Sample records for expected half-life substantial

  1. Crosslinking of micropatterned collagen-based nerve guides to modulate the expected half-life. (United States)

    Salvatore, L; Madaghiele, M; Parisi, C; Gatti, F; Sannino, A


    The microstructural, mechanical, compositional, and degradative properties of a nerve conduit are known to strongly affect the regenerative process of the injured peripheral nerve. Starting from the fabrication of micropatterned collagen-based nerve guides, according to a spin-casting process reported in the literature, this study further investigates the possibility to modulate the degradation rate of the scaffolds over a wide time frame, in an attempt to match different rates of nerve regeneration that might be encountered in vivo. To this aim, three different crosslinking methods, that is, dehydrothermal (DHT), carbodiimide-based (EDAC), and glutaraldehyde-based (GTA) crosslinking, were selected. The elastically effective degree of crosslinking, attained by each method and evaluated according to the classical rubber elasticity theory, was found to significantly tune the in vitro half-life (t1/2 ) of the matrices, with an exponential dependence of the latter on the crosslink density. The high crosslinking efficacy of EDAC and GTA treatments, respectively threefold and fourfold when compared to the one attained by DHT, led to a sharp increase of the corresponding in vitro half-lives (ca., 10, 172, and 690 h, for DHT, EDAC, and GTA treated matrices, respectively). As shown by cell viability assays, the cytocompatibility of both DHT and EDAC treatments, as opposed to the toxicity of GTA, suggests that such methods are suitable to crosslink collagen-based scaffolds conceived for clinical use. In particular, nerve guides with expected high residence times in vivo might be produced by finely controlling the biocompatible reaction(s) adopted for crosslinking. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Half Life Measurements in {sup 155}Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmskog, S.G.


    In the literature there exists a definite difference for the half life of the 86.5 keV level in Gd depending on whether {sup 155}Eu or {sup 155}Tb sources have been used. Using a good energy resolution electron-electron coincidence spectrometer and a {sup 155}Eu source, a half life of 6.48 {+-} 0.26 nsec was obtained for the 86.5 keV level. This is in agreement with the values previously measured with {sup 155}Tb sources. The half life of the 105.4 keV level was measured to be 1.12 {+-} 0.05 nsec.

  3. Half-life determination for 27Mg (United States)

    Zahn, G. S.; Genezini, F. A.


    In this work, the half-life of the short-lived magnesium radionuclide 27Mg was measured by following the activity of samples after they were irradiated in the IEA-R1 reactor. An exponential decay function was then fitted to the results using the counts from a 60Co source as livetime chronometer; the individual half-life values obtained for each irradiation were compiled using both the usual unweighted and σ-2-weighted averages, as well as the robust averages obtained using the Normalized Residuals and the Rajeval techniques. The final halflive values obtained aren't compatible with the ENSDF compilation values, but have a similar uncertainty; analysis of the experimental literature values, all from the 50’s-60’s, show that further measurements should be undertaken in order to achieve a more robust consensus value for this half-life.

  4. Precise Half Life Measurement of ^26Si (United States)

    Iacob, V. E.; Golovko, V.; Goodwin, J.; Hardy, J. C.; Nica, N.; Park, H. I.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.


    As part of our program to test the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix via 0^+->0^+superallowed β transitions, we recently measured the half-life of ^26Si. The radioactive ^26Si beam was obtained with a ^27Al primary beam at 30A MeV, which bombarded a cryogenic hydrogen target held at a pressure of 2.0 atm. From the reaction products, a high-purity ^26Si beam at 25A MeV was selected with the MARS spectrograph. The beam was then extracted in air, passed through a 0.3-mm-thick BC-404 plastic scintillator and a set of Al degraders, which had been adjusted so that the radioactive nuclei stopped in the center of the 76-μm-thick aluminized-mylar tape of our fast tape-transport system. We collected ^26Si nuclei for 1.3 s; then the beam was switched off and the activity was moved in less than 0.2 s to the center of a 4π proportional counter, located in a well-shielded region. The observed decays were then multi-scaled over a 44 s time span. To ensure an unbiased result, we split the experiment into many runs, each differing from the others in its discriminator threshold, detector bias or dominant dead-time setting. The analysis of these separate runs showed no systematic bias with these parameters. Our preliminary result agrees with the currently accepted (average) value, and the full analysis is expected to yield an uncertainty of 0.05% or better.

  5. Half-life of 51Mn (United States)

    Graves, Stephen A.; Ellison, Paul A.; Valdovinos, Hector F.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Nickles, Robert J.; Engle, Jonathan W.


    The half-life of 51Mn was measured by serial gamma spectrometry of the 511-keV annihilation photon following decay by β+ emission. Data were collected every 100 seconds for 100,000-230,000 seconds within each measurement (n =4 ). The 511-keV incidence rate was calculated from the 511-keV spectral peak area and count duration, corrected for detector dead time and radioactive decay. Least-squares regression analysis was used to determine the half-life of 51Mn while accounting for the presence of background contaminants, notably 55Co. The result was 45.59 ±0.07 min, which is the highest precision measurement to date and disagrees with the current Nuclear Data Sheets value by over 6 σ .

  6. Half-life of 14O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Jason T.; Vetter, Paul A.; Freedman, Stuart J.; Fujikawa,Brian K.; Winter, Wesley T.


    We have measured the half-life of 14O, a superallowed (0+\\rightarrow 0+) \\beta decay isotope. The 14O was produced by the12C(3He,n)14O reaction using a carbon aerogel target. A low-energy ionbeam of 14O was mass separated and implanted in a thin beryllium foil.The beta particles were counted with plastic scintillator detectors. Wefind \\tau 1/2 = 70.696 +- 0.037\\sigma. This result is 2.0\\sigma higherthan an average value from six earlier experiments, but agrees moreclosely with the most recent previous measurment.

  7. Half-Life of $^{14}$O

    CERN Document Server

    Burke, J T; Fujikawa, B K; Vetter, P A; Winter, W T


    We have measured the half-life of $^{14}$O, a superallowed (0+ $\\to$ 0+) $\\beta$ decay isotope. The $^{14}$O was produced by the $^{12}$C($^{3}$He,n)$^{14}$O reaction using a carbon aerogel target. A low-energy ion beam of $^{14}$O was mass separated and implanted in a thin beryllium foil. The beta particles were counted with plastic scintillator detectors. We find $\\tau_{1/2} = 70.696 \\pm 0.037$ s. This result is 2.0$\\sigma$ higher than an average value from six earlier experiments, but agrees more closely with the most recent previous measurment.

  8. Half-life of 31Si

    CERN Document Server

    D'Agostino, Giancarlo; Mana, Giovanni; Oddone, Massimo


    Half-life values are widely used in nuclear chemistry to model the exponential decay of the quantified radionuclides. The analysis of existing data reveals a general lack of information on the performed experiments and an almost complete absence of uncertainty budgets. This is the situation for 31Si, the radionuclide produced via neutron capture reaction recently used to quantify trace amounts of 30Si in a sample of the silicon material highly enriched in 28Si and used for the determination of the Avogadro constant. In order to improve the quality of the now recommended 157.36(26) min value, we carried out repeated observations of the 31Si decay rate via gamma-ray spectrometry measurements. This paper reports the result we obtained, including details of the experiment and the evaluation of the uncertainty.

  9. Theory of nuclear half-life determination by statistical sampling (United States)

    Silverman, M. P.


    A remarkable method for measuring half-lives of radioactive nuclei was proposed several years ago that entailed statistical sampling of the source activity. A histogram of half-life estimates, calculated from pairs of activity measurements separated in time, took the unexpected form of a nearly perfect Cauchy distribution, the midpoint of which corresponded very closely to the true value of the half-life. No theoretical justification of the method was given. In this article I derive the exact probability density function (pdf) of the two-point half-life estimates, show how (and under what conditions) a Cauchy distribution emerges from the exact pdf —which, mathematically, shows no resemblance to a Cauchy function— and discuss the utility of the statistical sampling method. The analysis shows that the exact pdf, under the conditions leading to an empirical Cauchy lineshape, is an unbiased estimator of the true half-life.

  10. Confirmation of the Precise Half Life of ^26Si (United States)

    Iacob, V.; Golovko, V.; Goodwin, J.; Hardy, J. C.; Nica, N.; Park, H. I.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.


    Precise ft-values (with uncertainties below 0.1%) for superallowed 0^+->0^+ β transitions provide a demanding test of the Standard Model via the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. Our preliminary report of such a measurement for the half-life of ^26Si [1], was consistent with the previously accepted value but turned out to be higher than a subsequent result published in 2008 [2]. This prompted us to repeat the measurement described in [1] with increased statistics and with a strong focus on all experimental details that could have generated a biased result. We collected more than 200 million ^26Si nuclei in 60 separate runs, which differed from one another in their discriminator threshold, detector bias or dominant dead-time setting. We repeatedly verified and confirmed the stability of the source purity and detector response function. The analysis of these separate runs shows no systematic bias with these parameters and confirms our initial result [1]. The discrepancy between our result and that of reference [2] can be accounted for by the latter's neglect [3] of the difference in beta-detection efficiencies between the parent and daughter decays. Our preliminary result is 2245(3) ms, with the final analysis expected to yield an uncertainty of 0.05% or better. [1] V. Iacob et al., Bulletin APS 53, (12) DNP-Meeting 2008 [2] I. Matea et al., EPJ A37, 151 (2008) [3] B. Blank, private communication

  11. Precision Half-life Measurement of 25Al (United States)

    Long, Jacob; Ahn, Tan; Allen, Jacob; Bardayan, Daniel; Becchetti, Fredrich; Blankstein, Drew; Brodeur, Maxime; Burdette, Daniel; Frentz, Bryce; Hall, Matthew; Kelly, James; Kolata, James; O'Malley, Patrick; Schultz, Bradley; Strauss, Sabrina; Valverde, Adrian; TwinSol Collaboration


    In recent years, precision measurements have led to considerable advances in several areas of physics, including fundamental symmetry. Precise determination of ft values for superallowed mixed transitions between mirror nuclides could provide an avenue to test the theoretical corrections used to extract the Vud matrix element from superallowed pure Fermi transitions. Calculation of the ft value requires the half-life, branching ratio, and Q value. 25Al decay is of particular interest as its half-life is derived from a series of conflicting measurements, and the largest uncertainty on the ft value stems from the half-life uncertainty. The life-time was determined by the β counting of implanted 25Al on a Ta foil that was removed from the beam for counting. The 25Al beam was produced by a transfer reaction and separated by the TwinSol facility of the Nuclear Science Laboratory of the University of Notre Dame. The 25Al results will be presented with preliminary results of more recent half-life measurements. The National Science Foundation.

  12. Measurement of the half-life of [sup 45]Ca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los Arcos, J.M. (Metrologia de Radiaciones, Inst. de Investigacion Basica, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)); Rodriguez, L. (Metrologia de Radiaciones, Inst. de Investigacion Basica, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)); Roteta, M. (Metrologia de Radiaciones, Inst. de Investigacion Basica, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)); Garcia-Torano, E. (Metrologia de Radiaciones, Inst. de Investigacion Basica, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain))


    The currently accepted value of 163.8[+-]1.8 d for the [sup 45]Ca half-life is based on the two most accurate measurements of 162.6[+-]0.1 d and 165.1[+-]0.7 d, which are nevertheless discrepant. New measurements have been carried out using a liquid scintillation spectrometer to follow the decay of [sup 45]Ca for three half-lives. A set of eight liquid sources prepared with [sup 45]Ca-labelled calcium chloride, HDEHP and 2-ethylhexanoate were measured in Hisafe II, Ultima-Gold and Instagel. Solid sources of [sup 45]Ca were sandwiched between two sheets of thin metallized Mylar, and measured with a proportional counter and a Si detector to test their reliability and consistency. The new half-life value of 162.67[+-]0.25 d is in good agreement with the lower value of the two measurements previously reported. (orig.)

  13. Superior serum half life of albumin tagged TNF ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Nicole [Division of Molecular Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital Wuerzburg, Roentgenring 11, 97070 Wuerzburg (Germany); Schneider, Britta; Pfizenmaier, Klaus [Institute of Cell Biology and Immunology, University of Stuttgart, Allmandring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Wajant, Harald, E-mail: [Division of Molecular Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital Wuerzburg, Roentgenring 11, 97070 Wuerzburg (Germany)


    Due to their immune stimulating and apoptosis inducing properties, ligands of the TNF family attract increasing interest as therapeutic proteins. A general limitation of in vivo applications of recombinant soluble TNF ligands is their notoriously rapid clearance from circulation. To improve the serum half life of the TNF family members TNF, TWEAK and TRAIL, we genetically fused soluble variants of these molecules to human serum albumin (HSA). The serum albumin-TNF ligand fusion proteins were found to be of similar bioactivity as the corresponding HSA-less counterparts. Upon intravenous injection (i.v.), serum half life of HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins, as determined by ELISA, was around 15 h as compared to approximately 1 h for all of the recombinant control TNF ligands without HSA domain. Moreover, serum samples collected 6 or 24 h after i.v. injection still contained high TNF ligand bioactivity, demonstrating that there is only limited degradation/inactivation of circulating HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins in vivo. In a xenotransplantation model, significantly less of the HSA-TRAIL fusion protein compared to the respective control TRAIL protein was required to achieve inhibition of tumor growth indicating that the increased half life of HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins translates into better therapeutic action in vivo. In conclusion, our data suggest that genetic fusion to serum albumin is a powerful and generally applicable mean to improve bioavailability and in vivo activity of TNF ligands.

  14. Improving the Precision of the Half Life of 34Ar (United States)

    Iacob, V. E.; Hardy, J. C.; Bencomo, M.; Chen, L.; Horvat, V.; Nica, N.; Park, H. I.


    Currently, precise ft-values measured for superallowed 0+ -->0+ β transitions provide the most accurate value for Vud, the up-down quark mixing element of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. This enables the most demanding test of CKM unitarity, one of the pillars of the Standard Model. Further improvements in precision are possible if the ft values for pairs of mirror 0+ -->0+ transitions can be measured with 0.1% precision or better. The decays of 34Ar and 34Cl are members of such a mirror pair, but so far the former is not known with sufficient precision. Since our 2006 publication of the half-life of 34Ar, we have improved significantly our acquisition and analysis techniques, adding refinements that have led to increased accuracy. The 34Cl half-life is about twice that of 34Ar. This obscures the 34Ar contribution to the decay in measurements such as ours, which detected the decay positrons and was thus unable to differentiate between the parent and daughter decays. We report here two experiments aiming to improve the half-life of 34Ar: The first detected positrons as in but with improved controls; the second measured γ rays in coincidence with positrons, thus achieving a clear separation of 34Ar decay from 34Cl.

  15. Half-life determination for 108Ag and 110Ag (United States)

    Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A.


    In this work, the half-life of the short-lived silver radionuclides 108Ag and 110Ag were measured by following the activity of samples after they were irradiated in the IEA-R1 reactor. The results were then fitted using a non-paralizable dead time correction to the regular exponential decay and the individual half-life values obtained were then analyzed using both the Normalized Residuals and the Rajeval techniques, in order to reach the most exact and precise final values. To check the validity of dead-time correction, a second correction method was also employed by means of counting a long-lived 60Co radioactive source together with the samples as a livetime chronometer. The final half-live values obtained using both dead-time correction methods were in good agreement, showing that the correction was properly assessed. The results obtained are partially compatible with the literature values, but with a lower uncertainty, and allow a discussion on the last ENSDF compilations' values.

  16. Precise Half-Life Measurement of ^46V (United States)

    Park, H. I.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; Chen, L.; Goodwin, J.; Nica, N.; Simmons, E.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.


    The ^46V is one of the key superallowed transitions contributing to precision tests of the conserved vector current hypothesis and the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. Recent Penning-trap QEC measurements of the superallowed β decay of ^46V showed an earlier reaction-based result to be wrong and raised the Ft value by nearly three standard deviations from the average of all other well-known superallowed transitions. This anomaly raised the possibility of systematic effects for all reaction-based Q- value measurements and led to a theoretical reexamination of the isospin-symmetry-breaking corrections for superallowed decays. The improved corrections removed the anomalous result of ^46V and restored agreement among the corrected Ft values. Throughout these changes, the previously accepted half- life of ^46V was assumed to be completely correct. We have now tested this assumption by measuring a new precise half-life of ^46V. The preliminary result, 422.67(10) ms, agrees with but is more precise than previous values.

  17. Measurement of 47K Half-Life at GRIFFIN (United States)

    Beadle, Zachary; Smith, Jenna


    The doubly magic nucleus 48Ca is both a neutron-rich benchmark for new ab initio nuclear structure calculations and a potential neutrinoless double beta decay parent. The adjacent decay of 47K to 47Ca is a simpler decay, but requires a more robust nuclear structure calculation. TRIUMF's GRIFFIN (Gamma Ray Infrastructure For Fundamental Investigations of Nuclei) array is a set of 16 HPGe clovers at the ISAC-I accelerator. This setup allows for the analysis of short-lived isotopes by delivering them to GRIFFIN shortly after their production in ISAC-I and measuring their decay radiation with GRIFFIN and associated auxiliary detectors. This poster presents the use of GRIFFIN, with the additional SCEPTAR (SCintillating Electron-Positron Tagging ARray) auxiliary detector, to improve the precision of the half-life of 47K as part of a more detailed decay spectroscopy investigation. This study was supported in part by Galakatos Funds and the Science Research Fellowship.

  18. A formula for half-life of proton radioactivity (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Xing; Dong, Jian-Min


    We present a formula for proton radioactivity half-lives of spherical proton emitters with the inclusion of the spectroscopic factor. The coefficients in the formula are calibrated with the available experimental data. As an input to calculate the half-life, the spectroscopic factor that characterizes the important information on nuclear structure should be obtained with a nuclear many-body approach. This formula is found to work quite well, and in better agreement with experimental measurements than other theoretical models. Therefore, it can be used as a powerful tool in the investigation of proton emission, in particular for experimentalists. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11435014, 11405223, 11675265, 11575112), the 973 Program of China (2013CB834401, 2013CB834405), National Key Program for S&T Research and Development (2016YFA0400501), the Knowledge Innovation Project (KJCX2-EW-N01) of Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Funds for Creative Research Groups of China (11321064) and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of Chinese Academy of Sciences

  19. High Precision Half-Life Measurement of ^38Ca (United States)

    Park, H. I.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; Chen, L.; Goodwin, J.; Horvat, V.; Nica, N.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.


    The measured ft values for superallowed 0^+ -> 0^+ nuclear β decay can be used to test the Conserved Vector Current (CVC) hypothesis and the unitarity of the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. One of the essential elements of this test is the calculated radiative and isospin-symmetry breaking corrections that must be applied to experimental data [1]. Some of these corrections depend on nuclear structure and their uncertainties can, in principle, be reduced by improving the precision of the experimental ft values. The case of ^38Ca is particularly interesting since its structure-dependent correction is calculated to be one of the largest in the sd shell. The QEC value of the ^38Ca decay is already well measured [2] and we have now measured its half-life to better than 0.1% precision. Preliminary results will be presented.[4pt] [1] I.S. Towner and J.C. Hardy, Phys. Rev. C 77, 025501 (2008).[0pt] [2] R. Ringle et al., Phys. Rev. C 75, 055503 (2007). )

  20. Changing Paradigm of Hemophilia Management: Extended Half-Life Factor Concentrates and Gene Therapy. (United States)

    Kumar, Riten; Dunn, Amy; Carcao, Manuel


    Management of hemophilia has evolved significantly in the last century-from recognition of the causative mechanism in the 1950s to commercially available clotting factor concentrates in the 1960s. Availability of lyophilized concentrates in the 1970s set the stage for home-based therapy, followed by introduction of virally attenuated plasma-derived, and then recombinant factor concentrates in the 1980s and 1990s, respectively. The subsequent years saw a paradigm shift in treatment goals from on-demand therapy to prophylactic factor replacement starting at an early age, to prevent hemarthrosis becoming the standard of care for patients with severe hemophilia. In the developed world, the increasing use of home-based prophylactic regimens has significantly improved the quality of life, and life expectancy of patients with severe hemophilia. Seminal developments in the past 5 years, including the commercial availability of extended half-life factor concentrates and the publication of successful results of gene therapy for patients with hemophilia B, promise to further revolutionize hemophilia care over the next few decades. In this review, we summarize the evolution of management for hemophilia, with a focus on extended half-life factor concentrates and gene therapy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Extending the Serum Half-Life of G-CSF via Fusion with the Domain III of Human Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqiang Zhao


    Full Text Available Protein fusion technology is one of the most commonly used methods to extend the half-life of therapeutic proteins. In this study, in order to prolong the half-life of Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, the domain III of human serum albumin (3DHSA was genetically fused to the N-terminal of G-CSF. The 3DHSA-G-CSF fusion gene was cloned into pPICZαA along with the open reading frame of the α-factor signal under the control of the AOX1 promoter. The recombinant expression vector was transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115, and the recombinant strains were screened by SDS-PAGE. As expected, the 3DHSA-G-CSF showed high binding affinity with HSA antibody and G-CSF antibody, and the natural N-terminal of 3DHSA was detected by N-terminal sequencing. The bioactivity and pharmacokinetic studies of 3DHSA-G-CSF were respectively determined using neutropenia model mice and human G-CSF ELISA kit. The results demonstrated that 3DHSA-G-CSF has the ability to increase the peripheral white blood cell (WBC counts of neutropenia model mice, and the half-life of 3DHSA-G-CSF is longer than that of native G-CSF. In conclusion, 3DHSA can be used to extend the half-life of G-CSF.

  2. Effect of parent and daughter deformation on half-life time in exotic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Taking Coulomb and proximity potential as interacting barrier for post-scission region we calculated half-life time for different modes of exotic decay treating parent and fragments as spheres and these values are compared with experimental data. We studied the effect of deformation of parent and daughter on half-life time ...

  3. A biomimetic approach for enhancing the in vivo half-life of peptides. (United States)

    Penchala, Sravan C; Miller, Mark R; Pal, Arindom; Dong, Jin; Madadi, Nikhil R; Xie, Jinghang; Joo, Hyun; Tsai, Jerry; Batoon, Patrick; Samoshin, Vyacheslav; Franz, Andreas; Cox, Trever; Miles, Jesse; Chan, William K; Park, Miki S; Alhamadsheh, Mamoun M


    The tremendous therapeutic potential of peptides has not yet been realized, mainly owing to their short in vivo half-life. Although conjugation to macromolecules has been a mainstay approach for enhancing protein half-life, the steric hindrance of macromolecules often harms the binding of peptides to target receptors, compromising the in vivo efficacy. Here we report a new strategy for enhancing the in vivo half-life of peptides without compromising their potency. Our approach involves endowing peptides with a small molecule that binds reversibly to the serum protein transthyretin. Although there are a few molecules that bind albumin reversibly, we are unaware of designed small molecules that reversibly bind other serum proteins and are used for half-life extension in vivo. We show here that our strategy was effective in enhancing the half-life of an agonist for GnRH receptor while maintaining its binding affinity, which was translated into superior in vivo efficacy.

  4. An algorithm for filtering detector instabilities in search of novel non-exponential decay and in conventional half-life determinations. (United States)

    Hitt, G W; Goddard, B; Solodov, A A; Bridi, D; Isakovic, A F; El-Khazali, R


    Recent reports of Solar modulation of beta-decay have reignited interest in whether or not radioactive half-lives are constants. A numerical approach for filtering instrumental effects on residuals is developed, using correlations with atmospheric conditions recorded while counting (204)Tl emissions with a Geiger-Müller counter. Half-life oscillations and detection efficiency oscillations can be separated provided their periods are substantially different. A partial uncertainty budget for the (204)Tl half-life shows significant decreases to medium-frequency instabilities correlated with pressure and temperature, which suggests that further development may aid general improvements in half-life determinations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimation of the Biological Half-Life of Methylmercury Using a Population Toxicokinetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongil Jo


    Full Text Available Methylmercury is well known for causing adverse health effects in the brain and nervous system. Estimating the elimination constant derived from the biological half-life of methylmercury in the blood or hair is an important part of calculating guidelines for methylmercury intake. Thus, this study was conducted to estimate the biological half-life of methylmercury in Korean adults. We used a one-compartment model with a direct relationship between methylmercury concentrations in the blood and daily dietary intake of methylmercury. We quantified the between-person variability of the methylmercury half-life in the population, and informative priors were used to estimate the parameters in the model. The population half-life of methylmercury was estimated to be 80.2 ± 8.6 days. The population mean of the methylmercury half-life was 81.6 ± 8.4 days for men and 78.9 ± 8.6 days for women. The standard deviation of the half-life was estimated at 25.0 ± 8.6 days. Using the direct relationship between methylmercury concentrations in blood and methylmercury intake, the biological half-life in this study was estimated to be longer than indicated by the earlier studies that have been used to set guideline values.

  6. Half-life and Branching ratio measurements of T = 1/2 Mirror Nuclei (United States)

    Shidling, P. D.; Melconian, D.; Behling, S.; Fenker, B.; Hardy, J. C.; Horvat, V.; Iacob, V. E.; McCleskey, E.; McCleskey, M.; Mehlman, M.; Park, H. I.; Roeder, B.


    The β-decay transitions between T = 1/2 isospin doublets in mirror nuclei requires the measurement of decay rate and angular correlation to measure the comparative half-life. The motivation for improving the precision of the ft value is to determine the standard-model prediction for the correlation parameters with better precision. We have measured the half-life of 21Na and 37K, and the ground-state branching ratio of 37K to improve the precision of the ft value. For 37K, the ft value was limited by 0.6% uncertainty in the half-life and 0.14% uncertainty in the ground-state branching ratio. The precision of the present half-life measurement is nearly an order of magnitude improvement over the previously accepted world average. In case of 21Na, the ft value was limited by 0.13% uncertainty in the half-life. Another motivation for the half-life measurement comes from the fact that the half-life has only been measured thrice nearly 40 years ago. The measurements were carried out at the Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University. An overview of both experiments and results will be presented.

  7. High-precision half-life measurement for the superallowed Fermi β+ emitter 22Mg (United States)

    Dunlop, M. R.; Svensson, C. E.; Ball, G. C.; Leslie, J. R.; Andreoiu, C.; Bernier, N.; Bidaman, H.; Bildstein, V.; Bowry, M.; Burbadge, C.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Varela, A. Diaz; Dunlop, R.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P. E.; Hackman, G.; Jigmeddorj, B.; Leach, K. G.; MacLean, A. D.; Olaizola, B.; Measures, J.; Natzke, C.; Saito, Y.; Smith, J. K.; Turko, J.; Zidar, T.


    A high-precision half-life measurement for the superallowed Fermi β+ emitter 22Mg was performed at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility using a 4 π proportional gas counter. The result of T1 /2=3.87400 ±0.00079 s is a factor of 3 more precise than the previously adopted world average and resolves a discrepancy between the two previously published 22Mg half-life measurements.

  8. Half-life determination of the ground state decay of ¹¹¹Ag. (United States)

    Collins, S M; Harms, A V; Regan, P H


    The radioactive decay half-life of the β(-)-emitter (111)Ag has been measured using decay transitions identified using a high purity germanium γ-ray spectrometer. The time series of measurements of the net peak areas of the 96.8 keV, 245.4 keV and 342.1 keV γ-ray emissions following the β(-) decay of (111)Ag were made over approximately 23 days, i.e. ~3 half-life periods. The measured half-life of the ground state decay of (111)Ag was determined as 7.423 (13) days which is consistent with the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) recommended half-life of 7.45 (1) days at k=2. Utilising all available experimental half-life values, a revised recommended half-life of 7.452 (12) days has been determined. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of environmental dependence of the &-circ; decay half-life of ^198Au (United States)

    Dibidad, A.; Goodwin, J.; Hardy, J.


    A series of articles by the C. Rolfs group [1] claimed changes in the half-lives of isotopes undergoing α, β^-, β^+, and electron-capture decays as the temperature reduced to 12 K from room temperature. These isotopes were contained in metallic, conductive environments, such as Au, Cu, and Pd, but it was also suggested that the half-life is different in an insulator. One publication [1] reported the half-life of ^198Au in a gold metal environment to change by 3.6 ±1.0% between room temperature and 12 K. Until then, radioactive half-lives were considered independent of environmental factors. We repeated the measurements of the ^198Au half-life in a gold metal environment under similar conditions as ref. [1] and demonstrated [2] that the half-life is the same at both temperatures within 0.04%, two orders of magnitude below the original claims. In the experiment reported here, we measured the half-life of ^198Au in an insulated environment -- gold (III) oxide -- at room temperature. Preliminary results indicate there is no difference in the measured half-life in an insulator as compared in a conductor. [4pt] [1] T. Spillane et al, Eur. Phys. J. A 31, 203 (2007) [0pt] [2] J.R. Goodwin et al, Eur. Phys. J. A 34, 271 (2007)

  10. Advances in therapeutic Fc engineering - modulation of IgG associated effector functions and serum half-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Saxena


    Full Text Available Today monoclonal immunoglobulin gamma (IgG antibodies have become a major option in cancer therapy especially for the patients with advanced or metastatic cancers. Efficacy of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs are achieved through both its antigen binding fragment (Fab and crystallizable fragment (Fc. Fab can specifically recognize tumor associated antigen (TAA and thus modulate TAA-linked downstream signaling pathways that may lead to inhibition of tumor growth, induction of tumor apoptosis and differentiation. The Fc region can further improve mAbs’ efficacy by mediating effector functions such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC, complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC and antibody dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP. Moreover, Fc is the region interacting with the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn in a pH-dependent manner that can slow down IgG’s degradation and extend its serum half-life. Loss of the antibody Fc region dramatically shortens its serum half-life and weakens its anti-cancer effects. Given the essential roles that the Fc region plays in the modulation of the efficacy of mAb in cancer treatment, Fc engineering has been extensively studied in the past years. This review focuses on the recent advances in therapeutic Fc engineering that modulates its related effector functions and serum half-life. We also discuss the progress made in aglycosylated mAb development that may substantially reduce cost of manufacture but maintain similar efficacies as conventional glycosylated mAb. Finally, we highlight several Fc engineering based mAbs under clinical trials.

  11. Variation in absorption and half-life of hydrocortisone influence plasma cortisol concentrations. (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Peter C; Charmandari, Evangelia


    Hydrocortisone therapy should be individualized in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients to avoid over and under replacement. We have assessed how differences in absorption and half-life of cortisol influence glucocorticoid exposure. Forty-eight patients (21 M) aged between 6·1 and 20·3 years with CAH due to CYP21A2 deficiency were studied. Each patient underwent a 24-h plasma cortisol profile with the morning dose used to calculate absorption parameters along with an intravenous (IV) hydrocortisone (15 mg/m(2) body surface area) bolus assessment of half-life. Parameters derived were maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ), time of maximum plasma concentration (tmax ), time to attaining plasma cortisol concentration cortisol. Mean half-life was 76·5 ± 5·2 (range 40-225·3) min, Cmax 780·7 ± 61·6 nmol/l and tmax 66·7 (range 20-118) min. Time taken to a plasma cortisol concentration less than 100 nmol/l was 289 (range 140-540) min. Those with a fast half-life and slow tmax took longest to reach a plasma cortisol concentration less than 100 nmol/l (380 ± 34·6 min), compared to those with a slow half-life and fast tmax (298 ± 34·8 min) and those with a fast half-life and fast tmax (249·5 ± 14·4 min) (One-way anovaF = 4·52; P = 0·009). Both rate of absorption and half-life of cortisol in the circulation play important roles in determining overall exposure to oral glucocorticoid. Dose regimens need to incorporate estimates of these parameters into determining the optimum dosing schedule for individuals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Using gamma distribution to determine half-life of rotenone, applied in freshwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohan, Maheswaran, E-mail: [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland (New Zealand); Fairweather, Alastair; Grainger, Natasha [Science and Capability, Department of Conservation, Hamilton (New Zealand)


    Following the use of rotenone to eradicate invasive pest fish, a dynamic first-order kinetic model is usually used to determine the half-life and rate at which rotenone dissipated from the treated waterbody. In this study, we investigate the use of a stochastic gamma model for determining the half-life and rate at which rotenone dissipates from waterbodies. The first-order kinetic and gamma models produced similar values for the half-life (4.45 days and 5.33 days respectively) and days to complete dissipation (51.2 days and 52.48 days respectively). However, the gamma model fitted the data better and was more flexible than the first-order kinetic model, allowing us to use covariates and to predict a possible range for the half-life of rotenone. These benefits are particularly important when examining the influence that different environmental factors have on rotenone dissipation and when trying to predict the rate at which rotenone will dissipate during future operations. We therefore recommend that in future the gamma distribution model is used when calculating the half-life of rotenone in preference to the dynamic first-order kinetics model. - Highlights: • We investigated the use of the gamma model to calculate the half-life of rotenone. • Physical and environmental variables can be incorporated into the model. • A method for calculating the range around a mean half-life is presented. • The model is more flexible than the traditionally used first-order kinetic model.

  13. Designing of peptides with desired half-life in intestine-like environment

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Arun


    Background: In past, a number of peptides have been reported to possess highly diverse properties ranging from cell penetrating, tumor homing, anticancer, anti-hypertensive, antiviral to antimicrobials. Owing to their excellent specificity, low-toxicity, rich chemical diversity and availability from natural sources, FDA has successfully approved a number of peptide-based drugs and several are in various stages of drug development. Though peptides are proven good drug candidates, their usage is still hindered mainly because of their high susceptibility towards proteases degradation. We have developed an in silico method to predict the half-life of peptides in intestine-like environment and to design better peptides having optimized physicochemical properties and half-life.Results: In this study, we have used 10mer (HL10) and 16mer (HL16) peptides dataset to develop prediction models for peptide half-life in intestine-like environment. First, SVM based models were developed on HL10 dataset which achieved maximum correlation R/R2 of 0.57/0.32, 0.68/0.46, and 0.69/0.47 using amino acid, dipeptide and tripeptide composition, respectively. Secondly, models developed on HL16 dataset showed maximum R/R2 of 0.91/0.82, 0.90/0.39, and 0.90/0.31 using amino acid, dipeptide and tripeptide composition, respectively. Furthermore, models that were developed on selected features, achieved a correlation (R) of 0.70 and 0.98 on HL10 and HL16 dataset, respectively. Preliminary analysis suggests the role of charged residue and amino acid size in peptide half-life/stability. Based on above models, we have developed a web server named HLP (Half Life Prediction), for predicting and designing peptides with desired half-life. The web server provides three facilities; i) half-life prediction, ii) physicochemical properties calculation and iii) designing mutant peptides.Conclusion: In summary, this study describes a web server \\'HLP\\' that has been developed for assisting scientific

  14. Re-measurement of the half-life of sup 7 sup 9 Se

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang Song Sheng; Diao Li Jun; Li Chun Shen; GouJingRu; Wu Shao Yon


    A new attempt has been made for the re-measurement of the half-life of sup 7 sup 9 Se. We made two major improvements over our earlier sup 7 sup 9 Se half-life determination (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 123 (1997) 403). Firstly, the half-life of sup 7 sup 9 Se was measured relative to the precisely known half-life of sup 7 sup 5 Se, rather than an absolute measurement of sup 7 sup 9 Se/Se. Secondly, the Projectile X-ray Detection technique was used for the separation of sup 7 sup 9 Se from its isobar, sup 7 sup 9 Br, rather than measuring sup 8 sup 1 Br for the deduction of sup 7 sup 9 Br interference, and this technique was also used for separation of sup 7 sup 5 Se and its isobar, sup 7 sup 5 As. A detailed description of the sample preparations, experimental setup and measurements are given. The re-measured half-life of sup 7 sup 9 Se was (2.95+-0.38)x10 sup 5 a, about a factor of 3 lower than the previous value, 1.1x10 sup 6 a. The problems in the previous measurement are discussed.

  15. Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    depend on the reader’s own experiences, individual feelings, personal associations or on conventions of reading, interpretive communities and cultural conditions? This volume brings together narrative theory, fictionality theory and speech act theory to address such questions of expectations...

  16. α-decay half-life calculations of superheavy nuclei using artificial neural networks (United States)

    Bayram, Tuncay; Akkoyun, Serkan; Okan Kara, S.


    Investigations of superheavy elements (SHE) have received much attention in the last two decades, due to the successful syntheses of SHE. In particular, α-decay of SHEs has a great importance because most synthesized SHE have a-decay and the experimentalists have evaluated the theoretical predictions of the a-decay half-life during the experimental design. Because of this, the correct prediction of α-decay half-life is important to investigate superheavy nuclei as well as heavy nuclei. In this work, artificial neural networks (ANN) have been employed on experimental a-decay half-lives of superheavy nuclei. Statistical modeling of a-decay half-life of superheavy nuclei have been found as to be successful.

  17. Determination of the half-life of 213Fr with high precision (United States)

    Fisichella, M.; Musumarra, A.; Farinon, F.; Nociforo, C.; Del Zoppo, A.; Figuera, P.; La Cognata, M.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Scuderi, V.; Torresi, D.; Strano, E.


    High-precision measurement of half-life and Qα value of neutral and highly charged α emitters is a major subject of investigation currently. In this framework, we recently pushed half-life measurements of neutral emitters to a precision of a few per mil. This result was achieved by using different techniques and apparatuses at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS) and GSI Darmstadt. Here we report on 213Fr half-life determination [T1/2(213Fr) = 34.14±0.06 s] at INFN-LNS, detailing the measurement protocol used. Direct comparison with the accepted value in the literature shows a discrepancy of more than three sigma. We propose this new value as a reference, discussing previous experiments.

  18. The half-life of 198Au : High-precision measurement shows no temperature dependence (United States)

    Goodwin, J. R.; Golovko, V. V.; Iacob, V. E.; Hardy, J. C.


    We have measured the half-life of the β -decay of 198Au in a metallic environment, both at low temperature (19K), and also at room temperature. We find the half-lives at both temperatures to be the same within 0.04%, a finding that contradicts a recent report of a 3.6±1.0 % difference in the 198Au half-life when measured at essentially the same two temperatures. Our results for the half-life, 2.6949±0.0009 d at room temperature and 2.6953±0.0008 d at 19K, also agree well with previous precision room temperature measurements.

  19. An Advance in Prescription Opioid Vaccines: Overdose Mortality Reduction and Extraordinary Alteration of Drug Half-Life. (United States)

    Kimishima, Atsushi; Wenthur, Cody J; Zhou, Bin; Janda, Kim D


    Prescription opioids (POs) such as oxycodone and hydrocodone are highly effective medications for pain management, yet they also present a substantial risk for abuse and addiction. The consumption of POs has been escalating worldwide, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths due to overdose each year. Pharmacokinetic strategies based upon vaccination present an attractive avenue to suppress PO abuse. Herein, the preparation of two active PO vaccines is described that were found to elicit high-affinity antiopioid antibodies through a structurally congruent drug-hapten design. Administration of these vaccines resulted in a significant blockade of opioid analgesic activity, along with an unprecedented increase in drug serum half-life and protection against lethal overdose.

  20. Dependence of the half-life of 221Fr on the implantation environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olaizola, B.; Fraile, L.M.; Riisager, Karsten


    The possible dependence of the half-life of 221Fr on the solid-state environment has been investigated by the simultaneous measurement of implanted 221Fr ions in an insulator (Si) and a metallic substrate (Au) at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. Our results indicate that, if existing, the difference...

  1. Intrinsically Disordered Segments Affect Protein Half-Life in the Cell and during Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin van der Lee


    Full Text Available Precise control of protein turnover is essential for cellular homeostasis. The ubiquitin-proteasome system is well established as a major regulator of protein degradation, but an understanding of how inherent structural features influence the lifetimes of proteins is lacking. We report that yeast, mouse, and human proteins with terminal or internal intrinsically disordered segments have significantly shorter half-lives than proteins without these features. The lengths of the disordered segments that affect protein half-life are compatible with the structure of the proteasome. Divergence in terminal and internal disordered segments in yeast proteins originating from gene duplication leads to significantly altered half-life. Many paralogs that are affected by such changes participate in signaling, where altered protein half-life will directly impact cellular processes and function. Thus, natural variation in the length and position of disordered segments may affect protein half-life and could serve as an underappreciated source of genetic variation with important phenotypic consequences.

  2. Intrinsically disordered segments and the evolution of protein half-life (United States)

    Babu, M.


    Precise turnover of proteins is essential for cellular homeostasis and is primarily mediated by the proteasome. Thus, a fundamental question is: What features make a protein an efficient substrate for degradation? Here I will present results that proteins with a long terminal disordered segment or internal disordered segments have a significantly shorter half-life in yeast. This relationship appears to be evolutionarily conserved in mouse and human. Furthermore, upon gene duplication, divergence in the length of terminal disorder or variation in the number of internal disordered segments results in significant alteration of the half-life of yeast paralogs. Many proteins that exhibit such changes participate in signaling, where altered protein half-life will likely influence their activity. We suggest that variation in the length and number of disordered segments could serve as a remarkably simple means to evolve protein half-life and may serve as an underappreciated source of genetic variation with important phenotypic consequences. MMB acknowledges the Medical Research Council for funding his research program.

  3. Effect of parent and daughter deformation on half-life time in exotic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    scission region we calculated half-life time for different modes of exotic decay treating parent and fragments as spheres and these values are compared with experimental data. We studied the effect of deformation of parent and daughter on ...

  4. High-Precision Half-Life Measurement for the Superallowed β+ Emitter 22Mg (United States)

    Dunlop, Michelle


    High precision measurements of the Ft values for superallowed Fermi beta transitions between 0+ isobaric analogue states allow for stringent tests of the electroweak interaction. These transitions provide an experimental probe of the Conserved-Vector-Current hypothesis, the most precise determination of the up-down element of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, and set stringent limits on the existence of scalar currents in the weak interaction. To calculate the Ft values several theoretical corrections must be applied to the experimental data, some of which have large model dependent variations. Precise experimental determinations of the ft values can be used to help constrain the different models. The uncertainty in the 22Mg superallowed Ft value is dominated by the uncertainty in the experimental ft value. The adopted half-life of 22Mg is determined from two measurements which disagree with one another, resulting in the inflation of the weighted-average half-life uncertainty by a factor of 2. The 22Mg half-life was measured with a precision of 0.02% via direct β counting at TRIUMF's ISAC facility, leading to an improvement in the world-average half-life by more than a factor of 3.

  5. Safety and Efficacy of BAY 94-9027, a Prolonged-Half-Life Factor VIII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reding, M T; Ng, H J; Poulsen, Lone Hvitfeldt


    BACKGROUND: BAY 94-9027 is a B-domain-deleted prolonged-half-life recombinant factor VIII (FVIII) conjugates in a site-specific manner with polyethylene glycol. OBJECTIVE: Assess efficacy and safety of BAY 94-9027 for prophylaxis and treatment of bleeds in patients with severe hemophilia A PATIEN...

  6. The elimination half-life of benzodiazepines and fall risk: two prospective observational studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, O.J.; Peeters, G.M.E.E.; Elders, P.J.M.; Sonnenberg, C.M.; Muller, M.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Lips, P.T.A.M.


    Background: the STOPP criteria advise against the use of long-acting benzodiazepines (LBs). Objective: to study whether LBs are associated with a higher fall risk than short-acting benzodiazepines (SBs) (elimination half-life ≤10 h). Methods: we used base-line data and prospective fall follow-up

  7. Fast renal trapping of porcine Luteinizing Hormone (pLH shown by 123I-scintigraphic imaging in rats explains its short circulatory half-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locatelli Alain


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugar moieties of gonadotropins play no primary role in receptor binding but they strongly affect their circulatory half-life and consequently their in vivo biopotencies. In order to relate more precisely hepatic trapping of these glycoproteic hormones with their circulatory half-life, we undertook a comparative study of the distribution and elimination of porcine LH (pLH and equine CG (eCG which exhibit respectively a short and a long half-life. This was done first by following half-lives of pLH in piglets with hepatic portal circulation shunted or not. It was expected that such a shunt would enhance the short half-life of pLH. Subsequently, scintigraphic imaging of both 123I-pLH and 123I-eCG was performed in intact rats to compare their routes and rates of distribution and elimination. Methods Native pLH or eCG was injected to normal piglets and pLH was tested in liver-shunted anæsthetized piglet. Blood samples were recovered sequentially over one hour time and the hormone concentrations were determined by a specific ELISA method. Scintigraphic imaging of 123I-pLH and 123I-eCG was performed in rats using a OPTI-CGR gamma camera. Results In liver-shunted piglets, the half-life of pLH was found to be as short as in intact piglets (5 min. In the rat, the half-life of pLH was also found to be very short (3–6 min and 123I-pLH was found to accumulate in high quantity in less than 10 min post injection at the level of kidneys but not in the liver. 123I-eCG didn't accumulate in any organ in the rats during the first hour, plasma concentrations of this gonadotropin being still elevated (80% at this time. Conclusion In both the porcine and rat species, the liver is not responsible for the rapid elimination of pLH from the circulation compared to eCG. Our scintigraphic experiments suggest that the very short circulatory half-life of LH is due to rapid renal trapping.

  8. A New Method to Determine the Half-Life for Penicillin Using Microcalorimeter (United States)

    Li, Z. X.; Zhao, W. W.


    The dissolution process of penicillin in normal saline and isotonic glucose solution was reported using a microcalorimeter. Both the integral and differential heats of solution were measured. The quantitative relationships between the amount of heat released and the quantity of dissolved penicillin were established. Meanwhile, the kinetics and the half-life of the dissolution processes as well as the enthalpy of solution, the entropy of dissolution, and the free energy of dissolution were determined. The results showed that a change of the solvent from normal saline to isotonic glucose solution had little effect on the half-life of penicillin in the dissolution process, and there was no significant difference between the stabilities of penicillin in isotonic glucose solution and normal saline. Moreover, the dissolution process of penicillin in isotonic glucose solution followed the first-order kinetics. These results could provide a theoretical basis for the clinical applications of penicillin.

  9. Half Life of the Doubly-magic r-Process Nucleus 78Ni

    CERN Document Server

    Hosmer, P T; Aprahamian, A; Arndt, O; Clément, R; Estrade, A; Kratz, K L; Liddick, S N; Mantica, P F; Müller, W F; Montes, F; Morton, A C; Ouellette, M S; Pellegrini, E; Pfeiffer, B; Reeder, P; Santi, P; Steiner, M; Stolz, A; Tomlin, B E; Walters, W B; Wöhr, A


    Nuclei with magic numbers serve as important benchmarks in nuclear theory. In addition, neutron-rich nuclei play an important role in the astrophysical rapid neutron-capture process (r-process). 78Ni is the only doubly-magic nucleus that is also an important waiting point in the r-process, and serves as a major bottleneck in the synthesis of heavier elements. The half-life of 78Ni has been experimentally deduced for the first time at the Coupled Cyclotron Facility of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University, and was found to be 110 (+100 -60) ms. In the same experiment, a first half-life was deduced for 77Ni of 128 (+27 -33) ms, and more precise half-lives were deduced for 75Ni and 76Ni of 344 (+20 -24) ms and 238 (+15 -18) ms respectively.

  10. A half-life the divided life of Bruno Pontecorvo, physicist or spy

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Frank


    Bruno Pontecorvo dedicated his career to hunting for the Higgs boson of his day: the neutrino, a nearly massless particle considered essential to the process of nuclear fission. His work on the Manhattan project under Enrico Fermi confirmed his reputation as a brilliant physicist and helped usher in the nuclear age. He should have won a Nobel Prize, but late in the summer of 1950 he vanished. At the height of the Cold War, Pontecorvo had disappeared behind the Iron Curtain. In Half-Life, physicist and historian Frank Close offers a heretofore untold history of Pontecorvo’s life, based on unprecedented access to his friends, family, and colleagues. With all the elements of a Cold War thriller—classified atomic research, an infamous double agent, a kidnapping by Soviet operatives—Half-Life is a history of particle physics at perhaps its most powerful: when it created the bomb.

  11. Precision half-life measurement of the β+ decay of K37 (United States)

    Shidling, P. D.; Melconian, D.; Behling, S.; Fenker, B.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; McCleskey, E.; McCleskey, M.; Mehlman, M.; Park, H. I.; Roeder, B. T.


    The half-life of K37 has been measured to be 1.23651(94)s, a value nearly an order of magnitude more precise than the best previously reported. The β+ decay of K37 occurs mainly via a superallowed branch to the ground state of its T=1/2 mirror, Ar37. This transition has been used recently, together with similar transitions from four other nuclei, as a method for determining Vud, but the precision of its ft value was limited by the relatively large half-life uncertainty. Our result corrects that situation. Another motivation for improving the ft value was to determine the standard-model prediction for the β-decay correlation parameters, which will be compared to those currently being measured by the TRINAT Collaboration at TRIUMF. The new ft value, 4605(8)s, is now limited in precision by the 97.99(14)% ground-state branching ratio.

  12. Determination of the half-life of {sup 105m}Rh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronenberg, A.; Siemon, K.; Weber, R.; Esterlund, R.A.; Patzelt, P


    Following a fast chemical separation of Ru isotopes from a fission-product mixture, {sup 105m}Rh was periodically extracted from its precursor (4.44-h {sup 105}Ru) for measurements of its half-life. The new value for the T{sub 1/2} of {sup 105m}Rh of (43.0{+-}0.3) s resolves the long-standing conflict in the literature between the two earlier measured values of 45 and 30 s.

  13. Precise half-life measurement of the superallowed β+ emitter C10 (United States)

    Iacob, V. E.; Hardy, J. C.; Golovko, V.; Goodwin, J.; Nica, N.; Park, H. I.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.


    The half-life of C10 has been measured to be 19.310(4) s, a result with 0.02% precision, which is a factor of three improvement over the best previous result. Since C10 is the lightest superallowed 0+→0+ β+ emitter, its ft value has the greatest weight in setting an upper limit on the possible presence of scalar currents.

  14. Precise half-life measurement of the superallowed β+ emitter K38m (United States)

    Ball, G. C.; Boisvert, G.; Bricault, P.; Churchman, R.; Dombsky, M.; Lindner, T.; MacDonald, J. A.; Vandervoort, E.; Bishop, S.; D'Auria, J. M.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; Leslie, J. R.; Mak, H.-B.


    The half-life of K38m has been measured to be 924.46(14) ms, a result that is a factor of two more precise than any of the five previous measurements of this quantity. The previous results are not consistent with one another, but our result agrees well with the two most recent ones. The derived ft value for K38m is now one of the three most precisely known superallowed ft values.

  15. Increased Functional Half-life of Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 by Recovering a Vestigial Disulfide Bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihun Lee


    Full Text Available The fibroblast growth factor (FGF family of proteins contains an absolutely conserved Cys residue at position 83 that is present as a buried free cysteine. We have previously shown that mutation of the structurally adjacent residue, Ala66, to cysteine results in the formation of a stabilizing disulfide bond in FGF-1. This result suggests that the conserved free cysteine residue at position 83 in the FGF family of proteins represents a vestigial half-cystine. Here, we characterize the functional half-life and mitogenic activity of the oxidized form of the Ala66Cys mutation to identify the effect of the recovered vestigial disulfide bond between Cys83 and Cys66 upon the cellular function of FGF-1. The results show that the mitogenic activity of this mutant is significantly increased and that its functional half-life is greatly extended. These favorable effects are conferred by the formation of a disulfide bond that simultaneously increases thermodynamic stability of the protein and removes a reactive buried thiol at position 83. Recovering this vestigial disulfide by introducing a cysteine at position 66 is a potentially useful protein engineering strategy to improve the functional half-life of other FGF family members.

  16. FVIII-binding IgG modulates FVIII half-life in patients with severe and moderate hemophilia A without inhibitors. (United States)

    Hofbauer, Christoph J; Kepa, Sylvia; Schemper, Michael; Quehenberger, Peter; Reitter-Pfoertner, Sylvia; Mannhalter, Christine; Reipert, Birgit M; Pabinger, Ingrid


    The substantial variability in pharmacokinetic parameters in hemophilia patients A poses a challenge for optimal treatment with factor VIII (FVIII) products. We investigated the effect of FVIII-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) on FVIII half-life in a cohort of 42 adult patients with severe and moderate hemophilia A without inhibitors. Fifteen (35.7%) of 42 patients tested positive for FVIII-binding IgG with titers ≥1:20 in the initial antibody screen, 9 of these 15 patients had FVIII-specific antibodies with titers ≥1:40, mostly low-to-moderate-affinity IgG1 and IgG3, and 1 had high-affinity IgG4 and later developed low-titer FVIII inhibitors. His brother with low-to-moderate-affinity IgG1 and IgG3 also later developed low-titer FVIII inhibitors. The presence of FVIII-specific IgG subclass titer ≥1:40 antibodies was significantly associated with shorter FVIII half-life (median, 7.8 hours [interquartile range, 6.6-9.2 hours]) vs 10.4 hours [interquartile range, 8.9-13.8 hours]); the regression coefficient adjusted for log age and log von Willebrand factor (VWF) antigen was -0.32 (P = .004), accounting for 16.9% of the observed variability of FVIII half-life in our cohort. Our data indicate a significant contribution of non-neutralizing FVIII-specific IgG to FVIII half-life reduction in hemophilia A patients. Thus, screening for FVIII-specific IgG could be beneficial in tailoring FVIII prophylactic regimens. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. An albumin-oligonucleotide assembly for potential combinatorial drug delivery and half-life extension applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlmann, Matthias; Hamming, Jonas Bohn Refslund; Voldum, Anders


    The long blood circulatory property of human serum albumin, due to engagement with the cellular recycling neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), is an attractive drug half-life extension enabling technology. This work describes a novel site-specific albumin double-stranded (ds) DNA assembly approach......, in which the 3' or 5' end maleimide-derivatized oligodeoxynucleotides are conjugated to albumin cysteine at position 34 (cys34) and annealed with complementary strands to allow single site-specific protein modification with functionalized ds oligodeoxynucleotides. Electrophoretic gel shift assays...

  18. Determination of the half-life of sup 1 sup 0 sup 5 sup m Rh

    CERN Document Server

    Kronenberg, A K; Weber, R; Esterlund, R A; Patzelt, P


    Following a fast chemical separation of Ru isotopes from a fission-product mixture, sup 1 sup 0 sup 5 sup m Rh was periodically extracted from its precursor (4.44-h sup 1 sup 0 sup 5 Ru) for measurements of its half-life. The new value for the T sub 1 sub / sub 2 of sup 1 sup 0 sup 5 sup m Rh of (43.0+-0.3) s resolves the long-standing conflict in the literature between the two earlier measured values of 45 and 30 s.

  19. First measurement of the β-decay half-life of 206Au (United States)

    Morales, A. I.; Benzoni, G.; Al-Dahan, N.; Vergani, S.; Podolyák, Zs.; Regan, P. H.; Swan, T. P. D.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Bracco, A.; Boutachkov, P.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Gerl, J.; Górska, M.; Pietri, S.; Walker, P. M.; Wollersheim, H.-J.


    The β decay of the N = 127 isotone 206Au has been investigated at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung laboratory within the rare isotope investigations at GSI Collaboration. From the experimental data, both its half-life and the level structure of the N = 126 daughter nucleus 206Hg have been extracted. On the basis of the new results, the systematics of Au β-decay half-lives beyond the N = 126 shell closure is discussed. In addition, the interplay between allowed Gamow-Teller and first-forbidden transitions in the N > 126, Z < 82 mass region is reviewed.

  20. Precise half-life measurement of the superallowed β+ emitter 38Ca (United States)

    Park, H. I.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; Banu, A.; Chen, L.; Golovko, V. V.; Goodwin, J.; Horvat, V.; Nica, N.; Simmons, E.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.


    The half-life of 38Ca, a TZ=-1 superallowed 0+→ 0+β+ emitter, has been measured to be 443.77(36) ms. In our experiment, pure sources of 38Ca were produced and the decay positrons were detected in a high-efficiency 4π proportional gas counter. Since the β+ decay of 38Ca feeds 38Km, which is itself a superallowed β+ emitter, the data were analyzed as a linked parent-daughter decay. Our result, with a precision of 0.08%, is a factor of 5 improvement on the best previous result.

  1. Precise half-life measurement of the superallowed β+ emitter 46V (United States)

    Park, H. I.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; Chen, L.; Goodwin, J.; Nica, N.; Simmons, E.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.


    The half-life of 46V has been measured to be 422.66(6) ms, which is a factor of two more precise than the best previous measurement. Our result is also consistent with the previous measurements, with no repeat of the disagreement recently encountered with QEC values measured for the same transition. The Ft value for the 46V superallowed transition, incorporating all world data, is determined to be 3074.1(26) s, a result consistent with the average Ft¯ value of 3072.08(79) s established from the 13 best-known superallowed transitions.

  2. High-Precision Half-life Measurements for the Superallowed β+ Emitter 14O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laffoley A. T.


    Full Text Available The half-life of 14O, a superallowed Fermi β+ emitter, has been determined via simultaneous γ and β counting experiments at TRIUMF’s Isotope Separator and Accelerator facility. Following the implantation of 14O samples at the center of the 8π spectrometer, a γ counting measurement was performed by detecting the 2313 keV γ-rays emitted from the first excited state of the daughter 14N using 20 high-purity germanium (HPGe detectors. A simultaneous β counting experiment was performed using a fast plastic scintillator positioned directly behind the implantation site. The results, T½(γ = 70:632 ± 0:094 s and T½(β = 70:610 ± 0:030 s, are consistent with one another and, together with eight previous measurements, establish a new average for the 14O half-life of T½ = 70:619 ± 0:011 s with a reduced χ2 of 0.99.

  3. Estimating the biological half-life for radionuclides in homoeothermic vertebrates: a simplified allometric approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A. [Lancaster Environment Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Vives i Batlle, J. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium)


    The application of allometric, or mass-dependent, relationships within radioecology has increased with the evolution of models to predict the exposure of organisms other than man. Allometry presents a method of addressing the lack of empirical data on radionuclide transfer and metabolism for the many radionuclide-species combinations which may need to be considered. However, sufficient data across a range of species with different masses are required to establish allometric relationships and this is not always available. Here, an alternative allometric approach to predict the biological half-life of radionuclides in homoeothermic vertebrates which does not require such data is derived. Biological half-life values are predicted for four radionuclides and compared to available data for a range of species. All predictions were within a factor of five of the observed values when the model was parameterised appropriate to the feeding strategy of each species. This is an encouraging level of agreement given that the allometric models are intended to provide broad approximations rather than exact values. However, reasons why some radionuclides deviate from what would be anticipated from Kleiber's law need to be determined to allow a more complete exploitation of the potential of allometric extrapolation within radioecological models. (orig.)

  4. Half-life determination for {sup 108}Ag and {sup 110}Ag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP, P.O. Box 11049, São Paulo, 05422-970 (Brazil)


    In this work, the half-life of the short-lived silver radionuclides {sup 108}Ag and {sup 110}Ag were measured by following the activity of samples after they were irradiated in the IEA-R1 reactor. The results were then fitted using a non-paralizable dead time correction to the regular exponential decay and the individual half-life values obtained were then analyzed using both the Normalized Residuals and the Rajeval techniques, in order to reach the most exact and precise final values. To check the validity of dead-time correction, a second correction method was also employed by means of counting a long-lived {sup 60}Co radioactive source together with the samples as a livetime chronometer. The final half-live values obtained using both dead-time correction methods were in good agreement, showing that the correction was properly assessed. The results obtained are partially compatible with the literature values, but with a lower uncertainty, and allow a discussion on the last ENSDF compilations' values.

  5. Model system that predicts effective half-life for radiolabeled antibody therapy. [Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J.L.; Ling, M.N.; Leichner, P.K.; Kopher, K.A.; Rostock, R.A.; Order, S.E.


    Radiolabeled antibodies to tumor associated proteins localize in both experimental and clinical cancers. In the therapeutic applications of radiolabeled antibody, tumor effective half-life along with the concentration of isotope deposited and energies of the isotope used, determine the tumor dose. Antibodies directed against the same antigenic specificity but derived from different species have varied tumor and whole body effective half-lives and as a result, achieve different tumor doses. In vitro testing does not evaluate the in vivo differences in effective half-life that affect tumor dose. The authors have developed an animal model to evaluate the effective half-live and biodistribution of radiolabeled immunoglobulin (IgG) from diverse species. In both the experimental model and in the clinical trials, radiolabeled immunospecific and normal IgG derived from monkey, rabbit, and porcine sources had the longest effective half-lives, goat and sheep had intermediate effective half-lives, and chicken and turkey had the shortest effective half-lives. These species have been immunized for clinical use. The value of this model system is that it appears to be an effective in vivo preclinical screen for tumor effective half-live of antibodies and IgG from diverse species, thus guiding potential clinical use.

  6. Half-life measurement of the medical radioisotope 177Lu produced from the 176Yb(n,γ reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira K.M.


    Full Text Available 177Lu is a medium energy beta-emitter commonly used in Nuclear Medicine for radiotherapeutic applications. In this work, the half-life of 177Lu has been measured using a re-entrant ionisation chamber over a period of 82 days (approximately 12 half-lives. Unlike the majority of previous studies, the material used in this work was produced via the 176Yb(n,γ177Yb reaction followed by the β-decay to 177Lu, producing insignificant quantities of 177mLu. This has resulted in the most precise half-life measurement of 177Lu to date. A half-life of 6.6430 (11 days has been determined. This value is in statistical agreement with the currently recommended half-life of 6.6463 (15 days (z-score = 1.8.

  7. High-precision half-life determination for 21Na using a 4 π gas-proportional counter (United States)

    Finlay, P.; Laffoley, A. T.; Ball, G. C.; Bender, P. C.; Dunlop, M. R.; Dunlop, R.; Hackman, G.; Leslie, J. R.; MacLean, A. D.; Miller, D.; Moukaddam, M.; Olaizola, B.; Severijns, N.; Smith, J. K.; Southall, D.; Svensson, C. E.


    A high-precision half-life measurement for the superallowed β+ transition between the isospin T =1 /2 mirror nuclei 21Na and 21Ne has been performed at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive ion beam facility yielding T1 /2=22.4506 (33 ) s, a result that is a factor of 4 more precise than the previous world-average half-life for 21Na and represents the single most precisely determined half-life for a transition between mirror nuclei to date. The contribution to the uncertainty in the 21Na F tmirror value due to the half-life is now reduced to the level of the nuclear-structure-dependent theoretical corrections, leaving the branching ratio as the dominant experimental uncertainty.

  8. Standard Operating Procedure for Using the NAFTA Guidance to Calculate Representative Half-life Values and Characterizing Pesticide Degradation (United States)

    Results of the degradation kinetics project and describes a general approach for calculating and selecting representative half-life values from soil and aquatic transformation studies for risk assessment and exposure modeling purposes.

  9. Going Beyond the Binary : The body, Sexuality and Identity in Shelley Jackson’s Half Life: a novel


    Liu, Linjing


    The thesis focuses on Shelley Jackson’s Half Life: a Novel with efforts directed towards a literary interpretation considering relevant issues within the context of gender and feminist theory. The argument rests upon four basic units: the theoretical framework at the outset, the question of the body next, thirdly an investigation of sexuality, and finally a consideration of identity. In Jackson’s Half Life: a Novel the non-dualist thinking underlies a deliberate play of dualism. To go beyond ...

  10. Half-life measurement of short-lived 44 + 44 94mRu using isochronous mass spectrometry (United States)

    Zeng, Q.; Wang, M.; Zhou, X. H.; Zhang, Y. H.; Tu, X. L.; Chen, X. C.; Xu, X.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Xu, H. S.; Blaum, K.; Chen, R. J.; Fu, C. Y.; Ge, Z.; Huang, W. J.; Li, H. F.; Liu, J. H.; Mei, B.; Shuai, P.; Si, M.; Sun, B. H.; Sun, M. Z.; Wang, Q.; Xiao, G. Q.; Xing, Y. M.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yan, X. L.; Yang, J. C.; Yuan, Y. J.; Zang, Y. D.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, W.; Zhou, X.


    Decay of the 8+ isomer in fully stripped ions 44 + 94Ru is observed during its circulation in the experimental Cooler Storage Ring (CSRe) at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The 44 + 94Ru ions were produced via projectile fragmentation and stored in CSRe tuned into the isochronous ion-optical mode. The timing signals of the ions, passing through a time-of-flight detector, were consecutively registered and used to determine the variation of revolution time as a function of revolution number. A sudden change of the revolution time at a specific revolution was identified as a fingerprint of the 44 + 94Ru isomer decay. The isomeric half-life was deduced to be 102(17) μ s , which agrees well with the theoretical expectation by blocking the internal conversion decay of the isomer. Our work proved the feasibility of studying decays of short-lived isomers in high atomic charge states using the isochronous mass spectrometry. In addition, 44 + 94 mRu represents the shortest-lived nuclear state whose mass has ever been measured directly.

  11. Half-life of each dioxin and PCB congener in the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogura, Isamura [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)


    It is well known that dioxin and PCB congeners accumulate in the human body. For assessing their toxicological risk, it is important to know the half-life of each congener in the human body. This study summarizes the overall half-lives of congeners in humans as reported in the literature, and compares them with the half-lives due to fecal and sebum excretions, as estimated by data on the concentrations of congeners in feces and sebum in the literature. In addition, the overall half-lives of congeners for the general Japanese population were estimated from the data on dietary intakes and concentrations in the human body reported by the municipalities.

  12. Half-life and branching ratios for the β decay of {sup 38}Ca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, B.; Ascher, P.; Audirac, L.; Bacquias, A.; Canchel, G.; Daudin, L.; Gerbaux, M.; Giovinazzo, J.; Grevy, S.; Kurtukian Nieto, T.; Munoz, F.; Roche, M.; Serani, L.; Smirnova, N.; Souin, J. [Universite de Bordeaux, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan (France); Thomas, J.C.; Caceres, L.; Oliveira Santos, F. de [CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds, Caen (France); Didierjean, F. [CNRS/IN2P3/Universite de Strasbourg, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Strasbourg (France); Matea, I. [CNRS/IN2P3/Universite Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay (France)


    In an experiment at the LISE3 facility of GANIL, we have studied with high precision the 0{sup +} → 0{sup +} β decay of {sup 38}Ca. The LISE3 facility allowed to produce close to pure samples of the nuclide of interest. We measured the half-life of this nucleus to be 443.63(35)ms, whereas the super-allowed branching ratio was determined to be 77.14(35)%. Both data are in nice agreement with previous high-precision measurements and thus improve the overall precision of the experimental inputs to determine the corrected Ft value for this nucleus. We also compare the experimental Gamow-Teller strength distribution with theoretical shell-model predictions. Finally, future opportunities at LISE3 are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Precise half-life measurements for $^{38}$Ca and $^{39}$Ca

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, B; Demonchy, C-E; Borge, M J G; Matea, I; Munoz, F; Huikari, J; Dominguez-Reyes, R; Plaisir, C; Sturm, S; Canchel, G; Delahaye, P; Audirac, L; Fraile, L M; Serani, L; Lunney, D; Pedroza, J-L; Bey, A; Souin, J; Hui, Tran Trong; Delalee, F; Tengblad, O; Wenander, F


    The half-lives of Ca-38 and Ca-39 have been measured at ISOLDE of CERN. The REXTRAP facility was used to prepare ultra-clean samples of radioactive nuclei for precision decay spectroscopy. Ca-38 is one of the T-z = -1, 0(+). 0(+) beta-emitting nuclides used to determine the vector coupling constant of the weak interaction and the V-ud quark-mixing matrix element. The result obtained, T-1/2 = 443.8(19) ms, is four times more precise than the average of previous measurements. For Ca-39, a half-life of T-1/2 = 860.7(10) ms is obtained, a result in agreement with the average value from the literature.

  14. Precise half-life measurement of the {sup 26}Si ground state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matea, I.; Blank, B.; Giovinazzo, J.; Huikari, J.; Pedroza, J.L. [Universite Bordeaux 1-UMR 5797 CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan (France); Souin, J.[UMR 5797 CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan (France); Instituto Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Aeystoe, J.; Elomaa, V.V.; Eronen, T.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Moore, I.D.; Rahaman, S.; Rissanen, J.; Ronkainen, J.; Saastamoinen, A.; Sonoda, T.; Weber, C. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Delahaye, P. [CERN, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)


    The {beta}-decay half-life of {sup 26}Si was measured with a relative precision of 1.4.10{sup -3}. The measurement yields a value of 2.2283(27) s which is in good agreement with previous measurements but has a precision that is better by a factor of 4. In the same experiment, we have also measured the non-analogue branching ratios and could determine the super-allowed one with a precision of 3%. The experiment was done at the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae where we used the IGISOL technique with the JYFLTRAP facility to separate pure samples of {sup 26}Si. (orig.)

  15. Precise half-life measurements for {sup 38}Ca and {sup 39}Ca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, B.; Bey, A.; Matea, I.; Souin, J.; Audirac, L.; Canchel, G.; Delalee, F.; Demonchy, C.E.; Giovinazzo, J.; Trong Hui, Tran; Huikari, J.; Munoz, F.; Pedroza, J.L.; Plaisir, C.; Serani, L. [Universite Bordeaux 1 - UMR 5797 CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d' etudes nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Gradignan (France); Borge, M.J.G.; Dominguez-Reyes, R.; Tengblad, O. [CSIC, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Madrid (Spain); Delahaye, P.; Wenander, F. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Fraile, L.M. [Universidad Complutense, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Facultad CC. Fisicas, Madrid (Spain); Lunney, D. [Universite de Paris Sud, Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, (CNRS/IN2P3), Orsay (France); Sturm, S. [Johannes Gutenberg University, Department of Physics, Mainz (Germany)


    The half-lives of {sup 38}Ca and {sup 39}Ca have been measured at ISOLDE of CERN. The REXTRAP facility was used to prepare ultra-clean samples of radioactive nuclei for precision decay spectroscopy. {sup 38}Ca is one of the T{sub z}=-1,0{sup +} {yields}0{sup +}{beta} -emitting nuclides used to determine the vector coupling constant of the weak interaction and the V{sub ud} quark-mixing matrix element. The result obtained, T{sub 1/2}=443.8(19) ms, is four times more precise than the average of previous measurements. For {sup 39}Ca, a half-life of T{sub 1/2}=860.7(10) ms is obtained, a result in agreement with the average value from the literature. (orig.)

  16. ORIGEN-S Decay Data Library and Half-Life Uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, O W


    The results of an extensive update of the decay data of the ORIGEN-S library are presented in this report. The updated decay data were provided for both the ORIGEN-S and ORIGEN2 libraries in the same project. A complete edit of the decay data plus the available half-life uncertainties are included in Appendix A. A detailed description of the types of data contained in the library, the format of the library, and the data sources are also presented. Approximately 24% of the library nuclides are stable, 66% were updated from ENDF/B-VI, about 8% were updated from ENSDF, and the remaining 2% were not updated. Appendix B presents a listing of percentage changes in decay heat from the old to the updated library for all nuclides containing a difference exceeding 1% in any parameter.

  17. Development of a time-variable nuclear pulser for half life measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, Guilherme S.; Domienikan, Claudio; Carvalhaes, Roberto P. M.; Genezini, Frederico A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP. P.O. Box 11049, Sao Paulo, 05422-970 (Brazil)


    In this work a time-variable pulser system with an exponentially-decaying pulse frequency is presented, which was developed using the low-cost, open-source Arduino microcontroler plataform. In this system, the microcontroller produces a TTL signal in the selected rate and a pulse shaper board adjusts it to be entered in an amplifier as a conventional pulser signal; both the decay constant and the initial pulse rate can be adjusted using a user-friendly control software, and the pulse amplitude can be adjusted using a potentiometer in the pulse shaper board. The pulser was tested using several combinations of initial pulse rate and decay constant, and the results show that the system is stable and reliable, and is suitable to be used in half-life measurements.

  18. Precision Measurement of the 6He Half-Life and the Weak Axial Current in Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Knecht, A; Zumwalt, D W; Delbridge, B G; Garcia, A; Mueller, P; Swanson, H E; Towner, I S; Utsuno, S; Williams, W; Wrede, C


    Studies of 6He beta decay along with tritium can play an important role in testing ab-initio nuclear wave-function calculations and may allow for fixing low-energy constants in effective field theories. Here, we present an improved determination of the 6He half-life to a relative precision of 3x10^(-4). Our value of 806.89 \\pm 0.11(stat)^{+0.23}_{-0.19}(syst) ms resolves a major discrepancy between previous measurements. Calculating the statistical rate function we determined the ft-value to be 803.04 ^{+0.26}_{-0.23} s. The extracted Gamow-Teller matrix element agrees within a few percent with ab-initio calculations.

  19. Precision measurement of the half-life of $^{109}$In in large and small lattice environments

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to undertake high precision measurements of the half-life of $^{109}$In in large and small lattice environments to study the effect of compression on the electron capture nuclear decay rate. Such studies are of general interest having implications in many areas ranging from astrophysics to geophysics. At present, very little data is available on the change of electron capture decay rate under compression and the available data seems to indicate that the observed increase of the electron capture decay rate under compression is much greater than the predictions of the best available density functional calculations as obtained from TB-LMTO or WIEN2K codes. The proposed experiment should generate more data thus clarifying the experimental situation.

  20. Precise half-life measurement of the superallowed β+ emitter Si26 (United States)

    Iacob, V. E.; Hardy, J. C.; Banu, A.; Chen, L.; Golovko, V. V.; Goodwin, J.; Horvat, V.; Nica, N.; Park, H. I.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.


    We measured the half-life of the superallowed 0+→0+ β+ emitter Si26 to be 2245.3(7) ms. We used pure sources of Si26 and employed a high-efficiency gas counter, which was sensitive to positrons from both this nuclide and its daughter Al26m. The data were analyzed as a linked parent-daughter decay. To contribute meaningfully to any test of the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix, the ft value of a superallowed transition must be determined to a precision of 0.1% or better. With a precision of 0.03%, the present result is more than sufficient to be compatible with that requirement. Only the branching ratio now remains to be measured precisely before a ±0.1% ft value can be obtained for the superallowed transition from Si26.

  1. PASylation of Murine Leptin Leads to Extended Plasma Half-Life and Enhanced in Vivo Efficacy. (United States)

    Morath, Volker; Bolze, Florian; Schlapschy, Martin; Schneider, Sarah; Sedlmayer, Ferdinand; Seyfarth, Katrin; Klingenspor, Martin; Skerra, Arne


    Leptin plays a central role in the control of energy homeostasis and appetite and, thus, has attracted attention for therapeutic approaches in spite of its limited pharmacological activity owing to the very short circulation in the body. To improve drug delivery and prolong plasma half-life, we have fused murine leptin with Pro/Ala/Ser (PAS) polypeptides of up to 600 residues, which adopt random coil conformation with expanded hydrodynamic volume in solution and, consequently, retard kidney filtration in a similar manner as polyethylene glycol (PEG). Relative to unmodified leptin, size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering revealed an approximately 21-fold increase in apparent size and a much larger molecular diameter of around 18 nm for PAS(600)-leptin. High receptor-binding activity for all PASylated leptin versions was confirmed in BIAcore measurements and cell-based dual-luciferase assays. Pharmacokinetic studies in mice revealed a much extended plasma half-life after ip injection, from 26 min for the unmodified leptin to 19.6 h for the PAS(600) fusion. In vivo activity was investigated after single ip injection of equimolar doses of each leptin version. Strongly increased and prolonged hypothalamic STAT3 phosphorylation was detected for PAS(600)-leptin. Also, a reduction in daily food intake by up to 60% as well as loss in body weight of >10% lasting for >5 days was observed, whereas unmodified leptin was merely effective for 1 day. Notably, application of a PASylated superactive mouse leptin antagonist (SMLA) led to the opposite effects. Thus, PASylated leptin not only provides a promising reagent to study its physiological role in vivo but also may offer a superior drug candidate for clinical therapy.

  2. Unexpectedly long half-life of metformin elimination in cases of metformin accumulation. (United States)

    Kajbaf, F; Bennis, Y; Hurtel-Lemaire, A-S; Andréjak, M; Lalau, J-D


    In a study of the oral administration of a single dose of metformin to healthy participants, the estimated half-life (t½ ) for the elimination of the drug from erythrocytes was found to be 23.4 h (compared with 2.7 h for metformin in plasma). However, these pharmacokinetic indices have not been well defined in metformin accumulation. We systematically reviewed all the data on plasma and erythrocyte metformin assays available in our centre. We then selected patients with a plasma metformin concentration ≥ 5 mg/l and in whom the metformin concentration had been remeasured once or more at least 5 days after admission. Twelve patients met the aforementioned criteria. All but one of these patients displayed generally severe lactic acidosis on admission (mean ± sd pH and lactate: 6.88 ± 0.35 and 14.8 ± 6.56 mmol/l, respectively) and 11 were treated with dialysis. The mean ± sd time interval between the first and last blood sample collections for metformin measurement was 8.3 ± 3.2 days (range 5-14 days). Five days after the first sample had been collected, metformin was still detectable in plasma and in erythrocytes in all patients. Metformin remained detectable for up to 13 days (both in plasma and in erythrocytes). The estimated mean terminal t½ for metformin in plasma and erythrocytes was 51.9 and 43.4 h, respectively. The prolonged elimination of accumulated metformin (even after dialysis therapy) challenges the traditional view that the drug clears rapidly because of a short half-life in plasma. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  3. Biological half-life of iodine in adults with intact thyroid function and in athyreotic persons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, G.H.; Hauck, B.M.; Chamberlain, M.J


    A joint project between the Human Monitoring Laboratory (HML) and the Ottawa Hospital has measured the retention of {sup 131}I in patients who have received the radioiodine diagnostically. Thirty-nine subjects with intact thyroid glands and nine athyreotic subjects were measured in the HML's whole-body/thyroid counter to determine the retention of {sup 131}I following its medical administration. The average biological half-life of {sup 131}I in 26 euthyroid subjects was found to be 66.1{+-}6.3 days which may be statistically significantly lower than the ICRP recommended value of 80 days. Nine hyperthyroid patients had a mean biological half-life of 38.2{+-}8.6 days and in three hypothyroid patients the corresponding value was 29.3{+-}8.8 days. Thyroid {sup 131}I uptake was measured in a conventional clinical fashion at the Ottawa Hospital Civic campus 24 h after oral administration of the radioiodine using a collimated thick sodium iodide detector placed over the neck arteriorly. Measured values were 0.144{+-}0.009, 0.314{+-}0.035 and 0.045{+-}0.010 of the administered dose in euthyroid, hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients respectively. The euthyroid range at the hospital is 0.06-0.22. Uptake was significantly lower for the euthyroid group than the ICRP value of 0.3. The radioiodine retention in athyreotic subjects followed a two compartment model with biological half-lives of 1.0{+-}0.2 days and 18.4{+-}1.1. days. (author)

  4. Initial fate of prions upon peripheral infection: half-life, distribution, clearance, and tissue uptake (United States)

    Urayama, Akihiko; Morales, Rodrigo; Niehoff, Michael L.; Banks, William A.; Soto, Claudio


    Prion diseases are infectious neurodegenerative disorders associated with the misfolded prion protein (PrPSc), which appears to be the sole component of the infectious agent (termed prion). To produce disease, prions have to be absorbed into the body and reach sufficient quantities in the brain. Very little is known about the biological mechanisms controlling the initial fate of prions. Here, we studied the systemic pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of PrPSc in vivo. After an intravenous injection of highly purified radiolabeled or native unlabeled PrPSc, the protein was eliminated rapidly from the serum (half-life of 3.24 h), mostly through tissue uptake. The quantity of intact PrPSc reaching the brain was ∼0.2% of the injected dose per gram of brain tissue (ID/g). The highest levels were found in liver (∼20% ID/g), spleen (∼13% ID/g), and kidney (∼7.4% ID/g). Cell surface PrPC does not appear to play a role in PrPSc pharmacokinetics, since the infectious protein distributed similarly in wild-type and PrP-null mice. To measure tissue uptake kinetics and biodistribution accurately, vascular space in tissues was measured with radioactively labeled albumin coinjected with radioactively labeled PrPSc. Our results provide a fundamental pharmacokinetic characterization of PrPSc in vivo, which may be relevant to estimate tissue risks and mechanisms of prion neuroinvasion and to identify novel therapeutic strategies.—Urayama, A., Morales, R., Niehoff, M. L., Banks, W. A., Soto, C. Initial fate of prions upon peripheral infection: half-life, distribution, clearance, and tissue uptake PMID:21555356

  5. Kinetic modeling and half life study on bioremediation of crude oil dispersed by Corexit 9500

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahed, Mohammad Ali [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Aziz, Hamidi Abdul, E-mail: [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed Hasnain [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Mohajeri, Leila; Mohajeri, Soraya [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)


    Hydrocarbon pollution in marine ecosystems occurs mainly by accidental oil spills, deliberate discharge of ballast waters from oil tankers and bilge waste discharges; causing site pollution and serious adverse effects on aquatic environments as well as human health. A large number of petroleum hydrocarbons are biodegradable, thus bioremediation has become an important method for the restoration of oil polluted areas. In this research, a series of natural attenuation, crude oil (CO) and dispersed crude oil (DCO) bioremediation experiments of artificially crude oil contaminated seawater was carried out. Bacterial consortiums were identified as Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Vibrio. First order kinetics described the biodegradation of crude oil. Under abiotic conditions, oil removal was 19.9% while a maximum of 31.8% total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal was obtained in natural attenuation experiment. All DCO bioreactors demonstrated higher and faster removal than CO bioreactors. Half life times were 28, 32, 38 and 58 days for DCO and 31, 40, 50 and 75 days for CO with oil concentrations of 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/L, respectively. The effectiveness of Corexit 9500 dispersant was monitored in the 45 day study; the results indicated that it improved the crude oil biodegradation rate.

  6. Movement Complexity and Neuromechanical Factors Affect the Entropic Half-Life of Myoelectric Signals (United States)

    Hodson-Tole, Emma F.; Wakeling, James M.


    Appropriate neuromuscular functioning is essential for survival and features underpinning motor control are present in myoelectric signals recorded from skeletal muscles. One approach to quantify control processes related to function is to assess signal variability using measures such as Sample Entropy. Here we developed a theoretical framework to simulate the effect of variability in burst duration, activation duty cycle, and intensity on the Entropic Half-Life (EnHL) in myoelectric signals. EnHLs were predicted to be signal amplitude and activation duty cycle. Comparison with myoelectic data from rats walking and running at a range of speeds and inclines confirmed the range of EnHLs, however, the direction of EnHL change in response to altered locomotor demand was not correctly predicted. The discrepancy reflected different associations between the ratio of the standard deviation and mean signal intensity (Ist:It¯) and duty factor in simulated and physiological data, likely reflecting additional information in the signals from the physiological data (e.g., quiescent phase content; variation in action potential shapes). EnHL could have significant value as a novel marker of neuromuscular responses to alterations in perceived locomotor task complexity and intensity. PMID:28974932

  7. [Standard ballpoint pens disappear from the coats with a half-life of nine days]. (United States)

    Subhi, Yousif; Brynskov, Troels


    Ballpoint pens are important tools for the daily work of the physicians. However, a practical challenge seems to be that they disappear just when one needs them most. We call this the ballpoint pen paradox. We have studied the fate of 60 ballpoint pens in an outpatient clinical setting. Five physicians, five nurses and five medical secretaries were equipped with four barcode-tagged ballpoint pens. During follow-ups, we systematically searched the participants' coat and the department for the barcode-tagged ballpoint pens. We illustrated the migration of the ballpoint pens using a diagram and tested fit of linear and exponential trend line. The ballpoint pens displayed a tremendous migration in the department. Disappearance from the coat was exponentially with a half-life of 9 days - only 23% were left after 18 days. Disappearance from the department was linear with a 3% loss per day - only 42% were left after 18 days. Ballpoint pens have a high migration and turnover rate. The fate is unknown for a great amount of ballpoint pens. They are treated carelessly, which finally results in waste of time and resources. It may be that the ballpoint pen paradox can be diminished by phasing out ballpoint pens of low quality. not relevant. not relevant.

  8. Half-life of the electron-capture decay of Ru97: Precision measurement shows no temperature dependence (United States)

    Goodwin, J. R.; Golovko, V. V.; Iacob, V. E.; Hardy, J. C.


    We have measured the half-life of the electron-capture (ec) decay of Ru97 in a metallic environment, both at low temperature (19K), and also at room temperature. We find the half-lives at both temperatures to be the same within 0.1%. This demonstrates that a recent claim that the ec decay half-life for Be7 changes by 0.9%±0.2% under similar circumstances certainly cannot be generalized to other ec decays. Our results for the half-life of Ru97, 2.8370(14) d at room temperature and 2.8382(14) d at 19 K, are consistent with, but much more precise than, previous room-temperature measurements. In addition, we have also measured the half-lives of the β--emitters Ru103 and Rh105 at both temperatures, and found them also to be unchanged.

  9. Towards a measurement of the half-life of {sup 60}Fe for stellar and early Solar System models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostdiek, K.; Anderson, T. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Bauder, W. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Bowers, M.; Collon, P. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Dressler, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute – Laboratory for Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Greene, J. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Kutschera, W. [Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator Laboratory, Waehringer Strasse 17, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Lu, W. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Paul, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Robertson, D. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Schumann, D. [Paul Scherrer Institute – Laboratory for Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Skulski, M. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Wallner, A. [The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)


    Radioisotopes, produced in stars and ejected into the Interstellar Medium, are important for constraining stellar and early Solar System (ESS) models. In particular, the half-life of the radioisotope, {sup 60}Fe, can have an impact on calculations for the timing for ESS events, the distance to nearby Supernovae, and the brightness of individual, non-steady-state {sup 60}Fe gamma ray sources in the Galaxy. A half-life measurement has been undertaken at the University of Notre Dame and measurements of the {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe concentration of our samples using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has begun. This result will be coupled with an activity measurement of the isomeric decay in {sup 60}Co, which is the decay product of {sup 60}Fe. Preliminary half-life estimates of (2.53 ± 0.24) × 10{sup 6} years seem to confirm the recent measurement by Rugel et al. (2009).

  10. High-precision half-life and branching-ratio measurements for superallowed Fermi β+ emitters at TRIUMF – ISAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laffoley A. T.


    Full Text Available A program of high-precision half-life and branching-ratio measurements for superallowed Fermi β emitters is being carried out at TRIUMF’s Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC radioactive ion beam facility. Recent half-life measurements for the superallowed decays of 14O, 18Ne, and 26Alm, as well as branching-ratio measurements for 26Alm and 74Rb are reported. These results provide demanding tests of the Standard Model and the theoretical isospin symmetry breaking (ISB corrections in superallowed Fermi β decays.

  11. Estimation of biological half-life of tritium in coastal region of India. (United States)

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Pai, R K; Veerender, D D; Vishnu, M S; Vijayan, P; Managanvi, S S; Badiger, N M; Bhat, H R


    The present study estimates biological half-life (BHL) of tritium by analysing routine bioassay samples of radiation workers. During 2007-2009 year, 72,100 urine bioassay samples of the workers were analysed by liquid scintillation counting technique for internal dose monitoring for tritium. Two hundred and two subjects were taken for study with minimum 3 μCiL(-1) tritium uptake in their body fluid. The BHL of tritium of subjects ranges from 1 to 16 d with an average of 8.19 d. Human data indicate that the biological retention time ranges from 4 to 18 d with an average of 10 d. The seasonal variations of the BHL of tritium are 3.09 ± 1.48, 6.87 ± 0.58 and 5.73 ± 0.76 d (mean ± SD) for summer, winter and rainy seasons, respectively, for free water tritium in the coastal region of Karnataka, India, which shows that the BHL in summer is twice that of the winter season. Also three subjects showed the BHL of 101.73-121.09 d, which reveals that organically bound tritium is present with low tritium uptake also. The BHL of tritium for all age group of workers is observed independent of age and is shorter during April to May. The distribution of cumulative probability vs. BHL of tritium shows lognormal distribution with a geometric mean of 9.11 d and geometric standard deviation of 1.77 d. The study of the subjects is fit for two-compartment model and also an average BHL of tritium is found similar to earlier studies.

  12. The elimination half-life of benzodiazepines and fall risk: two prospective observational studies. (United States)

    de Vries, Oscar J; Peeters, Geeske; Elders, Petra; Sonnenberg, Caroline; Muller, Majon; Deeg, Dorly J H; Lips, Paul


    the STOPP criteria advise against the use of long-acting benzodiazepines (LBs). to study whether LBs are associated with a higher fall risk than short-acting benzodiazepines (SBs) (elimination half-life ≤ 10 h). we used base-line data and prospective fall follow-up from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, a longitudinal cohort study including 1,509 community-dwelling older persons (Study 1) and from a separate fall prevention study with 564 older persons after a fall (Study 2). Time to the first fall after inclusion and number of falls in the first year after inclusion were the primary endpoints. both in Study 1 and Study 2 the use of SBs was associated with time to the first fall, hazard ratio (HR) 1.62 (95% CI: 1.03-2.56) and HR 1.64 (95% CI: 1.19-2.26),respectively. LBs were not significantly associated with time to first fall, HR 1.40 (0.85-2.31) and HR 1.08 (0.72-1.62). In both studies, the use of SBs was also associated with number of falls, odds ratio (OR) 1.28 (95% CI: 1.01-1.61) and OR 1.37 (95% CI: 1.10-1.70). LBs were not significantly associated with number of falls, OR 1.23 (0.96-1.57) and 1.10 (0.82-1.48). the use of SBs is not associated with a lower fall risk compared with LBs. The use of both SBs and LBs by old persons should be strongly discouraged.

  13. Brief report : enzyme inducers reduce elimination half-life after a single dose of nevirapine in healthy women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'homme, R.F.A.; Dijkema, T.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Burger, D.M.


    OBJECTIVE: Single-dose nevirapine (SD-NVP) to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV is associated with development of NVP resistance, probably because of its long half-life in combination with a low genetic barrier to resistance. The objective of this study was to find enzyme inducers

  14. Screening and ranking of POPs for global half-life: QSAR approaches for prioritization based on molecular structure. (United States)

    Gramatica, Paola; Papa, Ester


    Persistence in the environment is an important criterion in prioritizing hazardous chemicals and in identifying new persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Degradation half-life in various compartments is among the more commonly used criteria for studying environmental persistence, but the limited availability of experimental data or reliable estimates is a serious problem. Available half-life data for degradation in air, water, sediment, and soil, for a set of 250 organic POP-type chemicals, were combined in a multivariate approach by principal component analysis to obtain a ranking of the studied organic pollutants according to their relative overall half-life. A global half-life index (GHLI) applicable for POP screening purposes is proposed. The reliability of this index was verified in comparison with multimedia model results. This global index was then modeled as a cumulative end-point using a QSAR approach based on few theoretical molecular descriptors, and a simple and robust regression model externally validated for its predictive ability was derived. The application of this model could allow a fast preliminary identification and prioritization of not yet known POPs, just from the knowledge of their molecular structure. This model can be applied a priori also in the chemical design of safer and alternative non-POP compounds.

  15. Precise measurement of the 222Rn half-life: A probe to monitor the stability of radioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bellotti


    Full Text Available We give the results of a study on the 222Rn decay we performed in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS by detecting the gamma rays from the radon progeny. The motivation was to monitor the stability of radioactivity measuring several times per year the half-life of a short lifetime (days source instead of measuring over a long period the activity of a long lifetime (tens or hundreds of years source. In particular, we give a possible reason of the large periodical fluctuations in the count rate of the gamma rays due to radon inside a closed canister which has been described in literature and which has been attributed to a possible influence of a component in the solar irradiation affecting the nuclear decay rates. We then provide the result of four half-life measurements we performed underground at LNGS in the period from May 2014 to January 2015 with radon diffused into olive oil. Briefly, we did not measure any change of the 222Rn half-life with a 8⋅10−5 precision. Finally, we provide the most precise value for the 222Rn half-life: 3.82146(16stat(4syst days.

  16. Effective Half-Life of Caesium-137 in Various Environmental Media at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M. H.; Jannik, G. T.; Baker, R. A.


    During the operational history of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities into the SRS environment. However, only a relatively small number of pathways, most importantly 137Cs in fish and deer, have contributed significantly to doses and risks to the public. The “effective” half-lives (Te) of 137Cs (which include both physical decay and environmental dispersion) in Savannah River floodplain soil and vegetation and in fish and white-tailed deer from the SRS were estimated using long-term monitoring data. For 1974–2011, the Tes of 137Cs in Savannah River floodplain soil and vegetation were 17.0 years (95% CI = 14.2–19.9) and 13.4 years (95% CI = 10.8–16.0), respectively. These Tes were greater than in a previous study that used data collected only through 2005 as a likely result of changes in the flood regime of the Savannah River. Field analyses of 137Cs concentrations in deer collected during yearly controlled hunts at the SRS indicated an overall Te of 15.9 years (95% CI = 12.3–19.6) for 1965–2011; however, the Te for 1990–2011 was significantly shorter (11.8 years, 95% CI = 4.8–18.8) due to an increase in the rate of 137Cs removal. The shortest Tes were for fish in SRS streams and the Savannah River (3.5–9.0 years), where dilution and dispersal resulted in rapid 137Cs removal. Long-term data show that Tes are significantly shorter than the physical half-life of 137Cs in the SRS environment but that they can change over time. Therefore, it is desirable have a long period of record for calculating Tes and risky to extrapolate Tes beyond this period unless the processes governing 137Cs removal are clearly understood.

  17. Thirty years after Chernobyl: Long-term determination of (137)Cs effective half-life in the lichen Stereocaulon vesuvianum. (United States)

    Savino, F; Pugliese, M; Quarto, M; Adamo, P; Loffredo, F; De Cicco, F; Roca, V


    It has been widely shown that nuclear fallout includes substances, which accumulate in organisms such as crustaceans, fish, mushrooms and lichens, helping to evaluate the activity concentration of contaminants accumulated on a long time. In this context, radiocaesium deposited in soil following the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986 is known to have remained persistently available for plant uptake in many areas of Europe. Studies on the lichen Stereocaulon vesuvianum show the plant's high capacity to retain radionuclides from the substrate and the air. After the Chernobyl accident, starting from September 1986, at the Radioactivity Laboratory (LaRa) of the University of Naples Federico II, four monitoring campaigns to evaluate the activity concentration of four isotopes of the two elements caesium and ruthenium ((134)Cs, (137)Cs, (103)Ru and (106)Ru) were carried out until 1999. This study allowed the effective half-life of (134)Cs and (137)Cs to be estimated. Twenty-eight years after the accident, in December 2014, a further sampling was carried out; only (137)Cs was revealed beyond the detection limits, measuring activity concentrations ranging from 20 to 40 Bq/kg, while the other radionuclides were no longer observed due to their shorter half-life. The last sampling allowed more precise determination of the effective half-life of (137)Cs (6.2 ± 0.1 year), due to the larger dataset on a large time period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Activity measurement of 60Fe through the decay of 60mCo and confirmation of its half-life

    CERN Document Server

    Ostdiek, Karen; Bauder, William; Bowers, Matthew; Clark, Adam; Collon, Philippe; Dressler, Rugard; Greene, John; Kutschera, Walter; Lu, Wenting; Nelson, Austin; Paul, Michael; Robertson, Daniel; Schumann, Dorothea; Skulski, Michael


    The half-life of the neutron-rich nuclide, $^{60}\\text{Fe}$ has been in dispute in recent years. A measurement in 2009 published a value of $(2.62 \\pm 0.04)\\times10^{6}$ years, almost twice that of the previously accepted value from 1984 of $(1.49 \\pm 0.27)\\times10^{6}$ years. This longer half-life was confirmed in 2015 by a new measurement, resulting in a value of $(2.50 \\pm 0.12)\\times10^{6}$ years. All three half-life measurements used the grow-in of the $\\gamma$-ray lines in $^{60}\\text{Ni}$ from the decay of the ground state of $^{60\\text{g}}\\text{Co}$ (t$_{1/2}$=5.27 years) to determine the activity of a sample with a known number of $^{60}\\text{Fe}$ atoms. In contrast, the work presented here measured the $^{60}\\text{Fe}$ activity directly with the 58.6 keV $\\gamma$-ray line from the short-lived isomeric state of $^{60\\text{m}}\\text{Co}$ (t$_{1/2}$=10.5 minutes), thus being independent of any possible contamination from long-lived $^{60\\text{g}}\\text{Co}$. A fraction of the material from the 2015 exper...

  19. Precise measurement of the 222Rn half-life: a probe to monitor the stability of radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Bellotti, E; Di Carlo, G; Laubenstein, M; Menegazzo, R


    We give the results of a study on the 222Rn decay we performed in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS) by detecting the gamma rays from the radon progeny. The motivation was to monitor the stability of radioactivity measuring several times per year the half-life of a short lifetime (days) source instead of measuring over a long period the activity of a long lifetime (tens or hundreds of years) source. In particular, we give the reason of the large periodical fluctuations in the count rate of the gamma rays due to radon inside a closed canister which has been described in literature and which has been attributed to a possible influence of a component in the solar irradiation affecting the nuclear decay rates. We then provide the result of four half-life measurements we performed underground at LNGS in the period from May 2014 to January 2015 with radon diffused into olive oil. Briefly, we did not measure any change of the 222Rn half-life with a 8*10^-5 precision. Finally, we provide the most precise value for the ...

  20. CYP2A6 Genotype but not Age Determines Cotinine Half-life in Infants and Children


    Dempseyl, Delia A.; Sambol, Nancy C.; Jacob, Peyton; Hoffmann, E.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Benowitz, Neal L.


    The formation of cotinine, the main proximate metabolite and a biomarker of nicotine exposure, is mediated primarily by CYP2A6. Our aim was to determine if higher cotinine levels in young children exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) are a result of age-related differences in pharmacokinetics. Forty-nine participants, 2 to 84 months old, received oral deuterium-labeled cotinine, with daily urine samples for up to 10 days for cotinine half-life measurement. DNA from saliva was used for CYP2A6 gen...

  1. Estrogenic and antiestrogenic regulation of the half-life of covalently labeled estrogen receptor in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Borrás, M; Laios, I; el Khissiin, A; Seo, H S; Lempereur, F; Legros, N; Leclercq, G


    Effect of estrogens and antiestrogens (AEs) on estrogen receptor (ER) half-life was analyzed in MCF-7 cells by assessing its progressive disappearance after covalent labeling in situ with [3H]tamoxifen aziridine ([3H]TAZ). Cells were incubated for 1 h with 20 nM [3H]TAZ either in the absence or presence of a 500-fold excess of unlabeled estradiol (E2) (non-specific binding). The entire ER population was labeled by this method as established by subsequent incubation of the cells with [125I]E2. [3H]TAZ labeled cells were maintained in culture for additional 5 h in the absence (control) or presence of increasing amounts (0.1 nM - 1 microM) of either a given estrogen (E2, estrone, diethylstilbestrol, bisphenol), a pure AE (RU 58 668, ICI 164 384) or an AE with residual estrogenic activity (RU 39 411, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, keoxifene). The progressive disappearance of nuclear and cytosolic [3H]TAZ-ER complex during 5 h incubation were assessed by their immunoprecipitation with anti-ER monoclonal antibody (H 222) followed by scintillation counting or SDS-PAGE and fluorography. Fading of labeled receptors was extremely slow (approximately 10% loss after 6 h) in absence of any hormone/antihormone indicating a long half-life of the [3H]TAZ-ER complex. Addition of estrogens as well as pure AEs led to a dramatic reduction of the half-life while AEs with residual estrogenic activity were extremely less efficient in this regard providing an explanation for the ability of latter compounds to up-regulate the receptor since they do not affect ER mRNA synthesis and stability. Receptor disappearance induced by estrogens was closely related to their binding affinity for ER. Newly synthesized ER emerged during the treatment with hormones or antihormones seems to be implicated in the phenomenon since [3H]TAZ was covalently bound and could, therefore, not be displaced by these compounds. Induction of synthesis of a short half-life peptide(s) with degradative activity was demonstrated by

  2. Half-life measurements for neutral and highly-charged {alpha}-emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinon, Fabio [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Justus-Liebig Universitaet, Giessen (Germany); Collaboration: E073-Collaboration


    The influence of the bound electron cloud on the {alpha}-decay constant {lambda} has been discussed theoretically since the late 50s. Tiny changes in Q-values and {alpha}-decay half-lives of fully stripped ions are expected and can provide information on the electron screening energy, thereby deducing reliable reaction rates in stellar environments. Recently, the measurements of {alpha}-decay half-lives are feasible also for highly-charged radioactive nuclides. Using a {sup 238}U beam at relativistic energies at the present FRS-ESR facility at GSI it is possible to produce, efficiently separate and store highly charged {alpha}-emitters. {sup 213}Fr{sup 86+} have been investigated by using the Schottky Mass Spectrometry technique. In order to establish a solid reference data set, lifetime measurements of the corresponding neutral atoms have been performed directly at the FRS by implanting the separated ions into an active silicon stopper. These results are reported.

  3. The functional half-life of an mRNA depends on the ribosome spacing in an early coding region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Margit; Nissen, Søren; Mitarai, Namiko


    Bacterial mRNAs are translated by closely spaced ribosomes and degraded from the 5'-end, with half-lives of around 2 min at 37 °C in most cases. Ribosome-free or "naked" mRNA is known to be readily degraded, but the initial event that inactivates the mRNA functionally has not been fully described....... Here, we characterize a determinant of the functional stability of an mRNA, which is located in the early coding region. Using literature values for the mRNA half-lives of variant lacZ mRNAs in Escherichia coli, we modeled how the ribosome spacing is affected by the translation rate of the individual...... codons. When comparing the ribosome spacing at various segments of the mRNA to its functional half-life, we found a clear correlation between the functional mRNA half-life and the ribosome spacing in the mRNA region approximately between codon 20 and codon 45. From this finding, we predicted that inserts...

  4. Measurement of the half-life of Au198 in a nonmetal: High-precision measurement shows no host-material dependence (United States)

    Goodwin, J. R.; Nica, N.; Iacob, V. E.; Dibidad, A.; Hardy, J. C.


    We have measured the half-life of the β- decay of Au198 to be 2.6948(9) d, with the nuclide sited in an insulating environment. Comparing this result with the half-life we measured previously with a metallic environment, we find the half-lives in both environments to be the same within 0.04%, thus contradicting a prediction that screening from a “plasma” of quasifree electrons in a metal increases the half-life by as much as 7%.

  5. PASylation: a biological alternative to PEGylation for extending the plasma half-life of pharmaceutically active proteins (United States)

    Schlapschy, Martin; Binder, Uli; Börger, Claudia; Theobald, Ina; Wachinger, Klaus; Kisling, Sigrid; Haller, Dirk; Skerra, Arne


    A major limitation of biopharmaceutical proteins is their fast clearance from circulation via kidney filtration, which strongly hampers efficacy both in animal studies and in human therapy. We have developed conformationally disordered polypeptide chains with expanded hydrodynamic volume comprising the small residues Pro, Ala and Ser (PAS). PAS sequences are hydrophilic, uncharged biological polymers with biophysical properties very similar to poly-ethylene glycol (PEG), whose chemical conjugation to drugs is an established method for plasma half-life extension. In contrast, PAS polypeptides offer fusion to a therapeutic protein on the genetic level, permitting Escherichia coli production of fully active proteins and obviating in vitro coupling or modification steps. Furthermore, they are biodegradable, thus avoiding organ accumulation, while showing stability in serum and lacking toxicity or immunogenicity in mice. We demonstrate that PASylation bestows typical biologics, such as interferon, growth hormone or Fab fragments, with considerably prolonged circulation and boosts bioactivity in vivo. PMID:23754528

  6. An "Fc-Silenced" IgG1 Format With Extended Half-Life Designed for Improved Stability. (United States)

    Borrok, M Jack; Mody, Neil; Lu, Xiaojun; Kuhn, Megan L; Wu, Herren; Dall'Acqua, William F; Tsui, Ping


    Multiple mutation combinations in the IgG Fc have been characterized to tailor immune effector function or IgG serum persistence to fit desired biological outcomes for monoclonal antibody therapeutics. An unintended consequence of introducing mutations in the Fc (particularly the C H 2 domain) can be a reduction in biophysical stability which can correlate with increased aggregation propensity, poor manufacturability, and lower solubility. Herein, we characterize the changes in IgG conformational and colloidal stability when 2 sets of C H 2 mutations "TM" (L234F/L235E/P331S) and "YTE" (M252Y/S254T/T256E) are combined to generate an antibody format lacking immune receptor binding and exhibiting extended half-life. In addition to significantly lowered thermostability, we observe greater conformational flexibility for TM-YTE in C H 2, increased self-association, and poorer solubility and aggregation profiles. To improve these properties, we dissected the contributions of individual mutations within TM-YTE on thermostability and substituted destabilizing mutations with new mutations that raise thermostability. One novel combination, FQQ-YTE (L234F/L235Q/K322Q/M252Y/S254T/T256E), had significantly improved conformational and colloidal stability, and was found to retain the same biological activities as TM-YTE (extended half-life and lack of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity activity). Our engineering approach offers a way to improve the developability of antibodies containing Fc mutations while retaining tailored biological activity. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Enahoro Agarry


    Full Text Available In this study, comparative potential effects of commercial activated carbon (CAC and plantain peel-derived biochar (PPBC of different particle sizes and dosage to stimulate petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in soil were investigated. Microcosms containing soil were spiked with weathered Bonny light crude oil (WBLCO (10% w/w and amended with different particle sizes (0.02, 0.07 and 0.48 mm and dosage (20, 30 and 40 g of CAC and PPBC, respectively. The bioremediation experiments were carried out for a period of 28 days under laboratory conditions. The results showed that there was a positive relationship between the rate of petroleum hydrocarbons reduction and presence of the CAC and PPBC in crude oil contaminated soil microcosms. The WBLCO biodegradation data fitted well to the first-order kinetic model. The model revealed that WBLCO contaminated-soil microcosms amended with CAC and PPBC had higher biodegradation rate constants (k as well as lower half-life times (t1/2 than unamended soil (natural attenuation remediation system. The rate constants increased while half-life times decreased with decreased particle size and increased dosage of amendment agents. ANOVA statistical analysis revealed that WBLCO biodegradation in soil was significantly (p = 0.05 influenced by the addition of CAC and biochar amendment agents, respectively. However, Tukey’s post hoc test (at p = 0.05 showed that there was no significant difference in the bioremediation efficiency of CAC and PPBC. Thus, amendment of soils with biochar has the potential to be an inexpensive, efficient, environmentally friendly and relatively novel strategy to mitigate organic compound-contaminated soil.

  8. Comparison of serum immunoglobulin G half-life in dairy calves fed colostrum, colostrum replacer or administered with intravenous bovine plasma. (United States)

    Murphy, Jacob M; Hagey, Jill V; Chigerwe, Munashe


    In calves, passive immunity of immunoglobulins can be acquired through ingestion of colostrum or colostrum replacers. Plasma can been used to supplement immunoglobulins in healthy or sick calves. Serum half-life of colostral derived immuglobulin G (IgG) is estimated to be 20 days. Half-life of IgG is important in determining response to antigens and timing of vaccination in calves. To date studies evaluating half-life of colostrum replacer or plasma derived IgG are lacking. The objectives of this study were to compare the serum half-life of IgG derived from colostrum, colostrum replacer and plasma in dairy calves reared up to 35 days of age. Thirty Jersey calves were randomly assigned to receive colostrum or colostrum replacer by oroesophageal tubing or plasma by intravenous administration. Serum samples were collected at 2, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days. Serum IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. The results indicated that half-life for IgG in colostrum fed (28.5 days) or plasma transfused calves (27.3 days) was longer than colostrum replacer fed calves (19.1 days). Further studies are required to evaluate pathogen specific immunoglobulins in order to recommend vaccination timing in calves fed colostrum replacers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased half-life and enhanced potency of Fc-modified human PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies in primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Shen

    Full Text Available Blocking proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9 binding to low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR can profoundly lower plasma LDL levels. Two anti-PCKS9 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs, alirocumab and evolocumab, were approved by the FDA in 2015. The recommended dose is 75 mg to 150 mg every two weeks for alirocumab and 140mg every two weeks or 420 mg once a month for evolocumab. This study attempted to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of F0016A, an IgG1 anti-PCKS9 mAb, to generate biologically superior molecules. We engineered several variants with two or three amino acid substitutions in the Fc fragment based on prior knowledge. The Fc-modified mAbs exhibited increased binding to FcRn, resulting in prolonged serum half-life and enhanced efficacy in vivo. These results demonstrate that Fc-modified anti-PCKS9 antibodies may enable less frequent or lower dosing of antibodies by improved recycling into the blood.

  10. High Mdm4 levels suppress p53 activity and enhance its half-life in acute myeloid leukaemia (United States)

    Tan, Ban Xiong; Khoo, Kian Hoe; Lim, Tit Meng; Lane, David Philip


    Although p53 is found mutated in almost 50% of all cancers, p53 mutations in leukaemia are relatively rare. Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cells employ other strategies to inactivate their wild type p53 (WTp53), like the overexpression of the p53 negative regulators Mdm2 and Mdm4. As such, AMLs are excellent candidates for therapeutics involving the reactivation of their WTp53 to restrict and destroy cancer cells, and the Mdm2 antagonist nutlin-3 is one such promising agent. Using AML cell lines with WTp53, we identified stable and high levels of p53 in the OCI/AML-2 cell lines. We demonstrate that this nutlin-3 sensitive cell line overexpressed Mdm4 to sequester, stabilise and inhibit p53 in the cytoplasm. We also show that elevated Mdm4 competed with Mdm2-p53 interaction and therefore extended p53 half-life while preventing p53 transcriptional activity. Our results provide biochemical evidence on the dynamics of the p53-Mdm2-Mdm4 interactions in affecting p53 levels and activity, and unlike previously reported findings derived from genetically manipulated systems, AML cells with naturally high levels of Mdm4 remain sensitive to nutlin treatment. Key Points Endogenously high levels of Mdm4 inhibit and sequester p53 in AML. High levels of Mdm4 do not block function of Mdm2 inhibitors in AML. PMID:24659749

  11. Decreasing half-life of dieldrin in egg yolk following a single oral administration of aldrin to laying hens. (United States)

    Furusawa, N


    Laying hens were treated orally with a single dose of aldrin (AD) 1 mg/kg body weight. Concentrations (microgram/g) of AD or its epoxide (= dieldrin, DD) in the yolk of eggs laid for 21 days after AD treatment were determined by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The limits of determination were 0.02 microgram/g for AD and 0.03 microgram/g for DD, respectively. After AD treatment, although the low levels of AD (mean 0.02-0.03 microgram/g) were observed only during a three-day period (from 4th to 6th days), DD (mean 0.15 microgram/g) was found already on the 2nd day, indicating that the epoxidation of AD to DD in the hen's body is rapid. The highest level of DD (mean 0.40 microgram/g) was detected on the 6th day, and then DD levels decreased slowly and were detected up to the 21st day. In this decreasing phase, the half-life of DD in the yolk was estimated to be 25.6 days with a 95% confidence interval from 22.7 to 29.4 days.

  12. Measurement of the two-neutrino double-beta decay half-life of ^{130}Te with the CUORE-0 experiment (United States)

    Alduino, C.; Alfonso, K.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Camacho, A.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Cappelli, L.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Carniti, P.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; D'Addabbo, A.; Dafinei, I.; Davis, C. J.; Dell'Oro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Drobizhev, A.; Fang, D. Q.; Faverzani, M.; Feintzeig, J.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gladstone, L.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Hansen, E.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K. P.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Leder, A.; Ligi, C.; Lim, K. E.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maino, M.; Marini, L.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Mosteiro, P. J.; Napolitano, T.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; O'Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sangiorgio, S.; Santone, D.; Scielzo, N. D.; Singh, V.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Vignati, M.; Wagaarachchi, S. L.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zhu, B. X.; Zimmermann, S.; Zucchelli, S.


    We report on the measurement of the two-neutrino double-beta decay half-life of ^{130}Te with the CUORE-0 detector. From an exposure of 33.4 kg year of TeO_2, the half-life is determined to be T_{1/2}^{2ν } = [8.2 ± 0.2 (stat.) ± 0.6 (syst.)] × 10^{20} year. This result is obtained after a detailed reconstruction of the sources responsible for the CUORE-0 counting rate, with a specific study of those contributing to the ^{130}Te neutrinoless double-beta decay region of interest.

  13. A Novel Long-Acting Human Growth Hormone Fusion Protein (VRS-317): Enhanced In Vivo Potency and Half-Life (United States)

    Cleland, Jeffrey L; Geething, Nathan C; Moore, Jerome A; Rogers, Brian C; Spink, Benjamin J; Wang, Chai-Wei; Alters, Susan E; Stemmer, Willem P C; Schellenberger, Volker


    A novel recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) fusion protein (VRS-317) was designed to minimize receptor-mediated clearance through a reduction in receptor binding without mutations to rhGH by genetically fusing with XTEN amino acid sequences to the N-terminus and the C-terminus of the native hGH sequence. Although in vitro potency of VRS-317 was reduced approximately 12-fold compared with rhGH, in vivo potency was increased because of the greatly prolonged exposure to the target tissues and organs. VRS-317 was threefold more potent than daily rhGH in hypophysectomized rats and fivefold more potent than daily rhGH in juvenile monkeys. In juvenile monkeys, a monthly dose of 1.4 mg/kg VRS-317 (equivalent to 0.26 mg/kg rhGH) caused a sustained pharmacodynamic response for 1 month equivalent to 0.05 mg/kg/day rhGH (1.4 mg/kg rhGH total over 28 days). In monkeys, VRS-317, having a terminal elimination half-life of approximately 110 h, was rapidly and near-completely absorbed, and was well tolerated with no observed adverse effects after every alternate week subcutaneous dosing for 14 weeks. VRS-317 also did not cause lipoatrophy in pig and monkey studies. VRS-317 is currently being studied in GH-deficient patients to confirm the observations in these animal studies. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 101:2744–2754, 2012 PMID:22678811

  14. Budget Impact Analysis of Prolonged Half-Life Recombinant FVIII Therapy for Hemophilia in the United States. (United States)

    McMullen, Suzanne; Buckley, Brieana; Hall, Eric; Kendter, Jon; Johnston, Karissa


    Hemophilia A is a factor VIII deficiency, associated with spontaneous, recurrent bleeding episodes. This may lead to comorbidities such as arthropathy and joint replacement, which contribute to morbidity and increased health care expenditure. Recombinant factor VIII Fc fusion protein (rFVIIIFc), a prolonged half-life factor therapy, requires fewer infusions, resulting in reduced treatment burden. Use a budget impact analysis to assess the potential economic impact of introducing rFVIIIFc to a formulary from the perspective of a private payer in the United States. The budget impact model was developed to estimate the potential economic impact of adding rFVIIIFc to a private payer formulary across a 2-year time period. The eligible patient population consisted of inhibitor-free adults with severe hemophilia A, receiving recombinant-based episodic or prophylaxis treatment regimens. Patients were assumed to switch from conventional recombinant factor treatment to rFVIIIFc. Only medication costs were included in the model. The introduction of rFVIIIFc is estimated to have a budget impact of 1.4% ($0.12 per member per month) across 2 years for a private payer population of 1,000,000 (estimated 19.7 individuals receiving treatment for hemophilia A). The introduction of rFVIIIFc is estimated to prevent 124 bleeds across 2 years at a cost of $1891 per bleed avoided. Hemophilia A is a rare disease with a low prevalence; therefore, the overall cost to society of introducing rFVIIIFc is small. Considerations for comprehensively assessing the budget impact of introducing rFVIIIFc should include episodic and prophylaxis regimens, bleed avoidance, and annual factor consumption required under alternative scenarios. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Glucagon-like Peptide 1 Conjugated to Recombinant Human Serum Albumin Variants with Modified Neonatal Fc Receptor Binding Properties. Impact on Molecular Structure and Half-Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukrinski, Jens T.; Sønderby, Pernille; Antunes, Filipa


    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a small incretin hormone stimulated by food intake, resulting in an amplification of the insulin response. Though interesting as a drug candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, its short plasma half-life of less than 3 minutes limits its clinical...

  16. Dexamethasone promotes granulocyte mobilization by prolonging the half-life of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor in healthy donors for granulocyte transfusions. (United States)

    Hiemstra, Ida H; van Hamme, John L; Janssen, Machiel H; van den Berg, Timo K; Kuijpers, Taco W


    Granulocyte transfusion (GTX) is a potential approach to correcting neutropenia and relieving the increased risk of infection in patients who are refractory to antibiotics. To mobilize enough granulocytes for transfusion, healthy donors are premedicated with granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and dexamethasone. Granulocytes have a short circulatory half-life. Consequently, patients need to receive GTX every other day to keep circulating granulocyte counts at an acceptable level. We investigated whether plasma from premedicated donors was capable of prolonging neutrophil survival and, if so, which factor could be held responsible. The effects of plasma from G-CSF/dexamethasone-treated donors on neutrophil survival were assessed by annexin-V, CD16. and CXCR4 staining and nuclear morphology. We isolated an albumin-bound protein using α-chymotrypsin and albumin-depletion and further characterized it using protein analysis. The effects of dexamethasone and G-CSF were assessed using mifepristone and G-CSF-neutralizing antibody. G-CSF plasma concentrations were determined by Western blot and Luminex analyses. G-CSF/dexamethasone plasma contained a survival-promoting factor for at least 2 days. This factor was recognized as an albumin-associated protein and was identified as G-CSF itself, which was surprising considering its reported half-life of only 4.5 hours. Compared with coadministration of dexamethasone, administration of G-CSF alone to the same GTX donors led to a faster decline in circulating G-CSF levels, whereas dexamethasone itself did not induce any G-CSF, demonstrating a role for dexamethasone in increasing G-CSF half-life. Dexamethasone increases granulocyte yield upon coadministration with G-CSF by extending G-CSF half-life. This observation might also be exploited in the coadministration of dexamethasone with other recombinant proteins to modulate their half-life. © 2016 AABB.

  17. Evaluating the influence of half-life, milk:plasma partition coefficient, and volume of distribution on lactational exposure to chemicals in children. (United States)

    Verner, Marc-André; Plouffe, Laurence; Kieskamp, Kyra K; Rodríguez-Leal, Inés; Marchitti, Satori A


    Women are exposed to multiple environmental chemicals, many of which are known to transfer to breast milk during lactation. However, little is known about the influence of the different chemical-specific pharmacokinetic parameters on children's lactational dose. Our objective was to develop a generic pharmacokinetic model and subsequently quantify the influence of three chemical-specific parameters (biological half-life, milk:plasma partition coefficient, and volume of distribution) on lactational exposure to chemicals and resulting plasma levels in children. We developed a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model to simulate lifetime maternal exposure, placental transfer, and lactational exposure to the child. We performed 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations where half-life, milk:plasma partition coefficient, and volume of distribution were varied. Children's dose and plasma levels were compared to their mother's by calculating child:mother dose ratios and plasma level ratios. We then evaluated the association between the three chemical-specific pharmacokinetic parameters and child:mother dose and level ratios through linear regression and decision trees. Our analyses revealed that half-life was the most influential parameter on children's lactational dose and plasma concentrations, followed by milk:plasma partition coefficient and volume of distribution. In bivariate regression analyses, half-life explained 72% of child:mother dose ratios and 53% of child:mother level ratios. Decision trees aiming to identify chemicals with high potential for lactational exposure (ratio>1) had an accuracy of 89% for child:mother dose ratios and 84% for child:mother level ratios. Our study showed the relative importance of half-life, milk:plasma partition coefficient, and volume of distribution on children's lactational exposure. Developed equations and decision trees will enable the rapid identification of chemicals with a high potential for lactational exposure. Copyright © 2017

  18. Determining thyroid {sup 131}I effective half-life for the treatment planning of Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willegaignon, Jose; Sapienza, Marcelo T.; Barberio Coura Filho, George; Buchpiguel, Carlos A. [Cancer Institute of Sao Paulo State (ICESP), Clinical Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 01246-000 (Brazil); Nuclear Medicine Service, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 01246-000 (Brazil); Traino, Antonio C. [Unit of Medical Physics, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Pisa 56126 (Italy)


    Purpose: Thyroid {sup 131}I effective half-life (T{sub eff}) is an essential parameter in patient therapy when accurate radiation dose is desirable for producing an intended therapeutic outcome. Multiple {sup 131}I uptake measurements and resources from patients themselves and from nuclear medicine facilities are requisites for determining T{sub eff}, these being limiting factors when implementing the treatment planning of Graves' disease (GD) in radionuclide therapy. With the aim of optimizing this process, this study presents a practical, propitious, and accurate method of determining T{sub eff} for dosimetric purposes. Methods: A total of 50 patients with GD were included in this prospective study. Thyroidal {sup 131}I uptake was measured at 2-h, 6-h, 24-h, 48-h, 96-h, and 220-h postradioiodine administration. T{sub eff} was calculated by considering sets of two measured points (24-48-h, 24-96-h, and 24-220-h), sets of three (24-48-96-h, 24-48-220-h, and 24-96-220-h), and sets of four (24-48-96-220-h). Results: When considering all the measured points, the representative T{sub eff} for all the patients was 6.95 ({+-}0.81) days, whereas when using such sets of points as (24-220-h), (24-96-220-h), and (24-48-220-h), this was 6.85 ({+-}0.81), 6.90 ({+-}0.81), and 6.95 ({+-}0.81) days, respectively. According to the mean deviations 2.2 ({+-}2.4)%, 2.1 ({+-}2.0)%, and 0.04 ({+-}0.09)% found in T{sub eff}, calculated based on all the measured points in time, and with methods using the (24-220-h), (24-48-220-h), and (24-96-220-h) sets, respectively, no meaningful statistical difference was noted among the three methods (p > 0.500, t test). Conclusions: T{sub eff} obtained from only two thyroid {sup 131}I uptakes measured at 24-h and 220-h, besides proving to be sufficient, accurate enough, and easily applicable, attributes additional major cost-benefits for patients, and facilitates the application of the method for dosimetric purposes in the treatment planning of

  19. Measurement of the two-neutrino double-beta decay half-life of {sup 130}Te with the CUORE-0 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alduino, C.; Avignone, F.T.; Chott, N.; Creswick, R.J.; Rosenfeld, C.; Wilson, J. [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); Alfonso, K.; Hickerson, K.P.; Huang, H.Z.; Liu, X.; Trentalange, S.; Zhu, B.X. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Artusa, D.R. [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, L' Aquila (Italy); Azzolini, O.; Camacho, A.; Keppel, G.; Palmieri, V.; Pira, C. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Banks, T.I.; Drobizhev, A.; Freedman, S.J.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; O' Donnell, T.; Wagaarachchi, S.L. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bari, G.; Deninno, M.M. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Beeman, J.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bellini, F.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Cosmelli, C.; Ferroni, F. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Bersani, A.; Caminata, A. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Biassoni, M.; Carbone, L.; Cremonesi, O.; Ferri, E.; Giachero, A.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E.; Rusconi, C. [INFN-Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Brofferio, C.; Capelli, S.; Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Clemenza, M.; Faverzani, M.; Fiorini, E.; Gironi, L.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pozzi, S.; Sisti, M.; Terranova, F.; Zanotti, L. [Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Bucci, C.; Cappelli, L.; D' Addabbo, A.; Di Vacri, M.L.; Gorla, P.; Pattavina, L.; Pirro, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, L' Aquila (Italy); Canonica, L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, L' Aquila (Italy); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Cao, X.G.; Fang, D.Q.; Ma, Y.G.; Wang, H.W.; Zhang, G.Q. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Shanghai (China); Copello, S.; Di Domizio, S.; Fernandes, G.; Marini, L.; Pallavicini, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genova (Italy); Cushman, J.S.; Davis, C.J.; Heeger, K.M.; Lim, K.E.; Maruyama, R.H. [Yale University, Department of Physics, New Haven, CT (United States); Dafinei, I.; Morganti, S.; Mosteiro, P.J.; Orio, F.; Pettinacci, V.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M. [INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Dell' Oro, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, L' Aquila (Italy); INFN-Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Feintzeig, J.; Fujikawa, B.K.; Mei, Y.; Smith, A.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Franceschi, M.A.; Ligi, C.; Napolitano, T.; Piperno, G. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Giuliani, A.; Tenconi, M. [Universite Paris-Saclay, CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Gladstone, L.; Leder, A.; Winslow, L.A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Gutierrez, T.D. [California Polytechnic State University, Physics Department, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Haller, E.E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); Han, K. [Yale University, Department of Physics, New Haven, CT (United States); Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai (China); Hansen, E. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Kadel, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Physics Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kolomensky, Yu.G. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Physics Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Martinez, M. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Zaragoza (Spain); Moggi, N. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Alma Mater Studiorum-Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Scienze per la Qualita della Vita, Bologna (Italy); Nones, C. [Service de Physique des Particules, CEA/Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Norman, E.B.; Wang, B.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ouellet, J.L. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Pagliarone, C.E. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, L' Aquila (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Meccanica, Cassino (Italy); Sangiorgio, S.; Scielzo, N.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Santone, D. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, L' Aquila (Italy); Universita dell' Aquila, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, L' Aquila (Italy); Singh, V. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (US); Taffarello, L. [INFN-Sezione di Padova, Padova (IT); Wise, T. [Yale University, Department of Physics, New Haven, CT (US); University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics, Madison, WI (US); Woodcraft, A. [University of Edinburgh, SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, Edinburgh (GB); Zimmermann, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Engineering Division, Berkeley, CA (US); Zucchelli, S. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (IT); Alma Mater Studiorum-Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (IT)


    We report on the measurement of the two-neutrino double-beta decay half-life of {sup 130}Te with the CUORE-0 detector. From an exposure of 33.4 kg year of TeO{sub 2}, the half-life is determined to be T{sub 1/2}{sup 2ν} = [8.2 ± 0.2 (stat.) ± 0.6 (syst.)] x 10{sup 20} year. This result is obtained after a detailed reconstruction of the sources responsible for the CUORE-0 counting rate, with a specific study of those contributing to the {sup 130}Te neutrinoless double-beta decay region of interest. (orig.)

  20. A novel exendin-4 human serum albumin fusion protein, E2HSA, with an extended half-life and good glucoregulatory effect in healthy rhesus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Lin; Meng, Zhiyun; Gan, Hui; Gu, Ruolan; Wu, Zhuona; Gao, Lei; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Sun, Wenzhong; Li, Jian; Zheng, Ying; Dou, Guifang, E-mail:


    Highlights: • E2HSA has an extended half-life and good plasma stability. • E2HSA could improve glucose-dependent insulin secretion. • E2HSA has excellent glucoregulatory effects in vivo. • E2HSA could potentially be used as a new long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist for type 2 diabetes management. - Abstract: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has attracted considerable research interest in terms of the treatment of type 2 diabetes due to their multiple glucoregulatory functions. However, the short half-life, rapid inactivation by dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) and excretion, limits the therapeutic potential of the native incretin hormone. Therefore, efforts are being made to develop the long-acting incretin mimetics via modifying its structure. Here we report a novel recombinant exendin-4 human serum albumin fusion protein E2HSA with HSA molecule extends their circulatory half-life in vivo while still retaining exendin-4 biological activity and therapeutic properties. In vitro comparisons of E2HSA and exendin-4 showed similar insulinotropic activity on rat pancreatic islets and GLP-1R-dependent biological activity on RIN-m5F cells, although E2HSA was less potent than exendin-4. E2HSA had a terminal elimation half-life of approximate 54 h in healthy rhesus monkeys. Furthermore, E2HSA could reduce postprandial glucose excursion and control fasting glucose level, dose-dependent suppress food intake. Improvement in glucose-dependent insulin secretion and control serum glucose excursions were observed during hyperglycemic clamp test (18 h) and oral glucose tolerance test (42 h) respectively. Thus the improved physiological characterization of E2HSA make it a new potent anti-diabetic drug for type 2 diabetes therapy.

  1. Quantitative pharmacological analyses of the interaction between flumazenil and midazolam in monkeys discriminating midazolam: Determination of the functional half life of flumazenil. (United States)

    Zanettini, Claudio; France, Charles P; Gerak, Lisa R


    The duration of action of a drug is commonly estimated using plasma concentration, which is not always practical to obtain or an accurate estimate of functional half life. For example, flumazenil is used clinically to reverse the effects of benzodiazepines like midazolam; however, its elimination can be altered by other drugs, including some benzodiazepines, thereby altering its half life. This study used Schild analyses to characterize antagonism of midazolam by flumazenil and determine the functional half life of flumazenil. Four monkeys discriminated 0.178mg/kg midazolam while responding under a fixed-ratio 10 schedule of stimulus-shock termination; flumazenil was given at various times before determination of a midazolam dose-effect curve. There was a time-related decrease in the magnitude of shift of the midazolam dose-effect curve as the interval between flumazenil and midazolam increased. The potency of flumazenil, estimated by apparent pA2 values (95% CI), was 7.30 (7.12, 7.49), 7.17 (7.03, 7.31), 6.91 (6.72, 7.10) and 6.80 (6.67, 6.92) at 15, 30, 60 and 120min after flumazenil administration, respectively. The functional half life of flumazenil, derived from potency estimates, was 57±13min. Thus, increasing the interval between flumazenil and midazolam causes orderly decreases in flumazenil potency; however, across a broad range of conditions, the qualitative nature of the interaction does not change, as indicated by slopes of Schild plots at all time points that are not different from unity. Differences in potency of flumazenil are therefore due to elimination of flumazenil and not due to pharmacodynamic changes over time. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. PEGylation of a High-Affinity Anti-(+)Methamphetamine Single Chain Antibody Fragment Extends Functional Half-Life by Reducing Clearance. (United States)

    Reichard, Emily E; Nanaware-Kharade, Nisha; Gonzalez, Guillermo A; Thakkar, Shraddha; Owens, S Michael; Peterson, Eric C


    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is a worldwide drug problem, yet no FDA-approved pharmacological treatments are available for METH abuse. Therefore, we produced an anti-METH single chain antibody fragment (scFv7F9Cys) as a pharmacological treatment for METH abuse. ScFv's have a short half-life due to their small size, limiting their clinical use. Thus, we examined the pharmacokinetic effects of conjugating poly(ethylene) glycol (-PEG) to scFv7F9Cys to extend its functional half-life. The affinity of scFv7F9Cys and PEG conjugates to METH was determined in vitro via equilibrium dialysis saturation binding. Pharmacokinetic and parameters of scFv7F9Cys and scFv7F9Cys-PEG20K (30 mg/kg i.v. each) and their ability to bind METH in vivo were determined in male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving a subcutaneous infusion of METH (3.2 mg/kg/day). Of three PEGylated conjugates, scFv7F9Cys-PEG20K was determined the most viable therapeutic candidate. PEGylation of scFv7F9Cys did not alter METH binding functionality in vitro, and produced a 27-fold increase in the in vivo half-life of the antibody fragment. Furthermore, total METH serum concentrations increased following scFv7F9Cys or scFv7F9Cys-PEG20K administration, with scFv7F9Cys-PEG20K producing significantly longer changes in METH distribution than scFv7F9Cys. PEGylation of scFv7F9Cys significantly increase the functional half-life of scFv7F9Cys, suggesting it may be a long-lasting pharmacological treatment option for METH abuse.

  3. A Two-pronged Binding Mechanism of IgG to the Neonatal Fc Receptor Controls Complex Stability and IgG Serum Half-life. (United States)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Schoch, Angela; Larraillet, Vincent; Hilger, Maximiliane; Schlothauer, Tilman; Emrich, Thomas; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg


    The success of recombinant monoclonal immunoglobulins (IgG) is rooted in their ability to target distinct antigens with high affinity combined with an extraordinarily long serum half-life, typically around 3 weeks. The pharmacokinetics of IgGs is intimately linked to the recycling mechanism of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). For long serum half-life of therapeutic IgGs, the highly pH-dependent interaction with FcRn needs to be balanced to allow efficient FcRn binding and release at slightly acidic pH and physiological pH, respectively. Some IgGs, like the antibody briakinumab has an unusually short half-life of ∼8 days. Here we dissect the molecular origins of excessive FcRn binding in therapeutic IgGs using a combination of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and FcRn affinity chromatography. We provide experimental evidence for a two-pronged IgG-FcRn binding mechanism involving direct FcRn interactions with both the Fc region and the Fab regions of briakinumab, and correlate the occurrence of excessive FcRn binding to an unusually strong Fab-FcRn interaction. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Disease causing mutants of TDP-43 nucleic acid binding domains are resistant to aggregation and have increased stability and half-life. (United States)

    Austin, James A; Wright, Gareth S A; Watanabe, Seiji; Grossmann, J Günter; Antonyuk, Svetlana V; Yamanaka, Koji; Hasnain, S Samar


    Over the last two decades many secrets of the age-related human neural proteinopathies have been revealed. A common feature of these diseases is abnormal, and possibly pathogenic, aggregation of specific proteins in the effected tissue often resulting from inherent or decreased structural stability. An archetype example of this is superoxide dismutase-1, the first genetic factor to be linked with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mutant or posttranslationally modified TAR DNA binding protein-32 (TDP-43) is also strongly associated with ALS and an increasingly large number of other neurodegenerative diseases, including frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Cytoplasmic mislocalization and elevated half-life is a characteristic of mutant TDP-43. Furthermore, patient age at the onset of disease symptoms shows a good inverse correlation with mutant TDP-43 half-life. Here we show that ALS and FTLD-associated TDP-43 mutations in the central nucleic acid binding domains lead to elevated half-life and this is commensurate with increased thermal stability and inhibition of aggregation. It is achieved without impact on secondary, tertiary, or quaternary structure. We propose that tighter structural cohesion contributes to reduced protein turnover, increasingly abnormal proteostasis and, ultimately, faster onset of disease symptoms. These results contrast our perception of neurodegenerative diseases as misfolded proteinopathies and delineate a novel path from the molecular characteristics of mutant TDP-43 to aberrant cellular effects and patient phenotype.

  5. Digital beta counting and pulse-shape analysis for high-precision nuclear beta decay half-life measurements: Tested on Alm26 (United States)

    Chen, L.; Hardy, J. C.; Bencomo, M.; Horvat, V.; Nica, N.; Park, H. I.


    A digital β-counting method has been developed for high-precision nuclear β-decay half-life experiments that use a gas proportional counter. An 8-bit, 1-GS/s sampling-rate digitizer was used to record the waveforms from the detector and a software filter was designed, tested and applied successfully to discriminate genuine β-decay events from spurious signals by pulse-shape analysis. The method of using a high-speed digitizer for precision β counting is described in detail. We have extensively tested the digitizer and the off-line filter by analyzing saved waveforms from the decay of Alm26 acquired at rates up to 10,000 per second. The half-life we obtain for Alm26 is 6345.30±0.90 ms, which agrees well with previous published measurements and is as precise as the best of them. This work demonstrates the feasibility of applying a high-speed digitizer and off-line digital signal processing techniques for high-precision nuclear β-decay half-life measurements.

  6. Albumin-binding domain from Streptococcus zooepidemicus protein Zag as a novel strategy to improve the half-life of therapeutic proteins. (United States)

    Cantante, Cátia; Lourenço, Sara; Morais, Maurício; Leandro, João; Gano, Lurdes; Silva, Nuno; Leandro, Paula; Serrano, Mónica; Henriques, Adriano O; Andre, Ana; Cunha-Santos, Catarina; Fontes, Carlos; Correia, João D G; Aires-da-Silva, Frederico; Goncalves, Joao


    Recombinant antibody fragments belong to the promising class of biopharmaceuticals with high potential for future therapeutic applications. However, due to their small size they are rapidly cleared from circulation. Binding to serum proteins can be an effective approach to improve pharmacokinetic properties of short half-life molecules. Herein, we have investigated the Zag albumin-binding domain (ABD) derived from Streptococcus zooepidemicus as a novel strategy to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of therapeutic molecules. To validate our approach, the Zag ABD was fused with an anti-TNFα single-domain antibody (sdAb). Our results demonstrated that the sdAb-Zag fusion protein was highly expressed and specifically recognizes human, rat and mouse serum albumins with affinities in the nanomolar range. Moreover, data also demonstrated that the sdAb activity against the therapeutic target (TNFα) was not affected when fused with Zag ABD. Importantly, the Zag ABD increased the sdAb half-life ∼39-fold (47min for sdAb versus 31h for sdAb-Zag). These findings demonstrate that the Zag ABD fusion is a promising approach to increase the half-life of small recombinant antibodies molecules without affecting their therapeutic efficacy. Moreover, the present study strongly suggests that the Zag ABD fusion strategy can be potentially used as a universal method to improve the pharmokinetics properties of many others therapeutics proteins and peptides in order to improve their dosing schedule and clinical effects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Metabolomics (United States)

    Beale, Michael H.; Ward, Jane L.; Baker, John M.

    Modern ‘metabolomic’ methods allow us to compare levels of many structurally diverse compounds in an automated fashion across a large number of samples. This technology is ideally suited to screening of populations of plants, including trials where the aim is the determination of unintended effects introduced by GM. A number of metabolomic methods have been devised for the determination of substantial equivalence. We have developed a methodology, using [1H]-NMR fingerprinting, for metabolomic screening of plants and have applied it to the study of substantial equivalence of field-grown GM wheat. We describe here the principles and detail of that protocol as applied to the analysis of flour generated from field plots of wheat. Particular emphasis is given to the downstream data processing and comparison of spectra by multivariate analysis, from which conclusions regarding metabolome changes due to the GM can be assessed against the background of natural variation due to environment.

  8. Histone deacetylase inhibitors interfere with angiogenesis by decreasing endothelial VEGFR-2 protein half-life in part via a VE-cadherin-dependent mechanism. (United States)

    Hrgovic, Igor; Doll, Monika; Pinter, Andreas; Kaufmann, Roland; Kippenberger, Stefan; Meissner, Markus


    Recent evidence suggests that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) may mediate part of their antitumor effects by interfering with tumor angiogenesis. As signalling via the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) pathway is critical for angiogenic responses during tumor progression, we explored whether established antitumor effects of HDACi are partly mediated through diminished endothelial VEGFR-2 expression. We therefore examined the potential impact of three different HDACi, trichostatin A (TSA), sodium butyrate (But) and valproic acid (VPA), on VEGFR-2 protein expression. TSA, VPA and But significantly inhibit VEGFR-2 protein expression in endothelial cells. Pertinent to these data, VEGFR-2 protein half-life is shown to be decreased in response to HDACi. Recently, it could be demonstrated that expression of VE-cadherin influences VEGFR-2 protein half-life. In our experiments, VEGFR-2 downregulation was accompanied by HDACi-induced VE-cadherin suppression. Interestingly, siRNA-mediated knockdown of VE-cadherin led to a pronounced loss of VEGFR-2 expression on the protein as well as on the mRNA level, implicating that VE-cadherin not only influences VEGFR-2 protein half-life but also the transcriptional level. To further distinguish which of the eight different histone deacetylases are responsible for the regulation of VEGFR-2 expression, specific HDAC genes were silenced by transfecting respective siRNAs. These studies revealed that HDACs 1, 4, 5 and 6 are preferentially involved in VEGFR-2 expression. Therefore, these results provide an explanation for the anti-angiogenic action of HDAC inhibitors via a VE-cadherin, HDAC 1 and HDACs 4-6-mediated suppression of VEGFR-2 expression and might be of importance in the development of new anti-angiogenic drugs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Human IgG3 with extended half-life does not improve Fc-gamma receptor-mediated cancer antibody therapies in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rens Braster

    Full Text Available Current anti-cancer therapeutic antibodies that are used in the clinic are predominantly humanized or fully human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1. These antibodies bind with high affinity to the target antigen and are efficient in activating the immune system via IgG Fc receptors and/or complement. In addition to IgG1, three more isotypes are present in humans, of which IgG3 has been found to be superior compared to human IgG1 in inducing antibody dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC, phagocytosis or activation of complement in some models. Nonetheless, no therapeutic human IgG3 mAbs have been developed due to the short in vivo half-life of most known IgG3 allotypes. In this manuscript, we compared the efficacy of V-gene matched IgG1 and IgG3 anti-tumour mAb (TA99 in mice, using natural variants of human IgG3 with short- or long half-life, differing only at position 435 with an arginine or histidine, respectively.In vitro human IgG1 and IgG3 did not show any differences in opsonisation ability of B16F10-gp75 mouse melanoma cells. IgG1, however, was superior in inducing phagocytosis of tumour cells by mouse macrophages. Similarly, in a mouse peritoneal metastasis model we did not detect an improved effect of IgG3 in preventing tumour outgrowth. Moreover, replacing the arginine at position 435 for a histidine in IgG3 to enhance half-life did not result in better suppression of tumour outgrowth compared to wild type IgG3 when injected prior to tumour cell injection.In conclusion, human IgG3 does not have improved therapeutic efficacy compared to human IgG1 in a mouse tumour model.

  10. Clinical utility and patient perspectives on the use of extended half-life rFIXFc in the management of hemophilia B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguelino MG


    Full Text Available Maricel G Miguelino, Jerry S Powell Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, USA Abstract: Hemophilia B is an X-linked genetic disease caused by mutation of the gene for coagulation protein factor IX (FIX, with an incidence of approximately once every 30,000 male births in all populations and ethnic groups. When severe, the disease leads to spontaneous life threatening bleeding episodes. When untreated, most patients die from bleeding complications before 25 years of age. Current therapy requires frequent intravenous infusions of therapeutic recombinant or plasma-derived protein concentrates containing FIX. Most patients administer the infusions at home every few days, and must limit their physical activities to avoid abnormal bleeding when the FIX activity levels are below normal. After completing the pivotal Phase III clinical trial, a new therapeutic FIX preparation that has been engineered for an extended half-life in circulation, received regulatory approval in March 2014 in Canada and the US. This new FIX represents a major therapeutic advance for patients with hemophilia B. The half-life is prolonged due to fusion of the native FIX molecule with the normal constant region of immunoglobulin G. This fusion molecule then follows the normal immunoglobulin recirculation pathways through endothelial cells, resulting in prolonged times in circulation. In the clinical trials, over 150 patients successfully used eftrenonacog alfa regularly for more than 1 year to prevent spontaneous bleeding, to successfully treat any bleeding episodes, and to provide effective coagulation for major surgery. All infusions were well tolerated and effective, with no inhibitors detected and no safety concerns. This promising therapy should allow patients to use fewer infusions to maintain appropriate FIX activity levels in all clinical settings. Keywords: factor IX, hemophilia B, prophylaxis, genetic

  11. Comparison between the clot-protecting activity of a mutant plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 with a very long half-life and 6-aminocaproic acid. (United States)

    Kindell, Daniel Glenn; Keck, Rick Wayne; Jankun, Jerzy


    Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 is a serpin glycoprotein that can stabilize blood clots by inhibiting fibrinolysis. However, wild-type PAI-1 has the disadvantage of a short half-life of ∼2 h. A very long half-life (VLHL) PAI-1 mutant was developed previously with an active-form half-life of >700 h, making it a possible candidate for use in hemorrhagic therapy. Current treatments for mitigating hemorrhage, other than inducers of blood clotting, are limited to lysine analog antifibrinolytics, including 6-aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid. VLHL PAI-1 has been previously demonstrated to limit bleeding; however, the efficacy of this protein compared with lysine analog antifibrinolytics has not been investigated. The aim of the current study was to compare the clot stabilizing properties of the novel antifibrinolytic VLHL PAI-1 with those of 6-aminocaproic acid in reference plasma. Using thromboelastographic analysis, VLHL PAI-1 exhibited an IC 50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) of 8.8×10 -8 mol/l, while 6-aminocaproic acid showed an IC 50 of 1.6×10 -4 mol/l. However, at doses of >9.0×10 -7 mol/l, VLHL PAI-1 exhibited a delay in the onset of clot formation, which may be attributed to thrombin inhibition by excess PAI-1. The inhibition of tissue plasminogen activator by VLHL PAI-1 demonstrated improved efficacy over 6-aminocaproic acid in mitigating hemorrhage. In addition, patients with a PAI-1 deficiency, which causes blood clots to lyse rapidly resulting in profuse bleeding, may benefit from the application of VLHL PAI-1 as an antihemorrhagic therapy.

  12. Measurement of the Double-Beta Decay Half-Life and Search for the Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay of $^{48}{\\rm Ca}$ with the NEMO-3 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Augier, C; Bakalyarov, A M; Baker, J D; Barabash, A S; Basharina-Freshville, A; Blondel, S; Blot, S; Bongrand, M; Brudanin, V; Busto, J; Caffrey, A J; Calvez, S; Cascella, M; Cerna, C; Cesar, J P; Chapon, A; Chauveau, E; Chopra, A; Duchesneau, D; Durand, D; Egorov, V; Eurin, G; Evans, J J; Fajt, L; Filosofov, D; Flack, R; Garrido, X; Gómez, H; Guillon, B; Guzowski, P; Hodák, R; Huber, A; Hubert, P; Hugon, C; Jullian, S; Klimenko, A; Kochetov, O; Konovalov, S I; Kovalenko, V; Lalanne, D; Lang, K; Lebedev, V I; Lemière, Y; Noblet, T Le; Liptak, Z; Liu, X R; Loaiza, P; Lutter, G; Mamedov, F; Marquet, C; Mauger, F; Morgan, B; Mott, J; Nemchenok, I; Nomachi, M; Nova, F; Nowacki, F; Ohsumi, H; Pahlka, R B; Perrot, F; Piquemal, F; Povinec, P; Přidal, P; Ramachers, Y A; Remoto, A; Reyss, J L; Richards, B; Riddle, C L; Rukhadze, E; Rukhadze, N I; Saakyan, R; Salazar, R; Sarazin, X; Shitov, Yu; Simard, L; Šimkovic, F; Smetana, A; Smolek, K; Smolnikov, A; Söldner-Rembold, S; Soulé, B; Štekl, I; Suhonen, J; Sutton, C S; Szklarz, G; Thomas, J; Timkin, V; Torre, S; Tretyak, Vl I; Tretyak, V I; Umatov, V I; Vanushin, I; Vilela, C; Vorobel, V; Waters, D; Zhukov, S V; Žukauskas, A


    The NEMO-3 experiment at the Modane Underground Laboratory has investigated the double-$\\beta$ decay of $^{48}{\\rm Ca}$. Using $5.25$\\,yr of data recorded with a $6.99\\,{\\rm g}$ sample of $^{48}{\\rm Ca}$, approximately $150$ double-$\\beta$ decay candidate events have been selected with a signal-to-background ratio greater than $3$. The half-life for the two-neutrino double-$\\beta$ decay of $^{48}{\\rm Ca}$ has been measured to be \\mbox{$T^{2\

  13. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics (United States)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  14. Development of PF-06671008, a Highly Potent Anti-P-cadherin/Anti-CD3 Bispecific DART Molecule with Extended Half-Life for the Treatment of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Root


    Full Text Available Bispecific antibodies offer a promising approach for the treatment of cancer but can be challenging to engineer and manufacture. Here we report the development of PF-06671008, an extended-half-life dual-affinity re-targeting (DART® bispecific molecule against P-cadherin and CD3 that demonstrates antibody-like properties. Using phage display, we identified anti-P-cadherin single chain Fv (scFv that were subsequently affinity-optimized to picomolar affinity using stringent phage selection strategies, resulting in low picomolar potency in cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL killing assays in the DART format. The crystal structure of this disulfide-constrained diabody shows that it forms a novel compact structure with the two antigen binding sites separated from each other by approximately 30 Å and facing approximately 90° apart. We show here that introduction of the human Fc domain in PF-06671008 has produced a molecule with an extended half-life (-4.4 days in human FcRn knock-in mice, high stability (Tm1 > 68 °C, high expression (>1 g/L, and robust purification properties (highly pure heterodimer, all with minimal impact on potency. Finally, we demonstrate in vivo anti-tumor efficacy in a human colorectal/human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC co-mix xenograft mouse model. These results suggest PF-06671008 is a promising new bispecific for the treatment of patients with solid tumors expressing P-cadherin.

  15. Samarium-neodymium chronology and rubidium-strontium systematics of an Allende calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion with implications for 146Sm half-life (United States)

    Marks, N. E.; Borg, L. E.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Jacobsen, B.; Clayton, R. N.


    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are primitive objects that formed within the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young Sun. Recent Pb-Pb chronologic studies have demonstrated that CAIs are the oldest solar system solids, crystallizing 4567 Ma ago (Amelin et al., 2002; Connelly et al., 2012). The isotope systematics of CAIs therefore provide critical insight into the earliest history of the Solar System. Although Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr geochronometers are highly effective tools for investigating cosmochemical evolution in the early Solar System, previous studies of CAIs have revealed evidence for isotopically disturbed systems. Here we report new age data for Allende CAI Al3S4 derived from both the long-lived (147Sm-143Nd) and short-lived (146Sm-142Nd) isotopic systems. The 147Sm-143Nd chronometer yields an age of 4560 ± 34 Ma that is concordant with 207Pb-206Pb ages for CAIs and indicates that the Sm-Nd system was not significantly disturbed by secondary alteration or nucleosynthetic processes. The slope of the 146Sm-142Nd isochron defines the Solar System initial 146Sm/144Sm of 0.00828 ± 0.00044. This value is significantly different from the value of 0.0094 determined by Kinoshita et al. (2012). Ages recalculated from all published 146Sm-142Nd isochron data using the traditional 103 Ma half-life and the initial 146Sm/144Sm value determined here closely match Pb-Pb and 147Sm-143Nd ages determined on the same samples. In contrast, ages recalculated using the 68 Ma half-life determined by Kinoshita et al. (2012) and either of the initial 146Sm/144Sm values are often anomalously old. This is particularly true for the youngest samples with 146Sm-142Nd isochron ages that are most sensitive to the choice of 146Sm half-life used in the age calculation. In contrast to the Sm-Nd isotope system, the Rb-Sr system is affected by alteration but yields an apparent isochron with a slope corresponding to a much younger age of 4247 ± 110 Ma. Although the Rb-Sr system in CAIs

  16. GLP2-2G-XTEN: a pharmaceutical protein with improved serum half-life and efficacy in a rat Crohn's disease model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E Alters

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2 is an intestinal growth factor that has been shown to stimulate intestinal growth and reduce disease severity in preclinical models of short bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Teduglutide, a recombinant human GLP2 variant (GLP2-2G, has increased half-life and stability as compared to the native GLP2 peptide, but still requires twice daily dosing in preclinical models and daily dosing in the clinic. The goal of this study was to produce and characterize the preclinical pharmacokinetic and therapeutic properties of GLP2-2G-XTEN, a novel, long-acting form of GLP2-2G. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: A GLP2-2G-XTEN fusion protein with extended exposure profile was produced by genetic fusion of GLP2-2G peptide to XTEN, a long, unstructured, non-repetitive, hydrophilic sequence of amino acids. The serum half-life of GLP2-2G-XTEN in mice, rats and monkeys was 34, 38 and 120 hours, respectively. Intestinotrophic effects were demonstrated in normal rats, where GLP2-2G-XTEN administration resulted in a significant increase in both small intestine weight and length. Efficacy of the GLP2-2G-XTEN protein was compared to that of GLP2-2G peptide in a rat Crohn's disease model, indomethacin-induced inflammation. Prophylactic administration of GLP2-2G-XTEN significantly increased the length, reduced the number of trans-ulcerations and adhesions, and reduced the TNFα content of the small intestine. GLP2-2G-XTEN demonstrated greater in vivo potency as compared to GLP2-2G peptide, and improvement in histopathology supported the GLP2-2G-XTEN treatment effects. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: GLP2-2G-XTEN is intestinotrophic and demonstrates efficacy in a rat Crohn's disease model requiring a lower molar dose and less frequent dosing relative to GLP2-2G peptide. Allometric scaling based on pharmacokinetics from mouse, rat and monkey projects a human half-life of 240 hours. These improvements in preclinical pharmacokinetics

  17. The influence of severe hypoalbuminemia on the half-life of vancomycin in elderly patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus hospital-acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuno T


    Full Text Available Tomohiro Mizuno,1,* Fumihiro Mizokami,2,* Kazuhiro Fukami,2 Kazuhiro Ito,2 Masataka Shibasaki,3 Tadashi Nagamatsu,1 Katsunori Furuta,4 1Department of Analytical Pharmacology, Meijo University Graduate School of Pharmacy, Nagoya, Japan; 2Department of Pharmacy, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 4Department of Clinical Research and Development, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Vancomycin (VCM treatment outcomes depend on the characteristics of the patient, and it is well known that hypoalbuminemia is a risk factor for poor treatment outcomes, as reported in a previous study. However, the reason that severe hypoalbuminemia has an influence on the treatment outcome of VCM remains unknown. Objective: To elucidate the association between severe hypoalbuminemia and VCM treatment outcomes, we examined pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD parameters in elderly patients with severe hypoalbuminemia. Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of 94 patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA hospital-acquired pneumonia who had been treated with VCM between January 2006 and December 2012. The 94 patients were divided into severe hypoalbuminemia and non-severe hypoalbuminemia groups. The PK/PD parameters and treatment outcomes of VCM were compared between the two groups. Results: The half-life of VCM in the severe hypoalbuminemia group was significantly longer than in the non-severe hypoalbuminemia group (33.2 ± 5.4 vs 24.9 ± 1.6; P = 0.049. Area under the concentration curve (AUC/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of 250–450 and >450 µg × h/mL were significantly associated with 28-day mortality in the severe hypoalbuminemia group (P < 0.001, whereas AUC/MIC values of <250 µg × h/mL were not associated. We also detected a

  18. Precision measurement of the half-life and branching ratio of the T=1/2 mirror $\\beta$-decay of $^{37}$K

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the T=1/2 mirror $\\beta$-decay of $^{37}$K. Nuclear mirror $\\beta$-decay is a competitive means to test the electroweak model by means of the high-precision measurement of V$_{ud}$ element of the CKM quark mixing matrix. One key ingredient to obtain V$_{ud}$ is the force of the transition, Ft, which has to be determined with a relative precision below 10$^{−3}$. This quantity is related to the half-life T$_{1/2}$ of the decaying nucleus, the branching ratio BR for this decay and the mass difference between the mother and daughter nucleus (Q value). Another important feature is the mixing ratio $\\rho$ between the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller character of the transition. In most cases, $\\rho$ is the major contributor to the uncertainty on Ft. Available data concerning T$_{1/2}$ and BR of $^{37}$K suffer from a lack of precision that will be easily reduced by a dedicated experiment.

  19. Express with caution: Epitope tags and cDNA variants effects on hERG channel trafficking, half-life and function. (United States)

    Osterbur Badhey, Marika L; Bertalovitz, Alexander C; McDonald, Thomas V


    Genetic mutations in KCNH2, which encodes hERG, the alpha subunit of the potassium channel responsible for the IKr current, cause long QT syndrome (LQTS), an inherited cardiac arrhythmia disorder. Electrophysiology techniques are used to correlate genotype with molecular phenotype to determine which mutations identified in patients diagnosed with LQTS are disease causing, and which are benign. These investigations are usually done using heterologous expression in cell lines, and often, epitope fusion tags are used to enable isolation and identification of the protein of interest. Here, we demonstrate through electrophysiology techniques and immunohistochemistry, that both N-terminal and C-terminal myc fusion tags may perturb hERG protein channel expression and kinetics of the IKr current. We also characterize the impact of 2 previously reported inadvertent cDNA variants on hERG channel expression and half-life. Our results underscore the importance of careful characterization of the impact of epitope fusion tags and of confirming complete sequence accuracy prior to genotype-phenotype studies for ion channel proteins such as hERG. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Interleukin 17 treatment prolongs CXCL1 mRNA half-life via TRAF5 and the splicing regulatory factor SF2/ASF (United States)

    Sun, Dongxu; Novotny, Michael; Bulek, Katarzyna; Liu, Caini; Li, Xiaoxia; Hamilton, Thomas


    Interleukin 17 (IL-17) promotes expression of chemokines and cytokines via induction of gene transcription and post-transcriptional stabilization of mRNA. We show that IL-17 enhanced the stability of CXCL1 and other mRNAs through a pathway that involves Act1, TRAF2 or TRAF5 and the splicing factor SF2/ASF. TRAF2/TRAF5 were necessary for IL-17 to signal CXCL1 mRNA stabilization. Furthermore, IL-17 promoted formation of complexes between TRAF5/TRAF2, Act1 and SF2/ASF. Overexpression of SF2/ASF shortened while depletion of SF2/ASF prolonged CXCL1 mRNA half-life. SF2/ASF bound chemokine mRNA in unstimulated cells while the SF2/ASF-mRNA interaction was markedly diminished following stimulation with IL-17. These findings define an IL-17-induced signaling pathway that links to the stabilization of selected mRNAs through Act1, TRAF2/5 and the RNA binding protein SF2/ASF. PMID:21822258

  1. Precision measurement of the half-life and the $\\beta$-decay Q value of the superallowed 0$^{+}\\rightarrow$ 0$^{+}\\beta$-decay of $^{38}$Ca

    CERN Multimedia


    We propose to study the $\\beta$-decay of $^{38}$Ca. In a first instance, we intend to perform a high-precision study of the half-life of this nucleus as well as a measurement of its $\\beta$-decay Q-value with ISOLTRAP. At a later stage, we propose to study its decay branches to determine the super-allowed branching ratio with high precision. These measurements are essential to improve our understanding of the theoretical corrections (in particular the $\\delta$c correction factor) needed to calculate the universal Ft value from the ft value determined for individual nuclei. For this nucleus, the correction factor is predicted to increase significantly as compared to the nine well-studied nuclei between $^{10}$C and $^{54}$Co and the model calculations used to determine the corrections, in particular the shell-model calculations, are well under control in this mass region. Therefore, the T$_{Z}$= -1 nuclei between A=18 and A=38 are ideal test cases for the correction factors which limit today the precision on t...

  2. Study of the half-life of {sup 123}I and the determination of possible radionuclidic impurities; Estudo da meia-vida do {sup 123}I e determinacao de possiveis impurezas radionuclidicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Jose Ubiratan; Araujo, Miriam Taina Ferreira de; Silva, Carlos Jose da; Araujo, Camila Cristina Cunha; Candido, Marcos Antonio; Pereira, Wagner do Prado [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    During the process of production of the radiopharmaceutical nuclear reactor or cyclotron, impurities can be generated from biological, chemical and radionuclidic. The development of the present work was to study the half-life of Na{sup 123}I sample produced in IEN (Institute of Nuclear Engineering) using the technique of gamma-ray spectrometry with germanium detector in order to Identify such impurities. The results Indicate values of half-life consistent with recent publications with a deviation of 0,08% and 0:11% of uncertainty as well as the identification of impurities to radionuclides {sup 95m}Tc, {sup 96}Tc and {sup 121}Te. (author)

  3. First measurements on how pressure affects the half-life of 22Na: Comparison to theory and analog to 40K (United States)

    Lee, K. K.; Nelson, R. O.; Rundberg, R.; Steinle-Neumann, G.


    Radioactive decay plays a central role in planetary sciences as appropriate decay schemes are used to date geological and astronomical processes and radioactivity provides an important source of heat in planetary bodies, both in their early history during accretion and differentiation and also over geological times. The most important isotopes that currently heat the Earth are 40K, 232Th, 235U and 238U. As radioactive decay is a nuclear process it is considered to be insensitive to external factors such as pressure or chemical environment. This has been shown to be true for α, β+ and β- processes, however, electron capture decay is dependent on the electron charge density at the nucleus of a compound, which is sensitive to the external environment. Using high-resolution Ge gamma-ray detectors to make relative measurements with 137Cs and the positron decay of 22Na, we measure how pressure affects the half-life of 22Na due to electron-capture decay. Our systematics look favorable for observing this small effect. We will compare our preliminary measurements with complementary ab-initio all-electron computations using the linearized augmented plane wave method (LAPW). Using 22Na as an analog for 40K, our results suggest that the pressure effect for 40K, combined with the opposing effects of high temperatures, will have little, discernible effect on the heat production in the deep Earth as our predicted changes are smaller than the uncertainties in the total decay constant for 40K. This work was supported in part by the Carnegie/DOE Alliance Center (CDAC), through the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The LANSCE facility is operated, and portions of this work were performed, by Los Alamos National Security, LLC, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC52- 06NA25396.

  4. Correlations between changes in conformational dynamics and physical stability in a mutant IgG1 mAb engineered for extended serum half-life. (United States)

    Majumdar, Ranajoy; Esfandiary, Reza; Bishop, Steven M; Samra, Hardeep S; Middaugh, C Russell; Volkin, David B; Weis, David D


    This study compares the local conformational dynamics and physical stability of an IgG1 mAb (mAb-A) with its corresponding YTE (M255Y/S257T/T259E) mutant (mAb-E), which was engineered for extended half-life in vivo. Structural dynamics was measured using hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange mass spectrometry while protein stability was measured with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The YTE mutation induced differences in H/D exchange kinetics at both pH 6.0 and 7.4. Segments covering the YTE mutation sites and the FcRn binding epitopes showed either subtle or no observable differences in local flexibility. Surprisingly, several adjacent segments in the CH2 and distant segments in the VH, CH1, and VL domains had significantly increased flexibility in the YTE mutant. Most notable among the observed differences is increased flexibility of the 244-254 segment of the CH2 domain, where increased flexibility has been shown previously to correlate with decreased conformational stability and increased aggregation propensity in other IgG1 mAbs (e.g., presence of destabilizing additives as well as upon de-glycosylation or methionine oxidation). DSC analysis showed decreases in both thermal onset (Tonset) and unfolding (Tm1) temperatures of 7°C and 6.7°C, respectively, for the CH2 domain of the YTE mutant. In addition, mAb-E aggregated faster than mAb-A under accelerated stability conditions as measured by SEC analysis. Hence, the relatively lower physical stability of the YTE mutant correlates with increased local flexibility of the 244-254 segment, providing a site-directed mutant example that this segment of the CH2 domain is an aggregation hot spot in IgG1 mAbs.

  5. Modeling shows that the NS5A inhibitor daclatasvir has two modes of action and yields a shorter estimate of the hepatitis C virus half-life. (United States)

    Guedj, Jeremie; Dahari, Harel; Rong, Libin; Sansone, Natasha D; Nettles, Richard E; Cotler, Scott J; Layden, Thomas J; Uprichard, Susan L; Perelson, Alan S


    The nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein is a target for drug development against hepatitis C virus (HCV). Interestingly, the NS5A inhibitor daclatasvir (BMS-790052) caused a decrease in serum HCV RNA levels by about two orders of magnitude within 6 h of administration. However, NS5A has no known enzymatic functions, making it difficult to understand daclatasvir's mode of action (MOA) and to estimate its antiviral effectiveness. Modeling viral kinetics during therapy has provided important insights into the MOA and effectiveness of a variety of anti-HCV agents. Here, we show that understanding the effects of daclatasvir in vivo requires a multiscale model that incorporates drug effects on the HCV intracellular lifecycle, and we validated this approach with in vitro HCV infection experiments. The model predicts that daclatasvir efficiently blocks two distinct stages of the viral lifecycle, namely viral RNA synthesis and virion assembly/secretion with mean effectiveness of 99% and 99.8%, respectively, and yields a more precise estimate of the serum HCV half-life, 45 min, i.e., around four times shorter than previous estimates. Intracellular HCV RNA in HCV-infected cells treated with daclatasvir and the HCV polymerase inhibitor NM107 showed a similar pattern of decline. However, daclatasvir treatment led to an immediate and rapid decline of extracellular HCV titers compared to a delayed (6-9 h) and slower decline with NM107, confirming an effect of daclatasvir on both viral replication and assembly/secretion. The multiscale modeling approach, validated with in vitro kinetic experiments, brings a unique conceptual framework for understanding the mechanism of action of a variety of agents in development for the treatment of HCV.

  6. Studies on the mechanism of the epileptiform activity induced by U18666A. II. concentration, half-life and distribution of radiolabeled U18666A in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenedella, R.J.; Sarkar, C.P.; Towns, L.


    The concentration, half-life, and distribution in brain of U18666A, a drug that can drastically alter cerebral lipids and induce a chronic epileptiform state, was determined following both acute and chronic drug administration. U18666A specifically labeled with tritium was prepared by custom synthesis. Brain levels of 1 x 10(-6)M and higher were reached soon after giving an acute 10-mg/kg dose (i.p. or s.c.) of U18666A containing 7-/sup 3/H-U18666A of known specific activity. A steady state concentration of 1 to 2 x 10(-6)M was reached with chronic injection of 10 mg/kg every 4th day, a treatment schedule that results in altered brain lipids and induction of epilepsy if begun soon after birth. The disappearance of U18666A from both brain and serum was described by two similar biexponential processes, a brief rapid clearance (t1/2 . 10 h) and a sustained and much slower one (t1/2 . 65 h). Brain levels of the drug were about 10 times higher than serum at all times examined. Few differences were seen in the regional distribution of radiolabeled drug in brain as determined by both direct analysis and by autoradiographic examination; but the drug did concentrate in lipid-rich subcellular fractions. For example, the synaptosome and myelin fractions each contained about 25-35% of both the total /sup 3/H-labeled drug and total lipid in whole brain. The lipid composition of these fractions was drastically altered in treated animals. In conclusion, the chronic epileptiform state induced by U18666A does not appear to involve localization of the drug in a specific brain region or particular cell type. Rather, the condition could involve localization of the drug in lipid-rich membranes and marked changes in the composition of these membranes.

  7. Effect of Truncating AUC at 12, 24 and 48 hr When Evaluating the Bioequivalence of Drugs with a Long Half-Life. (United States)

    Moreno, Isabel; Ochoa, Dolores; Román, Manuel; Cabaleiro, Teresa; Abad-Santos, Francisco


    Bioequivalence studies of drugs with a long half-life require long periods of time for pharmacokinetic sampling. The latest update of the European guideline allows the area under the curve (AUC) truncated at 72 hr to be used as an alternative to AUC0-t as the primary parameter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of truncating the AUC at 48, 24 and 12 hr on the acceptance of the bioequivalence criterion as compared with truncation at 72 hr in bioequivalence trials. The effect of truncated AUC on the within-individual coefficient of variation (CVw) and on the ratio of the formulations was also analysed. Twenty-eight drugs were selected from bioequivalence trials. Pharmacokinetic data were analysed using WinNonLin 2.0 based on the trapezoidal method. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to obtain the ratios and 90% confidence intervals for AUC at different time-points. The degree of agreement of AUC0-72 in relation to AUC0-48 and AUC0-24, according to the Landis and Koch classification, was 'almost perfect'. Statistically significant differences were observed when the CVw of AUC truncated at 72, 48 and 24 hr was compared with the CVw of AUC0-12. There were no statistically significant differences in the AUC ratio at any time-point. Compared to AUC0-72, Pearson's correlation coefficient for mean AUC, AUC ratio and AUC CVw was worse for AUC0-12 than AUC0-24 or AUC0-48. These preliminary results could suggest that AUC truncation at 24 or 48 hr is adequate to determine whether two formulations are bioequivalent. © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  8. « What’s Black and White and Read All Over? » Esquisse d’un je(u étrange : Half Life (2006 de Shelley Jackson “What’s Black and White and Read all Over?” Shelley Jackson’s Half Life (2006, or a Strange Game of I and Seek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Vanderhaeghe


    Full Text Available Shelley Jackson’s first novel, Half Life, leaves Nora in command of the text, making her tell her story and conquer a self she was deprived of at her birth. But how to do so when “her” story is always-already “theirs,” split in half, and when saying I is therefore impossible? For Nora is not alone, Nora is inseparable—and literally so—from Blanche, her “twofer” sister. Through an interplay of binary oppositions, Jackson fashions the (twin metaphor of writing and reading, inciting her reader to intervene in the text and dig deeper into it to (uncover meaning under the successive layers of whiteness that reveal the blankness of a page that is slowly being erased as one reads / runs over it.

  9. Characterization of the liquid argon veto of the GERDA experiment and its application for the measurement of the {sup 76}Ge half-life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegmann, Anne Christin


    The search for neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) is one of the most active fields in modern particle physics as the observation of this process would prove lepton number violation and imply new physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. The GERDA experiment searches for this decay by operating bare Germanium detectors, enriched in the ββ isotope {sup 76}Ge, in liquid argon. For the first time, a ββ-experiment combines the excellent properties of semiconductor Germanium detectors with an active background suppression technique based on the simultaneous detection of liquid argon scintillation light by photomultiplier tubes and silicon photomultipliers coupled to scintillating fibers (LAr veto). The LAr veto has been successfully operated during the first six months of Phase II of the experiment and yielded - in combination with a Germanium detector pulse shape discrimination technique - a background index of (0.7{sup +1.1}{sub -0.5}).10{sup -3} ((cts)/(kg.keV.yr)). With an ultimate exposure of 100 kg.yr this will allow for a 0νββ-decay half-life sensitivity of the Gerda Phase II experiment of 10{sup 26} yr. Double-beta decay under the emission of two neutrinos (2νββ) is a second-order process but which is allowed by the Standard Model. The excellent background reduction of the LAr veto results in an unprecedented signal-to-background ratio of 30:1 in the energy region dominated by 2νββ-decay of {sup 76}Ge. The remaining background after LAr veto is estimated using the suppression factor from calibration source measurements and results in a measurement of T{sup 2ν}{sub 1/2}=(1.98±0.02(stat)±0.05(syst)).10{sup 21} yr and T{sub 1/2}{sup 2ν}=(1.92 ±0.02(stat)±0.11(syst)).10{sup 21} yr based on two different detector designs and give uncertainties on the detector parameters but both with improved systematic uncertainties in comparison to earlier measurements.

  10. Pulse shape analysis for the GERDA experiment to set a new limit on the half-life of 0νββ decay of {sup 76}Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Victoria Elisabeth


    The GERDA experiment searches for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge using high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors operated in liquid argon (LAr). The aim is to explore half-lives of the order of 10{sup 26} yr. Therefore, GERDA relies on improved active background reduction techniques such as pulse shape discrimination (PSD) in which the time structure of the germanium signals is analyzed to discriminate signal- from background-like events. Two types of HPGe detectors are operated: semi-coaxial detectors previously used in the Heidelberg-Moscow and IGEX experiments and new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors which feature an improved energy resolution and enhanced PSD. In Phase I of the experiment, five enriched BEGe detectors were used for the first time in the search for 0νββ decay. A PSD based on a single parameter, the ratio of the maximum current amplitude over the energy A/E is applied. 83% of the background events in a 232 keV region around Q{sub ββ} are rejected with a high signal efficiency of (92.1 ± 1.9) %. The achieved background index (BI) is (5.4{sup +4.1}{sub -3.4}) . 10{sup -3} (counts)/( This is an improvement by a factor of 10 compared to previous germanium based 0νββ experiments. Phase II of the experiment includes a major upgrade: for further background rejection, the LAr cryostat is instrumented to detect argon scintillation light. Additional 25 BEGe detectors are installed. After PSD and LAr veto a BI of (0.7{sup +1.3}{sub -0.5}) . 10{sup -3} (counts)/( is achieved. This is the best BI achieved in 0νββ experiments so far. A frequentist statistical analysis is performed on the combined data collected in GERDA Phase I and the first Phase II release. A new limit on the half-life of 0νββ decay of {sup 76}Ge is set to T{sup 0ν}{sub 1/2}>5.3.10{sup 25} yr at 90% C.L., with a median sensitivity of T{sup 0ν}{sub 1/2}>4.0.10{sup 25} yr at 90% C.L.

  11. The relationships between half-life (t1/2) and mean residence time (MRT) in the two-compartment open body model. (United States)

    Sobol, Eyal; Bialer, Meir


    In the one-compartment model following i.v. administration the mean residence time (MRT) of a drug is always greater than its half-life (t(1/2)). However, following i.v. administration, drug plasma concentration (C) versus time (t) is best described by a two-compartment model or a two exponential equation:C=Ae(-alpha t)+Be(-beta t), where A and B are concentration unit-coefficients and alpha and beta are exponential coefficients. The relationships between t(1/2) and MRT in the two-compartment model have not been explored and it is not clear whether in this model too MRT is always greater than t(1/2). In the current paper new equations have been developed that describe the relationships between the terminal t(1/2) (or t(1/2 beta)) and MRT in the two-compartment model following administration of i.v. bolus, i.v. infusion (zero order input) and oral administration (first order input). A critical value (CV) equals to the quotient of (1-ln2) and (1-beta/alpha) (CV=(1-ln2)/(1-beta/alpha)=0.307/(1-beta/alpha)) has been derived and was compared with the fraction (f(1)) of drug elimination or AUC (AUC-area under C vs t curve) associated with the first exponential term of the two-compartment equation (f(1)=A/alpha/AUC). Following i.v. bolus, CV ranges between a minimal value of 0.307 (1-ln2) and infinity. As long as f(1)MRT>t(1/2) and vice versa, and when f(1)=CV, then MRT=t(1/2). Following i.v. infusion and oral administration the denominator of the CV equation does not change but its numerator increases to (0.307+beta T/2) (T-infusion duration) and (0.307+beta/ka) (ka-absorption rate constant), respectively. Examples of various drugs are provided. For every drug that after i.v. bolus shows two-compartment disposition kinetics the following conclusions can be drawn (a) When f(1)MRT>t(1/2). (b) When beta/alpha>ln2, then CV>1>f(1) and thus(,) MRT>t(1/2). (c) When ln2>beta/alpha>(ln4-1), then 1>CV>0.5 and thus, in order for t(1/2)>MRT, f(1) has to be greater than its

  12. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of mRNA decay: half-life of Beta-actin mRNA in human leukemia CCRF-CEM and Nalm-6 cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barredo Julio C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe an alternative method to determine mRNA half-life (t1/2 based on the Real-Time RT-PCR procedure. This approach was evaluated by using the β-actin gene as a reference molecule for measuring of mRNA stability. Results Human leukemia Nalm-6 and CCRF-CEM cells were treated with various concentrations of Actinomycin D to block transcription and aliquots were removed periodically. Total RNA was isolated and quantified using the RiboGreen® fluorescent dye with the VersaFluor Fluorometer System. One μg of total RNA was reverse transcribed and used as template for the amplification of a region of the β-actin gene (231 bp. To generate the standard curve, serial ten-fold dilutions of the pBactin-231 vector containing the cDNA amplified fragment were employed, β-actin mRNAs were quantified by Real-Time RT-PCR using the SYBR® Green I fluorogenic dye and data analyzed using the iCycle iQ system software. Using this method, the β-actin mRNA exhibited a half-life of 6.6 h and 13.5 h in Nalm-6 and CCRF-CEM cells, respectively. The t1/2 value obtained for Nalm-6 is comparable to those estimated from Northern blot studies, using normal human leukocytes (5.5 h. Conclusions We have developed a rapid, sensitive, and reliable method based on Real-Time RT-PCR for measuring mRNA half-life. Our results confirm that β-actin mRNA half-life can be affected by the cellular growth rate.

  13. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    outlines how the expectation-based explanation of IEO complements explanations stressing family resources as an important cause of IEO; it carefully defines "expectation," the core concept underlying the dissertation; it places the methodological contributions of the dissertation in the debate over...... for their educational futures. Focusing on the causes rather than the consequences of educational expectations, I argue that students shape their expectations in response to the signals about their academic performance they receive from institutionalized performance indicators in schools. Chapter II considers...... strongly suggest that students rely on information about their academic performances when considering their educational prospects. The two chapters thus highlight that educational expectations are subject to change over the educational career, and that educational systems play a prominent role in students...

  14. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    of the relation between the self and educational prospects; evaluations that are socially bounded in that students take their family's social position into consideration when forming their educational expectations. One important consequence of this learning process is that equally talented students tend to make...... different educational choices according to their family background. IEO thus appears to be mediated by the expectations students hold for their futures. Taken together, this research agenda argues that both researchers and policy-makers need to consider the expectation-based origin of educational...... outlines how the expectation-based explanation of IEO complements explanations stressing family resources as an important cause of IEO; it carefully defines "expectation," the core concept underlying the dissertation; it places the methodological contributions of the dissertation in the debate over...

  15. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    outlines how the expectation-based explanation of IEO complements explanations stressing family resources as an important cause of IEO; it carefully defines "expectation," the core concept underlying the dissertation; it places the methodological contributions of the dissertation in the debate over......' expectation formation. Chapters IV and V constitute the methodological contribution of the dissertation. Chapter IV develops a general method for decomposing total effects into its direct and indirect counterparts in nonlinear probability models such as the logistic response model. The method forms a solution...

  16. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    In this dissertation I examine the relationship between subjective beliefs about the outcomes of educational choices and the generation of inequality of educational opportunity (IEO) in post-industrial society. Taking my departure in the rational action turn in the sociology of educational...... different educational choices according to their family background. IEO thus appears to be mediated by the expectations students hold for their futures. Taken together, this research agenda argues that both researchers and policy-makers need to consider the expectation-based origin of educational...... for their educational futures. Focusing on the causes rather than the consequences of educational expectations, I argue that students shape their expectations in response to the signals about their academic performance they receive from institutionalized performance indicators in schools. Chapter II considers...

  17. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    different educational choices according to their family background. IEO thus appears to be mediated by the expectations students hold for their futures. Taken together, this research agenda argues that both researchers and policy-makers need to consider the expectation-based origin of educational...... inequalities if educational reform is to promote educational and social mobility in post-industrial society. I pursue my research agenda in five chapters. In the introductory Chapter I I situate my research contributions in the tradition of the sociology of educational stratification. This chapter also...... outlines how the expectation-based explanation of IEO complements explanations stressing family resources as an important cause of IEO; it carefully defines "expectation," the core concept underlying the dissertation; it places the methodological contributions of the dissertation in the debate over...

  18. Evolutionary Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William


    cognitive bounds will perceive business opportunities identically. In addition, because cues provide information about latent causal structures of the environment, changes in causality must be accompanied by changes in cognitive representations if adaptation is to be maintained. The concept of evolutionary......, they are correlated among people who share environments because these individuals satisfice within their cognitive bounds by using cues in order of validity, as opposed to using cues arbitrarily. Any difference in expectations thereby arise from differences in cognitive ability, because two individuals with identical......The concept of evolutionary expectations descends from cue learning psychology, synthesizing ideas on rational expectations with ideas on bounded rationality, to provide support for these ideas simultaneously. Evolutionary expectations are rational, but within cognitive bounds. Moreover...

  19. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    strongly suggest that students rely on information about their academic performances when considering their educational prospects. The two chapters thus highlight that educational expectations are subject to change over the educational career, and that educational systems play a prominent role in students...... stratification, I argue that students facing significant educational transitions form their educational expectations by taking into account the foreseeable, yet inherently uncertain, consequences of potential educational pathways. This process of expectation formation, I posit, involves evaluations...... of the relation between the self and educational prospects; evaluations that are socially bounded in that students take their family's social position into consideration when forming their educational expectations. One important consequence of this learning process is that equally talented students tend to make...

  20. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    stratification, I argue that students facing significant educational transitions form their educational expectations by taking into account the foreseeable, yet inherently uncertain, consequences of potential educational pathways. This process of expectation formation, I posit, involves evaluations...... of the relation between the self and educational prospects; evaluations that are socially bounded in that students take their family's social position into consideration when forming their educational expectations. One important consequence of this learning process is that equally talented students tend to make...... the role of causal inference in social science; and it discusses the potential of the findings of the dissertation to inform educational policy. In Chapters II and III, constituting the substantive contribution of the dissertation, I examine the process through which students form expectations...

  1. Expected Value


    Robert Lapson


    A procedure for decision-making under risk is developed and axiomatized. It provides another explanation for the Allais paradox as well as justification for some other preference patterns that can not be represented by the expected utility model, but it includes expected utility representation fo preferences as a particular case. The idea of the procedure is that evaluation of the lotteries takes two steps. First, a decision maker classifies a lottery as a "bad," "good" or "medium" one. Then ...

  2. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    In this dissertation I examine the relationship between subjective beliefs about the outcomes of educational choices and the generation of inequality of educational opportunity (IEO) in post-industrial society. Taking my departure in the rational action turn in the sociology of educational...... different educational choices according to their family background. IEO thus appears to be mediated by the expectations students hold for their futures. Taken together, this research agenda argues that both researchers and policy-makers need to consider the expectation-based origin of educational...... strongly suggest that students rely on information about their academic performances when considering their educational prospects. The two chapters thus highlight that educational expectations are subject to change over the educational career, and that educational systems play a prominent role in students...

  3. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles


    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip

  4. Optimistic expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus


    Young Australians’ post-school futures are uncertain, insecure and fluid in relation to working life. But if you think that this is the recipe for a next generation of depressed young Australians, you may be wrong. A new book documents that young people are characterised by optimism, but their ex......, but their expectations of the future differ from those of their parents....

  5. I-Xe systematics of the impact plume produced chondrules from the CB carbonaceous chondrites: Implications for the half-life value of 129I and absolute age normalization of 129I-129Xe chronometer. (United States)

    Pravdivtseva, O; Meshik, A; Hohenberg, C M; Krot, A N


    0.6 Ma value for 129I half-life. The slopes of I-Xe - Pb-Pb correlation lines plotted for different sets of samples for Shallowater normalization are always ≤1. Assuming uranium half-life values are correct; this restricts the half-life of 129I to ≤15.7 Ma.

  6. 77 FR 34785 - Substantial Business Activities (United States)


    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK86 Substantial Business Activities AGENCY: Internal... regulations regarding whether a foreign corporation has substantial business activities in a foreign country... substantial business activities in a foreign country, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and the Department of...

  7. 77 FR 34887 - Substantial Business Activities (United States)


    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK85 Substantial Business Activities AGENCY: Internal... substantial business activities in a foreign country. These regulations affect certain domestic corporations... whether a foreign corporation has substantial business activities in a foreign country for purposes of...

  8. Investigation of temperature effect on half-life periods of long-lived isomer sup 1 sup 8 sup 0 sup m Hf and sup 8 sup 7 sup m Sr

    CERN Document Server

    Alpatov, V G; Davydov, A V; Isaev, Y N; Kartashov, G R; Korotkov, M M; Samojlov, V M


    The experiments on measuring the half-life periods of the sup 1 sup 8 sup 0 sup m Hf and sup 8 sup 7 sup m Sr long-lived isomers at the room temperature and at 77 K with application of the HfO sub 2 , Sr(NO sub 3) sub 2 and SrCO sub 3 massive samples are described. The isomer states of the corresponding nuclei were formed by the samples irradiation through neutrons from the Pu-Be source. According to the Vysotski theory and other authors the surrounding of the gamma-active nuclei by a large number of the same nuclei in the basic state should lead to the T sub 1 sub / sub 2 growth due to distortion of the zero electromagnetic vacuum oscillations near the nuclear energy level value. Decrease in the sample temperature leads to the narrowing of the gamma-lines, especially for the Moessbauer low-energy transitions, which increases the resonance effect on the zero oscillations spectrum. Increase in the T sub 1 sub / sub 2 by 2.99 +- 0.87% was observed by cooling the sup 1 sup 8 sup 0 sup m Hf isomer sample, in the ...

  9. Treatment with IL-17 prolongs the half-life of chemokine CXCL1 mRNA via the adaptor TRAF5 and the splicing-regulatory factor SF2 (ASF). (United States)

    Sun, Dongxu; Novotny, Michael; Bulek, Katarzyna; Liu, Caini; Li, Xiaoxia; Hamilton, Thomas


    Interleukin 17 (IL-17) promotes the expression of chemokines and cytokines via the induction of gene transcription and post-transcriptional stabilization of mRNA. We show here that IL-17 enhanced the stability of chemokine CXCL1 mRNA and other mRNAs through a pathway that involved the adaptor Act1, the adaptors TRAF2 or TRAF5 and the splicing factor SF2 (also known as alternative splicing factor (ASF)). TRAF2 and TRAF5 were necessary for IL-17 to signal the stabilization of CXCL1 mRNA. Furthermore, IL-17 promoted the formation of complexes of TRAF5-TRAF2, Act1 and SF2 (ASF). Overexpression of SF2 (ASF) shortened the half-life of CXCL1 mRNA, whereas depletion of SF2 (ASF) prolonged it. SF2 (ASF) bound chemokine mRNA in unstimulated cells, whereas the SF2 (ASF)-mRNA interaction was much lower after stimulation with IL-17. Our findings define an IL-17-induced signaling pathway that links to the stabilization of selected mRNA species through Act1, TRAF2-TRAF5 and the RNA-binding protein SF2 (ASF).

  10. Cassette dosing for pharmacokinetic screening in drug discovery: comparison of clearance, volume of distribution, half-life, mean residence time, and oral bioavailability obtained by cassette and discrete dosing in rats. (United States)

    Nagilla, Rakesh; Nord, Melanie; McAtee, Jeff J; Jolivette, Larry J


    The purpose of this investigation was to compare selected pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters obtained by cassette and discrete dosing of compounds in rats. The concordance of PK properties obtained by the two dosing strategies was evaluated for 116 compounds representing various therapeutic programs and diverse chemical structures. The correspondence between cassette- and discrete-dosing-derived PK properties was examined semiquantitatively and qualitatively. For semiquantitative comparison, compounds with cassette-to-discrete PK parameter ratios between 0.5 and 2 (inclusive) were considered to be in agreement. For qualitative comparison, compounds were divided into three categories (low, moderate, and high) based on the value of the PK parameter; compounds that fell into the same category following cassette and discrete dosing were considered to be in agreement. Of the 116 compounds evaluated, 89%, 91%, 80%, and 91% of the compounds were semiquantitatively equivalent for the intravenous PK parameters of clearance (CL), volume of distribution (Vdss), terminal elimination plasma half-life (HL), and mean residence time (MRT), respectively, whereas 79%, 80%, 79%, and 72% were qualitatively similar for CL, Vdss, MRT, and terminal elimination plasma HL, respectively. Following oral administration, bioavailability concordance was 72% when assessed qualitatively and 78% when determined semiquantitatively. Results from these analyses indicate that a cassette dosing strategy is a viable approach to screen compounds for PK properties within a drug discovery setting. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Environmental Metabolic Footprinting (EMF) vs. half-life: a new and integrative proxy for the discrimination between control and pesticides exposed sediments in order to further characterise pesticides' environmental impact. (United States)

    Salvia, Marie-Virginie; Ben Jrad, Amani; Raviglione, Delphine; Zhou, Yuxiang; Bertrand, Cédric


    Pesticides are regularly used for a variety of applications and are disseminated throughout the environment. These substances may have significant negative impacts. To date, the half-life, t1/2, was often used to study the fate of pesticides in environmental matrices (water, soil, sediment). However, this value gives limited information. First, it does not evaluate the formation of by-products, resulting in the need for additional experiments to be performed to evaluate biodegradation and biotransformation products. T1/2 also fails to consider the chemical's impact on biodiversity. Resilience time, a new and integrative proxy, was recently proposed as an alternative to t1/2, with the potential to evaluate all the post-application effects of the chemical on the environment. The 'Environmental Metabolic Footprinting' (EMF) approach, giving an idea of the resilience time, was used to evaluate the impact of botanicals on soil. The goal is to optimise the EMF to study the impact of a microbial insecticide, the Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), on sediment. The difficulty of this work lies in the commercial solution of Bti that is really complex, and this complexity yields chromatograms that are extremely difficult to interpret; t1/2 cannot be used. No methodologies currently exist to monitor the impact of these compounds on the environment. We will test the EMF to determine if it is sensitive enough to tolerate such complex mixtures. A pure chemical insecticide, the α-cypermethrin, will be also studied. The article shows that the EMF is able to distinguish meta-metabolome differences between control and exposed (with Bti) sediments.

  12. 40 CFR 725.94 - Substantiation requirements. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substantiation requirements. 725.94 Section 725.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... following questions must be answered: (i) What harmful effects to the company's or institution's competitive...

  13. Toward More Substantial Theories of Language Acquisition (United States)

    Jenson, Cinnamon Ann


    Cognitive linguists argue that certain sets of knowledge of language are innate. However, critics have argued that the theoretical concept of "innateness" should be eliminated since it is ambiguous and insubstantial. In response, I aim to strengthen theories of language acquisition and identify ways to make them more substantial. I…

  14. The Result of Multiple I-131 Treatments on the Effective Half-Life of Retained Radioactivity in Patients Ablated for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Possible Evidence for Thyroid Remnant Function Impairment. (United States)

    Okkalides, Demetrios


    The ablation of differentiated thyroid cancer by ingested I-131 depends on the activity absorbed by the remnant. This depends on the function of the thyroid cells and on the rate that radioactivity is excreted from the blood. The reduction of radioiodine is described by the effective half-life (EHL), which is the time taken to half the retained radioactivity. If the tumor recurs, more treatments are prescribed, often with escalating activities. Patients may receive several treatments during the evolution of the disease, and the total radioactivity administered (TRA) is the sum of all such activities. The patients' archived information permitted the calculation of EHL and TRA. The patient cohort processed here comprised 274 females and 101 males treated during 1997 to 2015. The TRA to the patients ranged between 1.1 and 129.5 GBq (average = 7.93 ± 9.9 GBq) and the EHL varied between 5.06 and 43.87 hours (average = 14.13 ± 5.7 hours). The data were processed as follows: (a) the EHL corresponding to the last treatment of each patient was plotted against TRA to patients who were treated once and to those treated several times for comparison and (b) using a small subgroup of 16 patients who were treated at least 5 times, the EHL and TRA corresponding to each treatment of each patient were plotted. A function of the form y = p-k·ln(x) was fitted on the data in all graphs and k was calculated. For patients treated once, EHL was independent of TRA. A decrease was seen in (a) multitreated patients, with the gradient (k) ranging between -0.541 and -13.880 and (b) 13 out of 16 patients, with the gradient (k) ranging between -5.55 and -31.17, both indicating an impairment of the remnant function, perhaps identified as "stunning." Since this is not avoidable, the uptake may be boosted by splitting the prescribed activity into low radioactivity fractions, which will also reduce patient hospitalization.

  15. Substantiating powder metal life methodologies for engines (United States)

    Domas, P. A.


    The application of powder metal (PM) superalloys in aircraft turbine engine rotating components is prompted by performance driven high strength and creep resistance requirements. Fine grain, precipitation strengthened nickel-base alloys such as IN100, Rene'95, and Rene'88DT meet these requirements up to operating temperatures in the 1200-1300F (649-704C) range. In addition to burst and deformation limits, design constraints include durability (fatigue) and damage tolerance (crack growth resistance) capability to insure reliability and safety. Fatigue life for these alloys can be influenced by inhomogeneities (inclusions) intrinsic to the microstructure as the result of processing, and by perturbations of the surface integrity during component manufacture and subsequent usage. Understanding of PM fatigue behavior and substantiation of life assessment methodology must appropriately recognize these potential influences. New testing, modeling, and analysis schemes are necessitated in engineering development programs addressing generation and validation of life prediction techniques for these materials. This paper outlines one approach to substantiating PM fatigue life prediction that attempts to recognize homogeneous fatigue initiation by incorporating probabilistic models and development testing methods that address material volume and component feature effects. Complications and limitations being addressed in ongoing work are discussed.

  16. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder. (United States)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh


    Life expectancy in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be decreased by 11 to 20 years. These calculations are based on data for individuals at the age of 15 years. However, this may be misleading for patients with bipolar disorder in general as most patients have a later onset of illness. The aim of the present study was to calculate the remaining life expectancy for patients of different ages with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Using nationwide registers of all inpatient and outpatient contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark from 1970 to 2012 we calculated remaining life expectancies for values of age 15, 25, 35 ⃛ 75 years among all individuals alive in year 2000. For the typical male or female patient aged 25 to 45 years, the remaining life expectancy was decreased by 12.0-8.7 years and 10.6-8.3 years, respectively. The ratio between remaining life expectancy in bipolar disorder and that of the general population decreased with age, indicating that patients with bipolar disorder start losing life-years during early and mid-adulthood. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder is decreased substantially, but less so than previously reported. Patients start losing life-years during early and mid-adulthood. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Substantiating the Incurred but not Reported Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Vintilã


    Full Text Available In order to handle past and future liability taken by insurance contracts concluded, any insurance company must constitute and maintain technical reserves. Substantiating technical reserves is done through actuarial methods and its over-evaluation or under-evaluation influence solvency and financial performance of the insurance companies, in the sense of reducing solvency through over-evaluating reserves and, respectively, influencing profit (hence of outstanding tax through under-evaluating reserves. An important reserve for insurance companies is represented by the incurred but not reported reserve, as it allows the estimation of the liability the company may confront in the future, generated by events occurred in the past, which are not currently known in the present but will be reported in the future.

  18. Substantial global carbon uptake by cement carbonation (United States)

    Xi, Fengming; Davis, Steven J.; Ciais, Philippe; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Guan, Dabo; Pade, Claus; Shi, Tiemao; Syddall, Mark; Lv, Jie; Ji, Lanzhu; Bing, Longfei; Wang, Jiaoyue; Wei, Wei; Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Lagerblad, Björn; Galan, Isabel; Andrade, Carmen; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zhu


    Calcination of carbonate rocks during the manufacture of cement produced 5% of global CO2 emissions from all industrial process and fossil-fuel combustion in 2013. Considerable attention has been paid to quantifying these industrial process emissions from cement production, but the natural reversal of the process--carbonation--has received little attention in carbon cycle studies. Here, we use new and existing data on cement materials during cement service life, demolition, and secondary use of concrete waste to estimate regional and global CO2 uptake between 1930 and 2013 using an analytical model describing carbonation chemistry. We find that carbonation of cement materials over their life cycle represents a large and growing net sink of CO2, increasing from 0.10 GtC yr-1 in 1998 to 0.25 GtC yr-1 in 2013. In total, we estimate that a cumulative amount of 4.5 GtC has been sequestered in carbonating cement materials from 1930 to 2013, offsetting 43% of the CO2 emissions from production of cement over the same period, not including emissions associated with fossil use during cement production. We conclude that carbonation of cement products represents a substantial carbon sink that is not currently considered in emissions inventories.

  19. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering (United States)

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.


    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1-x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.

  20. Best Practice Life Expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medford, Anthony


    Background: Whereas the rise in human life expectancy has been extensively studied, the evolution of maximum life expectancies, i.e., the rise in best-practice life expectancy in a group of populations, has not been examined to the same extent. The linear rise in best-practice life expectancy has...... been reported previously by various authors. Though remarkable, this is simply an empirical observation. Objective: We examine best-practice life expectancy more formally by using extreme value theory. Methods: Extreme value distributions are fit to the time series (1900 to 2012) of maximum life...... expectancies at birth and age 65, for both sexes, using data from the Human Mortality Database and the United Nations. Conclusions: Generalized extreme value distributions offer a theoretically justified way to model best-practice life expectancies. Using this framework one can straightforwardly obtain...

  1. Stock Market Expectations of Dutch Households. (United States)

    Hurd, Michael; van Rooij, Maarten; Winter, Joachim


    Despite its importance for the analysis of life-cycle behavior and, in particular, retirement planning, stock ownership by private households is poorly understood. Among other approaches to investigate this puzzle, recent research has started to elicit private households' expectations of stock market returns. This paper reports findings from a study that collected data over a two-year period both on households' stock market expectations (subjective probabilities of gains or losses) and on whether they own stocks. We document substantial heterogeneity in financial market expectations. Expectations are correlated with stock ownership. Over the two years of our data, stock market prices increased, and expectations of future stock market price changes also increased, lending support to the view that expectations are influenced by recent stock gains or losses.

  2. Expecting Immediate Grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhao


    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of expecting immediate grades on numerical and verbal reasoning performance and the moderating role of achievement goals. Anticipated grade proximity (immediate vs. 1 week later and goal orientation (approach vs. avoidance were manipulated with instructions. Experiment 1 showed that expecting immediate grades yielded lower numerical performance than expecting delayed feedback, regardless of participants’ goal orientation. Neither grade proximity nor goal orientation impacted verbal performance. In Experiment 2, we used a stronger goal manipulation and included measures of motivation. Expecting immediate grades increased task anxiety, lowered task involvement, and lowered task effort among participants with avoidance goals, compared with expecting delayed grades. The effects on performance were not replicated in Experiment 2, however. The findings demonstrate that expecting immediate grades may have negative consequences under certain conditions, including demotivation and performance impairment.

  3. 50 CFR 80.13 - Substantiality in character and design. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substantiality in character and design. 80... Substantiality in character and design. All projects proposed for funding under the Acts must be substantial in character and design. A substantial project (for fish and wildlife purposes) is one which: (a) Identifies...

  4. Determining health expectancies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robine, Jean-Marie


    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jean-Marie Robine 9 1 Increase in Life Expectancy and Concentration of Ages at Death . . . . France Mesle´ and Jacques Vallin 13 2 Compression of Morbidity...

  5. Humans expect generosity (United States)

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Rodríguez-Lara, Ismael; Sánchez, Angel


    Mechanisms supporting human ultra-cooperativeness are very much subject to debate. One psychological feature likely to be relevant is the formation of expectations, particularly about receiving cooperative or generous behavior from others. Without such expectations, social life will be seriously impeded and, in turn, expectations leading to satisfactory interactions can become norms and institutionalize cooperation. In this paper, we assess people’s expectations of generosity in a series of controlled experiments using the dictator game. Despite differences in respective roles, involvement in the game, degree of social distance or variation of stakes, the results are conclusive: subjects seldom predict that dictators will behave selfishly (by choosing the Nash equilibrium action, namely giving nothing). The majority of subjects expect that dictators will choose the equal split. This implies that generous behavior is not only observed in the lab, but also expected by subjects. In addition, expectations are accurate, matching closely the donations observed and showing that as a society we have a good grasp of how we interact. Finally, correlation between expectations and actual behavior suggests that expectations can be an important ingredient of generous or cooperative behavior.

  6. Communicating expectancies about others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigboldus, Daniel H. J.; Semin, Gun R.; Spears, Russell


    The linguistic expectancy bias hypothesis predicts that, in general, person impressions are shared with others via subtle differences in the level of linguistic abstraction that is used to communicate expected and unexpected information about an individual. In a two-part communication experiment, we

  7. Marijuana: College Students' Expectations. (United States)

    Rumstein, Regina


    Focused on college students' expectations about marijuana. Undergraduates (N=210) expected marijuana to have sedating effects; they largely discounted psychological consequences. Students considered marijuana to be an educational issue and favored decriminalization of the drug. Users, occasional users, and nonusers differed significantly in…

  8. Expectations in experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagener, F.


    The rational expectations hypothesis is one of the cornerstones of current economic theorizing. This review discusses a number of experiments that focus on expectation formation by human subjects in a number of learning-to-forecast experiments and analyzes the implications for the rational

  9. A Rational Expectations Experiment. (United States)

    Peterson, Norris A.


    Presents a simple classroom simulation of the Lucas supply curve mechanism with rational expectations. Concludes that the exercise has proved very useful as an introduction to the concepts of rational and adaptive expectations, the Lucas supply curve, the natural rate hypothesis, and random supply shocks. (DB)

  10. Parents' Expectations about Early Years Services (United States)

    Sollars, Valerie


    This exploratory study was conducted amongst 518 families using early years facilities within the Maltese context. Although availability of early years services, especially for the under-threes has increased substantially, there is a lack of research documenting who uses these services; parents' perceptions and expectations about such services;…

  11. Expecting the unexpected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcneill, Ilona M.; Dunlop, Patrick D.; Heath, Jonathan B.


    People who live in wildfire-prone communities tend to form their own hazard-related expectations, which may influence their willingness to prepare for a fire. Past research has already identified two important expectancy-based factors associated with people's intentions to prepare for a natural......) and measured actual rather than intended preparedness. In addition, we tested the relation between preparedness and two additional threat-related expectations: the expectation that one can rely on an official warning and the expectation of encountering obstacles (e.g., the loss of utilities) during a fire....... A survey completed by 1,003 residents of wildfire-prone areas in Perth, Australia, revealed that perceived risk (especially risk severity) and perceived protection responsibility were both positively associated with all types of preparedness, but the latter did not significantly predict preparedness after...

  12. Life Expectancy in 2040

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; DuGoff, Eva H; Wu, Albert W.


    expectancy at age 20 will increase by approximately one year per decade for females and males between now and 2040. According to the clinical experts, 70% of the improvement in life expectancy will occur in cardiovascular disease and cancer, while in the last 30 years most of the improvement has occurred......We use expert clinical and public health opinion to estimate likely changes in the prevention and treatment of important disease conditions and how they will affect future life expectancy. Focus groups were held including clinical and public health faculty with expertise in the six leading causes...... of death in the United States. Mortality rates and life tables for 2040 were derived by sex and age. Life expectancy at age 20 and 65 was compared to figures published by the Social Security Administration and to estimates from the Lee-Carter method. There was agreement among all three approaches that life...

  13. Expected Classification Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence M. Rudner


    Full Text Available Every time we make a classification based on a test score, we should expect some number..of misclassifications. Some examinees whose true ability is within a score range will have..observed scores outside of that range. A procedure for providing a classification table of..true and expected scores is developed for polytomously scored items under item response..theory and applied to state assessment data. A simplified procedure for estimating the..table entries is also presented.

  14. 19 CFR 10.7 - Substantial containers or holders. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial containers or holders. 10.7 Section 10... Exported and Returned § 10.7 Substantial containers or holders. (a) Substantial containers or holders... domestic products exported and returned. When such containers or holders are imported not containing or...

  15. 45 CFR 1355.34 - Criteria for determining substantial conformity. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria for determining substantial conformity... GENERAL § 1355.34 Criteria for determining substantial conformity. (a) Criteria to be satisfied. ACF will determine a State's substantial conformity with title IV-B and title IV-E State plan requirements based on...

  16. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conformity and substantial compliance. 604.6... FOR ELIGIBILITY FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 604.6 Conformity and substantial compliance. (a) In... for the administration of its UC program. (b) Resolving Issues of Conformity and Substantial...

  17. Sex and life expectancy. (United States)

    Seifarth, Joshua E; McGowan, Cheri L; Milne, Kevin J


    A sexual dimorphism in human life expectancy has existed in almost every country for as long as records have been kept. Although human life expectancy has increased each year, females still live longer, on average, than males. Undoubtedly, the reasons for the sex gap in life expectancy are multifaceted, and it has been discussed from both sociological and biological perspectives. However, even if biological factors make up only a small percentage of the determinants of the sex difference in this phenomenon, parity in average life expectancy should not be anticipated. The aim of this review is to highlight biological mechanisms that may underlie the sexual dimorphism in life expectancy. Using PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar, as well as cited and citing reference histories of articles through August 2012, English-language articles were identified, read, and synthesized into categories that could account for biological sex differences in human life expectancy. The examination of biological mechanisms accounting for the female-based advantage in human life expectancy has been an active area of inquiry; however, it is still difficult to prove the relative importance of any 1 factor. Nonetheless, biological differences between the sexes do exist and include differences in genetic and physiological factors such as progressive skewing of X chromosome inactivation, telomere attrition, mitochondrial inheritance, hormonal and cellular responses to stress, immune function, and metabolic substrate handling among others. These factors may account for at least a part of the female advantage in human life expectancy. Despite noted gaps in sex equality, higher body fat percentages and lower physical activity levels globally at all ages, a sex-based gap in life expectancy exists in nearly every country for which data exist. There are several biological mechanisms that may contribute to explaining why females live longer than men on average, but the complexity of the

  18. Expected Term Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buraschi, Andrea; Piatti, Ilaria; Whelan, Paul

    hypothesis. Finally, we use ex-ante spanned subjective beliefs to evaluate several reduced-form and structural models. We find support for heterogeneous beliefs models and also uncover a number of statistically significant relationships in favour of alternative rational expectations models once the effect......This paper studies the properties of bond risk premia in the cross-section of subjective expectations. We exploit an extensive dataset of yield curve forecasts from financial institutions and document a number of novel findings. First, contrary to evidence presented for stock markets but consistent......-primary dealers. Third, we reject the null hypothesis that subjective expected bond returns are constant. When predicting long term rates, however, primary dealers have no information advantage. This suggests that a key source of variation in long-term bonds are risk premia and not short- term rate variation...

  19. Rational Expectations in Games


    Robert J. Aumann; Jacques H. Dreze


    A player i's actions in a game are determined by her beliefs about other players; these depend on the game's real-life context, not only its formal description. Define a game situation as a game together with such beliefs; call the beliefs— and i's resulting expectation—rational if there is common knowledge of rationality and a common prior. In two-person zero-sum games, i's only rational expectation is the game’s value. In an arbitrary game G, we characterize i's rational expectations in ter...

  20. The Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Johansen, Søren; Rahbek, Anders


    We introduce the Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis (QEH) as a new approach to modeling macroeconomic and financial outcomes. Building on John Muth's seminal insight underpinning the Rational Expectations Hypothesis (REH), QEH represents the market's forecasts to be consistent with the predictions...... of an economistís model. However, by assuming that outcomes lie within stochastic intervals, QEH, unlike REH, recognizes the ambiguity faced by an economist and market participants alike. Moreover, QEH leaves the model open to ambiguity by not specifying a mechanism determining specific values that outcomes take...

  1. The Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Johansen, Søren; Rahbek, Anders

    We introduce the Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis (QEH) as a new approach to modeling macroeconomic and financial outcomes. Building on John Muth's seminal insight underpinning the Rational Expectations Hypothesis (REH), QEH represents the market's forecasts to be consistent with the predictions...... of an economist's model. However, by assuming that outcomes lie within stochastic intervals, QEH, unlike REH, recognizes the ambiguity faced by an economist and market participants alike. Moreover, QEH leaves the model open to ambiguity by not specifying a mechanism determining specific values that outcomes take...

  2. Performance expectation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, P.E.


    This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

  3. Number of Youth with Diabetes Projected to Rise Substantially by 2050: Minorities Expected to Represent an Increasing ... (United States)

    ... Camp Fundraising Events Step Out Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure Father of the Year Stop Diabetes at School ... Forecast Stop Diabetes Step Out: Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure Living With Type 2 Diabetes Recipes for Healthy ...

  4. Competencies Needed in Oral Communication in English among Thai Undergraduate Public Relations Students: A Substantial Gap between Expectations and Reality (United States)

    Pattanapichet, Fasawang; Chinokul, Sumalee


    This article investigates the competencies needed for oral communication in English among Thai undergraduate public relations students for handling public relations job interviews and performing entry-level public relations work. To identify these competencies, the study identified and involved all of the stakeholders in the data reliability…

  5. Expected Term Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buraschi, Andrea; Piatti, Ilaria; Whelan, Paul

    dynamics. The consensus is not a sufficient statistics of the cross-section of expectations and we propose an alternative real-time aggregate measure of risk premia consistent with Friedmans market selection hypothesis. We then use this measure to evaluate structural models and find support...

  6. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan]. (United States)

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  7. Maintaining High Expectations (United States)

    Williams, Roger; Williams, Sherry


    Author and husband, Roger Williams, is hearing and signs fluently, and author and wife, Sherry Williams, is deaf and uses both speech and signs, although she is most comfortable signing. As parents of six children--deaf and hearing--they are determined to encourage their children to do their best, and they always set their expectations high. They…

  8. Quantum yields of decomposition and homo-dimerization of solid L-alanine induced by 7.2 eV Vacuum ultraviolet light irradiation: an estimate of the half-life of L-alanine on the surface of space objects. (United States)

    Izumi, Yudai; Nakagawa, Kazumichi


    One of the leading hypotheses regarding the origin of prebiotic molecules on primitive Earth is that they formed from inorganic molecules in extraterrestrial environments and were delivered by meteorites, space dust and comets. To evaluate the availability of extraterrestrial amino acids, it is necessary to examine their decomposition and oligomerization rates as induced by extraterrestrial energy sources, such as vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and X-ray photons and high energy particles. This paper reports the quantum yields of decomposition ((8.2 ± 0.7) × 10(-2) photon(-1)) and homo-dimerization ((1.2 ± 0.3) × 10(-3) photon(-1)) and decomposition of the dimer (0.24 ± 0.06 photon(-1)) of solid L-alanine (Ala) induced by VUV light with an energy of 7.2 eV. Using these quantum yields, the half-life of L-Ala on the surface of a space object in the present earth orbit was estimated to be about 52 days, even when only photons with an energy of 7.2 eV emitted from the present Sun were considered. The actual half-life of solid L-Ala on the surface of a space object orbit around the present day Earth would certainly be much shorter than our estimate, because of the added effect of photons and particles of other energies. Thus, we propose that L-Ala needs to be shielded from solar VUV in protected environments, such as the interior of a meteorite, within a time scale of days after synthesis to ensure its arrival on the primitive Earth.

  9. Life expectancy and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper Worm; Strulik, Holger


    This paper exploits the unexpected decline in the death rate from cardiovascular diseases since the 1970s as a large positive health shock that affected predominantly old-age mortality; i.e. the fourth stage of the epidemiological transition. Using a difference-in-differences estimation strategy......, we find that US states with higher mortality rates from cardiovascular disease prior to the 1970s experienced greater increases in adult life expectancy and higher education enrollment. Our estimates suggest that a one-standard deviation higher treatment intensity is associated with an increase...... in adult life expectancy of 0.37 years and 0.07–0.15 more years of higher education....

  10. Spiking the expectancy profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.; Loui, Psyche; Vuust, Peter

    statistical learning, causing comparatively sharper key profiles in musicians, we hypothesised that musical learning can be modelled as a process of entropy reduction through experience. Specifically, implicit learning of statistical regularities allows reduction in the relative entropy (i.e. symmetrised...... Kullback-Leibler or Jensen-Shannon Divergence) between listeners’ prior expectancy profiles and probability distributions of a musical style or of stimuli used in short-term experiments. Five previous probe-tone experiments with musicians and non-musicians were revisited. In Experiments 1-2 participants...... and relevance of musical training and within-participant decreases after short-term exposure to novel music. Thus, whereas inexperienced listeners make high-entropy predictions, statistical learning over varying timescales enables listeners to generate melodic expectations with reduced entropy...

  11. Spiking the expectancy profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.; Loui, Psyche; Vuust, Peter

    Melodic expectations have long been quantified using expectedness ratings. Motivated by statistical learning and sharper key profiles in musicians, we model musical learning as a process of reducing the relative entropy between listeners' prior expectancy profiles and probability distributions...... of a given musical style or of stimuli used in short-term experiments. Five previous probe-tone experiments with musicians and non-musicians are revisited. Exp. 1-2 used jazz, classical and hymn melodies. Exp. 3-5 collected ratings before and after exposure to 5, 15 or 400 novel melodies generated from...... a finite-state grammar using the Bohlen-Pierce scale. We find group differences in entropy corresponding to degree and relevance of musical training and within-participant decreases after short-term exposure. Thus, whereas inexperienced listeners make high-entropy predictions by default, statistical...

  12. Genetic enhancements and expectations. (United States)

    Sorensen, K


    Some argue that genetic enhancements and environmental enhancements are not importantly different: environmental enhancements such as private schools and chess lessons are simply the old-school way to have a designer baby. I argue that there is an important distinction between the two practices--a distinction that makes state restrictions on genetic enhancements more justifiable than state restrictions on environmental enhancements. The difference is that parents have no settled expectations about genetic enhancements.

  13. Reputation and Rational Expectations


    Andersen, Torben; Risager, Ole


    The paper considers the importance of reputation in relation to disinflationary policies in a continuous time ration expectations model, where the private sector has incomplete information about the true preferences of the government. It is proved that there is a unique equilibrium with the important property that the costs of disinflation arise in the start of the game where the policy has not yet gained credibility. Published in connection with a visit at the IIES.

  14. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Exceptions to Marking Requirements § 134.35 Articles substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the...

  15. Half Life - The divided life of Bruno Maximovitch Pontecorvo

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    When Bruno Pontecorvo fled to the USSR at the height of the Cold War in 1950, half way through his life, the British Government, MI5 and FBI tried to portray him as scientifically insignificant, and to imply that his disappearance posed no threat to the West. In reality Pontecorvo was already one of the leading experts in nuclear physics, and recently declassified papers reveal that a prime agenda of FBI and MI5 was to cover up their errors. . During his time in the USSR he made major contributions to physics, and justified the sobriquet: "Mr Neutrino". This talk will reveal the background to his sudden flight, and also evaluate his work in theoretical physics in the aftermath of his arrival in Dubna. Previously secret documents now show that he proposed the concept of associated production before Gell Mann and Pais, and he had an idea to discover the neutrino at a reactor. He may be considered the father of neutrino astronomy with his successful prediction that neutrinos from a supernova could be detected, b...

  16. What Is the Half-Life of Basketball Teams? (United States)

    Hrepic, Zdeslav


    What do basketball teams have in common with radioactive nuclei? It turns out, there is more here than first meets the eye. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) basketball tournaments feeds fans' craving when NBA competitions are not in swing, and the college tournament time has been referred to as "March Madness" or…

  17. Modelling and Forecasting Health Expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Májer (István)


    textabstractLife expectancy of a human population measures the expected (or average) remaining years of life at a given age. Life expectancy can be defined by two forms of measurement: the period and the cohort life expectancy. The period life expectancy represents the mortality conditions at a

  18. Chinese students' great expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Stig


    to interpret their own educational histories and prior experiences, while at the same time making use of imaginaries of 'Western' education to redefine themselves as independent individuals in an increasingly globalised and individualised world. Through a case study of prospective pre-school teachers preparing...... to study abroad, the article shows how personal, professional and even national goals are closely interwoven. Students expect education abroad to be a personally transformative experience, but rather than defining their goals of individual freedom and creativity in opposition to the authoritarian political...... system, they think of themselves as having a role in the transformation of Chinese attitudes to education and parent-child relations....

  19. Gender Roles and Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A. Eisenchlas


    Full Text Available One consequence of the advent of cyber communication is that increasing numbers of people go online to ask for, obtain, and presumably act upon advice dispensed by unknown peers. Just as advice seekers may not have access to information about the identities, ideologies, and other personal characteristics of advice givers, advice givers are equally ignorant about their interlocutors except for the bits of demographic information that the latter may offer freely. In the present study, that information concerns sex. As the sex of the advice seeker may be the only, or the predominant, contextual variable at hand, it is expected that that identifier will guide advice givers in formulating their advice. The aim of this project is to investigate whether and how the sex of advice givers and receivers affects the type of advice, through the empirical analysis of a corpus of web-based Spanish language forums on personal relationship difficulties. The data revealed that, in the absence of individuating information beyond that implicit in the advice request, internalized gender expectations along the lines of agency and communality are the sources from which advice givers draw to guide their counsel. This is despite the trend in discursive practices used in formulating advice, suggesting greater language convergence across sexes.

  20. ATLAS: Exceeding all expectations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    “One year ago it would have been impossible for us to guess that the machine and the experiments could achieve so much so quickly”, says Fabiola Gianotti, ATLAS spokesperson. The whole chain – from collision to data analysis – has worked remarkably well in ATLAS.   The first LHC proton run undoubtedly exceeded expectations for the ATLAS experiment. “ATLAS has worked very well since the beginning. Its overall data-taking efficiency is greater than 90%”, says Fabiola Gianotti. “The quality and maturity of the reconstruction and simulation software turned out to be better than we expected for this initial stage of the experiment. The Grid is a great success, and right from the beginning it has allowed members of the collaboration all over the world to participate in the data analysis in an effective and timely manner, and to deliver physics results very quickly”. In just a few months of data taking, ATLAS has observed t...

  1. Probability via expectation

    CERN Document Server

    Whittle, Peter


    This book is a complete revision of the earlier work Probability which ap­ peared in 1970. While revised so radically and incorporating so much new material as to amount to a new text, it preserves both the aim and the approach of the original. That aim was stated as the provision of a 'first text in probability, de­ manding a reasonable but not extensive knowledge of mathematics, and taking the reader to what one might describe as a good intermediate level'. In doing so it attempted to break away from stereotyped applications, and consider applications of a more novel and significant character. The particular novelty of the approach was that expectation was taken as the prime concept, and the concept of expectation axiomatized rather than that of a probability measure. In the preface to the original text of 1970 (reproduced below, together with that to the Russian edition of 1982) I listed what I saw as the advantages of the approach in as unlaboured a fashion as I could. I also took the view that the text...

  2. A comparative study of expectant parents ' childbirth expectations. (United States)

    Kao, Bi-Chin; Gau, Meei-Ling; Wu, Shian-Feng; Kuo, Bih-Jaw; Lee, Tsorng-Yeh


    The purpose of this study was to understand childbirth expectations and differences in childbirth expectations among expectant parents. For convenience sampling, 200 couples willing to participate in this study were chosen from two hospitals in central Taiwan. Inclusion criteria were at least 36 weeks of gestation, aged 18 and above, no prenatal complications, and willing to consent to participate in this study. Instruments used to collect data included basic demographic data and the Childbirth Expectations Questionnaire. Findings of the study revealed that (1) five factors were identified by expectant parents regarding childbirth expectations including the caregiving environment, expectation of labor pain, spousal support, control and participation, and medical and nursing support; (2) no general differences were identified in the childbirth expectations between expectant fathers and expectant mothers; and (3) expectant fathers with a higher socioeconomic status and who had received prenatal (childbirth) education had higher childbirth expectations, whereas mothers displayed no differences in demographic characteristics. The study results may help clinical healthcare providers better understand differences in expectations during labor and birth and childbirth expectations by expectant parents in order to improve the medical and nursing system and promote positive childbirth experiences and satisfaction for expectant parents.

  3. [Retinal implants. Patients' expectations]. (United States)

    Gusseck, H


    The "Pro Retina" Society and the "Retina Implant" Foundation, two patients associations with the goal of "preventing blindness," view the "Retina Implant" project as a possibility for providing blind individuals a modicum of restored vision. Both patients associations cultivated a cooperative relationship with researchers and policy makers already during the research phase, introducing the wishes and concerns of patients into considerations and providing information and the groundwork for acceptance in society and among those who may potentially benefit from the method. An initial survey of patients, the visually impaired, and blind people revealed that recovery of sight not only represents a medical and technical problem but that it also involves numerous psychosocial implications. By adhering to ethical standards in implantations, in particular by taking patient autonomy into consideration, anxieties and fears can be reduced. It would appear from early positive results in a short-term clinical study that soon successful chronic retinal implantation can be expected. The dedication displayed by physicians, researchers, and the industry as well as the willingness of the Federal Ministry for Research to take the risk are appreciated and greatfully accepted by the patients and their relatives.

  4. Expectations and speech intelligibility. (United States)

    Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie


    Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs.

  5. Learning Contextual Reward Expectations for Value Adaptation. (United States)

    Rigoli, Francesco; Chew, Benjamin; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J


    Substantial evidence indicates that subjective value is adapted to the statistics of reward expected within a given temporal context. However, how these contextual expectations are learned is poorly understood. To examine such learning, we exploited a recent observation that participants performing a gambling task adjust their preferences as a function of context. We show that, in the absence of contextual cues providing reward information, an average reward expectation was learned from recent past experience. Learning dependent on contextual cues emerged when two contexts alternated at a fast rate, whereas both cue-independent and cue-dependent forms of learning were apparent when two contexts alternated at a slower rate. Motivated by these behavioral findings, we reanalyzed a previous fMRI data set to probe the neural substrates of learning contextual reward expectations. We observed a form of reward prediction error related to average reward such that, at option presentation, activity in ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra and ventral striatum correlated positively and negatively, respectively, with the actual and predicted value of options. Moreover, an inverse correlation between activity in ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (but not striatum) and predicted option value was greater in participants showing enhanced choice adaptation to context. The findings help understanding the mechanisms underlying learning of contextual reward expectation.

  6. Pulsating combustion: Theoretical and empirical substantiation of ecological effect (United States)

    Berg, I. A.; Porshnev, S. V.; Oshchepkova, V. Y.


    There are two primary parameters that characterize operation of modern energy generation units that burn fuel, namely - unit efficiency and the amount of noxious emissions. Usually units that operate at the maximum efficiency produce maximum potential emissions of noxious substances (as NOx) into the atmosphere. This work provides theoretical substantiation for control of the combustion process by superimposing controlled irregularities to the fuel supply rate in order to suppress NOx generation while retaining the unit's technical parameters and cost efficiency. The substantiation uses known empirically obtained NOx generation dependency from the air excess ratio. Evaluation of the generated NOx content was performed using numerical integration of the composed time sequences describing changes in the NOx concentration in the combustion products for various types of control actions. Evaluation of bands of operating frequencies for the proposed method of combustion control are presented. The proposed theoretical substantiation made it possible to determine conditions and technics for experimental work.

  7. Development of controller of acquisition and sample positioner for activation for use in measurements of short half-life radioisotopes; Desenvolvimento de dispositivo movimentador automatizado de amostras com vista a aplicacao em medidas de radioisotopos que possuem curto tempo de meia-vida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secco, Marcello


    High resolution gamma spectroscopy measurements have several applications. Those involving short half-life radioisotope measurements may present low precision problems when the radioactive source is far from detector end cup and in the very high activity situations also can present accuracy loss due to dead time and pile-up effects. A way to overcome these problems is changing the source detector distance as the activity is decreasing, and thereby maximizing the statistical counting. In the present study, the Controller of Acquisition and Sample Positioner for Activation (CASPA) was developed. It is a low cost and weight device, made with low atomic number materials designed to assist gamma spectroscopy measurements, which is able to control the distance between the source and the detector, even allowing that there is a change of this distance during the measurement process. Because it is automated it optimizes the time of the operator, who has complete freedom to program their routine measurements in the device besides minimizing the radiation dose in the operator. An interface that allow the user control the CASPA system and to program the acquisition system was created. Tests aiming to optimize the operation of CASPA system were carried out and the safety of the CASPA operation was verified, it was not presented any failure during their tests. It was applied the repeatability tests by the acquisition {sup 60}Co standard source and was found that the positioning of automated system has reproduced the results of static system with a 95% of confidence level. (author)

  8. Macro Expectations, Aggregate Uncertainty, and Expected Term Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick, Christian D.; Schmeling, Maik; Schrimpf, Andreas

    as well as aggregate macroeconomic uncertainty at the level of individual forecasters. We find that expected term premia are (i) time-varying and reasonably persistent, (ii) strongly related to expectations about future output growth, and (iii) positively affected by uncertainty about future output growth......, and that curvature is related to subjective term premium expectations themselves. Finally, an aggregate measure of forecasters' term premium expectations has predictive power for bond excess returns over horizons of up to one year....

  9. Macro Expectations, Aggregate Uncertainty, and Expected Term Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick, Christian D.; Schmeling, Maik; Schrimpf, Andreas


    as well as aggregate macroeconomic uncertainty at the level of individual forecasters. We find that expected term premia are (i) time-varying and reasonably persistent, (ii) strongly related to expectations about future output growth, and (iii) positively affected by uncertainty about future output growth......, and that curvature is related to subjective term premium expectations themselves. Finally, an aggregate measure of forecasters' term premium expectations has predictive power for bond excess returns over horizons of up to one year....

  10. Social gradient in life expectancy and health expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Andersen, Otto; Kjøller, Mette


    Health status of a population can be evaluated by health expectancy expressed as average lifetime in various states of health. The purpose of the study was to compare health expectancy in population groups at high, medium and low educational levels.......Health status of a population can be evaluated by health expectancy expressed as average lifetime in various states of health. The purpose of the study was to compare health expectancy in population groups at high, medium and low educational levels....

  11. Familiarity changes expectations about fullness. (United States)

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Alexander, Erin


    Expected satiation (the extent to which a food is expected to deliver fullness) is an excellent predictor of self-selected portion size (kcal). Here, we explored the prospect that expected satiation changes over time. Fifty-eight participants evaluated expected satiation in eight test foods (including two 'candidate' foods: sushi and muesli) and reported how often they consumed each food. In one of the candidate foods (sushi), and across other test foods, expected satiation increased with familiarity. Together, these findings are considered in the context of 'satiation drift' - the hypothesis that foods are expected to deliver poor satiation until experience teaches us otherwise. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Gurinovich


    Full Text Available While taking an example of reconstruction and modernization of OJSC «Construction and Mounting Trust No.16, Novopolotsk» the paper substantiates solutions for complex production reconstruction. The production reconstruction is divided in three start-up facilities ensuring continuous finished-product output.

  13. Formation of Rationally Heterogeneous Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfajfar, D.


    Abstract: This paper models expectation formation by taking into account that agents produce heterogeneous expectations due to model uncertainty, informational frictions and different capacities for processing information. We show that there are two general classes of steady states within this


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Merkusheva


    Full Text Available The article prepared for the ‘Psychological and Methodological Aspects of Professional Personnel Training at Internal Affairs Bodies of the Russian Federation’ scholar tradition looks at the applied aspect of handling security issues by traffic police officers. It presents the results of empirical study of the employees’ psychological characteristics conducted to substantiate their attributional style, which determines the specific character as well as the qua-lity and reliability of traffic police officers’ performance. Traffic police officers’ attributional style of behavior is researched with the help of attributional cognitive techniques for hazard phenomena detection as well as social perception and attribution technique and is viewed as the most stable entity, which reflects the employee’s personal and professional focus.Goal: to provide empirical substantiation of attributional style in traffic police officers’ behavior as an integral personality characteristic that ensures timely detection of hazard phenomena.

  15. Substantiation of the road toll for heavy transport vehicles


    Burmaka, N.; Chernykh, A.


    The existing and possible additional sources of developing state and local road funds of Ukraine have been considered. The formula for calculating monthly road toll for heavy transport vehicles has been proposed. This formula includes the payment rate per every kilometer of distance, the vehicle capacity utilization factor and the run with the load. The payment rate per every kilometer of distance for transport vehicles depending on the allowed total weight has been substantiated. The given r...

  16. Patients' substantialization of disease, the hybrid symptom and metaphysical care. (United States)

    Pârvan, Alexandra


    In the context of current scholarship concerned with facilitating integration between the biomedical and the patient-centred models of care, the article suggests that disease brings about an ontological disruption in patients, which is not directly addressed in either model, and may interfere with treatment and therapy outcomes if not met with a type of care termed here as 'metaphysical'. The receipt of diagnosis and medical care can give patients the sense that they are ontologically diminished, or less of a human, and along with physicians' approaches to and discourses about disease, may prompt them to seek ontological restoration or security in the same way as psychologically traumatized patients sometimes do: by treating the disease and/or the experience of harm associated with it as a thing that exists per se. I call this 'substantialization' of disease (or harm) and draw on Augustine's theory of non-substantial deficiencies (physiological and moral) and on Plato's and Plotinus's different takes on such defects in order to discuss what substantialization can do for patients. Based on literature that examines patients' ways of talking about and living with their disease, I speculate that substantialization can generate a 'hybrid symptom', consisting in patterns of exercising agency which may predispose to non-adherence. Ways in which physicians could provide metaphysical care are proposed, along with an understanding of chronic patients as hybrid ontological and agentic units, which draws on theories of enactive cognition. I opine that metaphysical care may facilitate integration between the depersonalized and personalized models of care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Automatic filtering and substantiation of drug safety signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bauer-Mehren

    Full Text Available Drug safety issues pose serious health threats to the population and constitute a major cause of mortality worldwide. Due to the prominent implications to both public health and the pharmaceutical industry, it is of great importance to unravel the molecular mechanisms by which an adverse drug reaction can be potentially elicited. These mechanisms can be investigated by placing the pharmaco-epidemiologically detected adverse drug reaction in an information-rich context and by exploiting all currently available biomedical knowledge to substantiate it. We present a computational framework for the biological annotation of potential adverse drug reactions. First, the proposed framework investigates previous evidences on the drug-event association in the context of biomedical literature (signal filtering. Then, it seeks to provide a biological explanation (signal substantiation by exploring mechanistic connections that might explain why a drug produces a specific adverse reaction. The mechanistic connections include the activity of the drug, related compounds and drug metabolites on protein targets, the association of protein targets to clinical events, and the annotation of proteins (both protein targets and proteins associated with clinical events to biological pathways. Hence, the workflows for signal filtering and substantiation integrate modules for literature and database mining, in silico drug-target profiling, and analyses based on gene-disease networks and biological pathways. Application examples of these workflows carried out on selected cases of drug safety signals are discussed. The methodology and workflows presented offer a novel approach to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying adverse drug reactions.

  18. Expectations on Track? High School Tracking and Adolescent Educational Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt


    This paper examines the role of adaptation in expectation formation processes by analyzing how educational tracking in high schools affects adolescents' educational expectations. I argue that adolescents view track placement as a signal about their academic abilities and respond to it in terms...... of modifying their educational expectations. Applying a difference-in-differences approach to the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988, I find that being placed in an advanced or honors class in high school positively affects adolescents’ expectations, particularly if placement is consistent across...

  19. Substantial Research Secures the Blue Future for our Blue Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Abdel Maksoud


    Full Text Available Earth, the blue planet, is our home, and seas and oceans cover more than 70% of its surface. As the earth’s population rapidly increases and available resources decrease, seas and oceans can play a key role in assuring the long-term survival of humankind. Renewable maritime energy has huge potential to provide a considerable part of the earth’s population with decarbonised electricity generation systems. Renewable maritime energy is very flexible and can be harvested above the water’s free surface by using offshore wind turbines, on the water’s surface by using wave energy converters or below the water’s surface by using current or tidal turbines. The supposed conflict between environmental protection measures and economic interests is neither viable nor reasonable. Renewable maritime energy can be the motor for considerable substantial economic growth for many maritime regions and therefore for society at large. The fastest growing sector of renewable maritime energy is offshore wind. The annual report of the European Wind Energy Association from the year 2015 confirms the growing relevance of the offshore wind industry. In 2015, the total installed and grid-connected capacity of wind power was 12,800 MW in the EU and 6,013.4 MW in Germany. 38% of the 2015 annual installation in Germany was offshore, accounting for a capacity of 2,282.4 MW. However, there are a limited number of available installation sites in shallow water, meaning that there is an urgent need to develop new offshore structures for water depths greater than 50m. The persistent trend towards deeper waters has encouraged the offshore wind industry to look for floating wind turbine structures and larger turbines. Floating wind turbine technologies are at an early stage of development and many technical and economic challenges will still need to be faced. Nonetheless, intensive research activities and the employment of advanced technologies are the key factors in

  20. Expectation, the placebo effect and the response to treatment. (United States)

    Brown, Walter A


    What we believe we will experience from a treatment--our expectation--has a substantial impact on what we actually experience. Expectation has been established as a key process behind the placebo effect. Studies in both laboratory and clinical settings consistently show that when people ingest a pharmacologically inert substance (placebo) but believe that it is an active substance, they experience both the subjective sensations and physiologic effects expected from that active substance. Expectation has an important place in the response to "real" treatment as well. This paper provides an overview of the data which point to the role of expectation in both the placebo effect and the response to treatment. These data suggest that clinicians might enhance the benefit of all treatments by promoting patients' positive expectations.

  1. Gompertz-Makeham Life Expectancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Missov, Trifon I.; Lenart, Adam; Vaupel, James W.

    We study the Gompertz and Gompertz-Makeham mortality models. We prove that the resulting life expectancy can be expressed in terms of a hypergeometric function if the population is heterogeneous with gamma-distributed individual frailty, or an incomplete gamma function if the study population...... is homogeneous. We use the properties of hypergeometric and incomplete gamma functions to construct approximations that allow calculating the respective life expectancy with high accuracy and interpreting the impact of model parameters on life expectancy....

  2. Decomposing change in life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W.; Canudas Romo, Vladimir


    at all ages, and the second term captures the effect of heterogeneity in the pace of improvement in mortality at different ages. We extend the formula to decompose change in life expectancy into age-specific and cause-specific components, and apply the methods to analyze changes in life expectancy......We extend Nathan Keyfitz's research on continuous change in life expectancy over time by presenting and proving a new formula for decomposing such change. The formula separates change in life expectancy over time into two terms. The first term captures the general effect of reduction in death rates...

  3. Ammonia Emissions May Be Substantially Underestimated in China. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuming; Wu, Yiyun; Liu, Xuejun; Reis, Stefan; Jin, Jiaxin; Dragosits, Ulrike; Van Damme, Martin; Clarisse, Lieven; Whitburn, Simon; Coheur, Pierre-François; Gu, Baojing


    China is a global hotspot of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) emissions and, as a consequence, very high nitrogen (N) deposition levels are documented. However, previous estimates of total NH3 emissions in China were much lower than inference from observed deposition values would suggest, highlighting the need for further investigation. Here, we reevaluated NH3 emissions based on a mass balance approach, validated by N deposition monitoring and satellite observations, for China for the period of 2000 to 2015. Total NH3 emissions in China increased from 12.1 ± 0.8 Tg N yr(-1) in 2000 to 15.6 ± 0.9 Tg N yr(-1) in 2015 at an annual rate of 1.9%, which is approximately 40% higher than existing studies suggested. This difference is mainly due to more emission sources now having been included and NH3 emission rates from mineral fertilizer application and livestock having been underestimated previously. Our estimated NH3 emission levels are consistent with the measured deposition of NHx (including NH4(+) and NH3) on land (11-14 Tg N yr(-1)) and the substantial increases in NH3 concentrations observed by satellite measurements over China. These findings substantially improve our understanding on NH3 emissions, implying that future air pollution control strategies have to consider the potentials of reducing NH3 emission in China.

  4. Fiscal Consolidations and Heterogeneous Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Lustenhouwer, J.; Mavromatis, K.


    We analyze fiscal consolidations using a New Keynesian model where agents have heterogeneous expectations and are uncertain about the composition of consoidations. Heterogeneity in expectations may amplify expansions, stabilizing thus the debt-to-GDP ratio faster under tax based consolidations, in

  5. Deviating Trends in Dutch Life Expectancy : Explanation and Projection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Peters (Frederick)


    markdownabstractAbstract After almost two decades of slower improvement and partly even stagnating progress, Dutch life expectancy increased substantially since 2002. Although such a positive development represents a great societal advancement it also poses a financial burden for the Dutch

  6. Expectations of the state, the investor, and the developer; ownership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescoeur, B. [Electricite de France (France)


    Results are presented from a study into how the substantial amount of financial resources required by the electricity sector over the next decades might be mobilised. Topics covered include social policy, long term planning, environmental objectives, balancing the risks and rewards for investors and the expectations of a project developer. (UK)

  7. Pathogenetic substantiation of surgical treatment of recurrent inguinal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilіanskyі L.S.


    Full Text Available Research purpose was to investigate tissue reactions on implantation of polypropylene mesh, processed with collagen, after plastic surgery of experimental defect in rats in preperitoneal prosthesis localization. Research was performed in two experimental groups. Group 1 – in 17 rats an experimental defect of anterior abdominal wall with 3 cm of size with further preperitoneal fixation of the polypropylene mesh of 0,5×1,0 cm size was performed. Group 2 – in 20 rats under analogous conditions preperitoneal fixation of polypropylene mesh, processed with collagen was performed. Morphological analysis of stages of scar tissue formation in the implantation region in the preperitoneal cavity of rats by stereological characteristics of cellular and fiber structures of connective tissue considering hemodynamic characteristics shows substantial benefits of polypropylene mesh, processed with collagen, during 2 montha after experimental hernioplasty.

  8. The substantiation of development of mousses technology using wheat starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Мriachenko


    Full Text Available This work is dedicated to the substantiation of development of technology of fruit and vegetable mousses using wheat starch and surfactant – Tween 20. The innovative idea of product with foamy structure was expounded, the implementation of which will allow to provide obtaining of the final product with stable quality indicators, new consumer characteristics and will give an opportunity to carry out the production technological process with distinct industrial signs.The foaming capacity and foam stability of “wheat starch-Tween 20” model systems depending on the heat treatment temperature and starch concentration were investigated. The rational foaming zone was determined that will allow to obtain foamy structure of mousses. The model systems behavior was studied by the determining of their viscosity. It was confirmed that the controlled regulation of dynamic phase transitions of starch with surfactant provides food systems’ colloidal stability.

  9. Neural correlates of rhythmic expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore P. Zanto


    Full Text Available Temporal expectancy is thought to play a fundamental role in the perception of rhythm. This review summarizes recent studies that investigated rhythmic expectancy by recording neuroelectric activity with high temporal resolution during the presentation of rhythmic patterns. Prior event-related brain potential (ERP studies have uncovered auditory evoked responses that reflect detection of onsets, offsets, sustains,and abrupt changes in acoustic properties such as frequency, intensity, and spectrum, in addition to indexing higher-order processes such as auditory sensory memory and the violation of expectancy. In our studies of rhythmic expectancy, we measured emitted responses - a type of ERP that occurs when an expected event is omitted from a regular series of stimulus events - in simple rhythms with temporal structures typical of music. Our observations suggest that middle-latency gamma band (20-60 Hz activity (GBA plays an essential role in auditory rhythm processing. Evoked (phase-locked GBA occurs in the presence of physically presented auditory events and reflects the degree of accent. Induced (non-phase-locked GBA reflects temporally precise expectancies for strongly and weakly accented events in sound patterns. Thus far, these findings support theories of rhythm perception that posit temporal expectancies generated by active neural processes.

  10. Life expectancy and cardiovascular mortality in persons with schizophrenia. (United States)

    Laursen, Thomas M; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Vestergaard, Mogens


    To assess the impact of cardiovascular disease on the excess mortality and shortened life expectancy in schizophrenic patients. Patients with schizophrenia have two-fold to three-fold higher mortality rates compared with the general population, corresponding to a 10-25-year reduction in life expectancy. Although the mortality rate from suicide is high, natural causes of death account for a greater part of the reduction in life expectancy. The reviewed studies suggest four main reasons for the excess mortality and reduced life expectancy. First, persons with schizophrenia tend to have suboptimal lifestyles including unhealthy diets, excessive smoking and alcohol use, and lack of exercise. Second, antipsychotic drugs may have adverse effects. Third, physical illnesses in persons with schizophrenia are common, but diagnosed late and treated insufficiently. Lastly, the risk of suicide and accidents among schizophrenic patients is high. Schizophrenia is associated with a substantially higher mortality and curtailed life expectancy partly caused by modifiable risk factors.

  11. Meia-vida do ametryn em argissolo vermelho-amarelo e latossolo vermelho-amarelo, com diferentes valores de pH Determination of half-life of ametryn on red-yellow latosol and red-yellow ultisol with different pH values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.B. Andrade


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar a meia-vida (t½ do herbicida ametryn em Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo e Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, com diferentes valores de pH. Foram utilizados vasos revestidos internamente com filme plástico e preenchidos com 330,0 g de amostras dos solos em estudo (Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo - LVA com valores de pH corrigidos para 4,4, 4,9 e 5,8, e Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo - PVA com pH 5,9. As amostras desses solos foram coletadas em pastagens degradadas isentas da aplicação de herbicidas. A essas amostras foi aplicado o ametryn na dose de 2,5 L ha-1. Doze horas após essa aplicação, foram retiradas as primeiras amostras de solo dos vasos, para determinação da concentração no tempo zero, e a cada cinco dias foram retiradas novas amostras de outros vasos, visando à determinação da concentração de ametryn ao longo do tempo. A extração do ametryn da matriz solo foi realizada por Extração Sólido Líquido com Partição em Baixa Temperatura (ESL-PBT, e o herbicida, quantificado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência - CLAE. Foi realizado, em paralelo, um teste biológico para determinação indireta da persistência do herbicida. A análise dos dados indicou que a meia-vida (t½ do ametryn nos solos avaliados foi de 26, 19, 12 e 11 dias para os solos LVA pH 4,4; LVA pH 4,9; LVA pH 5,8; e PVA pH 5,9, respectivamente. Ambos os métodos (cromatografia ou bioensaios utilizados para avaliação da persistência do ametryn nos solos evidenciaram que a degradação desse herbicida é muito influenciada pelo pH do solo e pelo teor de matéria orgânica.The objective of this study was to determine the half-life (t½ for the herbicide ametryn in Red-Yellow Latosol (LVA and Red-Yellow Ultisol (PVA with different pH values. Thus, plastic pots coated inside with plastic film were filled with 330 g of samples from the soils under study (LVA with pH values adjusted to 4.4, 4.9 and 5.8, and PVA pH 5

  12. Rational Expectations and Economic Models. (United States)

    Sheffrin, Steven M.


    Examines how rational expectation models can help describe and predict trends within an economy and explains research needs within the discipline of economics which will enable economists to make more valid predictions. (DB)

  13. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh


    OBJECTIVE: Life expectancy in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be decreased by 11 to 20 years. These calculations are based on data for individuals at the age of 15 years. However, this may be misleading for patients with bipolar disorder in general as most patients have a later...... onset of illness. The aim of the present study was to calculate the remaining life expectancy for patients of different ages with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using nationwide registers of all inpatient and outpatient contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark from 1970 to 2012 we...... calculated remaining life expectancies for values of age 15, 25, 35 ⃛ 75 years among all individuals alive in year 2000. RESULTS: For the typical male or female patient aged 25 to 45 years, the remaining life expectancy was decreased by 12.0-8.7 years and 10.6-8.3 years, respectively. The ratio between...

  14. Physical activity extends life expectancy (United States)

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  15. Burn Patient Expectations from Nurses


    Sibel Yilmaz sahin; Umran Dal; Gulsen Vural


    AIM: Burn is a kind of painful trauma that requires a long period of treatment and also changes patients body image. For this reason, nursing care of burn patients is very important. In this study in order to provide qualified care to the burned patients, patient and #8217;s expectations from nurses were aimed to be established. METHODS: Patients and #8217; expectations were evaluated on 101 patients with burn in Ministry of Health Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Burn Servic...

  16. Rational Expectation Can Preclude Trades


    Matsuhisa, Takashi; Ishikawa, Ryuichiro


    We consider a pure exchange economy under uncertainty in which the traders have the non-partition structure of information. They willing to trade the amounts of state-contingent commodities and they know their own expectations. Common knowledge of these conditions among all the traders can preclude trade if the initial endowments allocation is ex-ante Pareto optimal. Furthermore we introduce rational expectations equilibrium under the non-partition information, and prove the existence theorem...

  17. Rational Expectations: Retrospect and Prospect


    Hoover, Kevin; Young, Warren


    The transcript of a panel discussion marking the fiftieth anniversary of John Muth's "Rational Expectations and the Theory of Price Movements" (Econometrica 1961). The panel consists of Michael Lovell, Robert Lucas, Dale Mortensen, Robert Shiller, and Neil Wallace. The discussion is moderated by Kevin Hoover and Warren Young. The panel touches on a wide variety of issues related to the rational-expectations hypothesis, including: its history, starting with Muth's work at Carnegie Tech; its me...

  18. Substantial soil organic carbon retention along floodplains of mountain streams (United States)

    Sutfin, Nicholas A.; Wohl, Ellen


    Small, snowmelt-dominated mountain streams have the potential to store substantial organic carbon in floodplain sediment because of high inputs of particulate organic matter, relatively lower temperatures compared with lowland regions, and potential for increased moisture conditions. This work (i) quantifies mean soil organic carbon (OC) content along 24 study reaches in the Colorado Rocky Mountains using 660 soil samples, (ii) identifies potential controls of OC content based on soil properties and spatial position with respect to the channel, and (iii) and examines soil properties and OC across various floodplain geomorphic features in the study area. Stepwise multiple linear regression (adjusted r2 = 0.48, p analysis indicates limited separation between geomorphic floodplain features based on predictors of OC content. A lack of significant differences among floodplain features suggests that the systematic random sampling employed in this study can capture the variability of OC across floodplains in the study area. Mean floodplain OC (6.3 ± 0.3%) is more variable but on average greater than values in uplands (1.5 ± 0.08% to 2.2 ± 0.14%) of the Colorado Front Range and higher than published values from floodplains in other regions, particularly those of larger rivers.

  19. Burn Patient Expectations from Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Yilmaz sahin


    Full Text Available AIM: Burn is a kind of painful trauma that requires a long period of treatment and also changes patients body image. For this reason, nursing care of burn patients is very important. In this study in order to provide qualified care to the burned patients, patient and #8217;s expectations from nurses were aimed to be established. METHODS: Patients and #8217; expectations were evaluated on 101 patients with burn in Ministry of Health Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Burn Service and Gulhane Military Medical Academy Education and Research Hospital Burn Center. A questionnaire which was developed by the researchers was used for collecting data. The questions on the questionnaire were classified into four groups to evaluate the patients and #8217; expectations about communication, information, care and discharge. Data was evaluated by using SPSS 12 package software. RESULTS: In this study, 48.5% of patients were at 18-28 age group, 79.2% were male and 51.5% of patients were employed. Almost all of patients expect nurses to give them confidence (98% and to give them information about latest developments with the disease. Patients prior expectation from nurses about care was to do their treatments regularly (100% and to take the necessary precautions in order to prevent infection (100%. 97% of patient expect nurses to give them information about the drugs, materials and equipment that they are going to use while discharge. CONCLUSION: As a result we found that burn patient expectations from nurses about communication, information, care and discharge were high. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 37-46

  20. Substantial Lateral Motions Accompany Tectonic Deformation on Venus (United States)

    Byrne, P. K.; Sengor, A. M. C.; Ghail, R.; Klimczak, C.; Solomon, S. C.


    Absent plate tectonics, deformation accompanying large-scale relative horizontal motion of the lithosphere on Venus is much more evenly distributed than that on Earth, which is mainly concentrated at plate boundaries. Yet Earth's plates, especially those of the continental lithosphere, are themselves internally deformed, often in a spatially distributed manner. Tectonic deformation on Venus thus has parallels to intraplate deformation on Earth, and so the morphology and kinematics of large-scale tectonics on Venus can be compared with structurally similar intraplate regions here. For example, numerous low-lying plains on Venus delineated by fold belts are analogous to mountain-range-bound sedimentary basins on Earth. One such site, northeast of Artemis Corona, is elliptical in plan and, at 1100 km in east-west and 620 km in north-south dimension, is akin to the Tarim Basin in northwest China (1250 km × 560 km). The fold belts demarcating this plain structurally resemble the Tian Shan range to the northwest and the Altun Shan to the southeast of the Tarim Basin, as well as the southern mountain range of the Sichuan Basin in southwest China. Notably, the Sichuan Basin is comparable in size (560 km × 390 km) to two other elliptical, fold-belt-bordered plains in the northeastern portion of Lada Terra on Venus (400 km × 300 km and 400 km × 370 km, respectively). The mountain ranges that delimit both the Tarim and Sichuan basins have accommodated substantial transpressive deformation: the Altun Shan range is situated atop the major Altyn Tagh left-lateral strike-slip fault, and the Longmenshan thrust belt to the northwest of the Sichuan Basin includes right-lateral shear. The fold belts on Venus may therefore possess a greater component of transpressive deformation than currently recognized, and these structures may thereby have facilitated more large-scale lateral mobility of the planet's lithosphere than previously thought.

  1. New theory of arrhythmia. Conceptual substantiation of arrhythmia mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Ermoshkin


    Full Text Available Aims A new attempt is made to substantiate the concept of the mechanism of arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Methods The paper is based on a theoretical analysis of special literature, personal experience of participation in conferences and discussions with leading Russian cardiologists. Results We have succeeded in demonstrating the fact that researchers ignore the fact that cardiomyocytes can be excited by mechanical pulses, when considering the arrhythmia mechanisms. We have conducted trials using the Cardiocode device. Under stress in a human, opened may be large and small arteriovenous anastomoses, via which blood under high pressure is ejected into veins. It leads to pressure surges in arteries and veins. The vena cava dilates, its tonus increases. In some cases, the pulse waves travel via anastomoses along the vena cava walls to the atria and the ventricles. An above-threshold concentration of tensions from mechanical pulses may excite cardiomyocytes from different points of the myocardium, disturbing the sinus rhythm. As a result, extrasystoles, tachycardia attacks, blocking of blood circulation in the peripheral segments of the venous arterial networks, edemata, thrombosis and metabolism disorders appear. Arrhythmia, tachycardia attacks and concomitant myocardial ischemia lead to progression of heart fibrosis. Such changes increase the probability of fibrillations and sudden cardiac death. Conclusion Unhealthy lifestyle, the presence of opening and not properly closing anastomoses may provoke a number of diseases. To avoid the cardiac arrhythmia attacks and prevent SCD, it is necessary to suppress travel of the mechanical waves within the following circuitry: aorta – artery – anastomosis – vein – vena cava – atria – ventricles. The travel of the mechanical waves within the same vessel circuitry explains the fact that the fixed couplings under extrasystoles are observed, and the beat-to-beat RR intervals under tachycardia

  2. Expectancy and the Treatment of Depression: A Review of Experimental Methodology and Effects on Patient Outcome


    Rutherford, Bret R.; Wager, Tor D.; Roose, Steven P.


    Expectancies are a class of psychological and neurobiological processes that may be responsible for part of the improvement observed with psychiatric treatments. Patients' expectations can substantially affect the results of clinical trials, and managing them is an important part of clinical care. This review describes the history of research on expectancy effects in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), the relationship between expectancies and placebo effects, and what is currently known about t...

  3. Broken Expectations: Violation of Expectancies, Not Novelty, Captures Auditory Attention (United States)

    Vachon, Francois; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.


    The role of memory in behavioral distraction by auditory attentional capture was investigated: We examined whether capture is a product of the novelty of the capturing event (i.e., the absence of a recent memory for the event) or its violation of learned expectancies on the basis of a memory for an event structure. Attentional capture--indicated…

  4. Consumer's inflation expectations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ormonde Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper investigates what are the main components of consumer's inflation expectations. We combine the FGV's Consumer Survey with the indices of inflation (IPCA and government regulated prices, professional forecasts disclosed in the Focus report, and media data which we crawl from one of the biggest and most important Brazilian newspapers, Folha de São Paulo, to determine what factors are responsible for and improve consumer's forecast accuracy. We found gender, age and city of residence as major elements when analyzing micro-data. Aggregate data shows the past inflation as an important trigger in the formation of consumers' expectations and professional forecasts as negligible. Moreover, the media plays a significant role, accounting not only for the expectations' formation but for a better understanding of actual inflation as well.

  5. Expectations for a scientific collaboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.


    In the past decade, a number of scientific collaboratories have emerged, yet adoption of scientific collaboratories remains limited. Meeting expectations is one factor that influences adoption of innovations, including scientific collaboratories. This paper investigates expectations scientists have...... with respect to scientific collaboratories. Interviews were conducted with 17 scientists who work in a variety of settings and have a range of experience conducting and managing scientific research. Results indicate that scientists expect a collaboratory to: support their strategic plans; facilitate management...... of the scientific process; have a positive or neutral impact on scientific outcomes; provide advantages and disadvantages for scientific task execution; and provide personal conveniences when collaborating across distances. These results both confirm existing knowledge and raise new issues for the design...

  6. Role of dynamics in enzyme catalysis: substantial versus semantic controversies. (United States)

    Kohen, Amnon


    CONSPECTUS: The role of the enzyme's dynamic motions in catalysis is at the center of heated contemporary debates among both theoreticians and experimentalists. Resolving these apparent disputes is of both intellectual and practical importance: incorporation of enzyme dynamics could be critical for any calculation of enzymatic function and may have profound implications for structure-based drug design and the design of biomimetic catalysts. Analysis of the literature suggests that while part of the dispute may reflect substantial differences between theoretical approaches, much of the debate is semantic. For example, the term "protein dynamics" is often used by some researchers when addressing motions that are in thermal equilibrium with their environment, while other researchers only use this term for nonequilibrium events. The last cases are those in which thermal energy is "stored" in a specific protein mode and "used" for catalysis before it can dissipate to its environment (i.e., "nonstatistical dynamics"). This terminology issue aside, a debate has arisen among theoreticians around the roles of nonstatistical vs statistical dynamics in catalysis. However, the author knows of no experimental findings available today that examined this question in enzyme catalyzed reactions. Another source of perhaps nonsubstantial argument might stem from the varying time scales of enzymatic motions, which range from seconds to femtoseconds. Motions at different time scales play different roles in the many events along the catalytic cascade (reactant binding, reprotonation of reactants, structural rearrangement toward the transition state, product release, etc.). In several cases, when various experimental tools have been used to probe catalytic events at differing time scales, illusory contradictions seem to have emerged. In this Account, recent attempts to sort the merits of those questions are discussed along with possible future directions. A possible summary of current

  7. Bariatric surgery in Medicare patients: greater risks but substantial benefits. (United States)

    Yuan, Xiang; Martin Hawver, Lisa R; Ojo, Peter; Wolfe, Luke M; Meador, Jill G; Kellum, John M; Maher, James W


    Recent reports have documented greater mortality for bariatric surgery in Medicare (MC) patients compared with patients from other payors. We reviewed our database for the mortality and outcomes of 282 MC and 3169 non-Medicare (NMC) patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Of the MC patients, 27 were >65 years of age, and 255 were receiving disability. The average age was 48.45 +/- 11.8 years, and the average BMI was 52.4 +/- 10.0 kg/m2. NMC patients had average age of 40.0 +/- 10.1 years and a BMI of 50.6 +/- 9.1 kg/m2. The co-morbidities were greater in the MC patients than in the NMC patients (hypertension 71.9% versus 48.4%, diabetes mellitus 39.72% versus 19.4%, obstructive sleep apnea 46.45% versus 28.46%, and obesity hypoventilation syndrome 9.93% versus 2.71%). The mortality rate was 2.48% in the MC patients and .76% in the NMC patients. Mortality was absent in MC patients >65 years old. The percentage of excess weight lost was less in the MC patients (60.8%) than in the NMC patients (66.5%, P obstructive sleep apnea 79.17% versus 54.51%; and obesity hypoventilation syndrome 26.39% versus 7.64%). The operative mortality rate was 5.6% for the male MC patients and 1.5% for the female MC patients. The weight loss was similar for the male MC and male NMC patients. The male MC patients had slightly better resolution of both hypertension (MC patients 54.8% versus NMC patients 26.7%, P = .0025) and diabetes mellitus (MC patients 30% versus NMC patients 22.5%, P = .745). When the patients were stratified into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups using a previously validated risk scale, patients with similar risk factors had similar mortality in both groups. The results of our study have shown that disabled MC patients have greater operative mortality than NMC patients that appears to be associated with more prevalent risk factors. However, the risk was counterbalanced by a substantial improvement in health.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper aims to give an overview of the methods to inherently prevent human errors and to effectively mitigate the consequences of such errors by securing defense-in-depth during plant management through the advanced man-machine interface system (MMIS. It is needless to stress the significance of human error reduction during an accident in nuclear power plants (NPPs. Unexpected shutdowns caused by human errors not only threaten nuclear safety but also make public acceptance of nuclear power extremely lower. We have to recognize there must be the possibility of human errors occurring since humans are not essentially perfect particularly under stressful conditions. However, we have the opportunity to improve such a situation through advanced information and communication technologies on the basis of lessons learned from our experiences. As important lessons, authors explained key issues associated with automation, man-machine interface, operator support systems, and procedures. Upon this investigation, we outlined the concept and technical factors to develop advanced automation, operation and maintenance support systems, and computer-based procedures using wired/wireless technology. It should be noted that the ultimate responsibility of nuclear safety obviously belongs to humans not to machines. Therefore, safety culture including education and training, which is a kind of organizational factor, should be emphasized as well. In regard to safety culture for human error reduction, several issues that we are facing these days were described. We expect the ideas of the advanced MMIS proposed in this paper to lead in the future direction of related researches and finally supplement the safety of NPPs.

  9. Obtaining a pet: realistic expectations. (United States)

    Marder, Amy; Duxbury, Margaret M


    Millions of dog-human relationships fail each year-some from simple and preventable mismatches. False or unrealistic expectations of a dog's behavior are a common reason for failed human-animal bonds. Veterinarians can reduce the incidence of false expectations and thereby increase the likelihood of successful adoptions by offering preadoption counseling to help clients sort through the many factors involved in the process of successful pet selection, by preparing clients to take on the important tasks of puppy socialization and the management of the home learning environment, and by educating new owners about the needs and behavior of dogs.

  10. Opposing effects of expectancy and somatic focus on pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie E Johnston

    Full Text Available High-pain expectancy increases pain and pain-related brain activity, creating a cycle of psychologically maintained pain. Though these effects are robust, little is known about how expectancy works and what psychological processes either support or mitigate its effects. To address this, we independently manipulated pain expectancy and "top-down" attention to the body, and examined their effects on both a performance-based measure of body-focus and heat-induced pain. Multi-level mediation analyses showed that high-pain expectancy substantially increased pain, replicating previous work. However, attention to the body reduced pain, partially suppressing the effects of expectancy. Furthermore, increased body-focus had larger pain-reducing effects when pain expectancy was high, suggesting that attempts to focus on external distractors are counterproductive in this situation. Overall, the results show that attention to the body cannot explain pain-enhancing expectancy effects, and that focusing on sensory/discriminative aspects of pain might be a useful pain-regulation strategy when severe pain is expected.

  11. Expected utility with lower probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte


    An uncertain and not just risky situation may be modeled using so-called belief functions assigning lower probabilities to subsets of outcomes. In this article we extend the von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility theory from probability measures to belief functions. We use this theory...

  12. Education: Expectation and the Unexpected (United States)

    Fulford, Amanda


    This paper considers concepts of expectation and responsibility, and how these drive dialogic interactions between tutor and student in an age of marketised Higher Education. In thinking about such interactions in terms of different forms of exchange, the paper considers the philosophy of Martin Buber and Emmanuel Levinas on dialogic…

  13. Privacy Expectations in Online Contexts (United States)

    Pure, Rebekah Abigail


    Advances in digital networked communication technology over the last two decades have brought the issue of personal privacy into sharper focus within contemporary public discourse. In this dissertation, I explain the Fourth Amendment and the role that privacy expectations play in the constitutional protection of personal privacy generally, and…

  14. Expectations and retail profit margins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G.J. den Hertog; A.R. Thurik (Roy)


    textabstractIn this study expectations and prediction errors are introduced in the context of retail price setting. A new model and a new data set are used to examine whether prediction errors influence retail price setting, whether prediction errors cause only limited price changes to maintain

  15. Smooth paths of conditional expectations


    Andruchow, Esteban; Larotonda, Gabriel


    Let A be a von Neumann algebra with a finite trace $\\tau$, represented in $H=L^2(A,\\tau)$, and let $B_t\\subset A$ be sub-algebras, for $t$ in an interval $I$. Let $E_t:A\\to B_t$ be the unique $\\tau$-preserving conditional expectation. We say that the path $t\\mapsto E_t$ is smooth if for every $a\\in A$ and $v \\in H$, the map $$ I\

  16. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence (United States)

    Magnus, Jan R.; Peresetsky, Anatoly A.


    Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (over)confidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (over)confidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly. PMID:29375449

  17. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. Magnus


    Full Text Available Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (overconfidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (overconfidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly.

  18. Expectations and social decision-making: biasing effects of prior knowledge on Ultimatum responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanfey, A.G.


    Psychological studies have long demonstrated effects of expectations on judgment, whereby the provision of information, either implicitly or explicitly, prior to an experience or decision can exert a substantial influence on the observed behavior. This study extended these expectation effects to the

  19. Primary Care Clinician Expectations Regarding Aging (United States)

    Davis, Melinda M.; Bond, Lynne A.; Howard, Alan; Sarkisian, Catherine A.


    Purpose: Expectations regarding aging (ERA) in community-dwelling older adults are associated with personal health behaviors and health resource usage. Clinicians' age expectations likely influence patients' expectations and care delivery patterns; yet, limited research has explored clinicians' age expectations. The Expectations Regarding Aging…

  20. Self-Averaging Expectation Propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cakmak, Burak; Opper, Manfred; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    We investigate the problem of approximate inference using Expectation Propagation (EP) for large systems under some statistical assumptions. Our approach tries to overcome the numerical bottleneck of EP caused by the inversion of large matrices. Assuming that the measurement matrices...... are realizations of specific types of random matrix ensembles – called invariant ensembles – the EP cavity variances have an asymptotic self-averaging property. They can be pre-computed using specific generating functions which do not require matrix inversions. We demonstrate the performance of our approach...

  1. Regulatory Expectations for Safety Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Su Jin; Oh, Jang Jin; Choi, Young Sung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The oversight of licensee's safety culture becomes an important issue that attracts great public and political concerns recently in Korea. Beginning from the intended violation of rules, a series of corruptions, documents forgery and disclosure of wrong-doings made the public think that the whole mindset of nuclear workers has been inadequate. Thus, they are demanding that safety culture shall be improved and that regulatory body shall play more roles and responsibilities for the improvements and oversight for them. This paper introduces, as an effort of regulatory side, recent changes in the role of regulators in safety culture, regulatory expectations on the desired status of licensee's safety culture, the pilot inspection program for safety culture and research activity for the development of oversight system. After the Fukushima accident in Japan 2011, many critics has searched for cultural factors that caused the unacceptable negligence pervaded in Japan nuclear society and the renewed emphasis has been placed on rebuilding safety culture by operators, regulators, and relevant institutions globally. Significant progress has been made in how to approach safety culture and led to a new perspective different from the existing normative assessment method both in operators and regulatory side. Regulatory expectations and oversight of them are based on such a new holistic concept for human, organizational and cultural elements to maintain and strengthen the integrity of defense in depth and consequently nuclear safety.

  2. Reduction in predicted coronary heart disease risk after substantial weight reduction after bariatric surgery. (United States)

    Vogel, Jody A; Franklin, Barry A; Zalesin, Kerstyn C; Trivax, Justin E; Krause, Kevin R; Chengelis, David L; McCullough, Peter A


    In recent years, bariatric surgery has become an increasingly used therapeutic option for morbid obesity. The effect of weight loss after bariatric surgery on the predicted risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) has not previously been studied. We evaluated baseline (preoperative) and follow-up (postoperative) body mass index, CHD risk factors, and Framingham risk scores (FRSs) for 109 consecutive patients with morbid obesity who lost weight after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Charts were abstracted using a case-report form by a reviewer blinded to the FRS results. The study included 82 women (75%) and 27 men (25%) (mean age 46 +/- 10 years). Mean body mass index values at baseline and follow-up were 49 +/- 8 and 36 +/- 8 kg/m(2), respectively (p <0.0001). During an average follow-up of 17 months, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia resolved or improved after weight loss. Thus, the risks of CHD as predicted by FRS decreased by 39% in men and 25% in women. The predicted 10-year CHD risks at baseline and follow-up were 6 +/- 5% and 4 +/- 3%, respectively (p < or =0.0001). For those without CHD, men compared favorably with the age-matched general population, with a final 10-year risk of 5 +/- 4% versus an expected risk of 11 +/- 6% (p <0.0001). Likewise, women achieved a level below the age-adjusted expected 10-year risk of the general population, with a final risk of 3 +/- 3% versus 6 +/- 4% (p <0.0001). In conclusion, weight loss results in a significant decrease in FRS 10-year predicted CHD risk. Bariatric surgery decreases CHD risk to rates lower than the age- and gender-adjusted estimates for the general population. These data suggest substantial and sustained weight loss after bariatric surgery may be a powerful intervention to decrease future rates of myocardial infarction and death in the morbidly obese.

  3. Widening socioeconomic inequalities in US life expectancy, 1980-2000. (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K; Siahpush, Mohammad


    This study examines changes in the extent of inequalities in life expectancy at birth and other ages in the United States between 1980 and 2000 by gender and socioeconomic deprivation levels. A factor-based deprivation index consisting of 11 education, occupation, wealth, income distribution, unemployment, poverty, and housing quality indicators was used to define deprivation deciles, which were then linked to the US mortality data at the county-level. Life expectancy estimates were developed by age, gender, and deprivation levels for three 3 year time periods: 1980-82, 1989-91, and 1998-2000. Inequalities in life expectancy were measured by the absolute difference between the least-deprived group and each of the other deprivation deciles. Slope indices of inequality for each gender and time period were calculated by regressing life expectancy estimates on deprivation levels using weighted least squares models. Those in less-deprived groups experienced a longer life expectancy at each age than their counterparts in more-deprived groups. In 1980-82, the overall life expectancy at birth was 2.8 years longer for the least-deprived group than for the most-deprived group (75.8 vs 73.0 years). By 1998-2000, the absolute difference in life expectancy at birth had increased to 4.5 years (79.2 vs 74.7 years). The inequality indices also showed a substantial widening of the deprivation gradient in life expectancy during the study period for both males and females. Between 1980 and 2000, those in higher socioeconomic groups experienced larger gains in life expectancy than those in more-deprived groups, contributing to the widening gap.

  4. Do recovery expectations change over time?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamper, S.J.; Kongsted, A.; Haanstra, T.M.; Hestbaek, L.


    PURPOSE: While a considerable body of research has explored the relationship between patient expectations and clinical outcomes, few studies investigate the extent to which patient expectations change over time. Further, the temporal relationship between expectations and symptoms is not well

  5. Reservation wages, expected wages and unemployment


    Brown, Sarah; Taylor, Karl


    We model unemployment duration, reservation and expected wages simultaneously for individuals not in work, where wage expectations are identified via an exogenous policy shock. The policy shock increased expected wages, which were found to be positively associated with reservation wages.

  6. Motor Activity Improves Temporal Expectancy (United States)

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth


    Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813

  7. Grammar Clinical Marker Yields Substantial Heritability for Language Impairments in 16-Year-Old Twins. (United States)

    Dale, Philip S; Rice, Mabel L; Rimfeld, Kaili; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E


    There is a need for well-defined language phenotypes suitable for adolescents in twin studies and other large-scale research projects. Rice, Hoffman, and Wexler (2009) have developed a grammatical judgment measure as a clinical marker of language impairment, which has an extended developmental range to adolescence. We conducted the first twin analysis, along with associated phenotypic analyses of validity, of an abridged, 20-item version of this grammatical judgment measure (GJ-20), based on telephone administration using prerecorded stimuli to 405 pairs of 16-year-olds (148 monozygotic and 257 dizygotic) drawn from the Twins Early Development Study (Haworth, Davis, & Plomin, 2012). The distribution of scores is markedly skewed negatively, as expected for a potential clinical marker. Low performance on GJ-20 is associated with lower maternal education, reported learning disability (age 7 years), and low scores on language tests administered via the Twins Early Development Study (age 16 years) as well as General Certificate of Secondary Education English and Math examination performance (age 16 years). Liability threshold estimates for the genetic influence on low performance on GJ-20 are substantial, ranging from 36% with a lowest 10% criterion to 74% for a lowest 5% criterion. The heritability of GJ-20 scores, especially at more extreme cutoffs, along with the score distribution and association with other indicators of language impairments, provides additional evidence for the potential value of this measure as a clinical marker of specific language impairment.

  8. Genome sequencing of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars E and F reveals substantial genetic variation. (United States)

    Eder, Thomas; Kobus, Stefanie; Stallmann, Sonja; Stepanow, Stefanie; Köhrer, Karl; Hegemann, Johannes H; Rattei, Thomas


    Chlamydia trachomatis (Ctr) is a bacterial pathogen that causes ocular, urogenital and lymph system infections in humans. It is highly abundant and among its serovars, E, F and D are most prevalent in sexually transmitted disease. However, the number of publicly available genome sequences of the serovars E and F, and thereby our knowledge about the molecular architecture of these serovars, is low. Here we sequenced the genomes of six E and F clinical isolates and one E lab strain, in order to study the genetic variance in these serovars. As observed before, the genomic variation inside the Ctr genomes is very low and the phylogenetic placement in comparison to publicly available genomes is as expected by ompA gene serotyping. However, we observed a large InDel carrying four to five open reading frames in one clinical E sample and in the E lab strain. We have also observed substantial variation on nucleotide and amino acid levels, especially in membrane proteins and secreted proteins. Furthermore, these two groups of proteins are also target for recombination events. One clinical F isolate was genetically heterogeneous and revealed the highest differences on nucleotide level in the pmpE gene. © FEMS 2017.

  9. Effects of physical activity on life expectancy with cardiovascular disease. (United States)

    Franco, Oscar H; de Laet, Chris; Peeters, Anna; Jonker, Jacqueline; Mackenbach, Johan; Nusselder, Wilma


    Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the effects of physical activity on life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to calculate the consequences of different physical activity levels after age 50 years on total life expectancy and life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease. We constructed multistate life tables using data from the Framingham Heart Study to calculate the effects of 3 levels of physical activity (low, moderate, and high) among populations older than 50 years. For the life table calculations, we used hazard ratios for 3 transitions (healthy to death, healthy to disease, and disease to death) by levels of physical activity and adjusted for age, sex, smoking, any comorbidity (cancer, left ventricular hypertrophy, arthritis, diabetes, ankle edema, or pulmonary disease), and examination at start of follow-up period. Moderate and high physical activity levels led to 1.3 and 3.7 years more in total life expectancy and 1.1 and 3.2 more years lived without cardiovascular disease, respectively, for men aged 50 years or older compared with those who maintained a low physical activity level. For women the differences were 1.5 and 3.5 years in total life expectancy and 1.3 and 3.3 more years lived free of cardiovascular disease, respectively. Avoiding a sedentary lifestyle during adulthood not only prevents cardiovascular disease independently of other risk factors but also substantially expands the total life expectancy and the cardiovascular disease-free life expectancy for men and women. This effect is already seen at moderate levels of physical activity, and the gains in cardiovascular disease-free life expectancy are twice as large at higher activity levels.

  10. Trends in disability-free life expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perenboom, R. J. M.; van Herten, L. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; van den Bos, G. A. M.


    Purpose: To assess trends in Disability-Free Life Expectancy, in life expectancy with disabilities according to levels of severity and in Disability-Adjusted Life Expectancy in the Netherlands between 1989 and 2000. Method: The disability-free life expectancy, a composite population health status

  11. Educational Expectations and Media Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Missomelius


    Full Text Available This article investigates themedia-supported educational resources that arecurrently under discussion, such as OERs and MOOCs. Considering the discursive connection between these formats, which is couched in terms of educational freedom and openness, the article’sthesis is that these are expectations which are placed on the media technologies themselves, andthen transferred to learning scenarios. To this end, the article will pursue such questions as: What are the learners, learning materials and learning scenarios allegedly free from or free for? What obstructive configurations should be omitted? To what extent are these characteristics which are of a nature to guaranteelearning processes in the context of lifelong learning or can these characteristics better be attributed to the media technologies themselves and the ways in which they are used? What advantages or new accentuations are promised by proponents of theeducation supplied by media technology? Which discourses provide sustenance for such implied “post-typographic educational ideals” (Giesecke 2001 and Lemke 1998? The importance to learners, teachers and decision-makers at educational institutions of being well informed as far as media is concerned is becoming increasingly apparent.

  12. CMS: Beyond all possible expectations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    After having retraced the entire Standard Model up to the Top, the CMS collaboration is ready to go further and continue the success of what Guido Tonelli – its spokesperson – defines as a ‘magic year’. Things evolve fast at CMS, but scientists have taken up the challenge and are ready for the future.   ‘Enthusiasm’ is the word that best describes the feeling one gets when talking to Guido Tonelli. “In just a few months we have rediscovered the Standard Model and have gone even further by producing new results for cross-sections, placing new limits on the creation of heavy masses, making studies on the excited states of quarks, and seeking new resonances. We could not have expected so much such a short space of time. It’s fantastic”, he says. “We went through the learning phase very smoothly. Our detector was very quickly ready to do real physics and we were able to start to produce results almost ...

  13. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial unemployment...

  14. 42 CFR 422.356 - Determining substantial financial risk and majority financial interest. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determining substantial financial risk and majority...-Sponsored Organizations § 422.356 Determining substantial financial risk and majority financial interest. (a) Determining substantial financial risk. The PSO must demonstrate to CMS's satisfaction that it apportions a...

  15. Years of potential life lost and life expectancy in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Stürup, Anne Emilie; McGrath, John J


    lost and life expectancy in schizophrenia, which are more direct, absolute measures of increased mortality. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, Cinahl, and Web of Science for published studies on years of potential life lost and life expectancy in schizophrenia. Data from individual studies...... was least in the Asian study and greatest in Africa. The overall weighted average life expectancy was 64·7 years (95% CI 61·1-71·3), and was lower for men than women (59·9 years, 95% CI 55·5-64·3 vs 67·6 years, 63·1-72·1). Life expectancy was lowest in Asia and Africa. Timing of publication and risk of bias...... had little effect on results. INTERPRETATION: The effects of schizophrenia on years potential life lost and life expectancy seem to be substantial and not to have lessened over time. Development and implementation of interventions and initiatives to reduce this mortality gap are urgently needed...


    Hudomiet, Péter; Kézdi, Gábor; Willis, Robert J


    This paper utilizes data on subjective probabilities to study the impact of the stock market crash of 2008 on households' expectations about the returns on the stock market index. We use data from the Health and Retirement Study that was fielded in February 2008 through February 2009. The effect of the crash is identified from the date of the interview, which is shown to be exogenous to previous stock market expectations. We estimate the effect of the crash on the population average of expected returns, the population average of the uncertainty about returns (subjective standard deviation), and the cross-sectional heterogeneity in expected returns (disagreement). We show estimates from simple reduced-form regressions on probability answers as well as from a more structural model that focuses on the parameters of interest and separates survey noise from relevant heterogeneity. We find a temporary increase in the population average of expectations and uncertainty right after the crash. The effect on cross-sectional heterogeneity is more significant and longer lasting, which implies substantial long-term increase in disagreement. The increase in disagreement is larger among the stockholders, the more informed, and those with higher cognitive capacity, and disagreement co-moves with trading volume and volatility in the market.




    SUMMARY This paper utilizes data on subjective probabilities to study the impact of the stock market crash of 2008 on households’ expectations about the returns on the stock market index. We use data from the Health and Retirement Study that was fielded in February 2008 through February 2009. The effect of the crash is identified from the date of the interview, which is shown to be exogenous to previous stock market expectations. We estimate the effect of the crash on the population average of expected returns, the population average of the uncertainty about returns (subjective standard deviation), and the cross-sectional heterogeneity in expected returns (disagreement). We show estimates from simple reduced-form regressions on probability answers as well as from a more structural model that focuses on the parameters of interest and separates survey noise from relevant heterogeneity. We find a temporary increase in the population average of expectations and uncertainty right after the crash. The effect on cross-sectional heterogeneity is more significant and longer lasting, which implies substantial long-term increase in disagreement. The increase in disagreement is larger among the stockholders, the more informed, and those with higher cognitive capacity, and disagreement co-moves with trading volume and volatility in the market. PMID:21547244

  18. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems have substantially less brain gray matter volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish S Dalwani

    Full Text Available Structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated lower regional gray matter volume in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems. These research studies, including ours, have generally focused on male-only or mixed-sex samples of adolescents with conduct and/or substance problems. Here we compare gray matter volume between female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems and female healthy controls of similar ages.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems will show significantly less gray matter volume in frontal regions critical to inhibition (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, conflict processing (i.e., anterior cingulate, valuation of expected outcomes (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex and the dopamine reward system (i.e. striatum.We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric comparison of structural MR images of 22 patients (14-18 years with severe substance and conduct problems and 21 controls of similar age using statistical parametric mapping (SPM and voxel-based morphometric (VBM8 toolbox. We tested group differences in regional gray matter volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and IQ at p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons at whole-brain cluster-level threshold.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems compared to controls showed significantly less gray matter volume in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, bilateral somatosensory cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus. Considering the entire brain, patients had 9.5% less overall gray matter volume compared to controls.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems in comparison to similarly aged female healthy controls showed substantially lower gray matter volume in brain regions involved in inhibition, conflict processing, valuation

  19. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems have substantially less brain gray matter volume. (United States)

    Dalwani, Manish S; McMahon, Mary Agnes; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Young, Susan E; Regner, Michael F; Raymond, Kristen M; McWilliams, Shannon K; Banich, Marie T; Tanabe, Jody L; Crowley, Thomas J; Sakai, Joseph T


    Structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated lower regional gray matter volume in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems. These research studies, including ours, have generally focused on male-only or mixed-sex samples of adolescents with conduct and/or substance problems. Here we compare gray matter volume between female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems and female healthy controls of similar ages. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems will show significantly less gray matter volume in frontal regions critical to inhibition (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex), conflict processing (i.e., anterior cingulate), valuation of expected outcomes (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex) and the dopamine reward system (i.e. striatum). We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric comparison of structural MR images of 22 patients (14-18 years) with severe substance and conduct problems and 21 controls of similar age using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and voxel-based morphometric (VBM8) toolbox. We tested group differences in regional gray matter volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and IQ at pbrain cluster-level threshold. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems compared to controls showed significantly less gray matter volume in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, bilateral somatosensory cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus. Considering the entire brain, patients had 9.5% less overall gray matter volume compared to controls. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems in comparison to similarly aged female healthy controls showed substantially lower gray matter volume in brain regions involved in inhibition, conflict processing, valuation of outcomes, decision-making, reward, risk-taking, and rule

  20. Of Hope, Fear and Rational Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Villy


    The study explores how gender and differences in preferences affect subjective expectations among a group of students.......The study explores how gender and differences in preferences affect subjective expectations among a group of students....

  1. Experiments on Expectations in Macroeconomics and Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assenza, Tiziana; Bao, Te; Hommes, Cars; Massaro, Domenico; Duffy, John


    Expectations play a crucial role in finance, macroeconomics, monetary economics, and fiscal policy. In the last decade a rapidly increasing number of laboratory experiments have been performed to study individual expectation formation, the interactions of individual forecasting rules, and the

  2. Experiments on expectations in macroeconomics and finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assenza, T.; Bao, T.; Hommes, C.; Massaro, D.; Duffy, J.


    Expectations play a crucial role in finance, macroeconomics, monetary economics, and fiscal policy. In the last decade a rapidly increasing number of laboratory experiments have been performed to study individual expectation formation, the interactions of individual forecasting rules, and the

  3. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blog Follow ACG on Twitter Patients ACG Home / Media / What to Expect During a Colonoscopy What to Expect During a Colonoscopy Prep. Sedation. Procedure. Post-Procedure. This new educational video for GI patients, produced by the ...

  4. Mortality hazard rates and life expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.S.; Kaas, R.


    We consider the relation between mortality hazards and life expectancy for men and women in the Netherlands and in England. Halving the lifetime mortality hazards increases life expectancy at birth by only 9%.

  5. Health expectancy in Denmark, 1987-2000. (United States)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik


    While life expectancy quantifies average length of life, health expectancy represents the average lifetime in different health states and offers the possibility to evaluate quality of life with respect to health. The purpose of the study was to estimate changes in health expectancy in Denmark from 1987 to 2000 and to assess theories about the relation between increased total lifetime and lifetime in various health states. Data on health status derived from the Danish Health Interview Surveys carried out in 1987, 1991, 1994 and 2000 were combined with life-table data. Expected lifetime in selfrated good health, life expectancy without longstanding illness and disabilityfree life expectancy were estimated by Sullivan's method. In 1987, the life expectancy of a 65-year-old man was 14.1 years, 8.9 years of which were expected to be disabilityfree. In 2000, life expectancy had increased to 15.0 years, 11.3 years of which were disabilityfree. Thus, life expectancy had increased by 0.9 years, whereas disabilityfree life expectancy had increased by 2.4 years. Among 65-year-old women, life expectancy had increased by 0.2 years and disabilityfree life expectancy by 1.1 years. Expected lifetime in selfrated good health had also improved, but the trend in life expectancy without longstanding illness went in the opposite direction, and expected lifetime with longstanding illness had increased. The recent rise in life expectancy in Denmark after many years of stagnation appears to be accompanied by generally improved health status among the elderly, but health expectancy trends depend on the health indicator chosen. Health expectancy expresses average lifetime in various states of health. The study examines changes in expected lifetime in selfrated good health, lifetime without longstanding illness and lifetime without longterm disability. Among 65-year-olds the percentage of disabilityfree life expectancy increased from 63.4% to 74.9% for men and from 55.6% to 61.0% for women

  6. Essays on subjective expectations and mortality trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, G.


    This thesis consists of four chapters on two topics. The first topic, covered in chapter 2, 3, and 4, is about subjective expectations. Economists have long understood that expectations are important determinants of economic decisions. However, expectations are rarely observed. One way to overcome

  7. Do recovery expectations change over time?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, Steven J; Kongsted, Alice; Haanstra, Tsjitske M


    PURPOSE: While a considerable body of research has explored the relationship between patient expectations and clinical outcomes, few studies investigate the extent to which patient expectations change over time. Further, the temporal relationship between expectations and symptoms is not well rese...

  8. Are Grade Expectations Rational? A Classroom Experiment (United States)

    Hossain, Belayet; Tsigaris, Panagiotis


    This study examines students' expectations about their final grade. An attempt is made to determine whether students form expectations rationally. Expectations in economics, rational or otherwise, carry valuable information and have important implications in terms of both teaching effectiveness and the role of grades as an incentive structure for…

  9. Smoking expands expected lifetime with musculoskeletal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Juel, Knud


    By indirect estimation of mortality from smoking and life table methods we estimated expected lifetime without musculoskeletal diseases among never smokers, ex-smokers, and smokers. We found that although life expectancy of a heavy smoker is 7 years shorter than that of a never smoker, heavy...... smokers can expect to live more than 2 years longer with musculoskeletal diseases than never smokers....

  10. Contextual influences on alcohol expectancy processes. (United States)

    Read, Jennifer P; Curtin, John J


    Context may differentially influence expectancy dimensions, in turn affecting drinking behavior. The present study examined alcohol cue and mood contextual influences on expectancy activation, controlling for more stable self-reported expectancy endorsement. We were particularly interested in the specific effects of negative mood on affect-relevant (tension reduction) expectancies. Regularly drinking undergraduates (N = 140; 64 female) underwent a mood (stress or neutral) induction procedure and then were presented with alcohol or nonalcohol beverage cues. Participants next completed a computerized expectancy response time task (ETASK), and self-report measures of drinking variables. Individual difference analyses generally replicated previous reports on the inverse relationship between alcohol involvement and ETASK response time. However, examination of contextual effects revealed a different pattern of ETASK responding. Participants exposed to alcohol cues were slower to respond to expectancy items than those in the nonalcohol cue condition. Mood and expectancy type moderated this effect; response time after alcohol cues slowed selectively for those in the stress mood condition and only for tension-reduction expectancy items. These data highlight the dimensionality of expectancies that comes into relief when contextual factors are considered. Expectancy response times index both facilitation, when examined in the context of drinking expertise, and interference, in response to motivationally relevant stimuli. Our data also support the specificity of contextual effects on those expectancies that are context relevant (i.e., mood). Further consideration of these contextual effects on dynamic expectancy processes may improve prediction of drinking behavior in real-world settings.

  11. Expected utility and catastrophic consumption risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikefuji, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.


    An expected utility based cost-benefit analysis is, in general, fragile to distributional assumptions. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions on the utility function of consumption in the expected utility model to avoid this. The conditions ensure that expected (marginal) utility of

  12. Childbirth expectations and correlates at the final stage of pregnancy in Chinese expectant parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Zhang


    Conclusion: This study adds to understanding of the childbirth expectations of Chinese expectant parents. It is suggested that maternity healthcare providers pay close attention to the childbirth expectations of expectant parents, and improve the nursing care service to promote positive childbirth experiences and satisfaction of expectant parents.

  13. Giant Planets in Reflected Light: What Science Can We Expect? (United States)

    Marley, Mark


    Interpreting the reflection spectra of cool giant planets will be a challenge. Spectra of such worlds are expected to be primarily shaped by scattering from clouds and hazes and punctuated by absorption bands of methane, water, and ammonia. While the warmest giants may be cloudless, their atmospheres will almost certainly sport substantial photochemical hazes. Furthermore the masses of most direct imaging targets will be constrained by radial velocity observations, their radii, and thus atmospheric gravity, will be imperfectly known. The uncertainty in planet radius and gravity will compound with uncertain aerosol properties to make estimation of key absorber abundances difficult. To address such concerns our group is developing atmospheric retrieval tools to constrain quantities of interest, particular gas mixing ratios. We have applied our Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to simulated data of the quality expected from the WFIRST CGI instrument and found that given sufficiently high SNR data we can confidentially identify and constrain the abundance of methane, cloud top pressures, gravity, and the star-planet-observer phase angle. In my presentation I will explain the expected characteristics of cool extrasolar giant planet reflection spectra, discuss these and other challenges in their interpretation, and summarize the science results we can expect from direct imaging observations.

  14. Conditioning 'fullness expectations' in a novel dessert. (United States)

    Wilkinson, Laura L; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M


    Calorie-for-calorie, foods differ considerably in the extent to which they are expected to deliver satiation. We sought to demonstrate that flavour-nutrient learning modifies these expectations. On day 1, participants (N=56) tasted a novel dessert and then completed a measure of expected satiation. Participants then consumed either a low (228 kcal) or high (568 kcal) energy-dense dessert (sensory characteristics matched). On day 2, expected satiation was assessed and then intake was measured using an intermediate energy-dense dessert. Expected satiation did increase but only in the high energy-dense condition (17.4%). This difference was not reflected in a measure of intake.

  15. Expectation Formation and Monetary DSGE Models: Beyond the Rational Expectations Paradigm


    Fabio Milani; Ashish Rajbhandari


    Empirical work in macroeconomics almost universally relies on the hypothesis of rational expectations. This paper departs from the literature by considering a variety of alternative expectations formation models. We study the econometric properties of a popular New Keynesian monetary DSGE model under different expectational assumptions: the benchmark case of rational expectations, rational expectations extended to allow for `news' about future shocks, near-rational expectations and learning, ...

  16. 26 CFR 1.6043-3T - Returns regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of... (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a) (temporary..., dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a...

  17. Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method). See poster at of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method). See poster at

  18. 32 CFR 48.302 - Substantiating evidence regarding dependency and age of dependents. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substantiating evidence regarding dependency and age of dependents. 48.302 Section 48.302 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... Designation of Beneficiaries § 48.302 Substantiating evidence regarding dependency and age of dependents. At...

  19. 20 CFR 229.85 - Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child. (United States)


    ... Reductions § 229.85 Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child. A blind employee or child who is... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child. 229.85 Section 229.85 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER...

  20. Decolonization and life expectancy in the Caribbean. (United States)

    Verstraeten, Soraya P A; van Oers, Hans A M; Mackenbach, Johan P


    Decolonization has brought political independence to half the Caribbean states in the last half of the 20th century, while the other states remain affiliated. Previous studies suggested a beneficial impact of affiliated status on population health, which may be mediated by more favorable economic development. We assessed how disparities in life expectancy between currently sovereign and affiliated states developed over time, whether decolonization coincided with changes in life expectancy, and whether decolonization coincided with similar changes in GDP per capita. Time-series data on life expectancy and related variables, GDP per capita and political status were collected from harmonized databases. We quantified variations in life expectancy by current political status during the 1950-2010 period. We assessed whether decolonization coincided with life expectancy trend changes by: 1. calculating the annual changes before and after independence, and 2. evaluating trend breaks in a predefined period during decolonization using joinpoint analyses. Similar analyses were undertaken for GDP per capita. Life expectancy in currently sovereign Caribbean states was already lower than in affiliated states before political independence. Overall, decolonization coincided with reductions in life expectancy growth, but not with reductions in economic growth, and changes in life expectancy growth in the decade after independence did not correspond with changes in economic performance. The widening of the life expectancy gap between currently sovereign and affiliated states accelerated in the 1990's and continues to increase. Despite considerable life expectancy gains in all Caribbean states, life expectancy in currently sovereign states increasingly lags behind that of states which remained affiliated. Our results indicate that changing economic conditions were not the main determinant of the unfavorable trends in life expectancy during and after decolonization. Circumstantial

  1. Whole-tree sap flow is substantially diminished by leaf herbivory. (United States)

    Cunningham, Saul A; Pullen, Kimberi R; Colloff, Matthew J


    Ecohydrological models consider the relationship between tree size and structure (especially leaf area index) and water use but generally treat herbivory as a source of unwanted noise in the data. Little is known of how insect damage to leaves influences whole-plant water use in trees. Water use is driven by environmental demand and the total leaf area through which transpiration can occur, but the effects of insects are expected to be complex. Different kinds of insects could have different effects; for example, chewing insects reduce leaf area, whereas sucking and tissue mining insects reduce leaf function without reducing area. Further, plants respond to herbivory in a range of ways, such as by altering leaf production or abscising leaves. We examined the effect of insects on Eucalyptus blakelyi in a woodland near Canberra, Australia, using sap flow velocity as a measure of whole-plant water use. We applied insecticide to 16 trees matched to an untreated control group. After 6 months, we examined the effects on sap flow velocity and crown condition. There was a general increase in sap flow velocity as trees produced leaves over the growing season, but the increase in sap flow for trees without insecticide protection was half that of the protected trees (increase: 4.4 vs. 9.0 cm/h, respectively). This dramatic effect on sap flow was consistent with effects on crown condition. Unprotected trees had 20% less leaf mass per unit stem in the crown. In addition, unprotected trees had a 20% greater loss of leaf functional area from necrosis. It should be noted that these effects were detected in a year in which there was not an outbreak of the psyllids (Homoptera) that commonly cause severe leaf damage to this tree species. It is predicted that the effect in a psyllid outbreak year would be even more substantial. This result underscores the significant impact that insect herbivores can have on an ecological process of significance to the ecosystem, namely, the movement

  2. Future runoff from glacierized catchments in the Central Andes could substantially decrease (United States)

    Kronenberg, Marlene; Schauwecker, Simone; Huggel, Christian; Salzmann, Nadine; Drenkhan, Fabian; Frey, Holger; Giráldez, Claudia; Gurgiser, Wolfgang; Kaser, Georg; Suarez, Wilson; García Hernández, Javier; Fluixá-Sanmartín, Javier; Ayros, Edwin; Rohrer, Mario


    In Peru, about 50% of the energy is produced from hydropower plants. An important amount of this energy is produced with water from glaciated catchments. In these catchments river streamflow is furthermore needed for other socio-economic activities such as agriculture. However, the amount and seasonality of water from glacial melt is expected to undergo strong changes. As glaciers are projected to further decline with continued warming, runoff will become more and more sensitive to possible changes in precipitation patterns. Moreover, as stated by a recent study (Neukom et al., 2015), wet season precipitation sums in the Central Andes could decrease up to 19-33 % by the end of the 21st century compared to present-day conditions. Here, we investigate future runoff availability for selected glacierized catchments in the Peruvian Andes. In a first step, we apply a simplified energy balance and runoff model (ITGG-2.0-R) for current conditions. Thereafter, we model future runoff for different climate scenarios, including the possibility of strongly reduced precipitation. Preliminary findings indicate (i) changes in the seasonal distribution of runoff and (ii) significant reductions of the annual runoff in future for the mentioned scenario with significant precipitation decreases. During early phases of glacier recession, melt leads to increased runoff - respectively compensates for the precipitation reduction in the corresponding scenario - depending on the fraction of catchment glaciation. Glaciers are acting as natural water reservoirs and may buffer the decreasing precipitation in glacierized catchments for a limited period. However, strongly reduced precipitation will have noticeable consequences on runoff, particularly when glacier melt contribution gets smaller and finally is completely missing. This will have consequences on the water availability for hydropower production, agriculture, mining and other water uses. Critical conditions may emerge in particular

  3. Mental health expectancy--the European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, C; Ritchie, K; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik


    The increase in life expectancy observed over the last decade has particular relevance for mental health conditions of old age, such as dementia. Although mental disorders have been estimated to be responsible for 60% of all disabilities, until recently population health indicators such as health...... expectancies have concentrated on calculating disability-free life expectancy based on physical functioning. In 1994, a European Network for the Calculation of Health Expectancies (Euro-REVES) was established, one of its aims being the development and promotion of mental health expectancies. Such indicators...... may have an important role in monitoring future changes in the mental health of populations and predicting service needs. This article summarizes the proceedings and recommendations of the first European Conference on Mental Health Expectancy....

  4. Stochastic Dominance under the Nonlinear Expected Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinling Xiao


    Full Text Available In 1947, von Neumann and Morgenstern introduced the well-known expected utility and the related axiomatic system (see von Neumann and Morgenstern (1953. It is widely used in economics, for example, financial economics. But the well-known Allais paradox (see Allais (1979 shows that the linear expected utility has some limitations sometimes. Because of this, Peng proposed a concept of nonlinear expected utility (see Peng (2005. In this paper we propose a concept of stochastic dominance under the nonlinear expected utilities. We give sufficient conditions on which a random choice X stochastically dominates a random choice Y under the nonlinear expected utilities. We also provide sufficient conditions on which a random choice X strictly stochastically dominates a random choice Y under the sublinear expected utilities.

  5. Stakeholder expectations : conceptual foundations and empirical analysis


    Olkkonen, Laura


    Expectations are an inseparable part of interaction, whether in interpersonal, intragroup, or organization–stakeholder relations. As a concept, expectations appear frequently in the public relations literature, yet definitions are scarce or narrow. This thesis contributes to the conceptual and empirical understanding of expectations in the context of organization–stakeholder relations and, more specifically, studies how organizations translate their societal roles and how st...

  6. On the evaluation of marginal expected shortfall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo


    In the analysis of systemic risk, Marginal Expected Shortfall may be considered to evaluate the marginal impact of a single stock on the market Expected Shortfall. These quantities are generally computed using log-returns, in particular when there is also a focus on returns conditional distribution....... In this case, the market log-return is only approximately equal to the weighed sum of equities log-returns. We show that the approximation error is large during turbulent market phases, with a subsequent impact on Marginal Expected Shortfall. We then suggest how to improve the evaluation of Marginal Expected...

  7. Expectation Formation of Older Married Couples and the Rational Expectations Hypothesis


    Hugo Benítez-Silva; Debra S. Dwyer


    This paper tests the Rational Expectations (RE) hypothesis regarding retirement expectations of married older American couples, controlling for sample selection and reporting biases. In prior research we found that individual retirement expectation formation was consistent with the Rational Expectation hypothesis, but in that work spousal considerations were not analyzed. In this research we take advantage of panel data on expectations to test the RE hypothesis among married individuals as we...

  8. Contribution of obesity to international differences in life expectancy. (United States)

    Preston, Samuel H; Stokes, Andrew


    The United States has the highest prevalence of obesity and one of the lowest life expectancies among high-income countries. We investigated the relationship between these 2 phenomena. We estimated the fraction of deaths attributable to obesity by country, age, and sex and reestimated life tables after removing these deaths. To allow for a possible secular decline in obesity risks, we employed alternative risks from a more recent period. In our baseline analysis, obesity reduced US life expectancy at age 50 years in 2006 by 1.54 years (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.37, 1.93) for women and by 1.85 years (95% CI = 1.62, 2.10) for men. Removing the effects of obesity reduced the US shortfall by 42% (95% CI = 36, 48) for women and 67% (95% CI = 57, 76) for men, relative to countries with higher life expectancies. Using more recently recorded risk data, we estimated that differences in obesity still accounted for a fifth to a third of the shortfall. The high prevalence of obesity in the United States contributes substantially to its poor international ranking in longevity.

  9. Expectations as a key element in trusting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette Apollo; Hansen, Uffe Kjærgaard; Conradsen, Maria Bosse

    Considering the need for a tangible focus for qualitative research on trusting, we propose that expectations to the behavior of others can provide that. By focusing on expectations, researchers can produce narrative descriptions that explains how trusting develops and changes. Then the key theore...

  10. Expectations and Ideas Coming to School. (United States)

    Graue, M. Elizabeth


    Describes the social construction of parental expectations for kindergarten and first grade in a school community. Focuses on the ideas developed between home and school and between grade levels. Connections are made between these local ideas and the expectations of children as they begin their school careers. (Author)

  11. Patient expectancy and post-chemotherapy nausea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colagiuri, Ben; Zachariae, Robert


    , specifically controlling for a history of nausea, and involving breast cancer patients, none of the moderators assessed were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that patient expectancies may contribute to post-chemotherapy nausea and that expectancy-based manipulations may provide...

  12. The Expectant Reader in Theory and Practice. (United States)

    Fowler, Lois Josephs; McCormick, Kathleen


    Offers a method of using reader response theory that emphasizes the expectations about a text and how those expectations are fulfilled or deflated. Specifically, students read traditional fables, fairy tales, and parables, and compare them to contemporary works such as Kafka's "Metamorphosis" and Marquez's "The Very Old Man With Enormous Wings."…

  13. Dissonant Feedback about Achievement and Teachers' Expectations. (United States)

    Bognar, Carl J.


    Investigates impact of achievement test results (N=285) on 13 sixth-grade teachers' expectations using hypotheses from cognitive dissonance theory. Shows teacher expectations changed very little as a result of feedback, and test results for both under- and overestimated students were rejected. (AH)

  14. International Variations in Measuring Customer Expectations. (United States)

    Calvert, Philip J.


    Discussion of customer expectations of library service quality and SERVQUAL as a measurement tool focuses on two studies: one that compared a survey of Chinese university students' expectations of service quality to New Zealand students; and one that investigated national culture as a source of attitudes to customer service. (Author/LRW)

  15. Heterogeneity in consumers' income and pension expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bissonnette, L.; van Soest, Arthur


    The expectations of economic agents play a crucial role in almost any inter-temporal economic model. Using 2009–12 panel data for a representative sample of the Dutch population, we analyze consumers’ income and pension expectations. We focus on heterogeneity across socioeconomic groups and

  16. Memory, expectation formation and scheduling choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, P.R.; Peer, S.; Dekker, T.


    Limited memory capacity, retrieval constraints and anchoring are central to expectation formation processes. We develop a model of adaptive expectations where individuals are able to store only a finite number of past experiences of a stochastic state variable. Retrieval of these experiences is

  17. Experimental evidence on inflation expectation formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfajfar, D.; Zakelj, B.

    Using laboratory experiments within a New Keynesian sticky price framework, we study the process of inflation expectation formation. We focus on adaptive learning and rational expectations contrary to the previous literature that mostly studied simple heuristics. Using a test for rational

  18. Individual expectations, limited rationality and aggregate outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, T.; Hommes, C.H.; Sonnemans, J.; Tuinstra, J.


    Recent studies suggest that the type of strategic environment or expectation feedback can have a large impact on whether the market can learn the rational fundamental price. We present an experiment where the fundamental price experiences large unexpected shocks. Markets with negative expectation

  19. Teaching Rational Expectations at 'A' Level. (United States)

    Beachill, Bob


    Explains the economic concept of Rational Expectations (RE) and demonstrates how it can be introduced to British 'A' level students. Illustrates the implications of RE for the Cobweb and Augmented Phillips Curve market models. Outlines some attractions and limitations of rational expectations. (Author/DH)

  20. Individual expectations, limited rationality and aggregate outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, T.; Hommes, C.; Sonnemans, J.; Tuinstra, J.


    Recent studies suggest that the type of strategic environment or expectation feedback may have a large impact on whether the market learns the rational fundamental price. We present an experiment where the fundamental price experiences large unexpected shocks. Markets with negative expectation

  1. Expectancy violations promote learning in young children. (United States)

    Stahl, Aimee E; Feigenson, Lisa


    Children, including infants, have expectations about the world around them, and produce reliable responses when these expectations are violated. However, little is known about how such expectancy violations affect subsequent cognition. Here we tested the hypothesis that violations of expectation enhance children's learning. In four experiments we compared 3- to 6-year-old children's ability to learn novel words in situations that defied versus accorded with their core knowledge of object behavior. In Experiments 1 and 2 we taught children novel words following one of two types of events. One event violated expectations about the spatiotemporal or featural properties of objects (e.g., an object appeared to magically change locations). The other event was almost identical, but did not violate expectations (e.g., an object was visibly moved from one location to another). In both experiments we found that children robustly learned when taught after the surprising event, but not following the expected event. In Experiment 3 we ruled out two alternative explanations for our results. Finally, in Experiment 4, we asked whether surprise affects children's learning in a targeted or a diffuse way. We found that surprise only enhanced children's learning about the entity that had behaved surprisingly, and not about unrelated objects. Together, these experiments show that core knowledge - and violations of expectations generated by core knowledge - shapes new learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Expectancy and Phobic Level: Effects on Desensitization (United States)

    Sullivan, Bernard J.; Denney, Douglas R.


    Expectancy instructions were introduced six times during the four-week treatment, and effectiveness of these instructions was demonstrated with independent nonreactive measures of subjects' expectancies. An analysis of self-report, behavioral, and unobtrusive measures of snake anxiety revealed significant main effects for instructions, with…

  3. Video lottery: winning expectancies and arousal. (United States)

    Ladouceur, Robert; Sévigny, Serge; Blaszczynski, Alexander; O'Connor, Kieron; Lavoie, Marc E


    This study investigates the effects of video lottery players' expectancies of winning on physiological and subjective arousal. Participants were assigned randomly to one of two experimental conditions: high and low winning expectancies. Participants played 100 video lottery games in a laboratory setting while physiological measures were recorded. Level of risk-taking was controlled. Participants were 34 occasional or regular video lottery players. They were assigned randomly into two groups of 17, with nine men and eight women in each group. The low-expectancy group played for fun, therefore expecting to win worthless credits, while the high-expectancy group played for real money. Players' experience, demographic variables and subjective arousal were assessed. Severity of problem gambling was measured with the South Oaks Gambling Screen. In order to measure arousal, the average heart rate was recorded across eight periods. Participants exposed to high as compared to low expectations experienced faster heart rate prior to and during the gambling session. According to self-reports, it is the expectancy of winning money that is exciting, not playing the game. Regardless of the level of risk-taking, expectancy of winning is a cognitive factor influencing levels of arousal. When playing for fun, gambling becomes significantly less stimulating than when playing for money.

  4. Expectation of recovery from low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Vach, Werner; Axø, Marie


    Study Design. A prospective cohort study conducted in general practice (GP) and chiropractic practice (CP).Objectives. To explore which patient characteristics were associated with recovery expectations in low back pain (LBP) patients, whether expectations predicted 3-month outcome, and to what...

  5. Socioeconomic differences in health expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik


    Social differences in mortality rates reported in Denmark gave rise to the present study of health expectancy in different socioeconomic groups.......Social differences in mortality rates reported in Denmark gave rise to the present study of health expectancy in different socioeconomic groups....

  6. Trends in Life Expectancy in Wellbeing (United States)

    Perenboom, R. J. M.; Van Herten, L. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Van Den Bos, G. A. M.


    Objectives: This paper describes and discusses trends in life expectancy in wellbeing between 1989 and 1998. Methods: Data on wellbeing by the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale is obtained from the Netherlands Continuous Health Interview Surveys for the calendar years from 1989 to 1998. Using Sullivan's method, life expectancy in wellbeing is…

  7. Incorporating life expectancy in glaucoma care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, C.; Stoutenbeek, R.; Jansonius, N. M.


    Aim To calculate for which combinations of age and perimetric disease stage glaucoma patients are unlikely to become visually impaired during their lifetime. Methods We used residual life expectancy data (life expectancy adjusted for the age already reached) as provided by Statistics Netherlands and

  8. On Expectations, Realizations and Partial Retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastrogiacomo, Mauro


    This study investigates whether many people fear an unexpectedshock in their financial situation around retirement and whether therelated expectations and realizations match each other. We use theDutch Social Economic Panel survey data, where expectations aboutthe next year's financial situation are

  9. Job Expectations of Senior Nursing Students. (United States)

    Burton, C. Emory; Burton, Dorothy T.


    A study was conducted of new nurses' job expectations. Most graduates anticipated full-time work on the day shift in a medium-sized or large hospital. Major job expectations included a good salary, pleasant working conditions, and the opportunity to work a desired shift in a desired specialty. (CT)

  10. Do Students Expect Compensation for Wage Risk? (United States)

    Schweri, Juerg; Hartog, Joop; Wolter, Stefan C.


    We use a unique data set about the wage distribution that Swiss students expect for themselves ex ante, deriving parametric and non-parametric measures to capture expected wage risk. These wage risk measures are unfettered by heterogeneity which handicapped the use of actual market wage dispersion as risk measure in earlier studies. Students in…

  11. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Communications Team at 301-263-9000 or e-mail . Stay Informed Join ACG Press List Check out the ACG Blog Follow ACG on Twitter Patients ACG Home / Media / What to Expect During a Colonoscopy What to Expect ...

  12. Test Expectancy and Memory for Important Information (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Catherine D.; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.


    Prior research suggests that learners study and remember information differently depending upon the type of test they expect to later receive. The current experiments investigate how testing expectations impact the study of and memory for valuable information. Participants studied lists of words ranging in value from 1 to 10 points with the goal…

  13. Smoking expands expected lifetime with musculoskeletal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Juel, Knud


    By indirect estimation of mortality from smoking and life table methods we estimated expected lifetime without musculoskeletal diseases among never smokers, ex-smokers, and smokers. We found that although life expectancy of a heavy smoker is 7 years shorter than that of a never smoker, heavy...

  14. Expectancy Theory in Media and Message Selection. (United States)

    Van Leuven, Jim


    Argues for reversing emphasis on uses and gratifications research in favor of an expectancy model which holds that selection of a particular medium depends on (1) the expectation that the choice will be followed by a message of interest and (2) the importance of that message in satisfying user's values. (PD)

  15. Testing Expected Shortfall Models for Derivative Positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, F.L.J.; Melenberg, B.; Schumacher, J.M.


    In this paper we test several risk management models for computing expected shortfall for one-period hedge errors of hedged derivatives positions.Contrary to value-at-risk, expected shortfall cannot be tested using the standard binomial test, since we need information of the distribution in the

  16. The College President: Expectations, Realities, and Myths. (United States)

    Kauffman, Joseph F.; Walker, Donald E.

    Two speeches are presented: Expectations and Realities for the College President, by Joseph Kauffman, and Myths of the College Presidency, by Donald E. Walker. The first discusses the discrepancies between the expectations and realities in three areas: the relationship with boards of trustees, relations with central administration in the state…

  17. Grief Experiences and Expectance of Suicide (United States)

    Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos


    Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief…

  18. Grief Experiences and Expectance of Suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojtkowiak, J.; Wild, V.; Egger, J.I.M.


    Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142

  19. Users’ expectations of public library services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Borko


    Full Text Available Public libraries are used by a wide range of users. Therefore they should offer as many different services as possible. The proper introduction of library services to the users can be monitored by measuring their expectations. The article represents the services, which public libraries should offer to their users, definition of the expectation and which factors influence forming the expectations. 60 users were interviewed in two public libraries. The purpose of research was to find out how expectation differs from public library service offer. The results show that most users expect traditional library services such as free access to books, loaning books, giving information over the phone, reading rooms and inter-library loan; furthermore, most users expect library consultancy and advisory services, access to the Internet, public library website, on-line library catalog and services for the youngest members of the library. Fewer users expect guided tour of the library and information on cultural events in the city. Very few users expect modern services, such as provision of electronic publications, courses or lectures for using the Internet and other electronic sources, special courses, such as how to write a scientific research, and services for leisure and recreation, such as organized trips, and fun activities, such as arranging flowers, painting, sawing, etc.

  20. Changing mortality and average cohort life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoen, Robert; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir


    Period life expectancy varies with changes in mortality, and should not be confused with the life expectancy of those alive during that period. Given past and likely future mortality changes, a recent debate has arisen on the usefulness of the period life expectancy as the leading measure......, the average cohort life expectancy (ACLE), to provide a precise measure of the average length of life of cohorts alive at a given time. To compare the performance of ACLE with CAL and with period and cohort life expectancy, we first use population models with changing mortality. Then the four aggregate...... of survivorship. An alternative aggregate measure of period mortality which has been seen as less sensitive to period changes, the cross-sectional average length of life (CAL) has been proposed as an alternative, but has received only limited empirical or analytical examination. Here, we introduce a new measure...

  1. Controlled-release fertilizer composition substantially coated with an impermeable layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankeny, Mark


    A controlled-release fertilizer composition is provided that is substantially coated with an impermeable layer. The fertilizer composition may further include one or more hollow sections to allow for root penetration and efficient delivery of nutrients.

  2. Educational status and active life expectancy among older blacks and whites. (United States)

    Guralnik, J M; Land, K C; Blazer, D; Fillenbaum, G G; Branch, L G


    Persons of low socioeconomic status are known to have reduced life expectancy. In a study of the relation of socioeconomic status to disability-free or active life expectancy among older persons, we analyzed prospectively gathered data on 2219 blacks and 1838 whites who were 65 years of age or older in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. We defined disability as the inability to perform independently one or more basic functional activities such as walking, bathing, dressing, eating, and using the toilet. For subgroups defined by sex, race, and education, statistical models were used to estimate, for persons at each year of age, the probability of transition from not being disabled or being disabled at base line to not being disabled, being disabled, or having died one year later. These transition probabilities were then entered into increment-decrement life tables to generate estimates of total, active, and disabled life expectancy (with total life expectancy equal to active life expectancy plus disabled life expectancy). Sixty-five-year-old black men had a lower total life expectancy (11.4 years) and active life expectancy (10 years) than white men (total life expectancy, 12.6 years; active life expectancy, 11.2 years), although the differences were reduced after we controlled for education. The estimates for 65-year-old black women (total life expectancy, 18.7 years; active life expectancy, 15.9 years) were similar to those for white women. Black men and women 75 years old and older had higher values for total life expectancy and active life expectancy than whites, and the differences were larger after stratification for education. Education had a substantially stronger relation to total life expectancy and active life expectancy than did race. At the age of 65, those with 12 or more years of education had an active life expectancy that was 2.4 to 3.9 years longer than the values for those with less education in all the four subgroups defined by sex and race

  3. Subjective Life Expectancy Among College Students. (United States)

    Rodemann, Alyssa E; Arigo, Danielle


    Establishing healthy habits in college is important for long-term health. Despite existing health promotion efforts, many college students fail to meet recommendations for behaviors such as healthy eating and exercise, which may be due to low perceived risk for health problems. The goals of this study were to examine: (1) the accuracy of life expectancy predictions, (2) potential individual differences in accuracy (i.e., gender and conscientiousness), and (3) potential change in accuracy after inducing awareness of current health behaviors. College students from a small northeastern university completed an electronic survey, including demographics, initial predictions of their life expectancy, and their recent health behaviors. At the end of the survey, participants were asked to predict their life expectancy a second time. Their health data were then submitted to a validated online algorithm to generate calculated life expectancy. Participants significantly overestimated their initial life expectancy, and neither gender nor conscientiousness was related to the accuracy of these predictions. Further, subjective life expectancy decreased from initial to final predictions. These findings suggest that life expectancy perceptions present a unique-and potentially modifiable-psychological process that could influence college students' self-care.

  4. Patients' and parents' expectations of orthodontic treatment. (United States)

    Hiemstra, Renske; Bos, Annemieke; Hoogstraten, Johan


    To investigate the expectations of children and their primary care-givers towards orthodontic treatment and to compare the results with those of a UK sample. A questionnaire survey of children and their primary care-givers attending for their first consultation. The Department of Orthodontics at the Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), the Netherlands. A total of 168 subjects (84 patients and 84 parents) completed the questionnaire. The children were aged 10 to 14 years. The responses of the children and parents and differences between boys and girls were examined using parametric statistical methods. The data from the Dutch sample were compared with a similar UK sample. Patients and parents shared similar expectations of orthodontic treatment, with the exception of expectations of having a brace fitted at the first appointment, orthodontic treatment involving headgear, any problems with orthodontic treatment, duration of orthodontic treatment and concerning reactions from the public. Among the child participants, boys and girls only differed in their expectations of orthodontic treatment involving jaw surgery. Differences between Dutch and English participants were found regarding the first visit, type of orthodontic treatment, reactions from the public, and pain and problems with orthodontic treatment. Since the expectations of patients and their parents differ on several aspects, effective communication between the orthodontist, patient and parent is considered to be essential. Our hypothesis that Dutch patients' and parents' expectations of orthodontic treatment differ from the expectations of English patients and parents was supported.

  5. Patient/parent expectations of orthodontic treatment. (United States)

    Obilade, Omolara Abiodun; da Costa, Oluranti Olatokunbo; Sanu, Oluwatosin Oluyemi


    Expectations of orthodontic treatment may differ between the patient and their parents, as the parents' expectations may not reflect those of the child. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the expectations of patients and their parents. This was a clinic-based, comparative, cross-sectional study involving 110 patients aged between 10 and 19 years, as well as their accompanying parents or guardians. The expectations of both patients and parents were determined using a questionnaire developed by Sayers and Newton. Results showed that the expectations of the patients and parents differed significantly in a number of areas with the parents' expectations often exceeding those of the patients. Both patients and parents were found to be ignorant about some aspects of orthodontic treatment, with 47.3% of patients and 39.1% of parents unaware of the duration of orthodontic treatment and, as such, requiring information from their clinicians. The results highlight the importance of patient education and counseling as well as the need to focus on the individual patient and not assume that their expectations mirror those of the accompanying parent. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Expectation (and attention) in visual cognition. (United States)

    Summerfield, Christopher; Egner, Tobias


    Visual cognition is limited by computational capacity, because the brain can process only a fraction of the visual sensorium in detail, and by the inherent ambiguity of the information entering the visual system. Two mechanisms mitigate these burdens: attention prioritizes stimulus processing on the basis of motivational relevance, and expectations constrain visual interpretation on the basis of prior likelihood. Of the two, attention has been extensively investigated while expectation has been relatively neglected. Here, we review recent work that has begun to delineate a neurobiology of visual expectation, and contrast the findings with those of the attention literature, to explore how these two central influences on visual perception overlap, differ and interact.

  7. Expected Business Conditions and Bond Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jonas Nygaard


    In this article, I study the predictability of bond risk premia by means of expectations to future business conditions using survey forecasts from the Survey of Professional Forecasters. I show that expected business conditions consistently affect excess bond returns and that the inclusion...... of expected business conditions in standard predictive regressions improve forecast performance relative to models using information derived from the current term structure or macroeconomic variables. The results are confirmed in a real-time out-of-sample exercise, where the predictive accuracy of the models...... is evaluated both statistically and from the perspective of a mean-variance investor that trades in the bond market....

  8. Expected Business Conditions and Bond Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jonas Nygaard

    This paper studies the predictability of bond risk premia by means of expectations to future business conditions using survey forecasts from the Survey of Professional Forecasters. We show that expected business conditions consistently affect excess bond returns and that the inclusion of expected...... business conditions in standard predictive regressions improve forecast performance relative to models using information derived from the current term structure or macroeconomic variables. The results are confirmed in a real-time out-of-sample exercise, where the predictive accuracy of the models...... is evaluated both statistically and from the perspective of a mean-variance investor that trades in the bond market....

  9. The Probability Model of Expectation Disconfirmation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Hsin HUANG


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a probability model to explore the dynamic process of customer’s satisfaction. Bases on expectation disconfirmation theory, the satisfaction is constructed with customer’s expectation before buying behavior and the perceived performance after purchase. The experiment method is designed to measure expectation disconfirmation effects and we also use the collection data to estimate the overall satisfaction and model calibration. The results show good fitness between the model and the real data. This model has application for business marketing areas in order to manage relationship satisfaction.

  10. The impact of individual expectations and expectation conflicts on virtual teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch-Sijtsema, Petra

    Virtual teams are characterized by geographical dispersion, organizational, and cultural heterogeneity, and their members have little history and lateral and weak relationships. Literature denotes the importance of expectations in virtual settings, but individual expectations of virtual team members

  11. Teachers' expectations of teacher-student interaction : Complementary and distinctive expectancy patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, R. J.; van Tartwijk, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/112629385; Verloop, N.; Veldman, I.; Wubbels, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070651361


    In this study it is investigated what student responses teachers expect in particular teacher behaviour vignettes, and whether experience and gender produce differences in expectations. Teacher behaviour vignettes were presented to teachers (N = 46), who described the student responses they

  12. The mysteriously variable half-life of dissolved organic matter in aquatic ecosystems: artefact or insight? (United States)

    Evans, Chris; Fovet, Ophelie; Jones, Tim; Jones, Davey; Moldan, Filip; Futter, Martyn


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) fluxes from land to water represent an important loss term in the terrestrial carbon balance, a major pathway in the global carbon cycle, a significant influence on aquatic light, nutrient and energy regimes, and an important concern for drinking water production. Although freshwaters are now recognised as zones of active carbon cycling, rather than passive conduits for carbon transport, evidence regarding the magnitude of, and controls on, DOM cycling in aquatic systems is incomplete and in some cases seemingly contradictory, with DOM 'half-lives' ranging from a few days to many years. Bringing together experimental, isotopic, catchment mass balance and modelling data, we suggest that apparently conflicting results can be reconciled through understanding of differences in: i) the terrestrial sources of DOM within heterogeneous landscapes, and consequent differences in its reactivity and stoichiometry; ii) experimental methodologies (i.e. which reactions are actually being measured), and iii) the extent of prior transformation of DOM upstream of the point of study. We argue that rapid photo-degradation, particularly of peat-derived DOM, is a key process in headwaters, whilst apparently slow DOM turnover in downstream, agriculturally-influenced lakes and rivers can partly be explained by the offsetting effect of in situ DOM production. This production appears to be strongly constrained by nutrient supply, thus linking DOM turnover and composition to the supply of inorganic nutrient inputs from diffuse agricultural pollution, and also providing a possible mechanistic link between aquatic DOM production and terrestrial DOM breakdown via the mineralisation and re-assimilation of organic nutrients. A more complete conceptual understanding of these interlinked processes will provide an improved understanding of the sources and fate of aquatic DOM, its role in the global carbon cycle, and the impact of anthropogenic activities, for example in relation to drinking water supplies and land management.

  13. Improved stability and half-life of fluorinated phosphotriesterase using Rosetta. (United States)

    Yang, Ching-Yao; Renfrew, P Douglas; Olsen, Andrew J; Zhang, Michelle; Yuvienco, Carlo; Bonneau, Richard; Montclare, Jin Kim


    Recently we demonstrated that incorporating p-fluorophenylalanine (pFF) into phosphotriesterase dramatically improved folding, thereby leading to enhanced stability and function at elevated temperatures. To further improve the stability of the fluorinated enzyme, Rosetta was used to identify multiple potential stabilizing mutations. One such variant, pFF-F104A, exhibited enhanced activity at elevated temperature and maintained activity over many days in solution at room temperature. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Comment on "Precise half-life values for two-neutrino double beta decay"


    Pritychenko, B.


    The results by A.S. Barabash [Phys. Rev. {\\bf C 81}, 035501 (2010)] are shown to be incomplete. Tellurium data sets were reanalyzed using the best practices of ENSDF evaluations. Present analysis indicates much higher value for the 2$\

  15. Half-life measurements of isomeric states populated in projectile fragmentation (United States)

    Bowry, M.; Podolyák, Zs.; Kurcewicz, J.; Pietri, S.; Bunce, M.; Regan, P. H.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Nociforo, C.; Prochazka, A.; Weick, H.; Allegro, P.; Benlliure, J.; Benzoni, G.; Boutachkov, P.; Gerl, J.; Gorska, M.; Gottardo, A.; Gregor, N.; Janik, R.; Knöbel, R.; Kojouharov, I.; Kubo, T.; Litvinov, Y. A.; Merchan, E.; Mukha, I.; Naqvi, F.; Pfeiffer, B.; Pfützner, M.; Plaß, W.; Pomorski, M.; Riese, B.; Ricciardi, M. V.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Schaffner, H.; Kurz, N.; Denis Bacelar, A. M.; Bruce, A. M.; Farrelly, G. F.; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sitar, B.; Spiller, P.; Stadlmann, J.; Strmen, P.; Sun, B.; Takeda, H.; Tanihata, I.; Terashima, S.; Valiente Dobon, J. J.; Winfield, J. S.; Wollersheim, H.-J.; Woods, P. J.


    The half-lives of excited isomeric states observed in 195Au, 201Tl and 215Rn are reported for the first time. Delayed γ-rays were correlated with nuclei produced in the projectile fragmentation of relativistic 238U ions, unambiguously identified in terms of their atomic number (Z) and mass-to-charge ratio (A/Q) after traversing an in-flight separator. The observation of a long-lived isomeric state in 195Au with t1/2 = 16-4+8 μs is presented. Two shorter-lived isomeric states were detected in 201Tl and 215Rn with t1/2 = 95-21+39 and 57-12+21 ns respectively. In total 24 isomeric states were identified in different nuclei from Pt to Rn (A ˜ 200) during the current study, the majority of which were previously reported. The wealth of spectroscopic data provides the opportunity to determine the isomeric ratios over a wide range of Z, A and angular momentum (I ħ) of the reaction products. In particular, high-spin states with I ≳ 18 ħ provide a robust test of theoretical models of fragmentation.

  16. Surfactant phosphatidylcholine half-life and pool size measurements in premature baboons developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Janssen; V.P. Carnielli (Virgilio); P.E. Cogo (Paola); S.R. Seidner; I.H.I. Luijendijk; J.L.D. Wattimena (Josias); A.H. Jobe (Alan); L.J.I. Zimmermann (Luc)


    textabstractBecause minimal information is available about surfactant metabolism in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, we measured half-lives and pool sizes of surfactant phosphatidylcholine in very preterm baboons recovering from respiratory distress syndrome and developing

  17. The half-life and exposure of cefuroxime varied in newborn infants after a Caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, G.; Hyldig, N.; Joergensen, J.S.


    : Healthy mothers received a single dose of cefuroxime 15–60 minutes before skin incision. One blood sample was drawn from the umbilical cord, and two blood samples were drawn from the infant after delivery. Total plasma cefuroxime (μg/mL) was measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Results...

  18. Focus on the legislative approach to short half life radioactive hospital waste releasing. (United States)

    Petrucci, Caterina; Traino, Antonio Claudio


    We propose to summarize the advancements introduced by the new Directive 2013/59/Euratom concerning the concept of clearance, for which the radioactive medical waste represents a typical candidate. We also intend to spotlight disputable points in the regulatory scheme in force in Italy, as well to make a contribution to evaluate whether the practice of patients' urine storing, stated by it, can be regarded to be proper. With directing our interest to radionuclides used in Nuclear Medicine, we first present an overview of how the clearance concept, and that of exemption closely related to it, have been developed from the previous Directive 96/29 to the new one; then we describe the implementation of these concepts in the Italian legislation. Subsequently we estimate the exposure due both to keeping the effluent on site and to direct discharging it to the environment. In line with a well established international consensus, the Directive 2013/59 drives simple and harmonized regulation of clearance. On the contrary, some complexity and lack of consistency can be found in the framework of the national legislation affecting the radioactive medical waste handling. In addition the practice of excreta storing is disputed not to be really beneficial. The opportunity should be taken to make the whole system of these requirements simpler and more consistent and effective when it is revised to transpose the new Directive. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Targeted fluorination of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug to prolong metabolic half-life. (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Maxwell J; Harsanyi, Antal; Li, Jingji; Bright, Tara; Murphy, Cormac D; Sandford, Graham


    In drug design, one way of improving metabolic stability is to introduce fluorine at a metabolically labile site. In the early stages of drug design, identification of such sites is challenging, and a rapid method of assessing the effect of fluorination on a putative drug's metabolic stability would be of clear benefit. One approach to this is to employ micro-organisms that are established as models of drug metabolism in parallel with the synthesis of fluorinated drug analogues. In this study, we have used the filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans to identify the metabolically labile site of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug flurbiprofen, to aid in the design of fluorinated derivatives that were subsequently synthesised. The effect of the additional fluorine substitution on cytochrome P450-catalysed oxidation was then determined via incubation with the fungus, and demonstrated that fluorine substitution at the 4'-position rendered the drug inactive to oxidative transformation, whereas substitution of fluorine at either 2' or 3' resulted in slower oxidation compared to the original drug. This approach to modulating the metabolic stability of a drug-like compound is widely applicable and can be used to address metabolic issues of otherwise good lead compounds in drug development. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. N-glycosylation increases the circulatory half-life of human growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flintegaard, Thomas V; Thygesen, Peter; Rahbek-Nielsen, Henrik


    Therapeutic use of recombinant GH typically involves daily sc injections. We examined the possibilities for prolonging the in vivo circulation of GH by introducing N-glycans. Human GH variants with a single potential N-glycosylation site (N-X-S/T) introduced by site-directed mutagenesis were expr...

  1. Persistence and Effective Half-Life of Chemical Warfare Agent VX on Grass Foliage (United States)


    conditions. Miracle-Gro Water Soluble All Purpose plant food (Scotts Miracle-Gro Company; Marysville, OH) fertilizer (24% total nitrogen [calculated as N...animals, as well as for wildlife food and habitat (USDA–NRCS, 2015). This species is also one of the most-important weed species in crop systems...Agriculture–Natural Resources Conservation Service Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv. Barnyardgrass. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data

  2. Biomonitoring of perfluoroalkyl acids in human urine and estimates of biological half-life. (United States)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Beesoon, Sanjay; Zhu, Lingyan; Martin, Jonathan W


    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent and bioaccumulative compounds that have been associated with adverse health outcomes. In human blood, PFAAs exist as both linear and branched isomers, yet for most linear homologues, and for all branched isomers, elimination rates are unknown. Paired blood and urine samples (n = 86) were collected from adults in China. They were analyzed by a sensitive isomer-specific method that permitted the detection of many PFAAs in human urine for the first time. For all PFAAs except perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnA), levels in urine correlated positively with levels in blood. Perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) were excreted more efficiently than perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs) of the same carbon chain-length. In general, shorter PFCAs were excreted more efficiently than longer ones, but for PFSAs, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS, a C8 compound) was excreted more efficiently than perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS, a C6 compound). Among PFOS and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) isomers, major branched isomers were more efficiently excreted than the corresponding linear isomer. A one-compartment model was used to estimate the biological elimination half-lives of PFAAs. Among all PFAAs, the estimated arithmetic mean elimination half-lives ranged from 0.5 ± 0.1 years (for one branched PFOA isomer, 5m-PFOA) to 90 ± 11 years (for one branched PFOS isomer, 1m-PFOS). Urinary excretion was the major elimination route for short PFCAs (C ≤ 8), but for longer PFCAs, PFOS and PFHxS, other routes of excretion likely contribute to overall elimination. Urinary concentrations are good biomarkers of the internal dose, and this less invasive strategy can therefore be used in future epidemiological and biomonitoring studies. The very long half-lives of long-chain PFCAs, PFHxS, and PFOS isomers in humans stress the importance of global and domestic exposure mitigation strategies.

  3. Stock returns, macroeconomic variables and expectations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lúcio Linck; Roberto Frota Decourt


    ... returns in Brazil from 2000 to 2010. The study investigates the causality relationships among real stock returns, basic interest rates, GDP, ination and the market expectation of future behavior of these macroeconomic variables...

  4. What to Expect during Heart Surgery (United States)

    ... problems with the heart's function and valves. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a ... To Expect After Heart Surgery Recovery in the Hospital You may spend a day or more in ...

  5. Anesthesia -- What to Expect (For Teens) (United States)

    ... Help? Talking to Your Parents - or Other Adults Anesthesia - What to Expect KidsHealth > For Teens > Anesthesia - What ... the Operating Room After Surgery Different Kinds of Anesthesia If you're having any kind of procedure ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciolpan Daniela


    Full Text Available Audit expectations gap (AEG is one of the most debated phenomena animating the international scientific research scene. The volume of papers focused on defining the AEG concept, examining its determinants, implications, and mechanisms to minimize the gap

  7. Why did Danish women's life expectancy stagnate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Oeppen, James; Rizzi, Silvia


    The general health status of a population changes over time, generally in a positive direction. Some generations experience more unfavourable conditions than others. The health of Danish women in the interwar generations is an example of such a phenomenon. The stagnation in their life expectancy...... between 1977 and 1995 is thought to be related to their smoking behaviour. So far, no study has measured the absolute effect of smoking on the mortality of the interwar generations of Danish women and thus the stagnation in Danish women's life expectancy. We applied a method to estimate age......-specific smoking-attributable number of deaths to examine the effect of smoking on the trends in partial life expectancy of Danish women between age 50 and 85 from 1950 to 2012. We compared these trends to those for women in Sweden, where there was no similar stagnation in life expectancy. When smoking...

  8. Remaining Life Expectancy With and Without Polypharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastesson, Jonas W; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune


    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy for Swedish women and men aged 65 years and older. DESIGN: Age-specific prevalence of polypharmacy from the nationwide Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (SPDR) combined with life tables from Statistics Sweden...... was used to calculate the survival function and remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy according to the Sullivan method. SETTING: Nationwide register-based study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,347,564 individuals aged 65 years and older who had been prescribed and dispensed a drug from July 1...... to September 30, 2008. MEASUREMENTS: Polypharmacy was defined as the concurrent use of 5 or more drugs. RESULTS: At age 65 years, approximately 8 years of the 20 remaining years of life (41%) can be expected to be lived with polypharmacy. More than half of the remaining life expectancy will be spent...

  9. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Earn your CME from the convenience of your home or office by accessing ACG's web-based educational ... ACG Blog Follow ACG on Twitter Patients ACG Home / Media / What to Expect During a Colonoscopy What ...

  10. Adolescent Perceptions of Stress and Future Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cybelle Bezerra Sousa Florêncio

    Full Text Available Abstract: Adolescence has been described as a developmental phase marked by challenges, tensions, and uncertainties that can generate stress and lower adolescents' future expectations. This study aims to describe adolescent perceptions of stress and future expectations.It is a mixed-methods study of 17 high school students, selected from a sample of 295 adolescents, aged 14 to 18 years, who are pupils in a private school system in the metropolitan region of Belém do Pará. The Stress Scale for Adolescents was used, in addition to focus groups. The results indicated higher stress levels in female adolescents. The participants who had no stress hadgood family relationships and well-defined future expectations. However, the adolescents who had stress associated their family context with stressors and had no expectations for the future.

  11. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Check out the ACG Blog Follow ACG on Twitter Patients ACG Home / Media / What to Expect During ... PATIENT CENTER SAP-MOC SELF-ASSESSMENT TEST ACG @Twitter ACG Blog About ACG ACG Store American College ...

  12. What To Expect During Pulmonary Rehabilitation (United States)

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During Pulmonary Rehabilitation Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) can have many parts, and not all ... your endurance and muscle strength, so you're better able to carry out daily activities. The plan ...

  13. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Awards The ACG Institute for Clinical Research & Education supports clinical gastroenterology research and faculty development awards each ... ACG Blog Follow ACG on Twitter Patients ACG Home / Media / What to Expect During a Colonoscopy What ...

  14. Serum Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (β- hCG) Clearance Curves in Women with Successfully Expectantly Managed Tubal Ectopic Pregnancies: A Retrospective Cohort Study. (United States)

    Helmy, Samir; Mavrelos, Dimitrios; Sawyer, Elinor; Ben-Nagi, Jara; Koch, Marianne; Day, Andrea; Jurkovic, Davor


    To establish clearance curves for serum β -hCG in women with successfully expectantly managed tubal ectopic pregnancies. Retrospective cohort study. Non- viable tubal ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed on transvaginal ultrasound. If initial serum β hCG was less than 5000 IU/L and patients were asymptomatic, expectant management was offered. Patients underwent serial β hCG measurements until serum β hCG was less than 20 IU/l, or the urine pregnancy test was negative. Early Pregnancy and Gynaecology Assessment Unit, Kings College Hospital, London (December 1998 to July 2006). We included 161 women with diagnosed non-viable tubal ectopic pregnancy who underwent successful expectant management. Serum β hCG level. Mean initial serum β- hCG was 488 IU/L (41 - 4883) and median serum β hCG clearance time was 19 days (5 - 82). The average half-life of β hCG clearance was 82.5 hours (±SD 50.2) in patients with steadily declining serum β- hCG levels compared to 106.7 hours (±SD 72.0) in patients with primarily plateauing β-hCG levels in the declining phase. However, these differences were not significant (p>0.05). We identified a median follow-up of 19 days until serum β hCG clearance in women with tubal ectopic pregnancy and successful expectant management. Although non- significant, women with initially plateauing serum β hCG showed a longer follow-up time until clearance compared to women with steadily declining β hCG levels. This information may serve as a guideline enabling clinicians to predict the length of follow-up for women with tubal ectopic pregnancy and expectant management.

  15. Childbirth expectations and correlates at the final stage of pregnancy in Chinese expectant parents


    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Hong


    Purpose: To explore the childbirth expectations of Chinese expectant parents during their transition to parenthood. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was used through the Chinese version of the Childbirth Expectations Questionnaire. A total of 240 expectant parents were recruited when they were admitted to the obstetric units waiting for delivery at a large Maternal and Child Health care Center in Beijing, and 210 couples completed the questionnaires, yielding a response rate o...

  16. Evaluation of interpretation strategies and substantial bronchodilator response in pediatric patients with normal baseline spirometry. (United States)

    Hsu, Daniel P; Ocampo, Thad F; DiGiovanni, Heather A; Gil, Eddie R


    Controversy exists regarding the best method to interpret pediatric spirometry. There is also controversy regarding the benefit of performing post-bronchodilator spirometry after normal baseline spirometry. This study compares the use of lower limit of normal (LLN) against percent of predicted (PP) in the interpretation of spirometry. We also investigate the occurrence of a substantial bronchodilator response for patients who received post-bronchodilator spirometry. Spirometric tests performed in the pediatric clinic at San Antonio Military Medical Center were retrospectively reviewed. Results of spirometry were compared using LLN and PP for interpretation. Abnormal spirometry was defined as a low FEV1 or low FEV1/FVC, indicating evidence of airway obstruction. The presence of a substantial bronchodilator response was recorded and the results were analyzed. Of 242 tests, 212 normal and 30 abnormal tests were reported using the LLN interpretation strategy. Using the PP interpretation strategy, there was a significant difference in the number of normal (183) and abnormal (59) tests, when compared to the LLN (P spirometry, 10% (PP) and 12% (LLN) had a substantial bronchodilator response. An abnormal baseline spirometry was more likely to have a substantial response to bronchodilator, compared to normal baseline spirometry (P spirometry, 10-12% of subjects with normal baseline spirometry showed a substantial bronchodilator response. This suggests that normal baseline spirometry may miss reversible airway obstruction, which is a hallmark of asthma.

  17. Evolution of non-expected utility preferences

    CERN Document Server

    Widekind, Sven von; Fandel, G


    The theory on the evolution of preferences deals with the endogenous formation of preference relations in strategic situations. It is related to the field of evolutionary game theory. In this book we analyze the role and the influence of general, possibly non-expected utility preferences in such an evolutionary setup. In particular, we demonstrate that preferences which diverge from von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility may potentially prove to be successful under evolutionary pressures.

  18. Student Expectations in the New Millennium


    Wan, Yee-Tak


    Higher education has experienced vast changes as a result of global political and economic developments. Cultural and social changes in the last decade have also added to the continuing evolution of higher education. These changes inevitably lead to changing expectations of students entering higher education. An adequate understanding of student expectations is crucial in ensuring a good fit between higher educational institutions and their students. This study attempts to carry out a bas...

  19. Fertility expectations and residential mobility in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ermisch


    Full Text Available Background: It is plausible that people take into account anticipated changes in family size in choosing where to live. But estimation of the impact of anticipated events on current transitions in an event history framework is challenging because expectations must be measured in some way and, like indicators of past childbearing, expected future childbearing may be endogenous with respect to housing decisions. Objective: The objective of the study is to estimate how expected changes in family size affect residential movement in Great Britain in a way which addresses these challenges. Methods: We use longitudinal data from a mature 18-wave panel survey, the British Household Panel Survey, which incorporates a direct measure of fertility expectations. The statistical methods allow for the potential endogeneity of expectations in our estimation and testing framework. Results: We produce evidence consistent with the idea that past childbearing mainly affects residential mobility through expectations of future childbearing, not directly through the number of children in the household. But there is heterogeneity in response. In particular, fertility expectations have a much greater effect on mobility among women who face lower costs of mobility, such as private tenants. Conclusions: Our estimates indicate that expecting to have a(nother child in the future increases the probability of moving by about 0.036 on average, relative to an average mobility rate of 0.14 per annum in our sample. Contribution: Our contribution is to incorporate anticipation of future events into an empirical model of residential mobility. We also shed light on how childbearing affects mobility.

  20. Converting customer expectations into achievable results. (United States)

    Landis, G A


    It is not enough in today's environment to just meet customers' expectations--we must exceed them. Therefore, one must learn what constitutes expectations. These needs have expanded during the past few years from just manufacturing the product and looking at the outcome from a provincial standpoint. Now we must understand and satisfy the entire supply chain. To manage this process and satisfy the customer, the process now involves the supplier, the manufacturer, and the entire distribution system.

  1. An evaluation of inflation expectations in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Soybilgen


    Full Text Available Expectations of inflation play a critical role in the process of price setting in the market. Central banks closely follow developments in inflation expectations to implement a successful monetary policy. The Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey (CBRT conducts a survey of experts and decision makers in the financial and real sectors to reveal market expectations and predictions of current and future inflation. The survey is conducted every month. This paper examines the accuracy of these survey predictions using forecast evaluation techniques. We focus on both point and sign accuracy of the predictions. Although point predictions from CBRT surveys are compared with those of autoregressive models, sign predictions are evaluated on their value to a user. We also test the predictions for bias. Unlike the empirical evidence from other economies, our results show that autoregressive models outperform most of inflation expectations in forecasting inflation. This indicates that inflation expectations have poor point forecast accuracies. However, we show that sign predictions for all inflation expectations have value to a user.

  2. Life expectancy after the first suicide attempt. (United States)

    Jokinen, J; Talbäck, M; Feychting, M; Ahlbom, A; Ljung, R


    To assess excess mortality among suicide attempters compared to the general population. Remaining life expectancy was calculated for a nationwide cohort of all 187 894 persons 18 years or older hospitalised for the first time attempted suicide in Sweden in 1971-2010. Life expectancy was shortened throughout the lifespan for both men and women debuting with suicide attempt. The reduction in life expectancy for men debuting with a suicide attempt at 20 years of age was 18 years while the reduction for men debuting at 50 years of age was 10 years. For women attempting suicide, the life expectancy was shortened by 11 and 8 years respectively. The gender difference in life expectancy attenuated in patients making their first suicide attempt at age 70 years or older. Suicide deaths explained about 20% of the total mortality within 10 years of the suicide attempt and 5% in those with duration of four decades since the first suicide attempt. The life expectancy is dramatically reduced in patients attempting suicide. With most excess deaths being due to physical health conditions, public efforts should be directed both towards improving physical health and to prevent suicide. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Taxation and life expectancy in Western Europe. (United States)

    Bagger, P J


    With the exception of Denmark, life expectancy in Western Europe has shown a significant increase over the last decades. During that period of time overall taxation has increased in most of the countries, especially in Denmark. We, therefore, examined whether taxation could influence life expectancy in Western Europe. We used information on the sum of income tax and employees' social contribution in percentage of gross wage earnings from the OECD database and data on disability adjusted life expectancy at birth from the World Health Organization database. We arbitrarily only included countries with populations in excess of 4 millions and thereby excluded smaller countries where tax exemption is part of the national monetary policy. We found that disability adjusted life expectancy at birth was inversely correlated to the total tax burden in Western Europe. We speculate whether a threshold exists where high taxes exert a negative influence on life expectancy despite increased welfare spending. The study suggests that tax burden should be considered among the multiple factors influencing life expectancy.

  4. Gender differences in negative reinforcement smoking expectancies. (United States)

    Pang, Raina D; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B; Leventhal, Adam M


    Previous research suggests that females may be more motivated to smoke for negative reinforcement (NR) than males. However, it remains unclear whether gender differences in smoking outcome expectancies for negative smoking reinforcement-an important theoretical and clinical target defined as beliefs that smoking alleviates negative affect-exist above and beyond gender differences in depression and/or other outcome expectancies. Relations between gender and negative smoking reinforcement expectancies were examined in two independent samples. Sample 1 consisted of non-treatment seeking daily smokers (Male n = 188; Female n = 91) recruited from Southern California (49.5% Black, 32.2% Caucasian, and 18.3% other race/ethnicity). Sample 2 consisted of treatment seeking daily smokers (Male n = 257; Female n = 237) in Northern Florida and Vermont (10.7% Black, 82.9% Caucasian, and 6.4% other). Females (vs. males) reported stronger NR smoking expectancies with and without statistically controlling for nicotine dependence, other smoking expectancies, and anxiety and depression in both samples (βs = .06 to .14, ps = .06 to gender-specific etiological process disproportionately prominent in women. Enhancing ability to cope with negative affect without smoking or challenge NR expectancies may be particularly important for cessation treatment in women. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  5. Dynamic emotion perception and prior expectancy. (United States)

    Dzafic, Ilvana; Martin, Andrew K; Hocking, Julia; Mowry, Bryan; Burianová, Hana


    Social interactions require the ability to rapidly perceive emotion from various incoming dynamic, multisensory cues. Prior expectations reduce incoming emotional information and direct attention to cues that are aligned with what is expected. Studies to date have investigated the prior expectancy effect using static emotional images, despite the fact that dynamic stimuli would represent greater ecological validity. The objective of the study was to create a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm to examine the influence of prior expectations on naturalistic emotion perception. For this purpose, we developed a dynamic emotion perception task, which consisted of audio-visual videos that carry emotional information congruent or incongruent with prior expectations. The results show that emotional congruency was associated with activity in prefrontal regions, amygdala, and putamen, whereas emotional incongruency was associated with activity in temporoparietal junction and mid-cingulate gyrus. Supported by the behavioural results, our findings suggest that prior expectations are reinforced after repeated experience and learning, whereas unexpected emotions may rely on fast change detection processes. The results from the current study are compatible with the notion that the ability to automatically detect unexpected changes in complex dynamic environments allows for adaptive behaviours in potentially advantageous or threatening situations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The acceptability, personal outcome expectations, and expected effects of transport pricing policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuitema, G.; Steg, L.; Rothengatter, J. A.


    Acceptability and personal outcome expectations (le the extent to which one expects to be better or worse off) of transport pricing policies were examined in relation to the expected effects of these policies on one s own car use congestion and environmental problems Car users who commuted

  7. Alcohol expectancy challenges for college students: a narrative review. (United States)

    Labbe, Allison K; Maisto, Stephen A


    Heavy alcohol use among college students has become a substantial health concern. With national survey data indicating that 40% of college students report consuming five or more alcoholic drinks at least monthly (Johnston, O'Malley, Bachman, & Schulenberg, 2009), prevention and intervention programs are needed to address this problem. The Task Force on College Drinking, commissioned by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), designated alcohol expectancy challenges (ECs) as a recommended treatment strategy to reduce alcohol use among college students (NIAAA, 2002). This paper is a systematic critical review of the studies that have been conducted to assess for the efficacy of ECs among college students with a focus on changes in expectancies and alcohol consumption, and possible differences in efficacy for men and women. The review revealed that ECs were most efficacious when administered to male-only groups of participants; while ECs for female-only and mixed-gender groups demonstrated less consistent results. The implications of the findings of this critical review for the direction of future research are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Economic Loan Loss Provision and Expected Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hlawatsch


    Full Text Available The intention of a loan loss provision is the anticipation of the loan's expected losses by adjusting the book value of the loan. Furthermore, this loan loss provision has to be compared to the expected loss according to Basel II and, in the case of a difference, liable equity has to be adjusted. This however assumes that the loan loss provision and the expected loss are based on a similar economic rationale, which is only valid conditionally in current loan loss provisioning methods according to IFRS. Therefore, differences between loan loss provisions and expected losses should only result from different approaches regarding the parameter estimation within each model and not due to different assumptions regarding the outcome of the model. The provisioning and accounting model developed in this paper overcomes the before-mentioned shortcomings and is consistent with an economic rationale of expected losses. Additionally, this model is based on a close-to-market valuation of the loan that is in favor of the basic idea of IFRS. Suggestions for changes in current accounting and capital requirement rules are provided.

  9. Intergenerational transmission of child abuse and neglect: Do maltreatment type, perpetrator, and substantiation status matter? (United States)

    Bartlett, Jessica Dym; Kotake, Chie; Fauth, Rebecca; Easterbrooks, M Ann


    A maternal history of childhood maltreatment is thought to be a potent risk factor for child abuse and neglect, yet the extent of continuity across generations is unclear, with studies reporting vastly different rates of intergenerational transmission. Disparate findings may be due to lack of attention to the nature of maltreatment experiences in each generation. We sought to expand the current literature by examining the role of maltreatment type, perpetrator identity, and substantiation status of reports to child protective services (CPS) on intergenerational maltreatment among adolescent mothers (n=417) and their children. We found that when mothers had at least one report of childhood maltreatment (substantiated or not), the odds that they maltreated their children increased by 72% (OR=2.52), compared to mothers who are not maltreated, but the odds were considerably lower when we limited analysis to substantiated reports. Both a maternal history of substantiated neglect and multiple type maltreatment (neglect and physical or sexual abuse) were associated with increased risk of child maltreatment, yet the likelihood of children experiencing multiple maltreatment perpetrated with their mothers identified as perpetrators increased over 300% when mothers had a childhood history of multiple maltreatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 16 CFR 260.5 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims. (United States)


    ... environmental marketing claims. 260.5 Section 260.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.5 Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims. Section 5 of the FTC Act makes unlawful deceptive acts and...

  11. 26 CFR 1.6043-3 - Return regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of... (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Return regarding liquidation, dissolution... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Information Returns § 1.6043-3 Return regarding liquidation, dissolution... years preceding any liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of the...

  12. A Tune beyond Us, Yet Ourselves: Power Sharing between People with Substantial Disabilities and Their Assistants. (United States)

    O'Brien, John; O'Brien, Connie Lyle

    This paper addresses the need to create relationships and supports that offer people with substantial disabilities the assistance they require to increase effective control of their lives ("power sharing"). The paper is based on experience and research in North American and British services to people with intellectual disabilities, autism, and…

  13. 42 CFR 414.222 - Items requiring frequent and substantial servicing. (United States)


    ...) Fee schedule amount for 1989 and 1990. The fee schedule amount for items requiring frequent and... the fee schedule amounts for years after 1990. For years after 1990, the fee schedules are determined... item has been paid for under the frequent and substantial servicing class and is subsequently paid for...

  14. Theoretical-and-Methodological Substantiation of Multilingual Model Activity in Kazakhstan Higher School Education System (United States)

    Ospanova, Bikesh Revovna; Azimbayeva, Zhanat Amantayevna; Timokhina, Tatyana Vladimirovna; Seydakhmetova, Zergul Koblandiyevna


    The need of implementing the model of professional development in training an expert in the conditions of multilingualism is considered. The possibility of using the multilingual approach in the context of present day education with the use of innovative technologies of training is substantiated, the definition of "multilingual…

  15. 76 FR 76905 - Extension of Comment Period for Proposed Rulemaking on Substantially Underserved Trust Areas (SUTA) (United States)


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR Part 1700 RIN 0572-AC23 Extension of Comment Period for Proposed Rulemaking on Substantially Underserved Trust Areas (SUTA) AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of extension of public comment period. SUMMARY: The Rural Utilities Service...

  16. 24 CFR 247.5 - Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition. 247.5 Section 247.5 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  17. 76 FR 37636 - Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Supported Hair Dryers (United States)


    ... connection. Typically, such hair dryers have a big, barrel-like body with a pistol grip handle. Frequently... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1120 Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Supported Hair Dryers AGENCY: U.S. Consumer... are issuing a final rule to determine that any hand-supported hair dryer without integral immersion...

  18. 26 CFR 1.6662-4 - Substantial understatement of income tax. (United States)


    ... adjustments on audit for 1989 increase taxable income to $51,500 and tax liability to $12,339. There was... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial understatement of income tax. 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and Assessable...

  19. Expectations, Bond Yields and Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Albert Lee


    Through explicitly incorporating analysts' forecasts as observable factors in a dynamic arbitrage-free model of the yield curve, this research proposes a framework for studying the impact of shifts in market sentiment on interest rates of all maturities. An empirical examination reveals that surv...... of this type may provide traders and policymakers with a new set of tools for formally assessing the reaction of bond yields to shifts in market expectations......Through explicitly incorporating analysts' forecasts as observable factors in a dynamic arbitrage-free model of the yield curve, this research proposes a framework for studying the impact of shifts in market sentiment on interest rates of all maturities. An empirical examination reveals that survey...... expectations about inflation, output growth, and the anticipated path of monetary policy actions contain important information for explaining movements in bond yields. Estimates from a forward-looking monetary policy rule suggest that the central bank exhibits a preemptive response to inflationary expectations...

  20. Major League Baseball Players’ Life Expectancies* (United States)

    Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Krueger, Patrick M.


    Objective We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. Methods We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. Results Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. Conclusions Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population. PMID:19756205

  1. Price Changes, Resource Adjustments and Rational Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    a decrease in prices through managers that anticipated the drop in demand and proactively lower selling prices and cut resources. Moreover, this study provides evidence for the moderating effect of managerial forecast accuracy on the relationship between demand uncertainty and cost elasticity. Findings show......This study investigates the relationship between the accuracy of managerial demand expectations, resource adjustment decisions and selling price changes. In line with rational expectation theory, it is argued that managers adjust resources and selling prices differently in response to expected...... compared to unexpected demand shocks. The association is tested using the empirical concept of cost stickiness. Cost stickiness arises as a consequence of asymmetric resource or price adjustments. Resource and price adjustments are termed asymmetric if the magnitude of change is different for increases...

  2. Great expectations. Eating expectancies as mediators of reinforcement sensitivity and eating. (United States)

    Hennegan, Julie M; Loxton, Natalie J; Mattar, Ameerah


    Eating expectancies are proposed as cognitive pathways linking reinforcement (reward and punishment) sensitivities and the tendency to over-eat in response to appetitive and emotional cues. In Study One (N=243 university women) explicit eating expectancies were tested as potential mediators of reinforcement sensitivities and eating styles. Broadly, expectancies that eating alleviates negative affect/boredom mediated both reward and punishment sensitivity and emotional eating. The expectancy that eating is pleasurable and rewarding mediated reward sensitivity and external eating. In Study Two (N=109), using an implicit eating expectancy task, reward sensitivity and external eating was mediated via positive expectancy statements, notably, that eating is pleasurable and rewarding. Reward sensitivity and emotional eating was mediated specifically by expectancies that eating manages boredom. Punishment sensitivity was not associated with any implicit expectancies. Findings support the role of expectancies as cognitive mediators in the relationship between reinforcement sensitivities and emotionally-driven versus externally-driven eating styles. However, the largely appetitive implicit expectancies task only supported an association with reward sensitivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On Time with Minimal Expected Cost!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Jensen, Peter Gjøl; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand


    ) timed game essentially defines an infinite-state Markov (reward) decision proces. In this setting the objective is classically to find a strategy that will minimize the expected reachability cost, but with no guarantees on worst-case behaviour. In this paper, we provide efficient methods for computing...... reachability strategies that will both ensure worst case time-bounds as well as provide (near-) minimal expected cost. Our method extends the synthesis algorithms of the synthesis tool Uppaal-Tiga with suitable adapted reinforcement learning techniques, that exhibits several orders of magnitude improvements w...

  4. Life Expectancy Varies in Local Communities in Chicago: Racial and Spatial Disparities and Correlates. (United States)

    Hunt, Bijou R; Tran, Gary; Whitman, Steven


    Life expectancy in the USA reached a record high of 78.7 years in 2010. However, the racial gap in life expectancy persists. National data, which are readily available, provide averages which mask important local-level differences. Local data are needed to identify the worst off groups, key to reducing disparities and pursuing health equity. Using vital records data, we calculated life expectancy for the USA and Chicago by race/ethnicity and gender and for Chicago's 77 community areas. We also examined the correlation between life expectancy and (1) racial/ethnic composition of a community area and (2) median household income. In Chicago, the highest life expectancy was observed among Hispanics at 84.6 and the lowest life expectancy was observed among Blacks at 71.7-a difference of about 13 years. Life expectancy varied substantially across the 77 community areas of Chicago, from a low of 68.2 to a high of 83.3-a difference of 15 years. There were strong correlations between life expectancy and the racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic distributions among the community areas. The examination of data at the local level provides invaluable insight into which communities are facing the greatest burden in terms of health and well-being. It is only through the examination of local-level data that we can understand the unique needs of these communities and begin to address them.

  5. Prenatal expectations in transition to parenthood: former infertility and family dynamic considerations. (United States)

    Flykt, Marjo; Lindblom, Jallu; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Poikkeus, Piia; Repokari, Leena; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Vilska, Sirpa; Sinkkonen, Jari; Tiitinen, Aila; Almqvist, Fredrik; Tulppala, Maija


    Prenatal expectations are important for the future parent-child relationship. The authors examined how maternal and paternal prenatal expectations of the relationship with the child predicted 1st-year parenting stress and whether these expectations were violated over the transition to parenthood. They further examined how former infertility affected these associations. The participants were 745 Finnish couples, 367 having undergone a successful assisted reproductive treatment and 378 conceiving spontaneously. Couples completed a questionnaire of family representations during pregnancy and when the child was 2 and 12 months old and Abidin's Parenting Stress Index at 2 and 12 months postpartum. The hypothesis of moderately high expectations predicting the lowest level of parenting stress was substantiated only concerning paternal expectations of own autonomy with the child. Generally, however, negative expectations of own and spouse's relationship with the child were linearly associated with higher parenting stress. Postnatal representations were more positive or equal to expectations, except for negative violation occurring in maternal expectation of the father-child relationship, especially among normative mothers. The results are discussed in relation to family dynamic considerations and special features of formerly infertile couples.

  6. The Premedical Student: Training and Practice Expectations


    Adams O’Connell, Virginia; Gupta, Jyoti


    Occupational burnout is a substantial and growing problem among current medical practitioners. Many practicing physicians lament the encroachment of managed care, infringement of physician autonomy by insurers, decreasing salaries, and decreasing prestige. In light of this unfavorable review of the profession, why are thousands of undergraduates all over the country still on the premedical track? Do these young men and women really know what kind of work environment awaits them at the end of ...

  7. Can we expect more of teachers?


    Penner, Andrew M.


    Robinson et al. (2013) use nationally representative longitudinal data on a cohort of kindergarten students to argue that teachers' gender biases play a substantial role in creating gender differences in mathematics achievement. In this comment, I first underscore the importance of unpacking the black box of mathematics and understanding how gender differences in specific mathematics skills are related to subsequent gender differences in other areas of mathematics. Second, I place questions o...

  8. College for some to college for all: social background, occupational expectations, and educational expectations over time. (United States)

    Goyette, Kimberly A


    The educational expectations of 10th-graders have dramatically increased from 1980 to 2002. Their rise is attributable in part to the changing educational composition of students' parents and related to the educational profiles of their expected occupations. Students whose parents have gone to college are more likely to attend college themselves, and students expect occupations that are more prestigious in 2002 than in 1980. The educational requirements of particular occupation categories have risen only slightly. These analyses also reveal that educational expectations in recent cohorts are more loosely linked to social background and occupational plans than they were in 1980. The declining importance of parents' background and the decoupling of educational and occupational plans, in addition to a strong and significant effect of cohort on educational expectations, suggest that the expectation of four-year college attainment is indeed becoming the norm.

  9. [Male life expectancy and prolongation of life expectancy were lowest in small towns in Japan]. (United States)

    Takeda, S


    The relationship between size of population and life expectancy of residents was investigated in 652 cities in Japan, using municipal life tables for 1985 and 1990. The following findings were seen: 1) Population size and life expectancy Life expectancy of males at age 0, 20 and 40 was lowest in small towns with a population less than 30,000 (except for age 40 in 1985), and highest in cities with a population of 70,000-199,999 in 1985 and 1990. Life expectancy of females at age 0, 20, 40 and 65 did not significantly vary with size of population in 1985 and 1990. 2) Population size and prolongation of life expectancy (1985-1990) Life expectancy was prolonged in males by 1.02, 0.88, 0.86 and 0.66 years at age 0, 20, 40 and 65, respectively. The prolongation of life expectancy of males at age 0, 20 and 40 was smallest in small towns with a population less than 30,000. Life expectancy was prolonged in females by 1.41, 1.32, 1.29 and 1.12 years at age 0, 20, 40 and 65, respectively. The prolongation of life expectancy was shortest at birth for females who lived in cities with a population of 50,000-59,999. 3) Socioeconomic factors and prolongation of life expectancy The prolongation of life expectancy of males was related to the entrance rate for high school and inversely related to the unemployment rate. The prolongation of life expectancy of females was not related to any of the socioeconomic factors studied.

  10. Substantial injuries influence ranking position in young elite athletes of athletics, cross-country skiing, orienteering. (United States)

    von Rosen, Philip; Heijne, Annette


    The relationship between injury and performance in young athletes is scarcely studied. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the association between injury prevalence and ranking position among adolescent elite athletes. 162 male and female adolescent elite athletes (age range 15-19), competing in athletics (n=59), cross-country skiing (n=66) and orienteering (n=37), were monitored weekly over 22-47 weeks using a web-based injury questionnaire. Ranking lists were collected. A significant (p=.003) difference was found in the seasonal substantial injury prevalence across the ranked athletes over the season, where the top-ranked (median 3.6%, 25-75th percentiles 0-14.3%) and middle-ranked athletes (median 2.3%, 25-75th percentiles 0-10.0%) had a lower substantial injury prevalence compared to the low-ranked athletes (median 11.3%, 25-75th percentiles 2.5-27.1%), during both pre-season (p=.002) and competitive season (p=.031). Athletes that improved their ranking position (51%, n=51) reported a lower substantial injury prevalence (median 0%, 25-75th percentiles 0-10.0%) compared to those that decreased (49%, n=49) their ranking position (md 6.7%, 25-75th percentiles 0-22.5%). In the top-ranked group, no athlete reported substantial injury more than40% of all data collection time points compared to 9.6% (n=5) in the middle-ranked and 17.3% (n=9) in the low-ranked group. Our results provide supporting evidence that substantial injuries, such as acute and overuse injuries leading to moderate or severe reductions in training or sports performance, influence ranking position in adolescent elite athletes. The findings are crucial to stakeholders involved in adolescent elite sports and support the value of designing effective preventive interventions for substantial injuries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Expected performance of the ATLAS Inner Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Viel, Simon; The ATLAS collaboration


    These slides present the expected tracking performance of the ATLAS Inner Tracker, based on the latest available public results (scoping document). More recent layout designs currently under consideration are also shown. The extended inner pixel barrel concept is discussed in more detail, along with test beam results demonstrating the proof-of-principle.

  12. High Performance Expectations: Concept and causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher


    literature research, HPE is defined as the degree to which leaders succeed in expressing ambitious expectations to their employees’ achievement of given performance criteria, and it is analyzed how leadership behavior affects employee-perceived HPE. This study applies a large-scale leadership field...

  13. Highway user expectations for ITD winter maintenance. (United States)


    Providing a high Level of Service (LOS) to ensure the safety and mobility for the traveling public is a key objective for winter : maintenance operations. The goal of this research was to obtain a better understanding of Idaho highway users expect...

  14. 5 CFR 470.301 - Program expectations. (United States)


    ....301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL... project plan must include a research design which contains: (1) Measurable goals or objectives; (2) Acceptable expected results or outcomes; (3) A description of the procedures, methods and techniques to be...

  15. Sex and Helping: Expectations and Attributions. (United States)

    Deaux, Kay

    In an attempt to view more clearly the literature on altruism as differentiated by sex, the paper suggests consideration of more basic characteristics of male and female behavior in terms of past learning and present expectations, rather than solely in terms of society's general set of normative beliefs about the behaviors which are appropriate…

  16. Labour market expectation of Nigerian computer science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study is to assess the effect of Nigerian Universities' curricula on the performance of Computer Science graduates. This paper looks into the strength and weaknesses of Computer Science graduates in Nigeria with a view to assess if they meet the labour market expectation. It also x-rays the women ...

  17. Demystify Learning Expectations to Address Grade Inflation (United States)

    Hodges, Linda C.


    This article describes the subject of "grade inflation," a reference to educators giving higher grades to student work than their expectations for student achievement warrant. Of the many reasons why this practice happens, Hodges specifically discusses inflating grades as "a natural consequence" when the faculty really…

  18. Matching Expectations for Successful University Student Volunteering (United States)

    Paull, Megan; Omari, Maryam; MacCallum, Judith; Young, Susan; Walker, Gabrielle; Holmes, Kirsten; Haski-Leventha, Debbie; Scott, Rowena


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of expectation formation and matching for university student volunteers and their hosts. Design/methodology/approach: This research involved a multi-stage data collection process including interviews with student volunteers, and university and host representatives from six…

  19. Solving Rational Expectations Models Using Excel (United States)

    Strulik, Holger


    Simple problems of discrete-time optimal control can be solved using a standard spreadsheet software. The employed-solution method of backward iteration is intuitively understandable, does not require any programming skills, and is easy to implement so that it is suitable for classroom exercises with rational-expectations models. The author…

  20. Macroeconomics after Two Decades of Rational Expectations. (United States)

    McCallum, Bennett T.


    Discusses real business cycle analysis, growth theory, and other economic concepts in the context of the rational expectations revolution in macroeconomics. Focuses on post-1982 research. Concludes that the rejuvenation of growth analysis is an encouraging development because it could lead to changes in welfare policy. (CFR)

  1. Expectations and bubbles in asset pricing experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Sonnemans, J.; Tuinstra, J.; van de Velden, H.


    We present results on expectation formation in a controlled experimental environment. In each period subjects are asked to predict the next price of a risky asset. The realized market price is derived from an unknown market equilibrium equation with feedback from individual forecasts. In most

  2. Pregnant women's beliefs, expectations and experiences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patient's expectations included discovering fetal position, fetal sex and pregnancy problems. However, women frequently over-estimated the capacity of ultrasound, and had significant fears of harm. One sixth of questionnaire respondents said they did not want ultrasonography. Nonetheless since the service was ...

  3. Developing Convergent Expectations in Slovenia's Secession War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijne, Karsten


    This chapter stresses the strategic similarities decision makers continue to face when embarking on the path of war: they develop similar expectations about the outcome of a war as it unfolds. The bargaining model of war posits that a Bayesian process of learning and the process of screening explain

  4. Starting School: The Importance of Parents' Expectations (United States)

    Russell, Fran


    Following the diagnosis of a child's disability parents can find that their expectations are shattered. As they adjust to their new situation they will begin to develop new ideas of what the future will hold. Supporting families is a key theme in current government policy, hence the development of the Early Support Programme. In this paper Fran…

  5. Post-Secondary Expectations and Educational Attainment (United States)

    Sciarra, Daniel T.; Ambrosino, Katherine E.


    This study utilized student, teacher, and parent expectations during high school to analyze their predictive effect on post-secondary education status two years after scheduled graduation. The sample included 5,353 students, parents and teachers who participated in the Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS; 2002-2006). The researchers analyzed data…

  6. Trends in life expectancy in wellbeing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perenboom, R. J. M.; van Herten, L. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; van den Bos, G. A. M.


    Objectives: This paper describes and discusses trends in life expectancy in wellbeing between 1989 and 1998. Methods: Data on wellbeing by the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale is obtained from the Netherlands Continuous Health Interview Surveys for the calendar years from 1989 to 1998. Using Sullivan's

  7. Dutch life expectancy from an international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bodegom, D.; Bonneux, L.G.A.; Engelaer, F.M.; Lindenberg, J.; Meij, J.J.; Westendorp, R.G.J.


    In general, longer life spans go with longer lives with good quality. Abstention from smoking is an obvious target to get more out of our lives. The ability to better manage chronic diseases is a first step of progress. Life expectancy, disability and quality of life are distinct concepts and may

  8. Parental Expectations about Adapted Physical Education Services (United States)

    Chaapel, Holly; Columna, Luis; Lytle, Rebecca; Bailey, JoEllen


    The purpose of this study was to characterize the expectations of parents of children with disabilities regarding adapted physical education services. Participants ("N" = 10) were parents of children with disabilities. Parents participated in one-on-one semistructured interviews. Transcripts were analyzed through a constant comparative…

  9. Expected energy production evaluation for photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Peng, Wang


    A photovoltaic (PV) system consists of many solar panels, which are connected in series, parallel or a combination of both. Energy production for the PV system with various configurations is different. In this paper, a methodology is developed to evaluate and analyze the expected energy production...

  10. Observed and Expected Mortality in Cohort Studies. (United States)

    Richardson, David B; Keil, Alexander P; Cole, Stephen R; MacLehose, Richard F


    Epidemiologists often compare the observed number of deaths in a cohort with the expected number of deaths, obtained by multiplying person-time accrued in the cohort by mortality rates for a reference population (ideally, a reference that represents the mortality rate in the cohort in the absence of exposure). However, if exposure is hazardous (or salutary), this calculation will not consistently estimate the number of deaths expected in the absence of exposure because exposure will have affected the distribution of person-time observed in the study cohort. While problems with interpretation of this standard calculation of expected counts were discussed more than 2 decades ago, these discussions had little impact on epidemiologic practice. The logic of counterfactuals may help clarify this topic as we revisit these issues. In this paper, we describe a simple way to consistently estimate the expected number of deaths in such settings, and we illustrate the approach using data from a cohort study of mortality among underground miners. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  11. International Student Expectations: Career Opportunities and Employability (United States)

    Nilsson, Per A.; Ripmeester, Nannette


    Are mobile students expecting an international experience to have an impact on their career? This was one of the questions in a global survey, with over 150,000 respondents. The survey results showed that the transition from education to the world of work is of increasing importance for students. How to find a job upon graduation is apparently a…

  12. Messianic expectations in the Old Testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Rose


    Full Text Available The New Testament is connected to the Old Testament in a number of different ways. It is not unusual to find the word “messianic” used to categorise all the different ways in which the writers of the New Testament find Christ (and, similarly, Jewish sources of the Second Temple Period later find the future Messiah in the Old Testament, or to identify the specific passages in the Old Testament which are now seen to point to Christ/the Messiah. In this article I argue that, if one wants to be able to appreciate the diversity, one should abandon this indiscriminate use of the word “messianic”. After a brief discussion of the meaning and use of the Hebrew word xyvm in the Old Testament, I propose a definition of the phrase “messianic expectations” (expectations focusing on a future royal figure sent by God – someone who will bring salvation to God’s people and the world and establish a kingdom characterised by features such as peace and justice. Subsequently, the origin of these expectations is located as in the proclamation of the eighth-century prophets (Amos, Isaiah and Micah. Finally, one special category of messianic expectations, that is, messianic expectations in the Books of the Psalms, is dealt with.

  13. Gendered Expectations for Leadership in Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Olin


    Full Text Available In Brief Despite significant gains in representation at the administration level, there is still a disparity between the percentage of women in our profession and women as library leaders. Additionally, even when women attain leadership roles, even top positions in libraries, there are still hurdles in the shape of gendered expectations. This article examines the […

  14. Expect Delays: Procrastination and the Graduate Student

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theo Finigan


    ...Expect Delays: Procrastination and the Graduate Student Theo Finigan University of Alberta M       , in a sense, with an act...

  15. Multiple Equilibria in Noisy Rational Expectations Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palvolgyi, Domotor; Venter, Gyuri

    This paper studies equilibrium uniqueness in standard noisy rational expectations economies with asymmetric or differential information a la Grossman and Stiglitz (1980) and Hellwig (1980). We show that the standard linear equilibrium of Grossman and Stiglitz (1980) is the unique equilibrium...

  16. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy (United States)

    ... Earn your CME from the convenience of your home or office by accessing ACG's web-based educational programs, or ... and the latest clinical science. Whether you are working on a consumer health story, an article for healthcare ... Home / Media / What to Expect During a Colonoscopy What ...

  17. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Earn your CME from the convenience of your home or office by accessing ACG's web-based educational programs, or ... and the latest clinical science. Whether you are working on a consumer health story, an article for healthcare ... Home / Media / What to Expect During a Colonoscopy What ...

  18. Expectation Levels in Dictionary Consultation and Compilation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dictionary consultation and compilation is a two-way engagement between two parties, namely a dictionary user and a lexicographer. How well users cope with looking up words in a Bantu language dictionary and to what extent their expectations are met, depends on their consultation skills, their knowledge of the structure ...

  19. Knee arthroplasty: are patients' expectations fulfilled?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsdotter, Anna K; Toksvig-Larsen, Sören; Roos, Ewa


    to pain and physical function after knee arthroplasty. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 102 patients (39 men) with knee osteoarthritis and who were assigned for TKR (mean age 71 (51-86) years) were investigated with KOOS, SF-36, and additional questions concerning physical activity level, expectations, satisfaction...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Correlation statistics with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 18. The result ... especially in the area of fraud detection and made that the responsibility of management. According to them ... systems in order to narrow the audit expectation gap, however, the actual level of fraud and financial damages ...

  1. Memory for expectation-violating concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porubanova, Michaela; Shaw, Daniel; McKay, Ryan


    and animals) than to non-agents (plants or objects/artifacts). We conclude that due to their evolutionary salience, cultural ideas which combine expectancy violations and the involvement of an agent are especially memorable and thus have an enhanced probability of being successfully propagated....

  2. NCAA Penalizes Fewer Teams than Expected (United States)

    Sander, Libby


    This article reports that the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has penalized fewer teams than it expected this year over athletes' poor academic performance. For years, officials with the NCAA have predicted that strikingly high numbers of college sports teams could be at risk of losing scholarships this year because of their…

  3. Postgraduate training in Ireland: expectations and experience. (United States)

    Bennett, D; Dornan, T; Bergin, C; Horgan, M


    Postgraduate medical training in Ireland has been compared unfavourably with training abroad and blamed for an "exodus" of graduates of Irish medical schools. Exploration of features of a good training environment and development of tools to measure it have been the focus of much published research. There have been no Irish studies examining training environment using such validated tools. The aim of this study was to use a validated tool, to examine the expectations and experience of training, amongst those training under the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland (RCPI). The Dutch Residency Education Climate Test (D-RECT) is a 50 item tool to measure postgraduate learning environments. D-RECT was sent to all new entrants to RCPI training programmes in July 2012 (n = 527) and completed in regard to expectations of training (response rate 80.6 %). In March 2013, D-RECT was sent to all RCPI trainees (n = 1,246) to complete in relation to the post held on 1 March (response rate 32.6 %). Data were analysed in SPSS version 18. Experience fell short of expectations for basic specialist training, however, scores for experience rose with greater seniority to match expectations. Positive aspects were teamwork, consultant willingness to discuss patients and respectful treatment of trainees. Areas of weakness were provision of feedback and time to learn new skills. Measurement of learning environment at a national level using a quantitative tool provides useful information for quality assurance and improvement of training.

  4. Enhanced expectancies improve performance under pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad eMcKay


    Full Text Available Beyond skill, beliefs in requisite abilities and expectations can affect performance. This study examined effects of induced perceptions of ability to perform well under generic situations of challenge. Participants (N = 31 first completed one block of 20 trials on a throwing accuracy task. They then completed questionnaires ostensibly measuring individual differences in the ability to perform under pressure. Enhanced-expectancy group participants were told that they were well-suited to perform under pressure, while the control group received neutral information. Subsequently, all participants completed another block of 20 trials on the throwing task, with their performance being videotaped and under the assumption that they could secure a prize for themselves and a paired participant with successful performance. Both groups had similar accuracy scores on the first trial block. The enhanced-expectancy group significantly increased their throwing accuracy in the high-pressure situation (second block, whereas the control group showed no change in performance. Furthermore, beliefs regarding performance under challenge predicted throwing accuracy on the second block. The present findings provide evidence that enhancing individuals’ generic expectancies regarding performance under pressure can affect their motor performance.

  5. Impulsivity, expectancies, and evaluations of expected outcomes as predictors of alcohol use and related problems. (United States)

    Dunne, Eugene M; Freedlander, Jonathan; Coleman, Kimberly; Katz, Elizabeth C


    While the association between outcome expectancies and drinking is well documented, few studies have examined whether evaluations of expected outcomes (outcome evaluations) moderate that association. The present study tested the hypotheses that outcome evaluations moderate the outcome expectancy-drinking association and that outcome expectancies mediate the association between impulsive personality and drinking. College students (N = 201; 55.5% female) enrolled in a mid-sized metropolitan university completed measures assessing outcome expectancies and evaluations, alcohol consumption, and drinking-related problems. Consistent with study hypotheses, expectation of negative outcomes predicted lower levels of drinking, but only when these outcomes were evaluated as highly aversive. However, impulsivity was found to be a far stronger predictor of both drinking and related problems than were outcome expectancies or evaluations. The association between negative expectancy and drinking was moderated by negative evaluation, such that individuals who both expected that negative outcomes were likely to occur and who judged such outcomes as highly undesirable consumed significantly fewer drinks per week. Impulsivity was found to be a strong predictor of both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems.

  6. Child and adolescent conduct disorder substantially shares genetic influences with three socioemotional dispositions. (United States)

    Waldman, Irwin D; Tackett, Jennifer L; Van Hulle, Carol A; Applegate, Brooks; Pardini, Dustin; Frick, Paul J; Lahey, Benjamin B


    In a representative sample of twin children and adolescents, we tested the hypothesis that a substantial proportion of the genetic and environmental influences underlying conduct disorder (CD) are shared with three socioemotional dispositions: Prosociality, Negative Emotionality, and Daring. Caretaker ratings of each dispositional dimension were uniquely associated with a latent CD dimension that included both caretaker- and youth-reports of CD as indicators. Behavior genetic analyses indicated that moderate-to-high additive genetic and moderate nonshared environmental influences underlie all three dispositions and CD, with modest shared environmental influences on Prosociality. Forty percent of the additive genetic influences and all of the nonshared environmental influences on the latent CD dimension were shared in common with the three socioemotional dispositions. The finding that CD shares a substantial proportion of its genetic influences with three distinct socioemotional dispositions suggests new perspectives on the heterogeneous etiology of CD and new approaches to exploring its specific etiological mechanisms. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. What Would Happen to Superstorm Sandy Under the Influence of a Substantially Warmer Atlantic Ocean? (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Shi, J. J.; Tao, W. K.; Kim, K. M.


    Based on ensemble numerical simulations, we find that possible responses of Sandy-like superstorms under the influence of a substantially warmer Atlantic Ocean bifurcate into two groups. In the first group, storms are similar to present-day Sandy from genesis to extratropical transition, except they are much stronger, with peak Power Destructive Index (PDI) increased by 50-80%, heavy rain by 30-50%, and maximum storm size (MSS) approximately doubled. In the second group, storms amplify substantially over the interior of the Atlantic warm pool, with peak PDI increased by 100-160%, heavy rain by 70-180%, and MSS more than tripled compared to present-day Superstorm Sandy. These storms when exiting the warm pool, recurve northeastward out to sea, subsequently interact with the developing midlatitude storm by mutual counterclockwise rotation around each other and eventually amplify into a severe Northeastern coastal storm, making landfall over the extreme northeastern regions from Maine to Nova Scotia.

  8. Recommendations for successful substantiation of new health claims in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pravst, Igor; Kušar, Anita; Žmitek, Katja


    Background While functional foods offer promise for public health and innovation in the food industry, the efficiency of such foods should be assured to protect consumers from misleading claims. Globally, many countries regulate the communication of the health effects of such foods to final...... consumers. Scope and approach In the European Union (EU), the use of health claims was harmonized in 2006. All claims need to be scientifically assessed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and pre-approved. Implementing the regulation has involved a steep learning curve for stakeholders, resulting...... claims. Key findings and conclusions Recommendations for the successful substantiation of new health claims in the EU were prepared. The substantiation of health claims is primarily based on human efficacy studies, and greater resources are required to authorize more innovative claims. The reported...

  9. Assessment of Information to Substantiate a Health Claim on the Prevention of Prostate Cancer by Lignans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhani Tuominen


    Full Text Available Lignans and their in vivo metabolites, especially enterolactone (ENL, have attracted substantial interest as potential chemopreventive agents for prostate cancer. Preclinical and clinical interventions performed with lignan-rich flaxseed that use surrogate biomarkers as endpoints suggest that lignans may attenuate prostate carcinogenesis in individuals with increased risk or with diagnosed cancer. No unequivocal prostate cancer risk reduction has been found for lignans in epidemiological studies, suggesting that lignan concentrations found in populations consuming a regular non-supplemented diet are not chemopreventive in prostate cancer. Presumably, the main obstacles in assessing the efficacy of food lignans is limited knowledge of the serum and tissue lignan concentrations required for the putative prevention. Further clinical studies performed with the purified compounds are required to substantiate a health claim.

  10. Expanding Student International Awareness Through Short-Term Study Abroad Courses With Substantial Engineering Technical Content (United States)

    Jacobitz, Frank; Schubert, Thomas


    The efficacy of Compact International Experience (CIE) courses is assessed in this study. These courses were developed with the aim to raise student international awareness while retaining substantial engineering technical content. The courses were motivated by a strong student desire for engineering international studies as well as a drive by the home institution for internationalization of the curriculum. The experiences gained from delivering two distinct three-semester-unit engineering elective courses in three-week time frames in France and Australia are discussed. While the two courses, Topics in Fluid Mechanics and Advanced Electronic Circuit Design, focused on their technical content, the desire for student understanding of the cultural environment and the impact of engineering solutions from a global and societal viewpoint were strong driving factors for each. Assessment validates the hypothesis that CIE courses can successfully deliver substantial engineering technical content while providing an enriching international experience to students.

  11. Defining substantial clinical benefit for patient-rated outcome tools for shoulder impingement syndrome. (United States)

    Michener, Lori A; Snyder Valier, Alison R; McClure, Philip W


    To define for 2 shoulder outcomes scales the substantial clinical benefit (SCB)-a metric that defines the change amount associated with patient perception of a large meaningful improvement and that can be used to interpret change over time in the outcome score. Cohort. Clinic. Patients (N=74) with shoulder impingement syndrome. Standardized exercise and manual therapy for 6 weeks, and outcome measures completed at initial evaluation, discharge, and 6 to 8 weeks postdischarge. Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Pennsylvania Shoulder Score (Penn), and a 13-point Global Rating of Change (GROC). Patients were classified as "substantially improved" when they reported "quite a bit better" (11) or greater on the GROC at discharge and again 6 to 8 weeks after discharge. Patients with GROC <11 at discharge or follow-up were classified as "nonsubstantially improved." The percentage and raw points change in the Penn and DASH that corresponded with patient-rated substantial improvement was determined with receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses. ROC analyses revealed the SCB for the DASH was 40% (area under the curve [AUC]=.79; confidence interval [CI], .69-.89) and 11 points (AUC=.63; CI, .50-.76); and for the Penn, 20% (AUC=.76; CI, .65-.87) and 21 points (AUC=.80; CI, .69-.90). The SCB of 40% for the DASH, and 20% and 21 points for the Penn represents substantial improvement over 6 weeks of care, which was sustained at 12 weeks. The SCB of 11 points for the DASH is not recommended for use because of poor discrimination. The SCB can be used to enable clinical decision-making and in future clinical trials. Alternative approaches such as the within- and between-group change values can produce different SCB values. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. PM2.5 pollution is substantially affected by ammonia emissions in China. (United States)

    Wu, Yiyun; Gu, Baojing; Erisman, Jan Willem; Reis, Stefan; Fang, Yuanyuan; Lu, Xuehe; Zhang, Xiuming


    Urban air quality in China has been declining substantially in recent years due to severe haze episodes. The reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions since 2013 does not yet appear to yield substantial benefits for haze mitigation. As the reductions of those key precursors to secondary aerosol formation appears not to sufficient, other crucial factors need to be considered for the design of effective air pollution control strategies. Here we argue that ammonia (NH3) plays a - so far - underestimated role in the formation of secondary inorganic aerosols, a main component of urban fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in China. By analyzing in situ concentration data observed in major cities alongside gridded emission data obtained from remote sensing and inventories, we find that emissions of NH3 have a more robust association with the spatiotemporal variation of PM2.5 levels than emissions of SO2 and NOx. As a consequence, we argue that urban PM2.5 pollution in China in many locations is substantially affected by NH3 emissions. We highlight that more efforts should be directed to the reduction of NH3 emissions that help mitigate PM2.5 pollution more efficiently than other PM2.5 precursors. Such efforts will yield substantial co-benefits by improving nitrogen use efficiency in farming systems. As a consequence, such integrated strategies would not only improve urban air quality, but also contribute to China's food-security goals, prevent further biodiversity loss, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lead to economic savings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Substantiation for Approaches to Treatment of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Tykhonova


    Conclusions. Analysis of carbohydrate metabolism on the manifestation stage and over time development of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults as well as reduction of β-cells insulin-producing function associated with autoimmune insulitis and progressing while the development of this form of disease, substantiate the rational for insulin administration as this form of diabetes has been diagnosed. If patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults have metabolic syndrome clusters it is quite reasonable to add metformin to insulin.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Summary. Problem statement. The development of inhabitant locality of Ukraine is characterized by significant differences in levels of socio and economic development. An excessive concentration of population and industry in large cities, inefficient, slow development of most medium and small cities, towns and villages, considerable territorial disproportions of economic development of the country, considerable shortcomings in the territorial organization of society are observed. At the same time the tendency of the total area of increasing of inhabitant locality. The lands are used inefficiently. Among the most common problems of inhabitant locality is the housing problem. When making a decision on the design of affordable housing construction is one of the most important stages in the development of the technique and economic substantiation of the project is determination of the advisability and effectiveness of construction. The substantiation of advisability and effectiveness of affordable housing based on the definition of technical and economic indicators of projects, one of the most important among them is the cost, in its calculation is necessary to take into account the influence of organizational and technological factors, reflecting the features of construction in condition of compacted construction. Purpose. Development of methodical recommendations on substantiation of cost construction of affordable housing in the conditions of compacted construction. Conclusion. To provide a processing and the analysis of data is necessary development of the applied software on the basis of the developed block scheme of justification of cost construction of affordable housing.

  15. Confidence Intervals: From tests of statistical significance to confidence intervals, range hypotheses and substantial effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Beaulieu-Prévost


    Full Text Available For the last 50 years of research in quantitative social sciences, the empirical evaluation of scientific hypotheses has been based on the rejection or not of the null hypothesis. However, more than 300 articles demonstrated that this method was problematic. In summary, null hypothesis testing (NHT is unfalsifiable, its results depend directly on sample size and the null hypothesis is both improbable and not plausible. Consequently, alternatives to NHT such as confidence intervals (CI and measures of effect size are starting to be used in scientific publications. The purpose of this article is, first, to provide the conceptual tools necessary to implement an approach based on confidence intervals, and second, to briefly demonstrate why such an approach is an interesting alternative to an approach based on NHT. As demonstrated in the article, the proposed CI approach avoids most problems related to a NHT approach and can often improve the scientific and contextual relevance of the statistical interpretations by testing range hypotheses instead of a point hypothesis and by defining the minimal value of a substantial effect. The main advantage of such a CI approach is that it replaces the notion of statistical power by an easily interpretable three-value logic (probable presence of a substantial effect, probable absence of a substantial effect and probabilistic undetermination. The demonstration includes a complete example.

  16. Substantial Equivalence Standards in Tobacco Governance: Statutory Clarity and Regulatory Precedent for the FSPTCA. (United States)

    Carpenter, Daniel; Connolly, Gregory N; Lempert, Lauren Kass


    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA) of 2009 creates the first national system of premarket regulation of tobacco products in American history. The FDA must now review and give marketing authorization to all new tobacco products, based on a public health standard, before they can be legally marketed. Yet the law also contains an alternative pathway for market entry-the substantial equivalence (SE) clause-by which novel and altered tobacco products can be marketed by demonstrating their substantial equivalence to existing products. Over 99 percent of tobacco product applications sent to the FDA under the new law have used this mechanism, and loose application of the SE mechanism carries the risk of undoing the FDA's gatekeeping power under the law. We review the statutory and regulatory precedent for SE, examining the FSPTCA itself as well as regulatory precedent from drug and device regulation (from which the term substantial equivalence and much of the associated statutory language was derived). Our review of standards and scientific precedent demonstrates that exacting scrutiny under the public health standard should govern all SE reviews and that clinical data incorporating social scientific evidence should be routinely required for SE claims by tobacco product sponsors. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  17. Trends in health expectancy at age 65 for various health indicators, 1987-2005, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeune, Bernard; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik


    Record life expectancy does not appear to be approaching its limit-it is still increasing, as is the maximum life span. An important question is whether the longer life is accompanied by an increasing lifetime in good health. The aim of the study was to determine the trends in health expectancy......-standing, limiting illness, lifetime without functional limitations, and lifetime with self-rated good health was all substantial in both genders (1.4-3 years depending on gender and health indicator), and was followed by a decrease in lifetime with the unhealthy state resulting in increasing proportions of lifetime...

  18. Surprising Strengths and Substantial Needs: Rural District Implementation of Common Core State Standards (United States)

    Timar, Thomas; Carter, Allison


    In August 2010, the California State Board of Education adopted the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Three years later, the president of the State Board, Dr. Michael Kirst, noted that CCSS "changes almost everything," including what teachers teach, how they teach, and what students are expected to learn (Kirst, 2013). Echoing his…

  19. Job-Searching Expectations, Expectancy Violations, and Communication Strategies of Recent College Graduates (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie A.


    Expectancy violations theory, a communicative framework, is applied in this study to understand how recent college graduates form, evaluate, and respond to violated job-searching expectations. In-depth interviews of college seniors (N = 20) who were currently job searching helped answer the three research questions posed. Using a thematic…

  20. Differences in Life Expectancy and Disability Free Life Expectancy in Italy. A Challenge to Health Systems (United States)

    Burgio, A.; Murianni, L.; Folino-Gallo, P.


    Background: Measures of health expectancy such as Disability Free Life Expectancy are used to evaluate and compare regional/national health statuses. These indicators are useful for understanding changes in the health status and defining health policies and decisions on the provision of services because provide useful information on possible areas…

  1. Expectations and experiences of temporarily studying abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per A. Nilsson


    Full Text Available This tentative study focuses on the experiences of outbound exchange students and underlines the international relations component among contemporary universities. The aim is to investigate to what extent the expectations of outbound exchange students are being met in a population of students who had temporarily studied abroad. In this study, Umeå University, Sweden, is used as a case. The study was inspired by Plog’s studies (1974, 2001 in the field of tourism and hospitality research. Exchange students show similarities with tourists when it comes to choosing study destinations. This study partially confirms Plog’s model. Students who are outgoing and self-confident seem to choose non-English speaking countries. In addition, this study highlights what incentives students have, to become exchange students and most importantly how they value this experience. The respondents had positive expectations before departing as exchange students and they returned with even more positive attitudes.

  2. Multiple Equilibria in Noisy Rational Expectations Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pálvölgyi, Dömötör; Venter, Gyuri

    This paper studies equilibrium uniqueness in standard noisy rational expectations economies with asymmetric or differential information a la Grossman and Stiglitz (1980) and Hellwig (1980). We show that the standard linear equilibrium of Grossman and Stiglitz (1980) is the unique equilibrium...... with a continuous price function. However, we also construct a tractable class of equilibria with discontinuous prices that have very different economic implications, including (i) jumps and crashes, (ii) significant revisions in uninformed belief due to small changes in the market price, (iii) “upward......-sloping” demand curves, (iv) higher prices leading to future returns that are higher in expectation (price drift) and (v) more positively skewed. Discontinuous equilibria can be arbitrarily close to being fully-revealing. Finally, discontinuous equilibria with the same construction also exist in Hellwig (1980)....

  3. What characterises the expectations of gamblers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Connie

    This paper investigates the expectations of gamblers who have a risk attitude towards gambling (problem gamblers) and gamblers without a risk attitude (non-problem gamblers). In a representative survey of the Danish population we have selected all the people who have ever gambled. We classify...... the gamblers to have a risk attitude towards gambling if they have a positive score according to the NODS screening instrument (see appendix 1). In the questionnaire, some questions are asked to all the gamblers and some questions are asked specifically to the gamblers who have a positive NODS score and thus......, a risk attitude towards gambling. Based on the information from the survey there are several ways to carry out some logical tests around the elicited expectations. An interesting question is how gamblers perceive their chances of winning and the likely gains they can obtain. We investigate whether...

  4. Dynamic decision making without expected utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jaffray, Jean-Yves


    Non-expected utility theories, such as rank dependent utility (RDU) theory, have been proposed as alternative models to EU theory in decision making under risk. These models do not share the separability property of expected utility theory. This implies that, in a decision tree, if the reduction......, the sophisticated strategy, i.e., the strategy generated by a standard rolling back of the decision tree, is likely to be dominated w.r.t. stochastic dominance. Dynamic consistency of choices remains feasible, and the decision maker can avoid dominated choices, by adopting a non-consequentialist behavior, with his...... choices in a subtree possibly depending on what happens in the rest of the tree. We propose a procedure which: (i) although adopting a non-consequentialist behavior, involves a form of rolling back of the decision tree; (ii) selects a non-dominated strategy that realizes a compromise between the decision...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana M. Đurić


    Full Text Available China's growing in the big player on the world scene, the question is whether is realistic to expect to get to the internationalization renminbi? This paper analyzes the position of the U.S. dollar and the euro in the present and projected their importance in the future. The author believes that there is sufficient political conditions to introduce a synthetic currency as an international standard, and when the renminbi points to the need to make significant, previous changes in the Chinese economic system that would create the conditions for it. It is estimated that in the medium term is expected to be increased importance of China's currency in the international economic and financial transactions, and possibly using it with a certain weight in the SDR valuation.

  6. Information Characteristics and Errors in Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Constantinos; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel

    to market efficiency. We design an economic experiment to test a psychological hypothesis of errors in expectations widely cited in finance, which states that, in violations of Bayes Rule, some people respond more forcefully to the strength of an information signal. The strength of a signal is how saliently...... it supports a specific hypothesis, as opposed to its weight, which is its predictive validity. We find that the strength-weight bias affects expectations, but that its magnitude is three times lower than originally reported in the psychology literature. This suggests that its impact on financial markets......Behavioural finance theories draw on evidence from psychology that suggest that some people respond to information in a biased manner, and construct theories of inefficient markets. However, these biases are not always robust when tested in economic conditions, which casts doubt on their relevance...

  7. Life Expectancy in Pleural and Peritoneal Mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Shavelle


    Full Text Available Background. Mesothelioma is a rare cancer with a historically dire prognosis. We sought to calculate life expectancies for patients with pleural or peritoneal mesothelioma, both at time of diagnosis and several years later, and to examine whether survival has improved in recent years. Methods. Data on 10,258 pleural and 1,229 peritoneal patients from the SEER US national cancer database, 1973–2011, were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results. The major factors related to survival were age, sex, stage, grade, histology, and treatment. Survival improved only modestly over the study period: 0.5% per year for pleural and 2% for peritoneal. Conclusions. Life expectancies were markedly reduced from normal, even amongst 5-year survivors with the most favorable characteristics and treatment options.

  8. Information Characteristics and Errors in Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Constantinos; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.


    We design an experiment to test the hypothesis that, in violation of Bayes' rule, some people respond more forcefully to the strength of information than to its weight. We provide incentives to motivate effort, use naturally occurring information, and control for risk attitude. We find that the s......We design an experiment to test the hypothesis that, in violation of Bayes' rule, some people respond more forcefully to the strength of information than to its weight. We provide incentives to motivate effort, use naturally occurring information, and control for risk attitude. We find...... that the strength-weight bias affects expectations but that its magnitude is significantly lower than originally reported. Controls for nonlinear utility further reduce the bias. Our results suggest that incentive compatibility and controls for risk attitude considerably affect inferences on errors in expectations....

  9. Ranges of bimodule projections and conditional expectations

    CERN Document Server

    Pluta, Robert


    The algebraic theory of corner subrings introduced by Lam (as an abstraction of the properties of Peirce corners eRe of a ring R associated with an idempotent e in R) is investigated here in the context of Banach and C*-algebras. We propose a general algebraic approach which includes the notion of ranges of (completely) contractive conditional expectations on C*-algebras and on ternary rings of operators, and we investigate when topological properties are consequences of the algebraic assumpt...

  10. Measuring Bubble Expectations and Investor Confidence


    Robert J. Shiller


    This paper presents evidence on attitude changes among investors in the US stock market. Two basic attitudes are explored: bubble expectations and investor confidence. Semiannual time-series indicators of these attitudes are presented for US stock market institutional investors based on questionnaire survey results 1989 1998, from surveys that I have derived in collaboration with Fumiko Kon-Ya and Yoshiro Tsutsui. Five different time-series indicators of whether there is among investors an ex...

  11. Binary compact object inspiral: Detection expectations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For initial LIGO, the most probable detection rates for double neutron star (DNS) inspirals is 1 event/(5{250) yr; at 95% confidence we obtain rates up to 1/1.5 yr. For advanced LIGO, the most probable rates are 20-1000 events/yr. These predictions, for the first time, bring the expectations for DNS detections by initial LIGO to ...

  12. Investigating expectation effects using multiple physiological measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eSiller


    Full Text Available The study aimed at experimentally investigating whether the human body can anticipate future events under improved methodological conditions. Previous studies have reported contradictory results for the phenomenon typically called presentiment. If the positive findings are accurate, they call into doubt our views about human perception, and if they are inaccurate, a plausible conventional explanation might be based on the experimental design of the previous studies, in which expectation due to item sequences was misinterpreted as presentiment. To address these points, we opted to collect several physiological variables, to test different randomization types and to manipulate subjective significance individually. For the latter, we combined a mock crime scenario, in which participants had to steal specific items, with a concealed information test (CIT, in which the participants had to conceal their knowledge when interrogated about items they had stolen or not stolen. We measured electrodermal activity, respiration, finger pulse, heart rate, and reaction times. The participants (n=154 were assigned randomly to four different groups. Items presented in the CIT were either drawn with replacement (full or without replacement (pseudo and were either presented category-wise (cat or regardless of categories (nocat. To understand how these item sequences influence expectation and modulate physiological reactions, we compared the groups with respect to effect sizes for stolen vs. not stolen items. Group pseudo_cat yielded the highest effect sizes, and pseudo_nocat yielded the lowest. We could not find any evidence of presentiment but did find evidence of physiological correlates of expectation. Due to the design differing fundamentally from previous studies, these findings do not allow for conclusions on the question whether the expectation bias is being confounded with presentiment.

  13. Expected Taxes and Household Consumption Behavior


    Kueng, Lorenz


    In this dissertation I ask two basic questions: First, how predictable are personal income tax changes in the U.S. and second, does household consumption respond to news about future tax changes, or does it mostly respond at the time when the tax rates actually change? These are interesting questions because they have broad implications for macroeconomics and public economics. The rational-expectations life-cycle theory of consumption is the workhorse in modern macroeconomics. While there ar...

  14. Dark matter more mysterious than expected (United States)

    Jałocha, Joanna


    Based on the lecture Dark Matter --- more mysterious than expected}, given by me at the Cosmology School in Kielce on 18 July 2015, I will briefly discuss in this essay the history of dark matter and why this notion is so essential for the contemporary physics. Next, I will present the point of view of the research team I work with, on the presence of nonbaryonic dark matter in the Universe and in spiral galaxies.

  15. Multiple chronic conditions and life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DuGoff, Eva H; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Buttorff, Christine


    study using single-decrement period life tables. SUBJECTS: Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries (N=1,372,272) aged 67 and older as of January 1, 2008. MEASURES: Our primary outcome measure is life expectancy. We categorize study subjects by sex, race, selected chronic conditions (heart disease, cancer...... and increasing numbers of comorbid conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Social Security and Medicare actuaries should account for the growing number of beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions when determining population projections and trust fund solvency....

  16. Life Expectancy With and Without Pain in the U.S. Elderly Population (United States)

    Rubin, Sara


    Background: This study contributes to dialogue on quality versus quantity of life by examining years older persons can expect to live in various states of pain. Methods: Data from seven waves of the Health and Retirement Study; N = 26,896; age 55+. Estimations using the Interpolative Markov Chain approach apply probability transitions to multistate life table functions. Two estimates are interpreted: (i) population-based, which provide population averages aggregated across baseline states and (ii) status-based, which provide independent estimates by baseline state. Age- and sex-specific years with no pain, milder nonlimiting, and severe or limiting pain are reported as is percent of life in states of pain. Results: Females have higher life expectancy than males but similar expectations of pain-free life. Total life expectancy varies only slightly by baseline pain states but pain-free life expectancy varies greatly. For example, an 85-year-old female pain-free at baseline expects 7.04 more years, 5.28 being pain-free. An 85-year-old female with severe pain at baseline expects 6.42 years with only 2.66 pain-free. Percent of life with pain decreases by age for those pain-free at baseline and increases for those with pain at baseline. Conclusion: Pain is moderately associated with quantity of or total life but substantially and importantly associated with quality of or pain-free life. PMID:26988661

  17. Risk Acceptance and Expectations of Scalp Allotransplantation. (United States)

    Choi, Jun Ho; Kim, Kwang Seog; Shin, Jun Ho; Hwang, Jae Ha; Lee, Sam Yong


    In scalp allotransplantation, the scalp from a brain-dead donor, including hair, is transferred to a recipient with scalp defects. Opinions differ on the appropriateness of scalp allotransplantation. In order to maintain graft function and cosmetic outcomes, scalp transplantation recipients would need to receive lifelong immunosuppression treatments. The risks of this immunosuppression have to be balanced against the fact that receiving a scalp allotransplant does not extend lifespan or restore a physical function. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate risk acceptance and expectations regarding scalp allotransplantation in different populations. A questionnaire survey study was conducted. A total of 300 subjects participated; survey was conducted amongst the general public (n=100), kidney transplantation recipients (n=50), a group of patient who required scalp reconstruction due to tumor or trauma (n=50), and physicians (n=100). The survey was modified by using the Korean version of the Louisville instrument for transplantation questionnaire. Risk acceptance and expectations for scalp transplantation varied widely across the groups. Kidney transplantation recipients revealed the highest risk acceptance and expectations, whereas the physicians were most resistant to the risks of scalp transplantation. Our study demonstrates that, in specific groups, scalp allotransplantation and the need for immunosuppression carries an acceptable risk despite the lack of lifeextending benefits. Our results suggest that scalp allotransplantation can be an acceptable alternative to existing scalp reconstruction surgeries in patients with pre-existing need for immunosuppression.

  18. Employee perceptions of 'profiled' customers' expectations. (United States)

    Bebko, C P


    There has been an increasing interest in the issues of quality in service delivery. The SERVQUAL theory addresses these issues and identifies the causes of service quality problems. The practical, managerial implications of the SERVQUAL theory and model are currently being addressed (Reidenbach and Sandifer-Smallwood, 1990; Woodside, Frey and Daly, 1989; Mangold and Babakus, 1991; Webster, 1989; Day, 1992). A handful of these articles have specifically addressed the managerial implications of the SERVQUAL Gap 1 analysis: the identification of employee and management perceptions of consumer expectations (Mangold and Babakus, 1991; Headley and Choi, 1992; Bebko, 1994). Previously, none of the research had mentioned the potential problems inherent in Gap 1 analysis when the organization is faced with several "types" of customers, each with possibly different expectations. Consequently, the results of the GAP 1 analysis may not represent the true picture of employee perceptions of consumer expectations. This would have implications for the validity of the SERVQUAL instrument in assessing a service's ability to deliver quality to consumers.

  19. Youth expectations in job search in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dejana


    Full Text Available Youth on the labour market in developing countries such as Serbia, Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina are facing numerous difficulties, with almost a half of their population aged between 15 -24 not working or working in informal sector. The reasons may be numerous. The financial crisis and the low economic development of the country have had negative impact on young generations and this resulted in lack of sufficient jobs vacancies. In addition, the reasons for their slow entry into the labour market could be the lack of experience, low education among young people etc. Although employers have certain expectations of young people, once they enter the labour market young people have certain values that are important for them when choosing a job. The paper presents the research on the expectations of young people entering labour market in the Republic of Serbia. According to survey results based on analyses of youth' expectations and preferences in Serbia regarding potential work conditions, authors have by the means of factor analysis identified which groups of factors are the most important for young people ages between 16 and 30 in job finding in Serbia. The results showed that there is a significance of three questions: 1. Job does not affect the private life; 2. Work resources are provided; 3. Work is safe. In conclusion, if a company ensures that these three issues are regulated, it will more likely employ young professionals.

  20. Elevated CO2 induces substantial and persistent declines in forage quality irrespective of warming in mixedgrass prairie. (United States)

    Augustine, David J; Blumenthal, Dana M; Springer, Tim L; LeCain, Daniel R; Gunter, Stacey A; Derner, Justin D


    Increasing atmospheric [CO2 ] and temperature are expected to affect the productivity, species composition, biogeochemistry, and therefore the quantity and quality of forage available to herbivores in rangeland ecosystems. Both elevated CO2 (eCO2 ) and warming affect plant tissue chemistry through multiple direct and indirect pathways, such that the cumulative outcomes of these effects are difficult to predict. Here, we report on a 7-year study examining effects of CO2 enrichment (to 600 ppm) and infrared warming (+1.5°C day/3°C night) under realistic field conditions on forage quality and quantity in a semiarid, mixedgrass prairie. For the 3 dominant forage grasses, warming effects on in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and tissue [N] were detected only in certain years, varied from negative to positive, and were relatively minor. In contrast, eCO2 substantially reduced IVDMD (2 most abundant grasses) and [N] (all 3 dominant grass species) in most years, except the two wettest years. Furthermore, eCO2 reduced IVDMD and [N] independent of warming effects. Reduced IVDMD with eCO2 was related both to reduced [N] and increased acid detergent fiber (ADF) content of grass tissues. For the 6 most abundant forage species (representing 96% of total forage production), combined warming+eCO2 increased forage production by 38% and reduced forage [N] by 13% relative to ambient climate. Although the absolute magnitude of the decline in IVDMD and [N] due to combined warming+eCO2 may seem small (e.g. from 63.3 to 61.1% IVDMD and 1.25 to 1.04% [N] for Pascopyrum smithii), such shifts could have substantial consequences for the rate at which ruminants gain weight during the primary growing season in the largest remaining rangeland ecosystem in North America. With forage production increases, declining forage quality could potentially be mitigated by adaptively increasing stocking rates, and through management such as prescribed burning, fertilization at low rates, and