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Sample records for experience critique orgel

  1. Affective methodologies and experimenting with affirmative critiques of educational leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    concerns suitable methodologies for researching and experiments with affirmative critique of these new forms of educational leadership. In order not to just to ‘quote’, celebrate or reject this affective agenda, I ask how post-human, intra-active and performative approaches developed in Nordic feminist...... and anti-racist education studies may assist in experimenting with concepts and research formats, interrogate the (unforeseen) effects of affects and affective economies intertwined with new forms of educational leadership, and thereby formulate affirmative critiques of these new types of psy-leadership.......This paper will focus upon the identification of suitable and experimental methodologies for interrogating ‘the affective turn’ in European educational leadership. As an answer to the global GERM and the plea for improving learning outcomes, educational leadership in countries like Denmark seems...

  2. What's so critical about Critical Neuroscience? Rethinking experiment, enacting critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Des; Matusall, Svenja; Skewes, Joshua; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In the midst of on-going hype about the power and potency of the new brain sciences, scholars within "Critical Neuroscience" have called for a more nuanced and sceptical neuroscientific knowledge-practice. Drawing especially on the Frankfurt School, they urge neuroscientists towards a more critical approach-one that re-inscribes the objects and practices of neuroscientific knowledge within webs of social, cultural, historical and political-economic contingency. This paper is an attempt to open up the black-box of "critique" within Critical Neuroscience itself. Specifically, we argue that limiting enactments of critique to the invocation of context misses the force of what a highly-stylized and tightly-bound neuroscientific experiment can actually do. We show that, within the neuroscientific experiment itself, the world-excluding and context-denying "rules of the game" may also enact critique, in novel and surprising forms, while remaining formally independent of the workings of society, and culture, and history. To demonstrate this possibility, we analyze the Optimally Interacting Minds (OIM) paradigm, a neuroscientific experiment that used classical psychophysical methods to show that, in some situations, people worked better as a collective, and not as individuals-a claim that works precisely against reactionary tendencies that prioritize individual over collective agency, but that was generated and legitimized entirely within the formal, context-denying conventions of neuroscientific experimentation. At the heart of this paper is a claim that it was precisely the rigors and rules of the experimental game that allowed these scientists to enact some surprisingly critical, and even radical, gestures. We conclude by suggesting that, in the midst of large-scale neuroscientific initiatives, it may be "experiment", and not "context", that forms the meeting-ground between neuro-biological and socio-political research practices.

  3. An Incremental Model for Developing Educational Critiquing Systems: Experiences with the Java Critiquer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lin; Riesbeck, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Individualized feedback is an important factor in fostering learning. However, it is often not seen in schools because providing it places considerable additional workload on teachers. One way to solve this problem is to employ critiquing systems. These systems, however, require significant development effort before they can be put into use. In…

  4. Aesthetic experience of beautiful and ugly persons: a critique

    OpenAIRE

    Suojanen, Mika

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether or not beauty exists in nature is a philosophical problem. In particular, there is the question of whether artworks, persons, or nature has aesthetic qualities. Most people say that they care about their own beauty. Moreover, they judge another person’s appearance from an aesthetic point of view using aesthetic concepts. However, aesthetic judgements are not objective in the sense that the experience justifies their objectivity. By analysing Monroe C. Beardsley’s theor...

  5. Danish Soldiers Narrate Civil-Military Interaction: Experience, Critique and "Identifying Best Practices"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønd, Thomas Vladimir

    have issued reports evaluating these military engagements (e.g. the Chilcot Report 42 in Britain), Western militaries have also evaluated their own performances – sometimes cast in vocabularies of public administration as ‘best practices’, ‘lessons learned’, etc. The question arises, however, what......In the aftermath of military engagements in Iraq and Afghanistan, Western militaries have been grabbling not only with these – for many – ‘failed missions’, but also with how to deal with a contemporary moment of hybrid wars and ‘chronic crisis’ (Vigh 2008). While numerous political commissions...... characterizes a ‘best practice’, who defines it and how? Against the backdrop of management reports and the critique of political commissions, this paper hones in on the lived experience of Danish soldiers engaged in CIMIC (Civil-Military Cooperation) on the tactical and higher tactical levels in these past...

  6. Quality, Evolution, and Positional Change of University Students' Argumentation Patterns about Organic Agriculture during an Argument-Critique-Argument Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shu-Mey; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality, evolution, and position of university students' argumentation about organic agriculture over a 4-week argument-critique-argument e-learning experience embedded in a first year university biology course. The participants (N = 43) were classified into three groups based on their…

  7. A critique to Akdemir and Oguz : Methodological and statistical issues to consider when conducting educational experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Casper J.; Boevé, Anja J.; Meijer, Rob R.

    Abstract In the paper “Computer-based testing: An alternative for the assessment of Turkish undergraduate students”, Akdemir and Oguz (2008) discuss an experiment to compare student performance in paper-and-pencil tests with computer-based tests, and conclude that students taking computer-based

  8. Developing critique together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    imperative – more general still than that of eradicating errors. There is something in critique which is akin to virtue” (Foucault, 1997, pp. 42-43). Critique is future-directed: It communicates a ‘more general imperative’ that affects the possible, the imaginable, and thereby the actual. Even if formulated...... as a mere rejection of an existing theory or perspective on the world, it points to an alternative – a directionality of action which diverges from what it criticizes. This alternative may remain hidden, mystified, or implicit. Arguably, however, it is the Humanities’ and Social Sciences’ task to make...... the alternatives surface as clearly as possible – so as to render them contestable, renegotiable, accessible for future critique. Such productive critiques can be found in Heidegger’s destruction and Derrida’s deconstruction, in Ilyenkov’s ideal and Critical Psychology’s reconstructionist critique. The symposium...

  9. What is Critique?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe, Sverre

    2017-01-01

    of critique, the article turns to Kant’s critical philosophy, inaugurat-ing the “age of criticism”. While generalizing and making critique unavoidable, Kant coins an unambiguously positive understanding of critique as an affirmative, immanent activity. Not only does this positive conception prevail...... rationality, formulates ethical ideals that regulate social interaction, and further articu-lates normative guidelines underway in the ongoingexperimentations of a post-natural history of human nature.In contradistinction to esoteric Platonic theory, philosophy at the threshold of modernity becomes closely...

  10. What is Critique?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe, Sverre

    of critique, the article turns to Kant’s critical philosophy, inaugurating the “age of criticism”. While generalizing and making critique unavoidable, Kant coins an unambiguously positive understanding of critique as an affirmative, immanent activity. Not only does this positive conception prevail...... rationality, formulates ethical ideals that regulate social interaction, and further articulates normative guidelines underway in the on-going experimentations of a post-natural history of human nature. In contradistinction to esoteric Platonic theory, philosophy at the threshold of modernity becomes closely...

  11. Educational Research Capacity Building in the European Union: A Critique of the Lived Experiences of Emerging Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallet, Fiona; Fidalgo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the extent to which European Union (EU) policies impact upon the activities of associations such as the European Educational Research Association (EERA) and the experiences of emerging researchers aligned to such associations. In essence, the authors explore potential tensions between policy and the lived…

  12. Camera as Cultural Critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    2015-01-01

    What does the use of cameras entail for the production of cultural critique in anthropology? Visual anthropological analysis and cultural critique starts at the very moment a camera is brought into the field or existing visual images are engaged. The framing, distances, and interactions between...... researchers, cameras, and filmed subjects already inherently comprise analytical decisions. It is these ethnographic qualities inherent in audiovisual and photographic imagery that make it of particular value to a participatory anthropological enterprise that seeks to resist analytic closure and seeks instead...

  13. Middle school children's game playing preferences: Case studies of children's experiences playing and critiquing science-related educational games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Dolly Rebecca Doran

    The playing of computer games is one of the most popular non-school activities of children, particularly boys, and is often the entry point to greater facility with and use of other computer applications. Children are learning skills as they play, but what they learn often does not generalize beyond application to that and other similar games. Nevertheless, games have the potential to develop in students the knowledge and skills described by national and state educational standards. This study focuses upon middle-school aged children, and how they react to and respond to computer games designed for entertainment and educational purposes, within the context of science learning. Through qualitative, case study methodology, the game play, evaluation, and modification experiences of four diverse middle-school-aged students in summer camps are analyzed. The inquiry focused on determining the attributes of computer games that appeal to middle school students, the aspects of science that appeal to middle school children, and ultimately, how science games might be designed to appeal to middle school children. Qualitative data analysis led to the development of a method for describing players' activity modes during game play, rather than the conventional methods that describe game characteristics. These activity modes are used to describe the game design preferences of the participants. Recommendations are also made in the areas of functional, aesthetic, and character design and for the design of educational games. Middle school students may find the topical areas of forensics, medicine, and the environment to be of most interest; designing games in and across these topic areas has the potential for encouraging voluntary science-related play. Finally, when including children in game evaluation and game design activities, results suggest the value of providing multiple types of activities in order to encourage the full participation of all children.

  14. Karl Marx: Critique as Emancipatory Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celikates, R.; de Boer, K.; Sonderegger, R.

    2012-01-01

    Critique of philosophy, critique of religion, critique of politics, critique of political economy - there is almost no sphere of modern society of which Karl Marx’s theory does not offer a critique. This makes it all the more necessary to investigate whether these different critiques possess any

  15. Non-normative Critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus Paulsen

    2016-01-01

    The close ties between modes of governing, subjectivities and critique in contemporary societies challenge the role of critical social research. The classical normative ethos of the unmasking researcher unravelling various oppressive structures of dominant vs. dominated groups in society is inade......The close ties between modes of governing, subjectivities and critique in contemporary societies challenge the role of critical social research. The classical normative ethos of the unmasking researcher unravelling various oppressive structures of dominant vs. dominated groups in society...... outlines a non-normative but critical programme based on an ethos of re-politicizing contemporary pervasive modes of governing. The analytical advantages and limitations of such a programme are demonstrated by readings of both Foucauldian studies and the works of and debates regarding the French pragmatic...

  16. Using Experience-based Co-design with older patients, their families and staff to improve palliative care experiences in the Emergency Department: A reflective critique on the process and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Rebecca Wright Née; Lowton, Karen; Robert, Glenn; Grudzen, Corita; Grocott, Patricia

    2017-03-01

    Increasing use of emergency departments among older patients with palliative needs has led to the development of several service-level interventions intended to improve care quality. There is little evidence of patient and family involvement in developmental processes, and little is known about the experiences of - and preferences for - palliative care delivery in this setting. Participatory action research seeking to enable collaborative working between patients and staff should enhance the impact of local quality improvement work but has not been widely implemented in such a complex setting. To critique the feasibility of this methodology as a quality improvement intervention in complex healthcare settings, laying a foundation for future work. an Emergency Department in a large teaching hospital in the United Kingdom. Experience-based Co-design incorporating: 150h of nonparticipant observation; semi-structured interviews with 15 staff members about their experiences of palliative care delivery; 5 focus groups with 64 staff members to explore challenges in delivering palliative care; 10 filmed semi-structured interviews with palliative care patients or their family members; a co-design event involving staff, patients and family members. the study successfully identified quality improvement priorities leading to changes in Emergency Department-palliative care processes. Further outputs were the creation of a patient-family-staff experience training DVD to encourage reflective discussion and the identification and application of generic design principles for improving palliative care in the Emergency Department. There were benefits and challenges associated with using Experience-based Co-design in this setting. Benefits included the flexibility of the approach, the high levels of engagement and responsiveness of patients, families and staff, and the impact of using filmed narrative interviews to enhance the 'voice' of seldom heard patients and families. Challenges

  17. Dance Critique as Signature Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    The curriculum of preprofessional university degree programs in dance typically comprise four components: theory and history, dance technique, creative process, and performance. This article focuses on critique in the modern dance technique and choreography components of the dance curriculum. Bachelor of Fine Arts programs utilize critique as a…

  18. Pour un situationnisme critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Østerberg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Paul Sartre's philosophy, in L'être et le néant and in Critique de la raison dialectique, still maintains its validity as a reflection on our located liberty. However, we must criticize - in both senses of limiting it and correct it - on two points: 1 Sartre’s interpretation of matter and natural sciences seems like the interpretation given by logical positivists (Wienerkreis et al.; 2 social relations, analyzed by Sartre in a deep and convincing way, neglect or ignore more fundamental and anonymous social relations, which are necessary to account. The contributions of the neo-Kantian Marburg school, particularly those of Ernest Cassirer, can rectify the Sartrean philosophy, turning it into a critical situationism.

  19. La nouvelle critique urbaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lefèvre

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La critique urbaine est un art global. Dans la conception qu’en illustre le parcours de Bernard Jouve, dont ce numéro porte témoignage, elle outrepasse plusieurs frontières à la fois. Son premier ouvrage concerne précisément la relation entre frontière (nationale et les enjeux urbains, en 1994. Dès de sa thèse, il aborde déjà la ville par sa matérialité et par les rapports de force qui la constituent comme telle. Ce souci constant d’aller de la technique au social, par un politique qui ne se...

  20. Engagement beyond critique?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gritt B.; Jørgensen, Nanna Jordt

    2018-01-01

    on anthropological engagement: policy-oriented activist research, feminist inspired collaborative research, and what we have chosen to call research for alterity and alternatives. Each of these approaches engage with the concepts of community and participation, two terms which require cautiousness and critical......In response to academic ideals of neutrality, complexity and cultural relativism promoted in postmodern cultural critique, different attempts have been made to make anthropology more “engaged” in the promotion of social change. In this article, we discuss three contemporary positions...... scrutiny, we argue. While each approach to anthropological engagement is valuable in its own right, their application requires careful consideration and knowledge about the contemporary political climate, which in many places is characterized by growing segregation and antagonism between different groups...

  1. Disability as infra-critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Christopher; Dalsgaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    , normalized and mundane infrastructures and practices. We investigate disability as critique in this sense of affording a both analytic and practical ‘breakup’. To do so, we promote a ‘compositionist’ post-actor-network theory approach to disability and to polling and investigate what entry-point for critique......This article investigates how disability can work analytically as a ‘critique from within’. Our case is the accommodation of citizens with disabilities during the voting process in Denmark. Here disability makes explicit how Danish democracy is produced as disability rubs up against implicit...... and we examine parts of the historical background for the production of authority in the context of managing disability as exception during polling. In doing so we point out that as the organization of electoral processes evolves, new potentialities for infra-critique also emerge....

  2. Some Varieties of Normative Social Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Göran Heidegren

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article distinguishes between different forms of normative social critique: an external, an internal or immanent, and a disclosing form of critique. Whereas the external and internal critique appeal to or rely upon a certain standard or yardstick of critique, the disclosing form of critique aims at opening up our eyes to new ways of seeing social reality, and in the light of which our way of life can be seen as deficient or pathological. Depending upon the circumstances each form of critique may be a legitimate means to bring about a change.

  3. Nietzsche's aesthetic critique of Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Charles H

    2011-01-01

    Despite his position as one of the first philosophers to write in the "post-Darwinian" world, the critique of Darwin by Friedrich Nietzsche is often ignored for a host of unsatisfactory reasons. I argue that Nietzsche's critique of Darwin is important to the study of both Nietzsche's and Darwin's impact on philosophy. Further, I show that the central claims of Nietzsche's critique have been broadly misunderstood. I then present a new reading of Nietzsche's core criticism of Darwin. An important part of Nietzsche's response can best be understood as an aesthetic critique of Darwin, reacting to what he saw as Darwin having drained life of an essential component of objective aesthetic value. For Nietzsche, Darwin's theory is false because it is too intellectual, because it searches for rules, regulations, and uniformity in a realm where none of these are to be found - and, moreover, where they should not be found. Such a reading goes furthest toward making Nietzsche's criticism substantive and relevant. Finally, I attempt to relate this novel explanation of Nietzsche's critique to topics in contemporary philosophy of biology, particularly work on the evolutionary explanation of culture.

  4. A Kantian critique of cognitive psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesavage, J A

    1980-01-01

    Modern cognitive psychotherapies such as those practiced by George Kelly, Aaron Beck, and Albert Ellis are examined from the perspective of Immanuel Kant's critique of eighteenth-century cognitive philosophy. Parallel strengths and weaknesses are found in the psychotherapeutic and philosophical systems. The major strengths of the systems are based upon their abilities to predict phenomena based upon an understanding of concepts used to organize experience. The major weaknesses of the systems arise when one takes such concepts to be too concrete. It is argued that modern psychiatrists interested in cognitive techniques may relearn some important but forgotten, facts about the strengths and limits of cognition by reviewing Kantian philosophy.

  5. Essentialism, hybridism and cultural critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frello, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    In my paper, I suggest that we sharpen our attention towards the complexities of the work of power in transgressions as well as in constructions of essentialist identities. Criticising essentialism is vital for fighting group-based exclusionism. However, criticising essentialism and celebrating...... to social and cultural critique. Through a critical discussion of the concept of hybridity, I argue that rather than expecting to find definite emancipating or suppressing capacities connected to constructions of the ‘hybrid' and the ‘pure', we should focus on how these two poles are invested with meaning...... and related to power. Hence, while insisting on Cultural Studies' commitment to social and cultural critique, I argue that this critique would benefit from an analytical sensitivity towards the uses and abuses of the discursive power to designate meaningful and legitimate subject positions, rather than...

  6. Expliquer, comprendre, critiquer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Genard

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article entend en quelque sorte « profiter » des discussions soulevées par la montée de la sociologie pragmatique et l’évolution de ses positions à l’égard de la sociologie critique pour tenter de repréciser les enjeux épistémologiques de celle-ci, mais surtout pour tenter de réinscrire les querelles actuelles dans les querelles épistémologiques centrales de l’histoire de la discipline sociologique et tenter de les éclairer en nous appuyant sur certains apports des théories du langage.To explain, to understand, to criticizeThis article intends to somehow « take advantage » of the discussions raised by the rise of pragmatic sociology and the evolution of its positions on critical sociology in order to re-precise its epistemological issues, but also to try to re-instate the actual conflicts in epistemological quarrels that are central to the history of the sociological discipline, while attempting to enlighten them by relying on certain contributions of language theories.Explicar, comprender, criticar. Tentativa para comprender el papel de la sociología crítica a partir de lo que se aprehende pragmáticamenteEste artículo expone el enriquecimiento que nace de los debates suscitados por el desarrollo de la sociología pragmática con respecto a la sociología crítica con objeto de precisar más finamente las apuestas epistemológicas de la segunda y para inscribir los debates contradictorios actuales en los debates epistemológicos centrales de esta rama sociológica. Es también una aclaración basada en las recientes aportaciones de las teorías lingüísticas.

  7. Towards a critique of indigenous African religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Strijdom

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is argued that a postcolonial critique of the colonial study of religion should not preclude a critique of indigenous African religion itself. The latter may be developed from a human rights perspective and a critique of exclusionary views of indigeneity. The argument is illustrated by means of specific case studies.

  8. Critiquing War in the Classroom: Professor Positionality, Vulnerability, and Possibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an analytic autoethnographical research study focusing on my experiences developing, delivering, and evaluating course content critiquing war from a feminist anti-militarist perspective as a pre-tenured faculty member. Themes include: professional vulnerability, student resistance, pedagogical possibility, and scholarly…

  9. A Critique of Adaptive Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Pertel, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    This report refutes claims that adaptive routing performs better than dimension-order routing. Simulation results are presented that show dimension-order routing achieves both higher throughput and lower latency than adaptive routing. Specious claims for the advantages of adaptive routing are critiqued.

  10. Public Policy and Foucaultian Critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Mads Peter; Villadsen, Kaspar

    2012-01-01

    This article suggests that certain intertwinements can be discerned between contemporary public policies and post-structural thinking, emblematically represented by Foucault and scholars drawing upon his work. The article demonstrates that the post-structural perspective on power, while recognising...... its strengths and efficacy, confines observers to a particular form of analytical critique, which sets specific limits for what can be observed and debated. The position of Nikolas Rose is discussed with a specific attention to his diagnosis of the adoption of ‘community’ as a governmental category...... conditions of critical practice which implies analytical critique and resistance through creative self-formation. The article suggests some dislocations of the generalized Foucaultian position on public policy that seem increasingly necessary in the present situation....

  11. The Crisis of Critique in Critical Management Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    two kinds or lines of critique in critical management studies. With reference to the German philosopher Immanuel Kant, these two kinds or lines of critique can be characterized as a “reflective” conception of critique and a “receptive” conception of critique. The reflective conception of critique...

  12. The silencing of Kierkegaard in Habermas' critique of genetic enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Karin

    2009-06-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to draw attention to an important part of Habermas' critique of genetic enhancement, which has been largely ignored in the discussion; namely his use of Kierkegaard's reflections on the existential conditions for becoming one-self from Either/or and the Sickness unto Death. It will be argued that, although Habermas presents some valuable and highly significant perspectives on the effect of genetic enhancement on the individual's self-understanding and ability to experience him- or herself as a free and equal individual, he does not succeed in working out a consistent argument. The claim is that he fails to explain how the existential analysis is related to his reflections on the sociological and psychological impacts of genetic enhancement in the realm of communicative action. It is this lack of theoretical clarity, which seems to render Habermas vulnerable to some of the critique which has been raised against his theory from a number of different scientific disciplines and areas of research. Hence, the first part of the paper provides some examples of the nature and variety of this critique, the second part presents Habermas' own critique of genetic enhancement in the context of a dispute between so-called 'liberal' and 'conservative' arguments, and finally, the third part discusses the limits and possibilities of his position in a future debate about genetic enhancement.

  13. On Critiquing the Critique: Another Look at the Debate over Mass Society and Popular Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Richard

    The mass culture critique of advanced industrialized society calls forth such images as an omnipresent media; demagogic politics; a bleak, standardized aesthetic landscape; routinized work; and empty leisure; but the mass culture critique suffers from conceptual ambiguity and a paucity of research. The mass culture critique, from both radical and…

  14. Critique of historical reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Richardson

    2009-03-01

    all-important and that they lose their symbolic power if attached to a static meaning. As in Jung's theory, a symbol has the ability to be active in the mind as a transformer of consciousness, free to associate with new experiences and thinking. This theory gives special attention to Dilthey's problem: that of the rational quality of historical facts. World pictures, which give deep meanings to many historical facts, are made up of symbols and metaphors, including ideas, images, values, and emotions. These world styles are almost entirely unconscious. It is true that historians can have deliberate, conscious definitions of such worldviews as those of the Greek and Chinese civilizations. Since the actual Weltbilt is much more complex and largely unconscious, only something more than a logical definition will suffice to understand it. This paper indicates the way in which a rational understanding of world pictures can be attained.

  15. Beyond Construction: Five arguments for the role and value of critique in learning science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J. Bryan; MacPherson, Anna; Osborne, Jonathan; Wild, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    This paper argues that science education has overemphasized the importance of construction at the expense of critique. In doing so, it draws on two key premises-Ford's argument that the construction of knowledge requires a dialectic between construction and critique and Mercier and Sperber's theory of argumentative reasoning that critique is essential for epistemic vigilance. Five separate cases are presented which argue that the absence of critique within school science limits the opportunities for students to engage in scientific reasoning making the learning of science less effective. These five arguments incorporate research literature surrounding the nature of science, epistemology, literacy, pedagogy, and motivation. Furthermore, we draw on data collected from cognitive think-aloud interviews to show that students can, with the appropriate prompts, engage in the important epistemic activity of critique. We conclude by examining the implications for the teaching and learning of science. In essence, we argue that the undervaluing of critique within the curriculum and pedagogy of school science results in a failure to develop the analytical faculties which are the valued hall mark of the practicing scientist; a misrepresentation of the nature of science; and, more importantly, a less effective learning experience. Critique, therefore, needs to play a central role in the teaching and learning of science.

  16. Female visibility through Korean literature: Feminist theological critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ok Jeong

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces Korean women’s experience as seen through the lense of social and cultural backgrounds, from the premodern through to the postmodern era. Korean literature is used as a source to investigate Korean women’s experiences and perspectives. By means of feminist critique this article explores men-centered influences in Korean literature. It aims to illustrate the importance of the issue of female visibility through Korean literature from a Korean woman’s perspective. Two texts are analyzed and critiqued: the first is the myth of Korean origin. The second is a story of Gasi Gogi (a thorny fish. The article is intended to stimulate debate on gender, voices, and authority from a feminist perspective, in order to transcend the more traditional interpretations.

  17. The Engaged Classroom: A Review and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savich, Carl; Bizzotto, Glenda

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to analyze and critique the proposals made in "The Engaged Classroom" by Sam Intrator to increase student engagement in the classroom. The methodology used was to analyze, compare, and critique the proposals based on educational research on apathy and boredom in the instruction of history. The results were that the…

  18. Under the Gaze of Double Critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabih, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    of the theory of double critique: decolonisation, desacralisation and the orphan book are operative in Ḫaṭībī´s analysis of Orientalism, identity, and the issue of origin. As a professional outsider, Ḫaṭībī follows conceptually and methodologically the rules of the epistemological critique in an enunciation...

  19. Critiquing Statistics in Student and Professional Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ryan Seth; Lehrer, Richard; Kim, Min-Joung

    2017-01-01

    This article compares students' critiques within a class discussion about an invented statistic to STEM professionals' critiques from interviews to better understand how the situated meanings of a statistic are similar and different across student and professional worlds. We discuss similarities and differences in how participants constructed…

  20. Critiques of the risk concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexøe, Jørgen; Halvorsen, Peder Andreas; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø

    2007-01-01

    The increasing use of the risk concept in healthcare has caused concern among medical doctors, especially general practitioners (GPs). Critics have claimed that risk identification and intervention create unfounded anxiety, that the concept of risk is not useful at the individual patient level, t...... useful for GPs, and in fact a key issue. It is concluded that risk critique should be based on sound theory and empirical data. Critics may do well in making clear distinctions between facts and value judgements......The increasing use of the risk concept in healthcare has caused concern among medical doctors, especially general practitioners (GPs). Critics have claimed that risk identification and intervention create unfounded anxiety, that the concept of risk is not useful at the individual patient level......, that patients' risk concept is different from an epidemiological one, that resources are better spent elsewhere, or that commercial interests take advantage of risk information to promote sales. In this paper the authors discuss the concept of risk and address the critique. There is evidence that commercial...

  1. The Closing of Critique, Pluralism and Reflexivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvesson, Mats; Kärreman, Dan

    2013-01-01

    assumptions and be unwelcome to critical explorations. The article points to the risk of assumption-challenging work being marginalized through the anticipation of critique leading to hostile reactions and specialized, politically motivated reviewers blocking the publication of far-reaching critique.......This article is a follow-up of Alvesson and Kärreman (2011a), which was in itself a follow-up of Alvesson and Kärreman (2000), and a response to a critique of the former by Hardy and Grant (2012). The critique is addressed directly and the logic behind it investigated critically. The article also...... addresses wider concerns regarding the politics of research and publishing and the conditions of critique at the present time. The pressure and eagerness to get published lead to strong subspecialization and an inclination to build research approaches within which authors are inclined to reproduce shared...

  2. Voicing children's critique and utopias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Mia; Lind, Unni

    The aim is to present and discuss methods of how to voice children's own perspectives on everyday life in daycare followed by reflections on the significance of such perspectives for pedagogical knowledge and practice. Empowering children's participation is substantiated by methods that enable...... and restrictions, Call for aesthetics an sensuality, Longings for home and parents, Longings for better social relations Making children's voice visible allows preschool teachers to reflect children's knowledge and life word in pedagogical practice. Keywords: empowerment and participation, action research...... with participants (children and pedagogues) round research activities and their participation in rendering results. The children bring up critique and wishes that touch upon structural difficulties, dilemmas and ambivalence in pedagogical work. Some of the more challenging findings addresses, Bodily harm...

  3. A guide to critiquing a research paper on clinical supervision: enhancing skills for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fothergill, A; Lipp, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to do two things: First, we want to show the reader how to critique a published research paper. The second aim is to take the reader through the various stages of critiquing using a guide. In the paper, we explain at each stage the research terms that can deter the novice critic from reading and understanding the findings in research. From this we hope the reader will have developed an ability to do their own critiquing, so that they are better informed about the quality of research that influences nursing practice. In this paper we have taken a previously published paper on the effectiveness of clinical supervision and undertaken a systematic critique of the merits of this quantitative research using a recognized critiquing framework compiled by Coughlan et al. (2007). Our purpose was twofold: First, we wanted to demonstrate the various stages of critiquing a paper in order that the reader might make an informed judgment of the quality and relevance of the research. The reader/critic is then able to decide whether to use this research in their own practice. Second, we wanted to assist the reader to develop their own critical, analytical skills through methodically appraising the merits of published research. Nursing as an evidence-based profession requires nurses at both pre- and post-registration level to be able to understand, synthesize and critique research, this being a fundamental part of many nursing curricula. These have become core skills to acquire because implementing up-to-date evidence is the cornerstone of contemporary nursing practice. We have provided in this paper a template for critiquing, which is based on our combined experiences as academics specifically in teaching at the bachelor, master's and doctoral levels. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Kantian Feeling: Empirical Psychology, Transcendental Critique, and Phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Frierson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between empirical psychology, transcendental critique, and phenomenology in Kant’s discussion of respect for the moral law, particularly as that is found in the Critique of Practical Reason. I first offer an empirical-psychological reading of moral respect, in the context of which I distinguish transcendental and empirical perspectives on moral action and defend H. J. Paton’s claim that moral motivation can be seen from two points of view, where “from one point of view, [respect] is the cause of our action, but from another point of view the moral law is its ground.” Then, after a discussion of a distinction between first- and second-order transcendental/practical perspectives where reasons for action are first-order practical judgments while the conditions of possibility for those reasons’ authority are expressed in second-order judgments, I turn to a third kind of perspective: the properly phenomenological one. I explain the general notion of Kantian phenomenology with an example of the experience of time from Kant’s Anthropology before applying this to a phenomenological reading of the discussion of respect in the Critique of Practical Reason. I end by noting that on my account, in contrast to that of Jeanine Grenberg, the distinctive phenomenology of respect is not systematically important for grounding claims in moral philosophy.

  5. Embedded Critique in a Tensed World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis I investigate the conditions for critique in the light of the postmodern insight that critique cannot be based upon a universally valid starting point. A usual reaction to this insight has been what I call descriptivism: if critique cannot have one fixed starting point, it is proba......In this thesis I investigate the conditions for critique in the light of the postmodern insight that critique cannot be based upon a universally valid starting point. A usual reaction to this insight has been what I call descriptivism: if critique cannot have one fixed starting point...... towards a moderate relativism – as opposed to absolute staticism and absolute relativism. Any linguistic expression (critical as well as descriptive) is characterized by being locally founded, but also by pointing beyond this local foundation. We should therefore think of linguistic expressions...... as pointing in a universalizing direction – but in a fallible way. This is why the critical investigation is always relevant. And it is thuys a mistake to seek to avoid critical implications of linguistic expressions....

  6. The Muse-4 experiment: measurement of the kinetic parameters of a subcritical system; L'experience MUSE-4: mesure des parametres cinetiques d'un systeme sous-critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollaire, J

    2004-10-01

    Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) which are based on an external neutron source coupled to a subcritical core, offer advantages for the incineration of radioactive waste. In order to understand the neutronic specificity of such a system, during the MUSE IV experimental program, the experimental reactor MASURCA (CEA Cadarache) has been coupled to the neutrons source GENEPI. This setup has enabled the development of an on-line measurement technique of the effective multiplication factor. This measurement benefits from the characteristics of the reactor response depending on the multiplication factor at the prompt fission and delayed fission time scales. The analysis of those experiments shows that the proposed method give results in agreement with the one deduced using classical reactivity measurement techniques which can not however be used in a power ADS. (author)

  7. 49 CFR 239.105 - Debriefing and critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Debriefing and critique. 239.105 Section 239.105... Debriefing and critique. (a) General. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each railroad operating passenger train service shall conduct a debriefing and critique session after each passenger train...

  8. Whose Confession? Which Tradition? (A Preliminary Critique of Penny Thompson, 2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Peter

    2005-01-01

    What does Penny Thompson really want? Reading her article in "BJRE" 26 (1) proved a baffling experience: it clearly wanted to say something, and to say it passionately, yet signally failed to do so. It fails largely because it lacks an argument; there seems also to be conceptual muddle at its heart. A fuller critique will need to attend…

  9. Hydrogen-via-electricity concept. Critique report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, W. J. D.

    1981-01-01

    The hydrogen-via-electricity (HvE) concept is the prospective use of hydrogen fuel produced electrolytically from the electric utility grid as a means of responding to conventional fuels shortages. The two sets of comments and critiques of this concept solicited from the Government/Government contractor group and from the electric utility companies are presented.

  10. Whither Critique in the World Language Department?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galina, Benjamin J.

    2017-01-01

    Language departments have long confronted a disciplinary divide between the study of literature and language. This divide in tenure lines and course content has engendered a similarly deep-seated divide in pedagogical practices. In world language departments, critique often seems confined, for reasons both epistemological and historic, to…

  11. Hydrogen-via-Electricity concept. Critique report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, W.J.D.; Ecklund, E.E.

    1981-01-01

    The Hydrogen-via-Electricity (HvE) concept is the prospective use of hydrogen fuel, produced electrolytically from the electric utility grid, as a means of responding to conventional fuels shortages. This report makes available the two sets of comments and critiques of this concept solicited from the Government/Government contractor group and from the electric utility companies.

  12. Feminist Critiques Against Traditional Approaches to Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrus Kanisius Farneubun, P.

    Feminists claim that national security is a model of masculinity domination, which hardly disputed This essay addresses feminists critique on notion of conventional security and provides feminists own definition. It shows that feminists adopt comprehensive approach in relation to security. They tend

  13. Critiquing Botswana's National Ecotourism Strategy through a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a gender lens,1 this article textually critiques Botswana's national ecotourism strategy and finds that, while the document mentions matters of gender, this is done superficially and as such is in need of revision. This type of oversight is symptomatic of how broader ecotourism policies and academia on tourism tend to ...

  14. 'Grey in Grey': Crisis, Critique, Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Noys

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay reflects on the global financial crisis of 2008 as a site from which to assess anumber of theorisations of critique and change, based within a broadly-defined Marxism.While the recent crisis has given traction to Marxism as a form of critique, the articulationof that critique to actual change, and especially to the prospective agents of change, hasbeen left hanging. Charting the work of Fredric Jameson, Hardt and Negri, and others, wefind an emphasis on the powers of production and life as a point of excess to fuel anticapitalist politics. However, these images of dynamism are now forced to confrontcapitalism in a state of inertia and deceleration, and in so doing, they reveal theirdependence on replicating or displacing the supposed ‘productive forces’ of capitalism totheir own projects. Models of ‘anti-production’, such as those derived from GeorgesBataille, also tend to converge on models of vital powers, although cast in forms ofconsumption and excess. Criticising this convergence on a mythical vitalism, this essaysuggests a deflationary critique of capitalism’s ‘productivism’, and explores the potentialfor an anti-vitalist analysis that might better grasp the ‘mythological displacement’ ofexperience that operates within the frame of capitalist social relations.

  15. Increasing the critical mass: emphasising critique in studio teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Bowring

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Critique is an indispensable part of the design process, providing a crucial feedback loop to reflect and improve on the quality of design. While critique is a well-established practice in some design disciplines, for landscape architecture a critical culture is yet to develop. As a relatively recent profession, which some have argued is more practice than theory-orientated, critique has not been a priority. However, for the advancement of design thinking, and to ensure quality in the built environment, the development of critique is a significant consideration for landscape architecture. The studio environment provides an ideal opportunity to develop critical skills which graduates can take with them into the professional environment. This paper outlines the present climate of critique within the discipline of landscape architecture, and then explores some of the issues and opportunities for enhancing students' critical capacity in relation to self-critique and the critique of built works.

  16. A Critique of Generalizability in Interpretive Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Metcalfe

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about generalizability in interpretive systems research. The authors are concerned that, in its search for appropriate inquiry methods, the discipline of Information Systems (IS does not slip into the errors of other social disciplines and become a dismal science. Many systems thinkers have repeatedly argued that the purpose of IS research needs to be to produce what Argyris calls actionable knowledge and Ulrich, critique heuristics. That is, rules of thumb which managers can use to solve design problems, not too vague and not too detailed. This is a different concept from generalizability, which aligns with the scientific notion of seeking universal objective laws. The paper uses the argumentative inquiry in its reflexive capacity to critique knowledge claims on a chapter by Baskerville and Lee that discusses generalizability to bring out the differences between this cornerstone of universal truths and the more systems thinking concepts of actionable knowledge or critical heuristics.

  17. University Ranking Systems; Criteria and Critiques

    OpenAIRE

    Saka, Yavuz; YAMAN, Süleyman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore international university ranking systems. As a compilation study this paper provides specific criteria that each ranking system uses and main critiques regarding these ranking systems. Since there are many ranking systems in this area of research, this study focused on only most cited and referred ranking systems. As there is no consensus in terms of the criteria that these systems use, this paper has no intention of identifying the best ranking system ...

  18. An Immanent Critique of the Attention Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Celis Bueno

    2016-01-01

    The present article develops an immanent critique of the attention economy as a power apparatus. In particular, it contends that what Foucault (2009) defined as the passage from disciplinary societies to societies of security entails a transformation of the main function of human attention: whereas in disciplinary societies attention (or the gaze) was aimed at imposing continuous surveillance on each individual, societies of security conceive the gaze of each subject as a source of data which...

  19. An Immanent Critique of the Attention Economy.

    OpenAIRE

    Celis Bueno, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The present article develops an immanent critique of the attention economy as a power apparatus. In particular, it contends that what Foucault (2009) defined as the passage from disciplinary societies to societies of security entails a transformation of the main function of human attention: whereas in disciplinary societies attention (or the gaze) was aimed at imposing continuous surveillance on each individual, societies of security conceive the gaze of each subject as a source of dat...

  20. Les trois dimensions de la sociologie critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean De Munck

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La sociologie est-elle critique ou non critique ? Le clivage semble de naissance, la division irrémédiable. De sa naissance à nos jours, jamais notre discipline n’a pu refermer sa coupure originelle. Deux traditions se disputent le champ de la sociologie. Son histoire est ponctuée de grands débats. Cet article se propose de contribuer à une clarification épistémologique de la notion de « sociologie critique », beaucoup d’ambiguïtés accompagnant en effet la discussion de ce concept très complexe.The three dimensions of critical sociologyIs sociology critical or not? The cleavage seems from birth, the division irremediable. From its birth to today, our discipline has never been able to close its original cut. Two traditions fight over the sociology field. Its history is punctuated with major debates. This article proposes to contribute to an epistemological clarification of the notion of “critical sociology”, since a lot of ambiguities accompanies in fact the arguments around this very complex concept.Las tres dimensiones de la sociología crítica¿Posee la sociología una capacidad crítica? Esta cuestión es congenial y la división consecuente entre la capacidad o la incapacidad es irremediable.  Desde su nacimiento, nunca la sociología ha podido resolver este dilema. Dos tradiciones, acompañadas continuamente por polémicas, se oponen. El autor propone de contribuir a una clarificación epistemológica de la noción de « sociología crítica » porque numerosas ambigüedades están presentes cuando se analiza este concepto ya de por si complejo.

  1. Da experiência estético-teleológica da natureza à consciência ecológica: uma leitura da Crítica do Juízo de Kant From aesthetic experience and teleological appreciation of nature to the ecological consciousness: Reading Kant's Critique of Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Ribeiro dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste ensaio é propor uma interpretação daquilo que para muitos intérpretes constitui o enigma e a dificuldade maior da terceira Crítica de Kant: o fato de o filósofo remeter para a mesma faculdade do espírito (a faculdade de julgar - Urteilskraft e para o mesmo princípio transcendental de apreciação (a teleoformidade ou conformidade a fins - Zweckmässigkeit o fenômeno da arte humana e os fenômenos da natureza organizada - a estética e a teleologia. Na leitura que propomos, tentamos perceber a fecundidade dessa estranha associação ("associação barroca", no dizer de Schopenhauer precisamente para permitir pensar alguns dos problemas que coloca atualmente a racionalidade ecológica, não aquela que visa excluir o homem da natureza como seu inimigo, mas uma consciência ecológica que defenda uma natureza viva com homens sensíveis, com seres humanos tais que não pensam já a sua relação com a natureza como sendo uma relação de meros "senhores e possuidores" frente a um objeto inerte e destituído de valor e de significação por si mesmo, mas que são capazes de contemplar e apreciar a natureza como valiosa por si mesma, de reconhecê-la como um sistema de sistemas finalizados e de colaborar na sua preservação, que têm até perante ela genuínos sentimentos de admiração pela sua beleza, de respeito pela sua sublimidade e de gratidão pela sua exuberância e favores. Em suma, propomo-nos mostrar a nova atitude perante a natureza que se deixa pensar a partir da Crítica do Juízo, considerada esta obra na sua complexidade sistemática.The aim of this paper is to suggest how the kantian conception of aesthetic experience of nature can illuminate some demands posed by the actual ecological consciousness. Main topics of our exposition would be the reversible analogy Kant supposes between art and nature, the kantian concept of a "technic of nature", the recognised priority of aesthetic experience of natural beauty

  2. Kantian Critique as a possible Driver for Planned Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Lund; Bordum, Anders

    In this article it is revealed that planned change approaches operate with multiple drivers for change, but often neglect critique as a relevant driver for change. This is in contradistinction to approaches within the social sciences, where critique is often seen as a relevant approach to creatin...

  3. Critique and Process: Signature Pedagogies in the Graphic Design Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    Like many disciplines in design and the visual fine arts, critique is a signature pedagogy in the graphic design classroom. It serves as both a formative and summative assessment while also giving students the opportunity to practice the habits of graphic design. Critiques help students become keen observers of relevant disciplinary criteria;…

  4. Grounding Collaborative Learning in Semantics-Based Critiquing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, William K.; Mørch, Anders I.; Wong, Kelvin C.; Lee, Cynthia; Liu, Jiming; Lam, Mason H.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we investigate the use of latent semantic analysis (LSA), critiquing systems, and knowledge building to support computer-based teaching of English composition. We have built and tested an English composition critiquing system that makes use of LSA to analyze student essays and compute feedback by comparing their essays with…

  5. Ethics as Critique: Foucault’s Contribution to Research Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gerd

    The aim of my talk is to discuss how we can consider Michel Foucault’s concept of ethos and his endeavor for endless critique as an important contribution to research ethics in educational research. First, I intend to outline Foucault’s concept of ethos and its link to his concept of critique...

  6. Interpreting Foucault: an evaluation of a Foucauldian critique of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential strengths and weaknesses of a Foucauldian critique of education are discussed and evaluated. The article focuses specifically on the value of Foucault's work for critiquing social and political ideologies prevalent in education, which is understood as a societal institution, and hence, as a modern regime of ...

  7. Interpreting Foucault: An Evaluation of a Foucauldian Critique of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woermann, Minka

    2012-01-01

    The potential strengths and weaknesses of a Foucauldian critique of education are discussed and evaluated. The article focuses specifically on the value of Foucault's work for critiquing social and political ideologies prevalent in education, which is understood as a societal institution, and hence, as a modern regime of institutional power. In…

  8. Marx, Rationalism and the Critique of the Market | Fluxman | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses Marx's critique of the market in the light of Allan Megill's recent book, Karl Marx: the Burden of Reason. Megill offers two main arguments concerning Marx's critique. Firstly, Megill claims that, contrary to Marxian orthodoxy, Marx's well-known theory of alienation does not in fact amount to an ...

  9. 'Theory of mind' II: Difficulties and critiques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastow, Michael

    2012-08-01

    'Theory of mind' will be further examined firstly by looking at the experimental situation that was used to put forward this notion. A fundamental difficulty regarding the failure of 'theory of mind' to account for the misunderstandings of everyday life will be discussed. Other difficulties in the experimental conceptualisation of this notion will then be studied. Critiques that have previously been made of 'theory of mind' will also be examined. 'Theory of mind' proposes an ideal of limpid understanding of the other. It is argued here that this notion of mind-reading is belied by its failure in our everyday lives. The experimental results by which this notion was proposed are neither sensitive nor specific. It is argued that there is also a fundamental error in this conception and its experimental design due to assessing a second-person phenomenon by a third-person method. Critiques of 'theory of mind' emphasise the epistemological difficulties and the fact that it is a poor explanation for the interactions of non-autistic subjects.

  10. MAIN PROBLEMS OF THE PHILOSOPHICAL CRITIQUE OF RELIGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jowita Guja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a synthetic overview of main problems of the philosophical critique of religion. In the beginning I identify and characterize three general threads of the critique: the enlightenment, the alienational and the thread which focuses on the problem of theodicy. The greater part of my article is devoted to the alienational critique of religion n its two types: atheistic (Feuerbach, Marx, Freud, Nietzsche, Sartre and theistic (Barth. The subjects of my analysis are the sources and foundations of the alienational critique of religion and the most important problems implied by it: the essence of religion, the ideal of the irreligious man, the prospect to remove religion. The analysis presents troubles and confusions connected to these subjects: they emerge in atheistic type of alienational critique of religion.

  11. Modeling and simulation of critical parameters of the first chamber of the dimuon arm spectrometer of the Alice experiment; Modelisation et simulation de parametres critiques de la premiere station du spectrometre dimuons d'ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guez, D

    2003-10-01

    The Alice experiment that is dedicated to the study of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, will take place in the future large hadron collider (LHC) at CERN. The dimuon arm spectrometer of the Alice experiment is devoted to the search of a new signature of the existence of the quark gluon plasma (QGP). The first chapter is dedicated to the physics notions linked to the study of QGP, a few signatures are proposed for the detection of QGP, particularly the signature concerning the production rate of quarkonium. The second chapter deals with particle detection involved in Alice experiment, the dimuon arm spectrometer is a detector dedicated to the track reconstruction of muons issued from the decay of heavy mesons from J/{psi} and {upsilon} families. The third and the fourth chapters present the studies made to integrate a reliable model of the dimuon arm in the global simulation code of Alice (Aliroot). The fifth chapter presents the software TB{sup 2} that has been developed within the framework of this thesis in order to check and control the output data when the detector is tested with a real particle beam. The sixth chapter presents the results of the tests that have been performed with a 7 GeV/c pion beam. These tests have shown that the electronic noise is coherent with the specifications of Alice experiment. A factor 1,8 between the highest and the weakest values of the gain has been measured in the chamber. The detection efficiency of the chamber has been estimated to 99% in the different cases studied. (A.C.)

  12. Nietzsche’s critique of moral values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mićo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author argues that Nietzsche’s critique of morality is based on his metaphysics in which the notion of will to power conceived in the spirit of the Greek concept of physis plays a key role. He demonstrates that the revaluation of all values as overcoming of Platonist-Christian nihilism is aimed at the affirmation of “living in accordance with nature“, whereby nature is understood just as physis. He also shows why, for Nietzsche, pretension to universality and objectivity of the dominant value system is not justified. Finally, the author points to the difficulties of Nietzsche’s (inverse Platonism and concludes that the failure of modernity to justify morality imposes the task of examining the possibilities of rehabilitation of Aristotle’s practical philosophy.

  13. Self-defense: Deflecting Deflationary and Eliminativist Critiques of the Sense of Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Gallagher

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available I defend a phenomenological account of the sense of ownership as part of a minimal sense of self from those critics who propose either a deflationary or eliminativist critique. Specifically, I block the deflationary critique by showing that in fact the phenomenological account is itself a deflationary account insofar as it takes the sense of ownership to be implicit or intrinsic to experience and bodily action. I address the eliminativist view by considering empirical evidence that supports the concept of pre-reflective self-awareness, which underpins the sense of ownership. Finally, I respond to claims that phenomenology does not offer a positive account of the sense of ownership by showing the role it plays in an enactivist (action-oriented view of embodied cognition.

  14. Towards an Extra-Linguistic Critique of J.L. Austin’s Speech Act Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acheoah John Emike

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an extra-linguistic critique of Austin’s speech act theory. In the context of the paper, extra-linguistic issues capture those factors that “legitimize” violations from the norms of English which are evident in Austin’s theory. We investigate the strengths and weaknesses of the theory from a socio-pragmatic perspective, exploring discursively, the Nigerian existential experience. The critique hinges on three evolved theoretical concepts (Geoimplicature, Emergent Context and Pragmadeviant in the investigation of the strengths and weaknesses of Austin’s speech act theory. The study finds out that despite the strengths of the theory, some postulations therein are bedeviled by the dynamics of human communication. Conclusively, the paper contends for an “illocutionary component” of meaning as opposed to the age-long “propositional component” of meaning.

  15. Two Agendas for Bioethics: Critique and Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Jeremy R

    2015-07-01

    Many bioethicists view the primary task of bioethics as 'value clarification'. In this article, I argue that the field must embrace two more ambitious agendas that go beyond mere clarification. The first agenda, critique, involves unmasking, interrogating, and challenging the presuppositions that underlie bioethical discourse. These largely unarticulated premises establish the boundaries within which problems can be conceptualized and solutions can be imagined. The function of critique, then, is not merely to clarify these premises but to challenge them and the boundaries they define. The second agenda, integration, involves honoring and unifying what is right in competing values. Integration is the morally ideal response to value conflict, offering the potential for transcending win/lose outcomes. The function of integration, then, is to envision actions or policies that not only resolve conflicts, but that do so by jointly realizing many genuine values in deep and compelling ways. My argument proceeds in stages. After critically examining the role and dominant status of value clarification in bioethical discourse, I describe the nature and value of the two agendas, identify concrete examples of where each has been and could be successful, and explain why a critical integrative bioethics--one that appreciates the joint necessity and symbiotic potential of the two agendas--is crucial to the future of the field. The ultimate goal of all of this is to offer a more compelling vision for how bioethics might conduct itself within the larger intellectual and social world it seeks to understand and serve. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Theological Critique of the "New Atheism"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sleptsova Valeriia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to a critical analysis of one of the newest trends of modern Anglo-American freethinking. It is called “new atheism”. The most known spokesmen of this trend are R. Dawkins, D. Dennett, S. Harris and Ch. Hitchens. Theology and Christian philosophy place high emphasis on the critique of the “new atheism”. One of the most talked-about critics of this trend is A. McGrath. The author of the paper notes that some of specific theological criticisms are just. Among them are the critique of the meme-theory and the lack of reflection of the “new atheism” on itself. At the same time the author of the paper demonstrates that some theses of the theological critics are insufficiently grounded. For example, theological critics are rather premature in their conclusions about bringing the “new atheism” into line with L. Feuerbach and K. Marx. The author believes that the ideas of the “new atheism”, as well as the method and the style of expression of its viewpoints are much more successfully integrated in one line with the ideas of such atheists as Bertrand Russell, than a number of the creators of really new ideas of freethinking. In addition, the “new atheism” is also close to the radical wing of the US freethinking of the early 20th century graphically represented by the ideas of R.G. Ingersoll. The author points to the desire of the “new atheists” as well as their critics to simplify the views held by the opposite side. This desire often leads to misinterpretation of the logic of thoughtin both the “new atheists” and their opponents.

  17. Don't Fence Me In: The Liberation of Undomesticated Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruitenberg, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    In response to Helmut Heid's critique of domesticated philosophical critique, I focus on the metaphor of domestication, which is central to his article. Drawing on the work of Jacques Derrida, I offer a deconstructive critique of the opposition between domesticated and undomesticated critique, arguing that a clear conceptual demarcation between…

  18. The silencing of Kierkegaard in Habermas' critique of genetic enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karin

    2009-01-01

    to some of the critique, which has been raised against his theory from a number of different scientific disciplines and areas of research. Hence, the first part of the paper is providing some examples of the nature and variety of this critique, the second part presents Habermas own critique of genetic...... enhancement in the context of a dispute between so-called ‘liberal' and ‘conservative' arguments, and finally, the third part discusses the limits and possibilities of his position in a future debate about genetic enhancement....

  19. A critique of current methods in nematode taxonomy | Abebe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    living and plant parasitic nematodes and critique those methods in the context of recent developments and trends including their implications in nematode taxonomy, biodiversity and biogeography. Key words: Species delimitation, taxonomic ...

  20. Out of Time: The Limits of Secular Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Randell-Moon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of Talal Asad, Wendy Brown, Judith Butler, Saba Mahmood, Is Critique Secular? Blasphemy, Injury, and Free Speech and Michael Warner, Jonathan Vanantwerpen, and Craig Calhoun (eds, Varieties of Secularism in a Secular Age.

  1. Out of time : the limits of secular critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randell-Moon, Holly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of Talal Asad, Wendy Brown, Judith Butler, Saba Mahmood, 'Is critique secular? Blasphemy, injury, and free speech' and Michael Warner, Jonathan Vanantwerpen, and Craig Calhoun (eds, 'Varieties of secularism in a secular age'.

  2. Social Evaluations of Assertiveness: A Critique and Speech Act Reformulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvasio, Amy Herstein; Crawford, Mary

    1989-01-01

    Critiques recent research on the social evaluation of assertive speech. Proposes an alternative theoretical framework, based on speech act theory. Assertiveness is viewed as a style of conversation occurring in complex interpersonal contexts. (Author/BJV)

  3. Cultural Journalism and Cultural Critique in a Changing Media Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard; From, Unni

    2015-01-01

    This special issue addresses a topic of journalism studies that has previously been somewhat neglected but which has gained increasing scholarly attention since the mid-2000s: the coverage and evaluation of art and culture, or what we term “cultural journalism and cultural critique.......” In this introduction, we highlight three issues that serve to frame the study of cultural journalism and cultural critique more generally and the eight articles of this special issue more specifically: (1) the constant challenge of demarcating cultural journalism and cultural critique, including the interrelations...... of “journalism” and “critique”; (2) the dialectic of globalisation’s cultural homogenisation, on the one hand, and the specificity of local/national cultures, on the other; and (3) the digital media landscape seen in terms of the need to rethink, perhaps even redefine cultural journalism and cultural critique...

  4. Scaffolding Online Collaborative Critiquing for Educational Video Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiong Hwee Teo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In art, design and media education, learning from examples has been an established way to coach students. To derive greater benefits, teachers should get students to go beyond mere studying of examples. This paper focuses on engaging novice learners in collaborative critiquing of real examples of professional work and past student work in the context of producing an educational video project. While critiquing of such works is not new in art education, there is however scant literature on how to involve students in collaborative critiquing in an online environment involving video projects. A four-step critique model was therefore designed as procedural scaffolding and implemented in an online system, Knowledge Community. A group of Singapore pre-service teachers were engaged in online collaborative critiquing of videos before they embarked on their video projects to illustrate what constitutes good and bad video production. This research points to the value of online collaborative critiquing as a way to facilitate novice designers‟ progress towards expertise. In this environment learners are able to look at problems through multiple perspectives, generate their own solutions and build knowledge that uses the overlapping expertise of the online community.

  5. Celebrity critiquing : hot or not? Teen girls' attitudes on and responses to the practice of negative celebrity critiquing

    OpenAIRE

    Ouvrein, Gaëlle; Vandebosch, Heidi; Backer, De, A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: By conducting focus groups with teen girls, this study aimed to explore female adolescents responses to and perceptions of increasingly negative, scandal-driven critiquing of celebrities. Four types of celebrity-critiquing cases were selected and discussed. The first research question focused on girls reactions towards the presented examples. The results indicated that the girls responses differed depending on the type of case involved. Generally, the teens at first were entertained...

  6. Liberal Critique of the Minority Rights’ Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Majetić

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Controversies regarding the minority rights’ concept within liberal theory are opening up a debate in the political and academic communities of the Western democracies. Minority rights are discussed from the point of view of liberalism since it is more hospitable as a theory than conservatism and socialism, and due to the fact that it defines political morals in those countries. The aim of this article is to offer answers to some of the debate’s key questions. Should the liberals accept the model of universal individual rights combined with special minority rights within the liberal concept of social justice, founded on the principle of individual equality? Is a generalized, “non-discriminative” concept, such as the Western democracies’ key for fair treatment of ethno-cultural issues, really fair? Where are the limits of liberal tolerance set, and can liberalism be the cultures’ intersection point? By analyzing the opposed positions of various significant liberal theoreticians about the afore-mentioned and other issues, this article points to the questionable consistency of liberal critique of national and ethnic minority rights on the level of political legitimacy whilst this question remains open on the theoretical stage.

  7. Designing for critique, designing for reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løfgreen, Lars Bo

    2010-01-01

    Denne lærebog tilbyder ny viden om design og lærings-processer inden for især nye, konvergerende medier. Den er skrevet på engelsk og redigeret af 3 medieforskere fra Syddansk Universitet. I kapitlerne er designprocesser i en række forskellige medier beskrevet med illustrative eksempler fra film......, tv, computer og mobiltelefon. Såvel design af den enkelte medietekst som kommunikation på tværs af medier adresseres. Yderligere er der fokus på kreative medieskabelsesprocesser, der kan lede til innovation. Bogen er forsynet med arbejdsspørgsmål efter hvert af de 6 kapitler samt en udførlig...... litteraturliste og et stikordsregister. Bogen rummer kapitlerne: “Visual topography: analysing the visual context of an interactive interface” af Lise Agerbæk, “Designing (with) Creativity” af Heidi Philipsen, “Designing for critique, designing for reflection – the (re)emergence of aesthetics in current design...

  8. Critique and Contribute: A Practice-Based Framework for Improving Critical Data Studies and Data Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Gina; Tanweer, Anissa; Fiore-Gartland, Brittany; Osburn, Laura

    2017-06-01

    What would data science look like if its key critics were engaged to help improve it, and how might critiques of data science improve with an approach that considers the day-to-day practices of data science? This article argues for scholars to bridge the conversations that seek to critique data science and those that seek to advance data science practice to identify and create the social and organizational arrangements necessary for a more ethical data science. We summarize four critiques that are commonly made in critical data studies: data are inherently interpretive, data are inextricable from context, data are mediated through the sociomaterial arrangements that produce them, and data serve as a medium for the negotiation and communication of values. We present qualitative research with academic data scientists, "data for good" projects, and specialized cross-disciplinary engineering teams to show evidence of these critiques in the day-to-day experience of data scientists as they acknowledge and grapple with the complexities of their work. Using ethnographic vignettes from two large multiresearcher field sites, we develop a set of concepts for analyzing and advancing the practice of data science and improving critical data studies, including (1) communication is central to the data science endeavor; (2) making sense of data is a collective process; (3) data are starting, not end points, and (4) data are sets of stories. We conclude with two calls to action for researchers and practitioners in data science and critical data studies alike. First, creating opportunities for bringing social scientific and humanistic expertise into data science practice simultaneously will advance both data science and critical data studies. Second, practitioners should leverage the insights from critical data studies to build new kinds of organizational arrangements, which we argue will help advance a more ethical data science. Engaging the insights of critical data studies will

  9. A critique of cannabis legalization proposals in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalant, Harold

    2016-08-01

    An editorial in this issue describes a cannabis policy framework document issued by a major Canadian research centre, calling for legalization of non-medical use under strict controls to prevent increase in use, especially by adolescents and young adults who are most vulnerable to adverse effects of cannabis. It claims that such a system would eliminate the severe personal, social and monetary costs of prohibition, diminish the illicit market, and provide more humane management of cannabis use disorders. It claims that experience with regulation of alcohol and tobacco will enable a system based on public health principles to control access of youth to cannabis without the harm caused by prohibition. The present critique argues that the claims made against decriminalization and for legalization are unsupported, or even contradicted, by solid evidence. Early experience in other jurisdictions suggests that legalization increases use by adolescents and its attendant harms. Regulation of alcohol use does not provide a good model for cannabis controls because there is widespread alcohol use and harm among adolescents and young adults. Government monopolies of alcohol sale have been used primarily as sources of revenue rather than for guarding public health, and no reason has been offered to believe they would act differently with respect to cannabis. Good policy decisions require extensive unbiased information about the individual and social benefits and costs of both drug use and proposed control measures, and value judgments about the benefit/harm balance of each option. Important parts of the necessary knowledge about cannabis are not yet available, so that the value judgments are not yet possible. Therefore, a better case can be made for eliminating some of the harms of prohibition by decriminalization of cannabis possession and deferring decision about legalization until the necessary knowledge has been acquired. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Using model checking for critiquing based on clinical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, Perry; Hommersom, Arjen; Lucas, Peter J F; Merk, Robbert-Jan; ten Teije, Annette; van Harmelen, Frank; Serban, Radu

    2009-05-01

    Medical critiquing systems compare clinical actions performed by a physician with a predefined set of actions. In order to provide useful feedback, an important task is to find differences between the actual actions and a set of 'ideal' actions as described by a clinical guideline. In case differences exist, the critiquing system provides insight into the extent to which they are compatible. We propose a computational method for such critiquing, where the ideal actions are given by a formal model of a clinical guideline, and where the actual actions are derived from real world patient data. We employ model checking to investigate whether a part of the actual treatment is consistent with the guideline. We show how critiquing can be cast in terms of temporal logic, and what can be achieved by using model checking. Furthermore, a method is introduced for off-line computing relevant information which can be exploited during critiquing. The method has been applied to a clinical guideline of breast cancer in conjunction with breast cancer patient data.

  11. The Critique of The Moral Worldview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra Heymann

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El examen de la visión moral del mundo que Hegel realiza en la Fenomenología del Espíritu VI C es polémico y hostil en sus acentos. Sin embargo, las objeciones puntuales a los planteamientos comunes a la ética kantiana y fichteana son justas y deben ser tenidas en cuenta cuando tratamos de rescatar lo que la ética kantiana tiene de convincente.La crítica de Hegel se centra en la relación que se da en todo actuar entre la conciencia y la naturaleza: tanto la naturaleza a la cual la acción se aplica y en medio de la cual se desenvuelve, como la naturaleza interior que alimenta y da fuerza ejecutiva al pensar y querer. Hegel muestra que la reivindicación de una autarquía de la conciencia moral no es sólo quimérica; ella desconoce la razón de ser y la posibilidad interna de la acción. Al poner de manifiesto la esencial incompletitud de todo saber moral, sea en la forma de una conciencia en general, sea en la de una individualidad que se autoafirma, Hegel abre una perspectiva a su noción de espíritu absoluto, entendido como la conciencia que reconoce en la contrariedad y en su insuficiencia su propio y adecuado elemento vital. Abstract:Hegel's examination of the “moral worldview” in his Phenomenology of Spirit , VI C, is anything but friendly. Nevertheless, his precise objections to the common basis of Kant's and Fichte's ethics are justified, and we must give them due attention if we want to work out what we find convincing in Kantian ethics. Hegel's critique focuses on the relationship between consciousness and nature: both the world in which action takes place and develops, and our inner nature which nurtures and gives executive force to our thought and our inclinations. To consider moral consciousness autarchic is not only unrealistic, according to Hegel; it also means to ignore the rationale and the internal possibility of action. By revealing the essential incompleteness of all moral knowledge, this chapter opens a

  12. Critiques of Articles, Comments on Fletcher's Efficiency Ratio, A Reply to Romberg, Montgomery, and Peaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A critique is given of the use of an efficiency ratio to reexamine the data of the International Study of Achievement in Mathematics. A reply to this and an earlier critique of the analysis is included. (JG)

  13. "Successful aging," gerontological theory and neoliberalism: a qualitative critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Robert L; de Medeiros, Kate

    2015-02-01

    This article is a critique of the successful aging (SA) paradigm as described in the Rowe and Kahn book, Successful Aging (1998). The major point of this article is that two key ideas in the book may be understood as consonant with neoliberalism, a social perspective that came into international prominence at the same time the SA paradigm was initially promoted. These two key ideas are (a) the emphasis on individual social action applied to the nature of the aging experience and (b) the failure to provide a detailed policy agenda for the social and cultural change being promoted and, particularly, for older adults who may be left behind by the approach to change the book suggests. The article provides no evidence for a direct connection between SA and neoliberalism, but rather shows how similarities in their approaches to social change characterize both of them. In sum, the article shows (a) how the implicit social theory developed in the book, in a manner similar to neoliberalism, elevates the individual as the main source of any changes that must accompany the SA paradigm and (b) the focus on SA as individual action does not provide for those older adults who do not or will not age "successfully." This, we conclude, implicitly sets up a two-class system of older adults, which may not be an optimal means of addressing the needs of all older adults. The article also reviews a number of studies about SA and shows how these, too, may emphasize its similarities to neoliberalism and other issues that the SA paradigm does not adequately address. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Critical Thinking and the Question of Critique: Some Lessons from Deconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesta, Gert J. J.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides some philosophical groundwork for contemporary debates about the idea of critical thinking. Discusses three styles of critique: critical dogmatism, transcendental critique (Karl-Otto Apel), and deconstruction (Jacques Derrida). Argues that while transcendental critique is able to solve some of the problems of the dogmatic approach to…

  15. Beyond Construction: Five Arguments for the Role and Value of Critique in Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J. Bryan; MacPherson, Anna; Osborne, Jonathan; Wild, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that science education has overemphasized the importance of construction at the expense of critique. In doing so, it draws on two key premises--Ford's argument that the construction of knowledge requires a dialectic between construction and critique and Mercier and Sperber's theory of argumentative reasoning that critique is…

  16. On Alain Badiou’s ‘Critique of Religion’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Mads Peter

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines Alain Badiou’s critical engagement with religion. It is argued that there are two central points at which religion enters the scene of Badiou’s philosophy. First, in his critique, the ‘motif of finitude’ Badiou repeatedly refers to religion, claiming that ‘the obsession with f...

  17. The econometrics of the Holy Grail : A critique (Revised version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuzenkamp, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the methodological views of David Hendry. A critique is given on the reification of the so-called Data Generating Process. The merits of general to specific modelling are analyzed. Hendry's neo-Popperian philosophy is examined. It is argued that this philosophy is not able to

  18. World Bank Education Policy: Do the Neoliberal Critiques Still Apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oise, Francine Menashy

    2007-01-01

    Throughout much of the 1990s, the overriding critique of the World Bank was placed on its neoliberal mandate, reflected in its various education measures. However, recently the Bank seems to have taken a notable shift away from this ideological stance in its rhetoric and initiatives. This paper attempts to ascertain the degree to which the…

  19. Intercultural Discourse, Critique, Emancipation and the Inclusion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intercultural philosophy tries to deconstruct the Eurocentrism of the philosophical tradition and in return introduces a reconstructive project centered on the embedded nature of cognition and the culturally oriented nature of philosophy. Critical social theory constitutes a critique of grand metaphysical systems that divorce ...

  20. New Directions in Education? A Critique of Contemporary Policy Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on facets of Foucault's theoretical resources to critique current education policy reform from within the Australian State of Victoria, namely the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development's (DEECD) discussion paper "New directions for school leadership and the teaching profession." Implicit in the reform…

  1. The Ambivalence of Creative Activism as a Reorganization of Critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrebye, Silas

    2015-01-01

    This article identifies an emerging type of critique and defines it as creative activism. It is argued why this is distinguishable from earlier similar forms of protests and shown why traditional theories of political art, social movements and citizenship are in themselves insufficient...

  2. Critique of Rousseau's Philosophy of Education in Relation to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper critiqued Rousseau's philosophy of education in relation to the Nigerian educational system. Rousseau's philosophy of education, which is naturalist based, was examined with particular reference to its aims and syllabus. Rousseau advocated the aims of education should include developing the child's natural ...

  3. Psychometric Properties of the Gesell Developmental Assessment: A Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Lorrie A.

    1992-01-01

    Critiques Walker's article in this issue. Argues that Walker's data do not meet technical standards regarding individual placement tests for normative comparisons, interjudge reliability, or predictive validity, and therefore do not justify the use of the Gesell test to place children in developmental kindergarten or transitional first grade. (GLR)

  4. Feminism and psychology: critiques of methods and epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagly, Alice H; Riger, Stephanie

    2014-10-01

    Starting in the 1960s, many of the critiques of psychological science offered by feminist psychologists focused on its methods and epistemology. This article evaluates the current state of psychological science in relation to this feminist critique. The analysis relies on sources that include the PsycINFO database, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2010), and popular psychology methods textbooks. After situating the feminist critique within the late-20th-century shift of science from positivism to postpositivism, the inquiry examines feminists' claims of androcentric bias in (a) the underrepresentation of women as researchers and research participants and (b) researchers' practices in comparing women and men and describing their research findings. In most of these matters, psychology manifests considerable change in directions advocated by feminists. However, change is less apparent in relation to some feminists' criticisms of psychology's reliance on laboratory experimentation and quantitative methods. In fact, the analyses documented the rarity in high-citation journals of qualitative research that does not include quantification. Finally, the analysis frames feminist methodological critiques by a consideration of feminist epistemologies that challenge psychology's dominant postpositivism. Scrutiny of methods textbooks and journal content suggests that within psychological science, especially as practiced in the United States, these alternative epistemologies have not yet gained substantial influence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. A constitutional critique on the regulations relating to artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-30

    Jun 30, 2017 ... donor) can be prosecuted at least as accomplices, given that they actively assisted B, the perpetrator. A constitutional critique on the regulations relating to artificial fertilisation of persons. D W Jordaan, BLC, LLB, MPPS, PGDipSI, PhD. School of Law, Howard College, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, ...

  6. The Critical Purchase of Genealogy: Critiquing Student Participation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Until recently the dominant critique of "student participation" projects was one based on the theoretical assumptions of critical theory in the form of critical pedagogy. Over the last decade, we have witnessed the emergence of a critical education discourse that theorises and critically analyses such projects using Foucault's notion of…

  7. Medical humanities and their discontents: definitions, critiques, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Johanna; Coulehan, Jack; Wear, Delese; Montello, Martha

    2009-02-01

    The humanities offer great potential for enhancing professional and humanistic development in medical education. Yet, although many students report benefit from exposure to the humanities in their medical education, they also offer consistent complaints and skepticism. The authors offer a pedagogical definition of the medical humanities, linking it to medicine as a practice profession. They then explore three student critiques of medical humanities curricula: (1) the content critique, examining issues of perceived relevance and intellectual bait-and-switch, (2) the teaching critique, which examines instructor trustworthiness and perceived personal intrusiveness, and (3) the structural/placement critique, or how and when medical humanities appear in the curriculum. Next, ways are suggested to tailor medical humanities to better acknowledge and reframe the needs of medical students. These include ongoing cross-disciplinary reflective practices in which intellectual tools of the humanities are incorporated into educational activities to help students examine and, at times, contest the process, values, and goals of medical practice. This systematic, pervasive reflection will organically lead to meaningful contributions from the medical humanities in three specific areas of great interest to medical educators: professionalism, "narrativity," and educational competencies. Regarding pedagogy, the implications of this approach are an integrated required curriculum and innovative concepts such as "applied humanities scholars." In turn, systematic integration of humanities perspectives and ways of thinking into clinical training will usefully expand the range of metaphors and narratives available to reflect on medical practice and offer possibilities for deepening and strengthening professional education.

  8. Response to commentators of "a critique of positive responsibility".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieb, James A

    2009-03-01

    It has been claimed that (1) computer professionals should be held responsible for an undisclosed list of "undesirable events" associated with their work and (2) most if not all computer disasters can be avoided by truly understanding responsibility. Commentators of "A Critique of Positive Responsibility in Computing" argue that this is not Donald Gotterbarn's view (Gotterbarn, JSEE 14(2):235-239, 2008) but that a critique of the view nevertheless raises significant moral issues within computing such as the ethical goals of a computing profession, the appropriate ethical stance toward bugs, and the public good with respect to computing (Miller, JSEE 14(2):245-249, 2008). Commentators also argue that "A Critique"'s "profitable misreading" demonstrates the "moral ecology" of organizations "dedicated narrowly to financial success" and that other "moral ecologies" that are customer or quality driven can be shown to be more important or preeminent (Huff, JSEE 14(2):241-244, 2008). It is argued here that (1) the hyper-inflated reading of Gotterbarn's and Ladd's views on positive responsibility persists despite Gotterbarn's explicit rejection of it, and that (2) such a reading of positive responsibility cannot be placed within a single moral ecology, nor can a single moral ecology be shown to be any more important or preeminent than others.

  9. Viewpoint Neglected Interiors: A Critique of Political Ecology, with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both Political Ecology and Environmental Education correctly assert the importance of ideology critique and the reappropriation of knowledge/knowledge production in working for socio-ecological change (see Hattingh, et al., 2002:3–4; Lotz-Sisitka, 2002:117). Similarly, both disciplines confront the need to rethink our ...

  10. Deep Habits: Workshop as Critique in Creative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukenberg, Jill

    2017-01-01

    The creative writing workshop, involving peer critique of manuscripts in progress, is deeply connected to many writerly habits of mind. As such, this article examines workshop as a signature pedagogy in creative writing. Through workshop, students develop awareness of their readers, understanding of how texts are created by readers and through…

  11. Max Weber's Critique of the Bureaucratisation of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Amman

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the author discusses the critique by Max Weber and his views on bureaucratisation of education. The modern school, said Max Weber (1864-1920) over a hundred years ago, has as its educational ideal the bureaucrat and no longer the cultivated elite of older times. The shift to modernity and to its characteristic institution, the…

  12. A critique of the ontology of consumer enchantment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Per; Fitchett, James; Jantzen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The concept of enchantment offers a plausible explanation of the lures and thrills of consumer culture. We examine the theoretical foundation of the concept through a critique of Ritzer's enchantment thesis. We begin by assessing the enchantment/disenchantment discourse through a review of the main...

  13. An ideology critique of the use-value of mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pais, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    on this issue. It will be argued that the use-value attributed to school mathematics disavows its value as part of a political and economic structure, which requires school mathematics to perform other roles than the one related with utility. This critique will be illustrated through the exploration...

  14. Grounded theory in nursing research: Part 2--Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Terence V; Clark, Eileen

    2003-01-01

    In the first article in this series (McCann and Clark 2003), the methodological characteristics of grounded theory were examined. In this, the second article on grounded theory, Terence McCann and Eileen Clark critique the methodology. They then summarise the main differences between Glaser's approach and Strauss and Corbin's approach to grounded theory.

  15. A Critique of Botswana's Language Policy from a Translanguaging Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwasi, Mompoloki Mmangaka

    2017-01-01

    This paper critiques the language practices and language-in-education policy of Botswana from a translanguaging perspective. By so doing, it revisits our commonly held perceptions about multilingualism, bilingualism and language and its boundary. We commonly perceive languages as autonomous and as having boundaries and we perceive bilingualism or…

  16. Toward an Ethnic Studies Critique for Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jennifer Y.; Harrison, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to humanize students of color in teacher education research, this study shifts away from the question, "How can we add students of color?" and instead asks, "How might teacher education programs be transformed to make space for students of color?" To begin, we articulate an ethnic studies critique for teacher…

  17. Automated Guidance for Thermodynamics Essays: Critiquing versus Revisiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Dermot F.; Vitale, Jonathan M.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2015-01-01

    Middle school students struggle to explain thermodynamics concepts. In this study, to help students succeed, we use a natural language processing program to analyze their essays explaining the aspects of thermodynamics and provide guidance based on the automated score. The 346 sixth-grade students were assigned to either the critique condition…

  18. The Educational Implications of the Computer: A Media Ecology Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sue; Strate, Lance

    1996-01-01

    Considers media ecology, the study of media environments, as a perspective that is concerned with the social, cultural, and psychological impact of media and technology. Describes this perspective and uses its principles in a critique of emerging computer-based media and their use in education. (PA)

  19. Critique of `Elements of Quantum Probability'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    We analyse the thesis of Kummerer and Maassen that classical probability is unable to model the the stochastic nature of the Aspect experiment in which violation of Bells inequality was experimentally demonstrated According to these authors the experiment shows the need to introduce the extension

  20. ‘Toning’ up hypotonia assessment: A proposal and critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragashnie Govender (nee' Naidoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical assessment of hypotonia is challenging due to the subjective nature of the initial clinical evaluation. This poses dilemmas for practitioners in gaining accuracy, given that the presentation of hypotonia can be either a non-threatening or malevolent sign. The research question posed was how clinical assessment can be improved, given the current contentions expressed in the scientific literature.Objectives: This paper describes the development and critique of a clinical algorithm to aid the assessment of hypotonia.Methods: An initial exploratory sequential phase, consisting of a systematic review, a survey amongst clinicians and a Delphi process, assisted in the development of the algorithm, which is presented within the framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. The ensuing critique followed a qualitative emergent–systematic focus group design with a purposive sample of 59 clinicians. Data were analysed using semantical content analysis and are presented thematically with analytical considerations.Results: This study culminated in the development of an evidence-based clinical algorithm for practice. The qualitative critique of the algorithm considered aspects such as inadequacies, misconceptions and omissions; strengths; clinical use; resource implications; and recommendations.Conclusions: The first prototype and critique of a clinical algorithm to assist the clinical assessment of hypotonia in children has been described. Barriers highlighted include aspects related to knowledge gaps of clinicians, issues around user-friendliness and formatting concerns. Strengths identified by the critique included aspects related to the evidence-based nature of the criteria within the algorithm, the suitability of the algorithm in being merged or extending current practice, the potential of the algorithm in aiding more accurate decision-making, the suitability of the algorithm across age groups

  1. 'Toning' up hypotonia assessment: A proposal and critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Pragashnie; Joubert, Robin W E

    2016-01-01

    Clinical assessment of hypotonia is challenging due to the subjective nature of the initial clinical evaluation. This poses dilemmas for practitioners in gaining accuracy, given that the presentation of hypotonia can be either a non-threatening or malevolent sign. The research question posed was how clinical assessment can be improved, given the current contentions expressed in the scientific literature. This paper describes the development and critique of a clinical algorithm to aid the assessment of hypotonia. An initial exploratory sequential phase, consisting of a systematic review, a survey amongst clinicians and a Delphi process, assisted in the development of the algorithm, which is presented within the framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. The ensuing critique followed a qualitative emergent-systematic focus group design with a purposive sample of 59 clinicians. Data were analysed using semantical content analysis and are presented thematically with analytical considerations. This study culminated in the development of an evidence-based clinical algorithm for practice. The qualitative critique of the algorithm considered aspects such as inadequacies, misconceptions and omissions; strengths; clinical use; resource implications; and recommendations. The first prototype and critique of a clinical algorithm to assist the clinical assessment of hypotonia in children has been described. Barriers highlighted include aspects related to knowledge gaps of clinicians, issues around user-friendliness and formatting concerns. Strengths identified by the critique included aspects related to the evidence-based nature of the criteria within the algorithm, the suitability of the algorithm in being merged or extending current practice, the potential of the algorithm in aiding more accurate decision-making, the suitability of the algorithm across age groups and the logical flow. These findings provide a starting point towards

  2. La pedagogía crítica en la experiencia carcelaria de presas políticas (Critical pedagogy: experiences with female political prisoners (La pédagogie critique dans l′expérience des prisonnières politiques (A pedagogia crítica na experiência carcerária de presas políticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Torres-Puentes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEste artículo presenta un acercamiento a la edu- cación en las cárceles de Colombia desde los re- sultados de una investigación, a partir de los aportes de la Pedagogía crítica. En ella se usó la historia de vida de dos mujeres expresas polí- ticas como instrumento de recolección de la in- formación. Las voces de estas mujeres dejan en evidencia las contradicciones y falacias de las intenciones de la educación carcelaria. En este escrito se presenta una mirada al Plan de Acción y Sistema de Oportunidades, PASO, del Instituto Nacional Penitenciario y Carcelario, INPEC, se analizan las propuestas pedagógicas alternati- vas y se exponen algunas conclusiones fruto de esta pesquisa.AbstractThis paper presents an approach to educa- tion in Colombian prisons based on research conducted with principles of Critical Peda- gogy. The stories of two female former po- litical prisoners were used as instruments for the collection of information. The voices of these women show the contradictions and failures of education in prisons. The paper contains a look at the Action Plan and Op- portunities System (Plan de Acción y Siste- ma de Oportunidades, PASO of Colombia's National Prison Authority (Instituto Nacional Penitenciario y Carcelario, INPEC, alternative education proposals are analyzed and con- clusions are put forward.RésuméCet article présente une approche à l'éducation dans les prisons en Colombie de- puis les résultats d'une recherche, à partir des contributions de la pédagogie critique. Dans laquelle on a utilisé l'histoire de vie de deux femmes ex-prisonnières politiques en tant qu'outil de recollection d'information. Les voix de ces femmes laissent voir les contra- dictions et les mensonges des intentions de l'éducation à la prison. Dans cet écrit on pré- sente un regard au Plan de Action et Système d'Opportunités, PASO, de l'Institut National Pénitentiaire et des Prisonniers, INPEC, on analyse les propositions

  3. Adult Women's Education: A Radical Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merideth, Elizabeth; Merideth, Robert

    1971-01-01

    The authors propose alternative measures to meet the needs of women in universities. Individual efforts by individual women must be facilitated by social innovation brought about by radical experiments with alternative living arrangements and open universities. (BY)

  4. Schilder and Pavlov's theory of higher nervous activity. A critique and apologia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windholz, G

    1991-01-01

    In the late 1920s, the Viennese psychoanalyst Paul Schilder, after performing a conditioning experiment with human subjects, criticized I. P. Pavlov's concept of "experimental neurosis." Schilder maintained that subjective reports by conditioned human subjects were more informative than the objectively observed behavior of conditioned dogs. In 1932, Pavlov published a rejoinder to Schilder's critique in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Pavlov maintained that Schilder misunderstood the value and implications of the scientific, objective method in the study of experimental neurosis. In 1934, Schilder subjected Pavlov's theory of higher nervous activity to an incisive critique in a 1935 article in Imago. Schilder objected to Pavlov's narrow, reductionist conceptualization of the conditional reflex. Schilder reiterated his view that the psychological, subjective explanation of the conditional reflex is preferable to the physiological, objective explanation, and that the inference of cortical phenomena from experimental findings might be improper. Neither Pavlov nor any of his disciples replied to Schilder. The author provides an apology for the Pavlovian position, suggesting that Schilder was unfamiliar with early and late writings of Pavlov.

  5. The feeling of agency hypothesis: a critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Thor

    2015-01-01

    A dominant view in contemporary cognitive neuroscience is that low-level, comparator-based mechanisms of motor control produce a distinctive experience often called the feeling of agency (the FoA-hypothesis). An opposing view is that comparator-based motor control is largely non-conscious and not......A dominant view in contemporary cognitive neuroscience is that low-level, comparator-based mechanisms of motor control produce a distinctive experience often called the feeling of agency (the FoA-hypothesis). An opposing view is that comparator-based motor control is largely non...

  6. A Sociological Critique of Individualism in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, David H.

    1980-01-01

    The author argues that our educational system and our teachers are so obsessed with the "cult of individualism" that education's social functions have been trivialized. He espouses the views of Emile Durkheim, who saw the chief aim of schooling to be moral education that fosters pupils' collective and corporate experience. (Author/SJL)

  7. What has become of critique? Reassembling sociology after Latour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Tom

    2017-09-06

    This paper offers a defence of sociology through an engagement with Actor Network Theory (ANT) and particularly the critique of 'critical' and politically engaged social science developed by Bruno Latour. It argues that ANT identifies some weaknesses in more conventional sociology and social theory, and suggests that 'critical' and 'public' orientated sociologists can learn from the analytical precision and ethnographic sensibilities that characterize ANT as a framework of analysis and a research programme. It argues, however, that Latour et al. have too hastily dispensed with 'critique' in favour of a value neutral descriptive sociology, and that the symmetrical and horizontalist approach adopted in ANT is particularly ill-suited to the development of scientific knowledge about social structures. It argues that a more straightforwardly realist sociology would share many of the strengths of ANT whilst being better able to interrogate, empirically and normatively, the centres of contemporary social power. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  8. Doing critique of what design does at Superkilen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tietjen, Anne; Riesto, Svava; Haddad, Rana

    2017-01-01

    bench does through film, photo collage and twisted architectural drawings. We find that design critique can actualise potential of design work by articulating relationships between people and things. To do so, we propose that the critic actively engages in the particular situation rather than judging...... an experimental workshop with PhD students at the internationally acclaimed public park Superkilen in Copenhagen, Denmark. Using water melons and egg timers some of the students explored what happened when unexpected objects were placed there. Others investigated, represented and questioned what a particular...... or analysing design work from a distance. Designerly and artistic forms of representation can be vital tools of investigation and articulation of such a critique. Working in the mode of criticality can pinpoint what possibilities are at stake in a particular situation, while it also can problematize doings...

  9. Commentary: deconstructing critiques on the internationalization of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Joop T V M

    2005-09-01

    When PTSD entered the DSM, advocacy for the diagnosis was a critical part of advocacy for Vietnam veterans. Over the next two decades, the range of contexts in which this clinical concept was applied increased dramatically. In a recent article in Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, Breslau (2004) describes PTSD as a "prominent cultural model" to account for suffering as well as the synergy between human rights or political advocacy and traumatic stress advocacy. In this article I question the sequence of steps that Breslau took to critique the internationalization of the PTSD construct. I also question Breslau's critique on our work in Nepal. Finally, I will formulate some future challenges for psychiatry and anthropology to bridge their universalistic and relativistic points of view.

  10. Diffracting the rays of technoscience: a situated critique of representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timeto, Federica

    2011-12-01

    This essay focuses on the possibility of adopting a representational approach for technoscience, in which representation is considered as a situated process of dynamic "intra-action" (Barad 2007). Re-elaborating the recent critiques of representationalism (Thrift 2008), my analysis begins by analysing Hayles's situated model of representation from an early essay where she explains her definition of constrained constructivism (Hayles [1991] 1997). The essay then discusses the notions of figuration and diffraction and the way they are employed by Haraway in many of her writings for her critique of technoscience (Haraway 1991, 1997). Finally, after considering diffraction through Barad's reading of this practice in the context of her theory of agential realism (2007), it shows the links that relate constrained constructivism, situated knowledge and agential realism, and the way all of them work at "diffract[ing] the rays of technoscience" (Haraway 1997: 16) through an alternative representational practice.

  11. Brokenness / Transformation: Reflections on Academic Critiques of L'Arche

    OpenAIRE

    Madeline Burghardt

    2016-01-01

    L'Arche, an international federation of communities for adults with intellectual disabilities, has been critiqued by disability studies scholars throughout its fifty-year history due to its religiosity, its apparent lack of a rigorous stance on the need to address policy concerning people with disabilities, its philosophy concerning disability's meanings, and features of its language and discourse.  I address these concerns as someone who is both an academic and a long-term member of a L'Arch...

  12. Contesting 'straights': 'lesbians', 'queer heterosexuals' and the critique of heteronormativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichter, Annette

    2007-01-01

    The essay explores interrelations between Lesbian Theory and Queer Straight Theory. It provides a brief genealogy and an interrogation of the "discourse of queer heterosexuality." I argue that Queer Straight Theory is certainly indebted to lesbian (and) feminist critiques of institutional heterosexuality and their denaturalizations of straight and lesbian sexualities. Lesbian and Queer Straight Theories remain in disagreement, however, about notions of power and identity that shape their theoretical and political stances.

  13. Damaged law: Theodor Adorno and the critique of jurisprudence

    OpenAIRE

    Finney, Timothy Michael Luke

    2017-01-01

    This thesis addresses the possibility, form and key features of a jurisprudence or theory of law based on the philosophy of Theodor W. Adorno. The theory of law I propose draws on Adorno's critique of the thoroughgoing abstraction of contemporary society, which considers existence only in terms of universal concepts. I contend that the field of law provides a paradigmatic example of the operation of identity-thinking. In making this argument I draw on the jurisprudential theories of Ronald...

  14. A critique of statistical hypothesis testing in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raha, Somik

    2011-07-01

    Many have documented the difficulty of using the current paradigm of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) to test and validate the effectiveness of alternative medical systems such as Ayurveda. This paper critiques the applicability of RCTs for all clinical knowledge-seeking endeavors, of which Ayurveda research is a part. This is done by examining statistical hypothesis testing, the underlying foundation of RCTs, from a practical and philosophical perspective. In the philosophical critique, the two main worldviews of probability are that of the Bayesian and the frequentist. The frequentist worldview is a special case of the Bayesian worldview requiring the unrealistic assumptions of knowing nothing about the universe and believing that all observations are unrelated to each other. Many have claimed that the first belief is necessary for science, and this claim is debunked by comparing variations in learning with different prior beliefs. Moving beyond the Bayesian and frequentist worldviews, the notion of hypothesis testing itself is challenged on the grounds that a hypothesis is an unclear distinction, and assigning a probability on an unclear distinction is an exercise that does not lead to clarity of action. This critique is of the theory itself and not any particular application of statistical hypothesis testing. A decision-making frame is proposed as a way of both addressing this critique and transcending ideological debates on probability. An example of a Bayesian decision-making approach is shown as an alternative to statistical hypothesis testing, utilizing data from a past clinical trial that studied the effect of Aspirin on heart attacks in a sample population of doctors. As a big reason for the prevalence of RCTs in academia is legislation requiring it, the ethics of legislating the use of statistical methods for clinical research is also examined.

  15. A critique of statistical hypothesis testing in clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somik Raha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many have documented the difficulty of using the current paradigm of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs to test and validate the effectiveness of alternative medical systems such as Ayurveda. This paper critiques the applicability of RCTs for all clinical knowledge-seeking endeavors, of which Ayurveda research is a part. This is done by examining statistical hypothesis testing, the underlying foundation of RCTs, from a practical and philosophical perspective. In the philosophical critique, the two main worldviews of probability are that of the Bayesian and the frequentist. The frequentist worldview is a special case of the Bayesian worldview requiring the unrealistic assumptions of knowing nothing about the universe and believing that all observations are unrelated to each other. Many have claimed that the first belief is necessary for science, and this claim is debunked by comparing variations in learning with different prior beliefs. Moving beyond the Bayesian and frequentist worldviews, the notion of hypothesis testing itself is challenged on the grounds that a hypothesis is an unclear distinction, and assigning a probability on an unclear distinction is an exercise that does not lead to clarity of action. This critique is of the theory itself and not any particular application of statistical hypothesis testing. A decision-making frame is proposed as a way of both addressing this critique and transcending ideological debates on probability. An example of a Bayesian decision-making approach is shown as an alternative to statistical hypothesis testing, utilizing data from a past clinical trial that studied the effect of Aspirin on heart attacks in a sample population of doctors. As a big reason for the prevalence of RCTs in academia is legislation requiring it, the ethics of legislating the use of statistical methods for clinical research is also examined.

  16. 69 ETUDE CRITIQUE DE LA QUESTION DU MARIAGE DANS UNE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    décrivant la condition générale de la vie en Afrique. Ces dernières critiquent libéralement les institutions sociales qui oppressent l'homme ou dénigrent la condition humaine en ..... fructifier en nous les valeurs de la morale universelle voilà la tâche que s'était assignée l'admirable directrice(27). L'instruction est devenue un ...

  17. SEARLE'S CRITIQUE OF THE MULTIPLE DRAFTS MODEL OF CONSCIOUSNESS

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđe Vidanović

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I try to show the limitations of John Searle's critique of Daniel Dennett's conception of consciousness based on the idea that the computational architecture of consciousness is patterned on the simple replicating units of information called memes. Searle claims that memes cannot substitute virtual genes as expoundedby Dennett, saying that the spread of ideas and information is not driven by "blind forces" but has to be intentional. In this paper I try to refute his argumentatio...

  18. Time and Presence in Agamben's Critique of Deconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Doussan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Enmeshed with Agamben’s critique of metaphysics is his critique of deconstruction. Following the sentiment he first outlined in Language and Death: The Place of Negativity (1982, deconstruction’s alleged attempt to displace the privileging of speech with that of writing to thereby dispel the negativity at the core of Western metaphysics, to the contrary has the effect of reifying this problem by expressing its terms most perfectly. Agamben takes this criticism further in the Homo Sacer series by suggesting that not only does deconstruction reiterate the problem of metaphysics, it mimics the conditions of the state of exception as rule in the temporal suspension of its infinite deferral of signification. As a counter to deconstruction’s “thwarted messianism,” in The Time That Remains: A Commentary on the Letter to the Romans (2001, Agamben posits a messianic time immanent to every instant, likening it to both the speech act and the very structure of thought itself. Implicit in this critique is an ongoing concern with temporality and presence that resonates across his corpus, and has grave consequences for his professed fidelity to Walter Benjamin.

  19. De la critique, une critique. Sur le geste « radical » de Luc Boltanski.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Stavo-Debauge

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Une contradiction sur la route de la « contradiction ». C’est donc le cœur même de cette théorie « méta-critique » que l’on va maintenant questionner. En refusant de s’appuyer sur « une anthropologie normative placée en situation quasi transcendantale » (p. 29, et en congédiant deux autres options 1 , Luc Boltanski a fait le choix de faire reposer sa théorie « méta-critique » sur le relevé d’une « contradiction » générique qu’il appréhende à son ...

  20. Contributions to the qualification of the ''CRISTAL'' criticality calculi scheme: interpretation of critical experiments. Elaboration of a characterization system of neutronic configurations; Contributions a la qualification du schema de calcul de criticite ''cristal'': interpretation d'experiences critiques. Elaboration d'un systeme de caracterisation des configurations neutroniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnier, E

    1999-06-01

    This thesis work is about the validation of the new criticality-safety package CRISTAL and contributes to the modernization and the improvement of the computational tools. The first part presents neutronic elements, the objectives of safety criticality studies and the package CRISTAL. Then, the validation work concerned two series of experiments involving uranyl solutions (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) and UO{sub 2} powders. For these experiments, the differences between the computation results and the experimental results were analysed. It was highlighted interesting physical phenomena such of the compensations of errors between the approximate representation by the 99 energy group structure on the first resonance of oxygen and the anisotropy of the diffusion simulation as well as the influence of uranium 234 in high enriched solutions in uranium 235. Once the work of the experimental qualification carried out, raises the question of the use the base of qualification and the ''calculation-experiment'' variations which are referred to it. It is often difficult to establish the link between the ''studied configuration'' and the experiments of the base of qualification. The presented characterisation system proposes to answer in a way automatic and quantified this difficulty: - in bringing an answer on the package qualification for the studied configuration, - in giving an estimate of the package bias. To answer these points, it was defined a set of 35 characteristic neutronic parameters representing the behaviour of the medium. To process the information brought by these parameters and to use it to answer the objectives of the system, we called upon statistical methods (Principal Components Analysis and Sliced Inverse Regression). The results obtained in the feasibility studies showed the relevance of these methods for the considered objectives. (author)

  1. Contribution to the experimental validation of the coupling between a particle accelerator and a subcritical core: Muse-3 and Muse-7 experiments; Contribution a la validation experimentale du couplage entre un accelerateur et un massif sous-critique: experience muse 3. et muse 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bompas, C.A

    2000-12-01

    As part of the research on the Hybrid Systems and more specially on the physical phenomena involved in a sub-critical core coupled with an external source, it is necessary to qualify several neutronic parameters. These parameters characterize, on the one hand, the external source supplying the core with neutrons (importance, amplification) and, on the other hand, the sub-critical core (spatial distribution of flux, power emitted from the core, reactivity, influence of a spectrum degraded by the presence of buffers like lead). The MUSE Program consists of parametric studies of configuration with different compositions at different sub-critical levels supplied by different types of external source. The first part of this work concerns the first analyses of the static results obtained during the third phase of this experimental program (MUSE-III experiment) and also the preparation of the fourth phase (MUSE-IV experiment). This study has notably concluded on the superiority of a transition zone in lead compared to a sodium zone in terms of neutronic potential (because of the (n, 2n) reaction) and of the source importance. The second part of this work concerns the interpretation of the dynamic results obtained during the MUSE-III experiment and the realization of calculations on the MUSE-IV configurations. This study has shown the important impact of the hydrogenous materials on the external source for the MUSE-III dynamic results. It has also determined the applicability of the pulsed neutron source reactivity measurement technique and optimized the position of monitors for the future MUSE-IV experiment. (authors)

  2. The Foucault-Habermas Debate: the Reflexive and Receptive Aspects of Critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I discuss the relationship between two different approaches to critical theory – the reflective and the receptive approaches. I show how it can be fruitful to discuss the relationship between Habermas and Foucault through this distinction. My point is that whereas Habermas focusses...... on critique as a reflexive activity, Foucault mainly focusses on the receptive conditions for critique to be possible. I argue further that Foucault focusses on the receptive aspects of critique, the quest for universality is not as pressing as it is in Habermas’ approach, because problematizing critique can...

  3. Analysis of Heidegger’s Reading from the Kant’s First Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Eskandari and Hossein Kalbasi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We know that Martin Heidegger in "Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics" presented some ontological interpretation of "Critique of Pure Reason" as opposed to other epistemological interpretations. He tried to explain how all parts of the work of Kant (based on time as the necessary condition of schematism are originally related to the basic problem of finite human being or Dasein. Immanuel Kant, from the perspective of Heidegger, is indeed the founder of fundamental ontology of Dasein. The main objective of this paper is related to the same problem. In this article, we have tried to briefly analyze and evaluate and criticize Heidegger's interpretation of Kant. Heidegger seems to neglect the other important side of Kant’s thought, namely the non-temporal aspect of apperception. We've noted that Being, in Emmanuel Kant’s view, is not based on time, but certainly on some unknowable and non-temporal foundation beyond human experience.

  4. Karl-Otto Apel and the Critique of Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Salerno

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This work emphasizes the influence in Apel of the named Critique of Meaning developed by Wittgenstein and Peirce. We reconstruct the foundations of the recognitionof a linguistic a priori, and of the semiotic-anthropological radicalization, that leads to the conception that man can be understood as thought-sign. It also shows the way Apel believes that such thought-sign is inscribed in the context of a supraindividualenviroment, where it develops its own individuality. From that approach, a transformation of the subject function in the interpreter function of the signs has to be done in order to create a new answer to the problem of intersubjectivity.

  5. Perversion and pathology: a critique of psychoanalytic criticism in art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucille Holmes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available For over three decades, Jacques Lacan denounced ego psychology for its emphasis on a strong and well-adapted ego. This article recruits the principle of that critique to examine the use of psychoanalytic theories in contemporary art criticism, with specific focus on the subject of perversion, Freudo-Lacanian psychoanalysis, and the work of art critic Donald Kuspit. The discussion examines the main influences and concepts in Kuspit's psychoanalytic criticism, analyses specific differences between this psychoanalytic model and a Lacanian theory of perversion and desire, and considers the effect of these differences in the interpretation of art.

  6. A critique of Rob Lovering's criticism of the substance view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg-Fernros, Henrik

    2015-03-01

    In his article, The Substance View: a critique, Rob Lovering argues that the substance view - according to which the human embryo is a person entitled to human rights - leads to such implausible implications that this view should be abandoned. In this article I respond to his criticism by arguing that either his arguments fail because the proponents of the substance view are not obligated to hold positions which may be considered absurd, or because the positions which they are assumed to be obligated to hold, are not absurd at all. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A Theory of Atheology: Reason, Critique, and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Devellennes, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Since Georges Bataille’s “Somme athéologique” and Michel Onfray’s “Traité d’athéologie,” the term atheology has entered our vocabularies. Despite the plurality of atheistic perspectives, this article shows that this concept of atheology illustrates a continuity between various strands of philosophical atheism. Moving beyond the school of “new atheists” (Sam Harris, Christopher Hitchens, Richard Dawkins, and Daniel Dennett), it proposes to show the role that reason and critique play in atheist...

  8. Remarks concerning the determination of burn-out in research reactors; Remarques sur la determination des echauffements critiques dans les reacteurs de recherche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrega, S.; Lafay, J.; Vernier, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The operation of reactors cooled by water at low pressure is quite safe as long as the margin existing between nominal conditions and certain conditions leading to burn-out is known. The phenomena which can cause such an effect are defined here. A distinction is made between primary burnout, which is completely localized, and secondary burn-up. This latter can be the result either of a flow reduction, or of the onset of a hydrodynamic oscillation, or again of the attainment of sonic flow conditions. Once the planner is aware of the varied nature of these phenomena, it is shown which are the precautions to be taken during the construction and operation of an out-of-pile test-loop so that such phenomena may subsequently be detected. In the first experiment on a loop with a 600 x 53 x 2 mm rectangular channel, there resulted either primary (critical) burn-out (down-stream pressurization), or secondary critical burn-out (up-stream pressurization) resulting from instability. Another experiment has shown that in the case of the reactor PEGASE, critical burn-out was due to flow reduction in nominal and steady-state operational conditions. (authors) [French] Le fonctionnement des reacteurs refroidis a l'eau a basse pression est sur si la marge entre les conditions nominales et certaines conditions pour lesquelles apparaissent des echauffements critiques (burn out) est connue. On definit les phenomenes qui peuvent entrainer de tels echauffements. On distingue l'echauffement critique primaire, purement local, de l'echauffement critique secondaire. Celui-ci peut etre la consequence, soit d'une redistribution de debit, soit de l'apparition d'une oscillation hydrodynamique, soit de l'atteinte des conditions de vitesse sonique. Le projeteur etant averti de la nature variee de ces phenomenes, on montre quelles sont les precautions a prendre pour construire et exploiter une boucle d'essais hors pile, afin de pouvoir creer et ensuite

  9. Codeswitching and Generative Grammar: A Critique of the MLF Model and Some Remarks on "Modified Minimalism"

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacSwan, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an empirical and theoretical critique of the Matrix Language Frame (MLF) model (Myers-Scotton, 1993; Myers-Scotton and Jake, 2001), and includes a response to Jake, Myers-Scotton and Gross's (2002) (JMSG) critique of MacSwan (1999, 2000) and reactions to their revision of the MLF model as a "modified minimalist approach." The…

  10. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence and Dance Education: Critique, Revision, and Potentials for the Democratic Ideal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld-Jones, Donald

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a way of rethinking Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences. The bodily-kinesthetic intelligence is used as the point of critique. The author provides a detailed discussion of the act of dancing as counterpoint to Gardner's understanding of the intelligence. The author critiques Gardner's exemplar and evolutionary…

  11. Alienation in Mathematics Education: Critique and Development of Neo-Vygotskian Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Julian

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to critique and develop neo-Vygotskian work in mathematics education from (i) within the Vygotskian and activity theoretic tradition, and where necessary from (ii) a Bourdieusian perspective. First, I critique Roth and Radford's (2011) version of Cultural-historical Activity Theory, suggesting that a classroom episode presented as…

  12. International Test Score Comparisons and Educational Policy: A Review of the Critiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Stanford education professor Martin Carnoy examines four main critiques of how international test results are used in policymaking. Of particular interest are critiques of the policy analyses published by the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Using average PISA scores as a comparative measure of student achievement is misleading…

  13. "With Grace under Pressure": How Critique as Signature Pedagogy Fosters Effective Music Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by seminal writings on Critique as Signature Pedagogy in the Arts and performance as Signature Pedagogy in Music, this article unifies these two concepts into a study of how critique as signature pedagogy in music-performance promotes student learning. This essay seeks to first define the notion of different mindsets as musicians perform…

  14. Surveiller et classer : deux chantiers pour une recherche urbaine critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Bardet

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Après avoir navigué entre deux continents, Bernard Jouve s’était donné pour ambition de développer, au sein du monde académique français, une pensée critique sur la ville inspirée de la recherche urbaine nord-américaine et de diffuser ces réflexions au sein du monde social. Ce goût pour les analyses critiques sur le « fait urbain » a constitué, sous son impulsion, un élément fédérateur pour l’équipe de recherche lyonnaise qu’il a dirigée au cours des dernières années. A travers des exemples tirés de nos travaux sur les classements de ville et la surveillance, on montre qu’il en demeure aujourd’hui encore un important fil conducteur.Bernard Jouve lived a rich experience between two different academic worlds. That is the principle reason why he aimed to develop a critical thought on urban changes and cities in the midst of French academic world. Further, he wanted to spread these analysis inspired by North-American urban research among actors playing a role in urban policies. For the research team that he managed in Lyon for these last years, this interest became, and remains, a unifier element.

  15. Usability Guidelines for Product Recommenders Based on Example Critiquing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Pearl; Faltings, Boi; Chen, Li; Zhang, Jiyong; Viappiani, Paolo

    Over the past decade, our group has developed a suite of decision tools based on example critiquing to help users find their preferred products in e-commerce environments. In this chapter, we survey important usability research work relative to example critiquing and summarize the major results by deriving a set of usability guidelines. Our survey is focused on three key interaction activities between the user and the system: the initial preference elicitation process, the preference revision process, and the presentation of the systems recommendation results. To provide a basis for the derivation of the guidelines, we developed a multi-objective framework of three interacting criteria: accuracy, confidence, and effort (ACE). We use this framework to analyze our past work and provide a specific context for each guideline: when the system should maximize its ability to increase users' decision accuracy, when to increase user confidence, and when to minimize the interaction effort for the users. Due to the general nature of this multi-criteria model, the set of guidelines that we propose can be used to ease the usability engineering process of other recommender systems, especially those used in e-commerce environments. The ACE framework presented here is also the first in the field to evaluate the performance of preference-based recommenders from a user-centric point of view.

  16. Debating DSM-5: diagnosis and the sociology of critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickersgill, Martyn D

    2014-08-01

    The development of the fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-the DSM-5-has reenergised and driven further forward critical discourse about the place and role of diagnosis in mental health. The DSM-5 has attracted considerable criticism, not least about its role in processes of medicalisation. This paper suggests the need for a sociology of psychiatric critique. Sociological analysis can help map fields of contention, and cast fresh light on the assumptions and nuances of debate around the DSM-5; it underscores the importance of diagnosis to the governance of social and clinical life, as well as the wider discourses critical commentaries connect with and are activated by. More normatively, a sociology of critique can indicate which interests and values are structuring the dialogues being articulated, and just how diverse clinical opinion regarding the DSM can actually be. This has implications for the considerations of health services and policy decision-makers who might look to such debates for guidance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Raised emotions: A critique of the Peshkin Approach to Reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Coleman, Denise; Davies, Helen; Ellison, Kate; Leigh, Colette

    2010-08-01

    We critique a new approach to reflection in nursing that uses thoughts and feelings as the focus of the reflective process. We have developed the 'Peshkin Approach to Reflection'; so-called because it is influenced by the work of Peshkin and his focus on the 'subjective I'. Whereas most reflective models used in nursing take an incident as the starting point, this new approach focuses on subjective feelings and thoughts. We offer an overview of the stages of the process: preparation; writing, analysis, and application to practice. Central to the paper is a critique of the approach with particular emphasis on the issues raised by focusing on emotions as part of the reflective process. We show that within the emotional labour of nursing, feelings may become repressed. Thus, we suggest that bringing emotions to the forefront of reflective practice in an appropriately supportive environment has significant benefits. Emotions are inextricably bound with nursing practice. For that reason, we argue that much can be gained from raising emotions in a manner that helps nursing students - or indeed nurses and other practitioners - gain a deeper self-understanding. In turn, this can enhance therapeutic use of self. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Beyond critique: rethinking roles for the anthropology of mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Rob

    2014-09-01

    The current supremacy of the 'bio-bio-bio' model within the discipline of psychiatry has progressively marginalized social science approaches to mental health. This situation begs the question, what role is there for the anthropology of mental health? In this essay, I contend that there are three essential roles for the anthropology of mental health in an era of biological psychiatry. These roles are to (i) provide a meaningful critique of practices, beliefs, and movements within current psychiatry; (ii) illuminate the socio-cultural, clinical, and familial context of suffering and healing regarding emotional distress/mental illness; and (iii) act as a catalyst for positive change regarding healing, services and provisions for people with emotional distress/mental illness. My argument is unified by my contention that a credible anthropology of mental health intending to make a societal contribution should offer no opposition without proposition. In other words, any critique must be counter-balanced by the detailing of solutions and proposals for change. This will ensure that the anthropology of mental health continues to contribute critical knowledge to the understanding of mental suffering, distress, and healing. Such social and cultural approaches are becoming especially important given the widespread disenchantment with an increasingly dominant biological psychiatry.

  19. Towards a Transcendental Critique of Feeling (A Response to Grenberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Frierson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on responding to Jeanine Grenberg’s claim that my discussion of Kant’s feeling of respect leaves no meaningful room for investigating feeling first-personally. I first make clear that I do think that feelings can be investigated first-personally, both in that they can be prospective reasons for action and in that – at least in Kant’s Critique of the Power of Judgment – there are feelings that we should have (for aesthetic reasons. I then show that at the time of writing the “Incentives” chapter of the second Critique, Kant had not yet determined an a priori basis for aesthetic (or affective normativity. On this basis, I argue that the “Incentives” chapter provides a sort of consolation prize for not (yet having an transcendental account of feeling. In that sense, it’s a properly transcendental analysis of feeling in which Kant examines feeling from within and a priori to show that there are good (moral reasons to have certain feelings. I end by acknowledging the extent to which, on this reading, I agree with Grenberg that Kant is doing a transcendentally significant form of phenomenology here, while I also highlight some remaining areas of disagreement.

  20. [A anthropological critique of the ethic of care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Aliénor

    2011-03-01

    This article is a critique of the anthropology of vulnerability and of the needs on which the ethics of care are based. Firstly, this critique confronts the universal postulate of the anthropology of vulnerability to the history of the anthropology of illness. The latter manages to build up a specific disciplinary field in refusing the supervision of the medical sciences and the implicit principle to consider illness as an universal fact. The paper refers to the anthropology of nature and Philippe Descola's work in order to develop a comparative study of the systems of representations, including the naturalism of biomedicine as a model among others. It then presents the descriptions of the representations of vulnerability and the needs which are linked to the four main ontologies defined by anthropology of nature, animism, totemism, analogy and naturalism, and gives a new light to the anthropology on which the ethics of care rest. That anthropology of vulnerability could be an involuntary factor in order to make societies conform to an hygienic constraint. The ethics of care would therefore benefit greatly in freeing themselves from anthropology of vulnerability and focus on their original contextualism; in particular, they would benefit of the knowledge of the limits of naturalism at their basis. It will also allow them to provide a new tool for engineering social transformations in a time, the beginning of XXI century, when cultures happen to mix.

  1. Development assistance for health: critiques, proposals and prospects for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Suerie; Omole, Oluwatosin

    2017-04-01

    After a 'golden age' of extraordinary growth in the level of development assistance for health (DAH) since 1990, funding seems to have reached a plateau. With the launch of the Sustainable Development Goals, debate has intensified regarding what international financing for health should look like in the post-2015 era. In this review paper, we offer a systematic overview of problems and proposals for change. Major critiques of the current DAH system include: that the total volume of financing is inadequate; financial flows are volatile and uncertain; DAH may not result in additional resources for health; too small a proportion of DAH is transferred to recipient countries; inappropriate priority setting; inadequate coordination; weak mechanisms for accountability; and disagreement on the rationale for DAH. Proposals to address these critiques include: financing-oriented proposals to address insufficient levels and high volatility of DAH; governance-oriented proposals to address concerns regarding additionality, proportions reaching countries, priority setting, coordination and accountability; and proposals that reach beyond the existing DAH system. We conclude with a discussion of prospects for change.

  2. Back to Hegel? On Gillian Rose's critique of sociological reason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Brian W

    2017-08-22

    Thirty-five years ago, Gillian Rose articulated a significant critique of classical sociological reason, emphasizing its relationship to its philosophical forebears. In a series of works, but most significantly in her Hegel contra Sociology, Rose worked to specify the implications of sociology's failure, both in its critical Marxist and its 'scientific' forms, to move beyond Kant and to fully come to terms with the thought of Hegel. In this article, I unpack and explain the substance of her criticisms, developing the necessary Hegelian philosophical background on which she founded them. I argue that Rose's attempted recuperation of 'speculative reason' for social theory remains little understood, despite its continued relevance to contemporary debates concerning the nature and scope of sociological reason. As an illustration, I employ Rose to critique Chernilo's recent call for a more philosophically sophisticated sociology. From the vantage point of Rose, this particular account of a 'philosophical sociology' remains abstract and rooted in the neo-Kantian contradictions that continue to characterize sociology. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  3. The Critique of Deliberative Discussion. A Response to "Education for Deliberative Democracy: A Typology of Classroom Discussions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, David I.

    2017-01-01

    My response to Samuelsson's (2016) recent essay offers a different paradigm with which to think about education, deliberative discussion and democracy. I call this paradigm the critique of deliberative discussion. Following Ruitenberg's application of Mouffe's critiques of deliberative democracy to education, the critique of deliberative…

  4. Compulsory creativity – a critique of cognitive capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen Nepper

    2014-01-01

    of the implications of the emergence of a cognitive capitalism. In response to modern oxymorons, such as compulsory creativity and mandatory originality, this article offers various attempts to interpret and criticise how human inventiveness and a whole range of externalities get attuned to economic and market...... strategies, depriving them their natural, social and individual qualities. The aim of this article is to renew and sharpen a critique of the new type of capitalism and to foster some normative bricks that might be able to inspire alternative ways of thinking and living. Keywords: Cognitive capitalism......Contemporary capitalism can be labelled cognitive capitalism. In this dynamic, demanding and extremely transformative mode of production, knowledge becomes a strategic force of production and an important commodity, while concepts and ideas become items. This article sheds light on some...

  5. Critique and cure: a dream of uniting psychoanalysis and philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jamieson

    2013-06-01

    Critical theory, whose aim was to historicize philosophy through integrating it with the social sciences, turned to psychoanalysis to find its way through an accounting of philosophy after the Second World War. Over 50 years after this initial project, the rift between philosophy and psychoanalysis has never been greater. If Jacques Lacan could be considered one of the few psychoanalysts to maintain and foster links to philosophical thought in the latter half of the 20th century, his work has sadly remained marginal in the clinical field throughout America and Europe. Both critical theory and Lacan remain skeptical of the direction taken by psychoanalysis after Freud. Reflecting on the history of these two disciplines, as well as through an examination of Theodor Adorno's posthumously published dream journal, critique and cure emerge as two dialectically intertwined themes that gain momentum in the dream of the unification of the philosophical and psychoanalytic projects.

  6. Brokenness / Transformation: Reflections on Academic Critiques of L'Arche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline Burghardt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available L'Arche, an international federation of communities for adults with intellectual disabilities, has been critiqued by disability studies scholars throughout its fifty-year history due to its religiosity, its apparent lack of a rigorous stance on the need to address policy concerning people with disabilities, its philosophy concerning disability's meanings, and features of its language and discourse.  I address these concerns as someone who is both an academic and a long-term member of a L'Arche community. While there is historically limited and uneasy interaction between these two communities, I suggest there is potential for mutual and worthwhile exchange from theoretical and practical perspectives.

  7. Self-forgiveness in psychology and psychotherapy: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitz, Paul C; Meade, Jennifer M

    2011-06-01

    This critique proposes that self-forgiveness is a misleading and inaccurate concept for understanding the conditions to which it is applied. Besides the fact that traditional religion provides no rationale for self-forgiveness, four specific criticisms are presented. (1) Self-forgiveness causes splitting of the self--creating various problems. (2) It involves a conflict of interest between the self that judges and the self that is judged. (3) Through its extreme emphasis on the self, it promotes narcissism and appeals to narcissists. (4) Research indicates that interpersonal forgiveness and self or intrapersonal forgiveness involve different psychological processes. We conclude that self-acceptance is a more accurate and useful term for the process and benefits attributed to self-forgiveness.

  8. A Critique of Block on Abortion and Child Abandonment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Bożydar Wiśniewski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper offers a critique of Block on the issues of abortion and child abandonment. Block regards aborting a fetus or abandoning a child as an instance of exercising one’s libertarian right of expelling trespassers from one’s private property. I argue that the above reasoning is flawed due to the lack of the appreciation of the fact that if one voluntarily initiates the causal chain which leads to someone else ending up on his property, the latter person cannot be considered a trespasser. Furthermore, in the light of the above observation, any direct effects resulting from that person’s eviction should be considered the responsibility of the property’s owner. All of this follows from the simple logical fact that in all links of the causal chain under consideration the owner is the ultimate causal agent.

  9. Constructivism in Science and Science Education: A Philosophical Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, Robert

    This paper argues that constructivist science education works with an unsatisfactory account of knowledge which affects both its account of the nature of science and of science education. The paper begins with a brief survey of realism and anti-realism in science and the varieties of constructivism that can be found. In the second section the important conception of knowledge and teaching that Plato develops in the Meno is contrasted with constructivism. The section ends with an account of the contribution that Vico (as understood by constructivists), Kant and Piaget have made to constructivist doctrines. Section three is devoted to a critique of the theory of knowledge and the anti-realism of von Glaserfeld. The final section considers the connection, or lack of it, between the constructivist view of science and knowledge and the teaching of science.

  10. Hackers against technology: Critique and recuperation in technological cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxigas

    2017-12-01

    I offer an interpretation of hackers' technological choices through a theoretical framework of critique and recuperation in technological cycles, building on prior research that brings the pragmatic sociology of Boltanski and Chiapello to bear on matters in Science and Technology Studies. I argue that contextualizing technology choices in the development of capitalism through innovation illuminates their political significance. I start with the counterintuitive observation that some browser extensions popular with hackers, like RequestPolicy, make it considerably harder for them to look at websites. This observation showcases the Luddite aspects of hackerdom, in that they are willing to 'break' popular websites that would otherwise cheat on the user. In line with an undercurrent of hacker studies, in this case study I find hackers fighting technological progress they see as social decline.

  11. A Design Anthropology Critique of Active Aging as Ageism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Tonolli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a design anthropology critique of active aging as ageism in the design of information technologies for seniors. With ageism we refer to narratives coalesced around the label “active aging” in European policies and system design that focus on seniors as a homogeneous group of people in need of help. We discuss the findings of two empirical participatory design projects we have been dealing with: 1 a bottom­-up senior organization in a small village in a mountain area and 2 a series of workshops organized with seniors in an urban area. In both cases, the relations between the anthropologist and the people involved, prompted reflexive moments that brought anthropological relocations of the designers' perspective. In conclusion, we stress how such relocations could benefit participatory designs through the concept of design by subtraction and the adoption of a feminist perspective.

  12. Il y a critique et critique : épistémologie des modèles d’argumentation There is Critique and there is Critique: Epistemology of Argumentation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Danblon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article part d’un constat. La conception de la critique est toujours liée à l’épistémologie (souvent implicite des modèles d’analyse du discours. C’est à ce niveau que se situe le débat entre experts de ces disciplines. Je défends ensuite le modèle rhétorique en proposant d’insister sur sa dimension pratique laquelle est directement liée aux émotions et aux intuitions. Ainsi, la rhétorique est avant tout une technique est c’est dans cet aspect de la discipline qu’il faut chercher le cœur de sa rationalité. Je proposerai finalement d’ajouter ces nouveaux critères à une conception élargie de la raison humaine qui tienne compte également d’outils contemporains pour les analyses du discours.This paper claims that any conception of critique is necessarily linked with the (often implicit epistemology of models for Discourse Analysis. This is what actually underlies the debates of the experts in the discipline. I present here a defense of the rhetorical model - but at the same time, I propose to highlight its practical dimension, which is closely connected to emotions and intuitions. Thus rhetoric is, primarily, a technique. This aspect of the discipline lies at the very heart of its rationality. Such criteria should be added to an expanded conception of human reason which would take into account contemporary tools for Discourse Analysis.

  13. Boundedness beyond reification: cosmopolitan teacher education as critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Schumann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain strands of cosmopolitanism have been criticized on various occasions for merely mirroring the mental framework of a global elite that stresses positive attitudes to mobility, flexibility, and disinterested objective detachment to the detriment of ‘rooted’, local and national values. In this way, it is argued, it presents a one-sided opportunistic or naively affirmative picture of processes of globalization rather than taking seriously the challenges posed by the inherently normative dimension of cosmopolitan thought and practice. The present paper will argue for a return to the critical core of the cosmopolitan idea and proposes that the critique of reification, which recently received renewed interest by philosophers of the so-called third generation Frankfurt School, can serve as a vital tool for re-imagining cosmopolitan teacher education as critique. In particular, the discussion around the recent turn towards a standards and competencies oriented teacher education in Germany will be critically examined in this regard. Rather than presenting a mere factual description of our thinking, judgments and actions, a cosmopolitan orientation should be concerned with reminding us of the importance of a continuous critical challenge of their validity. Firstly, the concept of reification will be shown to provide the conceptual resources to describe and select relevant characteristics of contemporary social pathologies that cannot be adequately captured within liberal social philosophies. A closer analysis of reification as a deficient relation to oneself, to others, or to the world will then lead to the second question of how to conceive of non-reifying forms of relatedness, commitment and boundedness as enabling new forms of expressive freedom. Instead of one-sided, narrow and hasty reactions towards a perceived ‘global challenge’—either fetishizing borders or their transgression, an critical educational cosmopolitanism should bring

  14. Using data from the internet to teach ethical principles for critiquing research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, Roy Ann; Ford, Cassandra; Oliver, JoAnn

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative researchers are increasingly using the Internet to conduct their studies; however, they need to adhere to the same ethical principles used when conducting traditional research studies. Students also must be aware of these ethical principles and know how to critique research reports for adherence to them. The authors describe selected ethical principles as they relate to Internet qualitative research, what students need to know, what faculty must teach them to critique those studies, and what decisions students must make once the critique is completed.

  15. The Primacy of Cognition or of Perception? A Phenomenological Critique of the Theoretical Bases of Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Bo

    This paper is a phenomenological critique of a particular trend in educational research and practice, which is identified as cognitivism. The basic feature of this trend is a one-sided and exclusive focus on conceptual cognition and concept formation, with a simultaneous neglect of sense experience. It is argued that this kind of thinking is the result of the reception by education of epistemological theories, which have an objective alien to that of education, which is the all-round development of human personality. The discussion draws mainly upon the philosophies of Dewey, Husserl and Merleau-Ponty. It is argued that present, mainstream theories of science education need to be complemented with phenomenological perspectives. This would make the transition from immediate life world experience to the idealizations of scientific theories less difficult for students. It would also contribute towards less alienation between man and nature.

  16. Wildlife Habitat Assessment and Mitigation for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal : A Critique

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report, prepared by the Colorado Department of Health, critiques the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's impact assessment program from 1992. The final portions of...

  17. An Analysis of the Critique of Kant’s “Categorical”

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    A Azhdar

    2012-09-01

    This rule underpins an important ethical school which is known as “Obligationism”. Although this school has attracted many scholars of ethics philosophy, there are also many critiques against it. This article aims to study and analyze “the critique of maximal categorical” in such school with regard to Islamic ethics in order to show that the attempts of those who have tried to prove the compatibility of this rule with Islamic ethics are in vain and lead to no result.

  18. Alienation in mathematics education: critique and development of neo-Vygotskian perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Julian

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to critique and develop neo-Vygotskian work in mathematics education from (i) within the Vygotskian and activity theoretic tradition, and where necessary from (ii) a Bourdieusian perspective. First, I critique Roth and Radford’s (2011) version of Cultural-historical Activity Theory, suggesting that a classroom episode presented as developmental might be seen as a process of alienation. I trace this to the institutional structure of schooling, in which curriculum and pedagogy a...

  19. The Mediated Figure of Hmong Farmer, Hmong Studies, and Asian American Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Niu Wilcox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is two-fold: First, it argues for critical engagement between Hmong Studies and Asian American Studies. Second, to illustrate the productivity of such engagement,this article analyzes the media coverage of an incident involving Hmong American farmers and their white neighbors in Eagan, Minnesota, June 2010. The focal question is how media discourses around farming and immigration serve to racialize Hmong American identities. Thisanalysis shows that Hmong Americans experience “Asiatic racialization” in that they are either discursively cast outside of the imagined American nation, or included contingent uponassimilation and conformity. Critiquing both the exclusionary and assimilative narratives, this article explicates the inherent contradictions of the U.S. nationalism, referencing both existingHmong Studies literature and Asian Americanist discourses on race and nation. Both bodies of work foreground the historical and social construction of identities, as well as the simultaneous,intertwined workings of race, class, gender/sexuality and nation. Critical dialogues could generate new ideas and possibilities for both Asian American Studies and Hmong Studies.

  20. Surveillance, Snowden, and Big Data: Capacities, consequences, critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lyon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Snowden revelations about National Security Agency surveillance, starting in 2013, along with the ambiguous complicity of internet companies and the international controversies that followed provide a perfect segue into contemporary conundrums of surveillance and Big Data. Attention has shifted from late C20th information technologies and networks to a C21st focus on data, currently crystallized in “Big Data.” Big Data intensifies certain surveillance trends associated with information technology and networks, and is thus implicated in fresh but fluid configurations. This is considered in three main ways: One, the capacities of Big Data (including metadata intensify surveillance by expanding interconnected datasets and analytical tools. Existing dynamics of influence, risk-management, and control increase their speed and scope through new techniques, especially predictive analytics. Two, while Big Data appears to be about size, qualitative change in surveillance practices is also perceptible, accenting consequences. Important trends persist – the control motif, faith in technology, public-private synergies, and user-involvement – but the future-orientation increasingly severs surveillance from history and memory and the quest for pattern-discovery is used to justify unprecedented access to data. Three, the ethical turn becomes more urgent as a mode of critique. Modernity's predilection for certain definitions of privacy betrays the subjects of surveillance who, so far from conforming to the abstract, disembodied image of both computing and legal practices, are engaged and embodied users-in-relation whose activities both fuel and foreclose surveillance.

  1. Adolf Grünbaum critique de Ricoeur

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    Philippe Lacour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, je cherche à reconstituer le débat esquissé entre Ricœur et Grünbaum touchant l’épistémologie de la psychanalyse freudienne. Le débat est esquissé plutôt qu’effectif, car l’échange est asymétrique (Grünbaum a lu et analysé Ricœur, mais la réciproque est plus douteuse. Pour mieux arbitrer ce débat virtuel, l’article présente d’abord l’originalité de la position de Ricœur touchant les concepts de motivation (mixte raison-cause et de causalité (téléologique puis, à cette aune, répond aux autres critiques de Grünbaum dans leur détail: la survalorisation de la relation clinique et du langage, la spécificité ontologique de la réalité psychique, l’originalité narrative de l’explication psychanalytique et le statut du symbole. L’article conclut à un triple apport de ce débat virtuel, concernant la spécificité de l’herméneutique psychanalytique, le rôle du transfert et, enfin, la nature “casuistique” de la connaissance psychanalytique.

  2. Eine Aufforderung zur Kritik An Appeal to Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Weidert

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Eske Wollrad entwickelt in ihrem Buch eine Kritik an bestehenden und traditionellen Vorstellungen von „Weißsein“ und den damit verbundenen essentialistischen Zuschreibungen von „Rasse“ und Geschlecht. Sie bezieht sich dabei besonders auf die bundesdeutsche Situation, wirft aber auch einen Blick auf „Weißheitskonzepte“, die durch globalisierte Schönheitsideale und Populärkulturen verbreitet werden. Das Buch ist dabei geprägt von Wollrads Bemühen, neue Formen der Verständigung und des Umgangs mit dem jeweils Anderen zu entwickeln.In her book, Eske Wollrad develops a critique of the current and traditional understanding of “being white” and the essentialist conception of “race” and gender connected to this. She particularly refers to the German situation, although she throws a glance at the “concepts of whiteness” that are perpetuated through global ideals of beauty and popular culture. The book is influenced by Wollrad’s attempt to develop new forms of understanding and communication with the respective other.

  3. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: An Islamic critique

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    Anke Iman Bouzenita

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abraham Maslow’s model of the hierarchy of needs is pervasive in many academic specialisations. After a short description of the model, this article summarises the existing criticisms. While criticism on the empirical validity of the model and its ethno-centricity are frequently mentioned in the literature, the authors of this article give special focus on the missing consideration of the spiritual aspect of human existence in Maslow’s model. The study explores reasons for the commodification of the model (i.e. the divorcing of the model from its substance and using it simply as a commodity and the non-consideration of Maslow’s later changes. Special focus is laid on the usage of this model in marketing, given its position as a field which embodies the capitalist perspective so completely through, particularly, advertising but also through the conceptualisation of people. The article describes the model’s diverse reception in Muslim academic circles. It offers an Islamic critique of both its foundations and its usage. The study concludes that attempts at harmonising the model with the higher objectives (maqāṣid of the Sharī‘ah do not do justice to either model.

  4. Critiquing bachelor candidates' theses: are the criteria useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapborg, I; Berterö, C

    2002-06-01

    Nursing education programmes should be at an academic level and connected to research. In Sweden, empirical studies are generally required in order to obtain a Bachelor's degree; hence, in some cases, these studies are replaced by a literature review. A study was conducted using 11 criteria. Thirteen theses produced in a department of nursing science were examined, elaborated and reproduced by reviewing international and national literature. Thereafter, the criteria themselves were scrutinized. Principal findings when critiquing the theses were that in eight theses the purpose was dearly identified and well defined in relation to the study accomplished; in three theses the purpose was indistinct and vague; and in two the definitions and research questions were lacking. The topic was relevant for the area of nursing in all theses. General problems identified were poor spelling and grammar, and unsatisfactory thesis structure. This article discusses whether criteria are useful when examining the Bachelor candidates' theses. The authors report that the criteria seemed to be useful, giving some guidance for scrutinizing theses and facilitating correspondence. Criteria could be appropriate guidelines for using to increase the quality of the theses as well as the quality of nursing.

  5. 'Trick', 'manipulation' and 'farce': Albert Moll's critique of occultism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffram, Heather

    2012-04-01

    In July 1925, the psychiatrist Albert Moll appeared before the district court in Berlin-Schöneberg charged with having defamed the medium Maria Vollhardt (alias Rudloff) in his 1924 book Der Spiritismus [Spiritism]. Supported by some of Berlin's most prominent occultists, the plaintiff--the medium's husband--argued that Moll's use of terms such as 'trick', 'manipulation' and 'farce' in reference to Vollhardt's phenomena had been libellous. In the three-part trial that followed, however, Moll's putative affront to the medium--of which he was eventually acquitted--was overshadowed, on the one hand, by a debate over the scientific status of parapsychology, and on the other, by the question of who--parapsychologists, occultists, psychiatrists or jurists--was entitled to claim epistemic authority over the occult. This paper will use the Rudloff-Moll trial as a means of examining Moll's critique of occultism, not only as it stood in the mid-1920s, but also as it had developed since the 1880s. It will also provide insight into the views of Germany's occultists and parapsychologists, who argued that their legitimate bid for scientific credibility was hindered by Dunkelmänner [obscurantists] such as Albert Moll.

  6. Notes on a methodological discussion: autobiography, critique and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunvor Løkken

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available After having tried for some time to overview the contemporary field of qualitative research to give a lecture for a professorship in that area, my idea at the outset of writing this article was to address whether changes in qualitative research should be viewed as recurrent revolutions as highlighted by Denzin and Lincoln (2000; 2005, or as a field of continuing key themes and long-standing tensions, as conceptualized by Atkinson, Coffey and Delamont (2003. However, during my writing, after one detour into the May 2009 issue of Current Sociology and a second detour into the July 2009 issue of Qualitative Research, my attention focused on to how critical debate and review are displayed in different methodological positions of qualitative research. In my reading, the discussion in Current Sociology between main stream and postmodern methodological positioning revealed an utterly one-way feminist critique; this was also the case in one of three book reviews of The Handbook of Qualitative Research (Denzin and Lincoln, 2005 in the referred issue of Qualitative Research. My puzzle over this critical stance, and my third detour, into Yvonne Lincoln’s discussion of twenty-five years of qualitative and new paradigm research in the January 2010 Issue of Qualitative Inquiry, helped evolve the following notes on a methodological discussion. The notes are partly structured by a temporal narrative over personally lived qualitative research, and partly by an epistemological narrative of a methodological discussion, interwoven with the passing of time when writing.

  7. Stealing land in the name of religion: A Rastafari religio-political critique of land theft by global imperial forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick Hewitt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The issue of land has been central to Rastafari origins and ideological construct. Ethiopia, Africa, Babylon, Zion and Jamaica are symbols that point not only to physical location but also their ideological and psychological identity formation. This article uses Rastafari hermeneutics to critique the phenomenon of African Jamaican uprooting and dispossession of and from their land by powerful and global conglomerate forces that use the instrument of politics, economic and religion to accomplish their agenda. This article uses the Rastafari theological reflections, a theoretical framework that employs the phenomenon of faith, tradition and experience to interrogate the phenomenon of displacement of people through land theft. The religio-political narrative of Jamar Rolando McNaughton Jr, a young Jamaican reggae artist popularly known by his stage name Chronixx, will serve as the principal lens through which to interrogate the phenomenon of landlessness among the poor, primarily within the Jamaican context.

  8. Intranasal oxytocin effects on social cognition: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Simon L; Dal Monte, Olga; Noble, Pamela; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2014-09-11

    The last decade has seen a large number of published findings supporting the hypothesis that intranasally delivered oxytocin (OT) can enhance the processing of social stimuli and regulate social emotion-related behaviors such as trust, memory, fidelity, and anxiety. The use of nasal spray for administering OT in behavioral research has become a standard method, but many questions still exist regarding its action. OT is a peptide that cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, and it has yet to be shown that it does indeed reach the brain when delivered intranasally. Given the evidence, it seems highly likely that OT does affect behavior when delivered as a nasal spray. These effects may be driven by at least three possible mechanisms. First, the intranasally delivered OT may diffuse directly into the CNS where it directly engages OT receptors. Second, the intranasally delivered OT may trigger increased central release via an indirect peripheral mechanism. And third, the indirect peripheral effects may directly lead to behavioral effects via some mechanism other than increased central release. Although intranasally delivered OT likely affects behavior, there are conflicting reports as to the exact nature of those behavioral changes: some studies suggest that OT effects are not always "pro-social" and others suggest effects on social behaviors are due to a more general anxiolytic effect. In this critique, we draw from work in healthy human populations and the animal literature to review the mechanistic aspects of intranasal OT delivery, and to discuss intranasal OT effects on social cognition and behavior. We conclude that future work should control carefully for anxiolytic and gender effects, which could underlie inconsistencies in the existing literature. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin and Social Behav. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The theory of social representations: overview and critique

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    Matej Černigoj

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that the theory of social representations is one of the most popular, but at the same time one of the most controversial theories in contemporary social psychology. Its author, Serge Moscovici, conceived it with the explicit intention to create an alternative to the prevailing individualistic and psychologising, North-American social psychology. The theory of social representations is aimed at being a new social-psyhological paradigm, which would enable this scientific field to occupy a central place among the social sciencies. This place is supposed to be reserved for the field that would be able to connect the individual and the collective level of explanation of human behaviour. Because of such promisses, the theory of social representations took over the immagination of many european scholars, and research that refers to it in some way is abundant. However, there is also a darker side to the theory. It is incomplete and full of internal inconsistencies. Some authors repeatedly stress these points, but apparently without any considerable success. The theory of social representations has recently been presented in Slovenia (Vec, 1999, but without any serious attempt of evaluation and therefore, in my view, in an unsatisfactory way. Here I try to fill this gap, and so I focus on the logical structure of the theory and at its existing critiques. At the same time I try to explain the reasons for the theory's great popularity from a historical and socio-psychological point of view. In order to accomplish all that, I try to present the theory of social representations first, which — although already attempted many times — is by no means an easy task.

  10. Les métropoles et la nouvelle critique urbaine

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    Pierre Hamel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La perspective critique élaborée par Henri Lefebvre demeure pertinente pour penser les rapports sociaux à l’espace, y inclus ceux qu’on observe dans les métropoles contemporaines en Amérique du Nord. En examinant la controverse autour de la forme urbaine telle que celle-ci a été remise à l’ordre du jour dans les années 1990 à la faveur du discours néorégionaliste, ce texte pose la question de l’avenir des métropoles et du modèle de ville dans lequel on souhaite vivre. La thèse défendue peut se résumer comme suit : afin de faire échec à la position libérale qui accorde la préséance aux facteurs économiques et aux forces du marché, les acteurs sociaux doivent porter le débat autour de la forme urbaine sur le terrain politique. À cette fin, l’urgence demeure de mobiliser la communauté politique.Henri Lefebvre’s critical approach remains appropriate for thinking about social relationships to space, including those we can now assess in North American metropolis. Through analyzing the controversy about the urban form as it has been highlighted again during the nineties and favored by the new regionalist discourse, this paper poses the question of the future of metropolis and the posterity of the urban model in which one wishes to live. Its thesis could be summarized like this : in order to make fail the liberal position which privileges to economical factors and market forces, social actors have to orientate the debate about the urban form towards the political field. In such a perspective, the emergency remains to mobilize the polity.

  11. A feminist critique of foundational nursing research and theory on transition to motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parratt, Jenny A; Fahy, Kathleen M

    2011-08-01

    is using 'transition to motherhood theory' the best way to guide midwives in providing woman-centred care? contemporary research about changes to women's embodied sense of self during childbearing is influenced by foundational research and theory about the transition to motherhood. Rubin and Mercer are two key nursing authors whose work on transition to motherhood theory still shapes the ways in which a woman's experience of change during childbearing is understood in midwifery. using a feminist post-structural framework, Rubin and Mercer's theory and research is described, critiqued and discussed. Rubin and Mercer used pre-existing theories and concepts that had the effect of finding similarities and discarding differences between women. Rubin and Mercer's theory and research is an expression of humanistic philosophy. This philosophy creates frameworks that have an assumed, disempowered role for childbearing women. Their research used a logico-empirical, quantitative approach. Qualitative interpretive or constructivist approaches offer more appropriate ways to study the highly individualised, embodied, lived experience of a woman's changing self during childbearing. Rubin and Mercer's theory is baby-centred. Transition to motherhood theory privileges the position of experts in directing how a woman should become a mother. This has the effect of making midwives agents for the social control of women. Rubin and Mercer's transition to motherhood theory is a well-intentioned product of its time. The theory is inconsistent with contemporary midwifery philosophy which promotes a woman-centred partnership between the midwife and the woman. The usefulness of this outdated nursing theory in midwifery teaching, research or practice is debatable. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ownership and human tissue - the legal conundrum: A response to Jordaan's critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, S; Nöthling-Slabbert, M; Pepper, M S

    2017-02-27

    The debate over whether there should be a property or non-property approach with regard to human tissue is only the tip of the iceberg, because the issues involved are very complex, reflecting profound considerations on the nature of the self and the structuring of society; the balance of power between the citizen, the government and commercial interests; and human beings' perceptions of themselves and their bodies. This article responds to a publication by Donrich Jordaan titled 'Social justice and research using human biological material: A response to Mahomed, Nöthling-Slabbert and Pepper' in the July 2016 SAMJ. The original article to which Jordaan's critique refers and that provides the source for his response appeared in the South African Journal of Bioethics and Law in 2013, titled 'The legal position on the classification of human tissue in South Africa: Can tissues be owned?'. It is our contention that Jordaan's critique is based on a misinterpretation of the issues raised relating to the ownership of human tissue, an issue extensively debated in the academic sphere for many years. Jordaan's critique focuses on selected aspects of the original article and draws unjustifiable inferences from these. The purpose of this article is to contextualise Jordaan's critique and reaffirm the validity of the arguments made in the original article in 2013. There are, however, certain aspects of Jordaan's critique that we as authors of the original article acknowledge and appreciate in the spirit of academic discourse.

  13. 'Hypotheses, everywhere only hypotheses!': on some contexts of Dilthey's critique of explanatory psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feest, Uljana

    2007-03-01

    In 1894, Wilhelm Dilthey published an article in which he formulated a critique of what he called 'explanatory psychology', contrasting it with his own conception of 'descriptive psychology'. Dilthey's descriptive psychology, in turn, was to provide the basis for Dilthey's specific philosophy of the human sciences (Geisteswissenschaften). In this paper, I contextualize Dilthey's critique of explanatory psychology. I show that while this critique comes across as very broad and sweeping, he in fact had specific opponents in mind, namely, scholars who, like him, attempted to theorize about the relationship between the individual and society, between psychology and the other human sciences. Dilthey's critique of explanatory psychology is the flipside of his critique of sociology, which he had already formulated. He challenged both because he felt that they gave the wrong kind of answer to the task of overcoming metaphysics within the human sciences. In particular, I identify the founders of Völkerpsychologie, Moritz Lazarus and Heymann Steinthal, and (more importantly) their student, Georg Simmel, as Dilthey's targets. I provide textual and historical evidence for this thesis.

  14. A Chapter of the Critique of Affective Reason: The analisis of «Gesinnungen» according to Alexander Pfänder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Crespo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pfänder’s analysis of Gesinnungen represents first chapter of what would be called a «phenomenology of emotive conscience» or a «critique of affective reason». This early – unfortunately little known – phenomenologist offers a detailed analysis of special kind of experiences and tries also to show their moral significance. This paper points out the main elements of Pfänder’s contribution to a recovery of emotions moral relevance.

  15. Commentaire de Marcella Leopizzi à la note critique de J.-P. Cavaillé

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    Marcella Leopizzi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available La note critique intitulée « Libertinage, irréligion, incroyance, athéisme dans l’Europe de la première modernité (xvie-xviie siècles. Une approche critique des tendances actuelles de la recherches (1998-2002 » que Jean-Pierre Cavaillé vient de publier sur le site internet du GRIHL se révèle un point de repère indispensable pour tous ceux qui étudient la première modernité. Son analyse à la fois descriptive et critique apporte quelque chose de nouveau à la recherche de ces dernières années....

  16. A Reply to the Current Critiques Formulated Against Hoppe's Argumentation Ethics

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    Marian Eabrasu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article responds to current critiques directed against Hoppe’s justification by performative contradiction of the self-ownership axiom. Maintaining that ethics should be grounded on sound principles, Hoppe observes that only self-ownership can pass the test of performative contradiction. From this idea, he concludes that only libertarianism (the ethical system grounded on the axiom of self-ownership can be justified. Any other ethic is self-defeating. An important debate in ethics was stimulated by numerous critiques formulated against the performative contradiction and more precisely against the use that Hoppe makes of it in justifying libertarianism. Without endorsing Hoppe’s argumentation, this article prevents some common misunderstandings, systemizes the types of critiques and thoroughly replies to them.

  17. Elements of a critique of neoliberal model of transition

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    Golubović Zagorka T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available With the fall of former socialism a period of transition has come into being in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, however without the articulation of a vision and strategy of the development on the road to society's democratic transformation. So far the strategy of the dissidents' movements had been directed towards the changing of the system of "real socialism" with the abstract proclamations about human and civil rights and democracy as a rule of law, as against the totalitarian regime. One may say that these countries met transition unprepared, without a clear perspective of where to go further. Being that the pattern of "Western democracy" has been idealized without a necessary differentiation between the variety of democratic models within Europe and in USA, the basic orientation has been: "back to capitalism"; while democracy has been identified primarily, if not exclusively, with the market economy and a rigid version of "market fundamentalism". Therefore, the following questions will be discussed in the paper: ● Has the jump to capitalism been necessarily and rationally tied to a "wild capitalism" which is linked with a primordial accumulation of capital and a very sharpening social differentiation; ● has it been rational in the countries with underdeveloped economy and lack of modern political institutions to accelerate reductive functions of the state in the name of the elemental operations of the market economy, for which there haven't existed the basic preconditions (see: J.Stiglitz, Contradictions of Globalization - the critique of transition in Eastern Europe, ● has the accelerated liberalization of economy with the elements of shock-therapy been appropriate to the underdeveloped political system inherited from the past, as well as the law standard of living; ● has the maximisation of a "profit-orientation" under such conditions opened doors to the penetration of illegal capital, as well as mafia and organized crime; has it

  18. Bruno Latour, actor-networks, and the critique of critical sociology

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    Spasić Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the theoretical opus of Bruno Latour and his treatment of the concept of critique. In the first section "actor-network theory" is presented through its key notions (actant, network, translation, associations together with Latour’s theory of modernity. In the second section various aspects of the relation between Latour and critique are discussed - first his own criticism of others (standard sociology and especially "critical", i.e. Bourdieu’s sociology, then the criticisms aimed at his work, to conclude with the political ambivalences of Latour’s attempt to develop an "acritical" social theory. .

  19. Development, implementation and critique of a bioethics framework for pharmaceutical sponsors of human biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Pharmaceutical human biomedical research is a multi-dimensional endeavor that requires collaboration among many parties, including those who sponsor, conduct, participate in, or stand to benefit from the research. Human subjects' protections have been promulgated to ensure that the benefits of such research are accomplished with respect for and minimal risk to individual research participants, and with an overall sense of fairness. Although these protections are foundational to clinical research, most ethics guidance primarily highlights the responsibilities of investigators and ethics review boards. Currently, there is no published resource that comprehensively addresses bioethical responsibilities of industry sponsors; including their responsibilities to parties who are not research participants, but are, nevertheless key stakeholders in the endeavor. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company instituted a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research. This paper describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique based on four years of experience. A companion article provides the actual document used by Eli Lilly and Company to guide ethical decisions regarding all phases of human clinical trials. While many of the concepts presented in this framework are not novel, compiling them in a manner that articulates the ethical responsibilities of a sponsor is novel. By utilizing this type of bioethics framework, we have been able to develop bioethics positions on various topics, provide research ethics consultations, and integrate bioethics into the daily operations of our human biomedical research. We hope that by sharing these companion papers we will stimulate discussion within and outside the biopharmaceutical industry for the benefit of the multiple parties involved in pharmaceutical human biomedical research.

  20. Reconfiguring the optics of the critical gaze in science education (after the critique of critique): (re)thinking "what counts" through Foucaultian prismatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Marc

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore what Michel Foucault refers to as "the" critical attitude and its relationship to science education, drawing from Foucault's (The politics of truth. Semiotext(e), New York, 1997) insight that the critical attitude is but a critical attitude. This article is a rejoinder to Anna Danielsonn, Maria Berge, and Malena Lidar's paper, "Knowledge and power in the technology classroom: a framework for studying teachers and students in action". Where Danielsonn and colleagues think with Foucaultian power/knowledge to examine and (re)consider teacher-student didactic relations in science and technology education, this article critically examines the power/knowledge relationship between science educators and science education to critically explore the modes of criticality produced and produceable. Particularly, I explore possibilities for and of critique that stem from and respond to what Bruno Latour (Politics of nature: How to bring the sciences into democracy. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1993) refers to as the crisis and critique of critique.

  1. The Resource-Based View: A Review and Assessment of Its Critiques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen; Spender, J.C.; Groen, Arend J.

    2010-01-01

    The resource-based view (RBV) of the firm has been around for over 20 years—during which time it has been both widely taken up and subjected to considerable criticism. The authors review and assess the principal critiques evident in the literature, arguing they fall into eight categories. They

  2. Developing Critical Awareness at the Middle Level: Using Texts as Tools for Critique and Pleasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Holly; Freedman, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    Young adolescents need and want more than a diet of worksheets and rote skills that asks them to think little and talk less. This book presents an instructional approach that mixes critique and pleasure, allowing middle-level students to read literature they enjoy while they develop critical awareness and address issues of social justice.…

  3. Inquiry, Critique, and Dissemination of Knowledge: Graduate Students Contributing to Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Graduate students use existing knowledge and are ultimately expected to add to that knowledge. Students in a Masters of Education entry course were asked to find a Wikipedia page related to the course topics, critique it, and make improvements to it to begin to develop these skills. In this paper, I examine ways in which their perspectives were…

  4. The Theology of Eckankar: Its Critique and Study Based on the Islamic Teachings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Abdolreza

    2017-01-01

    The present paper deals with theology from the point of view of the school of Eckankar and its critique based on the Islamic teachings. Three major topics are probed into in the school of Eckankar, i.e. the definition of religion, the origin of religion, and exclusiveness. On the topic of the definition of religion, Eckankar essentially regards as…

  5. "The will to power" and "The uber-mensch": A critique of Friedrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "The will to power" and "The uber-mensch": A critique of Friedrich Nietzsche's Transvaluation of values. SY Alabi. Abstract. No Abstract. Sophia: An African Journal of Philosophy Vol. 7(1) 2004: 103-108. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  6. Speaking from Different Positions: Framing African American College Male Literacies as Institutional Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Collin

    2014-01-01

    This essay explores Black male literacy practices as institutional critique at a large Midwestern land grant university. Through documenting a student's process of reinstatement at his university, I demonstrate how vernacular perspectives, language, and networking strategies are used for developing self-efficacy and critical literacies. Black…

  7. Beyond discovery: A review of the critique of the discovery view of opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.

    This paper systematically reviews and synthesises the critique since 2000 of the discovery view's interpretation of entrepreneurial opportunities. The review shows that the framing of the debate as polarised between two oppositions, the discovery view versus the creation view, is oversimplified...

  8. The role of indigenous song: A critique of the dominant discourse in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of indigenous song: A critique of the dominant discourse in education. ... This article explores the role and value of indigenous songs in education. ... The primary focus is to add other meaningful pedagogical instructions through African indigenous music and dance that has been relegated for centuries in South ...

  9. The role of critique in philosophy of education: its subject matter and its ambiguities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyting, G.F.; Winch, C.

    2004-01-01

    The role of critique in the Anglophone analytical tradition of philosophy of education is outlined and some of its shortcomings are noted, particularly its apparent claim to methodological objectivity in arriving at what are clearly contestable positions about the normative basis of education. Many

  10. Refinement of risk assessment of dermally and intermittently exposed pesticide workers : a critique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakkert, B.C.

    2001-01-01

    The regulatory requirements for the registration of pesticides are mainly evolved from concern about dietary exposure and risk, i.e. chronic oral exposure. Pesticide workers, however, are predominantly exposed dermally and intermittently. The present critique provides suggestions for improvement of

  11. Critiquing the Role of the Community College in Criminal Justice Education: Curriculum Trends and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Robert J.

    Based upon a literature review and interviews with selected criminal justice educators, this critique of criminal justice or police education attempts to explore some of the criticisms being leveled against community college criminal justice education and certain issues and trends related to the field that are becoming evident. To place this…

  12. Guidebook on LANDFIRE fuels data acquisition, critique, modification, maintenance, and model calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Stratton

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of LANDFIRE fuels layers, an increasing number of specialists are using the data in a variety of fire modeling systems. However, a comprehensive guide on acquiring, critiquing, and editing (ACE) geospatial fuels data does not exist. This paper provides guidance on ACE as well as on assembling a geospatial fuels team, model calibration, and maintaining...

  13. A Postmodern Critique of the Modern Projects of Frederic Jameson and Patricia Bizzell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoski, Nancy

    1993-01-01

    Critiques various forms of modernism, traditional Marxism, and liberalism from a postmodern perspective. Identifies the politics of the intellectual projects undertaken by Frederic Jameson and Patricia Bizzell as modernist and reactionary. Argues that their academic appeal lies in their conservatism. (HB)

  14. Dialectic of the university: a critique of instrumental reason in graduate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovskaya, Olga; McDonald, Carol; McIntyre, Marjorie

    2011-10-01

    Our analysis in this paper unfolds on two levels: a critique of the 'realities' of graduate nursing education and an argument to sustain its 'ideals'. We open for discussion an aspect of graduate nursing education dominated by instrumental reason, namely the research industry, using an internal critique approach developed by Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno of the Early Frankfurt School. As we explain, internal critique arises out of, and relies on, the mismatch between goals, or 'ideals', and existing realities. Thinking about 'ideals' of the academy, we draw on Hans-Georg Gadamer's view of the university as a place to think freely, creatively, and critically. The contemporary realities of the university, on the other hand, that emphasize the market values of the research industry forcefully shape nursing academic scholarship in a particular direction. In our attempt to recognize and disrupt the forces of the research industry with its instrumental reason, we consider Judith Butler's writings on how norms operate in society. We show that our growing involvement in the research industry makes it very difficult to disentangle ourselves from that situation. The values of the research industry actually suppress the very ideals of education and scholarship that we would like to uphold. As a contra-force, the internal critique of the 'existing realities' in the graduate nursing education unmasks the tyranny of the research industry and makes visible the importance of sustaining the higher goals and ideals in nursing scholarship. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Cultural Capital and Agency: Connecting Critique and Curriculum in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Sue

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores some of the unresolved tensions in higher education systems and the contradiction between widening participation and the consolidation of social position. It shows how concepts of capital derived from Bourdieu, Coleman and Putnam provide a powerful basis for critique, but risk a deficit view of students from less privileged…

  16. Critiquing Teacher Preparation Research: An Overview of the Field, Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran-Smith, Marilyn; Villegas, Ana Maria; Abrams, Linda; Chavez-Moreno, Laura; Mills, Tammy; Stern, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    This is the second of a two-part article intended to offer teacher educators a cohesive overview of the sprawling and uneven field of research on teacher preparation by identifying, analyzing, and critiquing its major programs. The article discusses research on teacher preparation for the knowledge society and research on teacher preparation for…

  17. A Critique of Selected Instructional Strategies in Higher Institutions in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangoleye, Solomon Adebayo; Kolawole, C. O. O.

    2016-01-01

    Teaching is the heart of education. It involves the use of myriad of teaching methods, strategies and techniques. This paper critiques some of the instructional strategies used in higher institutions in Nigeria. Two of these instructional strategies (team teaching and questioning strategy) were identified. The "what", "how",…

  18. Weber's Critique of Advocacy in the Classroom: Critical Thinking and Civic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the four aspects of Max Weber's argument against including advocacy in the political science classroom. Believes that Weber's critique is a useful starting point for considering the issue in relation to contemporary education. Describes two models, critical thinking and civic education, that present advocacy in the political science…

  19. Developing Detailed Rubrics for Assessing Critique Writing: Impact on EFL University Students' Performance and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Rula; Balaa, Luma

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop specific rubrics for assessing critiques in English 202, an English as a foreign language course at the Lebanese American University to explore the effectiveness of these rubrics on students' writing and to investigate students' attitudes and reactions to the use of these rubrics. After development of the…

  20. Foucauldian Critique of Positive Education and Related Self-Technologies: Some Problems and New Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, James

    2015-01-01

    By focusing on positive education, this article draws out the educational implications of Binkley's Foucauldian critique of neoliberal subjects being pressured to learn how to manage their emotions. From the latter author's perspective, positive education self-technologies such as school-based mindfulness training can be construed as functioning…

  1. IMPOSSIBLE MODERNISM: T.S. ELIOT, WALTER BENJAMIN, AND THE CRITIQUE OF HISTORICAL REASON (2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Willever Jacobson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Robert S. Lehman, dalam bukunya Impossible Modernism: T.S. Eliot, Walter Benjamin, and the Critique of Historical Reason (2016, memosisikan dirinya sebagai sarjana 'modernis tradisional'. Lehman menyatakan bahwa bukunya mengemukakan "suatu interpretasi atas modernisme Eropa". Namun, Lehman menemukan potensi dalam pemikiran Eliot dan Benjan untuk suatu kritik atas apa yang dia anggap sebagai "titik buta" kajian modernis baru, yakni, historisismenya.

  2. Formative versus Reflective Measurement in Executive Functions: A Critique of Willoughby et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Eric; Welsh, Marilyn C.

    2014-01-01

    Research into executive functioning (EF) has indeed grown exponentially across the past few decades, but as the Willoughby et al. critique makes clear, there remain fundamental questions to be resolved. The crux of their argument is built upon an examination of the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) approach to understanding executive processes.…

  3. Web-Based Essay Critiquing System and EFL Students' Writing: A Quantitative and Qualitative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cynthia; Wong, Kelvin C. K.; Cheung, William K.; Lee, Fion S. L.

    2009-01-01

    The paper first describes a web-based essay critiquing system developed by the authors using latent semantic analysis (LSA), an automatic text analysis technique, to provide students with immediate feedback on content and organisation for revision whenever there is an internet connection. It reports on its effectiveness in enhancing adult EFL…

  4. Responses to the 1983 Expulsion of Aliens from Nigeria: A Critique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    greeted with a barrage of criticism by members of the international community at large. This paper attempts a critique of this plethora of criticisms and submits that the Nigerian government of Shehu Shagari acted in conformity with the Nigerian immigration law of 1963 as informed by the exigencies of national interest.

  5. The Impact of Standards-Based Reform: Applying Brantlinger's Critique of "Hierarchical Ideologies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Jessica; Ferri, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Brantlinger's [2004b. "Ideologies Discerned, Values Determined: Getting past the Hierarchies of Special Education." In "Ideology and the Politics of (in)Exclusion," edited by L. Ware, 11-31. New York: Peter Lang Publishing] critique of hierarchical ideologies lays bare the logics embedded in standards-based reform. Drawing on…

  6. A Feminist Critique of Rational-Choice Theories: Implications for Sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Paula

    1989-01-01

    Provides a feminist critique of rational-choice theory and the interdisciplinary feminist theories of sociology. Applies the separative model of self to four assumptions of the neoclassical economics version of rational-choice theory. Uses research on marital power to illustrate how removing distorting assumptions can help illuminate sociological…

  7. Using a Collaborative Critiquing Technique to Develop Chemistry Students' Technical Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jeremy M.

    2013-01-01

    The technique, termed "collaborative critiquing", was developed to teach fundamental technical writing skills to analytical chemistry students for the preparation of laboratory reports. This exercise, which can be completed prior to peer-review activities, is novel, highly interactive, and allows students to take responsibility for their…

  8. Judith Butler and the Public Dimension of the Body: Education, Critique and Corporeal Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlieghe, Joris

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I discuss some thoughts Judith Butler presents regarding corporeal vulnerability. This might help to elucidate the problem of whether critical education is still possible today. I first explain why precisely the possibility of critique within education is a problem for us today. This is because the traditional means of enhancing a…

  9. A Critique on the Concept of Social Accountability in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza Flores, René; Villalobos Monroy, Guadalupe; Reyes Fabela, Ana María

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to present a critique of the concept and meaning of the term social accountability at university level from a critical point of view. The main objective is to analyze and re-build the term accountability in order to contextualize it for public universities. First, we present the importance of the idea of accountability in…

  10. Ideology, Class and Rationality: A Critique of Cambridge International Examinations' "Thinking Skills" Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Leonel

    2012-01-01

    This article undertakes a critique of the aims and objectives of "Thinking Skills", one of the most widely and internationally used curricula in the teaching of thinking, offered by the University of Cambridge International Examinations. By engaging in a critical discourse analysis of how political and class biases are (re-)produced in the forms…

  11. Critiquing Un/Critical Pedagogies to Move toward a Pedagogy of Responsibility in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchini, Christina N.

    2017-01-01

    Transformative work with teacher candidates relies on a critique of the tenets of Critical Pedagogy and subsequent Critical Whiteness Studies (CWS). I employ analyses of extant scholarship to argue that these specific domains, as popularly framed, might be responsible for uncritical examinations of the White teacher education students who…

  12. Foucault and the Use of Critique: Breaching the Self-Evidence of Educational Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    This paper poses methodological questions about the role and limits of Foucault's concept of governmentality in education research. Firstly, it argues for the utility of governmentality as a means of exploring questions of power regardless of domain or scale. Secondly, it explores the boundary between the tasks of formulating critique and…

  13. Does Homeschooling "Work"? A Critique of the Empirical Claims and Agenda of Advocacy Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubienski, Christopher; Puckett, Tiffany; Brewer, T. Jameson

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenal growth of homeschooling in recent years demonstrates not only the appeal of this educational approach but also the notable policy acumen of the homeschooling movement's leading advocates. This analysis examines and critiques the empirical claims made by homeschooling proponents to justify further expansion and deregulation of the…

  14. Ecosystem Services as a Contested Concept: A Synthesis of Critique and Counter-arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröter, M.; Zanden, van der E.H.; Oudenhoven, van A.P.E.; Remme, R.P.; Serna-Chavez, H.M.; Groot, de R.S.; Opdam, P.

    2014-01-01

    We describe and reflect on seven recurring critiques of the concept of ecosystem services and respective counter-arguments. First, the concept is criticized for being anthropocentric while others argue that it goes beyond instrumental values. Second, some argue that the concept promotes an

  15. Pursuing the Administrative Avant-Garde: An Aesthetic Critique of Change in Educational Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samier, Eugenie A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses theories of the avant-garde, especially but not exclusively in art and as part of a modernist aesthetic. The paper examines the ways in which avant-garde theory of the creative process can inform educational administration in the change process, as both a critique and an ideal. The argument adopted here is that if…

  16. A Critique of Koh's (2014) "Doing Class Analysis in Singapore's Elite Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabel, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Aaron Koh contributed to a collection of multi-site global ethnographic articles published here (2014, Vol. 12, No. 2) that present class reproduction as operationalised in elite education. While the collection adds to the current international critique of meritocracy, a close look at Koh's contribution reveals that critical ethnography can lose…

  17. Social Diversity and Democracy in Higher Education in the 21st Century: Towards a Feminist Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Miriam E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a feminist perspective on the UK literature on mass higher education in the 21st century, building on US critiques about marketization, neo-liberalism and "academic capitalism". Concepts of equality and diversity have been transformed by neo-liberalism and how these changes have constrained democratic contributions to UK…

  18. The Definition of the Scalar Product: An Analysis and Critique of a Classroom Episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Colin; de Villiers, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present, analyse and critique an episode from a secondary school lesson involving an introduction to the definition of the scalar product. Although the teacher attempted to be explicit about the difference between a definition and a theorem, emphasizing that a definition was just an arbitrary assumption, a student rejected the…

  19. Ecosystem Services as a Contested Concept: A Synthesis of Critique and Counter-arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schötter, M.; van der Zanden, E.H.; van Oudenhoven, A.P.E.; Remme, R.P.; Serna-Chavez, H.M.; de Groot, R.S.; Opdam, P.

    2014-01-01

    We describe and reflect on seven recurring critiques of the concept of ecosystem services and respective counter-arguments. First, the concept is criticized for being anthropocentric, whereas others argue that it goes beyond instrumental values. Second, some argue that the concept promotes an

  20. Effect of WhatsApp on Critique Writing Proficiency and Perceptions toward Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awada, Ghada

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the results of an experimental study on the effectiveness of mobile technology (WhatsApp) in improving the critique writing skills of English as a Foreign Language learners and increasing their motivation for learning. The participants (n = 52) are Average-English proficient learners enrolled in two writing courses given at…

  1. Intercultural Education and the Global-Local Context: Critiquing the Culturalist Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bash, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Theory and practice in intercultural education remain problematic as they continue to reflect the tensions between universalistic and particularistic agendas. Particularism is manifested in a culturalist narrative which is mired in a failure to subject relativistic postmodernism to adequate critique. At the same time, universalism is frequently…

  2. Amish Teacher Dialogues with Teacher Educators: Research, Culture, and Voices of Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Henry; Moss, Glenda; Nichols, Joe

    2005-01-01

    This dialogical project is framed within critical inquiry methods to bring an Amish teacher's voice to the forefront. Henry, an Amish middle school teacher, and two university teacher educators in northeastern Indiana collaboratively critiqued educational literature written about the Amish culture from the past 15 years. Building on critical…

  3. Documentation of Education for Teenagers in Residential Care: A Network of Blame and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severinsson, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    This article presents analyses of documents from special schools in Sweden for students in the care of social welfare who have been assessed with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. The aim is to use actor-network theory to analyse how blame and critique are handled in individual educational plans, and how responsibilities are produced…

  4. Hui Students' Identity Construction in Eastern China: A Postcolonial Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxiang; Phillion, JoAnn

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we explored Hui students' lived experiences in school in eastern China and the impact of their experiences on their identity construction. We used postcolonial theory as a theoretical framework and narrative inquiry as a research methodology to guide questions that we asked, data collection, data analysis, and interpretation and…

  5. Students' abilities to critique scientific evidence when reading and writing scientific arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Amanda M.

    Scientific arguments are used to persuade others for explanations that make sense of the natural world. Over time, through the accumulation of evidence, one explanation for a scientific phenomenon tends to take precedence. In science education, arguments make students' thinking and reasoning visible while also supporting the development of their conceptual, procedural, and epistemic knowledge. As such, argumentation has become a goal within recent policy documents, including the Next Generation Science Standards, which, in turn, presents a need for comprehensive, effective, and scalable assessments. This dissertation used assessments that measure students' abilities to critique scientific evidence, which is measured in terms of the form of justification and the support of empirical evidence, when reading and writing scientific arguments. Cognitive interviews were then conducted with a subset of the students to explore the criteria they used to critique scientific evidence. Specifically, the research investigated what characteristics of scientific evidence the students preferred, how they critiqued both forms of justification and empirical evidence, and whether the four constructs represented four separate abilities. Findings suggest that students' prioritized the type of empirical evidence to the form of justification, and most often selected relevant-supporting justifications. When writing scientific arguments, most students constructed a justified claim, but struggled to justify their claims with empirical evidence. In comparison, when reading scientific arguments, students had trouble locating a justification when it was not empirical data. Additionally, it was more difficult for students to critique than identify or locate empirical evidence, and it was more difficult for students to identify than locate empirical evidence. Findings from the cognitive interviews suggest that students with more specific criteria tended to have more knowledge of the construct

  6. The Gender Dynamics of Educational Leadership Preparation: A Feminist Postmodern Critique of the Cohort Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Molly F.; Cabezas, Christy T.; Kensler, Lisa A. W.; Brooks, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender dynamics in educational leadership doctoral cohorts and explore the propensity for educational leadership programs to unintentionally perpetuate inequity through continued silence and unawareness of issues related to gender. The study includes narratives from two women cohort members and two…

  7. Educational Practice, Student Experience, and the Purpose of Education--A Critique of "Pedagogy in Practice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitmøller, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the present paper is a critical discussion of the recently developed concept Pedagogy in Practice (PiP) with the intention of improving the concept for future research. PiP aims to understand ongoing educational practice from the students' perspective by interviewing groups of students about their understanding of learning. By…

  8. On the Phenomenon of Inserted Thoughts: A Critique of Shaun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is argued here that our sense of agency for thinking requires more than protention, and, ... fully explain the loss of agency for thinking characterizing the experience of thought insertion. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  9. Educational reform in Greece: Central concepts and a critique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Panayota Gounari; George Grollios

    2012-01-01

      The case of Greece as the most recent neoliberal experiment can provide valuable insights not only about a generalized attack on the welfare state and the public good, but also about the radical...

  10. Le modele de Hubbard bidimensionnel a faible couplage: Thermodynamique et phenomenes critiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sebastien

    Une etude systematique du modele de Hubbard en deux dimensions a faible couplage a l'aide de la theorie Auto-Coherente a Deux Particules (ACDP) dans le diagramme temperature-dopage-interaction-sauts permet de mettre en evidence l'influence des fluctuations magnetiques sur les proprietes thermodynamiques du systeme electronique sur reseau. Le regime classique renormalise a temperature finie pres du dopage nul est marque par la grandeur de la longueur de correlation de spin comparee a la longueur thermique de de Broglie et est caracterisee par un accroissement drastique de la longueur de correlation de spin. Cette croissance exponentielle a dopage nul marque la presence d'un pic de chaleur specifique en fonction de la temperature a basse temperature. Une temperature de crossover est alors associee a la temperature a laquelle la longueur de correlation de spin est egale a la longueur thermique de de Broglie. C'est a cette temperature caracteristique, ou est observee l'ouverture du pseudogap dans le poids spectral, que se situe le maximum du pic de chaleur specifique. La presence de ce pic a des consequences sur l'evolution du potentiel chimique avec le dopage lorsque l'uniformite thermodynamique est respectee. Les contraintes imposees par les lois de la thermodynamique font en sorte que l'evolution du potentiel chimique avec le dopage est non triviale. On demontre entre autres que le potentiel chimique est proportionnel a la double occupation qui est reliee au moment local. Par ailleurs, une derivation de la fonction de mise a l'echelle de la susceptibilite de spin a frequence nulle au voisinage d'un point critique marque sans equivoque la presence d'un point critique quantique en dopage pour une valeur donnee de l'interaction. Ce point critique, associe a une transition de phase magnetique en fonction du dopage a temperature nulle, induit un comportement non trivial sur les proprietes physiques du systeme a temperature finie. L'approche quantitative ACDP permet de

  11. Raising Questions About Capitalist Globalization and Universalizing Views on Women: A Transnational Feminist Critique of the World Development Report: Gender Equality and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Victoria L; Stevens, Patricia E; Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Nursing in the United States has embraced global health primarily from a clinical perspective, with emphasis on care delivery to populations in underserved, resource-poor settings. Less attention has been devoted to developing expertise about social, economic, and political contexts that produce ill health around the world. The purpose of this article is to offer a transnational feminist critique of the World Development Report: Gender Equality and Development and to illuminate implications such reports may have in the lives of the world's most marginalized women and girls. We examine the political economy idealized in the report, raising questions about the capitalist framework underpinning its agenda. Second, we examine the assumptive language used in the report, suggesting that it discursively constructs a problematic representation of women in low-income countries. We contend that the report perpetuates a hegemonic discourse of patriarchy and inequality for women in the Global South through the use of an uncontested economic framework and universalist reasoning. We conclude the article with discussion about a transformative policy making that could be more inclusive of the wisdoms, values, and everyday experiences of women living in the Global South and about the vital role nurses can play in advancing gender equity through their active collaboration in policy critique and policy formulation.

  12. Syracuse/NASA program: A historical critique: Multidisciplinary studies in management and development programs in the public sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzelay, M. E.

    1974-01-01

    A historical critique is presented of the Syracuse/NASA program on management and development programs. Brief summaries are included of each of the major projects undertaken, including identification of the principal investigators and the university departments and disciplines involved.

  13. Organic Chemistry of the Cell: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Learning with a Focus on Reading, Analyzing, and Critiquing Primary Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Craig A.; Liotta, Louis J.

    2005-01-01

    The reading, analyzing and critiquing of primary literature in both writing and oral forms are daunting tasks for science undergraduates. These activities are recognized as skills that science undergraduates should develop in order to improve their scientific communication abilities.

  14. Deweyan Democratic Agency and School Math: Beyond Constructivism and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemhagen, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Kurt Stemhagen reconstructs mathematics education in light of Dewey's democratic theory and his ideas about mathematics and mathematics education. The resulting democratic philosophy and pedagogy of mathematics education emphasizes agency and the connections between mathematics and students' social experiences. Stemhagen considers…

  15. Philomena A. Ojomo Critique of an African Perspective on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philomena A. Ojomo

    connecting these environmental ethical theories is their grounding in Western perspectives and cultural experiences. Given that environmental concerns are global, .... to this theory, nature is a kind of subject with teleology, creativity, intelligence and a capacity to value. Instrumental value, intrinsic value and systematic value ...

  16. China's Educational Reform during the Cultural Revolution: A Postmodern Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Guofang

    This paper analyzes the educational reforms and drastic curriculum changes occurring in China during the Cultural Revolution (1966-76) in light of postmodern theory. The document examines personal educational experiences in China during that time in light of critical pedagogy and postmodern theories of curriculum development. The paper asserts…

  17. DAK'ART 2012: A CRITIQUE OF ARTISTIC TRAJECTORIES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Valued Acer Customer

    2012-07-01

    Jul 1, 2012 ... when I participated as an artist under the aegis of the Nigerian National Gallery of Art‟s off platform. In 2010 I made ... participated in an adventurous outing by the Pan African Circle of Artists in the „off platform‟ of the 10 th .... experience, but it locates similarities in seemingly dissimilar social grid. To what ...

  18. Karl Popper's Fallibilist Critique of Rationalism and Empirisism Ifec

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    illuminating empiricist and rationalist accounts. The empiricists maintain that all knowledge is acquired through experience (sense-data information) and explain this cognitive process by their theory of associationism. On the other hand, the rationalist account of cognition finds its clearest expression in Kantian thesis that the ...

  19. Sketching user experiences the workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Saul; Marquardt, Nicolai; Buxton, Bill

    2012-01-01

    In Sketching User Experiences: The Workbook, you will learn, through step-by-step instructions and exercises, various sketching methods that will let you express your design ideas about user experiences across time. Collectively, these methods will be your sketching repertoire: a toolkit where you can choose the method most appropriate for developing your ideas, which will help you cultivate a culture of experience-based design and critique in your workplace. Features standalone modules detailing methods and exercises for practitioners who want to learn and develop their sketching skills E

  20. A Response to the Federal Trade Commission/Anderson Critique of Structure-Performance Studies in Grocery Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Ronald W.

    1991-01-01

    This research report responds to the comprehensive critique of structure-price and structure profit studies in the food retailing industry by Keith Anderson, Staff Economist, Federal Trade Commission. Mr. Anderson's critique was in response to a request from certain members of the House Subcommittee on Monopolies and Commercial Law that the Federal Trade Commission explain why these studies should not serve as the basis for more rigorous enforcement of the antitrust laws. The introduction of ...

  1. Putting the "Amsterdam School" in its rightful place : a reply to Juan Ignacio Staricco's critique of cultural political economy

    OpenAIRE

    Jessop, Robert Douglas; Sum, Ngai-Ling

    2017-01-01

    This article responds to Staricco’s critique of cultural political economy (CPE) for being inherently constructivist because of its emphasis on the ontologically foundational role of semiosis (sense- and meaning-making) in social life. Staricco recommends the Amsterdam School of transnational historical materialism as a more immediately productive and insightful approach to developing a regulationist critique of political economy. Both lines of criticism of CPE are addressed. First, Staricco ...

  2. Obstetrics in a Time of Violence: Mexican Midwives Critique Routine Hospital Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacher Dixon, Lydia

    2015-12-01

    Mexican midwives have long taken part in a broader Latin American trend to promote "humanized birth" as an alternative to medicalized interventions in hospital obstetrics. As midwives begin to regain authority in reproductive health and work within hospital units, they come to see the issue not as one of mere medicalization but of violence and violation. Based on ethnographic fieldwork with midwives from across Mexico during a time of widespread social violence, my research examines an emergent critique of hospital birth as a site of what is being called violencia obstétrica (obstetric violence). In this critique, women are discussed as victims of explicit abuse by hospital staff and by the broader health care infrastructures. By reframing obstetric practices as violent-as opposed to medicalized-these midwives seek to situate their concerns about women's health care in Mexico within broader regional discussions about violence, gender, and inequality. © 2015 by the American Anthropological Association.

  3. Research integrity and rights of indigenous peoples: appropriating Foucault's critique of knowledge/power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swazo, Norman K

    2005-09-01

    In this paper I appropriate the philosophical critique of Michel Foucault as it applies to the engagement of Western science and indigenous peoples in the context of biomedical research. The science of population genetics, specifically as pursued in the Human Genome Diversity Project, is the obvious example to illustrate (a) the contraposition of modern science and 'indigenous science', (b) the tendency to depreciate and marginalize indigenous knowledge systems, and (c) the subsumption of indigenous moral preferences in the juridical armature of international human rights law. I suggest that international bioethicists may learn from Foucault's critique, specifically of the need for vigilance about the knowledge/power relation expressed by the contraposition of modern science and 'indigeneity'.

  4. Subject Between Negativity and Aufhebung/désoeuvrement. Refutation of the Cryptotheological Critique of Agamben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołaj Ratajczak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is a detailed analysis of the critique concerning the conceptof subjectivity in Giorgio Agamben’s philosophy made by the Polish philosopherAgata Bielik-Robson arguing for her own conceptualization of subject’s ethicalformation. The main thesis states that by situating Agamben in the conceptualhorizon he aims to overcome, her critique stopped halfway. In doing so, the articleshows that the common ground of both Agamben’s and Bielik-Robson’s views onthe subject is the philosophy of Hegel and the differences between them can beexplicated as the difference in choosing one of two strategies of subject’s formationderiving from Hegel: while Bielik-Robson radicalizes the moment of negativity,Agamben tries to elaborate a different (messianic logic of Aufhebung.

  5. Multiculturalism and its discontents in SFR Yugoslavia and Bosnia: a critique of the multiculturalist rights model

    OpenAIRE

    Pupavac, Vanessa

    2005-01-01

    In this chapter I seek to contribute to debates over multiculturalism and highlight problems with ethnic rights strategies. I hope to facilitate understanding of the failures to overcome ethnic divisions in Bosnia, as well as to suggest how critiques of multiculturalism could be enriched by analysing the failures of ethnic rights policies in SFR Yugoslavia and Bosnia. I further wish to highlight the implications of the multiculturalist rights model for civil rights and freedoms. The imperativ...

  6. Analysis of Heidegger’s Reading from the Kant’s First Critique

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Eskandari and Hossein Kalbasi

    2015-01-01

    We know that Martin Heidegger in "Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics" presented some ontological interpretation of "Critique of Pure Reason" as opposed to other epistemological interpretations. He tried to explain how all parts of the work of Kant (based on time as the necessary condition of schematism) are originally related to the basic problem of finite human being or Dasein. Immanuel Kant, from the perspective of Heidegger, is indeed the founder of fundamental ontology of Dasein. The mai...

  7. [Family, fertility, and economic choices; a critique of microeconomic models of fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maris, B

    1979-01-01

    The author presents a critique of existing microeconomic models of the family and fertility, with particular reference to the situation in developed countries. He suggests an alternative approach that links the family with the economic system as a whole, which in turn affects family fertility. The need for a revision of the division of responsibilities for children between society and family is suggested (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  8. Amnisties pour la paix dans le delta du Niger - évaluation critique de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Amnisties pour la paix dans le delta du Niger - évaluation critique de la contribution à une paix durable du pardon de crimes du passé. L'idée voulant que le gouvernement pardonne un groupe ou une classe de personnes ayant perpétré des actes de violence à caractère politique ne date pas d'hier. La première mention ...

  9. A Review and Critique of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Etiologies

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Charles Hertler

    2014-01-01

    The present review and critique of extant etiological theories centers on a single finding: Obsessive-compulsive personality is highly heritable (0.78) and not significantly influenced by “common, shared-in-families environmental factors” (Torgersen et al., 2000, p. 424). This finding, though twelve years old, has remained dissociated from existing etiological accounts. Psychoanalytic theories anachronistically maintain that obsessive personality is familially forged. Biological theories, few...

  10. Hui Students’ Identity Construction in Eastern China: A Postcolonial Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Wang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we explored Hui students’ lived experiences in school in eastern China and the impact of their experiences on their identity construction. We used postcolonial theory as a theoretical framework and narrative inquiry as a research methodology to guide questions that we asked, data collection, data analysis, and interpretation and discussion of the findings in the study. We found that schooling for the two Hui students in eastern China is a process of reproducing mainstream Han ideology; taking away their culture, beliefs, knowledge, and identity; and imposing the mainstream Han culture and knowledge on Hui students as truth. The participants, two Hui students in an elementary school in eastern China, accepted the identity constructed by mainstream Han teachers and were confused about their Hui identity.

  11. Hui Students’ Identity Construction in Eastern China: A Postcolonial Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we explored Hui students’ lived experiences in school in eastern China and the impact of their experiences on their identity construction. We used postcolonial theory as a theoretical framework and narrative inquiry as a research methodology to guide questions that we asked, data collection, data analysis, and interpretation and discussion of the findings in the study. We found that schooling for the two Hui students in eastern China is a process of reproducing mainstream Han ideology; taking away their culture, beliefs, knowledge, and identity; and imposing the mainstream Han culture and knowledge on Hui students as truth. The participants, two Hui students in an elementary school in eastern China, accepted the identity constructed by mainstream Han teachers and were confused about their Hui identity

  12. Critique of influential epistemological presuppositions in clinical reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorgård, Keld

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is an important resource in modern clinical reasoning. It is, however, widely discussed how judgement, experience and patient perspectives are supposed to be integrated in evidence-based decision-making. They are recognised as important aspects, but their epistemological...... status has remained unclarified. In this article, it is argued that we need to consider three different yet related epistemological problems in order to obtain a better understanding of these aspects in clinical reasoning. Even though judgement and values are mentioned in the decision-making procedure......, better clinical reasoning is typically linked to detachment, neutrality and monological conceptions of rationality. In this article, it is argued that rational clinical decision-making must also include position-dependent experiences, values and dialogical deliberation....

  13. Écriture (autobiographique dans l'Examen critique d'Alexandre de Humboldt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Drews

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung Der Bezug auf Kolumbus ist ein Gemeinplatz der Humboldtbiographik. Humboldt selbst betont ihn besonders in seinem Examen critique, wo er eine autobiographische Dimension gewinnt. Der Beitrag geht aus literaturwissenschaftlicher Perspektive dem Material und den Formen der Inszenierung nach, mit denen ein Leben über ein anderes dargestellt wird.  Résumé La référence à Colomb est un lieu commun de la biographie humboldtienne. Humboldt lui-même le souligne particulièrement dans son Examen critique, en y ajoutant une dimension autobiographique. La contribution analyse, dans une perspective philologique, le matériel et les formes de mise en scène avec lesquelles une vie est représentée au travers d'une autre.  Summary The reference to Columbus is a commonplace in Humboldt-biography. Humboldt himself is using it in his Examen critique which subjoins a auto-biographical dimension. This articel examines from a philological point of view the materials and literary strategies by which one life comes to represent another.

  14. Mel Ramsden’s Theoretical Critique of Institutions: A Close Reading of “On Practice”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Đorđević

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The work offers a detailed reading of Mel Ramsden’s “On Practice”. The introductory paragraphs bring insight into contemporary discussions concerning definitions of the term “institutional critique” and exhibit different approaches to the historization of these practices. The main thesis is that Marxism was present in the critical practices of the New York-based conceptual artists associated with institutional critique, while the expanded thesis is that their Marxism was a form of interpretation/intervention in the institution of art. The central part comprises a reading of Ramsden’s text. The reading divides the text into three segments: a critique of bureaucracy in art, a critique of the art market, and a call for alternatives. Special attention is paid to the third segment. The communal art alternatives that Ramsden proposes are juxtaposed with the concrete practices of the “social turn” in contemporary art. The final remarks offer conclusions regarding the main and expanded theses and raise the question of the type of intervention that Ramsden’s text performs in the contemporary institution of art.

  15. Excerpt from Pluralist Universalism: An Asian Americanist Critique of U.S. and Chinese Multiculturalisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pluralist Universalism: An Asian Americanist Critique of U.S. and Chinese Multiculturalisms is an extended comparison of US and Chinese multiculturalisms during the post–Cold War era. Her book situates itself at the intersection of Asian American literary critique and the growing field of comparative multiculturalism. Through readings of fictional narratives that address the issue of racial and ethnic difference in both national contexts simultaneously, the author models a “double critique” framework for US–Chinese comparative literary studies.The book approaches U.S. liberal multiculturalism and China’s ethnic policy as two competing multiculturalisms, one grounded primarily in a history of racial desegregation and the other in the legacies of a socialist revolution. Since the end of the Cold War, the two multiculturalisms have increasingly been brought into contact through translation and other forms of mediation. Pluralist Universalism demonstrates that a number of fictional narratives, including those commonly classified as Chinese, American, and Chinese American, have illuminated incongruities and connections between the ethno-racial politics of the two nations.The “double critique” framework builds upon critical perspectives developed in Asian American studies and adjacent fields. The book brings to life an innovative vision of Asian American literary critique, even as it offers a unique intervention in ideas of ethnicity and race prevailing in both China and the United States in the post–Cold War era.

  16. The Madoffization of Irish society: from Ponzi finance to sociological critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Lee F; O'Flynn, Micheal

    2017-12-01

    Financialization and neoliberal policy created the Celtic Tiger. This economic 'miracle' furthered creditors' and property developers' speculative interests, leading to an unstable financial pyramid that eventually imploded in 2008 with catastrophic consequences for Irish society. Using the sociological imagination as social critique, this paper offers a lens on fictitious capital and Ponzi finance in the context of Ireland's boom and bust. Critique is advanced using the Madoffization of society thesis, a sociological heuristic that draws formal comparisons between Bernie Madoff's US$65 billion Ponzi scheme, which collapsed in 2008, and financialized capitalism. The Madoff case exhibits five main elements or forms which, it has been argued, underlie the varying content of life on a much broader scale: accumulation by debt expansion, mass deception, efforts to maintain secrecy and silence, obfuscation, and scapegoating. In conclusion, a crucial difference between the Madoff case and the Madoffization of Irish society is underscored. Discussion also moves from critique to hope amidst calls to renew sociology and transform financialized capitalism. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  17. Marx and the critique of capitalist society: critique of labor/Marx e a crítica ontológica da sociedade capitalista: crítica do trabalho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Duayer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper seeks to emphasize what in my opinion can be consideredthe main thrust of Marxian work: the critique of political economy as an ontological critique of the modern capitalist society. Such critique begins to take its ultimate form with the Grundrisse. The argument runs as follows. Firstly, it tries to show briefly the debilitating effects, both in theory and practice, brought about in the last decades by the dissolution of the Marxian ontological critique. Secondly, it argues that real critique is ontological critique and, consequently, has to explain what such a critique consists of. Finally, agreeing with Postone’s suggested reinterpretation of Marx’s ideas, but diverging from him precisely with respect to ontology, it suggests that the ontological critique produced by Marx is a critique of labor or, in other words, critique of the centrality of labor, which is specific of the capitalist society.O artigo pretende destacar o que constitui para mim o propósitocentral da obra marxiana que, nos Grundrisse, começa a tomar forma acabada,a saber, a crítica da economia política como crítica ontológica da modernasociedade capitalista. O argumento está assim estruturado. Em primeiro lugar,inicio procurando mostrar de maneira sintética os efeitos paralisantes, teóricose práticos, da dissolução da crítica ontológica marxiana nas últimas décadas.Em segundo lugar, e justamente por isso, tento sustentar que crítica de fato écrítica ontológica e, em consequência, devo mostrar de que se trata essa crítica.Por último, concordando com a interpretação da obra de Marx proposta porMoishe Postone, mas diferindo dela precisamente no que diz respeito à onto-logia, procuro demonstrar que a crítica ontológica elaborada por Marx é críticado trabalho, ou, caso se queira, crítica da centralidade do trabalho, própria eespecífica da sociedade capitalista.

  18. Cognitive-behavior therapy for problem gambling: a critique of current treatments and proposed new unified approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolchard, Barry

    2017-06-01

    There is evidence supporting the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of problem gambling. Despite this, little is known about how CBT works and which particular approach is most effective. This paper aims to synthesize the evidence for current CBT and propose a more unified approach to treatment. A literature review and narrative synthesis of the current research evidence of CBT for the treatment of problem gambling was conducted, focusing on the underlying mechanisms within the treatment approach. Several CBT approaches were critiqued. These can be divided into forms of exposure therapy (including aversion techniques, systematic desensitization and other behavioral experiments) those focusing on cognitive restructuring techniques (such as reinforcement of nongambling activity, use of diaries, motivational enhancement and audio-playback techniques and third wave techniques including mindfulness. Findings, in relation to the treatment actions, from this synthesis are reported. The debate surrounding the treatment of problem gambling has been conducted as an either/or rather than a both/and discourse. This paper proposes a new, unified approach to the treatment of problem gambling that incorporates the best elements of both exposure and cognitive restructuring techniques, alongside the use of techniques borrowed from mindfulness and other CBT approaches.

  19. (dis)Ability and Postsecondary Education: One Woman's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Melissa; MacDonald, Judy E.; Jacquard, Sarah; Mcneil, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The storied experiences of a (dis)Abled student negotiating postsecondary education in Canada are highlighted within this article, including advocacy strategies and a critique of related policies. Persons with (dis)Abilities are a particularly marginalized population, traditionally excluded from society, with modern day views of pity or heroics…

  20. The Role of Fiction in Experiments within Design, Art & Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutz, Eva; Markussen, Thomas; Christensen, Poul Rind

    2013-01-01

    of critique; (3) design aims; (4) materializations and forms; and (5) the aesthetic of design fictions. The typology is premised on the idea that fiction may integrate with reality in many different ways in design experiments. The explanatory power of the typology is exemplified through the analyses of 6 case...

  1. « Very much in the dark about light » : Franklin, lumières et critiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Delbourgo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet essai considère une critique des expériences électriques de Benjamin Franklin, publiée anonymement à Londres en 1777. L'auteur s'interroge pour savoir s'il est légitime de regarder ces expériences comme « natural philosophy » dans la tradition d’Isaac Newton. Cette critique des lumières frankliniennes est considérée en connection avec les conflits de la Révolution américaine, les angoisses sociales sur la dextérité mécanique, et la hiérarchie géographique des savoirs. Les débats sur le caractère de la vraie philosophie naturelle qui touchaient les expériences de Franklin portaient également sur la constitution sociale, politique et géographique de l’autorité.This essay discusses a critical account of Benjamin Franklin’s experiments with electricity published anonymously in London in 1777. The fundamental question raised was whether Franklin’s famous experiments constituted legitimate natural philosophy in the tradition of Isaac Newton. This dim view of Franklinist enlightenment is linked to the conflicts of the American Revolution, social anxieties about mechanical ingenuity, and geographical hierarchies of knowledge-making. It is argued that debates over the legitimacy of the proper character of natural philosophy that addressed Franklinist science were also debates over the social, political and geographical constitution of authority.

  2. A guide to critiquing a research paper. Methodological appraisal of a paper on nurses in abortion care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, Allyson; Fothergill, Anne

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we have taken a previously published article on nurses' judgements in abortion care performing a systematic critique of the merits of this research using a recognised critiquing framework. The qualitative paper chosen for the critique is a grounded theory design and the research terms and terminology associated with this method such as symbolic interactionism are defined. The published paper reported on findings from a study exploring the characteristics of nurses in abortion care. A published critiquing tool has been applied. It was chosen because it is pragmatic, clearly laid out and accessible as full text to the people likely to need it. It comprises two stages, the first of which centres on the believability of the research. The second stage is more detailed and examines the research process and establishes the credibility of the research in its application to practice. Develop critical and analytical skills through methodically appraising the merits of published research. Nursing as an evidence-based profession requires nurses at both pre- and post-registration levels to be able to understand, synthesise and critique research, this being a fundamental part of many nursing curricula. These have become core skills to acquire since implementing up to date evidence is the cornerstone of contemporary nursing practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Using motivation as a thinking experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe; Nissen, Morten

    Using motivation as thinking experiment, this presentation reconstructs critical post/psychologies in the light of the futures they envision. “Post” or “critical” does not imply not being concerned with psychology (the science of experience, thinking, acting, and feeling). Rather...... it is an alternative focusing upon constitutive contexts and relations and challenging the autonomous subject. Subjectivity is a premise that haunts psychology, at its limits. Subjectivity - as object of reflection - itself emerges in critique; critique is, in a sense, the objectification of subjectivity through which...... it may be formed. Yet, psychology mostly defines itself as a science that objectifies subjectivity while avoiding the reflection of these implications. Critical post/psychologies take up these implications, and face the choice of rejecting or reforming psychology. This utopia can be described as “we know...

  4. Les origines de la critique de science-fiction : de Kepler à Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur B. Evans

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Des notes de 1634 de Johannes Kepler sur son Songe aux essais d’H. G. Wells au début du xxe siècle, il y a eu de nombreuses explorations critiques de la littérature que nous appelons à présent science-fiction. Les commentaires de ces premiers critiques (souvent oubliés importent principalement parce qu’ils exprimaient nombre des inquiétudes (sinon toutes qui deviendraient plus tard centrales à la critique de la SF du xxe siècle : l’impact de la science et de la technologie sur les valeurs humaines, la logistique du voyage spatial, les frontières fluctuantes entre le réel et l’imaginaire, la description de l’« altérité » radicale, et les futurs possibles de notre monde. Bien plus, elles soulevaient invariablement des questions essentielles concernant les traits définitoires du genre lui-même dans sa forme en constante évolution : ses thèmes de prédilection, ses visées sociales, son didactisme scientifique et moral, son degré de vraisemblance constitutif, et sa place dans le canon littéraire occidental. Enfin, à l’aube du nouveau millénaire, il semble pertinent de regarder notre passé lointain pour redécouvrir ce que ces premiers commentateurs avaient à dire des nombreux ouvrages de science-fiction de leur époque : ceci sert à approfondir notre connaissance de la continuité historique du débat actuel sur la SF et à nous faire prendre conscience de la façon dont les choses ont à la fois beaucoup et peu changé à travers les siècles.

  5. Can material matters and critique be dealt with at the same time? Discussion of analytical approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2016-01-01

    . Several theoretical traditions offer perspectives that take objects into account even though they approach the understanding of how material relations shape social life differently. This presentation discusses how the research area on disaster, social crisis and conflict can benefit and be widen up from......) materiality is as well offered a central place in the analysis though dimension of structural character are involved in contrary to both the ANT- and the Post ANT tradition. The four approaches will be outlined in relation to different cases, and each tradition?s ability to deal with the question of critique...

  6. Constitutional Amendment and Political Constitutionalism: The Potential Mitigation of Critiques on Judicial Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Néia Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The criticisms toward judicial review from Richard Bellamy and Jeremy Waldron’s political constitutionalism approach demonstrate that they do not exclude constitutional courts entirely, as they accept mechanisms of legislative responses, except constitutional amendments. This paper concludes that the high number of constitutional amendments in Brazil does not mitigate judicial review critiques. The extensive structure of the Brazilian Constitution imposes frequent changes, which do not modify its essence. Furthermore, the possibility of judicial review over constitutional amendments represents that constitutional court could overrule legislative response.

  7. Physiatrie and German maternal feminism: Dr. Anna Fischer-Dückelmann critiques academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Paulette

    2006-01-01

    Alternative medicine and reform strategies made Anna Fischer-Dückelmann a most controversial, notorious, and widely read women doctor before World War I. She published a dozen titles in 13 languages asserting that national well-being depended on maternal prowess. To her critics, Fischer-Dückelmann's commitment to medical self-help and practices of Physiatrie amounted to medical quackery. Her career has been largely unexamined, yet her feminist critiques and social concerns are not far removed from modern social medicine. For this pioneering doctor, treating physical and emotional ills and promoting the health of families were first steps toward healing the divisions of a world at war.

  8. A critique of emerging European legislation in the pharmaceutical industry: a clinical trials analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth; McAdam, Rodney; Burke, Moira T

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to critique emerging legislation in the pharmaceutical industry, focusing on the clinical trials sector. Possible changes are identified and discussed inrelation to their impact on phase I clinical trials conducted in the UK. It is concluded that smaller contract research organisations, which have benefited in the past from European Union legislative variation, may have resource problems in trying to cope with the changing business environment created through legislative harmonization. These SMEs must use this opportunity to seek clinical trials research partnerships in a new harmonized EU market.

  9. A critique of Lilienfeld et al.'s (2000) "The scientific status of projective techniques".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Stephen

    2003-06-01

    Lilienfeld, Wood, and Garb (2000) published a largely negative critique of the validity and reliability of projective methods, concentrating on the Comprehensive System for the Rorschach (Exner, 1993), 3 systems for coding the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943) cards, and human figure drawings. This article is an effort to document and correct what I perceive as errors of omission and commission in the Lilienfeld et al. article. When projective measures are viewed in the light of these corrections, the evidence for the validity and clinical usefulness of the Rorschach and TAT methods is more robust than Lilienfeld et al. represented.

  10. The Egyptian Islamic Group’s Critique of Al-Qaeda’s Interpretation of Jihad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kamolnick

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A specific branch of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh al-jihad regulates the waging of the jihad of the sword (jihad bis saif. In this article, a detailed exposition is presented of the Egyptian Islamic Group’s (IG; Al-Gama’a Al-Islamiyya use of fiqh al jihad against Al-Qaeda. The present author’s ‘jihad-realist’ approach is first briefly described; the IG’s critique of AQ systematically outlined; and in conclusion, implications are derived for counter-radicalisation strategies.

  11. Can material matters and critique be dealt with at the same time? Discussion of analytical approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2013-01-01

    . Several theoretical traditions offer perspectives that take objects into account even though they approach the understanding of how material relations shape social life differently. This presentation discusses how the research area on disaster, social crisis and conflict can benefit and be widen up from......) materiality is as well offered a central place in the analysis though dimension of structural character are involved in contrary to both the ANT- and the Post ANT tradition. The four approaches will be outlined in relation to different cases, and each tradition’s ability to deal with the question of critique...

  12. The evolutionary psychology of human mating: a response to Buller's critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasios, John

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, I critique arguments made by philosopher David Buller against central evolutionary-psychological explanations of human mating. Specifically, I aim to rebut his criticisms of Evolutionary Psychology regarding (1) women's long-term mating preferences for high-status men; (2) the evolutionary rationale behind men's provisioning of women; (3) men's mating preferences for young women; (4) women's adaptation for extra-pair sex; (5) the sex-differentiated evolutionary theory of human jealousy; and (6) the notion of mate value. In sum, I aim to demonstrate that Buller's arguments contra Evolutionary Psychologists are left wanting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. EssayCritic. A Pilot Study of a Computer Supported Essay Critiquing System

    OpenAIRE

    Otnes, Jan Are

    2008-01-01

    This predominantly qualitative case study has been concerned with the use of a student essay critiquing system, named EssayCritic, in a collaborative setting with 26 students aged 16-17, at a Norwegian high school. It was done in close co-operation between InterMedia at the University of Oslo, Norway and Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong. The goal has been to study how EssayCritic can help students writing essays in general, and the effect of collaboration in pairs, particularly. EssayC...

  14. Idéologie et critique dans les récits zapatistes du Sous-commandant Marcos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Vanden Berghe

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Dans ce texte nous partirons de la distinction établie par Peter von Zima entre discours critique et discours idéologique, le discours critique étant relativement plus conscient de son propre caractère historique et construit, plus ouvert au dialogue et plus prêt à s’interroger. Il semble évident qu’une guérilla produise, au contraire, un discours idéologique dans la mesure où ses communiqués se construisent sur des oppositions simples qui empêchent la réflexion critique et se présentent comm...

  15. Craig, Todd. ""'Jackin’ for Beats'": DJing for Citation Critique." Radical Teacher [Online], 97 (2013: 20-29. Web. 19 Feb. 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radical Teacher

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Radical Teacher wishes to apologize to Todd Craig for misprinting the title of his article in RT 97 (Hip Hop and Critical Pedagogy.  Instead of   “’Jackin’ for Beats’”: DJing for Citation Critique, the title should have been “Jackin’ for Beats”: DJing for Citation Critique.

  16. Nietzsche lecteur de The Data of Ethics : Une critique évolutionniste de la morale de Spencer

    OpenAIRE

    Salanskis, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Depuis un peu plus d’une décennie, la critique des sources a entrepris de réévaluer l’importance de Spencer pour la philosophie nietzschéenne. Cet article s’inscrit dans le prolongement d’études récentes qui, au lieu de se focaliser sur les déclarations polémiques tardives de Nietzsche, adoptent une approche génétique pour restituer équitablement son interprétation de Spencer. Mais nous mettons en question l’opposition entre construction et critique qui guide certains ...

  17. MARTIN HEIDEGGER’S BLACK NOTEBOOKS AND POLITICAL ECONOMY OF CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHICAL CRITIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Karpenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the key strategies of philosophical criticism of Heidegger’s Black Notebooks, whose achievement is realized in the following tasks: 1 to identify the body of texts that represent the discourse of philosophical criticism of Heidegger notes; 2 to reveal the typological features of the different strategies of interpreting Black Notebooks; 3 to reconstruct a thematic horizon of Heidegger studies, opened up by discussion on published notes. The methodology combines elements of discourse analysis with traditional methods of historical and philosophical criticism. Scientific novelty is expressed in the following: 1 philosophical discourse of the Notebooks’ reception includes texts of narrowly specialized character (Gatherings collection of articles, as well as reflections of key philosophers (A. Badiou, J.-L. Nancy 2 basic strategies in philosophical critique of Black Notebooks convey the overall structure of the discourse of interpretation of Heidegger’s legacy, distributed between apologetics and ideological criticism; 3 Black Notebooks have exacerbated the problem of architectonics of Gesammtausgabe and formed the textual basis for the study of "silence" period in philosophical life of Heidegger. Conclusions. The discourse of philosophical critique of Heidegger’s notes proves evidence for ideological charge of philosophizing and justifies socially oriented approaches of historical and philosophical studies examining philosophizing as a special cultural practice, not as a form of sublime creativity.

  18. The precarity of critique: Cultures of mistrust and the refusal of justification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witte Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reflects on recent developments towards authoritarianism and right-wing populism that have become apparent in a number of Western societies and aims at pinpointing possible cultural foundations for this trend. Using the example of the German PEGIDA movement and the wider milieu in which it is embedded, it identifies and describes a rapidly spreading culture of mistrust and discusses some of its political and epistemological implications. In a second step, the paper draws on Luc Boltanski’s theory of justification in order to attain a better understanding of this political movement’s specificities. It is argued that it is a quasi-violent refusal of justification which is constitutive for the movement in question, thereby transcending the reach of Boltanski’s framework to some extent. In a third step, a closer look is taken at the epistemological paradox that results from the fact that a number of the PEGIDA movement’s crucial points of criticism are effectively shared by a larger part of the overall population, raising severe problems for the question of sociological critique. The paper utilizes ideas by Bruno Latour in order to illuminate this paradox further and examine its consequences. It closes with remarks on the possibility to “reassemble” trust and critique as crucial but contested - and, hence, precarious - foundations of modern society.

  19. Critique Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte; Muhr, Sara Louise

    critically inspired research with the ambition to provide relevant implications for organizational practitioners. Ethnographic data from Danish Police Officers on summer assistance in Greenland Police (collected in both Denmark and Greenland) has been used to perform critical interventions in relation...... to cross-cultural training offered to Danish officers on a pre-departure course as well as at a leadership seminar for the top-management team in Greenland Police. The paper demonstrates how critical-affirmative interventions of tempered radicalism might instigate small scale practitioner-relevant changes...

  20. Critiquing Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Lynn W.

    2015-01-01

    Question formation is a basic part of teaching and learning English. However, teachers often focus on the ability to form the question properly and not as much on the quality of the information the question is seeking. Whether teaching English language learners or students who want to be English teachers, teachers need to carefully consider the…

  1. La théorie du 0 %. Petite étude critique de la critique en bande dessinée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Martin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Si la naissance de la bande dessinée s’accompagne d’une théorisation à travers les travaux d’un Töpffer cherchant à circonscrire l'ensemble des possibles qui s'offrent à lui, force est de constater que la veine va bien vite se tarir. Rapidement exclue du champ critique, la bande dessinée semble ne bénéficier d'aucune analyse sérieuse qui soit de nature à lui forger des repères. L'Histoire montre que c'est de manière empirique qu'elle a travaillé sa substance, parfois avec génie (McCay, Hergé… souvent sans âme, à l’exception de quelques tentatives que le présent article entend présenter.If the birth of comic strips is accompanied by a theorical effort through the work of a Töpffer seeking to circumscribe all possible available to them, it is clear that the vein will soon dry up. Quickly removed from the critical field, the comic seems to benefit from any serious analysis that could help authors and readers in their practises. Through History, Comics has worked empirically it its substance, sometimes with genius (McCay, Hergé ... often soulless, with the exception of some attempts that this article intends to present.

  2. Conflicts of Interest and Incentives to Bias: A Microeconomic Critique of Google’s Tangled Position on the Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieder, B.; Sire, G.

    2014-01-01

    Media scholars have studied and critiqued search engines - and in particular the dominant commercial actor, Google - for over a decade. Several conceptual and methodological problems, such as a lack of technological transparency, have made a detailed analysis of concrete power relations and their

  3. Learning to Critique and Adapt Science Curriculum Materials: Examining the Development of Preservice Elementary Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Carrie J.; Davis, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers often engage in curricular planning by critiquing and adapting existing curriculum materials to contextualize lessons and compensate for their deficiencies. Designing instruction for students is shaped by teachers' ability to apply a variety of personal resources, including their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). This study…

  4. The Veil of Professionalism: An Autoethnographic Critique of White Positional Identities in the Figured Worlds of White Research Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Julie L.; Prater, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Two white researchers critique the professional veil of silence they created as they reflected on a qualitative study they performed 12 years earlier. Autoethnography and performance ethnography are utilized to examine the ways in which whiteness can remain unexamined throughout the research process due to the construction of white positional…

  5. Recovering a Forgotten Pioneer of Science Studies: C. E. Ayers' Deweyan Critique of Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, David I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper brings to light the ideas of a pioneering but largely forgotten social critic, C. E. Ayres. In his first book, "Science: The False Messiah" (1927), which was written in consultation with John Dewey, Ayres advanced a forceful and original critique of science and technology. He argued that technological change was occurring at a…

  6. A Critique of the STEM Pipeline: Young People's Identities in Sweden and Science Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendick, Heather; Berge, Maria; Danielsson, Anna

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we develop critiques of the pipeline model which dominates Western science education policy, using discourse analysis of interviews with two Swedish young women focused on "identity work". We argue that it is important to unpack the ways that the pipeline model fails to engage with intersections of gender, ethnicity,…

  7. Skilled expert practice: is it 'all in the mind'? A response to English's critique of Benner's novice to expert model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbyshire, P

    1994-04-01

    In a recent critique of the work of Patricia Benner in relation to expertise, skilled intuitive grasp and the Dreyfus model of skill acquisition, English (Journal of Advanced Nursing 1993, vol. 18, pp. 387-393) uses the tenets of positivism and cognitive psychology to criticize Benner's work for lacking objectivity, validity, generalizability and predictive power. In this response to English's critique I show how he has misread, failed to read, and consequently misunderstood her work, and, equally importantly, its philosophical basis. Benner's work is developed from a philosophical foundation grounded in interpretive and Heideggerian phenomenology. This wholly different 'take' on the world and on human behaviour embodies a strong critique of those very same traditional-science worldviews which English uses to damn her work. English's critique is valuable in highlighting the ways in which Benner's work can be misrepresented and this response tries to remedy this misunderstanding by attempting to clarify the fundamental differences between phenomenological and cognitive understandings. These differences are crucial to understanding Dreyfus's and Benner's work. Here, I also attempt to correct some of English's wilder assertions regarding Benner's work. Finally, I try to show how Benner's work has empowered, enthused and challenged, rather than being 'denigrating to the majority of nurses'.

  8. "Simply No Worse and Simply No Better" May Simply Be Wrong: A Critique of Veenman's Conclusion about Multigrade Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, De Wayne A.; Burns, Robert B.

    1996-01-01

    Critiques the conclusions of S. Veenman (1995) about multigrade classes and suggests that selection bias and lower-quality instruction should be included as part of the explanation for his findings of no difference. Indicates that multigrade classes have at least a small negative effect on achievement and potentially negative effects on teacher…

  9. The Primacy of Cognition--or of Perception? A Phenomenological Critique of the Theoretical Bases of Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Bo

    2001-01-01

    Critiques a particular trend in educational research and practice, "cognitivism", which is a result of the reception by education of epistemological theories that have an objective alien to that of education, which is the all-round development of human personality. Suggests that present mainstream theories of science education be complemented with…

  10. Examining the Use of Talk and Writing for Students' Development of Scientific Conceptual Knowledge through Constructing and Critiquing Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chih; Park, Soonhye; Hand, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This study developed an analytic framework consisting of four patterns of talk and writing that can support students' engagement in construction and critique: "Talk only," "writing only," "use of talk and writing in sequence," and "use of talk and writing simultaneously." This study aimed to examine how each…

  11. A Review and Critique of the Portrayal of Older Adult Learners in Adult Education Journals, 1980-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Kuang; Kim, Young Sek; Moon, Paul; Merriam, Sharan B.

    2008-01-01

    The aging population is a worldwide challenge. Understanding how older adults have been portrayed would provide a foundation on which future scholarship can build. This study assesses and critiques the assumptions underlying the portrayal of older adults and their learning in adult education journals from 1980 to 2006. On reviewing 93 articles in…

  12. Beyond Convention, beyond Critique: Toward a Third Way of Preparing Educational Leaders to Promote Equity and Social Justice (Part 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    The author begins this article with a brief review of the reasons educational leaders and schools need to promote equity and social justice. The article then critiques two approaches to educational leadership as inadequate for preparing educational leaders to foster equity and social justice. The conventional approach to both educational…

  13. A Review of Empirical Literature on Inquiry Professional Development: Alignment with Best Practices and a Critique of the Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Daniel K.; Crawford, Barbara A.; Constas, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    This review brings together the literature on inquiry-based teaching and learning and science teacher professional development (PD). We present a targeted critical review of research focused specifically on the nature of PD programs purported to emphasize inquiry. Our review analyzes the features of each program and critiques the reported outcomes…

  14. Postsecularism, piety and fanaticism: reflections on Jürgen Habermas' and Saba Mahmood’s critiques of secularism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses how recent critiques of secularism in political philosophy and cultural anthropology might productively be combined and contrasted with each other. I will show that Jürgen Habermas' postsecularism takes insufficient account of elementary criticisms of secularism on the part of

  15. Response to McGill and Busse, "When Theory Trumps Science: A Critique of the PSW Model for SLD Identification"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christo, Catherine; D'Incau, Barbara J.; Ponzuric, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    The California Association of School Psychologists (CASP) responds to a critique of the Association's Position Paper: "Specific Learning Disabilities and Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses" (2014, March. Available: http://casponline.org/about-casp/publications/) by McGill and Busse. The CASP offers corrections to McGill and Busse's…

  16. Can Religious Expression and Sexual Orientation Affirmation Coexist in Social Work? A Critique of Hodge's Theoretical, Theological, and Conceptual Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessel, Adrienne; Bolen, Rebecca; Shepardson, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Social work strives to be inclusive of all cultural groups and religious identities. However, a tension exists in the profession between freedom of religious expression and full acceptance of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. David Hodge and others claim social work is oppressive to evangelical Christians. This article critiques primarily Hodge's…

  17. Rotational Critique System as a Method of Culture Change in an Architecture Design Studio: Urban Design Studio as Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasli, Mukaddes; Hassanpour, Badiossadat

    2017-01-01

    In this century, all educational efforts strive to achieve quality assurance standards. Therefore, it will be naive to deny the existence of problems in architectural education. The current design studio critique method has been developed upon generations of students and educators. Architectural education is changing towards educating critical…

  18. La naissance de la subjectivité et ses limites dans les études critiques de Tzvetan Todorov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyan Atanassov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude porte sur l’apparition, l’évolution et les modalités de la subjectivité dans les ouvrages critiques de Tzvetan Todorov. Nous commençons par quelques considérations sur le statut du sujet critique en sciences humaines. L’analyse retrace ensuite le contexte intellectuel et théorique dans lequel émerge la subjectivité de Todorov. Nous commentons ensuite plusieurs ouvrages qui servent de repère dans l’étude de la subjectivité chez Todorov.Celle-ci, tout comme le principe dialogique qu’il a mis au point en tant que méthode d’interprétation, relève d’une rationalité conséquente et d’une déontologie. On peut distinguer, au cours du travail critique, quatre instances du Je: existentielle, autobiographique, critique, cognitive. Les deux premières alimentent les deux autres. Le Je existentiel finit par s’affirmer, chez Todorov, comme le point de départ et l’horizon axiologique de la recherche. Le Je autobiographique émane du précédent. Il introduit en filigrane une narration retraçant aussi bien un destin individuel qu’un épisode historique. L’élément autobiographique chez Todorov est délibérément mitigé. Il ne trouve sa justification qu’en se mettant au service du Je critique. Ce dernier confère une dimension humaine et concrète à la recherche de la vérité. Le Je cognitif devient ainsi l’expression d’une vie et d’un destin individuels.

  19. Notes on inventive methodologies and affirmative critiques of an affective edu-future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    What are the possible futures for educational research? In this essay, I have collected various thoughts concerning one small corner of possible intriguing methodologies and critiques of what I will term an affective edu-future. As the title indicates, the essay concerns two intertwined agendas....... The first agenda is empirical and concerns how educational policy and leadership constitute, circulate, transform and modify feelings, moods and affects. This can be traced in the emotional rhetoric concerning educational policy and leadership and in the use of technologies directed at affective states...... of minds and bodies. Especially, motivation, engagement and the desire for learning are targets for policy and leadership technologies. This possible scenario is an affective edu-future that has connections to new modes of governance through standards and thereby present ways of leading educational...

  20. Antirationalist critique or fifth column of scientism? Challenges from Doctor Who to the mad scientist trope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthia, Lindy A

    2011-07-01

    Much of the public understanding of science literature dealing with fictional scientists claims that scientist villains by their nature embody an antiscience critique. I characterize this claim and its founding assumptions as the "mad scientist" trope. I show how scientist villain characters from the science fiction television series Doctor Who undermine the trope via the programme's use of rhetorical strategies similar to Gilbert and Mulkay's empiricist and contingent repertoires, which define and patrol the boundaries between "science" and "non-science." I discuss three such strategies, including the literal framing of scientist villains as "mad." All three strategies exclude the characters from science, relieve science of responsibility for their villainy, and overtly or covertly contribute to the delivery of pro-science messages consistent with rationalist scientism. I focus on scientist villains from the most popular era of Doctor Who, the mid 1970s, when the show embraced the gothic horror genre.

  1. Make me wanna holler: Meshell Ndegeocello, Black queer aesthetics, and feminist critiques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Matt

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the music and performance of Meshell Ndegeocello, arguing that they are part of a cross-Atlantic conversation that pushes the boundaries of Black feminist thought on masculinity and desire. From the time of her debut album in 1993, Ndegeocello has resisted categorization both in her public personae and in her music. Ndegeocello's refusal to be restricted in her stage performance and in her musical expression has created a rich text through which to read Black female masculinity. Her work has been particularly productive in rethinking (Black) feminist couplings of patriarchy with male anatomy. Ndegeocello's music challenges any one representation of female masculinity, mixing critiques of masculine privilege and violence with celebrations of pleasure and pansexual desire.

  2. The Salman Mosque: Achmad Noe’man’s Critique of Indonesian Conventional Mosque Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holik, A. A. R.; Aryanti, T.

    2017-03-01

    The Salman Mosque, designed by Achmad Noe’man, was a striking Islamic architectural design in the 1960s when it was built. Unlike the conventional mosques, particularly in Indonesia, it has no dome. Instead, the roof was made of prestressed concrete and resembles a canoe. Using data drawn from field observations, this paper explores the architectural characteristics of the Salman Mosque as a product of Modern architecture. It argues that the domeless mosque, the simple minaret, the wooden wall panels and floor, the women’s balcony, and the roof demonstrate architectural modernism, as opposed to the conventional mosque typology that flourished in Indonesia at the time. This paper further argues that the Salman Mosque is Noe’man’s critique of the Indonesian conventional mosque architecture. It concludes that the architectural features of the Salman Mosque reflects Noe’man’s modern vision of Islam and Islamic architecture.

  3. Surely You Must All be Joking: An Outsider's Critique of Quantum Physics

    CERN Document Server

    O'Reilly, Randall C

    2011-01-01

    A critique of the state of current quantum theory in physics is presented, based on a perspective outside the normal physics training. From this perspective, the acceptance of quantum nonlocality seems unwarranted, and the fundamental assumptions that give rise to it in the first place seem questionable, based on the current status of the quantum theory of light. The relevant data can instead be accounted for using physically motivated local models, based on detailed properties of the experimental setups. The semiclassical approach, particularly in the form of the fully coupled Maxwell-Dirac equations with a pure wave ontology, seems to provide a satisfying, local, paradox-free physical model of the quantum world, that appears consistent with known phenomena. It is unclear why this approach is not pursued more vigorously in the field, given its clear potential to resolve all the conundrums that have perplexed generations of physicists.

  4. On the proper behavior of atoms: A comment on a critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A recent article [S. Keen, R. Standish, Profit maximization, industry structure, and competition: a critique of neoclassical theory, Physica A 370 (2006) 81-85] suggests that the Cournot model, which is widely used in Economics, is inappropriate and the article proposes an alternative. I argue that the supporting arguments compute derivatives incorrectly which, amongst other things, have the effect of confusing the relationship between an individual actor in a market and the total mass of firms. I also indicate that the proposed alternative was considered about 20 years ago and found to be unsatisfactory. Thus, it should not be surprising when the authors fail to use their own proposal in the second half of the paper.

  5. Commentaire de Sylvia Giocanti à la note critique de J.-P. Cavaillé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Giocanti

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available à la lecture de l'essai de Jean-Pierre Cavaillé publié sur le site du GRIHL et intitulé « Libertinage, irréligion, incroyance, athéisme dans l'Europe de la première modernité (xvie-xviie siècles, Une approche critique des tendances actuelles de la recherche (1998-2002 », on est d'abord frappé par l'ampleur de la synthèse, d'une utilité incontestable pour tous ceux qui s'intéressent de près ou de loin à l'épineuse et controversée question du libertinage au xviie siècle. En effet, il ne s'agi...

  6. The Live Coding of Slub - Art Oriented Programming as Media Critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Computer art is often associated with computer-generated expressions (digital audio/images in music, video, stage design, etc.). In recent computer art, however, the code-text itself – not the generated output – has become the artwork (Perl Poetry, ASCII Art, obfuscated code, etc.). This paper......-oriented programming needs to acknowledge the conditions of its own making – its poesis." (Cox et. al. 2004) The paper will argue that this statement formulates a media critique. As Florian Cramer has proposed, the GUI represents a media separation (of text/code and image) causing alienation to the computer......'s materiality/text. (Cramer 2003) The paper will then propose that object of art oriented programming – in an avant-garde perspective – must be to recuperate an interchangeability of data and processing. How? The particularity of Live Coding does not rely on the magical expression – but nor does it rely...

  7. Ethos and Critique: a Contribution to Ethics in Research and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gerd

    as well as to supervise the students in group dynamics and not just – as it is currently done – in the academic skills and content matters. Thus, it points at the ethical qualities of the critical work of Foucault: that critique is an appeal to be constantly aware of what we are doing, and that what we......The aim of this paper is to discuss Michel Foucault’s concept of ethos and the possibilities and limitations of this position. In addition, I will argue that Foucault’s insistently critical stance and power/knowledge concept can be considered as an ethical stance different from both deontology...... Danish universities. Project studies in groups (a Danish version of PBL) have since the 1970’es been extensively applied as a teaching and learning method in Denmark from primary school to university teaching. Thus, the student’s ability to work in groups is generally taken for granted. Never the less...

  8. WHY WORK? A CULTURALLY INFORMED CRITIQUE OF PAST AND PRESENT SHOP FLOOR INTERPRETATIONS OF WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA KELEMEN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a cultural critique of the meanings of work as theytranscend different modes of production. Twenty years on from the collapse of state socialism,Western experts are still called upon to prescribe ‘the best way’ for how productive workshould be conducted/managed across the non-Western world (Jankowicz, 1993; 1994; Kostera,1995, Kelemen, 1999. This ‘one best way’ usually assumes that the basic unit of analysis is therational, utility-maximising individual; a species, bred inside Westernized secondary andtertiary educational institutions, business schools, or (vocational training courses, all of theseproducing their special form of ‘learning to labour’ (Willis, 1977. Thus equipped, this species– what we might call, for the time being, the ‘model-worker’ - is bound to inhabit a ratherinhabitable place, an arena of in increasingly global capitalism: the market.

  9. Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Addiction in the United States: Critique and Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElrath, Karen

    2018-01-28

    In the United States, buprenorphine products (namely buprenorphine/naloxone combination) and methadone are the primary forms of medication-assisted treatment (MAT) that are authorized for addressing opioid addiction. Although treatment ideologies differentiate MAT programs, much of the provision in the US reflects a model of "high threshold, low tolerance." This model is discussed with a focus on structural and programmatic barriers that shape access to and retention in MAT. The critique continues with a discussion of multifaceted stigma that reinforces spoiled identities and diffuses into treatment settings. The social control mechanisms that are imposed in MAT are strikingly similar to those reflected in criminal justice settings, namely probation, parole and community corrections more generally. Parallels are drawn between the "addict" and the "felon" and how they are monitored, tracked, and controlled. These factors have major implications for recovery.

  10. The Contested White Lady: A Critique of New Zealand Cultural Heritage Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Neill

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article critiques New Zealand’s cultural heritage politics by positing that vernacular items, like an iconic eatery called the White Lady, does not meet the legislative criteria enabling cultural heritage status. If vernacular artefacts, including ‘kiwiana’, are to be integrated within cultural heritage, then changes within legislation, definitions and participant preconceptions are necessary. This study argues that cultural heritage is dominated by artefacts and historic places; that ‘kiwiana’ and other vernacular items of social history, practice and tradition are relegated. Items of ‘kiwiana’ act as touchstones of identity for New Zealanders. Therefore, their omission distorts the view of New Zealand’s cultural heritage. The application of cultural heritage status to the White Lady is important because of its transcendence of time and social change, its aesthetic, and also because of its present-day hospitality offering.

  11. Accounting for social accountability: developing critiques of social accountability within medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Stacey A; Beatty, Kathleen; Ellaway, Rachel H

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the social accountability of medical schools has garnered many followers, in response to a broad desire for greater social justice in health care. As its use has spread, the term 'social accountability' has become a meta-narrative for social justice and an inevitable and unquestionable good, while at the same time becoming increasingly ambiguous in its meaning and intent. In this article, we use the lenses of postmodernism and critical reflexivity to unpack the multiple meanings of social accountability. In our view, subjecting the concept of 'social accountability' to critique will enhance the ability to appraise the ways in which it is understood and enacted. We contend that critical reflexivity is necessary for social accountability to achieve its aspirations, and hence we must be prepared to become accountable not only for our actions, but also for the ideologies and discourses underlying them.

  12. A Critique of the Mainstream Management Control Theory and the Way Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandana Rathnasiri Hewege

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article critiques the mainstream management control theory with a view to highlighting its gaps and to suggesting a direction for its future development. Management control theory has undergone lopsided development due to the dominance of accounting-based approaches to the study of management controls. Thus, management control theory has failed to explain complex issues that are interwoven with deep-rooted, sociocultural context within which these issues emanate. Although the influence of organizational theory, particularly systems theory, cybernetics, and contingency theory, resulted in a marginal outward shift of the boundaries of the mainstream management control theory, the main drawbacks of the theory remained unresolved. Alternative theoretical perspectives rooted in disciplines such as political economy, sociology, and anthropology can enrich the mainstream management control theory. Management control issues emanating from non-Western contexts would remain largely unexplained or poorly explained, unless alternative theoretical perspectives were used.

  13. A Review and Critique of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Etiologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Charles Hertler

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present review and critique of extant etiological theories centers on a single finding: Obsessive-compulsive personality is highly heritable (0.78 and not significantly influenced by “common, shared-in-families environmental factors” (Torgersen et al., 2000, p. 424. This finding, though twelve years old, has remained dissociated from existing etiological accounts. Psychoanalytic theories anachronistically maintain that obsessive personality is familially forged. Biological theories, few, unelaborated and weakened by postulating proximate instead of ultimate explanations, fail to seriously reckon with Torgersen’s findings. Truly integrating heritability estimates into a functional etiological account of obsessive character, it is argued in the discussion section, will come from an evolutionary model that understands obsessive personality to be an evolved strategy rather than a dysfunctional disorder.

  14. Socializing the public: invoking Hannah Arendt's critique of modernity to evaluate reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    The article examines the writings of one of the most influential political philosophers, Hannah Arendt, and specifically focuses on her views regarding the distinction between the private and the public and the transformation of the public to the social by modernity. Arendt's theory of human activity and critique of modernity are explored to critically evaluate the social contributions and implications of reproductive technologies especially where the use of such technologies is most dominant within Western societies. Focusing on empirical studies on new reproductive technologies in Israel, it is argued, powerfully demonstrates Arendt's theory, and broadens the perspectives through which society should evaluate these new technologies towards a more reflective understanding of its current laws and policies and their affect on women more generally.

  15. Critique of the „official critique” of neoliberal reforms in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Szwabowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I criticise theoretical structure which is employed in critiquesof higher education reforms within the domain of pedagogy. I argue thatcritique of neoliberalism in education doesn’t recognise the dynamics of change and„necessity” of transformation. Both critique and defense of neoliberal reforms donot transcend capitalist „separation” and institutionalization typical of particularorders. In practical terms, it results in reactive resistance, either in the form of defenseof privileges of „leisure class or attempt to brink back the period of „class compromise”.In this way, it is not able to develop a radical practice, transcend „ideologicalstate apparatus” and produce a radical practice as well as education based on democracyand equality.

  16. Musik der Aufklärung:für Flöte und Cembalo/Orgel

    OpenAIRE

    Weman Ericsson, Lena; Ericsson, Hans-Ola

    2011-01-01

    Konsert i St. Katharinenkirche, Oppenheim, TysklandProgramCarl Philipp Emanuel Bach - Sonat i a-mollJohann Sebastian Bach - Sonat i C-dur, BWV 1033Michel Blavet - Sonat i g-mollJohann Sebastian Bach - Sonat i g-moll, BWV 1020Wilhelm Fridemann Bach - Sonate i e-moll

  17. A Review and Critique of Teledermatology in the South African Public Health Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Laticha E M; Mars, Maurice; Scott, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 80% of the world's population live in developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Many of these countries must face a triple or quadruple burden of disease with severely limited resources and health systems. South Africa (SA) is one such country, and recognises the potential for e-health to moderate these limitations. Dermatological issues remain a concern in SA and globally. Indeed, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has recognised that a number of diseases are most likely to manifest themselves through a dermatological problem before becoming full-blown. However, there is an acute shortage of dermatologists in SA. Teledermatology has promise as a service delivery intervention. This study reports on the current status of teledermatology services in the public health sector of SA. The study adopted a qualitative, inductive research approach based on a structured literature review of teledermatology in SA. A modified Momentum-Treat tool was used to critique identified teledermatology services. 159 resources were identified, of which 68 were excluded. The remaining 91 resources revealed a history of ad hoc teledermatology services, of which few remained active. Requests for teledermatology service confirmations provided some feedback, together with follow-up meetings and interviews. No evidence of scaling of teledermatology services and integration into routine healthcare was found. Of eight services, 4 remain active. Review and modified Momentum-Treat critique showed opportunities for improved readiness assessment, programme governance, and alignment to government policy direction, in order to improve scaling and sustainability. Full-scale teledermatology integration is possible, but stronger programme development is needed. Findings will inform development of a teledermatology scale-up framework to assist with future integration of teledermatology into routine healthcare.

  18. Chiropractic and Spinal Manipulation Therapy on Twitter: Case Study Examining the Presence of Critiques and Debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alessandro R; Klostermann, Philip; Caulfield, Timothy

    2016-09-16

    Spinal manipulation therapy (SMT) is a popular though controversial practice. The debates surrounding efficacy and risk of SMT are only partially evident in popular discourse. This study aims to investigate the presence of critiques and debates surrounding efficacy and risk of SMT on the social media platform Twitter. The study examines whether there is presence of debate and whether critical information is being widely disseminated. An initial corpus of 31,339 tweets was compiled through Twitter's Search Application Programming Interface using the query terms "chiropractic," "chiropractor," and "spinal manipulation therapy." Tweets were collected for the month of December 2015. Post removal of tweets made by bots and spam, the corpus totaled 20,695 tweets, of which a sample (n=1267) was analyzed for skeptical or critical tweets. Additional criteria were also assessed. There were 34 tweets explicitly containing skepticism or critique of SMT, representing 2.68% of the sample (n=1267). As such, there is a presence of 2.68% of tweets in the total corpus, 95% CI 0-6.58% displaying explicitly skeptical or critical perspectives of SMT. In addition, there are numerous tweets highlighting the health benefits of SMT for health issues such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), immune system, and blood pressure that receive scant critical attention. The presence of tweets in the corpus highlighting the risks of "stroke" and "vertebral artery dissection" is also minute (0.1%). In the abundance of tweets substantiating and promoting chiropractic and SMT as sound health practices and valuable business endeavors, the debates surrounding the efficacy and risks of SMT on Twitter are almost completely absent. Although there are some critical voices of SMT proving to be influential, issues persist regarding how widely this information is being disseminated.

  19. Infrastructural Critique. The Upside-Down of the Bottom-Up: A Case Study on the IBA Berlin 84/87

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Hierzer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Participation in planning is a logical consequence of the democratisation of society due to the social and cultural changes related to modernism. Anarchistic participation, as in Autogestion, within a development process, is a critical utopian alternative draft to existing power structures. The participatory turn represented by the International Building Exhibition Berlin 1987 (IBA meant the institutionalisation of these utopian ideas, resulting in a heterotopian notion of participation instrumentalised by governing and economic forces.The most important aspect to our argument is that participation is a matter of critique – with critique as the very core of the modern understanding of progress – and thus enabling forms of improvement in planning, regulating and governing with architectural and urbanistic means. Those means simply embody a specific form of resisting critique and certain shifts in the structures of governing revealing an infrastructural critique which both re-forms the elements and the relations of what is to be resisted.

  20. Subversive autotraduction : Mise en évidence du décalage entre le discours critique et les pratiques scripturales des auteurs bilingues contemporains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Bessy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose in this paper is to describe the complexities of self translation in literary work by Greek-French writer Vassilis Alexakis as a bilingual novelist and its implications in critique and literary categories.

  1. Controversial Ebola vaccine trials in Ghana: a thematic analysis of critiques and rebuttals in digital news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummervold, Per Egil; Schulz, William S; Smout, Elizabeth; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Larson, Heidi J

    2017-08-07

    Communication is of paramount importance in responding to health crises. We studied the media messages put forth by different stakeholders in two Ebola vaccine trials that became controversial in Ghana. These interactions between health authorities, political actors, and public citizens can offer key lessons for future research. Through an analysis of online media, we analyse stakeholder concerns and incentives, and the phases of the dispute, to understand how the dispute evolved to the point of the trials being suspended, and analyse what steps might have been taken to avert this outcome. A web-based system was developed to download and analyse news reports relevant to Ebola vaccine trials. This included monitoring major online newspapers in each country with planned clinical trials, including Ghana. All news articles were downloaded, selecting out those containing variants of the words "Ebola," and "vaccine," which were analysed thematically by a team of three coders. Two types of themes were defined: critiques of the trials and rebuttals in favour of the trials. After reconciling differences between coders' results, the data were visualised and reviewed to describe and interpret the debate. A total of 27,460 articles, published between 1 May and 30 July 2015, were collected from nine different newspapers in Ghana, of which 139 articles contained the keywords and met the inclusion criteria. The final codebook included 27 themes, comprising 16 critiques and 11 rebuttals. After coding and reconciliation, the main critiques (and their associated rebuttals) were selected for in-depth analysis, including statements about the trials being secret (mentioned in 21% of articles), claims that the vaccine trials would cause an Ebola outbreak in Ghana (33%), and the alleged impropriety of the incentives offered to participants (35%). Perceptions that the trials were "secret" arose from a combination of premature news reporting and the fact that the trials were prohibited

  2. Controversial Ebola vaccine trials in Ghana: a thematic analysis of critiques and rebuttals in digital news

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Egil Kummervold

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communication is of paramount importance in responding to health crises. We studied the media messages put forth by different stakeholders in two Ebola vaccine trials that became controversial in Ghana. These interactions between health authorities, political actors, and public citizens can offer key lessons for future research. Through an analysis of online media, we analyse stakeholder concerns and incentives, and the phases of the dispute, to understand how the dispute evolved to the point of the trials being suspended, and analyse what steps might have been taken to avert this outcome. Methods A web-based system was developed to download and analyse news reports relevant to Ebola vaccine trials. This included monitoring major online newspapers in each country with planned clinical trials, including Ghana. All news articles were downloaded, selecting out those containing variants of the words “Ebola,” and “vaccine,” which were analysed thematically by a team of three coders. Two types of themes were defined: critiques of the trials and rebuttals in favour of the trials. After reconciling differences between coders’ results, the data were visualised and reviewed to describe and interpret the debate. Results A total of 27,460 articles, published between 1 May and 30 July 2015, were collected from nine different newspapers in Ghana, of which 139 articles contained the keywords and met the inclusion criteria. The final codebook included 27 themes, comprising 16 critiques and 11 rebuttals. After coding and reconciliation, the main critiques (and their associated rebuttals were selected for in-depth analysis, including statements about the trials being secret (mentioned in 21% of articles, claims that the vaccine trials would cause an Ebola outbreak in Ghana (33%, and the alleged impropriety of the incentives offered to participants (35%. Discussion Perceptions that the trials were “secret” arose from a combination

  3. Veblen, critique pionnier des « entreprises académiques »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Bertrams

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Depuis les années 1980, les universités européennes et nord-américaines ont accru leurs partenariats avec les entreprises privées afin de pallier la contraction des dépenses publiques consacrées à l’enseignement supérieur. Dans le chef de certains responsables universitaires, un comportement « entrepreneurial » a accompagné ces changements d’ordre budgétaire, assimilant volontiers les universités à de nouvelles entreprises de la connaissance. Le phénomène, cependant, n’avait rien de nouveau. Dès 1918, Veblen faisait paraître un livre interpellant sur cette question : The Higher Learning in America. A Memorandum on the Conduct of Universities by Business Men (Les études supérieures aux Etats-Unis. Un rapport sur la gestion des universités par les hommes d’affaires. Cet article retrace la genèse de la critique des « entreprises académiques » au sein de la pensée veblénienne de la science et de la technologie en la confrontant à ses propres contradictions. Au final, il souligne la portée et l’actualité des observations sociologiques de Veblen au regard des pressions exercées aujourd’hui sur les universités et la recherche scientifique fondamentale dans le cadre de la « société de la connaissance ».From the 1980s onwards, European and North-American universities have increased their partnerships with private enterprises in order to compensate for the cutback of public expenses for higher education. A peculiar form of “entrepreneurial” behaviour has derived from these financial transformations. Correspondingly, some university administrators were inclined to assimilate universities to knowledge-based enterprises. But this was nothing new. As soon as 1918, Veblen published a book opposing these emerging practices and which he unequivocally entitled The Higher Learning in America. A Memorandum on the Conduct of Universities by Business Men. This article seeks to face Veblen’s critique of the

  4. Young people and UK labour market policy : a critique of "employability" as a tool for understanding youth unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Crisp, Richard; Powell, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a critical analysis of the contemporary policy focus on promoting employability among young people in the UK. Drawing on analysis of UK policy approaches to tackling youth unemployment since the late 1970s, we suggest that existing critiques of employability as ‘supply-side orthodoxy’ fail to capture fully its evolving meaning and function. Under the UK Coalition Government, it became increasingly colonised as a targeted tool of urban governance to legitimise ever more pun...

  5. Risques et perceptions des risques. Analyse historique et critique. / Risks and risks perceptions. Historical and critical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kermisch, Céline

    2008-01-01

    Etude historique des conditions d’émergence du champ de recherches de la perception des risques ;analyse critique du paradigme psychométrique et de la théorie culturaliste, ainsi que des conceptions du risque qui les sous-tend. /Historical study of the emergence conditions of risk perception as a research field; critical analysis of the psychometric paradigm and cultural theory, as well as of the underlying risk conceptions.

  6. [Is the psyche antiquated? A typology of psychotherapeutic critique of civilization in the works of Alexander Mitscherlich].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelcke, V

    1995-08-01

    In the oeuvre of the psychotherapist Alexander Mitscherlich, one of the founding-fathers of psychosomatic medicine in post-war Germany, three basic types of critique of civilization can be identified. They each imply a specific conception of the relation between modernity and psychological disorder. Mitscherlich's ideas on the topic have evolved in a manner consistent with his appropriation of psychoanalysis and his confrontation with the causes and consequences of human behaviour during the time of national socialism.

  7. A literature critique using outcomes model and substruction in nursing science - Psychoeducational therapy for schizophrenic patients -

    OpenAIRE

    松田, 光信

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this article are (1) to introduce the outline of the outcomes model and substruction, and (2) to introduce the example of synthesis and critique of literature about psychoeducational therapy for schizophrenic patients. Recently, psychiatrists or psychologists are providing patients with education for medication using cognitive therapy, social skills training and psychoeducational therapy in Japan. Psychiatrists and psychologists are doing evaluation research of these structure...

  8. A critical assessment of environmental policy studies - Towards a discursive analysis and critique of the ideology of policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gabriel Foa Torres

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks, from a critical evaluation of a range of environmental public policy studies, to question their most important theoretical assumptions, in order to propose and put the focus of discourse analysis and ideology critique of policies. Faced with perspectives that emphasize the management function of the state, intends to focus on discursive and ideological conditions that make possible the stabilization and political transformation of those social practices related to the formulation and implementation of environmental policies.

  9. The Erotic and the Vulgar: Visual Culture and Organized Labor's Critique of U.S. Hegemony in Occupied Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Gerteis, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    This essay engages the colonial legacy of postwar Japan by arguing that the political cartoons produced as part of the postwar Japanese labor movement’s critique of U.S. cultural hegemony illustrate how gendered discourses underpinned,\\ud and sometimes undermined, the ideologies formally represented by visual artists and the organizations that funded them. A significant component of organized\\ud labor’s propaganda rested on a corpus of visual media that depicted women as icons of Japanese nat...

  10. Critical mass, rod values and reactivity coefficients for Rapsodie; Masse critique, valeur des barres et coefficients de reactivite de rapsodie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, L.; Gourdon, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    Besides a brief general description, the report contains a description and discussion of the aims, the methods used and the results of critical mass, rod worth and static reactivity coefficient measurements on the Rapsodie reactor. (authors) [French] Apres une breve description generale, le rapport decrit et discute le but, les methodes employees et les resultats des mesures de masse critique, de reactivite des barres et des coefficients de reactivite statiques du reacteur RAPSODIE. (auteurs)

  11. The material turn in Religious Studies and the possibility of critique: Assessing Chidester’s analysis of ‘the fetish’

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    Johan Strijdom

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent debates the neglect of the material dimension of religion and the foregrounding of beliefs in the modern academic study of religion has been attributed to a Protestant bias. As corrective a number of researchers have shifted their attention to the study of bodily performances, sensory experiences and sacred objects in religious traditions. In this article I will enquire how David Chidester’s analysis of the cultural, political and economic uses of ‘fetishes’ under 19th century colonial conditions in southern Africa and in European centres of theory formation on the one hand, and under 20th and 21st century American imperial conditions on the other, may inform the comparative study of religions. Central to my argument will be that the realisation that religions are necessarily concretely mediated should not preclude the possibility of a systemic critique of power relations that are at work in the uses of objects in religions, the comparison of religions and the comparative study of religions.

  12. A critique of the representation of human suffering in the cognitive behavioural therapy literature with implications for mental health nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, A

    2011-02-01

    This paper is informed by interpretivist understandings and practices, and the author's own conversion to interpretivist writing practice. The aim of the paper is to critique the ways in which suffering people are represented in the mainstream cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) literature with a view to identifying some implications for mental health nursing practice. It will begin by identifying key assumptions governing the textual portrayal of human experience, and will argue that the language used to describe human suffering is a potential site for struggles over meaning and more adequate representation. However, reductionist portrayals of individuals and their problems have largely gone unchallenged in much of the CBT literature since its early development in the 1970s. This is arguably because of the socialization of new members of the CBT community into established cultural and textual practices. A comparison of reductionist CBT writing with more fleshed out, more fully human possibilities will further clarify that forms of representation are never neutral, given the danger of reductionist representations facilitating reductionist interventions. The paper will end with the following emerging implications for mental health nursing practice: the therapeutic power of self-narratives, narrative research and the recovery movement, and the promising possibilities for autoethnographic research for mental health nurses and for day to day interactions between nurses and service users. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  13. Reply to David Kemmerer's "a critique of Mark D. Allen's 'the preservation of verb subcategory knowledge in a spoken language comprehension deficit'".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark D; Owens, Tyler E

    2008-07-01

    Allen [Allen, M. D. (2005). The preservation of verb subcategory knowledge in a spoken language comprehension deficit. Brain and Language, 95, 255-264] presents evidence from a single patient, WBN, to motivate a theory of lexical processing and representation in which syntactic information may be encoded and retrieved independently of semantic information. In his critique, Kemmerer argues that because Allen depended entirely on preposition-based verb subcategory violations to test WBN's knowledge of correct argument structure, his results, at best, address a "strawman" theory. This argument rests on the assumption that preposition subcategory options are superficial syntactic phenomena which are not represented by argument structure proper. We demonstrate that preposition subcategory is in fact treated as semantically determined argument structure in the theories that Allen evaluated, and thus far from irrelevant. In further discussion of grammatically relevant versus irrelevant semantic features, Kemmerer offers a review of his own studies. However, due to an important design shortcoming in these experiments, we remain unconvinced. Reemphasizing the fact the Allen (2005) never claimed to rule out all semantic contributions to syntax, we propose an improvement in Kemmerer's approach that might provide more satisfactory evidence on the distinction between the kinds of relevant versus irrelevant features his studies have addressed.

  14. A macro perspective for client-centred practice in curricula: Critique and teaching methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming-Castaldy, Rita P

    2015-07-01

    Client-centred practice is often eclipsed by social, economic, and political inequities. Ignoring these realities obstructs clients' goal attainment. The author advocates for the integration of a macro perspective inclusive of participation barriers and supports in occupational therapy curricula and seeks to motivate educators to adopt teaching approaches that develop students' abilities to address the complexities of client-centred practice. This article integrates a critical analysis of the literature on client-centred practice with reflexivity on disability studies and autoethnography. Educational standards require students to learn about the social, economic, and political contexts that impact on client-centred practice and the need for advocacy to enable participation. Theoretical support of a macro perspective for client-centred practice is strongly evident in the literature. Information on methods for teaching students how to actualize these concepts in practice is scant. Thus, strategies to inform the integration of a macro perspective into curricula and concrete activities to develop students' competencies for empowered client-centred practice are required. Educators have an ethical responsibility to critique their pedagogy to determine whether they are adequately preparing students for client-centred practice. The focus must move from teaching a micro perspective of client-centred practice to a macro perspective that enables occupational justice and empowerment.

  15. Visionary Critique. Gender, Self and Relationship in Rosetta and Two Days, One Night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Knauss

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The films of Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne stand out for their complex, multi-dimen¬sional female and male characters whose representation disrupts gender stereotypes in numerous ways, both in how the characters themselves are depicted and in how they are shown to relate to other individuals and their social context. In this contri¬bution, I explore the themes of self, relationship, solidarity, family and work – all of them recurring issues in the films by the Dardennes – using gender as my primary category of analysis, and focusing in particular on the treatment of these themes in Rosetta (Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne, FR/BE 1999 and Deux jours, une nuit (Two Days, One Night, Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne, BE/FR/IT 2014. I argue that whereas Rosetta (1999 offers a critique of the damaging effects of the masculinized capital¬ist system on individuals and their relationships, Two Days, One Night (2014 can be understood as a vision of alternative possibilities of solidarity and women’s empower¬ment and agency even within the persistent context of masculinized capitalism.

  16. Sept programmes normatifs pour une sociologie critique des inégalités

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    Jean-Louis Genard

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Toute sociologie critique présuppose la référence à un horizon normatif fondant la défense des positions critiques. Cet horizon normatif demeure parfois, voire souvent, implicite, vraisemblablement parce que son explicitation paraîtrait transgresser l’impératif de neutralisation axiologique qui marque fortement l’épistémologie des sciences sociales, ou, à tout le moins, parce qu’il fait glisser le travail du sociologue sur les terrains de la théorie politique ou du militantisme. Cette contribution cherche au contraire à rendre explicites ces horizons normatifs dans le cas, central pour la sociologie critique, des inégalités sociales. Sept paradigmes normatifs sont ainsi dégagés, articulés et mis en relation avec les enjeux actuels relatifs aux théories de la justice. Leur différenciation se construit principalement à partir de discussions sur les référentiels anthropologiques qui servent d’appui critique (l’idéal anthropologique d’une société juste est-elle l’autonomie ou la vulnérabilité ? Qu’est-ce que l’autonomie ?, etc., sur les conceptions de la justice (l’égalité doit-elle être pensée comme égalité de traitement, de ressources, d’opportunités…? Doit-elle être réfléchie comme redistribution ou comme reconnaissance ?, sur les manières d’envisager la collectivisation de la responsabilité (jusqu’où devons-nous assumer le droit à la différence ? Faut-il y inclure les générations futures ?, ainsi que sur les manières de définir ce qu’est une vie bonne (faut-il mettre en question les liens entre autonomie et émancipation ? La visée de l’égalité ne doit-elle pas d’abord mettre en question nos conceptions héritées de la vie bonne qui sont de fait phagocytées par la consommation et le gaspillage ?.Seven Normative Programs for a Critical Sociology of InequalitiesAny critical sociology assumes a reference to a normative horizon based on the defense of

  17. 'Communicative competence' in the field of augmentative and alternative communication: a review and critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachman, Gail; Gibson, Barbara E

    2014-01-01

    Understandings of 'communicative competency' (CC) have an important influence on the ways that researchers and practitioners in augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) work toward achieving positive outcomes with AAC users. Yet, very little literature has critically examined conceptualizations of CC in AAC. Following an overview of the emergence of the concept of CC and of the field of AAC, we review seven conceptualizations of CC identified in the literature. To consider the contributions and potential shortcomings of conceptualizations of CC in AAC. We use a critical theoretical approach to review, critique and synthesize conceptualizations of CC in AAC, with a particular focus on uncovering 'taken for granted' assumptions. By historically situating the reviewed literature, we examine the shifting boundaries and tensions among theoretical conceptualizations of CC in AAC and their potential impacts on practice. We suggest ways that revisiting past scholarly work, alongside emergent, innovative conceptualizations of CC might shift ways of thinking about CC in AAC which tend to focus on the individual who communicates differently, toward (re)location of CC as a shared, socially incorporated and performed communication construct. We propose that emerging critical perspectives drawn from AAC and other interdisciplinary literatures offer innovative ways of theorizing communication difference, which might inform evolving conceptualizations of CC in AAC. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  18. A critique of the regulation of data science in healthcare research in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, John M M; Pierscionek, Barbara K

    2017-04-08

    The EU offers a suitable milieu for the comparison and harmonisation of healthcare across different languages, cultures, and jurisdictions (albeit with a supranational legal framework), which could provide improvements in healthcare standards across the bloc. There are specific ethico-legal issues with the use of data in healthcare research that mandate a different approach from other forms of research. The use of healthcare data over a long period of time is similar to the use of tissue in biobanks. There is a low risk to subjects but it is impossible to gain specific informed consent given the future possibilities for research. Large amounts of data on a subject present a finite risk of re-identification. Consequently, there is a balancing act between this risk and retaining sufficient utility of the data. Anonymising methods need to take into account the circumstances of data sharing to enable an appropriate balance in all cases. There are ethical and policy advantages to exceeding the legal requirements and thereby securing the social licence for research. This process would require the examination and comparison of data protection laws across the trading bloc to produce an ethico-legal framework compatible with the requirements of all member states. Seven EU jurisdictions are given consideration in this critique.

  19. Critique on the conceptualisation of quality of life: a review and evaluation of different conceptual approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moons, Philip; Budts, Werner; De Geest, Sabina

    2006-09-01

    Over the past decades, the concept of quality of life has been of paramount importance for evaluating the quality and outcome of health care. Despite its importance, there is still no consensus on the definition or proper measurement of quality of life. Several concept analyses of quality of life have been published. However, they appear to have had a rather limited impact on how empirical studies are conducted. Therefore, we present an overview and critique of different conceptualisations of quality of life, with the ultimate goal of making quality of life a less ambiguous concept. We also describe six conceptual problems. These problems were used as criteria to evaluate the appropriateness of different conceptualisations. This evaluation suggests that defining quality of life in terms of life satisfaction is most appropriate, because this definition successfully deals with all the conceptual problems discussed. The result of our concept evaluation was not surprising for it corroborated the results of several concept analyses and the findings of a structural equation modelling study. Based on the findings revealed by our review, we propose that the scientific community should revitalise the conceptual discussion on quality of life. Furthermore, our findings can assist researchers in developing more rigourous quality-of-life research.

  20. A behavior-analytic critique of Bandura's self-efficacy theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglan, Anthony

    1987-01-01

    A behavior-analytic critique of self-efficacy theory is presented. Self-efficacy theory asserts that efficacy expectations determine approach behavior and physiological arousal of phobics as well as numerous other clinically important behaviors. Evidence which is purported to support this assertion is reviewed. The evidence consists of correlations between self-efficacy ratings and other behaviors. Such response-response relationships do not unequivocally establish that one response causes another. A behavior-analytic alternative to self-efficacy theory explains these relationships in terms of environmental events. Correlations between self-efficacy rating behavior and other behavior may be due to the contingencies of reinforcement that establish a correspondence between such verbal predictions and the behavior to which they refer. Such a behavior-analytic account does not deny any of the empirical relationships presented in support of self-efficacy theory, but it points to environmental variables that could account for those relationships and that could be manipulated in the interest of developing more effective treatment procedures. PMID:22477956

  1. Specificity of Cognitive Impairment in Neurological Disease: A Methodological Critique of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Sagar

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cognitive deficits have been recognized in many neurological disorders but the specificity of the findings and the relationship to the underlying neuropathology remain obscure. Definitions of dementia have been proposed based on symptom profiles of the cognitive disorder and qualitative differences have been claimed between dementias of different aetiology. Some conditions have been claimed to show patterns of cognitive deficit that are distinguished from dementia and related to specific neuropathology or psychological processes, e.g. frontal lobe deficits in Parkinson's disease. Sometimes, a relationship has been established between certain cognitive deficits and particular neurochemical deficits which has led to the notion of specific drug treatment, e.g. cholinergic deficits and memory failure in Alzheimer's disease. However, these conclusions are often potentially flawed by methodological inadequacies. This critique presents some methodological issues relevant to the study of brain-behaviour and drug-behaviour relationships in syndromes of multiple cognitive deficit, using Parkinson's disease as the model. The following recommendations are made: rigid diagnostic criteria; representative patient groups; avoidance of arbitrary quantitative criteria to limit definitions of dementia; matching of groups for overall level of cognitive impairment in the search for qualitative cognitive differences related to neuropathology or effects of particular drugs; the use of suitable controls in patient groups, neuropsychological tests and treatment regimes; the use of specific quantitative tests of cognition, affect and motor disability; and longitudinal, compared with cross-sectional, study design.

  2. Staging Unincorporated Power: Richard Harding Davis and the Critique of Imperial News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Trivedi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay contextualizes the work of war correspondent Richard Harding Davis within an evolving “imperial news apparatus” that would culminate in his reporting of the Spanish-American War. Critics have conventionally framed Davis squarely within the imperial cause, associating him with his admirer Roosevelt and naval admiral Alfred T. Mahan. Contrary to readings of Davis as an apologist for US imperialism, Trivedi contends that Davis understood how US imperial power relied on an information apparatus to communicate to an increasingly media-conscious American public through culture, that is, via familiar narratives, symbols, and objects—what Trivedi calls “imperial news.” The essay follows Davis’s development from his fictional representation of the new war correspondent in “The Reporter Who Made Himself King” to his own war correspondence before and after the Spanish-American War as collected in the memoirs A Year from a Reporter’s Notebook (1897, Cuba in War Time (1897, and Notes of a War Correspondent (1912. Davis’s war correspondence and fictional work effectively stage US imperialism as “unincorporated power”: that is, as power reliant on a developing news-making apparatus that deploys particular discursive strategies to validate its political claims. This staging critiques strategies of US imperial sovereignty—specifically its “privatization of knowledge” and its promotion of the war correspondent as nothing more than a spectator and purveyor of massacres.

  3. Geräusch as Presentness: the Critique by Stockhausen and Eisenman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Palmeira Lucena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an idea of noise [Geräusch] as presentness in order to think about the critical works of Karlheinz Stockhausen (1928-2007 and Peter Eisenman (1932-. This idea implies that there is a connection between these both aspects: Geräusch [noise] in relation to Stockhausen’s work, and presentness, linked to the displacement of what Eisenman called the metaphysical presence of architecture. In a strict sense, we must show how noises are draw out in Stockhausen’s music and how Eisenman deals with the metaphysical presence of architecture – articulating them beyond the limits of both areas, i.e., noise with architecture and presentness with music. In general terms, when we articulate theses concepts beyond the limits of music and architecture, paradoxically, we are focusing on the critique of their internal autonomy. Thus, when we are approaching Eisenman’s and Stockhausen’s works in terms of the subjects noise and presentness, we are talking about the relationship between music and architecture.

  4. Do the Benefits of Male Circumcision Outweigh the Risks? A Critique of the Proposed CDC Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have announced a set of provisional guidelines concerning male circumcision, in which they suggest that the benefits of the surgery outweigh the risks. I offer a critique of the CDC position. Among other concerns, I suggest that the CDC relies more heavily than is warranted on studies from Sub-Saharan Africa that neither translate well to North American populations nor to circumcisions performed before an age of sexual debut; that it employs an inadequate conception of risk in its benefit vs. risk analysis; that it fails to consider the anatomy and functions of the penile prepuce (i.e., the part of the penis that is removed by circumcision); that it underestimates the adverse consequences associated with circumcision by focusing on short-term surgical complications rather than long-term harms; that it portrays both the risks and benefits of circumcision in a misleading manner, thereby undermining the possibility of obtaining informed consent; that it evinces a superficial and selective analysis of the literature on sexual outcomes associated with circumcision; and that it gives less attention than is desirable to ethical issues surrounding autonomy and bodily integrity. I conclude that circumcision before an age of consent is not an appropriate health-promotion strategy.

  5. Social science and linguistic text analysis of nurses' records: a systematic review and critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buus, Niels; Hamilton, Bridget Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    The two aims of the paper were to systematically review and critique social science and linguistic text analyses of nursing records in order to inform future research in this emerging area of research. Systematic searches in reference databases and in citation indexes identified 12 articles that included analyses of the social and linguistic features of records and recording. Two reviewers extracted data using established criteria for the evaluation of qualitative research papers. A common characteristic of nursing records was the economical use of language with local meanings that conveyed little information to the uninitiated reader. Records were dominated by technocratic-medical discourse focused on patients' bodies, and they depicted only very limited aspects of nursing practice. Nurses made moral evaluations in their categorisation of patients, which reflected detailed surveillance of patients' disturbing behaviour. The text analysis methods were rarely transparent in the articles, which could suggest research quality problems. For most articles, the significance of the findings was substantiated more by theoretical readings of the institutional settings than by the analysis of textual data. More probing empirical research of nurses' records and a wider range of theoretical perspectives has the potential to expose the situated meanings of nursing work in healthcare organisations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Ethics of Risk. Kristin Shrader-Frechette's Philosophical Critique of Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkeroe, Topi [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland). Centre for Social Ethics

    2006-09-15

    This paper addresses risk assessment from a philosophical point of view. It presents and critically reviews the work of Kristin Shrader-Frechette. It introduces the ethical, epistemological, and methodological issues related to risk assessment. The paper focuses on the ethical questions of justice in risk decisions. It opens by framing the relationship between ethics and technology in the modern world. Then the paper turns to a brief description of risk assessment as a central method in technological decision making. It proceeds to show how Shrader-Frechette analyzes ethical and political aspects of risk assessment. The central argumentation In her critique follows RawIsian lines: distributive and participatory inequalities in creating technological constructions need to be justified. To clarify this requirement she formulates the Principle of Prima Facie Political Equity (PPFPE), which is her central tool in most of her ethical criticism, for instance, in relation to the future generations: prima facie. all generations should be treated equally. Brief critical remarks conclude the paper. They touch upon placing Shrader-Frechette's project on the academic chart and her liberal individualist anthropology.

  7. The march of the Mehteran
    Rethinking the human rights critiques of counter-terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Öztaş

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 9/11 counter-terrorism laws adopted by Western democracies have been criticised intensively, producing a large body of theoretical and practical analysis. However, the material focusing on these issues through the lens of racism is limited. Thus the human rights critiques of counter-terrorism laws remain inadequate. One of the more obvious reasons for this gap in the literature is that the discriminatory dimension of counter-terrorism policies and laws and the subtle (sometimes institutional racism involved is not adequately considered. Another reason is related to the dilemmatic role of human rights. Since early modernity the legal system and the values of Europe/the West is imposed on the 'other'. Previously this was done through colonialism and empire building; today, it is realised through the liberal capitalist economic system heralding democratic government based on 'universal' human rights. Like before, the 'other' resist this imposition (along with the democratic system based on human rights, through a vaguely defined term - 'terrorism'. In reaction, counter-terrorism measures and laws, which are known to violate human rights, are enacted in defence of a system which defines itself through a commitment to human rights values. This paper intends to discuss the dual role of human rights, which criticise and affirm counter-terrorism measures.

  8. La phase critique de la Carte du Ciel à Paris, 1920-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Martin, A.

    2008-06-01

    Ce chapitre revient sur la "phase critique" de la Carte du Ciel à Paris, entre 1920 et 1940. Il examine en détail la crise que traverse l'astronomie française et l'Observatoire de Paris dans l'entre-deux guerres. La productivité de l'établissement parisien est jugée insuffisante et les conditions climatiques difficiles l'empêchent de développer une activité soutenue. Une délocalisation, loin de la ville, est envisagée. Dans ce contexte délicat, la légitimité de la Carte du Ciel est explicitement remise en cause. En 1930, Henri Mineur se voit confié par Benjamin Baillaud, directeur de l'Observatoire de Paris, un programme de développement de la Carte du Ciel. Il suggère la création d'un laboratoire de statistique stellaire permettant notamment d'inventorier les amas stellaires. Mineur n'est pas soutenu dans son projet et rejoint, en 1933, le service d'astrophysique. Finalement les décisions de l'Union Astronomique Internationale et les financements du CNR prolongent, dans les années 1930, les activités de la Carte du Ciel.

  9. Women's request for a cesarean section: a critique of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, J A; Creedy, D K

    2000-12-01

    The consistently high cesarean section rate in most developed Western countries has been attributed in part to maternal request. This controversial view demands critical analysis. This paper provides a critique of published research relating to women's request for cesarean delivery. A search of the major databases was undertaken using the search term "cesarean section" with "maternal request," "decision-making," "patient-participation," "decision-making-patient," "patient-satisfaction," "patient-preference," and "maternal-choice." Ten research articles examining women's preferred mode of birth were retrieved, nine of which focused on women's preference for cesarean delivery. The methodology of some studies may result in overreporting women's request for a cesarean delivery. The role of the woman's caregiver in the generation, collection, and entry of data, and the occurrence of post hoc rationalization, recall bias, and women's tendency to be less critical of their care immediately after birth are possible areas of concern. Due consideration is rarely given to the influence of obstetric risk for women who may be requesting a cesarean section or to the information women used in making their decision. Women's perceptions of their involvement in decision-making regarding cesarean section are used to draw conclusions regarding women's request. Few women request a cesarean section in the absence of current or previous obstetric complications. The focus on women's request for cesarean section may divert attention away from physician-led influences on the continuing high cesarean section rates.

  10. Fear and envy: sexual difference and the economies of feminist critique in psychoanalytic discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J

    1997-01-01

    This essay examines Freud's construction of a mythical moment during early childhood, in which differences between male and female sexual identities are said to originate. It focuses on the way in which Freud divides fear and envy between the sexes, allocating the emotion of (castration) fear to men, and that of (penis) envy to women. On the one hand, the problems of this construction are pointed out, but on the other hand, it is shown that even a much-maligned myth may still provide food for thought. Then, four critiques of Freud which have been articulated by prominent feminist psychoanalysts -- Karen Horney, Nancy Chodorow, Luce Irigaray, and Jessica Benjamin -- are presented, as well as the alternative visions of sexual identities which these thinkers have developed. The basic metaphors or economies guiding these visions of sexual difference are appraised in terms of their breadth and depth, with particular reference to their ability to acknowledge and integrate the presence of fear and envy as passions which are evoked but also repressed in the face of sexual difference. ...

  11. Discussion on the spectral coherence between planetary, solar and climate oscillations: a reply to some critiques

    CERN Document Server

    Scafetta, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    During the last few years a number of works have proposed that planetary harmonics regulate solar oscillations and the Earth climate. Herein I address some critiques. Detailed analysis of the data do support the planetary theory of solar and climate variation. In particular, I show that: (1) high-resolution cosmogenic 10Be and 14C solar activity proxy records both during the Holocene and during the Marine Interglacial Stage 9.3 (MIS 9.3), 325-336 kyr ago, present four common spectral peaks at about 103, 115, 130 and 150 yrs (this is the frequency band that generates Maunder and Dalton like grand solar minima) that can be deduced from a simple solar model based on a generic non-linear coupling between planetary and solar harmonics; (2) time-frequency analysis and advanced minimum variance distortion-less response (MVDR) magnitude squared coherence analysis confirm the existence of persistent astronomical harmonics in the climate records at the decadal and multidecadal scales when used with an appropriate windo...

  12. Critique of Caplan’s The Myth of the Rational Voter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Farrand

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Bryan Caplan’s 2007 book, The Myth of the Rational Voter, created some controversy by stating that voters make irrational political decisions. While it has commonly been accepted in public choice discourse that citizens are ignorant of the complexities of politics, Caplan takes the argument one step further and states that citizens hold extreme anti-economic biases that invoke certain irrational demands of politicians. Caplan also asserts that democratic failure is thoroughly a result of the these irrational biases, and that citizens deserve the primary blame for problems within the American political system. This critique analyzes several inconsistencies in Caplan’s assessment of the political condition, which include his doctrine of rational irrationality, his skepticism towards democratic failure, and his apologetic attitude towards politicians. Under closer scrutiny, one can see that Caplan’s main thesis, the concept of rational irrationality, is largely unfounded. Furthermore, the theoretical model he constructs is largely incomplete, since he focuses primarily on the failures of citizens, but does not take into account numerous other factors within the political process that can lead to democratic failure.

  13. Instruments measuring perceived racism/racial discrimination: review and critique of factor analytic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Rahshida

    2014-01-01

    Several compendiums of instruments that measure perceived racism and/or discrimination are present in the literature. Other works have reviewed the psychometric properties of these instruments in terms of validity and reliability and have indicated if the instrument was factor analyzed. However, little attention has been given to the quality of the factor analysis performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exploratory factor analyses done on instruments measuring perceived racism/racial discrimination using guidelines from experts in psychometric theory. The techniques used for factor analysis were reviewed and critiqued and the adequacy of reporting was evaluated. Internet search engines and four electronic abstract databases were used to identify 16 relevant instruments that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Principal component analysis was the most frequent method of extraction (81%). Sample sizes were adequate for factor analysis in 81 percent of studies. The majority of studies reported appropriate criteria for the acceptance of un-rotated factors (81%) and justified the rotation method (75%). Exactly 94 percent of studies reported partially acceptable criteria for the acceptance of rotated factors. The majority of articles (69%) reported adequate coefficient alphas for the resultant subscales. In 81 percent of the studies, the conceptualized dimensions were supported by factor analysis.

  14. After Science and Technology Studies: Recomposing the Psychological and Experience Before the Bifurcation of Nature

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    Patricio Rojas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article I present a theoretical inquiry into the ways in which we can understand the psychological and experience, considering the challenges posed to these notions by the field of science and technology studies (STS. STS have developed a form of constructivist critique that rejects the 'bifurcation of nature', that is to say, the divide of the world between primary qualities -the material world, reality itself-, and secondary qualities -experience, consciousness and human affairs. Taking as guideline theoretical questions that emerged during an empirical research about public health users’ “experience of being a patient”, I argue that the critique of the bifurcation of nature often assumes notions of the psychological and human experience that positions them as a dead end. I claim that process philosophy provides useful tools to refute this simplification, articulating the psychological as a constant flux of co-affectation of the human and the world, where experience is not separated from nature.

  15. Different geographies and experiences of 'assisted' types of migration. A gendered critique on the distinction between trafficking and smuggling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liempt, I.C. van

    2011-01-01

    This article presents three stories of female migrants who were assisted in their migration process from the Horn of Africa, Iraq and the former Soviet Union to the Netherlands. The stories are contextualized within the results of a wider research project on assisted migration involving 56

  16. Paralympism, Paralympic values and disability sport: a conceptual and ethical critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, M J

    2017-01-01

    vision for Paralympic sports, which should guide athletes and rehabilitation professionals to behave in ways that would command the general public's admiration. Paralympism, Paralympic values and disability sport: a conceptual and ethical critique.

  17. A Derridarean critique of Logocentrism as opposed to Textcentrism in John 1v1

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    Gavin P. Hendricks

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In Kelber’s hermeneutics of John, the notion of the pre-existence Logos is central. The Logos, in his reading, is prior to the realm of history and outside the reality of the narrative text. I have argued that the Logos in John can be seen as a leading case of logocentrism as coined by Derrida. The term ‘logocentrism’ refers to the Graeco-Christian or Johannine Platonic tradition according to which written language belongs to the realm of the imperfect whereas true knowledge pertains to the pre-existent, personified Logos. Derrida provides an uncompromising critique of logocentrism. He read Western theology and philosophy not in terms of a fading logocentrism and a rise of textcentrism, but rather in terms of the illusion of logocentrism. Derrida’s principle of distress is the referential paradigm of language. The linguistic sign is defined by the signifier and the signified. The signifier constitutes the visible marks committed to paper and the signified is the so-called meaning we attached to them. For Derrida, written language is generally seen as inferior whereas spoken language takes on transcendental significance and an ontological status to the referent of language. The Western tradition of philosophy and theology views writing as exterior whereas speech appears as innocent. Derrida’s logocentrism approach challenges the privileging of speech over writing in the referential system, accusing Western theology and philosophy of falsely enslaving the sign by establishing a transcendental signifier over against writing. In this article, these ideas of Derrida are applied by reading the Logos in the Johannine narrative from the perspective of orality and textuality.

  18. [Plinius and Greek physicians in Rome: the concept of nature and medical critique in Naturalis Historia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, J

    1991-01-01

    Pliny's historical outline of the development of medicine, in Natural History 29.1-27, is our primary source concerning the reception of scientific medicine at Rome during the later Republic and early Empire. Here, as elsewhere, Pliny handles Greek doctors and their medical practices with vehement disapproval. But this attitude, at first glance anti-Hellene, traditionalistic, and critical of his coevals, arises from more deeply rooted notions: a specific conception of nature which can be shown to be the basis of Pliny's critique of medicine and his own times. Reconstruction of this "Plinean" conception reveals a view of nature marked by Stoic terminology and categories, though in fact derivate from various sources, idiosyncratic and characterized by a genuine love of and respect for nature and her creations. True comprehension of the lessons offered by nature, resulting in concrete mores of behaviour and moral categories, as opposed to theory and speculation, is the proper modus operandi for Pliny. And thus, with regard to the human process of self-discovery in the natural world, medicine plays a decisive role--for providential nature displays herself most clearly in the production of healing substances. Pliny notes among the proponents of scientific medicine, a general disregard for nature and her rules, while he finds just the opposite in traditional medicine. His own accomplishment resides not only in the safeguarding of numberless recipies from the world of folk medicine, but also in the facts that he under-pins these traditional methods of healing, and their basic principles, with a specific conception of nature, and that he marks out an exceptionally important place for traditional methods of healing in the canon of general knowledge.

  19. Social Critique and the Politics of Patrimonio Cultural in Edgar Clement's Los perros salvajes

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    Bruce D. Campbell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay argues that analysis of Mexico’s visual culture generally, and the graphic novels of Edgar Clement specifically, can be usefully situated within the poli­tics of patrimonio cultural. Mexico’s 20th century graphic arts heritage has undergone a transformation during the past several decades, elevating the commercial comic book tradition to a greater position of prestige and public visibility than the more politically engaged revolutionary art forms inherited from the same period. In this context, Clement’s Los perros salvajes (2012 appropriates the comic book character Memín Pingüín in the service of social and political critique.   La cultura visual de México y, por ende, las novelas gráficas de Edgar Clement, pueden ubicarse de manera útil dentro de la política del ‘patrimonio cultural’. La herencia gráfica mexicana del siglo xx ha experimentado una transformación durante las décadas más recientes, elevando la tradición comercial de la historieta a una posición de prestigio y de visibilidad pública mayor que la de las formas revolucionarias heredadas del mismo período. Dentro de este contexto, Los perros salvajes (2012 de Clement se apropia de la figura de la historieta Memín Pingüín para plantear una crítica social y política de las condiciones nacionales.

  20. God, the Devil, and Darwin - A Critique of Intelligent Design Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Niall

    2007-03-01

    In the last fifteen years a controversial new theory of the origins of biological complexity and the nature of the universe has been fomenting bitter debates in education and science policy across North America, Europe, and Australia. Backed by intellectuals at respectable universities, Intelligent Design theory (ID) proposes an alternative to accepted accounts of evolutionary theory: that life is so complex, and that the universe is so fine-tuned for the appearance of life, that the only plausible explanation is the existence of an intelligent designer. For many ID theorists, the designer is taken to be the god of Christianity. Niall Shanks has written the first accessible introduction to, and critique of, this controversial new intellectual movement. Shanks locates the growth of ID in the last two decades of the twentieth century in the growing influence of the American religious right. But as he shows, its roots go back beyond Aquinas to Ancient Greece. After looking at the historical roots of ID, Shanks takes a hard look at its intellectual underpinnings, discussing modern understandings of thermodynamics, and how self-organizing processes lead to complex physical, chemical, and biological systems. He considers cosmological arguments for ID rooted in so-called "anthropic coincidences" and also tackles new biochemical arguments for ID based on "irreducible biological complexity." Throughout he shows how arguments for ID lack cohesion, rest on errors and unfounded suppositions, and generally are grossly inferior to evolutionary explanations. While ID has been proposed as a scientific alternative to evolutionary biology, Shanks argues that ID is in fact "old creationist wine in new designer label bottles" and moreover is a serious threat to the scientific and democratic values that are our cultural and intellectual inheritance from the Enlightenment.

  1. A health equity critique of social marketing: where interventions have impact but insufficient reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Rebecca; Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2013-04-01

    Health interventions increasingly rely on formative qualitative research and social marketing techniques to effect behavioural change. Few studies, however, incorporate qualitative research into the process of program evaluation to understand both impact and reach: namely, to what extent behaviour change interventions work, for whom, in what contexts, and why. We reflect on the success of a community-based hygiene intervention conducted in the slums of Kathmandu, Nepal, evaluating both maternal behaviour and infant health. We recruited all available mother-infant pairs (n = 88), and allocated them to control and intervention groups. Formative qualitative research on hand-washing practices included structured observations of 75 mothers, 3 focus groups, and 26 in-depth interviews. Our intervention was led by Community Motivators, intensively promoting hand-washing-with-soap at key junctures of food and faeces contamination. The 6-month evaluation period included hand-washing and morbidity rates, participant observation, systematic records of fortnightly community meetings, and follow-up interviews with 12 mothers. While quantitative measures demonstrated improvement in hand-washing rates and a 40% reduction in child diarrhoea, the qualitative data highlighted important equity issues in reaching the ultra-poor. We argue that a social marketing approach is inherently limited: focussing on individual agency, rather than structural conditions constraining behaviour, can unwittingly exacerbate health inequity. This contributes to a prevention paradox whereby those with the greatest need of a health intervention are least likely to benefit, finding hand-washing in the slums to be irrelevant or futile. Thus social marketing is best deployed within a range of interventions that address the structural as well as the behavioural and cognitive drivers of behaviour change. We conclude that critiques of social marketing have not paid sufficient attention to issues of health

  2. A critique of neoliberalism with fierceness: queer youth of color creating dialogues of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Jonathan; Marquez, Rigoberto; McLaren, Peter

    2012-01-01

    As a form of deregulated capitalism that has run amok, commodifying all that is in its path, and as a cultural means of commodifying Black and brown bodies, neoliberalism has taken a serious toll on the lives of working-class queer youth of color. Although it has hijacked spaces of cultural representation and material production, neoliberal capitalism is far from transparent. Through resistance, activism and performance queer youth of color have now started to shape a critique of oppressive structures, neoliberal policies, and pedagogical practices that are critical of their intersecting identities. This article examines neoliberalism's impact on education, focusing on educational policy and how these policies have affected queer youth of color in the urban centers of our major cities. This article also considers the contributions made by educators writing from the perspective of critical pedagogy in addressing the plight of queer youth of color in U.S. schools while employing the example of the dance group, Innovation, as way of addressing the havoc of neoliberalism in the lives of queer youth of color through performance and activism. This group has not only transformed notions of gender, race, class and sexuality that challenge major tenants of neoliberalism, but has also served as potent sites for the development of a critical pedagogy for working-class queer youth of color. Through sites of resistance rooted in progressive struggle, queer youth of color must be enabled by critical transformative intellectuals committed to encouraging youth to critically evaluate and challenge ideologies while displaying an allegiance to egalitarianism.

  3. Staging Unincorporated Power: Richard Harding Davis and the Critique of Imperial News

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    Nirmal Trivedi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay contextualizes the work of war correspondent Richard Harding Davis within an evolving “imperial news apparatus” that would culminate in his reporting of the Spanish-American War. Critics have conventionally framed Davis squarely within the imperial cause, associating him with his admirer Roosevelt and naval admiral Alfred T. Mahan. Contrary to readings of Davis as an apologist for US imperialism, Trivedi contends that Davis understood how US imperial power relied on an information apparatus to communicate to an increasingly media-conscious American public through culture, that is, via familiar narratives, symbols, and objects—what Trivedi calls “imperial news.” The essay follows Davis’s development from his fictional representation of the new war correspondent in “The Reporter Who Made Himself King” to his own war correspondence before and after the Spanish-American War as collected in the memoirs A Year from a Reporter’s Notebook (1897, Cuba in War Time (1897, and Notes of a War Correspondent (1912. Davis’s war correspondence and fictional work effectively stage US imperialism as “unincorporated power”: that is, as power reliant on a developing news-making apparatus that deploys particular discursive strategies to validate its political claims. This staging critiques strategies of US imperial sovereignty—specifically its “privatization of knowledge” and its promotion of the war correspondent as nothing more than a spectator and purveyor of massacres.

  4. Modelling biological behaviours with the unified modelling language: an immunological case study and critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Mark; Andrews, Paul S; Timmis, Jon; Kumar, Vipin

    2014-10-06

    We present a framework to assist the diagrammatic modelling of complex biological systems using the unified modelling language (UML). The framework comprises three levels of modelling, ranging in scope from the dynamics of individual model entities to system-level emergent properties. By way of an immunological case study of the mouse disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, we show how the framework can be used to produce models that capture and communicate the biological system, detailing how biological entities, interactions and behaviours lead to higher-level emergent properties observed in the real world. We demonstrate how the UML can be successfully applied within our framework, and provide a critique of UML's ability to capture concepts fundamental to immunology and biology more generally. We show how specialized, well-explained diagrams with less formal semantics can be used where no suitable UML formalism exists. We highlight UML's lack of expressive ability concerning cyclic feedbacks in cellular networks, and the compounding concurrency arising from huge numbers of stochastic, interacting agents. To compensate for this, we propose several additional relationships for expressing these concepts in UML's activity diagram. We also demonstrate the ambiguous nature of class diagrams when applied to complex biology, and question their utility in modelling such dynamic systems. Models created through our framework are non-executable, and expressly free of simulation implementation concerns. They are a valuable complement and precursor to simulation specifications and implementations, focusing purely on thoroughly exploring the biology, recording hypotheses and assumptions, and serve as a communication medium detailing exactly how a simulation relates to the real biology.

  5. Intimacy, Confidentiality, and Power: Kiss and Tell as a Feminist Critique of Privacy Law

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    Naomh Gibson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current principle of privacy and its enactment in law and policy is presented as a reified, universal value that is gender-neutral. However this article contends this presumption, and advances that privacy is an inconsistent area of law that has allowed for the oppression of women’s rights and interests. It will be proposed that the narrative of ‘kiss and tell’ stories offers access to substantive justice and equality by subverting legal and gender norms and deconstructing the concept of privacy. Using the tools of feminist legal theory and theoretical commentary, this argument forms four sections. Firstly, it will be introduced that privacy is a value which is nebulous at best, and the reasons for critiquing privacy law using a perspective from feminist legal theory will be explored. Following this, the injustices perpetrated against women by the current state of privacy law will be outlined – particularly in the area of sexual information and sexuality. Using examples from both the UK and American jurisdictions, it will be submitted that privacy law is mired in patriarchal values. Thirdly, the jurisprudence underpinning privacy law decisions on sexual relationships and the legal concepts of confidence and intimacy will be critically examined and deconstructed. Finally, drawing upon investigative research, anecdotal evidence, and critical analysis, it will be submitted that ‘kiss and tell’ narratives are the way forward to reconceptualise privacy. It will be recommended that kiss and tell stories have value in social communication and present a chance for women to engage in relevant public discourse, and more widely, gives law an opportunity to reach a new understanding of privacy appropriate in the modern age.

  6. A critique of social marketing in the non-profit development sector

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    L.M. Fourie

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In its struggle to find funding, non-profit organisations world-wide are increasingly using social marketing strategies. This approach potentially influences non governmental organisations (NGOs and community based organisations (CBOs in their communication with their “clients”, i.e. those persons and com-munities in need of development. Marketing strategies con-sequently become instruments in achieving social development, with as main premise that behaviour could be changed by means of persuasive, top-down communication. Social marketing, with its roots in marketing, has a strong focus on persuasion and favours top-down communication rather than dialogical communication strategies suggested by the par-ticipatory development communication approach. It is also questionable whether social marketing can be equated with the principles of a Biblically informed approach to communication. With these questions in mind, this article discusses Biblical views on communication and the participatory development communication approach. A critique of the social marketing approach is then offered. It is argued here that there is no clear-cut answer as to whether social marketing could be described as participatory. What is clear is that there are many different views on social marketing, as is the case with participatory approaches. It would thus seem more correct to place social marketing on a participation continuum, rather than to define it as being participatory and thus per definition ethical or not. Finally, a number of suggestions are made which could bring it more in line with the participatory communication approach as well as Biblical principles on com-munication.

  7. Excerpt from Pluralist Universalism: An Asian Americanist Critique of U.S. and Chinese Multiculturalisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Pluralist Universalism: An Asian Americanist Critique of U.S. and Chinese Multiculturalisms is an extended comparison of US and Chinese multiculturalisms during the post–Cold War era. Her book situates itself at the intersection of Asian American literary critique and the growing field of comparative multiculturalism. Through readings of fictional narratives that address the issue of racial and ethnic difference in both national contexts simultaneously, the author models a “double critique” framework for US–Chinese comparative literary studies.

    The book approaches U.S. liberal multiculturalism and China’s ethnic policy as two competing multiculturalisms, one grounded primarily in a history of racial desegregation and the other in the legacies of a socialist revolution. Since the end of the Cold War, the two multiculturalisms have increasingly been brought into contact through translation and other forms of mediation. Pluralist Universalism demonstrates that a number of fictional narratives, including those commonly classified as Chinese, American, and Chinese American, have illuminated incongruities and connections between the ethno-racial politics of the two nations.

    The “double critique” framework builds upon critical perspectives developed in Asian American studies and adjacent fields. The book brings to life an innovative vision of Asian American literary critique, even as it offers a unique intervention in ideas of ethnicity and race prevailing in both China and the United States in the post–Cold War era.

  8. Concurrences in Contemporary Travel Writing: Postcolonial Critique and Colonial Sentiments in Sven Lindqvist's Exterminate all the Brutes and Terra Nullius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piia K. Posti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research highlights contemporary travel writing's complicity in global politics, and the genre is claimed to reproduce the discourses that constitute our understanding of the world. It has also been argued that the genre holds a possibility to help us gain further knowledge about contemporary global politics, as it may work as an arena where global politics is commented on, intervened with and re-shaped. With this double view, current research exemplifies how scholars today grapple with the challenge of accounting for simultaneous and sometimes conflicting histories and conditions that are altered and affected by colonial contacts, practices and ideologies, and by recent globalisation. This article explores this double characteristic of the travelogue through the concept of concurrence, and discusses how this concept is useful as a tool for a new understanding of the genre. How can this concept be employed in an analysis of travel writing that is deeply engaged in a critique of colonialism and its legacy in today's globalism but is simultaneously enmeshed in and complicit with the legacy that is critiques? 'Concurrence' is introduced as a concept for such analysis since it contains both the notion of simultaneity and competition. It is suggested that 'concurrence' pro-vides a conceptual framework that allows us to account for controversies, intersections and inequities without reinscribing them into a reconciled and universalizing perspective. In exploring the concept of concurrence, this article provides an initial analysis of two contemporary Swedish travel narratives by Sven Lindqvist. The analysis is focused on the genre's tension between fact and fiction, its discursive entanglement in colonialism, and the problem and possibility of writing postcolo-nial critique by use of this genre.

  9. Foucault’s Critique of the Science of Sexuality: The Function of Science within Bio-power

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    Sokthan Yeng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Foucault’s critique of the science of sexuality takes aim at both Freud and science.  Foucault does not, as is common, seek to undermine psychoanalysis by claiming that it does not meet the rigors of science.  Instead, he shows that scientific and psychoanalytic theories intersect because they are mechanisms of modern politics—biopolitics.  Foucault suggests that politics determines the value of life and these sciences help to disseminate and promote knowledge about the privileged lives and lifestyles.  Psychoanalytic, biological, and anatomical readings of sexuality are given credence because they dovetail with the dominant political discourse about life.

  10. Inclusive Education for Children with Special Education Needs:A Critique of Policy and Practice in New Zealand

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    Garry Hornby

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the issue of inclusive education for children with disabilities and special educational needs, in particular with regard to policies and practices in developed countries, such as New Zealand. The article reviews the debate about inclusive education and outlines several confusions about inclusion that have emerged from this debate. It then provides a critique of policies and practices regarding inclusive education in New Zealand, in comparison to those in other developed countries, such as the USA and England. Finally, implications of the issues discussed for developing countries, such as those in the Asia-'‐Pacific region, are outlined.

  11. What the critique of he political economy can and can’t do? Marx’s theory of value and its use in social theory

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    Stojanović Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this text I will try to explain the theoretical specificity of critique of political economy. I will primarily found my arguments on the texts of Michael Hein- rich and John Milios. To this I will firstly scatch the theoretical context of economic theories that exited at the time of emergence of critique of political economy. Than, I will present main differences in approach that we can find in Marx’s Capital with repsect to the concepts that are utilised and questions that he tries to answer. In the end I will present the directions of development of the critique of political economy that are realted to this basic insight.

  12. Critiquing the response to the Ebola epidemic through a Primary Health Care Approach

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    Vera Scott

    2016-05-01

    such as EVD. Conclusion The PHC approach offers an insightful critique of the global and regional factors which have compromised the response of health systems in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone as well as suggesting what a strengthened EVD response might involve in the short, medium and long-term.

  13. Environmental indifference? A critique of environmentally deterministic theories of peatland archaeological site construction in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, G.; McDermott, C.; Swindles, G. T.; Brown, D. M.

    2013-02-01

    Climate change, whether gradual or sudden, has frequently been invoked as a causal factor to explain many aspects of cultural change during the prehistoric and early historic periods. Critiquing such theories has often proven difficult, not least because of the imprecise dating of many aspects of the palaeoclimate or archaeological records and the difficulties of merging the two strands of research. Here we consider one example of the archaeological record - peatland site construction in Ireland - which has previously been interpreted in terms of social response to climate change and examine whether close scrutiny of the archaeological and palaeoenvironmental records upholds the climatically deterministic hypotheses. We evaluate evidence for phasing in the temporal distribution of trackways and related sites in Irish peatlands, of which more than 3500 examples have been recorded, through the examination of ˜350 dendrochronological and 14C dates from these structures. The role of climate change in influencing when such sites were constructed is assessed by comparing visually and statistically the frequency of sites over the last 4500 years with well-dated, multiproxy climate reconstructions from Irish peatlands. We demonstrate that national patterns of “peatland activity” exist that indicate that the construction of sites in bogs was neither a constant nor random phenomenon. Phases of activity (i.e. periods in which the number of structures increased), as well as the ‘lulls’ that separate them, show no consistent correlation with periods of wetter or drier conditions on the bogs, suggesting that the impetus for the start or cessation of such activity was not climatically-determined. We propose that trigger(s) for peatland site construction in Ireland must instead also be sought within the wider, contemporary social background. Perhaps not surprisingly, a comparison with archaeological and palynological evidence shows that peatland activity tends to occur at

  14. Under the Weather? A Critique of Environmental Deterministic Theories of Peatland Activity in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, G.; McDermott, C.; Swindles, G. T.; Brown, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change, whether gradual or sudden, has frequently been invoked as a causal factor to explain many aspects of cultural change during the Irish prehistoric and early historic periods. More often than not, the link is based on an apparent temporal coincidence of a climate "event" and the subsequent initiation of a new cultural phase, recognised in the material culture, site architecture or site distribution patterns, rather than a demonstrated observance of societal response to an environmental change. Critiquing such theories has generally proven difficult, not least because of the imprecise dating of many aspects of the palaeoclimate or archaeological records and the difficulties of juxtaposing the two strands of research. This paper considers evidence for phasing in the temporal distribution of trackways and related sites in Irish peatlands, of which more than 3,500 examples have been recorded, through the examination of ~350 dendrochronological and 14C dates from these structures. The role of climate change in influencing when such sites were constructed is assessed by comparing visually and statistically the frequency of sites over the last 4,500 years with well-dated, multi-proxy climate reconstructions from Irish peatlands. We demonstrate that national patterns of "peatland activity" exist that indicate that the construction of sites in bogs was neither a constant nor random phenomenon. Phases of activity (i.e. periods in which the number of structures seems to have increased), as well as the lulls that separate them, show no consistent correlation with periods of wetter or drier conditions on the bogs, suggesting that the impetus for the start or cessation of such activity was not climatically-determined. We propose that trigger(s) for peatland site construction in Ireland must instead be sought within the wider, contemporary social background. Perhaps not surprisingly, a comparison with archaeological and palynological evidence shows that peatland

  15. Revisiter le renouveau religieux dans le développement : une critique de Philip Fountain

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    Katherine Marshall

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available L’article de Philip Fountain, complexe s’il en est et profond à bien des égards, aborde un ensemble de questions auxquelles se heurtent aujourd’hui bon nombre d’acteurs dans le large éventail d’institutions et de visions du monde divergentes. Il débute et conclut son article par une réflexion sur la « découverte » de la religion par les communautés du développement. Il affirme que les définitions plus que généralisées, bâclées dirais-je même, de la religion sont monnaie courante. Et de déduire que derrière ces nombreux traitements de la « religion » se cache « une certaine conceptualisation par défaut – substantialiste, essentialisée, sans fondement historique et universelle ». Il propose un argument important : là où les vastes sphères complexes de la religion sont présentes, les catégorisations simplistes sont trompeuses et chargées d’un lourd bagage politique. Si j’abonde totalement dans son sens sur le premier point, je reste par contre bien moins convaincue que des politiques néfastes soient à l’œuvre au niveau qu’il suggère dans ses efforts pour conceptualiser le chevauchement entre les sphères du développement et de la croyance. Je dirais, pour ma part, que les caractérisations simplistes des vastes sphères complexes du développement international sont autant chargées que les grandes généralisations sur la religion. L’article de Philip Fountain pèche à mon sens par sa caractérisation insuffisante du développement. Il appelle à un examen critique du « développement laïque », sans toutefois en préciser les contours. (…

  16. Pour une critique sceptique de la pragmatique transcendantale de K. O. Apel.

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    Frédéric Cossutta

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les philosophies qui tentent de faire face à la crise de la rationalité, certaines, plus radicales que d’autres, en proposent une fondation reposant sur des principes qui se veulent exempts de toute présupposition. Ainsi K. O. Apel entend opérer une refondation de la rationalité éthique et cognitive en considérant les activités communicationnelles et argumentatives. Il s’agit d’élaborer une «pragmatique transcendantale» dont le processus d’étayage auto-réflexif s’appuie sur la «contradiction pragmatique» dans laquelle tombent ses éventuels contradicteurs. Une telle prétention n’est-elle pas exorbitante ? Les sceptiques grecs ont élaboré une approche pragmatique du sens qui leur permet d’éviter la disqualification de leur énonciation, ce qui permet, en transposant leurs conceptions à la lumière des théories contemporaines du langage, d’échapper à la critique de Apel. On peut dès lors reconnaître le caractère constitutif de l’activité communicationnelle, sans prétendre en proposer une fondation ultime de type transcendantal, ni préjuger de son orientation éthique. Resterait à se demander s’il est possible de reconstruire une rationalité minimale compatible avec la posture sceptique.Among philosophical attempts to face the crisis of rationality, some of them emphasize the necessity of grounding its refoundation on presuppositionless principles. K.O. Apel aims at the refoundation of ethical and cognitive rationality within a communicational and argumentative framework. His “Discourse ethics” dwell on the impossibility to be criticized without committing a “pragmatic contradiction”. Is this not an excessive claim ? Greek scepticism has always been aware of the paradoxes that its own formulation raises and elaborates pragmatic strategies to escape contradiction. We can thus use these tools to avoid Apel’s argument and say that even if the communicative activities were

  17. Georg Simmel, une interprétation critique de la notion kantienne du bonheur.

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    Annette Disselkamp

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Dans un texte relativement peu connu, intitulé Kant, Georg Simmel développe des réflexions critiques à propos de la notion kantienne du bonheur. En comparant celles-ci avec son analyse de la société moderne, telle qu’il la propose dans la Philosophie de l’argent, on s’aperçoit qu’il existe, entre les concepts philosophiques qui y sont mis en œuvre, une relation de correspondance parfaite. La conclusion s’impose que, pour Simmel, la notion kantienne du bonheur trouve comme son incarnation historique dans la culture monétaire. La modernité, que Simmel caractérise par le fait qu’elle offre aux individus la possibilité d’accéder aux objets et aux positions de leur choix, matérialise en effet une aporie inhérente au concept du bonheur chez Kant, dans la mesure où ce dernier souligne l’indétermination totale des choix, d’un côté, et de l’autre, l’idée que c’est hors de la volonté elle-même que la recherche du bonheur puise ses mobiles.In his relatively unknown text Kant, Georg Simmel develops some critical thoughts concerning Kant’s notion of happiness. The comparison between this text and his analysis of modern society, especially in his work Philosophy of Money, reveals that there exists a perfect correspondence between the philosophical concepts used in the two books. This leads us to conclude that, in Simmel’s eyes, monetary culture represents some kind of historical embodiment of the Kantian notion of happiness. Modernity, which offers all individuals the possibility of acquiring any objects or positions they choose, materialises an aporia inherent in Kant’s concept of happiness, consisting in the fact that, on the one hand, our choices are totally undetermined, and, on the other hand, the search for happiness is motivated by impulsions that lie outside of our will.

  18. A Historical Analysis of Media Practices and Technologies in Protest Movements: A Review of Crisis and Critique by Anne Kaun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Laajalahti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Anne Kaun’s book, Crisis and Critique: A Brief History of Media Participation in Times of Crisis (London: Zed Books, 2016, 131 pp., ISBN: 978-1-78360-736-5, is a concise but comprehensive analysis of the changing media practices and technologies in protest movements. The book overviews the topic within the context of major economic crises and scrutinises three richly detailed case studies in the United States: (a the unemployed workers’ movement during the Great Depression in the 1930s, (b the tenants’ rent strike movement of the early 1970s, and (c the Occupy Wall Street movement following the Great Recession of 2008. Kaun begins her book with an introduction to economic crises and protest movements and highlights the relationship of crisis and critique to media practices. She goes on to investigate historical forms of media participation in protest movements from three different perspectives: (a protest time, (b protest space, and (c protest speed. The book contributes to the recent discussion on the emerging role of social media in protest by providing a historically nuanced analysis of the media participation in times of crisis. As a whole, the book is valuable to anyone interested in media and social activism.

  19. Crítica moral de Francis Bacon a la filosofía Francis Bacon's moral critique to philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Prada Dussán

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este escrito muestra la crítica moral de Bacon a la filosofía, presente en sus obras de juventud, la cual es desarrollada en tres niveles: primero, los cargos a la filosofía por su inutilidad, segundo, las acusaciones a la falta de verdad y de método y, finalmente, la denuncia de falta de caridad y humildad. En conclusión, este estudio intentará sustentar que 1. La reforma baconiana no se restringe a un nuevo método ni a una nueva teoría de la materia; más allá de esto, encuentra un sustento en una nueva posición moral del hombre frente a la naturaleza, y 2. Que su proyecto epistemológico encuentra sentido en el trasfondo moral.This paper is about Bacon's moral critique to philosophy. This critique is present in his youth work and it is developed in three levels: first, charges against philosophy because of its uselessness; second, accusations against philosophy's lack of truth and method; and, finally, charges against philosophy's lack of charity and humility. Briefly, this study will state and support two hypotheses. 1. Bacon´s reform is not restricted to a new method neither a new theory of matter; beyond this; it is a new moral position about man in relation to nature. 2. His epistemological project makes sense in the moral background.

  20. A critique of the design, implementation, and delivery of a culturally-tailored self-management education intervention: a qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Manbinder S; Gale, Nicola K; Gill, Paramjit; Marshall, Tom; Jolly, Kate

    2015-02-07

    Self-management education is at the forefront of addressing the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases. For those at greatest risk, such as minority-ethnic and/or socio-economically deprived groups, self-management education can be culturally-tailored to encourage behavioural change. Yet, the application of culturally appropriate material and expertise within health promotion services continues to be debated. We critique the design, implementation, and delivery of a culturally-tailored self-management intervention, with particular focus on the experiences of lay educators. A mixed methods qualitative evaluation was undertaken to understand self-management service provision to culturally diverse communities (i.e. how components such as lay workers, group-based design, and culturally-appropriate educational material are intended to encourage behavioural change). We interviewed lay educators delivering the Chronic Disease Educator programme along with attendees, whilst observing workshops. Data were thematically analysed using a content-based constant comparison approach through a number of interpretative analytical stages. Lay educators felt part of the local community, relating to attendees from different races and ethnicities. However, lay educators faced challenges when addressing health beliefs and changing lifestyle practices. Culturally-tailored components aided communication, with educator's cultural awareness leading to close relationships with attendees, while the group-based design facilitated discussions of the emotional impact of illness. Lay educators bring with them a number of nuanced skills and knowledge when delivering self-management education. The development and training required for this role is inhibited by financial constraints at policy-level. The interpretation of being from the 'community' links with the identity and status of the lay role, overlapping notions of race, ethnicity, and language.

  1. Affirming Difference: Everyday Aesthetic Experience after Phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Roberdeau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the complex relationships among two different types of critique, the socio-temporal zone known as "everyday life" and the moment of the encounter by those who are encountering art works. It proceeds with a close study of the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Mikel Dufrenne, and tests their key concepts against generalized contemporary art practices that question a model of the traditional aesthetic experience by suggesting the possibility that within the expanse of postmodernity such a paradigm has shifted, (although it is not completely irretrievable. The paper argues that this shift has been achieved by remobilizing readymade objects and banal customs within spaces otherwise reserved for extraordinary experience. Thus, it also considers the problem of authoritative experience and Jürgen Habermas' extension of the Husserlian Lebenswelt in order to map out the urgencies of our current cultural sphere.

  2. LE FRANÇAIS DANS LA PRESSE ECRITE DU NORD-CAMEROUN : DIAGNOSTIC, CRITIQUES ET ORIENTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moïse MBEY MAKANG

    2013-11-01

    çais hexagonal, elle jette ensuite un regard critique et propose des solutions dans l’optique de la régulation de la formation du langage de la presse écrite. L’hypothèse de départ postule que les mobiles ci-dessus énumérés sont les causes de la mauvaise pratique linguistique de la presse écrite du Nord-Cameroun. Ceci dit, le raisonnement se construit par une approche descriptive et contrastive du français et prend en compte un foisonnement de sources (articles, ouvrages, thèses, documentaires, mémoires, etc..

  3. A Critique of the Capacity of Strauss Grounded Theory for Prediction, Change, and Control in Organisational Strategy via a Grounded Theorisation of Leisure and Cultural Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakir, Ali; Bakir, Vian

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we critique grounded theory's ability to fulfil its aim of offering a practical vehicle for prediction, change, and control as stipulated in grounded theory's original formulation by Glaser and Strauss, and later developed by Strauss. We do this through a case study approach, whereby we develop a grounded theory of leisure and…

  4. The Critical Humanisms of Dorothy Dinnerstein and Immanuel Kant Employed for Responding to Gender Bias: A Study, and an Exercise, in Radical Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Gregory Lewis

    2011-01-01

    Two humanist, critical approaches--those of Dorothy Dinnerstein and Immanuel Kant--are summarized, compared, and employed to critique gender bias in science education. The value of Dinnerstein's approach lies in her way of seeing conventional "masculinity" and conventional "femininity" as developing in relation to each other from early childhood.…

  5. A "Fear" Studies Perspective and Critique: Analyzing English and Stengel's Progressive Study of Fear and Learning in "Education Theory." Technical Paper No. 37

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R. Michael

    2011-01-01

    The author critiques the progressive approach of two contemporary educational philosophers (English and Stengel) on the topic of fear and learning. Using a postmodern integral approach, this article examines the tendency of reductionism, individualism, and psychologism as part of a hegemonic liberalism and modernism in discourses on fear and…

  6. Labour Subjectivities for the New World of Work: A Critique of Government Policy on the Integration of Entrepreneurialism in the University Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Philippa

    2015-01-01

    International debates on the aims and purposes of entrepreneurship education in universities are examined in this paper through the prism of a policy critique of recent English higher education initiatives. The Department of Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) policy to integrate rather than "add on" enterprise education throughout…

  7. Automatisation de la Certification Formelle de Systèmes Critiques par Instrumentation d'Interpréteurs Abstraits

    OpenAIRE

    Garnacho, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Mes travaux de doctorat ont porté sur la certification de programmes impératifs utilisés dans des applications critiques. Les certificats établissent la validité des propriétés sémantiques des programmes et sont produits sous forme de preuves déductives vérifiables par machine. Le défi relevé dans cette thèse est d'automatiser la construction des preuves de correction de programmes. Nous avons suivie l'approche de Floyd-Hoare pour prouver que les propriétés sémantiques sont des invariants du ...

  8. Hijacking Subaltern’s history (broken bodies, broken voices: Decolonial critique of ‘Subaltern whiteness’ in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chammah J. Kaunda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article uses decolonial to critique the discourse of ‘subaltern whiteness’ by questioning some Afrikaner scholars’ morality of regarding ‘white Afrikaners as subaltern’. Subaltern designates submerged, subordinated, exploited or suppressed – those whose voices have been historically muted, their humanity stripped by those with sociopolitical and economic power. Within South Africa, this raises the question: to what extent can white Afrikaners be regarded as subaltern? The article proposes indivisibility of epistemic vulnerability and regenerative theological praxis both emerging within Afrikaner theological discussion as viable response to broken bodies of those who still bear the marks or scars of apartheid and rather not to seek to hijack their voice.

  9. Hijacking Subaltern’s history (broken bodies, broken voices: Decolonial critique of ‘Subaltern whiteness’ in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chammah J. Kaunda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article uses decolonial to critique the discourse of ‘subaltern whiteness’ by questioning some Afrikaner scholars’ morality of regarding ‘white Afrikaners as subaltern’. Subaltern designates submerged, subordinated, exploited or suppressed – those whose voices have been historically muted, their humanity stripped by those with sociopolitical and economic power. Within South Africa, this raises the question: to what extent can white Afrikaners be regarded as subaltern? The article proposes indivisibility of epistemic vulnerability and regenerative theological praxis both emerging within Afrikaner theological discussion as viable response to broken bodies of those who still bear the marks or scars of apartheid and rather not to seek to hijack their voice.

  10. Denier du reve de M. Yourcenar: lecture pirandellienne d’une critique politique des années trente

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    Maria Rosa Chiapparo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Les essais yourcenariens publiés autour des années 1920-30 constituent un véritable laboratoire d’idées où l’auteur a puisé pour la création de ses œuvres. Le bref renvoi à Pirandello présent dans “Diagnostic de l’Europe” atteste notre hypothèse nous permettant de procéder à une relecture intéressante de Denier du rêve. Partant des propos de Pirandello sur le cinéma, nous avons pu saisir un autre aspect du roman, tout en éclaircissant la critique du fascisme que Yourcenar y élabore, à savoir : le rôle de la culture de l’image dans la mise en place d’un régime totalitaire comme le fut le fascisme italien.

  11. Philosophie, méthode dialectique et théorie critique : des fondements à l’émancipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel J. Krol

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available À l’instar de l’investigation scientifique, la philosophie ne dépend pas d’une méthodologie stricte qui demande des manipulations complexes ou des expérimentations onéreuses. Au contraire, elle repose sur une démarche intellectuelle à visée exhaustive, fondée dans les capacités de réflexion et de synthèse de l’esprit humain. Or, la dialectique est une méthode philosophique qui réfère à un processus structuré de réflexion pouvant contribuer au développement des connaissances de maintes disciplines. Plus spécifiquement, la dialectique critique est fortement inspirée par les valeurs de la justice sociale et d’émancipation. Par conséquent, celle-ci suscite un intérêt au sein des disciplines de la santé humaine de par la place qu’elle entretient avec les possibilités de libération et d’émancipation des personnes opprimées. Dans cet article, nous expliquons d’abord certains fondements ontologiques et épistémologiques de cette méthode. Enfin, nous présentons la dialectique critique en tant que devis de recherche philosophique pouvant contribuer au développement des connaissances, à la praxis et à l’émancipation.

  12. American Idol and the Music Classroom: A Means of Critiquing Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jason D.

    2007-01-01

    This essay emphasizes ways to raise the student interests and help students develop skills for analyzing music and music performances through the television program "American Idol." As music classrooms experience an increase in the number of students from a variety of cultures, valuing the music of all cultures becomes increasingly important.…

  13. Book Review/Critique de livre Agony In Nation-State Building ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which over many years will lead native societies little by little to a status in which they are capable of understanding what we consider wisdom, because we practice it”. One thing for sure, this book is an archeology of lived experience of a people as they attempted to shape their lives and as others attempted to shape them.

  14. Redefining the Legacy of Mina Shaughnessy: A Critique of the Politics of Linguistic Innocence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Min-zhan

    1991-01-01

    Argues that Mina Shaughnessy's view of language as a politically innocent vehicle of meaning overlooks basic writers' need to confront the dissonance they experience between academic and other discourses. Suggests educators need to abandon the limitations of the essentialist view of language informing their pedagogy. (KEH)

  15. The State of the Digital Humanities: A Report and a Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The scholarly field of the digital humanities has recently expanded and integrated its fundamental concepts, historical coverage, relationship to social experience, scale of projects, and range of interpretive approaches. All this brings the overall field (including the related area of new media studies) to a tipping point where it has the…

  16. The Role of Fiction in Experiments within Design, Art & Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutz, Eva; Markussen, Thomas; Christensen, Poul Rind

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers a typology for understanding design fiction as a new approach in design research. The typology allows design researchers to explain design fictions according to 5 criteria: (1) “What if scenarios” as the basic construal principle of design fiction; (2) the manifestation of criti...... of critique; (3) design aims; (4) materializations and forms; and (5) the aesthetic of design fictions. The typology is premised on the idea that fiction may integrate with reality in many different ways in design experiments....

  17. La critique cinématographique : Analyse des contrats de lecture proposés dans la presse traditionnelle d’aujourd’hui

    OpenAIRE

    Krywicki, Boris

    2015-01-01

    De nos jours, l’on constate l’existence de nombreuses alternatives à la critique cinématographique que l’on peut trouver dans la presse traditionnelle. La critique a beaucoup été chahutée au fil du temps : remise en question de la légitimité des journalistes spécialisés, soupçons d’un dénigrement du cinéma populaire, accusation d’être réservée à une élite culturelle… Le genre a changé significativement, tentant de s’adapter à une industrie en constante évolution. Aujourd’hui, l’on peut voir d...

  18. Sociologie du travail et critique du temps industriel The Sociology of Labor and a critical vision of industrial Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Thoemmes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La sociologie du travail a développé un point de vue particulier sur l'analyse des temporalités sociales. L'objectif de cet article est de montrer l'élaboration progressive d'une critique d'un temps industriel unique et unifiant. Cette critique s'appuie sur trois éléments : la multiplicité des temporalités de l’activité professionnelle, le caractère déstructurant du travail industriel et l'émergence d'un temps des loisirs. Ce point de vue a été élaboré par la sociologie du travail en France après 1945, notamment par Georges Friedmann, Pierre Naville et William Grossin.  Avant d’aborder cette période nous voudrions  interroger le moment de la fondation de la sociologie. En mobilisant des travaux peu connus de Max Weber sur le travail, nous verrons en quoi il est un précurseur de l’analyse des attitudes diversifiées des individus et des collectifs à l’égard du temps. Cette perspective lie, dès les premières enquêtes sociologiques, le travail industriel à une interrogation sur les temporalités.The sociology of work and labor developed a particular viewpoint on the analysis of social times. The objective of this article is to show how a criticism of a unique and unifying industrial time progressively grew up. Such criticism leans on three elements: the multiplicity of social times linked to the occupational activity, the disintegrating nature of work in the manufacturing process and the emergence of leisure-time. This point of view was elaborated by the sociology of work in France after 1945, notably by Georges Friedmann, Pierre Naville and William Grossin. Before approaching this period we question the moment of the foundation of sociology. By mobilizing little known research by Max Weber on the manufacturing process, we shall see in what way he was a precursor of the analysis of diversified attitudes regarding time by individuals and groups.

  19. Data critique and analytical opportunities for very large Facebook Pages: Lessons learned from exploring “We are all Khaled Said”

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhard Rieder; Rasha Abdulla; Thomas Poell; Robbert Woltering; Liesbeth Zack

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the empirical, Application Programming Interface (API)-based analysis of very large Facebook Pages. Looking in detail at the technical characteristics, conventions, and peculiarities of Facebook’s architecture and data interface, we argue that such technical fieldwork is essential to data-driven research, both as a crucial form of data critique and as a way to identify analytical opportunities. Using the ‘‘We are all Khaled Said’’ Facebook Page, which hosted the activitie...

  20. Approaches to Gender Equity in Science Education: Two Initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa Seen Through A Lens Derived From Feminist Critique of Science

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid Tonette Sinnes

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, I explore whether feminist critique of science can shed new light on how gender equity in science education can be achieved. Drawing on feminist theory, I develop a theoretical framework that I use to analyse how two science education initiatives work towards increased gender equity in science education in sub-Saharan Africa. All studies and initiatives addressing gender issues in science education reflect perceptions of how sex/gender1 impacts pupils’ engagement in scientific...

  1. Possession as a clinical phenomenon: a critique of the medical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owe Wikström

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the individual's specific experience of his personality being possessed, either partially or completely, momentarily or for an extended period of time, by evil spirits. It must be seen as necessary to supplement the narrow medical model for interpreting states of possession. The clinically interested psychologist of religion, in particular, needs consider aspects of the phenomenology of religion and clinical psychology in order to gain a broader understanding of this phenomenon. To declare that possession experiences are "nothing but psychosis, mania, epilepsy or schizophrenia, are examples of this type of over-simplification. The structure of possession can above all be understood as an interaction between a cognitive, linguistic level, and an emotional, affective level. Only if one unites these two levels can one attain a deeper understanding of the individual's possession experience. It is, in other words, important to remember that to increase understanding of the structure of possession, we must relate the individual's (bio-chemically conditioned intensive feeling experience to the surrounding subculture's way of defining these intensive feelings. Religious language provides one way of dealing verbally with the unstructured and terrifying aspects of a developing psychosis. It is, for example, possible to describe the personal transformation as a dynamic relationship between the verbal representatives for evil or the Evil One in the world of mythological language, and the intrapsychic, anxiety-filled emotive state, regardless of whether this inner state is considered to be the result of neurosis, psycho-sis, or the consequence of intensive suggestion.

  2. Un-thought out metaphysics in analytical psychology: a critique of Jung's epistemological basis for psychic reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Robin McCoy

    2011-09-01

    The author investigates the relation of Kant, Schopenhauer and Heidegger to Jung's attempts to formulate theory regarding the epistemological conundrum of what can and what cannot be known and what must remain uncertain. Jung's ambivalent use and misuse of Kant's division of the world into phenomenal and noumenal realms is highlighted in discussion of concepts such as the psychoid archetype which he called 'esse in anima' and his use of Schopenhauer's concept of 'will' to justify a transcendence of the psyche/soma divide in a postulation of a 'psychoid' realm. Finally, the author describes Jung's reaction to Heidegger's theories via his assertion that Heidegger's 'pre-given world design' was an alternate formulation of his concept of the archetypes. An underlying theme of the paper is a critique of Jung's foundationalism which perpetuates the myth of an isolated mind. This model of understanding subjectivity is briefly contrasted with Heidegger's 'fundamental ontology' which focuses on a non-Cartesian 'understanding' of the 'presencing of being' in everyday social and historical contexts. © 2011, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  3. Critica della teoria neoclassica della crescita e della distribuzione (A Critique of the Neoclassical Theory of Growth and Income Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Pasinetti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper surveys the main theories of income distribution in their relationship with the theories of economic growth. First, the Classical approach is considered, focusing on the Ricardian theory. Then the neoclassical theory is discussed, highlighting its origins (Bohm-Bawerk, Wicksell, Clark and the role of the aggregate production function. The emergence of a "Keynesian" theory of income distribution in the wake of Harrod's model of growth is then recalled together with the surprising resurgence of the neoclassical theory (following the contributions of Solow and Meade. But, as the paper shows, the neoclassical theory of income distribution lacks logical consistency and has shaky foundations, as has been revealed by the severe critiques moved to the neoclassical production function. Mainstream economic literature circumvents this problem by simply ignoring it; while the models of endogenous growth exclude the issue of distribution theory from their consideration. However, while mainstream economics bypasses the problems of income distribution, this is too relevant an issue to be ignored and a number of new research lines, briefly surveyed, try new approaches to it.          JEL Codes: O41, E25Keywords: Distribution, Economic Growth, Growth, Income Distribution, Income

  4. Ekphrasis and Narrative, or the Ideological Critique of Artworks: Alma-Tadema, Ennio Flaiano and the Legacy of Heliogabalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Mattia Gallerani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Just before his death in 1972, the Italian writer Ennio Flaiano wrote a short story entitled “La penultima cena” (The Penultimate Supper in which Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema’s painting The Roses of Heliogabalus (1888 is referenced and the “myth” of Heliogabalus itself comes to play a fundamental role in the construction of the narrative. Though the scene recreated by the characters in Flaiano’s short story may be interpreted as a mise en abyme, through the transformation of Alma-Tadema’s original image using different modes of writing – in particular narrative dialogues and ekphrasis – Flaiano actually critiques an elitist and anti-historical use of art in literature. Building on a reference that the narrator makes to the Decameron, the article shows how the ekphrasis hosts an ideological conflict that opposes the narrator’s interpretation of Heliogabalus’s feast to the one reproduced and staged during a fancy dinner held by members of Rome’s high-society.

  5. The Agent Intellect as "form for us" and Averroes's Critique of al-Fârâbî

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Taylor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explicates Averroes's understanding of human knowing and abstraction in this three commentaries on Aristotle's De Anima. While Averroes's views on the nature of the human material intellect changes through the three commentaries until he reaches his famous view of the unity of the material intellect as one for all human beings, his view of the agent intellect as 'form for us' is sustained throughout these works. In his Long Commentary on the De Anima he reveals his dependence on al-Farabi for this notion and provides a detailed critique of the Farabian notion that the agent intellect is 'form for us' only as agent cause, not as our true formal cause. Although Averroes argues that the agent intellect must somehow be intrinsic to us as our form since humans per se rational and undertake acts of knowing by will, his view is shown to rest on an equivocal use of the notion of formal cause. The agent intellect cannot be properly our intrinsic formal principle while remaining ontologically separate.

  6. ‘Trick’, ‘Manipulation’ and ‘Farce’: Albert Moll’s Critique of Occultism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffram, Heather

    2012-01-01

    In July 1925, the psychiatrist Albert Moll appeared before the district court in Berlin-Schöneberg charged with having defamed the medium Maria Vollhardt (alias Rudloff) in his 1924 book Der Spiritismus [Spiritism]. Supported by some of Berlin’s most prominent occultists, the plaintiff – the medium’s husband – argued that Moll’s use of terms such as ‘trick’, ‘manipulation’ and ‘farce’ in reference to Vollhardt’s phenomena had been libellous. In the three-part trial that followed, however, Moll’s putative affront to the medium – of which he was eventually acquitted – was overshadowed, on the one hand, by a debate over the scientific status of parapsychology, and on the other, by the question of who – parapsychologists, occultists, psychiatrists or jurists – was entitled to claim epistemic authority over the occult. This paper will use the Rudloff–Moll trial as a means of examining Moll’s critique of occultism, not only as it stood in the mid-1920s, but also as it had developed since the 1880s. It will also provide insight into the views of Germany’s occultists and parapsychologists, who argued that their legitimate bid for scientific credibility was hindered by Dunkelmänner [obscurantists] such as Albert Moll. PMID:23002297

  7. The Criticism of Hegelian Mediation in Kierkegaard's Second Volume of Enter-Eller (Either/Or. A Social Critique?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Assalone

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we address the criticism of the Hegelian doctrine of mediation (Vermittlung developed by Kierkegaard in the second volume of the book Enten-Eller (Either/Or. First we analyze the kind of opposition that Kierkegaard is not willing to relativize through the use of the dialectical mediation. For that purpose the contributions made by Shannon Nason to the understanding of relative opposites in Hegel and in Kierkegaard are applied. Next we indicate the place where the concept of mediation is located in Kierkegaard’s approach, namely, within the “sphere of thought”. Afterwards we approach Theodor W. Adorno’s criticism of the Kierkegaardian attempt to develop a “dialectics without mediation”. In the last section we approach both the criticism and the limitation of the concept of mediation made by Kierkegaard as well as the objections raised by Adorno against them. We also present some reflections on the criticism of mediation made by Kierkegaard and the young Marx as an expression of social critique which remains implicit in the former and that is explicit in the latter.

  8. Critique of the review of 'Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries' published by the Cochrane Collaboration in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugg-Gunn, A J; Spencer, A J; Whelton, H P; Jones, C; Beal, J F; Castle, P; Cooney, P V; Johnson, J; Kelly, M P; Lennon, M A; McGinley, J; O'Mullane, D; Sgan-Cohen, H D; Sharma, P P; Thomson, W M; Woodward, S M; Zusman, S P

    2016-04-01

    The Cochrane Review on water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries was published in 2015 and attracted considerable interest and comment, especially in countries with extensive water fluoridation programmes. The Review had two objectives: (i) to evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on the prevention of dental caries, and (ii) to evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on dental fluorosis. The authors concluded, inter alia, that there was very little contemporary evidence, meeting the Review's inclusion criteria, that evaluated the effectiveness of water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries. The purpose of this critique is to examine the conduct of the above Review, and to put it into context in the wider body of evidence regarding the effectiveness of water fluoridation. While the overall conclusion that water fluoridation is effective in caries prevention agrees with previous reviews, many important public health questions could not be answered by the Review because of the restrictive criteria used to judge adequacy of study design and risk of bias. The potential benefits of using wider criteria in order to achieve a fuller understanding of the effectiveness of water fluoridation are discussed.

  9. Occupy Wall Street as Immanent Critique: Why IR Theory Needs a ‘Mic Check!’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Kiersey

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent movements that have emerged across the world to ‘occupy’ various public spaces present an immanent critique of the contemporary arrangements of global politics – one that theorists of International Relations (IR and International Political Economy(IPE should reflect on with some urgency. Emerging from a complex intertext including, but by no means limited to, anarchist and neo-Marxist frameworks, the movement has called for a recognition and appraisal of the ‘communism of everyday life’. Resonating with arguments made in Hardt and Negri’s Commonwealth (2009, as well as David Graeber's Debt: The First 5000 Years (2011, the movements appear to wish to draw attention to a dominant capitalist ontology which denies the highly distributed and social nature of the way in which real value production takes place today. In this context, they argue, the burden of debt that the 99% must endure merely to maintain a dignified standard of living bespeaks the erosion of any semblance of democracy in the allocation of social wealth...

  10. "Multiple chemical sensitivities:" immunologic critique of clinical ecology theories and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terr, A I

    1987-01-01

    The concept of multiple chemical hypersensitivities as a disease entity in which the patient experiences numerous symptoms from numerous chemicals and foods caused by a disturbance of the immune systems lacks a scientific foundation. Published reports of such cases are anecdotal and without proper controls. There is no convincing evidence for any immunologic abnormality in these cases. Diagnostic methods have been shown to be unreliable. Diagnosis, treatment, and theoretical concepts underlying the purported disease are not consistent with current immunologic knowledge and theory. As defined and presented by its proponents, multiple chemical hypersensitivities constitutes a belief and not a disease.

  11. Response to Frierson’s “Kantian Feeling: Empirical Psychology, Transcendental Critique and Phenomenology”

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    Jeanine Grenberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I reject Frierson’s interpretation of Kantian reductionist phenomenology. I diagnose his failure to articulate a more robust notion of phenomenology in Kant as traceable to a misguided effort to protect pure reason from the undue influence of sensibility. But in fact Kant himself relies regularly on a phenomenological and felt first personal perspective in his practical philosophy. Once we think more broadly about what Frierson calls “the space of reasons,” we must admit a robust role for attentive reflection upon felt, phenomenological experience at the center of Kantian practical deliberation.

  12. Teaching Progress: A Critique of the Grand Narrative of Human Rights as Pedagogy for Marginalized Students

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    Robyn Linde

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, education about human rights became an important focus of the new human rights regime and a core method of spreading its values throughout the world. This story of human rights is consistently presented as a progressive teleology that contextualizes the expansion of rights within a larger grand narrative of liberalization, emancipation, and social justice. This paper examines the disjuncture between the grand narrative on international movements for human rights and social justice and the lived experiences of marginalized students in urban environments in the United States. Drawing on our experience as professors who teach human rights, social justice, and social movements courses at an urban, four-year college in Providence, R.I., with a student body which includes large populations of students who are of color, first-generation, economically disadvantaged, and nontraditional in other ways, we explore the relevance and impact of these grand narratives for the lives of our students and their sense of agency. In particular, we advocate for a critical and transformational approach to human rights pedagogy to counter and overcome the pervasive individualization that undergirds the grand narrative of human rights. We argue that a critical (and radical human rights pedagogy must evaluate the position of the individual in modern life if liberation through human rights law and activism is to be possible.

  13. Nietzsche : les Lumières et la cruauté. De l’interprétation de Nietzsche par la Théorie critique

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    Agnès Gayraud

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available En 1983, dans Le Discours philosophique de la modernité, la critique habermassienne de l’irrationalisme et du poststructuralisme fait basculer sans équivoque l’auteur de La Volonté de puissance dans le camp des ennemis de la Théorie critique. Toutefois, à la faveur peut-être d’une lecture qui se voulait celle de happy few, les fondateurs de la Théorie critique, Max Horkheimer et Theodor W. Adorno, n’avaient jusque-là pas fait de Friedrich Nietzsche une figure aussi menaçante. Lors d’un entretien radiophonique consacré au philosophe, enregistré à Francfort-sur-le-Main le 31 juillet 1950 en célébration du cinquantième anniversaire de sa mort, ils dénoncèrent l’« horrible mécompréhension » dont Nietzsche avait surtout fait l’objet. Par leur attention à l’ironie de Nietzsche, à la négativité de son discours, ils avaient toujours décelé dans sa pensée de la cruauté le nerf d’une pensée des Lumières telle qu’elle devait être encore affirmée au xxe siècle. Aurait-il existé une alliance paradoxale de la Théorie critique avec le théoricien du Surhomme et de l’Éternel retour, avant qu’avec Habermas la guerre ne lui soit déclarée, ainsi qu’à ses héritiers ? L’article tente de faire apparaître comment, avant cette guerre – et n’en déplaise également aux ennemis nietzschéens de la dialectique –, existait entre Nietzsche et la Théorie critique plus et mieux qu’un statu quo.

  14. Re-Engineering Biosafety Regulations In India: Towards a Critique of Policy, Law and Prescriptions

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    A. Damodaran

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article surveys the structure and essence of India’s biosafety regulations from an evolutionary perspective. After detailing the processes associated with the biosafety law and guidelines in the country, this article looks critically at recent efforts to re-engineer the regulations. It is argued that India’s biosafety regulations should move towards a more inclusive approach, which will facilitate transparent and informed decision-making, based on stakeholder-convergence. It is also suggested that the entire spectrum of laws and regulations that have a direct or indirect bearing on biosafety in India, need to be explored so that greater coherence could be secured in the management of biotechnology products that are sensitive to the environment. Drawing from the experience of the Bt cotton case, the article advocates a greater role for civil society and grassroots organizations.

  15. Rage against the Machine: Vincenzo Agnetti’s Critique of Industrial Alienation

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    Laura Moure Cecchini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the work of the Milanese artist Vincenzo Agnetti (1926-1981, in particular his pieces La macchina drogata (1968 and NEG (1970. Like other Italian artists and intellectuals of the 1960s and 1970s, Agnetti was concerned about the alienation caused by industrial development and consumer society, manifested in carefully designed objects of everyday use. To counteract the automatism of perception and thought that he considered the sign of alienated experience, Agnetti’s artworks employed several strategies that obliged the public to attend to its thinking processes. Thus, Agnetti put in practice forms of aesthetic estrangement similar to those evoked in the same period by Gillo Dorfles and Umberto Eco to counteract the widespread loss of awareness.

  16. Feminilidade: alteridade e experiência Femininity: alterity and experience

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    Márcia Arán

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio tem como objetivo desenvolver a noção de alteridade na psicanálise a partir dos conceitos de feminilidade e de experiência. Parte de uma crítica à centralidade do modelo Édipo / castração na teoria psicanalítica ­ modelo este que fundamenta uma forma de subjetivação que se faz pelo recalque como defesa ou pela renúncia pulsional - para pensar novas formas de sociabilidade. Inicialmente, procura-se analisar o destino da experiência alteritária na modernidade: o outro como estranho-familiar. Em seguida, através da análise de algumas passagens da obra freudiana, procura-se desen­ volver a noção de alteridade no registro da imanência, ou seja, como uma abertura para a diferença.The objective of this essay is to elaborate on the notion of alterity in psychoanalysis based on the concepts of femininity and experience. The point of departure is a critique of the centrality of the Oedipean/castration model in psychoanalytical theory (a model underlying a form of subjectivation resulting from repression or denial of drive in order to conceive new forms of sociabilily. The article begins by analyzing lhe fate of the altetily experience in modernity: lhe other as slrange/familiar. Next, by analyzing key passages from Freud's work, lhe author seeks to develop the notion of alterily in lhe context of immanence, that is, as an openness to difference.

  17. Studying the role of vision in cycling: critique on restricting research to fixation behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, J P; Den Brinker, B P L M; De Waard, D; Twisk, D A M; Schwab, A L; Smeets, J B J

    2013-10-01

    In a recent study published in Accident Analysis & Prevention, Vansteenkiste et al. (2013)--as one of the first in this field--investigated the visual control of bicycle steering. They undertook the interesting task of testing cyclists' eye fixation behaviour against Donges' two-level model of steering, i.e. the guidance level to anticipate alternations in the course of the road and the stabilization level for lane keeping. Although the laboratory experiment itself is well conducted, we believe that its results cannot be used to test the two-level model of steering as developed for driving. The test track was only 15m long, was completely straight and was known in advance. Accordingly, it did not provide adequate conditions for testing the guidance level. Furthermore, as the experimental lanes were much narrower than real-world cycling lanes, the stabilization level differed considerably from that in the real world. The study by Vansteenkiste et al. (2013) may provide valuable insight into the role of vision in 'precision steering', but, as we discuss in the paper, more elaborate research paradigms are needed to achieve more comprehensive knowledge of the role of vision in real-world cycling and cycling safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Selling space colonization and immortality: A psychosocial, anthropological critique of the rush to colonize Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodian, Rayna Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Extensive media coverage regarding the proposal to send four people to Mars by 2025 has exploded recently. Private enterprise has taken the reins to venture into space, which has typically only been reserved for government agencies. I argue, that with this new direction comes less regulation, raising questions regarding the ethics of sending people into outer space to colonize Mars within a decade. Marketers selling colonization to the public include perspectives such as biological drives, species survival, inclusiveness and utopian ideals. I challenge these narratives by suggesting that much of our desire to colonize space within the next decade is motivated by ego, money and romanticism. More specifically, I will examine the roles that fear and stories of immortality play within selling space and how those stories are marketed. I am passionate about space and hope that one day humanity will colonize other worlds, but the rush to settle is dangerous and careless. I assert that humanity should first gain more experience and knowledge before colonizing outer space, using this research to mitigate the risk to astronauts and proceed with careful consideration for the lives of potential astronauts.

  19. WOJTYLIAN CRITIQUE OF KANTIAN MORALITY AND PROPOSAL OF THE UNCONDITIONAL PERSONALISTIC NORM

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    Pedro García Casas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this inquiry is to examine the reach and influence of the Unconditional Norm throughout Karol Wojtyła’s thinking in order to understand the Wojtylian personalistic norm and to propose it as the basis for all social interactions. To this end, our primary method is obtained from the study of Kant’s Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals, which exposes the theory of imperatives and in a special way is able to show, as opposed to utilitarianism, how it is that a person can never be a mere means, but is rather an end in itself. This Kantian concept had a profound impact on Wojtyła, who was also critical of utilitarian ethics and thus found great inspiration in the Kantian proposal. However, Wojtyła goes beyond the Kantian proposal because, although they coincide in many points, Wojtyła felt that the subject of experience was not sufficiently addressed, given that it had an a priori, and therefore insufficient, perspective of the personal self. Wojtyła’s Aristotelian-Thomist education, driven by the discovery of Max Scheler’s phenomenology, gave substance to a very original doctrine in both method and projection.

  20. Glowing Plants and Living Machines. Towards a Critique of Synthetic Biology

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    Martin Müller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article criticly engages with 1 synthetic biologys’ technoscientific specifica, 2 the role of biotechnical and biopolitical promises of perfectibility of‚ life itself’, and 3 the problematic notion of ‘digital biology’. Synthetic biology dismisses the idea of an already given nature: ‘life itself’ is conceptualized as a field of potentialities, with adaptable materials and flexible structures that can be used for re-engineering to ‘perfect’ nature. Bioengineers claim to create new living organisms from scratch, using genetically standardized parts and computer-based design: ‘Living machines’ which do not exist in nature are supposed to serve human purposes. Beyond its actual (and limited state of research, some voices of synthetic biology offer bold claims of socio-technical scenarios, imagined objects, and future biotechnical experiments, which take place in society rather than behind laboratory doors. With their visions, synthetic biologists are becoming engineers of future societies. Synthetic biology develops a ‘biotechnologization of collective futures’ and it is part of a technoscientific ‘promise- economy’ that aims on colonizing the future - which demands to rethink Foucaults the question of biopolitics. Crucial for synthetic biologys’ promise of ‘digital biology’ are script-centered, bio-cybernetic, and even transhumanist figures of thought that fuel new visions of ‘life and nature’ as a field of potentials and even limitless treasures that can be programmed and produced by computational procedures: ‘writing’ the code of life.

  1. Registration and monitoring of pregnant women in Tamil Nadu, India: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitonde, Rakhal

    2012-06-01

    In 2008 a pregnancy registration system was introduced in rural Tamil Nadu, India, which is now being scaled up. It will collect data on antenatal, delivery and post-partum care in pregnant women and infant health. This is seen as an important public health intervention, justified for its potential to ensure efficiency in provision and use of maternity services. However, from another perspective, it can be seen as a form of control over women, reducing the experience of safe pregnancy and delivery to a few measurable variables. The burden of implementing this task falls on Village Health Nurses, who are also women, reducing their time for interacting with and educating people and visiting communities, which is their primary task and the basis on which they are evaluated. In addition, they face logistical constraints in rural settings that may affect the quality of data. In a health system with rigid internal hierarchies and power differentials, this system may become more of a supervisory and monitoring tool than a tool for a learning health system. It may also lead to a victim-blaming approach ("you missed two antenatal visits") rather than health system learning to improve maternal and infant health. The paper concludes by recommending ways to use the system and the data to tackle the broader social determinants of health, with women, health workers and communities as partners in the process. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anthropological Critique and Framing of Suburban Enclaves: Case of Neighbourhood X

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    Butko Matej

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main point of this article is conceptualization of newcomers within specific suburb in perimeter of Bratislava. The analysis with fruitful and extensive base of evidence provides a connection between the western suburban community theories and local actual and discursive strategies in various topics. The content of this article consists of analysis of bonding, residential and motivational strategies of newcomers, and a wide conceptualization of them, including a class concept and a bounding character of socialization. Additional analytical and evidential asset of this article is the perceptiveness that provides us the ‘other-than-actual’ evaluative perspective. This perception is provided by other inhabitants outside of the researched Neighbourhood X. This evidence, which is connected to the theory of leisure class consumption, is therefore the perceptive side of the core definition of enclaves in residentially excluded neighbourhood. This article offers conclusions of a specific field experience and broadens not only the existing suburban community theories, but also the works that try to conceptualise significant traits of suburban enclaves.

  3. Critiquing stereotypes: Research engagement with UK local authority supporting Roma migrants

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    Daniele Viktor Leggio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Council of Europe definition of anti-Gypsyism focuses on the role of stereotypes and violent practices in the exclusion of the Roma. Research has shown that authorities have a tendency to embrace anti-Gypsyist attitudes and to implement overtly securitising policies that further entrench the exclusion of the Roma. Research has also shown that, besides established stereotypes, new ones are emerging. Drawing on our experience as observing participants in the development and implementation of Manchester City Council’s Roma Strategy, we will show how the strategy was aimed to prevent violent anti-Gypsyism, but how stereotypes nonetheless infiltrated its implementation and, finally, how the mobilisation of the Roma successfully challenged these stereotypes. The paper argues that current definitions of anti-Gypsyism are unable to capture instances of essentialist and pathologising discourses that inform interventions aiming at Roma inclusion but which may in fact perpetuate their marginalisation. The paper therefore challenges the notion that stereotypes only inform exclusionary or securitising interventions. The paper will show how academic research can be mobilised to dismiss stereotypes and to inspire the Roma to take action and challenge benevolent but nonetheless stereotyping interventions.

  4. Developpement d'une methode calorimetrique de mesure des pertes ac pour des rubans supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolez, Patricia

    Le travail de recherche effectue dans le cadre de ce projet de doctorat a permis la mise au point d'une methode de mesure des pertes ac destinee a l'etude des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique. Pour le choix des principes de cette methode, nous nous sommes inspires de travaux anterieurs realises sur les supraconducteurs conventionnels, afin de proposer une alternative a la technique electrique, presentant lors du debut de cette these des problemes lies a la variation du resultat des mesures selon la position des contacts de tension sur la surface de l'echantillon, et de pouvoir mesurer les pertes ac dans des conditions simulant la realite des futures applications industrielles des rubans supraconducteurs: en particulier, cette methode utilise la technique calorimetrique, associee a une calibration simultanee et in situ. La validite de la methode a ete verifiee de maniere theorique et experimentale: d'une part, des mesures ont ete realisees sur des echantillons de Bi-2223 recouverts d'argent ou d'alliage d'argent-or et comparees avec les predictions theoriques donnees par Norris, nous indiquant la nature majoritairement hysteretique des pertes ac dans nos echantillons; d'autre part, une mesure electrique a ete realisee in situ dont les resultats correspondent parfaitement a ceux donnes par notre methode calorimetrique. Par ailleurs, nous avons compare la dependance en courant et en frequence des pertes ac d'un echantillon avant et apres qu'il ait ete endommage. Ces mesures semblent indiquer une relation entre la valeur du coefficient de la loi de puissance modelisant la dependance des pertes avec le courant, et les inhomogeneites longitudinales du courant critique induites par l'endommagement. De plus, la variation en frequence montre qu'au niveau des grosses fractures transverses creees par l'endommagement dans le coeur supraconducteur, le courant se partage localement de maniere a peu pres equivalente entre les quelques grains de matiere

  5. D’un scandale l’autre: l’affaire Renaud Camus et la faillite de la critique intellectuelle

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    Ivan Jaffrin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Le volume du Journal de l’écrivain Renaud Camus, La Campagne de France, fait l’objet d’un « scandale » au printemps de l’année 2000 qui donne lieu à deux pétitions contradictoires et à un nombre considérable d’articles de presse. Très vite le terme « affaire » vient caractériser une activité collective de qualification d’un fait supposé de « racisme et d’antisémitisme » qui fait polémique. À partir de quelques-uns des travaux touchant à la question du « scandale » et de la forme « affaire » (Boltanski & Thévenot, 1991 ; Claverie, 1998 nous tâcherons de montrer que l’« affaire Renaud Camus » est significative d’une « épreuve » où deux mondes sont en situation de concurrence pour régler une seule et même réalité. L’impossibilité de dénouer le différend procède, selon nous, d’un principe coercitif dans la dispute à l’oeuvre à travers quelques paralogismes que nous nous proposons de relever. Enfin, nous ferons état de l’épuisement d’une certaine forme de la critique intellectuelle qui, à l’occasion de cette querelle, nous paraît faire place à un nouvel état du discours social (Angenot, 1989 articulé autour de la question du « multiculturalisme ».In spring 2000, La Campagne de France, a volume of French writer Renaud Camus’ Diary gives rise to a scandale which provokes two contradicting petitions as well as an impressive number of articles in the French press. What first appeared to be a clear case of “racism and anti-Semitism” become an “affaire” involving a highly controversial collective process of definition. Making use of some of the works dealing with the notion of “scandale” and the social concept of “affaire” (Boltanski & Thévenot, 1991 ; Claverie, 1998 this article demonstrates that the “affaire Renaud Camus” is a “test” opposing two intellectual orders competing for the hegemony of interpretation of one and the

  6. Projecting Politics: The Grapes of Wrath Les Raisins de la colère : Une critique politique

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    Stephen J. Whitfield

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Publié en 1939 et adapté à l’écran l’année suivante, Les Raisins de la colère, roman de John Steinbeck, eut un impact immédiat et extraordinaire pour le portrait sans concession qu’il dressait d’un capitalisme américain qui semblait avoir abandonné sa progéniture la plus loyale, la plus assidue et la plus courageuse, celle qui labourait la terre en plein cœur de la république. Écrit à la toute fin de la « Décennie rouge », mais juste avant que les États-Unis entrent dans la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Les Raisins de la colère exprimaient, d’une certaine manière, la colère accumulée contre un système économique qui avait trahi le prolétariat rural. Le roman tout comme le film de John Ford (1940 furent compris par le grand public de l’époque, et bien des années plus tard, comme une protestation clairement gauchiste, voire radicale, contre une telle injustice. Mais cet essai montre combien les idées politiques de ces œuvres jumelées sont en réalité difficiles à saisir et combien il est hasardeux de définir, quel que soit l’effort rétrospectif, la critique que Steinbeck et Ford ont proposée dans leur version des Raisins de la colère, une œuvre inoubliable, déchirante mais ambiguë sur le plan politique.

  7. A critique of utilitarian and instrumentalist concepts for the teaching of gross anatomy to medical and dental students: Provoking debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxham, Bernard J; Pais, Diogo

    2017-10-01

    Medical and dental curricula, together with anatomical sciences courses, are increasingly having to change, mainly because there is a drive to being what is termed, without adequate definition, "clinically relevant." The concept of "clinical anatomy" has accordingly been invented and it is expected that, at all times, the teaching of anatomy is directly focused on clinical scenarios, meaning almost invariably the disease-based model of medicine and dentistry. Furthermore, students are not expected to have a detailed knowledge of gross anatomy and the time devoted to teaching and learning the subject has decreased significantly. The notion being fostered is that knowledge is not required "just in case" but "just in time." However, the absence of agreed core syllabuses that are internationally accepted complicates a discussion about what is relevant practically and what does not need to be taught. In this article, we critique such an utilitarian and instrumentalist approach to the teaching of gross anatomy within medical and dental curricula. We draw attention to the need to embrace the functionality-based model of medicine and dentistry by returning to an understanding that the role of the medical or dental practitioner is to value health and to restore to functionality the ill person or the pathologically affected region/organ/system. A fuller knowledge of anatomy than is presently taught is regarded as a prerequisite for appreciating normality and health. A further problem with the instrumentalist approach to medical education is that, by concentrating on what is seen to be at the time "useful" or "clinically relevant," there is the danger of undermining, or discouraging, future developments that rely on what contemporaneously seems "useless" and "irrelevant" knowledge. Finally, the reliance instrumentalism has on just what is pragmatic and regardless of scientific validity is contrary to the ethos and practice of a university education that values deep learning

  8. Anthropological Critique of the "Marriage by Wife Purchase" Thesis as a Contribution to the Rethinking of Interdisciplinarity

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    Zorica Ivanović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthropological research demonstrates that exchanges and transactions related to marriage alliances, regardless of their central organising principle and form, are not governed by the logic of the market but by the logic of gift exchange. Thus, the exchange of women for worthy material goods and valuables (bridewealth, which is (or has been a dominant form of marriage transactions in Africa and some parts of Asia and Oceania, cannot be understood as commodity exchange and "wife purchase". The "marriage by wife purchase" thesis, developed within a Victorian evolutionist paradigm, has been rejected in anthropology a long time ago. At the same time, some more recent research showed that the exchange of persons for goods as a principle of marriage exchanges and transactions does not entail only the practice of exchanging women for material goods. In some societies, marriage transactions are based on the principle of exchanging men for goods (groomwealth. This research called into question, once again, not only the "wife purchase" theory but also Levi-Strauss' fundamental assumption about the "exchange of women between groups of men". In response to the fact that the "marriage by wife purchase" thesis is still regarded as an adequate explanation not only in the popular discourse but also in the Serbian scientific literature, this article seeks to offer an anthropological critique of the thesis and to draw attention to some key interdisciplinary disagreements that emerge in the interpretation of this particular form of marriage transactions. The article also discusses theoretical and epistemological assumptions which underpin the "marriage by purchase" thesis, as well as the process of critical examination that led anthropology to discard the thesis. From a contemporary anthropological perspective, the article suggests a possibility to explore a cultural and political economy of the gift, since the logic of gift is different from but not diametrically

  9. Les dimensions de la sociologie économique de la finance : Perspective critique, transformations institutionnelles et facteurs collectifs

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    Frédéric Hanin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Ce texte présente deux lectures des caractéristiques institutionnelles du capitalisme financier à travers l’étude des travaux de J. M. Keynes avant la crise de 1929 et les recherches de D. Mackenzie sur la conceptualisation et l’utilisation des produits dérivés aux États-Unis après la seconde guerre mondiale. Trois dimensions de leur travail seront mises en exergue : une critique d’une vision orthodoxe de la finance qui considère les marchés financiers comme un mécanisme efficace et transparent d’allocations des ressources ; une analyse des transformations institutionnelles de la sphère financière ; une explication de l’instabilité des marchés financiers centrée sur le rôle des facteurs collectifs. Les travaux de Keynes et de Mackenzie contribuent ainsi à mettre en lumière la nature sociale et politique des mécanismes qui sous-tendent le processus actuel de financiarisation des relations économiques.This text presents two readings of the institutional characteristics of financial capitalism through the works of J. M. Keynes before the crisis of 1929 and the research of D. Mackenzie on the conceptualization and the use of the derivative products in the United States after the Second World War. Three dimensions of their work will be put forward: a criticism of the orthodox vision of finance which regards the financial markets as effective and transparent mechanisms of allowance; an analysis of the institutional transformations of the financial sphere and an explanation of the instability of the financial markets centered on the role of collective factors. Work of Keynes and Mackenzie thus contributes to clarify the social and political nature of the mechanisms which underlie the current process of financiarisation of economic relations.

  10. Two kinds of potentiality: a critique of McGinn on the ethics of abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquette, D

    2001-01-01

    In Moral Literacy, or How to Do the Right Thing, Colin McGinn proposes a consequentialist solution to the abortion dilemma. McGinn interprets moral rights and moral interests as attributable only to actually sentient beings by virtue of their ability to experience pleasure or pain. McGinn argues against the moral rights of potentially conscious human fetuses, on the grounds that the unjoined ova and spermatoza of any fertile men and women are also potentially sentient, but we do not generally suppose that unjoined human genetic germ plasm has moral rights. I argue that McGinn's reply equivocates between two different senses of 'potential sentience.' I distinguish between strong and weak potentiality, or between naturally probably potentiality and merely logically possible potentiality. I agree that it is reasonable to deny that a weak or merely logically possible potentially sentient fetus that would result from any unjoined ovum and sperm has a moral right to life. But I claim that this fact does not diminish the plausibility of extending a moral right or potential moral right to life to a naturally probable potentially sentient fetus, which we have good reason to believe will actually become sentient in the natural course of things if nothing is done to prevent its normal development. I conclude that it is not merely the potentiality, but the strong potentiality of a healthy, normally developing fetus that is soon to acquire sentience, moral interests, and, on McGinn's own terms, a moral right to life, that continues to sustain the abortion controversy, even among those who also want respect a woman's right to reproductive self-determination.

  11. Strategic B2B customer experience management: the importance of outcomes-based measures

    OpenAIRE

    Zolkiewski, Judy; Story, Victoria; Burton, Jamie; Chan, Paul; Gomes, Andre; Hunter-Jones, Philippa; O’Malley, Lisa; Peters, Linda D.; Raddats, Chris; Robinson, William

    2017-01-01

    Purpose\\ud \\ud The purpose of this paper is to critique the adequacy of efforts to capture the complexities of customer experience in a business-to-business (B2B) context using input–output measures. The paper introduces a strategic customer experience management framework to capture the complexity of B2B service interactions and discusses the value of outcomes-based measurement.\\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud \\ud This is a theoretical paper that reviews extant literature related to B2B cu...

  12. There's not an app for that mobile user experience design for life

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Simon; Jones, Matt

    2014-01-01

    There's Not an App for That will make your work stand out from the crowd. It walks you through mobile experiences, and teaches you to evaluate current UX approaches, enabling you to think outside of the screen and beyond the conventional. You'll review diverse aspects of mobile UX: the screens, the experience, how apps are used, and why they're used. You'll find special sections on ""challenging your approach"", as well as a series of questions you can use to critique and evaluate your own designs. Whether the authors are discussing real-world products in conjunction with suggested improvemen

  13. L'idée d'universalité de la sciencie et sa critique philosophique et historique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paty, Michel

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The question of the universality of science is considered, in contemporary debates, under the most varied and opposed positions depending whether one is sharing the point of view of an "ideal science" or that of a "social production of science". In the first case, science is conceived as the "hard core" of its statements and results at the period under consideration, and its supposed universality ignores factors that relativize its contents of knowledge, and which can be of a conceptual as well as a social nature. Conversely, an exclusive focalization on the social aspects of the production of scientific knowledge ignores the objective character of these knowledge contents, be they either thought objects such as mathematical ones, or phenomena of the real, physico-biological as well as human and social, world. These two extreme positions, although caricatural, are shared by many. They illustrate the absence or ignorance of interdisciplinar analyse between philosophy, the various sciences, history of sciences and general history. We first evoke some elements of the critique set against the universality of science as it stands nowadays from inquiries of philosophy of knowledge, sociology of knowledge, history of science, history and anthropology. Then we shall try to set philosophically the problem of the universality of science as a philosophical idea, strongly linked to science and to philosophy since their genesis. We shall see, by following the idea at various stages of the history of thought, that the philosophical statement of universality of science has to be confronted with the historical reality of the production, diffusion and assimilation or appropriation of scientific knowledge, always specifying the various dimensions of that one (which include its applications and its links to techniques and to technology.

    [fr] Nous nous proposons de réfléchir sur quelques aspects épistémologiques et philosophiques de problèmes reli

  14. Gelingende Integration? Anmerkungen zur Studie von D. Katzenbach u.a. uber den Hamburger Schulversuch "Integrative Grundschule" in ZfPad. 45 (1999), S. 567-590 (Successful Integration? Remarks on the Study by D. Katzenbach et al. on the Hamburg School Experiment "Integrative Elementary School" in ZfPad. 45 (1999), S. 567-590).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, Peter Martin

    1999-01-01

    Critiques two normative premises that guide the researchers' interpretation of results from the Hamburg School Experiment, an empirical study that focused on mainstreaming elementary students diagnosed as needing special education: (1) integrating these children in normal classrooms is legitimated; and (2) social integration should not preclude…

  15. How to translate therapeutic recommendations in clinical practice guidelines into rules for critiquing physician prescriptions? Methods and application to five guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favre Madeleine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical practice guidelines give recommendations about what to do in various medical situations, including therapeutical recommendations for drug prescription. An effective way to computerize these recommendations is to design critiquing decision support systems, i.e. systems that criticize the physician's prescription when it does not conform to the guidelines. These systems are commonly based on a list of "if conditions then criticism" rules. However, writing these rules from the guidelines is not a trivial task. The objective of this article is to propose methods that (1 simplify the implementation of guidelines' therapeutical recommendations in critiquing systems by automatically translating structured therapeutical recommendations into a list of "if conditions then criticize" rules, and (2 can generate an appropriate textual label to explain to the physician why his/her prescription is not recommended. Methods We worked on the therapeutic recommendations in five clinical practice guidelines concerning chronic diseases related to the management of cardiovascular risk. We evaluated the system using a test base of more than 2000 cases. Results Algorithms for automatically translating therapeutical recommendations into "if conditions then criticize" rules are presented. Eight generic recommendations are also proposed; they are guideline-independent, and can be used as default behaviour for handling various situations that are usually implicit in the guidelines, such as decreasing the dose of a poorly tolerated drug. Finally, we provide models and methods for generating a human-readable textual critique. The system was successfully evaluated on the test base. Conclusion We show that it is possible to criticize physicians' prescriptions starting from a structured clinical guideline, and to provide clear explanations. We are now planning a randomized clinical trial to evaluate the impact of the system on practices.

  16. Towards a Revision of Kantian Anthropocentrism Arguments for an Ethical Consideration of (Organic Nature According to the “Teleological Critique of Judgment”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Andrea Lerussi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The “Teleological Critique of Judgment” is analyzed to revise, using three lines of argument, the supposed Kantian anthropocentrism according to which the ends of man define the ends of nature in such a way that relegates nature to a mere instrument. The first line of argument shows how the treatment of nature as a means has been limited by morality. The other two advance beyond anthropocentric ethics to trace elements of an ethics oriented toward (organic nature in which all of its members are also defined as ends, that is, as morally worthy.

  17. Computer forensics : la critique génétique et l’écriture numérique

    OpenAIRE

    Lebrave, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    L’informatique légale (computer forensics) nous révèle que, contrairement à une crainte souvent formulée, l’abondance et la robustesse des traces que le processus créateur laisse dans l’écriture numérique sont spectaculaires. À partir de trois publications récentes, on explore cette nouvelle forme de codicologie numérique. Contrairement à ce qu’affirme un représentant contemporain de la critique textuelle américaine comme Matthew Kirschenbaum, l’enjeu dépasse de beaucoup l’exploration philolo...

  18. Towards a Revision of Kantian Anthropocentrism Arguments for an Ethical Consideration of (Organic) Nature According to the “Teleological Critique of Judgment”

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Andrea Lerussi

    2015-01-01

    The “Teleological Critique of Judgment” is analyzed to revise, using three lines of argument, the supposed Kantian anthropocentrism according to which the ends of man define the ends of nature in such a way that relegates nature to a mere instrument. The first line of argument shows how the treatment of nature as a means has been limited by morality. The other two advance beyond anthropocentric ethics to trace elements of an ethics oriented toward (organic) nature in which all of its members ...

  19. Airborne Research Experience for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, V. B.; Albertson, R.; Smith, S.; Stockman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Airborne Research Experience for Educators (AREE) Program, conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Office of Education in partnership with the AERO Institute, NASA Teaching From Space Program, and California State University Fullerton, is a complete end-to-end residential research experience in airborne remote sensing and atmospheric science. The 2009 program engaged ten secondary educators who specialize in science, technology, engineering or mathematics in a 6-week Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) offered through NSERC. Educators participated in collection of in-flight remote sensor data during flights aboard the NASA DC-8 as well as in-situ research on atmospheric chemistry (bovine emissions of methane); algal blooms (remote sensing to determine location and degree of blooms for further in-situ analysis); and crop classification (exploration of how drought conditions in Central California have impacted almond and cotton crops). AREE represents a unique model of the STEM teacher-as-researcher professional development experience because it asks educators to participate in a research experience and then translate their experiences into classroom practice through the design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional materials that emphasize the scientific research process, inquiry-based investigations, and manipulation of real data. Each AREE Master Educator drafted a Curriculum Brief, Teachers Guide, and accompanying resources for a topic in their teaching assignment Currently, most professional development programs offer either a research experience OR a curriculum development experience. The dual nature of the AREE model engaged educators in both experiences. Educators’ content and pedagogical knowledge of STEM was increased through the review of pertinent research articles during the first week, attendance at lectures and workshops during the second week, and participation in the airborne and in-situ research studies, data

  20. Patient-directed music therapy reduces anxiety and sedation exposure in mechanically-ventilated patients: a research critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullick, Janice G; Kwan, Xiu Xian

    2015-05-01

    This research appraisal, guided by the CASP Randomised Controlled Trial Checklist, critiques a randomised, controlled trial of patient-directed music therapy compared to either noise-cancelling headphones or usual care. This study recruited 373 alert, mechanically-ventilated patients across five intensive care units in the United States. The Music Assessment Tool, administered by a music therapist, facilitated music selection by participants in the intervention group. Anxiety was measured using the VAS-A scale. Sedation exposure was measured by both sedation frequency and by sedation intensity using a daily sedation intensity score. Context for the data was supported by an environmental scan form recording unit activity and by written comments from nurses about the patient's responses to the protocol. Patient-directed music therapy allowed a significant reduction in sedation frequency compared to noise-cancelling headphones and usual care participants. Patient-directed music therapy led to significantly lower anxiety and sedation intensity compared to usual care, but not compared to noise-cancelling headphones. This is a robust study with clear aims and a detailed description of research methods and follow-up. While no participants were lost to follow-up, not all were included in the analysis: 37% did not have the minimum of two anxiety assessments for comparison and 23% were not included in sedation analysis. While some participants utilised the intervention or active control for many hours-per-day, half the music therapy participants listened for 12min or less per day and half of the noise-cancelling headphone participants did not appear to use them. While the results suggest that patient-directed music therapy and noise-cancelling headphones may be useful and cost-effective interventions that lead to an overall improvement in anxiety and sedation exposure, these may appeal to a subset of ICU patients. The self-directed use of music therapy and noise

  1. What do people do with porn? qualitative research into the consumption, use and experience of pornography and other sexually explicit media

    OpenAIRE

    Attwood, F.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews qualitative research into the consumption of pornography and other sexually explicit media emerging from a range of subject areas. Taking a critique of quantitative methods and a focus on measuring sexual effects and attitudes as a starting point, it considers the proposition that qualitative work is more suited to an examination of the complex social, cultural and political constructions of sexuality. Examining studies into the way men, women and young people see, experi...

  2. "Critique of intuitive reason"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrijević Aleksandar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The author displays and reexamines Hare’s "two-level theory" of normative moral thinking ("intuitive" level and "critical" level, including goals that are intended by its establishing. Given Hare’s holism, the met ethical level, considered as fundamental or the "third" level, has notable effect on process of normative reasoning, especially if it is taken as one of the determinant of the critical moral thin king. Central part of the analysis is examination of utilitarian character of the theory.

  3. License to Critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Morsing, Mette; Thyssen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability standards are important governance tools for addressing social and environmental challenges. Yet, such tools are often criticized for being either too open-ended or too restrictive, thereby failing to contribute significantly to the development of sustainable practices. Both...

  4. The Pragmatics of Critiquing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    35. Nomura, N. and Barnlund, D. (1983) Patterns of interpersonal criticism in Japan and United States. International Journal of Intercultural Relations , 7...of criticism styles in Japanese returnees to Japan. International Journal of Intercultural Relations , 25: p. 315-327. 38. Piccinin, S. et al. (1991

  5. Critique of Cartographic Reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    migrate into a different medium: the literary text. This article examines how Tolstoi's War and Peace grapples with a central problem for the 19th century novel, viz. the role of different media, literary and cartographic, in the representation and management of large-scale war. Tolstoi, the author argues......, transposes the military conflict to the representational level and stages a struggle between the two media and the different military theories of the time that accompany them. Operating at this meta-level, War and Peace serves as a highly complex and self-conscious examination of the media of war...

  6. Marine fungi: A critique

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C.

    Obligate marine fungi, those which grow and sporulate exclusively under marine conditions, have received all the attention from marine mycologists. Fungi originating from freshwater, or terrestrial environment and capable of growth and sporulation...

  7. Metamaterials critique and alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Munk, Ben A

    2009-01-01

    A Convincing and Controversial Alternative Explanation of Metamaterials with a Negative Index of Refraction In a book that will generate both support and controversy, one of the world's foremost authorities on periodic structures addresses several of the current fashions in antenna design-most specifically, the popular subject of double negative metamaterials. Professor Munk provides a comprehensive theoretical electromagnetic investigation of the issues and concludes that many of the phenomena claimed by researchers may be impossible. While denying the existence of negative refractio

  8. Atmosphere: Power, Critique, Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    This paper hans three interrelated parts. First, atmosphere is approached through the concept of power. Atmospheres 'grip' us directly or mediate power indirectly by manipulating moods and evoking emotions. How does atmosphere relate to different conceptions of power? Second, atmospheric powers may...

  9. Critique of 16 PF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Hipolito

    The release of the newest Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), Fifth Edition, is the evolution of Raymond Cattell's conceptualization of the primary components of personality by analyzing adjectives describing human behavior. This updated version continues to measure the same 16 primary personality factors with improved reliability and…

  10. LE SOLUTRÉEN ANCIEN EN ARDÈCHE (FRANCE: UNE RÉVISION CRITIQUE DES INDUSTRIES LITHIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Guegan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available S’inscrivant dans un travail de Doctorat sur les peuplements des deux rives de la vallée du Rhône au Maximum Glaciaire, cet article propose un état des connaissances sur la phase ancienne du Solutréen en Ardèche (rive droite du Rhône, donnant lieu à une révision critique des industries lithiques s’y rapportant. En effet, depuis les travaux de P.E.L. Smith et J. Combier, et plus récemment le travail d’A. Barbiero consacré aux pointes à face plance et pointes à cran d’une collection ancienne à la Baume d’Oullins (Gard-Ardèche, France, aucun réexamen global n’avait été entrepris. Trois gisements de référence pour cette phase ancienne, ont ainsi été sélectionnés: les grottes d’Oullins (Gard-Ardèche, France, de Chabot (Gard, France et de Granouly (Ardèche, France. Nous présentons ici les réslutats préliminaires à cette étude. En premier lieu, une approche typologique a été menée principalement autour de la pointe à face plane, objet emblématique de cette phase, permettant d’en préciser les principaux caractères. Dans un deuxième temps, une approche technologique a permis de confirmer l’homogénéité dans les choix techniques des Solutréens entre l’Ardèche et les régions du Sud-Ouest et du Bassin Parisien. Enfin, une étude des matières premières, a révélé pour l’heure des choix économiques étonnants pour le contexte paléo-climatique, avec des déplacements vers le nords et un franchissement du Rhône.In the frame of a doctoral dissertation on the Late Glacial Maximum occupations of both sides of the Rhône valley, this paper presents a state of the art and a critical reappraisal of the lithic assemblages from the early phases of the Solutrean in Ardeche (right bank of the Rhône river. Indeed, since the works of P.E.L. Smith and J. Combier, except the work of A. Barbiero, on the unifacial leaf-points and shouldered points from Baume d'Oullins, no complete study of these

  11. Experience in public goods experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Conte, Anna; Levati, M. Vittoria; Montinari, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    We use information on students' past participation in economic experiments, as stored in our database, to analyze whether behavior in public goods games is affected by experience (i.e., previous participation in social dilemma-type experiments) and history (i.e., participation in experiments of a different class than the social dilemma). We have three main results. First, at the aggregate level, the amount subjects contribute and expect others to contribute decrease with experience. Second, a...

  12. Emmanuel Renault, Yves Sintomer (dir.), Où en est la théorie critique ?, Paris, La Découverte, coll. « Recherches », 2003, 286 p., 31

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dupeyrix, Alexandre

    2005-01-01

    Dans l’introduction de cet ouvrage collectif publié en mars 2003, Emmanuel Renault et Yves Sintomer exposent leur volonté de « rendre compte de l’actualité d’un projet [celui de la théorie critique...

  13. Une géographie critique de l’espace du quotidien. L’actualité mondialisée de la pensée spatiale d’Henri Lefebvre

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jean-Yves Martin

    2006-01-01

    ... : faire d’abord le lien entre la pensée spatiale d’Henri Lefebvre, telle qu’elle apparaît tout particulièrement dans «La production de l’espace» et sa «critique de la vie quotidienne...

  14. Customer experience

    OpenAIRE

    Koperdáková, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis deals with the theme of customer experience and terms related to this topic. The thesis consists of three parts. The first part explains the terms generally, as the experience or customer loyalty. The second part is dedicated to medotology used for Customer Experience Management. In the third part is described application of Customer Experience Management in practice, particularly in the context Touch Point Analyses in GE Money Bank.

  15. A Lifeworld Critique of "Nature" in the Taiwanese Curriculum: A Perspective Derived from Husserl and Merleau-Ponty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ruyu

    2012-01-01

    Learning about "nature" has particular significance for education because the idea of nature is an important source of inspiring meaning-rich experience and creation. In order to have meaningful experiences in learning and living, this paper argues for a personal subject-related lifeworld approach to the learning of "nature".…

  16. CBMMÉDIA : ANALYSE CRITIQUE DU DÉVELOPPEMENT D'UN OUTIL MULTIMÉDIA EN CONTRÔLE DE GESTION

    OpenAIRE

    Vézina, Michel; Leblanc, Nadine

    2000-01-01

    International audience; Ce document décrit les étapes de développement et présente une analyse critique des outils et de la méthodologie de développement utilisée. Cette application multimédia, conçue pour faciliter l'apprentissage du contrôle budgétaire, supporte simultanément l'approche déductive, inductive et exploratoire. Les résultats montrent qu'il est possible, en réorganisant le matériel pédagogique, de supporter simultanément plusieurs approches pédagogiques différentes....

  17. Lincoln à Cooper Union : Plaidoyer pour une critique néo-classique Lincoln at Cooper Union: a Rationale for Neo-Classical Criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald P. Mohrmann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Le dernier numéro du Quarterly Journal of Speech présentait notre analyse critique du discours de Lincoln à Cooper Union. Bien que les considérations méthodologiques y soient peu développées, nous supposons que les fondements néo-classiques en sont apparents. Nous avions proposé une explication plus élaborée de notre approche méthodologique dans une première version ; mais les éditeurs avaient estimé qu’un unique article n’offrait pas assez d’espace pour tout à la fois justifier la démarche, ...

  18. If You're a Rawlsian, How Come You're So Close to Utilitarianism and Intuitionism? A Critique of Daniels's Accountability for Reasonableness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badano, Gabriele

    2017-03-22

    Norman Daniels's theory of 'accountability for reasonableness' is an influential conception of fairness in healthcare resource allocation. Although it is widely thought that this theory provides a consistent extension of John Rawls's general conception of justice, this paper shows that accountability for reasonableness has important points of contact with both utilitarianism and intuitionism, the main targets of Rawls's argument. My aim is to demonstrate that its overlap with utilitarianism and intuitionism leaves accountability for reasonableness open to damaging critiques. The important role that utilitarian-like cost-effectiveness calculations are allowed to play in resource allocation processes disregards the separateness of persons and is seriously unfair towards individuals whose interests are sacrificed for the sake of groups. Furthermore, the function played by intuitions in settling frequent value conflicts opens the door for sheer custom and vested interests to steer decision-making.

  19. De la légitimité de séquences didactiques portant sur la discussion et l’exposé critique

    OpenAIRE

    Sénéchal, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Notre recherche doctorale vise à outiller l’enseignement de la communication orale par une démarche d’ingénierie didactique (Artigue, 1988) renouvelée par une collaboration avec des enseignants. Deux séquences didactiques destinées à l’enseignement de genres oraux, la discussion et l’exposé critique ont été élaborées et expérimentées dans le cadre de cette ingénierie collaborative. En vue de justifier la nécessité d’un enseignement explicite de certaines caractéristiques des genres choisis et...

  20. Guidelines for Teaching Cross-Cultural Clinical Ethics: Critiquing Ideology and Confronting Power in the Service of a Principles-Based Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunger, Fern

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a pedagogical framework for teaching cross-cultural clinical ethics. The approach, offered at the intersection of anthropology and bioethics, is innovative in that it takes on the "social sciences versus bioethics" debate that has been ongoing in North America for three decades. The argument is made that this debate is flawed on both sides and, moreover, that the application of cross-cultural thinking to clinical ethics requires using the tools of the social sciences (such as the critique of the universality of the Euro-American construct of "autonomy") within (rather than in opposition to) a principles-based framework for clinical ethics. This paper introduces the curriculum and provides guidelines for how to teach cross-cultural clinical ethics. The learning points that are introduced emphasize culture in its relation to power and underscore the importance of viewing both biomedicine and bioethics as culturally constructed.

  1. The "social" aspect of social-ecological systems: a critique of analytical frameworks and findings from a multisite study of coastal sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Stojanovic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate whether society can adequately be conceptualized as a component of social-ecological systems, given social theory and the current outputs of systems-based research. A mounting critique from the social sciences posits that resilience theory has undertheorized social entities with the concept of social-ecological systems. We trace the way that use of the term has evolved, relating to social science theory. Scientometic and network analysis provide a wide range of empirical data about the origin, growth, and use of this term in academic literature. A content analysis of papers in Ecology and Society demonstrates a marked emphasis in research on institutions, economic incentives, land use, population, social networks, and social learning. These findings are supported by a review of systems science in 18 coastal assessments. This reveals that a systems-based conceptualization tends to limit the kinds of social science research favoring quantitative couplings of social and ecological components and downplaying interpretive traditions of social research. However, the concept of social-ecological systems remains relevant because of the central insights concerning the dynamic coupling between humans and the environment, and its salient critique about the need for multidisciplinary approaches to solve real world problems, drawing on heuristic devices. The findings of this study should lead to more circumspection about whether a systems approach warrants such claims to comprehensiveness. Further methodological advances are required for interdisciplinarity. Yet there is evidence that systems approaches remain highly productive and useful for considering certain social components such as land use and hybrid ecological networks. We clarify advantages and restrictions of utilizing such a concept, and propose a reformulation that supports engagement with wider traditions of research in the social sciences.

  2. De l’économie de la santé publique à la bioéconomie: analyse critique de l’usage des DALYs et QALYs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Marie David

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Les savoirs d’économie de la santé et de santé publique ont intégré progressivement des outils liés à la mesure de la quantité et de la qualité de la vie. En définissant la «qualité de vie» et en la mettant en balance d’une valeur économique, ces outils décisionnels, qui contribuent à définir les priorités d’allocation des ressources dans le domaine de la santé, agissent comme les médiateurs concrets de l’extension de la marchandisation de la vie; processus qui peut être analysé par le concept de bioéconomie. En effet, les DALYs et les QALYs, respectivement «disability» et «quality ajusted life years» sont des boites noires souvent trop techniques pour se soumettre à un examen critique des chercheurs, mais aussi pour se soumettre aux discussions des décideurs. Si la perspective critique d’analyse de la bioéconomie a pu s’intéresser à des champs essentiels comme la procréation ou la mort, des outils tels que les DALYs et QALYs, et les conséquences sociales et politiques de leur utilisation, doivent pouvoir également faire l’objet d’une telle analyse à des fins éthiques et socio-politiques.

  3. Are Female Applicants Disadvantaged in National Institutes of Health Peer Review? Combining Algorithmic Text Mining and Qualitative Methods to Detect Evaluative Differences in R01 Reviewers' Critiques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magua, Wairimu; Zhu, Xiaojin; Bhattacharya, Anupama; Filut, Amarette; Potvien, Aaron; Leatherberry, Renee; Lee, You-Geon; Jens, Madeline; Malikireddy, Dastagiri; Carnes, Molly; Kaatz, Anna

    2017-05-01

    Women are less successful than men in renewing R01 grants from the National Institutes of Health. Continuing to probe text mining as a tool to identify gender bias in peer review, we used algorithmic text mining and qualitative analysis to examine a sample of critiques from men's and women's R01 renewal applications previously analyzed by counting and comparing word categories. We analyzed 241 critiques from 79 Summary Statements for 51 R01 renewals awarded to 45 investigators (64% male, 89% white, 80% PhD) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison between 2010 and 2014. We used latent Dirichlet allocation to discover evaluative "topics" (i.e., words that co-occur with high probability). We then qualitatively examined the context in which evaluative words occurred for male and female investigators. We also examined sex differences in assigned scores controlling for investigator productivity. Text analysis results showed that male investigators were described as "leaders" and "pioneers" in their "fields," with "highly innovative" and "highly significant research." By comparison, female investigators were characterized as having "expertise" and working in "excellent" environments. Applications from men received significantly better priority, approach, and significance scores, which could not be accounted for by differences in productivity. Results confirm our previous analyses suggesting that gender stereotypes operate in R01 grant peer review. Reviewers may more easily view male than female investigators as scientific leaders with significant and innovative research, and score their applications more competitively. Such implicit bias may contribute to sex differences in award rates for R01 renewals.

  4. The Prosthetic Experience Between Body and Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that a prosthetic aesthetic instigated by experimental art practices operate with and within a ‘second nature’ – in-between science and art. Drawing on theories from Dewey and Edelman and examples from Da Vinci, Brancusi, Man Ray, Dali and Stelarc, I am calling for an exper...... in art, which is performing a complex re-design of (the idea and representation of) technology and the body.......In this paper, I argue that a prosthetic aesthetic instigated by experimental art practices operate with and within a ‘second nature’ – in-between science and art. Drawing on theories from Dewey and Edelman and examples from Da Vinci, Brancusi, Man Ray, Dali and Stelarc, I am calling...... for an experience-based analysis of experimental practices operating between body and technology. These practices, which, rather than falling into the category of science fiction or horror cinema as some recent critique from post-human studies would have it, are pointing towards a genealogy of prosthetic experience...

  5. Photography: daguerreotype and the African experience | Nwafor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... assumptions in colonial stereotypical photography especially as they affect Africa. While colonial stereotypical photography persisted, Africans attempted to forge a ... undertakes a critique of documentary photography and visuality in gender.

  6. Choice experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P Holmes; Wiktor L Adamawicz; Fredrik Carlsson

    2017-01-01

    There has been an explosion of interest during the past two decades in a class of nonmarket stated-preference valuation methods known as choice experiments. The overall objective of a choice experiment is to estimate economic values for characteristics (or attributes) of an environmental good that is the subject of policy analysis, where...

  7. Collaborative experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Thomas Bøtker

    , that the largest effects from collaborative experience is from recent collaborative experience, since knowledge depreciates when it is not used. Methodologically contribution: The research project studies the dyad and aims at introducing, to this field of research, an established way of collecting data, a new...

  8. A Queer Theorist's Critique of Online Domestic Violence Advocacy: Critically Responding to the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence Web Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Samuel Z

    2017-08-30

    Since the foundations of the contemporary anti-violence movement in the 1960s and 1970s, advocates have sought to establish a critical understanding of domestic violence that we can use to direct our efforts for social change. Yet many advocates and advocacy organizations continue to rely on a problematic narrative of sameness that marginalizes and erases diverse victims' experiences and needs. In this article, I conduct a critical discourse analysis of the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence Web site to identify outcomes of this narrative for the inclusivity of advocacy efforts. I argue that despite the organization's numerous claims to represent diverse victims' experiences, Web site content reveals that its purportedly general account of domestic violence normalizes the experiences of a small group of victims-namely, heterosexual, cisgender women. Further, the Web site's content greatly limits the potential for thinking about and discussing violence across difference. I conclude with recommendations for changes in advocacy practices.

  9. Classic experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Franklin, M

    2001-01-01

    These will be a set of lectures on classic particle physics experiments, with emphasis on how the emasurements are made. I will discuss experiments made to measure the electric charge distribution of particles, to measure the symmetries of the weak decays, to measure the magnetic moment of the muon. As well as experiments performed which discovered new particles or resonances, like the tAU2and the J/Psi. The coverage will be general and should be understandable to someone knowing little particle physics.

  10. Researching experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa; Ingemann, Bruno

    for researching experiences in a variety of settings ranging from the museum, to news photography, and interactive media. The research led to the development of a set of methodological tools and approaches we term the reflexivity lab. The interaction in the experimental situation between the media and body......, dialogue, moods, values and narratives have been investigated qualitatively with more than sixty informants in a range of projects. The processual methodological insights are put into a theoretical perspective and also presented as pragmatic dilemmas. Researching Experiences is relevant not only...... for students and researchers in media and communication studies but also for practitioners within the fields of media, communication and experience design....

  11. Researching experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa; Ingemann, Bruno

    , dialogue, moods, values and narratives have been investigated qualitatively with more than sixty informants in a range of projects. The processual methodological insights are put into a theoretical perspective and also presented as pragmatic dilemmas. Researching Experiences is relevant not only...... for students and researchers in media and communication studies but also for practitioners within the fields of media, communication and experience design....... for researching experiences in a variety of settings ranging from the museum, to news photography, and interactive media. The research led to the development of a set of methodological tools and approaches we term the reflexivity lab. The interaction in the experimental situation between the media and body...

  12. The experience of an experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Alexandra Marie

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines a popular phenomenon that allows us to see ourselves from various perspectives, and allows us to perpetuate moments enabling us to relive experiences in a different state of mind or at a different time. To examine the phenomenon of experiencing an experience hermeneutic phenom...

  13. Experimenting with a design experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Judith; Denters, Sebastianus A.H.

    2012-01-01

    The design experiment is an experimental research method that aims to help design and further develop new (policy) instruments. For the development of a set of guidelines for the facilitation of citizens’ initiatives by local governments, we are experimenting with this method. It offers good

  14. Stellungnahme zum Mannheimer Gutachten aus fremdsprachendidaktischer Sicht (Critique of the Mannheim Rating from the Standpoint of Foreign Language Teaching).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Helmut

    1978-01-01

    Criticizes the goals stated in the Mannheim Rating (of teaching texts for German as a foreign language) as being vaguely defined, and the criteria as being faultily formulated. Not considered are: text science, learning psychology, and psychology of motivation. Actual classroom teaching experience is insufficiently considered. (IFS/WGA)

  15. Parents' Experiences Following Children's Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Clash of Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscigno, Cecelia I.; Swanson, Kristen M.

    2012-01-01

    Little is understood about parents' experiences following children's moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Using descriptive phenomenology we explored common experiences of parents whose children were diagnosed with moderate to severe TBI. Parents from across the United States (N = 42 from 37 families) participated in two semistructured interviews (~ 90 minutes and 12–15 months apart) in the first five years following children's TBI. First interviews were in person. Second interviews, done in person or by phone, facilitated updating parents' experiences and garnering their critique of the descriptive model. Parent themes were: (a) grateful to still have my child; (b) grieving for the child I knew; (c) running on nerves; and (d) grappling to get what your child and family need. Parents reported cultural barriers because of others' misunderstandings. More qualitative inquiry is needed to understand how the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and expectations of others (culture) influence parents' interactions and the family's adjustment and well-being. PMID:21613654

  16. Pixel Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Karin; Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Augustesen, Christina

    2015-01-01

    elucidate and exemplify already well-known problems in relation to the experience of vertical and horizontal lighting. Pixel Experiments exist as a synergy between speculative test setups and lighting design in practice. This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research......Pixel Experiments The term pixel is traditionally defined as any of the minute elements that together constitute a larger context or image. A pixel has its own form and is the smallest unit seen within a larger structure. In working with the potentials of LED technology in architectural lighting...... lighting design in practice, one quickly experiences and realises that there are untapped potentials in the attributes of LED technology. In this research, speculative studies have been made working with the attributes of LEDs in architectural contexts, with the ambition to ascertain new strategies...

  17. Pixel Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Augustesen, Christina

    2015-01-01

    elucidate and exemplify already well-known problems in relation to the experience of vertical and horizontal lighting. Pixel Experiments exist as a synergy between speculative test setups and lighting design in practice. This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research...... design it became relevant to investigate the use of LEDs as the physical equivalent of a pixel as a design approach. In this book our interest has been in identifying how the qualities of LEDs can be used in lighting applications. With experiences in the planning and implementation of architectural...... lighting design in practice, one quickly experiences and realises that there are untapped potentials in the attributes of LED technology. In this research, speculative studies have been made working with the attributes of LEDs in architectural contexts, with the ambition to ascertain new strategies...

  18. Interpretive Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  19. Antimatter Experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Antimatter should behave in identical fashion to matter if a form of spacetime symmetry called CPT invariance holds. Two experiments at CERN near Geneva are testing this hypothesis using antihydrogen atoms

  20. Whatever happened to the human experience in undergraduate psychology? Comment on the special issue on undergraduate education in psychology (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushko, Oksana; Hook, Derek

    2017-01-01

    This comment addresses the omission of a series of critical reflections in recent discussions of undergraduate education in psychology. The lack of a stronger focus on human meaning and experience, on social context, on methodological diversity, and on social critique limits the critical horizons of undergraduate psychology education. Many perspectives are routinely excluded from undergraduate psychology curricula and associated guidelines, particularly psychoanalytic theories, human science approaches, and related critical standpoints. These perspectives can offer an educational focus vital for development of students capable of critical reflection and social action. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).