EMA; Stone & Shiffman, 1994). Next, we highlight several advantageous features of ESM/EMA as applied to psychological assessment and clinical research. We provide a brief overview of the articles in this special section, each of which focuses on 1 of the following major classes of psychological disorders: mood disorders and mood dysregulation (Ebner-Priemer & Trull, 2009), anxiety disorders (Alpers, 2009), substance use disorders (Shiffman, 2009), and psychosis (Oorschot, Kwapil, Delespaul, & Myin-Germeys, 2009). Finally, we discuss prospects, future challenges, and limitations of ESM/EMA.

  5. Use of cultural probes for representation of chronic disease experience: exploration of an innovative method for design of supportive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassling, Linda; Nordfeldt, Sam; Eriksson, Henrik; Timpka, Toomas

    2005-01-01

    Chronic diseases do not only manifest themselves as sets of pathophysiological factors. They bring about an equally important psychosocial impact. Unfortunately, it is difficult to account for this impact in the development of supportive technologies. This study describes and explores a method for elicitation of requirements on technologies supporting self-management including emotional aspects. The method takes advantage of a self-documentary media kit for collection of data from the everyday context of chronic disease. The resulting contextual data can contribute new insights to multi-disciplinary teams in the design of supporting technologies.

  6. Treatment decision-making in ductal carcinoma in situ: A mixed methods systematic review of women's experiences and information needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Claudia; Mercieca-Bebber, Rebecca; Butow, Phyllis; Wu, Jenny Liang; King, Madeleine T

    2017-09-01

    Decision-making in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is complex due to the heterogeneity of the disease. This study aimed to understand women's experience of making treatment decisions for DCIS, their information and support needs, and factors that influenced decisions. We searched six electronic databases, conference proceedings, and key authors. Two reviewers independently applied inclusion and quality criteria, and extracted findings. Thematic analysis was used to combine and summarise findings. We identified six themes and 28 subthemes from 18 studies. Women with DCIS have knowledge deficits about DCIS, experience anxiety related to information given at diagnosis and the complexity of decision-making, and have misconceptions regarding risks and outcomes of treatment. Women's decisions are influenced by their understanding of risk, the clinical features of their DCIS, and the benefits and harms of treatment options. Women are dissatisfied with the decisional support available. Informed and shared decision-making in this complex decision setting requires clear communication of information specific to DCIS and individual's, as well as decision support for patients and clinicians. This approach would educate patients and clinicians, and assist clinicians in supporting patients to an evidence-based treatment plan that aligns with individual values and pReferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Finding of experience of the use of computer-integrated forms and methods of teaching in the process of preparation of future teachers of initial school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinopalnikova N.N.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically grounded and experimentally examined that one of the trends of future teachers training for the integrated activity is gaining experience in using the integrated organization forms of learning. It is realized in the process of specially organized student's learning and during their pedagogical practice. It was promoted by conducting the special course The integrated forms of learning organization in primary school with the use of interactive forms and methods of learning, fulfilling the aimed tasks while passing pedagogical practice.

  8. Methods to test the interactive effects of drought and plant invasion on ecosystem structure and function using complementary common garden and field experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Alba, Christina; NeSmith, Julienne E.; Fahey, Catherine; Angelini, Christine; Flory, Stephen Luke

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Abiotic global change drivers affect ecosystem structure and function, but how they interact with biotic factors such as invasive plants is understudied. Such interactions may be additive, synergistic, or offsetting, and difficult to predict. We present methods to test the individual and interactive effects of drought and plant invasion on native ecosystems. We coupled a factorial common garden experiment containing resident communities exposed to drought (imposed with rainout shelte...

  9. The Extended-OPQ Method for User-Centered Quality of Experience Evaluation: A Study for Mobile 3D Video Broadcasting over DVB-H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumisko-Pyykkö Satu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Open Profiling of Quality (OPQ is a mixed methods approach combining a conventional quantitative psychoperceptual evaluation and qualitative descriptive quality evaluation based on naïve participants' individual vocabulary. The method targets evaluation of heterogeneous and multimodal stimulus material. The current OPQ data collection procedure provides a rich pool of data, but full benefit of it has neither been taken in the analysis to build up completeness in understanding the phenomenon under the study nor has the procedure in the analysis been probed with alternative methods. The goal of this paper is to extend the original OPQ method with advanced research methods that have become popular in related research and the component model to be able to generalize individual attributes into a terminology of Quality of Experience. We conduct an extensive subjective quality evaluation study for 3D video on mobile device with heterogeneous stimuli. We vary factors on content, media (coding, concealments, and slice modes, and transmission levels (channel loss rate. The results showed that advanced procedures in the analysis cannot only complement each other but also draw deeper understanding on Quality of Experience.

  10. Where Technology and Science Collide: A Co-Teaching Experience between Middle Grades Science Methods and Instructional Technology Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Lucilia; Chassereau, Karen; Kennedy, Kathryn; Schriver, Martha

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the viability of partnerships between instructional technology and teacher education faculty in order to promote technology integration in content methods courses. This study also focused on preservice teachers' evolving perception of technology integration through participation in targeted…

  11. Understanding the Experiences of Women, Graduate Student Stress, and Lack of Marital/Social Support: A Mixed Method Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Tolliver, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how women attending graduate degree programs in public universities in Virginia were affected by such issues as stress and lack of marital/social support. Utilizing a mixed method approach for data collection, 23 participants completed demographic data, an essay response, and the PSS-10 Stress Scale; 8 were…

  12. Cooling the Campus: Experiences from a Pilot Study to Reduce Electricity Use at Tufts University, USA, Using Social Marketing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcell, Kristin; Agyeman, Julian; Rappaport, Ann

    2004-01-01

    A community-based social marketing (CBSM) campaign to reduce student electricity use and greenhouse gas emissions was undertaken at Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts. Social marketing methods follow a commercial marketing model and involve market research into the planning, pricing, communication, distribution, and evaluation of methods…

  13. Evaluation of two methods for generating cRNA for microarray experiments from nanogram amounts of total RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Mads; Conley, Lene; Hedegaard, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    ). However, when starting material is limited to nanogram amounts of total RNA, several rounds of amplification are necessary, making this method both expensive and labor-intensive. Amplification by PCR is robust and is able to amplify extremely limiting material. However, it is possible that the nonlinear...

  14. What can an image tell? Challenges and benefits of using visual art as a research method to voice lived experiences of students and teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Alerby

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As humans, we have the ability to use many forms of “language” to express our self and our experiences, where visual art, an image, is one. Accordingly, experiences can be described in many different ways. In this paper we describe the challenges and benefits of using visual art as a research method to voice lived experiences of students and teachers based on life-world phenomenology. We give three examples of the analysis of visual art works, such as photographs, lino prints, and drawings made by students and teachers, as a way to express their lived experiences of different phenomena. The conclusion is that there are limits with using visual art as the sole source of empirical data. We argue that such data has to be accompanied by oral or written comments to enhance credibility and rigor. A life-world phenomenological analysis of visual art and subsequent comments emphasizes openness and humility to participants’ experiences as well as an all-inclusive understanding of a phenomenon.

  15. Residents' experiences of relationships with nurses in community-based supported housing - a qualitative study based on Giorgi's method of analysis and self psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønning, Solrun Brenk; Bjørkly, Stål

    2017-01-01

    One of the prioritizations in the World Health Organization's (WHO) Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 is the provision of community mental health and social care services, such as supported housing. The ongoing process of such deinstitutionalization has raised issues concerning the impact on users' quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore how residents in supported housing experience receiving professional help and how they perceived their relationships with nurses. The second aim was to investigate the relevance of Giorgi's method of analysis and self psychology in analyzing these experiences. Four residents were interviewed individually. The interviews were based on a semi-structured interview guide and analyzed by Giorgi's method of analysis. Relations were interpreted within self psychology. The residents reported that they not only felt safe in the community but also felt a greater awareness of wanting to appear normal. They seemed to have an easier daily life and felt that the personnel met their selfobject needs when routines allowed for it. Professional awareness of empathic attunement and selfobject roles might enhance residents' self-cohesiveness. The interviews were analyzed by Giorgi's method of analysis, and the use of clinical concepts from self psychology was chosen to achieve a more dynamic understanding of the participants' relational experiences and needs in supported housing.

  16. Comparison of results of relative location methods and moment tensor inversion for the nuclear explosions experimented in North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, C.; Shin, J. S.; Kim, G.

    2016-12-01

    The fourth nuclear explosion testing in North Korea was executed in January 6, 2006. This event was located near the previous. The master event method and double difference method(Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000) were used to improve the relative location of the events accurately. The master event method with searching for optimal grid was revised. Two results show the very similar locations. First arrival times were picked with cross-correlation method for data of stations surrounding the event location. The distance from the third event to the fourth is about 0.88 km with azimuth 352 356o. Depths from sea level of the events are similar. The fourth location was guessed under the higher elevation of the Mantap mountain. Comparison between cross-correlation of the waveforms of the events show that the value of cross-correlation with the second and the third is higher than that of cross-correlation with the third and the fourth. The results of moment tensor inversion for the events were acquired with the modified TDMT(Minson and Dreger, 2008; Cho, 2015) with frequency band of 0.04 0.08 Hz. The results show the typical characteristics of explosion in T-k plot. The moment magnitude of the second, the third, fourth in the same depth 0.7 km is about 4.4, 4.7, 4.5 respectively. The fourth event has higher amplitude of the vertical component than the others. The third showed the highest amplitude of tangential component among the events. But the real data showed the tangential component. It may be caused by the tectonic stress, topography effect, inhomogeneous structure near source or anomalous chemical effect. The fourth has lower tangential component. This may mean that the depth from the surface was deeper. Moment tensor inversion with 3D viscoelastic FDM was applied with 3D velocity structure derived from Bayesian hierarchical method(Rhie, et al, 2015).

  17. An instrumental and numerical method to determine the hydrogenic ratio in isotopic experiments in the TJ-II stellarator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciero, A; Zurro, B; Martínez, M

    2014-11-01

    The isotope effect is an important topic that is relevant for future D-T fusion reactors, where the use of deuterium, rather than hydrogen, may lean to improved plasma confinement. An evaluation of the ratio of hydrogen/deuterium is needed for isotope effect studies in current isotopic experiments. Here, the spectral range around Hα and Dα lines, obtained with an intensified multi-channel detector mounted to a 1-m focal length spectrometer, is analyzed using a fit function that includes several Gaussian components. The isotopic ratio evolution for a single operational day of the TJ-II stellarator is presented. The role of injected hydrogen by Neutral Beam Injection heating is also studied.

  18. W.A.Mozart'ın no:1 Sol Majör Flüt Konçertosunun form analiz ve icra yönünden incelenmesi Study of W.A.Mozart's no:1 g Major Flute Concerto in the aspects of form analysis and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Güzey, Senem

    2006-01-01

    W.A.Mozart, sanatında aydınlanmayı düşünsel ağırlığıyla temsil etmeye yönelmiş olmaktan çok, aydınlanma felsefesinin müzikteki yansımasını geliştirerek klasik dönem müziğini temellendirmiştir. Bu çalışmada Klasik müziğin en önemli bestecilerinden biri sayılan W.A.Mozart'ın içinde yaşadığı dönem yani klasik dönem, hayatı, eserleri ve flüt için yazmış olduğu No:1 sol majör konçertosu form, analiz ve icra yönünden incelenmiştir. Mozart'ın hayatının, sanatının ve söz konusu olan eserin daha iyi a...

  19. Assessing driving capability: a method for individual testing: the significance of paraparesis inferior studied in a controlled experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lings, S

    1991-04-01

    The part played in traffic safety by driver illness or disability is uncertain or unknown. So also are the specific identity and degree of the disorders which necessitate the use of driving aids or which completely incapacitate a person from driving. Despite the gravity of the problems, the question of fitness to hold a driving licence is decided throughout the world mainly on the basis of subjective assessment. Controlled experiments exploring the significance of disorders have only been carried out on a restricted scale. In this paper a description is given of a mock car, which is used both for research and individual assessment. It enables the measurement of strength application, steering wheel turn speed, simple reaction times when operating pedals and steering wheel, erroneous reactions, and choice reaction times. Experiments involving 109 able-bodied and healthy persons showed, as expected, that the muscular strength of men was greater than of women, and that men were significantly quicker at carrying out functions which primarily depend upon speed of movement and of strength. Apart from this, however, there were no significant sex-related differences. Almost all variables showed age dependence, this being most pronounced in the case of men. Thirty-two percent of the test candidates committed errors like braking instead of turning the wheel or turning to the wrong side. Neither the incidence nor the seriousness of errors bore any relation to sex or age. Fifty-two persons suffering from paraparesis inferior were compared with the 109 able-bodied subjects. The degree of paresis co-varied with reaction times, but the degree of spasticity only to a minor extent. The results indicate that at a speed of 80 km/h, 'slight paresis' increases reaction distance by around 2-3 m (15%), and 'moderate paresis' by the region of 50 m.

  20. Development of a unit suitable for corrosion monitoring in district heating systems. Experiences with the LOCOR-cell test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asbjørn; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2004-01-01

    A by-pass unit suitable for placement of a number of different probes for corrosion monitoring has been designed. Also measurements of water parameters are allowed in a side stream from the unit. The project is a part of the Nordic Innovation Fund project KORMOF. The by-pass unit has been installed...... in 6 pressurised circulating heating systems and in one cooling system. 7 different corrosion monitoring methods have been used to study corrosion rates and types in dependency of water chemistry. This paper describes the design of the by-pass unit including water analysis methods. It also describes...... the purpose, background and gained results of one of the used monitoring techniques, the crevice corrosion measurements obtained by the LOCOR-Cell„§. The crevice corrosion cell was developed by FORCE Technology in a previous district heating project financed by Nordic Industrial Fund (1)(2). Results from...

  1. A combination method of the theory and experiment in determination of cutting force coefficients in ball-end mill processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chou Kao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the cutting force calculation of ball-end mill processing was modeled mathematically. All derivations of cutting forces were directly based on the tangential, radial, and axial cutting force components. In the developed mathematical model of cutting forces, the relationship of average cutting force and the feed per flute was characterized as a linear function. The cutting force coefficient model was formulated by a function of average cutting force and other parameters such as cutter geometry, cutting conditions, and so on. An experimental method was proposed based on the stable milling condition to estimate the cutting force coefficients for ball-end mill. This method could be applied for each pair of tool and workpiece. The developed cutting force model has been successfully verified experimentally with very promising results.

  2. Our first experiences in applying an original method for removal of ABO-isoagglutinins in ABO-incompatible kidney recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Due to improved methods for removal of ABO isoagglutinins and novel immunosuppressive protocols, short and long term outcome in blood group incompatible is similar to blood group compatible kidney transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of our original method for removal of ABO isoagglutinins from the blood in ABO-incompatible kidney allograft recipients. Method. Between 2006 and 2008 twelve patients were transplanted from ABO incompatible living donors. Titers of ABO isoagglutinins were 4-128 (IgG. Immunosuppressive therapy started 14 days before kidney transplantation with rituximab, followed by a triple therapy (prednisone + tacrolimus + mycophenolate mofetil and the first plasma exchange (PE procedure, in which one plasma volume was substituted with albumin and saline on day 7 before transplantation. For selective extracorporeal immunoadsorption, the removed plasma was mixed with donor blood type filtered red blood cells, centrifuged and the supernatant separated and preserved. In the next PE procedure, the removed plasma was replaced with immunoadsorbed plasma, and so on. Titers of ABO agglutinins, renal allograft function and survival were followed-up. Results. The pre-transplant treatment consisting of 1-5 PE procedures and immunosuppressive therapy resulted in target ABO agglutinins titers below 4. During a 10-24 month follow-up three patients had an early acute rejection, one patient acute rejection and hemolytic anemia, two patients surgical complications and one of them lost his graft. In the post-transplant period, the titers of ABO antibodies remained below 4. All the patients had stable kidney allograft function with mean serum creatinine ±SD of 129 ± 45 μmol/l at the end of the study. Conclusion. Our method for removal of ABO antibodies was effective in a limited series of patients and short-term follow-up.

  3. Adequate statistical methods to reduce the number of animals used in behavioural experiments: the analysis of the behavioural transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puopolo, Maria; Pesciolini, Aldina Venerosi; Chiarotti, Flavia; Ricceri, Laura

    2004-06-01

    In ethological and behavioural toxicological studies, elaborate behavioural patterns shown by the animals under well-established experimental paradigms or naturalistic conditions are routinely observed and split into single behavioural items. Subsequently, these items are analysed in terms of their frequencies and/or durations. Behavioural observations are usually videotaped and scored by dedicated softwares, which collect the sequences of behavioural items together with frequencies and durations. So far, the Cox proportional hazards model, a method originally developed for the analysis of time-to-event data, has been employed for the analysis of the time-structure of behaviour, but its usefulness has been limited because of difficulties in including random effects in the model. Recent developments in mixed models for the analysis of time-to-event data may overcome this limitation and improve the analysis of behavioural patterns. Data from social interactions in mice on the effects of exposure to chlorpyrifos, a widely used organophosphorous pesticide, are presented to illustrate the use of these new statistical methods. Our results suggest that the study of behavioural sequences may highlight the role of the investigated conditions (treatments, genetic condition, social status) in setting behavioural organisations. In addition, the refinement of statistical methods by time-structured analysis provides more detailed information from an experimental data set, thus contributing to the reduction of the number of animals used in this field of the life sciences.

  4. On Experience in using the remote acoustic method of partial reflections in studies of the lower troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepelkin, V. G.; Kulichkov, S. N.; Chunchuzov, I. P.; Kuznetsov, R. D.

    2011-02-01

    Using the phenomenon of the partial reflection of acoustic waves from anisotropic wind-velocity and temperature inhomogeneities in the lower troposphere is justified in determining the structure of these inhomogeneities. The data (obtained with the method of bistatic acoustic sounding) on signals reflected from stratified inhomogeneities in the lower 600-m layer of the troposphere are given. A detonation-type pulsed acoustic source was used. The methods of isolating a small (in amplitude) reflected signal against the background of noise and determining the reflecting-layer height and the partial-reflection coefficient from the measured parameters (time delay and amplitude) of a reflected signal are presented. The method of estimating the vertical gradients of the effective sound speed and the squared acoustic refractive index from the partial-reflection coefficient previously calculated is described on the basis of an Epstein transition-layer model. The indicated parameters are experimentally estimated for concrete cases of recording reflected signals. A comparison of our estimates with independent analogous data simultaneously obtained for the same parameters with monitoring instruments (a sodar and a temperature profiler) has yielded satisfactory results.

  5. Development and validation of a selective HPLC-UV method for thymol determination in skin permeation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Tamara; Pires, Felipe Q; Gelfuso, Guilherme M; da Silva, Joyce K R; Gratieri, Tais; Cunha-Filho, Marcílio S S

    2016-06-01

    Thymol is a natural monoterpene, whose antioxidant and antimicrobial properties suggest a potential use in topical formulations. A simple, precise and selective HPLC method for thymol determination in skin penetration studies was developed and validated in this paper. Separation was achieved with a RP-C18 column, mobile phase comprised of acetonitrile:water (35:65v/v), flow rate of 1.5mL/min, oven temperature at 40°C, injection volume of 30μL and UV detection at 278nm. The validation procedure certified the method was selective for thymol determination even when extracted from skin matrix extracts. It was also linear in a range from 0.5 to 15.0μg/mL, robust, precise and accurate, with recovery rates from the skin layers higher than 90%. Limits of detection and quantification were 0.05 and 0.14μg/mL, respectively. The method showed, therefore, to be adequate for use in further skin permeation studies employing thymol topical formulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A new method for class prediction based on signed-rank algorithms applied to Affymetrix® microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassal Aurélien

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The huge amount of data generated by DNA chips is a powerful basis to classify various pathologies. However, constant evolution of microarray technology makes it difficult to mix data from different chip types for class prediction of limited sample populations. Affymetrix® technology provides both a quantitative fluorescence signal and a decision (detection call: absent or present based on signed-rank algorithms applied to several hybridization repeats of each gene, with a per-chip normalization. We developed a new prediction method for class belonging based on the detection call only from recent Affymetrix chip type. Biological data were obtained by hybridization on U133A, U133B and U133Plus 2.0 microarrays of purified normal B cells and cells from three independent groups of multiple myeloma (MM patients. Results After a call-based data reduction step to filter out non class-discriminative probe sets, the gene list obtained was reduced to a predictor with correction for multiple testing by iterative deletion of probe sets that sequentially improve inter-class comparisons and their significance. The error rate of the method was determined using leave-one-out and 5-fold cross-validation. It was successfully applied to (i determine a sex predictor with the normal donor group classifying gender with no error in all patient groups except for male MM samples with a Y chromosome deletion, (ii predict the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains expressed by the malignant myeloma clones of the validation group and (iii predict sex, light and heavy chain nature for every new patient. Finally, this method was shown powerful when compared to the popular classification method Prediction Analysis of Microarray (PAM. Conclusion This normalization-free method is routinely used for quality control and correction of collection errors in patient reports to clinicians. It can be easily extended to multiple class prediction suitable with

  7. An intercomparison of a large ensemble of statistical downscaling methods for Europe: Overall results from the VALUE perfect predictor cross-validation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Jose Manuel; Maraun, Douglas; Widmann, Martin; Huth, Radan; Hertig, Elke; Benestad, Rasmus; Roessler, Ole; Wibig, Joanna; Wilcke, Renate; Kotlarski, Sven

    2016-04-01

    VALUE is an open European network to validate and compare downscaling methods for climate change research (http://www.value-cost.eu). A key deliverable of VALUE is the development of a systematic validation framework to enable the assessment and comparison of both dynamical and statistical downscaling methods. This framework is based on a user-focused validation tree, guiding the selection of relevant validation indices and performance measures for different aspects of the validation (marginal, temporal, spatial, multi-variable). Moreover, several experiments have been designed to isolate specific points in the downscaling procedure where problems may occur (assessment of intrinsic performance, effect of errors inherited from the global models, effect of non-stationarity, etc.). The list of downscaling experiments includes 1) cross-validation with perfect predictors, 2) GCM predictors -aligned with EURO-CORDEX experiment- and 3) pseudo reality predictors (see Maraun et al. 2015, Earth's Future, 3, doi:10.1002/2014EF000259, for more details). The results of these experiments are gathered, validated and publicly distributed through the VALUE validation portal, allowing for a comprehensive community-open downscaling intercomparison study. In this contribution we describe the overall results from Experiment 1), consisting of a European wide 5-fold cross-validation (with consecutive 6-year periods from 1979 to 2008) using predictors from ERA-Interim to downscale precipitation and temperatures (minimum and maximum) over a set of 86 ECA&D stations representative of the main geographical and climatic regions in Europe. As a result of the open call for contribution to this experiment (closed in Dec. 2015), over 40 methods representative of the main approaches (MOS and Perfect Prognosis, PP) and techniques (linear scaling, quantile mapping, analogs, weather typing, linear and generalized regression, weather generators, etc.) were submitted, including information both data

  8. Using e-learning to support clinical skills acquisition: exploring the experiences and perceptions of graduate first-year pre-registration nursing students - a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Jacqueline G; Jones, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Clinical skills education must accommodate the different needs of nursing students, particularly in view of increasing numbers of graduate entrants. E-learning has been promoted for its ability to engage learners and customise the learning process and evidence supports its use for clinical skill acquisition. However, graduate nursing students have unique needs, and their perceptions and experiences of e-learning require exploration. The aim of the study was to explore graduate first year nursing students' perceptions and experiences of e-learning when used to supplement traditional methods to learn clinical skills. Mixed methods, employing qualitative and quantitative approaches, were used. Eighty-three (46%) participants were recruited from a cohort of graduate students (n=180) enrolled in an accelerated pre-registration nursing programme. Participants completed e-learning educational materials prior to attendance at clinical skills sessions. Focus groups (n=2) explored participants' (n=15) experiences and perceptions of e-learning and identified common issues. Discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic approach. Findings informed the development of a questionnaire which sought to confirm perceptions of e-learning and the perceived value for clinical skills acquisition in the larger student group. Data from questionnaires (n=83) were analysed using descriptive statistics. Students found e-learning valuable for developing clinical skills and, although they viewed it positively, they did not want to relinquish conventional teaching methods, preferring both in combination. Video clips were perceived as the most useful feature while online readings were viewed as the least useful. An underestimate of time requirements, navigational issues and technical difficulties were reported frustrations. Although limited by potential volunteer bias, findings contribute to the ongoing discourse on how e-learning can support clinical skills education and

  9. Residents’ experiences of relationships with nurses in community-based supported housing – a qualitative study based on Giorgi’s method of analysis and self psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rønning SB

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Solrun Brenk Rønning, Stål Bjørkly Faculty of Health Sciences and Social Care, Molde University College, Molde, Norway Abstract: One of the prioritizations in the World Health Organization’s (WHO Mental Health Action Plan 2013–2020 is the provision of community mental health and social care services, such as supported housing. The ongoing process of such deinstitutionalization has raised issues concerning the impact on users’ quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore how residents in supported housing experience receiving professional help and how they perceived their relationships with nurses. The second aim was to investigate the relevance of Giorgi’s method of analysis and self psychology in analyzing these experiences. Four residents were interviewed individually. The interviews were based on a semi-structured interview guide and analyzed by Giorgi’s method of analysis. Relations were interpreted within self psychology. The residents reported that they not only felt safe in the community but also felt a greater awareness of wanting to appear normal. They seemed to have an easier daily life and felt that the personnel met their selfobject needs when routines allowed for it. Professional awareness of empathic attunement and selfobject roles might enhance residents’ self-cohesiveness. The interviews were analyzed by Giorgi’s method of analysis, and the use of clinical concepts from self psychology was chosen to achieve a more dynamic understanding of the participants’ relational experiences and needs in supported housing. Keywords: mental health, nursing relationship, self psychology, supported housing, experiences

  10. Experiences of HIV-related stigma among HIV-positive older persons in Uganda – a mixed methods analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteesa, Monica O.; Wright, Stuart; Seeley, Janet; Mugisha, Joseph; Kinyanda, Eugene; Kakembo, Frederick; Mwesigwa, Richard; Scholten, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There is limited data on stigma among older HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. We describe the experiences of stigma and disclosure in a cohort of HIV-positive older people in Uganda. Using data from the Wellbeing of Older Peoples' Study of Kalungu (rural site) and Wakiso district (peri-urban site) residents, we measured self-reported stigma levels for 183 respondents (94 on antiretroviral therapy (ART); 88, not on ART) using a stigma score generated using three questions on stigma perceptions where 0 meant no stigma at all and 100 was maximum stigma. Based on two questions on disclosure, an overall score was computed. High disclosure was assigned to those who often or very often disclosed to the family and were never or seldom afraid to disclose elsewhere. We examined the experiences of HIV stigma of 25 adults (52% females) using semi-structured, open-ended interviews and monthly oral diaries over one year. Mean age of the respondents was 70 years (range 60–80 years) and 80% of all respondents were enrolled in ART. Interview transcripts were analysed using thematic content analysis. Overall, 55% of respondents had a high disclosure score, meaning they disclosed easily, and 47% had a high stigma score. The stigma scores were similar among those with high and low disclosure scores. In multivariate analyses with disclosure and stigma scores as dependent variables none of the respondents' characteristics had a significant effect at the 5% level. Qualitative data revealed that stigma ranges from: (1) perceptions (relatively passive, but leading to behaviour such as gossip, especially if not intended maliciously); to (2) discriminatory behaviour (active or enacted stigma; from malicious gossip to outright discrimination). Despite the relatively high levels of disclosure, older people suffer from high levels of stigma of various forms apart from HIV-related stigma. Efforts to assess for different forms of stigma at an individual level deserve greater

  11. A mixed-method approach to study lived experiences of high cholesterol and statin use in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Sofie Rosenlund

    2014-01-01

    as a cultural phenomenon. With statins as my point of departure I study how contemporary preventive health initiatives has transformed along with new technoscientific innovations, changes in political and financial interests and a shift from focusing on the diseased body to the body at risk (e.g. Rose 2007...... I use the methods to mediate between the object and its representations? (Mol 2002:155). In my presentation I will tentatively approach some analytical thoughts and paths through my preliminary qualitative and quantitative empirical knowledge, mainly based on the notion of risk. While still...

  12. Erosion research with a digital camera: the structure from motion method used in gully monitoring - field experiments from southern Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Rock, Gilles; Neugirg, Fabian; Müller, Christoph; Ries, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    From a geoscientific view arid or semiarid landscapes are often associated with soil degrading erosion processes and thus active geomorphology. In this regard gully incision represents one of the most important influences on surface dynamics. Established approaches to monitor and quantify soil loss require costly and labor-intensive measuring methods: terrestrial or airborne LiDAR scans to create digital elevation models and unmanned airborne vehicles for image acquisition provide adequate tools for geomorphological surveying. Despite their ever advancing abilities, they are finite with their applicability in detailed recordings of complex surfaces. Especially undercuttings and plunge pools in the headcut area of gully systems are invisible or cause shadowing effects. The presented work aims to apply and advance an adequate tool to avoid the above mentioned obstacles and weaknesses of the established methods. The emerging structure from motion-based high resolution 3D-visualisation not only proved to be useful in gully erosion. Moreover, it provides a solid ground for additional applications in geosciences such as surface roughness measurements, quantification of gravitational mass movements or capturing stream connectivity. During field campaigns in semiarid southern Morocco a commercial DSLR camera was used, to produce images that served as input data for software based point cloud and mesh generation. Thus, complex land surfaces could be reconstructed entirely in high resolution by photographing the object from different perspectives. In different scales the resulting 3D-mesh represents a holistic reconstruction of the actual shape complexity with its limits set only by computing capacity. Analysis and visualization of time series of different erosion-related events illustrate the additional benefit of the method. It opens new perspectives on process understanding that can be exploited by open source and commercial software. Results depicted a soil loss of 5

  13. The new clinical leadership role of senior charge nurses: a mixed methods study of their views and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, Kathleen; Bugge, Carol; Shepherd, Ashley; Farquharson, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the experience and views of senior charge nurses in relation to the implementation of a national clinical leadership policy. The role of the senior charge nurse in providing clinical leadership is evolving. However, recent evidence suggests that research is needed to inform the development of leadership and quality improvement and to connect them. Data were collected using an electronic survey to all senior charge nurses in one locality and semi-structured interviews with a subsample of respondents. Fifty (54%) senior charge nurses responded to the survey and nine were interviewed. Senior charge nurses reported mainly positive perceptions of clinical leadership, clinical team performance and improvement of care delivery for patients following the leadership programme implementation. Themes related to confidence, quality improvement and team performance were generated. 'Leading Better Care' was reported to enhance senior charge nurse clinical leadership, with some development needed to link the details of change management with the wider strategic direction. Nurse managers may wish to ensure that their clinical leaders have clarity of role in order to inspire confidence. Some challenges were noted in achieving improvement in quality and it is possible that if improvement in quality is the cornerstone of patient-centred care then it needs to be placed centrally in workload considerations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [The method and application to construct experience recommendation platform of acupuncture ancient books based on data mining technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuyun; Hong, Jiaming; Zhou, Weilin; Lin, Guohua; Wang, Zhengfei; Zhang, Qufei; Lu, Cuina; Lu, Lihong

    2017-07-12

    To construct a knowledge platform of acupuncture ancient books based on data mining technology, and to provide retrieval service for users. The Oracle 10 g database was applied and JAVA was selected as development language; based on the standard library and ancient books database established by manual entry, a variety of data mining technologies, including word segmentation, speech tagging, dependency analysis, rule extraction, similarity calculation, ambiguity analysis, supervised classification technology were applied to achieve text automatic extraction of ancient books; in the last, through association mining and decision analysis, the comprehensive and intelligent analysis of disease and symptom, meridians, acupoints, rules of acupuncture and moxibustion in acupuncture ancient books were realized, and retrieval service was provided for users through structure of browser/server (B/S). The platform realized full-text retrieval, word frequency analysis and association analysis; when diseases or acupoints were searched, the frequencies of meridian, acupoints (diseases) and techniques were presented from high to low, meanwhile the support degree and confidence coefficient between disease and acupoints (special acupoint), acupoints and acupoints in prescription, disease or acupoints and technique were presented. The experience platform of acupuncture ancient books based on data mining technology could be used as a reference for selection of disease, meridian and acupoint in clinical treatment and education of acupuncture and moxibustion.

  15. TOWARDS THE USE OF A NOVEL METHOD: The First Experiences on Measuring The Cognitive Load of Learned Programming Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Pas UYSAL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Teaching object-oriented programming (OOP is a difficult task, especially to the beginners. First-time learners also find it difficult to understand. Although there is a considerable amount of study on the cognitive dimension, a few study points out its physiological meaning. Moreover, it has been suggested that neuroscientific studies and methods can enable educational researchers gain an insight into brain and cognitive processes as well. Therefore, this experimental study explored the previously learned OOP skills in terms of cognitive load. By using the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS method, we measured the cognitive load of participants when executing OOP tasks. The average oxygenation changes in prefrontal cortex of the brain represented their total cognitive response to a set of OOP tasks. There were two research questions investigated by this study. The first research question explored whether the average oxygenation changed according to the participants’ academic achievements and task completion status. The second research question was for identifying the instant changes in the oxygenations to find out which programming tasks were more contributing to the oxygenation. Later, we compared the findings with experts’ judgments. We observed that the fNIRS system was an effective and promising technology for monitoring cognitive tasks both in classrooms and in experimental environments.

  16. Phenomenology as a method to investigate the experience lived: a perspective from Husserl and Merleau Ponty's thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadala, Maria Lúcia Araújo; Adorno, Rubens de Camargo Ferreira

    2002-02-01

    By taking nursing as a human relationships activity, in spite of its strong technical--scientific features, this article reflects on the phenomenological method as one of the ways to develop an investigation and acquire knowledge of the topic. Based on Husserl's phenomenology, which is opposed to the way of doing science based on the laws that regulate the physics and mathematics, the article introduces Merleau Ponty's existential phenomenology as the theoretical foundation for the method it proposes. My existential conceptions--people as historic beings inserted in a world over which they act but which, in its turn, determines them; the human perception as reference for our way of being in the world; the space-time structure of perception--these are the key concepts that have led to the elaboration of an approach to phenomenological research. Steps are proposed for such an approach, namely phenomenological description, reduction and analysis. These lead to the building up of ideographic and nomothetic analyses, thus unveiling and describing general truths about the phenomenon studied. Finally, the possibilities for applying the methodology to nursing research are discussed, illustrated by my research into student nurses' perspectives on working on an isolation ward.

  17. A novel method for modeling the neutron time of flight detector response in current mode to inertial confinement fusion experiments (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, A J; Ruiz, C L; Cooper, G W; Chandler, G A; Fehl, D L; Hahn, K D; Leeper, R J; Smelser, R; Torres, J A

    2012-10-01

    A novel method for modeling the neutron time of flight (nTOF) detector response in current mode for inertial confinement fusion experiments has been applied to the on-axis nTOF detectors located in the basement of the Z-Facility. It will be shown that this method can identify sources of neutron scattering, and is useful for predicting detector responses in future experimental configurations, and for identifying potential sources of neutron scattering when experimental set-ups change. This method can also provide insight on how much broadening neutron scattering contributes to the primary signals, which is then subtracted from them. Detector time responses are deconvolved from the signals, allowing a transformation from dN/dt to dN/dE, extracting neutron spectra at each detector location; these spectra are proportional to the absolute yield.

  18. The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission Science Data Center: Technologies, Methods, and Experiences in Making Available Large Quantities of Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratz, C. K.; Kokkonen, K.; Larsen, K. W.; Panneton, R. S.; Putnam, B.; Schafer, C.; Baker, D. N.; Burch, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    On September 1, 2015 the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) constellation of four satellites completed their six-month commissioning period and began routine science data collection. Science operations for the mission is conducted at the Science Operations Center (SOC) at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado in Boulder, Colorado, USA. The MMS Science Data Center (SDC) is a component of the SOC responsible for the data production, management, dissemination, archiving, and visualization of the data from the extensive suite of 100 instruments onboard the four spacecraft. As of March 2016, MMS science data are openly available to the entire science community via the SDC. This includes hundreds of science parameters, and 50 gigabytes of data per day distributed across thousands of data files. Products are produced using integrated software systems developed and maintained by teams at other institutions using their own institutional software management procedures and made available via a centralized public web site and web services. To accomplish the data management, data processing, and system integration challenges present on this space mission, the MMS SDC incorporates a number of evolutionary techniques and technologies. This presentation will provide an informatics-oriented view of the MMS SDC, summarizing its technical aspects, novel technologies and data management practices that are employed, experiences with its design and development, and lessons learned. Also presented is the MMS "Scientist-in-the-Loop" (SITL) system, which is used to leverage human insight and expertise to optimize the data selected for transmission to the ground. This smoothly operating system entails the seamless interoperability of multiple mission facilities and data systems that ultimately translate scientist insight into uplink commands that triggers optimal data downlink to the ground.

  19. Energinio naudingumo kvalifikacinio rodiklio administraciniame pastate analizė

    OpenAIRE

    Mikučionienė, Rūta

    2007-01-01

    Baigiamajame magistro darbe nagrinėjama Lietuvos pastatų energinio naudingumo sertifikavimo metodika pagal STR 2.01.09:2005 „Pastatų energinis naudingumas. Energinio naudingumo sertifikavimas“. Ši metodika lyginama su STR 2.09.04:2002 „Pastato šildymo sistemos galia. Energijos sąnaudos šildymui“ šilumos nuostolių skaičiavimo metodika ir su faktiniu šilumos suvartojimu. Nagrinėjamos suminės energijos sąnaudos ir energinio naudingumo kvalifikacinis rodiklis esant skirtingo aukštingumo pastatams...

  20. Analiz global’nogo «zelenogo» perehoda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2015-01-01

    Mitigation of global warming and transitioning to a green and sustainable world are counteracted by a number of barriers and dilemmas. The paper analyzes a number of these barriers and dilemmas in order to highlight efficient strategies and solutions for a sustainable development. The dilemmas....... • The increase in global temperature should stay below two degrees centigrade in order to avoid irreversible consequences, but the present path points to four degrees or more. • At least 50% of known reserves of fossil fuels must remain underground in order to avoid a temperature increase higher than two degrees......, but a number of industrial countries are now promoting exploitation of new fossil sources like shale gas and oil from tar sand. • Reversing population growth facilitates sustainable development, but most governments of industrial nations appear to be more concerned about decreases in their population....

  1. JEE API technologijų analizė

    OpenAIRE

    Pocius, Mindaugas

    2012-01-01

    Tikslas: Išanalizuoti Java Enterprise Edition technologiją. Ją taikant, realizuoti aukcionų sistemą.Užduoties pagrindimas: šiai dienai Java programavimo kalba yra pritaikoma vis platesnio masto aplikacijoms kurti. Java EE technologija ateityje tik tobulės, todėl yra naudinga suprasti internetinių aplikacijų kūrimą naudojant Java programavimo kalbą. Word “Internet” is widely used in our days. Many people can not imagine their lives without it. Companies are looking for technologies which wo...

  2. [Endoscopic ultra dream pulse laser surgery of laryngomalacia. Our experiences gained during the introduction of the method in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóbiás, Zoltán; Pálinkó, Dóra; Sztanó, Balázs; Csanády, Miklós; Gál, Péter; Rovó, László

    2017-08-01

    Congenital stridor and dyspnoe are caused by laryngomalacia in most cases. In this article we present a new, surgical method for treating severe laryngomalacia in patients under the age of 1, where ultrapulsated (UDP) laser beam is used for supraglottoplasty. Ultra dream pulse laser creates lesser thermical side damage in the tissue, therefore the risk of postoperative laryngeal oedema and scarring is lower. We present 10 cases and the endoscopic UDP-laser surgery of patients under the age of 1 with severe laryngomalacia. After the surgery the stridorous symptoms disappeared, and there was no evidence of postoperative laryngeal oedema, there was no need for reoperation or tracheotomy in any of the cases. UDP-laser surgery of laryngomalacia is proven to be a safe and effective surgial modality. During the follow up visits we experienced neither recurrence of stridor nor laryngeal scarring. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(33): 1288-1292.

  3. Assessing the differences between numerical methods and real experiments for the evaluation of reach envelopes of the human body

    CERN Document Server

    Delangle, Mathieu; Poirson, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    The use of static human body dimensions to assess the human accessibility is an essential part of an ergonomic approach in user-centered design. Assessments of reach capability are commonly performed by exercising external anthropometry of human body parts, which may be found in anthropometric databases, to numerically define the reach area of an intended user population. The result is a reach envelope determined entirely by the segment lengths, without taking into account external variables, as the nature of the task or the physical capacities of the subject, which may influence the results. Considering the body as a simple assembly of static parts of different anthropometry is limiting. In this paper, the limit of validity of this approach is assessed by comparing the reach envelopes obtained by this method to those obtained with a simple two-dimensional experimental reaching task of a panel of subjects. Forty subjects experimentally evaluated the reach, first with the body constrained and second unconstrai...

  4. Experiences on p-Version Time-Discontinuous Galerkin's Method for Nonlinear Heat Transfer Analysis and Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Gene

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this research is on the development of analysis and sensitivity analysis equations for nonlinear, transient heat transfer problems modeled by p-version, time discontinuous finite element approximation. The resulting matrix equation of the state equation is simply in the form ofA(x)x = c, representing a single step, time marching scheme. The Newton-Raphson's method is used to solve the nonlinear equation. Examples are first provided to demonstrate the accuracy characteristics of the resultant finite element approximation. A direct differentiation approach is then used to compute the thermal sensitivities of a nonlinear heat transfer problem. The report shows that only minimal coding effort is required to enhance the analysis code with the sensitivity analysis capability.

  5. Illustrating idiographic methods for translation research: moderation effects, natural clinical experiments, and complex treatment-by-subgroup interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenour, Ty A; Wittenborn, Andrea K; Raiff, Bethany R; Benedict, Neal; Kane-Gill, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    A critical juncture in translation research involves the preliminary studies of intervention tools, provider training programs, policies, and other mechanisms used to leverage knowledge garnered at one translation stage into another stage. Potentially useful for such studies are rigorous techniques for conducting within-subject clinical trials, which have advanced incrementally over the last decade. However, these methods have largely not been utilized within prevention or translation contexts. The purpose of this manuscript is to demonstrate the flexibility, wide applicability, and rigor of idiographic clinical trials for preliminary testing of intervention mechanisms. Specifically demonstrated are novel uses of state-space modeling for testing intervention mechanisms of short-term outcomes, identifying heterogeneity in and moderation of within-person treatment mechanisms, a horizontal line plot to refine sampling design during the course of a clinic-based experimental study, and the need to test a treatment's efficacy as treatment is administered along with (e.g., traditional 12-month outcomes).

  6. Trichomoniasis: a brief review of diagnostic methods and our experience with real-time PCR for detecting infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šoba, Barbara; Skvarč, Miha; Matičič, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection, and it is caused by the protozoan flagellate Trichomonas vaginalis. Although highly prevalent in sexually active women, it has long been overlooked in other groups of potentially infected people. Recently, studies have shown that trichomoniasis increases the risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus and can cause adverse outcomes of pregnancy, which has increased interest in T. vaginalis and increased the need for highly sensitive diagnostic tests. This article summarizes the diagnostic methods most commonly used in the diagnosis of trichomoniasis, including the most sensitive and specific nucleic acid amplification tests. It also presents the results of our study comparing the performance of wet mount microscopy and culture to real-time PCR for detecting the parasite.

  7. Choice experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P Holmes; Wiktor L Adamawicz; Fredrik Carlsson

    2017-01-01

    There has been an explosion of interest during the past two decades in a class of nonmarket stated-preference valuation methods known as choice experiments. The overall objective of a choice experiment is to estimate economic values for characteristics (or attributes) of an environmental good that is the subject of policy analysis, where...

  8. Kangaroo Mother Method: Mothers' Experiences and Contributions to Nursing Método madre canguro: vivencias maternas y contribuciones para la enfermería Método mãe canguru: vivências maternas e contribuições para a enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Arivabene

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to describe mothers' experiences, analyzing them in the light of the principles of the Kangaroo Mother Method (KMM, and discuss the mothers' contributions based on the meanings of these experiences for nursing actions. In data collection, a questionnaire was used that characterized the mothers' socioeconomic profile and, through focus groups, stories were obtained about the benefits of these experiences, which supported the construction of the following categories: survival and recovery of the baby; the mothers' daily life modified by the KMM and valuation of affective family bonds in the KMM. The experiences are related to increased bonding between mother and baby, reduction of the infant's time of separation from the family, besides leading to increased competition and confidence in the parents to take care of their child, even before discharge, improving the mother's relation with the family, inside the family and with the team that takes care of the baby.El objetivo de este estudio fue describir vivencias de las madres, analizándolas bajo los principios del Método de la Madre Canguro (MMC y discutir las contribuciones de las madres a partir de los significados de esas vivencias para las acciones de enfermería. En la recolección de los datos, se empleó un cuestionario que caracterizó el perfil socioeconómico de las madres y, por medio de la técnica grupo focal, se obtuvieron relatos de los beneficios de esas vivencias que subsidiaron la construcción de las categorías: sobrevivencia y recuperación del bebé; el día a día de las madres modificado por el MMC; y, valorización de los lazos afectivos familiares en el MMC. Se constató que las vivencias están relacionadas al aumento del vínculo entre la madre y el bebé, a la disminución del tiempo de separación del recién nacido de la familia, además de proporcionar mayor competencia y confianza a los padres en los cuidados con su hijo, inclusive antes del

  9. Accessing Sexual and Reproductive Health Information and Services: A Mixed Methods Study of Young Women's Needs and Experiences in Soweto, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lince-Deroche, Naomi; Hargey, Adila; Holt, Kelsey; Shochet, Tara

    2015-03-01

    Young women and girls in South Africa are at high risk of unintended pregnancy and HIV. Previous studies have reported barriers to contraceptive and other sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services among young women in this context. We aimed to assess young women's SRH knowledge and experiences and to determine how they get SRH information and services in Soweto, South Africa using quantitative and qualitative methods. Young women, aged 18-24, recruited from primary health clinics and a shopping mall, reported that they have access to SRH information and know where to obtain services. However there are challenges to accessing and utilizing information and services including providers' unsupportive attitudes, uneven power dynamics in relationships and communication issues with parents and community members. There is a need to assist young women in understanding the significance of SRH information. They need access to age-appropriate, youth-friendly services in order to have healthy sexual experiences.

  10. Determinants and Experiences of Repeat Pregnancy among HIV-Positive Kenyan Women--A Mixed-Methods Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Akelo

    Full Text Available To identify factors associated with repeat pregnancy subsequent to an index pregnancy among women living with HIV (WLWH in western Kenya who were enrolled in a 24-month phase-II clinical trial of triple-ART prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and to contextualize social and cultural influences on WLWH's reproductive decision making.A mixed-methods approach was used to examine repeat pregnancy within a 24 month period after birth. Counselor-administered questionnaires were collected from 500 WLWH. Forty women (22 with a repeat pregnancy; 18 with no repeat pregnancy were purposively selected for a qualitative interview (QI. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed for quantitative data. Thematic coding and saliency analysis were undertaken for qualitative data.Eighty-eight (17.6% women had a repeat pregnancy. Median maternal age was 23 years (range 15-43 years and median gestational age at enrollment was 34 weeks. In multiple logistic regression analyses, living in the same compound with a husband (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 2.33; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.14, 4.75 was associated with increased odds of repeat pregnancy (p ≤ 0.05. Being in the 30-43 age group (AOR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.87, having talked to a partner about family planning (FP use (AOR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.98, and prior usage of FP (AOR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.82 were associated with a decrease in odds of repeat pregnancy. QI findings centered on concerns about modern contraception methods (side effects and views that they 'ruined the womb' and a desire to have the right number of children. Religious leaders, family, and the broader community were viewed as reinforcing cultural expectations for married women to have children. Repeat pregnancy was commonly attributed to contraception failure or to lack of knowledge about post-delivery fertility.In addition to cultural context, reproductive health programs for WLWH may need to

  11. Older People’s Experiences of Mobility and Mood in an Urban Environment: A Mixed Methods Approach Using Electroencephalography (EEG and Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tilley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There are concerns about mental wellbeing in later life in older people as the global population becomes older and more urbanised. Mobility in the built environment has a role to play in improving quality of life and wellbeing, as it facilitates independence and social interaction. Recent studies using neuroimaging methods in environmental psychology research have shown that different types of urban environments may be associated with distinctive patterns of brain activity, suggesting that we interact differently with varying environments. This paper reports on research that explores older people’s responses to urban places and their mobility in and around the built environment. The project aim was to understand how older people experience different urban environments using a mixed methods approach including electroencephalography (EEG, self-reported measures, and interview results. We found that older participants experience changing levels of “excitement”, “engagement” and “frustration” (as interpreted by proprietary EEG software whilst walking between a busy built urban environment and an urban green space environment. These changes were further reflected in the qualitative themes that emerged from transcribed interviews undertaken one week post-walk. There has been no research to date that has directly assessed neural responses to an urban environment combined with qualitative interview analysis. A synergy of methods offers a deeper understanding of the changing moods of older people across time whilst walking in city settings.

  12. Older People’s Experiences of Mobility and Mood in an Urban Environment: A Mixed Methods Approach Using Electroencephalography (EEG) and Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Sara; Neale, Chris; Patuano, Agnès; Cinderby, Steve

    2017-01-01

    There are concerns about mental wellbeing in later life in older people as the global population becomes older and more urbanised. Mobility in the built environment has a role to play in improving quality of life and wellbeing, as it facilitates independence and social interaction. Recent studies using neuroimaging methods in environmental psychology research have shown that different types of urban environments may be associated with distinctive patterns of brain activity, suggesting that we interact differently with varying environments. This paper reports on research that explores older people’s responses to urban places and their mobility in and around the built environment. The project aim was to understand how older people experience different urban environments using a mixed methods approach including electroencephalography (EEG), self-reported measures, and interview results. We found that older participants experience changing levels of “excitement”, “engagement” and “frustration” (as interpreted by proprietary EEG software) whilst walking between a busy built urban environment and an urban green space environment. These changes were further reflected in the qualitative themes that emerged from transcribed interviews undertaken one week post-walk. There has been no research to date that has directly assessed neural responses to an urban environment combined with qualitative interview analysis. A synergy of methods offers a deeper understanding of the changing moods of older people across time whilst walking in city settings. PMID:28165409

  13. Multi-country evaluation of affective experience: validation of an abbreviated version of the day reconstruction method in seven countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Miret, Marta; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Olaya, Beatriz; Haro, Josep Maria; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2013-01-01

    The Day Reconstruction Method (DRM) was developed to assess affective states as measures of experienced well-being. The present study aimed to validate an abbreviated version of the DRM in a representative sample of the population in seven countries (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, and Spain), and to examine whether there are country differences in affect and in the relationships among the activities based on the similarity of the affect associated with each of them. Interviews were conducted with 47,222 non-institutionalized adults from seven countries, using an abbreviated version of the DRM. A cluster analysis was carried out to classify activities on the basis of the similarity of the associated affect. In each country, the factorial structure of the affect adjectives was tested through Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Internal consistency and construct validity were also assessed. Moreover, the differences in affect across countries and the diurnal cycles of affect were evaluated. The DRM showed adequate psychometric properties regarding reliability and construct validity in all countries. Respondents from Ghana and South Africa reported more positive net affect whereas Indian respondents reported less positive net affect. Most of the countries showed a similar diurnal variation of affect, which tended to improve throughout the day. The results show that this abbreviated version of the DRM is a useful tool for multi-country evaluation of experienced well-being.

  14. Application of multivariate analysis methods to search for variable stars in the Pi of the Sky experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Lukasz

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to present novel algorithm for searching variable stars in the Pi of the Sky data, based on Multivariate Analysis (MVA). Pi of the Sky is a system of wide field-of-view robotic telescopes, which search for short timescale astrophysical phenomena, especially for prompt optical emission from GRB. The system was designed for autonomous operation, monitoring a large fraction of the sky with 12m -13m range and time resolution of the order of 1 - 100 seconds. Dedicated photometric algorithm was implemented in the LUIZA framework and optimized on a sample of test sky images. It was then used on a "training" image sample, which was obtained by modifying the test sample of images, using different patterns of variability to selected constant stars. Different statistical estimators were considered to find the most efficient algorithm, based on MVA method, for variable star identification. Analysis of the test results indicated that most efficient candidate star selection can be based on the so called Boosted Decision Tree (BDT) approach. The algorithm is then used to search for variable star candidates in the actual data. New results of the analysis and three candidate stars found are presented.

  15. Experience with the application of the spectral analysis of surface waves method on a falling weight deflectometer time history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komacka Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Falling Weight Deflectometers are commonly used in pavement diagnostics and the outputs of measurements are a basis for pavement performance evaluation. Usually, a surface modulus of a pavement is determined or the modulus of a pavement layer is back-calculated using maximum values of a load force and measured deflections. A Falling Weight Deflectometer time history contains data describing a total response of a pavement to a load in time domain. The theory and principles of the Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves method were applied to these measurement outputs to determine Rayleigh wave velocity and a compression-tension modulus of a pavement. The problems with the determination of travel time of a wave were identified. The calculated compression-tension modulus differed noticeably depending on a used distance between receivers. Analysis showed the depth of the propagation of a wave or the bulk density of an investigated area is probably not a reason of the difference in the values of the compression-tension modulus calculated for the various distances of receivers.

  16. The experiences and involvements of fathers during 4-12 months of their children’s lives: a mixed method study/Yaşamın 4-12 aylık döneminde babaların bebek bakımına katılımları ve deneyimleri: bir karma yöntem araştırması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şirin Kuruçırak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: The purpose of this research is to determine the experiences and involvements of Turkish fathers in the care of their 4-12 month old healthy infants. Methods: Fathers’ experiences and involvements in the care of the infants were examined by using a mixed method research design. 260 participants were selected from two health care centers of different socioeconomic status, and reported with a 95% confidence interval and 5% sampling error. The quantitative data were collected through a self developed Likert-type questionnaire named “Fathers’ Involvement in Infant Care Questionnaire” by researchers using face to face interviews. Qualitative data were collected through in depth interviews from 32 purposefully selected fathers. Analyses of quantitative results used the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, the Independent Samples T Test, the Least Significant Difference and Stepwise Backward Multiple Regression Analysis tests while qualitative data analyzed by the thematic analysis method. Results: The five-point Likert questionnaire results showed that average score of paternal involvement in infant care was 3.0. Fathers who declared the least interest in the physical care of their infants ( =2.5, expressed the most interest in game activities ( =3.9.The fathers involvement in child care significantly correlated with the time they devoted to child care (p < .001, the fathers’ level of education (p < .001, the wives’ level of education  (p < .01, the number of children (p < .01, and the combination of these factors explained the variability of the fathers’ involvement in child care by 37%. The qualitative results revealed five themes.  1 Fatherhood is a hard concept to portray, 2 Is this an arrogance or to negotiate a new? 3 Conditional fatherhood, 4 My job comes first and 5 Caring for the baby: Beyond the reactions.  Conclusions: This study contributes to health care providers’ knowledge database by providing a better

  17. Cancer experiences and health-related quality of life among racial and ethnic minority survivors of young adult cancer: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Alexis R; Kaiser, Karen; Yanez, Betina; Victorson, David; Garcia, Sofia F; Snyder, Mallory A; Salsman, John M

    2016-12-01

    Young adult (YA) racial and ethnic minority survivors of cancer (diagnosed ages 18-39) experience significant disparities in health outcomes and survivorship compared to non-minorities of the same age. However, little is known about the survivorship experiences of this population. The purpose of this study is to explore the cancer experiences and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among YA racial/ethnic minorities in an urban US city. Racial and ethnic minority YA cancer survivors (0 to 5 years posttreatment) were recruited from a comprehensive cancer center using a purposive sampling approach. Participants (n = 31) completed semi-structured interviews, the FACT-G (physical, emotional, social well-being) and the FACIT-Sp (spiritual well-being). Mixed methods data were evaluated using thematic analysis and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The majority of survivors were women (65 %), single (52 %), and Hispanic (42 %). Across interviews, the most common themes were the following: "changes in perspective," "emotional impacts," "received support," and "no psychosocial changes." Other themes varied by racial/ethnic subgroups, including "treatment effects" (Hispanics), "behavior changes" (Blacks), and "appreciation for life" (Asians). ANCOVAs (controlling for gender and ECOG performance status scores) revealed that race/ethnicity had a significant main effect on emotional (P = 0.05), but not physical, social, or spiritual HRQOL (P > 0.05). Our findings suggest that minority YA cancer survivors report complex positive and negative experiences. In spite of poor health outcomes, survivors report experiencing growth and positive change due to cancer. Variations in experiences and HRQOL highlight the importance of assessing cultural background to tailor survivorship care among YA racial and ethnic minorities.

  18. Preliminary identification of key clinical domains for outcome evaluation in fibromyalgia using the Delphi method: the Italian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Di Franco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FM is a complex syndrome that, in Italy, affects at least 2% of the adult population. It is characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain often accompanied by multiple other symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify a set of clinical domains for FM considered relevant by both clinicians and patients using a consensus process. Consensus was achieved using the Delphi method based on questionnaires and systematic, controlled opinion feedback. The Delphi exercise involved a panel of 252 rheumatologists and 86 patients with FM as defined by the American College of Rheumatology criteria. All of the patients and clinicians were asked to rank the relative different domains of FM in order of priority. The content validity index (CVI was used to establish the percentage agreement. The importance of each item was ranked on a 0-3 Likert scale. The frequency, mean relevance scores, and frequency importance product were also calculated. The Delphi exercise showed that the domains ranked highest by patients were similar to those of the clinicians, with the exception of tender point intensity (considered relevant by the clinicians but not by the patients and environmental sensitivity (considered important by the patients but not by the clinicians. A final 8-item model was developed which was considered to demonstrate adequate validity. The Delphi exercises identified and ranked relevant key clinical domains that need to be assessed in FM research. On the basis of these results, a new patient-reported composite outcome index can be developed and used in clinical trials.

  19. Clinical pathway for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: method development and five years of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishimura K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Koichi Nishimura1, Maya Yasui2, Takashi Nishimura2, Toru Oga31Department of Internal Medicine, Kaikoukai Jousai Hospital, Aichi, Japan; 2Kyoto-Katsura Hospital, Kyoto, Japan; 3Department of Respiratory Care and Sleep Control Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, JapanBackground: Randomized controlled trials, evidence-based medicine, clinical guidelines, and total quality management are some of the approaches used to render science-based health care services. The clinical pathway for hospitalized patients suffering from acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD is poorly established, although a clinical pathway is an integral part of total quality management.Aim: To evaluate the outcomes of patients hospitalized with AECOPD in Japan, treated with a clinical pathway following published guidelines.Methods: Prospective data were collected for patients with AECOPD admitted to a general hospital over a 5-year period since 2003. The clinical pathway was designed to establish general rules for the entire treatment protocol. The clinical pathway indicates which treatments and interventions should be performed, and when. In this study, health care providers were required to check the clinical pathway sheets to determine the next step of treatment.Results: This study analyzed 276 hospitalizations in 165 patients. The clinical pathway was interrupted and defined as a dropout in 45 cases (16.3%. Nine patients died during hospitalization (3.3%. Oxygen was administered in 232 hospitalizations (84.1%. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV treatment was administered in 110 hospitalizations (39.9%. The rate of intubation in those cases where NPPV treatment had been administered was 8.2% (9 cases out of 110. The average length of stay (LOS was 20.3 days, and the median value was 15 days. The LOS was longer than 30 days in 34 admissions (12.3%, mainly due to complications.Conclusion: AECOPD can be

  20. Meeting children's needs: a mixed-methods approach to a regionalized pediatric surge plan-the Los Angeles County experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Bridget M; Muller, Valerie M; Wilson, Millicent; Amara, Roel; Fruhwirth, Kay; Stevenson, Kathleen; Burke, Rita V; Upperman, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Children are one of the most vulnerable populations during mass casualty incidents because of their unique physiological, developmental, and psychological attributes. The objective of this project was to enhance Los Angeles County's (LAC) pediatric surge capabilities. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) determine gaps in pediatric surge capacity and capabilities; (2) double pediatric inpatient capacity; and (3) document a plan to address gaps and meet pediatric inpatient surge. We hypothesized that LAC would be able to meet the identified pediatric surge target by leveraging resources of hospitals within the region. Deliverables included a pediatric surge plan for LAC, pediatric surge training resources, and pediatric supplies for hospitals participating in LAC's Hospital Preparedness Program (HPP). After Institutional Review Board approval, the authors used a mixed-methods approach to explore gaps in hospital capacity and capabilities in a large urban county. Hospitals were surveyed via Qualtrics® on 38 questions regarding capacity, staffing, availability of pediatric supplies, and existing pediatric surge plans. Publicly available inpatient bed data were collected from the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development for the year ending June 2010 and supplemented by hospital survey responses. Population data was used from US Census 2010. This combined dataset was analyzed for capacity, pediatric designations, and capabilities. To supplement this data, three focus groups were conducted between April 2011 and May 2012. Focus group topics included: supplies and training needed for pediatric surge, surge targets, and plan development and functionality. Hospitals varied in pediatric capacity and capability. Forty-six percent of facilities provide inpatient pediatric services. Forty-one hospitals are designated as an Emergency Department Approved for Pediatrics. Identified gaps included: limited pediatric bed capacity, geographic variability, limited